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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 14, Slice 5 - "Indole" to "Insanity"
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 14, Slice 5 - "Indole" to "Insanity"" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
      paragraphs.

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not
      inserted.

(5) [root] stands for the root symbol; [oo] for infinity; ð for Partial
      derivative; [alpha], [beta], etc. for greek letters.

(6) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    ARTICLE INDULGENCE: "... his standpoint is frankly non-Catholic,
      but he gives ample materials for judgment." 'is' amended from 'in'.

    ARTICLE INFINITESIMAL CALCULUS: "... for himself by the aid of a
      diagram drawn by Pascal in a demonstration of the formula for the
      area of a spherical surface." 'demonstration' amended from
      'demonstation'.

    ARTICLE INFINITESIMAL CALCULUS: "... The discoveries 543 of Brook
      Taylor and Colin Maclaurin were absorbed into the rapidly growing
      continental analysis" 'Colin' amended from 'Colon'.

    ARTICLE INSANITY: "... the suggestion of utterly absurd commercial
      schemes, or attempts at feats beyond his physical powers."
      'commercial' amended from 'commerical'.

    ARTICLE INSANITY: "Finally, chronic morphia intoxication produces
      mental symptoms very similar to those of chronic alcoholism."
      'symptoms' amended from 'symptons'.

    ARTICLE INSANITY: "... and wherein the percentage of recoveries
      will be larger than in asylums and hospitals as now conducted."
      'percentage' amended from 'precentage'.



          ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
           AND GENERAL INFORMATION

              ELEVENTH EDITION


             VOLUME XIV, SLICE V

              Indole to Insanity



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


  INDOLE                   INGEMANN, BERNHARD SEVERIN
  INDONESIAN               INGERSOLL, ROBERT GREEN
  INDORE                   INGERSOLL
  INDORSEMENT              INGHAM, CHARLES CROMWELL
  INDO-SCYTHIANS           INGHIRAMI
  INDRA                    INGLEBY, CLEMENT MANSFIELD
  INDRE                    INGLEFIELD, SIR EDWARD AUGUSTUS
  INDRE-ET-LOIRE           INGLE-NOOK
  INDRI                    INGLIS, SIR JOHN EARDLEY WILMOT
  INDUCTION                INGLIS, SIR WILLIAM
  INDUCTION COIL           INGOLSTADT
  INDULGENCE               INGOT
  INDULINES                INGRAM, JAMES
  INDULT                   INGRAM, JOHN KELLS
  INDUNA                   INGRES, JEAN AUGUSTE DOMINIQUE
  INDUS                    INGRESS
  INDUSTRIA                INHAMBANE
  INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL        INHERITANCE
  INDUSTRY                 INHIBITION
  INE                      INISFAIL
  INEBOLI                  INITIALS
  INEBRIETY, LAW OF        INITIATION
  INFALLIBILITY            INJECTOR
  INFAMY                   INJUNCTION
  INFANCY                  INK
  INFANT                   INKERMAN, BATTLE OF
  INFANTE                  INLAYING
  INFANTICIDE              INMAN, HENRY
  INFANTRY                 INN (river of Europe)
  INFANT SCHOOLS           INN and INNKEEPER
  INFINITE                 INNERLEITHEN
  INFINITESIMAL CALCULUS   INNESS, GEORGE
  INFINITIVE               INNOCENT
  INFLEXION                INNOCENTS' DAY
  INFLUENCE                INNSBRUCK
  INFLUENZA                INNS OF COURT
  IN FORMÂ PAUPERIS        INNUENDO
  INFORMATION              INOUYE, KAORU, MARQUESS
  INFORMER                 INOWRAZLAW
  INFUSORIA                INQUEST
  INGEBORG                 INQUISITION, THE
  INGELHEIM                INSANITY
  INGELOW, JEAN



INDOLE, or BENZOPYRROL, C8H7N, a substance first prepared by A. Baeyer
in 1868. It may be synthetically obtained by distilling oxindole
(C8H8NO) with zinc dust; by heating ortho-nitrocinnamic acid with potash
and iron filings; by the reduction of indigo blue; by the action of
sodium ethylate on ortho-aminochlorstyrene; by boiling aniline with
dichloracetaldehyde; by the dry distillation of ortho-tolyloxamic acid;
by heating aniline with dichloracetal; by distilling a mixture of
calcium formate and calcium anilidoacetate; and by heating pyruvic acid
phenyl hydrazone with anhydrous zinc chloride. It is also formed in the
pancreatic fermentation of albumen, and, in small quantities, by passing
the vapours of mono- and dialkyl-anilines through a red-hot tube. It
crystallizes in shining leaflets, which melt at 52° C. and boil at 245°
C. (with decomposition), and is volatile in a current of steam. It is a
feeble base, and gives a cherry-red coloration with a pine shaving. Many
derivatives of indole are known. B-methylindol or skatole occurs in
human faeces.



INDONESIAN, a term invented by James Richardson Logan to describe the
light-coloured non-Malay inhabitants of the Eastern Archipelago. It now
denotes all those peoples of Malaysia and Polynesia who are not to be
classified as Malays or Papuans, but are of Caucasic type. Among these
are the Battaks of north Sumatra; many of the Bornean Dyaks and
Philippine Islanders, and the large brown race of east Polynesia which
includes Samoans, Maoris, Tongans, Tahitians, Marquesas Islanders and
the Hawaiians.

  See J. Richardson Logan, _The Languages and Ethnology of the Indian
  Archipelago_ (1857).



INDORE, a native state of India in the central India agency, comprising
the dominions of the Maharaja Holkar. Its area, exclusive of guaranteed
holdings on which it has claims, is 9500 sq. m. and the population in
1901 was 850,690, showing a decrease of 23% in the decade, owing to the
results of famine. As in the case of most states in central India the
territory is not homogeneous, but distributed over several political
charges. It has portions in four out of the seven charges of central
India, and in one small portion in the Rajputana agency. The Vindhya
range traverses the S. division of the state in a direction from east to
west, a small part of the territory lying to the north of the mountains,
but by much the larger part to the south. The latter is a portion of the
valley of the Nerbudda, and is bounded on the south by the Satpura
hills. Basalt and other volcanic formations predominate in both ranges,
although there is also much sandstone. The Nerbudda flows through the
state; and the valley at Mandlesar, in the central part, is between 600
and 700 ft. above the sea. The revenue is estimated at £350,000. The
metre gauge railway from Khandwa to Mhow and Indore city, continued to
Neemuch and Ajmere, was constructed in 1876.

The state had its origin in an assignment of lands made early in the
18th century to Malhar Rao Holkar, who held a command in the army of the
Mahratta Peshwa. Of the Dhangar or shepherd caste, he was born in 1694
at the village of Hol near Poona, and from this circumstance the family
derives its surname of Holkar. Before his death in 1766 Malhar Rao had
added to his assignment large territorial possessions acquired by his
armed power during the confusion of the period. By the end of that
century the rulership had passed to another leader of the same clan,
Tukoji Holkar, whose son, Jaswant Rao, took an important part in the
contest for predominance in the Mahratta confederation. He did not,
however, join the combined army of Sindha and the raja of Berar in their
war against the British in 1803, though after its termination he
provoked hostilities which led to his complete discomfiture. At first he
defeated a British force that had marched against him under Colonel
Monson; but when he made an inroad into British territory he was
completely defeated by Lord Lake, and compelled to sign a treaty which
deprived him of a large portion of his possessions. After his death his
favourite mistress, Tulsi Bai, assumed the regency, until in 1817 she
was murdered by the military commanders of the Indore troops, who
declared for the peshwa on his rupture with the British government.
After their defeat at Mehidpur in 1818, the state submitted by treaty to
the loss of more territory, transferred to the British government its
suzerainty over a number of minor tributary states, and acknowledged the
British protectorate. For many years afterwards the administration of
the Holkar princes was troubled by intestine quarrels, misrule and
dynastic contentions, necessitating the frequent interposition of
British authority; and in 1857 the army, breaking away from the chief's
control, besieged the British residency, and took advantage of the
mutiny of the Bengal sepoys to spread disorder over that part of central
India. The country was pacified after some fighting. In 1899 a British
resident was appointed to Indore, which had formerly been directly under
the agent to the governor-general in central India. At the same time a
change was made in the system of administration, which was from that
date carried on by a council. In 1903 the Maharaja, Shivaji Rao Holkar,
G.C.S.I., abdicated in favour of his son Tukoji Rao, a boy of twelve,
and died in 1908.

The CITY OF INDORE is situated 1738 ft. above the sea, on the river
Saraswati, near its junction with the Khan. Pop. (1901) 86,686. These
figures do not include the tract assigned to the resident, known as "the
camp" (pop. 11,118), which is under British administration. The city is
one of the most important trading centres in central India.

INDORE RESIDENCY, a political charge in central India, is not
co-extensive with the state, though it includes all of it except some
outlying tracts. Area, 8960 sq. m.; pop. (1901) 833,410.     (J. S. Co.)



INDORSEMENT, or ENDORSEMENT (from Med. Lat. _indorsare_, to write upon
the _dorsum_, or back), anything written or printed upon the back of a
document. In its technical sense, it is the writing upon a bill of
exchange, cheque or other negotiable instrument, by one who has a right
to the instrument and who thereby transmits the right and incurs certain
liabilities. See BILL OF EXCHANGE.



INDO-SCYTHIANS, a name commonly given to various tribes from central
Asia, who invaded northern India and founded kingdoms there. They
comprise the Sakas, the Yue-Chi or Kushans and the Ephthalites or Hunas.



INDRA, in early Hindu mythology, god of the clear sky and greatest of
the Vedic deities. The origin of the name is doubtful, but is by some
connected with _indu_, drop. His importance is shown by the fact that
about 250 hymns celebrate his greatness, nearly one-fourth of the total
number in the Rig Veda. He is represented as specially lord of the
elements, the thunder-god. But Indra was more than a great god in the
ancient Vedic pantheon. He is the patron-deity of the invading Aryan
race in India, the god of battle to whose help they look in their
struggles with the dark aborigines. Indra is the child of Dyaus, the
Heaven. In Indian art he is represented as a man with four arms and
hands; in two he holds a lance and in the third a thunderbolt. He is
often painted with eyes all over his body and then he is called
Sahasraksha, "the thousand eyed." He lost much of his supremacy when the
triad Brahma, Siva and Vishnu became predominant. He gradually became
identified merely with the headship of Swarga, a local vice-regent of
the abode of the gods.

  See A. A. Macdonell, _Vedic Mythology_ (Strassburg, 1897).



INDRE, a department of central France, formed in 1790 from parts of the
old provinces of Berry, Orléanais, Marche and Touraine. Pop. (1906)
290,216. Area 2666 sq. m. It is bounded N. by the department of
Loir-et-Cher, E. by Cher, S. by Creuse and Haute-Vienne, S.W. by Vienne
and N.W. by Indre-et-Loire. It takes its name from the river Indre,
which flows through it. The surface forms a vast plateau divided into
three districts, the Boischaut, Champagne and Brenne. The Boischaut is a
large well-wooded plain comprising seven-tenths of the entire area and
covering the south, east and centre of the department. The Champagne, a
monotonous but fertile district in the north, produces abundant cereal
crops, and affords excellent pasturage for large numbers of sheep,
celebrated for the fineness of their wool. The Brenne, which occupies
the west of the department, was formerly marshy and unhealthy, but
draining and afforestation have brought about considerable improvement.

The department is divided into the arrondissements of Châteauroux, Le
Blanc, La Châtre and Issoudun, with 23 cantons and 245 communes. At
Neuvy-St-Sépulchre there is a circular church of the 11th century, to
which a nave was added in the 12th century, and at Mézières-en-Brenne
there is an interesting church of the 14th century. At Levroux there is
a fine church of the 13th century and the remains of a feudal fortress,
and there is a magnificent château in the Renaissance style at Valençay.



INDRE-ET-LOIRE, a department of central France, consisting of nearly the
whole of the old province of Touraine and of small portions of
Orléanais, Anjou and Poitou. Pop. (1906) 337,916. Area 2377 sq. m. It is
bounded N. by the departments of Sarthe and Loir-et-Cher, E. by
Loir-et-Cher and Indre, S. and S.W. by Vienne and W. by Maine-et-Loire.
It takes its name from the Loire and its tributary the Indre, which
enter it on its eastern border and unite not far from its western
border. The other chief affluents of the Loire in the department are the
Cher, which joins it below Tours, and the Vienne, which waters the
department's southern region. Indre-et-Loire is generally level and
comprises the following districts: the Gâtine, a pebbly and sterile
region to the north of the Loire, largely consisting of forests and
heaths with numerous small lakes; the fertile Varenne or valley of the
Loire; the Champeigne, a chain of vine-clad slopes, separating the
valleys of the Cher and Indre; the Véron, a region of vines and
orchards, in the angle formed by the Loire and Vienne; the plateau of
Sainte-Maure, a hilly and unproductive district in the centre of which
are found extensive deposits of shell-marl; and in the south the Brenne,
traversed by the Claise and the Creuse and forming part of the marshy
territory which extends under the same name into Indre.

Indre-et-Loire is divided into the arrondissements of Tours, Loches and
Chinon, with 24 cantons and 282 communes. The chief town is Tours, which
is the seat of an archbishopric; and Chinon, Loches, Amboise,
Chenonceaux, Langeais and Azay-le-Rideau are also important places with
châteaus. The Renaissance château of Ussé, and those of Luynes (15th and
16th centuries) and Pressigny-le-Grand (17th century) are also of note.
Montbazon possesses the imposing ruins of a square donjon of the 11th
and 12th centuries. Preuilly has the most beautiful Romanesque church in
Touraine. The Sainte Chapelle (16th century) at Champigny is a survival
of a château of the dukes of Bourbon-Montpensier. The church of
Montrésor (1532) with its mausoleum of the family of Montrésor; that of
St Denis-Hors (12th and 16th century) close to Amboise, with the curious
mausoleum of Philibert Babou, minister of finance under Francis I. and
Henry II.; and that of Ste Catherine de Fierbois, of the 15th century,
are of architectural interest. The town of Richelieu, founded 1631 by
the famous minister of Louis XIII., preserves the enceinte and many of
the buildings of the 17th century. Megalithic monuments are numerous in
the department.



INDRI, a Malagasy word believed to mean "there it goes," but now
accepted as the designation of the largest of the existing Malagasy (and
indeed of all) lemurs. Belonging to the family _Lemuridae_ (see
PRIMATES) it typifies the subfamily _Indrisinae_, which includes the
avahi and the sifakas (q.v.). From both the latter it is distinguished
by its rudimentary tail, measuring only a couple of inches in length,
whence its name of _Indris brevicaudatus_. Measuring about 24 in. in
length, exclusive of the tail, the indri varies considerably in colour,
but is usually black, with a variable number of whitish patches, chiefly
about the loins and on the fore-limbs. The forests of a comparatively
small tract on the east coast of Madagascar form its home. Shoots,
flowers and berries form the food of the indri, which was first
discovered by the French traveller and naturalist Pierre Sonnerat in
1780.     (R. L.*)



INDUCTION (from Lat. _inducere_, to lead into; cf. Gr. [Greek:
epagôgê]), in logic, the term applied to the process of discovering
principles by the observation and combination of particular instances.
Aristotle, who did so much to establish the laws of deductive reasoning,
neglected induction, which he identified with a complete enumeration of
facts; and the schoolmen were wholly concerned with syllogistic logic. A
new era opens with Bacon, whose writings all preach the principle of
investigating the laws of nature with the purpose of improving the
conditions of human life. Unluckily his mind was still enslaved by the
formulae of the quasi-mechanical scholastic logic. He supposed that
natural laws would disclose themselves by the accumulation and due
arrangement of instances without any need for original speculation on
the part of the investigator. In his _Novum Organum_ there are
directions for drawing up the various kinds of lists of instances. For
two hundred years after Bacon's death little was done towards the theory
of induction; the reason being, probably, that the practical scientists
knew no logic, while the university logicians, with their conservative
devotion to the syllogism, knew no science. Whewell's _Philosophy of the
Inductive Sciences_ (1840), the work of a thoroughly equipped scientist,
if not of a great philosopher, shows due appreciation of the cardinal
point neglected by Bacon, the function of theorizing in inductive
research. He saw that science advances only in so far as the mind of the
inquirer is able to suggest organizing ideas whereby our observations
and experiments are colligated into intelligible system. In this respect
J. S. Mill is inferior to Whewell: throughout his _System of Logic_
(1843) he ignores the constitutive work of the mind, and regards
knowledge as the merely passive reception of sensuous impressions. His
work was intended mainly to reduce the procedure of induction to a
regular demonstrative system like that of the syllogism; and it was for
this purpose that he formulated his famous Four Methods of Experimental
Inquiry. His work has contributed greatly to the systematic treatment of
induction. But it must be remarked that his Four Methods are not methods
of formal proof, as their author supposed, but methods whereby
hypotheses are suggested or tested. The actual proof of an hypothesis is
never formal, but always lies in the tests of experiment or observation
to which it is subjected.

The current theory of induction as set forth in the standard works is so
far satisfactory that it combines the merit of Whewell's treatment with
that of Mill's; and yet it is plain that there is much for the logician
of the future to accomplish. The most important faculty in scientific
inquiry is the faculty of suggesting new and valuable hypotheses. But no
one has ever given any explanation how the hypotheses arise in the mind:
we attribute it to "genius," which, of course, is no explanation at all.
The logic of discovery, in the higher sense of the term, simply has no
existence. Another important but neglected province of the subject is
the relation of scientific induction to the inductions of everyday life.
There are some who think that a study of this relation would quite
transform the accepted view of induction. Consider such a piece of
reasoning as may be heard any day in a court of justice, a detective who
explains how in his opinion a certain burglary was effected. If all
reasoning is either deductive or inductive, this must be induction. And
yet it does not answer to the accepted definition of induction, "the
process of discovering a general principle by observation of particular
instances": what the detective does is to reconstruct a particular
crime; he evolves no general principle. Such reasoning is used by every
man in every hour of his life: by it we understand what people are doing
around us, and what is the meaning of the sense-impressions which we
receive. In the logic of the future it will probably be recognized that
scientific induction is only one form of this universal constructive or
reconstructive faculty. Another most important question closely akin to
that just mentioned is the true relation between these reasoning
processes and our general life as active intelligent beings. How is it
that the detective is able to understand the burglar's plan of
action?--the military commander to forecast the enemy's plan of
campaign? Primarily, because he himself is capable of making such plans.
Men as active creatures co-operating with their fellow-men are
incessantly engaged in forming plans and in apprehending the plans of
those around them. Every plan may be viewed as a form of induction; it
is a scheme invented to meet a given situation, an hypothesis which is
put to the test of events, and is verified or refuted by practical
success or failure. Such considerations widen still farther our view of
scientific induction and help us to understand its relation to ordinary
human thought and activity. The scientific investigator in his inductive
stage is endeavouring to make out the plan on which his material is
constructed. The phenomena serve as indications to help him in framing
his hypothesis, generally a guess at first, which he proceeds to verify
by experiment and the collection of additional facts. In the deductive
stage he assumes that he has made out the plan and can apply it to the
discovery of further detail. He has the capacity of detecting plans in
nature because he is wont to form plans for practical purposes.

  There are good recent accounts of induction in Welton's _Manual of
  Logic_, ii., in H. W. B. Joseph's _Introduction to Logic_, and in W.
  R. Boyce Gibson's _Problem of Logic_; see also LOGIC.     (H. St.)



INDUCTION COIL, an electrical instrument consisting of two coils of wire
wound one over the other upon a core consisting of a bundle of iron
wires. One of these circuits is called the primary circuit and the other
the secondary circuit. If an alternating or intermittent continuous
current is passed through the primary circuit, it creates an alternating
or intermittent magnetization in the iron core, and this in turn creates
in the secondary circuit a secondary current which is called the induced
current. For most purposes an induction coil is required which is
capable of giving in the secondary circuit intermittent currents of very
high electromotive force, and to attain this result the secondary
circuit must as a rule consist of a very large number of turns of wire.
Induction coils are employed for physiological purposes and also in
connexion with telephones, but their great use at the present time is in
connexion with the production of high frequency electric currents, for
Röntgen ray work and wireless telegraphy.


  Early history.

The instrument began to be developed soon after Faraday's discovery of
induced currents in 1831, and the subsequent researches of Joseph Henry,
C. G. Page and W. Sturgeon on the induction of a current. N. J. Callan
described in 1836 the construction of an electromagnet with two separate
insulated wires, one thick and the other thin, wound on an iron core
together. He provided the primary circuit of this instrument with an
interrupter, and found that when the primary current was rapidly
intermitted, a series of secondary currents was induced in the fine
wire, of high electromotive force and considerable strength. Sturgeon in
1837 constructed a similar coil, and provided the primary circuit with a
mercury interrupter operated by hand. Various other experimentalists
took up the construction of the induction coil, and to G. H. Bachhoffner
is due the suggestion of employing an iron core made of a bundle of fine
iron wires. At a somewhat later date Callan constructed a very large
induction coil containing a secondary circuit of very great length of
wire. C. G. Page and J. H. Abbot in the United States, between 1838 and
1840, also constructed some large induction coils.[1] In all these cases
the primary circuit was interrupted by a mechanically worked
interrupter. On the continent of Europe the invention of the automatic
primary circuit interrupter is generally attributed to C. E. Neeff and
to J. P. Wagner, but it is probable that J. W. M'Gauley, of Dublin,
independently invented the form of hammer break now employed. In this
break the magnetization of the iron core by the primary current is made
to attract an iron block fixed to the end of a spring, in such a way
that two platinum points are separated and the primary circuit thus
interrupted. It was not until 1853 that H. L. Fizeau added to the break
the condenser which greatly improved the operation of the coil. It 1851
H. D. Rühmkorff (1803-1877), an instrument-maker in Paris, profiting by
all previous experience, addressed himself to the problem of increasing
the electromotive force in the secondary circuit, and induction coils
with a secondary circuit of long fine wire have generally, but
unnecessarily, been called Rühmkorff coils. Rühmkorff, however, greatly
lengthened the secondary circuit, employing in some coils 5 or 6 m. of
wire. The secondary wire was insulated with silk and shellac varnish,
and each layer of wire was separated from the next by means of varnished
silk or shellac paper; the secondary circuit was also carefully
insulated from the primary circuit by a glass tube. Rühmkorff, by
providing with his coil an automatic break of the hammer type, and
equipping it with a condenser as suggested by Fizeau, arrived at the
modern form of induction coil. J. N. Hearder in England and E. S.
Ritchie in the United States began the construction of large coils, the
last named constructing a specially large one to the order of J. P.
Gassiot in 1858. In the following decade A. Apps devoted great attention
to the production of large induction coils, constructing some of the
most powerful coils in existence, and introduced the important
improvement of making the secondary circuit of numerous flat coils of
wire insulated by varnished or paraffined paper. In 1869 he built for
the old Polytechnic Institution in London a coil having a secondary
circuit 150 m. in length. The diameter of the wire was 0.014 in., and
the secondary bobbin when complete had an external diameter of 2 ft. and
a length of 4 ft. 10 ins. The primary bobbin weighed 145 lb., and
consisted of 6000 turns of copper wire 3770 yds. in length, the wire
being .095 of an inch in diameter. Excited by the current from 40 large
Bunsen cells, this coil could give secondary sparks 30 in. in length.
Subsequently, in 1876, Apps constructed a still larger coil for William
Spottiswoode, which is now in the possession of the Royal Institution.
The secondary circuit consisted of 280 m. of copper wire about 0.01 of
an inch in diameter, forming a cylinder 37 in. long and 20 in. in
external diameter; it was wound in flat disks in a large number of
separate sections, the total number of turns being 341,850. Various
primary circuits were employed with this coil, which when at its best
could give a spark of 42 in. in length.


  Construction.

A general description of the mode of constructing a modern induction
coil, such as is used for wireless telegraphy or Röntgen ray apparatus,
is as follows: The iron core consists of a bundle of soft iron wires
inserted in the interior of an ebonite tube. On the outside of this tube
is wound the primary circuit, which generally consists of several
distinct wires capable of being joined either in series or parallel as
required. Over the primary circuit is placed another thick ebonite tube,
the thickness of the walls of which is proportional to the
spark-producing power of the secondary circuit. The primary coil must be
wholly enclosed in ebonite, and the tube containing it is generally
longer than the secondary bobbin. The second circuit consists of a
number of flat coils wound up between paraffined or shellaced paper,
much as a sailor coils a rope. It is essential that no joints in this
wire shall occur in inaccessible places in the interior. A machine has
been devised by Leslie Miller for winding secondary circuits in flat
sections without any joints in the wire at all (British Patent, No.
5811, 1903). A coil intended to give a 10 or 12 in. spark is generally
wound in this fashion in several hundred sections, the object of this
mode of division being to prevent any two parts of the secondary circuit
which are at great differences of potential from being near to one
another, unless effectively insulated by a sufficient thickness of
shellaced or paraffined paper. A 10-in. coil, a size very commonly used
for Röntgen ray work or wireless telegraphy, has an iron core made of a
bundle of soft iron wires No. 22 S.W.G., 2 in. in diameter and 18 in. in
length. The primary coil wound over this core consists of No. 14 S.W.G.
copper wire, insulated with white silk laid on in three layers and
having a resistance of about half an ohm. The insulating ebonite tube
for such a coil should not be less than ¼ in. in thickness, and should
have two ebonite cheeks on it placed 14 in. apart. This tube is
supported on two hollow pedestals down which the ends of the primary
wire are brought. The secondary coil consists of No. 36 or No. 32
silk-covered copper wire, and each of the sections is prepared by
winding, in a suitable winding machine, a flat coiled wire in such a way
that the two ends of the coil are on the outside. The coil should not be
wound in less than a hundred sections, and a larger number would be
still better. The adjacent ends of consecutive sections are soldered
together and insulated, and the whole secondary coil should be immersed
in paraffin wax. The completed coil (fig. 1) is covered with a sheet of
ebonite and mounted on a base board which, in some cases, contains the
primary condenser within it and carries on its upper surface a hammer
break. For many purposes, however, it is better to separate the
condenser and the break from the coil. Assuming that a hammer break is
employed, it is generally of the Apps form. The interruption of the
primary circuit is made between two contact studs which ought to be of
massive platinum, and across the break points is joined the primary
condenser. This consists of a number of sheets of paraffined paper
interposed between sheets of tin foil, alternate sheets of the tin foil
being joined together (see Leyden Jar). This condenser serves to quench
the break spark. If the primary condenser is not inserted, the arc or
spark which takes place at the contact points prolongs the fall of
magnetism in the core, and since the secondary electromotive force is
proportional to the rate at which this magnetism changes, the secondary
electromotive force is greatly reduced by the presence of an arc-spark
at the contact points. The primary condenser therefore serves to
increase the suddenness with which the primary current is interrupted,
and so greatly increases the electromotive force in the secondary
circuit. Lord Rayleigh showed (_Phil. Mag._, 1901, 581) that if the
primary circuit is interrupted with sufficient suddenness, as for
instance if it is severed by a bullet from a gun, then no condenser is
needed. No current flows in the secondary circuit so long as a steady
direct current is passing through the primary, but at the moments that
the primary circuit is closed and opened two electromotive forces are
set up in the secondary; these are opposite in direction, the one
induced by the breaking of the primary circuit being by far the
stronger. Hence the necessity for some form of circuit breaker, by the
continuous action of which there results a series of discharges from one
secondary terminal to the other in the form of sparks.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]


  Interrupters or Breaks.

The hammer break is somewhat irregular in action and gives a good deal
of trouble in prolonged use; hence many other forms of primary circuit
interrupters have been devised. These may be classified as (1) hand- or
motor-worked dipping interrupters employing mercury or platinum
contacts; (2) turbine mercury interrupters; (3) electrolytic
interrupters. In the first class a steel or platinum point, operated by
hand or by a motor, is periodically immersed in mercury and so serves to
close the primary circuit. To prevent oxidation of the mercury by the
spark and break it must be covered with oil or alcohol. In some cases
the interruption is caused by the continuous rotation of a motor either
working an eccentric which operates the plunger, or, as in the
Mackenzie-Davidson break, rotating a slate disk having a metal stud on
its surface, which is thus periodically immersed in mercury in a vessel.
A better class of interrupter is the mercury turbine interrupter. In
this some form of rotating turbine pump pumps mercury from a vessel and
squirts it in a jet against a copper plate. Either the copper plate or
the jet is made to revolve rapidly by a motor, so that the jet by turns
impinges against the plate and escapes it; the mercury and plate are
both covered with a deep layer of alcohol or paraffin oil, so that the
jet is immersed in an insulating fluid. In a recent form the chamber in
which the jet works is filled with coal gas. The current supplied to the
primary circuit of the coil travels from the mercury in the vessel
through the jet to the copper plate, and hence is periodically
interrupted when the jet does not impinge against the plate. Mercury
turbine breaks are much employed in connexion with large induction coils
used for wireless telegraphy on account of their regular action and the
fact that the number of interruptions per second can be controlled
easily by regulating the speed of the motor which rotates the jet. But
all mercury breaks employing paraffin or alcohol as an insulating medium
are somewhat troublesome to use because of the necessity of periodically
cleaning the mercury. Electrolytic interrupters were first brought to
notice by Dr A. R. B. Wehnelt in 1898 (_Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift_,
January 20th, 1899). He showed that if a large lead plate was placed in
dilute sulphuric acid as a cathode, and a thick platinum wire protruding
for a distance of about one millimetre beyond a glass or porcelain tube
into which it tightly fitted was used as an anode, such an arrangement
when inserted in the circuit of a primary coil gave rise to a rapid
intermittency in the primary current. It is essential that the platinum
wire should be the anode or positive pole. The frequency of the Wehnelt
break can be adjusted by regulating the extent to which the platinum
wire protrudes through the porcelain tube, and in modern electrolytic
breaks several platinum anodes are employed. This break can be employed
with any voltage between 30 and 250. The Caldwell interrupter, a
modification of the Wehnelt break, consists of two electrodes immersed
in dilute sulphuric acid, one of them being enclosed by a glass vessel
which has a small hole in it capable of being more or less closed by a
tapered glass plug. It differs from the Wehnelt break in that there is
no platinum to wear away and it requires less current; hence finer
regulation of the coil to the current can be obtained. It will also work
with either direct or alternating currents. The hammer and mercury
turbine breaks can be arranged to give interruptions from about 10 per
second up to about 50 or 60. The electrolytic breaks are capable of
working at a higher speed, and under some conditions will give
interruptions up to a thousand per second. If the secondary terminals of
the induction coils are connected to spark balls placed a short distance
apart, then with an electrolytic break the discharge has a flame-like
character resembling an alternating current arc. This type of break is
therefore preferred for Röntgen ray work since it makes less flickering
upon the screen, but its advantages in the case of wireless telegraphy
are not so marked. In the Grisson interrupter the primary circuit of the
induction coil is divided into two parts by a middle terminal, so that a
current flowing in at this point and dividing equally between the two
halves does not magnetize the iron. This terminal is connected to one
pole of the battery, the other two terminals being connected alternately
to the opposite pole by means of a revolving commutator which (1) passes
a current through one half of the primary, thus magnetizing the core;
(2) passes a current through both halves in opposite directions, thus
annulling the magnetization; (3) passes a current through the second
half of the primary, thus reversing the magnetization of the core; and
(4) passes a current in both halves through opposite directions, thus
again annulling the magnetization. As this series of operations can be
performed without interrupting a large current through the inductive
circuit there is not much spark at the commutator, and the speed of
commutation can be regulated so as to obtain the best results due to a
resonance between the primary and secondary circuits. Another device due
to Grisson is the electrolytic condenser interrupter. If a plate of
aluminium and one of carbon or iron is placed in an electrolyte yielding
oxygen, this aluminium-carbon or aluminium-iron cell can pass current in
one direction but not in the other. Much greater resistance is
experienced by a current flowing from the aluminium to the iron than in
the opposite direction, owing to the formation of a film of aluminic
hydroxide on the aluminium. If then a cell consisting of a number of
aluminium plates alternating with iron plates or carbon in alkaline
solution is inserted in the primary circuit of an induction coil, the
application of an electromotive force in the right direction will cause
a transitory current to flow through the coil until the electrolytic
condenser is charged. By the use of a proper commutator the position of
the electrolytic cell in the circuit can be reversed and another
transitory primary current created. This interrupted flow of electricity
through the primary circuit provides the intermittent magnetization of
the core necessary to produce the secondary electromotive force. This
operation of commutation can be conducted without much spark at the
commutator because the circuit is interrupted at the time when there is
no current in it. In the case of the electrolytic condenser no
supplementary paraffined paper condenser is necessary as in the case of
the hammer or mercury interrupters.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Arrangements for producing High Frequency
Currents.

  T, Transformer or induction coil.
  Q, Q, Choking coils.
  D, Spark balls.
  C, Condenser.
  L, Inductance.
  P, Primary circuit of high frequency coil.
  S, Secondary circuit.]


  High Frequency Coils.

An induction coil for the transformation of alternating current is
called a transformer (q.v.). One type of high frequency current
transformer is called an _oscillation transformer_ or sometimes a _Tesla
coil_. The construction of such a coil is based on different principles
from that of the coil just described. If the secondary terminals of an
ordinary induction coil or transformer are connected to a pair of spark
balls (fig. 2), and if these are also connected to a glass plate
condenser or Leyden jar of ordinary type joined in series with a coil of
wire of low resistance and few turns, then at each break of the primary
circuit of the ordinary induction coil a secondary electromotive force
is set up which charges the Leyden jar, and if the spark balls are set
at the proper distance, this charge is succeeded by a discharge
consisting of a movement of electricity backwards and forwards across
the spark gap, constituting an oscillatory electric discharge (see
ELECTROKINETICS). Each charge of the jar may produce from a dozen to a
hundred electric oscillations which are in fact brief electric currents
of gradually decreasing strength. If the circuit of few turns and low
resistance through which this discharge takes place is overlaid with
another circuit well insulated from it consisting of a large number of
turns of finer wire, the inductive action between the two circuits
creates in the secondary a smaller series of electric oscillations of
higher potential. Between the terminals of this last-named coil we can
then produce a series of discharges each of which consists in an
extremely rapid motion of electricity to and fro, the groups of
oscillations being separated by intervals of time corresponding to the
frequency of the break in the primary circuit of the ordinary induction
coil charging the Leyden jar or condenser. These high frequency
discharges differ altogether in character from the secondary discharges
of the ordinary induction coil. Theory shows that to produce the best
results the primary circuit of the oscillation transformer should
consist of only one thick turn of wire or, at most, but of a few turns.
It is also necessary that the two circuits, primary and secondary,
should be well insulated from one another, and for this purpose the
oscillation transformer is immersed in a box or vessel full of highly
insulating oil. For full details N. Tesla's original Papers must be
consulted (see _Journ. Inst. Elect. Eng._ 21, 62).

In some cases the two circuits of the Tesla coil, the primary and
secondary, are sections of one single coil. In this form the arrangement
is called a _resonator_ or _auto transformer_, and is much used for
producing high frequency discharges for medical purposes. The
construction of a resonator is as follows: A bare copper wire is wound
upon an ebonite or wooden cylinder or frame, and one end of it is
connected to the outside of a Leyden jar or battery of Leyden jars, the
inner coating of which is connected to one spark ball of the ordinary
induction coil. The other spark ball is connected to a point on the
above-named copper wire not very far from the lower end. By adjusting
this contact, which is movable, the electric oscillations created in the
short section of the resonator coil produce by resonance oscillations in
the longer free section, and a powerful high frequency electric brush or
discharge is produced at the free end of the resonator spiral. An
electrode or wire connected with this free end therefore furnishes a
high frequency glow discharge which has been found to have valuable
therapeutic powers.

  [Illustration: FIG. 3.

    C1, Condenser in primary circuit.
    C2, Condenser in secondary circuit.
    L1, Inductance in primary circuit.
    L2, Inductance in secondary circuit.]


    Theory of Oscillation Transformers.

  The general theory of an oscillation transformer containing capacity
  and inductance in each circuit has been given by Oberbeck, Bjerknes
  and Drude.[2] Suppose there are two circuits, each consisting of a
  coil of wire, the two being superimposed or adjacent, and let each
  circuit contain a condenser or Leyden jar in series with the circuit,
  and let one of these circuits contain a spark gap, the other being
  closed (fig. 3). If to the spark balls the secondary terminals of an
  ordinary induction coil are connected, and these spark balls are
  adjusted near one another, then when the ordinary coil is set in
  operation, sparks pass between the balls and oscillatory discharges
  take place in the circuit containing the spark gap. These oscillations
  induce other oscillations in the second circuit. The two circuits have
  a certain mutual inductance M, and each circuit has self inductance L1
  and L2. If then the capacities in the two circuits are denoted by C1
  and C2 the following simultaneous equations express the relation of
  the currents, i1 and i2, and potentials, v1, and v2, in the primary
  and secondary circuits respectively at any instant:--

       di1     di2
    L1 --- + M --- + R1 i1 + v1 = 0,
       dt      dt

       di2     di1
    L2 --- + M --- + R2 i2 + v2 = 0,
       dt      dt

  R1 and R2 being the resistances of the two circuits. If for the moment
  we neglect the resistances of the two circuits, and consider that the
  oscillations in each circuit follow a simple harmonic law i = I sin pt
  we can transform the above equations into a biquadratic

               L1C1 + L2C2            1
    p^4 + p² --------------- + --------------- = 0.
             C1C2(L1L2 - M²)   C1C2(L1L2 - M²)

  The capacity and inductance in each circuit can be so adjusted that
  their products are the same number, that is C1L1 = C2L2 = CL. The two
  circuits are then said to be in resonance or to be tuned together. In
  this particular and unique case the above biquadratic reduces to

         1    1 ± k
    p² = -- · ------,
         CL   1 - k²

  where k is written for M [root](L1L2) and is called the _coefficient
  of coupling_. In this case of resonant circuits it can also be shown
  that the maximum potential differences at the primary and secondary
  condenser terminals are determined by the rule V1/V2 =
  2[root]C2/[root]C1. Hence the transformation ratio is not determined
  by the relative number of turns on the primary and secondary circuits,
  as in the case of an ordinary alternating current transformer (see
  TRANSFORMERS), but by the ratio of the capacity in the two oscillation
  circuits. For full proofs of the above the reader is referred to the
  original papers.

  Each of the two circuits constituting the oscillation transformer
  taken separately has a natural time period of oscillation; that is to
  say, if the electric charge in it is disturbed, it oscillates to and
  fro in a certain constant period like a pendulum and therefore with a
  certain frequency. If the circuits have the same frequency when
  separated they are said to be isochronous. If n stands for the natural
  frequency of each circuit, where n = p/2[pi] the above equations show
  that when the two circuits are coupled together, oscillations set up
  in one circuit create oscillations of two frequencies in the secondary
  circuit. A mechanical analogue to the above electrical effect can be
  obtained as follows: Let a string be strung loosely between two fixed
  points, and from it let two other strings of equal length hang down at
  a certain distance apart, each of them having a weight at the bottom
  and forming a simple pendulum. If one pendulum is set in oscillation
  it will gradually impart this motion to the second, but in so doing it
  will bring itself to rest; in like manner the second pendulum being
  set in oscillation gives back its motion to the first. The graphic
  representation, therefore, of the motion of each pendulum would be a
  line as in fig. 4. Such a curve represents the effect in music known
  as beats, and can easily be shown to be due to the combined effect of
  two simple harmonic motions or simple periodic curves of different
  frequency superimposed. Accordingly, the effect of inductively
  coupling together two electrical circuits, each having capacity and
  inductance, is that if oscillations are started in one circuit,
  oscillations of two frequencies are found in the secondary circuit,
  the frequencies differing from one another and differing from the
  natural frequency of each circuit taken alone. This matter is of
  importance in connexion with wireless telegraphy (see TELEGRAPH), as
  in apparatus for conducting it, oscillation transformers as above
  described, having two circuits in resonance with one another, are
  employed.

  [Illustration: FIG. 4.]

  REFERENCES.--J. A. Fleming, _The Alternate Current Transformer_ (2
  vols., London, 1900), containing a full history of the induction coil;
  id., _Electric Wave Telegraphy_ (London, 1906), dealing in chap. i.,
  with the construction of the induction coil and various forms of
  interrupter as well as with the theory of oscillation transformers; A.
  T. Hare, _The Construction of Large Induction Coils_ (London, 1900);
  J. Trowbridge, "On the Induction Coil," _Phil. Mag._ (1902), 3, p.
  393; Lord Rayleigh, "On the Induction Coil," _Phil. Mag._ (1901), 2,
  p. 581; J. E. Ives, "Contributions to the Study of the Induction
  Coil," _Physical Review_ (1902), vols. 14 and 15.     (J. A. F.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] For a full history of the early development of the induction coil
    see J. A. Fleming, _The Alternate Current Transformer_, vol. ii.,
    chap. i.

  [2] See A. Oberbeck, _Wied. Ann._ (1895), 55, p. 623; V. F. R.
    Bjerknes, d. (1895), 55, p. 121, and (1891), 44, p. 74; and P. K. L.
    Drude, _Ann. Phys._ (1904), 13, p. 512.



INDULGENCE (Lat. _indulgentia_, _indulgere_, to grant, concede), in
theology, a term defined by the official catechism of the Roman Catholic
Church in England as "the remission of the temporal punishment which
often remains due to sin after its guilt has been forgiven." This
remission may be either total (_plenary_) or partial, according to the
terms of the Indulgence. Such remission was popularly called a _pardon_
in the middle ages--a term which still survives, e.g. in Brittany.

The theory of Indulgences is based by theologians on the following
texts: 2 Samuel (Vulgate, 2 Kings) xii. 14; Matt. xvi. 19 and xviii. 17,
18; 1 Cor. v. 4, 5; 2 Cor. ii. 6-11; but the practice itself is
confessedly of later growth. As Bishop Fisher says in his Confutation of
Luther, "in the early church, faith in Purgatory and in Indulgences was
less necessary than now.... But in our days a great part of the people
would rather cast off Christianity than submit to the rigour of the
[ancient] canons: wherefore it is a most wholesome dispensation of the
Holy Ghost that, after so great a lapse of time, the belief in purgatory
and the practice of Indulgences have become generally received among the
orthodox" (_Confutatio_, cap. xviii.; cf. Cardinal Caietan, _Tract. XV.
de Indulg._ cap. i.). The nearest equivalent in the ancient Church was
the local and temporary African practice of restoring lapsed Christians
to communion at the intercession of confessors and prospective martyrs
in prison. But such reconciliations differed from later Indulgences in
at least one essential particular, since they brought no remission of
ecclesiastical penance save in very exceptional cases. However, as the
primitive practice of public penance for sins died out in the Church,
there grew up a system of equivalent, or nominally equivalent, private
penances. Just as many of the punishments enjoined by the Roman criminal
code were gradually commuted by medieval legislators for pecuniary
fines, so the years or months of fasting enjoined by the earlier
ecclesiastical codes were commuted for proportionate fines, the
recitation of a certain number of psalms, and the like. "Historically
speaking, it is indisputable that the practice of Indulgences in the
medieval church arose out of the authoritative remission, in exceptional
cases, of a certain proportion of this canonical penalty." At the same
time, according to Catholic teaching, such Indulgence was not a mere
permission to omit or postpone payment, but was in fact a _discharge_
from the debt of temporal punishment which the sinner owed. The
authority to grant such discharge was conceived to be included in the
power of binding and loosing committed by Christ to His Church; and when
in the course of time the vaguer theological conceptions of the first
ages of Christianity assumed scientific form and shape at the hands of
the Schoolmen, the doctrine came to prevail that this discharge of the
sinner's debt was made through an application to the offender of what
was called the "Treasure of the Church" (Thurston, p. 315). "What, then,
is meant by the 'Treasure of the Church'?... It consists primarily and
completely of the merit and satisfaction of Christ our Saviour. It
includes also the superfluous merit and satisfaction of the Blessed
Virgin and the Saints. What do we mean by the word 'superfluous'? In one
way, as I need not say, a saint has no superfluous merit. Whatever he
has, he wants it all for himself, because, the more he merits on earth
(by Christ's grace) the greater is his glory in heaven. But, speaking of
mere satisfaction for punishment due, there cannot be a doubt that some
of the Saints have done more than was needed in justice to expiate the
punishment due to their own sins.... It is this 'superfluous' expiation
that accumulates in the Treasure of the Church" (Bp. of Newport, p.
166). It must be noted that this theory of the "Treasure" was not
formulated until some time after Indulgences in the modern sense had
become established in practice. The doctrine first appeared with
Alexander of Hales (c. 1230) and was at once adopted by the leading
schoolmen. Clement VI. formally confirmed it in 1350, and Pius VI. still
more definitely in 1794.

The first definite instance of a _plenary_ Indulgence is that of Urban
II. for the First Crusade (1095). A little earlier had begun the
practice of _partial_ Indulgences, which are always expressed in terms
of days or years. However definite may have been the ideas originally
conveyed by these notes of time, their first meaning has long since been
lost. Eusebius Amort, in 1735, admits the gravest differences of
opinion; and the Bishop of Newport writes (p. 163) "to receive an
Indulgence of a year, for example, is to have remitted to one so much
temporal punishment as was represented by a year's canonical penance. If
you ask me to define the amount more accurately, I say that it cannot be
done. No one knows how severe or how long a Purgatory was, or is,
implied in a hundred days of canonical penance." The rapid extension of
these time-Indulgences is one of the most remarkable facts in the
history of the subject. Innocent II., dedicating the great church of
Cluny in 1132, granted as a great favour a forty days' Indulgence for
the anniversary. A hundred years later, all churches of any importance
had similar indulgences; yet Englishmen were glad even then to earn a
pardon of forty days by the laborious journey to the nearest cathedral,
and by making an offering there on one of a few privileged feast-days. A
century later again, Wycliffe complains of Indulgences of two thousand
years for a single prayer (ed. Arnold, i. 137). In 1456, the recitation
of a few prayers before a church crucifix earned a Pardon of 20,000
years for every such repetition (Glassberger in _Analecta Franciscana_,
ii. 368): "and at last Indulgences were so freely given that there is
now scarcely a devotion or good work of any kind for which they cannot
be obtained" (Arnold & Addis, _Catholic Dictionary_, s.v.). To quote
again from Father Thurston (p. 318): "In imitation of the prodigality of
her Divine Master, the Church has deliberately faced the risk of
depreciation to which her treasure was exposed.... The growing
effeminacy and corruption of mankind has found her censures unendurable
... and the Church, going out into the highways and the hedges, has
tried to entice men with the offer of generous Indulgence." But it must
be noted that, according to the orthodox doctrine, not only can an
Indulgence not remit future sins, but even for the past it cannot take
full effect unless the subject be truly contrite and have confessed (or
intend shortly to confess) his sins.

This salutary doctrine, however, has undoubtedly been obscured to some
extent by the phrase _a poena et a culpa_, which, from the 13th century
to the Reformation, was applied to Plenary Indulgences. The prima-facie
meaning of the phrase is that the Indulgence itself frees the sinner not
only from the temporal penalty (_poena_) but also from the guilt
(_culpa_) of all his sins: and the fact that a phrase so misleading
remained so long current shows the truth of Father Thurston's remark:
"The laity cared little about the analysis of it, but they knew that the
_a culpa et poena_ was the name for the biggest thing in the nature of
an Indulgence which it was possible to get" (_Dublin Review_, Jan.
1900). The phrase, however, was far from being confined to the
unlearned. Abbot Gilles li Muisis, for instance, records how, at the
Jubilee of 1300, all the Papal Penitentiaries were in doubt about it,
and appealed to the Pope. Boniface VIII. did indeed take the occasion of
repeating (in the words of his Bull) that confession and contrition were
necessary preliminaries; but he neither repudiated the misleading words
nor vouchsafed any clear explanation of them. (_Chron. Aegidii li
Muisis_ ed. de Smet, p. 189.) His predecessor, Celestine V., had
actually used them in a Bull.

The phrase exercised the minds of learned canonists all through the
middle ages, but still held its ground. The most accepted modern theory
is that it is merely a catchword surviving from a longer phrase which
proclaimed how, during such Indulgences, ordinary confessors might
absolve from sins usually "reserved" to the Bishop or the Pope. Nobody,
however, has ventured exactly to reconstitute this hypothetical phrase;
nor is the theory easy to reconcile with (i.) the uncertainty of
canonists at the time when the locution was quite recent, (ii.) the fact
that Clement V. and Cardinal Cusanus speak of absolution _a poena et a
culpa_ as a separate thing from (a) plenary absolution and (b)
absolution from "reserved" sins (Clem. lib. v. tit. ix. c. 2, and Johann
Busch (d. c. 1480) _Chron. Windeshemense_, cap. xxxvi.). But, however it
originated, the phrase undoubtedly contributed to foster popular
misconceptions as to the intrinsic value of Indulgences, apart from
repentance and confession; though Dr Lea seems to press this point
unduly (p. 54 ff.), and should be read in conjunction with Thurston (p.
324 ff.).

These misconceptions were certainly widespread from the 13th to the 16th
century, and were often fostered by the "pardoners," or professional
collectors of contributions for Indulgences. This can best be shown by a
few quotations from eminent and orthodox churchmen during those
centuries. Berthold of Regensburg (c. 1270) says, "Fie, penny-preacher!
... thou dost promise so much remission of sins for a mere halfpenny or
penny, that thousands now trust thereto, and fondly dream to have atoned
for all their sins with the halfpenny or penny, and thus go to hell"
(ed. Pfeiffer, i. 393).[1] A century later, the author of _Piers
Plowman_ speaks of pardoners who "give pardon for pence poundmeal about"
(i.e. wholesale; B. ii. 222); and his contemporary, Pope Boniface IX.,
complained of their absolving even impenitent sinners for ridiculously
small sums (_pro qualibet parva pecuniarum summula_, Raynaldus, _Ann.
Ecc._ 1390). In 1450 Thomas Gascoigne, the great Oxford Chancellor,
wrote: "Sinners say nowadays 'I care not how many or how great sins I
commit before God, for I shall easily and quickly get plenary remission
of any guilt and penalty whatsoever (_cujusdam culpae et poenae_) by
absolution and indulgence granted to me from the Pope, whose writing and
grant I have bought for 4d. or 6d. or for a game of tennis'"--or
sometimes, he adds, by a still more disgraceful bargain (_pro actu
meretricio_, _Lib._ Ver. p. 123, cf. 126). In 1523 the princes of
Germany protested to the Pope in language almost equally strong (Browne,
_Fasciculus_, i. 354). In 1562 the Council of Trent abolished the office
of "pardoner."

The greatest of all Plenary Indulgences is of course the Roman Jubilee.
This was instituted in 1300 by Boniface VIII., who pleaded a popular
tradition for its celebration every hundredth year, though no written
evidence could be found. Clement VI. shortened the period to 50 years
(1350): it was then further reduced to 33, and again in 1475 to 25
years.

  See also the article on LUTHER. The latest and fullest authority on
  this subject is Dr H. C. Lea, _Hist, of Auricular Confession and
  Indulgences in the Latin Church_ (Philadelphia, 1896); his standpoint
  is frankly non-Catholic, but he gives ample materials for judgment.
  The greatest orthodox authority is Eusebius Amort, _De Origine, &c.,
  indulgentiarum_ (1735). More popular and more easily accessible are
  Father Thurston's _The Holy Year of Jubilee_ (1900), and an article by
  the Bishop of Newport in the _Nineteenth Century_ for January 1901,
  with a reply by Mr Herbert Paul in the next number.     (G. G. Co.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Equally strong assertions were made by the provincial council of
    Mainz in 1261; and Lea (p. 287) quotes the complaints of 36 similar
    church councils before 1538.



INDULINES, a series of dyestuffs of blue, bluish-red or black shades,
formed by the interaction of para-amino azo compounds with primary
monamines in the presence of a small quantity of a mineral acid. They
were first discovered in 1863 (English patent 3307) by J. Dale and H.
Caro, and since then have been examined by many chemists (see O. N.
Witt, _Ber._, 1884, 17, p. 74; O. Fischer and E. Hepp, _Ann._, 1890,
256, pp. 233 et seq.; F. Kehrmann, _Ber._, 1891, 24, pp. 584, 2167 et
seq.). They are derivatives of the eurhodines (aminophenazines,
aminonaphthophenazines), and by means of their diazo derivatives can be
de-amidated, yielding in this way azonium salts; consequently they may
be considered as amidated azonium salts. The first reaction giving a
clue to their constitution was the isolation of the intermediate
_azophenin_ by O. Witt (_Jour. Chem. Soc._, 1883, 43, p. 115), which was
proved by Fischer and Hepp to be dianilidoquinone dianil, a similar
intermediate compound being found shortly afterwards in the naphthalene
series. _Azophenin_, C30H24N4, is prepared by warming quinone dianil
with aniline; by melting together quinone, aniline and aniline
hydrochloride; or by the action of aniline on para-nitrosophenol or
para-nitrosodiphenylamine. The indulines are prepared as mentioned above
from aminoazo compounds:

                                        // N------\
  NH2·C6H4N2·C6H5 + C5H5NH2 -> HN:C6H3 //          \ C6H4,
                                        \  N·C6H5 /

                                       (aposafranine)

or by condensing oxy- and amido-quinones with phenylated ortho-diamines
(F. Kehrmann, _Ber._, 1895, 28, p. 1714):

    HO\        // O   H2N    \
       \ C6H2 //    +         \ C6H4 =
     O//      \  OH   C6H5NH /

                                O \\        / N·C6H5 \
                        2H2O +     \\ C6H2 /          \ C6H4.
                               HO /        \\ N------//

  The indulines may be subdivided into the following groups:-- (1)
  benzindulines, derivatives of phenazine; (2) isorosindulines; and (3)
  rosindulines, both derived from naphthophenazine; and (4)
  naphthindulines, derived from naphthazine.

             // N------\                  // N------\
    NH:C6H3 //          \ C6H4   NH:C6H3 //          \ C10H6
             \  N·C6H5 /                  \  N·C6H5 /

         I. Benzindulines.          II. Isorosindulines.

              // N------\                  // N------\
    NH:C10H5 //          \ C6H4  NH:C10H5 //          \ C10H6
              \  N·C6H5 /                  \  N·C6H5 /

        III. Rosindulines.          IV. Naphthindulines.

  The rosindulines and naphthindulines have a strongly basic character,
  and their salts possess a marked red colour and fluorescence.
  _Benzinduline_ (aposafranine), C18H13N3, is a strong base, but cannot
  be diazotized, unless it be dissolved in concentrated mineral acids.
  When warmed with aniline it yields anilido-aposafranine, which may
  also be obtained by the direct oxidation of ortho-aminodiphenylamine.
  _Isorosinduline_ is obtained from quinone dichlorimide and
  phenyl-[beta]-naphthylamine; _rosinduline_ from
  benzene-azo-[alpha]-naphthylamine and aniline and _naphthinduline_
  from benzene-azo-[alpha]-naphthylamine and naphthylamine.



INDULT (Lat. _indultum_, from _indulgere_, grant, concede, allow), a,
papal licence which authorizes the doing of something not sanctioned by
the common law of the church; thus by an indult the pope authorizes a
bishop to grant certain relaxations during the Lenten fast according to
the necessities of the situation, climate, &c., of his diocese.



INDUNA, a Zulu-Bantu word for an officer or head of a regiment among the
Kaffir (Zulu-Xosa) tribes of South Africa. It is formed from the
inflexional prefix _in_ and _duna_, a lord or master. Indunas originally
obtained and retained their rank and authority by personal bravery and
skill in war, and often proved a menace to their nominal lord. Where,
under British influence, the purely military system of government among
the Kaffir tribes has broken down or been modified, indunas are now
administrators rather than warriors. They sit in a consultative
gathering known as an indaba, and discuss the civil and military affairs
of their tribe.



INDUS, one of the three greatest rivers of northern India.


  In the Himalaya.

  The Shyok affluent.

  The Gilgit affluent.

A considerable accession of exact geographical knowledge has been gained
of the upper reaches of the river Indus and its tributaries during those
military and political movements which have been so constant on the
northern frontiers of India of recent years. The sources of the Indus
are to be traced to the glaciers of the great Kailas group of peaks in
32° 20´ N. and 81° E., which overlook the Mansarowar lake and the
sources of the Brahmaputra, the Sutlej and the Gogra to the south-east.
Three great affluents, flowing north-west, unite in about 80° E. to form
the main stream, all of them, so far as we know at present, derived from
the Kailas glaciers. Of these the northern tributary points the road
from Ladakh to the Jhalung goldfields, and the southern, or Gar, forms a
link in the great Janglam--the Tibetan trade route--which connects
Ladakh with Lhasa and Lhasa with China. Gartok (about 50 m. from the
source of this southern head of the Indus) is an important point on this
trade route, and is now made accessible to Indian traders by treaty with
Tibet and China. At Leh, the Ladakh capital, the river has already
pursued an almost even north-westerly course for 300 m., except for a
remarkable divergence to the south-west which carries it across, or
through, the Ladakh range to follow the same course on the southern side
that had been maintained on the north. This very remarkable instance of
transverse drainage across a main mountain axis occurs in 79° E., about
100 m. above Leh. For another 230 m., in a north-westerly direction, the
Indus pursues a comparatively gentle and placid course over its sandy
bed between the giant chains of Ladakh to the north and Zaskar (the main
"snowy range" of the Himalaya) to the south, amidst an array of mountain
scenery which, for the majesty of sheer altitude, is unmatched by any in
the world. Then the river takes up the waters of the Shyok from the
north (a tributary nearly as great as itself), having already captured
the Zasvar from the south, together with innumerable minor glacier-fed
streams. The Shyok is an important feature in Trans-Himalayan
hydrography. Rising near the southern foot of the well-known Karakoram
pass on the high road between Ladakh and Kashgar, it first drains the
southern slopes of the Karakoram range, and then breaks across the axis
of the Muztagh chain (of which the Karakoram is now recognized as a
subsidiary extension northwards) ere bending north-westwards to run a
parallel course to the Indus for 150 m. before its junction with that
river. The combined streams still hold on their north-westerly trend for
another 100 m., deep hidden under the shadow of a vast array of
snow-crowned summits, until they arrive within sight of the Rakapushi
peak which pierces the north-western sky midway between Gilgit and
Hunza. Here the great change of direction to the south-west occurs,
which is thereafter maintained till the Indus reaches the ocean. At this
point it receives the Gilgit river from the north-west, having dropped
from 15,000 to 4000 ft. (at the junction of the rivers) after about 500
m. of mountain descent through the independent provinces of northern
Kashmir. (See GILGIT.) A few miles below the junction it passes Bunji,
and from that point to a point beyond Chilas (50 m. below Bunji) it runs
within the sphere of British interests. Then once again it resumes its
"independent" course through the wild mountains of Kohistan and Hazara,
receiving tribute from both sides (the Buner contribution being the most
noteworthy) till it emerges into the plains of the Punjab below Darband,
in 34° 10´ N. All this part of the river has been mapped in more or less
detail of late years. The hidden strongholds of those Hindostani
fanatics who had found a refuge on its banks since Mutiny days have been
swept clean, and many ancient mysteries have been solved in the course
of its surveying.


  Indus of the plains.

From its entrance into the plains of India to its disappearance in the
Indian Ocean, the Indus of to-day is the Indus of the 'fifties--modified
only in some interesting particulars. It has been bridged at several
important points. There are bridges even in its upper mountain courses.
There is a wooden pier bridge at Leh of two spans, and there are native
suspension bridges of cane or twig-made rope swaying uneasily across the
stream at many points intervening between Leh and Bunji; but the first
English-made iron suspension bridge is a little above Bunji, linking up
the highroad between Kashmir and Gilgit. Next occurs the iron girder
railway bridge at Attock, connecting Rawalpindi with Peshawar, at which
point the river narrows almost to a gorge, only 900 ft. above sea-level.
Twenty miles below Attock the river has carved out a central trough
which is believed to be 180 ft. deep. Forty miles below Attock another
great bridge has been constructed at Kushalgarh, which carries the
railway to Kohat and the Kurram valley. At Mari, beyond the series of
gorges which continue from Kushalgarh to the borders of the Kohat
district, on the Sind-Sagar line, a boat-bridge leads to Kalabagh (the
Salt city) and northwards to Kohat. Another boat-bridge opposite Dera
Ismail Khan connects that place with the railway; but there is nothing
new in these southern sections of the Indus valley railway system except
the extraordinary development of cultivation in their immediate
neighbourhood. The Lansdowne bridge at Sukkur, whose huge cantilevers
stand up as a monument of British enterprise visible over the flat
plains for many miles around, is one of the greatest triumphs of Indian
bridge-making. Kotri has recently been connected with Hyderabad in Sind,
and the Indus is now one of the best-bridged rivers in India. The
intermittent navigation which was maintained by the survivals of the
Indus flotilla as far north as Dera Ismail Khan long after the
establishment of the railway system has ceased to exist with the
dissolution of the fleet, and the high-sterned flat Indus boats once
again have the channels and sandbanks of the river all to themselves.


  Lower Indus and delta.

Within the limits of Sind the vagaries of the Indus channels have
necessitated a fresh survey of the entire riverain. The results,
however, indicate not so much a marked departure in the general course
of the river as a great variation in the channel beds within what may be
termed its outside banks. Collaterally much new information has been
obtained about the ancient beds of the river, the sites of ancient
cities and the extraordinary developments of the Indus delta. The
changing channels of the main stream since those prehistoric days when a
branch of it found its way to the Runn of Cutch, through successive
stages of its gradual shift westwards--a process of displacement which
marked the disappearance of many populous places which were more or less
dependent on the river for their water supply--to the last and greatest
change of all, when the stream burst its way through the limestone
ridges of Sukkur and assumed a course which has been fairly constant for
150 years, have all been traced out with systematic care by modern
surveyors till the medieval history of the great river has been fully
gathered from the characters written on the delta surface. That such
changes of river bed and channel should have occurred within a
comparatively limited period of time is the less astonishing if we
remember that the Indus, like many of the greatest rivers of the world,
carries down sufficient detritus to raise its own bed above the general
level of the surrounding plains in an appreciable and measurable degree.
At the present time the bed of the Indus is stated to be 70 ft. above
the plains of the Sind frontier, some 50 m. to the west of it.


    Statistics.

  The total length of the Indus, measured directly, is about 1500 m.
  With its many curves and windings it stretches to about 2000 m., the
  area of its basin being computed at 372,000 sq. m. Even at its lowest
  in winter it is 500 ft. wide at Iskardo (near the Gilgit junction) and
  9 or 10 ft. deep. The temperature of the surface water during the cold
  season in the plains is found to be 5° below that of the air (64° and
  69° F.). At the beginning of the hot season, when the river is
  bringing down snow water, the difference is 14° (87° and 101° June).
  At greater depths the difference is still greater. At Attock, where
  the river narrows between rocky banks, a height of 50 ft. in the flood
  season above lowest level is common, with a velocity of 13 m. per
  hour. The record rise (since British occupation of the Punjab) is 80
  ft. At its junction with the Panjnad (the combined rivers of the
  Punjab east of the Indus) the Panjnad is twice the width of the Indus,
  but its mean depth is less, and its velocity little more than
  one-third. This discharge of the Panjnad at low season is 69,000 cubic
  ft. per second, that of the Indus 92,000. Below the junction the
  united discharge in flood season is 380,000 cubic ft., rising to
  460,000 (the record in August). The Indus after receiving the other
  rivers carries down into Sind, in the high flood season, turbid water
  containing silt to the amount of 1/229 part by weight, or 1/410 by
  volume--equal to 6480 millions of cubic ft. in the three months of
  flood. This is rather less than the Ganges carries. The silt is very
  fine sand and clay. Unusual floods, owing to landslips or other
  exceptional causes, are not infrequent. The most disastrous flood of
  this nature occurred in 1858. It was then that the river rose 80 ft.
  at Attock. The most striking result of the rise was the reversal of
  the current of the Kabul river, which flowed backwards at the rate of
  10 m. per hour, flooding Nowshera and causing immense damage to
  property. The prosperity of the province of Sind depends almost
  entirely on the waters of the Indus, as its various systems of canals
  command over nine million acres out of a cultivable area of twelve and
  a half million acres.

  See Maclagan, _Proceedings R.G.S._, vol. iii.; Haig, _The Indus Delta
  Country_ (London, 1894); Godwin-Austen, _Proceedings R.G.S._ vol. vi.
       (T. H. H.*)



INDUSTRIA (mod. Monteù da Po), an ancient town of Liguria, 20 m. N.E. of
Augusta Taurinorum. Its original name was Bodincomagus, from the
Ligurian name of the Padus (mod. Po), Bodincus, i.e. bottomless (Plin.
_Hist. Nat._ iii. 122), and this still appears on inscriptions of the
early imperial period. It stood on the right bank of the river, which
has now changed its course over 1 m. to the north. It was a flourishing
town, with municipal rights, as excavations (which have brought to light
the forum, theatre, baths, &c.) have shown, but appears to have been
deserted in the 4th century A.D.

  See A. Fabietti in _Atti della Società di Archeologia di Torino_, iii,
  17 seq.; Th. Mommsen in _Corp. Inscrip. Lat._ v. (Berlin, 1877), p.
  845; E. Ferrero in _Notizie degli Scavi_ (1903), p. 43.



INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL, in England a school, generally established by
voluntary contributions, for the industrial training of children, in
which children are lodged, clothed and fed, as well as taught.
Industrial schools are chiefly for vagrant and neglected children and
children not convicted of theft. Such schools are for children up to the
age of fourteen, and the limit of detention is sixteen. They are
regulated by the Children Act 1908, which repealed the Industrial
Schools Act 1866, as amended by Acts of 1872, 1891 and 1901, and
parallel legislation in the various Elementary Education Acts, besides
some few local acts. The home secretary exercises powers of supervision,
&c. See JUVENILE OFFENDERS.



INDUSTRY (Lat. _industria_, from _indu_-, a form of the preposition
_in_, and either _stare_, to stand, or _struere_, to pile up), the
quality of steady application to work, diligence; hence employment in
some particular form of productive work, especially of manufacture; or a
particular class of productive work itself, a trade or manufacture. See
LABOUR LEGISLATION, &c.



INE, king of the West Saxons, succeeded Ceadwalla in 688, his title to
the crown being derived from Ceawlin. In the earlier part of his reign
he was at war with Kent, but peace was made in 694, when the men of Kent
gave compensation for the death of Mul, brother of Ceadwalla, whom they
had burned in 687. In 710 Ine was fighting in alliance with his kinsman
Nun, probably king of Sussex, against Gerent of West Wales and,
according to Florence of Worcester, he was victorious. In 715 he fought
a battle with Ceolred, king of Mercia, at Woodborough in Wiltshire, but
the result is not recorded. Shortly after this time a quarrel seems to
have arisen in the royal family. In 721 Ine slew Cynewulf, and in 722
his queen Aethelburg destroyed Taunton, which her husband had built
earlier in his reign. In 722 the South Saxons, previously subject to
Ine, rose against him under the exile Aldbryht, who may have been a
member of the West Saxon royal house. In 725 Ine fought with the South
Saxons and slew Aldbryht. In 726 he resigned the crown and went to Rome,
being succeeded by Aethelheard in Wessex. Ine is said to have built the
minster at Glastonbury. The date of his death is not recorded. He issued
a written code of laws for Wessex, which is still preserved.

  See Bede, _Hist. Eccl._ (Plummer), iv. 15, v. 7; _Saxon Chronicle_
  (Earle and Plummer), s.a. 688e, 694, 710, 715, 721, 722, 725, 728;
  Thorpe, _Ancient Laws_, i. 2-25; Sehmid, _Gesetze der Angelsachsen_
  (Leipzig, 1858); Liebermann, _Gesetzeder Angelsachsen_ (Halle,
  1898-99).



INEBOLI, a town on the north coast of Asia Minor, 70 m. W. of Sinub
(Sinope). It is the first place of importance touched at by mercantile
vessels plying eastwards from Constantinople, being the port for the
districts of Changra and Kastamuni, and connected with the latter town
by a carriage road (see KASTAMUNI). The roadstead is exposed, having no
protection for shipping except a jetty 300 ft. long, so that in rough
weather landing is impracticable. The exports (chiefly wool and mohair)
are about £248,000 annually and the imports £200,000. The population is
about 9000 (Moslems 7000, Christians 2000). Ineboli represents the
ancient _Abonou-teichos_, famous as the birthplace of the false prophet
Alexander, who established there (2nd century A.D.) an oracle of the
snake-God Glycon-Asclepius. This impostor, immortalized by Lucian,
obtained leave from the emperor Marcus Aurelius to change the name of
the town to _Ionopolis_, whence the modern name is derived (see
ALEXANDER THE PAPHLAGONIAN).



INEBRIETY, LAW OF. The legal relations to which inebriety (Lat. _in_,
intensive, and _ebrietas_, drunkenness) gives rise are partly civil and
partly criminal.

I. _Civil Capacity._--The law of England as to the civil capacity of the
drunkard is practically identified with, and has passed through
substantially the same stages of development as the law in regard to the
civil capacity of a person suffering from mental disease (see INSANITY).
Unless (see III. _inf._) a modification is effected in his condition by
the fact that he has been brought under some form of legal control, a
man may, in spite of intoxication, enter into a valid marriage or make a
valid will, or bind himself by a contract, if he is sober enough to know
what he is doing, and no improper advantage of his condition is taken
(cf. _Matthews_ v. _Baxter_, 1873, L.R. 8 Ex. 132; _Imperial Loan Co._
v. _Stone_, 1892, 1 Q.B. 599). The law is the same in Scotland and in
Ireland; and the Sale of Goods Act 1893 (which applies to the whole
United Kingdom) provides that where necessaries are sold and delivered
to a person who by reason of drunkenness is incompetent to contract, he
must pay a reasonable price for them; "necessaries" for the purposes of
this provision mean goods suitable to the condition in life of such
person and to his actual requirements at the time of the sale and
delivery.

Under the Roman law, and under the Roman Dutch law as applied in South
Africa, drunkenness, like insanity, appears to vitiate absolutely a
contract made by a person under its influence (_Molyneux_ v. _Natal Land
and Colonization Co._, 1905, A.C. 555).

In the United States, as in England, intoxication does not vitiate
contractual capacity unless it is of such a degree as to prevent the
person labouring under it from understanding the nature of the
transaction into which he is entering (Bouvier, _Law Dict._, s.v.
"Drunkenness"; and cf. _Waldron_ v. _Angleman_, 1004, 58 Atl. 568;
_Fowler_ v. _Meadow Brook Water Co._, 1904, 57 Atl. 959; 208 Penn.,
473). The same rule is by implication adopted in the Indian Contract Act
(Act ix. of 1872), which provides (s. 12) that "a person is ... of sound
mind for the purpose of making a contract if, at the time when he makes
it, he is capable of understanding it and of forming a rational judgment
as to its effect upon his interests." In some legal systems, however,
habitual drunkenness is a ground for divorce or judicial separation
(Sweden, Law of the 27th of April 1810; France, Code Civil, Art. 231,
_Hirt_ v. _Hirt_, Dalloz, 1898, pt. ii., p. 4, and n. 4).

II. _Criminal Responsibility._--In English law, drunkenness, unlike
insanity, was at one time regarded as in no way an excuse for crime.
According to Coke (Co. Litt., 247) a drunkard, although he suffers from
acquired insanity, _dementia affectata_, is _voluntarius daemon_, and
therefore has no privilege in consequence of his state; "but what hurt
or ill soever he doth, his drunkenness doth aggravate it." Sir Matthew
Hale (P.C. 32) took a more moderate view, viz. that a person under the
influence of this voluntarily contracted madness "shall have the same
judgment as if he were in his right senses"; and admitted the existence
of two "allays" or qualifying circumstances: (1) _temporary_ frenzy
induced by the unskilfulness of physicians or by drugging; and (2)
_habitual_ or fixed frenzy. Those early authorities have, however,
undergone considerable development and modification.

Although the general principle that drunkenness is not an excuse for
crime is still steadily maintained (see Russell, _Crimes_, 6th ed., i.
144; Archbold, _Cr. Pl._, 23rd ed., p. 29), it is settled law that where
a particular intent is one of the constituent elements of an offence,
the fact that a prisoner was intoxicated at the time of its commission
is relevant evidence to show that he had not the capacity to form that
intent. Drunkenness is also a circumstance of which a jury may take
account in considering whether an act was premeditated, or whether a
prisoner acted in self-defence or under provocation, when the question
is whether the danger apprehended or the provocation was sufficient to
justify his conduct or to alter its legal character. Moreover, _delirium
tremens_, if it produce such a degree of madness as to render a person
incapable of distinguishing right from wrong, relieves him from criminal
responsibility for any act committed by him while under its influence;
and in one case at _nisi prius_ (_R._ v. _Baines_, _The Times_, 25th
Jan. 1886) this doctrine was extended by Mr Justice Day to temporary
derangement occasioned by drink. The law of Scotland accepts, if it does
not go somewhat beyond, the later developments of that of England in
regard to criminal responsibility in drunkenness. Indian law on the
point is similar to the English (Indian Penal Code, Act. xlv. of 1860,
ss. 85, 86; Mayne, _Crim. Law of India_, ed. 1896, p. 391). In the
United States the same view is the prevalent legal doctrine (see Bishop,
_Crim. Law_, 8th ed., i, ss. 397-416). The Criminal Code of Queensland
(No. 9 of 1899, Art. 28) provides that a person who becomes intoxicated
intentionally is responsible for any crime that he commits while so
intoxicated, whether his voluntary intoxication was induced so as to
afford an excuse for the commission of an offence or not. As in England,
however, when an intention to cause a specific result is an element of
an offence, intoxication, whether complete or partial, and whether
intentional or unintentional, may be regarded for the purpose of
ascertaining whether such intention existed or not. There is a similar
provision in the Penal Code of Ceylon (No. 2 of 1883, Art. 79). The
Criminal Codes of Canada (1892, c. 29, ss. 7 et seq.) and New Zealand
(No. 56 of 1893, ss. 21 et seq.) are silent on the subject of
intoxication as an excuse for crime. The Criminal Code of Grenada (No. 2
of 1897, Art. 51) provides that "a person shall not, on the ground of
intoxication, be deemed to have done any act involuntarily, or be exempt
from any liability to punishment for any act: and a person who does an
act while in a state of intoxication shall be deemed to have intended
the natural and probable consequences of his act." There is a similar
provision in the Criminal Code of the Gold Coast Colony (No. 12 of 1892,
s. 54). Under the French Penal Code (Art. 64), "_il n'y a ni crime, ni
délit, lorsque le prévenu était en état de démence au temps de l'action
ou lorsqu'il aura été contraint par une force à laquelle il n' a pu
résister_." According to the balance of authority (Dalloz, _Rép._ tit.,
Peine, ss. 402 et seq.) intoxication is not assimilated to insanity,
within the meaning of this article, but it may be and is taken account
of by juries as an extenuating circumstance (Ortolan, _Droit Pénal_ i.
s. 323: Chauveau et Hélie i. s. 360). A provision in the German Penal
Code (Art. 51) that an act is not punishable if its author, at the time
of committing it, was in a condition of unconsciousness, or morbid
disturbance of the activity of his mind which prevented the free
exercise of his will, has been held not to extend to intoxication
(Clunet, 1883, p. 311). But in Germany as in France, intoxication may
apparently be an extenuating circumstance. Under the Italian Penal Code
(Arts. 46-49) intoxication--unless voluntarily induced so as to afford
an excuse for crime--may exclude or modify responsibility.

So far only the question whether drunkenness is an excuse for offences
committed under its influence has been dealt with. There remains the
question how far drunkenness itself is a crime. Mere private
intoxication is not, either in England or in the United States (Bishop,
_Crim. Law_, 8th ed., i. s. 399) indictable as an offence at common law;
but in all civilized countries public drunkenness is punishable when it
amounts to a breach of the peace (see LIQUOR LAWS) or contravention of
public order; and modern legislation in many countries provides for
deprivation of personal liberty for long periods in case of a frequent
repetition of the offence. Reference may be made in this connexion to
the Inebriates Acts 1898, 1899 and 1900 (see iii. _inf._), and also to
similar legislation in the British colonies and in foreign legal systems
(e.g. Cape of Good Hope, No. 32 of 1896; Ceylon, Licensing Ordinance
1891, ss. 23, 24, 29; New South Wales, Vagrants Punishment Act 1866;
Massachusetts, Acts of 1891, c. 427, 1893, cc. 414, 44; France, Law of
23rd of Jan. 1873, Art. 6).

III. _State Action in Regard to Inebriety._--This assumes a variety of
forms. (a) Measures regulating the punishment of occasional or habitual
drunkenness by fines or short terms of imprisonment. (b) Control in
_penal_ establishments for lengthened periods. (c) Laws prohibiting the
sale of liquor to persons who are known inebriates: e.g. in England
(Licensing Act 1902); Ontario (Rev. Stats. 1897, c. 245, ss. 124, 125);
New South Wales (Liquor Act 1898, ss. 52, 53); Cape of Good Hope (No. 28
of 1883, s. 89); New York (Rev. Stats. 1889-1892, c. 20, Title iv.);
California (Act to prevent sale of liquor to drunkards, 1889);
Massachusetts (Pub. Stats., ed. 1902, c. 100, s. 9). (d) Laws regulating
the appointment of some person or persons to act as guardian or
guardians, or who may be endowed with legal powers over the person and
estate of an inebriate. Thus in France (Code Civil, Arts. 489 et seq.),
Germany (Civil Code, Art. 6 (39)) and Austria-Hungary (_Bürgerliches
Gesetz-Buch_, ss. 21, 269, 270, 273), an inebriate may be judicially
interdicted if he is squandering his property and thereby exposing his
family to future destitution. Provision is also made for the
interdiction of inebriates by the laws of Nova Scotia (Rev. Stats. 1900,
c. 126, s. 2), Manitoba (Rev. Stat. 1902, c. 103, ss. 30 et seq.),
British Columbia (Rev. Stat. 1897, c. 66), New South Wales (Inebriates
Act 1900, s. 5), Tasmania (Inebriates Act 1885, No. 17, s. 23); Canton
of Bâle (Trustee Law of the 23rd of Feb. 1880, s. 11), Orange River
Colony (Code Laws, c. 108, s. 30), Maryland (Code General Laws, c. 474,
s. 47). (e) Control for the purpose of reformation. Legislation of this
character provides reformatory treatment: (1) for the inebriate who
makes a voluntary application for admission; (2) by compulsory seclusion
for the inebriate who refuses consent to treatment and yet manages to
keep out of the reach of the law; (3) for the inebriate who is a
police-court recidivist, or who has committed crime, caused or
contributed to by drink. The legislation of the Cape of Good Hope
(Inebriates Act 1896) and of North Dakota (Habitual Drunkards Act 1895)
provides for the first of these methods of treatment alone. Compulsory
detention for ordinary inebriates only is provided for by the laws of
Delaware (Act of 1898), Massachusetts (Rev. Laws, c. 87), and of the
Cantons of Berne (Law of the 24th of Nov. 1883) and Bâle (Law of the
21st of Feb. 1901). All three methods of treatment are in force in New
South Wales (Inebriates Act 1900), Queensland (Inebriates Institutions
Act 1896) and South Australia (Inebriates Act 1881). Provision is made
only for voluntary application and compulsory detention of ordinary
inebriates in Victoria (Inebriates Act 1890), Tasmania (Inebriates Act
1885; Inebriates Hospitals Act 1892) and New Zealand (Inebriates
Institutions Act 1898). The legislation of the United Kingdom
(Inebriates Acts 1879-1900) deals both with voluntary application and
with the committal of criminal inebriates or of police-court
recidivists. A brief sketch of the English system must suffice.

The Inebriates Acts of 1870-1900 deal in the first place with
non-criminal, and in the second place with criminal, habitual drunkards.

For the purposes of the acts the term "habitual drunkard" means "a
person who, not being amenable to any jurisdiction in lunacy, is
notwithstanding, by reason of habitual intemperate drinking of
intoxicating liquor, at times dangerous to himself or herself, or
incapable of managing himself or herself and his or her affairs." A
person would become amenable to the lunacy jurisdiction not only where
habitual drunkenness made him a "lunatic" in the legal sense of the
term, but where it created, such a state of disease and consequential
"mental infirmity" as to bring his case within section 116 of the Lunacy
Act 1890, the effect of which is explained in the article Insanity. Any
"habitual drunkard" within the above definition may obtain admission to
a "licensed retreat" on a written application to the licensee, stating
the time (the maximum period is two years) that he undertakes to remain
in the retreat. The application must be accompanied by the statutory
declaration of two persons that the applicant is an habitual drunkard,
and its signature must be attested by a justice of the peace who has
satisfied himself as to the fact, and who is required to state that the
applicant understood the nature and effect of his application. Licences
(each of which is subject to a duty and is impressed with a stamp of £5,
and 10s. for every patient above ten in number) are granted for retreats
by the borough council and the town clerk in boroughs, and elsewhere by
the county council and the clerk of the county council. The maximum
period for which a licence may be granted is two years, but licences may
be renewed by the licensing authority on payment of a stamp duty of the
same amount as on the original grant. When an habitual drunkard has once
been committed to a retreat, he must remain in the retreat for the time
that he has fixed in his application, subject to certain statutory
provisions similar to those prescribed by the Lunacy Acts for asylums as
to leave of absence and discharge; and he may be retaken and brought
back to the retreat under a justice's warrant. The term of detention may
be extended on its expiry, or an inebriate may be readmitted, on a fresh
application, without any statutory declaration, and without the
attesting justice being required to satisfy himself that the applicant
is an habitual drunkard. Licensed retreats are subject to inspection by
an Inspector of Retreats appointed by the Home Secretary, to whom he
makes an annual report. The Home Secretary is empowered to make rules
and regulations for the management of retreats, and "regulations and
orders," not inconsistent with such rules, are to be prepared by the
licensee within a month after the granting of his licence, and submitted
to the inspector for approval. The rules now in force are dated as
regards (a) England, 28th Feb. 1902; (b) Scotland, 14th April 1902; (c)
Ireland, 3rd Feb. 1903. There are also statutory provisions, similar to
those of the Lunacy Acts, as to offences--(i.) by licensees failing to
comply with the requirements of the acts; (ii) by persons ill-treating
patients, or helping them to escape, or unlawfully supplying them with
intoxicating liquor; (iii.) by patients refusing to comply with the
rules. The Home Secretary may (i.) authorize the establishment of "State
Inebriate Reformatories," to be paid for out of moneys provided by
parliament; and (ii.) sanction "Certified Inebriates' Reformatories" on
the application of any borough or county council, or any person
whatever, if satisfied concerning the reformatory and the persons
proposing to maintain it. An Inspector of Certified Inebriate
Reformatories has been appointed. Regulations for State Inebriate
Reformatories and for Certified Inebriate Reformatories have been made,
dated as follows: _State Inebriate Reformatories_:--England, 21st of
June 1901, 29th of Dec. 1903, 29th of April 1904; Scotland, 9th of March
1900; Ireland, 16th of March 1899, 16th of April 1901, 10th of Feb.
1904. _Certified Inebriate Reformatories_:--England, Model Regulations,
17th of Dec. 1898; Scotland, Regulations, 14th of Feb. 1899; Ireland,
Model Regulations, 29th of April 1899.

Any person convicted on indictment of an offence punishable with
imprisonment or penal servitude (i.e. of any non-capital felony and of
most misdemeanours), if the court is satisfied from the evidence that
the offence was committed under the influence of drink, or that drink
was a contributing cause of the offence, may, if he admits that he is,
or is found by the jury to be, an habitual drunkard, in addition to or
in substitution for any other sentence, be ordered to be detained in a
state or certified inebriate reformatory, the managers of which are
willing to receive him. Again, any habitual drunkard who is found drunk
in any public place, or who commits any other of a series of similar
offences under various statutes, after having within twelve months been
convicted at least three times of a similar offence, may, on conviction
on indictment, or, if he consent, on summary conviction, be sent for
detention in any certified inebriate reformatory. The expenses of
prosecuting habitual drunkards under the above provisions are payable
out of the local rates upon an order to that effect by the judge of
assize or chairman of quarter-sessions if the prosecution be on
indictment, or by a court of summary jurisdiction if the offence is
dealt with summarily.

  AUTHORITIES.--As to the history of legislation on the subject see
  Parl. Paper No. 242 of 1872; 1893 C. 7008. See also Wyatt Paine,
  _Inebriate Reformatories and Retreats_ (London, 1899); Blackwell,
  _Inebriates Acts_, 1879-1898 (London, 1899); Wood Renton, _Lunacy_
  (London and Edinburgh, 1896); Kerr, _Inebriety_ (3rd ed., London,
  1894). An excellent account of the systems in force in other countries
  for the treatment of inebriates will be found in Parl. Pap. (1902),
  cd. 1474.     (A. W. R.)



INFALLIBILITY (Fr. _infaillibilité_ and _infallibilité_, the latter now
obsolete, Med. Lat. _infallibilitas_, _infallibilis_, formed from
fallor, to make a mistake), the fact or quality of not being liable to
err or fail. The word has thus the general sense of "certainty"; we may,
e.g., speak of a drug as an infallible specific, or of a man's judgment
as infallible. In these cases, however, the "infallibility" connotes
certainty only in so far as anything human can be certain. In the
language of the Christian Church the word "infallibility" is used in a
more absolute sense, as the freedom from ail possibility of error
guaranteed by the direct action of the Spirit of God. This belief in the
infallibility of revelation is involved in the very belief in revelation
itself, and is common to all sections of Christians, who differ mainly
as to the kind and measure of infallibility residing in the human
instruments by which this revelation is interpreted to the world. Some
see the guarantee, or at least the indication, of infallibility in the
consensus of the Church (_quod semper, ubique, et ab omnibus_) expressed
from time to time in general councils; others see it in the special
grace conferred upon St Peter and his successors, the bishops of Rome,
as heads of the Church; others again see it in the inspired Scriptures,
God's Word. This last was the belief of the Protestant Reformers, for
whom the Bible was in matters of doctrine the ultimate court of appeal.
To the translation and interpretation of the Scriptures men might bring
a fallible judgment, but this would be assisted by the direct action of
the Spirit of God in proportion to their faith. As for infallibility,
this was a direct grace of God, given only to the few. "What ever was
perfect under the sun," ask the translators of the Authorized Version
(1611) in their preface, "where apostles and apostolick men, that is,
men endued with an extraordinary measure of God's Spirit, and privileged
with the privilege of infallibility, had not their hand?" In modern
Protestantism, on the other hand, the idea of an infallible authority
whether in the Church or the Bible has tended to disappear, religious
truths being conceived as valuable only as they are apprehended and made
real to the individual mind and soul by the grace of God, not by reason
of any submission to an external authority. (See also INSPIRATION.)

At the present time, then, the idea of infallibility in religious
matters is most commonly associated with the claim of the Roman Catholic
Church, and more especially of the pope personally as head of that
Church, to possess the privilege of infallibility, and it is with the
meaning and limits of this claim that the present article deals.

The substance of the claim to infallibility made by the Roman Catholic
Church is that the Church and the pope cannot err when solemnly
enunciating, as binding on all the faithful, a decision on a question of
faith or morals. The infallibility of the Church, thus limited, is a
necessary outcome of the fundamental conception of the Catholic Church
and its mission. Every society of men must have a supreme authority,
whether individual or collective, empowered to give a final decision in
the controversies which concern it. A community whose mission it is to
teach religious truth, which involves on the part of its members the
obligation of belief in this truth, must, if it is not to fail of its
object, possess an authority capable of maintaining the faith in its
purity, and consequently capable of keeping it free from and condemning
errors. To perform this function without fear of error, this authority
must be infallible in its own sphere. The Christian Church has expressly
claimed this infallibility for its formal dogmatic teaching. In the very
earliest centuries we find the episcopate, united in council, drawing up
symbols of faith, which every believer was bound to accept under pain of
exclusion, condemning heresies, and casting out heretics. From Nicaea
and Chalcedon to Florence and Trent, and to the present day, the Church
has excluded from her communion all those who do not profess her own
faith, i.e. all the religious truths which she represents and imposes as
obligatory. This is infallibility put into practice by definite acts.

The infallibility of the pope was not defined until 1870 at the Vatican
Council; this definition does not constitute, strictly speaking, a
dogmatic innovation, as if the pope had not hitherto enjoyed this
privilege, or as if the Church, as a whole, had admitted the contrary;
it is the newly formulated definition of a dogma which, like all those
defined by the Councils, continued to grow into an ever more definite
form, ripening, as it were, in the always living community of the
Church. The exact formula for the papal infallibility is given by the
Vatican Council in the following terms (Constit. _Pastor aeternus_, cap.
iv.); "we teach and define as a divinely revealed dogma, that the Roman
Pontiff, when he speaks _ex cathedra_--i.e. when, in his character as
Pastor and Doctor of all Christians, and in virtue of his supreme
apostolic authority, he lays down that a certain doctrine concerning
faith or morals is binding upon the universal Church,--possesses, by the
Divine assistance which was promised to him in the person of the blessed
Saint Peter, that same infallibility with which the Divine Redeemer
thought fit to endow His Church, to define its doctrine with regard to
faith and morals; and, consequently, that these definitions of the Roman
Pontiff are irreformable in themselves, and not in consequence of the
consent of the Church." A few notes will suffice to elucidate this
pronouncement.

(a) As the Council expressly says, the infallibility of the pope is not
other than that of the Church; this is a point which is too often
forgotten or misunderstood. The pope enjoys it in person, but solely
_qua_ head of the Church, and as the authorized organ of the
ecclesiastical body. For this exercise of the primacy as for the others,
we must conceive of the pope and the episcopate united to him as a
continuation of the Apostolic College and its head Peter. The head of
the College possesses and exercises by himself alone the same powers as
the College which is united with him; not by delegation from his
colleagues, but because he is their established chief. The pope when
teaching _ex cathedra_ acts as head of the whole episcopal body and of
the whole Church.

(b) If the Divine constitution of the Church has not changed in its
essential points since our Lord, the mode of exercise of the various
powers of its head has varied; and that of the supreme teaching power as
of the others. This explains the late date at which the dogma was
defined, and the assertion that the dogma was already contained in that
of the papal primacy established by our Lord himself in the person of St
Peter. A certain dogmatic development is not denied, nor an evolution in
the direction of a centralization in the hands of the pope of the
exercise of his powers as primate; it is merely required that this
evolution should be well understood and considered as legitimate.

(c) As a matter of fact the infallibility of the pope, when giving
decisions in his character as head of the Church, was generally admitted
before the Vatican Council. The only reservation which the most advanced
Gallicans dared to formulate, in the terms of the celebrated declaration
of the clergy of France (1682), had as its object the irreformable
character of the pontifical definitions, which, it was claimed, could
only have been acquired by them through the assent of the Church. This
doctrine, rather political than theological, was a survival of the
errors which had come into being after the Great Schism, and especially
at the council of Constance; its object was to put the Church above its
head, as the council of Constance had put the ecumenical council above
the pope, as though the council could be ecumenical without its head. In
reality it was Gallicanism alone which was condemned at the Vatican
Council, and it is Gallicanism which is aimed at in the last phrase of
the definition we have quoted.

(d) Infallibility is the guarantee against error, not in all matters,
but only in the matter of dogma and morality; everything else is beyond
its power, not only truths of another order, but even discipline and the
ecclesiastical laws, government and administration, &c.

(e) Again, not all dogmatic teachings of the pope are under the
guarantee of infallibility; neither his opinions as private instructor,
nor his official allocutions, however authoritative they may be, are
infallible; it is only his _ex cathedra_ instruction which is
guaranteed; this is admitted by everybody.

But when does the pope speak _ex cathedra_, and how is it to be
distinguished when he is exercising his infallibility? As to this point
there are two schools, or rather two tendencies, among Catholics: some
extend the privilege of infallibility to all official exercise of the
supreme _magisterium_, and declare infallible, e.g. the papal
encyclicals.[1] Others, while recognizing the supreme authority of the
papal _magisterium_ in matters of doctrine, confine the infallibility to
those cases alone in which the pope chooses to make use of it, and
declares positively that he is imposing on all the faithful the
obligation of belief in a certain definite proposition, under pain of
heresy and exclusion from the Church; they do not insist on any special
form, but only require that the pope should clearly manifest his will to
the Church. This second point of view, as clearly expounded by Mgr
Joseph Fessler (1813-1872), bishop of St Pölten, who was secretary to
the Vatican Council, in his work _Die wahre und die falsche
Unfehlbarkeit der Päpste_ (French trans. _La vraie et la fausse
infaillibilité_, Paris, 1873), and by Cardinal Newman in his "Letter to
the Duke of Norfolk," is the correct one, and this is clear from the
fact that it has never been blamed by the ecclesiastical authority.
Those who hold the latter opinion have been able to assert that since
the Vatican Council no infallible definition had yet been formulated by
the popes, while recognizing the supreme authority of the encyclicals of
Leo XIII.

It is remarkable that the definition of the infallibility of the pope
did not appear among the projects (_schemata_) prepared for the
deliberations of the Vatican Council (1869). It doubtless arose from the
proposed forms for the definitions of the primacy and the pontifical
_magisterium_. The chapter on the infallibility was only added at the
request of the bishops and after long hesitation on the part of the
cardinal presidents. The proposed form, first elaborated in the
conciliary commission _de fide_, was the object of long public
discussions from the 50th general congregation (May 13th, 1870) to the
85th (July 13th); the constitution as a whole was adopted at a public
session, on the 18th, of the 535 bishops present, two only replied "_Non
placet_"; but about 50 had preferred not to be present. The
controversies occasioned by this question had started from the very
beginning of the Council, and were carried on with great bitterness on
both sides. The minority, among whom were prominent Cardinals Rauscher
and Schwarzenberg, Hefele, bishop of Rotterdam (the historian of the
councils) Cardinal Mathieu, Mgr Dupanloup, Mgr Maret, &c., &c., did not
pretend to deny the papal infallibility; they pleaded the
inopportuneness of the definition and brought forward difficulties
mainly of an historical order, in particular the famous condemnation of
Pope Honorius by the 6th ecumenical council of Constantinople in 680.
The majority, in which Cardinal Manning played a very active part, took
their stand on theological reasons of the strongest kind; they invoked
the promises of Our Lord to St Peter: "Thou art Peter, and upon this
rock will I build my Church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail
against her"; and again, "I have prayed for thee, Peter, that thy faith
fail not; and do thou in thy turn confirm thy brethren"; they showed the
popes, in the course of the ages, acting as the guardians and judges of
the faith, arousing or welcoming dogmatic controversies and
authoritatively settling them, exercising the supreme direction in the
councils and sanctioning their decisions; they explained that the few
historical difficulties did not involve any dogmatic defect in the
teaching of the popes; they insisted upon the necessity of a supreme
tribunal giving judgment in the name of the whole of the scattered
Church; and finally, they considered that the definition had become
opportune for the very reason that under the pretext of its
inopportuneness the doctrine itself was being attacked.

The definition once proclaimed, controversies rapidly ceased; the
bishops who were among the minority one after the other formulated their
loyal adhesion to the Catholic dogma. The last to do so in Germany was
Hefele, who published the decrees of the 10th of April 1871, thus
breaking a long friendship with Döllinger; in Austria, where the
government had thought good to revive for the occasion the royal
_placet_, Mgr Haynald and Mgr Strossmayer delayed the publication, the
former till the 15th of September 1871, the latter till the 26th of
December 1872. In France the adhesion was rapid, and the publication was
only delayed by some bishops in consequence of the disastrous war with
Prussia. Though no bishops abandoned it, a few priests, such as Father
Hyacinthe Loyson, and a few scholars at the German universities refused
their adhesion. The most distinguished among the latter was Döllinger,
who resisted all the advances of Mgr Scherr, archbishop of Munich, was
excommunicated on the 17th of April 1871, and died unreconciled, though
without joining any separate group. After him must be mentioned
Friedrich of Munich, several professors of Bonn, and Reinkens of
Breslau, who was the first bishop of the "Old Catholics." These
professors formed the "Committee of Bonn," which organized the new
Church. It was recognized and protected first in Bavaria, thanks to the
minister Freiherr Johann von Lutz, then in Saxony, Baden, Württemberg,
Prussia, where it was the pretext for, if not the cause of, the
Kulturkampf, and finally in Switzerland, especially at Geneva.

  For the theological aspects of the dogma of infallibility, see, among
  many others, L. Billot, S.J., _De Ecclesia Christi_ (3 vols., Rome,
  1898-1900); or G. Wilmers, S.J., _De Christi Ecclesia_ (Regensburg,
  1897). The most accessible popular work is that of Mgr Fessler already
  mentioned. For the history of the definition see VATICAN COUNCIL; also
  PAPACY, GALLICANISM, FEBRONIANISM, OLD CATHOLICS, &c.     (A. Bo.*)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] It was in this sense that it was understood by Döllinger, who
    pointed out that the definition of the dogma would commit the Church
    to all past official utterances of the popes, e.g. the Syllabus of
    1864, and therefore to a war _à outrance_ against modern
    civilization. This view was embodied in the circular note to the
    Powers, drawn up by Döllinger and issued by the Bavarian prime
    minister Prince Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst on April 9, 1869. It was
    also the view universally taken by the German governments which
    supported the _Kulturkampf_ in a greater or less degree.--ED.



INFAMY (Lat. _infamia_), public disgrace or loss of character. Infamy
(_infamia_) occupied a prominent place in Roman law, and took the form
of a censure on individuals pronounced by a competent authority in the
state, which censure was the result either of certain actions which they
had committed or of certain modes of life which they had pursued. Such a
censure involved disqualification for certain rights both in public and
in private law (see A. H. J. Greenidge, _Infamia, its Place in Roman
Public and Private Law_, 1894). In English law infamy attached to a
person in consequence of conviction of some crime. The effect of infamy
was to render a person incompetent to give evidence in any legal
proceeding. Infamy as a cause of incompetency was abolished by an act of
1843 (6 & 7 Vict. c. 85).

The word "infamous" is used in a particular sense in the English Medical
Act of 1858, which provides that if any registered medical practitioner
is judged by the General Medical Council, after due inquiry, to have
been guilty of infamous conduct in any professional respect, his name
may be erased from the Medical Register. The General Medical Council are
the sole judges of whether a practitioner has been guilty of conduct
infamous in a professional respect, and they act in a judicial capacity,
but an accused person is generally allowed to appear by counsel. Any
action which is regarded as disgraceful or dishonourable by a man's
professional brethren--such, for example, as issuing advertisements in
order to induce people to consult him in preference to other
practitioners--may be found infamous.



INFANCY, in medical practice, the nursing age, or the period during
which the child is at the breast. As a matter of convenience it is usual
to include in it children up to the age of one year. The care of an
infant begins with the preparations necessary for its birth and the
endeavour to ensure that taking place under the best possible sanitary
conditions. On being born the normal infant cries lustily, drawing air
into its lungs. As soon as the umbilical cord which unites the child to
the mother has ceased to pulsate, it is tied about 2 in. from the
child's navel and is divided above the ligature. The cord is wrapped in
a sterilized gauze pad and the dressing is not removed until the seventh
to the tenth day, when the umbilicus is healed.

The baby is now a separate entity, and the first event in its life is
the first bath. The room ready to receive a new-born infant should be
kept at a temperature of 70° F. The temperature of the first bath should
be 100° F. The child should be well supported in the bath by the left
hand of the nurse, and care should be taken to avoid wetting the gauze
pad covering the cord. In some cases infants are covered with a white
substance termed "vernix caseosa," which may be carefully removed by a
little olive oil. Sponges should never be used, as they tend to harbour
bacteria. A soft pad of muslin or gauze which can be boiled should take
its place. After the first ten days 94° F. is the most suitable
temperature for a bath. When the baby has been well dried the skin may
be dusted with pure starch powder to which a small quantity of boric
acid has been added. The most important part of the toilet of a new-born
infant is the care of the eyes, which should be carefully cleansed with
gauze dipped in warm water and one drop of a 2% solution of nitrate of
silver dropped into each eye. The clothes of a newly born child should
consist exclusively of woollen undergarments, a soft flannel binder,
which should be tied on, being placed next the skin, with a long-sleeved
woven wool vest and over this a loose garment of flannel coming below
the feet and long enough to tuck up. Diapers should be made of soft
absorbent material such as well-washed linen and should be about two
yards square and folded in a three-cornered shape. An infant should
always sleep in a bed or cot by itself. In 1907, of 749 deaths from
violence in England and Wales of children under one month, 445 were due
to suffocation in bed with adults. A healthy infant should spend most of
its time asleep and should be laid into its cot immediately after
feeding.

The normal infant at birth weighs about 7 lb. During the two or three
days following birth a slight decrease in weight occurs, usually 5 to 6
oz. When nursing begins the child increases in weight up to the seventh
day, when the infant will have regained its weight at birth. From the
second to the fourth week after birth (according to Camerer) an infant
should gain 1 oz. daily or 1½ to 2 lb. monthly, from the fourth to the
sixth month ½ to 2/3 of an oz. daily or 1 lb. monthly, from the sixth to
the twelfth month ½ oz. daily or less than 1 lb. monthly. At the sixth
month it should be twice the weight at birth. The average weight at the
twelfth month is 20 to 21 lb. The increase of weight in artificially fed
is less regular than in breast-fed babies.

_Food._--There is but one proper food for an infant, and that is its
mother's milk, unless when in exceptional circumstances the mother is
not allowed to nurse her child. Artificially fed children are much more
liable to epidemic diseases. The child should be applied to the breast
the first day to induce the flow of milk. The first week the child
should be fed at intervals of two hours, the second week eight to nine
times, and the fourth week eight times at intervals of two and a half
hours. At two months the child is being suckled six times daily at
intervals of three hours, the last feed being at 11 P.M. Where a mother
cannot nurse a child the child must be artificially fed. Cow's milk must
be largely diluted to suit the new-born infant. Armstrong gives the
following table of dilution:--

  1st week,    milk  1  tablespoonful,  water 2 tablespoonfuls
  at 3 months,   "   3½ tablespoonfuls,   "   3        "       \  added
  at 6 months,   "   9        "           "   3        "        > with
  at 9 months,   "  12        "           "   3        "       /  sugar.

Koplik has drawn out a table of the amounts to be given as follows:--

  1st day  3 feeds of 10 cc         total 1 oz. in 24 hours
  2nd day  8     "    20 cc           "   5½         "
  3rd day  8     "    30 cc (1 oz.)   "   8          "
  7th day  9     "    50 cc           "   13½        "
  4th week 8     "    60 cc (2 oz.)   "   16         "
  3 months 7     "     4 oz.          "   28         "
  6 months 6     "     7 oz.          "   42         "
  9 months 6     "    8½ oz.          "   50         "

In cities it is advisable that milk should be either sterilized by
boiling or pasteurized, i.e. subjected to a form of heating which, while
destroying pathogenic bacteria, does not alter the taste. The milk in a
suitable apparatus is subjected to a temperature of 65° C. (149° F.) for
half an hour and is then rapidly cooled to 20° C. (68° F.). Children fed
on pasteurized milk should be given a teaspoonful of fresh orange juice
daily to supply the missing acid and salts.

Artificial feeding is given by means of a bottle. In France all bottles
with rubber tubes have been made illegal. They are a fruitful source of
infection, as it is impossible to keep them clean. The best bottle is
the boat-shaped one, with a wide mouth at one end, to which is attached
a rubber teat, while the other end has a screw stopper. This is readily
cleansed and a stream of water can be made to flow through it. All
bottle teats should be boiled at least once a day for ten minutes with
soda and kept in a glass-covered jar until required. A feed should be
given at the temperature of 100° F.

At the ninth month a cereal may be added to the food. Before that the
infant is unable to digest starchy foods. Much starch tends to
constipation, and it is rarely wise to give starchy preparations in a
proportion of more than 3% to children under a year old. A child who is
carefully fed in a cleanly manner should not have diarrhoea, and its
appearance indicates carelessness somewhere. The English
registrar-general's returns for 1906 show that in the seventy-six
largest towns in England and Wales 14,306 deaths of infants under one
year from diarrhoea took place in July, August and September alone.
These deaths are largely preventable; when Dr Budin of Paris established
his "Consultations de Nourissons" the infant mortality of Paris amounted
to 178 per 1000, but at the consultation the rate was 46 per 1000. At
Varengeville-sur-mer a consultation for nurslings was instituted under
Dr Poupalt of Dieppe in 1904. During the seven previous years the infant
mortality had averaged 145 per 1000. In 1904-1905 not one infant at the
consultation died, though it was a summer of extreme heat, and in 1898
when similar heat had prevailed the infant mortality was 285 per 1000.
The deaths of infants under one year in England and Wales, taken from
the registrar-general's returns for 1907, amounted to 117.62 per 1000
births, an alarming sacrifice of life. France has been turning her
attention to the establishment of infant consultations on the lines of
Dr Budin's, and similar dispensaries under the designation "Gouttes de
lait" have been widely established in that country; gratifying results
in the fall in infant mortality have followed. At the Fécamp dispensary
the mortality from diarrhoea has fallen to 2.8, while that in
neighbouring towns is from 50 to 76 per 1000 (Sir A. Simpson). It has
been left to private enterprise in England to deal with this problem.
The St Pancras "School for Mothers" was established in 1907 in
north-west London. Though started by private persons it was in 1909
worked in connexion with the Health Department of the Borough Council,
but was supported by charitable subscriptions and by a small
contribution from the student mothers. There are classes for mothers on
the care of their health during pregnancy, infant feeding, home nursing,
cooking and needlework. Poor mothers unable to contribute get free
dinners for three months previous to the birth of their child and for
nine months after if the child is breast-fed. Two doctors are in
attendance, and mothers are encouraged to bring their children
fortnightly to be weighed, and receive advice. The average attendance is
ninety. A baby is said to have "graduated" when it is a year old. An
interesting development in connexion with the scheme is a class for
fathers at which the medical officer of health for the district lectures
on the duties of fatherhood. Similar schools for mothers are now
established in Fulham and Stepney. Weighing centres have been
established at Dundee, Sheffield, Nottingham, Birmingham, Aberdeen,
Bolton, Belfast, and Newcastle-on-Tyne. An infants' milk depôt has been
established at Finsbury, and effort is being made to establish milk
laboratories where separate nursing portions of sterile milk could be
supplied to poor mothers. The Walker-Gordon milk laboratories in the
United States are a step in this direction.

The average length of a child at birth is 19-½ in. and during the first
year the average increase is 7(7/8) in. A new-born infant is deaf
(Koplik). This is supposed to be due to the blocking of the eustachian
tubes with mucus. On the fourth day there is some evidence of hearing,
and at the fifth week noises in the room disturb it. A healthy infant
may be taken out of doors when a fortnight old in summer, after which it
should have a daily outing, the eyes being protected from the direct
rays of the sun. On the second day the eyes are sensitive to light, in
the second month the infant notices colours, at the sixth month it knows
its parents, and should be able to hold its head up. At the sixth month
the baby begins to cut its temporary teeth. After their appearance they
should be cleaned once a day by a piece of gauze moistened in boric acid
solution. Attempts to stand are made about the tenth month, and walking
begins about the fourteenth month. By this time the intelligence should
be developed and memory is observed. A child a year old should be able
to articulate a few small words. With the advent of walking and speech
the period of infancy may be said to end.

  See Pierre Budin, The Nursling (1907); Henry Koplik, _Disease of
  Infancy and Childhood_ (1906); Eric Pritchard, _The Physiological
  Feeding of Infants_ (1904); Eric Pritchard, _Infant Education_ (1907);
  John Grimshaw, _Your Child's Health_ (1908).     (H. L. H.)



INFANT (in early forms _enfaunt_, _enfant_, through the Fr. _enfant_,
from Lat. _infans_, _in_, not, and _fans_, the present participle of
_fari_, to speak), a child; in non-legal use, a very young child, a
baby, or one of an age suitable to be taught in an "infant school"; in
law, a person under full age, and therefore subject to disabilities not
affecting persons who have attained full age.

This article deals with "infants" in the last sense; for the more
general sense see INFANCY and CHILD. The period of full age varies
widely in different systems, as do also the disabilities attaching to
nonage (non-age). In Roman law, the age of puberty, fixed at fourteen
for males and twelve for females, was recognized as a dividing line.
Under that age a child was under the guardianship of a tutor, but
several degrees of infancy were recognized. The first was absolute
infancy; after that, until the age of seven, a child was _infantiae
proximus_; and from the eighth year to puberty he was _pubertati
proximus_. An infant in the last stage could, with the assent of his
tutor, act so as to bind himself by stipulations; in the earlier stages
he could not, although binding stipulations could be made to him in the
second stage. After puberty, until the age of twenty-five years, a
modified infancy was recognized, during which the minor's acts were not
void altogether, but voidable, and a curator was appointed to manage his
affairs. The difference between the tutor and the curator in Roman law
was marked by the saying that the former was appointed for the care of
the person, the latter for the estate of the pupil. These principles
apply only to children who are _sui juris_. The _patria potestas_, so
long as it lasts, gives to the father the complete control of the son's
actions. The right of the father to appoint tutors to his children by
will (_testamentarii_) was recognized by the Twelve Tables, as was also
the tutorship of the _agnati_ (or legal as distinct from natural
relations) in default of such an appointment. Tutors who held office in
virtue of a general law were called _legitimi_. Besides and in default
of these, tutors _dativi_ were appointed by the magistrates. These terms
are still used in much the same sense in modern systems founded on the
Roman law, as may be seen in the case of Scotland, noticed below.

By the law of England full age is twenty-one, and all minors alike are
subject to incapacities. The period of twenty-one years is regarded as
complete at the beginning of the day before the birthday: for example,
an infant born on the first day of January attains his majority at the
first moment of the 31st of December. The incapacity of an infant is
designed for his own protection, and its general effect is to prevent
him from binding himself absolutely by obligations. Of the contracts of
an infant which are binding _ab initio_, the most important are those
relating to "necessaries." By the Sale of Goods Act 1893, an infant
liable on a contract for necessaries can be sued only for a reasonable
price, not necessarily the price he agreed to pay. The same statute
declares "necessaries" to mean "goods suitable to the condition in life
of the infant, and to his actual requirements at the time of the sale
and delivery." In the case of goods having a market price, the market
price is reasonable. In all other cases the question is one of fact for
the jury. The protection of infants extends sometimes to transactions
completed after full age; the relief of heirs who have been induced to
barter away their expectations is an example. "Catching bargains," as
they are called, throw on the persons claiming the benefit of them the
burden of proving their substantial righteousness.

At common law a bargain made by an infant might be ratified by him after
full age, and would then become binding. Lord Tenterden's act required
the ratification to be in writing. But now, by the Infants' Relief Act
1874, "all contracts entered into by infants for the repayment of money
lent or to be lent, or for goods supplied or to be supplied (other than
contracts for necessaries), and all accounts stated, shall be absolutely
void," and "no action shall be brought whereby to charge any person upon
any promise made after full age to pay any debt contracted during
infancy, or upon any ratification made after full age of any promise or
contract made during infancy, whether there shall or shall not be any
new consideration for such promise or ratification after full age." For
some years after the passage of this statute highly conflicting views
were held as to the meaning of the part of section 2 whereby it was
enacted that "no action shall be brought whereby to charge any person
... upon any ratification made after full age of any promise or contract
made during infancy." Some authorities were of opinion that the section
only applied to the three classes of contract made void by the previous
section, viz. for goods supplied, money lent and on account stated.
Others thought the effect to be that no contract, except for
necessaries, made during infancy could be enforced after the infant came
to full age. After several conflicting decisions it has been settled
that both these views were wrong. Of the infant's contracts voidable at
common law there were two kinds. The first kind became void at full age,
unless expressly ratified. The second kind were valid, unless repudiated
within a reasonable time after full age was attained by the infant. The
Infants' Relief Act (section 2) strikes only at the first class and
leaves the second untouched. Thus a promise of marriage made during
infancy cannot be ratified so as to become actionable: but an infant's
marriage settlement, being of the second class, is valid, unless it is
repudiated within a reasonable time after the infant attains full age.
What is a reasonable time depends on all the circumstances of the case.
In a case decided in 1893 a settlement made by a female infant was
allowed to be repudiated thirty years after she attained full age, but
the circumstances were exceptional. A contract of marriage may be
lawfully made by persons under age. Marriageable age is fourteen in
males and twelve in females. So, generally, an infant may bind himself
by contract of apprenticeship or service. Since the passing of the Wills
Act, an infant, except he be a soldier in actual military service or a
seaman at sea, is unable to make a will. Infancy is in general a
disqualification for public offices and professions, e.g. to be a member
of parliament or an elector, a mayor or burgess, a priest or deacon, a
barrister or solicitor, &c.

Before 1886 the custody of an infant belonged in the first place, and
against all other persons, to the father, who was said to be "the
guardian of his children by nature and nurture"; and the father might by
deed or will dispose of the custody or tuition of his children until the
age of twenty-one.

The Guardianship of Infants Act 1886 placed the mother almost on the
same footing as the father as to guardianship of infants. On the death
of the father the mother becomes guardian under the statute, either
alone when no guardian has been appointed by the father, or jointly with
any guardian appointed by him under 12 Chas. II. c. 24. A change of the
law even more important is that whereby the mother may by deed or will
appoint a guardian or guardians of her infant children to act after her
death. If the father survives the mother, the mother's guardian can only
act if it be shown to the satisfaction of the court that the father is
unfitted to be the sole guardian. On the death of the father, the
guardian so appointed by the mother acts jointly with any guardian
appointed by the father. The Guardianship of Infants Act 1886 also gives
power to the high court and to county courts to make orders, upon the
application of the mother, regarding the custody of an infant, and the
right of access thereto of either parent. The court must take into
consideration "the welfare of the infant, and ... the conduct of the
parents, and ... the wishes as well of the mother as of the father." The
same statute also empowers the high court of justice, "on being
satisfied that it is for the welfare of the infant," to "remove from his
office any testamentary guardian or any guardian appointed or acting by
virtue of this act," and also to appoint another in place of the
guardian so removed.

The same statute gives power to a court sitting in divorce practically
to take away from a parent guilty of a matrimonial offence all rights of
guardianship. When a decree for judicial separation or divorce is
pronounced, the court pronouncing it may at the same time declare the
parent found guilty of misconduct to be unfit to have the custody of the
children of the marriage. "In such case the parent so declared to be
unfit shall not, upon the death of the other parent, be entitled as of
right to the custody or guardianship of such children." The court
exercises this power very sparingly. When the declaration of unfitness
is made, the practical effect is to give to the innocent parent the sole
guardianship, as well as power to appoint a testamentary guardian to the
exclusion of the guilty parent.

Another radical change has been made in the rights of parents as to
guardianship of their children. In consequence of several cases where,
after children had been rescued by philanthropic persons from squalid
homes and improper surroundings, the courts had felt bound by law to
redeliver them to their parents, the Custody of Children Act 1891 was
passed. It provides that when the parent of a child applies to the court
for a writ or order for the production of the child, and the court is of
opinion that the parent has abandoned or deserted the child, or that he
has otherwise so conducted himself that the court should refuse to
enforce his right to the custody of the child, the court may, in its
discretion, decline to issue the writ or make the order. If the child,
in respect of whom the application is made, is being brought up by
another person ("person" includes "school or institution"), or is being
boarded out by poor-law guardians, the court may, if it orders the child
to be given up to the parent, further order the parent to pay all or
part of the cost incurred by such person or guardians in bringing up the
child.

A parent who has abandoned or deserted his child is, prima facie, unfit
to have the custody of the child. And before the court can make an order
giving him the custody, the onus lies on him to prove that he is fit.
The same rule applies where the child has been allowed by the parent "to
be brought up by another person at that person's expense, or by the
guardians of a poor-law union, for such a length of time and under such
circumstances as to satisfy the court that the parent was unmindful of
his parental duties."

The 4th section of the Custody of Children Act 1891 preserves the right
of the parent to control the religious training of the infant. The
father, however unfit he may be to have the custody of his child, has
the legal right to require the child to be brought up in his own
religion. If the father is dead, and has left no directions on the
point, the mother may assert a similar right. But the court may consult
the wishes of the child; and when an infant has been allowed by the
father to grow up in a faith different from his own, the court will not,
as a rule, order any change in the character of religious instruction.
This is especially the case where the infant appears to be settled in
his convictions.

In the same direction as the Custody of Children Act 1891 is the
Children Act 1908, whereby considerable powers have been conferred on
courts of summary jurisdiction (see CHILDREN, LAW RELATING TO).

There is not at common law any corresponding obligation on the part of
either parent to maintain or educate the children. The legal duties of
parents in this respect are only those created by the poor laws, the
Education Acts and the Children Act 1908.

An infant is liable to a civil action for torts and wrongful acts
committed by him. But, as it is possible so to shape the pleadings as to
make what is in substance a right arising out of contract take the form
of a right arising from civil injury, care is taken that an infant in
such a case shall not be held liable. With respect to crime, mere
infancy is not a defence, but a child under seven years of age is
presumed to be incapable of committing a crime, and between seven and
fourteen his capacity requires to be affirmatively proved. After
fourteen an infant is _doli capax_.

  The law of Scotland follows the leading principles of the Roman law.
  The period of minority (which ends at twenty-one) is divided into two
  stages, that of absolute incapacity (until the age of fourteen in
  males, and twelve in females), during which the minor is in
  pupilarity, and that of partial incapacity (between fourteen and
  twenty-one), during which he is under curators. The guardians (or
  tutors) of the pupil are either tutors-nominate (appointed by the
  father in his will); tutors-at-law (being the next male agnate of
  twenty-five years of age), in default of tutors-nominate; or
  tutors-dative, appointed by royal warrant in default of the other two.
  No act done by the pupil, or action raised in his name, has any effect
  without the interposition of a guardian. After fourteen, all acts done
  by a minor having curators are void without their concurrence. Every
  deed in nonage, whether during pupilarity or minority, and whether
  authorized or not by tutors or curators, is liable to reduction on
  proof of "lesion," i.e. of material injury, due to the fact of nonage,
  either through the weakness of the minor himself or the imprudence or
  negligence of his curators. Damage in fact arising on a contract in
  itself just and reasonable would not be lesion entitling to
  restitution. Deeds in nonage, other than those which are absolutely
  null _ab initio_, must be challenged within the _quadriennium utile_,
  or four years after majority.

  The Guardianship of Infants Act 1886, the Custody of Children Act 1891
  and the Children Act 1908, mentioned above, all apply to Scotland.

  In the United States, the principles of the English common law as to
  infancy prevail, generally the most conspicuous variations being those
  affecting the age at which women attain majority. In many states this
  is fixed at eighteen. There is some diversity of practice as to the
  age at which a person can make a will of real or personal estate.



INFANTE (Spanish and Portuguese form of Lat. _infans_, young child), a
title of the sons of the sovereign of Spain and Portugal, the
corresponding _infanta_ being given to the daughters. The title is not
borne by the eldest son of the king of Spain, who is prince of Asturias,
_Il principe de Asturias_. Until the severance of Brazil from the
Portuguese monarchy, the eldest son was prince of Brazil. While a son or
daughter of the sovereign of Spain is by right infante or infanta of
Spain, the title, alone, is granted to other members of the blood royal
by the sovereign.



INFANTICIDE, the killing of a newly-born child or of the matured foetus.
When practised by civilized peoples the subject of infanticide concerns
the criminologist and the jurist; but its importance in anthropology, as
it involves a widespread practice among primitive or savage nations,
requires more detailed attention. J. F. McLennan (_Studies in Ancient
History_, pp. 75 et seq.) suggests that the practice of female
infanticide was once universal, and that in it is to be found the origin
of exogamy. Much evidence, however, has been adduced against this
hypothesis by Herbert Spencer and Edward Westermarck. Infanticide, both
of males and females, is far less widespread among savage races than
McLennan supposed. It certainly is common in many lands, and more
females are killed than males; but among many fierce and savage peoples
it is almost unknown. Thus among the Tuski, Ahts, Western Eskimo and the
Botocudos new-born children are killed now and then, if they are weak
and deformed, or for some other reason (such as the superstition
attaching to birth of twins) but without distinction of sex. Among the
Dakota Indians and Crees female infanticide is rare. The Blackfoot
Indians believe that a woman guilty of such an act will never reach "the
Happy Mountain" after death, but will hover round the scene of her
misdeed with branches of trees tied to her legs. The Aleutians hold that
child-murder brings misfortune on the whole village. Among the Abipones
it is common, but the boys are usually the victims, because it is
customary to buy a wife for a son, whereas a grown daughter will always
command a price. In Africa, where a warm climate and abundance of food
simplify the problem of existence, the crime is not common. Herr Valdau
relates that a Bakundu woman, accused of it, was condemned to death. In
Samoa, in the Mitchell and Hervey Islands, and in parts of New Guinea,
it was unheard of; while among the cannibals, the Solomon Islanders, it
occurred rarely. A theory has been advanced by L. Fison (_Kamilaroi and
Kurnai_, 1880) that female infanticide is far less common among the
lower savages than among the more advanced tribes. Among some of the
most degraded of human beings, such as the Yahgans of Tierra del Fuego,
the crime was unknown, except when committed by the mother "from
jealousy or hatred of her husband or because of desertion and
wretchedness." It is said that certain Californian Indians were never
guilty of child-murder before the arrival of the whites; while Wm. Ellis
(_Polynesian Researches_, i. 249) thinks it most probable that the
custom was less prevalent in earlier than later Polynesian history. The
weight of evidence tends to support Darwin's theory that during the
earliest period of human development man did not lose that strong
instinct, the love of his young, and consequently did not practice
infanticide; that, in short, the crime is not characteristic of
primitive races.

Infanticide may be said to arise from four reasons. It may be (1) an act
of callous brutality or to satisfy cannibalistic cravings. A Fuegian,
Darwin relates, dashed his child's brains out for upsetting a basket of
fish. An Australian, seeing his infant son ill, killed, roasted and ate
him. In some parts of Africa the negroes bait lion-traps with their own
children. Some South American Indians, such as the Moxos, abandon or
kill them without reason; while African and Polynesian cannibals eat
them without the excuse of the periodic famines which made the
Tasmanians regard the birth of a child as a piece of good fortune.

2. Or infanticide may be the result of the struggle for existence. Thus
in Polynesia, while the climate ensures food in plenty, the relative
smallness of the islands imposed the custom on all families without
distinction. In the Hawaiian Islands all children, after the third or
fourth, were strangled or buried alive. At Tahiti fathers had the right
(and used it) of killing their newly-born children by suffocation. The
chiefs were obliged by custom to kill all their daughters. The society
of the Areois, famous in the Society Islands, imposed infanticide upon
the women members by oath. In other islands all girl-children were
spared, but only two boys in each family were reared. The difficulties
of suckling partly explain the custom of killing twins. For the same
reason the Eskimo and Red Indians used to bury the infant with the
mother who died in childbirth. Among warrior and hunter tribes, where
women could not act as beasts of burden as in agricultural communities,
and where a large number of girls were likely to attract the hostile
attentions of neighbouring tribesmen, girl-babies were murdered. Arabs,
in ancient times, buried alive the majority of female children. In many
lands infanticide was regarded as a meritorious act on the part of a
parent, done, as a precaution against famine, in the interests of the
tribe. In other parts of the world, infanticide results from customs
which impose heavy burdens on child-rearing. Of these artificial
hardships the best example is afforded by India. There the practice,
though forbidden by both the Vedas and the Koran, prevailed among the
Rajputs and certain aboriginal tribes. Among the aristocratic Rajputs,
it was thought dishonourable that a girl should remain unmarried.
Moreover, a girl may not marry below her caste; she ought to marry her
superior, or at least her equal. This reasoning was most powerful with
the highest castes, in which the disproportion of the sexes was
painfully apparent. But, assuming marriage to be possible, it was
ruinously expensive to the bride's father, the cost in the case of some
rajahs having been known to exceed £100,000. To avoid all this, the
Rajput killed a proportion of his daughters--sometimes in a very
singular way. A pill of tobacco and bhang might be given to the new-born
child; or it was drowned in milk;[1] or the mother's breast was smeared
with opium or the juice of the poisonous _datura_. A common method was
to cover the child's mouth with a plaster of cow-dung, before it drew
breath. Infanticide was also practised to a small extent by some sects
of the aboriginal Khonds and by the poorer hill-tribes of the Himalayas.
Where infanticide occurs in India, though it really rests on the
economic facts stated, there is usually some poetical tradition of its
origin. Infanticide from motives of prudence was common among some
American Indian tribes of the north-west, with whom the "potlatch" was
an essential part of their daughter's marriage ceremonies.

3. Or infanticide may be in the nature of a religious observance. The
gods must be appeased with blood, and it is believed that no sacrifice
can be so pleasing to them as the child of the worshipper. Such were the
motives impelling parents to the burning of children in the worship of
Moloch. In India children were thrown into the sacred river Ganges, and
adoration paid to the alligators who fed on them. Where the custom
prevails as a sacrifice the male child is usually the victim.

4. Or, finally, infanticide may have a social or political reason. Thus
at Sparta (and in other places in early Greek and Roman history) weakly
or deformed children were killed by order of the state, a custom
approved in the ideal systems of Aristotle and Plato, and still observed
among the Eskimo and the Kamchadales.

  AUTHORITIES.--Herbert Spencer, _Principles of Sociology_, i. 614-619;
  McLennan, _Studies in Ancient History_, pp. 75 et seq.; McLennan,
  "Exogamy and Endogamy" in the _Fortnightly Review_, xxi. 884 et seq.;
  Darwin, Descent of Man, ii. 400 et seq.; L. Fison, and A. W. Howitt,
  _Kamilaroi and Kurnai_ (1880); Westermarck, _History of Human
  Marriage_ (1894); Browne, _Infanticide: Its Origin, Progress and
  Suppression_ (London, 1857); Lord Avebury, _Prehistoric Times_ (1900),
  and _Origin of Civilization_ (1902).

_Law._--The crime of infanticide among civilized nations is still
frequent. It is however due in most cases to abnormal causes, such as a
sudden access of insanity, privation, unreasoning dislike to the child,
&c. It is most closely connected with illegitimacy in the class of farm
and domestic servants, the more common motive being the terror of the
mother of incurring the disgrace with which society visits the more
venial offence. Often, however, it is inspired by no better motive than
the wish to escape the burden of the child's support. The granting of
affiliation orders thus tends to save the lives of many children, though
it provides a motive for the paramour sometimes to share in the crime.
The laws of the European states differ widely on this subject--some of
them treating infanticide as a special crime, others regarding it merely
as a case of murder of unusually difficult proof. In the law of England
infanticide is murder or manslaughter according to the presence or
absence of deliberation. The infant must be a human being in the legal
sense; and "a child becomes a human being when it has completely
proceeded in a living state from the body of its mother, whether it has
breathed or not, and whether it has an independent circulation or not,
and whether the navel-string is severed or not; and the killing of such
a child is homicide when it dies after birth in consequence of injuries
received before, during or after birth." À child in the womb or in the
act of birth, though it may have breathed, is therefore not a human
being, the killing of which amounts to homicide. The older law of child
murder under a statute of James I. consisted of cruel presumptions
against the mother, and it was not till 1803 that trials for that
offence were placed under the ordinary rules of evidence. The crown now
takes upon itself the onus of proving in every case that the child has
been alive. This is often a matter of difficulty, and hence a frequent
alternative charge is that of concealment of birth (see BIRTH), or
concealment of pregnancy in Scotland. It is the opinion of the most
eminent of British medical jurists that this presumption has tended to
increase infanticide. Apart from this, the technical definition of human
life has excited a good deal of comment and some indignation. The
definition allows many wicked acts to go unpunished. The experience of
assizes in England shows that many children are killed when it is
impossible to prove that they were wholly born. The distinction taken by
the law was probably comprehended by the minds of the class to which
most of the unhappy mothers belong. Partly to meet this complaint it was
suggested to the Royal Commission of 1866 that killing during birth, or
within seven days thereafter, should be an offence punishable with penal
servitude. The second complaint is of an opposite character--partly that
infanticide by mothers is not a fit subject for capital punishment, and
partly that, whatever be the intrinsic character of the act, juries will
not convict or the executive will not carry out the sentence. Earl
Russell gave expression to this feeling when he proposed that no capital
sentence should be pronounced upon mothers for the killing of children
within six months after birth. When there has been a verdict of murder,
sentence of death must be passed, but the practice of the Home Office,
as laid down in 1908, is invariably to commute the death sentence to
penal servitude for life. The circumstances of the case and the
disposition and general progress of the prisoners under discipline in a
convict prison are then determining factors in the length of subsequent
detention, which rarely exceeds three years. After release, the
prisoner's further progress is carefully watched, and if it is seen to
be to her advantage the conditions of her release are cancelled and she
is restored to complete freedom.

In India measures against the practice were begun towards the end of the
18th century by Jonathan Duncan and Major Walker. They were continued by
a series of able and earnest officers during the 19th century. One of
its chief events, representing many minor occurrences, was the Amritsar
durbar of 1853, which was arranged by Lord Lawrence. At that meeting the
chiefs residing in the Punjab and the trans-Sutlej states signed an
agreement engaging to expel from caste every one who committed
infanticide, to adopt fixed and moderate rates of marriage expenses, and
to exclude from these ceremonies the minstrels and beggars who had so
greatly swollen the expense. According to the present law, if the female
children fall below a certain percentage in any tract or among any tribe
in northern India where infanticide formerly prevailed, the suspected
village is placed under police supervision, the cost being charged to
the locality. By these measures, together with a strictly enforced
system of reporting births and deaths, infanticide has been almost
trampled out; although some of the Rajput clans keep their female
offspring suspiciously close to the lowest average which secures them
from surveillance.

It is difficult to say to what extent infanticide prevails in the United
Kingdom. At one time a large number of children were murdered in England
for the purpose of obtaining the burial money from a benefit club,[2]
but protection against this risk has been provided for by the Friendly
Societies Act 1896, and the Collecting Societies Act 1896. The neglect
or killing of nurse-children is treated under BABY-FARMING, and
CHILDREN, LAW RELATING TO.

In the United States, the elements of this offence are practically the
same as in England. The wilful killing of an unborn child is not
manslaughter unless made so by statute. To constitute manslaughter under
Laws N.Y. 1869, ch. 631, by attempts to produce miscarriage, the
"quickening" of the child must be averred and proved (_Evans_ v.
_People_, 49 New York Rep. 86; see also _Wallace_ v. _State_, 7 Texas
app. 570).


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] In Baluchistan, where children are often drowned in milk, there
    is a euphemistic proverb: "The lady's daughter died drinking milk."

  [2] See _Report on the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Classes_,
    "Supplementary Report on Interment in Towns," by Edwin Chadwick
    (_Parl. Papers_, 1843, xii. 395); and _The Social Condition and
    Education of the People_, by Joseph Kay (1850).



INFANTRY, the collective name of soldiers who march and fight on foot
and are armed with hand-weapons. The word is derived ultimately from
Lat. _infans_, infant, but it is not clear how the word came to be used
to mean soldiers. The suggestion that it comes from a guard or regiment
of a Spanish infanta about the end of the 15th century cannot be
maintained in view of the fact that Spanish foot-soldiers of the time
were called _soldados_ and contrasted with French _fantassins_ and
Italian _fanteria_. The _New English Dictionary_ suggests that a
foot-soldier, being in feudal and early modern times the varlet or
follower of a mounted noble, was called a boy (cf. _Knabe_, _garçon_,
footman, &c., and see VALET).


HISTORICAL SKETCH

The importance of the infantry arm, both in history and at the present
time, cannot be summed up better and more concisely than in the phrase
used by a brilliant general of the Napoleonic era, General
Morand--"_L'infanterie, c'est l'armée_."

It may be confidently asserted that the original fighting man was a
foot-soldier. But infantry was differentiated as an "arm" considerably
later than cavalry; for when a new means of fighting (a chariot or a
horse) presented itself, it was assimilated by relatively picked men,
chiefs and noted warriors, who _ipso facto_ separated themselves from
the mass or reservoir of men. How this mass itself ceased to be a mere
residue and developed special characteristics; how, instead of the
cavalry being recruited from the best infantry, cavalry and infantry
came to form two distinct services; and how the arm thus constituted
organized itself, technically and tactically, for its own work--these
are the main questions that constitute the historical side of the
subject. It is obvious that as the "residue" was far the greatest part
of the army, the history of the foot-soldier is practically identical
with the history of soldiering.

It was only when a group of human beings became too large to be
surprised and assassinated by a few lurking enemies, that proper
fighting became the normal method of settling a quarrel or a rivalry.
Two groups, neither of which had been able to surprise the other, had to
meet face to face, and the instinct of self-preservation had to be
reconciled with the necessity of victory. From this it was an easy step
to the differentiation of the champion, the proved excellent fighting
man, and to providing this man, on whom everything depended, with all
assistance that better arms, armour, horse or chariot could give him.
But suppose our champion slain, how are we to make head against the
opposing champion? For long ages, we may suppose, the latter, as in the
_Iliad_, slaughtered the sheep who had lost their shepherd, but in the
end the "residue" began to organize itself, and to oppose a united front
to the enemy's champions--in which term we include all selected men,
whether horsemen, charioteers or merely specially powerful axemen and
swordsmen. But once the individual had lost his commanding position, the
problem presented itself in a new form--how to ensure that every member
of the group did his duty by the others--and the solution of this
problem for the conditions of the ancient hand-to-hand struggle marks
the historical beginning of infantry tactics.


  The phalanx and the legion.

Gallic warriors bound themselves together with chains. The Greeks
organized the city state, which gave each small army solidarity and the
sense of duty to an ideal, and the phalanx, in which the file-leaders
were in a sense champions yet were made so chiefly by the unity of the
mass. But the Romans went farther. Besides developing solidarity and a
sense of duty, they improved on this conception of the battle to such a
degree that as a nation they may be called the best tacticians who ever
existed. Giving up the attempt to make all men fight equally well, they
dislocated the mass of combatants into three bodies, of which the first,
formed of the youngest and most impressionable men, was engaged at the
outset, the rest, more experienced men, being kept out of the turmoil.
This is the very opposite of the "champion" system. Those who would have
fled after the fall of the champions are engaged and "fought out" before
the champions enter the area of the contest, while the champions, who
possess in themselves the greatest power of resisting and mastering the
instinct of self-preservation, are kept back for the moment when
ordinary men would lose heart.

It might be said with perfect justice that without infantry there would
never have been discipline, for cavalry began and continued as a crowd
of champions. Discipline, which created and maintained the intrinsic
superiority of the Roman legion, depended first on the ideal of
patriotism. This was ingrained into every man from his earliest years
and expressed in a system of rewards and punishments which took effect
from the same ideal, in that rewards were in the main honorary in
character (mural crowns, &c.), while no physical punishment was too
severe for the man who betrayed, by default or selfishness, the cause of
Rome. Secondly, though every man knew his duty, not every man was equal
to doing it, and in recognition of this fact the Romans evolved the
system of three-line tactics in which the strong parts of the machine
neutralized the weak. The first of these principles, being psychological
in character, rose, flourished and decayed with the _moral_ of the
nation. The second, deduced from the first, varied with it, but as it
was objectively expressed in a system of tactics, which had to be
modified to suit each case, it varied also in proportion as the combat
took more or less abnormal forms. So closely knit were the parts of the
system that not only did the decadence of patriotism sap the legionary
organization, but also the unsuitability of that organization to new
conditions of warfare reacted unfavourably, even disastrously, on the
moral of the nation. Between them, the Roman infantry fell from its
proud place, and whereas in the Republic it was familiarly called the
"strength" (_robur_), by the 4th century A.D. it had become merely the
background for a variety of other arms and corps. Luxury produced
"egoists," to whom the rewards meant nothing and the punishments were
torture for the sake of torture. When therefore the Roman _imperium_
extended far enough to bring in silks from China and ivory from the
forests of central Africa, the citizen-army ceased to exist, and the
mere necessity for garrisoning distant savage lands threw the burden of
service upon the professional soldier.


  The Roman Imperial Army.

The natural consequence of this last was the uniform training of every
man. There were no longer any primary differences between one cohort and
another, and though the value of the three-line system in itself ensured
its continuance, any cohort, however constituted, might find itself
serving in any one of the three lines, i.e. the _moral_ of the last line
was no better than that of the first. The best guarantee of success
became _uniform_ regimental excellence, and whereas Camillus or Scipio
found useful employment in battle for every citizen, Caesar complained
that a legion which had been sent him was too raw, though it had been
embodied for nine years. The conditions which were so admirably met by
the old system never reappeared; for before armies resumed a "citizen"
character the invention of firearms had subjected all ranks and lines
alike to the same ordeal of facing unseen death, and the old soldiers
were better employed in standing shoulder to shoulder with the young. In
brief, the old Roman organization was based on patriotism and
experience, and when patriotism gave place to "egoism," and the
experience of the citizen who spent every other summer in the field of
war gave place to the formal training of the paid recruit, it died,
unregretted either by the citizen or by the military chieftain. The
latter knew how to make the army his devoted servant, while the former
disliked military service and failed to prepare himself for the day when
the military chief and the mercenary overrode his rights and set up a
tyranny, and ultimately the inner provinces of the empire came to be
called _inermes_--unarmed, defenceless--in contrast to the borderland
where the all-powerful professional legions lay in garrison.

In these same frontier provinces the tactical disintegration of the
legion slowly accomplished itself. Originally designed for the
exigencies of the normal pitched battle on firm open fields, and even
after its professionalization retaining its character as a large battle
unit, it was soon fragmented through the exigencies of border warfare
into numerous detachments of greater or less size, and when the military
frontier of the empire was established, the legion became an almost
sedentary corps, finding the garrisons for the blockhouses on its own
section of the line of defence. Further, the old heavy arms and armour
which had given it the advantage in wars of conquest--in which the
barbarians, gathering to defend their homes, offered a target for the
blow of an army--were a great disadvantage when it became necessary to
police the conquered territory, to pounce upon swiftly moving bodies of
raiders before they could do any great harm. Thus gradually cavalry
became more numerous, and light infantry of all sorts more useful, than
the old-fashioned linesman. To these corps went the best recruits and
the smartest officers, the opportunities for good service and the
rewards for it. The legion became once more the "residue." Thus when the
"champion" reappeared on the battlefield the solidarity that neutralized
his power had ceased to exist.

The battle of Adrianople, the "last fight of the legion," illustrates
this. The frontal battle was engaged in the ordinary way, and the
cohorts of the first line of the imperial army were fighting man to man
with the front ranks of the Gothic infantry (which had indeed a
solidarity of its own, unlike the barbarians of the early empire, and
was further guaranteed against moral over-pressure by a wagon laager),
when suddenly the armoured heavy cavalry of the Goths burst upon their
flank and rear. There were no longer _Principes_ and _Triarii_ of the
old Republican calibre, but only average troops, in the second and third
lines, and they were broken at once. The first line felt the battle in
rear as well as in front and gave way. Thereafter the victors, horse and
foot, slaughtered unresisting herds of men, not desperate soldiers, and
on this day the infantry arm, as an arm, ceased to exist.


  The Dark Ages.

Of course, not every soldier became a horseman, and still fewer could
provide themselves with armour. Regular infantry, too, was still
maintained for siege, mountain and forest warfare. But the _robur_, the
kernel of the line of battle, was gone, and though a few of the peoples
that fought their way into the area of civilization in the dark ages
brought with them the natural and primitive method of fighting on foot,
it was practically always a combination of mighty champions and
"residue," even though the latter bound themselves together by locked
shields, as the Gauls had bound themselves long before with chains, to
prevent "skulking." These infantry nations, without any infantry system
comparable to that of the Greeks and Romans, succumbed in turn to the
crowd of mounted warriors--not like the Greeks and Romans for want of
good military qualities, but for want of an organization which would
have distributed their fighting powers to the best advantage. One has
only to study the battle of Hastings to realize how completely the
infantry masses of the English slipped from the control of their leaders
directly the front ranks became seriously engaged. For many generations
after Hastings there was no attempt to use infantry as the kernel of
armies, still less to organize it as such beforehand. Indeed, except in
the Crusades, where men of high and of low degree alike fought for their
common faith, and in sieges, where cavalry was powerless and the
services of archers and labourers were at a premium, it became quite
unusual for infantry to appear on the field at all.


    Bouvines.

  The tactics of feudal infantry at its best were conspicuously
  illustrated in the battle of Bouvines, where besides the barons,
  knights and sergeants, the Brabançon mercenaries (heavy foot) and the
  French communal militia opposed one another. On the French right wing,
  the opportune arrival of a well-closed mass of cavalry and infantry in
  the flank of a loose crowd of men-at-arms which had already been
  thoroughly engaged, decided the fight. In the centre, the respective
  infantries were in first line, the nobles and knights, with their
  sovereigns, in second, yet it was a mixed mass of both that, after a
  period of confused fighting, focussed the battle in the persons of the
  emperor and the king of France, and if the personal encounters of the
  two bodies of knights gave the crowded German infantry a momentary
  chance to strike down the king, the latter was soon rescued by a
  half-dozen of heavy cavalrymen. On the left wing, the count of
  Boulogne made a living castle of his Brabançon pikes, whence with his
  men-at-arms he sallied forth from time to time and played the
  champion. Lastly, the Constable Montmorency brought over what was
  still manageable of the corps that had defeated the cavalry on the
  right (nearly all mounted men) and gave the final push to the allied
  centre and right in succession. Then the imperial army fled and was
  slaughtered without offering much resistance. Of infantry in this
  battle there was enough and to spare, but its only opportunities for
  decisive action were those afforded by the exhaustion of the armoured
  men or by the latter becoming absorbed in their own single combats to
  the exclusion of their proper work in the line of battle. As usual the
  infantry suffered nine-tenths of the casualties. For all their numbers
  and apparent tactical distribution on this field, they were "residue,"
  destitute of special organization, training or utility; and the only
  suggestion of "combined tactics" is the expedient adopted by the count
  of Boulogne, rings of spearmen to serve as pavilions served in the
  tournament--to secure a decorous setting for a display of knightly
  prowess.

In those days in truth the infantry was no more the army than to-day the
shareholders of a limited company are the board of directors. They were
deeply, sometimes vitally, interested in the result, but they
contributed little or nothing to bringing it about, except when the
opposing cavalries were in a state of moral equilibrium, and in these
cases anything suffices--the appearance of camp followers on a "Gillies
Hill," as at Bannockburn or the sound of half-a-dozen trumpets--to turn
the scale. Once it turned, the infantry of the beaten side was cut down
unresistingly, while the more valuable prisoners were admitted to
ransom. Thereafter, feudal tactics were based principally on the ideas
of personal glory--won in single combat, champion against champion, and
of personal profit--won by the knight in holding a wealthy and
well-armed baron to ransom and by the foot-soldier in plundering while
his masters were fighting. In the French army, the term _bidaux_,
applied in the days of Bouvines to all the infantry other than archers
and arblasters, came by a quite natural process to mean the laggards,
malingerers and skulkers of the army.


  Revival of infantry.

But even this infantry contained within itself two half-smothered sparks
of regeneration, the idea of _archery_ and the idea of _communal
militia_. Archery, in whatever form practised, was the one special form
of military activity with which the heavy _gendarme_ (whether he fought
on horseback or dismounted) had no concern. Here therefore infantry had
a special function, and in so far ceased to be "residue." The communal
militia was an early and inadequate expression of the town-spirit that
was soon to produce the solid burgher-militia of Flanders and Germany
and after that the trained bands of the English cities and towns. It
therefore represented the principles of solidarity, of combination, of
duty to one's comrade and to the common cause--principles which had
disappeared from feudal warfare.[1] It was under the influence of these
two ideas or forces that infantry as an arm began once again, though
slowly and painfully, to differentiate itself from the mass of _bidaux_
until in the end the latter practically contained only the worthless
elements.


    Courtrai.

  The first true infantry battle since Hastings was fought at Courtrai
  in 1302, between the burghers of Bruges and a feudal army under Count
  Robert of Artois. The citizens, arrayed in heavy masses, and still
  armed with miscellaneous weapons, were careful to place themselves on
  ground difficult of access--dikes, pools and marshes--and to fasten
  themselves together, like the Gauls of old. Their van was driven back
  by the French communal infantry and professional crossbowmen,
  whereupon Robert of Artois, true feudal leader as he was, ordered his
  infantry to clear the way for the cavalry and without even giving them
  time to do so pushed through their ranks with a formless mass of
  gendarmerie. This, in attempting to close with the enemy, plunged into
  the canals and swamped lands, and was soon immovably fastened in the
  mud. The citizens swarmed all round it and with spear, cleaver and
  flail destroyed it. Robert himself with a party of his gendarmerie
  strove to break through the solid wall of spears, but in vain. He was
  killed and his army perished with him, for the citizens did not regard
  war as a game and ransom as the loser's forfeit. As for the communal
  infantry which had won the first success, it had long since
  disappeared from the field, for when count Robert ordered his heavy
  cavalry forward, they had thought themselves attacked in rear by a
  rush of hostile cavalry--as indeed they were, for the gendarmerie rode
  them down--and melted away.

Crécy (q.v.) was fought forty-four years after Courtrai. Here the
knights had open ground to fight on, and many boasted that they would
revenge themselves. But they encountered not merely infantry, but
infantry tactics, and were for the second, and not the last, time
destroyed. The English army included a large feudal element, but the
spirit of indiscipline had been crushed by a series of iron-handed
kings, and for more than a century the nobles, in so far as they had
been bad subjects, had been good Englishmen. The English yeomen had
reached a level of self-discipline and self-respect which few even of
the great continental cities had attained. They had, lastly, made the
powerful long-bow (see ARCHERY) their own, and Edward I. had _combined_
the shock of the heavy cavalry with the slow searching preparatory rain
of arrows (see FALKIRK). That is, infantry tactics and cavalry tactics
were co-ordinated by a _general_, and the special point of this for the
present purpose is that instead of being, as in France, the unstable
base of the so-called "feudal pyramid," infantry has become an _arm_,
capable of offence and defence and having its own special organization,
function in the line of battle and tactical method. This last, indeed,
like every other tactical method, rested ultimately on the _moral_ of
the men who had to put it into execution. Archer tactics did not serve
against the disciplined rush of Joan of Arc's gendarmerie, for the
solidarity of the archer companies that tried to stop it had long been
undermined.


  The English archer.

Yet we cannot overrate the importance of the archer in this period of
military history. In the city militias solidarity had been obtained
through the close personal relationship of the trade gilds and by the
elimination of the champion. Therefore, as every offensive in war rests
upon boldness, these militias were essentially defensive, for they could
only hope to ward off the feudal champion, not to outfight him (Battle
of Legnano, 1176. See Oman, p. 442). England, however, had evolved a
weapon which no armour could resist, and a race of men as fully trained
to use it as the gendarme was to use the lance.[2] This weapon gave them
the power of killing without being killed, which the citizens' spears
and maces and voulges did not. But like all missiles, arrows were a poor
stand-by in the last resort if determined cavalry crossed the "beaten
zone" and closed in, and besides pavises and pointed stakes the English
archers were given the support of the knights, nobles and sergeants--the
armoured champions--whose steady lances guaranteed their safety. Here
was the real forward stride in infantry tactics. Archery had existed
from time immemorial, and a mere technical improvement in its weapon
could hardly account for its suddenly becoming the queen of the
battlefield. The defensive power of the "dark impenetrable wood" of
spears had been demonstrated again and again, but when the cavalry had
few or no preliminary difficulties to face, the chances of the infantry
mass resisting long-continued pressure was small. It was the combination
of the two elements that made possible a Crécy and a Poitiers, and this
combination was the result of the English social system which produced
the _camaraderie_ of knight and yeoman, champion and plain soldier.
Fortified by the knight's unshakeable steadiness, the yeoman handled his
bow and arrows with cool certainty and rapidity, and shot down every
rush of the opposing champions. This was _camaraderie de combat_ indeed,
and in such conditions the offensive was possible and even easy. The
English conquered whole countries while the Flemish and German spearmen
and vougiers merely held their own. For them, decisive victories were
only possible when the enemy played into their hands, but for the
English the guarantee of such victories was the specific character of
their army itself and the tactical methods resulting from and expressing
that character.


  The Hundred Years' War.

But the war of conquest embodied in these decisive victories dwindled in
its later stages to a war of raids. The feudal lord, like the feudal
vassal, returned home and gave place to the professional man-at-arms and
the professional captain. Ransom became again the chief object, and
except where a great leader, such as Bertrand Du Guesclin, compelled the
mercenaries to follow him to death or victory, a battle usually became a
mêlée of irregular duels between men-at-arms, with all the selfishness
and little of the chivalry of the purely feudal encounter. The war went
on and on, the gendarmes thickened their armour, and the archers found
more difficulty in penetrating it. Moreover, in raids for devastation
and booty, the slow-moving infantryman was often a source of danger to
his comrades. In this _guerrilla_ the archer, though he kept his place,
soon ceased to be the mainstay of battle. It had become customary since
Crécy (where the English knights and sergeants were dismounted to
protect the archers) for all mounted men to send away their horses
before engaging. Here and there cavalry masses were used by such
energetic leaders as the Black Prince and Du Guesclin, and more often a
few men remained mounted for work requiring exceptional speed and
courage,[3] but as a general rule the man-at-arms was practically a
mounted infantryman, and when he dismounted he stood still. Thus two
masses of dismounted lances, mixed with archers, would meet and engage,
but the archers, the offensive element, were now far too few in
proportion to the lances, the purely defensive element, and battles
became indecisive skirmishes instead of overwhelming victories.

Cavalry therefore became, in a very loose sense of the word, infantry.
But we are tracing the history not of all troops that stood on their
feet to fight, but of infantry and the special tactics of infantry, and
the period before and after 1370, when the moral foundations of the new
English tactics had disappeared, and the personality of Du Guesclin gave
even the bandits of the "free companies" an intrinsic, if slight,
superiority over the invaders, is a period of deadlock. Solidarity, such
as it was, had gone over to the side of the heavy cavalry. But the
latter had deliberately forfeited their power of forcing the decision by
fighting on foot, and the English archer, the cadre of the English
tactical system, though diminished in numbers, prestige and importance,
held to existence and survived the deadlock. Infantry of that type
indeed could never return to the "residue" state, and it only needed a
fresh moral impetus, a Henry V., to set the old machinery to work again
for a third great triumph. But again, after Agincourt, the long war
lapsed into the hands of the soldiers of fortune, the basis of Edward's
and Henry's tactics crumbled, and, led by a greater than Du Guesclin,
the knights and the nobles of France, and the mercenary captains and
men-at-arms as well, _rode down_ the stationary masses of the English,
lances and bowmen alike.

The net result of the Hundred Years' War therefore was to re-establish
the two arms, cavalry and infantry, side by side, the one acting by
shock, and the other by fire. The lesson of Crécy was "prepare your
charge before delivering it," and for that purpose great bodies of
infantry armed with bows, arblasts and handguns were brought into
existence in France. When the French king in 1448 put into force the
"lessons of the war" and organized a permanent army, it consisted in the
main of heavy cavalry (knights and squires in the "ordonnance"
companies, soldiers of fortune in the paid companies) and archers and
arblasters (_francs-archers_ recruited nationally, arblasters as a rule
mercenaries, though largely recruited in Gascony). To these _armes de
jet_ were added, in ever-increasing numbers, hand firearms. Thus the
"fire" principle of attack was established, and the defensive principle
of "mass" relegated to the background. In such circumstances cavalry was
of course the decisive arm, and the reputation of the French gendarmerie
was such as to justify this bold elimination of the means of passive
defence.[4]


  Burgher militias.

The foot-soldier of Germany and the Low Countries had followed a very
different line of development. Here the rich commercial cities scarcely
concerned themselves with the quarrels or revolts of neighbouring
nobles, but they resolutely defended their own rights against feudal
interference, and enforced them by an organized militia, opposing the
strict solidarity of their own institutions to the prowess of the
champion who threatened them. The struggle was between "you shall" on
the part of the baron and "we will not" on the part of the citizens, the
offensive _versus_ the defensive in the simplest and plainest form. The
latter was a policy of unbreakable squares, and wherever possible,
strong positions as well. Sometimes the citizens, sometimes the nobles
gained the day, but the general result was that steady infantry in
proper formation could not be ridden down, and as yeomen-archers of the
English type to "prepare" the charge were not obtainable from amongst
the serf populations of the countryside, the problem of the attack was,
for Central Europe, insoluble.


  The Wagenburg.

The unbreakable square took two forms, the _wagenburg_ with artillery,
and the infantry mass with pikes. The first was no more, in the
beginning, than an expedient for the safe and rapid crossing of wider
stretches of open country than would have been possible for dismounted
men, whom the cavalry headed off as soon as they ventured far enough
from the shelter of walls. The men rode not on horses but on carriages,
and the carriages moved over the plains in laager formation, the
infantrymen standing ready with halbert and voulge or short stabbing
spear, and the gunners crouching around the long barrelled two-pounders
and the "ribaudequins"--the early machine guns--which were mounted on
the wagons. These _wagenburgen_ combined in themselves the due
proportions of mobility and passive defence, and in the skilled hands of
Ziska they were capable of the boldest offensive. But such a tactical
system depended first of all on drill, for the armoured cavalry would
have crowded through the least gap in the wagon line, and the necessary
degree of drill in those days could only be attained by an army which
had both a permanent existence and some bond of solidarity more powerful
than the incentive to plunder--that is, in practice, it was only
attained in full by the Hussite insurgents. The cavalry, too, learned
its lesson, and pitted mobile three-pounders against the foot-soldiers'
one- and two-pounders, and the _wagenburg_ became no more than a
helpless target. Thus when, not many years after the end of the Hussite
wars, the Wars of the Roses eliminated the English model and the English
tactics from the military world of Europe, the French system of fire
tactics--masses of archers, arblasters and handgun-men, with some
spearmen and halberdiers to stiffen them--was left face to face with
that of the Swiss and Landsknechts, the system of the "long pike."


    The Swiss.

  A series of victories ranging from Morgarten (1315) to Nancy (1477)
  had made the Swiss the most renowned infantry in Europe. Originally
  their struggles with would-be oppressors had taken the form, often
  seen elsewhere, of arraying solid masses of men, united in purpose and
  fidelity to one another rather than by any material or tactical
  cohesion. Like the men of Bruges at Courtrai, the Swiss had the
  advantage of broken ground, and the still greater advantage of being
  opposed by reckless feudal cavalry. Their armament at this stage was
  not peculiar--voulges, gisarmes, halberts and spears--though they were
  specially adept in the use of the two-handed sword. But as time went
  on the long pike (said to have originated in Savoy or the Milanese
  about 1330) became more and more popular until at last on the verge of
  their brief ascendancy (about 1475-1515) the Swiss armed as much as
  one quarter of their troops with it. The use of firearms made little
  or no progress amongst them, and the Swiss mercenaries of 1480, like
  their forerunners of Morgarten and Sempach, fought with the _arme
  blanche_ alone. But in a very few years after the Swiss nation had
  become soldiers of fortune _en masse_, the more open lands of Swabia
  entered into serious and bitter competition with them. From these
  lands came the Landsknechts, whose order was as strong as, and far
  less unwieldy than, that of the Swiss, whose armament included a far
  greater proportion of firearms, and who established a regimental
  system that left a permanent mark on army organization. The
  Landsknecht was the prototype of the infantryman of the 16th and 17th
  centuries, but his right to indicate the line of evolution had to be
  wrung from many rivals.


  The long pike.

The year 1480 indeed was a turning-point in military history. Within the
three years preceding it the battles of Nancy and Guinegate had
destroyed both the old feudalism of Charles the Bold and the new cavalry
tactics of the French gendarmerie. The former was an anachronism, while
the latter, when the great wars came to an end and there was no longer
either a national impulse or a national leader, had lapsed into the old
vices of ransom and plunder. With these, on the same fields, the
_franc-archer_ system of infantry tactics perished ignominiously. It
rested, as we know, on the principle that the fire of the infantry was
to be combined with and completed by the shock of the gendarmerie, and
when the latter were found wanting as at Guinegate, the masses of
archers and arblasters, which were only feebly supported by a few
handfuls of pikemen and halberdiers, were swept away by the charge of
some heavy battalions of Swabian and Flemish pikes. Guinegate was the
_début_ of the Landsknecht infantry as Nancy was that of the Swiss, and
the lesson could not be misread. Louis XI. indeed hanged some of his
_franc-archers_ and dismissed the rest, and in their place raised
"bands" of regular infantry, one of which bore for the first time the
historic name of _Picardie_. But these "bands" were not self-contained.
Armed for the most part with _armes de jet_ they centred on the 6000
Swiss pikemen whom Louis XI., in 1480, took into his service, and for
nearly fifty years thereafter the French foot armies are always composed
of two elements, the huge battalions of Swiss or Landsknechts,[5] armed
exclusively with the long pike (except for an ever-decreasing proportion
of halberts, and a few arquebuses), and for their support and
assistance, French and mercenary "bands."

The Italian wars of 1494-1544, in which the principles of fire and shock
were readjusted to meet the conditions created by firearms, were the
nursery of modern infantry. The combinations of Swiss, Landsknechts,
Spanish "tercios" and French "bands" that figured on the battlefields of
the early 16th century were infinitely various. But it is not difficult
to find a thread that runs through the whole.


  The Italian Wars, 1494-1525.

The essence of the Swiss system was solidity. They arrayed themselves in
huge oblongs of 5000 men and more, at the corners of which, like the
tower bastions of a 16th-century fortress, stood small groups of
arquebusiers. The Landsknechts and the Romagnols of Italy, imitated and
rivalled them, though as a rule developing more front and less depth. At
this stage solidity was everything and fire-power nothing. At Fornuovo
(1495) the mass of arquebusiers and arblasters in the French army did
little or nothing; it was the Swiss who were _l'espérance de l'ost_. At
Agnadello or Vailá in 1509 the ground and the "encounter-battle"
character of the engagement gave special chances of effective employment
to the arquebusiers on either side. Along the front the Venetian
marksmen, secure behind a bank, picked off the leaders of the enemy as
they came near. On the outer flank of the battle the bands of Gascon
arquebusiers, which would otherwise have been relegated to an
unimportant place in the general line of battle, lapped round the
enemy's flank in broken ground and produced great and almost decisive
effect. But this was only an afterthought of the king of France and
Bayard. In the rest of the battle the huge masses of Swiss pikes were
thrown upon the enemy much as the old feudal cavalry had been,
regardless of ditches, orchards and vineyards.

Then for a moment the problem was solved, or partially solved, by the
artillery. From Germany the material, though not--at least to the same
extent--the principle, of the _wagenburg_ penetrated, in the first years
of the 16th century, to Italy and thence to France. Thus by degrees a
very numerous and exceedingly handy light artillery--"carts with
gonnes," as they were called in England--came into play on the Italian
battlefields, and took over from the dying _franc-archer_ system the
work of preparing the assault by fire. For mere skirmishing the Swiss
and Landsknechts had arquebusiers enough, without needing to call on the
masses of Gascons, &c., and _pari passu_ with the development of this
artillery, the "bands," other than Swiss and Landsknechts, began to
improve themselves into pikemen and halberdiers. At Ravenna (1512) the
bands of Gascony and Picardy, as well as the French _aventuriers_ (the
"bands of Piedmont," afterwards the second senior regiment of the French
line) fought in the line of battle shoulder to shoulder with the
Landsknechts. On this day the fire action of the new artillery was
extraordinarily murderous, ploughing lanes in the immobile masses of
infantry. At Marignan the French gendarmerie and artillery, closely and
skilfully combined, practically destroyed the huge masses of the Swiss,
and so completely had "infantry" and "fire" become separate ideas that
on the third day of this tremendous battle we find even the "bands of
Piedmont" cutting their way into the Swiss masses.


  The Spanish infantry and the arquebus.

But from this point the lead fell into the hands of the Spaniards. These
were originally swift and handy light infantry, capable--like the
Scottish Highlanders at Prestonpans and Falkirk long afterwards--of
sliding under the forest of pikes and breaking into the close-locked
ranks with buckler and stabbing sword. For troops of this sort the
arquebus was an ideal weapon, and the problem of self-contained infantry
was solved by Gonsalvo de Cordoba, Pescara and the great Spanish
captains of the day by intercalating small closed bodies of arquebusiers
with rather larger, but not inordinately large, bodies of pikes. These
arquebusiers formed separate, fully organized sections of the infantry
regiment. In close defence they fought on the front and flanks of the
pikes, but more usually they were pushed well to the front
independently, their speed and excellent fire discipline enabling them
to do what was wholly beyond the power of the older type of firing
infantry--to take advantage of ground, to run out and reopen fire during
a momentary pause in the battle of lance and pike, and to run back to
the shelter of their own closed masses when threatened by an oncoming
charge. When this system of tactics was consecrated by the glorious
success of Pavia (1525), the "cart with gonnes" vanished and the system
of fighting everywhere and always "at push of pike" fell into the
background.


    16th Century-tactics.

  The lessons of Pavia can be read in Francis I.'s instructions to his
  newly formed Provincial (militia) Legions in 1534 and in the battle of
  Cerisoles ten years later. The "legion" was ordered to be composed of
  six "bands"--battalions we should call them now, but in those days the
  term "battalion" was consecrated to a gigantic square of the Swiss
  type--each of 800 pikes (including a few halberts) and 200
  arquebusiers. The pikes, 4800 strong, of each legion were grouped in
  one large battalion, and covered on the front and flanks by the 1200
  arquebuses, the latter working in small and handy squads. These
  "legions" did not of course count as good troops, but their
  organization and equipment, designed deliberately in peace time, and
  not affected by the coming and going of soldiers of fortune, represent
  therefore the theoretically perfect type for the 16th century.
  Cerisoles represents the system in practice, with veteran regular
  troops. On the side of the French most of the arquebuses were grouped
  on the right wing, in a long irregular line of companies or strong
  squads, supported at a moderate distance by companies or small
  battalions of "corselets" (pikes of the French bands of Picardy and
  Piedmont); the rest of the line of battle was composed of
  Landsknechts, &c., similarly arrayed, except that the arquebusiers
  were on the flanks and immediate front of the "corselets" and behind
  the arquebuses and corselets of the right wing came a Swiss monster of
  the old type. On the imperial side of the Landsknechts, Spanish and
  Italian infantry were drawn up in seven or eight battalions, each with
  its due proportion of pikes and "shot." The course of the battle
  demonstrated both the active tactical power of the new form of
  fire-action and the solidity of the pike nucleus, the former in the
  attack and defence of hills, woods and localities, the latter in an
  episode in which a Spanish battalion, after being ridden through from
  corner to corner by the French gendarmes, continued on its way almost
  unchecked and quite unbroken. This combination of arquebusiers
  supported by corselets in first line and corselets with a few
  arquebusiers in second, reappeared at Renty (1554), and St Quentin
  (1557), and was in fact the typical disposition of infantry from about
  1530 to 1600.

By 1550, then, infantry had entirely ceased to be an auxiliary arm. It
contained within itself, and (what is more important) within its
regimental units, the power of fighting effectively and decisively both
at close quarters and at a distance--the principal characteristic of the
arm to-day. It had, further, developed a permanent regimental existence,
both in Spain and in France, and in the former country it had progressed
so far from the "residue" state that young nobles preferred to trail a
pike in the ranks of the foot to service in the gendarmerie or light
horse. The service battalions were kept up to war strength by the
establishment of depots and the preliminary training there of recruits.
In France, apart from Picardie and the other old regiments, every
temporary regiment, on disbandment, threw off a depot company of the
best soldiers, on which nucleus the regiment was reconstituted for the
next campaign. Moreover, the permanent establishment was augmented from
time to time by the colonel-general of the foot "giving his white flag"
to temporary regiments.


    The French infantry in 1570.

  The organization of the French infantry in 1570 presents some points
  of interest. The former broad classification of _au delà_ and _en deça
  des monts_ or "Picardie" and "Piedmont," representing the home and
  Italian armies, had disappeared, and instead the whole of the
  infantry, under one colonel-general, was divided into the regiments of
  Picardie, Piedmont and French Guards, each of which had its own
  colonel and its own colours. Besides these, three newer corps were
  _entretenus par le Roy_--"Champagne," practically belonging to the
  Guise[6] family, and two others formed out of the once enormous
  regiment of Marshal de Cossé-Brissac. At the end of a campaign all
  temporary regiments were disbanded, but in imitation of the Spanish
  depot system, each, on disbandment, threw off a depot company of
  picked men who formed the nucleus for the next year's augmentation.
  The regiment consisted of 10-16 "ensigns" or companies, each of about
  150 pikemen and 50 arquebusiers. Each company had a proprietary
  captain, the owners of the first two companies being the
  colonel-general and the colonel (_mestre de camp_). The senior captain
  was called the sergeant-major, and performed the duties of a second in
  command and an adjutant or brigade-major. Unlike the regimental
  commander, the sergeant-major was always mounted, and it is recorded
  that one officer newly appointed to the post incurred the ridicule of
  the army by dismounting to speak to the king. "Some veteran officers,"
  wrote a contemporary, "are inclined to think that the regimental
  commander should be mounted as well as the sergeant-major." The
  regiment was as a rule formed for parade and battle either in line 10
  deep or in "battalion" (i.e. mass), Swiss fashion. The captain
  occupied the front, the ensigns with the company colours the centre,
  and the lieutenants the rear place in the file. The sergeants, armed
  with the halbert, marched on each side of the battalion or company.
  Though the musket was gradually being introduced, and had powerful
  advocates in Marshal Strozzi and the duke of Guise, the bulk of the
  "shot" still carried the arquebus, the calibre of which had been,
  thanks to Strozzi's efforts, standardized (see CALIVER) so that all
  the arms took the same sizes of ball. The pikeman had half-armour and
  a 14-ft. pike, the arquebusier beside the firearm a sword which he was
  trained to use in the manner of the former Spanish light infantry. The
  arquebusiers were arrayed in 3 ranks in front of the pikes or in 10
  deep files on either flank.

The wars in which this system was evolved were wars for prestige and
aggrandizement. They were waged, therefore, by mercenary soldiers, whose
main object was to live, and who were officered either by men of their
own stamp, or by nobles eager to win military glory. But the Wars of
Religion raised questions of life and death for the Frenchmen of either
faith, and such public opinion as there was influenced the method of
operations so far that a decision and not a prolongation of the struggle
began to be the desired end of operations. Hence in those wars the
relatively immobile "battalion" of pikes diminishes in importance and
the arquebusiers and musketeers grow more and more efficient. Armies,
too, became smaller, and marched more rapidly. Encounter-battles became
more frequent than "pitched" battles, and in these the musketeer was at
a great advantage. Thus by 1600 the proportions between pikes and
musketeers in the French army had come to be 6 pikes to 4 muskets or
arquebuses, and the _bataillon de combat_ or brigade was normally no
more than 1200 strong. In the Netherlands, however, the war of
consciences was fought out between the best regular army in the world
and burgher militias. Even the French _fantassins_ were second in
importance to the Spanish _soldados_. The latter continued to hold the
pre-eminent position they had gained at Pavia.[7] They improved the
arquebus into the musket, a heavier and much more powerful weapon (fired
from a rest) which could disable a horse at 500 paces.


  Alva.

At this moment the professional soldier was at the high-water mark of
his supremacy. The musket was too complicated to be rapidly and
efficiently used by any but a highly trained man; the pike, probably
because it had now to protect two or three ranks of "shot" in front of
the leading rank of pikemen, as well as the pikemen themselves, had
grown longer (up to 18 ft.); and drill and manoeuvre had become more
important than ever, for in the meantime cavalry had mostly abandoned
the massive armour and the long lance in favour of half-armour and the
pistol, and their new tactics made them both swifter to charge groups of
musketeers and more deadly to the solid masses of pikemen. This
superiority of the regular over the irregular was most conspicuously
shown in Alva's war against the Netherlands patriots. Desperately as the
latter fought, Spanish captains did not hesitate to attack patriot
armies ten times their own strength. If once or twice this contempt led
them to disaster, as at Heiligerlee in 1568 (though here, after all,
Louis of Nassau's army was chiefly composed of trained mercenaries), the
normal battle was of the Jemmingen type--seven _soldados_ dead and seven
thousand rebels.


  Infantry in 1600.

As regards battles in the open field, such results as these naturally
confirmed the "Spanish system" of tactics. The Dutch themselves, when
they evolved reliable field armies, copied it with few modifications,
and by degrees it was spread over Europe by the professional soldiers on
both sides. There was plenty of discussion and readjustment of details.
For example, the French, with their smaller battalions and more rapid
movements, were inclined to disparage both the cuirass and the pike, and
only unwillingly hampered themselves with the long heavy Spanish musket,
which had to be fired from a rest. In 1600, nearly fifty years after the
introduction of the musket, this most progressive army still
deliberately preferred the old light arquebus, and only armed a few
selected men with the larger weapons. On the other hand, the Spaniards,
though supreme in the open, had for the most part to deal with desperate
men behind fortifications. Fighting, therefore, chiefly at close
quarters with a fierce enemy, and not disposing either of the space or
of the opportunity for "manoeuvre-battles," they sacrificed all their
former lightness and speed, and clung to armour, the long pike and the
heavy 2½ oz. bullet. But the principles first put into practice by
Gonsalvo de Cordoba, the combination, in the proportions required in
each case, of _fire_ and _shock_ elements in every body of organized
infantry however small, were maintained in full vigour, and by now the
superiority of the infantry arm in method, discipline and technique,
which had long before made the Spanish nobles proud to trail a pike in
the ranks, began to impress itself on other nations. The relative value
of horse and foot became a subject for expert discussion instead of an
axiom of class pride. The question of cavalry _versus_ infantry, hotly
disputed in all ages, is a matter affecting general tactics, and does
not come within the scope of the present article (see further CAVALRY).
Expert opinion indeed was still on the side of the horsemen. It was on
their cavalry, with its speed, its swords and its pistols that the
armies of the 16th century relied in the main to produce the decision in
battle. Sir Francis Vane, speaking of the battle of Nieupoort in 1600,
says, "Whereas most commonly in battles the success of the foot
dependeth on that of the horse, here it was clean contrary, for so long
as the foot held good the horse could not be beaten out of the field."
The "success" of the foot in Vane's eyes is clearly resistance to
disintegration rather than ability to strike a decisive blow.

[Illustration: PLATE I.

  DREUX--1562.

  (_From Hardÿ de Périni's Batailles Françaises, by permission._)

  LÜTZEN--1632.]

[Illustration: PLATE II.

  PRUSSIAN VOLLEYS, 1740. EVOLUTIONS OF THE COLUMN AND SKIRMISHERS.
  WELLINGTON.

  VIONVILLE DE CISSEY'S COUNTER-ATTACK (SEEN FROM REAR OF PRUSSIAN 38th
  BRIGADE).

  APPROACH-MARCH UNDER ARTILLERY FIRE, FRENCH PRINCIPLES (FROM ENEMY'S
  ARTILLERY POSITION).

  (_From Revue d'Infanterie, 1909._)]

It must be remembered, however, that Vane is speaking of the Low
Countries, and that in France at any rate the solidity which saved the
day at Nieupoort was less appreciated than the _élan_ which had won so
many smart engagements in the Wars of Religion. Moreover, it was the
_offensive_, the decision-compelling faculty of the foot that steadily
developed during the 17th century. To this, little by little, the powers
of passive resistance to which Vane did homage, valuable as they were,
were sacrificed, until at last the long pike disappeared altogether and
the firearm, provided with a bayonet, was the uniform weapon of the
foot-soldier. This stage of infantry history covers almost exactly a
century. As far as France was concerned, it was a natural evolution. But
the acceptance of the principle by the rest of the military world,
imposed by the genius of Gustavus Adolphus, was rather revolution than
evolution.


  Gustavus Adolphus.

In the army which Louis XIII. led against his revolted barons of Anjou
in 1620, the old regiments (_les vieux_--Picardie, Piedmont, &c.) seem
to have marched in an open chequer-wise formation of companies which is
interesting not only as a deliberate imitation of the Roman legion (all
soldiers of that time, in the prevailing confusion of tactical ideas,
sought guidance in the works of Xenophon, Aelian and Vegetius), but as
showing that flexibility and handiness was not the monopoly of the
Swedish system that was soon to captivate military Europe. The
formations themselves are indeed found in the Spanish and Dutch armies,
but the equipment of the men, and the general character of the
operations in which they were engaged, probably failed to show off the
advantages of this articulation, for the generals of the Thirty Years'
War, trained in this school, formed their infantry into large battalions
(generally a single line of masses). Experience certainly gave the
troops that used these unwieldy formations a relatively high manoeuvring
capacity, for Tilly's army at Breitenfeld (1631) "changed front
half-left" in the course of the battle itself. But the manoeuvring power
of the Swedes was higher still. Each party represented one side of the
classical revival, the Swedes the Roman three-line manipular tactics,
the Imperialists and Leaguers those of the Greek line of phalanxes. The
former, depending as it did on high _moral_ in the individual
foot-soldier, was hardly suitable to such a congeries of mercenaries as
those that Wallenstein commanded, and later in the Thirty Years' War,
when the old native Swedish and Scottish brigades had been annihilated,
the Swedish infantry was little if at all better than the rest.

But its tactical system, sanctified by victory, was eagerly caught up by
military Europe. The musket, though it had finally driven out the
arquebus, had been lightened by Gustavus Adolphus so far that it could
be fired without a rest. Rapidity in loading had so far improved that a
company could safely be formed six deep instead of ten, as in the
Spanish and Dutch systems. Its fire power was further augmented by the
addition of two very light field-guns to each battalion; these could
inflict loss at twice the effective range of the shortened musket. Above
all, Gustavus introduced into the military systems of Europe a new
discipline based on the idea of exact performance of duty, which made
itself felt in every part of the service, and was a welcome substitute
for the former easy-going methods of regimental existence.[8] The
adoption of Swedish methods indeed was facilitated by the disrepute into
which the older systems had fallen. Men were beginning to see that
armies raised by contract for a few months' work possessed inherent
vices that made it impossible to rely upon them in small things. Courage
the mercenary certainly possessed, but his individual sense of honour,
code of soldierly morals, and sometimes devotion to a particular leader
did not compensate for the absence of a strong motive for victory and
for his general refractoriness in matters of detail, such as
march-discipline and punctuality, which had become essential since the
great Swedish king had reintroduced order, method and definiteness of
purpose into the conduct of military operations. In the old-fashioned
masses, moreover, individual weaknesses, both moral and physical,
counted for little or were suppressed in the general soldierly feeling
of the whole body. But the six-deep line used by Gustavus demanded more
devotion and exact obedience in the individual and a more uniform method
of drill and handling arms. So shallow an order was not strong enough,
under any other conditions, to resist the shock of cavalry or even of
pikemen. Indeed, had not the cavalry (who, after Gustavus's death, were
uninspired mercenaries like the rest) ceased to charge home in the
fashion that Gustavus exacted of them, it is possible that the
new-fashioned line would not have stood the test, and that infantry
would have reverted to the early 16th-century type.


  The Great Rebellion.

The problem of combining the maximum of fire power with the maximum of
control over the individual firer was not fully solved until 1740, but
the necessity of attempting the problem was realised from the first. In
the Swedish army, before it was corrupted by the atmosphere of the
Thirty Years' War, duty to God and to country were the springs of the
punctual discipline, in small things and in great, which made it the
most formidable army, unit for unit, in the world. In the English Civil
War (in which the adherents of the "Swedish system" from the first
ousted those of the "Dutch") the difficulty was more acute, for although
the mainsprings of action were similar, the technical side of the
soldier's business--the regimental organization, drill and handling of
arms--had all to be improvised. Now in the beginning the Royalist
cavalry was recruited from "gentlemen that have honour and courage and
resolution"; later, Cromwell raised a cavalry force that was even more
thoroughly imbued with the spirit of duty, "men who made some conscience
of what they did," and throughout the Civil War, consequently, the
mounted arm was the queen of the battlefield.

The Parliamentary foot too "made some conscience of what it did," more
especially in the first years of the war. But its best elements--the
drilled townsmen--were rather of a defensive than of an offensive
character, and towards the close of the struggle, when the foot on both
sides came to be formed of professional soldiers, the defensive element
decreased, as it had decreased in France and elsewhere. The war was like
Gustavus's German campaign, one of rapid and far-ranging marches, and
the armoured pikeman had either to shorten his pike and to cast off his
armour or to be left at home with the heavy artillery (see Firth's
_Cromwell's Army_, ch. iv.). Fights "at push of pike" were rare enough
to be specially mentioned in reports of battles. Sir James Turner says
that in 1657, when he was commissioned with others to raise regiments
for the king of Denmark, "those of the Privy Council would not suffer
one word to be mentioned of a pike in our Commissions." It was the same
with armour. In 1658 Lockhart, the commander of the English contingent
in France, specially asked for a supply of cuirasses and headpieces for
his pikemen in order to impress his allies. In 1671 Sir James Turner
says, "When we see battalions of pikes, we see them everywhere naked
unless it be in the Netherlands." But a small proportion of pikes was
still held to be necessary by experienced soldiers, for as yet the
socket bayonet had not been invented, and there was still cavalry in
Europe that could be trusted to ride home.


  Disuse of the pike.

While such cavalry existed, the development of fire power was everywhere
hindered by the necessity of self-defence. On the other hand the
hitherto accepted defensive means militated against efficiency in many
ways, and about 1670, when Louis XIV. and Louvois were fashioning the
new standing army that was for fifty years the model for Europe, the
problem was how to improve the drill and efficiency of the musketeers so
far that the pikes could be reduced to a minimum. In 1680 the firelock
was issued instead of the matchlock to all grenadiers and to the four
best shots in each French Company. The bayonet--in its primitive form
merely a dagger that was fixed into the muzzle of the musket--was also
introduced, and the pike was shortened. The proportion of pikes to
muskets in Henry IV.'s day, 2 to 1 or 3 to 2, and in Gustavus's 2 to 3,
had now fallen to 1 to 3.

The day of great causes that could inspire the average man with the
resolution to conquer or die was, however, past, and the "shallow order"
(_l'ordre mince_), with all its demands on the individual's sense of
duty, had become an integral part of the military system. How then was
the sense of duty to be created? Louis and Louvois and their
contemporaries sought to create it by taking raw recruits in batches,
giving them a consistent training, quartering them in barracks and
uniforming them. Henceforward the soldier was not a unit, self-taught
and free to enter the service of any master. He had no existence as a
soldier apart from his regiment, and within it he was taught that the
regiment was everything and the individual nothing. Thus by degrees the
idea of implicit obedience to orders and of _esprit de corps_ was
absorbed. But the self-respecting Englishman or the quick ardent
Frenchman was not the best raw material for quasi-automatic regiments,
and it was not until an infinitely more rigorous system of discipline
was applied to an unimaginative army that the full possibilities of this
enforced sense of duty were realized.


    Methods of fire before 1740.

  The method of delivering fire originally used by the Spaniards, in
  which each man in succession fired and fell back to the rear of the
  file to reload, required for its continued and exact performance a
  degree of coolness and individual smartness which was probably rarely
  attained in practice. This was not of serious moment when the "shot"
  were simple auxiliaries, but when under Gustavus the offensive idea
  came to the front, and the bullets of the infantry were expected to do
  something more than merely annoy the hostile pikemen, a more effective
  method had to be devised. First, the handiness of the musket was so
  far improved that one man could reload while five, instead of as
  formerly ten, fired. Then, as the enhanced rate of fire made the
  file-firing still more disorderly than before, two ranks and three
  were set to fire "volews" or "salvees" together, and before 1640 it
  had become the general custom for the musketeers to fire one or two
  volleys and then, along with the pikemen, to "fall on." It was of
  course no mean task to charge even a disordered mass of pikes with a
  short sword or a clubbed musket, and usually after a few minutes the
  combatants would drift apart and the musketeers on either side would
  keep up an irregular fire until the officers urged the whole forward
  for a second attempt.


    The bayonet.

  With the general disuse of the lance, the disappearance of the
  personal motives that formerly made the cavalryman charge home, the
  adoption of the flintlock musket and the invention of the socket
  bayonet (the fixing of which did not prevent fire being delivered),
  all reason for retaining the pike vanished, and from about 1700 to the
  present day, therefore, the invariable armament of infantry has been
  the musket (or rifle) and bayonet. The manner of employing the
  weapons, however, changed but slowly. In the French army in 1688, for
  instance (15 years before the abolition of the pike), the old
  file-fire was still officially recognized, though rarely employed, the
  more usual method being for the musketeers in groups of 12 to 30 men
  to advance to the front and deliver their volleys in turn, these
  groups corresponding in size to one of the musketeer wings (_manches_)
  of a company or double company. But the fire and shock action of
  infantry were still distinct, the idea of "push of pike" remained, the
  bayonet (as at Marsaglia) taking the place of the pike, and musketry
  methods were still and throughout the War of the Spanish Succession
  somewhat half-hearted and tentative. Two generals so entirely
  different in genius and temperament as Saxe and Catinat could agree on
  this point, that attacking infantry ought to close with the enemy,
  bayonets fixed, without firing a shot. Catinat's orders to his army in
  1690, indeed, seem rather to indicate that he expected his troops to
  endure the enemy's first fire without replying in order that their own
  volley, when it was at last delivered at a few paces distance, should
  be as murderous as possible, while Saxe, who was a dreamer as well as
  a practical commander of troops, advocated the pure bayonet charge.
  But the fact that is common to both is the relative ineffectiveness of
  musketry before the Prussian era, whether this musketry was delivered
  by groups of men running forward and returning in line or even by
  companies in a long line of battle.

  This ineffectiveness was due chiefly to the fact that _fire_ and
  _movement_ were separate matters. The enemy's volley, that Catinat and
  others ordered their troops to endure without flinching, was sometimes
  (as at Fontenoy) absolutely crushing. But as a rule it inflicted an
  amount of loss that was not sufficient to put the advancing troops out
  of action, and experienced officers were aware that to halt to reply
  gave the enemy time to reload, and that once the fight became an
  interchange of partial and occasional volleys or a general
  _tiraillerie_, there was an end to the attack.


  Linear tactics.

Meanwhile, the tactics of armies had been steadily crystallizing into
the so-called "linear" form, which, as far as concerns the infantry, is
simply two long lines of battalions (three, four or five deep) and gave
the utmost possible development to fire-power. The object of the "line"
was to break or beat down the opposing line in the shortest possible
time, whether by fire action or shock action, but fire action was only
decisive at so short a range that the principal volley could be followed
immediately by a charge over a few score paces at most and the crossing
of bayonets. Fire was, however, effective at ranges outside charging
distance, especially from the battalion guns, and however the decision
was achieved in the end, it was necessary to cross the zone between
about 300 yds. and 50 yds. range as quickly as possible. It was
therefore the business of the regimental officer to force his men across
this zone before fire was opened. If, as Catinat recommended, decisive
range was reached with every musket loaded and the troops well in hand,
their fire when finally it was delivered might well be decisive. But in
practice this rarely happened, and though here and there such expedients
as a skirmishing line were employed to assist the advance by disturbing
the enemy's fire the most that was hoped by the average colonel or
captain was that in the advance fire should be opened as late as
possible and that the officers should strive to keep in their hands the
power of breaking off the fire-fight and pushing the troops forward
again. Theorists were already proposing column formations for shock
action, and initiating the long controversy between _l'ordre mince_ and
_l'ordre profonde_, but this was for the time being pure speculation.
The linear system rested on the principle that the maximum weight of
controlled fire at short range was decisive, and the practical problem
of infantry tactics was how to obtain this. The question of _fire versus
shock_ had been answered in favour of the former, and henceforward for
many years the question of _fire versus movement_ held the first place.
The purpose was settled, and it remained to discover the means.

This means was Prussian fire-discipline, which was elaborated by Leopold
of Dessau and Frederick William I., and practically applied by Frederick
the Great. It consisted first in the combination, instead of the
alternation, of fire and movement, and secondly in the thorough
efficiency of the fire in itself. But both these demanded a more
stringent and technically more perfect drill than had ever before been
imagined, or, for that matter, has ever since been attained. A hundred
years before the steady drill of the Spanish veterans at Rocroi, who at
the word of command opened their ranks to let the cannon fire from the
rear and again closed them, impressed every soldier in Europe. But such
drill as this was child's play compared with the Old Dessauer's.


    Prussian fire discipline, 1740.

  On approaching the enemy the marching columns of the Prussians, which
  were generally open columns of companies 4 deep, wheeled, in
  succession to the right or left (almost always to the right) and thus
  passed along the front of the enemy at a distance of 800-1200 yds.
  until the rear company had wheeled. Then the whole together (or in the
  case of a deployment to the left, in succession) wheeled into line
  facing the enemy. These movements, if intervals and distances were
  preserved with proper precision, brought the infantry into two long
  well-closed lines, and parade-ground precision was actually attained,
  thanks to remorseless drilling and to the reintroduction of the march
  in step to music. Of course such movements were best executed on a
  firm plain, and as far as possible the attack and defence of woods and
  villages was left to light infantry and grenadiers. But even in
  marshes and scrub, the line managed to manoeuvre with some approach to
  the precision of the barrack square.[9] Now, this precision allowed
  Frederick to take risks that no former commander would have dared to
  take. At Hohenfriedberg the infantry columns crossed a marshy stream
  almost within cannon shot of the enemy; at Kolin (though there this
  insolence was punished) the army filed past the Imperialist
  skirmishers within less than musket shot, and the climax of this
  daring was the "oblique order" attack of Leuthen. With this was bound
  up a fire discipline that was more extraordinary than any perfection
  of manoeuvre. Before Hohenfriedberg the king gave orders that
  "pelotonfeuer" was to be opened at 200 paces from the enemy and
  continued up to 30 paces, when the line was to fall on with the
  bayonet. The possibility of this combination of fire and movement was
  the work of Leopold, who gave the Prussian infantry iron ramrods, and
  by sheer drill made the soldier a machine capable of delivering (with
  the flintlock muzzle-loading muskets, be it observed) five volleys a
  minute. This _pelotonfeuer_ or company volleys replaced the old fire
  by ranks practised in other armies. Fire began from the flanks of the
  battalion, which consisted of eight companies (for firing, 3 deep).
  When the right company commander gave "fire," the commander of No. 2
  gave "ready," followed in turn by other companies up to the centre.
  The same process having been gone through on the left flank, by the
  time the two centre companies had fired the two flank companies were
  ready to recommence, and thus a continuous series of rolling volleys
  was delivered, at one or two seconds' interval only between companies.
  In attack this fire was combined with movement, each company in turn
  advancing a few paces after "making ready." In square, old-fashioned
  methods of fire were employed. Square was an indecisive and defensive
  formation, rarely used, and in the advance of the deployed line, the
  offensive and decision-seeking formation _par excellence_, the special
  Prussian fire-discipline gave Frederick an advantage of five shots to
  two against all opponents. The bayonet-attack, if the rolling volleys
  had done their work, was merely "presenting the cheque for payment" as
  a modern German writer puts it. The cheque had been drawn, the
  decision given, in the fire-fight.


  Leuthen.

For some years this method of infantry training gave the Prussians a
decisive superiority in whatever order they fought. But their enemies
improved and also grew in numbers, while the Prussian army's resources
were strictly limited. Thus in the Seven Years' War, after the two
costly battles of Prague and Kolin (1757) especially, it became
necessary to manoeuvre with the object of bringing the Prussian infantry
into contact with an equal or if possible smaller portion of the enemy's
line. If this could be achieved, victory was as certain as ever, but the
difficulties of bringing about a successful manoeuvre were such that the
classical "oblique order" attack was only once completely executed. This
was at Leuthen, December 5th, 1757, perhaps the greatest day in the
history of the Prussian army. Here, in a rolling plain country
occasionally broken by marshes and villages, the "oblique order" was
executed at high speed and with clockwork precision. Frederick's object
was to destroy the left of the Austrian army (which far outnumbered his
own) before the rest of their deployed line of battle could change front
to intervene. His method was to place his own line, by a concealed flank
march, opposite the point where he desired to strike, and then to
advance, not in two long lines but in échelon of battalions from the
right (see LEUTHEN). The échelon was not so deep but that each battalion
was properly supported by the following one on its left (100 paces
distance), and each, as it came within 200 yds. of the Austrian
battalion facing it, opened its "rolling volleys" while continuing to
advance; thus long before the left and most backward battalions were
committed to the fight, the right battalions were crumbling the Austrian
infantry units one by one from left to right. It was the same, without
parade manoeuvres, when at last the Austrians managed to organize a line
of defence about Leuthen village. Unable to make an elaborate change of
front with the whole centre and right wing for want of time, they could
do no more than crowd troops about Leuthen, on a short fighting front,
and this crumbled in turn before the Prussian volleys.

One lesson of Leuthen that contemporary soldiers took to heart was that
even a two-to-one superiority in numbers could not remedy want of
manoeuvring capacity. It might be hoped that with training and drill an
Austrian battalion could be made equal to a Prussian one in the
front-to-front fight, and in fact, as losses told more and more heavily
on Frederick's army as years went on, the specific superiority of his
infantry disappeared. From 1758 therefore, to the end of the war, there
were no more Rossbachs and Leuthens. Superiority in efficiency through
previous training having exhausted its influence, superiority in force
through manoeuvre began to be the general's ideal, and as it was a more
familiar notion to the average Prussian general, trained to manoeuvre,
than to his opponent, whose idea of "manoeuvre" was to sidle carefully
from one _position_ to another, Prussian generalship maintained its
superiority, in spite of many reverses, to the end. The last campaigns
were indeed a war of positions, because Frederick had no longer the men
available for forcing the Austrians out of them, and on many occasions
he was so weak that the most passive defensive and the most elaborate
entrenchments barely sufficed to save him. But whenever opportunity
offered itself, the king sought a decisive success by bringing the whole
of his infantry against part of the enemy's--the principle of Leuthen
put in practice over a wider area and with more elastic manoeuvre
methods. The long échelon of battalions directed against a part of the
hostile line developed quite naturally into an irregular échelon of
brigade columns directed against a part of the enemy's position. But the
history of the "cordon system" which followed this development belongs
rather to the subject of tactics in general than to that of infantry
fighting methods. Within the unit the tactical method scarcely varied.
In a battle each battalion or brigade fought as a unit in line, using
company volleys and seeking the decision by fire.


  Controversies and developments, 1760-1790.

In this, and in even the most minute details of drill and uniform,
military Europe slavishly copied Prussia for twenty years after the
Seven Years' War. The services of ex-Prussian officers were at a premium
just as those of Gustavus's officers had been 150 years before. Military
missions from all countries went to Potsdam or to the "Reviews" to study
Prussian methods, with as simple a faith in their adequacy as that shown
to-day by small states and half-civilized kingdoms who send military
representatives to serve in the great European armies. And withal, the
period 1763-1792 is full of tactical and strategical controversies. The
principal of these, as regards infantry, was that between "fire" and
"shock" revived about 1710 by Folard, and about 1780 the American War of
Independence complicated it by introducing a fresh controversy between
_skirmishing_ and _close order_. As to the first, in Folard's day as in
Frederick's, fire action at close range was the deciding factor in
battle, but in Frederick's later campaigns, wherein he no longer
disposed of the old Prussian infantry and its swift mechanical
fire-discipline, there sprang up a tendency to trust to the bayonet for
the decision. If the (so-called) Prussian infantry of 1762 could be in
any way brought to close with the enemy, it had a fair chance of victory
owing to its leaders' previous dispositions, and then the advocates of
"shock," who had temporarily been silenced by Mollwitz and
Hohenfriedberg, again took courage. The ordinary line was primarily a
formation for fire, and only secondarily or by the accident of
circumstances for shock, and, chiefly perhaps under Saxe's influence,
the French army had for many years been accustomed to differentiate
between "linear" formations for fire and "columnar" for attack--thus
reverting to 16th-century practice. While, therefore, the theoreticians
pleaded for battalion columns and the bayonet or for line and the
bullet, the practical soldier used both. Many forms of combined line and
column were tried, but in France, where the question was most
assiduously studied, no agreement had been arrived at when the advent of
the skirmisher further complicated the issues.

  In the early Silesian wars, when armies fought in open country in
  linear order, the outpost service scarcely concerned the line troops
  sufficiently to cause them to get under arms at the sound of firing on
  the sentry line. It was performed by irregular light troops, recruited
  from wild characters of all nations, who were also charged with the
  preliminary skirmishing necessary to clear up the situation before the
  deployment of the battle-army, but once the line opened fire their
  work was done and they cleared away to the flanks (generally in search
  of plunder). Later, however, as the preliminary manoeuvring before the
  battle grew in importance and the ground taken into the manoeuvring
  zone was more varied and extended than formerly, light infantry was
  more and more in demand--in a "cordon" defensive for patrolling the
  intervals between the various detachments of line troops, in an attack
  for clearing the way for the deployment of each column. Yet in all
  this there was no suggestion that light troops or skirmishers were
  capable of bringing about the decision in an armed conflict. When
  Frederick gained a durable peace in 1763 he dismissed his "free
  battalions" without mercy, and by 1764 not more than one Prussian
  soldier in eleven was an "irregular," either of horse or foot.[10]


    Light Infantry.

  But in the American War of Independence the line was pitted against
  light infantry in difficult country, and the British and French
  officers who served in it returned to Europe full of enthusiasm for
  the latter. Nevertheless, their light infantry was, unlike
  Frederick's, _selected line infantry_. The light infantry
  duties--skirmishing, reconnaissance, outposts--were grafted on to a
  thorough close-order training. At first these duties fell to the
  grenadiers and light companies of each battalion, but during the
  struggle in the colonies, the light companies of a brigade were so
  frequently massed in one battalion that in the end whole regiments
  were converted into light infantry. This combination of "line"
  steadiness and "skirmisher" freedom was the keynote of Sir John
  Moore's training system fifteen years later, and Moore's regiments,
  above all the 52nd, 43rd (now combined as the Oxfordshire Light
  Infantry) and 95th Rifles (Rifle Brigade), were the backbone of the
  British Army throughout the Peninsular War. At Waterloo the 52nd,
  changing front in line at the double, flung itself on the head and
  flank of the Old Guard infantry, and with the "rolling volleys"
  inherited from the Seven Years' War, shattered it in a few minutes.
  Such an exploit would have been absolutely inconceivable in the case
  of one of the old "free battalions." But the light infantry had not
  merely been levelled up to the line, it had surpassed it, and in 1815
  there were no troops in Europe, whether trained to fight in line or
  column or skirmishers, who could rival the three regiments named, the
  "Light Division" of Peninsular annals. For meantime the infantry
  organization and tactics of the old régime, elsewhere than in England,
  had been disintegrated by the flames of the French Revolution, and
  from their ashes a new system had arisen, which forms the real
  starting-point of the infantry tactics of to-day.


  The French Revolution.

The controversialists of Louis XVI.'s time, foremost of whom were
Guibert, Joly de Maizeroy and Menil Durand (see Max Jähns, _Gesch. d.
Kriegswissenschaften_, vol. iii.), were agreed that shock action should
be the work of troops formed in column, but as to the results to be
expected from shock action, the extent to which it should be facilitated
by a previous fire preparation, and the formations In which fire should
be delivered (line, line with skirmishers or "swarms") discussion was so
warm that it sometimes led to wrangles in ladies' drawing-rooms and
meetings in the duelling field. The drill-book for the French infantry
issued shortly before the Revolution was a common-sense compromise,
which in the main adhered to the Frederician system as modified by
Guibert, but gave an important place in infantry tactics to the
battalion "columns of attack," that had hitherto appeared only
spasmodically on the battlefields of the French army and never
elsewhere. This, however, and the quick march (100 paces to the minute
instead of the Frederician 75) were the only prescriptions in the
drill-book that survived the test of a "national" war, to which within a
few years it was subjected (see FRENCH REVOLUTIONARY WARS). The rest,
like the "linear system" of organization and manoeuvre to which it
belonged (see ARMY, §§ 30-33; CONSCRIPTION, &c.) was ignored, and
circumstances and the practical troop-leaders evolved by circumstances
fashioned the combination of _close-order columns and loose-order
skirmishers_ which constituted essentially the new tactics of the
Revolutionary and Napoleonic infantry.


  Tactical evolution in France 1792-1807.

The process of evolution cannot be stated in exact terms, more
especially as the officers, as they grew in wisdom through experience,
learned to apply each form in accordance with ground and circumstances,
and to reject, when unsuitable, not only the forms of the drill-book,
but the forms proposed by themselves to replace those of the drill-book.
But certain tendencies are easily discernible. The first tendency was
towards the dissolution of all tactical links. The earlier battles were
fought partly in line for fire action, partly in columns for the bayonet
attack. Now the linear tactics depended on exact preservation of
dressing, intervals and distances, and what required in the case of the
Prussians years of steady drill at 76 paces to the minute was hardly
attainable with the newly levied ardent Frenchmen marching at 100 to
120. Once, therefore, the line moved, it broke up into an irregular
swarm of excited firers, and experience soon proved that only the troops
kept out of the turmoil, whether in line or in column, were susceptible
of manoeuvre and united action. Thus from about 1795 onwards the forms
of the old régime, with half the troops in front in line of battle
(practically in dense hordes of firers) and the other half in rear in
line or line of columns, give way to new ones in which the skirmishers
are fewer and the closed troops more numerous, and the decision rests no
longer with the fire of the leading units (which of course could not
compare in effectiveness with the rolling volleys of the drilled line)
but with the bayonets of the second and third lines--the latter being
sometimes in line but more often, owing to the want of preliminary
drill, in columns. The skirmishers tended again to become pure light
infantry, whose rôle was to prepare, not to give, the decision, and who
fought in a thin line, taking every advantage of cover and marksmanship.
In the Consulate and early Empire, indeed, we commonly find, in the
closed troops destined for the attack, mixed line and column formations
combining in themselves shock and controlled close-order
fire--absolutely regardless of the skirmishers in front.

In sum, then, from 1792 to 1795 the fighting methods of the French
infantry, of which so much has been written and said, are, as they have
aptly been called, "horde-tactics." From 1796 onwards to the first
campaigns of the Empire, on the other hand, there is an ever-growing
tendency to combine skirmishers, properly so called, with controlled and
well-closed bodies in rear, the first to prepare the attack to the best
of their ability by individual courage and skill at arms, the second to
deliver it at the right moment (thanks to their retention of manoeuvre
formations), and with all possible energy (thanks to the cohesion, moral
and material, which carried forward even the laggards). Even when in the
long wars of the Empire the quality of the troops progressively
deteriorated, infantry tactics within the regiment or brigade underwent
no radical alteration. The actual formations were most varied, but they
always contained two of the three elements, column, line and
skirmishers. Column (generally two lines of battalions in columns of
double-companies) was for shock or attack, line for fire-effect, and
skirmishers to screen the advance, to scout the ground and to disturb
the enemy's aim. Of these, except on the defensive (which was rare in a
Napoleonic battle), the "column" of attack was by far the most
important. The line formations for fire, with which it was often
combined, rarely accounted for more than one-quarter of the brigade or
division, while the skirmishers were still less numerous. Withal, these
formations in themselves were merely fresh shapes for old ideas. The
armament of Napoleon's troops was almost identical with that of
Frederick's or Saxe's. Line, column and combinations of the two were as
old as Fontenoy and were, moreover, destined to live for many years
after Napoleon had fallen. "Horde-tactics" did not survive the earlier
Revolutionary campaigns. Wherein then lies the change which makes 1792
rather than 1740 the starting-point of modern tactics?


  Napoleon's infantry and artillery tactics, 1807-1815.

The answer, in so far as so comprehensive a question can be answered
from a purely infantry standpoint, is that whereas Frederick, disposing
of a small and highly finished instrument, used its manoeuvre power and
regimental efficiency to destroy one part of his enemy so swiftly that
the other had no time to intervene, Napoleon, who had numbers rather
than training on his side, only delivered his decisive blow after he had
"fixed" all bodies of the enemy which would interfere with his
preparations--i.e. had set up a physical barrier against the threatened
intervention. This new idea manifested itself in various forms. In
strategy (q.v.) and combined tactics it is generally for convenience
called "economy of force." In the domain of artillery (see ARTILLERY) it
marked a distinction, that has revived in the last twenty years, between
slow disintegrating fire and sudden and overpowering "fire-preparation."
As regards infantry the effect of it was revolutionary. Regiments and
brigades were launched to the attack to compel the enemy to defend
himself, and fought until completely dissolved to force him to use up
his reserves. "On s'engage partout et puis l'on voit" is Napoleon's own
description of his _holding attack_, which in no way resembled the
"feints" of previous generations. The self-sacrifice of the men thus
engaged enabled their commander to "see," and to mass his reserves
opposite a selected point, while little by little the enemy was
hypnotized by the fighting. Lastly, when "the battle was ripe" a hundred
and more guns galloped into close range and practically annihilated a
part of the defender's line. They were followed up by masses of reserve
infantry, often more solidly formed at the outset than the old Swiss
masses of the 16th century.[11] If the moment was rightly chosen these
masses, dissolved though they soon were into dense formless crowds,
penetrated the gap made by the guns (with their arms at the slope) and
were quickly followed by cavalry divisions to complete the enemy's
defeat. Here, too, it is to be observed there is no true shock. The
infantry masses merely "present the cheque for payment," and apart from
surprises, ambushes and fights in woods and villages there are few
recorded cases of bayonets being crossed in these wars. Napoleon himself
said "Le feu est tout, le reste peu de chose," and though a mere plan of
his dispositions suggests that he was the disciple of Folard and Menil
Durand, in reality he simply applied "fire-power" in the new and grander
form which his own genius imagined.

The problem, then, was not what it had been one hundred and fifty years
before. The business of the attack was not to break down the passive
resistance of the defence, but to destroy or to evade its fire-power. No
attack with the bayonet could succeed if this remained effective and
unbroken, and no resistance (in the open field at least) availed when it
had been mastered or evaded. In Napoleon's army, the circumstance that
the infantry was (after 1807) incapable of carrying out its own
fire-preparation forced the task into the hands of the field artillery.
In other armies the 18th-century system had been discredited by repeated
disasters, and the infantry, as it became "nationalized," was passing
slowly through the successive phases of irregular lines, "swarms,"
skirmishers and line-and-column formations that the French Revolutionary
armies had traversed before them--none of them methods that in
themselves had given decisive results.


  The British Peninsular infantry.

In all Europe the only infantry that represented the Frederician
tradition and prepared its own charge by its own fire was the British.
Eye-witnesses who served in the ranks of the French have described the
sensation of powerlessness that they felt as their attacking column
approached the line and watched it load and come to the present. The
column stopped short, a few men cheered, others opened a ragged
individual fire, and then came the volleys and the counter-attack that
swept away the column. Sometimes this counterstroke was made, as in the
famous case of Busaco, from an apparently unoccupied ridge, for the
British line, under Moore's guidance, had shaken off the Prussian
stiffness, fought 2 deep instead of 3 and was able to take advantage of
cover. The "blankness of the battlefield" noted by so many observers
to-day in the South African and Manchurian Wars was fully as
characteristic of Wellington's battles from Vimeiro to Waterloo, in
spite of close order and red uniforms. But these battles were of the
offensive-defensive type in the main, and for various reasons this type
could not be accepted as normal by the rest of Europe. Nonchalance was
not characteristic of the eager national levies of 1813 and 1814, and
the Wellington method of infantry tactics, though it had brought about
the failure of Napoleon's last effort, was still generally regarded as
an illustration of the already recognized fact that on the defensive the
fire-power of the line, unless partly or wholly evaded by rapidity in
the advance and manoeuvring power or mastered and extinguished by the
fire-power of the attack, made the front of the defence impregnable.
There was indeed nothing in the English tactics at Waterloo that,
standing out from the incidents of the battle, offered a new principle
of winning battles.


  Infantry methods, 1815-1870.

Nor indeed did Europe at large desire a fresh era of warfare. Only the
French, and a few unofficial students of war elsewhere, realized the
significance of the rejuvenated "line." For every one else, the later
Napoleonic battle was the model, and as the great wars had ended before
the "national" spirit had been exhausted or misused in wars of
aggrandizement, infantry tactics retained, in Germany, Austria and
Russia, the characteristic Napoleonic formations, lines of battalion or
regimental columns, sometimes combined with linear formations for fire,
and always covered by skirmishers. That these columns must in action
dissolve sooner or later into dense irregular swarms was of course
foreseen, but Napoleon had accustomed the world to long and costly
fire-fighting as the preliminary to the attack of the massed reserves,
and for the short remainder of the period of smooth-bore muskets, troops
were always launched to the attack in columns covered by a thin line of
picked shots as skirmishers. The moral power of the offensive "will to
conquer" and the rapidity of the attack itself were relied upon to evade
and disconcert the fire-power of the defence. If the attack failed to do
so, the ranges at which infantry fire was really destructive were so
small that it was easy for the columns to deploy or disperse and open a
fire-fight to prepare the way for the next line of columns. And after a
careful study of the battle of the Alma, in which the British line won
its last great victory in the open field, Moltke himself only proposed
such modifications in the accepted tactical system as would admit of the
troops being deployed for _defence_ instead of meeting attack, as the
Russians met it, in solid and almost stationary columns. Fire in the
attack, in fact, had come to be considered as chiefly the work of
artillery, and as artillery, being an expensive arm, had been reduced
during the period of military stagnation following Waterloo, and was no
longer capable of Napoleonic feats, the attack was generally a bayonet
attack pure and simple. Waterloo and the Alma were credited, not to
fire-power, but to English solidity, and as Ardant du Picq observes,
"All the peoples of Europe say 'no one can resist our bayonet attack if
it is made resolutely'--and _all are right_.... Bayonet fixed or in the
scabbard, it is all the same." Since the disappearance of the "dark
impenetrable wood" of spears, the question has always turned on the word
"resolute." If the defence cannot by any means succeed in mastering the
resolution of the assailant, it is doomed. But the means (moral and
material) at the disposal of the defence for the purpose of mastering
this resolution were, within a few years of the Crimean War,
revolutionized by the general adoption of the rifle, the introduction of
the breech-loader and the revival of the "nation in arms."

Thirty years before the Crimea the flint-lock had given way to the
percussion lock (see GUN), which was more certain in its action and
could be used in all weathers. But fitting a copper cap on the nipple
was not so simple a matter for nervous fingers as priming with a pinch
of powder, and the usual rate of fire had fallen from the five rounds a
minute of Frederick's day to two or three at the most. "Fire-power"
therefore was at a low level until the general introduction[12] of the
rifled barrel, which while further diminishing the rate of fire, at any
rate greatly increased the range at which volleys were thoroughly
effective. Artillery (see ARTILLERY, § 13), the fire-weapon of the
attack, made no corresponding progress, and even as early as the Alma
and Inkerman (where the British troops used the Minie rifle) the dense
columns had suffered heavily without being able to retaliate by
"crossing bayonets." Fire power, therefore, though still the special
prerogative of the defence, began to reassert its influence, and for a
brief period the defensive was regarded as the best form of tactics. But
the low rate of fire was still a serious objection. Many incidents in
the American Civil War showed this, notably Fredericksburg, where the
key of the Confederate position was held--against a simple frontal
attack unsupported by effective artillery fire--by three brigades in
line one behind the other, i.e. by a _six-deep_ firing line. No less
force could guarantee the "inviolability of the front," and even when,
in this unnatural and uneconomical fashion, the rate of fire was
augmented as well as the effective range, a properly massed and well-led
attack in column (or in a rapid succession of deployed lines) generally
reached the defender's position, though often in such disorder that a
resolute counterstroke drove it back again. The American fought over
more difficult country and with less previous drill-training than the
armies of the Old World. The fire-power of the defence, therefore, that
even in America did not always prevail over the resolution of the
attack, entirely failed in the Italian war of 1859 to stop the swiftly
moving, well-drilled columns of the French professional army, in which
the national _élan_ had not as yet been suppressed, as it was a few
years later, by the doctrine that "the new arms found their greatest
scope in the defence." The Austrians, who had pinned their faith to this
doctrine, deserted their false gods, forbade any mention of the
defensive in their drill-books, and brought back into honour the bayonet
tactics of the old wars.

The need of artillery support for the attack was indeed felt (though the
gunners had not as yet evolved any substitute for the case-shot
preparation of Napoleon's time), but men remembered that artillery was
used by the great captain, not so much to enable good troops to close
with the enemy, as to win battles with masses of troops of an inferior
stamp, and contemporary experience seemed to show that (if losses were
accepted as inevitable) good and resolute troops could overpower the
defence, even in face of the rifle and without the aid of case shot. But
a revolution was at hand.


  The breech-loading rifle.

In 1861 Moltke, discussing the war in Italy, wrote, "General Niel
attributes his victory (at Solferino) to the bayonet. But that does not
imply that the attack was often followed by a hand-to-hand fight. In
principle, when one makes a bayonet charge, it is because one supposes
that the enemy will not await it.... _To approach the enemy closely,
pouring an efficacious fire into him_--as Frederick the Great's infantry
did--_is also a method of the offensive_." This method was applicable at
that time for the Prussians alone, for they alone possessed a
breech-loading firearm. The needle-gun was a rudimentary weapon in many
respects, but it allowed of maintaining more than twice the rate of fire
that the muzzle-loader could give, and, moreover, it permitted the full
use of cover, because the firer could lie down to fire without having to
rise between every round to load. Further, he could load while actually
running forward, whereas with the old arms loading not only required
complete exposure but also checked movement. The advantages of the
Prussian weapon were further enhanced, in the war against Austria, by
the revulsion of feeling in the Imperial army in favour of the pure
bayonet charge in masses that had followed upon Magenta and Solferino.

With the stiffly drilled professional soldier of England, Austria and
Russia the handiness of the new weapon could hardly have been exploited,
for (in Russia at any rate) even skirmishers had to march in step. The
Prussians were drilled nominally in accordance with regulations dating
from 1812, and therefore suitable, if not to the new weapon, at least to
the "swarm" fighting of an enthusiastic national army, but upon these
regulations a mass of peace-time amendments had been superposed, and in
theory their drill was as stiff as that of the Russians. But, as in
France in 1793-1796, the composition of their army--a true "nation in
arms"--and the character of the officers evolved by the universal
service system saved them from their regulations. The offensive spirit
was inculcated as thoroughly as elsewhere, and in a much more practical
form. Dietrich von Bülow's predictions of the future battle of
"skirmishers" (meaning thereby a dense but irregular firing line) had
captivated the younger school of officers, while King William and the
veterans of Napoleon's wars were careful to maintain small columns
(sometimes company[13] columns of 240 rifles, but quite as often
half-battalion and battalion columns) as a solid background to the
firing line. Thus in 1866 (see SEVEN WEEKS' WAR), as Moltke had
foreseen, the attacking infantry fought its way to close quarters by
means of its own fire, and the bayonet charge again became, in his own
words, "not the first, but the last, phase of the combat," immediately
succeeding a last burst of rapid fire at short range and carried out by
the company and battalion reserves in close order. Against the
Austrians, whose tactics alternated between unprepared bayonet rushes by
whole brigades and a passive slow-firing defensive, victory was easily
achieved.


  Infantry in the war of 1870.

But immediately after Königgrätz the French army was served out with a
breech-loading rifle greatly superior in every respect to the
needle-gun, and after four years' tension France pitted breech-loader
against breech-loader. In the first battles (see WÖRTH, and METZ:
_Battles_) the decision-seeking spirit of the "armed nation," the
inferior range of the needle-gun as compared with that of the chassepot,
and the recollections of easy triumphs in 1864 and 1866, all combined to
drive the German infantry forward to within easy range before they began
to make use of their weapons. Their powerful artillery would have
sufficed of itself to enable them to do this (see SEDAN), had they but
waited for its fire to take effect. But they did not, and they suffered
accordingly, for, owing to the ineffectiveness of their rifle between
1000 and 400 yds. range, they had to advance, as the Austrians and
Russians had done in previous wars, without firing a shot. In these
circumstances their formations, whether line or column, broke up, and
the whole attacking force dissolved into long irregular swarms. These
swarms were practically composed only of the brave men, while the rest
huddled together in woods and valleys. When, therefore, at last the
firing line came within 400 or 500 yds. of the French, it was both
severely tried and numerically weak, but the fact that it was composed
of the best men only enabled it to open and to maintain an effective
fire. Even then the French, highly disciplined professional soldiers
that they were, repeatedly swept them back by counterstrokes, but these
counterstrokes were subjected to the fire of the German guns and were
never more than locally and momentarily effective. More and more German
infantry was pushed forward to support the firing line, and, like its
predecessors, each reinforcement, losing most of its unwilling men as it
advanced over the shot-swept ground, consisted on arrival of really
determined men, and closing on the firing line pushed it forward,
sometimes 20 yds., sometimes 100, until at last rapid fire at the
closest ranges dislodged the stubborn defenders. Bayonets (as usual)
were never actually used, save in sudden encounters in woods and
villages. The decisive factors were, first the superiority of the
Prussian guns, secondly, heavy and effective fire delivered at short
range, and above all the high moral of a proportion of resolute soldiers
who, after being subjected for hours to the most demoralizing
influences, had still courage left for the final dash. These three
factors, in spite of changes in armament, rule the infantry attack of
to-day.


INFANTRY TACTICS SINCE 1870

The net result of the Franco-German War on infantry tactics, as far as
it can be summed up in a single phrase, was to transfer the fire-fight
to the line of skirmishers. Henceforward the old and correct sense of
the word "skirmishers" is lost. They have nothing to do with a
"skirmish," but are the actual organ of battle, and their old duties of
feeling the way for the battle-formations have been taken over by
"scouts." The last-named were not, however, fully recognized in Great
Britain[14] till long after the war--not in fact until the war in South
Africa had shown that the "skirmisher" or firing line was too powerful
an engine to be employed in mere "feeling." In most European armies
"combat patrols," which work more freely, are preferred to scouts, but
the idea is the same.


  Lessons of 1870.

The fire-fight on the line of skirmishers, now styled the _firing line_,
is the centre of gravity of the modern battle. In 1870, owing to the
peculiar circumstances of unequal armament, the "fire-fight" was
insufficiently developed and uneconomically used, and after the war
tacticians turned their attention to the evolution of better methods
than those of Wörth and Gravelotte, Europe in general following the lead
of Prussia. Controversy, in the early stages, took the form of a contest
between "drill" and "individualism," irrespective of formations and
technical details, for until about 1890 the material efficiency of the
gun and the rifle remained very much what it had been in 1870, and the
only new factor bearing on infantry tactics was the general adoption of
a "national army" system similar to Prussia's and of rifles equal, and
in some ways superior, to the chassepot. All European armies, therefore,
had to consider equality in artillery power, equality in the ballistics
of rifles, and equal intensity of fighting spirit as the normal
conditions of the next battle of nations. Here, in fact, was an
equilibrium, and in such conditions how was the attacking infantry to
force its way forward, whether by fire or movement or by both? France
sought the answer in the domain of artillery. Under the guidance of
General Langlois, she re-created the Napoleonic hurricane of case-shot
(represented in modern conditions by time shrapnel), while from the
doctrine formed by Generals Maillard and Bonnal there came a system of
infantry tactics derived fundamentally from the tactics of the
Napoleonic era. This, however, came later; for the moment (viz. from
1871 to about 1890) the lead in infantry training was admittedly in the
hands of the Prussians.

German officers who had fought through the war had seen the operations,
generally speaking, either from the staff officer's or from the
regimental officer's point of view. To the former and to many of the
latter the most indelible impression of the battlefield was what they
called _Massen-Drückebergertum_ or "wholesale skulking." The rest, who
had perhaps in most cases led the brave remnant of their companies in
the final assaults, believed that battles were won by the individual
soldier and his rifle. The difference between the two may be said to lie
in this, that the first sought a remedy, the second a method. The remedy
was _drill_, the method _extended order_.

The extreme statement of the case in favour of drill pure and simple is
to be found in the famous anonymous pamphlet _A Summer Night's Dream_,
in which a return to the "old Prussian fire-discipline" of Frederick's
day was offered as the solution of the problem, how to give "fire" its
maximum efficacity. Volleys and absolutely mechanical obedience to word
of command represent, of course, the most complete application of
fire-power that can be conceived. But the proposals of the extreme
close-order school were nevertheless merely pious aspirations, not so
much because of the introduction of the breech-loader as because the
short-service "national" army can never be "drilled" in the Frederician
sense. The proposals of the other school were, however, even more
impracticable, in that they rested on the hypothesis that all men were
brave, and that, consequently, all that was necessary was to teach the
recruit how to shoot and to work with other individuals in the squad or
company. Disorder of the firing line was accepted, not as an unavoidable
evil, but as a condition in which individuality had full play, and as
dense swarm formations were quite as vulnerable as an ordinary line, it
was an easy step from a thick line of "individuals" to a thin one. The
step was, in fact, made in the middle of the war of 1870, though it was
hardly noticed that extension only became practicable in proportion as
the quality of the enemy decreased and the Germans became acclimatized
to fire.

Between these extremes, a moderate school, with the emperor William (who
had more experience of the human being in battle than any of his
officers) at its head, spent a few years in groping for close-order
formations which admitted of control without vulnerability, then laid
down the principle and studied the method of developing the greatest
fire-power of which short-service infantry was supposed capable,
ultimately combined the "drill" and teaching ideas in the German
infantry regulations of 1888, which at last abolished those of 1812 with
their multitudinous amendments.


  Conditions of the modern battle.

The necessity for "teaching" arose partly out of the new conditions of
service and the relative rarity of wars. The soldier could no longer
learn the ordinary rules of safety in action and comfort in bivouac by
experience, and had to be taught. But it was still more the new
conditions of fighting that demanded careful individual training. Of
old, the professional soldier (other than the man belonging to light
troops or the ground scout) was, roughly speaking, either so far out of
immediate danger as to preserve his reasoning faculties, or so deep in
battle that he became the unconscious agent of his inborn or acquired
instincts. But the increased range of modern arms prolonged the time of
danger, and although (judged by casualty returns) the losses to-day are
far less than those which any regiment of Frederick's day was expected
to face without flinching, and actual fighting is apparently spasmodic,
the period in which the individual soldier is subjected to the fear of
bullets is greatly increased. Zorndorf, the most severe of Frederick's
battles, lasted seven hours, Vionville twelve and Wörth eleven. The
battle of the future in Europe, without being as prolonged as Liao-Yang,
Shaho and Mukden, will still be undecided twenty-four hours after the
advanced guards have taken contact. Now, for a great part of this time,
the "old Prussian fire-discipline," which above all aims at a rapid
decision, will be not only unnecessary, but actually hurtful to the
progress of the battle as a whole. As in Napoleon's day (for reasons
presently to be mentioned) the battle must resolve itself into a
preparative and a decisive phase.[15] In the last no commander could
desire a better instrument (if such were attainable with the armies of
to-day) than Frederick's forged steel machine, in which every company
was human mitrailleuse. But the preparatory combat not only will be
long, but also must be graduated in intensity at different times and
places in accordance with the commander's will, and the Frederician
battalion only attained its mechanical perfection by the absolute and
permanent submergence of the individual qualities of each soldier, with
the result that, although it furnished the maximum effort in the minimum
time, it was useless once it fell apart into ragged groups. The
individual spirit of earnestness and intelligence in the use of ground
by small fractions, which in Napoleon's day made the _combat d'usure_
possible, was necessarily unknown in Frederick's. On the other hand,
graduation implies control on the part of the leaders, and this the
method of irregular swarms of individual fighters imagined by the German
progressives merely abdicates. At most such swarms--however close or
extended--can only be tolerated as an evil that no human power can avert
when the battle has reached a certain stage of intensity. Even the
latest _German Infantry Training_ (1906) is explicit on this point. "It
must never be forgotten that the obligation of abandoning close order is
an evil which can often be avoided when" &c. &c. (par. 342). The
consequences of this evil, further, are actually less serious in
proportion as the troops are well drilled--not to an unnecessary and
unattainable ideal of mechanical perfection, but to a state of
instinctive self-control in danger. Drill, therefore, carried to such a
point that it has eliminated the bad habits of the recruit without
detriment to his good habits, is still the true basis of all military
training, whether training be required for the swift controlled
movements of bodies of infantry in close order, for the cool and steady
fire of scattered groups of skirmishers, or for the final act of the
resolute will embodied in the "decisive attack." Unfortunately for the
solution of infantry problems "drill" and "close order" are often
confused, owing chiefly to the fact that in the 1870 battles the
dissolution of close order formations practically meant the end of
control as control was then understood. Both the material and objective,
and the inward and spiritual significances of "drill" are, however,
independent of "close order." In fact, in modern history, when a
resolute general has made a true decisive attack with half-drilled
troops, he has generally arrayed them in the closest possible
formations.


    Drill.

  Drill is the military form of education by repetition and association
  (see G. le Bon, _Psychologie de l'éducation_). Materially it consists
  in exercises frequently repeated by bodies of soldiers with a view to
  ensuring the harmonious action of each individual in the work to be
  performed by the mass--in a word, rehearsals. Physical "drill" is
  based on physiology and gymnastics, and aims at the development of the
  physique and the individual will power.[16] But the psychological or
  moral is incomparably the most important side of drill. It is the
  method or art of discipline. Neither self-control nor devotion in the
  face of imminent danger can as a rule come from individual reasoning.
  A commander-in-chief keeps himself free from the contact with the
  turmoil of battle so long as he has to calculate, to study reports or
  to manoeuvre, and commanders of lower grades, in proportion as their
  duty brings them into the midst of danger, are subjected to greater or
  less disturbing influences. The man in the fighting line where the
  danger is greatest is altogether the slave of the unconscious.
  Overtaxed infantry, whether defeated or successful, have been observed
  to present an appearance of absolute insanity. It is true that in the
  special case of great war experience reason resumes part of its
  dominion in proportion as the fight becomes the soldier's habitual
  _milieu_. Thus towards the end of a long war men become skilful and
  cunning individual fighters; sometimes, too, feelings of respect for
  the enemy arise and lead to interchange of courtesies at the outposts,
  and it has also been noticed that in the last stage of a long war men
  are less inclined to sacrifice themselves. All this is "reason" as
  against inborn or inbred "instinct." But in the modern world, which is
  normally at peace, some method must be found of ensuring that the
  peace-trained soldier will carry out his duties when his reason is
  submerged. Now we know that the constant repetition of a certain act,
  whether on a given impulse or of the individual's own volition, will
  eventually make the performance of that act a reflex action. For this
  reason peace-drilled troops have often defeated a war-trained enemy,
  even when the motives for fighting were equally powerful on each side.
  The mechanical performance of movements, and loading and firing at the
  enemy, under the most disturbing conditions can be ensured by bringing
  the required self-control from the domain of reason into that of
  instinct. "_L'éducation_," says le Bon, "_est l'art de faire passer le
  conscient dans l'inconscient_." Lastly, the instincts of the recruit
  being those special to his race or nation, which are the more powerful
  because they are operative through many generations, it is the drill
  sergeant's business to bring about, by disuse, atrophy of the
  instincts which militate against soldierly efficiency, and to develop,
  by constant repetition and special preparation, other useful instincts
  which the Englishman or Frenchman or German does not as such possess.
  In short, as regards infantry training, there is no real distinction
  between drill and education, save in so far as the latter term covers
  instruction in small details of field service which demand alertness,
  shrewdness and technical knowledge (as distinct from technical
  training). As understood by the controversialists of the last
  generation, drill was the antithesis of education. To-day, however,
  the principle of education having prevailed against the old-fashioned
  notion of drill, it has been discovered that after all drill is merely
  an intensive form of education. This discovery (or rather definition
  and justification of an existing empirical rule) is attributable
  chiefly to a certain school of French officers, who seized more
  rapidly than civilians the significance of modern psycho-physiology.
  In their eyes, a military body possesses in a more marked degree than
  another, the primary requisite of the "psychological crowd," studied
  by Gustave le Bon, viz. the orientation of the wills of each and all
  members of the crowd in a determined direction. Such a crowd generates
  a collective will that dominates the wills of the individuals
  composing it. It coheres and acts on the common property of all the
  instincts and habits in which each shares. Further it tends to
  extremes of baseness and heroism--this being particularly marked in
  the military crowd--and lastly it reacts to a stimulus. The last is
  the keynote of the whole subject of infantry training as also, to a
  lesser degree, of that of the other arms. The officer can be regarded
  practically as a hypnotist playing upon the unconscious activities of
  his subject. In the lower grades, it is immaterial whether reason,
  caprice or a fresh set of instincts stimulated by an outside
  authority, set in motion the "suggestion." The true leader, whatever
  the provenance of his "suggestion," makes it effective by dominating
  the "psychological crowd" that he leads. On the other hand, if he
  fails to do so, he is himself dominated by the uncontrolled will of
  the crowd, and although leaderless mobs have at times shown extreme
  heroism, it is far more usual to find them reverting to the primitive
  instinct of brutality or panic fear. A mob, therefore, or a raw
  regiment, requires greater powers of suggestion in its leader, whereas
  a thorough course of drill tunes the "crowd" to respond to the
  stimulus that average officers can apply.

So far from diminishing, drill has increased in importance under modern
conditions of recruiting. It has merely changed in form, and instead of
being repressive it has become educative. The force of modern
short-service troops, as _troops_, is far sooner spent than that of the
old-fashioned automatic regiments, while the reserve force of its
component parts, remaining after the dissolution, is far higher than of
old. But this uncontrolled, force is liable to panic as well as amenable
to an impulse of self-sacrifice. In so far, then, it is necessary to
adopt the catchword of the Bülow school and to "organize disorder," and
the only known method of doing so is drill. "Individualism" pure and
simple had certainly a brief reign during and after the South African
War, especially in Great Britain, and both France and Germany coquetted
with "Boer tactics," until the Russo-Japanese war brought military
Europe back to the old principles.


  The South African War.

  Formulation of the British "Doctrine."

But the South African War came precisely at the point of time when the
controversies of 1870 had crystallized into a form of tactics that was
not suitable to the conditions of that war, while about the same time
the relations of infantry and artillery underwent a profound change. As
regards the South African War, the clear atmosphere, the trained sight
of the Boers, and the alternation of level plain and high concave kopjes
which constituted the usual battlefield, made the front to front
infantry attacks not merely difficult but almost impossible. For years,
indeed ever since the Peninsular War, the tendency of the British army
to deploy early had afforded a handle to European critics of its
tactical methods. It was a tendency that survived with the rest of the
"linear" tradition. But in South Africa, owing to the special advantages
of the defenders, which denied to the assailant all reliable indications
of the enemy's strength and positions, this early deployment had to take
a non-committal form--viz. many successive lines of skirmishers. The
application of this form was, indeed, made easy by the openness of the
ground, but like all "schematic" formations, open or close, it could not
be maintained under fire, with the special disadvantage that the
extensions were so wide as to make any manoeuvring after the fight had
cleared up a situation a practical impossibility. Hence some
_preconceived idea_ of an objective was an essential preliminary, and as
the Boer mounted infantry hardly ever stood to defend any particular
position to the last (as they could always renew the fight at some other
point in their vast territory), the preconceived idea was always, after
the early battles, an envelopment in which the troops told off to the
frontal holding attack were required, not to force their advance to its
logical conclusion, but to keep the fight alive until the flank attack
made itself felt. The principal tendency of British infantry tactics
after the Boer War was therefore quite naturally, under European as well
as colonial conditions, to deploy at the outset in great depth, i.e. in
many lines of skirmishers, each line, when within about 1400 yds. of the
enemy's position, extending to intervals of 10 to 20 paces between
individuals. The reserves were strong and their importance was well
marked in the 1902 training manual, but their functions were rather to
extend or feed the firing line, to serve as a rallying point in case of
defeat and to take up the pursuit (par. 220, _Infantry Training_, 1902),
than to form the engine of a decisive attack framed by the
commander-in-chief after "engaging everywhere and then seeing" as
Napoleon did. The 1905 regulations adhered to this theory of the attack
in the main, only modifying a number of tactical prescriptions which had
not proved satisfactory after their transplantation from South Africa to
Europe, but after the Russo-Japanese War a series of important
amendments was issued which gave greater force and still greater
elasticity to the attack procedure, and in 1909 the tactical "doctrine"
of the British army was definitively formulated in _Field Service
Regulations_, paragraph 102, of which after enumerating the advantages
and disadvantages of the "preconceived idea" system, laid it down, as
the normal procedure of the British Army, that the general should
"obtain the decision by _manoeuvre on the battlefield_ with a large
general reserve maintained in his own hand" and "_strike with his
reserve at the right place and time_."

The rehabilitation of the Napoleonic attack idea thus frankly accepted
in Great Britain had taken place in France several years before the
South African War, and neither this war nor that in Manchuria
effectively shook the faith of the French army in the principle, while
on the other hand Germany remains faithful to the "preconceived idea,"
both in strategy and tactics.[17] This essential difference in the two
rival "doctrines" is intimately connected with the revival of the
Napoleonic artillery attack, in the form of concentrated time shrapnel.

  The Napoleonic artillery preparation, it will be remembered, was a
  fire of overwhelming intensity delivered against the selected point of
  the enemy's position, at the moment of the massed and decisive assault
  of the reserves. In Napoleon's time the artillery went in to within
  300 or 400 yds. range for this act, i.e. in front of the infantry,
  whereas now the guns fire over the heads of the infantry and
  concentrate shells instead of guns on the vital point. The principle
  is, however, the same. A model infantry attack in the Napoleonic
  manner was that of Okasaki's brigade on the Terayama hill at the
  battle of Shaho, described by Sir Ian Hamilton in his _Staff Officer's
  Scrap-Book_. The Japanese, methodical and cautious as they were, only
  sanctioned a pure open force assault as a last resort. Then the
  brigadier Okasaki, a peculiarly resolute leader, arrayed his brigade
  in a "schematic" attack formation of four lines, the first two in
  single rank, the third in line and the fourth in company columns.
  Covered by a powerful converging shrapnel fire, the brigade covered
  the first 900 yds. of open plain without firing a shot. Then, however,
  it disappeared from sight amongst the houses of a village, and the
  spectators watched the thousands of flashes fringing the further edge
  that indicated a fire-fight at decisive range (the Terayama was about
  600 yds. beyond the houses). Forty minutes passed, and the army
  commander Kuroki said, "He cannot go forward. We are in check to-day
  all along the line." But at that moment Okasaki's men, no longer in a
  "schematic" formation but in many irregularly disposed groups--some of
  a dozen men and some of seventy, some widely extended and some
  practically in close order--rushed forward at full speed over 600 yds.
  of open ground, and stormed the Terayama with the bayonet.


  The decisive attack.

Such an attack as that at the battle of Shaho is rare, but so it has
always been with masterpieces of the art of war. We have only to
multiply the front of attack by two and the forces engaged by five--and
to find the resolute general to lead them--to obtain the ideal decisive
attack of a future European war. Instead of the bare open plain over
which the advance to decisive range was made, a European general would
in most cases dispose of an area of spinneys, farm-houses and undulating
fields. The schematic approach-march would be replaced in France and
England by a forward movement of bodies in close order, handy enough to
utilize the smallest covered ways. Then the fire of both infantry and
artillery would be augmented to its maximum intensity, overpowering that
of the defence, and the whole of the troops opposite the point to be
stormed would be thrown forward for the bayonet charge. The formation
for this scarcely matters. What is important is speed and the will to
conquer, and for this purpose small bodies (sections, half-companies or
companies), not in the close order of the drill book but grouped closely
about the leader who inspires and controls them, are as potent an
instrument as a Frederician line or a Napoleonic column.

Controversy, in fact, does not turn altogether on the method of the
assault, or even on the method of obtaining the fire-superiority of guns
and rifles that justifies it. Although one nation may rely on its guns
more than on the rifles, or vice versa, all are agreed that at decisive
range the firing line should contain as many men as can use their rifles
effectually. Perhaps the most disputed point is the form of the
"approach-march," viz. the dispositions and movements of the attacking
infantry between about 1400 and about 600 yds. from the position of the
enemy.


  The approach-march.

The condition of the assailant's infantry when it reaches decisive
ranges is largely governed by the efforts it has expended and the losses
it has suffered in its progress. Sometimes even after a firing line of
some strength has been established at decisive range, it may prove too
difficult or too costly for the supports (sent up from the rear to
replace casualties and to augment fire-power) to make their way to the
front. Often, again, it may be within the commander's intentions that
his troops at some particular point in the line should not be committed
to decisive action before a given time--perhaps not at all. It is
obvious then that no "normal" attack procedure which can be laid down in
a drill book (though from time to time the attempt has been made, as in
the French regulations of 1875) can meet all cases. But here again,
though all armies formally and explicitly condemn the normal attack,
each has its own well-marked tendencies.


  Current views on the infantry attack.

The German regulations of 1906 define the offensive as "transporting
fire towards the enemy, if necessary to his immediate proximity"; the
bayonet attack "confirms" the victory. Every attack begins with
deployment into extended order, and the leading line advances as close
to the enemy as possible before opening fire. In ground offering cover,
the firing line has practically its maximum density at the outset. In
open ground, however, half-sections, groups and individuals, widely
spaced out, advance stealthily one after the other till all are _in
position_. It is on this position, called the "first fire position" and
usually about 1000 yds. from the enemy, that the full force of the
attack is deployed, and from this position, as simultaneously as
possible, it opens the fight for fire-superiority. Then, each unit
covering the advance of its neighbours, the whole line fights its way by
open force to within charging distance. If at any point a decision is
not desired, it is deliberately made impossible by employing there such
small forces as possess no offensive power. Where the attack is intended
to be pushed home, the infantry units employed act as far as possible
simultaneously, resolutely and in great force (see the German _Infantry
Regulations_, 1906, §§ 324 et seq.).

While in Germany movement "transports the fire," in France fire is
regarded as the way to make movement possible. It is considered (see
Grandmaison, _Dressage de l'infanterie_) that a premature and excessive
deployment enervates the attack, that the ground (i.e. covered ways of
approach for small columns, not for troops showing a fire front) should
be used as long as possible to march "en troupe" and that a firing line
should only be formed when it is impossible to progress without acting
upon the enemy's means of resistance. Thereafter each unit, in such
order as its chief can keep, should fight its way forward, and help
others to do so--like Okasaki's brigade in the last stage of its
attack--utilizing bursts of fire or patches of wood or depressions in
the ground, as each is profitable or available to assist the advance.
"From the moment when a fighting unit is 'uncoupled,' its action must be
ruled by two conditions, and by those only: the one material, an object
to be reached; the other moral, the will to reach the object."

The British _Field Service Regulations_ of 1909 are in spirit more
closely allied to the French than to the German. "The climax of the
infantry attack is the assault, which is made possible by superiority of
fire" is the principle (emphasized in the book itself by the use of
conspicuous type), and a "gradual _building up of the firing line within
close range_ of the position," coupled with the closest artillery
support, and the final blow of the reserves delivered "unexpectedly and
in the greatest possible strength" are indicated as the means.[18]


  Defence.

The _defence_, as it used to be understood, needs no description. To-day
in all armies the defence is looked upon not as a means of winning a
battle, but as a means of temporizing and avoiding the decision until
the commander of the defending party is enabled, by the general military
situation or by the course and results of the defensive battle itself,
to take the offensive. In the British _Field Service Regulations_ it is
laid down that when an army acts on the defensive no less than half of
it should if possible be earmarked, suitably posted and placed under a
single commander, for the purpose of delivering a decisive
counter-attack. The object of the purely defensive portion, too, is not
merely to hold the enemy's firing line in check, but to drive it back so
that the enemy may be forced to use up his local reserve resources to
keep the fight alive. A firing line covered and steadied by
entrenchments, and restless local reserves ever on the look-out for
opportunities of partial counterstrokes, are the instruments of this
policy.


    Entrenchments.

  A word must be added on the use of entrenchments by infantry, a
  subject the technical aspect of which is fully dealt with and
  illustrated in FORTIFICATION AND SIEGECRAFT: _Field Defences_.
  Entrenchments of greater or less strength by themselves have always
  been used by infantry on the defensive, especially in the wars of
  position of the 17th and 18th centuries. In the Napoleonic and modern
  "wars of movement," they are regarded, not as a passive defence--they
  have long ceased to present a physical barrier to assault--but as fire
  positions so prepared as to be defensible by relatively few men. Their
  purpose is, by economizing force elsewhere, to give the maximum
  strength to the troops told off for the counter-offensive. In the
  later stages of the American Civil War, and also in the Russo-Japanese
  War of 1904-1905--each in its way an example of a "war of
  positions"--the assailant has also made use of the methods of
  fortification to secure every successive step of progress in the
  attack. The usefulness and limitations of this procedure are defined
  in generally similar terms in the most recent training manuals of
  nearly every European army. Section 136, § 7 of the British _Infantry
  Training_ (1905, amended 1907) says: "During the process of
  establishing a superiority of fire, successive fire positions will be
  occupied by the firing line. As a rule those affording natural cover
  will be chosen, but if none exist and the intensity of the hostile
  fire preclude any immediate further advance, it may be expedient for
  the firing line to create some. This hastily constructed protection
  will enable the attack to cope with the defender's fire and thus
  prepare the way for a farther advance. The construction of cover
  during an attack, however, will entail delay and a temporary loss of
  fire effect _and should therefore be resorted to only when absolutely
  necessary..._. As soon as possible the advance should be resumed, &c."
  The German regulations are as follows (_Infantry Training_, 1906, §
  313): "In the offensive the entrenching tool may be used where it is
  desired, for the moment, to content one's self with maintaining the
  ground gained.... The entrenching tool is only to be used with the
  greatest circumspection, because of the great difficulty of getting an
  extended line to go forward under fire when it has expended much
  effort in digging cover for itself. The construction of trenches must
  never paralyze the desire for the irresistible advance, _and above all
  must not kill the spirit of the offensive_."


  ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT

  The organization of infantry varies rather more than that of other
  arms in different countries. Taking the British system first, the
  battalion (and not as elsewhere the regiment of two, three or more
  battalions) is the administrative and manoeuvre unit. It is about 1000
  strong, and is commanded by a lieutenant-colonel, who has a major and
  an adjutant (captain or lieutenant) to assist him, and an officer of
  lieutenant's or captain's rank (almost invariably promoted from the
  ranks), styled the quartermaster, to deal with supplies, clothing, &c.
  There are eight companies of a nominal strength of about 120 each.
  These are commanded by captains (or by junior majors), and each
  captain has or should have two lieutenants or second lieutenants to
  assist him. Machine guns are in Great Britain distributed to the
  battalions and not massed in permanent batteries. In addition there
  are various regimental details, such as orderly-room staff, cooks,
  cyclists, signallers, band and ambulance men. The company is divided
  into four sections of thirty men each and commanded by sergeants. A
  half-company of two sections is under the control of a subaltern
  officer. A minor subdivision of the section into two "squads" is made
  unless the numbers are insufficient to warrant it. In administrative
  duties the captain's principal assistant is the colour-sergeant or
  pay-sergeant, who is not assigned to a section command. The
  lieutenant-colonel, the senior major and the adjutant are mounted. The
  commanding officer is assisted by a battalion staff, at the head of
  which is the adjutant. The sergeant-major holds a "warrant" from the
  secretary of state for war, as does the bandmaster. Other members of
  the battalion staff are non-commissioned officers, appointed by the
  commanding officer. The most important of these is the
  quartermaster-sergeant, who is the assistant of the quartermaster. The
  two colours ("king's" and "regimental") are in Great Britain carried
  by subalterns and escorted by colour-sergeants (see COLOURS).

  The "tactical" unit of infantry is now the _company_, which varies
  very greatly in strength in the different armies. Elsewhere the
  company of 250 rifles is almost universal, but in Great Britain the
  company has about 110 men in the ranks, forming four sections. These
  sections, each of about 28 rifles, are the normal "fire-units," that
  is to say, the unit which delivers its fire at the orders of and with
  the elevation and direction given by its commander. This, it will be
  observed, gives little actual executive work for the junior officers.
  But a more serious objection than this (which is modified in practice
  by arrangement and circumstances) is the fact that a small unit is
  more affected by detachments than a large one. In the home battalions
  of the Regular Army such detachments are very large, what with finding
  drafts for the foreign service battalions and for instructional
  courses, while in the Territorial Force, where it is so rarely
  possible to assemble all the men at once, the company as organized is
  often too small to drill as such. On the other hand, the full
  war-strength company is an admirable unit for control and manoeuvre in
  the field, owing to its rapidity of movement, handiness in using
  accidents of ground and cover, and susceptibility to the word of
  command of one man. But as soon as its strength falls below about 80
  the advantages cease to counterbalance the defects. The sections
  become too small as fire-units to effect really useful results, and
  the battalion commander has to coordinate and to direct 8
  comparatively ineffective units instead of 4 powerful ones. The
  British regular army, therefore, has since the South African War,
  adopted the _double company_ as the unit of training. This gives at
  all times a substantial unit for fire and manoeuvre training, but the
  disadvantage of having a good many officers only half employed is
  accentuated. As to the tactical value of the large or double company,
  opinions differ. Some hold that as the small company is a survival
  from the days when the battalion was the tactical unit and the company
  was the unit of volley-fire, it is unsuited to the modern exigencies
  that have broken up the old rigid line into several independent and
  co-operating fractions. Others reply that the strong continental
  company of 250 rifles came into existence in Prussia in the years
  after Waterloo, not from tactical reasons, but because the state was
  too poor to maintain a large establishment of officers, and that in
  1870, at any rate, there were many instances of its tactical
  unwieldiness. The point that is common to both organizations is the
  fact that there is theoretically one subaltern to every 50 or 60
  rifles, and this reveals an essential difference between the British
  and the Continental systems, irrespective of the sizes or groupings of
  companies. The French or German subaltern effectively commands his 50
  men as a unit, whereas the British subaltern supervises two groups of
  25 to 30 men under responsible non-commissioned officers. That is to
  say, a British sergeant may find himself in such a position that he
  has to be as expert in controlling and obtaining good results from
  collective fire as a German lieutenant. For reasons mentioned in ARMY,
  § 40, non-commissioned officers, of the type called by Kipling the
  "backbone of the army," are almost unobtainable with the universal
  service system, and the lowest unit that possesses any independence is
  the lowest unit commanded by an officer. But apart from the rank of
  the fire-unit commander, it is questionable whether the section, as
  understood in England, is not too small a fire-unit, for European
  warfare at any rate. The regulations of the various European armies,
  framed for these conditions, practically agree that the fire-unit
  should be commanded by an officer and should be large enough to ensure
  good results from collective fire. The number of rifles meeting this
  second condition is 50 to 80 and their organization a "section"
  (corresponding to the British half-company) under a subaltern officer.
  The British army has, of course, to be organized and trained for an
  infinitely wider range of activity, and no one would suggest the
  abolition of the small section as a fire-unit. But in a great European
  battle it would be almost certainly better to group the two sections
  into a real unit for fire effect. (For questions of infantry fire
  tactics see RIFLE: § _Musketry_.)

  On the continent of Europe the "regiment," which is a unit, acting in
  peace and war as such, consists normally of three battalions, and each
  battalion of four companies or 1000 rifles. The company of 250 rifles
  is commanded by a captain, who is mounted. In France the company has
  four sections, commanded in war by the three subalterns and the
  "adjudant" (company sergeant-major); the sections are further grouped
  in pairs to constitute _pelotons_ (platoons) or half-companies under
  the senior of the two section leaders. In peace there are two
  subalterns only, and the _peloton_ is the normal junior officer's
  command. The battalion is commanded by a major (_commandant_ or
  strictly _chef de bataillon_), the regiment (three or four battalions)
  by a colonel with a lieutenant-colonel as second. An organization of
  3-battalion regiments and 3-company battalions was proposed in 1910.

  In Germany, where what we have called the continental company
  originated, the regiment is of three battalions under majors, and the
  battalion of four companies commanded by captains. The company is
  divided into three _Züge_ (sections), each under a subaltern, who has
  as his second a sergeant-major, a "vice-sergeant-major" or a
  "sword-knot ensign" (aspirant officer). In war there is one additional
  officer for company. The _Zug_ at war-strength has therefore about 80
  rifles in the ranks, as compared with the French "section" of 50, and
  the British section of 30.

  The system prevailing in the United States since the reorganization of
  1901 is somewhat remarkable. The regiment, which is a tactical as well
  as an administrative unit, consists of three battalions. Each
  battalion has four companies of (at war-strength) 3 officers and 150
  rifles each. The regiment in war therefore consists of about 1800
  rifles in three small and handy battalions of 600 each. The
  circumstances in which this army serves, and in particular the
  maintenance of small frontier posts, have always imposed upon
  subalterns the responsibilities of small independent commands, and it
  is fair to assume that the 75 rifles at a subaltern's disposal are
  regarded as a tactical unit.

  In sum, then, the infantry battalion is in almost every country about
  1000 rifles strong in four companies. In the United States it is 600
  strong in four companies, and in Great Britain it is 1000 strong in
  eight. The captain's command is usually 200 to 250 men, in the United
  States 150, and in Great Britain 120. The lieutenant or second
  lieutenant commands in Germany 80 rifles, in France 50, in the United
  States 75, as a unit of fire and manoeuvre. In Great Britain he
  commands, with relatively restricted powers, 60.

  A short account of the infantry equipments--knapsack or valise, belt,
  haversack, &c.--in use in various countries will be found in UNIFORMS,
  NAVAL AND MILITARY. The armament of infantry is, in all countries, the
  magazine rifle (see RIFLE) and bayonet (q.v.), for officers and for
  certain under-officers sword (q.v.) and pistol (q.v.). Ammunition
  (q.v.) in the British service is carried (a) by the individual
  soldier, (b) by the reserves (mules and carts) in regimental charge,
  some of which in action are assembled from the battalions of a brigade
  to form a brigade reserve, and (c) by the ammunition columns.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The following works are selected to show (1) the
  historical development of the arm, and (2) the different "doctrines"
  of to-day as to its training and functions:--Ardant du Picq, _Études
  sur le combat_; C. W. C. Oman, _The Art of War: Middle Ages_; Biottot,
  _Les Grands Inspirés--Jeanne d'Arc_; Hardy de Périni, _Batailles
  françaises_; C. H. Firth, _Cromwell's Army_; German official history
  of Frederick the Great's wars, especially _Erster Schlesische Krieg_,
  vol. i.; Susane, _Histoire de l'infanterie française_; French General
  Staff, _La Tactique au XVIII^me--l'infanterie_ and _La Tactique et la
  discipline dans les armées de la Révolution--Général Schauenbourg_; J.
  W. Fortescue, _History of the British Army_; Moorsom, _History of the
  52nd Regiment_; de Grandmaison, _Dressage de l'infanterie_ (Paris,
  1908); works of W. v. Scherff; F. N. Maude, _Evolution of Infantry
  Tactics and Attack and Defence_; [Meckel] _Ein Sommernachtstraum_
  (Eng. trans, in _United Service Magazine_, 1890); J. Meckel, _Taktik_;
  Malachowski, _Scharfe- und Revuetaktik_; H. Langlois, _Enseignements
  de deux guerres_; F. Hoenig, _Tactics of the Future_ and _Twenty-four
  Hours of Moltke's Strategy_ (Eng. trans.); works of A. von
  Boguslowski; _British Officers' Reports on the Russo-Japanese War_; H.
  W. L. Hime, _Stray Military Papers_; Grange, "Les Réalités du champ de
  bataille--Woerth" (_Rev. d'infanterie_, 1908-1909); V. Lindenau, "The
  Boer War and Infantry Attack" (_Journal R. United Service
  Institution_, 1902-1903); Janin, "Aperçus sur la
  tactique--Mandchourie" (_Rev. d'infanterie_, 1909); Soloviev,
  "Infantry Combat in the Russo-Jap. War" (Eng. trans. _Journal
  R.U.S.I._, 1908); British Official _Field Service Regulations_, part
  i. (1909), and _Infantry Training_ (1905); German drill regulations of
  1906 (Fr. trans.); French drill regulations of 1904; Japanese
  regulations 1907 (Eng. trans.). The most important journals devoted to
  the infantry arm are the French official _Revue d'infanterie_ (Paris
  and Limoges), and the _Journal of the United Stales Infantry
  Association_ (Washington, D. C).     (C. F. A.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] At Bouvines, it is recorded with special emphasis that Guillaume
    des Barres, when in the act of felling the emperor, heard the call to
    rescue King Philip Augustus and, forfeiting his rich prize, made his
    way back to help his own sovereign.

  [2] Crossbows indeed were powerful, and also handled by professional
    soldiers (e.g. the Genoese at Crécy), but they were slow in action,
    six times as slow as the long bow, and the impatient gendarmerie
    generally became tired of the delay and crowded out or rode over the
    crossbowmen.

  [3] As for instance when thirty men-at-arms "cut out" the Captal de
    Buch from the midst of his army at Cocherel.

  [4] This tendency of the French military temperament reappears at
    almost every stage in the history of armies.

  [5] The term _landsknecht_, it appears, was not confined to the right
    bank of the Rhine. The French "lansquenets" came largely from Alsace,
    according to General Hardy de Périni. In the Italian wars Francis I.
    had in his service a famous corps called the "black bands" which was
    recruited, in the lower Rhine countries.

  [6] This practice of "maintenance" on a large scale continued to
    exist in France long afterwards. As late as the battle of Lens (1648)
    we find figuring in the king of France's army three "regiments of the
    House of Condé."

  [7] Even as late as 1645 a battalion of infantry in England was
    called a "tercio" or "tertia" (see ARMY; _Spanish army_).

  [8] In France it is recorded that the _Gardes françaises_, when
    warned for duty at the Louvre, used to stroll thither in twos and
    threes.

  [9] About this time there was introduced, for resisting cavalry, the
    well-known hollow battalion square, which, replacing the former
    masses of pikes, represented up to the most modern times the
    defensive, as the line or column represented the offensive formation
    of infantry.

  [10] The Prussian Grenadier battalions in the Silesian and Seven
    Years' Wars were more and more confined strictly to line-of-battle
    duties as the irregular light infantry developed in numbers.

  [11] Even when the hostile artillery was still capable of fire these
    masses were used, for in no other formation could the heterogeneous
    and ill-trained infantry of Napoleon's vassal states (which
    constituted half of his army) be brought up at all.

  [12] Rifles had, of course, been used by corps of light troops (both
    infantry and mounted) for many years. The British Rifle Brigade was
    formed in 1800, but even in the Seven Years' War there were
    rifle-corps or companies in the armies of Prussia and Austria. These
    older rifles could not compare in rapidity or volume of fire with the
    ordinary firelock.

  [13] The Prussian company was about 250 strong (see below under
    "Organization"). This strength was adopted after 1870 by practically
    all nations which adopted universal service. The battalion had 4
    companies.

  [14] The 1902 edition of _Infantry Training_ indeed treated the new
    scouts as a thin advanced firing line, but in 1907, at which date
    important modifications began to be made in the "doctrine" of the
    British Army, the scouts were expressly restricted to the
    old-fashioned "skirmishing" duties.

  [15] This is no new thing, but belongs, irrespective of armament, to
    the "War of masses." The king of Prussia's fighting instructions of
    the 10th of August 1813 lay down the principle as clearly as any
    modern work.

  [16] In the British Service, men whose nerves betray them on the
    shooting range are ordered more gymnastics (_Musketry Regulations_,
    1910).

  [17] In 1870 the "preconceived idea" was practically confined to
    strategy, and the tactical improvisations of the Germans themselves
    deranged the execution of the plan quite as often as the act of the
    enemy. Of late years, therefore, the "preconceived idea" has been
    imposed on tactics also in that country. Special care and study is
    given to the once despised "early deployments" in cases where a fight
    is part of the "idea," and to the difficult problem of breaking off
    the action, when it takes a form that is incompatible with the
    development of the main scheme.

  [18] In February 1910 a new _Infantry Training_ was said to be in
    preparation. The _I.T._ of 1905 is in some degree incompatible with
    the later and ruling doctrine of the _F.S. Regulations_, and in the
    winter of 1909 the Army Council issued a memorandum drawing attention
    to the different conceptions of the decisive attack as embodied in
    the latter and as revealed in manoeuvre procedure.



INFANT SCHOOLS. The provision in modern times of systematized training
for children below the age when elementary education normally begins may
be dated from the village school at Waldbach founded by Jean Frédéric
Oberlin in 1774. Robert Owen started an infant school at New Lanark in
1800, and great interest in the question was taken in Great Britain
during the early years of the 19th century, leading to the foundation in
1836 of the Home and Colonial School Society for the training of
teachers in infant schools; this in turn reacted upon other countries,
especially Germany. Further impetus and a new direction were given to
the movement by Friedrich W. A. Froebel, and the methods of training
adopted for children between the ages of three and six have in most
countries been influenced by, if not based on, that system of directed
activities which was the foundation of the type of "play-school" called
by him the _Kinder Garten_, or "children's garden." The growing tendency
in England to lay stress on the mental training of very young children,
and to use the "infant school" as preparatory to the elementary school,
has led to a considerable reaction; medical officers of health have
pointed out the dangers of infection to which children up to the age of
five are specially liable when congregated together--also the physical
effects of badly ventilated class-rooms, and there is a consensus of
opinion that formal mental teaching is directly injurious before the age
of six or even seven years. At the same time the increase in the
industrial employment of married women, with the consequent difficulty
of proper care of young children by the mother in the home, has somewhat
shifted the ground from a purely educational to a social and physical
aspect. While it is agreed that the ideal place for a young child is the
home under the supervision of its mother, the present industrial
conditions often compel a mother to go out to work, and leave her
children either shut up alone, or free to play about the streets, or in
the care of a neighbour or professional "minder." In each case the
children must suffer. The provision by a public authority of
opportunities for suitable training for such children seems therefore a
necessity. The moral advantages gained by freeing the child from the
streets, by the superintendence of a trained teacher over the games, by
the early inculcation of habits of discipline and obedience; the
physical advantages of cleanliness and tidiness, and the opportunity of
disclosing incipient diseases and weaknesses, outweigh the disadvantages
which the opponents of infant training adduce. It remains to give a
brief account of what is done in Great Britain, the United States of
America, and certain other countries. A valuable report was issued for
the English Board of Education by a Consultative Committee upon the
school attendance of children below the age of five (vol. 22 of the
_Special Reports_, 1909), which also gives some account of the provision
of day nurseries or _crèches_ for babies.

_United Kingdom._--Up to 1905 it was the general English practice since
the Education Act of 1870 for educational authorities to provide
facilities for the teaching of children between three and five years old
whose parents desired it. In 1905, of an estimated 1,467,709 children
between those ages, 583,268 were thus provided for in England and Wales.
In 1905 the objections, medical and educational, already stated, coupled
with the increasing financial strain on the local educational
authorities, led to the insertion in the code of that year of Article
53, as follows: "Where the local education authority have so determined
in the case of any school maintained by them, children who are under
five years may be refused admission to that school." In consequence in
1907 the numbers were found to have fallen to 459,034 out of an
estimated 1,480,550 children, from 39.74% in 1905 to 31%. In the older
type of infant school stress was laid on the mental preparation of
children for the elementary teaching which was to come later. This
forcing on of young children was encouraged by the system under which
the government grant was allotted; children in the infant division
earned an annual grant of 17s. per head, on promotion to the upper
school this would be increased to 22s. In 1909 the system was altered; a
rate of 21s. 4d. was fixed as the grant for all children above five, and
the grant for those below the age was reduced to 13s. 4d. Different
methods of training the teachers in these schools as well as the
children themselves have been now generally adopted. These methods are
largely based on the Froebelian plan, and greater attention is being
paid to physical development. In one respect England is perhaps behind
the more progressive of other European countries, viz. in providing
facilities for washing and attending to the personal needs of the
younger children. There is no _femme de service_ as in Belgium on the
staff of English schools. While in Ireland the children below the age of
five attend the elementary schools in much the same proportion as in
England and Wales, in Scotland it has never been the general custom for
such children to attend school.

_United States of America._--In no country has the kindergarten system
taken such firm root, and the provision made for children below the
compulsory age is based upon it. In 1873 there were 42 kindergartens
with 1252 pupils; in 1898 the numbers had risen to 2884 with 143,720
pupils; more than half these were private schools, managed by charitable
institutions or by individuals for profit. In 1904-1905 there were 3176
public kindergartens with 205,118 pupils.

  _Austria Hungary._--Provision in Austria is made for children under
  six by two types of institution, the Day Nursery
  (_Kinderbewahranstalten_) and the Kindergarten. In 1872 as the result
  of a State Commission the Kindergarten was established in the state
  system of education. Its aim is to "confirm and complete the home
  education of children under school age, so that through regulated
  exercise of body and mind they may be prepared for institution in the
  primary school." No regular teaching in ordinary school subjects is
  allowed; games, singing and handwork, and training of speech and
  observation by objects, tales and gardening are the means adopted. The
  training for teachers in these schools is regulated by law. No
  children are to be received in a kindergarten til! the beginning of
  the fourth and must leave at the end of the sixth year. In 1902-1903
  there were 77,002 children in kindergartens and 74,110 in the day
  nurseries. In Hungary a law was passed in 1891 providing for the
  education and care of children between three and six, either by asyle
  or nurseries open all the year round in communes which contribute from
  £830 to £1250 in state taxation, or during the summer in those whose
  contribution is less. Communes above the higher sum must provide
  kindergartens. In 1904 there were over 233,000 children in such
  institutions.

  _Belgium._--For children between three and six education and training
  are provided by _Écoles gardiennes_ or _Jardins d'enfants_. They are
  free but not compulsory, are provided and managed by the communes,
  receive a state grant, and are under government inspection. Schools
  provided by private individuals or institutions must conform to the
  conditions of the communal schools. There is a large amount of
  voluntary assistance especially in the provision of clothes and food
  for the poorer children. The state first recognized these schools in
  1833. In 1881 there were 708 schools with accommodation for over
  56,000 children; in 1907 there were 2837 and 264,845 children,
  approximately one-half of the total number of children in the country
  between the ages of three and six. In 1890 the minister of Public
  Instruction issued a code of rules on which is based the organization
  of the _Écoles gardiennes_ throughout Belgium, but some of the
  communes have regulations of their own. A special examination for
  teachers in the _Écoles gardiennes_ was started in 1898. All
  candidates must pass this examination before a _certificat de
  capacité_ is granted. The training includes a course in Froebelian
  methods. While Froebel's system underlies the training in these
  schools, the teaching is directed very much towards the practical
  education of the child, special stress being laid on manual dexterity.
  Reading, writing and arithmetic are also allowed in the classes for
  the older children. A marked feature of the Belgian schools is the
  close attention paid to health and personal cleanliness. In all
  schools there is a _femme de service_, not a teacher, but an
  attendant, whose duty it is to see to the tidiness and cleanliness of
  the children, and to their physical requirements.

  _France._--The first regular infant school was established in Paris at
  the beginning of the 19th century and styled a _Salle d'essai_. In
  1828 a model school, called a _Salle d'asile_, was started, followed
  shortly by similar institutions all over France. State recognition and
  inspection were granted, and by 1836 there were over 800 in Paris and
  the provinces. In 1848 they became establishments of public
  instruction, and the name _École maternelle_ which they have since
  borne was given them. Every commune with 2000 inhabitants must have
  one of these schools or a _Classe enfantine_. Admission is free, but
  not compulsory, for children between two and six. Food and clothes are
  provided in exceptional cases. Formal mental instruction is still
  given to a large extent, and the older children are taught reading,
  writing and arithmetic. Though the staffs of the school include
  _femmes de service_, not so much attention is paid to cleanliness as
  in Belgium, nor is so much stress laid on hygiene. In 1906-1907 there
  were 4111 public and private _Écoles maternelles_ in France, with over
  650,000 pupils. The closing of the clerical schools has led to some
  diminution in the numbers.

  _Germany.___--There are two classes of institution in Germany for
  children between the ages of 2½ or 3 and 6. These are the
  _Kleinkinderbewahranstalten_ and _Kindergarten_. The first are
  primarily social in purpose, and afford a place for the children of
  mothers who have to leave their homes for work. These institutions,
  principally conducted by religious or charitable societies, remain
  open all day and meals are provided. Many of them have a kindergarten
  attached, and others provide some training on Froebelian principles.
  The kindergartens proper are also principally in private hands, though
  most municipalities grant financial assistance. They are conducted on
  advanced Froebelian methods, and formal teaching in reading, writing
  and arithmetic is excluded. In Cologne, Düsseldorf, Frankfort and
  Munich there are municipal schools. The state gives no recognition to
  these institutions and they form no part of the public system of
  education.

  _Switzerland._--In the German speaking cantons the smaller towns and
  villages provide for the younger children by _Bewahranstalten_,
  generally under private management with public financial help. The
  larger towns provide kindergartens where the training is free but not
  compulsory for children from four to six. These are generally
  conducted on Froebel's system and there is no formal instruction. In
  the French speaking cantons the _Écoles enfantines_ are recognized as
  the first stage of elementary education. They are free and not
  compulsory for children from three to six years of age.     (C. We.)



INFINITE (from Lat. _in_, not, _finis_, end or limit; cf. _findere_, to
cleave), a term applied in common usage to anything of vast size.
Strictly, however, the epithet implies the absence of all limitation. As
such it is used specially in (1) theology and metaphysics, (2)
mathematics.

1. Tracing the history of the world to the earliest date for which there
is any kind of evidence, we are faced with the problem that for
everything there is a prior something: the mind is unable to conceive an
absolute beginning ("ex nihilo nihil"). Mundane distances become trivial
when compared with the distance from the earth of the sun and still more
of other heavenly bodies: hence we infer infinite space. Similarly by
continual subdivision we reach the idea of the infinitely small. For
these inferences there is indeed no actual physical evidence: infinity
is a mental concept. As such the term has played an important part in
the philosophical and theological speculation. In early Greek philosophy
the attempt to arrive at a physical explanation of existence led the
Ionian thinkers to postulate various primal elements (e.g. water, fire,
air) or simply the infinite [Greek: to ápeiron] (see IONIAN SCHOOL).
Both Plato and Aristotle devoted much thought to the discussion as to
which is most truly real, the finite objects of sense, or the universal
idea of each thing laid up in the mind of God; what is the nature of
that unity which lies behind the multiplicity and difference of
perceived objects? The same problem, variously expressed, has engaged
the attention of philosophers throughout the ages. In Christian theology
God is conceived as infinite in power, knowledge and goodness, uncreated
and immortal: in some Oriental systems the end of man is absorption into
the infinite, his perfection the breaking down of his human limitations.
The metaphysical and theological conception is open to the agnostic
objection that the finite mind of man is by hypothesis unable to cognize
or apprehend not only an infinite object, but even the very conception
of infinity itself; from this standpoint the Infinite is regarded as
merely a postulate, as it were an unknown quantity (cf. [root]-1 in
mathematics). The same difficulty may be expressed in another way if we
regard the infinite as unconditioned (cf. Sir William Hamilton's
"philosophy of the unconditioned," and Herbert Spencer's doctrine of the
infinite "unknowable"); if it is argued that knowledge of a thing arises
only from the recognition of its differences from other things (i.e.
from its limitations), it follows that knowledge of the infinite is
impossible, for the infinite is by hypothesis unrelated.

With this conception of _the_ infinite as absolutely unconditioned
should be compared what may be described roughly as lesser infinities
which can be philosophically conceived and mathematically demonstrated.
Thus a point, which is by definition infinitely small, is as compared
with a line a unit: the line is infinite, made up of an infinite number
of points, any pair of which have an infinite number of points between
them. The line itself, again, in relation to the plane is a unit, while
the plane is infinite, i.e. made up of an infinite number of lines;
hence the plane is described as doubly infinite in relation to the
point, and a solid as trebly infinite. This is Spinoza's theory of the
"infinitely infinite," the limiting notion of infinity being of a
numerical, quantitative series, each term of which is a qualitative
determination itself quantitatively little, e.g. a line which is
quantitatively unlimited (i.e. in length) is qualitatively limited when
regarded as an infinitely small unit of a plane. A similar relation
exists in thought between the various grades of species and genera; the
highest genus is the "infinitely infinite," each subordinated genus
being infinite in relation to the particulars which it denotes, and
finite when regarded as a unit in a higher genus.

2. In mathematics, the term "infinite" denotes the result of increasing
a variable without limit; similarly, the term "infinitesimal," meaning
indefinitely small, denotes the result of diminishing the value of a
variable without limit, with the reservation that it never becomes
actually zero. The application of these conceptions distinguishes
ancient from modern mathematics. Analytical investigations revealed the
existence of series or sequences which had no limit to the number of
terms, as for example the fraction 1/(1 - x) which on division gives the
series. 1 + x + x²+ ...; the discussion of these so-called infinite
sequences is given in the articles SERIES and FUNCTION. The doctrine of
geometrical continuity (q.v.) and the application of algebra to
geometry, developed in the 16th and 17th centuries mainly by Kepler and
Descartes, led to the discovery of many properties which gave to the
notion of infinity, as a localized space conception, a predominant
importance. A line became continuous, returning into itself by way of
infinity; two parallel lines intersect in a point at infinity; all
circles pass through two fixed points at infinity (the circular points);
two spheres intersect in a fixed circle at infinity; an asymptote became
a tangent at infinity; the foci of a conic became the intersections of
the tangents from the circular points at infinity; the centre of a conic
the pole of the line at infinity, &c. In analytical geometry the line at
infinity plays an important part in trilinear coordinates. These
subjects are treated in GEOMETRY. A notion related to that of
infinitesimals is presented in the Greek "method of exhaustion"; the
more perfect conception, however, only dates from the 17th century, when
it led to the infinitesimal calculus. A curve came to be treated as a
sequence of infinitesimal straight lines; a tangent as the extension of
an infinitesimal chord; a surface or area as a sequence of
infinitesimally narrow strips, and a solid as a collection of
infinitesimally small cubes (see INFINITESIMAL CALCULUS).



INFINITESIMAL CALCULUS. 1. The infinitesimal calculus is the body of
rules and processes by means of which continuously varying magnitudes
are dealt with in mathematical analysis. The name "infinitesimal" has
been applied to the calculus because most of the leading results were
first obtained by means of arguments about "infinitely small"
quantities; the "infinitely small" or "infinitesimal" quantities were
vaguely conceived as being neither zero nor finite but in some
intermediate, nascent or evanescent, state. There was no necessity for
this confused conception, and it came to be understood that it can be
dispensed with; but the calculus was not developed by its first founders
in accordance with logical principles from precisely defined notions,
and it gained adherents rather through the impressiveness and variety of
the results that could be obtained by using it than through the cogency
of the arguments by which it was established. A similar statement might
be made in regard to other theories included in mathematical analysis,
such, for instance, as the theory of infinite series. Many, perhaps all,
of the mathematical and physical theories which have survived have had a
similar history--a history which may be divided roughly into two
periods: a period of construction, in which results are obtained from
partially formed notions, and a period of criticism, in which the
fundamental notions become progressively more and more precise, and are
shown to be adequate bases for the constructions previously built upon
them. These periods usually overlap. Critics of new theories are never
lacking. On the other hand, as E. W. Hobson has well said, "pertinent
criticism of fundamentals almost invariably gives rise to new
construction." In the history of the infinitesimal calculus the 17th
and 18th centuries were mainly a period of construction, the 19th
century mainly a period of criticism.


I. _Nature of the Calculus._


  Geometrical representation of Variable Quantities.

2. The guise in which variable quantities presented themselves to the
mathematicians of the 17th century was that of the lengths of variable
lines. This method of representing variable quantities dates from the
14th century, when it was employed by Nicole Oresme, who studied and
afterwards taught at the Collège de Navarre in Paris from 1348 to 1361.
He represented one of two variable quantities, e.g. the time that has
elapsed since some epoch, by a length, called the "longitude," measured
along a particular line; and he represented the other of the two
quantities, e.g. the temperature at the instant, by a length, called the
"latitude," measured at right angles to this line. He recognized that
the variation of the temperature with the time was represented by the
line, straight or curved, which joined the ends of all the lines of
"latitude." Oresme's longitude and latitude were what we should now call
the abscissa and ordinate. The same method was used later by many
writers, among whom Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei may be
mentioned. In Galileo's investigation of the motion of falling bodies
(1638) the abscissa OA represents the time during which a body has been
falling, and the ordinate AB represents the velocity acquired during
that time (see fig. 1). The velocity being proportional to the time, the
"curve" obtained is a straight line OB, and Galileo showed that the
distance through which the body has fallen is represented by the area of
the triangle OAB.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]


  The problems of Maxima and Minima, Tangents, and Quadratures.

The most prominent problems in regard to a curve were the problem of
finding the points at which the ordinate is a maximum or a minimum, the
problem of drawing a tangent to the curve at an assigned point, and the
problem of determining the area of the curve. The relation of the
problem of maxima and minima to the problem of tangents was understood
in the sense that maxima or minima arise when a certain equation has
equal roots, and, when this is the case, the curves by which the problem
is to be solved touch each other. The reduction of problems of maxima
and minima to problems of contact was known to Pappus. The problem of
finding the area of a curve was usually presented in a particular form
in which it is called the "problem of quadratures." It was sought to
determine the area contained between the curve, the axis of abscissae
and two ordinates, of which one was regarded as fixed and the other as
variable. Galileo's investigation may serve as an example. In that
example the fixed ordinate vanishes. From this investigation it may be
seen that before the invention of the infinitesimal calculus the
introduction of a curve into discussions of the course of any
phenomenon, and the problem of quadratures for that curve, were not
exclusively of geometrical import; the purpose for which the area of a
curve was sought was often to find something which is not an area--for
instance, a length, or a volume or a centre of gravity.


  Greek methods.

3. The Greek geometers made little progress with the problem of
tangents, but they devised methods for investigating the problem of
quadratures. One of these methods was afterwards called the "method of
exhaustions," and the principle on which it is based was laid down in
the lemma prefixed to the 12th book of Euclid's _Elements_ as follows:
"If from the greater of two magnitudes there be taken more than its
half, and from the remainder more than its half, and so on, there will
at length remain a magnitude less than the smaller of the proposed
magnitudes." The method adopted by Archimedes was more general. It may
be described as the enclosure of the magnitude to be evaluated between
two others which can be brought by a definite process to differ from
each other by less than any assigned magnitude. A simple example of its
application is the 6th proposition of Archimedes' treatise On the
_Sphere and Cylinder_, in which it is proved that the area contained
between a regular polygon inscribed in a circle and a similar polygon
circumscribed to the same circle can be made less than any assigned area
by increasing the number of sides of the polygon. The methods of Euclid
and Archimedes were specimens of rigorous limiting processes (see
FUNCTION). The new problems presented by the analytical geometry and
natural philosophy of the 17th century led to new limiting processes.


    Differentiation.

  4. In the _problem of tangents_ the new process may be described as
  follows. Let P, P´ be two points of a curve (see fig. 2). Let x, y be
  the coordinates of P, and x + [Delta]x, y + [Delta]y those of P´. The
  symbol [Delta]x means "the difference of two x's" and there is a like
  meaning for the symbol [Delta]y. The fraction [Delta]y/[Delta]x is the
  trigonometrical tangent of the angle which the secant PP´ makes with
  the axis of x. Now let [Delta]x be continually diminished towards
  zero, so that P´ continually approaches P. If the curve has a tangent
  at P the secant PP´ approaches a limiting position (see § 33 below).
  When this is the case the fraction [Delta]y/[Delta]x tends to a limit,
  and this limit is the trigonometrical tangent of the angle which the
  tangent at P to the curve makes with the axis of x. The limit is
  denoted by

    dy
    --.
    dx

  If the equation of the curve is of the form y = [f](x) where [f] is a
  functional symbol (see FUNCTION), then

    [Delta]y   [f](x + [Delta]x) - [f](x)
    -------- = --------------------------,
    [Delta]x            [Delta]x

  and

    dy                    [f](x + [Delta]x) - [f](x)
    -- = lim.             --------------------------.
    dx       [Delta]x = 0          [Delta]x

  The limit expressed by the right-hand member of this defining equation
  is often written

    [f]´(x),

  and is called the "derived function" of [f](x), sometimes the
  "derivative" or "derivate" of [f](x). When the function [f](x) is a
  rational integral function, the division by [Delta]x can be performed,
  and the limit is found by substituting zero for [Delta]x in the
  quotient. For example, if [f](x) = x², we have

    [f](x + [Delta]x) - [f](x)   (x + [Delta]x)² - x²   2x[Delta]x + ([Delta]x)²
    -------------------------- = -------------------- = ------------------------ = 2x + [Delta]x,
             [Delta]x                  [Delta]x                 [Delta]x

  and

    [f]´(x) = 2x.

  [Illustration: FIG. 2.]

  The process of forming the derived function of a given function is
  called _differentiation_. The fraction [Delta]y/[Delta]x is called the
  "quotient of differences," and its limit dy/dx is called the
  "differential coefficient of y with respect to x." The rules for
  forming differential coefficients constitute the _differential
  calculus_.

  The problem of tangents is solved at one stroke by the formation of
  the differential coefficient; and the problem of maxima and minima is
  solved, apart from the discrimination of maxima from minima and some
  further refinements, by equating the differential coefficient to zero
  (see MAXIMA and MINIMA).

  [Illustration: FIG. 3.]


    Integration.

  5. The _problem of quadratures_ leads to a type of limiting process
  which may be described as follows: Let y = [f](x) be the equation of a
  curve, and let AC and BD be the ordinates of the points C and D (see
  fig. 3). Let a, b be the abscissae of these points. Let the segment AB
  be divided into a number of segments by means of intermediate points
  such as M, and let MN be one such segment. Let PM and QN be those
  ordinates of the curve which have M and N as their feet. On MN as base
  describe two rectangles, of which the heights are the greatest and
  least values of y which correspond to points on the arc PQ of the
  curve. In fig. 3 these are the rectangles RM, SN. Let the sum of the
  areas of such rectangles as RM be formed, and likewise the sum of the
  areas of such rectangles as SN. When the number of the points such as
  M is increased without limit, and the lengths of all the segments such
  as MN are diminished without limit, these two sums of areas tend to
  limits. When they tend to the same limit the curvilinear figure ACDB
  has an area, and the limit is the measure of this area (see § 33
  below). The limit in question is the same whatever law may be adopted
  for inserting the points such as M between A and B, and for
  diminishing the lengths of the segments such as MN. Further, if P´ is
  any point on the arc PQ, and P´M´ is the ordinate of P´, we may
  construct a rectangle of which the height is P´M´ and the base is MN,
  and the limit of the sum of the areas of all such rectangles is the
  area of the figure as before. If x is the abscissa of P, x + [Delta]x
  that of Q, x´ that of P´, the limit in question might be written

          _b
    lim. \   [f](x´)[Delta]x,
         /_a

  where the letters a, b written below and above the sign of summation
  [Sigma] indicate the extreme values of x. This limit is called "the
  definite integral of [f](x) between the limits a and b," and the
  notation for it is
      _
     / b
     |  [f](x)dx.
    _/ a

  The germs of this method of formulating the problem of quadratures are
  found in the writings of Archimedes. The method leads to a definition
  of a definite integral, but the direct application of it to the
  evaluation of integrals is in general difficult. Any process for
  evaluating a definite integral is a process of integration, and the
  rules for evaluating integrals constitute the _integral calculus_.


    Theorem of Inversion.

  6. The chief of these rules is obtained by regarding the extreme
  ordinate BD as variable. Let [xi] now denote the abscissa of B. The
  area A of the figure ACDB is represented by the integral [int] {a to
  [xi]} [f](x)dx, and it is a function of [xi]. Let BD be displaced to
  B´D´ so that [xi] becomes [xi] + [delta][xi] (see fig. 4). The area of
  the figure ACD´B´ is represented by the integral [int] {a to [xi] +
  [Delta][xi]} [f](x)dx, and the increment [Delta]A of the area is given
  by the formula

                _[xi]+[Delta][xi]
               /
    [Delta]A = |     [f](x) dx,
              _/ [xi]

  which represents the area BDD´B´. This area is intermediate between
  those of two rectangles, having as a common base the segment BB´, and
  as heights the greatest and least ordinates of points on the arc DD´
  of the curve. Let these heights be H and h. Then [Delta]A is
  intermediate between H[Delta][xi] and h[Delta][xi], and the quotient
  of differences [Delta]A/[Delta][xi] is intermediate between H and h.
  If the function [f](x) is continuous at B (see Function), then, as
  [Delta][xi] is diminished without limit, H and h tend to BD, or
  [f]([xi]), as a limit, and we have

     dA
    ----- = [f]([xi]).
    d[xi]

  [Illustration: FIG. 4.]

  The introduction of the process of differentiation, together with the
  theorem here proved, placed the solution of the problem of quadratures
  on a new basis. It appears that we can always find the area A if we
  know a function F(x) which has [f](x) as its differential coefficient.
  If [f](x) is continuous between a and b, we can prove that
         _
        / b
    A = |   [f](x) dx = F(b) - F(a).
       _/ a

  When we recognize a function F(x) which has the property expressed by
  the equation

    dF(x)
    ----- = [f](x),
     dx

  we are said to _integrate_ the function [f](x), and F(x) is called the
  _indefinite integral_ of [f](x) _with respect to_ x, and is written
      _
     /
     | [f](x)dx.
    _/


    Differentials.

  7. In the process of § 4 the increment [Delta]y is not in general
  equal to the product of the increment [Delta]x and the derived
  function [f]´(x). In general we can write down an equation of the form

    [Delta]y = [f]´(x)[Delta]x + R,

  in which R is different from zero when [Delta]x is different from
  zero; and then we have not only

    lim.        R = 0,
      [Delta]x=0

  but also

                      R
    lim.           -------- = 0.
        [Delta]x=0 [Delta]x

  We may separate [Delta]y into two parts: the part [f]´(x)[Delta]x and
  the part R. The part [f]´(x)[Delta]x alone is useful for forming the
  differential coefficient, and it is convenient to give it a name. It
  is called the _differential_ of [f](x), and is written d[f](x), or dy
  when y is written for [f](x). When this notation is adopted dx is
  written instead of [Delta]x, and is called the "differential of x," so
  that we have

    d[f](x) = [f]´(x) dx.

  Thus the differential of an independent variable such as x is a finite
  difference; in other words it is any number we please. The
  differential of a dependent variable such as y, or of a function of
  the independent variable x, is the product of the differential of x
  and the differential coefficient or derived function. It is important
  to observe that the differential coefficient is not to be defined as
  the ratio of differentials, but the ratio of differentials is to be
  defined as the previously introduced differential coefficient. The
  differentials are either finite differences, or are so much of
  certain finite differences as are useful for forming differential
  coefficients.

  Again let F(x) be the indefinite integral of a continuous function
  [f](x), so that we have
                      _
    dF(x)            / b
    ----- = [f](x),  |  [f](x) dx = F(b) - F(a).
     dx             _/a

  When the points M of the process explained in § 5 are inserted between
  the points whose abscissae are a and b, we may take them to be n - 1
  in number, so that the segment AB is divided into n segments. Let x1,
  x2, ... x_(n-1) be the abscissae of the points in order. The integral
  is the limit of the sum

    [f](a)(x1 - a) + [f](x1)(x2 - x1) + ... + [f](x_r) [x_(r+1) - x_r]
       + ... + [f] [x_(n-1)] [b - x_(n-1)],

  every term of which is a differential of the form [f](x)dx. Further
  the integral is equal to the sum of differences

    {F(x1) - F(a)} + {F(x2) - F(x1)} + ... + {F[x_(r+1)] - F(x_r)}
       + ... + {F(b) - F[x(n-1)]},

  for this sum is F(b) - F(a). Now the difference F(x_(r+1)) - F(x_r) is
  _not_ equal to the differential [f](x_r) [x_(r+1) - x_r], but the sum
  of the differences is equal to the _limit_ of the sum of these
  differentials. The differential may be regarded as so much of the
  difference as is required to form the integral. From this point of
  view a differential is called a _differential element of an integral_,
  and the integral is the limit of the sum of differential elements. In
  like manner the differential element ydx of the area of a curve (§ 5)
  is not the area of the portion contained between two ordinates,
  however near together, but is so much of this area as need be retained
  for the purpose of finding the area of the curve by the limiting
  process described.


    Notation.

  8. The notation of the infinitesimal calculus is intimately bound up
  with the notions of differentials and sums of elements. The letter "d"
  is the initial letter of the word _differentia_ (difference) and the
  symbol [int] is a conventionally written "S," the initial letter of
  the word _summa_ (sum or whole). The notation was introduced by
  Leibnitz (see §§ 25-27, below).


    Fundamental Artifice.

  9. The fundamental artifice of the calculus is the artifice of forming
  differentials without first forming differential coefficients. From an
  equation containing x and y we can deduce a new equation, containing
  also [Delta]x and [Delta]y, by substituting x + [Delta]x for x and y +
  [Delta]y for y. If there is a differential coefficient of y with
  respect to x, then [Delta]y can be expressed in the form
  [phi].[Delta]x + R, where lim.{[Delta]x = 0} (R/[Delta]x) = 0, as in §
  7 above. The artifice consists in rejecting _ab initio_ all terms of
  the equation which belong to R. We do not form R at all, but only
  [phi].[Delta]x, or [phi].dx, which is the differential dy. In the same
  way, in all applications of the integral calculus to geometry or
  mechanics we form the _element_ of an integral in the same way as the
  element of area y·dx is formed. In fig. 3 of § 5 the element of area
  y·dx is the area of the rectangle RM. The actual area of the
  curvilinear figure PQNM is greater than the area of this rectangle by
  the area of the curvilinear figure PQR; but the excess is less than
  the area of the rectangle PRQS, which is measured by the product of
  the numerical measures of MN and QR, and we have

             MN·QR
    lim.     ------ = 0.
        MN=0   MN

  Thus the artifice by which differential elements of integrals are
  formed is in principle the same as that by which differentials are
  formed without first forming differential coefficients.


    Orders of small quantities.

  10. This principle is usually expressed by introducing the notion of
  orders of small quantities. If x, y are two variable numbers which are
  connected together by any relation, and if when x tends to zero y also
  tends to zero, the fraction y/x may tend to a finite limit. In this
  case x and y are said to be "of the same order." When this is not the
  case we may have either

           x
    lim.  --- = 0,
      x=0  y

  or
           y
    lim.  --- = 0,
      x=0  x

  In the former case y is said to be "of a lower order" than x; in the
  latter case y is said to be "of a higher order" than x. In accordance
  with this notion we may say that the fundamental artifice of the
  infinitesimal calculus consists in the rejection of small quantities
  of an unnecessarily high order. This artifice is now merely an
  incident in the conduct of a limiting process, but in the 17th
  century, when limiting processes other than the Greek methods for
  quadratures were new, the introduction of the artifice was a great
  advance.


    Rules of Differentiation.

  11. By the aid of this artifice, or directly by carrying out the
  appropriate limiting processes, we may obtain the rules by which
  differential coefficients are formed. These rules may be classified as
  "formal rules" and "particular results." The formal rules may be
  stated as follows:--

  (i.) The differential coefficient of a _constant_ is zero. (ii.) For a
  _sum_ u + v + ... + z, where u, v, ... are functions of x,

    d(u + v + ... + z)    du   dv         dz
    -----------------  =  -- + -- + ... + --.
            dx             dx  dx         dx

  (iii.) For a _product_ uv

    d(uv)     dv     du
    ----- = u -- + v --.
     dx       dx     dx

  (iv.) For a _quotient_ u/v

    d(u/v)    /  du     dv\   /
    ------ = ( v -- - u -- ) / v².
      dx      \  dx     dx/ /

  (v.) For a _function of a function_, that is to say, for a function y
  expressed in terms of a variable z, which is itself expressed as a
  function of x,

    dy   dy   dz
    -- = -- · --.
    dx   dz   dx

  In addition to these formal rules we have particular results as to the
  differentiation of simple functions. The most important results are
  written down in the following table:--

    +---------+---------------------+
    |    y    |        dy/dx        |
    +---------+---------------------+
    |   x^n   |      nx^(n-1)       |
    |         | for all values of n |
    +---------+---------------------+
    | log_a x |     x^-1 log_a e    |
    +---------+---------------------+
    |   a^x   |     a^x log_e a     |
    +---------+---------------------+
    |  sin x  |        cos x        |
    +---------+---------------------+
    |  cos x  |       -sin x        |
    +---------+---------------------+
    | sin^-1 x|     (1 - x²)^-½     |
    +---------+---------------------+
    | tan^-1 x|     (1 + x²)^-1     |
    +---------+---------------------+

  Each of the formal rules, and each of the particular results in the
  table, is a theorem of the differential calculus. All functions (or
  rather expressions) which can be made up from those in the table by a
  finite number of operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication
  or division can be differentiated by the formal rules. All such
  functions are called _explicit_ functions. In addition to these we
  have _implicit_ functions, or such as are determined by an equation
  containing two variables when the equation cannot be solved so as to
  exhibit the one variable expressed in terms of the other. We have also
  functions of several variables. Further, since the derived function of
  a given function is itself a function, we may seek to differentiate
  it, and thus there arise the second and higher differential
  coefficients. We postpone for the present the problems of differential
  calculus which arise from these considerations. Again, we may have
  explicit functions which are expressed as the results of limiting
  operations, or by the limits of the results obtained by performing an
  infinite number of algebraic operations upon the simple functions. For
  the problem of differentiating such functions reference may be made to
  FUNCTION.


    Indefinite Integrals.

  12. The processes of the integral calculus consist largely in
  transformations of the functions to be integrated into such forms that
  they can be recognized as differential coefficients of functions which
  have previously been differentiated. Corresponding to the results in
  the table of § 11 we have those in the following table:--

    +----------------+-------------------------------+
    |     [f](x)     |         [int][f](x)dx         |
    +----------------+-------------------------------+
    |                |            x^(n+1)            |
    |      x^n       |            -------            |
    |                |             n + 1             |
    |                | for all values of n except -1 |
    +----------------+-------------------------------+
    |       1        |                               |
    |      ---       |            log_e x            |
    |       x        |                               |
    +----------------+-------------------------------+
    |     e^(ax)     |          a^-1 e^(ax)          |
    +----------------+-------------------------------+
    |      cos x     |             sin x             |
    +----------------+-------------------------------+
    |      sin x     |            -cos x             |
    +----------------+-------------------------------+
    |                |                  x            |
    |  (a² - x²)^-½  |          sin^-1 ---           |
    |                |                  a            |
    +----------------+-------------------------------+
    |       1        |         1          x          |
    |    -------     |        --- tan^-1 ---         |
    |    a² + x²     |         a          a          |
    +----------------+-------------------------------+

  The formal rules of § 11 give us means for the transformation of
  integrals into recognizable forms. For example, the rule (ii.) for a
  sum leads to the result that the integral of a sum of a finite number
  of terms is the sum of the integrals of the several terms. The rule
  (iii.) for a product leads to the method of integration by parts. The
  rule (v.) for a function of a function leads to the method of
  substitution (see § 48 below.)


II. _History._


  Kepler's methods of Integration.

13. The new limiting processes which were introduced in the development
of the higher analysis were in the first instance related to problems of
the integral calculus. Johannes Kepler in his _Astronomia nova ... de
motibus stellae Martis_ (1609) stated his laws of planetary motion, to
the effect that the orbits of the planets are ellipses with the sun at a
focus, and that the radii vectores drawn from the sun to the planets
describe equal areas in equal times. From these statements it is to be
concluded that Kepler could measure the areas of focal sectors of an
ellipse. When he made out these laws there was no method of evaluating
areas except the Greek methods. These methods would have sufficed for
the purpose, but Kepler invented his own method. He regarded the area as
measured by the "sum of the radii" drawn from the focus, and he verified
his laws of planetary motion by actually measuring a large number of
radii of the orbit, spaced according to a rule, and adding their
lengths.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.]

  He had observed that the focal radius vector SP (fig. 5) is equal to
  the perpendicular SZ drawn from S to the tangent at p to the auxiliary
  circle, and he had further established the theorem which we should now
  express in the form--the differential element of the area ASp as Sp
  turns about S, is equal to the product of SZ and the differential
  ad[phi], where a is the radius of the auxiliary circle, and [phi] is
  the angle ACp, that is the eccentric angle of P on the ellipse. The
  area ASP bears to the area ASp the ratio of the minor to the major
  axis, a result known to Archimedes. Thus Kepler's radii are spaced
  according to the rule that the eccentric angles of their ends are
  equidifferent, and his "sum of radii" is proportional to the
  expression which we should now write
      _
     / [phi]
     |     (a + ae cos [phi]) d[phi],
    _/ 0

  where e is the eccentricity. Kepler evaluated the sum as proportional
  to [phi] + e sin [phi].

Kepler soon afterwards occupied himself with the volumes of solids. The
vintage of the year 1612 was extraordinarily abundant, and the question
of the cubic content of wine casks was brought under his notice. This
fact accounts for the title of his work, _Nova stereometria doliorum;
accessit stereometriae Archimedeae supplementum_ (1615). In this
treatise he regarded solid bodies as being made up, as it were
(_veluti_), of "infinitely" many "infinitely" small cones or
"infinitely" thin disks, and he used the notion of summing the areas of
the disks in the way he had previously used the notion of summing the
focal radii of an ellipse.


  Logarithms.

14. In connexion with the early history of the calculus it must not be
forgotten that the method by which logarithms were invented (1614) was
effectively a method of infinitesimals. Natural logarithms were not
invented as the indices of a certain base, and the notation e for the
base was first introduced by Euler more than a century after the
invention. Logarithms were introduced as numbers which increase in
arithmetic progression when other related numbers increase in geometric
progression. The two sets of numbers were supposed to increase together,
one at a uniform rate, the other at a variable rate, and the increments
were regarded for purposes of calculation as very small and as accruing
discontinuously.


  Cavalieri's Indivisibles.

15. Kepler's methods of integration, for such they must be called, were
the origin of Bonaventura Cavalieri's theory of the summation of
indivisibles. The notion of a continuum, such as the area within a
closed curve, as being made up of indivisible parts, "atoms" of area, if
the expression may be allowed, is traceable to the speculations of early
Greek philosophers; and although the nature of continuity was better
understood by Aristotle and many other ancient writers yet the unsound
atomic conception was revived in the 13th century and has not yet been
finally uprooted. It is possible to contend that Cavalieri did not
himself hold the unsound doctrine, but his writing on this point is
rather obscure. In his treatise _Geometria indivisibilibus continuorum
nova quadam ratione promota_ (1635) he regarded a plane figure as
generated by a line moving so as to be always parallel to a fixed line,
and a solid figure as generated by a plane moving so as to be always
parallel to a fixed plane; and he compared the areas of two plane
figures, or the volumes of two solids, by determining the ratios of the
sums of all the indivisibles of which they are supposed to be made up,
these indivisibles being segments of parallel lines equally spaced in
the case of plane figures, and areas marked out upon parallel planes
equally spaced in the case of solids. By this method Cavalieri was able
to effect numerous integrations relating to the areas of portions of
conic sections and the volumes generated by the revolution of these
portions about various axes. At a later date, and partly in answer to an
attack made upon him by Paul Guldin, Cavalieri published a treatise
entitled _Exercitationes geometricae sex_ (1647), in which he adapted
his method to the determination of centres of gravity, in particular for
solids of variable density.

  Among the results which he obtained is that which we should now write
      _
     / x          x^(m+1)
     |   x^m dx = -------, (m integral).
    _/ 0           m + 1

  He regarded the problem thus solved as that of determining the sum of
  the mth powers of all the lines drawn across a parallelogram parallel
  to one of its sides.


  Successors of Cavalieri.

  Fermat's method of Integration.

At this period scientific investigators communicated their results to
one another through one or more intermediate persons. Such
intermediaries were Pierre de Carcavy and Pater Marin Mersenne; and
among the writers thus in communication were Bonaventura Cavalieri,
Christiaan Huygens, Galileo Galilei, Giles Personnier de Roberval,
Pierre de Fermat, Evangelista Torricelli, and a little later Blaise
Pascal; but the letters of Carcavy or Mersenne would probably come into
the hands of any man who was likely to be interested in the matters
discussed. It often happened that, when some new method was invented, or
some new result obtained, the method or result was quickly known to a
wide circle, although it might not be printed until after the lapse of a
long time. When Cavalieri was printing his two treatises there was much
discussion of the problem of quadratures. Roberval (1634) regarded an
area as made up of "infinitely" many "infinitely" narrow strips, each of
which may be considered to be a rectangle, and he had similar ideas in
regard to lengths and volumes. He knew how to approximate to the
quantity which we express by [int] (0 to 1) x^m dx by the process of
forming the sum

  0^m + 1^m + 2^m + ... (n - 1)^m
  -------------------------------,
               n^(m+1)

and he claimed to be able to prove that this sum tends to 1/(m + 1), as
n increases for all positive integral values of m. The method of
integrating x^m by forming this sum was found also by Fermat (1636), who
stated expressly that he arrived at it by generalizing a method employed
by Archimedes (for the cases m = 1 and m = 2) in his books on _Conoids
and Spheroids_ and on _Spirals_ (see T. L. Heath, _The Works of
Archimedes_, Cambridge, 1897). Fermat extended the result to the case
where m is fractional (1644), and to the case where m is negative. This
latter extension and the proofs were given in his memoir, _Proportionis
geometricae in quadrandis parabolis et hyperbolis usus_, which appears
to have received a final form before 1659, although not published until
1679. Fermat did not use fractional or negative indices, but he regarded
his problems as the quadratures of parabolas and hyperbolas of various
orders. His method was to divide the interval of integration into parts
by means of intermediate points the abscissae of which are in geometric
progression. In the process of § 5 above, the points M must be chosen
according to this rule. This restrictive condition being understood, we
may say that Fermat's formulation of the problem of quadratures is the
same as our definition of a definite integral.


  Various Integrations.

The result that the problem of quadratures could be solved for any curve
whose equation could be expressed in the form

  y = x^m (m [Not Equal] -1),

or in the form

  y = a1 x^m1 + a2 x^m2 + ... + a_n x^m_n,

where none of the indices is equal to - 1, was used by John Wallis in
his _Arithmetica infinitorum_ (1655) as well as by Fermat (1659). The
case in which m = - 1 was that of the ordinary rectangular hyperbola;
and Gregory of St Vincent in his _Opus geometricum quadraturae circuli
et sectionum coni_ (1647) had proved by the method of exhaustions that
the area contained between the curve, one asymptote, and two ordinates
parallel to the other asymptote, increases in arithmetic progression as
the distance between the ordinates (the one nearer to the centre being
kept fixed) increases in geometric progression. Fermat described his
method of integration as a logarithmic method, and thus it is clear that
the relation between the quadrature of the hyperbola and logarithms was
understood although it was not expressed analytically. It was not very
long before the relation was used for the calculation of logarithms by
Nicolaus Mercator in his _Logarithmotechnia_ (1668). He began by writing
the equation of the curve in the form y = 1/(1 + x), expanded this
expression in powers of x by the method of division, and integrated it
term by term in accordance with the well-understood rule for finding the
quadrature of a curve given by such an equation as that written at the
foot of p. 325.


  Integration before the Integral Calculus.

By the middle of the 17th century many mathematicians could perform
integrations. Very many particular results had been obtained, and
applications of them had been made to the quadrature of the circle and
other conic sections, and to various problems concerning the lengths of
curves, the areas they enclose, the volumes and superficial areas of
solids, and centres of gravity. A systematic account of the methods then
in use was given, along with much that was original on his part, by
Blaise Pascal in his _Lettres de Amos Dettonville sur quelques-unes de
ses inventions en géométrie_ (1659).


  Fermat's methods of Differentiation.

16. The problem of maxima and minima and the problem of tangents had
also by the same time been effectively solved. Oresme in the 14th
century knew that at a point where the ordinate of a curve is a maximum
or a minimum its variation from point to point of the curve is slowest;
and Kepler in the _Stereometria doliorum_ remarked that at the places
where the ordinate passes from a smaller value to the greatest value and
then again to a smaller value, its variation becomes insensible. Fermat
in 1629 was in possession of a method which he then communicated to one
Despagnet of Bordeaux, and which he referred to in a letter to Roberval
of 1636. He communicated it to René Descartes early in 1638 on receiving
a copy of Descartes's _Géométrie_ (1637), and with it he sent to
Descartes an account of his methods for solving the problem of tangents
and for determining centres of gravity.

  Fermat's method for maxima and minima is essentially our method.
  Expressed in a more modern notation, what he did was to begin by
  connecting the ordinate y and the abscissa x of a point of a curve by
  an equation which holds at all points of the curve, then to subtract
  the value of y in terms of x from the value obtained by substituting x
  + E for x, then to divide the difference by E, to put E = 0 in the
  quotient, and to equate the quotient to zero. Thus he differentiated
  with respect to x and equated the differential coefficient to zero.

  [Illustration: FIG. 6.]

  Fermat's method for solving the problem of tangents may be explained
  as follows:--Let (x, y) be the coordinates of a point P of a curve,
  (x´, y´), those of a neighbouring point P´ on the tangent at P, and
  let MM´ = E (fig. 6).

  From the similarity of the triangles P´TM´, PTM we have

    y´:A - E = y:A,

  where A denotes the subtangent TM. The point P´ being near the curve,
  we may substitute in the equation of the curve x - E for x and (yA -
  yE)/A for y. The equation of the curve is approximately satisfied. If
  it is taken to be satisfied exactly, the result is an equation of the
  form [phi](x, y, A, E) = 0, the left-hand member of which is divisible
  by E. Omitting the factor E, and putting E = 0 in the remaining
  factor, we have an equation which gives A. In this problem of tangents
  also Fermat found the required result by a process equivalent to
  differentiation.

Fermat gave several examples of the application of his method; among
them was one in which he showed that he could differentiate very
complicated irrational functions. For such functions his method was to
begin by obtaining a rational equation. In rationalizing equations
Fermat, in other writings, used the device of introducing new variables,
but he did not use this device to simplify the process of
differentiation. Some of his results were published by Pierre Hérigone
in his _Supplementum cursus mathematici_ (1642). His communication to
Descartes was not published in full until after his death (Fermat,
_Opera varia_, 1679). Methods similar to Fermat's were devised by René
de Sluse (1652) for tangents, and by Johannes Hudde (1658) for maxima
and minima. Other methods for the solution of the problem of tangents
were devised by Roberval and Torricelli, and published almost
simultaneously in 1644. These methods were founded upon the composition
of motions, the theory of which had been taught by Galileo (1638), and,
less completely, by Roberval (1636). Roberval and Torricelli could
construct the tangents of many curves, but they did not arrive at
Fermat's artifice. This artifice is that which we have noted in § 10 as
the fundamental artifice of the infinitesimal calculus.

[Illustration: FIG. 7.]


  Barrow's Differential Triangle.

17. Among the comparatively few mathematicians who before 1665 could
perform differentiations was Isaac Barrow. In his book entitled
_Lectiones opticae et geometricae_, written apparently in 1663, 1664,
and published in 1669, 1670, he gave a method of tangents like that of
Roberval and Torricelli, compounding two velocities in the directions of
the axes of x and y to obtain a resultant along the tangent to a curve.
In an appendix to this book he gave another method which differs from
Fermat's in the introduction of a differential equivalent to our dy as
well as dx. Two neighbouring ordinates PM and QN of a curve (fig. 7) are
regarded as containing an indefinitely small (_indefinite parvum_) arc,
and PR is drawn parallel to the axis of x. The tangent PT at P is
regarded as identical with the secant PQ, and the position of the
tangent is determined by the similarity of the triangles PTM, PQR. The
increments QR, PR of the ordinate and abscissa are denoted by a and e;
and the ratio of a to e is determined by substituting x + e for x and y
+ a for y in the equation of the curve, rejecting all terms which are of
order higher than the first in a and e, and omitting the terms which do
not contain a or e. This process is equivalent to differentiation.
Barrow appears to have invented it himself, but to have put it into his
book at Newton's request. The triangle PQR is sometimes called "Barrow's
differential triangle."


    Barrow's Inversion-theorem.

  The reciprocal relation between differentiation and integration (§ 6)
  was first observed explicitly by Barrow in the book cited above. If
  the quadrature of a curve y = f(x) is known, so that the area up to
  the ordinate x is given by F(x), the curve y = F(x) can be drawn, and
  Barrow showed that the subtangent of this curve is measured by the
  ratio of its ordinate to the ordinate of the original curve. The curve
  y = F(x) is often called the "quadratrix" of the original curve; and
  the result has been called "Barrow's inversion-theorem." He did not
  use it as we do for the determination of quadratures, or indefinite
  integrals, but for the solution of problems of the kind which were
  then called "inverse problems of tangents." In these problems it was
  sought to determine a curve from some property of its tangent, e.g.
  the property that the subtangent is proportional to the square of the
  abscissa. Such problems are now classed under "differential
  equations." When Barrow wrote, quadratures were familiar and
  differentiation unfamiliar, just as hyperbolas were trusted while
  logarithms were strange. The functional notation was not invented till
  long afterwards (see FUNCTION), and the want of it is felt in reading
  all the mathematics of the 17th century.


  Nature of the discovery called the Infinitesimal Calculus.

18. The great secret which afterwards came to be called the
"infinitesimal calculus" was almost discovered by Fermat, and still more
nearly by Barrow. Barrow went farther than Fermat in the theory of
differentiation, though not in the practice, for he compared two
increments; he went farther in the theory of integration, for he
obtained the inversion-theorem. The great discovery seems to consist
partly in the recognition of the fact that differentiation, known to be
a useful process, could always be performed, at least for the functions
then known, and partly in the recognition of the fact that the
inversion-theorem could be applied to problems of quadrature. By these
steps the problem of tangents could be solved once for all, and the
operation of integration, as we call it, could be rendered systematic. A
further step was necessary in order that the discovery, once made,
should become accessible to mathematicians in general; and this step was
the introduction of a suitable notation. The definite abandonment of the
old tentative methods of integration in favour of the method in which
this operation is regarded as the inverse of differentiation was
especially the work of Isaac Newton; the precise formulation of simple
rules for the process of differentiation in each special case, and the
introduction of the notation which has proved to be the best, were
especially the work of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz. This statement
remains true although Newton invented a systematic notation, and
practised differentiation by rules equivalent to those of Leibnitz,
before Leibnitz had begun to work upon the subject, and Leibnitz
effected integrations by the method of recognizing differential
coefficients before he had had any opportunity of becoming acquainted
with Newton's methods.


  Newton's investigations.

19. Newton was Barrow's pupil, and he knew to start with in 1664 all
that Barrow knew, and that was practically all that was known about the
subject at that time. His original thinking on the subject dates from
the year of the great plague (1665-1666), and it issued in the invention
of the "Calculus of Fluxions," the principles and methods of which were
developed by him in three tracts entitled _De analysi per aequationes
numero terminorum infinitas, Methodus fluxionum et serierum infinitarum,
and De quadratura curvarum_. None of these was published until long
after they were written. The _Analysis per aequationes_ was composed in
1666, but not printed until 1711, when it was published by William
Jones. The _Methodus fluxionum_ was composed in 1671 but not printed
till 1736, nine years after Newton's death, when an English translation
was published by John Colson. In Horsley's edition of Newton's works it
bears the title _Geometria analytica_. The _Quadratura_ appears to have
been composed in 1676, but was first printed in 1704 as an appendix to
Newton's _Opticks_.


    Newton's method of Series.

  20. The tract _De Analysi per aequationes ..._ was sent by Newton to
  Barrow, who sent it to John Collins with a request that it might be
  made known. One way of making it known would have been to print it in
  the _Philosophical Transactions_ of the Royal Society, but this course
  was not adopted. Collins made a copy of the tract and sent it to Lord
  Brouncker, but neither of them brought it before the Royal Society.
  The tract contains a general proof of Barrow's inversion-theorem which
  is the same in principle as that in § 6 above. In this proof and
  elsewhere in the tract a notation is introduced for the momentary
  increment (_momentum_) of the abscissa or area of a curve; this
  "moment" is evidently meant to represent a moment of time, the
  abscissa representing time, and it is effectively the same as our
  differential element--the thing that Fermat had denoted by E, and
  Barrow by e, in the case of the abscissa. Newton denoted the moment of
  the abscissa by o, that of the area z by ov. He used the letter v for
  the ordinate y, thus suggesting that his curve is a velocity-time
  graph such as Galileo had used. Newton gave the formula for the area
  of a curve v = x^m (m ± -1) in the form z = x^(m+1)/(m + 1). In the
  proof he transformed this formula to the form z^n = c^n x^p, where n
  and p are positive integers, substituted x + o for x and z + ov for z,
  and expanded by the binomial theorem for a positive integral exponent,
  thus obtaining the relation

    z^n + nz^(n-1) ov + ... = c^n (x_p + px^(p-1)o + ...),

  from which he deduced the relation

    nz_(n-1)v = c^n px^(p-1)

  by omitting the equal terms z^n and c^n·x^p and dividing the remaining
  terms by o, tacitly putting o = 0 after division. This relation is the
  same as v = x^m. Newton pointed out that, conversely, from the
  relation v = x^m the relation z = x^(m+1) / (m + 1) follows. He
  applied his formula to the quadrature of curves whose ordinates can be
  expressed as the sum of a finite number of terms of the form ax^m; and
  gave examples of its application to curves in which the ordinate is
  expressed by an infinite series, using for this purpose the binomial
  theorem for negative and fractional exponents, that is to say, the
  expansion of (1 + x)^n in an infinite series of powers of x. This
  theorem he had discovered; but he did not in this tract state it in a
  general form or give any proof of it. He pointed out, however, how it
  may be used for the solution of equations by means of infinite series.
  He observed also that all questions concerning lengths of curves,
  volumes enclosed by surfaces, and centres of gravity, can be
  formulated as problems of quadratures, and can thus be solved either
  in finite terms or by means of infinite series. In the _Quadratura_
  (1676) the method of integration which is founded upon the
  inversion-theorem was carried out systematically. Among other results
  there given is the quadrature of curves expressed by equations of the
  form y = x^n·(a + bx^m)^p; this has passed into text-books under the
  title "integration of binomial differentials" (see § 49). Newton
  announced the result in letters to Collins and Oldenburg of 1676.


    Newton's method of Fluxions.

  21. In the _Methodus fluxionum_ (1671) Newton introduced his
  characteristic notation. He regarded variable quantities as generated
  by the motion of a point, or line, or plane, and called the generated
  quantity a "fluent" and its rate of generation a "fluxion." The
  fluxion of a fluent x is represented by x, and its moment, or
  "infinitely" small increment accruing in an "infinitely" short time,
  is represented by [.x]o. The problems of the calculus are stated to be
  (i.) to find the velocity at any time when the distance traversed is
  given; (ii.) to find the distance traversed when the velocity is
  given. The first of these leads to differentiation. In any rational
  equation containing x and y the expressions x + [.x]o and y +[.y]o are
  to be substituted for x and y, the resulting equation is to be divided
  by o, and afterwards o is to be omitted. In the case of irrational
  functions, or rational functions which are not integral, new variables
  are introduced in such a way as to make the equations contain rational
  integral terms only. Thus Newton's rules of differentiation would be
  in our notation the rules (i.), (ii.), (v.) of § 11, together with the
  particular result which we write

    dx^m
    ---- = mx^(m-1), (m integral).
     dx

  a result which Newton obtained by expanding (x = [.x]o)^m by the
  binomial theorem. The second problem is the problem of integration,
  and Newton's method for solving it was the method of series founded
  upon the particular result which we write
      _
     /          x^(m+1)
     | x^m dx = -------.
    _/           m + 1

  Newton added applications of his methods to maxima and minima,
  tangents and curvature. In a letter to Collins of date 1672 Newton
  stated that he had certain methods, and he described certain results
  which he had found by using them. These methods and results are those
  which are to be found in the _Methodus fluxionum_; but the letter
  makes no mention of fluxions and fluents or of the characteristic
  notation. The rule for tangents is said in the letter to be analogous
  to de Sluse's, but to be applicable to equations that contain
  irrational terms.


    Publication of the Fluxional Notation.

  22. Newton gave the fluxional notation also in the tract De
  _Quadratura curvarum_ (1676), and he there added to it notation for
  the higher differential coefficients and for indefinite integrals, as
  we call them. Just as x, y, z, ... are fluents of which [.x], [.y],
  [.z], ... are the fluxions, so [.x], [.y], [.z], ... can be treated as
  fluents of which the fluxions may be denoted by [:x], [:y], [:z],...
  In like manner the fluxions of these may be denoted by [:x], [:y],
  [:z], ... and so on. Again x, y, z, ... may be regarded as fluxions of
  which the fluents may be denoted by ['x], ['y], ['z], ... and these
  again as fluxions of other quantities denoted by ["x], ["y], ["z], ...
  and so on. No use was made of the notation ['x], ["x], ... in the
  course of the tract. The first publication of the fluxional notation
  was made by Wallis in the second edition of his _Algebra_ (1693) in
  the form of extracts from communications made to him by Newton in
  1692. In this account of the method the symbols 0, [.x], [:x], ...
  occur, but not the symbols ['x], ["x], .... Wallis's treatise also
  contains Newton's formulation of the problems of the calculus in the
  words _Data aequatione fluentes quotcumque quantitates involvente
  fluxiones invenire et vice versa_ ("an equation containing any number
  of fluent quantities being given, to find their fluxions and vice
  versa"). In the _Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica_ (1687),
  commonly called the "Principia," the words "fluxion" and "moment"
  occur in a lemma in the second book; but the notation which is
  characteristic of the calculus of fluxions is nowhere used.


  Retarded Publication of the method of Fluxions.

23. It is difficult to account for the fragmentary manner of publication
of the Fluxional Calculus and for the long delays which took place. At
the time (1671) when Newton composed the _Methodus fluxionum_ he
contemplated bringing out an edition of Gerhard Kinckhuysen's treatise
on algebra and prefixing his tract to this treatise. In the same year
his "Theory of Light and Colours" was published in the _Philosophical
Transactions_, and the opposition which it excited led to the
abandonment of the project with regard to fluxions. In 1680 Collins
sought the assistance of the Royal Society for the publication of the
tract, and this was granted in 1682. Yet it remained unpublished. The
reason is unknown; but it is known that about 1679, 1680, Newton took up
again the studies in natural philosophy which he had intermitted for
several years, and that in 1684 he wrote the tract _De motu_ which was
in some sense a first draft of the _Principia_, and it may be
conjectured that the fluxions were held over until the _Principia_
should be finished. There is also reason to think that Newton had become
dissatisfied with the arguments about infinitesimals on which his
calculus was based. In the preface to the _De quadratura curvarum_
(1704), in which he describes this tract as something which he once
wrote ("_olim scripsi_") he says that there is no necessity to introduce
into the method of fluxions any argument about infinitely small
quantities; and in the _Principia_ (1687) he adopted instead of the
method of fluxions a new method, that of "Prime and Ultimate Ratios." By
the aid of this method it is possible, as Newton knew, and as was
afterwards seen by others, to found the calculus of fluxions on an
irreproachable method of limits. For the purpose of explaining his
discoveries in dynamics and astronomy Newton used the method of limits
only, without the notation of fluxions, and he presented all his results
and demonstrations in a geometrical form. There is no doubt that he
arrived at most of his theorems in the first instance by using the
method of fluxions. Further evidence of Newton's dissatisfaction with
arguments about infinitely small quantities is furnished by his tract
_Methodus diferentialis_, published in 1711 by William Jones, in which
he laid the foundations of the "Calculus of Finite Differences."


  Leibnitz's course of discovery.

24. Leibnitz, unlike Newton, was practically a self-taught
mathematician. He seems to have been first attracted to mathematics as a
means of symbolical expression, and on the occasion of his first visit
to London, early in 1673, he learnt about the doctrine of infinite
series which James Gregory, Nicolaus Mercator, Lord Brouncker and
others, besides Newton, had used in their investigations. It appears
that he did not on this occasion become acquainted with Collins, or see
Newton's _Analysis per aequationes_, but he purchased Barrow's
_Lectiones_. On returning to Paris he made the acquaintance of Huygens,
who recommended him to read Descartes' _Géométrie_. He also read
Pascal's _Lettres de Dettonville_, Gregory of St Vincent's _Opus
geometricum_, Cavalieri's _Indivisibles_ and the _Synopsis geometrica_
of Honoré Fabri, a book which is practically a commentary on Cavalieri;
it would never have had any importance but for the influence which it
had on Leibnitz's thinking at this critical period. In August of this
year (1673) he was at work upon the problem of tangents, and he appears
to have made out the nature of the solution--the method involved in
Barrow's differential triangle--for himself by the aid of a diagram
drawn by Pascal in a demonstration of the formula for the area of a
spherical surface. He saw that the problem of the relation between the
differences of neighbouring ordinates and the ordinates themselves was
the important problem, and then that the solution of this problem was to
be effected by quadratures. Unlike Newton, who arrived at
differentiation and tangents through integration and areas, Leibnitz
proceeded from tangents to quadratures. When he turned his attention to
quadratures and indivisibles, and realized the nature of the process of
finding areas by summing "infinitesimal" rectangles, he proposed to
replace the rectangles by triangles having a common vertex, and obtained
by this method the result which we write

   1              1     1     1
  --- [pi] = 1 - --- + --- - --- + ...
   4              3     5     7

In 1674 he sent an account of his method, called "transmutation," along
with this result to Huygens, and early in 1675 he sent it to Henry
Oldenburg, secretary of the Royal Society, with inquiries as to Newton's
discoveries in regard to quadratures. In October of 1675 he had begun to
devise a symbolical notation for quadratures, starting from Cavalieri's
indivisibles. At first he proposed to use the word _omnia_ as an
abbreviation for Cavalieri's "sum of all the lines," thus writing
_omnia_ y for that which we write "[int] ydx," but within a day or two
he wrote "[int] y". He regarded the symbol "[int]" as representing an
operation which raises the dimensions of the subject of operation--a
line becoming an area by the operation--and he devised his symbol "d" to
represent the inverse operation, by which the dimensions are diminished.
He observed that, whereas "[int]" represents "sum," "d" represents
"difference." His notation appears to have been practically settled
before the end of 1675, for in November he wrote [int] y dy = ½y², just
as we do now.


  Correspondence of Newton and Leibnitz.

25. In July of 1676 Leibnitz received an answer to his inquiry in regard
to Newton's methods in a letter written by Newton to Oldenburg. In this
letter Newton gave a general statement of the binomial theorem and many
results relating to series. He stated that by means of such series he
could find areas and lengths of curves, centres of gravity and volumes
and surfaces of solids, but, as this would take too long to describe, he
would illustrate it by examples. He gave no proofs. Leibnitz replied in
August, stating some results which he had obtained, and which, as it
seemed, could not be obtained easily by the method of series, and he
asked for further information. Newton replied in a long letter to
Oldenburg of the 24th of October 1676. In this letter he gave a much
fuller account of his binomial theorem and indicated a method of proof.
Further he gave a number of results relating to quadratures; they were
afterwards printed in the tract _De quadratura curvarum_. He gave many
other results relating to the computation of natural logarithms and
other calculations in which series could be used. He gave a general
statement, similar to that in the letter to Collins, as to the kind of
problems relating to tangents, maxima and minima, &c., which he could
solve by his method, but he concealed his formulation of the calculus in
an anagram of transposed letters. The solution of the anagram was given
eleven years later in the _Principia_ in the words we have quoted from
Wallis's _Algebra_. In neither of the letters to Oldenburg does the
characteristic notation of the fluxional calculus occur, and the words
"fluxion" and "fluent" occur only in anagrams of transposed letters. The
letter of October 1676 was not despatched until May 1677, and Leibnitz
answered it in June of that year. In October 1676 Leibnitz was in
London, where he made the acquaintance of Collins and read the _Analysis
per aequationes_, and it seems to have been supposed afterwards that he
then read Newton's letter of October 1676, but he left London before
Oldenburg received this letter. In his answer of June 1677 Leibnitz gave
Newton a candid account of his differential calculus, nearly in the form
in which he afterwards published it, and explained how he used it for
quadratures and inverse problems of tangents. Newton never replied.


  Leibnitz's Differential Calculus.

26. In the _Acta eruditorum_ of 1684 Leibnitz published a short memoir
entitled _Nova methodus pro maximis et minimis, itemque tangentibus,
quae nec fractas nec irrationales quantitates moratur, et singulare pro
illis calculi genus_. In this memoir the differential dx of a variable
x, considered as the abscissa of a point of a curve, is said to be an
arbitrary quantity, and the differential dy of a related variable y,
considered as the ordinate of the point, is defined as a quantity which
has to dx the ratio of the ordinate to the subtangent, and rules are
given for operating with differentials. These are the rules for forming
the differential of a constant, a sum (or difference), a product, a
quotient, a power (or root). They are equivalent to our rules (i.)-(iv.)
of § 11 and the particular result

  d(x^m) = mx^(m-1) dx.

The rule for a function of a function is not stated explicitly but is
illustrated by examples in which new variables are introduced, in much
the same way as in Newton's _Methodus fluxionum_. In connexion with the
problem of maxima and minima, it is noted that the differential of y is
positive or negative according as y increases or decreases when x
increases, and the discrimination of maxima from minima depends upon the
sign of ddy, the differential of dy. In connexion with the problem of
tangents the differentials are said to be proportional to the momentary
increments of the abscissa and ordinate. A tangent is defined as a line
joining two "infinitely" near points of a curve, and the "infinitely"
small distances (e.g., the distance between the feet of the ordinates of
such points) are said to be expressible by means of the differentials
(e.g., dx). The method is illustrated by a few examples, and one example
is given of its application to "inverse problems of tangents." Barrow's
inversion-theorem and its application to quadratures are not mentioned.
No proofs are given, but it is stated that they can be obtained easily
by any one versed in such matters. The new methods in regard to
differentiation which were contained in this memoir were the use of the
second differential for the discrimination of maxima and minima, and the
introduction of new variables for the purpose of differentiating
complicated expressions. A greater novelty was the use of a letter (d),
not as a symbol for a number or magnitude, but as a symbol of operation.
None of these novelties account for the far-reaching effect which this
memoir has had upon the development of mathematical analysis. This
effect was a consequence of the simplicity and directness with which the
rules of differentiation were stated. Whatever indistinctness might be
felt to attach to the symbols, the processes for solving problems of
tangents and of maxima and minima were reduced once for all to a
definite routine.


  Development of the Calculus.

27. This memoir was followed in 1686 by a second, entitled _De Geometria
recondita et analysi indivisibilium atque infinitorum_, in which
Leibnitz described the method of using his new differential calculus for
the problem of quadratures. This was the first publication of the
notation [int] ydx. The new method was called _calculus summatorius_.
The brothers Jacob (James) and Johann (John) Bernoulli were able by 1690
to begin to make substantial contributions to the development of the new
calculus, and Leibnitz adopted their word "integral" in 1695, they at
the same time adopting his symbol "[int]." In 1696 the marquis de
l'Hospital published the first treatise on the differential calculus
with the title _Analyse des infiniment petits pour l'intelligence des
lignes courbes_. The few references to fluxions in Newton's _Principia_
(1687) must have been quite unintelligible to the mathematicians of the
time, and the publication of the fluxional notation and calculus by
Wallis in 1693 was too late to be effective. Fluxions had been
supplanted before they were introduced.

The differential calculus and the integral calculus were rapidly
developed in the writings of Leibnitz and the Bernoullis. Leibnitz
(1695) was the first to differentiate a logarithm and an exponential,
and John Bernoulli was the first to recognize the property possessed by
an exponential (a^x) of becoming infinitely great in comparison with any
power (x^n) when x is increased indefinitely. Roger Cotes (1722) was the
first to differentiate a trigonometrical function. A great development
of infinitesimal methods took place through the founding in 1696-1697 of
the "Calculus of Variations" by the brothers Bernoulli.


  Dispute concerning Priority.

28. The famous dispute as to the priority of Newton and Leibnitz in the
invention of the calculus began in 1699 through the publication by
Nicolas Fatio de Duillier of a tract in which he stated that Newton was
not only the first, but by many years the first inventor, and insinuated
that Leibnitz had stolen it. Leibnitz in his reply (_Acta Eruditorum_,
1700) cited Newton's letters and the testimony which Newton had rendered
to him in the _Principia_ as proofs of his independent authorship of the
method. Leibnitz was especially hurt at what he understood to be an
endorsement of Duillier's attack by the Royal Society, but it was
explained to him that the apparent approval was an accident. The dispute
was ended for a time. On the publication of Newton's tract _De
quadratura curvarum_, an anonymous review of it, written, as has since
been proved, by Leibnitz, appeared in the _Acta Eruditorum_, 1705. The
anonymous reviewer said: "Instead of the Leibnitzian differences Newton
uses and always has used fluxions ... just as Honoré Fabri in his
_Synopsis Geometrica_ substituted steps of movements for the method of
Cavalieri." This passage, when it became known in England, was
understood not merely as belittling Newton by comparing him with the
obscure Fabri, but also as implying that he had stolen his calculus of
fluxions from Leibnitz. Great indignation was aroused; and John Keill
took occasion, in a memoir on central forces which was printed in the
_Philosophical Transactions_ for 1708, to affirm that Newton was without
doubt the first inventor of the calculus, and that Leibnitz had merely
changed the name and mode of notation. The memoir was published in 1710.
Leibnitz wrote in 1711 to the secretary of the Royal Society (Hans
Sloane) requiring Keill to retract his accusation. Leibnitz's letter was
read at a meeting of the Royal Society, of which Newton was then
president, and Newton made to the society a statement of the course of
his invention of the fluxional calculus with the dates of particular
discoveries. Keill was requested by the society "to draw up an account
of the matter under dispute and set it in a just light." In his report
Keill referred to Newton's letters of 1676, and said that Newton had
there given so many indications of his method that it could have been
understood by a person of ordinary intelligence. Leibnitz wrote to
Sloane asking the society to stop these unjust attacks of Keill,
asserting that in the review in the _Acta Eruditorum_ no one had been
injured but each had received his due, submitting the matter to the
equity of the Royal Society, and stating that he was persuaded that
Newton himself would do him justice. A committee was appointed by the
society to examine the documents and furnish a report. Their report,
presented in April 1712, concluded as follows:

  "The _differential method_ is one and the same with the _method of
  fluxions_, excepting the name and mode of notation; Mr Leibnitz
  calling those quantities _differences_ which Mr Newton calls _moments_
  or _fluxions_, and marking them with the letter d, a mark not used by
  Mr Newton. And therefore we take the proper question to be, not who
  invented this or that method, but who was the first inventor of the
  method; and we believe that those who have reputed Mr Leibnitz the
  first inventor, knew little or nothing of his correspondence with Mr
  Collins and Mr Oldenburg long before; nor of Mr Newton's having that
  method above fifteen years before Mr. Leibnitz began to publish it in
  the _Acta Eruditorum_ of Leipzig. For which reasons we reckon Mr
  Newton the first inventor, and are of opinion that Mr Keill, in
  asserting the same, has been no ways injurious to Mr Leibnitz."

The report with the letters and other documents was printed (1712) under
the title _Commercium Epistolicum D. Johannis Collins et aliorum de
analysi promota, jussu Societatis Regiae in lucem editum_, not at first
for publication. An account of the contents of the _Commercium
Epistolicum_ was printed in the _Philosophical Transactions_ for 1715. A
second edition of the _Commercium Epistolicum_ was published in 1722.
The dispute was continued for many years after the death of Leibnitz in
1716. To translate the words of Moritz Cantor, it "redounded to the
discredit of all concerned."


  British and Continental Schools of Mathematics.

29. One lamentable consequence of the dispute was a severance of British
methods from continental ones. In Great Britain it became a point of
honour to use fluxions and other Newtonian methods, while on the
continent the notation of Leibnitz was universally adopted. This
severance did not at first prevent a great advance in mathematics in
Great Britain. So long as attention was directed to problems in which
there is but one independent variable (the time, or the abscissa of a
point of a curve), and all the other variables depend upon this one, the
fluxional notation could be used as well as the differential and
integral notation, though perhaps not quite so easily. Up to about the
middle of the 18th century important discoveries continued to be made by
the use of the method of fluxions. It was the introduction of partial
differentiation by Leonhard Euler (1734) and Alexis Claude Clairaut
(1739), and the developments which followed upon the systematic use of
partial differential coefficients, which led to Great Britain being left
behind; and it was not until after the reintroduction of continental
methods into England by Sir John Herschel, George Peacock and Charles
Babbage in 1815 that British mathematics began to flourish again. The
exclusion of continental mathematics from Great Britain was not
accompanied by any exclusion of British mathematics from the continent.
The discoveries of Brook Taylor and Colin Maclaurin were absorbed into
the rapidly growing continental analysis, and the more precise
conceptions reached through a critical scrutiny of the true nature of
Newton's fluxions and moments stimulated a like scrutiny of the basis of
the method of differentials.


  Oppositions to the calculus.

  The "Analyst" controversy.

  Cauchy's method of limits.

30. This method had met with opposition from the first. Christiaan
Huygens, whose opinion carried more weight than that of any other
scientific man of the day, declared that the employment of differentials
was unnecessary, and that Leibnitz's second differential was meaningless
(1691). A Dutch physician named Bernhard Nieuwentijt attacked the method
on account of the use of quantities which are at one stage of the
process treated as somethings and at a later stage as nothings, and he
was especially severe in commenting upon the second and higher
differentials (1694, 1695). Other attacks were made by Michel Rolle
(1701), but they were directed rather against matters of detail than
against the general principles. The fact is that, although Leibnitz in
his answers to Nieuwentijt (1695), and to Rolle (1702), indicated that
the processes of the calculus could be justified by the methods of the
ancient geometry, he never expressed himself very clearly on the subject
of differentials, and he conveyed, probably without intending it, the
impression that the calculus leads to correct results by compensation of
errors. In England the method of fluxions had to face similar attacks.
George Berkeley, bishop and philosopher, wrote in 1734 a tract entitled
_The Analyst; or a Discourse addressed to an Infidel Mathematician_, in
which he proposed to destroy the presumption that the opinions of
mathematicians in matters of faith are likely to be more trustworthy
than those of divines, by contending that in the much vaunted fluxional
calculus there are mysteries which are accepted unquestioningly by the
mathematicians, but are incapable of logical demonstration. Berkeley's
criticism was levelled against all infinitesimals, that is to say, all
quantities vaguely conceived as in some intermediate state between
nullity and finiteness, as he took Newton's moments to be conceived. The
tract occasioned a controversy which had the important consequence of
making it plain that all arguments about infinitesimals must be given
up, and the calculus must be founded on the method of limits. During the
controversy Benjamin Robins gave an exceedingly clear explanation of
Newton's theories of fluxions and of prime and ultimate ratios regarded
as theories of limits. In this explanation he pointed out that Newton's
_moment_ (Leibnitz's "differential") is to be regarded as so much of the
actual difference between two neighbouring values of a variable as is
needful for the formation of the fluxion (or differential coefficient)
(see G. A. Gibson, "The Analyst Controversy," _Proc. Math. Soc._,
Edinburgh, xvii., 1899). Colin Maclaurin published in 1742 a _Treatise
of Fluxions_, in which he reduced the whole theory to a theory of
limits, and demonstrated it by the method of Archimedes. This notion was
gradually transferred to the continental mathematicians. Leonhard Euler
in his _Institutiones Calculi differentialis_ (1755) was reduced to the
position of one who asserts that all differentials are zero, but, as the
product of zero and any finite quantity is zero, the ratio of two zeros
can be a finite quantity which it is the business of the calculus to
determine. Jean le Rond d'Alembert in the _Encyclopédie méthodique_
(1755, 2nd ed. 1784) declared that differentials were unnecessary, and
that Leibnitz's calculus was a calculus of mutually compensating errors,
while Newton's method was entirely rigorous. D'Alembert's opinion of
Leibnitz's calculus was expressed also by Lazare N. M. Carnot in his
_Réflexions sur la métaphysique du calcul infinitésimal_ (1799) and by
Joseph Louis de la Grange (generally called Lagrange) in writings from
1760 onwards. Lagrange proposed in his _Théorie des fonctions
analytiques_ (1797) to found the whole of the calculus on the theory of
series. It was not until 1823 that a treatise on the differential
calculus founded upon the method of limits was published. The treatise
was the _Résumé des leçons ... sur le calcul infinitésimal_ of Augustin
Louis Cauchy. Since that time it has been understood that the use of the
phrase "infinitely small" in any mathematical argument is a figurative
mode of expression pointing to a limiting process. In the opinion of
many eminent mathematicians such modes of expression are confusing to
students, but in treatises on the calculus the traditional modes of
expression are still largely adopted.


  Arithmetical basis of modern analysis.

31. Defective modes of expression did not hinder constructive work. It
was the great merit of Leibnitz's symbolism that a mathematician who
used it knew what was to be done in order to formulate any problem
analytically, even though he might not be absolutely clear as to the
proper interpretation of the symbols, or able to render a satisfactory
account of them. While new and varied results were promptly obtained by
using them, a long time elapsed before the theory of them was placed on
a sound basis. Even after Cauchy had formulated his theory much remained
to be done, both in the rapidly growing department of complex variables,
and in the regions opened up by the theory of expansions in
trigonometric series. In both directions it was seen that rigorous
demonstration demanded greater precision in regard to fundamental
notions, and the requirement of precision led to a gradual shifting of
the basis of analysis from geometrical intuition to arithmetical law. A
sketch of the outcome of this movement--the "arithmetization of
analysis," as it has been called--will be found in FUNCTION. Its general
tendency has been to show that many theories and processes, at first
accepted as of general validity, are liable to exceptions, and much of
the work of the analysts of the latter half of the 19th century was
directed to discovering the most general conditions in which particular
processes, frequently but not universally applicable, can be used
without scruple.


III. _Outlines of the Infinitesimal Calculus._

32. The general notions of functionality, limits and continuity are
explained in the article FUNCTION. Illustrations of the more immediate
ways in which these notions present themselves in the development of the
differential and integral calculus will be useful in what follows.

[Illustration: FIG. 8.]


    Geometrical limits.

    Tangents.

  33. Let y be given as a function of x, or, more generally, let x and y
  be given as functions of a variable t. The first of these cases is
  included in the second by putting x = t. If certain conditions are
  satisfied the aggregate of the points determined by the functional
  relations form a curve. The first condition is that the aggregate of
  the values of t to which values of x and y correspond must be
  continuous, or, in other words, that these values must consist of all
  real numbers, or of all those real numbers which lie between assigned
  extreme numbers. When this condition is satisfied the points are
  "ordered," and their order is determined by the order of the numbers
  t, supposed to be arranged in order of increasing or decreasing
  magnitude; also there are two senses of description of the curve,
  according as t is taken to increase or to diminish. The second
  condition is that the aggregate of the points which are determined by
  the functional relations must be "continuous." This condition means
  that, if any point P determined by a value of t is taken, and any
  distance [delta], however small, is chosen, it is possible to find two
  points Q, Q´ of the aggregate which are such that (i.) P is between Q
  and Q´, (ii.) if R, R´ are any points between Q and Q´ the distance
  RR´ is less than [delta]. The meaning of the word "between" in this
  statement is fixed by the ordering of the points. Sometimes additional
  conditions are imposed upon the functional relations before they are
  regarded as defining a curve. An aggregate of points which satisfies
  the two conditions stated above is sometimes called a "Jordan curve."
  It by no means follows that every curve of this kind has a tangent. In
  order that the curve may have a tangent at P it is necessary that, if
  any angle [alpha], however small, is specified, a distance [delta] can
  be found such that when P is between Q and Q´, and PQ and PQ´ are less
  than [delta], the angle RPR´ is less than [alpha] for all pairs of
  points R, R´ which are between P and Q, or between P and Q´ (fig. 8).
  When this condition is satisfied y is a function of x which has a
  differential coefficient. The only way of finding out whether this
  condition is satisfied or not is to attempt to form the differential
  coefficient. If the quotient of differences [Delta]y/[Delta]x has a
  limit when [Delta]x tends to zero, y is a differentiable function of
  x, and the limit in question is the differential coefficient. The
  derived function, or differential coefficient, of a function [f](x) is
  always defined by the formula

              d[f](x)         [f](x + h) - [f](x)
    [f]´(x) = ------- = lim.  -------------------.
                dx        h=0           h

  Rules for the formation of differential coefficients in particular
  cases have been given in § 11 above. The definition of a differential
  coefficient, and the rules of differentiation are quite independent of
  any geometrical interpretation, such as that concerning tangents to a
  curve, and the tangent to a curve is properly defined by means of the
  differential coefficient of a function, not the differential
  coefficient by means of the tangent.


    Progressive and Regressive Differential Coefficients.

  It may happen that the limit employed in defining the differential
  coefficient has one value when h approaches zero through positive
  values, and a different value when h approaches zero through negative
  values. The two limits are then called the "progressive" and
  "regressive" differential coefficients. In applications to dynamics,
  when x denotes a coordinate and t the time, dx/dt denotes a velocity.
  If the velocity is changed suddenly the progressive differential
  coefficient measures the velocity just after the change, and the
  regressive differential coefficient measures the velocity just before
  the change. Variable velocities are properly defined by means of
  differential coefficients.


    Areas.

    Lengths of Curves.

  All geometrical limits may be specified in terms similar to those
  employed in specifying the tangent to a curve; in difficult cases they
  must be so specified. Geometrical intuition may fail to answer the
  question of the existence or non-existence of the appropriate limits.
  In the last resort the definitions of many quantities of geometrical
  import must be analytical, not geometrical. As illustrations of this
  statement we may take the definitions of the areas and lengths of
  curves. We may not assume that every curve has an area or a length. To
  find out whether a curve has an area or not, we must ascertain whether
  the limit expressed by [f]ydx exists. When the limit exists the curve
  has an area. The definition of the integral is quite independent of
  any geometrical interpretation. The length of a curve again is defined
  by means of a limiting process. Let P, Q be two points of a curve, and
  R1, R2, ... R_(n-1) a set of intermediate points of the curve,
  supposed to be described in the sense in which Q comes after P. The
  points R are supposed to be reached successively in the order of the
  suffixes when the curve is described in this sense. We form a sum of
  lengths of chords

    PR1 + R1R2 + ... + R_(n-1)Q.

  If this sum has a limit when the number of the points R is increased
  indefinitely and the lengths of all the chords are diminished
  indefinitely, this limit is the length of the arc PQ. The limit is the
  same whatever law may be adopted for inserting the intermediate points
  R and diminishing the lengths of the chords. It appears from this
  statement that the differential element of the arc of a curve is the
  length of the chord joining two neighbouring points. In accordance
  with the fundamental artifice for forming differentials (§§ 9, 10),
  the differential element of arc ds may be expressed by the formula

    ds = [root] {(dx)² + (dy)²},

  of which the right-hand member is really the measure of the distance
  between two neighbouring points on the tangent. The square root must
  be taken to be positive. We may describe this differential element as
  being so much of the actual arc between two neighbouring points as
  need be retained for the purpose of forming the integral expression
  for an arc. This is a description, not a definition, because the
  length of the short arc itself is only definable by means of the
  integral expression. Similar considerations to those used in defining
  the areas of plane figures and the lengths of plane curves are
  applicable to the formation of expressions for differential elements
  of volume or of the areas of curved surfaces.


    Constants of Integration.

  34. In regard to differential coefficients it is an important theorem
  that, if the derived function [f]´(x) vanishes at all points of an
  interval, the function [f](x) is constant in the interval. It follows
  that, if two functions have the same derived function they can only
  differ by a constant. Conversely, indefinite integrals are
  indeterminate to the extent of an additive constant.


    Higher Differential Coefficients.

  35. The differential coefficient dy/dx, or the derived function
  [f]´(x), is itself a function of x, and its differential coefficient
  is denoted by [f]´´(x) or d²y/dx². In the second of these notations
  d/dx is regarded as the symbol of an operation, that of
  differentiation with respect to x, and the index 2 means that the
  operation is repeated. In like manner we may express the results of n
  successive differentiations by [f]^(n)(x) or by d^n·y/dx^n. When the
  second differential coefficient exists, or the first is
  differentiable, we have the relation

                     [f](x + h) - 2[f](x) + [f](x - h)
    [f]´´(x) = lim.  ---------------------------------  (i.)
                 h=0                 h²

  The limit expressed by the right-hand member of this equation may
  exist in cases in which [f]´(x) does not exist or is not
  differentiable. The result that, when the limit here expressed can be
  shown to vanish at all points of an interval, then [f](x) must be a
  linear function of x in the interval, is important.

  The relation (i.) is a particular case of the more general relation

    [f]^(n)(x) = lim.(h=0) h^-n [[f](x + nh) -n[f] {(x + (n - 1)h}

        n(n - 1)
      + -------- [f]{x + (n - 2)h} - ... +(-1)^n [f](x)].  (ii.)
           2!

  As in the case of relation (i.) the limit expressed by the right-hand
  member may exist although some or all of the derived functions
  [f]´(x), [f]´´(x), ... [f]^(n-1)(x) do not exist.

  Corresponding to the rule iii. of § 11 we have the rule for forming
  the nth differential coefficient of a product in the form

    d^n(uv)     d^n v     du d^(n-1)v   n(n - 1) d²u  d^(n-2)v         d^n u
    ------- = u ----- + n -- -------- + -------- ---- -------- + ... + ----- v,
     dx^n       dx^n      dx dx^(n-1)      1.2    dx² dx^(n-2)         dx^n

  where the coefficients are those of the expansion of (1 + x)^n in
  powers of x (n being a positive integer). The rule is due to Leibnitz,
  (1695).

  _Differentials of higher orders_ may be introduced in the same way as
  the differential of the first order. In general when y = [f](x), the
  nth differential d^n·y is defined by the equation

    d^n·y = [f]^n(x)(dx)^n,

  in which dx is the (arbitrary) differential of x.


    Symbols of operation.

  When d/dx is regarded as a single symbol of operation the symbol [f]
  ... dx represents the inverse operation. If the former is denoted by
  D, the latter may be denoted by D^-1. D^n means that the operation D
  is to be performed n times in succession; D^-n that the operation of
  forming the indefinite integral is to be performed n times in
  succession. Leibnitz's course of thought (§ 24) naturally led him to
  inquire after an interpretation of D^n. where n is not an integer. For
  an account of the researches to which this inquiry gave rise,
  reference may be made to the article by A. Voss in _Ency. d. math.
  Wiss._ Bd. ii. A, 2 (Leipzig, 1889). The matter is referred to as
  "fractional" or "generalized" differentiation.

  [Illustration: FIG. 9.]


    Theorem of Intermediate Value.

  36. After the formation of differential coefficients the most
  important theorem of the differential calculus is the _theorem of
  intermediate value_ ("theorem of mean value," "theorem of finite
  increments," "Rolle's theorem," are other names for it). This theorem
  may be explained as follows: Let A, B be two points of a curve y =
  [f](x) (fig. 9). Then there is a point P between A and B at which the
  tangent is parallel to the secant AB. This theorem is expressed
  analytically in the statement that if [f]´(x) is continuous between a
  and b, there is a value x1 of x between a and b which has the property
  expressed by the equation

    [f](b) - [f](a)
    --------------- = [f]´(x1).  (i.)
         b - a

  The value x1 can be expressed in the form a + [theta](b - a) where
  [theta] is a number between 0 and 1.

  A slightly more general theorem was given by Cauchy (1823) to the
  effect that, if [f]´(x) and F´(x) are continuous between x = a and x =
  b, then there is a number [theta] between 0 and 1 which has the
  property expressed by the equation

      F(b) - F(a)      F´{a + [theta](b - a)}
    --------------- = ------------------------.
    [f](b) - [f](a)   [f]´{a + [theta](b - a)}

  The theorem expressed by the relation (i.) was first noted by Rolle
  (1690) for the case where [f](x) is a rational integral function which
  vanishes when x = a and also when x = b. The general theorem was given
  by Lagrange (1797). Its fundamental importance was first recognized by
  Cauchy (1823). It may be observed here that the theorem of integral
  calculus expressed by the equation
                   _
                  / b
    F(b) - F(a) = |   F´(x) dx
                 _/ a

  follows at once from the definition of an integral and the theorem of
  intermediate value.

  The theorem of intermediate value may be generalized in the statement
  that, if [f](x) and all its differential coefficients up to the nth
  inclusive are continuous in the interval between x = a and x = b, then
  there is a number [theta] between 0 and 1 which has the property
  expressed by the equation

                                       (b - a)²                   (b - a)^(n-1)
    [f](b) = [f](a) + (b - a)[f]´(a) + -------- [f]´´ (a) + ... + ------------- [f]^(n-1)(a)
                                          2!                         (n - 1)!

        (b - a)^n
      + --------- [f]^(n) {a + [theta](b - a)}.  (i.)
            n!


    Taylor's Theorem.

  37. This theorem provides a means for computing the values of a
  function at points near to an assigned point when the value of the
  function and its differential coefficients at the assigned point are
  known. The function is expressed by a terminated series, and, when the
  remainder tends to zero as n increases, it may be transformed into an
  infinite series. The theorem was first given by Brook Taylor in his
  _Methodus Incrementorum_ (1717) as a corollary to a theorem concerning
  finite differences. Taylor gave the expression for [f](x + z) in terms
  of [f](x), [f]´(x), ... as an infinite series proceeding by powers of
  z. His notation was that appropriate to the method of fluxions which
  he used. This rule for expressing a function as an infinite series is
  known as Taylor's theorem. The relation (i.), in which the remainder
  after n terms is put in evidence, was first obtained by Lagrange
  (1797). Another form of the remainder was given by Cauchy (1823) viz.,

    (b - a)^n
    --------- (1 - [theta])^(n-1) [f]^n {a + [theta](b - a)}.
     (n - 1)!

  The conditions of validity of Taylor's expansion in an infinite series
  have been investigated very completely by A. Pringsheim (_Math. Ann._
  Bd. xliv., 1894). It is not sufficient that the function and all its
  differential coefficients should be finite at x = a; there must be a
  _neighbourhood_ of a within which Cauchy's form of the remainder tends
  to zero as n increases (cf. FUNCTION).

  An example of the necessity of this condition is afforded by the
  function f(x) which is given by the equation

                       __ n = [oo]
               1      \            (-1)^n      1
    [f](x) = ------ +  )           ------ ------------  (i.)
             1 + x²   /__ n = 1       n!  1 + 3^(2n)x²

  The sum of the series

                        x²
    [f](0) + x[f]´(0) + -- [f]´´(0) + ...  (ii.)
                        2!

  is the same as that of the series

    e^-1 - x² e^-3² + x^4 e^(-3^4) - ...

  It is easy to prove that this is less than e^-1 when x lies between 0
  and 1, and also that f(x) is greater than e^-l when x = 1/[root]3.
  Hence the sum of the series (i.) is not equal to the sum of the series
  (ii.).

  The particular case of Taylor's theorem in which a = 0 is often called
  Maclaurin's theorem, because it was first explicitly stated by Colin
  Maclaurin in his _Treatise of Fluxions_ (1742). Maclaurin like Taylor
  worked exclusively with the fluxional calculus.


    Expansions in power series.

  Examples of expansions in series had been known for some time. The
  series for log (1 + x) was obtained by Nicolaus Mercator (1668) by
  expanding (1 + x)^-1 by the method of algebraic division, and
  integrating the series term by term. He regarded his result as a
  "quadrature of the hyperbola." Newton (1669) obtained the expansion of
  sin^-1 x by expanding (l - x²)^-½ by the binomial theorem and
  integrating the series term by term. James Gregory (1671) gave the
  series for tan^-1 x. Newton also obtained the series for sin x, cos x,
  and e^x by reversion of series (1669). The symbol e for the base of
  the Napierian logarithms was introduced by Euler (1739). All these
  series can be obtained at once by Taylor's theorem. James Gregory
  found also the first few terms of the series for tan x and sec x; the
  terms of these series may be found successively by Taylor's theorem,
  but the numerical coefficient of the general term cannot be obtained
  in this way.

  Taylor's theorem for the expansion of a function in a power series was
  the basis of Lagrange's theory of functions, and it is fundamental
  also in the theory of analytic functions of a complex variable as
  developed later by Karl Weierstrass. It has also numerous applications
  to problems of maxima and minima and to analytical geometry. These
  matters are treated in the appropriate articles.

  The forms of the coefficients in the series for tan x and sec x can be
  expressed most simply in terms of a set of numbers introduced by James
  Bernoulli in his treatise on probability entitled _Ars Conjectandi_
  (1713). These numbers B1, B2, ... called Bernoulli's numbers, are the
  coefficients so denoted in the formula

       x           x    B1      B2       B3
    ------- = 1 - --- + -- x² - -- x^4 + -- x^6 - ...,
    e^x - 1        2    2!      4!       6!

  and they are connected with the sums of powers of the reciprocals of
  the natural numbers by equations of the type

                (2n)!         /   1        1        1         \
    B_n = ------------------ (  ------ + ------ + ------ + ... ).
          2^(2n-1) [pi]^(2n)  \ 1^(2n)   2^(2n)   3^(2n)      /

  The function

           m            m·m - 1
    x^m - --- x^(m-1) + ------- B1 x^(m-2) - ...
           2               2!

  has been called Bernoulli's function of the mth order by J. L. Raabe
  (Crelle's _J. f. Math._ Bd. xlii., 1851). Bernoulli's numbers and
  functions are of especial importance in the calculus of finite
  differences (see the article by D. Seliwanoff in _Ency. d. math.
  Wiss._ Bd. i., E., 1901).

  When x is given in terms of y by means of a power series of the form

    x = y(C0 + C1y + C2y² + ...) (C0 [not eq.] 0) = y [f]0(y), say,

  there arises the problem of expressing y as a power series in x. This
  problem is that of _reversion of series_. It can be shown that
  provided the absolute value of x is not too great,

                  __n=[oo]  _                         _
          x      \         | x^n d^(n-1)       1       |
    y = ------ +  )        | --- -------- -----------  |
        [f](0)   /__n=2    |_ n! dy^(n-1) {[f]0(y)}^n _| y=0

  To this problem is reducible that of expanding y in powers of x when x
  and y are connected by an equation of the form

    y = a + x[f](y),

  for which problem Lagrange (1770) obtained the formula

                       __n=[oo] _                         _
                      \        | x^n   d^(n-1)             |
    y = a + x[f](a) +  )       | --- · -------- {[f](a)}^n |.
                      /__n=2   |_ n!   da^(n-1)           _|

  For the history of the problem and the generalizations of Lagrange's
  result reference may be made to O. Stolz, _Grundzüge d. Diff. u. Int.
  Rechnung_, T. 2 (Leipzig, 1896).

  [Illustration: FIG. 10.]


    Indeterminate forms.

  38. An important application of the theorem of intermediate value and
  its generalization can be made to the problem of evaluating certain
  limits. If two functions [phi](x) and [psi](x) both vanish at x = a,
  the fraction [phi](x)/[psi](x) may have a finite limit at a. This
  limit is described as the limit of an "indeterminate form." Such
  indeterminate forms were considered first by de l'Hospital (1696) to
  whom the problem of evaluating the limit presented itself in the form
  of tracing the curve y = [phi](x)/[psi](x) near the ordinate x = a,
  when the curves y = [phi](x) and y = [psi](x) both cross the axis of x
  at the same point as this ordinate. In fig. 10 PA and QA represent
  short arcs of the curves [phi], [psi], chosen so that P and Q have the
  same abscissa. The value of the ordinate of the corresponding point R
  of the compound curve is given by the ratio of the ordinates PM, QM.
  De l'Hospital treated PM and QM as "infinitesimal," so that the
  equations PM : AM =[phi]´(a) and QM : AM = [psi]´(a) could be assumed
  to hold, and he arrived at the result that the "true value" of
  [phi](a)/[psi](a) is [phi]´(a)/[psi]´(a). It can be proved rigorously
  that, if [psi]´(x) does not vanish at x = a, while [phi](a) = 0 and
  [psi](a) = 0, then

           [phi](x)   [phi]´(a)
    lim.   -------- = ---------.
       x=a [psi](x)   [psi]´(a)

  It can be proved further if that [phi]^m (x) and [psi]^n (x) are the
  differential coefficients of lowest order of [phi](x) and [psi](x)
  which do not vanish at x = a, and if m = n, then

          [phi](x)   [phi]^n(a)
    lim.  -------- = ----------.
      x=a [psi](x)   [psi]^n(a)

  If m > n the limit is zero; but if m < n the function represented by
  the quotient [phi](x)/[psi](x) "becomes infinite" at x = a. If the
  value of the function at x = a is not assigned by the definition of
  the function, the function does not exist at x = a, and the meaning of
  the statement that it "becomes infinite" is that it has no finite
  limit. The statement does not mean that the function has a value which
  we call infinity. There is no such value (see FUNCTION).

  Such indeterminate forms as that described above are said to be of the
  form 0/0. Other indeterminate forms are presented in the form 0 ×
  [oo], or 1^[oo], or [oo]/[oo], or [oo] - [oo]. The most notable of the
  forms 1^[oo] is lim.(x=0) (1 + x)^(1/x), which is e. The case in which
  [phi](x) and [psi](x) both tend to become infinite at x = a is
  reducible to the case in which both the functions tend to become
  infinite when x is increased indefinitely. If [phi]´(x) and [psi]´(x)
  have determinate finite limits when x is increased indefinitely, while
  [phi](x) and [psi](x) are determinately (positively or negatively)
  infinite, we have the result expressed by the equation

             [phi](x)   lim.x=[oo] [psi]´(x)
    lim.     -------- = --------------------.
      x=[oo] [psi](x)   lim.x=[oo] [psi](x)

  For the meaning of the statement that [phi](x) and [psi](x) are
  determinately infinite reference may be made to the article FUNCTION.
  The evaluation of forms of the type [oo]/[oo] leads to a scale of
  increasing "infinities," each being infinite in comparison with the
  preceding. Such a scale is

    log x,...x, x²,...x^n,...e^x,...x^x;

  each of the limits expressed by such forms as lim.x=[oo]
  [phi](x)/[psi](x), where [phi](x) precedes [psi](x) in the scale, is
  zero. The construction of such scales, along with the problem of
  constructing a complete scale was discussed in numerous writings by
  Paul du Bois-Reymond (see in particular, _Math. Ann._ Bd. xi., 1877).
  For the general problem of indeterminate forms reference may be made
  to the article by A. Pringsheim in _Ency. d. math. Wiss._ Bd. ii., A.
  1 (1899). Forms of the type 0/0 presented themselves to early writers
  on analytical geometry in connexion with the determination of the
  tangents at a double point of a curve; forms of the type [oo]/[oo]
  presented themselves in like manner in connexion with the
  determination of asymptotes of curves. The evaluation of limits has
  innumerable applications in all parts of analysis. Cauchy's _Analyse
  algébrique_ (1821) was an epoch-making treatise on limits.

  If a function [phi](x) becomes infinite at x = a, and another function
  [psi](x) also becomes infinite at x = a in such a way that
  [phi](x)/[psi](x) has a finite limit C, we say that [phi](x) and
  [psi](x) become "infinite of the same order." We may write [phi](x) =
  C[psi](x) + [phi]1(x), where lim. x=a [phi]1(x)/[psi](x) = 0, and thus
  [phi]1(x) is of a lower order than [phi](x); it may be finite or
  infinite at x = a. If it is finite, we describe C[psi](x) as the
  "infinite part" of [phi](x). The resolution of a function which
  becomes infinite into an infinite part and a finite part can often be
  effected by taking the infinite part to be infinite of the same order
  as one of the functions in the scale written above, or in some more
  comprehensive scale. This resolution is the inverse of the process of
  evaluating an indeterminate form of the type [oo] - [oo].

  For example lim.x=0 {(e^x - 1)^-1 - x^-1} is finite and equal to =
  ½, and the function (e^x - 1)^-1 - x^-1 can be expanded in a power
  series in x.


    Functions of several variables.

  39. The nature of a function of two or more variables, and the meaning
  to be attached to continuity and limits in respect of such functions,
  have been explained under FUNCTION. The theorems of differential
  calculus which relate to such functions are in general the same
  whether the number of variables is two or any greater number, and it
  will generally be convenient to state the theorems for two variables.


    Partial differentiation.

  40. Let u or [f](x, y) denote a function of two variables x and y. If
  we regard y as constant, u or f becomes a function of one variable x,
  and we may seek to differentiate it with respect to x. If the function
  of x is differentiable, the differential coefficient which is formed
  in this way is called the "partial differential coefficient" of u or f
  with respect to x, and is denoted by ðu/ðx or ð[f]/ðx. The symbol "ð"
  was appropriated for partial differentiation by C. G. J. Jacobi
  (1841). It had before been written indifferently with "d" as a symbol
  of differentiation. Euler had written (df/dx) for the partial
  differential coefficient of f with respect to x. Sometimes it is
  desirable to put in evidence the variable which is treated as
  constant, and then the partial differential coefficient is written
  "(df/dx)_y" or "(ð[f]/ðx)_y". This course is often adopted by writers
  on Thermodynamics. Sometimes the symbols d or ð are dropped, and the
  partial differential coefficient is denoted by u_x or [f]_x. As a
  definition of the partial differential coefficient we have the formula

    ð[f]         [f](x + h, y) - f(x, y)
    ---- = lim.  -----------------------.
     ðx      h=0             h

  In the same way we may form the partial differential coefficient with
  respect to y by treating x as a constant.

  The introduction of partial differential coefficients enables us to
  solve at once for a surface a problem analogous to the problem of
  tangents for a curve; and it also enables us to take the first step in
  the solution of the problem of maxima and minima for a function of
  several variables. If the equation of a surface is expressed in the
  form z = [f](x, y), the direction cosines of the normal to the surface
  at any point are in the ratios ð[f]/ðx : ð[f]/ðy : = 1. If f is a maximum
  or a minimum at (x, y), then ð[f]/ðx and ð[f]/ðy vanish at that point.

  In applications of the differential calculus to mathematical physics
  we are in general concerned with functions of three variables x, y, z,
  which represent the coordinates of a point; and then considerable
  importance attaches to partial differential coefficients which are
  formed by a particular rule. Let F(x, y, z) be the function, P a point
  (x, y, z), P´ a neighbouring point (x + [Delta]x, y + [Delta]y, z +
  [Delta]z), and let [Delta]s be the length of PP´. The value of F(x, y,
  z) at P may be denoted shortly by F(P). A limit of the same nature as
  a partial differential coefficient is expressed by the formula

                F(P´) = F(P)
    lim.        ------------,
     [Delta]s=0   [Delta]s

  in which [Delta]s is diminished indefinitely by bringing P´ up to P,
  and P´ is supposed to approach P along a straight line, for example,
  the tangent to a curve or the normal to a surface. The limit in
  question is denoted by ðF/ðh, in which it is understood that h
  indicates a direction, that of PP´. If l, m, n are the direction
  cosines of the limiting direction of the line PP´, supposed drawn from
  P to P´, then

    ðF     ðF     ðF     ðF
    -- = l -- + m -- + n --.
    ðh     ðx     ðy     ðz

  The operation of forming ðF/ðh is called "differentiation with respect
  to an axis" or "vector differentiation."


    Theorem of the Total Differential.

  41. The most important theorem in regard to partial differential
  coefficients is the _theorem of the total differential_. We may write
  down the equation

    [f](a + h, b + k) - [f](a, b) = [f](a + h, b + k) - [f](a, b + k)
      + [f](a, b + k) - [f](a, b).

  If [f]x is a continuous function of x when x lies between a and a + h
  and y = b + k, and if further [f]y is a continuous function of y when
  y lies between b and d + k, there exist values of [Theta] and [eta]
  which lie between 0 and 1 and have the properties expressed by the
  equations

    [f](a + h, b + k) - [f](a, b + k) = h[f]_x (a + [Theta]h, b + k),
    [f](a, b + k) - [f](a, b) = k[f]_y (a, b + [eta]k).

  Further, [f]x(a + [Theta]h, b + k) and [f]_y (a, b + [eta]k) tend to
  the limits [f]_x (a, b) and [f]_y (a, b) when h and k tend to zero,
  provided the differential coefficients [f]_x, [f]_y, are continuous
  at the point (a, b). Hence in this case the above equation can be
  written

    [f](a + h, b + k) - [f](a, b) = h[f]_x (a, b) + k[f]_y (a, b) + R,

  where

                R                      R
    lim.       --- = 0 and lim.       --- = 0.
      h=0, k=0  h            h=0, k=0  k

  In accordance with the notation of differentials this equation gives

           ð[f]      ðy
    d[f] = ---- dx + -- dy.
            ðx       ðy

  Just as in the case of functions of one variable, dx and dy are
  arbitrary finite differences, and d[f] is not the difference of two
  values of [f], but is so much of this difference as need be retained
  for the purpose of forming differential coefficients.

  The theorem of the total differential is immediately applicable to the
  differentiation of _implicit functions_. When y is a function of x
  which is given by an equation of the form [f](x, y) = 0, and it is
  either impossible or inconvenient to solve this equation so as to
  express y as an explicit function of x, the differential coefficient
  dy/dx can be formed without solving the equation. We have at once

    dy     ð[f]   / ðf
    -- = - ----  /  --.
    dx      ðx  /   ðy

  This rule was known, in all essentials, to Fermat and de Sluse before
  the invention of the algorithm, of the differential calculus.

  An important theorem, first proved by Euler, is immediately deducible
  from the theorem of the total differential. If [f](x, y) is a
  homogeneous function of degree n then

      ð[f]     ð[f]
    x ---- + y ---- = n[f](x, y).
       ðx       ðy

  The theorem is applicable to functions of any number of variables and
  is generally known as _Euler's theorem of homogeneous functions_.


    Jacobians.

  42. Many problems in which partial differential coefficients occur are
  simplified by the introduction of certain determinants called
  "Jacobians" or "functional determinants." They were introduced into
  Analysis by C. G. J. Jacobi (_J. f. Math._, Crelle, Bd. 22, 1841, p.
  319). The Jacobian of u1, u2, ... u_n with respect to x1, x2, ... x_n
  is the determinant

    | ðu1   ðu1      ðu1   |
    | ---   --- ...  ----  |
    | ðx1   ðx2      ðx_n  |
    |                      |
    | ðu2   ðu2      ðu2   |
    | ---   --- ...  ----  |
    | ðx1   ðx2      ðx_n  |
    |  .                   |
    |  .                   |
    |  .                   |
    | ðu_n  ðu_n     ðu_n  |
    | ----  ---- ... ----- |
    | ðx1   ðx2      ðx_n  |

  in which the constituents of the rth row are the n partial
  differential coefficients of u_r, with respect to the n variables x.
  This determinant is expressed shortly by

    ð(u1, u2, ..., u_n)
    -------------------.
    ð(x1, x2, ..., x_n)

  Jacobians possess many properties analogous to those of ordinary
  differential coefficients, for example, the following:--

    ð(u1, u2, ..., u_n)   ð(x1, x2, ..., x_n)
    ------------------- × ------------------- = 1,
    ð(x1, x2, ..., x_n)   ð(u1, u2, ..., u_n)

    ð(u1, u2, ..., u_n)   ð(y1, y2, ..., y_n)   ð(u1, u2, ..., u_n)
    ------------------- × ------------------- = -------------------.
    ð(y1, y2, ..., y_n)   ð(x1, x2, ..., x_n)   ð(x1, x2, ..., x_n)

  If n functions (u1, u2, ... u_n) of n variables (x1, x2, ..., x_n) are
  not independent, but are connected by a relation [f](u1, u2, ... u_n)
  = 0, then

    ð(u1, u2, ..., u_n)
    ------------------- = 0;
    ð(x1, x2, ..., x_n)

  and, conversely, when this condition is satisfied identically the
  functions u1, u2 ..., u_n are not independent.


    Interchange of order of differentiations.

  43. Partial differential coefficients of the second and higher orders
  can be formed in the same way as those of the first order. For
  example, when there are two variables x, y, the first partial
  derivatives ð[f]/ðx and ð[f]/ðy are functions of x and y, which we may
  seek to differentiate partially with respect to x or y. The most
  important theorem in relation to partial differential coefficients of
  orders higher than the first is the theorem that the values of such
  coefficients do not depend upon the order in which the
  differentiations are performed. For example, we have the equation

     ð  /ð[f]\    ð   /ð[f]\
    -- ( ---- ) = -- ( ---- ) (i.)
    ðx  \ ðy /    ðy  \ ðx /

  This theorem is not true without limitation. The conditions for its
  validity have been investigated very completely by H. A. Schwarz (see
  his _Ges. math. Abhandlungen_, Bd. 2, Berlin, 1890, p. 275). It is a
  sufficient, though not a necessary, condition that all the
  differential coefficients concerned should be continuous functions of
  x, y. In consequence of the relation (i.) the differential
  coefficients expressed in the two members of this relation are written

    ð²f     ð²f
    ---- or ----.
    ðxðy    ðyðx

  The differential coefficient

       ð^_n [f]
    --------------,
    ðx^p ðy^q ðz^r

  in which p + g + r = n, is formed by differentiating p times with
  respect to x, q times with respect to y, r times with respect to z,
  the differentiations being performed in any order. Abbreviated
  notations are sometimes used in such forms as

                       (p, q, r)
    [f]           or [f]        .
      x^p y^q z^r       x, y, z

  _Differentials_ of higher orders are introduced by the defining
  equation

               /   ð       ð \ n
    d^n [f] = ( dx -- + dy -- ) [f]
               \   ðx      ðy/

               ð^n [f]                    ð^n [f]
      = (dx)^n ------- + n(dx)^(n-1) dy ----------- + ...
                ðx^n                    ðx^(n-1) ðy

  in which the expression (dx·ð/ðx + dy·ð/ðy)^n is developed by the
  binomial theorem in the same way as if dx·ð/ðx and dy·ð/ðy were
  numbers, and (ð/ðx)^r·(ð/ðy)^(n-r) [f] is replaced by ð^n [f]/[ðx^r
  ðy^(n-r)]. When there are more than two variables the multinomial
  theorem must be used instead of the binomial theorem.

  The problem of forming the second and higher differential coefficients
  of _implicit functions_ can be solved at once by means of partial
  differential coefficients, for example, if [f](x, y) = 0 is the
  equation defining y as a function of x, we have
                      _                                                        _
    d²y    /ð[f]\ -3 |  /ð[f]\²  ð²[f]     ð[f]   ð[f]   ð²[f]    /ð[f]\² ð²[f] |
    --- = ( ---- )   | ( ---- )  ----- - 2 ---- · ---- · ----- + ( ---- ) ----- |.
    dx²    \ ðy /    |_ \ ðy /    ðx²       ðx     ðy    ðxðy     \ ðx /   ðy² _|

  The differential expression Xdx + Ydy, in which both X and Y are
  functions of the two variables x and y, is a _total differential_ if
  there exists a function [f] of x and y which is such that

    ð[f]/ðx = X, ð[f]/ðy = Y.

  When this is the case we have the relation

    ðY/ðx = ðX/ðy.  (ii.)

  Conversely, when this equation is satisfied there exists a function
  [f] which is such that

    d[f] = Xdx + Ydy.

  The expression Xdx + Ydy in which X and Y are connected by the
  relation (ii.) is often described as a "perfect differential." The
  theory of the perfect differential can be extended to functions of n
  variables, and in this case there are ½n(n - 1) such relations as
  (ii.).

  In the case of a function of two variables x, y an abbreviated
  notation is often adopted for differential coefficients. The function
  being denoted by z, we write

                      ðz  ðz  ð²z  ð²z   ð²z
    p, q, r, s, t for --, --, ---, ----, ---.
                      ðx  ðy  ðx²  ðxðy  ðy²

  Partial differential coefficients of the second order are important in
  geometry as expressing the curvature of surfaces. When a surface is
  given by an equation of the form z = [f](x, y), the lines of curvature
  are determined by the equation

    {(l + q²)s - pqt} (dy)² + {(1 + q²)r - (1 + p²)t} dx dy
       - {(1 + p²)s - pqr} (dx)² = 0,

  and the principal radii of curvature are the values of R which satisfy
  the equation

    R²(rt - s²) - R{(1 + q²)r - 2pqs + (1 + p²)t} [root](1 + p² + q²)
       + (1 + p² + q²)² = 0.


    Change of variables.

  44. The problem of change of variables was first considered by Brook
  Taylor in his _Methodus incrementorum_. In the case considered by
  Taylor y is expressed as a function of z, and z as a function of x,
  and it is desired to express the differential coefficients of y with
  respect to x without eliminating z. The result can be obtained at once
  by the rules for differentiating a product and a function of a
  function. We have

    dy   dy   dz
    -- = -- · --,
    dx   dz   dx

    d²y   dy   d²z   d²y    /dz\²
    --- = -- · --- + --- · ( -- ),
    dx²   dz   dx²   dz²    \dx/

    d³y   dy   d³z,    d²y   dz   d²z,  d³y    /dz\³
    --- = -- · --- + 3 --- · -- · --- + --- · ( -- ) ,
    dx³   dz   dx³     dz²   dx   dx²   dz³    \dx/

    . . . . . . .

  The introduction of partial differential coefficients enables us to
  deal with more general cases of change of variables than that
  considered above. If u, v are new variables, and x, y are connected
  with them by equations of the type

    x = [f]1(u, v), y = [f]2(u, v),  (i.)

  while y is either an explicit or an implicit function of x, we have
  the problem of expressing the differential coefficients of various
  orders of y with respect to x in terms of the differential
  coefficients of v with respect to u. We have

    dy    /ð[f]2   ð[f]2 dv \   /  /ð[f]1   ð[f]1 dv \
    -- = ( ----- + ----- --  ) /  ( ----- + ----- --  )
    dx    \ ðu      ðv   du / /    \  ðu      ðv  du /


  by the rule of the total differential. In the same way, by means of
  differentials of higher orders, we may express d²y/dx², and so on.

  Equations such as (i.) may be interpreted as effecting a
  _transformation_ by which a point (u, v) is made to correspond to a
  point (x, y). The whole theory of transformations, and of functions,
  or differential expressions, which remain invariant under groups of
  transformations, has been studied exhaustively by Sophus Lie (see, in
  particular, his _Theorie der Transformationsgruppen_, Leipzig,
  1888-1893). (See also DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS and GROUPS).

  A more general problem of change of variables is presented when it is
  desired to express the partial differential coefficients of a function
  V with respect to x, y, ... in terms of those with respect to u, v,
  ..., where u, v, ... are connected with x, y, ... by any functional
  relations. When there are two variables x, y, and u, v are given
  functions of x, y, we have

    ðV   ðV ðu   ðV ðv
    -- = -- -- + -- --,
    ðx   ðu ðx   ðv ðx

    ðV   ðV ðu   ðV ðv
    -- = -- -- + -- --,
    ðy   ðu ðy   ðv ðy

  and the differential coefficients of higher orders are to be formed by
  repeated applications of the rule for differentiating a product and
  the rules of the type

     ð   ðu  ð   ðv  ð
    -- = -- -- + -- --.
    ðx   ðx ðu   ðx ðx

  When x, y are given functions of u, v, ... we have, instead of the
  above, such equations as

    ðV   ðV ðx   ðV ðy
    -- = -- -- + -- --;
    ðu   ðx ðu   ðy ðu

  and ðV/ðx, ðV/ðy can be found by solving these equations, provided the
  Jacobian ð(x, y) / ð(u, v) is not zero. The generalization of this
  method for the case of more than two variables need not detain us.

  In cases like that here considered it is sometimes more convenient not
  to regard the equations connecting x, y with u, v as effecting a point
  transformation, but to consider the loci u = const., v = const. as two
  "families" of curves. Then in any region of the plane of (x, y) in
  which the Jacobian ð(x, y) / d(u, v) does not vanish or become
  infinite, any point (x, y) is uniquely determined by the values of u
  and v which belong to the curves of the two families that pass through
  the point. Such variables as u, v are then described as "curvilinear
  coordinates" of the point. This method is applicable to any number of
  variables. When the loci u = const., ... intersect each other at right
  angles, the variables are "orthogonal" curvilinear coordinates.
  Three-dimensional systems of such coordinates have important
  applications in mathematical physics. Reference may be made to G.
  Lamé, _Leçons sur les coordonnées curvilignes_ (Paris, 1859), and to
  G. Darboux, _Leçons sur les coordonnées curvilignes et systèmes
  orthogonaux_ (Paris, 1898).

  When such a coordinate as u is connected with x and y by a functional
  relation of the form [f](x, y, u) = 0 the curves u = const. are a
  family of curves, and this family may be such that no two curves of
  the family have a common point. When this is not the case the points
  in which a curve [f](x, y, u) = 0 is intersected by a curve [f](x, y,
  u + [Delta]u) = 0 tend to limiting positions as [Delta]u is diminished
  indefinitely. The locus of these limiting positions is the "envelope"
  of the family, and in general it touches all the curves of the family.
  It is easy to see that, if u, v are the parameters of two families of
  curves which have envelopes, the Jacobian ð(x, y) / ð(u, v) vanishes
  at all points on these envelopes. It is easy to see also that at any
  point where the reciprocal Jacobian ð(u, v) / ð(x, y) vanishes, a
  curve of the family u touches a curve of the family v.

  If three variables x, y, z are connected by a functional relation
  [f](x, y, z) = 0, one of them, z say, may be regarded as an _implicit
  function_ of the other two, and the partial differential coefficients
  of z with respect to x and y can be formed by the rule of the total
  differential. We have

    ðz     ð[f]   / ð[f]  ðz     ð[f]   / ð[f]
    -- = - ----  /  ----, -- = - ----  /  ----;
    ðx      ðx  /    ðz   ðy      ðy  /    ðz

  and there is no difficulty in proceeding to express the higher
  differential coefficients. There arises the problem of expressing the
  partial differential coefficients of x with respect to y and z in
  terms of those of z with respect to x and y. The problem is known as
  that of "changing the dependent variable." It is solved by applying
  the rule of the total differential. Similar considerations are
  applicable to all cases in which n variables are connected by fewer
  than n equations.


    Extension of Taylor's theorem.

  45. Taylor's theorem can be extended to functions of several
  variables. In the case of two variables the general formula, with a
  remainder after n terms, can be written most simply in the form

    [f](a + h, b + k) = [f](a, b) + d[f](a, b) + (1/2!) d²[f](a, b) + ...

           1                         1
      + -------- d^(n-1) [f](a, b) + -- d^n [f](a+[Theta]h, b + [theta]k),
        (n - 1)!                     n!

  in which
                     _                          _
                    |  /  ð      ð  \r           |
    d^r [f](a, b) = | ( h -- + k --  ) [f](x, y) |         ,
                    |_ \  ðx     ðy /           _| x=a, y=b

  and

    d^n [f](a + [Theta]h, b + [Theta]k) =
       _                         _
      |  /  ð      ð \n           |
      | ( h -- + k -- ) [f](x, y) |.
      |_ \  ðx     ðy/           _| x=a+[Theta]h, y=b+[Theta]k

  The last expression is the remainder after n terms, and in it [Theta]
  denotes some particular number between 0 and 1. The results for three
  or more variables can be written in the same form. The extension of
  Taylor's theorem was given by Lagrange (1797); the form written above
  is due to Cauchy (1823). For the validity of the theorem in this form
  it is necessary that all the differential coefficients up to the nth
  should be continuous in a region bounded by x = a ± h, y = b ± k. When
  all the differential coefficients, no matter how high the order, are
  continuous in such a region, the theorem leads to an expansion of the
  function in a multiple power series. Such expansions are just as
  important in analysis, geometry and mechanics as expansions of
  functions of one variable. Among the problems which are solved by
  means of such expansions are the problem of maxima and minima for
  functions of more than one variable (see MAXIMA and MINIMA).


    Plane curves.

  46. In treatises on the differential calculus much space is usually
  devoted to the differential geometry of curves and surfaces. A few
  remarks and results relating to the differential geometry of plane
  curves are set down here.

  (i.) If [psi] denotes the angle which the radius vector drawn from the
  origin makes with the tangent to a curve at a point whose polar
  coordinates are r, [Theta] and if p denotes the perpendicular from the
  origin to the tangent, then

    cos [psi] = dr/ds, sin [psi] = r d[Theta]/ds = p/r,

  where ds denotes the element of arc. The curve may be determined by an
  equation connecting p with r.

  (ii.) The locus of the foot of the perpendicular let fall from the
  origin upon the tangent to a curve at a point is called the _pedal_ of
  the curve with respect to the origin. The angle [psi] for the pedal is
  the same as the angle [psi] for the curve. Hence the (p, r) equation
  of the pedal can be deduced. If the pedal is regarded as the primary
  curve, the curve of which it is the pedal is the "negative pedal" of
  the primary. We may have pedals of pedals and so on, also negative
  pedals of negative pedals and so on. Negative pedals are usually
  determined as envelopes.

  (iii.) If [phi] denotes the angle which the tangent at any point makes
  with a fixed line, we have

    r² = p² + (dp/d[phi])².

  (iv.) The "average curvature" of the arc [Delta]s of a curve between
  two points is measured by the quotient

    | [Delta][phi] |
    | ------------ |
    |  [Delta]s    |

  where the upright lines denote, as usual, that the absolute value of
  the included expression is to be taken, and [phi] is the angle which
  the tangent makes with a fixed line, so that [Delta][phi] is the angle
  between the tangents (or normals) at the points. As one of the points
  moves up to coincidence with the other this average curvature tends to
  a limit which is the "curvature" of the curve at the point. It is
  denoted by

    | d[phi] |
    | ------ |
    |   ds   |

  Sometimes the upright lines are omitted and a rule of signs is
  given:--Let the arc s of the curve be measured from some point along
  the curve in a chosen sense, and let the normal be drawn towards that
  side to which the curve is concave; if the normal is directed towards
  the left of an observer looking along the tangent in the chosen sense
  of description the curvature is reckoned positive, in the contrary
  case negative. The differential d[phi] is often called the "angle of
  contingence." In the 14th century the size of the angle between a
  curve and its tangent seems to have been seriously debated, and the
  name "angle of contingence" was then given to the supposed angle.

  (v.) The curvature of a curve at a point is the same as that of a
  certain circle which touches the curve at the point, and the "radius
  of curvature" [rho] is the radius of this circle. We have 1/[rho] =
  |d[phi]/ds|. The centre of the circle is called the "centre of
  curvature"; it is the limiting position of the point of intersection
  of the normal at the point and the normal at a neighbouring point,
  when the second point moves up to coincidence with the first. If a
  circle is described to intersect the curve at the point P and at two
  other points, and one of these two points is moved up to coincidence
  with P, the circle touches the curve at the point P and meets it in
  another point; the centre of the circle is then on the normal. As the
  third point now moves up to coincidence with P, the centre of the
  circle moves to the centre of curvature. The circle is then said to
  "osculate" the curve, or to have "contact of the second order" with it
  at P.

  (vi.) The following are formulae for the radius of curvature:--

      1     | {      /dy\² }-3/2  d²y |
    ----- = | { 1 + ( -- ) }      --- |,
    [rho]   | {      \dx/  }      dx² |

            |   dr |   |       d²p   |
    [rho] = | r -- | = | p + ------- |.
            |   dp |   |     d[phi]² |

  (vii.) The points at which the curvature vanishes are "points of
  inflection." If P is a point of inflection and Q a neighbouring point,
  then, as Q moves up to coincidence with P, the distance from P to the
  point of intersection of the normals at P and Q becomes greater than
  any distance that can be assigned. The equation which gives the
  abscissae of the points in which a straight line meets the curve being
  expressed in the form [f](x) = 0, the function [f](x) has a factor (x
  - x0)³, where x0 is the abscissa of the point of inflection P, and the
  line is the tangent at P. When the factor (x - x0) occurs (n + 1)
  times in [f](x), the curve is said to have "contact of the nth order"
  with the line. There is an obvious modification when the line is
  parallel to the axis of y.

  (viii.) The locus of the centres of curvature, or envelope of the
  normals, of a curve is called the "evolute." A curve which has a given
  curve as evolute is called an "involute" of the given curve. All the
  involutes are "parallel" curves, that is to say, they are such that
  one is derived from another by marking off a constant distance along
  the normal. The involutes are "orthogonal trajectories" of the
  tangents to the common evolute.

  (ix.) The equation of an algebraic curve of the nth degree can be
  expressed in the form u0 + u1 + u2 + ... + u_n = 0, where u0 is a
  constant, and u_r is a homogeneous rational integral function of x, y
  of the rth degree. When the origin is on the curve, u0 vanishes, and
  u1 = 0 represents the tangent at the origin. If u1 also vanishes, the
  origin is a double point and u2 = o represents the tangents at the
  origin. If u2 has distinct factors, or is of the form a(y - p1x)(y -
  p2x), the value of y on either branch of the curve can be expressed
  (for points sufficiently near the origin) in a power series, which is
  either

    p1x + ½ q1x² + ..., or p2x + ½ q2X² + ...,

  where q1, ... and q2, ... are determined without ambiguity. If p1 and
  p2 are real the two branches have radii of curvature [rho]1, [rho]2
  determined by the formulae

       1     |                    |     1      |                    |
    ------ = |(1 + p1²)^{-3/2} q1 |,  ------ = |(1 + p2²)^{-3/2} q2 |.
    [rho]1   |                    |   [rho]2   |                    |

  When p1 and p2 are imaginary the origin is the real point of
  intersection of two imaginary branches. In the real figure of the
  curve it is an _isolated point_. If u2 is a square, a(y - px)², the
  origin is a _cusp_, and in general there is not a series for y in
  integral powers of x, which is valid in the neighbourhood of the
  origin. The further investigation of cusps and multiple points belongs
  rather to analytical geometry and the theory of algebraic functions
  than to differential calculus.

  (x.) When the equation of a curve is given in the form u0 + u1 + ... +
  u_(n-1) + u_n = 0 where the notation is the same as that in (ix.), the
  factors of u_n determine the directions of the _asymptotes_. If these
  factors are all real and distinct, there is an asymptote corresponding
  to each factor. If u_n = L1 L2 ... L_n, where L1, ... are linear in x,
  y, we may resolve u_(n-1)/u_n into partial fractions according to the
  formula

    u_(n-1)   A1   A2         A_n
    ------- = -- + -- + ... + ---,
     u{n}     L1   L2         L_n

  and then L1 + A1 = 0, L2 + A2 = 0, ... are the equations of the
  asymptotes. When a real factor of u_n is repeated we may have two
  parallel asymptotes or we may have a "parabolic asymptote." Sometimes
  the parallel asymptotes coincide, as in the curve x²(x² + y² - a²) =
  a^4, where x = 0 is the only real asymptote. The whole theory of
  asymptotes belongs properly to analytical geometry and the theory of
  algebraic functions.


    Integral calculus.

  47. The formal definition of an integral, the theorem of the existence
  of the integral for certain classes of functions, a list of classes of
  "integrable" functions, extensions of the notion of integration to
  functions which become infinite or indeterminate, and to cases in
  which the limits of integration become infinite, the definitions of
  multiple integrals, and the possibility of defining functions by means
  of definite integrals--all these matters have been considered in
  FUNCTION. The definition of integration has been explained in § 5
  above, and the results of some of the simplest integrations have been
  given in § 12. A few theorems relating to integrations have been noted
  in §§ 34, 35, 36 above.


    Methods of integration.

  48. The chief methods for the evaluation of indefinite integrals are
  the method of integration by parts, and the introduction of new
  variables.

  From the equation d(uv) = udv + vdu we deduce the equation
      _                _
     /   dv           /   du
     | u -- dx = uv - | v -- dx,
    _/   dx          _/   dx

  or, as it may be written
      _           _        _        _
     /           /        / du  /  /      \
     | uw dx = u | w dx - | -- (   | w dx  ) dx.
    _/          _/       _/ dx  \ _/      /

  This is the rule of "integration by parts."

  As an example we have
      _                         _
     /                e^(ax)   / e^(ax)       / x    1  \
     | xe^(ax) dx = x ------ - | ------ dx = ( --- - --  ) e^(ax).
    _/                  a     _/    a         \ a    a² /

  When we introduce a new variable z in place of x, by means of an
  equation giving x in terms of z, we express [f](x) in terms of z. Let
  [phi](z) denote the function of z into which [f](x) is transformed.
  Then from the equation

         dx
    dx = -- dz
         dz

  we deduce the equation
      _             _
     /             /          dx
     | [f](x) dx = | [phi](z) -- dz.
    _/            _/          dz

  As an example, in the integral
      _
     /
     | [root](1 - x²) dx
    _/

  put x = sin z; the integral becomes

      _                   _
     /                   /
     | cos z · cos zdz = | ½(1 + cos 2z)dz = ½(z + ½ sin 2z) = ½(z + sin z cos z).
    _/                  _/


    Integration in terms of elementary functions.

  49. The indefinite integrals of certain classes of functions can be
  expressed by means of a finite number of operations of addition or
  multiplication in terms of the so-called "elementary" functions. The
  elementary functions are rational algebraic functions, implicit
  algebraic functions, exponentials and logarithms, trigonometrical and
  inverse circular functions. The following are among the classes of
  functions whose integrals involve the elementary functions only: (i.)
  all rational functions; (ii.) all irrational functions of the form
  [f](x, y), where [f] denotes a rational algebraic function of x and y,
  and y is connected with x by an algebraic equation of the second
  degree; (iii.) all rational functions of sin x and cos x; (iv.) all
  rational functions of e^x; (v.) all rational integral functions of the
  variables x, e^(ax), e^(bx), ... sin mx, cos mx, sin nx, cos nx, ...
  in which a, b, ... and m, n, ... are any constants. The integration of
  a rational function is generally effected by resolving the function
  into partial fractions, the function being first expressed as the
  quotient of two rational integral functions. Corresponding to any
  simple root of the denominator there is a logarithmic term in the
  integral. If any of the roots of the denominator are repeated there
  are rational algebraic terms in the integral. The operation of
  resolving a fraction into partial fractions requires a knowledge of
  the roots of the denominator, but the algebraic part of the integral
  can always be found without obtaining all the roots of the
  denominator. Reference may be made to C. Hermite, _Cours d'analyse_,
  Paris, 1873. The integration of other functions, which can be
  integrated in terms of the elementary functions, can usually be
  effected by transforming the functions into rational functions,
  possibly after preliminary integrations by parts. In the case of
  rational functions of x and a radical of the form [root](ax² + bx + c)
  the radical can be reduced by a linear substitution to one of the
  forms [root](a² - x²), [root](x² - a²), [root](x² + a²). The
  substitutions x = a sin [theta], x = a sec [theta], x = a tan [theta]
  are then effective in the three cases. By these substitutions the
  subject of integration becomes a rational function of sin [theta] and
  cos [theta], and it can be reduced to a rational function of t by the
  substitution tan ½[theta] = t. There are many other substitutions by
  which such integrals can be determined. Sometimes we may have
  information as to the functional character of the integral without
  being able to determine it. For example, when the subject of
  integration is of the form (ax^4 + bx³ + cx² + dx + e)^-½ the integral
  cannot be expressed explicitly in terms of elementary functions. Such
  integrals lead to new functions (see FUNCTION).

  Methods of reduction and substitution for the evaluation of indefinite
  integrals occupy a considerable space in text-books of the integral
  calculus. In regard to the functional character of the integral
  reference may be made to G. H. Hardy's tract, _The Integration of
  Functions of a Single Variable_ (Cambridge, 1905), and to the memoirs
  there quoted. A few results are added here
        _
       /
  (i.) | (x² + a) - ½ dx = log {x + (x² + a)^½ }.
      _/
         _
        /             dx
  (ii.) | -----------------------------
       _/ (x - p) [root](ax² + 2bx + c)

  can be evaluated by the substitution x - p = 1/z, and
         _
        /                dx
        | ---------------------------------
       _/ (x - p)^{n} [root](ax² + 2bx + c)

  can be deduced by differentiating (n - 1) times with respect to p.
          _
         /                     (Hx + K)dx
  (iii.) | ------------------------------------------------------
        _/ ([alpha]x² + 2[beta]x + [gamma]) [root](ax² + 2bx + c)

  can be reduced by the substitution y² = (ax² + 2bx + c)/([alpha]x² +
  2[beta]x + [gamma]) to the form
       _                            _
      /           dy               /           dy
    A | ---------------------- + B | ----------------------
     _/ [root]([lambda]1 - y²)    _/ [root](y² - [lambda]2)

  where A and B are constants, and [lambda]1 and [lambda]2 are the two
  values of [lambda] for which (a - [lambda][alpha])x² + 2(b -
  [lambda][beta])x + c - [lambda][gamma] is a perfect square (see A. G.
  Greenhill, _A Chapter in the Integral Calculus_, London, 1888).

  (iv.) [f]x^m (ax^n + b)^p dx, in which m, n, p are rational, can be
  reduced, by putting ax^n = bt, to depend upon [f]t^q (1 + t)^p dt. If
  p is an integer and q a fraction r/s, we put t = u^s. If q is an
  integer and p = r/s we put 1 + t = u^s. If p + q is an integer and p =
  r/s we put 1 + t = tu^s. These integrals, called "binomial integrals,"
  were investigated by Newton (_De quadratura curvarum_).
        _                             _
       /  dx              x          /  dx
  (v.) | ----- = log tan ---,  (vi.) | ----- = log (tan x + sec x).
      _/ sin x            2         _/ cos x

  (vii.) [f] e^(ax) sin (bx + [alpha]) dx = (a² + b²)^-1 e^(ax){a sin
  (bx + [alpha]) - b cos (bx + [alpha])}.

  (viii.) [f] sin^m x cos^n x dx can be reduced by differentiating a
  function of the form sin^p x cos^q x;

       d   sin x         1         q sin² x        1 - q           q
  e.g. -- ------- = ----------- + ----------- = ----------- + -----------.
       dx cos^q x   cos^(q-1) x   cos^(q+1) x   cos^(q-1) x   cos^(q+1) x

  Hence
      _                                        _
     /   dx             sin x          n - 2  /     dx
     | ------- = ------------------- + -----  | -----------.
    _/ cos^n x   (n - 1) cos^(n-1) x   n - 1 _/ cos^(n-2) x
         _                     _
        / ½[pi]               / ½[pi]
  (ix.) |     sin^(2n) x dx = |     cos^(2n) x dx =
       _/ 0                  _/ 0

    1·3 ... (2n - 1)   [pi]
    ---------------- · ----, (n an integer).
       2·4 ... 2n       2
        _                       _
       / ½[pi]                 / ½[pi]
  (x.) |     sin^(2n+1) x dx = |     cos^(2n+1) x dx =
      _/ 0                    _/ 0

     2·4 ... (2n)
    --------------, (n an integer).
    3·5 ... (2n+1)
         _
        /       dx
  (xi.) | ---------------  can be reduced by one of the substitutions
       _/ (1 + e cos x)^n

                 e + cos x             e + cos x
    cos [phi] = -----------, cosh u = -----------,
                1 + e cos x           1 + e cos x

  of which the first or the second is to be employed according as e < or > 1.


    New transcendents.

  50. Among the integrals of transcendental functions which lead to new
  transcendental functions we may notice
      _             _
     / x  dx       / log x  e^z
     |   -----  or |        --- dz,
    _/ 0 log x´   _/ -x      z

  called the "logarithmic integral," and denoted by "Li x," also the
  integrals
      _                _
     / x sin x        / x   cos x
     |   ----- dx and |     ----- dx,
    _/ 0   x         _/ [oo]  x

  called the "sine integral" and the "cosine integral," and denoted by
  "Si x" and "Ci x," also the integral
      _
     / x
     |   e^-x² dx
    _/ 0

  called the "error-function integral," and denoted by "Erf x." All
  these functions have been tabulated (see TABLES, MATHEMATICAL).


    Eulerian integrals.

  51. New functions can be introduced also by means of the definite
  integrals of functions of two or more variables with respect to one of
  the variables, the limits of integration being fixed. Prominent among
  such functions are the Beta and Gamma functions expressed by the
  equations
               _
              / 1
    B(l, m) = |   x^(l-1) (1 - x)^(m-1) dx,
             _/ 0
                  _
                 / [oo]
    [Gamma](n) = |     e^-t t^(n-1) dt.
                _/ 0

  When n is a positive integer [Gamma](n + 1) = n!. The Beta function
  (or "Eulerian integral of the first kind") is expressible in terms of
  Gamma functions (or "Eulerian integrals of the second kind") by the
  formula

    B(l, m)·[Gamma](l+m) = [Gamma](l)·[Gamma](m).

  The Gamma function satisfies the difference equation

    [Gamma](x + 1) = x [Gamma](x),

  and also the equation

    [Gamma](x)·[Gamma](1-x) = [pi]/sin (x[pi]),

  with the particular result

    [Gamma](½)= [root][pi].

  The number
       _                        _
      |  d                       |
    - |  -- {log [Gamma](1 + x)} |   , or -[Gamma]´(1),
      |_ dx                     _|x=0

  is called "Euler's constant," and is equal to the limit
              _                                   _
             |  /                       \          |
    lim.     | ( 1 + ½ + 1/3 + ... + 1/n ) - log n |;
      n=[oo] |_ \                       /         _|

  its value to 15 decimal places is 0.577 215 664 901 532.

  The function log [Gamma](1 + x) can be expanded in the series

                                /   x[pi]   \
    log [Gamma](1 + x) = ½ log (  ---------  )
                                \ sin x[pi] /
              1 + x
      - ½ log ----- + {1 + [Gamma]´(1)} x
              1 - x

      - 1/3 (S3 - 1)x³ - 1/5 (S5 - 1)x^5 - ...,

  where

                      1          1
    S_(2r+1) = 1 + -------- + -------- + ...,
                   2^(2r+1)   3^(2r+1)

  and the series for log [Gamma](1 + x) converges when x lies between -
  1 and 1.


    Definite integrals.

  52. Definite integrals can sometimes be evaluated when the limits of
  integration are some particular numbers, although the corresponding
  indefinite integrals cannot be found. For example, we have the result
      _
     / 1
     |  (1 - x²)^-½ log x dx = -½ [pi] log 2,
    _/ 0

  although the indefinite integral of (1 - x²)^-½ log x cannot be found.
  Numbers of definite integrals are expressible in terms of the
  transcendental functions mentioned in § 50 or in terms of Gamma
  functions. For the calculation of definite integrals we have the
  following methods:--

      (i.) Differentiation with respect to a parameter.
     (ii.) Integration with respect to a parameter.
    (iii.) Expansion in infinite series and integration term by term.
     (iv.) Contour integration.

  The first three methods involve an interchange of the order of two
  limiting operations, and they are valid only when the functions
  satisfy certain conditions of continuity, or, in case the limits of
  integration are infinite, when the functions tend to zero at infinite
  distances in a sufficiently high order (see FUNCTION). The method of
  contour integration involves the introduction of complex variables
  (see FUNCTION: § _Complex Variables_).

  A few results are added
        _
       / [oo] x^(a-1)        [pi]
  (i.) |      ------- dx = ---------, (1 > a > 0),
      _/ 0     1 + x       sin a[pi]

         _
        / [oo] x^(a-1) - x^(b-1)
  (ii.) |      ----------------- dx = [pi](cot a[pi] - cot b[pi]), (0 < a or b < 1),
       _/ 0          1 - x

          _
         / [oo] x^(a-1) log x        [pi]²
  (iii.) |      ------------ dx = ----------, (a > 1),
        _/ 0        x - 1         sin² a[pi]

         _
        / [oo]
  (iv.) |     x²·cos 2x·e^-x² dx = -¼ e^-1 [root][pi],
       _/ 0

        _
       / 1   1 - x²  dx             [pi]
  (v.) |    ------- ----- = log tan ----,
      _/ 0  1 + x^4 log x            8

         _
        / [oo]    sin mx             /    1       1     1 \
  (vi.) |     -------------- dx = ½ (  ------- - --- + --- ),
       _/ 0   e^(2[pi]x) - 1         \ e^m - 1    m     2 /

          _
         / [pi]
  (vii.) |     log(1 - 2[alpha] cos x + [alpha]²) dx = 0
        _/ 0

      or 2[pi]log [alpha] according as [alpha] < or > 1,
           _
          / [oo] sin x
  (viii.) |      ----- dx = ½[pi],
         _/ 0      x

         _
        / [oo] cos ax
  (ix.) |      ------- dx = ½[pi]b^-1 e^(-ab),
       _/ 0    x² + b²

        _
       / [oo] cos ax - cos bx
  (x.) |      --------------- dx = ½[pi](b - a),
      _/ 0           x²

         _
        / [oo] cos ax - cos bx           b
  (xi.) |      --------------- dx = log ---,
       _/ 0            x                 a

          _
         / [oo] cos x - e ^(-mx)
  (xii.) |      ----------------  dx = log m,
        _/ 0            x

           _
          / [oo]
  (xiii.) |       e^(-x²+2ax) dx = [root][pi].e^(a2),
         _/ -[oo]

          _                     _
         / [oo]                / [oo]
  (xiv.) |     x^-½ sin x dx = |     x^-½ cos x dx = [root](½[pi]),
        _/ 0                  _/ 0


    Multiple Integrals.

  53. The meaning of integration of a function of n variables through a
  domain of the same number of dimensions is explained in the article
  FUNCTION. In the case of two variables x, y we integrate a function
  [f](x, y) over an area; in the case of three variables x, y, z we
  integrate a function [f](x, y, z) through a volume. The integral of a
  function [f](x, y) over an area in the plane of (x, y) is denoted by
      _ _
     / /
     | | [f](x, y) dx dy.
    _/_/

  The notation refers to a method of evaluating the integral. We may
  suppose the area divided into a very large number of very small
  rectangles by lines parallel to the axes. Then we multiply the value
  of [f] at any point within a rectangle by the measure of the area of
  the rectangle, sum for all the rectangles, and pass to a limit by
  increasing the number of rectangles indefinitely and diminishing all
  their sides indefinitely. The process is usually effected by summing
  first for all the rectangles which lie in a strip between two lines
  parallel to one axis, say the axis of y, and afterwards for all the
  strips. This process is equivalent to integrating [f](x, y) with
  respect to y, keeping x constant, and taking certain functions of x as
  the limits of integration for y, and then integrating the result with
  respect to x between constant limits. The integral obtained in this
  way may be written in such a form as
      _        _
     / b   {  / [f]2(x)              }
     |  dx {  |         [f](x, y) dy },
    _/ a   { _/ [f]1(x)              }

  and is called a "repeated integral." The identification of a surface
  integral, such as [int][int][f](x, y)dxdy, with a repeated integral
  cannot always be made, but implies that the function satisfies certain
  conditions of continuity. In the same way volume integrals are usually
  evaluated by regarding them as repeated integrals, and a volume
  integral is written in the form
      _ _ _
     / / /
     | | | [f](x, y, z) dx dy dz.
    _/_/_/

  Integrals such as surface and volume integrals are usually called
  "multiple integrals." Thus we have "double" integrals, "triple"
  integrals, and so on. In contradistinction to multiple integrals the
  ordinary integral of a function of one variable with respect to that
  variable is called a "simple integral."


    Surface Integrals.

  A more general type of surface integral may be defined by taking an
  arbitrary surface, with or without an edge. We suppose in the first
  place that the surface is closed, or has no edge. We may mark a large
  number of points on the surface, and draw the tangent planes at all
  these points. These tangent planes form a polyhedron having a large
  number of faces, one to each marked point; and we may choose the
  marked points so that all the linear dimensions of any face are less
  than some arbitrarily chosen length. We may devise a rule for
  increasing the number of marked points indefinitely and decreasing the
  lengths of all the edges of the polyhedra indefinitely. If the sum of
  the areas of the faces tends to a limit, this limit is the area of the
  surface. If we multiply the value of a function [f] at a point of the
  surface by the measure of the area of the corresponding face of the
  polyhedron, sum for all the faces, and pass to a limit as before, the
  result is a surface integral, and is written
      _ _
     / /
     | | [f] dS.
    _/_/


    Line Integrals.

  The extension to the case of an open surface bounded by an edge
  presents no difficulty. A line integral taken along a curve is defined
  in a similar way, and is written
      _
     /
     | [f] ds
    _/

  where ds is the element of arc of the curve (§ 33). The direction
  cosines of the tangent of a curve are dx/ds, dy/ds, dz/ds, and line
  integrals usually present themselves in the form
      _                               _
     /  /  dx     dy     dz \        /
     | ( u -- + v -- + w --  ) ds or |  (u dx + v dy + w dz).
    _/  \  ds     ds     ds /       _/ s

  In like manner surface integrals usually present themselves in the
  form
      _ _
     / /
     | | (l[xi] + m[eta] + n[zeta]) dS
    _/_/

  where l, m, n are the direction cosines of the normal to the surface
  drawn in a specified sense.

  The area of a bounded portion of the plane of (x, y) may be expressed
  either as
       _
      /
    ½ | (x dy - y dx),
     _/

  or as
      _ _
     / /
     | | dx dy,
    _/_/

  the former integral being a line integral taken round the boundary of
  the portion, and the latter a surface integral taken over the area
  within this boundary. In forming the line integral the boundary is
  supposed to be described in the positive sense, so that the included
  area is on the left hand.


    Theorems of Green and Stokes.

  53_a_. We have two theorems of transformation connecting volume
  integrals with surface integrals and surface integrals with line
  integrals. The first theorem, called "Green's theorem," is expressed
  by the equation
      _ _ _                                         _ _
     / / /  / ð[xi]   ð[eta]   ð[zeta]\            / /
     | | | (  ----- + ------ + ------- )dx dy dz = | | (l[xi] + m[eta] + n[zeta]) dS,
    _/_/_/  \  ðx       ðy       ðz   /           _/_/

  where the volume integral on the left is taken through the volume
  within a closed surface S, and the surface integral on the right is
  taken over S, and l, m, n denote the direction cosines of the normal
  to S drawn outwards. There is a corresponding theorem for a closed
  curve in two dimensions, viz.,
      _ _                             _
     / /  / ð[xi]   ð[eta]\          /  /     dy         dx \
     | | (  ----- + ------ ) dx dy = | ( [xi] -- - [eta] --  ) ds,
    _/_/  \  ðx       ðy  /         _/  \     ds         ds /

  the sense of description of s being the positive sense. This theorem
  is a particular case of a more general theorem called "Stokes's
  theorem." Let s denote the edge of an open surface S, and let S be
  covered with a network of curves so that the meshes of the network are
  nearly plane, then we can choose a sense of description of the edge of
  any mesh, and a corresponding sense for the normal to S at any point
  within the mesh, so that these senses are related like the directions
  of rotation and translation in a right-handed screw. This convention
  fixes the sense of the normal (l, m, n) at any point on S when the
  sense of description of s is chosen. If the axes of x, y, z are a
  right-handed system, we have Stokes's theorem in the form
      _                         _ _
     /                         / / {   /ðw   ðv\      /ðu   ðw\      /ðv   ðu\  }
     |  (u dx + v dy + w dz) = | | { l( -- - -- ) + m( -- - -- ) + n( -- - -- ) }dS,
    _/ s                      _/_/ {   \ðy   ðz/      \ðz   ðx/      \ðx   ðy/  }

  where the integral on the left is taken round the curve s in the
  chosen sense. When the axes are left-handed, we may either reverse the
  sense of l, m, n and maintain the formula, or retain the sense of l,
  m, n and change the sign of the right-hand member of the equation. For
  the validity of the theorems of Green and Stokes it is in general
  necessary that the functions involved should satisfy certain
  conditions of continuity. For example, in Green's theorem the
  differential coefficients ð[xi]/ðx, ð[eta]/ðy, ð[zeta]/ðz must be
  continuous within S. Further, there are restrictions upon the nature
  of the curves or surfaces involved. For example, Green's theorem, as
  here stated, applies only to simply-connected regions of space. The
  correction for multiply-connected regions is important in several
  physical theories.


    Change of Variables in a Multiple Integral.

  54. The process of changing the variables in a multiple integral, such
  as a surface or volume integral, is divisible into two stages. It is
  necessary in the first place to determine the differential element
  expressed by the product of the differentials of the first set of
  variables in terms of the differentials of the second set of
  variables. It is necessary in the second place to determine the limits
  of integration which must be employed when the integral in terms of
  the new variables is evaluated as a repeated integral. The first part
  of the problem is solved at once by the introduction of the Jacobian.
  If the variables of one set are denoted by x1, x2, ..., x_n, and those
  of the other set by u1, u2, ..., u_n, we have the relation

                       ð(x1, x2, ..., x_n)
    dx1 dx2  ...dx_n = ------------------- du1 du2 ... du_n.
                       ð(u1, u2, ..., u_n)

  In regard to the second stage of the process the limits of integration
  must be determined by the rule that the integration with respect to
  the second set of variables is to be taken through the same domain as
  the integration with respect to the first set.

  For example, when we have to integrate a function [f](x, y) over the
  area within a circle given by x² + y² = a², and we introduce polar
  coordinates so that x = r cos [theta], y = r sin [theta], we find that
  r is the value of the Jacobian, and that all points within or on the
  circle are given by a [>=] r [>=] o, 2[pi][>=][theta][>=]o, and we have
      _     _                             _      _
     / a   / [root](a²-x²)               / a    /2[pi]
     |  dx |              [f](x, y) dy = |   dr |    f(r cos [theta], r sin [theta]) r d[theta].
    _/-a  _/-[root](a²-x²)              _/ 0   _/ 0

  If we have to integrate over the area of a rectangle a [>=] x [>=] 0,
  b [>=] y [>=] 0, and we transform to polar coordinates, the integral
  becomes the sum of two integrals, as follows:--
      _    _                 _              _
     /a   / b               /tan^-1 b/a    /a sec [theta]
     | dx |  [f](x, y) dy = |     d[theta] |   [f](r cos [theta], r sin [theta]) r dr
    _/0  _/ 0              _/ 0           _/0
         _                 _
        / ½[pi]           /b cosec [theta]
      + |        d[theta] |         [f](r cos [theta], r sin [theta]) r dr.
       _/tan^-1 b/a      _/ 0

  55. A few additional results in relation to line integrals and
  multiple integrals are set down here.


    Line Integrals and Multiple Integrals.

  (i.) Any simple integral can be regarded as a line-integral taken
  along a portion of the axis of x. When a change of variables is made,
  the limits of integration with respect to the new variable must be
  such that the domain of integration is the same as before. This
  condition may require the replacing of the original integral by the
  sum of two or more simple integrals.

  (ii.) The line integral of a perfect differential of a one-valued
  function, taken along any closed curve, is zero.

  (iii.) The area within any plane closed curve can be expressed by
  either of the formulae
      _                  _
     /                  /
     | ½ r² d[theta] or | ½ p ds,
    _/                 _/

  where r, [theta] are polar coordinates, and p is the perpendicular
  drawn from a fixed point to the tangent. The integrals are to be
  understood as line integrals taken along the curve. When the same
  integrals are taken between limits which correspond to two points of
  the curve, in the sense of line integrals along the arc between the
  points, they represent the area bounded by the arc and the terminal
  radii vectores.

  (iv.) The volume enclosed by a surface which is generated by the
  revolution of a curve about the axis of x is expressed by the formula
          _
         /
    [pi] | y² dx,
        _/

  and the area of the surface is expressed by the formula
           _
          /
    2[pi] | y ds,
         _/

  where ds is the differential element of arc of the curve. When the
  former integral is taken between assigned limits it represents the
  volume contained between the surface and two planes which cut the axis
  of x at right angles. The latter integral is to be understood as a
  line integral taken along the curve, and it represents the area of the
  portion of the curved surface which is contained between two planes at
  right angles to the axis of x.

  (v.) When we use curvilinear coordinates [xi], [eta] which are
  conjugate functions of x, y, that is to say are such that

    ð[xi]/ðx = ð[eta]/ðy and ð[xi]/ðy = -ð[eta]/ðx,

  the Jacobian ð([xi], [eta])/ð(x, v) can be expressed in the form

     /ð[xi]\²    /ð[eta]\²
    ( ----- ) + ( ------ ),
     \ ðx  /     \  ðx  /

  and in a number of equivalent forms. The area of any portion of the
  plane is represented by the double integral
      _ _
     / /
     | | J^-1 d[xi] d[eta],
    _/_/

  where J denotes the above Jacobian, and the integration is taken
  through a suitable domain. When the boundary consists of portions of
  curves for which [xi] = const., or [eta] = const., the above is
  generally the simplest way of evaluating it.

  (vi.) The problem of "rectifying" a plane curve, or finding its
  length, is solved by evaluating the integral
      _
     / {      /dy\² }½
     | { 1 + ( -- ) } dx,
    _/ {      \dx/  }

  or, in polar coordinates, by evaluating the integral
      _
     / {        /   dr   \² }½
     | { r²  + ( -------- ) } d[theta].
    _/ {        \d[theta]/  }

  In both cases the integrals are line integrals taken along the curve.

  (vii.) When we use curvilinear coordinates [xi], [eta] as in (v.)
  above, the length of any portion of a curve [xi] = const. is given by
  the integral
      _
     /
     | J^-½ d[eta]
    _/

  taken between appropriate limits for [eta]. There is a similar formula
  for the arc of a curve [eta] = const.

  (viii.) The area of a surface z = [f](x, y) can be expressed by the
  formula
      _ _
     / / {      /ðz\²    /ðz\² }½
     | | { 1 + ( -- ) + ( -- ) } dx dy.
    _/_/ {      \ðx/     \ðy/  }

  When the coordinates of the points of a surface are expressed as
  functions of two parameters u, v, the area is expressed by the
  formula
      _ _  _                                         _
     / /  |  { ð(y, z) }²  { ð(z, x) }²  { ð(x, y) }² |½
     | |  |  { ------- } + { ------- } + { ------- }  | du dv.
    _/_/  |_ { ð(u, v) }   { ð(u, v) }   { ð(u, v) } _|

  When the surface is referred to three-dimensional polar coordinates r,
  [theta], [phi] given by the equations

    x = r sin [theta] cos [phi], y = r sin [theta] sin [phi],
    z = r cos [theta],

  and the equation of the surface is of the form r = [f]([theta],
  [phi]), the area is expressed by the formula
      _ _   _                                                _
     / /   |  {       /   ðr   \² }                 / ðr   \² |½
     | | r |  { r² + ( -------- ) } sin² [theta] + ( ------ ) | d[theta] d[phi].
    _/_/   |_ {       \ð[theta]/  }                 \ð[phi]/ _|

  The surface integral of a function of ([theta], [phi]) over the
  surface of a sphere r = const. can be expressed in the form

      _           _
     /2[pi]      /[pi]
     |    d[phi] |    F([theta], [phi]) r² sin [theta] d[theta].
    _/ 0        _/ 0

  In every case the domain of integration must be chosen so as to
  include the whole surface.

  (ix.) In three-dimensional polar coordinates the Jacobian

         ð(x, y, z)
    -------------------- = r² sin [theta]
    ð(r, [theta], [phi])

  The volume integral of a function F (r, [theta], [phi]) through the
  volume of a sphere r = a is
      _     _           _
     / a   /2[pi]      /[pi]
     |  dr |    d[phi] |   F(r, [theta], [phi]) r² sin [theta] d[theta].
    _/ 0  _/ 0        _/ 0

  (x.) Integrations of rational functions through the volume of an
  ellipsoid x²/a² + y²/b² + z²/c² = 1 are often effected by means of a
  general theorem due to Lejeune Dirichlet (1839), which is as follows:
  when the domain of integration is that given by the inequality

     /x1\[alpha]1   /x2\^[alpha]2         /x_n\[alpha]_n
    ( -- )       + ( -- )        + ... + ( --- )        [<=] 1
     \a1/           \a2/                  \a_n/

  where the a's and [alpha]'s are positive, the value of the integral
      _ _
     / /
     | | ... x1^(n1-1)·x2^(n2-1) ... dx1 dx2 ...
    _/_/

         a1^(n1) a2^(n2) ...   [Gamma] (n1/[alpha]1) [Gamma] (n2/[alpha]2)
    is  --------------------- ---------------------------------------------.
        [alpha]1 [alpha]2 ... [Gamma](1 + n1/[alpha]1 + n2/[alpha]2 + ... )

  If, however, the object aimed at is an integration through the volume
  of an ellipsoid it is simpler to reduce the domain of integration to
  that within a sphere of radius unity by the transformation x = a[xi],
  y = b[eta], z = c[zeta], and then to perform the integration through
  the sphere by transforming to polar coordinates as in (ix).


    Approximate and Mechanical Integration.

  56. Methods of approximate integration began to be devised very early.
  Kepler's practical measurement of the focal sectors of ellipses (1609)
  was an approximate integration, as also was the method for the
  quadrature of the hyperbola given by James Gregory in the appendix to
  his _Exercitationes geometricae_ (1668). In Newton's _Methodus
  differentialis_ (1711) the subject was taken up systematically.
  Newton's object was to effect the approximate quadrature of a given
  curve by making a curve of the type

    y = a0 + a1x + a2x² + ... + a_n x^n

  pass through the vertices of (n + 1) equidistant ordinates of the
  given curve, and by taking the area of the new curve so determined as
  an approximation to the area of the given curve. In 1743 Thomas
  Simpson in his _Mathematical Dissertations_ published a very
  convenient rule, obtained by taking the vertices of three consecutive
  equidistant ordinates to be points on the same parabola. The distance
  between the extreme ordinates corresponding to the abscissae x = a and
  x = b is divided into 2n equal segments by ordinates y1, y2, ...
  y(2n-1), and the extreme ordinates are denoted by y0, y(2n). The
  vertices of the ordinates y0, y1, y2 lie on a parabola with its axis
  parallel to the axis of y, so do the vertices of the ordinates y2, y3,
  y4, and so on. The area is expressed approximately by the formula

    {(b - a)/6n} [y0 + y_(2n) + 2 (y2 + y4 +  ... + y_(2n-2))
      + 4(y1 + y3 + ... + y_(2n-1)],

  which is known as Simpson's rule. Since all simple integrals can be
  represented as areas such rules are applicable to approximate
  integration in general. For the recent developments reference may be
  made to the article by A. Voss in _Ency. d. Math. Wiss._, Bd. II., A.
  2 (1899), and to a monograph by B. P. Moors, _Valeur approximative
  d'une intégrale définie_ (Paris, 1905).

  Many instruments have been devised for registering mechanically the
  areas of closed curves and the values of integrals. The best known are
  perhaps the "planimeter" of J. Amsler (1854) and the "integraph" of
  Abdank-Abakanowicz (1882).

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--For historical questions relating to the subject the
  chief authority is M. Cantor, _Geschichte d. Mathematik_ (3 Bde.,
  Leipzig, 1894-1901). For particular matters, or special periods, the
  following may be mentioned: H. G. Zeuthen, _Geschichte d. Math. im
  Altertum u. Mittelalter_ (Copenhagen, 1896) and _Gesch. d. Math. im
  XVI. u. XVII. Jahrhundert_ (Leipzig, 1903); S. Horsley, _Isaaci
  Newtoni opera quae exstant omnia_ (5 vols., London, 1779-1785); C. I.
  Gerhardt, _Leibnizens math. Schriften_ (7 Bde., Leipzig, 1849-1863);
  Joh. Bernoulli, _Opera omnia_ (4 Bde., Lausanne and Geneva, 1742).
  Other writings of importance in the history of the subject are cited
  in the course of the article. A list of some of the more important
  treatises on the differential and integral calculus is appended. The
  list has no pretensions to completeness; in particular, most of the
  recent books in which the subject is presented in an elementary way
  for beginners or engineers are omitted.--L. Euler, _Institutiones
  calculi differentialis_ (Petrop., 1755) and _Institutiones calculi
  integralis_ (3 Bde., Petrop., 1768-1770); J. L. Lagrange, _Leçons sur
  le calcul des fonctions_ (Paris, 1806, _Oeuvres_, t. x.), and _Théorie
  des fonctions analytiques_ (Paris, 1797, 2nd ed., 1813, _Oeuvres_, t.
  ix.); S. F. Lacroix, _Traité de calcul diff. et de calcul int._ (3
  tt., Paris, 1808-1819). There have been numerous later editions; a
  translation by Herschel, Peacock and Babbage of an abbreviated edition
  of Lacroix's treatise was published at Cambridge in 1816. G. Peacock,
  _Examples of the Differential and Integral Calculus_ (Cambridge,
  1820); A. L. Cauchy, _Résumé des leçons ... sur le calcul
  infinitésimale_ (Paris, 1823), and _Leçons sur le calcul différentiel_
  (Paris, 1829; _Oeuvres_, sér. 2, t. iv.); F. Minding, _Handbuch d.
  Diff.-u. Int.-Rechnung_ (Berlin, 1836); F. Moigno, _Leçons sur le
  calcul diff._ (4 tt., Paris, 1840-1861); A. de Morgan, _Diff. and Int.
  Calc._ (London, 1842); D. Gregory, _Examples on the Diff. and Int.
  Calc._ (2 vols., Cambridge, 1841-1846); I. Todhunter, _Treatise on the
  Diff. Calc._ and _Treatise on the Int. Calc._ (London, 1852), numerous
  later editions; B. Price, _Treatise on the Infinitesimal Calculus_ (2
  vols., Oxford, 1854), numerous later editions; D. Bierens de Haan,
  _Tables d'intégrales définies_ (Amsterdam, 1858); M. Stegemann,
  _Grundriss d. Diff.- u. Int.-Rechnung_ (2 Bde., Hanover, 1862)
  numerous later editions; J. Bertrand, _Traité de calc. diff. et int._
  (2 tt., Paris, 1864-1870); J. A. Serret, _Cours de calc. diff. et
  int._ (2 tt., Paris, 1868, 2nd ed., 1880, German edition by Harnack,
  Leipzig, 1884-1886, later German editions by Bohlmann, 1896, and
  Scheffers, 1906, incomplete); B. Williamson, _Treatise on the Diff.
  Calc._ (Dublin, 1872), and _Treatise on the Int. Calc._ (Dublin, 1874)
  numerous later editions of both; also the article "Infinitesimal
  Calculus" in the 9th ed. of the _Ency. Brit._; C. Hermite, _Cours
  d'analyse_ (Paris, 1873); O. Schlömilch, _Compendium d. höheren
  Analysis_ (2 Bde., Leipzig, 1874) numerous later editions; J. Thomae,
  _Einleitung in d. Theorie d. bestimmten Integrale_ (Halle, 1875); R.
  Lipschitz, _Lehrbuch d. Analysis_ (2 Bde., Bonn, 1877, 1880); A.
  Harnack, _Elemente d. Diff.- u. Int.-Rechnung_ (Leipzig, 1882, Eng.
  trans. by Cathcart, London, 1891); M. Pasch, _Einleitung in d. Diff.-
  u. Int.-Rechnung_ (Leipzig, 1882); Genocchi and Peano, _Calcolo
  differenziale_ (Turin, 1884, German edition by Bohlmann and Schepp,
  Leipzig, 1898, 1899); H. Laurent, _Traité d'analyse_ (7 tt., Paris,
  1885-1891); J. Edwards, _Elementary Treatise on the Diff. Calc._
  (London, 1886), several later editions; A. G. Greenhill, _Diff. and
  Int. Calc._ (London, 1886, 2nd ed., 1891); É. Picard, _Traité
  d'analyse_ (3 tt., Paris, 1891-1896); O. Stolz, _Grundzüge d. Diff.-
  u. Int.-Rechnung_ (3 Bde., Leipzig, 1893-1899); C. Jordan, _Cours
  d'analyse_ (3 tt., Paris, 1893-1896); L. Kronecker, _Vorlesungen ü. d.
  Theorie d. einfachen u. vielfachen Integrale_ (Leipzig, 1894); J.
  Perry, _The Calculus for Engineers_ (London, 1897); H. Lamb, _An
  Elementary Course of Infinitesimal Calculus_ (Cambridge, 1897); G. A.
  Gibson, _An Elementary Treatise on the Calculus_ (London, 1901); É.
  Goursat, _Cours d'analyse mathématique_ (2 tt., Paris, 1902-1905);
  C.-J. de la Vallée Poussin, _Cours d'analyse infinitésimale_ (2 tt.,
  Louvain and Paris, 1903-1906); A. E. H. Love, _Elements of the Diff.
  and Int. Calc._ (Cambridge, 1909); W. H. Young, _The Fundamental
  Theorems of the Diff. Calc._ (Cambridge, 1910). A résumé of the
  infinitesimal calculus is given in the articles "Diff.- u.
  Int-Rechnung" by A. Voss, and "Bestimmte Integrale" by G. Brunel in
  _Ency. d. math. Wiss._ (Bde. ii. A. 2, and ii. A. 3, Leipzig, 1899,
  1900). Many questions of principle are discussed exhaustively by E. W.
  Hobson, _The Theory of Functions of a Real Variable_ (Cambridge,
  1907).     (A. E. H. L.)



INFINITIVE, a form of the verb, properly a noun with verbal functions,
but usually taken as a mood (see GRAMMAR). The Latin grammarians gave it
the name of _infinitus_ or _infinitivus modus_, i.e. indefinite,
unlimited mood, as not having definite persons or numbers.



INFLEXION (from Lat. _inflectere_, to bend), the action of bending
inwards, or turning towards oneself, or the condition of being bent or
curved. In optics, the term "inflexion" was used by Newton for what is
now known as "diffraction of light" (q.v.). For inflexion in geometry
see CURVE. Inflexion when used of the voice, in speaking or singing,
indicates a change in tone, pitch or expression. In grammar (q.v.)
inflexion indicates the changes which a word undergoes to bring it into
correct relations with the other words with which it is used. In English
grammar nouns, pronouns, adjectives (in their degrees of comparison),
verbs and adverbs are inflected. Some grammarians, however, regard the
inflexions of adverbs more as an actual change in word-formation.



INFLUENCE (Late Lat. _influentia_, from _influere_, to flow in), a word
whose principal modern meaning is that of power, control or action
affecting others, exercised either covertly or without visible means or
direct physical agency. It is one of those numerous terms of astrology
(q.v.) which have established themselves in current language. From the
stars was supposed to flow an ethereal stream which affected the course
of events on the earth and the fortunes and characters of men. For the
law as to "undue influence" see CONTRACT.



INFLUENZA (syn. "grip," _la grippe_), a term applied to an infectious
febrile disorder due to a specific bacillus, characterized specially by
catarrh of the respiratory passages and alimentary canal, and occurring
mostly as an epidemic. The Italians in the 17th century ascribed it to
the influence of the stars, and hence the name "influenza." The French
name _grippe_ came into use in 1743, and those of _petite poste_ and
_petit courier_ in 1762, while _général_ became another synonym in 1780.
Apparently the scourge was common; in 1403 and 1557 the sittings of the
Paris law courts had to be suspended through it, and in 1427 sermons had
to be abandoned through the coughing and sneezing; in 1510 masses could
not be sung. Epidemics occurred in 1580, 1676, 1703, 1732 and 1737, and
their cessation was supposed to be connected with earthquakes and
volcanic eruptions.

The disease is referred to in the works of the ancient physicians, and
accurate descriptions of it have been given by medical writers during
the last three centuries. These various accounts agree substantially in
their narration of the phenomena and course of the disease, and
influenza has in all times been regarded as fulfilling all the
conditions of an epidemic in its sudden invasion, and rapid and
extensive spread. Among the chief epidemics were those of 1762, 1782,
1787, 1803, 1833, 1837 and 1847. It appeared in fleets at sea away from
all communication with land, and to such an extent as to disable them
temporarily for service. This happened in 1782 in the case of the
squadron of Admiral Richard Kempenfelt (1718-1782), which had to return
to England from the coast of France in consequence of influenza
attacking his crews.

Like cholera and plague, influenza reappeared in the last quarter of the
19th century, after an interval of many years, in epidemic or rather
pandemic form. After the year 1848, in which 7963 deaths were directly
attributed to influenza in England and Wales, the disease continued
prevalent until 1860, with distinct but minor epidemic exacerbations in
1851, 1855 and 1858; during the next decade the mortality dropped
rapidly though not steadily, and the diminution continued down to the
year 1889, In which only 55 deaths were ascribed to this cause. It is
not clear whether the disease ever disappears wholly, and the deaths
registered in 1889 are the lowest recorded in any year since the
registrar-general's returns began. Occasionally local outbreaks of
illness resembling epidemic influenza have been observed during the
period of abeyance, as in Norfolk in 1878 and in Yorkshire in 1887; but
whether such outbreaks and the so-called "sporadic" cases are
nosologically identical with epidemic influenza is open to doubt. The
relation seems rather to be similar to that between Asiatic cholera and
"cholera nostras." Individual cases may be indistinguishable, but as a
factor in the public health the difference between sporadic and epidemic
influenza is as great and unmistakable as that between the two forms of
cholera. This fact, which had been forgotten by some since 1847 and
never learnt by others, was brought home forcibly to all by the
visitation of 1889.

According to the exhaustive report drawn up by Dr H. Franklin Parsons
for the Local Government Board, the earliest appearances were observed
in May 1889, and three localities are mentioned as affected at the same
time, all widely separated from each other--namely, Bokhara in Central
Asia, Athabasca in the north-west Territories of Canada and Greenland.
About the middle of October it was reported at Tomsk in Siberia, and by
the end of the month at St Petersburg. During November Russia became
generally affected, and cases were noticed in Paris, Berlin, Vienna,
London and Jamaica (?). In December epidemic influenza became
established over the whole of Europe, along the Mediterranean, in Egypt
and over a large area in the United States. It appeared in several towns
in England, beginning with Portsmouth, but did not become generally
epidemic until the commencement of the new year. In London the full
onset of unmistakable influenza dated from the 1st of January 1890.
Everywhere it seems to have exhibited the same explosive character when
once fully established. In St Petersburg, out of a government staff of
260 men, 220 were taken ill in one night, the 15th of November. During
January 1890 the epidemic reached its height in London, and appeared in
a large number of towns throughout the British Islands, though it was
less prevalent in the north and north-west than in the south. January
witnessed a great extension of the disease in Germany, Holland,
Switzerland, Austria-Hungary, Italy, Spain and Portugal; but in Russia,
Scandinavia and France it was already declining. The period of greatest
activity in Europe was the latter half of December and the earlier half
of January, with the change of the year for a central point. Other parts
of the world affected in January 1890 were Cape Town, Canada, the United
States generally, Algiers, Tunis, Cairo, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily,
Honolulu, Mexico, the West Indies and Montevideo. In February the
provincial towns of England were most severely affected, the death-rate
rising to 27.4, but in London it fell from 28.1 to 21.2, and for Europe
generally the back of the epidemic was broken. At the same time,
however, it appeared in Ceylon, Penang, Japan, Hong Kong and India; also
in West Africa, attacking Sierra Leone, and Gambia in the middle of the
month; and finally in the west, where Newfoundland and Buenos Aires were
invaded. In March influenza became widely epidemic in India,
particularly in Bengal and Bombay, and made its appearance in Australia
and New Zealand. In April and May it was epidemic all over Australasia,
in Central America, Brazil, Peru, Arabia and Burma. During the summer
and autumn it reached a number of isolated islands, such as Iceland, St
Helena, Mauritius and Réunion. Towards the close of the year it was
reported from Yunnan in the interior of China, from the Shiré Highlands
in Central Africa, Shoa in Abyssinia, and Gilgit in Kashmir. In the
course of fifteen months, beginning with its undoubted appearance in
Siberia in October 1889, it had traversed the entire globe.

The localities attacked by influenza in 1889-1890 appear in no case to
have suffered severely for more than a month or six weeks. Thus in
Europe and North America generally the visitation had come to an end in
the first quarter of 1890. The earliest signs of an epidemic revival on
a large scale occurred in March 1891, in the United States and the north
of England. It was reported from Chicago and other large towns in the
central states, whence it spread eastwards, reaching New York about the
end of March. In England it began in the Yorkshire towns, particularly
in Hull, and also independently in South Wales. In London influenza
became epidemic for the second time about the end of April, and soon
afterwards was widely distributed in England and Wales. The large towns
in the north, together with London and Wales, suffered much more heavily
in mortality than in the previous attack, but the south-west of England,
Scotland and Ireland escaped with comparatively little sickness. The
same may be said of the European continent generally, except parts of
Russia, Scandinavia and perhaps the north of Germany. This second
epidemic coincided with the spring and early summer; it had subsided in
London by the end of June. The experience of Sheffield is interesting.
In 1890 the attack, contrary to general experience, had been undecided,
lingering and mild; in 1891 it was very sudden and extremely severe, the
death-rate rising to 73.4 during the month of April, and subsiding with
equal rapidity. During the third quarter of the year, while Europe was
free, the antipodes had their second attack, which was more severe than
the first. As in England, it reversed the previous order of things,
beginning in the provinces and spreading thence to the capital towns.
The last quarter of the year was signalized by another recrudescence in
Europe, which reached its height during the winter. All parts, including
Great Britain, were severely affected. In England those parts which had
borne the brunt of the epidemic in the early part of the year escaped.
In fact, these two revivals may be regarded as one, temporarily
interrupted by the summer quarter.

The recrudescence at the end of 1891 lasted through mid-winter, and in
many places, notably in London, it only reached its height in January
1892, subsiding slowly and irregularly in February and March. Brighton
suffered with exceptional severity. The continent of Europe seems to
have been similarly affected. In Italy the notifications of influenza
were as follow: 1891--January to October, 0; November, 30; December,
6461; 1892--January, 84,543; February, 55,352; March, 28,046; April,
7962; May, 1468; June, 223. Other parts of the world affected were the
West Indies, Tunis, Egypt, Sudan, Cape Town Teheran, Tongking and China.
In August 1892 influenza was reported from Peru, and later in the year
from various places in Europe.

A fourth recrudescence, but of a milder character, occurred in Great
Britain in the spring of 1893, and a fifth in the following winter, but
the year 1894 was freer from influenza than any since 1890. In 1895
another extensive epidemic took place. In 1896 influenza seemed to have
spent its strength, but there was an increased prevalence of the disease
in 1897, which was repeated on a larger scale in 1898, and again in
1899, when 12,417 deaths were recorded in England and Wales. This was
the highest death-rate since 1892. After this the death-rate declined to
half that amount and remained there with the slight upward variations
until 1907, in which the total death-rate was 9257. The experience of
other countries has been very similar; they have all been subjected to
periodical revivals of epidemic influenza at irregular intervals and of
varying intensity since its reappearance in 1889, but there has been a
general though not a steady decline in its activity and potency. Its
behaviour is, in short, quite in keeping with the experience of
1847-1860, though the later visitation appears to have been more violent
and more fatal than the former. Its diffusion was also more rapid and
probably more extensive.

The foregoing general summary may be supplemented by some further
details of the incidence in Great Britain. The number of deaths directly
attributed to influenza, and the death-rates per million in each year in
England and Wales, are as follow:--

  +------+--------+-------------+
  | Year.| Deaths.| Death-rates |
  |      |        | per million.|
  +------+--------+-------------+
  | 1890 |  4,523 |     157     |
  | 1891 | 16,686 |     574     |
  | 1892 | 15,737 |     534     |
  | 1893 |  9,669 |     325     |
  | 1894 |  6,625 |     220     |
  | 1895 | 12,880 |     424     |
  | 1896 |  3,753 |     122     |
  | 1897 |  6,088 |     196     |
  | 1898 | 10,405 |     331     |
  | 1899 | 12,417 |     389     |
  | 1900 | 16,245 |     504     |
  | 1901 |  5,666 |     174     |
  | 1902 |  7,366 |     223     |
  | 1903 |  6,322 |     189     |
  | 1904 |  5,694 |     168     |
  | 1905 |  6,953 |     204     |
  | 1906 |  6,310 |     183     |
  | 1907 |  9,257 |     265     |
  +------+--------+-------------+

It is interesting to compare these figures with the corresponding ones
for the previous visitation:--

  +------+--------+-------------+
  | Year.| Deaths.| Death-rates |
  |      |        | per million.|
  +------+--------+-------------+
  | 1847 |  4,881 |     285     |
  | 1848 |  7,963 |     460     |
  | 1849 |  1,611 |      92     |
  | 1850 |  1,380 |      78     |
  | 1851 |  2,152 |     120     |
  | 1852 |  1,359 |      76     |
  | 1853 |  1,789 |      99     |
  | 1854 |  1,061 |      58     |
  | 1855 |  3,568 |     193     |
  +------+--------+-------------+

The two sets of figures are not strictly comparable, because, during the
first period, notification of the cause of death was not compulsory; but
it seems clear that the later wave was much the more deadly. The average
annual death-rate for the nine years is 320 in the one case against 162
in the other, or as nearly as possible double. In both epidemic periods
the second year was far more fatal than the first, and in both a marked
revival took place in the ninth year; in both also an intermediate
recrudescence occurred, in the fifth year in one case, in the sixth in
the other. The chief point of difference is the sudden and marked drop
in 1849-1850, against a persistent high mortality in 1892-1893,
especially in 1892, which was nearly as fatal as 1891.

To make the significance of these epidemic figures clear, it should be
added that in the intervening period 1861-1889 the average annual
death-rate from influenza was only fifteen, and in the ten years
immediately preceding the 1890 outbreak it was only three. Moreover, in
epidemic influenza, the mortality directly attributed to that disease is
only a fraction of that actually caused by it. For instance, in January
1890 the deaths from influenza in London were 304, while the excess of
deaths from respiratory diseases was 1454 and from all causes 1958 above
the average.

We have seen above that the mortality was far greater in the second
epidemic year than in the first, and this applies to all parts of
England, and to rural as well as to urban communities, as the following
table shows:--

  _Deaths from Influenza._

  +--------------------------------------+------+------+
  |                                      | 1890.| 1891.|
  +--------------------------------------+------+------+
  | London                               |  624 | 2302 |
  | 24 Great Towns over 80,000 population|  439 | 2417 |
  | 35 Towns between 20,000 and 80,000   |  186 |  765 |
  | 21 Towns between 10,000 and 20,000   |   46 |  196 |
  | 60 Towns under 10,000                |   62 |  196 |
  | 85 Rural Sanitary Districts          |  317 |  841 |
  +--------------------------------------+------+------+

In spite of these figures, it appears that the 1890 attack, which was in
general much more sudden in its onset than that of 1891, also caused a
great deal more sickness. More people were "down with influenza," though
fewer died. For Instance, the number of persons treated at the Middlesex
Hospital in the two months' winter epidemic of 1890 was 1279; in the far
more fatal three months' spring epidemic of 1891 it was only 726. One
explanation of this discrepancy between the incidence of sickness and
mortality is that in the second attack, which was more protracted and
more insidious, the stress of the disease fell more upon the lungs.
Another is that its comparative mildness, combined with the time of
year, in itself proved dangerous, because it tempted people to disregard
the illness, whereas in the first epidemic they were too ill to resist.
On the whole, rural districts showed a higher death-rate than towns, and
small towns a higher one than large ones in both years. This is
explained by the age distribution in such localities; influenza being
particularly fatal to aged people, though no age is exempt. Certain
counties were much more severely affected than others. The eastern
counties, namely, Essex, Suffolk and Norfolk, together with Hampshire
and one or two others, escaped lightly in both years; the western
counties, namely, North and South Wales, with the adjoining counties of
Monmouth, Hereford and Shropshire, suffered heavily in both years.

It will be convenient to discuss _seriatim_ the various points of
interest on which light has been thrown by the experience described
above.

The bacteriology of influenza is discussed in the article on PARASITIC
DISEASES. The disease is often called "Russian" influenza, and its
origin in 1889 suggests that the name may have some foundation in fact.
A writer, who saw the epidemic break out in Bokhara, is quoted by him to
the following effect:--"The summer of 1888 was exceptionally hot and
dry, and was followed by a bitterly cold winter and a rainy spring. The
dried-up earth was full of cracks and holes from drought and subsequent
frost, so that the spring rains formed ponds in these holes, inundated
the new railway cuttings, and turned the country into a perfect marsh.
When the hot weather set in the water gave off poisonous exhalations,
rendering malaria general." On account of the severe winter, the people
were enfeebled from lack of nourishment, and when influenza broke out
suddenly they died in large numbers. Europeans were very severely
affected. Russians, hurrying home, carried the disease westwards, and
caravans passing eastwards took it into Siberia. There is a striking
similarity in the conditions described to those observed in connexion
with outbreaks of other diseases, particularly typhoid fever and
diphtheria, which have occurred on the supervention of heavy rain after
a dry period, causing cracks and fissures in the earth. Assuming the
existence of a living poison in the ground, we can easily understand
that under certain conditions, such as an exceptionally dry season, it
may develop exceptional properties and then be driven out by the
subsequent rains, causing a violent outbreak of illness. Some such
explanation is required to account for the periodical occurrence of
epidemic and pandemic diffusions starting from an endemic centre. We may
suppose that a micro-organism of peculiar robustness and virulence is
bred and brought into activity by a combination of favourable
conditions, and is then disseminated more or less widely according to
its "staying power," by human agency. Whether central Asia is an endemic
centre for influenza or not there is no evidence, but the disease seems
to be more often prevalent in the Russian Empire than elsewhere.
Extensive outbreaks occurred there in 1886 and 1887, and it is certain
that the 1889 wave was active in Siberia at an earlier date than in
Europe, and that it moved eastwards. The hypothesis that it originated
in China is unsupported by evidence. But whatever may be the truth with
regard to origin, the dissemination of influenza by human agency must be
held to be proved. This is the most important addition to our knowledge
of the subject contributed by recent research. The upshot of the inquiry
by Dr Parsons was to negative all theories of atmospheric influence, and
to establish the conclusion that the disease was "propagated mainly,
perhaps entirely, by human intercourse."

  He found that it prevailed independently of climate, season and
  weather; that it moved in a contrary direction to the prevailing
  winds; that it travelled along the lines of human intercourse, and not
  faster than human beings can travel; that in 1889 it travelled much
  faster than in previous epidemics, when the means of locomotion were
  very inferior; that it appeared first in capital towns, seaports and
  frontier towns, and only affected country districts later; that it
  never commenced suddenly with a large number of cases in a place
  previously free from disease, but that epidemic manifestations were
  generally preceded for some days or weeks by scattered cases; that
  conveyance of infection by individuals and its introduction into fresh
  places had been observed in many instances; that persons brought much
  into contact with others were generally the first to suffer; that
  persons brought together in large numbers in enclosed spaces suffered
  more in proportion than others, and that the rapidity and extent of
  the outbreak in institutions corresponded with the massing together of
  the inmates.

These conclusions, based upon the 1889-1890 epidemic, have been
confirmed by subsequent experience, especially in regard to the complete
independence of season and weather shown by influenza. It has appeared
and disappeared at all seasons and in all weathers and only popular
ignorance continues to ascribe its behaviour to atmospheric conditions.
In Europe, however, it has prevailed more often in winter than in
summer, which may be due to the greater susceptibility of persons in
winter, or, more probably, to the fact that they congregate more in
buildings and are less in the open air during that part of the year. No
doubt is any longer entertained of its infectious character, though the
degree of infectivity appears to vary considerably. Many cases have been
recorded of individuals introducing it into houses, and of all or most
of the other inmates then taking it from the first case. Difficulties in
preventing the spread of infection are due to (1) the shortness of the
period of incubation, (2) the disease being infectious in the earliest
stages before the nature of the illness is recognized, (3) the milder
varieties being equally infectious with the severe attacks, and the
patient going to work and spreading the infection, (4) the diagnosis
often being difficult, influenza being possibly confused with ordinary
catarrhal attacks, typhoid fever and other diseases. Domestic animals
seem to be free from any suspicion of being liable to human influenza.
Sanitary conditions, other than overcrowding, do not appear to exercise
any influence on the spread of influenza.

Influenza has been shown to be an acute specific fever having nothing
whatever to do with a "bad cold." There may be some inflammation of the
respiratory passages, and then symptoms of catarrh are present, but that
is not necessarily the case, and in some epidemics such symptoms are
quite exceptional. This had been recognized by various writers before
the 1889 visitation, but it had not been generally realized, as it has
been since, and some medical authorities, who persisted in regarding
influenza as essentially a "catarrhal" affection, were chiefly to blame
for a widespread and tenacious popular fallacy.

Leichtenstern, in his masterly article in Nothnagel's _Handbuch_,
divides the disease as follows:--(1) Epidemic influenza vera caused by
Pfeiffer's bacillus; (2) Endemic-epidemic influenza vera, which occurs
several years after a pandemic and is caused by the same bacillus; (3)
Endemic influenza nostras or eatarrhal fever, called _la grippe_, and
bearing the same relation to true influenza as cholera nostras does to
Asiatic cholera.

The "period of incubation" is one to four days. Susceptibility varies
greatly, but the conditions that influence it are matters of conjecture
only. It appears that the inhabitants of Great Britain are less
susceptible than those of many other countries. Dr Parsons gives the
following list, showing the proportion of the population estimated to
have been attacked in the 1889-1890 epidemic in different localities:--

  +---------------------+---------+---------------------+---------+
  |        Place.       |Per cent.|        Place.       |Per cent.|
  +---------------------+---------+---------------------+---------+
  | St Petersburg       |   50    | Portugal            |   90    |
  | Berlin              |   33    | Vienna              |  30-40  |
  | Nuremberg           |   67    | Belgrade            |   33    |
  | Grand-Duchy of Hesse|  25-30  | Antwerp             |   33    |
  | Grand-Duchy, other  |         | Gaeta               |  50-77  |
  |   Districts         |  50-75  | Massachusetts       |   39    |
  | Heligoland          |   50    | Peking              |   50    |
  | Budapest            |   50    | St Louis (Mauritius)|   67    |
  +---------------------+---------+---------------------+---------+

In and about London he reckoned roughly from a number of returns that
the proportion was about 12½% among those employed out of doors and
25% among those in offices, &c. The proportion among the troops in the
Home District was 9.3%. The General Post Office made the highest return
with 33.6%, which is accounted for partly by the enormous number of
persons massed together in the same room in more than one department,
and partly by the facilities for obtaining medical advice, which would
tend to bring very light cases, unnoticed elsewhere, upon the record. No
public service was seriously disorganized in England by sickness in the
same manner as on the continent of Europe. Some individuals appear to be
totally immune; others take the disease over and over again, deriving no
immunity, but apparently greater susceptibility from previous attacks.

The symptoms were thus described by Dr Bruce Low from observations made
in St Thomas's Hospital, London, in January 1890:--

  The invasion is sudden; the patients can generally tell the time when
  they developed the disease; e.g. acute pains in the back and loins
  came on quite suddenly while they were at work or walking in the
  street, or in the case of a medical student, while playing cards,
  rendering him unable to continue the game. A workman wheeling a barrow
  had to put it down and leave it; and an omnibus driver was unable to
  pull up his horses. This sudden onset is often accompanied by vertigo
  and nausea, and sometimes actual vomiting of bilious matter. There are
  pains in the limbs and general sense of aching all over; frontal
  headache of special severity; pains in the eyeballs, increased by the
  slightest movement of the eyes; shivering; general feeling of misery
  and weakness, and great depression of spirits, many patients, both men
  and women, giving way to weeping; nervous restlessness; inability to
  sleep, and occasionally delirium. In some cases catarrhal symptoms
  develop, such as running at the eyes, which are sometimes injected on
  the second day; sneezing and sore throat; and epistaxis, swelling of
  the parotid and submaxillary glands, tonsilitis, and spitting of
  bright blood from the pharynx may occur. There is a hard, dry cough of
  a paroxysmal kind, worst at night. There is often tenderness of the
  spleen, which is almost always found enlarged, and this persists after
  the acute symptoms have passed. The temperature is high at the onset
  of the disease. In the first twenty-four hours its range is from 100°
  F. in mild cases to 105° in severe cases.

Dr J. S. Bristowe gave the following description of the illness during
the same epidemic:--

  The chief symptoms of influenza are, coldness along the back, with
  shivering, which may continue off and on for two or three days; severe
  pain in the head and eyes, often with tenderness in the eyes and pain
  in moving them; pains in the ears; pains in the small of the back;
  pains in the limbs, for the most part in the fleshy portions, but also
  in the bones and joints, and even in the fingers and toes; and febrile
  temperature, which may in the early period rise to 104° or 105° F. At
  the same time the patient feels excessively ill and prostrate, is apt
  to suffer from nausea or sickness and diarrhoea, and is for the most
  part restless, though often (and especially in the case of children
  and those advanced in age) drowsy.... In ordinary mild cases the above
  symptoms are the only important ones which present themselves, and the
  patient may recover in the course of three or four days. He may even
  have it so mildly that, although feeling very ill, he is able to go
  about his ordinary work. In some cases the patients have additionally
  some dryness or soreness of the throat, or some stiffness and
  discharge from the nose, which may be accompanied by slight bleeding.
  And in some cases, for the most part in the course of a few days, and
  at a time when the patient seems to be convalescent, he begins to
  suffer from wheezing in the chest, cough, and perhaps a little
  shortness of breath, and before long spits mucus in which are
  contained pellets streaked or tinged with blood.... Another
  complication is diarrhoea. Another is a roseolous spotty rash....
  Influenza is by no means necessarily attended with the catarrhal
  symptoms which the general public have been taught to regard as its
  distinctive signs, and in a very large proportion of cases no
  catarrhal condition whatever becomes developed at any time.

Several writers have distinguished four main varieties of the
disease--namely, (1) nervous, (2)gastro-intestinal, (3)respiratory, (4)
febrile, a form chiefly found in children. Clifford Allbutt says,
"Influenza simulates other diseases." Many forms are of typhoid or
comatose types. Cardiac attacks are common, not from organic disease but
from the direct poisoning of the heart muscle by influenza.

Perhaps the most marked feature of influenza, and certainly the one
which victims have learned to dread most, is the prolonged debility and
nervous depression that frequently follow an attack. It was remarked by
Nothnagel that "Influenza produces a specific nervous toxin which by its
action on the cortex produces psychoses." In the Paris epidemic of 1890
the suicides increased 25%, a large proportion of the excess being
attributed to nervous prostration caused by the disease. Dr Rawes,
medical superintendent of St Luke's hospital, says that of insanities
traceable to influenza melancholia is twice as frequent as all other
forms of insanity put together. Other common after-effects are
neuralgia, dyspepsia, insomnia, weakness or loss of the special senses,
particularly taste and smell, abdominal pains, sore throat, rheumatism
and muscular weakness. The feature most dangerous to life is the special
liability of patients to inflammation of the lungs. This affection must
be regarded as a complication rather than an integral part of the
illness. The following diagram gives the annual death-rate per million
in England and Wales, and is taken from an article by Dr Arthur
Newsholme in _The Practitioner_ (January 1907).

The deaths directly attributed to influenza are few in proportion to the
number of cases. In the milder forms it offers hardly any danger to life
if reasonable care be taken, but in the severer forms it is a fairly
fatal disease. In eight London hospitals the case-mortality among
in-patients in the 1890 outbreak was 34.5 per 1000; among all patients
treated it was 1.6 per 1000. In the army it was rather less.

The infectious character of influenza having been determined,
suggestions were made for its administrative control on the familiar
lines of notification, isolation and disinfection, but this has not
hitherto been found practicable. In March 1895, however, the Local
Government Board issued a memorandum recommending the adoption of the
following precautions wherever they can be carried out:--

  1. The sick should be separated from the healthy. This is especially
  important in the case of first attacks in a locality or a household.

  2. The sputa of the sick should, especially in the acute stage of the
  disease, be received into vessels containing disinfectants. Infected
  articles and rooms should be cleansed and disinfected.

  3. When influenza threatens, unnecessary assemblages of persons should
  be avoided.

  4. Buildings and rooms in which many people necessarily congregate
  should be efficiently aerated and cleansed during the intervals of
  occupation.

There is no routine treatment for influenza except bed. In all cases bed
is advisable, because of the danger of lung complications, and in mild
ones it is sufficient. Severer ones must be treated according to the
symptoms. Quinine has been much used. Modern "anti-pyretic" drugs have
also been extensively employed, and when applied with discretion they
may be useful, but patients are not advised to prescribe them for
themselves.

[Illustration]

Sir Wm. Broadbent in a note on the prophylaxis of influenza recommends
quinine in a dose of two grains every morning, and remarks: "I have had
opportunities of obtaining extraordinary evidence of its protective
power. In a large public school it was ordered to be taken every
morning. Some of the boys in the school were home boarders, and it was
found that while the boarders at the school took the quinine in the
presence of a master every morning, there were scarcely any cases of
influenza among them, although the home boarders suffered nearly as much
as before." He continues, "In a large girls' school near London the same
thing was ordered, and the girls and mistresses took their morning dose
but the servants were forgotten. The result was that scarcely any girl
or mistress suffered while the servants were all down with influenza."

The liability to contract influenza, and the danger of an attack if
contracted, are increased by depressing conditions, such as exposure to
cold and to fatigue, whether mental or physical. Attention should,
therefore, be paid to all measures tending to the maintenance of health.
Persons who are attacked by influenza should at once seek rest, warmth
and medical treatment, and they should bear in mind that the risk of
relapse, with serious complications, constitutes a chief danger of the
disease.

  In addition to the ordinary text-books, see the series of articles by
  experts on different aspects in _The Practitioner_ (London) for
  January 1907.



IN FORMÂ PAUPERIS (Latin, "in the character of pauper"), the legal
phrase for a method of bringing or defending a case in court on the part
of persons without means. By an English statute of 1495 (11 Hen. VII. c.
12), any poor person having cause of action was entitled to have a writ
according to the nature of the case, without paying the fees thereon.
The statute of 1495 was repealed by the Statute Law Revision and Civil
Procedure Act 1883, but its provisions, as well as the chancery
practice were incorporated into one code and embodied in the rules of
the Supreme Court (O. xvi. rr. 22-31). Now any person may be admitted to
sue as a pauper, on proof that he is not worth £25, his wearing apparel
and the subject matter of the cause or matter excepted. He must lay his
case before counsel for opinion, and counsel's opinion thereon, with an
affidavit of the party suing that the case contains a full and true
statement of all the material facts to the best of his knowledge and
belief, must be produced before the proper officers to whom the
application is made. A person who desires to defend as a pauper must
enter an appearance to a writ in the ordinary way and afterwards apply
for an order to defend as a pauper. Where a person is admitted to sue or
defend as a pauper, counsel and solicitor may be assigned to him, and
such counsel and solicitor are not at liberty to refuse assistance
unless there is some good reason for refusing. If any person admitted to
sue or defend as a pauper agrees to pay fees to any person for the
conduct of his business he will be dispaupered. Costs ordered to be paid
to a pauper are taxed as in other cases. Appeals to the House of Lords
_in formâ pauperis_ were regulated by the Appeal (Formâ Pauperis) Act
1893, which gave the House of Lords power to refuse a petition for leave
to sue.



INFORMATION (from Lat. _informare_, to give shape or form to, to
represent, describe), the communication of knowledge; in English law, a
proceeding on behalf of the crown against a subject otherwise than by
indictment. A criminal information is a proceeding in the King's bench
by the attorney-general without the intervention of a grand jury. The
attorney-general, or, in his absence, the solicitor-general, has a right
_ex officio_ to file a criminal information in respect of any
indictments, but not for treason, felonies or misprision of treason. It
is, however, seldom exercised, except in cases which might be described
as "enormous misdemeanours," such as those peculiarly tending to disturb
or endanger the king's government, e.g. seditions, obstructing the
king's officers in the execution of their duties, &c. In the form of the
proceedings the attorney-general is said to "come into the court of our
lord the king before the king himself at Westminster, and gives the
court there to understand and be informed that, &c." Then follows the
statement of the offence as in an indictment. The information is filed
in the crown office without the leave of the court. An information may
also be filed at the instance of a private prosecutor for misdemeanours
not affecting the government, but being peculiarly flagrant and
pernicious. Thus criminal informations have been granted for bribing or
attempting to bribe public functionaries, and for aggravated libels on
public or private persons. Leave to file an information is obtained
after an application to show cause, founded on a sworn statement of the
material facts of the case.

Certain suits might also be filed in Chancery by way of information in
the name of the attorney-general, but this species of information was
superseded by Order 1, rule 1 of the Rules of the Supreme Court, 1883,
under which they are instituted in the ordinary way. Informations in the
Court of Exchequer in revenue cases, also filed by the attorney-general,
are still resorted to (see _A.-G._ v. _Williamson_, 1889, 60 L.T. 930).



INFORMER, in a general sense, one who communicates information. The term
is applied to a person who prosecutes in any of the courts of law those
who break any law or penal statute. Such a person is called a common
informer when he furnishes evidence on criminal trials or prosecutes for
breaches of penal laws solely for the purpose of obtaining the penalty
recovered, or a share of it. An action by a common informer is termed a
_popular_ or _qui tam_ action, because it is brought by a person _qui
tam pro domino rege quam pro se ipso sequitur_. A suit by an informer
must be brought within a year of the offence, unless a specific time is
prescribed by the statute. The term informer is also used of an
accomplice in crime who turns what is called "king's evidence" (see
ACCOMPLICE). In Scotland, informer is the term applied to the party who,
in criminal proceedings, sets the lord advocate in motion.



INFUSORIA, the name given by Bütschli (following O.F. Ledermüller, 1763)
to a group of Protozoa. The name arose from the procedure adopted by the
older microscopists to obtain animalcules. Infusions of most varied
organic substances were prepared (hay and pepper being perhaps the
favourite ones), the method of obtaining them including maceration and
decoction, as well as infusion in the strict sense; they were then
allowed to decompose in the air, so that various living beings developed
therein. As classified by C. G. Ehrenberg in his monumental
_Infusionstierchen als volkommene Organismen_, they included (1)
Desmids, Diatoms and Schizomycetes, now regarded as essentially Plant
Protista or Protophytes; (2) Sarcodina (excluding Foraminifera, as well
as Radiolaria, which were only as yet known by their skeletons, and
termed Polycystina), and (3) Rotifers, as well as (4) Flagellates and
Infusoria in our present sense. F. Dujardin in his _Histoire des
zoophytes_ (1841) gave nearly as liberal an interpretation to the name;
while C. T. Van Siebold (1845) narrowed it to its present limits save
for the admission of several Flagellate families. O. Bütschli limited
the group by removing the Flagellata, Dinoflagellata and Cystoflagellata
(q.v.) under the name of "Mastigophora" proposed earlier by R. M.
Diesing (1865). We now define it thus:--Protozoa bounded by a permanent
plasmic pellicle and consequently of definite form, never using
pseudopodia for locomotion or ingestion, provided (at least in the young
state) with numerous cilia or organs derived from cilia and equipped
with a double nuclear apparatus: the larger (mega-) nucleus usually
dividing by constriction, and disappearing during conjugation: the
smaller (micro-) nucleus (sometimes multiple) dividing by mitosis, and
entering into conjugation and giving rise to the cycle of nuclei both
large and small of the race succeeding conjugation.

[Illustration: FIG. i. Ciliata.

  1. _Opalinopsis sepiolae_, Foett.: a parasitic Holotrichous mouthless
  Ciliate from the liver of the Squid. a, branched meganucleus; b,
  vacuoles (non-contractile).

  2. A similar specimen treated with picrocarmine, showing a remarkably
  branched and twisted meganucleus (a), in place of several nuclei.

  3. _Anoplophrya naidos_, Duj.; a mouthless Holotrichous Ciliate
  parasitic in the worm Nais. a, the large axial meganucleus; b,
  contractile vacuoles.

  4. _Anoplophrya prolifera_, C. and L.; from the intestine of
  _Clitellio_. Remarkable for the adhesion of incomplete
  fission-products in a metameric series. a, meganucleus.

  5. _Amphileptus gigas_, C. and L. (Gymnostomaceae). b, contractile
  vacuoles; c, trichocysts (see fig. 2); d, meganucleus; e. pharynx.

  6, 7. _Prorodon niveus_, Ehr. (Gymnostomaceae). a, meganucleus; b,
  contractile vacuole; c, pharynx with horny cuticular lining.

  6. The fasciculate cuticle of the pharynx isolated.

  8. _Trachelius ovum_, Ehr. (Gymnostomaceae); showing the reticulate
  arrangement of the endosarc, b, contractile vacuoles; c, the
  cuticle-lined pharynx.

  9, 10, 11, 12. _Icthyophthirius multifilius_, Fouquet
  (Gymnostomaceae). Free individual and successive stages of division to
  form spores. a, meganucleus; b, contractile vacuoles.

  13. _Didinium nasutum_, Müll. (Gymnostomaceae). The pharynx is everted
  and has seized a _Paramecium_ as food. a, meganucleus; b, contractile
  vacuole; c, everted pharynx.

  14. _Euplotes charon_, Müll. (Hypotrichaceae); lateral view of the
  animal when using its great cirrhi, x, as ambulatory organs.

  15. _Euplotes harpa_, Stein (Hypotrichaceae); h, mouth; x, cirrhi.

  16. _Nyctotherus cordiformis_, Stein (a Heterotriceae), parasitic in
  the intestine of the Frog; a, meganucleus; b, contractile vacuole; c,
  food particle; d, anus; e, heterotrichous band of membranelles; f, g,
  mouth; h, pharynx; i, small cilia.]

Thus defined, the Infusoria fall into two groups:--(1) _Ciliata_, with
cilia or organs derived from cilia throughout their lives, provided with
a single permanent mouth (absent in the parasitic _Opalinopsidae_) flush
with the body or at the base of an oral depression, and taking in food
by active swallowing or by ciliary action: (2) _Suctoria_, rarely
ciliated except in the young state, and taking in their food by suction
through protrusible hollow tentacles, usually numerous.

  The pellicle of the Infusoria is stronger and more permanent than in
  many Protozoa, and sometimes assumes the character of a mail of hard
  plates, closely fitting; but even in this case it undergoes solution
  soon after death. It is continuous with a firm ectosarc, highly
  differentiated in the Ciliata, and in both groups free from coarse
  movable granules. The endosarc is semifluid and rich in granules
  mostly "reserve" in nature, often showing proteid or fat reactions.
  One or more contractile vacuoles are present in some of the marine and
  all the freshwater species, and open to the surface by pores of
  permanent position: a system of canals in the deeper layers of the
  ectoplasm is sometimes connected with the vacucle. The body is often
  provided with not-living external formations "stalk" and "theca" (or
  "lorica").

  The character of the nuclear apparatus excludes two groups both
  parasitic and mouthless: (1) the Trichonymphidae, with a single
  nucleus of Leidy, parasitic in Insects, especially Termites; (2) the
  Opalinidae, with several (often numerous) uniform nuclei, parasitic in
  the gut of Batrachia, &c., and producing 1-nuclear zoospores which
  conjugate. Both these families we unite into a group of Pseudociliata,
  which may be referred to the _Flagellata_ (q.v.). Lankester in the
  last edition of this Encyclopaedia called attention to the doubtful
  position of _Opalina_, and Delage and Hérouard placed Trichonymphidae
  among Flagellates.

  The theca or shell is present in some pelagic species (fig. iii. 3, 5)
  and in many of the attached species, notably among the Peritricha
  (fig. iii. 21, 22, 25, 26) and Suctoria (fig. viii. 11); and is found
  in some free-swimming forms (fig. iii. 3, 5): it is usually chitinous,
  and forms a cup into which the animal, protruded when at its utmost
  elongation, can retract itself. In _Metacineta mystacina_ it has
  several distinct slits (pylomes) for the passage of tufts of
  tentacles. In _Stentor_ it is gelatinous; and in the Dictyocystids it
  is beautifully latticed.

  The stalk is usually solid, and expanded at the base into a disk in
  Suctoria. In Peritrichaceae (fig. iii. 8-22, 25, 26), the only ciliate
  group with a stalk, it grows for some time after its formation, and on
  fission two new stalks continue the old one, so as to form a branched
  colony (fig. iii. 18). In _Vorticella_ (fig. iii. 11, 12, 14, &c.) the
  stalk is hollow and elastic, and attached to it along a spiral is a
  prolongation of the ectosarc containing a bundle of myonemes, so that
  by the contractions of the bundle the stalk is pulled down into a
  corkscrew spiral, and on the relaxation of the muscle the elasticity
  of the hollow stalk straightens it out.

  On fission the stalk may become branched, as the solid one of
  _Epistylis_ and _Opercularia_ (fig. iii. 20); and the myoneme also in
  the tubular stem of _Zoothaminum_; or the branch-myoneme for the one
  offspring may be inserted laterally on that for the other in
  _Carchesium_ (fig. iii. 18). In several tubicolous Peritrichaceae
  there is some arrangement for closing their tubes. In _Thuricola_
  (fig. iii. 25-26) there is a valve which opens by the pressure of the
  animal on its protrusion, and closes automatically by elasticity on
  retraction. In _Lagenophrys_ the animal adheres to the cup a little
  below the opening, so that its withdrawal closes the cup: at the
  adherent part the body mass is hardened, and so differentiated as to
  suggest the frame of the mouth of a purse. In _Pyxicola_ (fig. iii.
  21-22) the animal bears some way down the body a hardened shield
  ("operculum") which closes the mouth of the shell on retraction.

  [Illustration: FIG. ii.

    1, Surface view of _Paramecium_, showing the disposition of the
    cilia in longitudinal rows.

    2, a, mega-; b, micronucleus; c, junction of ecto- and endosarc; D,
    pellicle; E, endosarc; f, cilia (much too numerous and crowded); g,
    trichocysts; g', same with thread; h, discharged; i, pharynx, its
    undulating membrane not shown; k, food granules collecting into a
    bolus; l, m, n, o, food vacuoles, their contents being digested as
    they pass in the endosarc along the path indicated by the arrows.

    3, Outline showing contractile vacuoles in commencing diastole,
    surrounded by five afferent canals.

    4-7 Successive stages of diastole of contractile vacuole.]

  The cytoplasm of the Infusoria is very susceptible to injuries; and
  when cut or torn, unless the pellicle contracts rapidly to enclose the
  wounded surface, the substance of the body swells up, becoming frothy,
  with bubbles which rapidly enlarge and finally burst; the cell thus
  disintegrates, leaving only a few granules to mark where it was. This
  phenomenon, observed by Dujardin, is called "diffluence." The
  contractile vacuole appears to be one of the means by which diffluence
  is avoided in cells with no strong wall to resist the absorption of
  water in excess; for after growing in size for some time, its walls
  contract suddenly, and its contents are expelled to the outside by a
  pore, which is, like the anus, usually invisible, but permanent in
  position. The contractile vacuole may be single or multiple; it may
  receive the contents of a canal, or of a system of canals, which only
  become visible at the moment of the contraction of the vacuole (fig.
  ii. 4-7), giving liquid time to accumulate in them, or when the
  vacuole is acting sluggishly or imperfectly, as in the approach of
  asphyxia (fig. ii. 3). Besides this function, since the system passes
  a large quantity of water from without through the substance of the
  cell, it must needs act as a means of respiration and excretion. In
  all Peritrichaceae it opens to the vestibule, and in some of them it
  discharges through an intervening reservoir, curiously recalling the
  arrangements in the Flagellate Euglenaceae.

  The nuclear apparatus consists of two parts, the meganucleus, and the
  micronucleus or micronuclei (fig. iii. 17d, iv. 1). The meganucleus
  alone regarded and described as "the nucleus" by older observers is
  always single, subject to a few reservations. It is most frequently
  oval, and then is indented by the micronucleus; but it may be lobed,
  the lobes lying far apart and connected by a slender bridge or
  moniliform, or horseshoe-shaped (Peritrichaceae). It often contains
  darker inclusions, like nucleoles.

  It has been shown, more especially by Gruber, that many Ciliata are
  multinucleate, and do not possess merely a single meganucleus and a
  micronucleus. In _Oxytricha_ the nuclei are large and numerous (about
  forty), scattered through the protoplasm, whilst in other cases the
  nucleus is so finely divided as to appear like a powder diffused
  uniformly through the medullary protoplasm (_Trachelocerca_). Carmine
  staining, after treatment with absolute alcohol, has led to this
  remarkable discovery. The condition described by Foettinger in his
  _Opalinopsis_ (fig. i. 1, 2) is an example of this pulverization of
  the nucleus. The condition of pulverization had led in some cases to a
  total failure to detect any nucleus in the living animal, and it was
  only by the use of reagents that the actual state of the case was
  revealed. Before fission, whatever be its habitual character, it
  condenses, becomes oval, and divides by constriction; and though it
  usually is then fibrillated, only in a few cases does it approach the
  typical mitotic condition. The micronucleus described by older writers
  as the "nucleolus" or "paranucleus" ("endoplastule" of Huxley), may be
  single or multiple. When the meganucleus is bilobed there are always
  two micronuclei, and at least one is found next to every enlargement
  of the moniliform meganucleus. In the fission of the Infusoria, every
  micronucleus divides by a true mitotic process, during which, however,
  its wall remains intact. From their relative sizes the meganucleus
  would appear to discharge during cell-life, exclusively, the functions
  of the nucleus in ordinary cells. Since in conjugation, however, the
  meganucleus degenerates and is in great part either digested or
  excreted as waste matter, while the new nuclear apparatus in both
  exconjugates arises, as we shall see, from a conjugation-nucleus of
  exclusively micronuclear origin, we infer that the micronucleus has
  for its function the carrying on of the nuclear functions of the race
  from one fission cycle to the next from which the meganucleus is
  excluded.

  Fission is the ordinary mode of reproduction in the Infusoria, and is
  usually transverse, but oblique in _Stentor_, &., as in Flagellata,
  longitudinal in Peritrichaceae; in some cases it is always more or
  less unequal owing to the differentiation of the body, and
  consequently it must be followed by a regeneration of the missing
  organs in either daughter-cell. In some cases it becomes very uneven,
  affording every transition to budding, which process assumes especial
  importance in the Suctoria. Multiple fission (brood-formation or
  sporulation) is exceptional in Infusoria, and when it occurs the
  broods rarely exceed four or eight--another difference from
  Flagellata. The nuclear processes during conjugation suggest the
  phylogenetic loss of a process of multiple fission into active
  gametes. As noted, in fission the meganucleus divides by direct
  constriction; each micronucleus by a mode of mitosis. The process of
  fission is subject in its activity to the influences of nutrition and
  temperature, slackening as the food supply becomes inadequate or as
  the temperature recedes from the optimum for the process. Moreover, if
  the descendants of a single animal be raised, it is found that the
  rapidity of fission, other conditions being the same, varies
  periodically, undergoing periods of depression, which may be followed
  by either (1) spontaneous recovery, (2) recovery under stimulating
  food, (3) recovery through conjugation, or (4) the death of the cycle,
  which would have ensued if 2 or 3 had been omitted at an earlier
  stage, but which ultimately seems inevitable, even the induction of
  conjugation failing to restore it. These physiological conditions were
  first studied by E. Maupas, librarian to the city of Algiers, in his
  pioneering work in the later 'eighties, and have been confirmed and
  extended by later observers, among whom we may especially cite G. N.
  Calkins.

  Syngamy, usually termed conjugation or "karyogamy," is of exceptional
  character in the majority of this group--the Peritrichaceae alone
  evincing an approximation to the usual typical process of the
  permanent fusion of two cells (pairing-cells or gametes), cytoplasm to
  cytoplasm, nucleus to nucleus, to form a new cell (coupled cell,
  zygote).

  This process was elucidated by E. Maupas in 1889, and his results,
  eagerly questioned and repeatedly tested, have been confirmed in every
  fact and in every generalization of importance.

  Previously all that had been definitely made out was that under
  certain undetermined conditions a fit of pairing two and two occurred
  among the animals of the same species in a culture or in a locality in
  the open; that after a union prolonged over hours, and sometimes even
  days, the mates separated; that during the union the meganucleus
  underwent changes of a degenerative character; and that the
  micronucleus underwent repeated divisions, and that from the offspring
  of the micronuclei the new nuclear apparatus was evolved for each
  mate. Maupas discovered the biological conditions leading to
  conjugation: (1) the presence of individuals belonging to distinct
  stocks; (2) their belonging to a generation sufficiently removed from
  previous conjugation, but not too far removed therefrom; (3) a
  deficiency of food. He also showed that during conjugation a
  "migratory" nucleus, the offspring of the divisions of the
  micronucleus, passes from either mate to the other, while its sister
  nucleus remains "stationary"; and that reciprocal fusion of the
  migratory nucleus of the one mate with the stationary nucleus of the
  other takes place to form a zygote nucleus in either mate; and that
  from these zygote nuclei in each by division, at least two nuclei are
  formed, the one of which enlarges to form a meganucleus, while the
  other remains small as the first micronucleus of the new reorganized
  animal, which now separates as an "exconjugate" (fig. iv). Moreover,
  if pairing be prevented, or be not induced, the individuals produced
  by successive fissions become gradually weaker, their nuclear
  apparatus degenerates, and finally they cannot be induced under
  suitable conditions to pair normally, so that the cycle becomes
  extinct by senile decay. In Peritrichaceae the gametes are of unequal
  sizes (fig. iii. 11, 12), the smaller being formed by brood fissions
  (4 or 8); syngamy is here permanent, not temporary, the smaller (male)
  being absorbed into the body of the larger (female); and there are
  only two nuclei that pair. Thus we have a derived binary sexual
  process, comparable to that of ordinary bisexual organisms.

  [Illustration: FIG. iii.-- Ciliata: 1, 2, Heterotrichaceae; 3-7,
  23-24, Oligotrichaceae; 8-22, 25, 26, Peritrichaceae.

    1, _Spirostomum ambiguum_, Ehr.; on its left side oral groove and
    wreath of membranellae; a, moniliform meganucleus; b, position of
    contractile vacuole.

    2, Group of _Stentor polymorphus_, O. F. Müller; the twisted end of
    the peristome indicating the position of the mouth.

    3, _Tintinnus lagenula_, Cl. and L., in free shell.

    4, _Strombidium claparedii_, S. Kent.

    5, Shell of _Codonella campanella_, Haeck.

    6, 7, _Torquatella typica_, Lank. (= _Strombidium_ according to
    Bütschli); p, oral tube seen through peristomial wreath of
    apparently coalescent membranellae.

    8. Basal, and 9, side (inverted) views of _Trichodina pediculus_,
    Ehr.; a, meganucleus; c, basal collar and ring of hooks; d, mouth;
    contractile vacuole and oral tube seen by transparency in 8.

    10, _Spirochona gammipara_, Stein; a, meganucleus; g, bud.

    11, 12, _Vorticella microstoma_, Ehr.; d, formation of a brood of 8
    microgametes c by multiple fission; b, contr. vacuole.

    13, Same sp. in binary fission; a, meganucleus.

    14, _V. nebulifera_, Ehr.; bud swimming away by posterior wreath,
    peristome contracted; e, peristomial disk; f, oral tube.

    15, _V. microstoma_; b, contr. vacuole; c, d, two microgametes
    seeking to conjugate.

    16, _V. nebulifera_, contracted, with body encysted.

    17, Same sp. enlarged; c, myonemes converging posteriorly to muscle
    of stalk; d, micronucleus.

    18, _Carchesium spectabile_, Ehr.; (×50).

    19, Nematocysts of _Epistylis flavicans_. Ehr. (after Greeff).

    20, _Opercularia stenostoma_, St.; (×200); a small colony showing
    upstanding ("opercular") peristomial disk, protruded oral undulating
    membranejand cilia in oral tube.

    21, 22, _Pyxicola affinis_, S.K., with stalk and theca; x, chitinous
    disk, or true "operculum" closing theca in retracted state.

    23, 24, _Caenomorpha medusula_, Perty, (×250), with spiral
    peristomial wreath.

    25, 26, _Thuricola valvata_, Str. Wright, in sessile theca, with
    internal valve (v) to close tube, as in gastropod _Clausilia_; owing
    to recent fission two animals occupy one tube.]

  [Illustration: From Lankester's _Treatise on Zoology_.

  FIG. iv.--Diagrammatic Sketch of Changes during Conjugation in
  Ciliata. (From Hickson after Delage and Maupas.)

    1, Two individuals at commencement of conjugation showing
    meganucleus (dotted) and micronucleus; successive stages of the
    disintegration of the meganucleus shown in all figures up to 9.

    2, 3, First mitotic division of micronuclei.

    4, 5, Second ditto.

    6, One of the four nuclei resulting from the second division again
    dividing to form the pairing-nuclei in either mate, while the other
    3 nuclei degenerate.

    7, Migration of the migratory nuclei.

    8, 9, Fusion of the incoming migratory with the stationary nucleus
    in either mate.

    10, Fission of Zygote nucleus into two, the new mega- and
    micronucleus whose differentiation is shown in 11, 12. The vertical
    dotted line indicates the separation of the mates.]

CILIATA.--The _Ciliate_ Infusoria represent the highest type of
Protozoa. They are distinctly animal in function, and the Gymnostomaceae
are active predaceous beings preying on other Infusoria or Flagellates.
Some possess shells (fig. iii. 3, 5, 21, 22, 25, 26), most have a
distinct swallowing apparatus, and in _Dysteria_ there is a complex
jaw--or tooth-apparatus, which needs new investigation. In the active
Ciliata we find locomotive organs of most varied kinds: tail-springs,
cirrhi for crawling and darting, cilia and membranellae for continuous
swimming in the open or gliding over surfaces or waltzing on the
substratum (_Trichodina_, fig. iii. 8) or for eddying in wild turns
through the water (_Strombidium_, _Tintinnus_, _Halteria_). Their forms
offer a most interesting variety, and the flexibility of many adds to
their easy grace of movement, especially where the front of the body is
produced and elongated like the neck of a swan (_Amphileptus_, fig. iii.
5; _Lacrymaria_).

  The cytoplasm is very highly differentiated: especially the ectoplasm
  or ectosarc. This has always a distinct elastic "pellicle" or limiting
  layer, in a few cases hard, or even with local hardenings that affect
  the disposition of a coat of mail (_Coleps_) or a pair of valves
  (_Dysteria_); but is usually only marked into a rhomboidal network by
  intersecting depressions, with the cilia occupying the centres of the
  areas or meshes defined. The cytoplasm within is distinctly
  alveolated, and frequently contains tubular alveoli running along the
  length of the animal. Between these are dense fibrous thickenings,
  which from their double refraction, from their arrangement, and from
  their shortening in contracted animals are regarded as of muscular
  function and termed "myonemes." Other threads running alongside of
  these, and not shortening but becoming wavy in the general contraction
  have been described in a few species as "neuronemes" and as possessing
  a _nervous_, conducting character. On this level, too, lie the
  dot-like granules at the bases of the cilia, which form definite
  groups in the case of such organs as are composed of fused cilia; in
  the deeper part of the ectoplasm the vacuoles or alveoli are more
  numerous, and reserve granules are also found; here too exist the
  canals, sometimes developed into a complex network, which open into
  the contractile vacuole.

  [Illustration: From Lankester's _Treatise on Zoology_.

  FIG. v.--Diagram 1 illustrating changes during conjugation of
  _Colpidium colpoda_. (From Hickson, after Maupas.)

    M, Old meganucleus undergoing disintegration.

    m, Micronucleus.

    N, migratory, and

    S, Stationary pairing-nucleus.

    M´, M´, the new meganuclei, and

    m´, The new micronuclei in the products of the first fission of each
    of the exconjugates; the continuous vertical line indicates period
    of fusion, its cessation, separation; dotted lines indicate fission;
    the spaces lettered 1-7 successive stages in the process; the clear
    circles indicate functionless nuclei which degenerate.]

  The cilia themselves have a stiffer basal part, probably strengthened
  by an axial rod, and a distal flexible lash; when cilia are united by
  the outer plasmatic layer, they form (1) "Cirrhi," stiff and either
  hook-like and pointed at the end, or brush-like, with a frayed apex;
  (2) membranelles, flattened organs composed of a number of cilia fused
  side by side, sometimes on a single row, sometimes on two rows
  approximated at either end so as to form a narrow oval, the
  membranelle thus being hollow; (3) the oral "undulating membrane,"
  merely a very elongated membranelle whose base may extend over a
  length nearly equal to the length of the animal; such membranes are
  present in the mouth oral depression and pharynx of all but
  Gymnostomaceae, and aid in ingestion; a second or third may be
  present, and behave like active lips; (4) in Peritrichaceae the cilia
  of the peristomial wreath are united below into a continuous
  undulating membrane, forming a spiral of more than one turn, and fray
  out distally into a fringe; (5) the dorsal cilia of Hypotrichaceae are
  slender and motionless, probably sensory.

  Embedded in the ectosarc of many Ciliates are trichocysts, little
  elongated sacs at right angles to the surface, with a fine hair-like
  process projecting. On irritation these elongate into strong prominent
  threads, often with a more or less barb-like head, and may be ejected
  altogether from the body. Those over the surface of the body appear to
  be protective; but in the Gymnostomaceae specially strong ones
  surround the mouth. They can be injected into the prey pursued, and
  appear to have a distinctly poisonous effect on it. They are combined
  also into defensive batteries in the Gymnostome _Loxophyllum_. They
  are absent from most Heterotrichaceae and Hypotrichaceae, and from
  Peritrichaceae, except for a zone round the collar of the peristome.

  The openings of the body are the _mouth_, absent in a few parasital
  species (_Opalinopsis_, fig. i. 1, 2), the _anus_ and the _pore_ of
  the contractile vacuole. The _mouth_ is easily recognizable; in the
  most primitive forms of the Gymnostomaceae and some other groups, it
  is terminal, but it passes further and further back in more modified
  species, thereby defining a ventral, and correspondingly a dorsal
  surface; it usually lies on the left side. The anus is usually only
  visible during excretion, though its position is permanent; in a few
  genera it is always visible (e.g. _Nyctotherus_, fig. i. 16). The pore
  of the contractile vacuole might be described in the same terms.

  The endoplasm has also an alveolar structure, and contains besides
  large food-vacuoles or digestive vacuoles, and shows movements of
  rotation within the ectoplasm, from which, however, it is not usually
  distinctly bounded. In _Ophryoscolex_ and _Didinium_ (fig. i. 13) a
  permanent cavity traverses it from mouth to anus.

  [Illustration: From Calkins' _Protozoa_, by permission of the
  Macmillan Company, N.Y.

  FIG. vi.--Diagrammatic view of behaviour of the motile reaction of
  Paramecium after meeting a mechanical obstruction at A. (From G. N.
  Calkins after H. S. Jennings.) For clearness and simplicity the normal
  motion is supposed to be straight instead of spiral.]

  Ingestion of food is of the same character in all the Hymenostomata.
  The ciliary current drives a powerful stream into the mouth, which
  impinges against the endosarc, carrying with it the food particles;
  these adhere and accumulate to form a pellet, which ultimately is
  pushed by an apparently sudden action into the substance of the
  endosarc which closes behind it (fig. ii. 2). In some of the
  Aspirotrichaceae accessory undulating membranes play the part of lips,
  and there is a closer approximation to true deglutition. The mouth is
  rarely terminal, more frequently at the bottom of a depression, the
  "vestibule," which may be prolonged into a slender canal, sometimes
  called the "pharynx" or "oral tube," ciliated as well as provided with
  a membrane, and extending deep down into the body in many
  Peritrichaceae.

  In Spirostomaceae the "adoral wreath" of membranelles encloses more or
  less completely an anterior part of the body, the "peristome," within
  which lies the vestibule. This area may be depressed, truncate, convex
  or produced into a short obconical disk or into one or more lobes, or
  finally form a funnel, or a twisted spiral like a paper cone. In most
  Peritrichaceae a collar-like rim surrounds the peristome, and marks
  out a gutter from which the vestibule opens; the peristome can be
  retracted, and the collar close over it. This rim forms a deep
  permanent spiral funnel in _Spirochona_ (fig. iii. 10).

  _Movements of Ciliata._--H. S. Jennings has made a very detailed study
  of these movements, which resemble those of most minute free-swimming
  organisms. The following account applies practically to all active
  "Infusoria" in the widest sense.

  [Illustration: FIG. vii.--Diagram of a mode of progression of a
  Ciliate like _Paramecium_; m, mouth and pharynx; the straight line A,
  B, represents the axis of progression described by the posterior end,
  and the spiral line the curve described by the anterior end; the clear
  circles are the contractile vacuoles on the dorsal side.]

  The position of the free-swimming Infusoria, like that of Rotifers and
  other small swimming animals, is with the front end of the body
  inclined outward to the axis of advance, constantly changing its
  azimuth while preserving its angle constant or nearly so; if advance
  were ignored the body would thus rotate so as to trace out a cone,
  with the hinder end at the apex, and the front describing the base. On
  any irritation, (1) the motion is arrested, (2) the animal reverses
  its cilia and swims backwards, (3) it swerves outwards away from the
  axis so as to make a larger angle with it, and (4) then swims forwards
  along a new axis of progression, to which it is inclined at the same
  angle as to the previous axis (figs. vi., vii.). In this way it alters
  its axis of progression when it finds itself under conditions of
  stimulation. Thus a _Paramecium_ coming into a region relatively too
  cold, too hot, or too poor in CO2 or in nutriment, alters its
  direction of swimming; in this way individuals come to assemble in
  crowds where food is abundant, or even where there is a slight excess
  of CO2. This reaction may lead to fatal results; if a solution of
  corrosive sublimate (Mercuric chloride) diffuses towards the hinder
  end of the animal faster than it progresses, the stimulus affecting
  the hinder end first, the axis of progression is altered so as to
  bring the animal after a few changes into a region where the solution
  is strong enough to kill it. This "motile reaction," first noted by H.
  S. Jennings, is the explanation of the general reactions of minute
  swimming animals to most stimuli of whatever character, including
  light; the practical working out is, as he terms it, a method of
  "trial and error." The action, however, of a current of electricity is
  distinctly and immediately directive; but such a stimulus is not to be
  found in nature. The motile reaction in the Hypotrichaceae which crawl
  or dart in a straight line is somewhat different, the swerve being a
  simple turn to the right hand--i.e. away from the mouth.

  Parasitism in the Infusoria is by no means so important as among
  Flagellates. _Ichthyophthirius_ alone causes epidemics among Fishes,
  and _Balantidium coli_ has been observed in intestinal disease in Man.
  The Isotricheae, among Aspirotrichaceae and the Ophryoscolecidae among
  Heterotrichaceae are found in abundance in the stomachs of Ruminants,
  and are believed to play a part in the digestion of cellulose, and
  thus to be rather commensals than parasites. A large number of
  attached species are epizoic commensals, some very indifferent in
  choice of their host, others particular not only in the species they
  infest, but also in the special organs to which they adhere. This is
  notably the case with the shelled Peritrichaceae. _Lichnophora_ and
  _Trichodina_ (fig. iii. 8, 9) among Peritrichaceae are capable of
  locomotion by their permanent posterior wreath or of attaching
  themselves by the sucker which surrounds it; _Kerona polyporum_ glides
  habitually over the body of Hydra, as does _Trichodina pediculus_.

  Several Suctoria are endoparasitic in Ciliata, and their occurrence
  led to the view that they represented stages in the life-history of
  these. Again, we find in the endosarc of certain Ciliates green
  nucleated cells, which have a cellulose envelope and multiply by
  fission inside or outside the animal. They are symbiotic Algae, or
  possibly the resting state of a Chlamydomonadine Flagellate
  (_Carteria_?), and have received the name _Zoochlorella_. They are of
  constant occurrence in _Paramecium bursaria_, frequent in _Stentor
  polymorphus_ and _S. igneus_, and _Ophrydium versatile_, and a few
  other species, which become infected by swallowing them.


  _Classification._

  Order I.--Section A.--Gymnostomaceae. Mouth habitually closed;
  swallowing an active process; cilia (or membranelles) uniform, usually
  distributed evenly over the body; form variable, sometimes of circular
  transverse section.

  Section B.--Trichostomata. Mouth permanently open against the
  endosarc, provided with 1 or 2 undulating membranes often prolonged
  into an inturned pharynx; ingestion by action of oral ciliary
  apparatus.

  Order 2.--Subsection (a).--Aspirotrichaceae. Cilia nearly uniform, not
  associated with cirrhi or membranelles, nor forming a peristomial
  wreath. Form usually flattened, mouth unilateral. (N.B.--Orders 1, 2
  are sometimes united into the single order Holotrichaceae.)

  Subsection (b).--Spirotricha. Wreath of distinct membranelles--or of
  cilia fused at the base--enclosing a peristomial area and leading into
  the mouth.

  §§ i.--Wreath of separate membranelles.

  Order 3.--Heterotrichaceae; body covered with fine uniform cilia,
  usually circular in transverse section.

  Order 4.--Oligotrichaceae; body covering partial or wholly absent;
  transverse section usually circular.

  Order 5.--Hypotrichaceae; body flattened; body cilia represented
  chiefly by stiff cirrhi in ventral rows, and fine motionless dorsal
  sensory hairs.

  Order 6.--§§ ii.--Peritrichaceae. Peristomial ciliary wreath, spiral,
  of cilia united at the base; posterior wreath circular of long
  membranelles; body circular in section, cylindrical, taper, or
  bell-shaped.


  _Illustrative Genera (selected)._

  1. Gymnostomaceae. (a) Ciliation general or not confined to one
  surface. _Coleps_ Ehr., with pellicle locally hardened into mailed
  plates; _Trachelocerca_ Ehr.; _Prorodon_ Ehr. (fig. i. 6, 7);
  _Trachelius_ Ehr., with branching endosarc (fig. i. 8); _Lacrymaria_
  Ehr. (fig. i. 5), body produced into a long neck with terminal mouth
  surrounded by offensive trichocysts; _Dileptus_ Duj., of similar form,
  but anterior process, blind, preoral; _Ichthyophthirius_ Fouquet (fig.
  i. 9-12), cilia represented by two girdles of membranellae; _Didinium_
  St. (fig. i. 13), cilia in tufts, surface with numerous tentacles each
  with a strong terminal trichocyst; _Actinobolus_ Stein, body with one
  adoral tentacle; Ileonema Stokes. (b) Cilia confined to dorsal
  surface. _Chilodon_ Ehr.; _Loxodes_ Ehr., body flattened, ciliated on
  one side only, endosarc as in _Trachelius_; _Dysteria_ Huxley, with
  the dorsal surface hardened and hinged along the median line into a
  bivalve shell, ciliated only on ventral surface, with a protrusible
  foot-like process, and a complex pharyngeal armature. (c) Cilia
  restricted to a single equatorial girdle, strong (probably
  membranelles); _Mesodinium_, mouth 4-lobed.

  2. Aspirotrichaceae. _Paramecium_ Hill (fig. ii. 1-3); _Ophryoglena_
  Ehr.; _Colpoda_ O. F. Müller; _Colpidium_ St.; _Lembus_ Cohn, with
  posterior strong cilium for springing; _Leucophrys_ St.; _Urocentrum_
  Nitsch, bare, with polar and equatorial zones and a posterior tuft of
  long cilia; _Opalinopsis_ Foetlinger (fig. i. 1, 2); _Anoplophyra_
  St. (fig. i. 3, 4). (The last two parasitic mouthless genera are
  placed here doubtfully.)

  3. Heterotrichaceae. (a) Wreath spiral; _Stentor_ Oken. (fig. iii. 2),
  oval when free, trumpet-shaped when attached by pseudopods at apex,
  and then often secreting a gelatinous tube; _Blepharisma_ Perty,
  sometimes parasitic in Heliozoa; _Spirostomum_ Ehr., cylindrical, up
  to 1´´ in length; (b) Wreath straight, often oblique; _Nyctotherus_
  Leidy, parasitic anus always visible; _Balantidium_ Cl. and L.,
  parasitic (_B. coli_ in man); _Bursaria_, O.F.M., hollowed into an
  oval pouch, with the wreath inside.

  4. Oligotrichaeceae. _Tintinnus_ Schranck (fig. iii. 3);
  _Trichodinopsis_ Cl. and L.; _Codonella_ Haeck. (fig. iii. 5);
  _Strombidium_ Cl. and L. (fig. iii. 4), including _Torquatella_ Lank.
  (fig. iii. 6, 7), according to Bütschli; _Halteria_ Duj., with an
  equatorial girdle of stiff bristle-like cilia; _Caenomorpha_ Perty
  (fig. iii. 23, 24); _Ophryoscolex_ St., with straight digestive
  cavity, and visible anus, parasitic in Ruminants.

  5. Hypotrichaceae. _Stylonychia_ Ehr.; _Oxytricha_ Ehr.; _Euplotes_
  Ehr. (fig. i. 14, 15); _Kerona_ Ehr. (epizoic on _Hydra_).

  6. Peritrichaceae. 1. Peristomial wreath projecting when expanded
  above a circular contractile collar-like rim.

  (a) Fam. Urceolaridae: posterior wreath permanently present around
  sucker-like base. _Trichodina_ Ehr. (fig. iii. 8, 9), epizoic on
  Hydra; _Lichnophora_ Cl. and L.; _Cyclochaeta_ Hatchett Jackson;
  _Gerda_ Cl. and L.; _Scyphidia_ Duj.

  (b) Fam. Vorticellidae = Bell Animalcules: posterior wreath
  temporarily present, shed after fixation.

  Subfam. 1. Vorticellinae animals naked. (i.) Solitary; _Vorticella_
  Linn. (fig. iii. 11-17), stalk hollow with spiral muscle; _Pyxidium_
  S. Kent, stalk non-contractile. (ii.) Forming colonies by budding on a
  branched stalk: _Carchesium_ Ehr., hollow branches and muscles
  discontinuous; _Zoothamnium_. Ehr., branched hollow stem and muscle
  continuous through colony; _Epistylis_ Ehr., stalk rigid--(the animal
  body in these three genera has the same characters as
  _Vorticella_)--_Campanella_ Goldf., stalked like _Epistylis_, wreath
  of many turns (nematocysts sometimes present) (fig. iii. 19);
  _Opercularia_, stalk of _Epistylis_, disk supporting wreath obconical,
  collar very high (fig. iii. 20).

  Subfam. 2. Vaginicolinae; body enclosed in a firm theca: _Vaginicola_
  Lam., shell simple, sessile; _Thuricola_ St. Wright, shell sessile,
  with a valve opening inwards (fig. iii. 25-26); _Cothurnia_ Ehr.,
  shell stalked, simple; _Pyxicola_ S. Kent, shell stalked, closed by an
  infraperistomial opercular thickening on the body (fig. iii. 21-22).

  Subfam. 3. Shells gelatinous; those of the colony aggregated into a
  floating spheroidal mass several inches in diameter _Ophrydium_ Bory,
  _O. versatile_ contains _Zoochlorella_, which secretes oxygen, and the
  gas-bubbles float the colonies like green lumps of jelly.

  2. Peristomial wreath, not protrusible, surrounded by a very high
  usually spiral collar.

  Fam. Spirochonina. _Spirochona_ St. (fig. iii. 10); _Kentrochona_
  Rompel; both genera epizoic on gills, &c., of small Crustacea.

SUCTORIA.--These are distinguished from Ciliata by their possession of
hollow tentacles (one only in _Rhyncheta_, fig. viii. 1, and _Urnula_)
through which they ingest food, and by not possessing cilia, except in
the young stage. Fission approximately equal is very rare. Usually it is
unequal, or if nearly equal one of the halves remains attached, and the
other, as an embryo or gemmule, develops cilia and swims off to attach
itself elsewhere; _Sphaerophrya_ (fig. viii. 2-6) alone, often occurring
as an endoparasite in Ciliata, may be free, tentaculate and unattached.

  The ectosarc is usually provided with a firm pellicle which shows a
  peculiar radiate "milling" in optical section, so fine that its true
  nature is difficult to make out; it may be due to radial rods,
  regularly imbedded, or may be the expression of radial vacuoles. The
  tentacles vary in many respects, but are always retractile. They are
  tubes covered by an extension of the pellicle; this is invaginated
  into the body round the base of the tentacle as a sheath, and then
  evaginated to form the outer layer of the tentacle itself, over which
  it is frequently raised into a spiral ridge, which may be traced down
  into the part sunk and ensheathed within the body: in _Choanophrya_,
  where the tentacles are largest, the pellicle is further continued
  into the interior of the tentacle. The tentacles are always pierced by
  a central canal opening at the apex, which may be (1) enlarged into a
  terminal capitate sucker, (2) slightly flared, (3) truncate and closed
  in the resting state to become widely opened into a funnel, or (4)
  pointed. The tentacles are always capable of being waved from side to
  side, or turned in a definite direction for the reception or
  prehension of food; in _Rhyncheta_, the movements of the long single
  tentacle recall those of an elephant's trunk, only they are more
  extensive and more varied. In the majority of cases the food consists
  of Ciliata; and the contents of the prey may be seen passing down the
  canal of the sucker beyond where it becomes free from the general
  surface. In _Choanophrya_ the food appears to consist of the débris of
  the prey of the carnivorous host (_Cyclops_), which is sucked into the
  wide funnel-shaped mouths of the tentacles--by what mechanism is
  unknown. The endosarc is full of food-granules and reserve-granules
  (oil, colouring matter and proteid).

  [Illustration: FIG. viii.--Suctoria (in all a, meganucleus; b,
  contractile vacuole).

    1, _Rhyncheta cyclopum_, Zenker; only a single tentacle and that
    suctorial; epizoic on Cyclops.

    2, _Sphaerophrya urostylae_, Maupas; normal adult; parasitic in
    Ciliate _Urostyla_.

    3, The same dividing by transverse fission, the anterior moiety with
    temporarily developed cilia.

    4, 5, 6, _Sphaerophrya stentorea_, Maupas. Parasitic in _Stentor_,
    and at one time mistaken for its young.

    7, _Trichophrya epistylidis_, Cl. and L.

    8, _Hemiophrya gemmipara_, Hertwig. Example with six buds, into each
    of which a branch of the meganucleus a is extended.

    9, The same species, showing the two kinds of tentacles (the
    suctorial and the pointed), and two contractile vacuoles b.

    10, Ciliated embryo of _Podophrya steinii_, Cl. and L.

    11, _Acineta grandis_, Saville Kent; showing pedunculated cup, and
    animal with two bunches of entirely suctorial tentacles.

    12, _Sphaerophrya magna_, Maupas. It has seized with its tentacles,
    and is in the act of sucking out the juices of six examples of the
    Ciliate _Colpoda parvifrons_.

    13, _Podophrya elongata_, Cl. and L.

    14, _Hemiophrya benedenii_, Fraip.; the suctorial tentacles
    retracted.

    15, _Dendrocometes paradoxus_, Stein. Parasitic on Gammarus pulex;
    captured prey.

    16, A single tentacle of _Podophrya_. R. Hertwig.

    17-20, _Dendrosoma radians_, Ehr.:--17, free-swimming ciliated
    embryo. 18, Earliest fixed condition of the embryo. 19, Later stage,
    a single tentaculiferous process now developed. 20, Adult colony; c,
    enclosed ciliated embryos; d, branching stolon; e, more minute
    reproductive (?) bodies.

    21, _Ophryodendron pedicellatum_, Hincks.]

  The meganucleus and the micronucleus are both usually single, but in
  _Dendrosoma_ (fig. viii. 20), of which the body is branched, and the
  meganucleus with it, there are numerous micronuclei. In most cases the
  micronucleus has not been recorded, though from the similarity of
  conjugation, and its presence in most cases of fission and budding
  that have been accurately described, we may infer that it is always
  present. In unequal fission the meganucleus sends a process into the
  bud, while the micronucleus divides as in Ciliata. The bud may be
  nearly equal to the remains of the original animal, or much smaller,
  and in that case a depression surrounds it which may deepen so as to
  form a brood-cavity, either communicating by a mere "birth-pore" with
  the outside or entirely closed. In some cases the budding is multiple
  (fig. viii. 8), and a large number of buds are formed and liberated at
  the same time. In all cases the bud escapes without tentacles, and
  possesses a characteristic supply of cilia, whose arrangement is
  constant for the species.

  In some cases an adult may withdraw its tentacles, moult its pellicle
  and develop an equipment of cilia and swim away: this is the case with
  _Dendrocometes_, parasitic on _Gammarus_, when its host moults.

  The numerous species of Suctoria, often so abundant on various species
  of _Cyclops_, are not found on the other freshwater Copepoda,
  _Diaptomus_ and _Canthocamptus_, belonging indeed to other families.
  Again, these Suctoria affect different positions, those found on the
  antennae not being present on the mouth parts; the ventral part of the
  thorax has another set; and the inside of the pleural fold another.
  _Rhyncheta_ occupies the front of the "couplers" or median downgrowths
  uniting the coxopodites of the swimming legs, and _Choanophrya_
  settles in the immediate neighbourhood of the mouth, preferably on the
  epistoma, labrum and metastomatic region, but also on the adoral
  appendages and in rare cases extends, when the settlement is
  extensive, to the bases of the two pairs of antennae; while distinct
  species of _Podophrya_ settle on the antennae, the front of the thorax
  and the inside of the pleural folds. _Dendrocometes_ is common on the
  gills of the freshwater shrimp (Amphipod) _Gammarus_ and
  _Stylocometes_ on the gills and gill-covers of the Isopod Asellus, the
  water-slater. The independence of the Acinetaria was threatened by the
  erroneous view of Stein that they were phases in the life-history of
  Vorticellidae. Small parasitic forms (_Sphaerophrya_) were also
  regarded erroneously as the "acinetiform young" of Ciliata. They now
  must be regarded as an extreme modification of the Protozoon series,
  in which the differentiation of organs in a unicellular animal reaches
  its highest point.


  _Principal Genera._

  1. Unstalked simple forms. _Urnula_ Cl. and L., permanently ciliate;
  _Rhyncheta_ Zenker (fig. viii. 1), on the limb couplers of _Cyclops_;
  _Sphaerophrya_ Cl. and L. (fig. viii. 2-6, 12), endoparasitic in
  Ciliata and formerly taken for embryos thereof, never attached;
  _Trichophrya_ Cl. and L. (fig. viii. 7), of similar habits, but
  temporarily attached, sessile.

  2. Stalked simple forms; _Podophrya_ Ehr. (fig. viii. 10, 13, 16),
  tentacles all knobbed or flared; _Ephelota_ Strethill Wright,
  tentacles all pointed; _Hemiophrya_ S. Kent (fig. viii. 8, 9, 14),
  tentacles of both kinds; _Choanophrya_ Hartog, tentacles thick,
  truncate, very retractile, when expanded opening into funnels for
  aspiration of floating prey, never for attachment--epizoic on
  antero-ventral parts of _Cyclops_.

  3. Cupped forms; _Solenophrya_ Cl. and L., cup sessile; _Acineta_
  Ehr., cup stalked; _Acinetopsis_ Bütschli, like _Acineta_, but the cup
  flattened, closed distally with only slit-like apertures ("pylomes")
  for the bundles of tentacles; _Podocyathus_, like _Acineta_, but with
  pointed as well as knobbed tentacles.

  4. Tentacles in bundles at the tips of one or more processes or
  branches of the body. _Ophryodendron_ Cl. and L., tentaculiferous
  process single (fig. viii. 21); _Dendrocometes_ Stein (fig. viii. 15),
  body rounded, processes repeatedly branched, epizoic on gills of
  _Gammarus pulex_; _Dendrosoma_ Ehr. (fig. viii. 17-20), body freely
  branched from a basal attached stolon, meganucleus branching with the
  body.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--(a) Infusoria in the widest sense: C. E. Ehrenberg.
  _Die Infusionstierchen als vollkommene Organismen_ (1838); F.
  Dujardin, _Zoophytes infusoires_ (1841). (b) Infusoria, including
  Mastigophora: M. Perty, _Zur Kenntniss Kleinster Lebensformen_ (1852);
  E. Claparède and J. Lachmann, _Études sur les infusoires_ _et les
  Rhizopodes_ (1858-1861); F. von Stein, _Der Organismus der
  Infusionstiere_ (1859-1883); W. Saville Kent, _A Manual of the
  Infusoria_, including a description of all known Flagellate, Ciliate
  and Tentaculiferous Protozoa (1880-1882). (c) Infusoria, as limited by
  Bütschli. O. Bütschli, _Bronn's Tierreich_, vol. i. _Protozoa_, pt. 3
  _Infusoria_ (1887-1889), the most complete work existing, but without
  specific diagnoses; S. J. Hickson, "The Infusoria" in Lankester's
  _Treatise on Zoology_, vol. i. fasc. 2 (1903), a general account, well
  illustrated, with a diagnosis of all genera. See also Delage and
  Hérouard, _Traité de Zoologie concrète_, vol. i. "La Cellule et les
  Protozoaires" (1896), with an illustrated conspectus of the genera; E.
  Maupas, "Recherches expérimentales sur la multiplication des
  Infusoires ciliés," _Arch. zool. exp._ vi. (1888); and "Le
  Rajeunissement karyogomique chez les Ciliés," _ib._ vii. (1889); R.
  Sand, _Étude monographique sur le groupe des Infusoires
  tentaculifères_ (Suctoria), (1899), with diagnoses of species; A.
  Lang, _Lehrb. der vergleich, Anatomie der wirbellosen Tiere_, vol. i.
  "Protozoa" (1901) (a view of comparative anatomy, physiology and
  bionomics); Marcus Hartog, "Protozoa," in _Cambridge Natural History_,
  i. (1906); H. S. Jennings, _Contributions to the Study of the
  Behaviour of Lower Organisms_ (1904); G. N. Calkins, "Studies on the
  Life History of Protozoa" (Life cycle of Paramecium), I. _Arch. Entw._
  xv. (1902), II. _Arch. Prot._ i. (1902), III. _Biol. Bull._ iii.
  (1902), IV. _J. Exp. Zool._ i. (1904). Numerous papers dealing
  especially with advances in structural knowledge have appeared in the
  _Archiv für Protistenkunde_, founded by F. Schaudinn in 1902.
       (M. Ha.)



INGEBORG [INGEBURGE, INGELBURGE, INGELBORG, ISEMBURGE, Dan. INGIBJÖRG]
(c. 1176-1237 or 1238), queen of France, was the daughter of Valdemar
I., king of Denmark. She married in 1193 Philip II. Augustus, king of
France, but on the day after his marriage the king took a sudden
aversion to her, and wished to obtain a separation. During almost twenty
years he strained every effort to obtain from the church the declaration
of nullity of his marriage. The council of Compiègne acceded to his wish
on the 5th of November 1193, but the popes Celestine III. and Innocent
III. successively took up the defence of the unfortunate queen. Philip,
having married Agnes of Meran in June 1196, was excommunicated, and as
he remained obdurate, the kingdom was placed under an interdict. Agnes
was finally sent away, but Ingeborg, shut up in the château of Étampes,
had to undergo all sorts of privations and vexations. The king attempted
to induce her to solicit a divorce herself, or to enter a convent. At
last, however (1213), hoping perhaps to justify by his wife's claims his
pretensions to England, Philip was reconciled with Ingeborg, whose life
from henceforth was devoted to religion. She survived him more than
fourteen years, passing the greater part of the time in the priory of St
Jean at Corbeil, which she had founded.

  See Robert Davidson, _Philip II. August von Frankreich und Ingeborg_
  (Stuttgart, 1888); and E. Michael, "Zur Geschichte der Königin
  Ingelborg" in the _Zeitschrift für Katholische Theologie_ (1890).



INGELHEIM (Ober-Ingelheim and Nieder-Ingelheim), the name of two
contiguous market-towns of Germany, in the grand-duchy of
Hesse-Darmstadt, on the Selz, near its confluence with the Rhine, 9 m.
W.N.W. of Mainz on the railway to Coblenz. Ober-Ingelheim, formerly an
imperial town, is still surrounded by walls. It has an Evangelical
church with painted windows representing scenes in the life of
Charlemagne, a Roman Catholic church and a synagogue. Its chief industry
is the manufacture of red wine. Pop. (1900) 3402. Nieder-Ingelheim has
an Evangelical and a Roman Catholic church, and, in addition to wine,
manufactories of paper, chemicals, cement and malt. Pop. 3435.

Nieder-Ingelheim is, according to one tradition, the birthplace of
Charlemagne, and it possesses the ruins of an old palace built by that
emperor between 768 and 774. The building contained one hundred marble
pillars, and was also adorned with sculptures and mosaics sent from
Ravenna by Pope Adrian I. It was extended by Frederick Barbarossa, and
was burned down in 1270, being restored by the emperor Charles IV. in
1354. Having passed into the possession of the elector palatine of the
Rhine, the building suffered much damage during a war in 1462, the
Thirty Years' War, and the French invasion in 1689. Only few remains of
it are now standing; but of the pillars, several are in Paris, one is in
the museum at Wiesbaden and another on the Schillerplatz in Mainz.
Inside its boundaries there is the restored Remigius Kirche, apparently
dating from the time of Frederick I.

  See Hilz, _Der Reichspalast zu Ingelheim_ (Ober-Ingelheim, 1868); and
  Clemen, "Der Karolingische Kaiserpalast zu Ingelheim," in
  _Westdeutsche Zeitschrift_, Band ix. (Trier, 1890).



INGELOW, JEAN (1820-1897), English poet and novelist, was born at
Boston, in Lincolnshire, on the 17th of March 1820. She was the daughter
of William Ingelow, a banker of that town. As a girl she contributed
verses and tales to the magazines under the pseudonym of "Orris," but
her first (anonymous) volume, _A Rhyming Chronicle of Incidents and
Feelings_, did not appear until her thirtieth year. This Tennyson said
had "very charming things" in it, and he declared he should "like to
know" the author, who was later admitted to his friendship. Miss Ingelow
followed this book of verse in 1851 with a story, _Allerton and Dreux_,
but it was the publication of her _Poems_ in 1863 which suddenly raised
her to the rank of a popular writer. They ran rapidly through numerous
editions, were set to music, and sung in every drawing-room, and in
America obtained an even greater hold upon public estimation. In 1867
she published _The Story of Doom and other Poems_, and then gave up
verse for a while and became industrious as a novelist. _Off the
Skelligs_ appeared in 1872, _Fated to be Free_ in 1873, _Sarah de
Berenger_ in 1880, and _John Jerome_ in 1886. She also wrote _Studies
for Stories_ (1864), _Stories told to a Child_ (1865), _Mopsa the Fairy_
(1869), and other excellent stories for children. Her third series of
_Poems_ was published in 1885. She resided for the last years of her
life in Kensington, and somewhat outlived her popularity as a poet. She
died on the 20th of July 1897. Her poems, which were collected in one
volume in 1898, have often the genuine ballad note, and as a writer of
songs she was exceedingly successful. "Sailing beyond Seas" and "When
Sparrows build" in _Supper at the Mill_ were deservedly among the most
popular songs of the day; but they share, with the rest of her work, the
faults of affectation and stilted phraseology. Her best-known poem was
the "High Tide on the Coast of Lincolnshire," which reached the highest
level of excellence. The blemishes of her style were cleverly indicated
in a well-known parody of Calverley's; a false archaism and a deliberate
assumption of unfamiliar and unnecessary synonyms for simple objects
were among the most vicious of her mannerisms. She wrote, however, in
verse with a sweetness which her sentiment and her heart inspired, and
in prose she displayed feeling for character and the gift of narrative;
while a delicate underlying tenderness is never wanting in either medium
to her sometimes tortured expression. Miss Ingelow was a woman of frank
and hospitable manners, with a look of the Lady Bountiful of a country
parish. She had nothing of the professional authoress or the "literary
lady" about her, and, as with characteristic simplicity she was
accustomed to say, was no great reader. Her temperament was rather that
of the improvisatore than of the professional author or artist.



INGEMANN, BERNHARD SEVERIN (1789-1862), Danish poet and novelist, was
born at Torkildstrup, in the island of Falster, on the 28th of May 1789.
He was educated at the grammar school at Slagelse, and entered the
university of Copenhagen in 1806. His studies were interrupted by the
English invasion, and on the first night of the bombardment of the city
Ingemann stood with the young poet Blicher on the walls, while the
shells whistled past them, and comrades were killed on either side. All
his early and unpublished writings were destroyed when the English
burned the town. In 1811 he published his first volume of poems, and in
1812 his second, followed in 1813 by a book of lyrics entitled _Procne_
and in 1814 the verse romance, _The Black Knights_. In 1815 he published
two tragedies, _Masaniello and Blanca_, followed by _The Voice in the
Desert_, _The Shepherd of Tolosa_, and other romantic plays. After a
variety of publications, all very successful, he travelled in 1818 to
Italy. At Rome he wrote _The Liberation of Tasso_, and returned in 1819
to Copenhagen. In 1820 he began to display his real power in a volume of
delightful tales. In 1821 his dramatic career closed with the production
of an unsuccessful comedy, _Magnetism in a Barber's Shop_. In 1822 the
poet was nominated lector in Danish language and literature at Sorö
College, and he now married. _Valdemar the Great and his Men_, an
historical epic, appeared in 1824. The next few years were occupied with
his best and most durable work, his four great national and historical
novels of _Valdemar Seier_, 1826; _Erik Menved's Childhood_, 1828; _King
Erik_, 1833; and _Prince Otto of Denmark_, 1835. He then returned to
epic poetry in _Queen Margaret_, 1836, and in a cycle of romances,
_Holger Danske_, 1837. His later writings consist of religious and
sentimental lyrics, epic poems, novels, short stories in prose, and
fairy tales. His last publication was _The Apple of Gold_, 1856. In 1846
Ingemann was nominated director of Sorö College, a post from which he
retired in 1849. He died on the 24th of February 1862. Ingemann enjoyed
during his lifetime a popularity unapproached even by that of
Öhlenschläger. His boundless facility and fecundity, his sentimentality,
his religious melancholy, his direct appeal to the domestic affections,
gave him instant access to the ear of the public. His novels are better
than his poems; of the former the best are those which are directly
modelled on the manner of Sir Walter Scott. As a dramatist he outlived
his reputation, and his unwieldy epics are now little read.

  Ingemann's works were collected in 41 vols. at Copenhagen (1843-1865).
  His autobiography was edited by Galskjöt in 1862; his correspondence
  by V. Heise (1879-1881); and his letters to Grundtvig by S. Grundtvig
  (1882). See also H. Schwanenflügel, _Ingemanns Liv og Digtning_
  (1886); and Georg Brandes, _Essays_ (1889).



INGERSOLL, ROBERT GREEN (1833-1899), American lawyer and lecturer, was
born in Dresden, New York, on the 11th of August 1833. His father was a
Congregational minister, who removed to Wisconsin in 1843 and to
Illinois in 1845. Robert, who had received a good common-school
education, was admitted to the bar in 1854, and practised law with
success in Illinois. Late in 1861, during the Civil War, he organized a
cavalry regiment, of which he was colonel, until captured at Lexington,
Tennessee, on the 18th of December 1862, by the Confederate cavalry
under General N. B. Forrest. He was paroled, waited in vain to be
exchanged, and in June 1863 resigned from the service. He was
attorney-general of Illinois in 1867-1869, and in 1876 his speech in the
Republican National Convention, naming James G. Blaine for the
Presidential candidate, won him a national reputation as a public
speaker. As a lawyer he distinguished himself particularly as counsel
for the defendants in the "Star-Route Fraud" trials. He was most widely
known, however, for his public lectures attacking the Bible, and his
anti-Christian views were an obstacle to his political advancement.
Ingersoll was an eloquent rhetorician rather than a logical reasoner. He
died at Dobbs Ferry, N.Y., on the 21st of July 1899.

  His principal lectures and speeches were published under the titles:
  _The Gods and Other Lectures_ (1876); _Some Mistakes of Moses_ (1879);
  _Prose Poems_ (1884); _Great Speeches_ (1887). His lectures, entitled
  "The Bible," "Ghosts," and "Foundations of Faith," attracted
  particular attention. His complete works were published in 12 vols. in
  New York in 1900.



INGERSOLL, a town and port of entry of Oxford county, Ontario, Canada,
19 m. E. of London, on the river Thames and the Grand Trunk and Canadian
Pacific railways. Pop. (1901) 4572. The principal manufactures are
agricultural implements, furniture, pianos and screws. There is a large
export trade in cheese and farm produce.



INGHAM, CHARLES CROMWELL (1796-1863), American artist, was born in
Dublin, Ireland. He was a pupil of the Dublin Academy, emigrated to the
United States at the age of twenty-one, and immediately became
identified with the art life of that country, being one of the founders
of the National Academy of New York in 1826 and its vice-president from
1845 to 1850. He painted portraits of the reigning beauties of New York
and acquired considerable reputation, continuing to practise his
profession until his death, in New York, on the 10th of December 1863.



INGHIRAMI, the name of an Italian noble family of Volterra. The
following are its most important members:

TOMMASO INGHIRAMI (1470-1516), a humanist, is best known for his Latin
orations, seven of which were published in 1777. His success in the part
of Phaedra in a presentation of Seneca's _Hippolytus_ (or _Phaedra_) led
to his being generally known as _Fedra_. He received high honours from
Alexander VI., Leo X. and Maximilian I.

FRANCESCO INGHIRAMI (1772-1846), a distinguished archaeologist, fought
in the French wars (1799), and afterwards devoted himself especially to
the study of Etruscan antiquities. He founded a college at Fiesole and
collected, though without critical insight, a mass of valuable material
in his _Monumenti etruschi_ (10 vols., 1820-1827), _Galleria omerica_ (3
vols., 1829-1851), _Pitture di vasi fittili_ (1831-1837), _Museo etrusco
chiusino_ (2 vols., 1833), and the incomplete _Storia della Toscana_
(1841-1845): these works were elaborately illustrated.

His brother, GIOVANNI INGHIRAMI (1779-1851), was an astronomer of
repute. He was professor of astronomy at the Institute founded by
Ximenes in Florence and published beside a number of text-books
_Effemeridi dell' occultazione delle piccole stelle sotto la luna_
(1809-1830); _Effemeridi di Venese e Giove all' uso de' naviganti_
(1821-1824); _Tavole astronomichi universali portatili_ (1811); _Base
trigonometrica misurata in Toscana_ (1818); _Carta topografica e
geometrica della Toscana_ (1830).



INGLEBY, CLEMENT MANSFIELD (1823-1886), English Shakespearian scholar,
was born at Edgbaston, Birmingham, on the 29th of October 1823, the son
of a solicitor. After taking his degree at Trinity College, Cambridge,
he entered his father's office, eventually becoming a partner. In 1859
he abandoned the law and left Birmingham to live near London. He
contributed articles on literary, scientific and other subjects to
various magazines, but from 1874 devoted himself almost entirely to
Shakespearian literature. His first work in this field had been an
exposure of the manipulations of John Payne Collier, entitled _The
Shakespeare Fabrications_ (1859); his work as a commentator began with
_The Still Lion_ (1874), enlarged in the following year into
_Shakespeare Hermeneutics_. In this book many of the then existing
difficulties of Shakespeare's text were explained. In the same year
(1875) he published the _Centurie of Prayse_, a collection of references
to Shakespeare and his works between 1592 and 1692. His _Shakespeare:
the Man and the Book_ was published in 1877-1881; he also wrote
_Shakespeare's Bones_ (1882), in which he suggested the disinterment of
Shakespeare's bones and an examination of his skull. This suggestion,
though not due to vulgar curiosity, was regarded, however, by public
opinion as sacrilegious. He died on the 26th of September 1886, at
Ilford, Essex. Although Ingleby's reputation now rests solely on his
works on Shakespeare, he wrote on many other subjects. He was the author
of hand-books on metaphysic and logic, and made some contributions to
the study of natural science. He was at one time vice-president of the
New Shakspere Society, and one of the original trustees of the
"Birthplace."



INGLEFIELD, SIR EDWARD AUGUSTUS (1820-1894), British admiral and
explorer, was born at Cheltenham, on the 27th of March 1820, and
educated at the Royal Naval College, Portsmouth. His father was
Rear-Admiral Samuel Hood Inglefield (1783-1848), and his grandfather
Captain John Nicholson Inglefield (1748-1828), who served with Lord Hood
against the French. The boy went to sea when fourteen, took part in the
naval operations on the Syrian Coast in 1840, and in 1845 was promoted
to the rank of commander for gallant conduct at Obligado. In 1852 he
commanded Lady Franklin's yacht "Isabel" on her cruise to Smith Sound,
and his narrative of the expedition was published under the title of _A
Summer Search for Sir John Franklin_ (1853). He received the gold medal
of the Royal Geographical Society on his return and was given command of
the "Phoenix," in which he made three trips to the Arctic, bringing home
part of the Belcher Arctic expedition in 1854. In that year he was again
sent out on the last attempt made by the Admirally to find Sir John
Franklin.

In the Crimean War Captain Inglefield took part in the siege of
Sevastopol. He was knighted in 1877, and nominated a Knight Commander of
the Bath ten years later. He was promoted admiral in 1879. Besides being
an excellent marine artist, he was the inventor of the hydraulic
steering gear and the Inglefield anchor. He died on the 5th of September
1894. His son, Captain Edward Fitzmaurice Inglefield (b. 1861), became
secretary of Lloyds in 1906. Sir Edward Inglefield's brother,
Rear-Admiral V. O. Inglefield, was the father of Rear-Admiral Frederick
Samuel Inglefield (b. 1854), director of naval intelligence in
1902-1904, and of two other sons distinguished as soldiers.



INGLE-NOOK (from Lat. _igniculus_, dim. of _ignis_, fire), a corner or
seat by the fireside, within the chimney-breast. The open Tudor or
Jacobean fire-place was often wide enough to admit of a wooden settle
being placed at each end of the embrasure of which it occupied the
centre, and yet far enough away not to be inconveniently hot. This was
one of the means by which the builder sought to avoid the draughts which
must have been extremely frequent in old houses. English literature is
full of references, appreciatory or regretful, to the cosy ingle-nook
that was killed by the adoption of small grates. Modern English and
American architects are, however, fond of devising them in houses
designed on ancient models, and owners of old buildings frequently
remove the modern grates and restore the original arrangement.



INGLIS, SIR JOHN EARDLEY WILMOT (1814-1862), British major-general, was
born in Nova Scotia on the 15th of November 1814. His father was the
third, and his grandfather the first, bishop of that colony. In 1833 he
joined the 32nd Foot, in which all his regimental service was passed. In
1837 he saw active service in Canada, and in 1848-1849 in the Punjab,
being in command at the storming of Mooltan and at the battle of Gujrat.
In 1857, on the outbreak of the Indian Mutiny, he was in command of his
regiment at Lucknow. Sir Henry Lawrence being mortally wounded during
the siege of the residency, Inglis took command of the garrison, and
maintained a successful defence for 87 days against an overwhelming
force. He was promoted to major-general and made K.C.B. After further
active service in India, he was, in 1860, given command of the British
troops in the Ionian Islands. He died at Hamburg on the 27th of
September 1862.



INGLIS, SIR WILLIAM (1764-1835), British soldier, was born in 1764, a
member of an old Roxburghshire family. He entered the army in 1781.
After ten years in America he served in Flanders, and in 1796 took part
in the capture of St Lucia. In 1809 he commanded a brigade in the
Peninsula, taking part in the battle of Busaco (1810) and the first
siege of Badajoz. At Albuera his regiment, the 57th, occupied a most
important position, and was exposed to a deadly fire. "Die hard!
Fifty-Seventh," cried Inglis, "Die hard!" The regiment's answer has gone
down to history. Out of a total strength of 579, 23 officers and 415
rank and file were killed and wounded. Inglis himself was wounded. On
recovering, he saw further Peninsular service. In two engagements his
horse was shot under him. His services were rewarded by the thanks of
parliament and in 1825 he became lieutenant-general, and was made a
K.C.B. After holding the governorships of Kinsale and Cork, he was, in
1830, appointed colonel of the 57th. He died at Ramsgate on the 29th of
November 1835.



INGOLSTADT, a fortified town of Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria, on
the left bank of the Danube at its confluence with the Schutter, 52 m.
north of Munich, at the junction of the main lines of railway, Munich,
Bamberg and Regensburg-Augsburg. Pop. (1900) 22,207. The principal
buildings are the old palace of the dukes of Bavaria-Ingolstadt, now
used as an arsenal; the new palace on the Danube; the remains of the
earliest Jesuits' college in Germany, founded in 1555; the former
university buildings, now a school; the theatre; the large Gothic
Frauenkirche, founded in 1425, with two massive towers, containing
several interesting monuments, among them the tomb of Dr Eck, Luther's
opponent; the Franciscan convent and nunnery; and several other churches
and hospitals. Ingolstadt possesses several technical and other
schools. In 1472 a university was founded in the town by the Bavarian
duke, Louis the Rich, which at the end of the 16th century was attended
by 4000 students. In 1800 it was removed to Landshut, whence it was
transferred to Munich in 1826. Its newer public buildings include an
Evangelical church, a civil hospital, an arsenal and an orphanage. The
industries are cannon-founding, manufacture of gunpowder and cloth, and
brewing.

Ingolstadt, known as _Aureatum_ or _Chrysopolis_, was a royal villa in
the beginning of the 9th century, and received its charter of civic
incorporation before 1255. After that date it grew in importance, and
became the capital of a dukedom which merged in that of Bavaria-Munich.
The fortifications, erected in 1539, were put to the test during the
contests of the Reformation period and in the Thirty Years' War.
Gustavus Adolphus vainly besieged Ingolstadt in 1632, when Tilly, to
whom there is a monument in the Frauenkirche, lay mortally wounded
within the walls. In the War of the Spanish Succession it was besieged
by the margrave of Baden in 1704. In 1743 it was surrendered by the
French to the Austrians, and in 1800, after three months' siege, the
French, under General Moreau, took the town, and dismantled the
fortifications. They were rebuilt on a much larger scale under King
Louis I., and since 1870 Ingolstadt has ranked as a fortress of the
first class. In 1872 even more important fortifications were
constructed, which include têtes-de-pont with round towers of massive
masonry, and the redoubt Tilly on the right bank of the river.

  See Gerstner, _Geschichte der Stadt Ingolstadt_ (Munich, 1853); and
  Prantl, _Geschichte der Ludwig Maximilians Universität_ (Munich,
  1872).



INGOT, originally a mould for the casting of metals, but now a mass of
metal cast in a mould, and particularly the small bars of the precious
metals, cast in the shape of an oblong brick or wedge with slightly
sloping sides, in which form gold and silver are handled as bullion at
the Bank of England and the Mint. Ingots of varying sizes and shapes are
cast of other metals, and "ingot-steel" and "ingot-iron" are technical
terms in the manufacture of iron and steel (see IRON AND STEEL). The
word is obscure in origin. It occurs in Chaucer ("The Canon's Yeoman's
Tale") as a term of alchemy, in the original sense of a mould for
casting metal, and, as the _New English Dictionary_ points out, an
English origin for such a term is unlikely. It may, however, be derived
from _in_ and the O. Eng. _géotan_ to pour; cf. Ger. _giessen_ and
_Einguss_, a mould. The Fr. _lingot_, with the second English meaning
only, has been taken as the origin of "ingot" and derived from the Lat.
_lingua_, tongue--with a supposed reference to the shape. This
derivation is wrong, and French etymologists have now accepted the
English origin for the word, _lingot_ having coalesced from _l'ingot_.



INGRAM, JAMES (1774-1850), English antiquarian and Anglo-Saxon scholar,
was born near Salisbury on the 21st of December 1774. He was educated at
Warminster and Winchester schools and at Trinity College, Oxford, of
which he became a fellow in 1803. From 1803 to 1808 he was Rawlinsonian
professor of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford, and in 1824 was made President of
Trinity College and D.D. His time, however, was principally spent in
antiquarian research, and especially in the study of Anglo-Saxon, in
which field he was the pre-eminent scholar of his time. He published in
1823 an edition of the _Saxon Chronicle_. His other works include
admirable _Memorials of Oxford_ (1832-1837), and _The Church in the
Middle Centuries_ (1842). He died on the 5th of September 1850.



INGRAM, JOHN KELLS (1823-1907), Irish scholar and economist, was born in
Co. Donegal, Ireland, on the 7th of July 1823. Educated at Newry School
and Trinity College, Dublin, he was elected a fellow of his college in
1846. He held the professorship of Oratory and English Literature in
Dublin University from 1852 to 1866, when he became regius professor of
Greek. In 1879 he was appointed librarian. Ingram was remarkable for his
versatility. In his undergraduate days he had written the well-known
poem "Who fears to speak of Ninety-eight?" and his _Sonnets and other
Poems_ (1900) reveal the poetic sense. He contributed many important
papers to mathematical societies on geometrical analysis, and did much
useful work in advancing the science of classical etymology, notably in
his _Greek and Latin Etymology in England_, _The Etymology of Liddell
and Scott_. His philosophical works include _Outlines of the History of
Religion_ (1900), _Human Nature and Morals according to A. Comte_
(1901), _Practical Morals_ (1904), and the _Final Transition_ (1905). He
contributed to the 9th edition of the _Encyclopaedia Britannica_ an
historical and biographical article on political economy, which was
translated into nearly every European language. His _History of Slavery
and Serfdom_ was also written for the 9th edition of the _Encyclopaedia
Britannica_. He died in Dublin on the 18th of May 1907.



INGRES, JEAN AUGUSTE DOMINIQUE (1780-1867), French painter, was born at
Montauban, on the 29th of August 1780. His father, for whom he
entertained the most tender and respectful affection, has described
himself as _sculpteur en plâtre_; he was, however, equally ready to
execute every other kind of decorative work, and now and again eked out
his living by taking portraits or obtained an engagement as a
violin-player. He brought up his son to command the same varied
resources, but in consequence of certain early successes--the lad's
performance of a concerto of Viotti's was applauded at the theatre of
Toulouse--his attention was directed chiefly to the study of music. At
Toulouse, to which place his father had removed from Montauban in 1792,
Ingres had, however, received lessons from Joseph Roques, a painter whom
he quitted at the end of a few months to become a pupil of M. Vigan,
professor at the academy of fine arts in the same town. From Vigan,
Ingres, whose vocation became day by day more distinctly evident, passed
to M. Briant, a landscape-painter who insisted that his pupil was
specially gifted by nature to follow the same line as himself. For a
while Ingres obeyed, but he had been thoroughly aroused and enlightened
as to his own objects and desires by the sight of a copy of Raphael's
"Madonna della Sedia," and, having ended his connexion with Briant, he
started for Paris, where he arrived about the close of 1796. He was then
admitted to the studio of David, for whose lofty standard and severe
principles he always retained a profound appreciation. Ingres, after
four years of devoted study, during which (1800) he obtained the second
place in the yearly competition, finally carried off the Grand Prix
(1801). The work thus rewarded--the "Ambassadors of Agamemnon in the
Tent of Achilles" (École des Beaux Arts)--was admired by Flaxman so much
as to give umbrage to David, and was succeeded in the following year
(1802) by the execution of a "Girl after Bathing," and a woman's
portrait; in 1804 Ingres exhibited "Portrait of the First Consul" (Musée
de Liége), and portraits of his father and himself; these were followed
in 1806 by "Portrait of the Emperor" (Invalides), and portraits of M,
Mme, and Mlle Rivière (the first two now in the Louvre). These and
various minor works were executed in Paris (for it was not until 1809
that the state of public affairs admitted of the re-establishment of the
Academy of France at Rome), and they produced a disturbing impression on
the public. It was clear that the artist was some one who must be
counted with; his talent, the purity of his line, and his power of
literal rendering were generally acknowledged; but he was reproached
with a desire to be singular and extraordinary. "Ingres," writes Frau v.
Hastfer (_Leben und Kunst in Paris_, 1806) "wird nach Italien gehen, und
dort wird er vielleicht vergessen dass er zu etwas Grossem geboren ist,
und wird eben darum ein hohes Ziel erreichen." In this spirit, also,
Chaussard violently attacked his "Portrait of the Emperor" (_Pausanias
Français_, 1806), nor did the portraits of the Rivière family escape.
The points on which Chaussard justly lays stress are the strange
discordances of colour--such as the blue of the cushion against which
Mme Rivière leans, and the want of the relief and warmth of life, but he
omits to touch on that grasp of his subject as a whole, shown in the
portraits of both husband and wife, which already evidences the strength
and sincerity of the passionless point of view which marks all Ingres's
best productions. The very year after his arrival in Rome (1808) Ingres
produced "Oedipus and the Sphinx" (Louvre; lithographed by Sudre,
engraved by Gaillard), a work which proved him in the full possession of
his mature powers, and began the "Venus Anadyomene" (Collection Rieset;
engraving by Pollet), completed forty years later, and exhibited in
1855. These works were followed by some of his best portraits, that of
M. Bochet (Louvre), and that of Mme la Comtesse de Tournon, mother of
the prefect of the department of the Tiber; in 1811 he finished "Jupiter
and Thetis," an immense canvas now in the Musée of Aix; in 1812 "Romulus
and Acron" (École des Beaux Arts), and "Virgil reading the _Aeneid_"--a
composition very different from the version of it which has become
popular through the engraving executed by Pradier in 1832. The original
work, executed for a bedchamber in the Villa Aldobrandini-Miollis,
contained neither the figures of Maecenas and Agrippa nor the statue of
Marcellus; and Ingres, who had obtained possession of it during his
second stay in Rome, intended to complete it with the additions made for
engraving. But he never got beyond the stage of preparation, and the
picture left by him, together with various other studies and sketches,
to the Musée of his native town, remains half destroyed by the process
meant for its regeneration. The "Virgil" was followed by the "Betrothal
of Raphael," a small painting, now lost, executed for Queen Caroline of
Naples; "Don Pedro of Toledo Kissing the Sword of Henry IV." (Collection
Deymié; Montauban), exhibited at the Salon of 1814, together with the
"Chapelle Sistine" (Collection Legentil; lithographed by Sudre), and the
"Grande Odalisque" (Collection Seillière; lithographed by Sudre). In
1815 Ingres executed "Raphael and the Fornarina" (Collection Mme N. de
Rothschild; engraved by Pradier); in 1816 "Aretin" and the "Envoy of
Charles V." (Collection Schroth), and "Aretin and Tintoret" (Collection
Schroth); in 1817 the "Death of Leonardo" (engraved by Richomme) and
"Henry IV. Playing with his Children" (engraved by Richomme), both of
which works were commissions from M. le Comte de Blacas, then ambassador
of France at the Vatican. "Roger and Angelique" (Louvre; lithographed by
Sudre), and "Francesca di Rimini" (Musée of Angers; lithographed by
Aubry Lecomte), were completed in 1819, and followed in 1820 by "Christ
giving the Keys to Peter" (Louvre). In 1815, also, Ingres had made many
projects for treating a subject from the life of the celebrated duke of
Alva, a commission from the family, but a loathing for "cet horrible
homme" grew upon him, and finally he abandoned the task and entered in
his diary--"J'étais forcé par la nécessité de peindre un pareil tableau;
Dieu a voulu qu'il restât en ébauche." During all these years Ingres's
reputation in France did not increase. The interest which his "Chapelle
Sistine" had aroused at the Salon of 1814 soon died away; not only was
the public indifferent, but amongst his brother artists Ingres found
scant recognition. The strict classicists looked upon him as a renegade,
and strangely enough Delacroix and other pupils of Guérin--the leaders
of that romantic movement for which Ingres, throughout his long life,
always expressed the deepest abhorrence--alone seem to have been
sensible of his merits. The weight of poverty, too, was hard to bear. In
1813 Ingres had married; his marriage had been arranged for him with a
young woman who came in a business-like way from Montauban, on the
strength of the representations of her friends in Rome. Mme Ingres
speedily acquired a faith in her husband which enabled her to combat
with heroic courage and patience the difficulties which beset their
common existence, and which were increased by their removal to Florence.
There Bartolini, an old friend, had hoped that Ingres might have
materially bettered his position, and that he might have aroused the
Florentine school--a weak offshoot from that of David--to a sense of its
own shortcomings. These expectations were disappointed. The good offices
of Bartolini, and of one or two other persons, could only alleviate the
miseries of this stay in a town where Ingres was all but deprived of the
means of gaining daily bread by the making of those small portraits for
the execution of which, in Rome, his pencil had been constantly in
request. Before his departure he had, however, been commissioned to
paint for M. de Pastoret the "Entry of Charles V. into Paris," and M.
de Pastoret now obtained an order for Ingres from the Administration of
Fine Arts; he was directed to treat the "Voeu de Louis XIII." for the
cathedral of Montauban. This work, exhibited at the Salon of 1824, met
with universal approbation: even those sworn to observe the
unadulterated precepts of David found only admiration for the "Voeu de
Louis XIII." On his return Ingres was received at Montauban with
enthusiastic homage, and found himself celebrated throughout France. In
the following year (1825) he was elected to the Institute, and his fame
was further extended in 1826 by the publication of Sudre's lithograph of
the "Grande Odalisque," which, having been scorned by artists and
critics alike in 1819, now became widely popular. A second commission
from the government called forth the "Apotheosis of Homer," which,
replaced by a copy in the decoration of the ceiling for which it was
designed, now hangs in the galleries of the second storey of the Louvre.
From this date up till 1834 the studio of Ingres was thronged, as once
had been thronged the studio of David, and he was a recognized _chef
d'école_. Whilst he taught with despotic authority and admirable wisdom,
he steadily worked; and when in 1834 he produced his great canvas of the
"Martyrdom of Saint Symphorien" (cathedral of Autun; lithographed by
Trichot-Garneri), it was with angry disgust and resentment that he found
his work received with the same doubt and indifference, if not the same
hostility, as had met his earlier ventures. The suffrages of his pupils,
and of one or two men--like Decamps--of undoubted ability, could not
soften the sense of injury. Ingres resolved to work no longer for the
public, and gladly availed himself of the opportunity to return to Rome,
as director of the École de France, in the room of Horace Vernet. There
he executed "La Vierge à l'Hostie" (Imperial collections, St
Petersburg), "Stratonice," "Portrait of Cherubini" (Louvre), and the
"Petite Odalisque" for M. Marcotte, the faithful admirer for whom, in
1814, Ingres had painted the "Chapelle Sistine." The "Stratonice,"
executed for the duke of Orleans, had been exhibited at the Palais Royal
for several days after its arrival in France, and the beauty of the
composition produced so favourable an impression that, on his return to
Paris in 1841, Ingres found himself received with all the deference that
he felt to be his due. A portrait of the purchaser of "Stratonice" was
one of the first works executed after his return; and Ingres shortly
afterwards began the decorations of the great hall in the Château de
Dampierre, which, unfortunately for the reputation of the painter, were
begun with an ardour which gradually slackened, until in 1849 Ingres,
having been further discouraged by the loss of his faithful and
courageous wife, abandoned all hope of their completion, and the
contract with the duc de Luynes was finally cancelled. A minor work,
"Jupiter and Antiope," marks the year 1851, but Ingres's next
considerable undertaking (1853) was the "Apotheosis of Napoleon I.,"
painted for the ceiling of a hall in the Hôtel de Ville; "Jeanne d'Arc"
(Louvre) appeared in 1854; and in 1855 Ingres consented to rescind the
resolution, more or less strictly kept since 1834, in favour of the
International Exhibition, where a room was reserved for his works.
Prince Napoleon, president of the jury, proposed an exceptional
recompense for their author, and obtained from the emperor Ingres's
nomination as grand officer of the Legion of Honour. With renewed
confidence Ingres now took up and completed one of his most charming
productions--"La Source" (Louvre), a figure of which he had painted the
torso in 1823, and which seen with other works in London (1862) there
renewed the general sentiment of admiration, and procured him, from the
imperial government, the dignity of senator. After the completion of "La
Source," the principal works produced by Ingres were with one or two
exceptions ("Molière" and "Louis XIV.," presented to the Théâtre
Français, 1858; "Le Bain Turc," 1859), of a religious character; "La
Vierge de l'Adoption," 1858 (painted for Mlle Roland-Gosselin), was
followed by "La Vierge Couronnée" (painted for Mme la Baronne de
Larinthie) and "La Vierge aux Enfans" (Collection Blanc); in 1859 these
were followed by repetitions of "La Vierge à l'Hostie"; and in 1862
Ingres completed "Christ and the Doctors" (Musée Montauban), a work
commissioned many years before by Queen Marie Amélie for the chapel of
Bizy.

On the 17th of January 1867 Ingres died in his eighty-eighth year,
having preserved his faculties in wonderful perfection to the last. For
a moment only--at the time of the execution of the "Bain Turc," which
Prince Napoleon was fain to exchange for an early portrait of the master
by himself--Ingres's powers had seemed to fail, but he recovered, and
showed in his last years the vigour which marked his early maturity. It
is, however, to be noted that the "Saint Symphorien" exhibited in 1834
closes the list of the works on which his reputation will chiefly rest;
for "La Source," which at first sight seems to be an exception, was
painted, all but the head and the extremities, in 1821; and from those
who knew the work well in its incomplete state we learn that the
after-painting, necessary to fuse new and old, lacked the vigour, the
precision, and the something like touch which distinguished the original
execution of the torso. Touch was not, indeed, at any time a means of
expression on which Ingres seriously calculated; his constant employment
of local tint, in mass but faintly modelled in light by half tones,
forbade recourse to the shifting effects of colour and light on which
the Romantic school depended in indicating those fleeting aspects of
things which they rejoiced to put on canvas;--their methods would have
disturbed the calculations of an art wholly based on form and line.
Except in his "Sistine Chapel," and one or two slighter pieces, Ingres
kept himself free from any preoccupation as to depth and force of colour
and tone; driven, probably by the excesses of the Romantic movement into
an attitude of stricter protest, "ce que l'on sait" he would repeat, "il
faut le savoir l'épée à la main." Ingres left himself therefore, in
dealing with crowded compositions, such as the "Apotheosis of Homer" and
the "Martyrdom of Saint Symphorien," without the means of producing the
necessary unity of effect which had been employed in due measure--as the
Stanze of the Vatican bear witness--by the very master whom he most
deeply reverenced. Thus it came to pass that in subjects of one or two
figures Ingres showed to the greatest advantage: in "Oedipus," in the
"Girl after Bathing," the "Odalisque" and "La Source"--subjects only
animated by the consciousness of perfect physical well-being--we find
Ingres at his best. One hesitates to put "Roger and Angelique" upon this
list, for though the female figure shows the finest qualities of
Ingres's work,--deep study of nature in her purest forms, perfect
sincerity of intention and power of mastering an ideal conception--yet
side by side with these the effigy of Roger on his hippogriff bears
witness that from the passionless point of view, which was Ingres's
birthright, the weird creatures of the fancy cannot be seen.

  A graphic account of "Ingres, sa vie et ses travaux," and a complete
  catalogue of his works, were published by M. Delaborde in 1870, and
  dedicated to Mme Ingres, _née_ Ramel, Ingres's devoted second wife,
  whom he married in 1852. Allusions to the painter's early days will be
  found in Delécluze's _Louis David_; and amongst less important notices
  may be cited that by Théophile Silvestre in his series of living
  artists. Most of Ingres's important works are engraved in the
  collection brought out by Magimel.     (E. F. S. D.)



INGRESS (Lat. _ingressus_, going in), entrance as opposed to exit or
egress; in astronomy, the apparent entrance of a smaller body upon the
disk of a larger one, as it passes between the latter and the observer;
in this sense it is applied especially to the beginning of a transit of
a satellite of Jupiter over the disk of the planet.



INHAMBANE, a seaport of Portuguese East Africa in 23° 50´ S., 35° 25´ E.
The town, which enjoys a reputation for healthiness, is finely situated
on the bank of a river of the same name which empties into a bay also
called Inhambane. Next to Mozambique Inhambane, which dates from the
middle of the 16th century, is architecturally the most important town
in Portuguese East Africa. The chief buildings are the fort, churches
and mosque. The principal church is built with stone and marble brought
from Portugal. The population, about 4000 in 1909, is of a motley
character: Portuguese and other Europeans, Arabs, Banyans, half-castes
and negroes. Its commerce was formerly mostly in ivory and slaves. In
1834 Inhambane was taken and all its inhabitants save ten killed by a
Zulu horde under Manikusa (see GAZALAND). It was not until towards the
close of the 19th century that the trade of the town revived. The value
of exports and imports in 1907 was about £150,000. The chief exports are
wax, rubber, mafureira and other nuts, mealies and sugar. Cotton goods
and cheap wines (for consumption by natives) are the principal imports.
The harbour, about 9 m. long by 5 wide, accommodates vessels drawing 10
to 12 ft. of water. The depth of water over the bar varies from 17 to 28
ft., and large vessels discharge into and load from lighters. Inhambane
is the natural port for the extensive and fertile district between the
Limpopo and Sabi rivers. This region is the best recruiting ground for
labourers in the Rand gold mines. Mineral oils have been found within a
short distance of the port.



INHERITANCE. In English law, inheritance, heir and other kindred words
have a meaning very different from that of the Latin _haeres_, from
which they are derived. In Roman law the heir or heirs represented the
entire legal personality of the deceased--his _universum jus_. In
English law the heir is simply the person on whom the real property of
the deceased devolves by operation of law if he dies intestate. He has
nothing to do as heir with the personal property; he is not appointed by
will; and except in the case of coparceners he is a single individual.
The Roman _haeres_ takes the whole estate; his appointment may or may
not be by testament; and more persons than one may be associated
together as heirs.

The devolution of an inheritance in England is now regulated by the
rules of descent, as altered by the Inheritance Act 1833, amended by the
Law of Property Amendment Act 1859.

1. The first rule is that inheritance shall descend to the issue of the
last "purchaser." A purchaser in law means one who acquires an estate
otherwise than by descent, e.g. by will, by gratuitous gift, or by
purchase in the ordinary meaning of the word. This rule is one of the
changes introduced by the Inheritance Act, which further provides that
"the person last entitled to the land shall be considered the purchaser
thereof unless it be proved that he inherited the same." Under the
earlier law descent was traced from the last person who had "seisin" or
feudal possession, and it was occasionally a troublesome question
whether the heir or person entitled had ever, in fact, acquired such
possession. Now the only inquiry is into title, and each person entitled
is presumed to be in by purchase unless he is proved to be in by
descent, so that the stock of descent is the last person entitled who
cannot be shown to have inherited. 2. The male is admitted before the
female. 3. Among males of equal degree in consanguinity to the
purchaser, the elder excludes the younger; but females of the same
degree take together as "coparceners." 4. Lineal descendants take the
place of their ancestor. Thus an eldest son dying and leaving issue
would be represented by such issue, who would exclude their father's
brothers and sisters. 5. If there are no lineal descendants of the
purchaser, the next to inherit is his nearest lineal ancestor. This is a
rule introduced by the Inheritance Act. Under the former law inheritance
never went to an ancestor--collaterals, however remote of the person
last seized being preferred even to his father. Various explanations
have been given of this seemingly anomalous rule--Bracton and Blackstone
being content to say that it rests on the law of nature, by which heavy
bodies gravitate downwards. Another explanation is that estates were
granted to be descendible in the same way as an ancient inheritance,
which having passed from father to son _ex necessitate_ went to
collaterals on failure of issue of the person last seized. 6. The sixth
rule is thus expressed by Joshua Williams in his treatise on _The Law of
Real Property_:--

  "The father and all the male paternal ancestors of the purchaser and
  their descendants shall be admitted before any of the female paternal
  ancestors or their heirs; all the female paternal ancestors and their
  heirs before the mother or any of the maternal ancestors or her or
  their descendants; and the mother and all the male maternal ancestors
  and her and their descendants before any of the female maternal
  ancestors or their heirs."

7. Kinsmen of the half-blood may be heirs; such kinsmen shall inherit
next after a kinsman in the same degree of the whole blood, and after
the issue of such kinsman where the common ancestor is a male and next
after the common ancestor where such ancestor is a female. The admission
of kinsmen of the half-blood into the chain of descent is an alteration
made by the Inheritance Act. Formerly a relative, however nearly
connected in blood with the purchaser through one only and not both
parents, could never inherit--a half-brother for example. 8. In the
admission of female paternal ancestors, the mother of the more remote
male paternal ancestor and her heirs shall be preferred to the mother of
the less remote male paternal and her heirs; and, in the case of female
maternal ancestors, the mother of the more remote male maternal ancestor
shall be preferred to the mother of a less remote male maternal
ancestor. This rule, following the opinion of Blackstone, settles a
point much disputed by text-writers, although its importance was little
more than theoretical. 9. When there shall be a total failure of heirs
of the purchaser, or when any lands shall be descendible as if an
ancestor had been the purchaser thereof, and there shall be a total
failure of the heirs of such ancestor, then and in every such case the
descent shall be traced from the person last entitled to the land as if
he had been the purchaser thereof. This rule is enacted by the Law of
Property Amendment Act 1859. It would apply to such a case as the
following: Purchaser dies intestate, leaving a son and no other
relations, and the son in turn dies intestate; the son's relations
through his mother are now admitted by this rule. If the purchaser is
illegitimate, his only relations must necessarily be his own issue.
Failing heirs of all kinds, the lands of an intestate purchaser, not
alienated by him, would revert by "escheat" to the next immediate lord
of the fee, who would generally be the crown. If an intermediate
lordship could be proved to exist between the crown and the tenant in
fee simple, such intermediate lord would have the escheat. But escheat
is a matter of rare occurrence.

The above rules apply to all freehold land whether the estate therein of
the intestate is legal or equitable. Before 1884, if a sole trustee had
the legal estate in realty, and his _cestui que trust_ died intestate
and without heirs, the land escheated to the trustee. This distinction
was abolished by the Intestate Estates Act 1884.

The descent of an estate in tail would be ascertained by such of the
foregoing rules as are not inapplicable to it. By the form of the entail
the estate descends to the "issue" of the person to whom the estate was
given in tail--in other words, the last purchaser. The preceding rules
after the fourth, being intended for the ascertainment of heirs other
than those by lineal descent, would therefore not apply; and a special
limitation in the entail, such as to heirs male or female only, would
render unnecessary some of the others. When the entail has been barred,
the estate descends according to these rules. In copyhold estates
descent, like other incidents thereof, is regulated by the custom of
each particular manor; e.g. the youngest son may exclude the elder sons.
How far the Inheritance Act applies to such estates has been seriously
disputed. It has been held in one case (_Muggleton_ v. _Barnett_) that
the Inheritance Act, which orders descent to be traced from the last
purchaser, does not override a manorial custom to trace descent from the
person last seized, but this position has been controverted on the
ground that the act itself includes the case of customary holdings.

Husband and wife do not stand in the rank of heir to each other. Their
interests in each other's real property are secured by courtesy and
dower.

The personal property of a person dying intestate devolves according to
an entirely different set of rules (see INTESTACY).

  In Scotland the rules of descent differ from the above in several
  particulars. Descent is traced, as in England before the Inheritance
  Act, to the person last seized. The first to succeed are the lineal
  descendants of the deceased, and the rules of primogeniture,
  preference of males to females, equal succession of females
  (heirs-portioners), and representation of ancestors are generally the
  same as in English law. Next to the lineal descendants, and failing
  them, come the brothers and sisters, and their issue as collaterals.
  Failing collaterals, the inheritance ascends to the father and his
  relations, to the entire exclusion of the mother and her relations.
  Even when the estate has descended from mother to son, it can never
  revert to the maternal line. As to succession of brothers, a
  distinction must be taken between an estate of heritage and an estate
  of conquest. Conquest is where the deceased has acquired the land
  otherwise than as heir, and corresponds to the English term purchase
  in the technical sense explained. Heritage is land acquired by
  deceased as heir. The distinction is important only in the case when
  the heir of the deceased is to be sought among his brothers; when the
  descent is lineal, conquest and heritage go to the same person. And
  when the brothers are younger than the deceased, both conquest and
  heritage go to the brother (or his issue) next in order of age. But
  when the deceased leaves an elder and a younger brother (or their
  issues), the elder brother takes the conquest, the younger takes the
  heritage. Again, when there are several elder brothers, the one next
  in age to the deceased takes the conquest before the more remote, and
  when there are several younger brothers, the one next to the deceased
  takes the heritage before the more remote. When heritage of the
  deceased goes to an elder brother (as might happen in certain
  eventualities), the younger of the elder brothers is preferred. The
  position of the father, after the brothers and sisters of the
  deceased, will be noticed as an important point of difference from the
  English axioms; so also is the total exclusion of the mother and the
  maternal line. As between brothers and sisters the half-blood only
  succeeds after the full blood. Half-blood is either consanguinean, as
  between children by the same father, or uterine, as between children
  having the same mother. The half-blood uterine is excluded altogether.
  Half-blood consanguinean succeeds thus: if the issue is by a former
  marriage, the youngest brother (being nearest to the deceased of the
  consanguinean) succeeds first; if by a later marriage than that from
  which the deceased has sprung, the eldest succeeds first.

_United States._--American law has borrowed its rules of descent
considerably more from the civil law than the common law. "The 118 novel
of Justinian has a striking resemblance to American law in giving the
succession of estates to all legitimate children without distinction and
disregarding all considerations of primogeniture. There is one
particular in which the American law differs from that of Justinian,
that while generally in this country lineal descendants if they stand in
an equal degree from the common ancestor share equally _per capita_,
under the Roman law regard was had to the right of representation, each
lineal branch of descendants taking only the portion which their parent
would have taken had he been living, the division being _per stirpes_
and not _per capita_. But in some of the states the rule of the Roman
law in this respect has been adopted and retained. Among these are Rhode
Island, New Jersey, North and South Carolina, Alabama and Louisiana" (3
Washburn's _Real Property_, pp. 408, 409; 4 Kent's _Comm._ p. 375). When
such lineal descendants stand in unequal degrees of consanguinity the
inheritance is _per stirpes_ and not _per capita_ (_In re Prote_, 1907;
104, N.Y. Supplement 581). This is the rule in practically all the
states. But as in no two states or territories are the rules of descent
identical, the only safe guides are the statutes and decisions of the
particular state in which the land to be inherited is situated. The law
of primogeniture as understood in England is generally abolished
throughout the United States, and male and female relatives inherit
equally. In some states, as in Massachusetts, relatives of the
half-blood inherit equally with chose of the whole-blood of the same
degree; in others, like Maryland, they can inherit only in case none of
whole-blood exist. In some of the states the English rule that natural
children have no inheritable blood has been greatly modified. In
Louisiana, if duly acknowledged, they may inherit from both father and
mother in the absence of lawful issue. Degrees of kindred in the United
States generally are computed according to the civil law, i.e. by adding
together the number of degrees between each of the two persons whose
relationship is to be ascertained and the common ancestor. Thus,
relationship between two brothers is in the second degree; between uncle
and nephew in the third degree; between cousins, in the fourth, &c.

  In a few states such degrees are computed according to the common law,
  i.e. by counting from the common ancestor to the most remote
  descendant of the two from him--thus, brothers would be related in the
  first degree, uncle and nephew in the second, &c. In most states
  representation amongst collaterals is restricted--in some to the
  descendants of brothers and sisters, in others to their children only.


  In some states, e.g. in California, Louisiana and Texas, the law of
  "community property" of husband and wife prevails. This is derived
  from the French and Spanish law existing in the territories out of
  which those states were formed, as the result of the conquest of
  Mexico by Spain and the colonizing of Louisiana by France. The
  foundation idea is an equal division at death of either party of all
  property acquired during their marriage except by gift, devise or
  descent. In general the husband has the control and management thereof
  during the marriage, and either survivor has the administration of the
  moiety of the one deceased. There is a conflict in the laws in such
  states as to the exact definition and as to whether or not the gains
  or profits of such property are to be deemed separate property or
  community property [Succession of Dielman (Louisiana, 1907), 43
  Southern Rep. 972].



INHIBITION (from Lat. _inhibere_, to restrain, prevent), an act of
restraint or prohibition, an English legal term, particularly used in
ecclesiastical law, for a writ from a superior to an inferior court,
suspending proceedings in a case under appeal, also for the suspension
of a jurisdiction of a bishop's court on the visitation of an
archbishop, and for that of an archdeacon on the visitation of a bishop.
It is more particularly applied to a form of ecclesiastical _censure_,
suspending an offending clergyman from the performance of any service of
the Church, or other spiritual duty, for the purpose of enforcing
obedience to a monition or order of the bishop or judge. Such
inhibitions are at the discretion of the ordinary if he considers that
scandal might arise from the performance of spiritual duties by the
offender (Church Discipline Act 1860, re-enacted by the Clergy
Discipline Act 1892, sect. 10). By the Sequestration Act 1871, sect. 5,
similar powers of inhibition are given where a sequestration remains in
force for more than six months, and also, by the Benefices Act 1898, in
cases where a commission reports that the ecclesiastical duties of a
benefice are inadequately performed through the negligence of the
incumbent.



INISFAIL, a poetical name for Ireland. It is derived from _Faul_ or
_Lia-fail_, the celebrated stone, identified in Irish legend with the
stone on which the patriarch Jacob slept when he dreamed of the heavenly
ladder. The Lia-fail was supposed to have been brought to Ireland by the
Dedannans and set up at Tara as the "inauguration stone" of the Irish
kings; it was subsequently removed to Scone where it became the
coronation stone of the Scottish kings, until it was taken by James VI.
of Scotland to Westminster and placed under the coronation chair in the
Abbey, where it has since remained. Inisfail was thus the island of the
Fail, the island whose monarchs were crowned at Tara on the sacred
inauguration stone.



INITIALS (Lat. _initialis_, of or belonging to a beginning, _initium_),
the first letters of names. In legal and formal documents it is usually
the practice in appending a signature to write the name in full. But
this is by no means necessary, even in cases where a signature is
expressly required by statute. It has been held that it is sufficient if
a person affixes to a document the usual form in which he signs his
name, with the intent that it shall be treated as his signature. So,
signature by initials is a good signature within the Statute of Frauds
(_Phillimore_ v. _Barry_, 1818, I Camp. 513), and also under the Wills
Act 1837 (_In re Blewitt_, 1880, 5 P.D. 116).



INITIATION (Lat. _initium_, beginning, entrance, from _inire_, to go
in), the process of formally entering, and especially the rite of
admission into, some office, or religious or secret society, &c. Among
nearly all primitive races initiatory rites of a bloody character were
and are common. The savage pays homage to strength, and the purpose of
his initiatory rites is to test physical vigour, self-control and the
power of enduring pain. Initiation is sometimes religious, sometimes
social, but in primitive society it has always the same character. Thus,
in Whydah (West Africa) the young girls consecrated to the worship of
the serpent, "the brides of the Serpent," had figures of flowers and
animals burnt into their skins with hot irons; while in the neighbouring
Yorubaland the power of enduring a sound thrashing is the qualification
for the throne. In no country was the practice of initiatory rites more
general than in the Americas. The Colombian Indians compelled their
would-be chief to submit to terrible tests. He had first to bear severe
beatings without a murmur. Then, placed in a hammock with his hands
tied, venomous ants were placed on his naked body. Finally a fire was
lit beneath him. All this he had to bear without flinching. In ancient
Mexico there were several orders of chivalry, entry into which was only
permitted after brutal initiation. The nose of the candidate was pierced
with an eagle's talon or a pointed bone, and he was expected to dig
knives into his body. In Peru the young Inca princes had to fast and
live for weeks without sleep. Among the North American Indians
initiatory rites were universal. The Mandans held a feast at which the
young "braves" supported the weight of their bodies on pieces of wood
skewered through the muscles of shoulders, breasts and arms. With the
Sioux, to become a medicine-man, it was necessary to submit to the
ordeal known as "looking at the sun." The sufferer, nearly naked, was
bound on the earth by cords passed through holes made in the pectoral
muscles. With bow and arrow in hand, he lay in this position all day
gazing at the sun. Around him his friends gathered to applaud his
courage.

Religious brotherhoods of antiquity, too, were to be entered only after
long and complicated initiation. But here the character of the ordeal is
rather moral than physical. Such were the rites of admission to the
Mysteries of Isis and Eleusis. Secret societies of all ages have been
characterized by more or less elaborate initiation. That of the
Femgerichte, the famous medieval German secret tribunal, took place at
night in a cave, the neophyte kneeling and making oath of blind
obedience. Imitations of such tests are perpetuated to-day in
freemasonry; while the Mafia, the Camorra, the Clan-na-Gael, the Molly
Maguires, the Ku-Klux Klan, are among more recent secret associations
which have maintained the old idea of initiation.



INJECTOR (from Lat. _injicere_, to throw in), an appliance for supplying
steam-boilers with water, and especially used with locomotive boilers.
It was invented by the French engineer H. V. Giffard in 1858, and
presents the paradox that by the pressure of the steam in the boiler, or
even, as in the case of the exhaust steam injector, by steam at a much
lower pressure, water is forced into the boiler against that pressure. A
diagrammatic section illustrating its construction is shown in figure.
Steam enters at A and blows through the annular orifice C, the size of
which can be regulated by a valve not shown in the figure. The feed
water flows in at B and meeting the steam at C causes it to condense.
Hence a vacuum is produced at C, and consequently the water rushes in
with great velocity and streams down the combining cone D, its velocity
being augmented by the impact of steam on the back of the column. In the
lower part of the nozzle E the stream expands; it therefore loses
velocity and, by a well-known hydrodynamic principle, gains pressure,
until at the bottom the pressure is so great that it is able to enter
the boiler through a check valve which opens only in the direction of
the stream. An overflow pipe F, by providing a channel through which
steam and water may escape before the stream has acquired sufficient
energy to force its way into the boiler, allows the injector to start
into action. Means are also provided for regulating the amount of water
admitted between D and C. In the _exhaust-steam_ injector, which works
with steam from the exhaust of non-condensing engines, the steam orifice
is larger in proportion to other parts than in injectors working with
boiler steam, and the steam supply more liberal. In _self-starting_
injectors an arrangement is provided which permits free overflow until
the injector starts into action, when the openings are automatically
adjusted to suit delivery into the boiler.

[Illustration]



INJUNCTION (from Lat. _injungere_, to fasten, or attach to, to lay a
burden or charge on, to enjoin), a term-meaning generally a command, and
in English law the name for a judicial process whereby a party is
required to refrain from doing a particular thing according to the
exigency of the writ. Formerly it was a remedy peculiar to the court of
chancery, and was one of the instruments by which the jurisdiction of
that court was established in cases over which the courts of common law
were entitled to exercise control. The court of chancery did not presume
to interfere with the action of the courts, but, by directing an
injunction to the person whom it wished to restrain from following a
particular remedy at common law, it effected the same purpose
indirectly. Under the present constitution of the judicature, the
injunction is now equally available in all the divisions of the high
court of justice, and it can no longer be used to prevent an action in
any of them from proceeding in the ordinary course.

Although an injunction is properly a restraining order, there are
instances in which, under the form of a prohibition, a positive order to
do something is virtually expressed. Thus in a case of nuisance an
injunction was obtained to restrain the defendant from preventing water
from flowing in such regular quantities as it had ordinarily done before
the day on which the nuisance commenced. But generally, if the relief
prayed for is to compel something to be done, it cannot be obtained by
injunction, although it may be expressed in the form of a
prohibition--as in the case in which it was sought to prevent a person
from discontinuing to keep a house as an inn. The injunction was used to
stay proceedings in other courts "wherever a party by fraud, accident,
mistake or otherwise had obtained an advantage in proceeding in a court
of ordinary jurisdiction, which must necessarily make that court an
instrument of injustice." As the injunction operates personally on the
defendant, it may be used to prevent applications to foreign
judicatures; but it is not used to prevent applications to parliament,
or to the legislature of any foreign country, unless such applications
be in breach of some agreement, and relate to matters of private
interest. In so far as an injunction is used to prohibit acts, it may be
founded either on an alleged contract or on a right independent of
contract. The jurisdiction of the court to prevent breaches of contract
has been described as supplemental to its power of compelling specific
performance; i.e. if the court has power to compel a person to perform a
contract, it will interfere to prevent him from doing anything in
violation of it. But even when it is not within the power of the court
to compel specific performance, it may interfere by injunction; thus,
e.g. in the case of an agreement of a singer to perform at the
plaintiff's theatre and at no other, the court, although it could not
compel her to sing, could by injunction prevent her from singing
elsewhere in breach of her agreement.

An injunction may as a general rule be obtained to prevent acts which
are violations of legal rights, except when the same may be adequately
remedied by an action for damages at law. Thus the court will interfere
by injunction to prevent waste, or the destruction by a limited owner,
such as a tenant for life, of things forming part of the inheritance.
Injunctions may also be obtained to prevent the continuance of
nuisances, public or private, the infringement of patents, copyrights
and trade marks. Trespass might also in certain cases be prevented by
injunction. Under the Common Law Procedure Act of 1854, and by other
statutes in special cases, a limited power of injunction was conferred
on the courts of common law. But the Judicature Act, by which all the
superior courts of common law and chancery were consolidated, enacts
that an injunction may be granted by an interlocutory order of the court
in all cases in which it shall appear to be just or convenient; ... and,
if an injunction is asked either before or at or after the hearing of
any cause or matter, to prevent any threatened or apprehended waste or
trespass, such injunction may be granted whether the person against whom
it is sought is or is not in possession under any claim of title or
otherwise, or if not in possession does or does not claim to do the act
sought to be restrained under colour of any title, and whether the
estates claimed are legal or equitable.

An injunction obtained on interlocutory application during the progress
of an action is superseded by the trial. It may be continued either
provisionally or permanently. In the latter case the injunction is said
to be perpetual. The distinction between "special" and "common"
injunctions--the latter being obtained as of course--is now abolished in
English law.

In the courts of the United States the writ of injunction remains purely
an equitable remedy. It may be issued at the instance of the president
to prevent any organized obstruction to inter-state commerce or to the
passage of the mails (_in re_ Debs, 158 United States Reports, 564).
Temporary restraining orders may be issued, _ex parte_, pending an
application for a temporary injunction. In the state courts temporary
injunctions are often issued, _ex parte_, subject to the defendant's
right to move immediately for their dissolution. Generally, however,
notice of an application for a temporary injunction is required.

  For the analogous practice in Scots law see INTERDICT.



INK (from Late Lat. _encaustum_, Gr. [Greek: enkauston], the purple ink
used by Greek and Roman emperors, from [Greek: enkaiein], to burn in),
in its widest signification, a substance employed for producing graphic
tracings, inscriptions, or impressions on paper or similar materials.
The term includes two distinct conditions of pigment or colouring
matter: the one fluid, and prepared for use with a pen or brush, as
writing ink; the other a glutinous adhesive mass, printing ink, used for
transferring to paper impressions from types, engraved plates and
similar surfaces.

The ancient Egyptians prepared and used inks (Flinders Petrie discovered
a papyrus bearing written characters as old as 2500 B.C.), and in China
the invention of an ink is assigned to Tien-Tcheu, who lived between
2697 B.C. and 2597 B.C. These early inks were prepared from charcoal or
soot mixed with gum, glue or varnish. Sepia (q.v.), the black pigment
secreted by the cuttle-fish, was used as a writing fluid by the Romans.
The iron-gall ink, i.e. an ink prepared from an iron salt and tannin,
appears to have been first described by the monk Theophilus, who lived
in the 11th century A.D., although Pliny, in the 1st century A.D., was
acquainted with the blackening of paper containing green vitriol by
immersion in an infusion of nut-galls. Iron-gall inks, prepared by
mixing extracts of galls, barks, &c., with green vitriol, subsequently
came into common use, and in the 16th century recipes for their
preparation were given in domestic encyclopaedias. Their scientific
investigation was first made by William Lewis in 1748. The earlier
iron-inks were essentially a suspension of the pigment in water. In the
early part of the 19th century the firm of Stephens introduced the first
of the so-called blue-black inks under the name of "Stephens' writing
fluid." Solutions of green vitriol and tannin, coloured by indigo and
logwood, were prepared, which wrote with a blue tint and blackened on
exposure, this change being due to the production of the pigment within
the pores of the paper. The "alizarine" inks, patented by Leonhardi in
1856, are similar inks with the addition of a little madder. The
application of aniline colours to ink manufacture in England dates from
Croc's patent of 1861.

_Writing Inks._--Writing inks are fluid substances which contain
colouring matter either in solution or in suspension, and commonly
partly in both conditions. They may be prepared in all shades of colour,
and contain almost every pigment which can be dissolved or suspended in
a suitable medium. The most important of all varieties is black ink,
after which red and blue are most commonly employed. Apart from colour
there are special qualities which recommend certain inks for limited
applications, such as marking inks, ineradicable ink, sympathetic ink,
&c. A good writing ink for ordinary purposes should continue limpid, and
flow freely and uniformly from the pen; it should not throw down a thick
sludgy deposit on exposure to the air; nor should a coating of mould
form on its surface. It should yield distinctly legible characters
immediately on writing, not fading with age; and the fluid ought to
penetrate into the paper without spreading, so that the characters will
neither wash out nor be readily removed by erasure. Further, it is
desirable that ink should be non-poisonous, that it should as little as
possible corrode steel pens, that characters traced in it should dry
readily on the application of blotting paper without smearing, and that
the writing should not present a glossy, varnished appearance.

_Tannin Inks._--These inks are prepared from galls, or other sources of
tannin, and a salt of iron, with the addition of some agglutinant in the
case of the so-called oxidized inks, or a colouring matter in the case
of unoxidized inks. Such mixtures form the staple black inks of
commerce; they are essentially an insoluble iron gallate in extremely
fine division held in suspension in water or a soluble compound
dissolved in water.

On long exposure to air, as in inkstands, or otherwise, tannin inks
gradually become thick and ropy, depositing a slimy sediment. This
change on exposure is inevitable, resulting from the gradual oxidation
of the ferrous compound, and it can only be retarded by permitting
access of air to as small surfaces as possible. The inks also have a
tendency to become mouldy, an evil which may be obviated by the use of a
minute proportion of carbolic acid; or salicylic acid may be used.

The essential ingredients of ordinary black ink are--first,
tannin-yielding bodies, for which Aleppo or Chinese galls are the most
eligible materials; second, a salt of iron, ferrous sulphate (green
vitriol) being alone employed; and third, a gummy or mucilaginous agent
to keep in suspension the insoluble tinctorial matter of the ink. For
ink-making the tannin has first to be transformed into gallic acid. In
the case of Aleppo galls this change takes place by fermentation when
the solution of the galls is exposed to the air, the tannin splitting up
into gallic acid and sugar. Chinese galls do not contain the ferment
necessary for inducing this change; and to induce the process yeast must
be added to their solution. To prepare a solution of Aleppo galls for
ink-making, the galls are coarsely powdered, and intimately mixed with
chopped straw. This mixture is thrown into a narrow deep oak vat,
provided with a perforated false bottom, and having a tap at the bottom
for drawing off liquid. Over the mixture is poured lukewarm water,
which, percolating down, extracts and carries with it the tannin of the
galls. The solution is drawn off and repeatedly run through the mixture
to extract the whole of the tannin, the water used being in such
proportion to the galls as will produce as nearly as possible a solution
having 5% of tannin. The object of using straw in the extraction process
is to maintain the porosity of the mixture, as powdered galls treated
alone become so slimy with mucilaginous extract that liquid fails to
percolate the mass. For each litre of the 5% solution about 45 grammes
of the iron salt are used, or about 100 parts of tannin for 90 parts of
crystallized green vitriol. These ingredients when first mixed form a
clear solution, but on their exposure to the air oxidation occurs, and
an insoluble blue-black ferrosoferric gallate in extremely fine
division, suspended in a coloured solution of ferrous gallate, is
formed. To keep the insoluble portion suspended, a mucilaginous agent is
employed, and those most available are gum senegal and gum arabic. An
ink so prepared develops its intensity of colour only after some
exposure; and after it has partly sunk into the paper it becomes
oxidized there, and so mordanted into the fibre. As the first faintness
of the characters is a disadvantage, it is a common practice to add some
adventitious colouring matter to give immediate distinctness, and for
that purpose either extract of logwood or a solution of indigo is used.
When logwood extract is employed, a smaller proportion of extract of
galls is required, logwood itself containing a large percentage of
tannin. For making an unoxidized or blue-black ink indigo is dissolved
in strong sulphuric acid, and the ferrous sulphate, instead of being
used direct, is prepared by placing in this indigo solution a proper
quantity of scrap iron. To free the solution from excess of uncombined
acid, chalk or powdered limestone is added, whereby the free acid is
fixed and a deposit of sulphate of lime formed. A solution so prepared,
mixed with a tannin solution, yields a very limpid sea-green writing
fluid, and as all the constituents remain in solution, no gum or other
suspending medium is necessary. In consequence the ink flows freely, is
easily dried and is free from the glossy appearance which arises through
the use of gum.

_China ink_ or _Indian ink_ is the form in which ink was earliest
prepared, and in which it is still used in China and Japan for writing
with small brushes instead of pens. It is extensively used by
architects, engineers and artists generally, and for various special
uses. China ink is prepared in the form of sticks and cakes, which are
rubbed down in water for use. It consists essentially of lamp-black in
very fine condition, baked up with a glutinous substance; and the finer
Oriental kinds are delicately perfumed. The following description of the
manufacture as conducted in Japan is from a native source:--

  "The body of the ink is soot obtained from pine wood or rosin, and
  lamp-black from sesamum oil for the finest sort. This is mixed with
  liquid glue made of ox-skin. This operation is effected in a large
  round copper bowl, formed of two spherical vessels, placed 1 in.
  apart, so that the space between can be filled up with hot water to
  prevent the glue from hardening during the time it is being mixed by
  hand with the lamp-black. The cakes are formed in wooden moulds, and
  dried between paper and ashes. Camphor, or a peculiar mixture of
  scents which comes from China, and a small quantity of carthamine (the
  red colouring substance of safflower), are added to the best kinds for
  improving the colour as well as for scenting the ink. There is a great
  difference both in price and in quality of the various kinds of ink,
  the finest article being rather costly."

It is said that the size used in Chinese kinds is of vegetable origin.

_Logwood Ink._--Under the name of chrome ink a black ink was discovered
by Runge, which held out the promise of cheapness combined with many
excellent qualities. It is prepared by dissolving 15 parts of extract of
logwood in 900 parts of water, to which 4 parts of crystallized sodium
carbonate are added. A further solution of 1 part of potassium chromate
(not bichromate) in 100 parts of water is prepared, and is added very
gradually to the other solution with constant agitation. The ink so
obtained possesses an intense blue-black colour, flows freely and dries
readily, is neutral in reaction and hence does not corrode steel pens,
and adheres to and sinks into paper so that manuscripts written with it
may be freely washed with a sponge without danger of smearing or
spreading. It forms a good copying ink, and it possesses all the
qualities essential to the best ink; but on exposure to air it very
readily undergoes decomposition, the colouring matter separating in
broad flakes, which swim in a clear menstruum. It is affirmed by Viedt
that this drawback may be overcome by the use of soda, a method first
suggested by Böttger.

Logwood forms the principal ingredient in various other black inks used,
especially as copying ink. A very strong decoction of logwood or a
strong solution of the extract with ammonium-alum yields a violet ink
which darkens slowly on exposure. Such an ink is costly, on account of
the concentrated condition in which the logwood must be used. If,
however, a metallic salt is introduced, a serviceable ink is obtained
with the expenditure of much less logwood. Either sulphate of copper or
sulphate of iron may be used, but the former, which produces a pleasing
blue-black colour, is to be preferred. The following is the formula most
highly recommended for this ink. A clear solution of 20 kilos of extract
of logwood in 200 litres of water is obtained, to which is added, with
agitation, 10 kilos of ammonium-alum dissolved in 20 litres of boiling
water. The solution is acidified with 0.2 kilo of sulphuric acid, which
has the effect of preventing any deposit, and finally there is added a
solution of 1.5 kilos of sulphate of copper dissolved in 20 litres of
water. This compound is exposed to the air for a few days to allow the
colour to develop by oxidation, after which it is stored in well-corked
bottles. The acid condition of this ink has a corrosive influence on
steel pens; in all other respects it is a most valuable writing fluid.

_Aniline Inks._--Solutions of aniline dye-stuffs in water are widely
used as inks, especially coloured varieties. They are usually fugitive.
Nigrosine is a black ink, which, although not producing a black so
intense as common ink, possesses various advantages. Being perfectly
neutral, it does not attack pens; it can easily be kept of a proper
consistency by making up with water; and its colour is not injuriously
affected by the action of acids. Its ready flow from stylographic pens
led to the name "stylographic ink." Other aniline inks are mentioned
below.

_Copying Ink._--Ink which yields by means of pressure an impression, on
a sheet of damped tissue paper, of characters written in it is called
copying ink. Any ink soluble in water, or which retains a certain degree
of solubility, may be used as copying ink. Runge's chrome ink, being a
soluble compound, is, therefore, so available; and the other logwood
inks as well as the ordinary ferrous gallate inks contain also soluble
constituents, and are essentially soluble till they are oxidized in and
on the paper after exposure to the air. To render these available as
copying inks it is necessary to add to them a substance which will
retard the oxidizing effect of the air for some time. For this purpose
the bodies most serviceable are gum arabic or senegal, with glycerin,
dextrin or sugar, which last, however, renders the ink sticky. These
substances act by forming a kind of glaze or varnish over the surface of
the ink which excludes the air. At the same time when the damp sheet of
tissue paper is applied to the writing, they dissolve and allow a
portion of the yet soluble ink to be absorbed by the moistened tissue.
As copying ink has to yield two or more impressions, it is necessary
that it should be made stronger, i.e. that it should contain more
pigment or body than common ink. It, therefore, is prepared with from 30
to 40% less of water than non-copying kinds; but otherwise, except in
the presence of the ingredients above mentioned, the inks are the same.
Copying ink pencils consist of a base of graphite and kaolin impregnated
with a very strong solution of an aniline colour, pressed into sticks
and dried.

_Red Ink._--The pigment most commonly employed as the basis of red ink
is Brazil-wood. Such an ink is prepared by adding to a strong decoction
of the wood a proportion of stannous chloride (tin spirits), and
thickening the resulting fluid with gum arabic. In some instances alum
and cream of tartar are used instead of the stannous chloride. Cochineal
is also employed as the tinctorial basis of red ink; but, while the
resulting fluid is much more brilliant than that obtained from
Brazil-wood, it is not so permanent. A very brilliant red ink may be
prepared by dissolving carmine in a solution of ammonia, but this
preparation must be kept in closely stoppered bottles. A useful red ink
may also be made by dissolving the rosein of Brook, Simpson and Spiller
in water, in the proportion of 1 to from 150 to 200 parts.

_Blue Ink._--For the production of blue ink the pigment principally used
is Prussian blue. It is first digested for two or three days with either
strong hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid or nitric acid, the digested
mass is next very largely diluted with water, and after settling the
supernatant liquid is siphoned away from the sediment. This sediment is
repeatedly washed, till all traces of iron and free acid disappear from
the water used, after which it is dried and mixed with oxalic acid in
the proportion of 8 parts of Prussian blue to 1 of the acid, and in this
condition the material is ready for dissolving in water to the degree of
colour intensity necessary. An aniline blue ink may be prepared by
dissolving 1 part of bleu de Paris in from 200 to 250 parts of water.

_Marking Ink._--The ink so called, used principally for marking linen,
is composed of a salt of silver, usually the nitrate, dissolved in water
and ammonia, with a little provisional colouring matter and gum for
thickening. The colour resulting from the silver salt is developed by
heat and light; and the stain it makes, although exceedingly obstinate,
gradually becomes a faint brownish-yellow. The following yields a good
marking ink. Equal parts of nitrate of silver and dry tartaric acid are
triturated in a mortar, and treated with water, when a reaction takes
place, resulting in the formation of tartrate of silver and the
liberation of nitric acid. The acid is neutralized, and at the same time
the silver tartrate is dissolved by the addition of ammonia, and this
solution with colouring matter and gum forms the ink, which may be used
with an ordinary steel pen.

Many vegetable juices, e.g. of _Coriaria thymifolia_, _Semecarpus_
_anacardium_, _Anacardium occidentale_ (Cashew), are inks of this type.

_Gold_ and _silver inks_ are writing fluids in which gold and silver, or
imitations of these metals, are suspended in a state of fine division.
In place of gold, Dutch leaf or mosaic gold is frequently substituted,
and bronze powders are used for preparing a similar kind of ink. The
metallic foil is first carefully triturated into a fine paste with
honey, after which it is boiled in water containing a little alkali, and
then repeatedly washed in hot water and dried at a gentle heat. A
solution is prepared consisting of 1 part of pure gum arabic and 1 part
of soluble potash glass in 4 parts of distilled water, into which the
requisite quantity of the metallic powder prepared is introduced. Owing
to the superior covering nature of pure gold, less of the metal is
required than is necessary in the case of silver and other foils. In
general 1 part of foil to 3 or 4 parts of solution is sufficient. The
metallic lustre of writing done with this solution may be greatly
heightened by gently polishing with a burnishing point. Another gold ink
depends upon the formation of purple of Cassius; the linen is mordanted
with stannous chloride, and the gold applied as a gummy solution of the
chloride.

_Indelible_ or _incorrodible ink_ is the name given to various
combinations of lamp-black or other carbonaceous material with resinous
substances used for writing which is exposed to the weather or to the
action of strong acids or alkaline solutions. An ink having great
resisting powers may be conveniently prepared by rubbing down Indian ink
in common ink till the mixture flows easily from the pen. Other
combinations have more the character of coloured varnishes.

_Sympathetic inks_ are preparations used for forming characters which
only become visible on the application of heat or of some chemical
reagent. Many chemicals which form in themselves colourless solutions,
but which develop colour under the influence of reagents, may be used as
sympathetic ink, but they are of little practical utility. Characters
written in a weak solution of galls develop a dark colour on being
treated with a solution of copperas; or, vice versa, the writing may be
done in copperas and developed by the galls solution. Writing done in
various preparations develops colour on heating which fades as the paper
cools. Among such substances are solutions of the chlorides of cobalt
and of nickel. Very dilute solutions of the mineral acids and of common
salt and a solution of equal parts of sulphate of copper and
sal-ammoniac act similarly. Writing with rice water and developing with
iodine was a device much used during the Indian Mutiny.

_Printing Inks._--Printing inks are essentially mixtures of a pigment
and a varnish. The varnish is prepared from linseed oil, rosin and soap;
the oil must be as old as possible; the rosin may be black or amber; and
the soap, which is indispensable since it causes the ink to adhere
uniformly to the type and also to leave the type clean after taking an
impression, is yellow, or turpentine soap for dark inks, and curd soap
for light inks. The varnish is prepared as follows: The oil is carefully
heated until it "strings" properly, i.e. a drop removed from the vessel
on a rod, when placed upon a plate and the rod drawn away, forms a
thread about ½ in. long. The rosin is carefully and slowly added and the
mixture well stirred. The soap is then stirred in. The ink is prepared
by mixing the varnish with the pigment, and grinding the mass to
impalpable fineness either in a levigating mill or by a stone and
muller. For black ink, lamp-black mixed with a little indigo or Prussian
blue is the pigment employed; for wood engravings it may be mixed with
ivory black, and for copper plates with ivory or Frankfurt black; for
lithographic reproductions Paris black is used. Red inks are made with
carmine or cochineal; red lead is used in cheap inks, but it rapidly
blackens. Blue inks are made with indigo or Prussian blue; yellow with
lead chromate or yellow ochre; green is made by mixing yellow and blue;
and purple by mixing red and blue.

  See C. A. Mitchell and T. C. Hepworth, _Inks, their Composition and
  Manufacture_ (1904); S. Lehner, _Ink Manufacture_ (1902); A. F.
  Gouillon, _Encres et cirages_ (1906); L. E. Andés, _Schreib-, Kopier-
  und andere Tinten_ (1906).



INKERMAN, BATTLE OF, fought on the 5th of November 1854 between a
portion of the Allied English and French army besieging Sevastopol and a
Russian army under Prince Menshikov (see CRIMEAN WAR). This battle
derives its name from a ruin on the northern bank of the river Tchernaya
near its mouth, but it was fought some distance away, on a nameless
ridge (styled Mount Inkerman after the event) between the Tchernaya and
the Careenage Ravine, which latter marked the right of the siege-works
directed against Sevastopol itself. Part of this ridge, called Home
Ridge and culminating in a knoll, was occupied by the British, while
farther to the south, facing the battleground of Balaklava, a corps
under General Bosquet was posted to cover the rear of the besiegers
against attacks from the direction of Traktir Bridge. The Russians
arranged for a combined attack on the ridge above-mentioned by part of
Menshikov's army (16,000) and a corps (19,000) that was to issue from
Sevastopol. This attack was to have, beside its own field artillery, the
support of fifty-four heavy guns, and the Russian left wing on the
Balaklava battleground was to keep Bosquet occupied. If successful, the
attack on the ridge was to be the signal for a general attack all along
the line. It was apparently intended by Menshikov that the column from
the field army should attack the position from the north, and that the
Sevastopol column should advance along the west side of the Careenage
Ravine. But he only appointed a commander to take charge of both columns
at the last moment, and the want of a clear understanding as to what was
to be done militated against success from the first. General Soimonov,
with the Sevastopol column, after assembling his troops before dawn on
the 5th, led them on to the upland east of Careenage Ravine, while the
field army column, under General Pavlov, crossed the Tchernaya near its
mouth, almost at right angles to Soimonov's line of advance.

[Illustration: Map of Inkerman.]

The British troops on or near the ground were the 2nd Division, 3000,
encamped on the ridge; Codrington's brigade of the Light Division, 1400,
on the slopes west of the Careenage Ravine; and the Guards' brigade,
1350, about ¾ m. in rear of the 2nd Division camp. No other forces,
French or British, were within 2 m. except another part of Sir George
Brown's Light Division. A mist overhung the field and the hillsides were
slippery with mud. Soimonov, with his whole force deployed in a normal
attack formation (three lines of battalion columns covered by a few
hundred skirmishers) pushed forward along the ridge (6 A.M.) without
waiting for Pavlov or for Dannenberg, the officer appointed to command
the whole force. Shell Hill, guarded only by a picquet, was seized at
once. The heavy guns that had been brought from the fortress were placed
in position on this hill, and opened fire (7 A.M.) on the knoll, 1400
yds. to the S., behind which the 2nd Division was encamped. The Russian
infantry halted for the guns to prepare the way, and the heavy
projectiles both swept the crest of the British knoll and destroyed the
camp in rear. But already General Pennefather, commanding the division,
had pushed forward one body of his infantry after another down the
forward slope, near the foot of which they encountered the Russians in
great force. On his side, Soimonov had been compelled to break up his
regular lines of columns at the narrowest part of the ridge and to push
his battalions forward a few at a time. This and the broken character of
the ground made the battle even in the beginning a mêlée. The obscurity
of the mist, which had at first allowed the big battalions to approach
unobserved, now favoured the weaker side. Soimonov himself, however,
formed up some 9000 men, who drove back the British left wing--for the
whole of Pennefather's force at the time was no more than 3600 men. But
the right wing, not as yet attacked, either by Soimonov or by Pavlov,
held on to its positions on the forward slope, and a column of Russian
sailors and marines, who had been placed under Soimonov's command and
had moved up the Careenage Ravine to turn the British left, were caught,
just as they emerged on to the plateau in rear of Pennefather's line,
between two bodies of British troops hurrying to the scene of action. On
the front, too, the Russian attack came to a standstill and ebbed, for
Soimonov's overcrowded battalions jostled one another and dissolved on
the narrow and broken plateau. Soimonov himself was killed, and the
disciplined confidence and steady volleys of the defenders dominated the
chaotic _élan_ of the Russians. Thus 3300 defenders were able to repulse
and even to "expunge from the battlefield" the whole of the Sevastopol
column, except that portion of it which drifted away to its left and
joined Pavlov. This stage of the battle had lasted about forty minutes.
But, brilliant as was this overture, it is the second stage of the
battle that gives it its epic interest.

The first attack made by Pavlov's advanced guard, aided by parts of
Soimonov's corps, was relatively slight, but General Dannenberg now
arrived on the field, and arranged for an assault on the British centre
and right, to be delivered by 10,000 men (half his intact forces)
chiefly by way of the Quarry Ravine, the attack to be prepared by the
guns on Shell Hill. Pennefather had been reinforced by the Guards'
brigade and a few smaller units. Not the least extraordinary feature of
the battle that followed is the part played by a sangar of stones at the
head of Quarry Ravine and a small battery, called the Sandbag Battery,
made as a temporary emplacement for two heavy guns a few days before.
The guns had done their work and been sent back whence they came.
Nevertheless these two insignificant works, as points to hold and lines
to defend on an otherwise featureless battlefield, became the centres of
gravity of the battle.

The sangar at first fell into the hands of the Russians, but they were
soon ejected, and small British detachments reoccupied and held it,
while the various Russian attacks flowed up and past it and ebbed back
into the Quarry Ravine. Possession of the Sandbag Battery was far more
fiercely contested. The right wing was defended by some 700 men of the
2nd Division, who were reinforced by 1300 of the Guards. The line of
defence adjacent to the battery looked downhill for about 300 yds.,
giving a clear field of fire for the new Enfield rifle the English
carried; but a sharp break in the slope beyond that range gave the
assailants plenty of "dead ground" on which to form up. For a time,
therefore, the battle was a series of attacks, delivered with great
fierceness by the main body of Pavlov's corps, the repulse of each being
followed by the disappearance of the assailants. But the arrival of part
of the British 4th Division under Sir George Cathcart gave the impulse
for a counter-attack. Most of the division indeed had to be used to
patch up the weaker parts of the line, but Cathcart himself with about
400 men worked his way along the lower and steeper part of the eastern
slope so as to take the assailants of the battery in flank. He had not
proceeded far, however, when a body of Russians moving higher up
descended upon the small British corps and scattered it, Cathcart
himself being killed. Other counterstrokes that his arrival had inspired
were at the same time made from different parts of the defensive front,
and had the effect of breaking up what was a solid line into a number of
disconnected bands, each fighting for its life in the midst of the
enemy. The crest of the position was laid open and parts of the Russian
right wing seized it. But they were flung back to the lower slopes of
the Quarry Ravine by the leading French regiment sent by Bosquet. This
regiment was quickly followed by others. The last great assault was
delivered with more precision, if with less fury than the others, and
had Dannenberg chosen to employ the 9000 bayonets of his reserve, who
stood idle throughout the day, to support the 6000 half-spent troops who
made the attack, it would probably have been successful.

As it was, supported by the heavy guns on Shell Hill, the assailants,
though no longer more than slightly superior in numbers, carried not
only the sangar, but part of the crest line of the allied position. But
they were driven back into the Quarry Ravine, and, relieving the
exhausted British, the French took up the defence along the edge of the
ravine, which, though still not without severe fighting, they maintained
till the close of the battle. Inkerman, however, was not a drawn battle.
The allied field artillery, reinforced by two long 18-pr. guns of the
British siege train and assisted by the bold advance of two French
horse-artillery batteries which galloped down the forward slope and
engaged the Russians at close range, gained the upper hand. Last of all,
the dominant guns on Shell Hill thus silenced, the resolute advance of a
handful of British infantry decided the day, and the Russians retreated.
The final shots were fired about 1.30 P.M.

  The total British force engaged was 8500, of whom 2357 were killed and
  wounded. The French lost 939 out of about 7000 who came on to the
  field, though not all these were engaged. The Russians are said to
  have lost 11,000 out of about 42,000 present. The percentage (27.7) of
  loss sustained by the British is sufficient evidence of the intensity
  of the conflict, and provides a convincing answer to certain writers
  who have represented the battle as chiefly a French affair. On the
  other hand, the reproaches addressed by some British writers to
  General Bosquet for not promptly supporting the troops at Inkerman
  with his whole strength are equally unjustifiable, for apparently Sir
  George Brown and Sir George Cathcart both declined his first offers of
  support, and he had Prince Gorchakov with at least 20,000 Russians in
  his own immediate front. He would therefore have risked the failure of
  his own mission in order to take part in a battle where his
  intervention was not, so far as he could tell, of vital importance.
  When Lord Raglan definitely asked him for support, he gave it
  willingly and eagerly, sending his troops up at the double, and it
  must be remembered that several British divisions took no part in the
  action for the same reason that actuated Bosquet. But, in spite of the
  seemingly inevitable controversies attendant on an "allied" battle, it
  is now generally admitted that, as a "soldiers' battle," Inkerman is
  scarcely to be surpassed in modern history.



INLAYING, a method of ornamentation, by incrusting or otherwise
inserting in one material a substance or substances differing therefrom
in colour or nature. The art is practised in the fabrication of
furniture and artistic objects in all varieties of wood, metal, shell,
ivory and coloured, and hard stone, and in compound substances; and the
combinations, styles and varieties of effect are exceedingly numerous.
Several special classes of inlaying may be here enumerated and defined,
details regarding most of which will be found under their separate
headings. In the ornamental treatment of metal surfaces _Niello_
decoration, applied to silver and gold, is an ancient and much-practised
species of inlaying. It consists in filling up engraved designs with a
composition of silver, copper, lead and sulphur incorporated by heat.
The composition is black, and the finished work has the appearance of a
drawing in black on a metallic plate. An art, analogous in effect,
called _bidri_, from Bider in the Deccan, is practised in India. In
bidri work the ground is an alloy of zinc, with small proportions of
copper and lead, in which shallow patterns and devices are traced, and
filled up with thin plates of silver. When the surface has been evened
and smoothed, the bidri ground is stained a permanent black by a paste
the chief ingredients of which are sal-ammoniac and nitre, leaving a
pleasing contrast of bright metallic silver in a dead black ground. The
inlaying of gold wire in iron or steel is known as Damascening (q.v.).
It has been very largely practised in Persia and India for the
ornamentation of arms and armour, being known in the latter country as
Kuft work or Kuftgari. In Kashmir, vessels of copper and brass are very
effectively inlaid with tin--an art which, like many other decorative
arts, appears to have originated in Persia. In the ornamental inlaying
of metal surfaces the Japanese display the most extraordinary skill and
perfection of workmanship. In the inlaying of their fine bronzes they
use principally gold and silver, but for large articles and also for
common cast hollow ware commoner metals and alloys are employed. In
inlaying bronzes they generally hollow out and somewhat undercut the
design, into which the ornamenting metal, usually in the form of wire,
is laid and hammered over. Frequently the lacquer work of the Japanese
is inlaid with mother-of-pearl and other substances, in the same manner
as is practised in ornamenting lacquered papier-mâché among Western
communities. The Japanese also practise the various methods of inlaying
referred to under DAMASCENING. The term _Mosaic_ (q.v.) is generally
applied to inlaid work in hard stones, marble and glass, but the most
important class of mosaics--those which consist of innumerable small
separate pieces--do not properly come under the head of inlaying. Inlaid
mosaics are those in which coloured designs are inserted in spaces cut
in a solid ground or basis, such as the modern Florentine mosaic, which
consists of thin veneers of precious coloured stones set in slabs of
marble. The Taj Mahal at Agra is an example of inlaid mosaic in white
marble, and the art, carried to that city by a French artist, is still
practised by native workmen. _Pietra dura_ is a fine variety of inlaid
mosaic in which hard and expensive stones--agate, cornelian, amethyst
and the like--are used in relief. Certain kinds of enamel might also be
included among the varieties of inlaying. (See also MARQUETRY and BOMBAY
FURNITURE.)



INMAN, HENRY (1801-1846), American artist, was born in Utica, New York,
on the 20th of October 1801. Apprenticed to the painter John W. Jarvis
at the age of fourteen, he left him after seven years and set up for
himself, painting portraits, genre and landscape. He was one of the
organizers of the National Academy of Design in New York and its first
vice-president (from 1826 until 1832). As a portrait painter he was
highly successful both in New York and Philadelphia, and going to
England in 1844, he had for sitters the Lord Chancellor (Cottenham), the
poet Wordsworth, Doctor Chalmers, Lord Macaulay and others. His American
sitters included President Van Buren and Chief Justice Marshall. He died
in New York City on the 17th of January 1846.



INN, a river of Europe, an important right bank tributary of the Danube.
It rises at an elevation of 7800 ft., in a small lake under the Piz
Longhino, in the Swiss canton of the Grisons. After flowing for a
distance of 55 m., through the Engadine it leaves Swiss territory at
Martinsbruck and enters Austria. It next plunges through the deep ravine
of Finstermünz, and, continuing in the main a north-easterly direction,
receives at Landeck the Rosanna. Hence its course becomes more rapid,
until, after swirling through the narrow and romantic Oberinnthal, it
enters the broader and pastoral Unterinnthal. It next passes Innsbruck
and from Hall, a few miles lower down, begins to be navigable for
barges. At Kufstein, down to which point it has still pursued a
north-easterly direction, it breaks through the north Tirol limestone
formation, and, now keeping a northerly course, enters at Rosenheim the
Bavarian high plateau. Its bed is now broad, studded with islands and
enclosed by high banks. Its chief tributaries on this last portion of
its course are the Alz and the Salzach, and at Passau, 309 m. from its
source, it joins the Danube, which river down to that point it equals in
length and far exceeds in volume of water. Its rapid current does not
permit of extensive navigation, but timber rafts are floated down from
above Innsbruck.

  See Greinz, _Eine Wanderung durch das Unterinntal_ (Stuttgart, 1902).



INN and INNKEEPER. An inn is a house where travellers are fed and lodged
for reward. A distinction has been drawn between tavern, inn and hotel,
the tavern supplying food and drink, the hotel lodging, the inn both;
but this is fanciful. "Hotel" now means "inn," and "inn" is often
applied to a mere public-house, whilst "tavern" is less used. "Inn,"
still the legal and best, as it is the oldest, is a form of the word
"in" or "within." This sense is retained in the case of the English
legal societies still known as INNS OF COURT (q.v.). In the Bible "inn"
means "lodging-place for the night." Hospitality has always been a
sacred duty in the East. The pilgrim or the traveller claims it as a
right. But some routes were crowded, as that from Bagdad to Babylon. On
these, _khans_ (in or near a town) and _caravanserais_ (in waste places)
were erected at the expense of the benevolent. They consisted of a
square building surrounded by a high wall; on the roof there was a
terrace and over the gateway a tower; inside, was a large court
surrounded by compartments in which was some rude provision for the
animals and baggage of the traveller as well as for himself. The latter
purchased his own food where he chose, and had to "do for himself." In
some such place Jesus was born. Tavern is mentioned once in Scripture
(Acts xxviii. 15) where it is said the brethren from Rome met Paul at
"the Three Taverns." This was a station on the Appian Way, referred to
also in Cicero's _Letters_ (_Ad Att._ ii. 12). So, in modern London,
stations are called "Elephant and Castle," or "Bricklayers' Arms," from
adjacent houses of entertainment. Among the Greeks inns and innkeepers
were held in low repute. The houses were bad and those who kept them had
a bad name. A self-respecting Greek entered them as seldom as possible;
if he travelled he relied on the hospitality of friends. In Rome under
the emperors something akin to the modern inn grew up. There is,
however, scarcely any mention of such institutions in the capital as
distinguished from mere wine-shops or eating-houses. Ambassadors were
lodged in apartments at the expense of the state. But along the great
roads that radiated from Rome there were inns. Horace's account of his
journey to Brundisium (_Sat._ i. 5), that brilliant picture of
contemporary travel, tells us of their existence, and the very name of
the Three Taverns shows that there was sufficient custom to support a
knot of these institutions at one place. Under the Roman law, the
innkeeper was answerable for the property of his guests unless the
damage was due to _damnum fatale_ or _vis major_, in modern language the
act of God or the king's enemies. He was also liable for damage done by
his servant or his slave or other inhabitant of the house.

In the middle ages hospitality was still regarded as a duty, and
provision for travellers was regularly made in the monasteries. People
of rank were admitted to the house itself, others sought the
guest-chamber, which sometimes stood (as at Battle Abbey) outside the
precincts. It consisted of a hall, round which were sleeping-rooms,
though the floor of the hall itself was often utilized. Again,
hospitality was rarely denied at the castle or country house. The knight
supped with his host at the daïs or upper part of the great hall, and
retired with him into his own apartment. His followers, or the meaner
strangers, sat lower down at meat, and after the tables had been removed
stretched themselves to rest upon the floor. In desolate parts hospices
were erected for the accommodation of pilgrims. Such existed in the
Alps and on all the great roads to the Holy Land or to famous shrines,
notably to that of Canterbury. The still impressive remains of the
Travellers' Hospital at Maidstone, founded by Archbishop Boniface in
1260, give an idea of the extent of such places. The mention of
Canterbury recalls two inns celebrated by Chaucer. The pilgrims started
from the "Tabard" at Southwark under the charge of Harry Baily the host,
and they put up at the "Checquers of the Hope," in Mercery Lane,
Canterbury. It is easy to infer that, as time went on, the meagre
hospitality of the monastery or the hospice was not sufficient for an
increasing middle class, and that the want was met by the development of
the mere ale-house into the inn. The "ale-house," to give it the old
English name, was always in evidence, and even in pre-Reformation days
was a favourite subject for the satirist. In Langland's _Piers the
Plowman_ and in Skelton's _Elynour Rummynge_ we have contemporary
pictures of ale-houses of the 14th and 16th centuries, but the Tabard is
quite a modern inn, with a _table d'hôte_ supper, a sign, a landlord
("right a mery man") and a reckoning!

It has been conjectured (Larwood and Hotten, _History of Signboards_,
1874) that the inn sign was taken or imitated from that displayed on the
town houses or _inns_ of noblemen and prelates. The innkeeper alone of
tradesmen retains his individual sign. The inn shared with the tavern
the long projecting pole garnished with branches. These poles had become
of such inordinate length in London that in 1375 they were restricted to
7 ft. But the inn of those times was still a simple affair. In each room
there were several beds, the price of which the prudent traveller
inquired beforehand. Extortion was frequent, though it was forbidden by
a statute of Edward III. The fare was simple; bread, meat and beer, with
fish on Fridays. The tavern sentiment is strong in Elizabethan
literature. The "Boar's Head" in Eastcheap is inseparably connected with
Sir John Falstaff and Dame Quickly. "Shall I not take mine ease in mine
Inn?" (1 Henry IV., Act iii. sc. 3) is well-nigh the most famous word of
the famous knight. A passage in Holinshed's _Chronicle_ (1587, i. 246)
explains the inner meaning of this. He assures us that the inns of
England are not as those of other lands. Abroad the guest is under the
tyranny of the host, but in England your inn is as your own house; in
your chamber you can do what you will, and the host is rather your
servant than your master. The "Mermaid" in Bread Street is associated
with the memory of many wits and poets--Raleigh, Shakespeare, Beaumont,
Fletcher, Ben Jonson--who frequented it and praised it.

Shenstone's lines as to "the warmest welcome at an inn" vent a common
but rather cheap cynicism. Doctor Johnson was a great frequenter of inns
and was outspoken in praise and blame. In the time immediately preceding
railways the inn, which was also a post-house where the public coach as
well as that of the private traveller changed horses, was a place of
much importance. We have it presented over and over again in the pages
of Dickens. The "Maypole" in _Barnaby Rudge_ may be singled out for
mention; it survives at Chigwell, Essex, as the "King's Head."

The effect of railways was to multiply hotels in great centres and
gradually increase their size till we have the huge structures so
plentiful to-day. The bicycle and later the motor car, through the
enormous traffic they caused on the country roads, have restored the old
wayside inns to more than their former prosperity.

In Scotland a statute (1424) of James I. ordained inns for man and
beast, with food and drink at reasonable prices, in each borough, and a
subsequent act prohibited lodging in private houses in places where
there were inns, under a penalty of 40s. But for centuries the Scots inn
was a poor affair. The Clachan of Aberfoyle in _Rob Roy_, kept by the
widow MacAlpine, was probably typical. In _St Ronan's Well_ Scott gives
the more pleasing picture of the Cleikum Inn, kept by the delightful Meg
Dods, and mention should be made of St Mary's Cottage, with its hostess
Tibby Shiels, the scene of one of the _Noctes Ambrosianae_, with
memories not merely of Scott but of Christopher North and the Ettrick
Shepherd. Burns had much to do with inns and taverns. If Poosie
Nancie's, where the Jolly Beggars held wild revel, is long vanished, the
Globe at Dumfries still exists, a fair sample of an inn of the period.
As late as 1841 Dickens, writing to John Foster during his first visit
to Scotland, describes the Highland inns as very poor affairs, "a mere
knot of little outhouses" he says of one; and even in Queen Victoria's
_Leaves from the Journal of Our Life in the Highlands_ the inn is
described as invariably small and unassuming. Thus the development of
hotels in Scotland did not begin much before the middle of the 19th
century.

In America the first hotel mentioned in New York is "Kriger's Tavern"
about 1642, replaced in 1703 by the "King's Arms." When the town came to
be English a proclamation was issued regulating the inns. Meals were not
to cost more than 8d. or beer 2d. per quart.

_Law Relating to Innkeepers._--Whether any special building is an inn is
a question of fact. A temperance hotel is an inn, but a mere
public-house is not. An innkeeper is bound to receive, lodge and feed
travellers if he has accommodation, if they are able and willing to pay,
and are not obviously objectionable. If he refuse he is liable at common
law to indictment, or an action will lie against him at the suit of the
would-be guest. Under the Army Act soldiers of all kinds may be billeted
on the innkeeper, even beyond his power to provide in his own house; he
must find accommodation for them elsewhere. An innkeeper must keep the
goods and chattels of his guest in safety, unless they are destroyed by
the act of God or the king's enemies. Under this last the king's
rebellious subjects are not included. He is not liable for goods stolen
or destroyed by the companion of the guest or through the guest's own
negligence. There are two theories as to the origin of this common law
liability of the innkeeper: (1) it was a survival of the liability of
the common trader, or (2) specially imposed from the nature of his
calling. Old English law held him to some extent suspect. The traveller
amongst strangers seemed forlorn and unprotected, and conspiracy with
thieves was dreaded. In modern times the landlord's responsibilities
were cut down by the Innkeepers Liability Act 1863. He is not liable
(save for horses and other live animals with their gear and carriages)
to a greater extent than £30, unless the loss is caused by the default
or neglect of himself or his servants, or the goods have been formally
deposited with him. He must conspicuously exhibit a copy of the material
parts of the act. The innkeeper may contract himself out of his common
law obligation, and, apart from negligence, he is not liable for injury
to the person or clothes of his guest. In return for these
responsibilities the law gives him a lien over his guest's goods till
his bill be paid. This is a particular and not a general lien. It
attaches only to the special goods brought by the guest to the inn, and
housed by the innkeeper with him. When several guests go together, the
lien extends to all their goods. The innkeeper is only bound to take
ordinary care of goods thus held, but he cannot use them or charge for
their house-room. By the custom of London and Exeter, "when a horse eats
out the price of his head," namely, when the cost of keep exceeds value,
the host may have him as his own. By the Innkeepers Act 1878, if goods
have been kept for six weeks they may be advertised and then sold after
the interval of a month. Although an advertisement in a London paper is
directed, this act (it would seem) applies to Scotland (J. A. Fleming,
in Green's _Encyclopaedia of the Law of Scotland_, vi. 363). In that
country the law is generally the same as in England, though it has been
held that the innkeeper is not responsible for loss by accidental fire.
Nor is his refusal to receive a guest a criminal offence. In the United
States the common law follows that of England, though laws of the
various states have diminished the liability of the innkeeper in much
the same fashion as in England. Innkeepers as retailers of intoxicating
liquors are subject to the provisions of the Licensing Laws.

  See Angus, _Bible Handbook_ (new ed., 1904); Beckmann's _Inventions_,
  tr. by Johnson (1846); Jusserand, _Les Anglais au moyen âge_ (1884);
  Liebenau, _Das Gasthof- und Wirtshauswesen der Schweiz_ _in älterer
  Zeit_ (1891); Kempt, _Convivial Caledonia_ (1893); F. W. Hackwood,
  _Inns, Ales and Drinking Customs of Old England_ (1909); Jelf and
  Hurst, _The Law of Innkeepers_ (1904). English and Roman law are
  compared in Pymar's _Law of Innkeepers_ (1892). For Scots law, see
  Bell's _Principles_. An American treatise is S. H. Wandell, _Law of
  Inns, Hotels and Boarding Houses_ (1888).     (F. Wa.)



INNERLEITHEN, a police burgh and health resort of Peeblesshire,
Scotland, on Leithen Water, near its junction with the Tweed, 6½ m. S.E.
of Peebles by the North British railway. Pop. (1901) 2181. In olden
times it seems to have been known as Hornehuntersland, and to have been
mentioned as early as 1159, when a son of Malcolm IV. (the Maiden) was
drowned in a pool of the Tweed, close to Leithenfoot. Its chief industry
is the manufacture of tweeds and fine yarns, which, together with the
fame of its medicinal springs, brought the burgh into prominence towards
the end of the 18th century. The spa, alleged to be the St Ronan's well
of Scott's novel of that name, has a pump-room, baths, &c. The saline
waters are useful in minor cases of dyspepsia and liver complaints. The
town is flanked on the W. by the hill fort of Caerlee (400 ft. long) and
on the E. by that of the Pirn (350 ft. long). Farther E., close to the
village of Walkerburn, are Purvis Hill terraces, a remarkable series of
earthen banks, from 50 ft. to more than 100 ft. wide, and with a length
varying up to 900 ft., the origin and purpose of which are unknown.
Traquair House, or Palace, on the right bank of the Tweed, is believed
to be the oldest inhabited house in Scotland, the most ancient portion
dating from the 10th century, and including a remnant of the castle. It
was largely added to by Sir John Stewart, first earl of Traquair (d.
1659) and is a good example of the Scottish Baronial mansion with
high-pitched roof and turreted angles. To the west of the house was the
arbour which formed the "bush aboon Traquair" of the songs by Robert
Crawford (d. 1733) and John Campbell Shairp, its site being indicated by
a few birch trees. James Nicol (1769-1819), the poet, was minister of
Traquair, and his son James Nicol (1810-1879), the geologist and
professor of natural history in Aberdeen University, was born in the
manse.



INNESS, GEORGE (1825-1894), American landscape painter, was born near
Newburgh, N.Y., on the 1st of May 1825. Before he was five years of age
his parents had moved to New York and afterwards to Newark, N.J., in
which latter city his boyhood was passed. He would not "take education"
at the town academy, nor was he a success as a greengrocer's boy. He had
a strong bent towards art, and his parents finally placed him with a
drawing-master named Barker. At sixteen he went to New York to study
engraving, but soon returned to Newark, where he continued sketching and
painting after his own initiative. In 1843 he was again in New York, and
is said to have passed a month in Gignoux's studio. But he was too
impetuous, too independent in thought, to accept teaching; and, besides,
the knowledge of his teachers must have been limited. Practically he was
self-taught, and always remained a student. In 1851 he went to Europe,
and in Italy got his first glimpse of real art. He was there two years,
and imbibed some traditions of the classic landscape. In 1854 he went to
France, and there studied the Barbizon painters, whom he greatly
admired, especially Daubigny and Rousseau. After his return to America
he opened a studio in New York, then went to Medfield, Mass., where he
resided for five years. A pastoral landscape near this town inspired the
characteristic painting "The Medfield Meadows." Again he went abroad and
spent six years in Europe. He came back to New York in 1876, and lived
there, or near there, until the year of his death, which took place at
Bridge of Allan on the 3rd of August 1894 while he was travelling in
Scotland. He was a National Academician, a member of the Society of
American Artists, and had received many honours at home and abroad. He
was married twice, his son, George Inness (b. 1854), being also a
painter. Inness was emphatically a man of temperament, of moods,
enthusiasms, convictions. He was fond of speculation and experiment in
metaphysics and religion, as in poetry and art. Swedenborgianism,
symbolism, socialism, appealed to him as they might to a mystic or an
idealist. He aspired to the perfect unities, and was impatient of
structural foundations. This was his attitude towards painting. He
sought the sentiment, the light, air, and colour of nature, but was put
out by nature's forms. How to subordinate form without causing weakness
was his problem, as it was Corot's. His early education gave him no
great technical facility, so that he never was satisfied with his
achievement. He worked over his pictures incessantly, retouching with
paint, pencil, coal, ink--anything that would give the desired
effect--yet never content with them. In his latter days it was almost
impossible to get a picture away from him, and after his death his
studio was found to be full of experimental canvases. He was a very
uneven painter, and his experiments were not always successful. His was
an original--a distinctly American--mind in art. Most of his American
subjects were taken from New York state, New Jersey and New England. His
point of view was his own. At his best he was often excellent in poetic
sentiment, and superb in light, air and colour. He had several styles:
at first he was somewhat grandiloquent in Roman scenes, but sombre in
colour; then under French influence his brush grew looser, as in the
"Grey Lowering Day"; finally he broke out in full colour and light, as
in the "Niagara" and the last "Delaware Water-Gap." Some of his pictures
are in American museums, but most of them are in private hands.
     (J. C. Van D.)



INNOCENT (INNOCENTIUS), the name of thirteen popes and one antipope.

INNOCENT I., pope from 402 to 417, was the son of Pope Anastasius I. It
was during his papacy that the siege of Rome by Alaric (408) took place,
when, according to a doubtful anecdote of Zosimus, the ravages of plague
and famine were so frightful, and help seemed so far off, that papal
permission was granted to sacrifice and pray to the heathen deities; the
pope was, however, absent from Rome on a mission to Honorius at Ravenna
at the time of the sack in 410. He lost no opportunity of maintaining
and extending the authority of the Roman see as the ultimate resort for
the settlement of all disputes; and his still extant communications to
Victricius of Rouen, Exuperius of Toulouse, Alexander of Antioch and
others, as well as his action on the appeal made to him by Chrysostom
against Theophilus of Alexandria, show that opportunities of the kind
were numerous and varied. He took a decided view on the Pelagian
controversy, confirming the decisions of the synod of the province of
proconsular Africa held in Carthage in 416, which had been sent to him.
He wrote in the same year in a similar sense to the fathers of the
Numidian synod of Mileve who, Augustine being one of their number, had
addressed him. Among his letters are one to Jerome and another to John,
bishop of Jerusalem, regarding annoyances to which the first named had
been subjected by the Pelagians at Bethlehem. He died on the 12th of
March 417, and in the Roman Church is commemorated as a confessor along
with Saints Nazarius, Celsus and Victor, martyrs, on the 28th of July.
His successor was Zosimus.

INNOCENT II. (Gregorio Paparesci dei Guidoni), pope from 1130 to 1143,
was originally a Benedictine monk. His ability, pure life and political
connexions raised him rapidly to power. Made cardinal deacon of Sant
Angelo in Pescheria by Paschal II. he was employed in various diplomatic
missions. Calixtus II. appointed him one of the ambassadors who made
peace with the Empire and drew up the Concordat of Worms (1122), and in
the following year, with his later enemy Cardinal Peter Pierleoni, he
was papal legate in France. On the 13th of February 1130 Honorius II.
died, and on that night a minority of the Sacred College elected
Paparesci, who took the name of Innocent II. After a hasty consecration
he was forced to take refuge with a friendly noble by the faction of
Pierleoni, who was elected pope under the name of Anacletus II. by a
majority of the cardinals. Declaring that the cardinals had been
intimidated, Innocent refused to recognize their choice; by June,
however, he was obliged to flee to France. Here his title was recognized
by a synod called by Bernard of Clairvaux at Étampes. Similar action was
taken in Germany by the synod of Würzburg. In January 1131 Innocent held
a personal interview with King Henry I. of England at Chartres, and in
March, at Liége, with the German King Lothair, whom he induced to
undertake a campaign against Anacletus. The German army invaded Italy in
August 1132, and occupied Rome, all except St Peter's church and the
castle of St Angelo which held out against them. Lothair was crowned
emperor at the Lateran in June 1133, and as a further reward Innocent
gave him the territories of the Countess Mathilda as a fief, but refused
to surrender the right of investiture. Left to himself Innocent again
had to flee, this time to Pisa. Here he called a council which condemned
Anacletus. A second expedition of Lothair expelled Roger of Sicily (to
whom Anacletus had given the title of king in return for his support)
from southern Italy, but a quarrel with Innocent prevented the emperor
attacking Rome. At this crisis, in January 1138, Anacletus died, and a
successor elected by his faction, as Victor IV., resigned after two
months. The Lateran council of 1139 restored peace to the Church,
excommunicating Roger of Sicily, against whom Innocent undertook an
expedition which proved unsuccessful. In matters of doctrine the pope
supported Bernard of Clairvaux in his prosecution of Abelard and Arnold
of Brescia, whom he condemned as heretics. The remaining years of
Innocent's life were taken up by a quarrel with the Roman commune, which
had set up an independent senate, and one with King Louis VII. of
France, about an appointment. France was threatened with the interdict,
but before matters came to a head Innocent died on the 22nd of September
1143.

  See Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopädie_, "Innocenz II.," with full
  references. Gregorovius, _History of Rome in the Middle Ages_, trans.
  by Hamilton (London, 1896), vol. iv. part ii. pp. 420-453.     (P. Sm.)

INNOCENT III. (Lando da Sezza), antipope (1179-1180), sprang from a
noble Lombard family. Opponents of Alexander III. tried to make him pope
in September 1179. Alexander, however, bribed his partisans to give him
up, and imprisoned him in the cloister of La Cava in January 1180.

INNOCENT III. (Lotario de' Conti di Segni), pope from 1198 to 1216, was
the son of Trasimondo, count of Segni, and of Claricia, a Roman lady of
the noble family of Scotti, and was born at Anagni about 1160. His early
education he received at Rome, whence he went to the university of Paris
and subsequently to that of Bologna. At Paris, where he attended the
lectures of Peter of Corbeil, he laid the foundations of his profound
knowledge of the scholastic philosophy; at Bologna he acquired an
equally profound knowledge of the canon and civil law. Thus
distinguished by birth, intellect and attainments, on his return to Rome
he rose rapidly in the church. He at once became a canon of St Peter's;
he was made subdeacon of the Roman Church by Gregory VIII.; and in 1190
his uncle, Pope Clement III., created him cardinal-deacon of Santi
Sergio e Baccho. The election of Celestine III. in the following year
withdrew Lotario for a while from the active work of the Curia, the new
pope belonging to the family of the Orsini, who were at feud with the
Scotti. Lotario, however, employed his leisure in writing several works:
_Mysteriorum evangelicae legis ac sacramenti eucharistiae libri VI._,
_De contemtu mundi, sive de miseria humanae conditionis_, and _De
quadrapartita specie nuptiarum_. Of these only the two first are extant;
they are written in the scholastic style, a sea of quotations balanced
and compared, and they witness at once to the writer's profound
erudition and to the fact that his mind had not yet emancipated itself
from the morbid tendencies characteristic of one aspect of medieval
thought. Yet Lotario was destined to be above all things a man of
action, and, though his activities to the end were inspired by
impracticable ideals, they were in their effects intensely practical;
and Innocent III. is remembered, not as a great theologian, but as a
great ruler and man of affairs.

On the 8th of January 1198 Celestine III. died, and on the same day
Lotario, though not even a priest, was unanimously elected pope by the
assembled cardinals. He took the name of Innocent III. On the 21st of
February he was ordained priest, and on the 22nd consecrated bishop.
Innocent was but thirty-seven years old at this time, and the vigour of
youth, guided by a master mind, was soon apparent in the policy of the
papacy. His first acts were to restore the prestige of the Holy See in
Italy, where it had been overshadowed by the power of the emperor Henry
VI. As pope it was his object to shake off the imperial yoke, as an
Italian prince to clear the land of the hated Germans. The circumstances
of the time were highly favourable to him. The early death of Henry VI.
(September 1197) had left Germany divided between rival candidates for
the crown, Sicily torn by warring factions of native and German barons.
It was, then, easy for Innocent to depose the imperial prefect in Rome
itself and to oust the German feudatories who held the great Italian
fiefs for the Empire. Spoleto fell; Perugia surrendered; Tuscany
acknowledged the leadership of the pope; papal _rectores_ once more
governed the patrimony of St Peter. Finally, Henry's widow, Constance,
in despair, acknowledged the pope as overlord of the two Sicilies, and
on her death (November 27, 1198) appointed him guardian of her infant
son Frederick. Thus in the first year of his pontificate Innocent had
established himself as the protector of the Italian nation against
foreign aggression, and had consolidated in the peninsula a secure basis
on which to build up his world-power.

The effective assertion of this world-power is the characteristic
feature of Innocent's pontificate. Other popes before him--from Gregory
VII. onwards--had upheld the theory of the supremacy of the spiritual
over the temporal authority, with various fortune; it was reserved for
Innocent to make it a reality. The history of the processes by which he
accomplished this is given elsewhere. Here it will suffice to deal with
it in the broadest outline. In Germany his support of Otto IV. against
Philip of Swabia, then of Philip against Otto and finally, after
Philip's murder (June 21, 1208), of the young Frederick II. against
Otto, effectually prevented the imperial power, during his pontificate,
from again becoming a danger to that of the papacy in Italy. Concessions
at the cost of the Empire in Italy were in every case the price of his
support (see GERMANY: _History_). In his relations with the German
emperors Innocent acted partly as pope, partly as an Italian prince; his
victories over other and more distant potentates he won wholly in his
spiritual capacity. Thus he forced the masterful Philip Augustus of
France to put away Agnes of Meran and take, back his Danish wife
Ingeborg, whom he had wrongfully divorced; he compelled Peter of Aragon
to forgo his intended marriage with Bianca of Navarre and ultimately
(1204) to receive back his kingdom as a fief of the Holy See; he forced
Alphonso IX. of Leon to put away his wife Berengaria of Castile, who was
related to him within the prohibited degrees, though he pronounced their
children legitimate. Sancho of Portugal was compelled to pay the tribute
promised by his father to Rome, and Ladislaus of Poland to cease from
infringing the rights of the church. Even the distant north felt the
weight of Innocent's power, and the archbishop of Trondhjem was called
to order for daring to remove the ban of excommunication from the
repentant King Haakon IV., as an infringement of the exclusive right of
the pope to impose or remove the ban of the church in the case of
sovereigns. So widespread was the prestige of the pope that Kaloyan,
prince of Bulgaria, hoping to strengthen himself against internal foes
and the aggressions of the Eastern Empire, submitted to Rome and, in
November 1204, received the insignia of royalty from the hands of the
papal legates as the vassal of the Holy See.

Meanwhile Innocent had been zealous in promoting the crusade which
ultimately, under the Doge Dandolo, led to the Latin occupation of
Constantinople (see CRUSADES). This diversion from its original object
was at first severely censured by Innocent; but an event which seemed to
put an end to the schism of East and West came to wear a different
aspect; he was the first pope to nominate a patriarch of Constantinople,
and he expressed the hope that henceforth the church would be "one fold
under one shepherd." By a bull of October 12, 1204, moreover, Innocent
proclaimed the same indulgences for a crusade to Livonia as the Holy
Land. The result was the "conversion" of the Livonians (1206) and the
Letts (1208) by the crusaders headed by the knights of the Teutonic
Order. The organization of the new provinces thus won for the church
Innocent kept in his own hands, instituting the new archbishopric of
Riga and defining the respective jurisdictions of the archbishops and
the Teutonic Knights, a process which, owing to the ignorance at Rome of
the local geography, led to curious confusion.

Another crusade, horrible in its incidents and momentous in its
consequences, was that proclaimed by Innocent in 1207 against the
Albigenses. In this connexion all that can be said in his favour is that
he acted from supreme conviction; that the heresies against which he
appealed to the sword were really subversive of Christian civilization;
and that he did not use force until for ten years he had tried all the
arts of persuasion in vain (see ALBIGENSES).

Of all Innocent's triumphs, however, the greatest was his victory over
King John of England. The quarrel between the pope and the English king
arose out of a dispute as to the election to the vacant see of
Canterbury, which Innocent had settled by nominating Stephen Langton
over the heads of both candidates. John refusing to submit, Innocent
imposed an interdict on the kingdom and threatened him with a crusade;
and, to avert a worse fate, the English king not only consented to
recognize Langton but also to hold England and Ireland as fiefs of the
Holy See, subject to an annual tribute (May 1213). The submission was no
idle form; for years the pope virtually ruled England through his
legates (see ENGLISH HISTORY and JOHN, KING OF ENGLAND). So great had
the secular power of the papacy become that a Byzantine visitor to Rome
declared Innocent to be "the successor not of Peter but of Constantine."

As in the affairs of the world at large, so also in those of the church
itself, Innocent's authority exceeded that of all his predecessors.
Under him the centralization of the ecclesiastical administration at
Rome received a great impulse, and the independent jurisdiction of
metropolitans and bishops was greatly curtailed. In carrying out this
policy his unrivalled knowledge of the canon law gave him a great
advantage. To his desire to organize the discipline of the church was
due the most questionable of his expedients: the introduction of the
system of provisions and reservations, by which he sought to bring the
patronage of sees and benefices into his own hands--a system which led
later to intolerable abuses.

The year before Innocent's death the twelfth ecumenical council
assembled at the Lateran under his presidency. It was a wonderful proof
at once of the world-power of the pope and of his undisputed personal
ascendancy. It was attended by the plenipotentiaries of the emperor, of
kings and of princes, and by some 1500 archbishops, bishops, abbots and
other dignitaries. The business before it, the disciplining of heretics
and Jews, and the proclamation of a new crusade, &c., vitally concerned
the states represented; yet there was virtually no debate and the
function of the great assembly was little more than to listen to and
endorse the decretals read by the pope (see LATERAN COUNCILS). Shortly
after this crowning exhibition of his power the great pope died on the
16th of July 1216.

Innocent III. is one of the greatest historical figures, both in the
grandeur of his aims and the force of character which brought him so
near to their realization. An appreciation of his work and personality
will be found in the article PAPACY; here it will suffice to say that,
whatever judgment posterity may have passed on his aims, opinion is
united as to the purity of the motives that inspired them and the
tireless self-devotion with which they were pursued. "I have no
leisure," Innocent once sighed, "to meditate on supermundane things;
scarce I can breathe. Yea, so much must I live for others, that almost I
am a stranger to myself." Yet he preached frequently, both at Rome and
on his journeys--many of his sermons, inspired by a high moral
earnestness, have come down to us--and, towards the end of his life, he
found time to write a pious exposition of the Psalms. His views on the
papal supremacy are best explained in his own words. Writing to the
patriarch of Constantinople (_Inn. III., lib._ ii. _ep._ 200) he says:
"The Lord left to Peter the governance not of the church only but of the
whole world;" and again in his letter to King John of England (_lib._
xvi. ep. 131): "The King of Kings ... so established the kingship and
the priesthood in the church, that the kingship should be priestly, and
the priesthood royal (_ut sacerdotale sit regnum et sacerdotium sit
regale_), as is evident from the epistle of Peter and the law of Moses,
setting one over all, whom he appointed his vicar on earth." In his
answer to the ambassadors of Philip Augustus he states the premises from
which this stupendous claim is logically developed:--

  "To princes power is given on earth, but to priests it is attributed
  also in heaven; to the former only over bodies, to the latter also
  over souls. Whence it follows that by so much as the soul is superior
  to the body, the priesthood is superior to the kingship.... Single
  rulers have single provinces, and single kings single kingdoms; but
  Peter, as in the plenitude, so in the extent of his power is
  pre-eminent over all, since he is the Vicar of Him whose is the earth
  and the fullness thereof, the whole wide world and all that dwell
  therein."

To the emperor of Constantinople, who quoted 1 Peter ii. 13, 14, to the
contrary, he replied in perfect good faith that the apostle's admonition
to obey "the king as supreme was addressed to lay folk and not to the
clergy." The more intelligent laymen of the time were not convinced even
when coerced. Even so pious a Catholic as the minnesinger Walther von
der Vogelweide, giving voice to the indignation of German laymen,
ascribed Innocent's claims, not to soundness of his scholastic logic,
but to the fact that he was "too young" (_owê der babest ist ze junc_).

  The literature on Innocent III. is very extensive; a carefully
  analysed bibliography will be found in Herzog-Hauck,
  _Realencyklopädie_ (3rd ed., 1901) s. "Innocenz III." In A. Potthast,
  _Bibliotheca hist. med. aevi_ (2nd ed., Berlin, 1896), p. 650, is a
  bibliography of the literature on Innocent's writings. In the _Corpus
  juris canonici_, ed. Aemilius Friedberg (Leipzig, 1881), vol. ii., pp.
  xiv.-xvii., are lists of the official documents of Innocent III.
  excerpted in the _Decretales Gregorii IX_. The most important later
  works on Innocent III. are Achille Luchaire's _Innocent III, Rome et
  l'Italie_ (Paris, 1904), _Innocent III, la croisade des Albigeois_
  (_ib._ 1905), _Innocent III, la papauté et l'empire_ (_ib._ 1906),
  _Innocent III, la question d'orient_ (_ib._ 1906); _Innocent III, les
  royautés vassales du Saint-Siège_ (_ib._ 1908); and _Innocent III, la
  concile de latran et la réforme de l'église_ (1908); _Innocent the
  Great_, by C. H. C. Pirie-Gordon (London, 1907); is the only English
  monograph on this pope and contains some useful documents, but is
  otherwise of little value. See also H. H. Milman, _History of Latin
  Christianity_, vol. v.; F. Gregorovius, _Rome in the Middle Ages_,
  translated by A. Hamilton (1896), vol. v. pp. 5-110; J. C. L.
  Gieseler, _Ecclesiastical Hist._, translated by J. W. Hull, vol. iii.
  (Edinburgh, 1853), which contains numerous excerpts from his letters,
  &c. Innocent's works are found in Migne, _Patrologiae Cursus
  Completus, Series Latina_, vols. ccxiv.-ccxvii. For a translation of
  Innocent's answer to King John on the interdict, and John's surrender
  of England and Ireland to Innocent, see Gee and Hardy, _Documents
  illustrative of Church History_ (London, 1896), pp. 73 et seq.
       (W. A. P.)

INNOCENT IV. (Sinibaldo Fiesco), pope 1243-1254, belonged to the noble
Genoese family of the counts of Lavagna. Born at Genoa, he was educated
under the care of his uncle Opizo, bishop of Parma. After taking orders
at Parma, when he was made canon of the cathedral, he studied
jurisprudence at Bologna. His first recorded appearance in political
affairs was in 1218-1219, when he was associated with Cardinal Hugolinus
(afterwards Gregory IX.) in negotiating a peace between Genoa and Pisa.
This led to his rapid promotion. In 1223 Pope Honorius III. gave him a
benefice in Parma, and in 1226 he was established at the curia as
_auditor contradictarum literarum_ of the pope, a post he held also
under Gregory IX., until promoted (1227) to be vice-chancellor of the
Roman Church. In September of the same year he was created cardinal
priest of San Lorenzo in Lucina. He was papal _rector_ (governor) of the
March of Ancona from 1235 to 1240. On the 25th of June 1243 he was
elected pope by the cardinals assembled at Anagni.

Innocent was raised to the Holy See when it was at deadly feud with the
emperor Frederick II., who lay under excommunication. Frederick at first
greeted the elevation of a member of an imperialist family with joy; but
it was soon clear that Innocent intended to carry on the traditions of
his predecessors. Embassies and courtesies were, indeed, interchanged,
and on the 31st of March 1244 a treaty was signed at Rome, whereby the
emperor undertook to satisfy the pope's claims in return for his own
absolution from the ban. Neither side, however, was prepared to take
the first steps to carry out the agreement, and Innocent, who had
ventured back to Rome, began to feel unsafe in the city, where the
imperial partisans had the ascendancy. Fearing a plan to kidnap him, he
left Rome, ostensibly to meet the emperor, and from Sutri fled by night
on horseback, pursued by 300 of the emperor's cavalry, to Civitavecchia,
whence he took ship for Genoa and thence proceeded across the Alps to
Lyons, at that time a merely nominal dependence of the Empire. Thence he
wrote to the French king, Louis IX., asking for an asylum in France; but
this Louis cautiously refused. Innocent, therefore, remained at Lyons,
whence he issued a summons to a general council, before which he cited
Frederick to appear in person, or by deputy. The council, which met on
the 5th of June 1245, was attended only by those prepared to support the
pope's cause; and though Frederick condescended to be represented by his
justiciar, Thaddeus of Suessa, the judgment was a foregone conclusion.
On the 17th of July Innocent formally renewed the sentence of
excommunication on the emperor, and declared him deposed from the
imperial throne and that of Naples. Frederick retorted by announcing his
intention of reducing "the clergy, especially the highest, to a state of
apostolic poverty," and by ordaining the severest punishments for those
priests who should obey the papal sentence. Innocent thereupon
proclaimed a crusade against the emperor and armed his ubiquitous
agents, the Franciscan and Dominican friars, with special indulgences
for all those who should take up the cross against the imperial heretic.
At the same time he did all in his power to undermine Frederick's
authority in Germany and Italy. In Naples he fomented a conspiracy among
the feudal lords, who were discontented with the centralized government
established under the auspices of Frederick's chancellor, Piero della
Vigna. In Germany, at his instigation, the archbishops with a few of the
secular nobles in 1246 elected Henry Raspe, landgrave of Thuringia,
German king; but the "priests' king," as he was contemptuously called,
died in the following year, William II., count of Holland, being after
some delay elected by the papal party in his stead.

Innocent's relentless war against Frederick was not supported by the lay
opinion of his time. In Germany, where it wrought havoc and misery, it
increased the already bitter resentment against the priests. From
England the pope's legate was driven by threats of personal violence. In
France not even the saintly King Louis IX., who made several vain
attempts to mediate, approved the pope's attitude; and the failure of
the crusade which, in 1248, he led against the Mussulmans in Egypt, was,
with reason, ascribed to the deflection of money and arms from this
purpose to the war against the emperor. Even the clergy were by no means
altogether on Innocent's side; the council of Lyons was attended by but
150 bishops, mainly French and Spanish, and the deputation from England,
headed by Robert Grossetête of Lincoln and Roger Bigod, came mainly in
order to obtain the canonization of Edmund of Canterbury and to protest
against papal exactions. Yet, for better or for worse, Innocent
triumphed. His financial position was from the outset strong, for not
only had he the revenue from the accustomed papal dues but he had also
the support of the powerful religious orders; e.g. in November 1245 he
visited the abbey of Cluny and was presented by the abbot with gifts,
the value of which surprised even the papal officials. At first the war
went in Frederick's favour; then came the capture of the strategically
important city of Parma by papal partisans (June 16th, 1247). From this
moment fortune changed. On the 18th of February 1248 Frederick's camp
before Parma (the temporary town of Vittoria) was taken and sacked, the
imperial insignia--of vast significance in those days--being captured.
From this blow the emperor never recovered; and when on the 13th of
December 1250 he died Innocent greeted the news by quoting from Psalm
xcvi. 11, "Let the heavens rejoice and let the earth be glad."

On the 19th of April 1251 Innocent left Lyons, which had suffered
severely from his presence, and returned to Italy. He continued the
struggle vigorously with Frederick's son and successor, Conrad IV., who
in 1252 descended into Italy, reduced the rebellious cities and claimed
the imperial crown. Innocent, determined that the Hohenstaufen should
not again dominate Italy, offered the crown of Sicily in turn to Richard
of Cornwall, Charles of Anjou, and Henry III. of England, the last of
whom accepted the doubtful gift for his son Edmund. Even after Conrad's
capture of Naples Innocent remained inexorable; for he feared that Rome
itself might fall into the hands of the German king. But fortune
favoured him. On the 20th of May 1254 Conrad died, leaving his infant
son Conradin, as Henry VI. had left Frederick II., under the pope's
guardianship. Innocent accepted the charge and posed as the champion of
the infant king. He held, indeed, to his bargain with Henry III. and,
with all too characteristic nepotism, exercised his rights over the
Sicilian kingdom by nominating his own relations to its most important
offices. Finally, when Manfred, who by Frederick's will had been charged
with the government of the two Sicilies, felt obliged to acknowledge the
pope's suzerainty, Innocent threw off the mask, ignored Conradin's
claims, and on the 24th of October formally asserted his own claims to
Calabria and Sicily. He entered Naples on the 27th; but meanwhile
Manfred had fled and had raised a considerable force; and the news of
his initial successes against the papal troops reached Innocent as he
lay sick and hastened his end. He died on the 7th of December 1254.

Innocent IV. is comparable to his greater predecessor Innocent III.
mainly in the extreme assertion of the papal claims. "The emperor," he
wrote, "doubts and denies that all men and all things are subject to the
See of Rome. As if we who are judges of angels are not to give sentence
on earthly things.... The ignorant assert that Constantine first gave
temporal power to the See of Rome; it was already bestowed by Christ
Himself, the true King and Priest, as inalienable from its nature and
absolutely unconditional. Christ established not only a pontifical but a
royal sovereignty (_principatus_) and committed to blessed Peter and his
successors the empire both of earth and heaven, as is sufficiently
proved by the plurality of the keys" (_Codex epist. Vatic._ No. 4957,
49, quoted in Raumer, _Hohenstaufen_, iv. 78). But this language, which
in the mouth of Innocent III. had been consecrated by the greatness of
his character and aims, was less impressive when it served as a cloak
for an unlimited personal ambition and a family pride which displayed
itself in unblushing nepotism. Yet in some respects Innocent IV. carried
on the high traditions of his great predecessors. Thus he admonished
Sancho II. of Portugal to turn from his evil courses and, when the king
disobeyed, absolved the Portuguese from their allegiance, bestowing the
crown on his brother Alphonso. He also established an ecclesiastical
organization in the newly converted provinces of Prussia, which he
divided into four dioceses; but his attempt to govern the Baltic
countries through a legate broke on the opposition of the Teutonic
Order, whose rights in Prussia he had confirmed.

It was Innocent IV. who, at the council of Lyons, first bestowed the red
hat on the Roman cardinals, as a symbol of their readiness to shed their
blood in the cause of the church.

Innocent was a canon lawyer of some eminence. His small work _De
exceptionibus_ was probably written before he became pope; but the
_Apparatus in quinque libros decretalium_, which displays both practical
sense and a remarkable mastery of the available materials, was written
at Lyons immediately after the council. His _Apologeticus_, a defence of
the papal claims against the Empire, written--as is supposed--in
refutation of Piero della Vigna's argument in favour of the independence
of the Empire, has been lost. Innocent was also a notable patron of
learning, he encouraged Alexander of Hales to write his _Summa universae
theologiae_, did much for the universities, notably the Sorbonne, and
founded law schools at Rome and Piacenza.

  Innocent's letters, the chief source for his life, are collected by E.
  Berger in _Les Registres d'Innocent IV_ (3 vols., Paris, 1884-1887).
  For English readers the account in Milman's _Latin Christianity_, vol.
  vi. (3rd ed., 1864) is still useful. Full references will be found in
  Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopädie_, vol. ix. (1901).     (W. A. P.)

INNOCENT V. (Pierre de Champagni or de Tarentaise), pope from the 21st
of January to the 22nd of June 1276, was born about 1225 in Savoy and
entered the Dominican order at an early age. He studied theology under
Thomas Aquinas, Albertus Magnus and Bonaventura, and in 1262 was elected
provincial of his order in France. He was made archbishop of Lyons in
1271; cardinal-bishop of Ostia and Velletri, and grand penitentiary in
1275; and, partly through the influence of Charles of Anjou, was elected
to succeed Gregory X. As pope he established peace between the republics
of Lucca and Pisa, and confirmed Charles of Anjou in his office of
imperial vicar of Tuscany. He was seeking to carry out the Lyons
agreement with the Eastern Church when he died. His successor was Adrian
V. Innocent V., before he became pope, prepared, in conjunction with
Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas, a rule of studies for his order,
which was accepted in June 1259. He was the author of several works in
philosophy, theology and canon law, including commentaries on the
Scriptures and on the Sentences of Peter Lombard, and is sometimes
referred to as _famosissimus doctor_. He preached the funeral sermon at
Lyons over St Bonaventura. His bulls are in the Turin collection (1859).

  See F. Gregorovius, _Rome in the Middle Ages_, vol. 5, trans. by Mrs
  G. W. Hamilton (London, 1900-1902); A. Potthast, _Regesta, pontif.
  Roman._ vol. ii. (Berlin, 1875); E. Bourgeois, _Le Bienheureux
  Innocent V_ (Paris, 1899); J. E. Borel, _Notice biogr. sur Pierre de
  Tarentaise_ (Chambéry, 1890); P. J. Béthaz, _Pierre des Cours de la
  Salle, pape sous le nom Innocent V_ (Augustae, 1891); L. Carboni, _De
  Innocentio V. Romano pontifice_ (1894).     (C. H. Ha.)

INNOCENT VI. (Étienne Aubert), pope from the 18th of December 1352 to
the 12th of September 1362, was born at Mons in Limousin. He became
professor of civil law at Toulouse and subsequently chief judge of the
city. Having taken orders, he was raised to the see of Noyon and
translated in 1340 to that of Clermont. In 1342 he was made
cardinal-priest of Sti Giovanni e Paolo, and ten years later
cardinal-bishop of Ostia and Velletri, grand penitentiary, and
administrator of the bishopric of Avignon. On the death of Clement VI.,
the cardinals made a solemn agreement imposing obligations, mainly in
favour of the college as a whole, on whichever of their number should be
elected pope. Aubert was one of the minority who signed the agreement
with the reservation that in so doing he would not violate any law, and
was elected pope on this understanding; not long after his accession he
declared the agreement null and void, as infringing the
divinely-bestowed power of the papacy. Innocent was one of the best
Avignon popes and filled with reforming zeal; he revoked the
reservations and commendations of his predecessor and prohibited
pluralities; urged upon the higher clergy the duty of residence in their
sees, and diminished the luxury of the papal court. Largely through the
influence of Petrarch, whom he called to Avignon, he released Cola di
Rienzo, who had been sent a prisoner in August 1352 from Prague to
Avignon, and used the latter to assist Cardinal Albornoz, vicar-general
of the States of the Church, in tranquillizing Italy and restoring the
papal power at Rome. Innocent caused Charles IV. to be crowned emperor
at Rome in 1355, but protested against the famous "Golden Bull" of the
following year, which prohibited papal interference in German royal
elections. He renewed the ban against Peter the Cruel of Castile, and
interfered in vain against Peter IV. of Aragon. He made peace between
Venice and Genoa, and in 1360 arranged the treaty of Bretigny between
France and England. In the last years of his pontificate he was busied
with preparations for a crusade and for the reunion of Christendom, and
sent to Constantinople the celebrated Carmelite monk, Peter Thomas, to
negotiate with the claimants to the Greek throne. He instituted in 1354
the festival of the Holy Lance. Innocent was a strong and earnest man of
monastic temperament, but not altogether free from nepotism. He was
succeeded by Urban V.

  The chief sources for the life of Innocent VI. are in Baluzius, _Vitae
  Pap. Avenion_, vol. i. (Paris, 1693); _Magnum bullarium Romanum_, vol.
  iv. (Turin, 1859); E. Werunsky, _Excerpta ex registris Clementis VI.
  et Innocentii VI._ (Innsbruck, 1885). See also L. Pastor _History of
  the Popes_, vol. i. trans. by F. I. Antrobus (London, 1899); F.
  Gregorovius, _Rome in the Middle Ages_, vol. 6, trans. by Mrs G. W.
  Hamilton (London, 1900-1902); D. Cerri, _Innocenzo Papa VI._ (Turin,
  1873); J. B. Christophe, _Histoire de la papauté pendant le XIV^e
  siècle_, vol. 2 (Paris, 1853); M. Souchon, _Die Papstwahlen_
  (Brunswick, 1888); G. Daumet, _Innocent VI. et Blanche de Bourbon_
  (Paris, 1899); E. Werunsky, _Gesch. Kaiser Karls IV._ (Innsbruck,
  1892). There is an excellent article by M. Naumann in Hauck's
  _Realencyklopädie_, 3rd ed.     (C. H. Ha.)

INNOCENT VII. (Cosimo dei Migliorati), pope from the 17th of October
1404 to the 6th of November 1406, was born of middle-class parentage at
Sulmona in the Abruzzi in 1339. On account of his knowledge of civil and
canon law, he was made papal vice-chamberlain and archbishop of Ravenna
by Urban VI., and appointed by Boniface IX. cardinal priest of Sta Croce
in Gerusalemme, bishop of Bologna, and papal legate to England. He was
unanimously chosen to succeed Boniface, after each of the cardinals had
solemnly bound himself to employ all lawful means for the restoration of
the church's unity in the event of his election, and even, if necessary,
to resign the papal dignity. The election was opposed at Rome by a
considerable party, but peace was maintained by the aid of Ladislaus of
Naples, in return for which Innocent made a promise, inconsistent with
his previous oath, not to come to terms with the antipope Benedict
XIII., except on condition that he should recognize the claims of
Ladislaus to Naples. Innocent issued at the close of 1404 a summons for
a general council to heal the schism, and it was not the pope's fault
that the council never assembled, for the Romans rose in arms to secure
an extension of their liberties, and finally maddened by the murder of
some of their leaders by the pope's nephew, Ludovico dei Migliorati,
they compelled Innocent to take refuge at Viterbo (6th of August 1405).
The Romans, recognizing later the pope's innocence of the outrage, made
their submission to him in January 1406. He returned to Rome in March,
and, by bull of the 1st of September, restored the city's decayed
university. Innocent was extolled by contemporaries as a lover of peace
and honesty, but he was without energy, guilty of nepotism, and showed
no favour to the proposal that he as well as the antipope should resign.
He died on the 6th of November 1406 and was succeeded by Gregory XII.

  See L. Pastor, _History of the Popes_, vol. i., trans. by F. I.
  Antrobus (London, 1899); M. Creighton, _History of the Papacy_, vol.
  i. (London, 1899); N. Valois, _La France et le grand schisme
  d'occident_ (Paris, 1896-1902); Louis Gayet, _Le Grand Schisme
  d'occident_ (Paris, 1898); J. Loserth, _Geschichte des späteren
  Mittelalters_ (1903); Theodorici de Nyem, _De schismate libri tres_,
  ed. by G. Erler (Leipzig, 1890); K. J. von Hefele,
  _Conciliengeschichte_, Bd. 6, 2nd ed.; J. von Haller, _Papsttum u.
  Kirchenreform_ (Berlin, 1903).     (C. H. Ha.)

INNOCENT VIII. (Giovanni Battista Cibo), pope from the 29th of August
1484 to the 25th of July 1492, successor of Sixtus IV., was born at
Genoa (1432), the son of Arano Cibo, who under Calixtus III. had been a
senator of Rome. His youth, spent at the Neapolitan court, was far from
blameless, and it is not certain that he was married to the mother of
his numerous family. He later took orders, and, through the favour of
Cardinal Calandrini, half-brother of Nicholas V., obtained from Paul II.
the bishopric of Savona. Sixtus IV. translated him to the see of
Molfetta, and in 1473 created him cardinal-priest of Sta Balbina,
subsequently of Sta Cecilia. As pope, he addressed a fruitless summons
to Christendom to unite in a crusade against the infidels, and concluded
in 1489 a treaty with Bayezid II., agreeing in consideration of an
annual payment of 40,000 ducats and the gift of the Holy Lance, to
detain the sultan's fugitive brother Jem in close confinement in the
Vatican. Innocent excommunicated and deposed Ferdinand, king of Naples,
by bull of the 11th of September 1489, for refusal to pay the papal
dues, and gave his kingdom to Charles VIII. of France, but in 1492
restored Ferdinand to favour. He declared (1486) Henry VII. to be lawful
king of England by the threefold right of conquest, inheritance and
popular choice, and approved his marriage with Elizabeth, the daughter
of Edward IV. Innocent, like his predecessor, hated heresy, and in the
bull _Summis desiderantes_ (5th of December 1484) he instigated very
severe measures against magicians and witches in Germany; he prohibited
(1486) on pain of excommunication the reading of the propositions of
Pico della Mirandola; he appointed (1487) T. Torquemada to be grand
inquisitor of Spain; and he offered plenary indulgence to all who would
engage in a crusade against the Waldenses. He took the first steps
towards the canonization of Queen Margaret of Scotland, and sent
missionaries under Portuguese auspices to the Congo. An important event
of his pontificate was the capture of Granada (2nd of January 1492),
which was celebrated at Rome with great rejoicing and for which Innocent
gave to Ferdinand of Aragon the title of "Catholic Majesty." Innocent
was genial, skilled in flattery, and popular with the Romans, but he
lacked talent and relied on the stronger will of Cardinal della Rovere,
afterwards Julius II. His Curia was notoriously corrupt, and he himself
openly practised nepotism in favour of his children, concerning whom the
epigram is quoted: "Octo nocens pueros genuit, totidemque puellas:--Hunc
merito poterit dicere Roma patrem." Thus he gave to his undeserving son
Franceschetto several towns near Rome and married him to the daughter of
Lorenzo de' Medici. Innocent died on the 25th of July 1492, and was
succeeded by Alexander VI.

  The sources for the life of Innocent VIII. are to be found in L.
  Muratori, _Rerum Italicarum Scriptores_, vol. 3, and in Raynaldus, a.
  1484-1492. See also L. Pastor, _History of the Popes_, vol. 5, trans.
  by F. I. Antrobus (London, 1898); M. Creighton, _History of the
  Papacy_, vol. 4 (London, 1901); F. Gregorovius, _Rome in the Middle
  Ages_, vol. 7, trans. by Mrs. G. W. Hamilton (London, 1900-1902); T.
  Hagen, _Die Papstwahlen von 1484 u. 1492_ (Brizen, 1885); S. Riezler,
  _Die Hexenprozesse_ (1896); G. Viani, _Memorie della famiglia Cybo_
  (Pisa, 1808); F. Serdonati, _Vita e fatti d'Innocenzo VIII._ (Milan,
  1829).     (C. H. Ha.)

INNOCENT IX. (Giovanni Antonio Fachinetti) was born in 1519. He filled
the offices of apostolic vicar of Avignon, legate at the council of
Trent, nuncio to Venice, and president of the Inquisition. He became
cardinal in 1583; and under the invalid Gregory XIV. assumed almost the
entire conduct of affairs. His election to the papacy, on the 29th of
October 1591, was brought about by Philip II., who profited little by
it, however, inasmuch as Innocent soon succumbed to age and feebleness,
dying on the 30th of December 1591.

  See Ciaconius, _Vitae et res gestae summorum Pontiff. Rom._ (Rome,
  1601-1602); Cicarella, continuator of Platina, _De Vitis Pontiff.
  Rom._ (both contemporaries of Innocent); Ranke, _Popes_ (Eng. trans.,
  Austin), ii. 233 sq. (all brief accounts).     (T. F. C.)

INNOCENT X. (Giovanni Battista Pamfili) was born in Rome on the 6th of
May 1574, served successively as auditor of the Rota, nuncio to Naples,
legate apostolic to Spain, was made cardinal in 1627, and succeeded
Urban VIII. as pope on the 15th of September 1644. Throughout his
pontificate Innocent was completely dominated by his sister-in-law,
Donna Olimpia Maidalchini, a woman of masculine spirit. There is no
reason to credit the scandalous reports of an illicit attachment.
Nevertheless, the influence of Donna Olimpia was baneful; and she made
herself thoroughly detested for her inordinate ambition and rapacity.
Urban VIII. had been French in his sympathies; but the papacy now
shifted to the side of the Habsburgs, and there remained for nearly
fifty years. Evidences of the change were numerous: Innocent promoted
pro-Spanish cardinals; attacked the Barberini, protégés of Mazarin, and
sequestered their possessions; aided in quieting an insurrection in
Naples, fomented by the duke of Guise; and refused to recognize the
independence of Portugal, then at war with Spain. As a reward he
obtained from Spain and Naples the recognition of ecclesiastical
immunity. In 1649 Castro, which Urban VIII. had failed to take, was
wrested from the Farnese and annexed to the Papal States. The most
worthy efforts of Innocent were directed to the reform of monastic
discipline (1652). His condemnation of Jansenism (1653) was met with the
denial of papal infallibility in matters of _fact_, and the controversy
entered upon a new phase (see JANSENISM). Although the pontificate of
Innocent witnessed the conversion of many Protestant princes, the most
notable being Queen Christina of Sweden, the papacy had nevertheless
suffered a perceptible decline in prestige; it counted for little in the
negotiations at Münster, and its solemn protest against the peace of
Westphalia was entirely ignored. Innocent died on the 7th of January
1655, and was succeeded by Alexander VII.

  For contemporary lives of Innocent see Oldoin, continuator of
  Ciaconius, _Vitae et res gestae summorum Pontiff. Rom._; and _Palazzi,
  Gesta Pontiff. Rom._ (Venice, 1687-1688) iv. 570 sqq.; Ciampi's
  _Innoc. X. Pamfili, et la sua Corte_ (Rome, 1878), gives a very full
  account of the period. Gualdus' (pseud. of Gregorio Leti; v. bibliog.
  note, art. "SIXTUS V.") _Vita de Donna Olimpia Maidalchina_ (1666) is
  gossipy and untrustworthy; Capranica's _Donna Olympia Pamfili_ (Milan,
  1875, 3rd ed.) is fanciful and historically of no value. See also
  Ranke, _Popes_ (Eng. trans., Austin), iii. 40 sqq.; v. Reumont,
  _Gesch. der Stadt Rom._ iii. 2, p. 623 sqq.; Brosch, _Gesch. des
  Kirchenstaates_ (1880) i. 409 sqq.; and the extended bibliography in
  Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopädie_, s.v. "Innocenz X."     (T. F. C.)

INNOCENT XI. (Benedetto Odescalchi), pope from 1676 to 1689, was born at
Como on the 16th of May 1611. He studied law in Rome and Naples, entered
the Curia under Urban VIII. (his alleged military service seems to be
questionable), and became successively protonotary, president of the
Apostolic Chamber, governor of Macerate and commissary of Ancona.
Innocent X. made him a cardinal (1647), legate to Ferrara, and, in 1650,
bishop of Novara. His simple and blameless life, his conscientious
discharge of duty, and his devotion to the needs of the poor had won for
him such a name that, despite the opposition of France, he was chosen to
succeed Clement X. on the 21st of September 1676. He at once applied
himself to moral and administrative reform; declared against nepotism,
introduced economy, abolished sinecures, wiped out the deficit (at the
same time reducing rents), closed the gaming-houses, and issued a number
of sumptuary ordinances. He held monks strictly to the performance of
their vows; took care to satisfy himself of the fitness of candidates
for bishoprics; enjoined regular catechetical instruction, greater
simplicity in preaching, and greater reverence in worship. The moral
teaching of the Jesuits incurred his condemnation (1679) (see LIGUORI),
an act which the society never forgave, and which it partially revenged
by forcing, through the Inquisition, the condemnation of the quietistic
doctrines of Molinos (1687), for which Innocent entertained some
sympathy (see MOLINOS).

The pontificate of Innocent fell within an important period in European
politics, and he himself played no insignificant rôle. His protest
against Louis XIV.'s extended claim to regalian rights called forth the
famous Declaration of Gallican Liberties by a subservient French synod
under the lead of Bossuet (1682), which the pope met by refusing to
confirm Louis's clerical appointments. His determination to restrict the
ambassadorial right of asylum, which had been grossly abused, was
resented by Louis, who defied him in his own capital, seized the papal
territory of Avignon, and talked loudly of a schism, without, however,
shaking the pope in his resolution. The preponderance of France Innocent
regarded as a menace to Europe. He opposed Louis's candidate for the
electorate of Cologne (1688), approved the League of Augsburg,
acquiesced in the designs of the Protestant William of Orange, even in
his supplanting James II., whom, although a Roman Catholic, he
distrusted as a tool of Louis. The great object of Innocent's desire was
the repulse of the Turks, and his unwearying efforts to that end
entitled him to share in the glory of relieving Vienna (1683).

Innocent died on the 12th of August 1689, lamented by his subjects. His
character and life were such as to suggest the propriety of
canonization, but hostile influences have defeated every move in that
direction.

  The life of Innocent has been frequently written. See Guarnacci,
  _Vitae et res gestae Pontiff. Rom._ (Rome, 1751), i. 105 sqq.;
  Palazzi, _Gesta Pontiff. Rom._ (Venice, 1690); also the lives by
  Albrizzi (Rome, 1695); Buonamici (Rome, 1776); and Immich (Berlin,
  1900). Particular phases of Innocent's activity have been treated by
  Michaud, _Loius XIV. et Innoc. XI._ (Paris, 1882 sqq., 4 vols.);
  Dubruel, _La Correspond.... du Card. Carlo Pio_, &c. (see _Rev. des
  quest. hist._ lxxv. (1904) 602 sqq.); and Gerin, in _Rev. des quest.
  hist._, 1876, 1878, 1886. For correspondence of Innocent see Colombo,
  _Notizie biogr. e lettere di P. Innoc. XI._ (Turin, 1878); and
  Berthier, _Innoc. PP. XI. Epp. ad Principes_ (Rome, 1890 sqq.). An
  extended bibliography may be found in Herzog-Hauck,
  _Realencyklopädie_, s.v. "Innocenz XI."     (T. F. C.)

INNOCENT XII. (Antonio Pignatelli), pope from 1691 to 1700 in succession
to Alexander VIII., was born in Naples on the 13th of March 1615, was
educated at the Jesuit College in Rome, entered upon his official career
at the age of twenty, and became vice-legate of Urbino, governor of
Perugia, and nuncio to Tuscany, to Poland and to Austria. He was made
cardinal and archbishop of Naples by Innocent XI., whose pontificate he
took as a model for his own, which began on the 12th of July 1691. Full
of reforming zeal, he issued ordinances against begging, extravagance
and gambling; forbade judges to accept presents from suitors; built new
courts of justice; prohibited the sale of offices, maintaining the
financial equilibrium by reducing expenses; and, an almost revolutionary
step, struck at the root of nepotism, in a bull of 1692 ordaining that
thenceforth no pope should grant estates, offices or revenues to any
relative. Innocent likewise put an end to the strained relations that
had existed between France and the Holy See for nearly fifty years. He
adjusted the difficulties over the regalia, and obtained from the French
bishops the virtual repudiation of the Declaration of Gallican
Liberties. He confirmed the bull of Alexander VIII. against Jansenism
(1696); and, in 1699, under pressure from Louis XIV., condemned certain
of Fénelon's doctrines which Bossuet had denounced as quietistic (see
FÉNELON). When the question of the Spanish succession was being agitated
he advised Charles II. to make his will in favour of the duke of Anjou.
Innocent died, on the eve of the great conflict, on the 27th of
September 1700. Moderate, benevolent, just, Innocent was one of the best
popes of the modern age.

  See Guarnacci, _Vitae et res gestae Pontiff. Rom._ (Rome, 1751), i.
  389 sqq.; Ranke, _Popes_ (Eng. trans., Austin), iii. 186 sqq.; v.
  Reumont, _Gesch. der Stadt Rom._ iii. 2, p. 640 sqq.; and the
  _Bullarium Innoc. XII._ (Rome, 1697).     (T. F. C.)

INNOCENT XIII. (Michele Angelo Conti), pope from 1721 to 1724, was the
son of the duke of Poli, and a member of a family that had produced
several popes, among them Innocent III., was born in Rome on the 13th of
May 1655, served as nuncio in Switzerland, and, for a much longer time,
in Portugal, was made cardinal and bishop of Osimo and Viterbo by
Clement XI., whom he succeeded on the 8th of May 1721. One of his first
acts was to invest the emperor Charles VI. with Naples (1722); but
against the imperial investiture of Don Carlos with Parma and Piacenza
he protested, albeit in vain. He recognized the Pretender, "James III.,"
and promised him subsidies conditional upon the re-establishment of
Roman Catholicism in England. Moved by deep-seated distrust of the
Jesuits and by their continued practice of "Accommodation," despite
express papal prohibition (see CLEMENT XI.), Innocent forbade the Order
to receive new members in China, and was said to have meditated its
suppression. This encouraged the French Jansenist bishops to press for
the revocation of the bull _Unigenitus_; but the pope commanded its
unreserved acceptance. He weakly yielded to pressure and bestowed the
cardinal's hat upon the corrupt and debauched Dubois. Innocent died on
the 7th of March 1724, and was succeeded by Benedict XIII.

  See Guarnacci, _Vitae et res gestae Pontiff. Rom._ (Rome, 1751), ii.
  137 sqq., 381 sqq.; Sandini, _Vitae Pontiff. Rom._ (Padua, 1739); M.
  v. Mayer, _Die Papstwahl Innocenz XIII._ (Vienna, 1874); Michaud, "La
  Fin du Clement XI. et le commencement du pontificat d'Innocent XIII."
  in the _Internat. Theol. Zeitschr._ v. 42 sqq., 304 sqq.     (T. F. C.)



INNOCENTS' DAY, or CHILDERMAS, a festival celebrated in the Latin church
on the 28th of December, and in the Greek church on the 29th (O.S.) in
memory of the massacre of the children by Herod. The Church early
regarded these little ones as the first martyrs. It is uncertain when
the day was first kept as a saint's day. At first it seems to have been
absorbed into the celebration of the Epiphany, but by the 5th century it
was kept as a separate festival. In Rome it was a day of fasting and
mourning. In the middle ages the festival was the occasion for much
indulgence to the children. The boy-bishop (q.v.), whose tenure of
office lasted till Childermas, had his last exercise of authority then,
the day being one of the series of days which were known as the Feast of
Fools. Parents temporarily abdicated authority, and in nunneries and
monasteries the youngest nun and monk were for the twenty-four hours
allowed to masquerade as abbess and abbot. These mockeries of religion
were condemned by the Council of Basel (1431); but though shorn of its
extravagances the day is still observed as a feast day and merry-making
for children in Catholic countries, and particularly as an occasion for
practical joking like an April Fool's Day. In Spanish-America when such
a joke has been played, the phrase equivalent to "You April fool!" is
_Que la inocencia le valga!_ May your innocence protect you! The society
of Lincoln's Inn specially celebrated Childermas, annually electing a
"king of the Cockneys." Innocents' Day was ever accounted unlucky.
Nothing was begun and no marriages took place then. Louis XI. prohibited
all state business. The coronation of Edward IV., fixed for a Sunday,
was postponed till the Monday when it was found the Sunday fell on the
28th of December. In rural England it was deemed unlucky to do
housework, put on new clothes or pare the nails. At various places in
Gloucestershire, Somerset and Worcestershire muffled peals were rung
(_Notes and Queries_, 1st series, vol. viii. p. 617). In Northampton the
festival was called "Dyzemas Day" (possibly from Gr. [Greek: dys-] "ill"
and "mass"), and there is a proverb "What is begun on Dyzemas will never
be finished." The Irish call the day _La Croasta na bliana_, "the cross
day of the year," or _Diar dasin darg_, "blood Thursday," and many
legends attach to it (_Notes and Queries_, 4th series, vol. xii. p.
185). In medieval England the children were reminded of the mournfulness
of the day by being whipped in bed on Innocents' morning. This custom
survived to the 17th century.



INNSBRUCK, the capital of the Austrian province of Tirol, and one of the
most beautifully situated towns in Europe. In 1900 the population was
26,866 (with a garrison of about 2000 men), mainly German-speaking and
Romanist. Built at a height of 1880 ft., in a wide plain formed by the
middle valley of the Inn and on the right bank of that river, it is
surrounded by lofty mountains that seem to overhang the town. It
occupies a strong military position (its commercial and industrial
importance is now but secondary) at the junction of the great highway
from Germany to Italy over the Brenner Pass, by which it is by rail 109½
m. from Munich and 174½ m. from Verona, with that from Bregenz in the
Vorarlberg, distant 122 m., by rail under the Arlberg Pass. It takes its
name from its position, close to the chief bridge over the Inn. It is
the seat of the supreme judicial court of the Tirol, the Diet of which
meets in the Landhaus. The streets are broad, there are several open
places and the houses are handsome, many of those in the old town dating
from the 17th and 18th centuries, and being adorned with frescoes, while
the arcades beneath are used as shops.

The principal monument is the Franciscan or Court church (1553-1563). In
it is the magnificent 16th-century cenotaph (his body is elsewhere) of
the emperor Maximilian (d. 1519), who, as count of the Tirol from 1490
onwards, was much beloved by his subjects. It represents the emperor
kneeling in prayer on a gigantic marble sarcophagus, surrounded by
twenty-eight colossal bronze statues of mourners, of which twenty-three
figure ancestors, relatives or contemporaries of Maximilian, while five
represent his favourite heroes of antiquity--among these five are the
two finest statues (both by Peter Vischer of Nuremberg), those of King
Arthur of Britain and of Theodoric, the Ostrogothic king. On the sides
of the sarcophagus are twenty-four marble reliefs, depicting the
principal events in the life of Maximilian, nearly all by Alexander
Colin of Malines, while the general design of the whole monument is
attributed to Gilg Sesselschreiber, the court painter. In one of the
aisles of the same church is the Silver Chapel, so called from a silver
Madonna and silver bas-reliefs on the altar; it contains the tombs of
Archduke Ferdinand, count of the Tirol (d. 1595) and his non-royal wife,
Philippine Welser of Augsburg (d. 1580), whose happy married life spent
close by is one of the most romantic episodes in Tirolese history. In
the other aisle are the tombs, with monuments, of the heroes of the War
of Independence of 1809, Hofer, Haspinger and Speckbacher. It was in
this church that Queen Christina of Sweden, daughter of Gustavus
Adolphus, abjured Protestantism, in 1655. There are also several other
churches and convents, among the latter the first founded (1593) in
Germany by the Capuchins.

The university of Innsbruck was formally founded in 1677, and refounded
(after two periods of suspension, 1782-1792 and 1810-1826) in 1826. It
is attended by about 1000 students and has a large staff of professors,
the theological faculty being controlled by the Jesuits. It has a
library of 176,000 books, and 1049 MSS. The University or Jesuit church
dates from the early 17th century. The Ferdinandeum is the provincial
museum (founded in 1823, though the present building is later). The
house known as the Goldne Dachl has its roof covered with gilded copper
tiles; it was built about 1425, by Frederick, count of the Tirol,
nicknamed "with the empty pockets," but the balcony and gilded roof were
added in 1500 by the emperor Maximilian. Among the other monuments of
Innsbruck may be mentioned the Pillar of St Anne, erected in 1706 to
commemorate the repulse of the French and the Bavarians in 1703; the
Triumphal Arch, built in 1765, on the occasion of the marriage of the
future emperor Leopold II. with the Infanta Maria Louisa of Spain; and a
fountain, with a bronze statue of Archduke Leopold V., set up in
1863-1877, in memory of the five-hundredth anniversary of the union of
the Tirol with Austria.

The Roman station of Veldidena was succeeded by the Premonstratensian
abbey of Wilten, both serving to guard the important strategical bridge
over the Inn. In 1180 the count of Andechs (the local lord) moved the
market-place over to the right bank of the river (where is the convent),
and in 1187 we first hear of the town by its present name. Between 1233
and 1235 it was fortified, and a castle built for the lord. But it was
only about 1420 that Archduke Frederick IV. ("with the empty pockets")
built himself a new castle in Innsbruck, which then replaced Meran as
the capital of Tirol. The county of Tirol was generally held by a cadet
line of the Austrian house, the count being almost an independent ruler.
But the last princeling of this kind died in 1665, since which date
Innsbruck and Tirol have been governed from Vienna. In 1552 Maurice of
Saxony surprised and nearly took Innsbruck, almost capturing the emperor
Charles V. himself, who escaped owing to a mutiny among Maurice's
troops. In the patriotic war of 1809, Innsbruck played a great part and
suffered much, while in 1848, at the time of the revolution in Vienna,
it joyfully received the emperor Ferdinand.     (W. A. B. C.)



INNS OF COURT. The Inns of Court and Chancery are voluntary
non-corporate legal societies seated in London, having their origin
about the end of the 13th and the commencement of the 14th century.

Dugdale (_Origines Juridiciales_) states that the learned in English law
were anciently persons in holy orders, the justices of the king's court
being bishops, abbots and the like. But in 1207 the clergy were
prohibited by canon from acting in the temporal courts. The result
proving prejudicial to the interests of the community, a commission of
inquiry was issued by Edward I. (1290), and this was followed up (1292)
by a second commission, which among other things directed that students
"apt and eager" should be brought from the provinces and placed in
proximity to the courts of law now fixed by Magna Carta at Westminster
(see INN). These students were accordingly located in what became known
as the Inns of Court and Chancery, the latter designated by Fortescue
(_De Laudibus_) as "the earliest settled places for students of the
law," the germ of what Sir Edward Coke subsequently spoke of as our
English juridical university. In these Inns of Court and Chancery, thus
constituted, and corresponding to the ordinary college, the students,
according to Fortescue, not only studied the laws and divinity, but
further learned to dance, sing and play instrumental music, "so that
these hostels, being nurseries or seminaries of the court, were
therefore called Inns of Court."

Stow in his _Survey_ (1598) says: "There is in and about this city a
whole university, as it were, of students, practisers or pleaders and
judges of the laws of this realm"; and he goes on to enumerate the
several societies, fourteen in number, then existing, corresponding
nearly with those recognized in the present day, of which the Inns of
Court, properly so-called, are and always have been four, namely
_Lincoln's Inn_, the _Inner Temple_, the _Middle Temple_ and _Gray's
Inn_. To these were originally attached as subordinate Inns of Chancery,
Furnival's Inn, Thavie's Inn (to Lincoln's Inn), Clifford's Inn,
Clement's Inn (to the Inner Temple), New Inn (to the Middle Temple),
Staple's Inn, Barnard's Inn (to Gray's Inn), but they were cut adrift by
the older Inns and by the middle of the 18th century had ceased to have
any legal character (_vide infra_). In addition to these may be
specified _Serjeant's Inn_, a society composed solely of
serjeants-at-law, which ceased to exist in 1877. Besides the Inns of
Chancery above enumerated, there were others, such as Lyon's Inn, which
was pulled down in 1868, and Scrope's Inn and Chester or Strand Inn,
spoken of by Stow, which have long been removed, and the societies to
which they belonged have disappeared. The four Inns of Court stand on a
footing of complete equality, no priority being conceded to or claimed
by one inn over another. Their jurisdictions and privileges are equal,
and upon affairs of common interest the benchers of the four inns meet
in conference. From the earliest times there has been an interchange of
fellowship between the four houses; nevertheless the Middle Temple and
Lincoln's Inn, and the Inner Temple and Gray's Inn, have maintained a
closer alliance.

The members of an Inn of Court consist of benchers, barristers and
students. The benchers are the senior members of the society, who are
invested with the government of the body to which they belong. They are
more formally designated "masters of the bench," are self-elected and
unrestricted as to numbers. Usually a member of an inn, on attaining the
rank of king's counsel, is invited to the bench. Other members of long
standing are also occasionally chosen, but no member by becoming a
king's counsel or by seniority of standing acquires the right of being
nominated a bencher. The benchers vary in number from twenty in Gray's
Inn to seventy and upwards in Lincoln's Inn and the Inner Temple. The
powers of the benchers are practically without limit within their
respective societies; their duties, however, are restricted to the
superintendence and management of the concerns of the inn, the admission
of candidates as students, the calling of them to the bar and the
exercise of discipline generally over the members. The meetings of the
benchers are variously denominated a "parliament" in the Inner and
Middle Temples, a "pension" in Gray's Inn and a "council" in Lincoln's
Inn. The judges of the superior courts are the visitors of the inns, and
to them alone can an appeal be had when either of the societies refuses
to call a member to the bar, or to reinstate in his privileges a
barrister who has been disbarred for misconduct. The presiding or chief
officer is the treasurer, one of the benchers, who is elected annually
to that dignity. Other benchers fulfil the duties of master of the
library, master of the walks or gardens, dean of the chapel and so
forth, while others are readers, whose functions are referred to below.

The usages of the different inns varied somewhat formerly in regard both
to the term of probationary studentship enforced and to the procedure
involved in a "call" to the bar by which the student is converted into
the barrister. In the present day the entrance examination, the course
of study and the examinations to be passed on the completion of the
curriculum are identical and common to all the inns (see ENGLISH LAW).
When once called to the bar, no hindrance beyond professional etiquette
limits a barrister's freedom of action; so also members may on
application to the benchers, and on payment of arrears of dues (if any),
leave the society to which they belong, and thus cease altogether to be
members of the bar likewise. A member of an Inn of Court retains his
name on the lists of his inn for life by means of a small annual payment
varying from £1 to £5, which at one or two of the inns is compounded for
by a fixed sum taken at the call to the bar.

The ceremony of the "call" varies in detail at the different inns. It
takes place after dinner (before dinner at the Middle Temple, which is
the only inn at which students are called in their wigs and gowns), in
the "parliament," "pension" or "council" chamber of the benchers. The
benchers sit at a table round which are ranged the students to be
called. Each candidate being provided with a glass of wine, the
treasurer or senior bencher addresses them and the senior student
briefly replies. "Call Parties" are also generally held by the new
barristers; at the Middle Temple they are allowed in hall.

During the reign of Edward III. the Inns of Court and Chancery, based on
the collegiate principle, prospered under the supervision and protection
of the crown. In 1381 Wat Tyler invaded the Temple, and in the
succeeding century (1450) Jack Cade meditated pulling down the Inns of
Court and killing the lawyers. It would appear, moreover, that the
inmates of the inns were themselves at times disorderly and in conflict
with the citizens. Fortescue (c. 1464) describing these societies thus
speaks of them: "There belong to the law ten lesser inns, which are
called the Inns of Chancery, in each of which there are one hundred
students at least, and in some a far greater number, though not
constantly residing. After the students have made some progress here
they are admitted to the Inns of Court. Of these there are four, in the
least frequented of which there are about two hundred students. The
discipline is excellent, and the mode of study well adapted for
proficiency." This system had probably existed for two centuries before
Fortescue wrote, and continued to be enforced down to the time of Sir
Thomas More (1498), of Chief Justice Dyer (1537) and of Sir Edward Coke
(1571). By the time of Sir Matthew Hale (1629) the custom for law
students to be first entered to an Inn of Chancery before being admitted
to an Inn of Court had become obsolete, and thenceforth the Inns of
Chancery have been abandoned to the attorneys. Stow in his _Survey_
succinctly points out the course of reading enforced at the end of the
16th century. He says that the Inns of Court were replenished partly by
students coming from the Inns of Chancery, who went thither from the
universities and sometimes immediately from grammar schools; and, having
spent some time in studying the first elements of the law, and having
performed the exercises called "bolts," "moots" and "putting of cases,"
they proceeded to be admitted to, and become students in, one of the
Inns of Court. Here continuing for the space of seven years or
thereabouts, they frequented readings and other learned exercises,
whereby, growing ripe in the knowledge of the laws, they were, by the
general consent either of the benchers or of the readers, called to the
degree of barrister, and so enabled to practise in chambers and at the
bar. This ample provision for legal study continued with more or less
vigour down to nearly the commencement of the 18th century. A languor
similar to that which affected the church and the universities then
gradually supervened, until the fulfilment of the merest forms sufficed
to confer the dignity of advocate and pleader. This was maintained until
about 1845, when steps were taken for reviving and extending the ancient
discipline and course of study, bringing them into harmony with modern
ideas and requirements.

The fees payable vary slightly at the different inns, but average about
£150. This sum covers all expenses from admission to an inn to the call
at the bar, but the addition of tutorial and other expenses may augment
the cost of a barrister's legal education to £400 or £500. The period of
study prior to call must not be less than twelve terms, equivalent to
about three years. Solicitors, however, may be called without keeping
any terms if they have been in practice for not fewer than five
consecutive years.

It has been seen that the studies pursued in ancient times were
conducted by means of "readings," "moots" and "bolts." The _readings_
were deemed of vital importance, and were delivered in the halls with
much ceremony; they were frequently regarded as authorities and cited as
such at Westminster in argument. Some statute or section of a statute
was selected for analysis and explanation, and its relation to the
common law pointed out. Many of these readings, dating back to Edward
I., are extant, and well illustrate the importance of the subjects and
the exhaustive and learned manner in which they were treated. The
function of "reader" involved the holder in very weighty expenses,
chiefly by reason of the profuse hospitality dispensed--a constant and
splendid table being kept during the three weeks and three days over
which the readings extended, to which were invited the nobility, judges,
bishops, the officers of state and sometimes the king himself. In 1688
the readers were paid £200 for their reading, but by that time the
office had become a sinecure. In the present day the readership is
purely honorary and without duties. The privilege formerly assumed by
the reader of calling to the bar was taken away in 1664 by an order of
the lord chancellor and the judges. _Moots_ were exercises of the nature
of formal arguments on points of law raised by the students and
conducted under the supervision of a bencher and two barristers sitting
as judges in the halls of the inns. _Bolts_ were of an analogous
character, though deemed inferior to moots.

In the early history of the inns discrimination was exercised in regard
to the social status of candidates for admission to them. Sir John
Ferne, a writer of the 16th century, referred to by Dugdale, states that
none were admitted into the houses of court except they were gentlemen
of blood. So also Pliny, writing in the 1st century of the Christian era
(_Letters_, ii. 14), says that before his day young men even of the
highest families of Rome were not admitted to practice except upon the
introduction of some man of consular rank. But he goes on to add that
all barriers were then broken down, everything being open to
everybody--a remark applicable to the bar of England and elsewhere in
the present day. It may here be noted that no dignity or title confers
any rank at the bar. A privy councillor, a peer's son, a baronet, the
speaker of the House of Commons or a knight--all rank at the bar merely
according to their legal precedence. Formerly orders were frequently
issued both by the benchers and by the crown on the subject of the
dress, manners, morals and religious observances of students and
members. Although some semblance of a collegiate discipline is still
maintained, this is restricted to the dining in hall, where many ancient
usages survive, and to the closing of the gates of the inns at night.

Each inn maintains a chapel, with the accompaniment of preachers and
other clergy, the services being those of the Church of England. The
Inner and the Middle Temple have joint use of the Temple church. The
office of preacher is usually filled by an ecclesiastic chosen by the
benchers. The principal ecclesiastic of the Temple church is, however,
constituted by letters patent by the crown without episcopal institution
or induction, enjoying, nevertheless, no authority independently of the
benchers. He bears the title of Master of the Temple.

It has already been stated, on the authority of Fortescue, that the
students of the Inns of Court learned to dance, sing and play
instrumental music; and those accomplishments found expression in the
"masques" and "revels" for which the societies formerly distinguished
themselves, especially the Inner Temple and Gray's Inn. These
entertainments were of great antiquity and much magnificence, involving
very considerable expense. Evelyn (_Diary_) speaks of the revels at the
Middle Temple as an old and riotous custom, having relation neither to
virtue nor to policy. The last revel appears to have been held at the
Inner Temple in 1734, to mark the occasion of the elevation of Lord
Chancellor Talbot to the woolsack. The plays and masques performed were
sometimes repeated elsewhere than in the hall of the inn, especially
before the sovereign at court. A master of the revels was appointed,
commonly designated Lord of Misrule. There is abundant information as to
the scope and nature of these entertainments: one of the festivals is
minutely described by Gerard Leigh in his _Accedence of Armorie_, 1612;
and a tradition ascribes the first performance of Shakespeare's _Twelfth
Night_ to a revel held in the Middle Temple hall in February 1601. The
hospitality of the inns now finds expression mainly in the "Grand Day,"
held once in each of the four terms, when it is customary for the judges
and other distinguished visitors to dine with the benchers (who sit
apart from the barristers and students on a daïs in some state), and
"Readers' Feast," on both which occasions extra commons and wine are
served to the members attending. But the old customs also found some
renewal in the shape of balls, concerts, garden-parties and other
entertainments. In 1887 there was a revival (the first since the 17th
century) of the Masque of Flowers at both the Inner Temple and Gray's
Inn. The Royal Horticultural Society's annual exhibition of flowers and
fruit is held in May in the Temple Gardens. Plays are also occasionally
performed in the Temple, Robert Browning's _Sordello_ being acted in
1902 by a company of amateurs, most of whom were either members of the
bar or connected with the legal profession.

  The _Inner_ and the _Middle Temple_, so far as their history can be
  traced, have always been separate societies. Fortescue, writing
  between 1461 and 1470, makes no allusion to a previous junction of the
  two inns. Dugdale (1671) speaks of the Temple as having been one
  society, and states that the students so increased in number that at
  length they divided, becoming the Inner and Middle Temple
  respectively. He does not, however, give any authority for this
  statement, or furnish the date of the division. The first trustworthy
  mention of the Temple as an inn of court is found in the _Paston
  Letters_, where, under date November 1440, the Inner Temple is spoken
  of as a college, as is also subsequently the Middle Temple. The Temple
  had been the seat in England of the Knights Templars, on whose
  suppression in 1312 it passed with other of their possessions to the
  crown, and after an interval of some years to the Knights Hospitallers
  of St John of Jerusalem, who in the reign of Edward III. demised the
  mansion and its surroundings to certain professors of the common law
  who came from Thavie's Inn. Notwithstanding the destruction of the
  muniments of the Temple by fire or by popular commotion, sufficient
  testimony is attainable to show that in the reigns of Edward III. and
  Richard II. the Temple had become the residence of the legal
  communities which have since maintained there a permanent footing. The
  two societies continued as tenants to the Knights Hospitallers of St
  John until the dissolution of the order in 1539; they then became the
  lessees of the crown, and so remained until 1609, when James I. made a
  grant by letters patent of the premises in perpetuity to the benchers
  of the respective societies on a yearly payment by each of £10, a
  payment bought up in the reign of Charles II. In this grant the two
  inns are described as "the Inner and the Middle Temple or New Temple,"
  and as "being two out of those four colleges the most famous of all
  Europe" for the study of the law. Excepting the church, nothing
  remains of the edifices belonging to the Knights Templars, the present
  buildings having been almost wholly erected since the reign of Queen
  Elizabeth or since the Great Fire, in which the major part of the
  Inner Temple perished. The church has been in the joint occupation of
  the Inner and Middle Temple from time immemorial--the former taking
  the southern and the latter the northern half. The round portion of
  the church was consecrated in 1185, the nave or choir in 1240. It is
  the largest and most complete of the four remaining round churches in
  England, and is built on the plan of the church of the Holy Sepulchre
  at Jerusalem. Narrowly escaping the ravages of the fire of 1666, this
  beautiful building is one of the most perfect specimens of early
  Gothic architecture in England. In former times the lawyers awaited
  their clients for consultation in the Round Church, as similarly the
  serjeants-at-Law were accustomed to resort to St Paul's Cathedral,
  where each serjeant had a pillar assigned him.

  The _Inner Temple_, comprehending a hall, parliament chamber, library
  and other buildings, occupies the site of the ancient mansion of the
  Knights Templars, built about the year 1240, and has from time to time
  been more or less rebuilt and extended, the present handsome range of
  buildings, including a new dining hall, being completed in 1870. The
  library owes its existence to William Petyt, keeper of the Tower
  Records in the time of Queen Anne, who was also a benefactor to the
  library of the Middle Temple. The greatest addition by gift was made
  by the Baron F. Maseres in 1825. The number of volumes now in the
  library is 37,000. Of the Inns of Chancery belonging to the Inner
  Temple _Clifford's Inn_ was anciently the town residence of the Barons
  Clifford, and was demised in 1345 to a body of students of the law. It
  was the most important of the Inns of Chancery, and numbered among its
  members Coke and Selden. At its dinners a table was specially set
  aside for the "Kentish Mess," though it is not clear what connexion
  there was between the Inn and the county of Kent. It was governed by a
  principal and twelve rulers. _Clement's Inn_ was an Inn of Chancery
  before the reign of Edward IV., taking its name from the parish church
  of St Clement Danes, to which it had formerly belonged. Clement's Inn
  was the inn of Shakespeare's Master Shallow, and was the Shepherd's
  Inn of Thackeray's _Pendennis_. The buildings of Clifford's Inn
  survive (1910), but of Clement's Inn there are left but a few
  fragments.

  The _Middle Temple_ possesses in its hall one of the most stately of
  existing Elizabethan buildings. Commenced in 1562, under the auspices
  of Edmund Plowden, then treasurer, it was not completed until 1572,
  the richly carved screen at the east end in the style of the
  Renaissance being put up in 1575. The belief that the screen was
  constructed of timber taken from ships of the Spanish Armada (1588) is
  baseless. The hall, which has been preserved unaltered, has been the
  scene of numerous historic incidents, notably the entertainments given
  within its walls to regal and other personages from Queen Elizabeth
  downwards. The library, which contains about 28,000 volumes, dates
  from 1641, when Robert Ashley, a member of the society, bequeathed his
  collection of books in all classes of literature to the inn, together
  with a large sum of money; other benefactors were Ashmole (the
  antiquary), William Petyt (a benefactor of the Inner Temple) and Lord
  Stowell. From 1711 to 1826 the library was greatly neglected; and many
  of the most scarce and valuable books were lost. The present handsome
  library building, which stands apart from the hall, was completed in
  1861, the prince of Wales (afterwards Edward VII.) attending the
  inauguration ceremony on October 31st of that year, and becoming a
  member and bencher of the society on the occasion. He afterwards held
  the office of treasurer (1882). The MSS. in the collection are few and
  of no special value. In civil, canon and international law, as also in
  divinity and ecclesiastical history, the library is very rich; it
  contains also some curious works on witchcraft and demonology. There
  was but one Inn of Chancery connected with the Middle Temple, that of
  _New Inn_, which, according to Dugdale, was formed by a society of
  students previously settled at St George's Inn, situated near St
  Sepulchre's Church without Newgate; but the date of this transfer is
  not known. The buildings have now been pulled down.

  _Lincoln's Inn_ stands on the site partly of an episcopal palace
  erected in the time of Henry III. by Ralph Nevill, bishop of
  Chichester and chancellor of England, and partly of a religious house,
  called Black Friars House, in Holborn. In the reign of Edward II.,
  Henry Lacy, earl of Lincoln, possessed the place, which from him
  acquired the name of Lincoln's Inn, probably becoming an Inn of Court
  soon after his death (in 1310), though of its existence as a place of
  legal study there is little authentic record until the time of Henry
  VI. (1424), to which date the existing muniments reach back. The fee
  simple of the inn would appear to have remained vested in the see of
  Chichester; and it was not until 1580 that the society which for
  centuries had occupied the inn as tenants acquired the absolute
  ownership of it. The old hall, built about 1506, still remains, but
  has given place to a modern structure designed by Philip Hardwick,
  R.A., which, along with the buildings containing the library, was
  completed in 1845, Queen Victoria attending the inauguration ceremony
  (October 13). The chapel, built after the designs of Inigo Jones, was
  consecrated in 1623. The library--as a collection of law books the
  most complete in the country--owes its foundation to a bequest of John
  Nethersale, a member of the society, in 1497, and is the oldest of the
  existing libraries in London. Various entries in the records of the
  inn relate to the library, and notably in 1608, when an effort was
  made to extend the collection, and the first appointment of a master
  of the library (an office now held in annual rotation by each bencher)
  was made. The library has been much enriched by donations and by the
  acquisition by purchase of collections of books on special subjects.
  It includes also an extensive and valuable series of MSS., the whole
  comprehending 50,000 volumes. The prince of Wales (George V.), a
  bencher of the society, filled the office of treasurer in 1904. The
  Inns of Chancery affiliated to Lincoln's Inn were Thavie's Inn and
  Furnival's Inn. _Thavie's Inn_ was a residence of students of the law
  in the time of Edward III., and is mentioned by Fortescue as having
  been one of the lesser houses of Lincoln's Inn for some centuries. It
  thus continued down to 1769, when the inn was sold by the benchers,
  and thenceforth it ceased to have any character as a place of legal
  education. _Furnival's Inn_ became the resort of students about the
  year 1406, and was purchased by the society of Lincoln's Inn in 1547.
  It was governed by a principal and twelve antients. In 1817 the Inn
  was rebuilt, but from that date it ceased to exist as a legal
  community and is now demolished.

  The exact date of _Gray's Inn_ becoming the residence of lawyers is
  not known, though it was so occupied before the year 1370. The inn
  stands upon the site of the manor of Portpoole, belonging in ancient
  times to the dean and chapter of St Paul's, but subsequently the
  property of the family of Grey de Wilton and eventually of the crown,
  from which a grant of the manor or inn was obtained, many years since
  discharged from any rent or payment. The hall of the inn is of
  handsome design, similar to the Middle Temple hall in its general
  character and arrangements, and was completed about the year 1560. The
  chapel, of much earlier date than the hall, has, notwithstanding its
  antiquity, little to recommend it to notice, being small and
  insignificant, and lacking architectural features of any kind. The
  library, including about 13,000 volumes, contains a small but
  important collection of MSS. and missals, and also some valuable works
  on divinity. Little is known of the origin or early history of the
  library, though mention is incidentally made of it in the society's
  records in the 16th and 17th centuries. The gardens, laid out about
  1597, it is believed under the auspices of the lord chancellor Bacon,
  at that time treasurer of the society, continue to this day as then
  planned, though with some curtailment owing to the erection of
  additional buildings. Among many curious customs maintained in this
  inn is that of drinking a toast on grand days "to the glorious, pious
  and immortal memory of Queen Elizabeth." Of the special circumstances
  originating this display of loyalty there is no record. The Inns of
  Chancery connected with Gray's Inn are Staple and Barnard's Inns.
  _Staple Inn_ was an Inn of Chancery in the reign of Henry V., and is
  probably of yet earlier date. Readings and moots were observed here
  with regularity. Sir Simonds d'Ewes mentions attending a moot in
  February 1624. The Inn, with its picturesque Elizabethan front, faces
  Holborn. It was sold by the antients in 1884 lor £68,000. It is in a
  very good state of preservation, and it is the intention of the
  purchasers, the Prudential Assurance Company, to preserve it as a
  memorial of vanishing London. _Barnard's Inn_, anciently designated
  Mackworth Inn, was an Inn of Chancery in the reign of Henry VI. It was
  bequeathed by him to the dean and chapter of Lincoln. It is now the
  property of the Mercer's Company and is used as a school.

  The _King's Inns, Dublin_, the legal school in Ireland, corresponds
  closely to the English Inns of Court, and is in many respects in
  unison with them in its regulations with regard to the admission of
  students into the society, and to the degree of barrister-at-law, as
  also in the scope of the examinations enforced. Formerly it was
  necessary to keep a number of terms at one of the Inns in London--the
  stipulation dating as far back as 1542 (33 Henry VIII. c. 3). Down to
  1866 the course of education pursued at the King's Inns differed from
  the English Inns of Court in that candidates for admission to the
  legal profession as attorneys and solicitors carried on their studies
  with those studying for the higher grade of the bar in the same
  building under a professor specially appointed for this
  purpose,--herein following the usage anciently prevailing in the Inns
  of Chancery in London. This arrangement was put an end to by the
  Attorneys and Solicitors Act (Ireland) 1866. The origin of the King's
  Inns may be traced to the reign of Edward I., when a legal society
  designated Collett's Inn was established without the walls of the
  city; it was destroyed by an insurrectionary band. In the reign of
  Edward III. Sir Robert Preston, chief baron of the exchequer, gave up
  his residence within the city to the legal body, which then took the
  name of Preston's Inn. In 1542 the land and buildings known as
  Preston's Inn were restored to the family of the original donor, and
  in the same year Henry VIII. granted the monastery of Friars Preachers
  for the use of the professors of the law in Ireland. The legal body
  removed to the new site, and thenceforward were known by the name of
  the King's Inns. Possession of this property having been resumed by
  the government in 1742, and the present Four Courts erected thereon, a
  plot of ground at the top of Henrietta Street was purchased by the
  society, and the existing hall built in the year 1800. The library,
  numbering over 50,000 volumes, with a few MSS., is housed in buildings
  specially provided in the year 1831, and is open, not only to the
  members of the society, but also to strangers. The collection
  comprises all kinds of literature. It is based principally upon a
  purchase made in 1787 of the large and valuable library of Mr Justice
  Robinson, and is maintained chiefly by an annual payment made from the
  Consolidated Fund to the society in lieu of the right to receive
  copyright works which was conferred by an Act of 1801, but abrogated
  in 1836.

  In discipline and professional etiquette the members of the bar in
  Ireland differ little from their English brethren. The same style of
  costume is enforced, the same gradations of rank--attorney-general,
  solicitor-general, king's counsel and ordinary barristers--being
  found. There are also serjeants-at-law limited, however, to three in
  number, and designated 1st, 2nd and 3rd Serjeant. The King's Inns do
  not provide chambers for business purposes; there is consequently no
  aggregation of counsel in certain localities, as is the case in London
  in the Inns of Court and their immediate vicinity.

  The corporation known as the _Faculty of Advocates_ in Edinburgh
  corresponds with the Inns of Court in London and the King's Inns in
  Dublin (see ADVOCATES, FACULTY OF).

  AUTHORITIES.--Fortescue, _De laudibus legum Angliae_, by A. Amos
  (1825); Dugdale, _Origines juridicales_ (2nd ed., 1671); _History and
  Antiquities of the Four Inns of Court_, &c. (1780, 2nd ed.); Foss,
  _Judges of England_ (1848-1864, 9 vols.); Herbert, _Antiquities of the
  Inns of Court_ (1804); Pearce, _History of the Inns of Court_ (1848);
  _Report_ of the Commissioners appointed to inquire into the Inns of
  Court and Chancery, 1855; Ball, _Student's Guide to the Bar_ (1878);
  Stow, _Survey of London and Westminster_, by Strype (1754-1755);
  Nichols, _Progresses of Elizabeth and James I._; Lane, _Student's
  Guide through Lincoln's Inn_ (2nd ed., 1805); Spilsbury, _Lincoln's
  Inn, with an Account of the Library_ (2nd ed., 1873); Douthwaite,
  _Notes illustrative of the History and Antiquities of Gray's Inn_
  (1876), and _Gray's Inn, its History and Associations_ (1886); _Paston
  Letters_ (1872); _Law Magazine_, 1859-1860; _Quarterly Review_,
  October, 1871; Cowel, _Law Dictionary_ (1727); Duhigg, _History of the
  King's Inns in Ireland_ (1806); Mackay, _Practice of the Court of
  Session_ (1879); Bellot, _The Inner and Middle Temple_ (1902);
  Inderwick, _The King's Peace_ (1895); Fletcher, _The Pension Book of
  Gray's Inn_ (1901); Loftie, _The Inns of Court_ (1895); Hope,
  _Chronicles of an Old Inn_ (Gray's Inn) (1887); _A Calendar of the
  Inner Temple Records_ (ed. F. A. Inderwick, 3 vols.).     (J. C. W.)



INNUENDO (Latin for "by nodding," from _innuere_, to indicate by
nodding), an insinuation, suggestion, in prima facie innocent words, of
something defamatory or disparaging of a person. The word appears in
legal documents in Medieval Latin, to explain, in parenthesis, that to
which a preceding word refers; thus, "he, _innuendo_, the plaintiff, is
a thief." The word is still found in pleadings in actions for libel and
slander. The innuendo, in the plaintiff's statement of claim, is an
averment that words written or spoken by the defendant, though prima
facie not actionable, have, in fact, a defamatory meaning, which is
specifically set out (see LIBEL AND SLANDER).



INOUYE, KAORU, MARQUESS (1835-   ), Japanese statesman, was born in 1835,
a _samurai_ of the Choshu fief. He was a bosom friend of his
fellow-clansman Prince Ito, and the two youths visited England in 1863,
serving as common sailors during the voyage. At that time all travel
abroad was forbidden on pain of death, but the veto did not prove
deterrent in the face of a rapidly growing conviction that, as a matter
of self-protection, Japan must assimilate the essentials of Western
civilization. Shortly after the departure of Inouye and Ito, the Choshu
fief, having fired upon foreign vessels passing the strait of
Shimonoseki, was menaced by war with the Yedo government or with the
insulted powers, and Inouye and Ito, on receipt of this news, hastened
home hoping to avert the catastrophe. They repaired to the British
legation in Yedo and begged that the allied squadron, then about to sail
for Shimonoseki to call Choshu to account, should be delayed that they
might have an opportunity of advising the fief to make timely
submission. Not only was this request complied with, but a British
frigate was detailed to carry the two men to Shimonoseki, and, pending
her departure, the British legation assisted them to lie _perdu_. Their
mission proved futile, however, and Inouye was subsequently waylaid by a
party of conservative _samurai_, who left him covered with wounds. This
experience did not modify his liberal views, and, by the time of the
Restoration in 1867, he had earned a high reputation as a leader of
progress and an able statesman. Finance and foreign affairs were
supposed to be the spheres specially suited to his genius, but his name
is not associated with any signal practical success in either, though
his counsels were always highly valued by his sovereign and his country
alike. As minister of foreign affairs he conducted the long and abortive
negotiations for treaty revision between 1883 and 1886, and in 1885 he
was raised to the peerage with the title of count, being one of the
first group of _Meiji_ statesmen whose services were thus rewarded.
Prior to his permanent retirement from office in 1898, he held the
portfolios of foreign affairs, finance, home affairs, and agriculture
and commerce, and throughout the war with Russia he attended all
important state councils, by order of the emperor, being also specially
designated adviser to the minister of finance. In 1907 he was raised to
the rank of marquess. His name will go down in his country's history as
one of the five _Meiji_ statesmen, namely, Princes Ito and Yamagata,
Marquesses Inouye and Matsukata and Count Okuma.



INOWRAZLAW, the Polish form of the German _Jung-Breslau_, by which the
place was formerly known, a town in the Prussian province of Posen,
situated on an eminence in the most fertile part of the province, 21 m.
S.W. of Thorn. Pop. (1900) 26,141. Iron-founding, the manufacture of
machinery and chemicals, and an active trade in cattle and country
produce are carried on. In the vicinity are important salt works and a
sulphur mine, and since 1876 a brine bath has been within the town.
Inowrazlaw is mentioned as early as 1185, and in 1772 it passed to
Prussia.



INQUEST (O. Fr. _enqueste_, modern _enquête_, from Lat. _inquisitum_,
_inquirere_, to inquire), an inquiry, particularly a formal legal
inquiry into facts. The word is now chiefly confined to the inquiry held
by a coroner and jury into the causes of certain deaths, in matters of
treasure trove, and, in the city of London, in cases of fires (see
CORONER). Formerly the term was applied to many formal and official
inquiries for fixing prices, &c.



INQUISITION, THE (Lat. _inquisitio_, an inquiry),


  Punishment of heresy in the Roman Empire.

  Opinions of the Fathers.

  In the early Middle Ages.

  Conflicting views as to the punishment of heresy.

  The Church Councils.

  Influence of the Canon Law.

  The Council of Tours, 1163.

  Definition of the procedure under Lucius III. and the Emperor Frederick
  I.

  The death penalty.

  Innocent III.

the name given to the ecclesiastical jurisdiction dealing both in the
middle ages and in modern times with the detection and punishment of
heretics and all persons guilty of any offence against Catholic
orthodoxy. It is incorrect to say that the Inquisition made its
appearance in the 13th century complete in all its principles and
organs. It was the result of, or rather one step in, a process of
evolution, the beginnings of which are to be traced back to the origins
of Christianity. St Paul (1 Tim. i. 20) "delivered unto Satan"
Hymenaeus and Alexander, "that they might learn not to blaspheme." The
penalty of death by stoning inflicted by the book of Deuteronomy upon
those who deserted the true faith (Deut. xiii. 6-9, xvii. 1-6) is thus
reduced to a purely spiritual excommunication. During the first three
centuries of the Church there is no trace of any persecution, and the
earlier Fathers, especially Origen and Lactantius, reject the idea of
it. Constantine, by the edict of Milan (313), inaugurated an era of
official tolerance, but from the time of Valentinian I. and Theodosius
I. onwards, laws against heretics began to appear, and increased with
astonishing regularity and rapidity. We can count sixty-eight
distributed over fifty-two years; heretics are subjected to exile or
confiscation, disqualified from inheriting property, and even, in the
case of a few groups of Manichaeans and Donatists, condemned to death;
but it should be noticed that these penalties apply only to the outward
manifestations of heresy, and not, as in the middle ages, to crimes of
conscience. Within the Church, St Optatus alone (_De schismate
Donatistarum_, _lib._ iii. cap. iii.) approved of this violent
repression of the Donatist heresy; St Augustine only admitted a
_temperata severitas_, such as scourging, fines or exile, and at the end
of the 4th century the condemnation of the Spanish heretic Priscillian,
who was put to death in 385 by order of the emperor Maximus, gave rise
to a keen controversy. St Martin of Tours, St Ambrose and St Leo
vigorously attacked the Spanish bishops who had obtained the
condemnation of Priscillian. St John Chrysostom considered that a
heretic should be deprived of the liberty of speech and that assemblies
organized by heretics should be dissolved, but declared that "to put a
heretic to death would be to introduce upon earth an inexpiable crime."
From the 6th to the 9th century the heterodox, with the exception of the
Manichaean sects in certain places, were hardly subjected to
persecution. They were, moreover, rare and generally isolated, for
groups of sectaries only began to appear to any extent at the time of
the earliest appearances of Catharism. However, at the end of the 10th
century, the disciples of Vilgard, a heretic of Ravenna, were destroyed
in Italy and Sardinia, according to Glaber, _ferro et incendio_,
probably by assimilation to the Manichaeans. Perhaps this was the
precedent for the punishment of the thirteen Cathari who were burnt at
Orleans in 1022 by order of King Robert, a sentence which has been
commonly quoted as the first action of the "secular arm" (or lay power)
against heresy in the West during the middle ages. However that may be,
after 1022 there were numerous cases of the execution of heretics,
either by burning or strangling, in France, Italy, the Empire and
England. Up till about 1200 it is not quite easy to determine what part
was taken by the Church and its bishops and doctors in this series of
executions. At Orleans the people, supported by the Crown, were
responsible for the death of the heretics; the historians give only the
faintest indications of any direct intervention of the clergy, except
perhaps for the examination of doctrine. At Goslar (1051-1052) the
proceedings were the same. At Asti (1034) the bishop's name appears side
by side with those of the other lords who attacked the Cathari, but it
seems clear that it was not he who had the chief voice in their
execution; at Milan, it was again the civil magistrates, and this time
against the wish of the archbishop--who gave the heretics the choice
between the adoration of the cross and death. At Soissons (1114) the
mob, distrusting the weakness of the clergy, took advantage of their
bishop's absence to burn heretics at the stake. It was also the mob who,
infuriated at seeing him destroy and burn crosses, burnt the heresiarch
Peter of Bruis (c. 1140). At Liége (1144) the bishop saved from the
flames certain persons whom the faithful were attempting to burn. At
Cologne (1163) the archbishop was less successful, and the mob put the
heretics to death without even a trial. The condemnation of Arnold of
Brescia was entirely political, though he was denounced as a heretic to
the secular arm by Bernard of Clairvaux, and his execution was the act
of the prefect of Rome (1155). At Vézelay, on the contrary (1167), the
heretics were burnt after ecclesiastical judgment had been pronounced
by the abbot and several bishops. From 1183 to 1206 Hugh, bishop of
Auxerre, took upon himself the discretionary power of exiling,
dispossessing or burning heretics, while about the same time William of
the White Hands, archbishop of Reims, in concert with Philip, count of
Flanders, stamped out heresy from his diocese by fire. There was a
similar unanimity between the lay and ecclesiastical authorities in the
famous condemnation of the disciples of Amalric of Bena, who were burnt
at Paris in 1209 by order of Philip Augustus after an ecclesiastical
inquiry and judgment. The theory in these matters was at first as
uncertain as the practice; in the 11th century one bishop only, Theodwin
of Liége (d. 1075), affirms the necessity for the punishment of heretics
by the secular arm (1050). His predecessor, Wazo, bishop of Liége from
1041 to 1044, had expressly condemned any capital punishment and advised
the bishop of Chalons to resort to peaceful conversion. In the 12th
century Peter the Cantor[1] protested against the death penalty,
admitting at the most imprisonment. It was imprisonment again, or exile,
but not death, which the German abbot Gerhoh of Reichersperg (1093-1169)
demanded in the case of Arnold of Brescia, and in dealing with the
heretics of Cologne, St Bernard, who cannot be accused of leniency where
heterodoxy was concerned, recommended pacific refutation, followed by
excommunication or prison, but never the death penalty (see BERNARD, ST,
of Clairvaux). In the councils, too, it is clear that the appeal to the
secular arm was equally guarded: at Reims (1049) excommunication alone
is decreed against heretics; and when, as at Toulouse (1119) and the
Lateran council (1139), it is laid down that heretics, in addition to
excommunication, should be dealt with _per potestates exteras_, or when,
as at the council of Reims (1148), the secular princes are forbidden to
support or harbour heretics, there is never any suggestion of capital
punishment. But it must be noticed that from the opening years of the
12th century date the beginnings of a decided evolution in the canon
law, continuing up to the time of Innocent III., which substituted for
arbitrary decisions according to circumstances an organized and
particularized legislation, in which judgment was given _secundum
canonicas et legitimas sanctiones_. Anselm of Lucca and the _Panormia_
attributed to Ivo of Chartres reproduced word for word under the rubric
_De edicto imperatorum in dampnationem hoereticorum_, law 5 of the title
_De hereticis_ of Justinian's code, which pronounces the sentence of
death against the Manichaeans; and we should remember that the Cathari,
and in general all heretics in the West in the 11th and 12th centuries
were considered by contemporary theologians as Manichaeans. Gratian in
the _Decretum_ proclaims the views of St Augustine (exile and fines).
Certain of his commentators (_2^a pars Caus._ xxiii.), and notably
Rufinus Johannes Teutonicus, and the anonymous glossator (in Uguccio's
Great Summa of the _Decretum_) declare that impenitent heretics may, or
even should, be punished by death. As early as 1163, the council of
Tours suggested to the ecclesiastical authorities definite penalties to
be inflicted on heretics, namely, imprisonment and loss of all their
property. Pope Alexander III., who had attended the council of Tours of
1163, renewed at the Lateran council (1179) the decisions which had
already been made with regard to the heterodox in the south of France,
and at Verona in 1184 Pope Lucius III., in concert with the emperor
Frederick Barbarossa, took still more severe measures: obstinate
heretics were to be excommunicated, and then handed over to the secular
arm, which would inflict a suitable penalty. The emperor, on his side,
laid them under the imperial ban (exile, confiscation, demolition of
their houses, _infamia_, loss of civil rights, disqualification from
public offices, &c.). The usage, then, was already quite clear; but the
death penalty had not as yet been demanded or inflicted. Possibly it was
Count Raymond V. of Toulouse, in whose territories heretics abounded,
who in 1194 enacted a law threatening them with the penalty of death;
but the authenticity of this act has been questioned. It was more
probably Peter II. of Aragon who was the first to decree, in 1197, the
punishment of death by burning against the heretics who should not have
left his kingdom within a given time. But it was Innocent III. who gave
the most powerful impetus to the anti-heretical movement in the secular
world by his frequent exhortations (beginning in 1198) to the secular
princes (letters of March 25th, 1199, and September 22nd, 1207). As a
jurist he henceforward assimilated the crime of high treason against God
to that of high treason against temporal rulers, and admitted all the
terrible consequences of this assimilation.


  Albigensian Crusade. No regular Inquisition.

  The Emperor Frederick II.

  Gregory IX. creates the monastic Inquisition.

  The Dominicans.

It is therefore incorrect to believe that the Inquisition arose out of,
and at the time of, the crusade against the Albigenses. These executions
_en masse_ certainly created a definitive precedent for violent
repression, but there was still no regular organization: the council of
Toulouse, held in November 1229 by the Roman legate after the treaty of
peace, attempted to organize one, and constituted itself the tribunal.
But the procedure was still uncertain; in the north, from 1200 to 1222,
at Paris (execution of the disciples of Amalric of Bena), at Strassburg,
Cambrai, Troyes and Besançon executions took place, after trials in
which the bishops were the judges, the exercise of the secular power
being based on vague phrases in the decrees of Louis VIII. (that
heretics be punished _animadversione debita_), or in those of Louis IX.,
ordering his _baillis_ or barons to do to them _quod debebunt_. The
emperor Frederick II. defined his jurisprudence more clearly: from 1220
to 1239, supported by Pope Honorius III., and above all by Gregory IX.,
he established against the heretics of the Empire in general a
legislation in which the penalties of death, banishment and confiscation
of property were formulated so clearly as to be henceforth
incontestable. Gregory IX. felt his influence, and also that of the
Dominican Guala, bishop of Brescia, who had subjected his episcopal town
to the full rigour of the imperial laws. The pope no longer hesitated as
to the principle or the degree of repression; but introduced new methods
of inquiry and judgment: he created out of the material furnished him by
the mendicant orders, and especially the Dominicans, who were more
disciplined than the rest and better theologians, the monastic
inquisition, which was more elastic, more constant in its activities and
more numerous than the inquisition by legate, and better disciplined
than the episcopal inquisition. In November 1232 the Dominican Alberic
went round Lombardy with the title of _Inquisitor haereticae
pravitatis_. In 1231 a similar commission was given to the Dominicans of
Friesach and to the terrible Conrad of Marburg, whose zeal in Germany
even exceeded the pope's wishes. In 1233 Gregory IX. addressed a letter
to the bishops in the south of France, in which he announced his
intention of employing the preaching friars in future for the discovery
and repression of heresy.


  Beginnings of the Inquisition.

  Inquisitorial districts.

  The Inquisitors and their auxiliaries.

The inquisition was now regularly instituted, but its jurisprudence was
elaborated by successive additions or limitations, by the force of
custom and the detailed prescriptions added by the papal constitutions.
The pope's commissioners "in the matter of heresy" at first travelled
from place to place. On arriving in a district they addressed its
inhabitants, called upon them to confess, if they were heretics, or to
denounce those whom they knew to be heretics: a "time of grace" was
opened, during which those who freely confessed were dispensed from all
penalties, or only given a secret and very light penance; while those
whose heresy had been openly manifested were exempted from the penalties
of death and perpetual imprisonment. But this time could not exceed one
month. After that began the inquisition. As soon as their mission was at
an end, and heresy was considered to be stamped out, the inquisitors
left the country. Later, inquisitorial districts were formed. The seat
of the Inquisition in each district was the monastery of the order
(Dominican or Franciscan) to which the inquisitors for that part
belonged. There was never any special court or prison: the _murus_
(prison) was lent to the Inquisition by the ecclesiastical or secular
authorities. The maintenance of the prisoners and the duty of providing
the prison fell in principle upon the bishops (council of Toulouse,
1229), but they tried to evade it. The kings of France, and in
particular Louis VIII., granted subsidies to the inquisitors. For each
district the inquisitors were chosen by the provincials of their order,
approved or rejected by the pope, and removable by him only. Their
discretionary powers were absolute. They conducted their interrogations
before two persons (laymen or ecclesiastics) and only pronounced their
sentence after consultation with leading men in the district
(_communicato bonorum virorum consilio_). This was the only protection
for the accused. It was in vain that the civil lawyers tried to prove
that the secular authorities had a right to see the documents bearing on
the case; the Inquisition always succeeded in setting aside these
claims. The share taken in the proceedings by the bishops, the accused
or their representatives, though admitted in principle, was as a rule
merely illusory. The Inquisition had in addition to these _boni viri_
certain other lay assistant officials, its sworn notaries, messengers
and familiars, all of whom were closely bound to it.


  Procedure of the Inquisition.

  Use of torture.

  Punishments.

  "Handing over to the secular arm."

Bernard Guy (Bernardus Guidonis),[2] one of the earliest and most
complete exponents of the theory of the Inquisition, admits distinctly
that in its procedure _multa sunt specialia_. The procedure was secret
and in the highest degree arbitrary, proceeding _sine strepitu et figura
judicii_, its object being to ascertain not so much particular offences
as tendencies: the murderers of the inquisitor Peter Martyr[3] were
tried, not as assassins, but as guilty of heresy and adversaries of the
Inquisition; and on the other hand, external acts of piety and verbal
professions of faith were held of no value. Moreover the Inquisition was
not bound by the ordinary rules of procedure in its inquiries: the
accused was surprised by a sudden summons, and as a rule imprisoned on
suspicion. All the accused were presumed to be guilty, the judge being
at the same time the accuser. Absence was naturally considered as
contumacy, and only increased the presumption of guilt by seeming to
admit it. The accused had the right to demand a written account of the
offences attributed to him (_capitula accusationis_), but the names of
the witnesses were withheld from him (Innocent IV.; bulls Cum negocium
and _Licet sicut accepimus_), he did not know who had denounced him, nor
what weight was attached by the judges to the denunciations made against
him. The utmost that was allowed him was the unsatisfactory privilege of
the _recusationes divinatrices_, i.e. at his first examination he was
asked for the names of any enemies of whom he knew, and the causes of
their enmity. Heretics or persons deprived of civil rights (_infames_)
were admitted as witnesses in cases of heresy. Women, children or slaves
could be witnesses for the prosecution, but not for the defence, and
cases are even to be found in which the witnesses were only ten years of
age. Langhino Ugolini states that a witness who should retract his
hostile evidence should be punished for false witness, but that his
evidence should be retained, and have its full effect on the sentence.
No witness might refuse to give evidence, under pain of being considered
guilty of heresy. The prosecution went on in the utmost secrecy. The
accused swore that he would tell the whole truth, and was bound to
denounce all those who were partners of his heresy, or whom he knew or
suspected to be heretics. If he confessed, and denounced his
accomplices, relatives or friends, he was "reconciled" with the Church,
and had to suffer only the humiliating penalties prescribed by the canon
law. If further examination proved necessary, it was continued by
various methods. Bernardus Guidonis enumerates many ways of obtaining
confessions, sometimes by means of moral subterfuges, but sometimes also
by a process of weakening the physical strength. And as a last expedient
torture was resorted to. The Church was originally opposed to torture,
and the canon law did not admit confessions extorted by that means; but
by the bull _Ad extirpanda_ (1252) Innocent IV. approved its use for the
discovery of heresy, and Urban IV. confirmed this usage, which had its
origin in secular legislation (cf. the Veronese Code of 1228, and
Sicilian Constitution of Frederick II. in 1231). In 1312 excessive
cruelty had to be suppressed by the council of Vienna. Canonically the
torture could only be applied once, but it might be "continued." The
next step was the torture of witnesses, a practice which was left to the
discretion of the inquisitors. Moreover, all confessions or depositions
extorted in the torture-chamber had subsequently to be "freely"
confirmed. The confession was always considered as voluntary. The
procedure was of course not litigious; any lawyer defending the accused
would have been held guilty of heresy. The inquiry might last a long
time, for it was interrupted or resumed according to the discretion of
the judges, who disposed matters so as to obtain as many confessions or
denunciations as possible. After the different phases of the
examination, the accused were divided into two categories: (1) those who
had confessed and abjured, (2) those who had not confessed and were
consequently convicted of heresy. There was a third class, by no means
the least numerous, namely, those who having previously confessed and
abjured had relapsed into error. Next came the moment of the sentence:
"there was never any case of an acquittal pure and simple" (H. C. Lea).
The formula for full and complete acquittal given by Bernardus Guidonis
in his _Practica_, should, he says, never or very rarely be employed.
The sentences were solemnly pronounced on a Sunday, in a church or
public place, in the presence of the inquisitors, their auxiliaries, the
bishops, the secular magistrates and the people. This was the _sermo
generalis_ (see AUTO DA FÉ). The accused who had confessed were
reconciled, and the penalties were then pronounced; these were, in order
of severity, penances, fasting, prayers, pilgrimages (Palestine, St
James of Compostella, Canterbury, &c.), public scourging, the compulsory
wearing on the breast or back of crosses of yellow felt sewn on to the
clothes or sometimes of tongues of red, letters, &c. These were the
_poenae confusibiles_ (humiliating). The inquisitors eventually acquired
the right of inflicting fines at discretion. In 1244 and 1251 Innocent
IV. reproved them for their exactions. All these minor penalties could
be commuted for payments in money in the same way as absolution from the
crusader's vow, and the council of Vienna tried to put an end to these
extortions. Beyond these minor penalties came the severer ones of
imprisonment for a period of time, perpetual imprisonment and
imprisonment of various degrees of severity (_murus largus_, _murus
strictus vel strictissimus_). The _murus strictus_ consisted in the
deepest dungeon, with single or double fetters, and "the bread and water
of affliction"; but the severity of the prison régime varied very much.
The _murus largus_, especially for a rich prisoner, amounted to a fairly
mild imprisonment, but the mortality among those confined in the _murus
strictus_ became so high that Clement V. ordered an inquiry to be made
into the prison régime in Languedoc, in spite of Bernard Guy's protest
against the investigation as likely to diminish the prestige of the
inquisitors. After the sentences had been pronounced, the obstinate
heretics and renegades were for the last time called upon to submit and
to confess and abjure. If they consented, they were received as
penitents, and condemned on the spot to perpetual imprisonment; if they
did not consent, they were handed over to the secular arm. When the
heretic was handed over to the secular arm, the agents of the secular
power were recommended to punish him _debita animadversione_, and the
form of recommending him to mercy was gone through. But, as M. Vacandard
says, "If the secular judges had thought fit to take this formula
literally, they would soon have been brought back to a recognition of
the true state of affairs by excommunication." In effect, handing over
to the secular arm was equivalent to a sentence of death, and of death
by fire. The Dominican Jacob Sprenger, provincial of his order in
Germany (1494) and inquisitor, does not hesitate to speak of the victims
_quas incinerari fecimus_ ("whom we [the inquisitors] caused to be burnt
to ashes"). But we must accept the conclusions of H. C. Lea and
Vacandard that comparatively few people suffered at the stake in the
medieval Inquisition. Between 1308 and 1323, Bernard Guy, who cannot be
accused of inactivity, only handed over to the secular arm 42 persons,
out of 930 who were convicted of heresy.


  Punishment by confiscation of goods.

  Abuse of the system.

  Economic and political importance of the system.

From the point of view of jurisprudence of the Inquisition, the
confiscation of the condemned man's property by the ecclesiastical and
secular powers is only the accompaniment to the more severe penalties of
perpetual imprisonment or death; but from the point of view of its
economic history the importance of the confiscation is supreme. The
practice originated in the Roman law, and all secular princes had
already, in their own interest, recognized it as lawful (Frederick
Barbarossa, Decree of Verona; Louis VIII., ordinances of 1226, 1229;
Louis IX., ordinance of 1234; Raymond VII. of Toulouse, &c.). In the
kingdom of France there was a special official, the _procureur des
encours_ (confiscation in the matter of heresy), whose duty it was to
collect the personal property of the heretics, and to incorporate their
landed estates in the royal domain; in Languedoc crying abuses arose,
especially under the reign of Alphonse of Poitiers. Soon the papacy
managed to gain a share of the spoils, even outside the states of the
Church, as is shown by the bulls _ad extirpanda_ of Innocent IV. and
Alexander IV., and henceforward the inquisitors had, in varying
proportions, a direct interest in these spoliations. In Spain this
division only applied to the property of the clergy and vassals of the
Church, but in France, Italy and Germany, the property of all those
convicted of heresy was shared between the lay and ecclesiastical
authorities. Venice alone decided that all the receipts of the Holy
Office should be handed over in full to the state. Clement V., in his
attempted reform and regularization of inquisitorial procedure,
endeavoured to reduce the confiscations to a fairly reasonable minimum,
and in 1337-1338 a series of papal inquiries was held into this
financial aspect of the matter. The Assize of Clarendon, the
Constitutions of Frederick II. (1232) and of Count Raymond of Toulouse
(1234) had also come to a joint decision with the councils on this
question. King Charles V. of France prevailed upon the papacy to abolish
this regulation (1378). Confiscation was, indeed, most profitable to the
secular princes, and there is no doubt that the hope of considerable
gain was what induced many princes to uphold the inquisitorial
administration, especially in the days of the decay of faith. The
resistance of the south of France to the Capetian monarchs was to a
large extent broken owing to the decimation of the bourgeoisie by the
Inquisition and their impoverishment by the extortions of the _encours_.
The same was the case in certain of the Italian republics; while in
districts such as the north of France, where heretics were both poor and
few and far between, the Inquisition did not easily take root, nor did
it prove very profitable. These confiscations, the importance of which
in the political and economic history of the middle ages was first shown
fully by H. C. Lea, were a constant source of uncertainty in
transactions of all kinds; there was, for instance, always a risk in
entering into a contract in a place where the existence of heretics was
suspected, since any contract entered into with a heretic was void in
itself. Nor was there any more security in the transmission of
inheritances for posthumous trials were frequent; the _Liber
sententiarum inquisitionis_ of Bernardus Guidonis (1307-1323) records
sentences pronounced after death against 89 persons during a period of
15 years. But not only was their property confiscated and their heirs
disinherited; they were subject to still further penalties. Frederick
II. extended to heresy the application of the Roman law disqualifying
from holding office, and even included under its operation the children
and grandchildren of the guilty man. Alexander IV. and Boniface VIII.
lightened the severity of this law, and removed certain
disqualifications, notably in the case of ecclesiastical offices and
property.


  Condemnation of books.

Among other accessory penalties, we must notice the condemnation of
books. There were many precedents for this: Constantine had had the
Arian writings burnt, Theodosius II. and Valentinian III. those of the
Nestorians and Manichaeans, Justinian the Talmud. In 1210 were burnt the
books of David of Dinant and the Periphyseon of Aristotle. In 1255 the
_De periculis novissimorum temporum_ of William of St Amour[4] was burnt
by order of Pope Alexander IV., and from 1248 to 1319 was pronounced a
series of condemnations of the Talmud. Nicholas Eymerich (c. 1320-1399),
the Spanish inquisitor, demanded from Pope Gregory XI. the condemnation
of Raymond Lully's books, and in 1376 obtained it, but before long the
Lullists returned into favour with the pope and Eymerich was banished.
This rebuff suffered by an inquisitor shows how uncertain the censure of
books still was, even in a country where in less than two centuries'
time it was to become one of the chief spheres of inquisitorial
activity.


  Sorcery and magic.

The definite object of the Inquisition was the prosecution of heresy;
but its sphere of action was gradually extended by the theologians and
casuists until sorcery and magic ranked with dogmatic heresy. The
council of Valence (1248) dealt with sorcerers as well as sacrilegious
persons, but did not treat them as heretics. Alexander IV. went further,
declaring that divination and sorcery should only come within the
competence of the inquisitor when they directly affected the unity or
faith of the Church (9th December 1257; cf. bull _Quod super nonnullis_,
10th January 1260). Cases of simple sorcery were left to be dealt with
by the ordinary judges. The distinction was very subtle, but it was not
tampered with until 1451, at which date Nicholas V. gave the inquisitor
Hugues Lenoir the cognizance of cases of divination, even when the crime
did not savour of heresy. In dealing with such a subtle question, great
variations had naturally arisen in practice, and the repression of
sorcery was carried on jointly by the inquisitors, the bishops and the
secular courts. John XXII., in consequence of a perfect epidemic of
sorcery about 1320, handed over to the inquisitors for a time
(1320-1333) all cases of crimes involving magic; but this measure was
temporary and exceptional and only confirms the rule. There were various
occasions during the middle ages when men's minds became infatuated, and
it seemed as if the scourge of magic were likely entirely to destroy the
Catholic faith; and during such times, morbidly infected with fear and
the spirit of persecution, the ecclesiastical judges regained all their
prestige. One of these crises culminated in the affair of the
"Vauderie"[5] of Arras (1459), in which twelve unfortunates perished at
the stake; and there were similar occurrences at the same period in
Dauphiné and Gascony; of this nature again was the violent persecution
in the Germanic countries begun by the bull _Summis desiderantes_ of
Innocent VIII. (5th December 1484), in the course of which the two
authors of the _Malleus maleficorum_, the inquisitors Sprenger and
Institoris (Heinrich Krämer), distinguished themselves as much by their
knowledge of theoretical demonology as by their zeal as persecutors. In
France the secular authority was not long in claiming and obtaining
jurisdiction over sorcerers (parlement of Paris, 1374), and as early as
1378 the university of Paris gave judgment in a case of demonology.
Those unfortunates who were charged with sorcery gained, however,
nothing by this change of jurisdiction, for they were invariably put to
death.


  The Inquisition and the Jews.

The inquisitors could not take proceedings against Jews as such. They
might profess their religion and observe its rites without being in a
state of heresy; they were only heretic when they attacked the Christian
faith or community, made proselytes, or returned to Judaism after being
converted. Further, those who practised usury were "suspected of not
holding very orthodox doctrine as to theft" (Vacandard), and on this
account the Inquisition gained a hold on them. Pope Martin V. (6th
November 1419) authorized inquisitors to take proceedings against
usurers.


  Treatment of heresy in the various countries.

  England.

  Scotland.

  Ireland.

But these are merely extensions of competence resulting from the works
of the casuists; the Inquisition was primarily the instrument for the
repression of all kinds of breaches of orthodoxy. Its work in this
capacity we will now describe in outline for each of the great countries
of medieval Christendom. England, whether before or after the
establishment of the Inquisition, had but few trials for heresy and,
particularist in this as in all her religious activity, judged them
according to her own discipline, without asking Rome for laws or special
judges. In 1166, a few heretics having been apprehended, Henry II.
called a council at Oxford and summoned them to appear before it; they
all confessed, and were condemned to be scourged, branded on the face
with the mark of a key, and expelled from the country, and by the 21st
article of the Assize of Clarendon the king forbade any one to harbour
on their lands or in the house any "of that sect of renegades who had
been excommunicated at Oxford." Any one offending against this law was
to be "at the king's mercy" and his house was to be "carried outside the
town and burnt." The sheriffs were obliged to swear observance of this
law and to require a similar oath from all barons' stewards, knights and
free tenants. This was the first civil law against heresy since the end
of the Roman empire, and preceded the famous rescripts of Frederick II.
against sectaries in the 13th century. It should, however, be noted that
the political acts of Henry II. and Frederick II. drew down the most
explicit condemnation of the church. Orthodoxy remained almost
unimpaired in England up till the time of Wycliffe. Apparently neither
the Catharist, Waldensian nor Pantheistic heresies gained any footing in
Great Britain. The affair of the Templars in France, which was quite
political, was repeated in England: Clement V. having ordered their
arrest, Edward II., after much hesitation, gave orders to the sheriffs
to execute it and then decided that the _ecclesiastical law_ should be
applied. The papal inquisitors sent to England met with a bad reception,
and the pope was obliged to forbid them to use torture, which was
contrary to the laws of the kingdom. It was found impossible to
establish the Templars' guilt and only canonical penalties were
inflicted on them. The rising of the Lollards having alarmed both the
church and the state, the article _De haeretico comburendo_ was
established by statute in 1401, and gained a melancholy notoriety during
the religious struggles of the 16th century; it seems to have been not
so much a measure for the safeguarding of dogma as a violent assertion
of the secular absolutism. It was not till 1676 that Charles II. caused
it to be abrogated, and obtained a decision that in cases of atheism,
blasphemy, heresy, schism and other religious offences, the
ecclesiastical courts should be confined to the penalties of
excommunication, removal from office, degradation and other
ecclesiastical means of censure, to the exclusion of the death penalty.
Scotland was much later than England in giving up persecution and
bloodshed; and so late as 1696 a student of medicine aged eighteen and
named Aikenhead was accused of heresy and hanged at Edinburgh. In
Ireland Richard de Lederede or Ledred, a Franciscan and bishop of
Ossory, in 1324 prosecuted on suspicion of heresy and for sorcery a
certain Dame Alice Kettle or Kyteler and her accomplices, Petronilla of
Meath and her daughter Bassilla, who were accused of holding "nightly
conference with a spirit called Robert Artisson, to whom she sacrificed
in the high way nine red cocks and nine peacocks' eyes." The lady had
powerful connexions, and her brother-in-law, Arnold le Powre, seneschal
of Kilkenny, even went so far as to imprison the bishop. But in spite of
the refusal of the secular authorities to co-operate with him, the
bishop was strong enough to force them in 1325 to burn some of the
accused. Dame Kettle herself, however, who had been cited to appear at
Dublin before the dean of St Patrick's, escaped with the assistance of
some of the nobles to England. Meanwhile the bishop, who had attempted
to involve Arnold le Powre in the same charge, became involved in a
quarrel with the administrators of the English government in Ireland;
counter charges were brought against him, he was excommunicated by his
metropolitan, Alexander de Bicknor, archbishop of Dublin; and in
defiance of the king's commands, after publishing counter charges
against the archbishop, he appealed to Rome and left the country. In
1335 Benedict XII. wrote to Edward III. deploring the absence of any
inquisition in the king's dominions, and exhorting him to lend the aid
of the secular arm in repressing heresy. Archbishop Alexander, who in
1347 was denounced as an abettor of heresy, died in 1349, and his
successor was ordered to chastise those heretics who had taken refuge in
the diocese from Richard de Lederede's violence, and whom his
predecessor had protected. Finally, in 1354, Richard de Lederede himself
was allowed to return to his diocese, where his zeal for persecution
does not, however, seem to have found much further scope. He died in
1360.


  France.

The scene of the activities of the monastic Inquisition in France lay
chiefly in the south. The repression of the Albigensian heresy (see
ALBIGENSES) went on even when its importance had quite disappeared. The
chronicle of the inquisitor Guilhem Pelhisso (d. 1268) shows us the most
tragic episodes of the reign of terror which wasted Languedoc for a
century. Guillaume Arnaud, Peter Cella, Bernard of Caux, Jean de St
Pierre, Nicholas of Abbeville, Foulques de St Georges, were the chief of
the inquisitors who played the part of absolute dictators, burning at
the stake, attacking both the living and the dead, confiscating their
property and land, and enclosing the inhabitants both of the towns and
the country in a network of suspicion and denunciation. The secular
authorities were of the utmost assistance to them in this task; owing to
the confiscations, the crown had too direct an interest in the success
of the inquisitorial trials not to connive at all their abuses. Under
the regency of Alphonse of Poitiers Languedoc was regularly laid under
contribution by the _procureur des encours_. There were frequent
attempts at retaliation, directed for the most part against the
inquisitors, and isolated attacks were made on Dominicans. In 1234-1235
there were regular risings of the people at Albi and Narbonne, which
forced the inquisitors to retreat. In 1235 the inquisitors were driven
out of Toulouse. These risings were followed by terrible measures of
repression, which, in turn, led to violent outbreaks on the part of the
relatives, friends or compatriots of the sufferers. During the night of
the 28th or 29th of May 1242 the inquisitors and their agents were
massacred at the castle of Avignonet. This massacre led to a persecution
which went on without opposition and almost without a lull for nearly
fifty years. At the beginning of the 14th century the terrified people
found a defender in the heroic Franciscan Bernard Délicieux. For a
moment King Philip the Fair and Pope Clement V. seemed to interest
themselves in the misfortunes of Languedoc, and the king of France sent
down reformers; but they had no effect, their activity being restrained
by the king himself, who was alarmed at a separatist movement which was
arising in Languedoc. The work of repression which followed this moment
of hope was carried out, between 1308 and 1323, by the inquisitor
Bernard Guy, and completed the destruction of the Catharist heresy, the
appearances of which after the middle of the 14th century became less
and less frequent. Other heretics, for a time at least, took their
place, namely the Spirituals, who had developed out of a branch of the
Franciscans, and were remotely disciples of Joachim, abbot of Floris
(q.v.), and whom their rigid rule of absolute poverty led, by a reaction
against the cupidity of the ordinary ecclesiastics, to repudiate any
hierarchy and to uphold the doctrines of Peter John de Oliva against the
word of the pope. On the 17th of February 1317 John XXII. condemned all
these irregular followers of St Francis, "_fraticelli, fratres de
paupere vita, bizochi_ or _beghini_," and the Inquisition of Languedoc
was at once set in motion against them. Four _spirituales_ were burnt at
Marseilles in 1318, and soon the persecution was extended to the
Franciscan _beguins_ or _tertiarii_, many people being burnt about 1320
at Narbonne, Lunel, Béziers, Carcassonne, &c. The persecution stopped
for lack of an object, for the small groups of beguins were soon
destroyed, and those of the _Spirituales_ who were not sent to the stake
or to prison were compelled by the papacy to enter other orders than the
Franciscan. The Waldenses (q.v.) were more difficult to destroy:
originally less dangerous to the church than the Cathari, they resisted
longer, and their dispersal in scattered communities aided their long
resistance.

In the north of France the workings of the Inquisition were very
intermittent; for there were fewer heretics there than in the south, and
as they were poorer, there was less zeal on the part of the secular arm
to persecute them. At its outset, however, the Inquisition in the north
of France was marked by a series of melancholy events: the inquisitor
Robert le Bougre, formerly a Catharist, spent six years (1233-1239) in
going through the Nivernais, Burgundy, Flanders and Champagne, burning
at the stake in every place unfortunates whom he condemned without a
judgment, supported as he was by the ecclesiastical authorities and by
princes such as Theobald of Champagne. The pope was forced to put a
check on his zeal, and, after an inquiry, condemned him to imprisonment
for life. We know that there were inquisitors settled in Île de France,
Orléanais, Touraine, Lorraine and Burgundy during the 12th century, but
we know next to nothing of what they did. In the 14th century, the
Flemish and German heresies of the Free Spirit made their appearance in
France; in 1310 a heretic named Marguerite Porette was burnt at Paris,
and in 1373 another named Jeanne Daubenton, both of whom seem to have
professed a kind of rudimentary pantheism, the latter being the head of
a sect called the Turlupins. The Turlupins reappeared in 1421 at Arras
and Douai and were persecuted in a similar way. But in the 15th century,
with the exception of a few condemnations aimed against the Hussites,
the Inquisition acted but feebly against heresy, which, as in the famous
case of the "Vauderie" of Arras, was often nothing but fairly ordinary
sorcery.

From the middle of the 14th century onward, the parlement had taken upon
itself the right of hearing appeals from persons sentenced by the
Inquisition. And the University again, by its faculty of theology,
escaped the jurisdiction of the Inquisition. It was these two great
bodies which at the time of the Reformation took the place of the
Inquisition in dealing with heresy.


  Italy.

In Italy heresy not infrequently took on a social or political
character; it was sometimes almost indistinguishable from the opposition
of the Ghibellines or the communalist spirit of independence. Lombardy,
besides a number of Cathari, contained a certain number of
vaguely-defined sects against whom the efforts of the Apostolic Visitors
sent by Innocent III. were not of much effect. From the very earliest
days of the Inquisition, John of Vicenza, Roland of Cremona and Rassiero
Sacchoni directed their persecutions against Lombardy, and especially
against Milan. St Peter Martyr, who was conspicuous for his bigoted
violence, was assassinated in 1252. On the 20th of March 1256 Alexander
IV. ordered the provincial of the friar preachers of Lombardy to
increase the number of inquisitors in that province from four to eight.
At Florence both heresy and Ghibellinism were alike crushed by the
terrible severities of Fra Ruggieri, and indulgences were promised to
all who should aid in the extinction of heresy in Tuscany. Certain
districts revolted against this violence, which threatened to devastate
Italy as it had devastated Provence; in 1277 Fra Corrado Pagano was
killed on an expedition against the heretics of the Vattelline, and two
years after the people of Parma rose against the inquisitors. Besides,
this reign of terror only raised to a furious pitch the passionate and
independent piety of the Italian peoples. The body of a heretic, Armanno
Ponzilupo, who was killed at Ferrara in 1269, was venerated by the
people, and his mediation was even invoked, until the Inquisition had to
suppress this cult. But it had a harder struggle against the successes
of Gerard Legarelli, and especially Dolcino (see APOSTOLICI), which only
came to an end after a long and difficult trial of the adepts of the
Messianist sect of Guglielma, some of whom belonged to the noble
families of Lombardy. Up till the beginning of the 14th century,
however, the power of the Inquisition steadily increased, and at this
period Zanghino Ugolini appeared as the most skilful exponent of its
theory and procedure. About the same time Charles of Anjou introduced
the Inquisition into the Two Sicilies, but it could rarely effect
anything there; the religious cohesion of the country was weak, and
refugees were sure of safe hiding, both Waldenses and Fraticelli being
frequently harboured there. When Sicily passed into the hands of Peter
III. of Aragon, moreover, it came into a position of open hostility to
the Holy See and became a refuge for heretics.

Venice always preserved its autonomy as regards the repression of
heresy; she was perfectly orthodox, but remained entirely independent of
Rome; Innocent IV. sent inquisitors there, but the heretics continued
actually to be subject to the secular tribunals. In 1288 a compromise
was arrived at, and the papal Inquisition was admitted into the
republic, but only on condition that it should remain under the control
of the secular power; thus there was established a mixed régime which
survived till the last days of the Venetian state. In Savoy the
Inquisition constantly carried on severe measures against the Waldenses
of the Alps. During the 14th and 15th centuries there was an
uninterrupted succession of trials.


  States of the Church.

As regards the papal states, "it was in the nature of things that, by a
confusion of the two personages, the pope should consider all opposition
to him _qua_ Italian prince as resistance offered to the head of the
church, i.e. to the church" (Ch. V. Langlois). The Colonna had a
personal animosity against the Gaetani; therefore Boniface VIII., a
Gaetano, declared the Colonna to be heretics. Rienzi was accused of
heresy for having questioned the temporal sovereignty of the pope at
Rome. The Venetians, who in 1309 opposed the annexation of Ferrara by
Clement V. to the detriment of the house of Este, were proclaimed
heretics and placed under the ban of Christendom. Savonarola was
attacked because he interfered with the policy of Alexander VI. at
Florence. It was this same desire for the hegemony of Italy which
inspired the attitude of the popes throughout the middle ages, causing
them to excommunicate, apparently without reason so far as doctrine was
concerned, the Visconti of Milan, the Della Scala of Verona, the
Maffredi of Faenza, &c., and prompting them to lay under an interdict or
preach a crusade against certain rebellious great towns (Clement V.
against Venice, John XXII. against Milan). Further, in each of the great
cities of Lombardy and Tuscany, the papal party directed the local
inquisition, and this power was rarely abused.


  Germany.

In Germany heresies, especially of a mystical character, were numerous
in the middle ages; some of them affected the mass of the people, and
led to religious and social movements of no little importance. The
repression of heresy went on by fits and starts, and the Inquisition was
never exercised so regularly in the Germanic as in certain of the Latin
countries. At the outset of the 13th century persecutions of the
Waldenses and Ortlibarii (followers of Ortlieb of Strassburg, c. 1200)
took place at Strassburg; measures were taken locally until, in 1231,
Gregory IX. issued definite instructions to the German prelates with a
view to a regular repression of heresy, and gave full powers to execute
them to Conrad of Marburg. Certain nobles having offered him
resistance, he preached a crusade against them, but died by the hand of
an assassin. The council of Mainz (April 1234) dealt gently with
Conrad's murderers, but severely with the false witnesses whom he had
employed. Shortly before (February 1234), the diet of Frankfort had
decided, in spite of the pope's injunctions, that the destruction of
heresy should be entrusted to the ordinary magistrates. And besides,
thanks to the struggle between the Empire and the papacy, the German
prelates always limited the prerogatives of the papal Inquisition.
Again, by the municipal laws of the north (_Sachsenspiegel_) the
ecclesiastical jurisdiction in the matter of heresy was very much
limited, while the _Schwabenspiegel_ (municipal laws for southern
Germany) does not seem to be aware of the existence of any inquisitional
jurisdiction or procedure. When in the 14th century communities of
Beghards developed with extraordinary rapidity, it was the episcopal
authority, both at Cologne and Strassburg, which undertook to deal with
these groups of sectaries, and at the very height of the conflict
between the Empire and the papacy. Marsilius of Padua, the theoretical
exponent of the imperial rights, attributes to the secular judge the
right and obligation to punish heresy, the priest's rôle being merely
advisory. In 1353 Innocent VI. tried to implant the papal Inquisition in
Germany once for all; its success was but short, and Urban V.'s attempt
in 1362 succeeded little better, in spite of the fact that Charles IV.
(edicts of Lucca, June 1369) gave him the support of the secular power.
Towards 1372, however, Gregory XI. succeeded in regularizing the
exercise of the powers of the papal inquisitors on German soil; and the
latter, notably Kerlinger, Hetstede, &c. set to work to destroy the
communities of the Beghards, to burn their books, to close those
_beguinages_ which were under suspicion, and to check by more or less
violent means mystical epidemics such as those of the "flagellants,"
"dancers," &c. But these measures provoked angry protests from the
people, the secular magistrates and even the bishops, so that Gregory
XI., perceiving that he was face to face with the popular party, invited
the bishops to control the inquiries of his own envoys. At the end of
the 15th century the two inquisitions were acting concurrently.


  Bohemia.

In Bohemia and the provinces subject to it the Waldenses had found their
chosen country, and by the middle of the 13th century their propaganda
was very flourishing. In 1245 Innocent IV. ordered the bishops to
prosecute them with the aid of the secular arm, and in 1257, at the
request of King Premysl Ottokar II., Alexander IV. introduced the
Inquisition into Bohemia. But from this date till 1335 inquisitorial
missions succeeded one another without effecting any sensible diminution
in the material and moral strength of the heresy. The Waldenses had been
joined by other sectaries, the Luciferani, and especially the Brethren
of the Free Spirit. It was in vain that the bishops of Bohemia and
Silesia carried on during the second half of the 14th century an active
campaign against heresy; the spirit of criticism which had arisen with
regard to the morals, and even to the dogmas of the church, was already
preparing the way for Hussitism.


  The Balkan States.

In the regions east of the Adriatic, Catharism, the first communities of
which had very probably settled here, was supreme in the time of
Innocent III. and Honorius III. The first Dominicans who established
themselves in these parts had much to suffer from the aggression of
those very heretics whom they had come to convert. Gregory XI.,
implacable in his persecution of Catharism, preached a crusade against
them in 1234, and Bosnia was laid waste by fire and sword. But in spite
of these violent measures Catharism only gained strength in the churches
of Bulgaria, Rumania, Slavonia and Dalmatia. In 1298 Boniface VIII.
tried to organize the Inquisition there, but the project remained
fruitless. The attempt was revived in 1323 by John XXII. with doubtful
success. The persecutions undertaken in the 14th and 15th centuries
merely resulted in binding the Cathari to the invading Turks, with whom
they found more tolerance than with the Slav princes converted to Roman
orthodoxy.


  Spain.

In Spain the papal Inquisition could gain no solid footing in the middle
ages. Spain had been, in turn or simultaneously, Arian under the
Visigoths, Catholic under the Hispano-Romans, Mussulman by conquest, and
under a régime of religious peace Judaism had developed there. After the
reconquest, and even at the height of the influence of the Cathari its
heresies had been of quite minor importance. At the end of the 12th
century Alphonso II. and Peter II. had on principle promulgated cruel
edicts against heresy, but the persecution seemed to be dormant. By the
bull _Declinante_ of the 26th of May 1232 inquisitors were sent to
Aragon by Gregory IX. on the request of Raymond of Penaforte, and by
1237-1238 the Inquisition was practically founded. But as early as 1233
King James I. had promulgated an edict against the heretics which quite
openly put the Inquisition in a subaltern position, and secularized a
great part of its activities. The people, moreover, showed great
hostility towards it. The inquisitor Fray Pedro de Cadrayta was murdered
by the mob, and in 1235 the Cortes, with the consent of King James,
prohibited the use of inquisitorial procedure and of the torture, as
constituting a violation of the Fueros, though they made no attempt to
give effect to their prohibition. In Castile Alphonso the Wise had, by
establishing in his _Fuero Real_ and his _Siete Partidas_ an entirely
independent secular legislation with regard to heretics (1255), removed
his kingdom from all papal interference. At the opening of the 14th
century Castile and Portugal had still no Inquisition. But at that time
in Spain orthodoxy was generally threatened only by a few Fraticelli and
Waldenses, who were not numerous enough to call for active repression.
The Spanish inquisitor Nicholas Eymerich, the author of the famous
_Directorium Inquisitorum_, had rarely to exercise his functions during
the whole of his long career (end of 14th century). It was not against
heresy that the church had to direct its vigilance. A mutual tolerance
between the different religions had in fact sprung up, even after the
conquest; the Christians in the north recognized the Mahommedan and
Jewish religions, and Alphonso VI. of Castile took the title of
_imperador de los dos cultos_. But for a long time past both the
decisions of councils and papal briefs had proclaimed their surprise and
indignation at this ominous indifference. As early as 1077 the third
council of Rome, and in 1081 Gregory VII., protested against the
admission of Jews to public offices in Spain. Clement IV., in a brief of
1266, exhorted James I. of Aragon to expel the Moors from his dominions.
In 1278 Nicholas III. blamed Peter III. for having made a truce with
them. One of the canons of the council of Vienne (1311-1312) denounces
as intolerable the fact that Mahommedan prayers were still proclaimed
from the top of the mosques, and under the influence of this council the
Spanish councils of Zamora (1313) and Valladolid (1322) came to
decisions which soon led to violent measures against the Mudegares
(Mussulmans of the old Christian provinces). Already in 1210 massacres
of Jews had taken place under the inspiration of Arnold of Narbonne, the
papal legate; in 1276 fresh disturbances took place as a result of James
I.'s refusal to obey the order of Clement IV., who had called upon him
to expel the Jews from his dominions. In 1278 Nicholas IV. commanded the
general of the Dominicans to send friars into all parts of the kingdom
to work for the conversion of the Jews, and draw up lists of those who
should refuse to be baptized. It was in vain that a few princes such as
Peter III. or Ferdinand of Castile interfered; the Spanish clergy
directed the persecution with ever increasing zeal. In the 14th century
the massacres increased, and during the year 1391 whole towns were
destroyed by fire and sword, while at Valencia eleven thousand forced
baptisms took place. In the 15th century the persecution continued in
the same way; it can only be said that the years 1449, 1462, 1470, 1473
were marked by the greatest bloodshed. Moreover, the Mudegares were also
subjected to these baptisms and massacres _en masse_. From those, or the
children of those who had escaped death by baptism, was formed the class
of _Conversos_ or _Marranos_, the latter name being confined to the
converted Jews. This class was still further increased after the
conquest of the kingdom of Granada and the completion of the conquest
by Ferdinand and Isabella, and after the pacification of the kingdoms of
Aragon and Valencia by Charles V. The Mahommedans and Jews in these
parts were given the choice between conversion and exile. Being of an
active nature, and desiring some immediate powers as a recompense for
their moral sufferings, the Jewish or Mussulman _Conversos_ soon became
rich and powerful. In addition to the hatred of the church, which feared
that it might quickly become Islamized or Judaized in this country which
had so little love for theology, hatred and jealousy arose also among
laymen and especially in the rich and noble classes. _Limpieza_, i.e.
purity of blood, and the fact of being an "old Christian" were made the
conditions of holding offices. It is true, this mistrust had assumed a
theological form even before the Mahommedan conquest. As early as 633
the council of Toledo had declared heretics such converts, forced or
voluntary, as returned to their old religion. When this principle was
revived and, whether through secular jealousy, religious dislike or
national pride, was applied to the _Conversos_, an essentially national
Inquisition, directed against local heretics, was founded in Spain, and
founded without the help of the papacy. It was created in 1480 by
Ferdinand and Isabella. Sixtus IV. had wished the papal Inquisition to
be established after the form and spirit of the middle ages; but
Ferdinand, in his desire for centralization (his efforts in this
direction had already led to the creation of the Holy Hermandad and the
extension of the royal jurisdiction) wished to establish an inquisition
which should be entirely Spanish, and entirely royal. Rome resisted, but
at last gave way. Sixtus IV., Alexander VI., Innocent VIII., Julius II.
and after them all the popes of the 16th century, saw in this secular
attempt a great power in favour of orthodoxy, and approved it when
established, and on seeing its constant activity. The Inquisition took
advantage of this to claim an almost complete autonomy. The decisions of
the Roman Congregation of the Index were only valid for Spain if the
Holy Office of Madrid thought good to countersign them; consequently
there were some books approved at Rome and proscribed in the peninsula,
such as the _Historia pelagiana_ of Cardinal Nores, and some which were
forbidden at Rome and approved in the peninsula, such as the writings of
Fathers Mateo Moya and Juan Bautista Poza. The Spanish Holy Office
perceived long before Rome the dangers of mysticism, and already
persecuted the mystics, the _Alumbrados_ while Rome (impervious to
Molinism) still favoured them. "During the last few centuries the church
of Spain was at once the most orthodox and the most independent of the
national churches" (Ch. V. Langlois). There was even a financial dispute
between the Inquisition and the papacy, in which the Inquisition had the
better of the argument; the Roman Penitentiary sold exemptions from
penalties (involving loss of civil rights), such as prison, the galleys
and wearing the _sanbenito_, and dispensations from the crime of
_Marrania_ (secret Judaism). The inquisitors tried to gain control of
this sale, and at a much higher price, and were seconded in this by the
kings of Spain, who saw that it was to their own interest. At first they
tried a compromise; the unfortunate victims had to pay twice, to the
pope and to the Inquisition. But the payment to the pope was held by the
Inquisition to reduce too much its own share of the confiscated
property, and the struggle continued throughout the first half of the
16th century, the Curia finally triumphing, thanks to the energy of Paul
III. Since, however, the Inquisition continued to threaten the holders
of papal dispensations, most of them found it prudent to demand a
definite rehabilitation, in return for payments both to the king and the
Inquisition. As a national institution the Inquisition had first of all
the advantage of a very strong centralization and very rapid procedure,
consisting as it did of an organization of local tribunals with a
supreme council at Madrid, the _Suprema_. The grand inquisitor was _ex
officio_ president for life of the royal council of the Inquisition. It
was the grand inquisitor, General Jimenez de Cisneros, who set in motion
the inquisitorial tribunals of Seville, Cordova, Jaen, Toledo, Murcia,
Valladolid and Calahorra. There was no such tribunal at Madrid till the
time of Philip IV. The inquisitor-general of Aragon established
inquisitors at Saragossa, Barcelona, Valencia, Majorca, Sardinia, Sicily
and Pampeluna (moved later to Calahorra). From the very beginning the
papacy strengthened this organization by depriving the Spanish
metropolitans, by the bull of the 25th of September 1487, of the right
of receiving appeals from the decisions given jointly by the bishops of
the various dioceses, their suffragans and the apostolic inquisitors,
and by investing the inquisitor-general with this right. And, more than
this, Torquemada actually took proceedings against bishops, for example,
the accusation of heresy against Don Pedro Aranda, bishop of Calahorra
(1498); while the inquisitor Lucero prosecuted the first archbishop of
Granada, Don Ferdinando de Talavera. Further, when once the Inquisition
was closely allied to the crown, no Spaniard, whether clerk or layman,
could escape its power. Even the Jesuits, though not till after 1660,
were put under the authority of the Suprema. The highest nobles were
kept constantly under observation; during the reigns of Charles III. and
Charles IV. the duke of Almodovar, the count of Aranda, the great writer
Campomanes, and the two ministers Melchior de Jovellanos and the count
of Florida-Alanca, were attacked by the Suprema. But the descendants of
Moors and Jews, though they were good Christians, or even nobles, were
most held in suspicion. Even during the middle ages the descendants of
the Paterenes were known, observed and denounced. In the eyes of the
Inquisition the taint of heresy was even more indelible. A family into
which a forced conversion or a mixed marriage had introduced Moorish or
Jewish blood was almost entirely deprived of any chance of public
office, and was bound, in order to disarm suspicion, to furnish agents
or spies to the Holy Office. The Spaniards were very quick to accept the
idea of the Inquisition to such an extent as to look upon heresy as a
national scourge to be destroyed at all costs, and they consequently
considered the Inquisition as a powerful and indispensable agent of
public protection; it would be going too far to state that this
conception is unknown to orthodox present-day historians of the
Inquisition, and especially certain Spanish historians (cf. the preface
to Menendez y Pelayo's _Heterodoxos españoles_). As had happened among
the Albigenses, commerce and industry were rapidly paralysed in Spain by
this odious régime of suspicion, especially as the _Conversos_, who
inherited the industrial and commercial capacity of the Moors and Jews,
represented one of the most active elements of the population. Besides,
this system of wholesale confiscations might reduce a family to beggary
in a single day, so that all transactions were liable to extraordinary
risks. It was in vain that the counsellors of Charles V., and on several
occasions the Cortes, demanded that the inquisitors and their countless
agents should be appointed on a fixed system by the state; the state,
and above all the Inquisition, refused to make any such change. The
Inquisition preferred to draw its revenues from heresy, and this is not
surprising if we think of the economic aspect of the Albigensian
Inquisition; the system of _encours_ was simply made general in Spain,
and managed to exist there for three centuries. In the case of the
Inquisition in Languedoc, there still remained the possibility of an
appeal to the king, the inquisitors, or more rarely the pope, against
these extortions; but there was nothing of the kind in Spain. The
Inquisition and the Crown could refuse each other nothing, and appeals
to the pope met with their united resistance. As early as the reign of
Ferdinand certain rich _Conversos_ who had bought letters of indulgence
from the Holy See were nevertheless prosecuted by Ferdinand and
Torquemada, in spite of the protests of Sixtus IV. The papacy met with
the most serious checks under the Bourbons. Philip V. forbade all his
subjects to carry appeals to Rome, or to make public any papal briefs
without the royal _exequatur_.

The political aspect of the work and character of the Inquisition has
been very diversely estimated; it is a serious error to attribute to it,
as has too often been done, extreme ideas of equality, or even to
represent it as having favoured centralization and a royal absolutism to
the same extent as the Inquisition of the 13th and 14th centuries in
Languedoc. "It was a mere coincidence," says H. C. Lea, "that the
Inquisition and absolutism developed side by side in Spain." The Suprema
did not attack all nobles as nobles; it attacked certain of them as
_Conversos_, and the Spanish feudal nobles were sure enough of their
_limpieza_ to have nothing to fear from it. But it is undeniable that it
frequently tended to constitute a state within the state. At the time of
their greatest power, the inquisitors paid no taxes, and gave no account
of the confiscations which they effected; they claimed for themselves
and their agents the right of bearing arms, and it is well known that
their declared adversaries, or even those who blamed them in some
respects, were without fail prosecuted for heresy. But that was not the
limit to their pretensions. In 1574, under Philip II., there was an idea
of instituting a military order, that of Santa Maria de la Espada
Blanca, having as its head the grand inquisitor, and to him all the
members of the order, i.e. all Spaniards distinguished by _limpieza_ of
blood, were to swear obedience in peace and in war. Moreover, they were
to recognize his jurisdiction and give up to him the reversion of their
property. Nine provinces had already consented, when Philip II. put a
stop to this theocratic movement, which threatened his authority. It
was, however, only the Bourbons, who had imbibed Gallican ideas, who by
dint of perseverance managed to make the Inquisition subservient to the
Crown, and Charles III., "the philosopher king," openly set limits to
the privileges of the inquisitors. Napoleon, on his entry into Madrid
(December 1808), at once suppressed the Inquisition, and the
extraordinary general Cortes on the 12th of February 1813 declared it to
be incompatible with the constitution, in spite of the protests of Rome.
Ferdinand VII. restored it (July 21, 1814) on his return from exile, but
it was impoverished and almost powerless. It was again abolished as a
result of the Liberal revolution of 1820, was restored temporarily in
1823 after the French military intervention under the duc d'Angoulême,
and finally disappeared on the 15th of July 1834, when Queen Christina
allied herself with the Liberals. "It was not, however, till the 8th of
May 1869 that the principle of religious liberty was proclaimed in the
peninsula; and even since then it has been limited by the constitution
of 1876, which forbids the public celebration of dissident religions"
(S. Reinach). In 1816 the pope abolished torture in all the tribunals of
the Inquisition. It is a too frequent practice to represent as peculiar
to the Spanish Inquisition modes of procedure in use for a long time in
the inquisitorial tribunals of the rest of Europe. There are no special
manuals, or _practica_, for the inquisitorial procedure in Spain; but
the few distinctive characteristics of this procedure may be mentioned.
The Suprema allowed the accused an advocate chosen from among the
members or familiars of the Holy Office; this privilege was obviously
illusory, for the advocate was chosen and paid by the tribunal, and
could only interview the accused in presence of an inquisitor and a
secretary. The theological examination was a delicate and minute
proceeding; the "qualificators of the Holy Office," special
functionaries, whose equivalent can, however, easily be found in the
medieval Inquisition, charged those books or speeches which had incurred
"theological censures," with "slight, severe or violent" suspicion.
There was no challenging of witnesses; on the contrary, witnesses who
were objected to were allowed to give evidence on the most important
points of the case. The torture, to the practice of which the Spanish
Inquisition certainly added new refinements, was originally very much
objected to by the Spaniards, and Alphonso X. prohibited it in Aragon;
later, especially in the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries it was applied
quite shamelessly on the least suspicion. But by the end of the 18th
century, according to Llorente, it had not been employed for a long
time; the _fiscal_, however, habitually demanded it, and the accused
always went in dread of it. The punishment of death by burning was much
more often employed by the Spanish than by the medieval Inquisition;
about 2000 persons were burnt in Torquemada's day. Penitents were not
always reconciled, as they were in the middle ages, but those condemned
to be burnt were as a rule strangled previously.


  Spanish and Portuguese Colonies.

With the extension of the Spanish colonial empire the Inquisition
spread throughout it almost contemporaneously with the Catholic faith.
Ferdinand IV. decreed the establishment of the Inquisition in America,
and Jimenes in 1516 appointed Juan Quevedo, bishop of Cuba,
inquisitor-general delegate with discretionary powers. Excesses having
been committed by the agents of the Holy Office, Charles V. decreed
(October 15, 1538) that only the European colonists should be subject to
the jurisdiction of the Inquisition; but Philip II. increased the powers
of the inquisitors' delegate and, in 1541, established on a permanent
basis three new provinces of the Inquisition at Lima, Mexico and
Cartagena. The first _auto-da-fé_ took place at Mexico in 1574, the year
in which Hernando Cortez died. The Inquisition of Portugal was no less
careful to ensure the orthodoxy of the Portuguese colonies. An
Inquisition of the East Indies was established at Goa, with jurisdiction
over all the dominions of the king of Portugal beyond the Cape of Good
Hope. Finally Philip II. even wished to establish an itinerant
Inquisition, and at his request the pope created, by a brief of the 21st
of July 1571, the "Inquisition of the galleys," or "of fleets and
armies."


  Other activities of the Spanish Inquisition.

After the expulsion of the Jews under Isabella the Catholic (1492),
followed under Philip III. by that of the Moriscoes (1609), the
Inquisition attacked especially Catholics descended from infidels, the
_Marranes_ and _Conversos_, who were, not without reason, suspected of
often practising in secret the rites of their ancestral religions. As
late as 1715 a secret association was discovered at Madrid, consisting
of twenty families, having a rabbi and a synagogue. In 1727 a whole
community of Moriscoes was denounced at Granada, and prosecuted with the
utmost rigour. Again, a great number of people were denounced, sent to
the galleys, or burnt, for having returned to their ancestral religion,
on the flimsiest of evidence, such as making ablutions during the day
time, abstaining from swine's flesh or wine, using henna, singing
Moorish songs, or possessing Arabic manuscripts. During the 16th and
17th centuries the Inquisition in Spain was directed against
Protestantism. The inquisitor-general, Fernando de Valdés, archbishop of
Seville, asked the pope to condemn the Lutherans to be burnt even if
they were not backsliders, or wished to be reconciled, while in 1560
three foreign Protestants, two Englishmen and a Frenchman were burnt in
defiance of all international law. But the Reformation never had enough
supporters in Spain to occupy the attention of the Inquisition for long.
After the _Marranes_ the mystics of all kinds furnished the greatest
number of victims to the terrible tribunal. Here again we should not
lose sight of the tradition of the medieval Inquisition; the mysticism
of the Beghards, the Brethren of the Free Spirit and the innumerable
pantheist sects had been pitilessly persecuted by the inquisitors of
Germany and France during the 14th and 15th centuries. The Illuminati
(_alumbrados_), who were very much akin to the medieval sectaries, and
the mystics of Castile and Aragon were ruthlessly examined, judged and
executed. Not even the most famous persons could escape the suspicious
zeal of the inquisitors Valdés and Melchior Cano. The writings of Luis
de Granada were censured as containing _cosas de alumbrados_. St
Ignatius de Loyola was twice imprisoned at the beginning of his career;
St Theresa was accused of misconduct, and several times denounced; one
of her works, _Conceptos del amor divino_, was prohibited by the
Inquisition, and she was only saved by the personal influence of Philip
II. Countless numbers of obscure visionaries, devotees both men and
women, clerks and laymen, were accused of Illuminism and perished in the
fires or the dungeons of the Inquisition. From its earliest appearance
Molinosism was persecuted with almost equal rigour. Molinos himself was
arrested and condemned to perpetual imprisonment (1685-1687), and during
the 18th century, till 1781, several Molinosists were burnt. The
Inquisition also attacked Jansenism, freemasonry (from 1738 onwards; cf.
the bull _In eminenti_) and "philosophism," the learned naturalist José
Clavigo y Faxarcho (1730-1806), the mathematician Benito Bails
(1730-1797), the poet Tomas de Iriarte, the ministers Clavigo Ricla,
Aranda and others being prosecuted as "philosophers." Subject also to
the tribunal of the Holy Office were bigamists, blasphemers, usurers,
sodomites, priests who had married or broken the secrecy of the
confessional, laymen who assumed ecclesiastical costume, &c. "In all
these matters, though the Inquisition may have been indiscreet in
meddling with affairs which did not concern it, it must be confessed
that it was not cruel, and that it was always preferable to fall into
the hands of the Inquisition rather than those of the secular judges, or
even the Roman inquisitors" (S. Reinach). Apart from certain exceptional
cruelties such as those of the Inquisition of Calahorra, perhaps the
greatest number of executions of sorcerers took place in the colonies,
in the Philippines and Mexico. In Spain the persecution was only
moderate; at certain times it disappeared almost completely, especially
in the time of the clear-sighted inquisitor Salazar.

Two features of the Spanish Inquisition are especially noteworthy: the
prosecutions for "speeches suspected of heresy" and the censure of
books. The great scholar Pedro de Lerma, who after fifty years at Paris
(where he was dean of the faculty of theology) had returned to Spain as
abbot of Compluto, was called upon in 1537 to abjure eleven "Erasmian"
propositions, and was forced to return to Paris to die. Juan de Vergara
and his brother were summoned before the Inquisition for favouring
Erasmus and his writings, and detained several years before they were
acquitted. Fray Alonso de Virues, chaplain to Charles V., was imprisoned
on an absurd charge of depreciating the monastic state, and was only
released by the pope at the instance of the emperor. Mateo Pascual,
professor of theology at Alcala, who had in a public lecture expressed a
doubt as to purgatory, suffered imprisonment and the confiscation of his
goods. A similar fate befell Montemayor, Las Brozas and Luis de la
Cadena.

The censure of books was established in 1502 by Ferdinand and Isabella
as a state institution. All books had to pass through the hands of the
bishops; in 1521 the Inquisition took upon itself the examination of
books suspected of Lutheran heresy. In 1554 Charles V. divided the
responsibility for the censorship between the Royal Council, whose duty
it was to grant or refuse the _imprimatur_ to manuscripts and the
Inquisition, which retained the right of prohibiting books which it
judged to be pernicious; but after 1527 it also gave the licence to
print. In 1547 the Suprema produced an Index of prohibited books, drawn
up in 1546 by the university of Louvain; it was completed especially as
regards Spanish books, in 1551, and several later editions were
published. Moreover, the _revisores de libros_ might present themselves
in the name of the Holy Office in any private library or bookshop and
confiscate prohibited books. In 1558 the penalty of death and
confiscation of property was decreed against any bookseller or
individual who should keep in his possession condemned books. The
censure of books was eventually abolished in 1812.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--A critical bibliography was drawn up by P. Fredericq in
  the preface to the French translation (1900) of H. C. Lea's important
  standard work: _History of the Inquisition in the Middle Ages_ (3
  vols., London, 1888). See also J. Havet, _L'Hérésie et le bras
  séculier au moyen âge jusqu'au XIII^e siècle_ in the _Oeuvres
  complètes_, vol. ii. (Paris, 1896); Ch. V. Langlois, _L'Inquisition
  d'après des travaux récents_ (Paris, 1901); Douais, _L'Inquisition_
  (Paris, 1907); E. Vacandard, _L'Inquisition_ (Paris, 1907); Douais,
  _Documents pour servir à l'histoire de l'inquisition dans le
  Languedoc_ (2 vols., Paris, 1900); Döllinger, _Beiträge zur
  Sektengeschichte des Mittelalters_ (2 vols., Munich, 1890. The second
  volume is composed of documents); Molinier, _L'Inquisition dans le
  midi de la France au XIII^e et au XIV^e siècle. Étude sur les sources
  de son histoire_ (Paris, 1880); P. Fredericq, _Corpus documentorum
  inquisitionis haereticae pravitatis neerlandicae_ (1205-1525) (4
  vols., Ghent, 1889-1900); Tanon, _Histoire des tribunaux de
  l'inquisition en France_ (Paris, 1893); Hansen, _Inquisition,
  Hexenwahn und Hexenverfolgung_ (Munich, 1900); Llorente, _Histoire
  critique de l'inquisition d'Espagne_ (4 vols., Paris, 1818); H. C.
  Lea, _History of the Inquisition of Spain_ (5 vols., London,
  1905-1908); S. Reinach, articles on Lea's _History of the Inquisition
  of Spain_ in the _Revue critique_ (1906, 1907, 1908) and _Cultes,
  mythes et religions_ (Paris, 1908), tome iii.     (P. A.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Pierre de Beauvoisis (?), choir-master (_grand-chantre_) of the
    university of Paris (1184), bishop of Tournai (1191), of Paris
    (1196); died as a Cistercian in 1197. He was beatified.

  [2] He was born c. 1261, was a Dominican at Limoges in 1279,
    successively prior of Albi (1294), Carcassonne (1297), Castres (1301)
    and Limoges (1305), inquisitor at Toulouse (1307), bishop of Tuy
    (1323) and of Lodève (1325). He died in 1331.

  [3] Peter, a Dominican, born at Verona, was murdered near Milan in
    1252 and canonized in 1253.

  [4] Guillaume de St Amour (d. 1272), named after his birthplace in
    the Jura, was canon of Beauvais and rector of the university of
    Paris. He was conspicuous as the mouthpiece of the secular clergy in
    their attacks on the mendicant orders, the Dominicans in particular.

  [5] The name of _vauderie_, i.e. the Vaudois or Waldensian heresy,
    had come to be used of witchcraft.



INSANITY (from Lat. _in_, not, and _sanus_, sound), a generic term
applied to certain morbid mental conditions produced by defect or
disease of the brain. The synonyms in more or less frequent use are
_lunacy_ (from a supposed influence of the moon), _mental disease_,
_alienation_, _derangement_, _aberration_, _madness_, _unsoundness of
mind_. The term _Psychiatry_ ([Greek: psychê], mind, and [Greek:
iatreia], treatment) is applied to the study and treatment of the
condition.


I. MEDICAL AND GENERAL

  Definition.

There are many diseases of the general system productive of disturbance
of the mental faculties, which, either on account of their transient
nature, from their being associated with the course of a particular
disease, or from their slight intensity, are not included under the head
of insanity proper. From a strictly scientific point of view it cannot
be doubted that the fever patient in his delirium, or the drunkard in
his excitement or stupor, is insane; the brain of either being under the
influence of a morbific agent or of a poison, the mental faculties are
deranged; yet such derangements are regarded as functional disturbances,
i.e. disturbances produced by agencies which experience tells will, in
the majority of cases, pass off within a given period without permanent
results on the tissues of the organ. The comprehensive scientific view
of the position is that all diseases of the nervous system, whether
primary or secondary, congenital or acquired, should, in the words of
Griesinger, be regarded as one inseparable whole, of which the so-called
mental diseases comprise only a moderate proportion. However important
it may be for the physician to keep this principle before him, it may be
freely admitted that it cannot be carried out fully in practice, and
that social considerations compel the medical profession and the public
at large to draw an arbitrary line between such functional diseases of
the nervous system as _hysteria_, _hypochondriasis_ and _delirium_ on
the one hand, and such conditions as _mania_, _melancholia_, _stupor_
and _dementia_ on the other.

All attempts at a short definition of the term "insanity" have proved
unsatisfactory; perhaps the nearest approach to accuracy is attained by
the rough statement that it is _a symptom of disease of the brain
inducing disordered mental symptoms_--the term disease being used in its
widest acceptance. But even this definition is at once too
comprehensive, as under it might be included certain of the functional
disturbances alluded to, and too exclusive, as it does not comprehend
certain rare transitory forms. Still, taken over all, this may be
accepted as the least defective short definition; and moreover it
possesses the great practical advantage of keeping before the student
the primary fact that insanity is the result of disease of the brain
(see BRAIN, and NEUROPATHOLOGY), and that it is not a mere immaterial
disorder of the intellect. In the earliest epochs of medicine the
corporeal character of insanity was generally admitted, and it was not
until the superstitious ignorance of the middle ages had obliterated the
scientific, though by no means always accurate, deductions of the early
writers, that any theory of its purely psychical character arose. At the
present day it is unnecessary to combat such a theory, as it is
universally accepted that the brain is the organ through which mental
phenomena are manifested, and therefore that it is impossible to
conceive of the existence of an insane mind in a healthy brain. On this
basis insanity may be defined as consisting in _morbid conditions of the
brain, the results of defective formation or altered nutrition of its
substance induced by local or general morbid processes, and
characterized especially by non-development, obliteration, impairment or
perversion of one or more of its psychical functions_. Thus insanity is
not a simple condition; it comprises a large number of diseased states
of the brain, gathered under one popular term, on account of mental
defect or aberration being the predominant symptom.


  Classification.

The insanities are sharply divided into two great classes--the
_Congenital_ and the _Acquired_. Under the head of Congenital Insanity
must be considered all cases in which, from whatever cause, brain
development has been arrested, with consequent impotentiality of
development of the mental faculties; under that of Acquired Insanity all
those in which the brain has been born healthy but has suffered from
morbid processes affecting it primarily, or from diseased states of the
general system implicating it secondarily. In studying the causation of
these two great classes, it will be found that certain remote influences
exist which are believed to be commonly predisposing; these will be
considered as such, leaving the proximate or exciting causes until each
class with its subdivisions comes under review.


  Causation.

In most treatises on the subject will be found discussed the bearing
which civilization, nationality, occupation, education, &c., have, or
are supposed to have, on the production of insanity. Such discussions
are as a rule eminently unsatisfactory, founded as they are on common
observation, broad generalizations, and very imperfect statistics. As
they are for the most part negative in result, at the best almost
entirely irrelevant to the present purpose, it is proposed merely to
summarize shortly the general outcome of what has been arrived at by
those authorities who have sought to assess the value to be attached to
the influence exercised by such factors, without entering in any detail
on the theories involved. The causes of insanity may be divided into (a)
general, and (b) proximate.

  (a) GENERAL CAUSES.--1. _Civilization._--Although insanity is by no
  means unknown amongst savage races, there can be no reasonable doubt
  that it is much more frequently developed in civilized communities;
  also that, as the former come under the influence of civilization, the
  percentage of lunacy is increased. This is in consonance with the
  observation of disease of whatever nature, and is dependent in the
  case of insanity on the wear and tear of nerve tissue involved in the
  struggle for existence, the physically depressing effects of
  pauperism, and on the abuse of alcoholic stimulants; each of which
  morbid factors falls to be considered separately as a proximate cause.
  In considering the influence of civilization upon the production of
  insanity, regard must be had to the more evolved ethical attitude
  towards disease in general which exists in civilized communities as
  well as to the more perfect recognition and registration of insanity.

  2. _Nationality._--In the face of the imperfect social statistics
  afforded by most European and American nations, and in their total
  absence or inaccessibility amongst the rest of mankind, it is
  impossible to adduce any trustworthy statement under this head.

  3. _Occupation._--There is nothing to prove that insanity is in any
  way connected with the prosecution of any trade or profession _per
  se_. Even if statistics existed (which they do not) showing the
  proportion of lunatics belonging to different occupations to the 1000
  of the population, it is obvious that no accurate deduction _quoad_
  the influence of occupation could be drawn.

  4. _Education._--There is no evidence to show that education has any
  influence over either the production or the prevention of insanity.
  The general result of discussions on the above subjects has been the
  production of a series of arithmetical statements, which have either a
  misleading bearing or no bearing at all on the question. In the study
  of insanity statistics are of slight value from the scientific point
  of view, and are only valuable in its financial aspects.

  5. _Inheritance._--The hereditary transmission of a liability to
  mental disease must be reckoned as the most important among all
  predisposing causes of insanity. It is probably well within the mark
  to say that at least 50% of the insane have a direct or collateral
  hereditary tendency towards insanity. The true significance of this
  factor cannot as yet be explained or described shortly and clearly,
  but it cannot be too definitely stated that it is not the insanity
  which is inherited, but only the predisposition to the manifestation
  of mental symptoms in the presence of a sufficient exciting cause. The
  most widely and generally accepted view of the exciting cause of
  insanity is that the predisposed brain readily breaks down under
  mental stress or bodily privations. There is, however, another view
  which has been recently advanced to the effect that the majority of
  mental diseases are secondary to bodily disorders, hereditary
  predisposition being the equally predisposing causal factor. There is
  probably truth in both these views, and such an admission accentuates
  the complexity of the factorship of heredity. If insanity can be
  induced by physical disorders, which must essentially be of the nature
  of toxic action or of mechanical agency which can alter or influence
  the functional powers of the brain, then it is probable that
  hereditary predisposition to insanity means, not only the transmission
  of an unstable nervous system, but also a constitution which is either
  peculiarly liable to the production of such toxic or poisonous
  substances, or incapable of effectively dealing with the toxins or
  poisonous substances normally formed during metabolic processes. Such
  a view broadens our conception of the factorship of hereditary
  transmission and offers explanation as to the manner in which
  insanity may appear in families previously free from the taint. Very
  frequently we find in the history of insane patients that although
  there may be no insanity in the family there are undoubted indications
  of nervous alongside of physical instability, the parental nervous
  defects taking the form of extreme nervousness, vagabondage, epilepsy,
  want of mental balance, inequality in mental development or endowment,
  extreme mental brilliancy in one direction associated with marked
  deficiency in others, the physical defects showing themselves in the
  form of insanity; liability to tubercular and rheumatic infections.
  The failure of constitutional power which allows of the invasion of
  the tubercle bacillus and the micrococcus rheumaticus in certain
  members of a family is apparently closely allied to that which favours
  the development of mental symptoms in others.

  6. _Consanguinity._--It has been strongly asserted that consanguineous
  marriage is a prolific source of nervous instability. There is
  considerable diversity of opinion on this subject; the general outcome
  of the investigations of many careful inquirers appears to be that the
  offspring of healthy cousins of a healthy stock is not more liable to
  nervous disease than that of unrelated parents, but that evil
  consequences follow where there is a strong tendency in the family to
  degeneration, not only in the direction of the original diathesis, but
  also towards instability of the nervous system. The objection to the
  marriage of blood relations does not arise from the bare fact of their
  relationship, but has its ground in the fear of their having a vicious
  variation of constitution, which, in their children, is prone to
  become intensified. There is sufficient evidence adducible to prove
  that close breeding is productive of degeneration; and when the
  multiform functions of the nervous system are taken into account, it
  may almost be assumed, not only that it suffers concomitantly with
  other organs, but that it may also be the first to suffer
  independently.

  7. _Parental Weakness._--Of the other causes affecting the parents
  which appear to have an influence in engendering a predisposition to
  insanity in the offspring, the abuse of alcoholic stimulants and
  opiates, over-exertion of the mental faculties, advanced age and weak
  health may be cited. Great stress has been laid on the influence
  exercised by the first of these conditions, and many extreme
  statements have been made regarding it. Such statements must be
  accepted with reserve, for, although there is reason for attaching
  considerable weight to the history of ancestral intemperance as a
  probable causating influence, it has been generally assumed as the
  proved cause by those who have treated of the subject, without
  reference to other agencies which may have acted in common with it, or
  quite independently of it. However unsatisfactory from a scientific
  point of view it may appear, the general statement must stand that
  whatever tends to lower the nervous energy of a parent may modify the
  development of the progeny. Constitutional tendency to nervous
  instability once established in a family may make itself felt in
  various directions--epilepsy, hysteria, hypochondriasis, neuralgia,
  certain forms of paralysis, insanity, eccentricity. It is asserted
  that exceptional genius in an individual member is a phenomenal
  indication. Confined to the question of insanity, the morbid
  inheritance may manifest itself in two directions--in defective brain
  organization manifest from birth, or from the age at which its
  faculties are potential, i.e. congenital insanity; or in the neurotic
  diathesis, which may be present in a brain to all appearance
  congenitally perfect, and may present itself merely by a tendency to
  break down under circumstances which would not affect a person of
  originally healthy constitution.

  8. _Periodic Influence._--The evolutional periods of puberty,
  adolescence, utero-gestation, the climacteric period and old age
  exercise an effect upon the nervous system. It may be freely admitted
  that the nexus between physiological processes and mental disturbances
  is, as regards certain of the periods, obscure, and that the causal
  relation is dependent more on induction than on demonstration; but it
  may be pleaded that it is not more obscure in respect of insanity than
  of many other diseases. The pathological difficulty obtains mostly in
  the relation of the earlier evolutional periods, puberty and
  adolescence, to insanity; in the others a physiologico-pathological
  nexus may be traced; but in regard to the former there is nothing to
  take hold of except the purely physiological process of development of
  the sexual function, the expansion of the intellectual powers, and
  rapid increase of the bulk of the body. Although in thoroughly stable
  subjects due provision is made for these evolutional processes, it is
  not difficult to conceive that in the nervously unstable a
  considerable risk is run by the brain in consequence of the strain
  laid on it. Between the adolescent and climacteric periods the
  constitution of the nervous, as of the other systems, becomes
  established, and disturbance is not likely to occur, except from some
  accidental circumstances apart from evolution. In the most healthily
  constituted individuals the "change of life" expresses itself by some
  loss of vigour. The nourishing (trophesial) function becomes less
  active, and either various degrees of wasting occur or there is a
  tendency towards restitution in bulk of tissues by a less highly
  organized material. The most important instance of the latter tendency
  is fatty degeneration of muscle, to which the arterial system is very
  liable. In the mass of mankind those changes assume no pathological
  importance: the man or woman of middle life passes into advanced age
  without serious constitutional disturbance; on the other hand, there
  may be a break down of the system due to involutional changes in
  special organs, as, for instance, fatty degeneration of the heart. In
  all probability the insanity of the climacteric period may be referred
  to two pathological conditions: it may depend on structural changes in
  the brain due to fatty degeneration of its arteries and cells, or it
  may be a secondary result of general systemic disturbance, as
  indicated by cessation of menstruation in the female and possibly by
  some analogous modification of the sexual function in men. The senile
  period brings with it further reduction of formative activity; all the
  tissues waste, and are liable to fatty and calcareous degeneration.
  Here again, the arteries of the brain are very generally implicated;
  atheroma in some degree is almost always present, but is by no means
  necessarily followed by insanity.

  The various and profound modifications of the system which attend the
  periods of utero-gestation, pregnancy and child-bearing do not leave
  the nervous centres unaffected. Most women are liable to slight
  changes of disposition and temper, morbid longings, strange likes and
  dislikes during pregnancy, more especially during the earlier months;
  but these are universally accepted as accompaniments of the condition
  not involving any doubts as to sanity. But there are various factors
  at work in the system during pregnancy which have grave influence on
  the nervous system, more especially in those hereditarily predisposed,
  and in those gravid for the first time. There is modification of
  direction of the blood towards a new focus, and its quality is
  changed, as is shown by an increase of fibrin and water and a decrease
  of albumen. To such physical influences are superadded the discomfort
  and uneasiness of the situation, mental anxiety and anticipation of
  danger, and in the unmarried the horror of disgrace. In the puerperal
  (recently delivered) woman there are to be taken into pathological
  account, in addition to the dangers of sepsis, the various depressing
  influences of child-bed, its various accidents reducing vitality, the
  sudden return to ordinary physiological conditions, the rapid call for
  a new focus of nutrition, the translation as it were of the blood
  supply from the uterus to the mammae--all physical influences liable
  to affect the brain. These influences may act independently of moral
  shock; but, where this is coincident, there is a condition of the
  nervous system unprepared to resist its action.

  (b) PROXIMATE CAUSES.--The proximate causes of insanity may be divided
  into (1) toxic agents, (2) mechanical injury to the brain, including
  apoplexies and tumours, and (3) arterial degeneration.

  1. _Toxic Agents._--The definite nature of the symptoms in the
  majority of the forms of acute insanity leave little reason to doubt
  that they result from an invasion of the system by toxins of various
  kinds. The symptoms referred to may be briefly indicated as follows:
  (i.) Pyrexia, or fever generally of an irregular type; (ii.)
  Hyperleucocytosis, or an increase of the white blood corpuscles, which
  is the chief method by which the animal organism protects itself
  against the noxious influence of micro-organisms and their toxins. In
  such cases as typhoid fever, which is caused by a bacillus, or Malta
  fever which is caused by a coccus, it is found that if the blood serum
  of the patient is mixed _in vitro_ with a broth culture of the
  infecting organism in a dilution of 1 in 50, that the bacilli or the
  cocci, as the case may be, when examined microscopically, are seen to
  run into groups or clusters. The organisms are said to be
  agglutinated, and the substance in the serum which produces this
  reaction is termed an agglutinine. In many of the forms of insanity
  which present the symptom of hyperleucocytosis there can also be
  demonstrated the fact that the blood serum of the patients contains
  agglutinines to certain members of a group of streptococci (so called
  on account of their tendency to grow in the form of a chain, [Greek:
  streptos]); (iii.) the rapid organic affection of the special nerve
  elements depending upon the virulence of the toxin, and the resistance
  of the individual to its influence; (iv.) the marked physical
  deterioration as indicated by emaciation and other changes in
  nutrition; (v.) the close analogy between the character of many of the
  mental symptoms, e.g. delirium, hallucinations or depression, and the
  symptoms produced artificially by the administration of certain
  poisonous drugs.

  The toxic substances which are generally believed to be associated
  with the causation of mental disorders may be divided into three great
  classes: (a) those which arise from the morbific products of
  metabolism within the body itself "auto-intoxicants"; (b) those due to
  the invasion of the blood or tissues by micro-organisms; (c) organic
  or inorganic poisons introduced into the system voluntarily or
  accidentally.

  (a) Auto-intoxication may be due to defective metabolism or to
  physiological instability, or to both combined. The results of
  defective metabolism are most clearly manifested in the mental
  symptoms which not infrequently accompany such diseases as gout,
  diabetes or obesity, all of which depend primarily upon a deficient
  chemical elaboration of the products of metabolism. The association of
  gout and rheumatism with nervous and mental diseases is historical,
  and the gravest forms of spinal and cerebral degeneration have been
  found in association with diabetes. Until the pathology of these
  affections is better understood we are not in a position to determine
  the nature of the toxins which appear to be the cause of these
  diseases and of their accompanying nervous symptoms. Physiological
  instability is usually manifested by neurotic persons under the strain
  of any unusual change in their environment. If, for instance, any
  material change in the food supply consisting either in a decrease of
  its quality or quantity, or in a failure to assimilate it properly,
  the nerve-cells become exhausted and irritable, sleep is diminished
  and a condition known as the delirium of collapse or exhaustion may
  supervene. An extreme instance of this condition is presented by the
  delirium occurring in shipwrecked persons, who having to take to the
  boats are suddenly deprived of food, water or both. Poisoning of the
  nervous system may also result from the defective action of special
  glands such as the thyroid, the liver or the kidneys. These conditions
  are specially exemplified in the mental disturbances which accompany
  exophthalmic goitre, uraemic poisoning, and the conditions of
  depression which are observed in jaundice and other forms of hepatic
  insufficiency.

  The results of modern research point to a growing belief in the
  frequency of infection of the nervous system from the hosts of
  micro-organisms which infest the alimentary tract. No definite or
  substantiated discoveries have as yet been formulated which would
  justify us in treating this source of infection as more than a highly
  probable causative influence.

  (b) When we turn, however, to the potentiality of infection by
  micro-organisms introduced from without into the system we are upon
  surer if not upon entirely definite ground. A special form of insanity
  called by Weber, who first described it, the delirium of collapse, was
  observed by him to follow certain infectious diseases such as typhus
  fever and pneumonia. In later years it has been frequently observed to
  follow attacks of influenza. Recently our views have broadened and we
  find that the delirium of collapse is an acute, confusional insanity
  which may arise without any previous febrile symptoms, and is in fact
  one of the common forms of acute insanity. The nature of the physical
  symptoms, the mental confusion and hallucinations which accompany it,
  as well as the fact that it frequently follows some other infective
  disease, leave no doubt as to its toxic origin. A similar and
  analogous condition is presented by incidence of general paralysis
  after a previous syphilitic infection. The symptoms of general
  paralysis coupled with the extensive and rapid degeneration of not
  only the nervous but of the whole of the body tissues point to a
  microbic disease of intense virulence which, though probably not
  syphilitic, is yet induced, and enhanced in its action by the previous
  devitalizing action of the syphilitic toxin. There is abundant
  evidence to show that emotions which powerfully affect the mind, if
  long continued, conduce towards a condition of metabolic change, which
  in its turn deleteriously affects the nervous system, and which may
  terminate in inducing a true toxic insanity.

  One of the best examples of insanity arising from micro-organisms is
  that form which occurs after childbirth, and which is known as
  puerperal mania. Other insanities may, it is true, arise at this
  period, but those which occur within the first fourteen days after
  parturition are generally of infective origin. The confusional nature
  of the mental symptoms, the delirium and the physical symptoms are
  sufficient indications of the analogy of this form of mental
  aberration with such other toxic forms of insanity as we find arising
  from septic wounds and which sometimes accompany the early toxic
  stages of virulent infectious diseases such as typhus, diphtheria or
  malignant scarlet fever.

  The infective origin of puerperal mania is undoubted, though, as yet,
  no special pathogenic organism has been isolated. Dr Douglas (_Ed.
  Med. Journ._, 1897, i. 413) found the staphylococcus pyogenes aureus
  present in the blood in one case; Jackman (quoted _loc. cit._) found
  the micrococcus pneumonial crouposae in one case; while Haultain (_Ed.
  Med. Journ._, 1897, ii. 131) found only the bacillus coli communis in
  the blood and secretions of several cases. From our experience of
  similar mental and physical symptoms produced as a result of septic
  wounds or which succeed surgical operations there seems to be no doubt
  that several forms of micrococci or streptococci of a virulent
  character are capable by means of the toxins they exude of causing
  acute delirium or mania of a confusional clinical type when introduced
  into the body.

  (c) Accidental and voluntary poisonings of the system which result in
  insanity are illustrated by the forms of insanity which follow
  phosphorus or lead poisoning and by Pellagra. The voluntary
  intoxication of the system by such drugs as morphia and alcohol will
  be treated of below.

  2 and 3. Mechanical injuries to the brain arise from direct violence
  to the skull, from apoplectic hemorrhage or embolism, or from rapidly
  growing tumours, or from arterial degeneration.


  Forms of Insanity.

The forms of insanity may be divided into (I.) Congenital Mental Defect
and (II.) Acquired Insanity.

I. _Congenital Mental Defect._--The morbid mental conditions which fall
to be considered under this head are _Idiocy_ (with its modification,
Imbecility) and _Cretinism_ (q.v.).


  Idiocy.

IDIOCY (from Gr. [Greek: idiôtês], in its secondary meaning of a
deprived person). In treating of idiocy it must be carefully borne in
mind that we are dealing with mental phenomena dissociated for the most
part from active bodily disease, and that, in whatever degree it may
exist, we have to deal with a brain condition fixed by the pathological
circumstances under which its possessor came into the world or by such
as had been present before full cerebral activity could be developed,
and the symptoms of which are not dependent on the intervention of any
subsequent morbid process. From the earliest ages the term _Amentia_ has
been applied to this condition, in contradistinction to _Dementia_, the
mental weakness following on acquired insanity.

The causes of congenital idiocy may be divided into four classes: (1)
hereditary predisposition, (2) constitutional conditions of one or both
parents affecting the constitution of the infant, (3) injuries of the
infant prior to or at birth, and (4) injuries or diseases affecting the
infant head during infancy. All these classes of causes may act in two
directions: they may produce either non-development or abnormal
development of the cranial bones as evidenced by microcephalism, or by
deformity of the head; or they may induce a more subtle morbid condition
of the constituent elements of the brain. As a rule, the pathological
process is more easily traceable in the case of the last three classes
than in the first. For instance, in the case of constitutional
conditions of the parents we may have a history of syphilis, a disease
which often leaves its traces on the bones of the skull; and in the
third case congenital malformation of the brain may be produced by
mechanical causes acting on the child in utero, such as an attempt to
procure abortion, or deformities of the maternal pelvis rendering labour
difficult and instrumental interference necessary. In such cases the
bones of the skull may be injured; it is only fair, however, to say that
more brains are saved than injured by instrumental interference. With
regard to the fourth class, it is evident that the term congenital is
not strictly applicable; but, as the period of life implicated is that
prior to the potentiality of the manifestation of the intellectual
powers, and as the result is identical with that of the other classes of
causes, it is warrantable to connect it with them, on pathological
principles more than as a mere matter of convenience.

Dr Ireland, in his work _On Idiocy and Imbecility_ (1877), classifies
idiots from the standpoint of pathology as follows: (1) Genetous idiocy:
in this form, which he holds to be complete before birth, he believes
the presumption of heredity to be stronger than in other forms; the
vitality of the general system is stated to be lower than normal; the
palate is arched and narrow, the teeth misshapen, irregular and prone to
decay and the patient dwarfish in appearance; the head is generally
unsymmetrical and the commissures occasionally atrophied; (2)
Microcephalic idiocy, a term which explains itself; (3) Eclampsic
idiocy, due to the effects of infantile convulsions; (4) Epileptic
idiocy; (5) Hydrocephalic idiocy, a term which explains itself; (6)
Paralytic idiocy, a rare form, due to the brain injury causing the
paralysis; (7) Traumatic idiocy, a form produced by the third class of
causes above mentioned; (8) Inflammatory idiocy; (9) Idiocy by
deprivation of one or more of the special senses.

The general conformation of the idiot is generally imperfect; he is
sometimes deformed, but more frequently the frame is merely awkwardly
put together, and he is usually of short stature. Only about one-fourth
of all idiots have heads smaller than the average. Many cases are on
record in which the cranial measurements exceed the average. It is the
irregularity of development of the bones of the skull, especially at the
base, which marks the condition. Cases, however, often present
themselves in which the skull is perfect in form and size. In such the
mischief has begun in the brain matter. The palate is often highly
arched; hare-lip is not uncommon; in fact congenital defect or
malformation of other organs than the brain is more commonly met with
among idiots than in the general community. Of the special senses,
hearing is most frequently affected. Sight is good, although
co-ordination may be defective. Many are mute. On account of the mental
dullness it is difficult to determine whether the senses of touch, taste
and smell suffer impairment; but the impression is that their acuteness
is below the average. It is needless to attempt a description of the
mental phenomena of idiots, which range between utter want of
intelligence and mere weakness of intellect.

The term _Imbecility_ has been conventionally employed to indicate the
less profound degrees of idiocy, but in point of fact no distinct line
of demarcation can be drawn between the conditions. As the scale of
imbeciles ascends it is found that the condition is evidenced not so
much by obtuseness as by irregularity of intellectual development. This
serves to mark the difference between the extreme stupidity of the
lowest of the healthy and the highest forms of the morbidly deprived
type. The two conditions do not merge gradually one into the other.
Absolute stupidity and sottishness mark many cases of idiocy, but only
in the lowest type, where no dubiety of opinion can exist as to its
nature, and in a manner which can never be mistaken for the dulness of
the man who is less talented than the average of mankind. Where in
theory the morbid (in the sense of deprivation) and the healthy types
might be supposed to approach each other, in practice we find that, in
fact, no debatable ground exists. The uniformity of dulness of the
former stands in marked opposition to the irregularity of mental
conformation in the latter. Comparatively speaking, there are few idiots
or imbeciles who are uniformly deprived of mental power; some may be
utterly sottish, living a mere vegetable existence, but every one must
have heard of the quaint and crafty sayings of manifest idiots,
indicating the presence of no mean power of applied observation. In
institutions for the treatment of idiots and imbeciles, children are
found not only able to read and write, but even capable of applying the
simpler rules of arithmetic. A man may possess a very considerable meed
of receptive faculty and yet be idiotic in respect of the power of
application; he may be physically disabled from relation, and so be
manifestly a deprived person, unfit to take a position in the world on
the same platform as his fellows.

Dr Ireland subdivides idiots, for the purpose of education, into five
grades, the first comprising those who can neither speak nor understand
speech, the second those who can understand a few easy words, the third
those who can speak and can be taught to work, the fourth those who can
be taught to read and write, and the fifth those who can read books for
themselves. The treatment of idiocy and imbecility consists almost
entirely of attention to hygiene and the building up of the enfeebled
constitution, along with endeavours to develop what small amount of
faculty exists by patiently applied educational influences. The success
which has attended this line of treatment in many public and private
institutions has been very considerable. It may be safely stated that
most idiotic or imbecile children have a better chance of amelioration
in asylums devoted to them than by any amount of care at home.

In the class of idiots just spoken of, imperfect development of the
intellectual faculties is the prominent feature, so prominent that it
masks the arrest of potentiality of development of the moral sense, the
absence of which, even if noticed, is regarded as relatively
unimportant; but, in conducting the practical study of congenital
idiots, a class presents itself in which the moral sense is wanting or
deficient, whilst the intellectual powers are apparently up to the
average. It is the custom of writers on the subject to speak of
"intellectual" and "moral" idiots. The terms are convenient for clinical
purposes, but the two conditions cannot be dissociated, and the terms
therefore severally only imply a specially marked deprivation of
intellect or of moral sense in a given case. The everyday observer has
no difficulty in recognizing as a fact that deficiency in receptive
capacity is evidence of imperfect cerebral development; but it is not so
patent to him that the perception of right or wrong can be compromised
through the same cause, or to comprehend that loss of moral sense may
result from disease. The same difficulty does not present itself to the
pathologist; for, in the case of a child born under circumstances
adverse to brain development, and in whom no process of education can
develop an appreciation of what is right or wrong, although the
intellectual faculties appear to be but slightly blunted, or not
blunted at all, he cannot avoid connecting the physical peculiarity with
the pathological evidence. The world is apt enough to refer any fault in
intellectual development, manifested by imperfect receptivity, to a
definite physical cause, and is willing to base opinion on comparatively
slight data; but it is not so ready to accept the theory of a
pathological implication of the intellectual attributes concerned in the
perception of the difference between right and wrong. Were, however, two
cases pitted one against another--the first one of so-called
intellectual, the second one of so-called moral idiocy--it would be
found that, except as regards the psychical manifestations, the cases
might be identical. In both there might be a family history of tendency
to degeneration, a peculiar cranial conformation, a history of previous
symptoms during infancy, and of a series of indications of mental
incapacities during adolescence, differing only in this, that in the
first the prominent indication of mental weakness was inability to add
two and two together, in the second the prominent feature was incapacity
to distinguish right from wrong. What complicates the question of moral
idiocy is that many of its subjects can, when an abstract proposition is
placed before them, answer according to the dictates of morality, which
they may have learnt by rote. If asked whether it is right or wrong to
lie or steal they will say it is wrong; still, when they themselves are
detected in either offence, there is an evident non-recognition of its
concrete nature. The question of moral idiocy will always be a moot one
between the casuist and the pathologist; but, when the whole natural
history of such cases is studied, there are points of differentiation
between their morbid depravation and mere moral depravity. Family
history, individual peculiarities, the general bizarre nature of the
phenomena, remove such cases from the category of crime.

  _Statistics._--According to the census returns of 1901 the total
  number of persons described as idiots and imbeciles in England and
  Wales was 48,882, the equality of the sexes being remarkable, namely,
  24,480 males and 24,402 females. Compared with the entire population
  the ratio is 1 idiot or imbecile to 665 persons, or 15 per 10,000
  persons living. Whether the returns are defective, owing to the
  sensitiveness of persons who would desire to conceal the occurrence of
  idiocy in their families, we have no means of knowing; but such a
  feeling is no doubt likely to exist among those who look upon mental
  infirmity as humiliating, rather than, as one of the many physical
  evils which afflict humanity. Dr. Ireland estimates that there is 1
  idiot or imbecile to every 500 persons in countries that have a
  census. The following table shows the number of idiots according to
  official returns of the various countries:--

    +-------------------+--------+---------+--------+------------+
    |                   |        |         |        | Proportion |
    |                   | Males. | Females.| Total. | to 100,000 |
    |                   |        |         |        |   of Pop.  |
    +-------------------|--------|---------|--------|------------|
    | England and Wales | 24,480 |  24,402 | 48,882 |    150     |
    |                   |        |         |        |            |
    | Scotland          |  3,246 |   3,377 |  6,623 |    148     |
    |                   |        |         |        |            |
    | Ireland           |  2,946 |   2,270 |  5,216 |    117     |
    |                   |        |         |        |            |
    | France (including | 20,456 |  14,677 | 35,133 |     97     |
    |   cretins) (1872) |        |         |        |            |
    |                   |        |         |        |            |
    | Germany (1871)    |   --   |    --   | 33,739 |     82     |
    |                   |        |         |        |            |
    | Sweden (1870)     |   --   |    --   |  1,632 |     38     |
    |                   |        |         |        |            |
    | Norway (1891)     |  1,357 |   1,074 |  2,431 |    121     |
    |                   |        |         |        |            |
    | Denmark (1888-89) |  2,106 |   1,751 |  3,857 |    200     |
    +-------------------|--------|---------|--------|------------+

  For the United States there are no later census figures than 1890 when
  the feeble-minded or idiotic were recorded as 95,571 (52,940 males and
  42,631 females). In 1904 (_Special Report of Bureau of Census_, 1906)
  the "feeble-minded" were estimated at 150,000.

  The relative frequency of congenital and acquired insanity in various
  countries is shown in the following table, taken from Koch's
  statistics of insanity in Württemberg, which gives the number of
  idiots to 100 lunatics:--

    Prussia         158 | France             66
    Bavaria         154 | Denmark            58
    Saxony          162 | Sweden             22
    Austria          53 | Norway             65
    Hungary         140 | England and Wales  74
    Canton of Bern  117 | Scotland           68
    America          79 | Ireland            69

  It is difficult to understand the wide divergence of these figures,
  except it be that in certain states, such as Prussia and Bavaria,
  dements have been taken along with aments and in others cretins. This
  cannot, however, apply to the case of France, which is stated to have
  only 66 idiots to every 100 lunatics. In many districts of France
  cretinism is common; it is practically unknown in England, where the
  proportion of idiots is stated as higher than in France; and it is
  rare in Prussia, which stands at 158 idiots to 100 lunatics.
  Manifestly imperfect as this table is, it shows how important an
  element idiocy is in social statistics; few are aware that the number
  of idiots and that of lunatics approach so nearly.


  Acquired Insanity.

II. _Acquired Insanity._--So far as the mental symptoms of acquired
insanity are concerned, Pinel's ancient classification, into _Mania_,
_Melancholia_ and _Dementia_, is still applicable to every case, and
although numberless classifications have been advanced they are for the
most part merely terminological variations. Classifications of the
insanities based on pathology and etiology have been held out as a
solution of the difficulty, but, so far, pathological observations have
failed to fulfil this ideal, and no thoroughly satisfactory pathological
classification has emerged from them.

Classifications are after all matters of convenience; the following
system admittedly is so:--

  Melancholia.
  Mania.
  Delusional Insanity.
  Katatonia.
  Hebephrenia.
  Traumatic Insanity.
  Insanity following upon arterial degeneration.
  Insanities associated or caused by: General Paralysis; Epilepsy.
  Insanities associated with or caused by Alcoholic and Drug
    intoxication: Delirium Tremens, Chronic Alcoholic Insanity,
    Dipsomania, Morphinism.
  Senile Insanity.

The general symptoms of acquired insanity group themselves naturally
under two heads, the physical and the mental.


  General symptoms.

The physical symptoms of mental disease generally, if not invariably,
precede the onset of the mental symptoms, and the patient may complain
of indefinite symptoms of malaise for weeks and months before it is
suspected that the disorder is about to terminate in mental symptoms.
The most general physical disorder common to the onset of all the
insanities is the failure of nutrition, i.e. the patient rapidly and
apparently without any apparent cause loses weight. Associated with this
nutritional failure it is usual to have disturbances of the alimentary
tract, such as loss of appetite, dyspepsia and obstinate constipation.
During the prodromal stage of such conditions as mania and melancholia
the digestive functions of the stomach and intestine are almost or
completely in abeyance. To this implication of other systems consequent
on impairment of the trophesial (nourishment-regulating) function of the
brain can be traced a large number of the errors which exist as to the
causation of idiopathic melancholia and mania. Very frequently this
secondary condition is set down as the primary cause; the insanity is
referred to derangements of the stomach or bowels, when in fact these
are, concomitantly with the mental disturbance, results of the cerebral
mischief. Doubtless these functional derangements exercise considerable
influence on the progress of the case by assisting to deprave the
general economy, and by producing depressing sensations in the region of
the stomach. To them may probably be attributed, together with the
apprehension of impending insanity, that phase of the disease spoken of
by the older writers as the _stadium melancholicum_, which so frequently
presents itself in incipient cases.

The skin and its appendages--the hair and the nails--suffer in the
general disorder of nutrition which accompanies all insanities. The skin
may be abnormally dry and scurfy or moist and offensive. In acute
insanities rashes are not uncommon, and in chronic conditions,
especially conditions of depression, crops of papules occur on the face,
chest and shoulders. The hair is generally dry, loses its lustre and
becomes brittle. The nails become deformed and may exhibit either
excessive and irregular or diminished growth.

Where there are grave nutritional disorders it is to be expected that
the chief excretions of the body should show departures from the state
of health. In this article it is impossible to treat this subject
fully, but it may suffice to say that in many states of depression there
is a great deficiency in the excretion of the solids of the urine,
particularly the nitrogenous waste products of the body; while in
conditions of excitement there is an excessive output of the nitrogenous
waste products. It has lately been pointed out that in many forms of
insanity indoxyl is present in the urine, a substance only present when
putrefactive processes are taking place in the intestinal tract.

The nervous system, both on the sensory and motor side, suffers very
generally in all conditions of insanity. On the sensory side the special
senses are most liable to disorder of their function, whereby false
sense impressions arise which the patient from impairment of judgment is
unable to correct, and hence arise the psychical symptoms known as
hallucinations and delusions. Common sensibility is generally impaired.

On the motor side, impairment of the muscular power is present in many
cases of depression and in all cases of dementia. The incontinence of
urine so frequently seen in dementia and in acute insanity complicated
with the mental symptom of confusion depends partly on impairment of
muscular power and partly on disorder of the sensory apparatus of the
brain and spinal cord.

The outstanding mental symptom in nearly all insanities, acute and
recent or chronic, is the failure of the capacity of judgment and loss
of self-control. In early acute insanities, however, the two chief
symptoms which are most evident and easily noted are depression on the
one hand and excitement or elevation on the other. Some distinction
ought to be made between these two terms, excitement and elevation,
which at present are used synonymously. Excitement is a mental state
which may be and generally is associated with confusion and mental
impairment, while elevation is an exaltation of the mental faculties, a
condition in which there is no mental confusion, but rather an
unrestrained and rapid succession of fleeting mental processes.

  The symptoms which most strongly appeal to the lay mind as conclusive
  evidence of mental disorder are hallucinations and delusions.
  Hallucinations are false sense impressions which occur without normal
  stimuli. The presence of hallucinations certainly indicates some
  functional disorder of the higher brain centres, but is not an
  evidence of insanity so long as the sufferer recognizes that the
  hallucinations are false sense impressions. So soon, however, as
  conduct is influenced by hallucinations, then the boundary line
  between sanity on the one hand and insanity on the other has been
  crossed. The most common hallucinations are those of sight and
  hearing.

  Delusions are not infrequently the result of hallucinations. If the
  hallucinations of a melancholic patient consist in hearing voices
  which make accusatory statements, delusions of sin and unworthiness
  frequently follow. Hallucinations of the senses of taste and smell are
  almost invariably associated with the delusion that the patient's food
  is being poisoned or that it consists of objectionable matter. On the
  other hand, many delusions are apparently the outcome of the patient's
  mental state. They may be pleasant or disagreeable according as the
  condition is one of elevation or depression. The intensity and quality
  of the delusions are largely influenced by the intelligence and
  education of the patient. An educated man, for instance, who suffers
  from sensory disturbances is much more ingenious in his explanations
  as to how these sensory disturbances result from electricity,
  marconigrams, X-rays, &c., which he believes are used by his enemies
  to annoy him, than an ignorant man suffering from the same abnormal
  sensations. Loss of self-control is characteristic of all forms of
  insanity. Normal self-control is so much a matter of race, age, the
  state of health, moral and physical upbringing, that it is impossible
  to lay down any law whereby this mental quality can be gauged, or to
  determine when deficiency has passed from a normal to an abnormal
  state. In many cases of insanity there is no difficulty in
  appreciating the pathological nature of the deficiency, but there are
  others in which the conduct is otherwise so rational that one is apt
  to attribute the deficiency to physiological rather than to
  pathological causes. Perversion of the moral sense is common to all
  the insanities, but is often the only symptom to be noticed in cases
  of imbecility and idiocy, and it as a rule may be the earliest symptom
  noticed in the early stages of the excitement of manic-depressive
  insanity and general paralysis.

  The tendency to commit suicide, which is so common among the insane
  and those predisposed to insanity, is especially prevalent in patients
  who suffer from depression, sleeplessness and delusions of
  persecution. Suicidal acts may be divided into accidental, impulsive
  and premeditated. The accidental suicides occur in patients who are
  partially or totally unconscious of their surroundings, and are
  generally the result of terrifying hallucinations, to escape from
  which the patient jumps through a window or runs blindly into water or
  some other danger. Impulsive suicides may be prompted by suddenly
  presented opportunities or means of self-destruction, such as the
  sight of water, fire, a knife, cord or poison. Premeditated suicides
  most frequently occur in states of long continued depression. Such
  patients frequently devote their attention to only one method of
  destruction and fail to avail themselves of others equally
  practicable. As a rule the more educated the patient, the more
  ingenious and varied are the methods adopted to attain the desired
  result.

  The faculty of attention is variously affected in the subjects of
  insanity. In some the attention is entirely subjective, being occupied
  by sensations of misery, depression or sensory disturbances. In others
  the attention is objective, and attracted by every accidental sound or
  movement. In most of the early acute insanities the capacity of
  attention is wholly abolished, while in hebephrenia the stage of
  exhaustion which follows acute excitement, and the condition known as
  secondary dementia, loss of the power of attention is one of the most
  prominent symptoms. The memory for both recent and remote events is
  impaired or abolished in all acute insanities which are characterized
  by confusion and loss or impairment of consciousness. In the excited
  stage of manic-depressive insanity it is not uncommon to find that the
  memory is abnormally active. Loss of memory for recent but not remote
  events is characteristic of chronic alcoholism and senility and even
  the early stage of general paralysis.

  Of all the functions of the brain that of sleep is the most liable to
  disorder in the insane. Sleeplessness is the earliest symptom in the
  onset of insanity; it is universally present in all the acute forms,
  and the return of natural sleep is generally the first symptom of
  recovery. The causes of sleeplessness are very numerous, but in the
  majority of acute cases the sleeplessness is due to a state of
  toxaemia. The toxins act either directly on the brain cells producing
  a state of irritability incompatible with sleep, or indirectly,
  producing physical symptoms which of themselves alone are capable of
  preventing the condition of sleep. These symptoms are high arterial
  tension and a rapid pulse-rate. The arterial tension of health ranges
  between 110 and 120 millimetres of mercury, and when sleep occurs the
  arterial tension falls and is rarely above 100 millimetres. In
  observations conducted by Bruce (_Scottish Medical and Surgical
  Journal_, August 1900) on cases of insanity suffering from
  sleeplessness the arterial tension was found to be as high as 140 and
  150 millimetres. When such sleep was obtained the tension always sank
  at once to 110 millimetres or even lower. In a few cases suffering
  from sleeplessness the arterial tension was found to be below 100
  millimetres, accompanied by a rapid pulse-rate. When sleep set in, in
  these cases, no alteration was noted in the arterial tension, but the
  pulse was markedly diminished.


  Melancholia.

MELANCHOLIA.--Melancholia is a general term applied to all forms of
insanity in which the prevailing mental symptom is that of depression
and dates back to the time of Hippocrates. Melancholic patients,
however, differ very widely from one another in their mental symptoms,
and as a consequence a perfectly unwarrantable series of subdivisions
have been invented according to the prominence of one or other mental
symptoms. Such terms as delusional melancholia, resistive melancholia,
stuporose melancholia, suicidal melancholia, religious melancholia, &c.
have so arisen; they are, however, more descriptive of individual cases
than indicative of types of disease.

So far as our present knowledge goes, at least three different and
distinct disease conditions can be described under the general term
melancholia. These are, acute melancholia, excited melancholia and the
state of depression occurring in _Folie circulaire_ or alternating
insanity, a condition in which the patient is liable to suffer from
alternating attacks of excitement and depression.

_Acute Melancholia_ is a disease of adult life and the decline of life.
Women appear to be more liable to be attacked than men. Hereditary
predisposition, mental worry, exhausting occupations, such as the
sick-nursing of relatives, are the chief predisposing causes, while the
direct exciting cause of the condition is due to the accumulation in the
tissues of waste products, which so load the blood as to act in a toxic
manner on the cells and fibres of the brain.

The onset of the disease is gradual and indefinite. The patient suffers
from malaise, indigestion, constipation and irregular, rapid and
forcible action of the heart. The urine become scanty and high coloured.
The nervous symptoms are irritability, sleeplessness and a feeling of
mental confusion. The actual onset of the acute mental symptoms may be
sudden, and is not infrequently heralded by distressing hallucinations
of hearing, together with a rise in the body temperature. In the fully
developed disease the patient is flushed and the skin hot and dry; the
temperature is usually raised 1° above the normal in the evening. The
pulse is hard, rapid and often irregular. There is no desire for food,
but dryness of the mouth and tongue promote a condition of thirst. The
bowels are constipated. The urine is scanty and frequently contains
large quantities of indoxyl. The blood shows no demonstrable departure
from the normal. The patient is depressed, the face has a strained,
anxious expression, while more or less mental confusion is always
present. Typical cases suffer from distressing aural hallucinations, and
the function of sleep is in abeyance.

Acute melancholia may terminate in recovery either gradually or by
crises, or the condition may pass into chronicity, while in a small
proportion of cases death occurs early in the attack from exhaustion and
toxaemia. The acute stage of onset generally lasts for from two to three
weeks, and within that period the patient may make a rapid and sudden
recovery. The skin becomes moist and perspiration is often profuse.
Large quantities of urine are excreted, which are laden with waste
products. The pulse becomes soft and compressible, sleep returns, and
the depression, mental confusion and hallucinations pass away. In the
majority of untreated cases, however, recovery is much more gradual. At
the end of two or three weeks from the onset cf the attack the patient
gradually passes into a condition of comparative tranquillity. The skin
becomes moister, the pulse less rapid, and probably the earliest symptom
of improvement is return of sleep. Hallucinations accompanied by
delusions persist often for weeks and months, but as the patient
improves physically the mental symptoms become less and less prominent.

If the patient does not recover, the physical symptoms are those of
mal-nutrition, together with chronic gastric and intestinal disorder.
The skin is dull and earthy in appearance, the hair dry, the nails
brittle and the heart's action weak and feeble. Mentally there is
profound depression with delusions, and persistent or recurring attacks
of hallucinations of hearing. When death occurs, it is usually preceded
by a condition known as the "typhoid state." The patient rapidly passes
into a state of extreme exhaustion, the tongue is dry and cracked,
sordes form upon the teeth and lips, diarrhoea and congestion of the
lungs rapidly supervene and terminate life.

  _Treatment._--The patient in the early stage of the disease must be
  confined to bed and nursed by night as well as day. The food to begin
  with should be milk, diluted with hot water or aerated water, given
  frequently and in small quantities. The large intestine should be
  thoroughly cleared out by large enemata and kept empty by large normal
  saline enemata administered every second day. Sleep may be secured by
  lowering the blood pressure with half-grain doses of
  erythrol-tetra-nitrate. If a hypnotic is necessary, as it will be if
  the patient has had no natural sleep for two nights in succession,
  then a full dose of paraldehyde or veronal may be given at bed-time.
  Under this treatment the majority of cases, if treated early, improve
  rapidly. As the appetite returns great care must be taken that the
  patient does not suddenly resume a full ordinary dietary. A sudden
  return to a full dietary invariably means a relapse, which is often
  less amenable to treatment than the original attack. Toast should
  first be added to the milk, and this may be followed by milk puddings
  and farinaceous foods in small quantities. Any rise of temperature or
  increase of pulse-rate or tendency to sleeplessness should be regarded
  as a threatened relapse and treated accordingly.

_Excited Melancholia._--Excited melancholia is almost invariably a
disease of old age or the decline of life, and it attacks men and women
with equal frequency. Chronic gastric disorders, deficient food and
sleep, unhealthy occupations and environments, together with worry and
mental stress, are all more or less predisposing causes of the disease.
The direct exciting cause or causes have not as yet been demonstrated,
but there is no doubt that the disease is associated with, or caused by,
a condition of bacterial toxaemia, analogous to the bacterial toxaemias
of acute and chronic rheumatism.

The onset of the disease is always gradual and is associated with
mal-nutrition, loss of body weight, nervousness, depression, loss of the
capacity for work, sleeplessness and attacks of restlessness, these
attacks of restlessness become more and more marked as self-control
diminishes, and as the depression increases the disease passes the
borderland of sanity.

In the fully developed disease the appearance of the patient is typical.
The expression is drawn, depressed, anxious or apprehensive. The skin is
yellow and parchment like. The hair is often dry and stands out stiffly
from the head. The hands are in constant movement, twisting and
untwisting, picking the skin, pulling at the hair or tearing at the
clothes. The patient moans continuously, or emits cries of grief and
wanders aimlessly. Mentally the patient, although depressed, miserable
and self-absorbed, is not confused. There is complete consciousness
except during the height of a paroxysm of restlessness and depression,
and the patient can talk and answer questions clearly and intelligently,
but takes no interest in the environment. Some of the patients suffer
from delusions, generally a sense of impending danger, but very few
suffer from hallucinations.

Physically there is loss of appetite, constipation and rapid heart
action, a great increase in the number of the white blood corpuscles,
particularly of the multinucleated cells which are frequently increased
in bacterial infections. In the blood serum also there can be
demonstrated the presence of agglutinines to certain members of the
streptococci group.

The course of the disease is prolonged and chronic. The acute symptoms
tend to remit at regular intervals, the patient becoming more quiet and
less demonstratively depressed; but as a rule these remissions are
extremely temporary. Excited melancholia is a disease characterized by
repeated relapses, and recoveries are rare in cases above the age of
forty.

  _Treatment._--There is no curative treatment for excited melancholia.
  The patient must be carefully nursed; kept in bed during the
  exacerbations of the disease and treated with graduated doses of
  nepenthe or tincture of opium, to secure some amelioration of the
  acute symptoms. Careful dieting, tonics and baths are of benefit
  during the remissions of the disease, and in a few cases seem to
  promote recovery.

_Folie circulaire_, or alternating insanity, was first described by
Falret and Baillarger, and more recently Kraepelin has considerably
widened the conception of this class of disease, which he describes
under the term "manic-depressive insanity." Of the two terms (_folie
circulaire_ and manic-depressive insanity) the latter is the more
correct. _Folie circulaire_ implies that the disease invariably passes
through a complete cycle, which description is only applicable to very
few of the cases. Manic-depressive insanity implies that the patient may
either suffer from excitement or depression which do not necessarily
succeed one another in any fixed order. As a matter of fact, the
majority of patients who suffer from the disease either have marked
excited attacks with little or no subsequent depression, or marked
attacks of depression with a subsequent period of such slight exaltation
as hardly to be distinguished from a state of health.

Depression of the manic-depressive variety, therefore, may either
precede or follow upon an attack of maniacal excitement, or it may be
the chief and only obvious symptom of the disease and may recur again
and again. The disease attacks men and women with equal frequency, and
as a rule manifests itself either late in adolescence or during the
decline of life. Hereditary predisposition has been proved to exist in
over 50% of cases, beyond which no definite predisposing cause is at
present known. A considerable number of cases follow upon attacks of
infective disease such as typhoid fever, scarlet fever or rheumatic
fever. The actual exciting cause is probably an intestinal toxaemia of
bacterial origin; at all events, mal-nutrition, gastric and intestinal
symptoms not infrequently precede an attack, and the condition of the
blood--the increase in number in the multinucleated white blood
corpuscles and the presence of agglutinines to certain members of the
streptococci group of bacteria--are symptoms which have been definitely
demonstrated by Bruce in every case so far examined.

If the depression is the sequel to an attack of excitement, the onset
may be very sudden or it may be gradual. If, on the other hand, the
depression is not the sequel of excitement, the onset is very gradual
and the patient complains of lassitude, incapacity for mental or
physical work, loss of appetite, constipation and sleeplessness often
for months before the case is recognized as one of insanity. In the
fully developed disease the temperature is very rarely febrile, on the
contrary it is rather subnormal in character. The stomach is disordered
and the bowels confined. The urine is scanty, turbid and very liable to
rapid decomposition. The heart's action is slow and feeble and the
extremities become cold, blue and livid. In extreme cases gangrene of
the lower extremities may occur, but in all there is a tendency to
oedema of the extremities. The skin is greasy, often offensive, and the
palms of the hands and the soles of the feet are sodden.

Mentally there is simple depression, without, in the majority of cases,
any implication of consciousness. Many patients pass through attack
after attack without suffering from hallucinations or delusions, but in
rare cases hallucinations of hearing and sight are present. Delusions of
unworthiness and unpardonable sin are not uncommon, and if once
expressed are liable to recur again during the course of each successive
attack. The disease is prolonged and chronic in its course, and the
condition of the patient varies but little from day to day. When the
depression follows excitement, the patient as a rule becomes fat and
flabby. On the other hand, if the illness commences with depression, the
chief physical symptoms are mal-nutrition and loss of body weight, and
the return to health is always preceded by a return of nutrition and a
gain in body weight.

The attacks may last from six months to two or three years. The
intervals between attacks may last for only a few weeks or months or may
extend over several years. During the interval the patient is not only
capable of good mental work but may show capacity of a high order. In
other words this form of mental disorder does not tend to produce
dementia; the explanation probably being that between the attacks there
is no toxaemia.

  _Treatment._--There is no known curative treatment for the depression
  of manic-depressive insanity, but the depression, the sleeplessness
  and the gastric disorder are to some extent mitigated by common sense
  attention to the general health of the body. If the patient is thin
  and wasted, then treatment is best conducted in bed. The diet should
  be bland, consisting largely of milk, eggs and farinaceous food, given
  in small quantities and frequently. Defecation should be maintained by
  enemata, and the skin kept clean by daily warm baths. What is of much
  more importance is the fact that in some instances subsequent attacks
  can be prevented by impressing upon the patient the necessity for
  attending to the state of the bowels, and of discontinuing work when
  the slightest symptoms of an attack present themselves. If these
  symptoms are at all prominent, rest in bed is a wise precaution,
  butcher-meat should be discontinued from the dietary and a tonic of
  arsenic or quinine and acid prescribed.


  Mania.

MANIA.--The term mania, meaning pathological elevation or excitement,
has, like the term melancholia, been applied to all varieties of morbid
mental conditions in which the prevailing mental symptom is excitement
or elevation. As in melancholia so in mania various subdivisions have
been invented, such as delusional mania, religious mania, homicidal
mania, according to the special mental characteristics of each case, but
such varieties are of accidental origin and cannot be held to be
subdivisions.

Under the term mania two distinct diseased conditions can be described,
viz. acute mania, and the elevated stage of _folie circulaire_ or
manic-depressive insanity.

_Acute Mania._--Acute mania is a disease which attacks both sexes at all
ages, but its onset is most prevalent during adolescence and early adult
life. Hereditary predisposition, physical and mental exhaustion,
epileptic seizures and childbirth are all predisposing causes. The
direct exciting cause or causes are unknown, but the physical symptoms
suggest that the condition is one of acute toxaemia or poisoning, and
the changes in the blood are such as are consequent on bacterial
toxaemia.

The onset is gradual in the large majority of cases. Histories of sudden
outbursts of mania can rarely be relied on, as the illness is almost
invariably preceded by loss of body weight, sleeplessness, bad dreams,
headaches and symptoms of general malaise, sometimes associated with
depression. The actual onset of the mental symptoms themselves, however,
are frequently sudden. A typical case of the fully developed disease is
not easily mistaken. The patient is usually anaemic and thin, the
expression of the face is unnatural, the eyes widely opened and bright;
and there is great motor restlessness, the muscular movements being
purposeless and inco-ordinate. This inco-ordination of movement affects
not only the muscles of the limbs and trunk but also those of
expression, so that the usual aspect of the face becomes entirely
altered. The temperature is generally slightly febrile. The tongue and
lips are cracked and dry through excessive shouting or speaking. There
is often no desire for food or drink. The heart's action is rapid and
forcible. The skin is soft and moist. The urine is scanty, turbid and
loaded with urates. The white blood corpuscles per cubic millimetre of
blood are markedly increased, and the blood serum contains agglutinines
to certain strains of streptococci which are not present in healthy
persons. Sensibility to pain is lost or much impaired. Such patients
will swing and jerk a broken limb apparently unaware that it is broken.
Sleep is absent or obtained in short snatches, and even when asleep the
patient is often restless and talkative as if the disease processes were
still active.

Mentally the patient is excited, often wildly so, quite confused and
unable to recognize time or place. Answers to questions may sometimes be
elicited by repeated efforts to engage the attention of the patient. The
speech is incoherent, and for all practical purposes the patient is
mentally inaccessible. This state of acute excitement lasts usually for
two or three weeks and gradually passes into a condition of chronic
restlessness and noise, in which the movements are more coordinate and
purposeful. The confusion of the acute stage passes off and the
attention can be more readily attracted but cannot be concentrated on
any subject for any length of time. The patient will now recognize
friends, but the affections are in abeyance and the memory is defective.
The appetite becomes insatiable, but the patient does not necessarily
gain in weight. This stage of subacute excitement may last for months,
but as a rule favourable cases recover within six months from the onset
of the disease. A recovering patient gradually gains weight, sleeps
soundly at night and has periods of partial quiescence during the day,
particularly in the morning after a good night's sleep. These lucid
intervals become more and more prolonged and finally pass into a state
of sanity. Some cases on the other hand, after the acute symptoms
decline, remain confused, and this state of confusion may last for
months; by some alienists it is described as secondary stupor.

The symptoms detailed above are those typical of an attack such as is
most frequently met with in adult cases. Acute mania, however, is a
disease which presents itself in various forms. Adolescent cases, for
instance, very commonly suffer from recurrent attacks, and the recurrent
form of the disease is also to be met with in adults. The recurrent form
at the onset does not differ in symptoms from that already described,
but the course of the attack is shorter and more acute, so that the
patient after one or two weeks of acute excitement rapidly improves, the
mental symptoms pass off and the patient is apparently perfectly
recovered. An examination of the blood, however, reveals the fact that
the patient is still suffering from some disorder of the system,
inasmuch as the white blood corpuscles remain increased above the
average of health. Subsequent attacks of excitement come on without any
obvious provocation. The pulse becomes fast and the face flushed. The
patient frequently complains of fullness in the head, ringing in the
ears and a loss of appetite. Sleeplessness is an invariable symptom.
Self-control is generally lost suddenly, and the patient rapidly passes
into a state of delirious excitement, to recover again, apparently, in
the course of a few weeks. Recurrent mania might therefore be regarded
as a prolonged toxaemia, complicated at intervals by outbursts of
delirious excitement. Acute mania in the majority of cases ends in
recovery. In the continuous attack the recovery is gradual. In the
recurrent cases the intervals between attacks become longer and the
attacks less severe until they finally cease. In such recovered cases
very frequently a persistent increase in the number of the white blood
corpuscles is found, persisting for a period of two or three years of
apparently sound mental health. A few cases die, exhausted by the
acuteness of the excitement and inability to obtain rest by the natural
process of sleep. When death does occur in this way the patient almost
invariably passes into the typhoid state.

The residue of such cases become chronic, and chronicity almost
invariably means subsequent dementia. The chronic stage of acute mania
may be represented by a state of continuous subacute excitement in which
the patient becomes dirty and destructive in habits and liable from time
to time to exacerbations of the mental symptoms. Continuous observation
of the blood made in such cases over a period extending for weeks
reveals the fact that the leucocytosis, if represented in chart form,
shows a regular sequence of events. Just prior to the onset of an
exacerbation the leucocytosis is low. As the excitement increases in
severity the leucocytosis curve rises, and just before improvement sets
in there may be a decided rise in the curve and then a subsequent fall;
but this fall rarely reaches the normal line. In other cases, which pass
into chronicity, a state of persistent delusion, rather than excitement,
is the prevailing mental characteristic, and these cases may at
recurrent intervals become noisy and dangerous.

  _Treatment._--Acute mania can only be treated on general lines. During
  the acute stage of onset the patient should be placed in bed. If there
  is difficulty in inducing the patient to take a sufficient quantity of
  food, this difficulty can be got over by giving food in liquid form,
  milk, milk-tea, eggs beaten up in milk, meat juice and thin gruel, and
  it is always better to feed such a patient with small quantities given
  frequently. Cases of mania following childbirth are those which most
  urgently demand careful and frequent feeding, artificially
  administered if necessary. If there is any tendency to exhaustion,
  alcoholic stimulants are indicated, and in some cases strychnine,
  quinine and cardiac tonics are highly beneficial. The bowels should be
  unloaded by large enemata or the use of saline purgatives. The
  continuous use of purgatives should as a rule be avoided, as they
  drain the system of fluids. On the other hand, the administration of
  one large normal saline enema by supplying the tissues with fluids,
  and probably thereby diluting the toxins circulating in the system,
  gives considerable relief. A continuous warm bath frequently produces
  sleep and reduces excitement. The sleeplessness of acute mania is best
  treated by warm baths wherever possible, and if a drug must be
  administered, then paraldehyde is the safest and most certain, unless
  the patient is also an alcoholic, when chloral and bromide is probably
  a better sedative.

_The Elevated Stage of Folie Circulaire or Manic Depressive
Insanity._--As previously mentioned in the description of the depressed
stage of this mental disorder, the disease is equally prone to attack
men and women, generally during late adolescence or in early adult life,
and in a few cases first appears during the decline of life. Hereditary
predisposition undoubtedly plays a large part as a predisposing cause,
and after that is said it is difficult to assign any other definite
predisposing causes and certainly no exciting causes. As in the stage of
depression, so in the stage of excitement the first attack may closely
follow upon typhoid fever, erysipelas or rheumatic fever. On the other
hand many cases occur without any such antecedent disease. Another fact
which has been commented upon is that these patients at the onset of an
attack of excitement often appear to be in excellent physical health.

The earliest symptoms of onset are moral rather than physical. The
patient changes in character, generally for the worse. The sober man
becomes intemperate. The steady man of business enters into foolish,
reckless speculation. There is a tendency for the patient to seek the
society of inferiors and to ignore the recognized conventionalities of
life and decency. The dress becomes extravagant and vulgar and the
speech loud, boastful and obscene. These symptoms may exist for a
considerable period before some accidental circumstance or some more
than usually extravagant departure from the laws and customs of
civilization draws public attention to the condition of the patient. The
symptoms of the fully developed disease differ in degree in different
cases. The face is often flushed and the expression unnatural. There is
constant restlessness, steady loss of body weight, and sleeplessness. In
very acute attacks there are frequently symptoms of gastric disorder,
while in other cases the appetite is enormous, gross and perverted. The
leucocytosis is above that usually met with in health, and the increase
in the early stages is due to the relative and absolute increase in the
multinucleated or polymorphonuclear leucocytes. The hyperleucocytosis is
not, however, so high as it is in acute mania, and upon recovery taking
place the leucocytosis always falls to normal. In the serum of over 80%
of cases there are present agglutinines to certain strains of
streptococci, which agglutinines are not present in the serum of healthy
persons. The changes in the urine are those which one would expect to
find in persons losing weight; the amount of nitrogenous output is in
excess of the nitrogen ingested in the food.

Mentally there is always exaltation rather than excitement, and when
excitement is present it is never of a delirious nature, that is to say,
the patient is cognizant of the surroundings, and the special senses are
abnormally acute, particularly those of sight and hearing.
Hallucinations and delusion are sometimes present, but many cases pass
through several attacks without exhibiting either of these classes of
symptoms. The patient is always garrulous and delighted to make any
chance acquaintance the confidant of his most private affairs. The mood
is sometimes expansive and benevolent, interruption in the flow of talk
may suddenly change the subject of the conversation or the patient may
with equal suddenness fly into a violent rage, use foul and obscene
language, ending with loud laughter and protestations of eternal
friendship. In other words the mental processes are easily stimulated
and as easily diverted into other channels. The train of thought is, as
it were, constantly being changed by accidental associations. Although
consciousness is not impaired, the power of work is abolished as the
attention cannot be directed continuously to any subject, and yet the
patient may be capable of writing letters in which facts and fiction are
most ingeniously blended. A typical case will pass through the emotions
of joy, sorrow and rage in the course of a few minutes. The memory is
not impaired and is often hyper-acute. The speech may be rambling but is
rarely incoherent.

The course of the attack is in some cases short, lasting for from one to
three weeks, while in others the condition lasts for years. The patient
remains in a state of constant restlessness, both of body and mind,
untidy or absurd in dress, noisy, amorous, vindictive, boisterously
happy or virulently abusive. As time passes a change sets in. The
patient sleeps better, begins to lay on flesh, the sudden mental
fluctuations become less marked and finally disappear. Many of these
patients remember every detail of their lives during the state of
elevation, and many are acutely ashamed of their actions during this
period of their illness. As a sequel to the attack of elevation there is
usually an attack of depression, but this is not a necessary sequel.

The majority of patients recover even after years of illness, but the
attacks are always liable to recur. Even recurrent attacks, however,
leave behind them little if any mental impairment.

  _Treatment._--General attention to the health of the body, and an
  abundance of nourishing food, and, where necessary, the use of
  sedatives such as bromide and sulphonal, sum up the treatment of the
  elevated stage of manic-depressive insanity. In Germany it is the
  custom to treat such cases in continuous warm baths, extending
  sometimes for weeks. The use of warm baths of several hours' duration
  has not proved satisfactory.


  Delusional Insanity.

DELUSIONAL INSANITY.--Considerable confusion exists at the present day
regarding the term delusional insanity. It is not correct to define the
condition as a disease in which fixed delusions dominate the conduct and
are the chief mental symptom present. Such a definition would include
many chronic cases of melancholia and mania. All patients who suffer
from attacks of acute insanity and who do not recover tend to become
delusional, and any attempt to include and describe such cases in a
group by themselves and term them delusional insanity is inadmissible.
The fact that delusional insanity has been described under such various
terms as progressive systematized insanity, mania of persecution and
grandeur, monomanias of persecution, unseen agency, grandeur and
paranoia, indicates that the disease is obscure in its origin, probably
passing through various stages, and in some instances having been
confused with the terminal stages of mania and melancholia. If this is
admitted, then probably the best description of the disease is that
given by V. Magnan under the term of "systematized delusional insanity,"
and it may be accepted that many cases conform very closely to Magnan's
description.

The disease occurs with equal frequency in men and women, and in the
majority of cases commences during adolescence or early adult life. The
universally accepted predisposing cause is hereditary predisposition. As
to the exciting causes nothing is known beyond the fact that certain
forms of disease, closely resembling delusional insanity, are apparently
associated or caused by chronic alcoholism or occur as a sequel to
syphilitic infection. In the vast majority of cases the onset is lost in
obscurity, the patient only drawing attention to the diseased condition
by insane conduct after the delusional state is definitely established.
The friends of such persons frequently affirm that the patient has
always been abnormal. However this may be, there is no doubt that in a
few cases the onset is acute and closely resembles the onset of acute
melancholia. The patient is depressed, confused, suffers from
hallucinations of hearing and there are disturbances of the bodily
health. There is generally mal-nutrition with dyspepsia and vague
neuralgic pains, often referred to the heart and intestines. Even at
this stage the patient may labour under delusions. These acute attacks
are of short duration and the patient apparently recovers, but not
uncommonly both hallucinations and delusions persist, although they may
be concealed.

The second or delusional stage sets in very gradually. This is the stage
in which the patient most frequently comes under medical examination.
The appearance is always peculiar and unhealthy. The manner is unnatural
and may suggest a state of suspicion. The nutrition of the body is below
par, and the patient frequently complains of indefinite symptoms of
malaise referred to the heart and abdomen. The heart's action is often
weak and irregular, but beyond these symptoms there are no special
characteristic symptoms.

Mentally there may be depression when the patient is sullen and
uncommunicative. It will be found, however, that he always suffers from
hallucinations. At first hallucinations of hearing are the most
prominent, but later all the special senses may be implicated. These
hallucinations constantly annoy the patient and are always more
troublesome at night. Voices make accusations through the walls, floors,
roofs or door. Faces appear at the window and make grimaces. Poisonous
gases are pumped into the room. Electricity, Röntgen rays and
marconigrams play through the walls. The food is poisoned or consists of
filth. In many cases symptoms of visceral discomfort are supposed to be
the result of nightly surgical operations or sexual assaults. All these
persecutions are ascribed to unknown persons or to some known person,
sect or class. Under the influence of these sensory disturbances the
patient may present symptoms of angry excitement, impulsive violence or
of carefully-thought-out schemes of revenge; but the self-control may be
such that although the symptoms are concealed the behaviour is peculiar
and unreasonable. It is not uncommon to find that such patients can
converse rationally and take an intelligent interest in their
environments, but the implication of the capacity of judgment is at once
apparent whenever the subject of the persecutions is touched upon.

All cases of delusional insanity at this stage are dangerous and their
actions are not to be depended upon. Assaults are common, houses are set
on fire, threatening letters are written and accusations are made which
may lead to much worry and trouble before the true nature of the disease
is realized.

This, the second or persecutory stage of delusional insanity, may
persist through life. The patient becomes gradually accustomed to the
sensory disturbances, or possibly a certain amount of mental
enfeeblement sets in which reduces the mental vigour. In other cases,
the disease goes on to what Magnan calls the third stage or stage of
grandiose delusions. The onset of this stage is in some cases gradual.
The patient, while inveighing against the persecutions, hints at a
possible cause. One man is an inventor and his enemies desire to deprive
him of the results of his inventions. Another is the rightful heir to a
peerage, of which he is to be deprived. Women frequently believe
themselves to be abducted princesses or heirs to the throne. Others of
both sexes, even more ambitious, assume divine attributes and proclaim
themselves Virgin Marys, Gabriels, Holy Ghosts and Messiahs. Cases are
recorded in which the delusions of grandeur were of sudden onset, the
patient going to bed persecuted and miserable and rising the following
morning elated and grandiose. In this stage the hallucinations persist
but appear to change in character and become pleasant. The king hears
that arrangements are being made for his coronation and waits quietly
for the event. The angel Gabriel sees visions in the heavens. The heirs
and heiresses read of their prospective movements in the court columns
of the daily papers and are much soothed thereby. In short, no delusion
is too grotesque and absurd for such patients to believe and express.

Cases of delusional insanity never become demented in the true sense of
the word, but their mental state might be described as a dream in which
an imaginary existence obliterates the experiences of their past lives.

  _Treatment._--No treatment influences the course of the disease.
  During the stage of persecution such patients are a danger to
  themselves, as they not infrequently commit suicide, and to their
  supposed persecutors, whom they frequently assault or otherwise annoy.


  Katatonia.

KATATONIA.--This disease, so called on account of the symptom of
muscular spasm or rigidity which is present during certain of its
stages, was first described and named by K. L. Kahlbaum in 1874. Many
British alienists refuse to accept katatonia as a distinct disease, but
as it has been accepted and further elaborated by such an authority as
E. Kraepelin reference to it cannot be avoided.

Katatonia attacks women more frequently than men, and is essentially a
disease of adolescence, but typical cases occasionally occur in adults.
Hereditary predisposition is present in over 50% of the cases and is the
chief predisposing cause. Childbirth, worry, physical strain and mental
shocks are all advanced as secondary predisposing causes. The disease is
one of gradual onset, with loss of physical and mental energy. Probably
the earliest mental symptom is the onset of aural hallucinations. For
convenience of description the disease may be divided into (1) the stage
of onset; (2) the stage of stupor; (3) the stage of excitement.

The symptoms of the stage of onset are disorders of the alimentary
tract, such as loss of appetite, vomiting after food and obstinate
constipation. The pulse is rapid, irregular and intermittent. The skin
varies between extreme dryness and drenching perspirations. In women the
menstrual function is suppressed. At uncertain intervals the skeletal
muscles are thrown into a condition of rigidity, but this symptom does
not occur invariably. The instincts of cleanliness are in abeyance,
owing to the mental state of the patient, and as a result these cases
are inclined to be wet and dirty in their habits.

Mentally there is great confusion, vivid hallucinations, which
apparently come on at intervals and are of a terrifying nature, for the
patient often becomes frightened, endeavours to hide in corners or
escape by a window or door. A very common history of such a case prior
to admission is that the patient has attempted suicide by jumping out of
a window, the attempt being in reality an unconscious effort on the part
of the patient to escape from some imaginary danger. During these
attacks the skin pours with perspiration. The patient is oblivious to
his surroundings and is mentally inaccessible. In the intervals between
these attacks the patient may be conscious and capable of answering
simple questions. This acute stage, in which sleep is abolished, lasts
from a few days to four or six weeks and then, generally quite suddenly,
the patient passes into the state of stupor. In some cases a sharp
febrile attack accompanies the onset of the stupor, while in others this
symptom is absent; but in every case examined by Bruce during the acute
stage there was an increase in the number of the white blood corpuscles,
which, just prior to the onset of stupor, were sometimes enormously
increased; the increase being entirely due to multiplication of the
multinucleated or polymorphonuclear leucocytes.

In the second or stuporose stage of the disease the symptoms are
characteristic. The patient lies in a state of apparent placidity,
generally with the eyes shut. Consciousness is never entirely abolished,
and many of the patients give unmistakable evidence that they understand
what is being said in their presence. Any effort at passive movement of
a limb immediately sets up muscular resistance, and throughout this
stage the sternomastoid and the abdominal muscles are more or less in a
state of over-tension, which is increased to a condition of rigidity if
the patient is interfered with in any way. This symptom of restiveness
or negativism is one of the characteristics of the disease. The patient
resists while being fed, washed, dressed and undressed, and even the
normal stimuli which in a healthy man indicate that the bladder or
rectum require to be emptied are resisted, so that the bladder may
become distended and the lower bowel has to be emptied by enemata. The
temperature is low, often subnormal, the pulse is small and weak, and
the extremities cold and livid. This symptom is probably due in some
part to spasm of the terminal arterioles. Mentally the symptoms are
negative. Though conscious, the patient cannot be got to speak and
apparently is oblivious to what is passing around. Upon recovery,
however, these cases can often recount incidents which occurred to them
during their illness, and may also state that they laboured under some
delusion. Coincidently with the onset of the stupor sleep returns, and
many cases sleep for the greater part of the twenty-four hours. The
duration of the stuporose state is very variable. In some cases it lasts
for weeks, in others for months or years, and may be the terminal stage
of the disease, the patient gradually sinking into dementia or making a
recovery. The third stage or stage of excitement comes on in many cases
during the stage of stupor: the stages overlap; while in others a
distinct interval of convalescence may intervene between the termination
of the stupor and the onset of the excitement. The excitement is
characterized by sudden impulsive actions, rhythmical repetition of
words and sounds (verbigeration), and by rhythmical movements of the
body or limbs, such as swaying the whole frame, nodding the head,
swinging the arms, or walking in circles. The patient may be absolutely
mute in this stage as in the stage of stupor. Others again are very
noisy, singing, shouting or abusive. The speech is staccato in character
and incoherent. Physically the patient, who often gains weight in the
stage of stupor, again becomes thin and haggard in appearance owing to
the incessant restlessness and sleeplessness which characterize the
stage of excitement. The patient may, during the stage of onset, die
through exhaustion, or accidentally and unconsciously commit suicide
usually by leaping from a window. During the stuporose stage symptoms of
tubercular disease of the lungs may commence. All the adolescent insane
are peculiarly liable to contract and die from tubercular disease.
Accidental suicide is also liable to occur during this stage. The stage
of excitement, if at all prolonged, invariably ends in dementia.
According to Kraepelin 13% of the cases recover, 27 make partial
recoveries, and 60% become more or less demented.

  _Treatment._--No treatment arrests or diverts the course of katatonia,
  and the acute symptoms of the disease as they arise must be treated on
  hospital principles.


  Hebephrenia.

HEBEPHRENIA.--This is a disease of adolescence (Gr. [Greek: hêbê]) which
was first described by Hecker and Kahlbaum and more recently by
Kraepelin and other foreign workers. Hebephrenia is not yet recognized
by British alienists. The descriptions of the disease are indefinite and
confusing, but there are some grounds for the belief that such an entity
does exist, although it is probably more correct to say that as yet the
symptoms are very imperfectly understood. Hebephrenia is always a
disease of adolescence and never occurs during adult life. It attacks
women more frequently than men, and according to Kahlbaum hereditary
predisposition to insanity is present in over 50% of the cases attacked.
The onset of the disease is invariably associated with two symptoms. On
the physical side an arrested or delayed development and on the mental a
gradual failure of the power of attention and concentrated thought. The
onset of the condition is always gradual and the symptoms which first
attract attention are mental. The patient becomes restless, is unable to
settle to work, becomes solitary and peculiar in habits and sometimes
dissolute and mischievous. As the disease advances the patient becomes
more and more enfeebled, laughs and mutters to himself and wanders
aimlessly and without object. There is no natural curiosity, no interest
in life and no desire for occupation. Later, delusions may appear and
also hallucinations of hearing, and under their influence the patient
may be impulsive and violent. Physically the subjects are always badly
developed. The temperature is at times slightly elevated and at
intervals the white blood corpuscles are markedly increased. The
menstrual function in women is suppressed and both male and female cases
are addicted to masturbation. According to Kraepelin 5% of the cases
recover, 15% are so far relieved as to be able to live at home, but are
mentally enfeebled, the remaining 80% become hopelessly demented. The
patients who recover frequently show at the onset of their disease acute
symptoms, such as mild excitement, slightly febrile temperature and
quick pulse-rate. When recovery does take place there is marked
improvement in development. The subjects of hebephrenia are peculiarly
liable to tubercular infection and many die of phthisis.

  There is no special treatment for hebephrenia beyond attention to the
  general health.


  Traumatic Insanity.

INSANITY FOLLOWING UPON INJURIES TO THE BRAIN, OR APOPLEXIES OR TUMOURS
OR ARTERIAL DEGENERATION. (a) _Traumatic Insanity._--Insanity following
blows on the head is divided into (1) the forms in which the insanity
immediately follows the accident; (2) the form in which there is an
intermediate prodromal stage characterized by strange conduct and
alteration in disposition; and (3) in which the mental symptoms occur
months or years after the accident, which can have at most but a remote
predisposing causal relation to the insanity. The cases which
immediately succeed injuries to the head are in all respects similar to
confusional insanity after operations or after fevers. There is
generally a noisy incoherent delirium, accompanied by hallucinations of
sight or of hearing, and fleeting unsystematized delusions. The physical
symptoms present all the features of severe nervous shock.

In those cases in which there is an intervening prodromal condition,
with altered character and disposition, there is usually a more or less
severe accidental implication of the cortex cerebri, either by
depression of bone or local hemorrhage, or meningitic sub-inflammatory
local lesions. Most of the cases during the prodromal stage are sullen,
morose or suspicious, and indifferent to their friends and surroundings.
At the end of the prodromal stage there most usually occurs an attack of
acute mania of a furious impulsive kind. The cases which for many years
after injury are said to have remained sane will generally be found upon
examination and inquiry to exhibit symptoms of hereditary degeneration
or of acquired degeneracy, which may or may not be a consequence of the
accident.

The most common site of vascular lesion is one of the branches of the
middle cerebral artery within the sylvian fissure, or of one of the
smaller branches of the same artery which go directly to supply the
chief basal ganglia. When an artery like the middle cerebral or one of
its branches becomes either through rupture or blocking of its lumen,
incapable of performing its function of supplying nutrition to important
cerebral areas, there ensues devitality of the nervous tissues,
frequently followed by softening and chronic inflammation. It is these
secondary changes which give rise to and maintain those peculiar mental
aberrations known as post-apoplectic insanity.

Various characteristic physical symptoms, depending upon the seat of the
cerebral lesion, are met with in the course of this form of insanity.
These consist of paraplegias, hemiplegias and muscular contractures.
Speech defects are very common, being due either to the enfeebled mental
condition, to paralysis of the nerve supplying the muscles of the face
and tongue, or to aphasia caused by implication of those parts of the
cortex which are intimately associated with the faculty of speech.
Mental symptoms vary considerably in different cases and in accordance
with the seat and extent of the lesion. There is almost always present,
however, a certain degree of mental enfeeblement, accompanied by loss of
memory and of judgment, often by mental confusion. Another very general
mental symptom is the presence of emotionalism which leads the patient
to be affected either to tears or to laughter upon trifling and
inadequate occasions.

Cerebral tumours do not necessarily produce insanity. Indeed it has been
computed that not one half of the cases become insane. When insanity
appears it is met with in all degrees varying from slight mental dulness
up to complete dementia, and from mere moral perversion up to the most
intense form of maniacal excitement. On the physical side the various
symptoms of cerebral tumour such as coma, ataxia, paralysis, headache,
vomiting, optic neuritis and epileptiform convulsions are met with. All
forms of so-called moral changes and of changes of disposition are met
with as mental symptoms and all the ordinary forms of insanity may occur
in varying intensity; but by far the most common mental change occurring
in connexion with cerebral tumour is a progressive enfeeblement of the
intelligence, unattended with any more harmful symptoms than mental
deterioration which ends in complete dementia.


  Insanity due to Arterial Degeneration.

(b) _Arterial Degeneration._--Arterial degeneration is a common cause of
mental impairment, especially of that form of mental affection known as
"Early" dementia. It also predisposes to embolism and thrombosis, which
often results in the paralytic and aphasic groups of nerve disturbance,
and which are always accompanied by more or less marked interference
with normal cerebral action.

The commonest seat for atheroma of the cerebral vessels is the arteries
at the base of the brain and their main branches, especially the middle
cerebral. As a general rule the other arteries of the cerebrum are not
implicated to the same extent, although in a not inconsiderable number
of cases of the disease all the arteries of the brain may participate in
the change. When this is so, we obtain those definite symptoms of slowly
advancing dementia commencing in late middle life and ending in complete
dementia before the usual period for the appearance of senile dementia.
The same appearances are met with in certain patients who have attained
the age in which senile changes in the arteries are not unexpected. As a
rule atheroma in the cerebral vessels is but a part of a general
atheroma of all the arteries of the body. Atheroma is common after
middle life and increases in frequency with age. The chief causes are
syphilis, alcoholism, the gouty and rheumatic diatheses and above all
Bright's disease of the kidneys. Perhaps certain forms of Bright's
disease, owing to the tendency to raise the blood pressure, are of all
causes the most common.

It is not easy to say to what extent, alone, the arteriosclerosis is
effectual in inducing the gradual failure of the mental powers, and to
what extent it is assisted in its operation by the action on the
brain-cells of the general toxic substances which give rise to the
arterial atheroma. In any case there can be no question that the gradual
mechanical diminution of the blood-supply to the cortex caused by the
occlusion of the lumen of the arteries is a factor of great importance
in the production of mental incapacity.


  General Paralysis.

GENERAL PARALYSIS OF THE INSANE (syn. General Paralysis, _dementia
paralytica_, progressive dementia) is a disease characterized by
symptoms of progressive degeneration of the central nervous system, more
particularly of the motor centres. The disease is almost invariably
fatal. Apparent recoveries do very occasionally occur, though this is
denied by the majority of alienists. The disease is in every case
associated with gradually advancing mental enfeeblement, and very
frequently is complicated by attacks of mental disease.

General paralysis, which is a very common disease, was first recognized
in France; it was identified by J. E. D. Esquirol, and further described
and elaborated by A. L. J. Bayle, Delaye and J. L. Calmeil, the latter
giving it the name of _paralysie générale des aliénés_.

As first described by the earlier writers the disease was regarded as
being invariably associated with delusions of grandeur. At the present
day this description does not apply to the majority of cases admitted
into asylums. The change may be explained as being either due to an
alteration in the type of the disease, or more probably the disease is
better understood and more frequently diagnosed than formerly, the
diagnosis being now entirely dependent on the physical and not on the
mental symptoms. This latter may also be the explanation why general
paralysis is much more common at the present day in British asylums than
it was. The total death-rate from this disease in English and Scottish
asylums rose from 1321 in 1894 to 1795 in 1904.

General paralysis attacks men much more frequently than women, and
occurs between the ages of 35 and 50 years. It is essentially a disease
of town life. In asylums which draw their patients from country
districts in Scotland and Ireland, the disease is rare, whereas in those
which draw their population from large cities the disease is extremely
common.

Considerable diversity of opinion exists at present regarding the
causation of general paralysis. Hereditary predisposition admittedly
plays a very small part in its causation. There is, however, an almost
universal agreement that the disease is essentially the result of
toxaemia or poisoning, and that acquired or inherited syphilitic
infection is an important predisposing factor. A history of syphilitic
infection occurs in from 70 to 90% of the patients affected. At first it
was held that general paralysis was a late syphilitic manifestation, but
as it was found that no benefit followed the use of anti-syphilitic
remedies the theory was advanced that general paralysis was a secondary
auto-intoxication following upon syphilitic infection. The latest view
is that the disease is a bacterial invasion, to which syphilis,
alcoholism, excessive mental and physical strain, and a too exclusively
nitrogenous diet, only act as predisposing causes. This latter theory
has been recently advanced and elaborated by Ford Robertson and McRae of
Edinburgh.

Whatever the cause of general paralysis may be, the disease is
essentially progressive in character, marked by frequent remissions and
so typical in its physical symptoms and pathology that we regard the
bacterial theory with favour, although we are far from satisfied that
the actual causative factor has as yet been discovered.

For descriptive purposes the disease is most conveniently divided into
three stages,--called respectively the first, second and third,--but it
must be understood that no clear line of demarcation divides these
stages from one another.

The onset of general paralysis is slow and gradual, and the earliest
symptoms may be either physical or mental. The disease may commence
either in the brain itself or the spinal cord may be primarily the seat
of lesion, the brain becoming affected secondarily. When the disease
originates in the spinal cord the symptoms are similar to those of
locomotor ataxia, and it is now believed that general paralysis and
locomotor ataxia are one and the same disease; in the one case the cord,
in the other the brain, being the primary seat of lesion. The early
physical symptoms are generally motor. The patient loses energy, readily
becomes tired, and the capacity for finely co-ordinated motor acts, such
as are required in playing games of skill, is impaired. Transient
attacks of partial paralysis of a hand, arm, leg or one side of the
body, or of the speech centre are not uncommon. In a few cases the
special senses are affected early and the patient may complain of
attacks of dimness of vision or impairment of hearing. Or the symptoms
may be purely mental and affect the highest and most recently acquired
attributes of man, the moral sense and the faculty of self-control. The
patient then becomes irritable, bursts into violent passions over
trifles, changes in character and habits, frequently takes alcohol to
excess and behaves in an extravagant, foolish manner. Theft is often
committed in this stage and the thefts are characterized by an open,
purposeless manner of commission. The memory is impaired and the patient
is easily influenced by others, that is to say he becomes facile. In
other cases a wild attack of sudden excitement, following upon a period
of restlessness and sleeplessness may be the first symptom which
attracts attention. Whatever the mode of onset the physical symptoms
which characterize the disease come on sooner or later. The speech is
slurred and the facial muscles lose their tone, giving the face a
flattened expression. The muscular power is impaired, the gait is
straddling and the patient sways on turning. All the muscles of the
body, but particularly those of the tongue, upper lip and hands, which
are most highly innervated, present the symptom of fine fibrillary
tremors. The pupils become irregular in outline, often unequal in size
and either one or both fail to react normally to the stimuli of light,
or of accommodation for near or distant vision.

As the disease advances there is greater excitability and a tendency to
emotionalism. In classical cases the general exaltation of ideas becomes
so great as to lead the patient to the commission of insanely
extravagant acts, such as purchases of large numbers of useless
articles, or of lands and houses far beyond his means, numerous
indiscriminate proposals of marriage, the suggestion of utterly absurd
commercial schemes, or attempts at feats beyond his physical powers. The
mental symptoms, in short, are very similar to those of the elevated
stage of manic-depressive insanity.

Delusions of the wildest character may also be present. The patient may
believe himself to be in possession of millions of money, to be
unsurpassed in strength and agility, to be a great and overruling
genius, and the recipient of the highest honours. This grandiose
condition is by no means present in every case and is not in itself
diagnostic of the disease. But mental facility, placid contentment,
complete loss of judgment and affection for family and friends, with
impaired memory, are symptoms universally present. As the disease
advances the motor symptoms become more prominent. The patient has great
difficulty in writing, misses letters out of words, words out of
sentences, and writes in a large laboured hand. The expression becomes
fatuous. The speech is difficult and the facial muscles are thrown into
marked tremors whenever any attempt at speech is made. The voice changes
in timbre and becomes high-pitched and monotonous. The gait is weak and
uncertain and the reflexes are exaggerated. In the first stage the
patient, through restlessness and sleeplessness, becomes thin and
haggard. As the second stage approaches sleep returns, the patient lays
on flesh and becomes puffy and unhealthy in appearance. The mental
symptoms are marked by greater facility and enfeeblement, while the
paralysis of all the muscles steadily advances. The patient is now
peculiarly liable to what are called congestive seizures or epileptiform
attacks. The temperature rises, the face becomes flushed and the skin
moist. Twitchings are noticed in a hand or arm. These twitchings
gradually spread until they may involve the whole body. The patient is
now unconscious, bathed in perspiration, which is offensive. The bowels
and bladder empty themselves reflexly or become distended, and bedsores
are very liable to form over the heels, elbows and back. Congestive
seizures frequently last for days and may prove fatal or, on the other
hand, the patient may have recurrent attacks and finally die of
exhaustion or some accidental disease, such as pneumonia. In the second
stage of the disease the patient eats greedily, and as the food is
frequently swallowed unmasticated, choking is not an uncommon accident.
The special senses of taste and smell are also much disordered. We have
seen a case of general paralysis, in the second stage drink a glass of
quinine and water under the impression that he was drinking whisky.

The third stage of the disease is characterized by sleeplessness and
rapid loss of body weight. Mentally the patient becomes quite demented.
On the physical side the paralysis advances rapidly, so that the patient
becomes bedridden and speechless. Death may occur as the result of
exhaustion, or a congestive seizure, or of some intercurrent illness.

The duration of the disease is between eighteen months and three years,
although it has been known to persist for seven.

  No curative measures have so far proved of any avail in the treatment
  of general paralysis.


  Epileptic Insanity.

INSANITY ASSOCIATED WITH EPILEPSY.--The term "epileptic insanity," which
has for many years been in common use, is now regarded as a misnomer.
There is in short no such disease as epileptic insanity. A brain,
however, which is so unstable as to exhibit the sudden discharges of
nervous energy which are known as epileptic seizures, is prone to be
attacked by insanity also, but there is no form of mental disease
exclusively associated with epilepsy. Many epileptics suffer from the
disease for a lifetime and never exhibit symptoms of insanity. The
majority of patients, however, who suffer from epilepsy are liable to
exhibit certain mental symptoms which are regarded as characteristic of
the disease. Some suffer from recurrent attacks of depression,
ill-humour and irritability, which may readily pass into violence under
provocation. Others are emotionally fervid in religious observances,
though sadly deficient in the practice of the religious life. A third
class are liable to attacks of semi-consciousness which may either
follow upon or take the place of a seizure, and during these attacks
actions are performed automatically and without consciousness on the
part of the patient.

When epileptics do become insane the insanity is generally one of the
forms of mania. Either the patient suffers from sudden furious attacks
of excitement in which consciousness is entirely abolished, or the mania
is of the type of the elevated stage of folie circulaire
(manic-depressive insanity) and alternates with periods of deep
depression. In the elevated period the patient shows exaggerated
self-esteem, with passionate outbursts of anger, and periods of
religious emotionalism. While in the stage of depression the patient is
often actively suicidal.

Epileptic patients who suffer from recurrent attacks of delirious mania
are liable to certain nervous symptoms which indicate that not only are
the motor centres in the brain damaged, but that the motor tracts in the
spinal cord are also affected. The gait becomes awkward and laboured,
the feet being lifted high off the ground and the legs thrown forward
with a jerk. The tendon reflexes are at the same time exaggerated. These
symptoms indicate descending degeneration of the motor tracts of the
cord.

If the mental attacks partake of the character of elevation or
depression the mental functions suffer more than the motor. These
patients, in course of time, become delusional, enfeebled and childish,
and in some cases the enfeeblement ends in complete dementia of a very
degraded type.

Where insanity is superadded to epilepsy the prognosis is unfavourable.


  Toxic Insanity.

INSANITY ASSOCIATED WITH OR CAUSED BY ALCOHOLIC AND DRUG
INTOXICATION.--The true rôle of alcoholic indulgence in the production
of insanity is at present very imperfectly understood. In many cases the
alcoholism is merely a symptom of the mental disease--a result, not a
cause. In others, alcohol seems to act purely as a predisposing factor,
breaking down the resistance of the patient and disordering the
metabolism to such an extent that bodily disorders are engendered which
produce well-marked and easily recognized mental symptoms. In others,
again, alcohol itself may possibly act as a direct toxin, disordering
the functions of the brain. In the latter class may be included the
nervous phenomena of drunkenness, which commence with excitement and
confusion of ideas, and terminate in stupor with partial paralysis of
all the muscles. Certain brains which, either through innate weakness or
as the result of direct injury, have become peculiarly liable to toxic
influences, under the influence of even moderate quantities of alcohol
pass into a state closely resembling delirious mania, a state commonly
spoken of as _mania a potu_.

_Delirium Tremens._--Delirium tremens is the form of mental disorder
most commonly associated with alcoholic indulgence in the lay mind.
Considerable doubt exists, however, as to whether the disease is
directly or secondarily the result of alcoholic poisoning. Much
evidence exists in favour of the latter supposition. Delirium tremens
may occur in persons who have never presented the symptom of
drunkenness, or it may occur weeks after the patient has ceased to drink
alcohol, and in such cases the actual exciting cause of the disease may
be some accidental complication, such as a severe accident, a surgical
operation, or an attack of pneumonia or erysipelas.

The early symptoms are always physical. The stomach is disordered. The
desire for food is absent, and there may be abdominal pain and vomiting.
The hands are tremulous, and the patient is unable to sleep. At this
stage the disease may be checked by the administration of an aperient
and some sedative such as bromide and chloral. The mental symptoms vary
greatly in their severity. In a mild case one may talk to the patient
for some time before discovering any mental abnormality, and then it
will be found that confusion exists regarding his position and the
identity of those around him, while the memory is also impaired for
recent events. Hallucinations of sight and hearing may be present. The
hallucinations of sight may be readily induced by pressure upon the
eyeballs. If the symptoms are more acute they usually come on suddenly,
generally during the evening or night. The patient becomes excited,
suffers from vivid hallucinations of sight and hearing which produce
great fear, and these hallucinations may be so engrossing as to render
him quite oblivious to the environment. The hallucinations of sight are
characterized by the false sense impressions taking the forms of animals
or insects which surround or menace the patient. Visions may also appear
in the form of flames, goblins or fairies. The hallucinations of hearing
rarely consist of voices, but are more of the nature of whistlings, and
ringings in the ears, shouts, groans or screams which seem to fill the
air, or emanate from the walls or floors of the room. All the special
senses may be affected, but sight and hearing are always implicated.
Delirium tremens is a short-lived disease, generally running its course
in from four to five days. Recovery is always preceded by the return of
the power of sleep.

  The patient must be carefully nursed and constantly watched, as
  homicidal and suicidal impulses are liable to occur under the
  terrifying influence of the hallucinations. The food should be
  concentrated and fluid, given frequently and in small quantities.

_Chronic Alcoholic Insanity._--Almost any mental disorder may be
associated with chronic alcoholism, but the most characteristic mental
symptoms are delusions of suspicion and persecution which resemble very
closely those of the persecution stage of systematized delusional
insanity. The appearance of the patient is bloated and heavy; the tongue
is furred and tremulous, and symptoms of gastric and intestinal disorder
are usually present. The gait is awkward and dragging, owing to the
partial paralysis of the extensor muscles of the lower limbs. All the
skeletal muscles are tremulous, particularly those of the tongue, lips
and hands. The common sensibility of the skin is disordered so that the
patient complains of sensory disturbances, such as tinglings and
prickings of the skin, which may be interpreted as electric shocks. In
some cases the mental symptoms may be concealed, but delusions and
hallucinations, particularly hallucinations of sight and hearing, are
very commonly present. The delusions are often directly the outcome of
the physical state; the disordered stomach suggesting poisoning, and the
disturbances of the special senses being interpreted as various forms of
persecution. The patient hears voices shouting foul abuse at him; all
his thoughts are read and repeated aloud; electric shocks are sent
through him at night; gases are pumped into his room. Sexual delusions
are very common and frequently affect marital relations by arousing
suspicions regarding the fidelity of wife or husband; or the delusions
may be more gross and take the form of belief in actual attempts at
sexual mutilations. The memory is always impaired.

Patients who in addition to chronic alcoholism are also insane are
always dangerous and liable to sudden and apparently causeless outbursts
of violence.

_Dipsomania._--Dipsomania is a condition characterized by recurrent or
periodic attacks of an irresistible craving for stimulants. The general
bodily condition has a great deal to do with the onset of the attack,
that is to say, the patient is more liable to an attack when the bodily
condition is low than when the health is good. The attacks may be
frequent or recur at very long intervals. They generally last for a few
weeks, and may be complicated by symptoms of excitement, delusions or
hallucinations.

  _Treatment_ consists in attention to the general health between
  attacks, with the use of such tonics as arsenic and strychnine. During
  the attack the patient should be confined to bed and treated with
  sedatives.

_Morphinism._--The morphia habit is most commonly contracted by persons
of a neurotic constitution. The mental symptoms associated with the
disease may arise either as the result of an overdose, when the patient
suffers from hallucinations, confusion and mild delirium, frequently
associated with vomiting. On the other hand, mental symptoms very
similar to those of delirium tremens may occur as the result of suddenly
cutting off the supply of morphia in a patient addicted to the habit.
Finally, chronic morphia intoxication produces mental symptoms very
similar to those of chronic alcoholism. This latter condition,
characterized by delusions of persecution, mental enfeeblement and loss
of memory, is hopelessly incurable. The patient is always thin and
anaemic on account of digestive disturbances. There is weakness or
slight paralysis of the lower limbs, and the skeletal muscles are
tremulous.

  _Treatment._--The quantity of the drug used must be gradually reduced
  until it is finally discontinued, and during treatment the patient
  must be confined to bed.


  Senile Insanity.

SENILE INSANITY.--States of mental enfeeblement are always the result of
failure of development or of structural changes in the cortical grey
matter of the brain. If the enfeeblement is due to failure of
development or brain damage occurring in early life, it is spoken of as
_idiocy_ or imbecility. Every form of insanity which occurs after a
certain period of life is apt to be regarded by some observers as
senile, but although the failing mental power may colour the character
of the symptoms it cannot be regarded as correct to designate, for
instance, a recurrent form of mania as senile merely because it
necessarily manifests itself in a subject who has lived into the senile
period. On the other hand, many persons first suffer from mental
derangement at an advanced period of life without at the same time
manifesting any marked failure of mental power, while others only
manifest their insanity as a result of the decay of their mental
faculties.

From this statement it will be seen that senile insanity is a complex of
different conditions, some of them accompanied by dementia, others
without dementia.

_Senile Dementia_ is distinguished occasionally into "senile" properly
so called, and "presenile" dementia, which supervenes at middle age or
even earlier.

The occurrence of dementia is sometimes preceded by an acute
hallucinatory phase, accompanied by mania or melancholia; but as a
general rule, in the presenile cases, by neurasthenia, indifference, and
mental apathy which extends to a disregard for the ordinary conventions
and the means of subsistence.

It has pithily been remarked that the age of a man is the age of his
blood-vessels. The two conditions of senile and presenile dementia
cannot therefore be separated scientifically. From a clinical point of
view, however, the two are distinguishable in so far as their symptoms
are concerned, for the presenile cases are more complete and the process
of dementia achieves its consummation earlier and quicker, while in the
senile the gradual disease of the arteries and the slow decay of the
mental faculties offer a different background for the manifestation of
mental symptoms. Moreover, the senile patients more frequently present
symptoms of recurrent attacks of acute insanity, a more pronounced
emotionalism, and a greater tendency to restlessness at night. The
presenile cases, on the other hand, except at the commencement of their
malady, are usually free from acute and troublesome symptoms and present
chiefly an apathetic indifference and irresponsiveness on the mental
side, and on the physical side a neurasthenic and enfeebled bodily
state. In both conditions memory is greatly impaired.

Added to senile dementia there is often found a condition of mania or
melancholia or even of systematized delusional insanity. The chief
symptoms of the maniacal attacks are the great motor restlessness and
excitement, which are worst during the night time. Sleep is almost
always seriously disturbed, and the patients rapidly become exhausted
unless carefully nursed and tended. The actions of senile maniacs are
often puerile and foolish, and they may exhibit impulses of a homicidal,
suicidal or sexual character. The melancholic cases are also extremely
restless, and their emotion is loudly expressed in an uncontrollable
manner. They often have delusions of persecution. Their cries and groans
have an automatic character, as if the patient, though compelled to
utter them, did not experience the mental pain which he expressed. They
also, many of them, eat their food ravenously, although a few
obstinately refuse it. The senile delusional cases may manifest any of
the classical forms of paranoia described above, but their delusions are
of a rudimentary and unfinished type. The most common of all senile
delusions is that they are being robbed. They therefore often hide their
small valuables in corners and out-of-the-way places, and as their
memories are very defective they are afterwards unable to find them.
Others, who live alone, barricade their doors and try to prevent any one
entering for fear of thieves. Delusions of ambition in senile subjects
are usually of a very improbable and childish character. Hallucinations
are generally present in the senile delusional cases.

  The _treatment_ of senile insanity is from the medical point of view
  not hopeful; it resolves itself largely into instructions for careful
  nursing, suitable feeding, and the protection of the patient from all
  the physical dangers to which he may be exposed.

  _Statistics._--The statistics of lunacy are merely of interest from a
  sociological point of view; for under that term are comprised all
  forms of insanity. It is needless to produce tables illustrative of
  the relative numbers of lunatics in the various countries of Europe,
  the systems of registration being so unequal in their working as to
  afford no trustworthy basis of comparison.

  Even in Great Britain, where the systems are more perfect than in any
  other country, the tables published in the Blue Books of the three
  countries can only be regarded as approximately correct, the
  difficulty of registering all cases of lunacy being insuperable. On
  the 1st of January 1907, according to the returns made to the offices
  of the Commissioners in Lunacy, the numbers of lunatics stood thus on
  the registers:--

    +------------------+--------+----------+---------+
    |                  | Males. | Females. | Totals. |
    +------------------+--------+----------+---------+
    | England and Wales| 57,176 |  66,812  | 123,988 |
    | Scotland         |  8,594 |   8,999  |  17,593 |
    | Ireland          | 12,254 |  11,300  |  23,554 |
    +------------------+--------+----------+---------+
    |    Gross total   | 78,024 |  87,111  | 165,135 |
    +------------------+--------+----------+---------+

  These figures show the ratio of lunatics to 100,000 of the population
  to be 354 in England and Wales, 312 in Scotland, and 538 in Ireland.

  _Numbers of Lunatics on the 1st of January of the years 1857-1907
  inclusive, according to Returns made to the Offices of the
  Commissioners in Lunacy for England and Wales, Scotland and Ireland._

    +------+---------+----------+----------+
    |      | England |          |          |
    |Years.|   and   | Scotland.| Ireland. |
    |      |  Wales. |          |          |
    +------+---------+----------+----------+
    | 1858 |    ..   |   5,823  |    ..    |
    | 1859 |  36,762 |   6,072  |    ..    |
    | 1860 |  38,058 |   6,273  |    ..    |
    | 1861 |  39,647 |   6,327  |    ..    |
    | 1862 |  41,129 |   6,398  |   8,055  |
    | 1863 |  43,118 |   6,386  |   7,862  |
    | 1864 |  44,795 |   6,422  |   8,272  |
    | 1865 |  45,950 |   6,533  |   8,845  |
    | 1866 |  47,648 |   6,730  |   8,964  |
    | 1867 |  49,086 |   6,888  |   8,962  |
    | 1868 |  51,000 |   7,055  |   9,086  |
    | 1869 |  53,177 |   7,310  |   9,454  |
    | 1870 |  54,713 |   7,571  |  10,082  |
    | 1871 |  56,755 |   7,729  |  10,257  |
    | 1872 |  58,640 |   7,849  |  10,767  |
    | 1873 |  60,296 |   7,982  |  10,958  |
    | 1874 |  60,027 |   8,069  |  11,326  |
    | 1875 |  63,793 |   8,225  |  11,583  |
    | 1876 |  64,916 |   8,509  |  11,777  |
    | 1877 |  66,636 |   8,862  |  12,123  |
    | 1878 |  68,538 |   9,097  |  12,380  |
    | 1879 |  69,885 |   9,386  |  12,585  |
    | 1880 |  71,191 |   9,624  |  12,819  |
    | 1881 |  73,113 |  10,012  |  13,062  |
    | 1882 |  74,842 |  10,355  |  13,444  |
    | 1883 |  76,765 |  10,510  |  13,882  |
    | 1884 |  78,528 |  10,739  |  14,088  |
    | 1885 |  79,704 |  10,918  |  14,279  |
    | 1886 |  80,156 |  11,187  |  14,590  |
    | 1887 |  80,891 |  11,309  |  14,702  |
    | 1888 |  82,643 |  11,609  |  15,263  |
    | 1889 |  84,340 |  11,954  |  15,685  |
    | 1890 |  86,067 |  12,302  |  16,159  |
    | 1891 |  86,795 |  12,595  |  16,251  |
    | 1892 |  87,848 |  12,799  |  16,688  |
    | 1893 |  89,822 |  13,058  |  17,124  |
    | 1894 |  92,067 |  13,300  |  17,276  |
    | 1895 |  94,081 |  13,852  |  17,665  |
    | 1896 |  96,446 |  14,093  |  18,357  |
    | 1897 |  99,365 |  14,500  |  18,966  |
    | 1898 | 101,972 |  14,906  |  19,590  |