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Title: Journal and Letters of Philip Vickers Fithian: A Plantation Tutor of the Old Dominion, 1773-1774.
Author: Fithian, Philip Vickers
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Illustration: cover]

  _Journal & Letters of_

  Philip Vickers Fithian


  _A Plantation Tutor of the
  Old Dominion_

  [Illustration: logo]


  The University Press of Virginia


  _Previous editions copyright 1943, 1945
  by Colonial Williamsburg, Incorporated_


  Library of Congress Catalogue Card Number 57-13498

  The University Press of Virginia
  First printing for Dominion Books
  October 1968

  Fourth printing 1990



Once in a great while historians find a firsthand account that
provides striking insight into a past era. Only rarely is such a
document written with the perception and charm that make its readers
feel as if they had participated in the incidents described and shared
the experiences related. The journal and relevant correspondence of
Philip Fithian constitute this kind of source.

Fithian was reared in New Jersey and attended the College of New
Jersey in Princeton, receiving his degree in 1772. Before entering the
Presbyterian ministry, he followed the advice of President Witherspoon
of Princeton and became a tutor in the family of Robert Carter at
"Nomini Hall" plantation on the Northern Neck of Virginia. The
reactions of the somewhat austere young man to the rich, warm life of
a Virginia plantation are always instructive and often amusing. The
Carters and their seven children were a fascinating family, liberal in
their sentiments and deeply interested in books and music. Fithian
sets forth truthfully, yet with lively touches, the family's
assessments of the society in which it moved, the institution of
slavery, and the dispute developing with the mother country.
Throughout his experiences Fithian remained true to his "fair
Laura"--Elizabeth Beatty in far off New Jersey.

The journal, with certain of the letters, was first published in 1900,
in somewhat abbreviated form, by the Princeton Historical Association.
Dr. Hunter Dickinson Farish, in his edition of _The Journal and
Letters of Philip Vickers Fithian_ (Williamsburg Restoration
Historical Studies, III; Williamsburg, Va., 1943), included the
complete journal, added other relevant letters as well as Fithian's
catalogue of Carter's library, and supplied a thoughtful Introduction.

Dr. Farish was Director of Research at Colonial Williamsburg from 1937
until ill health forced him to retire in 1944. He broadened the
program there by bringing young research associates to the staff,
making grants-in-aid to scholars in the field of early American
history, and establishing and editing the Williamsburg Restoration
Historical Series. He also taught at the College of William and Mary
and helped to work out the organizational plans for the Institute of
Early American History and Culture, which since 1943 has been jointly
sponsored by Colonial Williamsburg and the College of William and

Dr. Farish's edition of the _Journal_ had been out of print for a few
years when, in 1957, Colonial Williamsburg reissued it, with pen and
ink illustrations by Fritz Kredel designed to interest new readers.
The present edition by the University Press of Virginia reproduces the
1957 one, but in convenient paperback form. Young Fithian's revealing
picture of Virginia plantation life will always be a key source for
the historian and an absorbing human document for the general reader.

                                  EDWARD P. ALEXANDER
                                  Director of Interpretation

  _Colonial Williamsburg
  September 1967_



  1. Virginia During the Golden Age                     xiii

  2. Philip Fithian and the Carter Family                xxv


  APPENDIX                                               221

  NOTES                                                  237

  INDEX                                                  249


Virginia During The Golden Age

In the "Golden Age," or half-century immediately preceding the
American Revolution, a remarkable civilization reached its zenith in
the broad coastal plain of eastern Virginia. Gradually, during a
century of colonization and expansion, the heavily wooded tidewater
had been converted into a land of settled order and accumulated
wealth. Vast estates had been carved out of the wilderness and large
plantations were everywhere the rule.

Embraced by numerous arms of the Chesapeake and covered by a network
of wide rivers and creeks, this sylvan Venice abounded in safe and
convenient water routes. Pressing through the mouths of the deep
estuaries, the ocean tides reached the "fall-line," beyond which the
streams were inaccessible to shipping owing to the rapids. Ocean
vessels could penetrate to the plantations in every part of the
lowlands and carry cargoes thence straight to the wharves of London
and the outports. Despite the distance and rigors of the voyage, the
colonists of the Tidewater had maintained a constant intercourse with
the mother country from the time of their earliest settlement.

The hope had long persisted that this coastal plain might yield the
ores, timber, ship stores and other products England needed, and for
which she then largely depended on foreign potentates. Lacking an
ample supply of cheap labor, however, colonial industries could not
compete with well-established ones of the Old World. For well over a
century tobacco proved the one commodity which the colony could
profitably produce for the home market in large quantities.

A notable result of the method of tobacco cultivation was a rapid
depletion of the soil. Intent only upon reaping quick returns, men
customarily neglected the most ordinary precautions to preserve
fertility. Since the tobacco plant required the richest loam to
produce the leaf in its perfection, fields were usually abandoned
after three or more crops had been harvested, and "new grounds" were
cleared. Thus there developed an ever recurring need for fresh lands.

Under so wasteful a system, Virginians had soon realized the necessity
of acquiring many times the quantity of land they could cultivate at
any one time. Farseeing men, realizing a day would come when fertile
soil could no longer be had for a song, wished also to provide
sufficient elbow room for their children at a future day. The
appreciation in land values in a new country provided a further
incentive to the accumulation of large holdings. As a result,
enterprising persons everywhere competed to secure the best tracts.

Towards the close of the seventeenth century the practice of
engrossing lands gained increased momentum. African slavery was
rapidly superseding white indentured servitude as the principal source
of labor supply. The price of tobacco had steadily declined owing to
overproduction, the burdens of the Navigation Acts, and the effects of
European wars. As a result of these conditions, the margin of profit
from the leaf had so decreased that the cheaper labor of slaves and
large-scale production had now become virtually essential to economic
survival. After he had served his indentureship, the white servant
could no longer establish himself as an independent farmer as he had
once done, and the small yeoman now usually felt obliged to sell his
lands to his wealthier neighbor and either become his tenant or
migrate to some other section or colony. Political developments
likewise favored the accumulation of large estates. Through repeated
intermarriage certain families had acquired a very extensive
influence. Members of these families were active in the Governor's
Council or the House of Burgesses and held other high offices as a
matter of course. Their official position often aided them as private
individuals in acquiring lands. Through the presentation of "head
right" certificates, compensation for military services, purchase from
private proprietors, and other ways they obtained domains comprising
thousands of acres. Some carved out what resembled small
principalities. William Fitzhugh of Stafford County owned over 50,000
acres, and by 1732 Robert or "King" Carter of Lancaster County held
some 333,000 acres.

The estates of such men, far from consisting of one compact property,
generally comprised many separate and sometimes widely scattered
tracts, perhaps in half a dozen or more counties. They ranged in size
from a few hundred to thousands of acres. The individual owner
acquired his holdings over a period of years, in what often appeared a
haphazard manner. Not infrequently, a planter, foreseeing the
depletion of his Tidewater lands, engrossed large tracts in the
Piedmont and Valley sections.[1]

  [1] Cf. Morton, Louis, _Robert Carter of Nomini Hall: A Virginia
  Tobacco Planter of the Eighteenth Century_, pp. 62-87.

Life in the Tidewater during the Golden Age was dominated, to a
remarkable extent, by families possessing vast estates. Not everyone,
it is true, owned such princely domains as the Carters or Fitzhughs,
but men in their station were imbued with a deep sense of their
obligation to society. They sat as justices in the county courts,
served as sheriffs and as colonels of the militia in their counties,
and acted as vestrymen and church wardens in their parishes. They
accepted seriously their duty to preserve the peace and watch over the
less fortunate classes. Because of their wealth and position, their
education, resourcefulness and keen sense of public responsibility,
they were able to influence and to impress their ideals and tastes
upon the community in a measure rarely equalled by a similar

The great landed proprietors operated their estates in either of two
ways or a combination of the two. They might take full responsibility
themselves, planting tobacco and secondary crops; they could lease
tracts to others to cultivate; or they might do both. Sometimes a man
leased more of his arable lands than he reserved for his own use.
Though disturbed conditions in Europe and the burdens imposed by the
British regulatory system led to repeated attempts to develop other
staples for export, tobacco continued to be the mainstay. Aside from
money crops, however, the great landowners had to supply numerous
foodstuffs and other commodities needed on their plantations.

A proprietor customarily resided on what was generally known as the
"manor plantation."[2] This seat usually served as the nerve center of
the activities of his entire estate, with the other units subordinate
to it. Not infrequently some of the outlying properties were devoted
to producing commodities needed by the manor plantation and by such
other plantations as were engaged in raising tobacco and other
marketable staples. Overseers or stewards managed the units over which
the owner found it difficult to exercise personal supervision. These
men reported to him at regular intervals to receive instructions and
give an account of their stewardship.

  [2] In the issue of the _Virginia Gazette_ for May 24, 1751, Thomas
  Eldridge of Prince George County advertised the sale of his "Mannor
  Plantation" and three other plantations. Such references to manor
  plantations appeared frequently in the _Gazette_ and in the wills of
  the period.

Though the basis of life was agricultural, the great landowners
discharged a wide variety of other economic functions. They served as
factors for their neighbors, buying their crops, selling them
supplies, and providing them with credit facilities. Many sent vessels
regularly up and down the Chesapeake and the Virginia rivers,
purchasing the produce of others for later marketing. In like fashion
they brought manufactured goods from overseas for sale in the
plantation stores. When European conditions interfered with the import
trade, enterprising men frequently set up grist mills, textile
factories, foundries, and other manufactories on their plantations, to
supply their own and their neighbors' needs.

The great Tidewater proprietors of the Golden Age were, then, no
perfumed courtiers spending their days in idleness and diversion and
consciously seeking to avoid all "taint of trade." In a very real
sense they were capitalists, acute men of business, seriously
concerned with managing their estates, tilling their lands and
disposing of their produce, and eager to reap a profit through trading
with their neighbors. Their ledgers and their correspondence reveal
their energy, shrewdness, and enterprise. In a similar way the
constant stream of letters they wrote the factors who served them in
London, Bristol, and other ports of the mother country show their
vital interest in conditions in the world market.

The planters' preoccupation with such matters does not signify that
they lacked grace of living, nor that they were deficient in
aristocratic ideals. They were determined they should not revert to
barbarism in the wilderness. At no time did they allow themselves to
forget that they were inheritors of British civilization.[3] Taking
the English gentry as their model, they tried, insofar as colonial
conditions would allow, to follow the ways of the country gentlemen of
the homeland. On that pattern they fashioned their manners, their
homes, their diversions; and with a similar aim they sought to
acquire, and instruct their sons in, every branch of knowledge useful
to a gentleman.

  [3] Cf. Wright, Louis B., _The First Gentlemen of Virginia_, _passim_.

That it was a constant concern of these planter-businessmen to see
that their children should acquire "polite" accomplishments is clearly
revealed in their papers. In a letter in 1718 Nathaniel Burwell of
"Carter's Grove" deplored his son's inattention to his studies, not
only because an ignorance of arithmetic would hamper him in "the
management of his own affairs," but also because, lacking a broad
basis of knowledge, he would be "unfit for any gentleman's
conversation and therefore a scandalous person and a shame to his
relations, not having one single qualification to recommend him."[4]
In a like spirit William Fitzhugh of "Bedford" in Stafford County
asserted in 1687 that his children had "better be never born than

  [4] _William and Mary College Quarterly_, Vol. VII, series 1, p. 43.

  [5] Stanard, Mary Newton, _Colonial Virginia_, p. 271.

Though a parent sometimes specified that his sons be taught languages,
philosophy, dancing, fencing, and other such "polite" subjects,
practical studies were not neglected. Such subjects as mathematics,
surveying, and law prepared a youth for managing the estate he would
one day inherit and for discharging the obligations to society imposed
by his position. The goal was not professional specialization, but,
rather, an education which would develop fully every side of a
gentleman's character. George Washington expressed this ideal in
referring to plans for the education of his ward, young "Jacky"
Custis, in 1771. Admitting that "a knowledge of books is the basis
upon which other knowledge is to be built," he explained that he did
not think "becoming a mere scholar is a desirable education for a
gentleman."[6] Thus, also, Robert Beverley, father of Harry Beverley
of "Hazelwood" in Caroline County, directed in his will that his son's
guardians should continue the boy's education until he should be
taught "everything necessary for a gentleman to learn."[7]

  [6] Hornsby, Virginia Ruth, "Higher Education of Virginians," p. 10.
  Typed M.A. Thesis, Library of the College of William and Mary.

  [7] _William and Mary College Quarterly_, Vol. XX, series 1, p. 437.

Books provided a ready means of transmitting English standards of life
to the colony. The carefully selected volumes in the manor houses
clearly reveal their owners' aspiration to become "compleat
gentlemen." It was not unusual for the collection of a prosperous
planter to number as many as one or two thousand. Works providing
guidance in the mode of life they admired greatly predominated, though
works of literature were not absent. English "courtesy" and "conduct"
books were on every gentleman's shelves. Richard Allestree's _A
Gentleman's Calling_ and Henry Peacham's _The Compleat Gentleman_, and
other works which portrayed fortitude, prudence, temperance, justice,
liberality, and courtesy as cardinal virtues appear again and again in
the inventories of the period, along with the writings of Castiglione
and other Italians of an earlier day from whom English authors had
derived ideas of courtly conduct.

Most numerous were works stressing a gentleman's religious
obligations. Duty to God and Church was set forth in devotional works
of various kinds, collections of sermons, and theological treatises.
Then came books on historical subjects which offered actual examples
of men of great deeds. There were also many volumes on politics and
statecraft and military manuals, all of them useful in teaching the
larger obligations which a man of wealth owed to society. Guidance in
the practical duties of a great estate was furnished in treatises on
various phases of farming and gardening, manuals of medicine and
surgery, books on surveying and engineering, commentaries on law and
legal procedure and handbooks of architecture.[8]

  [8] Cf. Wright, _First Gentlemen_, _passim_.

Naturally, the character of the schooling provided for the growing
generation greatly concerned the Virginia gentlemen. Many, eager to
give their children direct contact with the traditional learning and
culture of the mother country, sent them for a period of years to
English schools.[9] Not infrequently, mere infants were placed under
the protection of relatives and friends in the mother country. As
early as 1683 William Byrd II, then nine years old, and his sister
Susan, about six, were being watched over in English schools by their
Horsmanden grandparents, and plans were making to send over their
little sister, Ursula, aged four. Each of the great "King" Carter's
five boys was sent overseas at an early age. In 1762 John Baylor of
Caroline County, who had received his own education at Putney Grammar
School and Caius College, Cambridge, sent his twelve-year-old son to
Putney, and about the same time put his four young daughters at a
boarding school at Croyden in Kent.[10]

  [9] An Englishman visiting Virginia at the close of the eighteenth
  century stated, with reference to persons he met who had been educated
  abroad before the Revolution, that he "found men leading secluded
  lives in the woods of Virginia perfectly _au fait_ as to the literary,
  dramatic, and personal gossip of London and Paris." Bernard, John,
  _Retrospections of America, 1797-1811_, p. 149.

  [10] Stanard, _Colonial Virginia_, p. 290.

The high value placed upon schooling in England is well illustrated in
the attitude of Robert Beverley of "Blandfield" when he prepared to
send his young son, William, abroad in 1773. Confiding the lad for a
season to a tutor in the home of his father-in-law, Landon Carter of
"Sabine Hall," he carefully explained his purpose. "I would recommend
to Mr. Menzies the Latin Lillies Grammar," he wrote Carter, "because,
as no other rudiments are used in any Schools of Eminence, when he
goes to England, he may in part have gotten over the Drudgery of
Education. All I wish to learn him in Virginia is, to read, write, &
cypher, & do as much with his Grammar, as the Time will admit
of...."[11] Planters frequently provided in their wills that their
young sons and daughters be educated abroad. It is likely that an
even larger number of small children would have been sent "home," as
the planters fondly called the mother country, had their parents not
feared the dangers of an ocean voyage and the mortal effects of the
smallpox which was raging in England during the eighteenth century.

  [11] Letter of Robert Beverley to Landon Carter, Blandfield, May 19,
  1772, in possession of Mrs. William Harrison Wellford of Sabine Hall.
  Cf. "Extracts from Diary of Landon Carter in Richmond County,
  Virginia"; _William and Mary College Quarterly_, Vol. XIII, series 1,
  pp. 160-163.

As an alternative to sending children overseas, the traditional
learning of the English schools could be brought to Virginia by
English-trained tutors and governesses. Well-to-do planters
customarily engaged such persons to instruct their children at home,
even when it was planned to send the youngsters abroad later. They
also employed dancing and music masters to visit their households at
regular intervals. A building near the mansion was generally set aside
as a schoolroom. There the master's children and perhaps those of some
neighboring planters were taught. The young men and women who came
overseas to teach the children of Virginia were honored members of the
households in which they lived. Great care was taken in selecting
them. After a number of young Scotchmen had come to the colony as
tutors during the eighteenth century, it was feared they would "teach
the children the Scotch dialect which they can never wear off."[12]
Throughout the period one finds frequent mention of the need of
suitable instructors in the letters of the planters to their factors
in the mother country. After the middle of the century, tutors were
sometimes secured from Princeton and other American colleges.[13]

  [12] _William and Mary College Quarterly_, Vol. XIX, series 1, p. 145.

  [13] Robert Andrews, a Pennsylvania youth educated at "the College of
  Phileda," served as a tutor at "Rosewell," the Page home in Gloucester
  County, for several years, and two young men from Princeton taught the
  Carter children at "Nomini Hall." Cf. letter of John Page, Jr., to
  John Norton. "Rosewell," September 18, 1772, in Mason, Frances Norton,
  _John Norton & Sons_, p. 271. See also page 160.

A goodly number of the youths sent to the English schools enrolled
later at the colleges of Oxford and Cambridge, and others who had been
educated by private tutors were also sent there. Certain families sent
generation after generation of sons to these universities. At
intervals from the time that Ralph Wormeley, the second of that name,
had matriculated at Oriel College, Oxford, in 1665, until the outbreak
of the Revolution, his kinsmen were found in English colleges. Not a
few young Virginians attended the Inns of Court.

In his domestic establishment the planter sought to reproduce as
nearly as he conveniently could the residence of the English gentry
with its gardens, lawns, and parks. Plans of English homes and
gardens, which intelligent workmen or even a layman might adapt, were
accessible in the handbooks of architecture and gardening found in
many of the planters' libraries. In some instances the striking
similarity of detail leaves little doubt that the plans for a
planter's residence derived directly from plates in these books. All
the forms common to the English country architecture of the period
were employed in the plantation residences. Sometimes English master
builders and gardeners were imported to supervise the construction of
the residences and the planting of the grounds.

The vogue for formality in English architecture and landscaping was
mirrored in the arrangement of the Virginia estates. The mansions were
generally placed according to carefully preconceived plans in a formal
setting which nonetheless managed to achieve an air of ease and
naturalness. Balance and symmetry were observed everywhere, with the
buildings, gardens, and extensive lawns forming component parts of one
composition. Walks of brick or oyster shell crossed the grounds in
geometric pattern. If a bowling green or formal garden flanked one
side of the mansion, an orangery or perhaps a park stocked with deer
flanked the other.

English box and other ornamental plants were used with fine effect.
Terraces, elaborate parterres, sunken panels, canals, and dramatic
vistas gave variety to the scene. "Falling gardens" were popular at
the residences situated on high eminences overlooking the great rivers
and marshes.[14] Not infrequently, as at "Blandfield," a ha-ha
provided a note of pleasant surprise for one walking on the lawns.[15]
Graceful garden houses, dovecots, and other miniature structures,
carefully placed, sometimes imparted a fanciful atmosphere to the
whole. Every estate had its orchard, the fruit of which surpassed the
choicest specimens of the homeland. Wildernesses or preserves of
transplanted trees might be found at some distance from the residence,
and sometimes serpentine drives and walks invited one to explore
hidden retreats.

  [14] A "falling garden" consisted of a series of very broad terraces,
  usually connected by ramps covered with turf, oyster shell or other
  surface material to prevent erosion. In some instances the successive
  levels were planted in elaborate patterns. In others the whole was
  covered with turf. The "falling garden" at "Sabine Hall" retains its
  eighteenth-century design intact.

  [15] A ha-ha is a boundary to a garden, pleasure-ground, or park of
  such a nature as not to interrupt the view from the mansion and may
  not be seen until closely approached. According to a French
  etymologist, the name is derived from _ha_, an exclamation of
  surprise, uttered by one suddenly approaching such a boundary. The
  ha-ha consists of a trench, the inner side of which is perpendicular
  and faced with a wall; the outer being sloped and turfed. The ha-ha
  permitted grazing cattle and sheep to appear on the landscape, and at
  the same time held them at a distance from the mansion. In his diary,
  George Washington refers, on several occasions, to the ha-has on the
  grounds at "Mount Vernon." Cf. Fitzpatrick, John, _The Diaries of
  George Washington_, Vol. II, _passim_.

Situated amidst such attractive surroundings, the residences appeared
to fine advantage. Their architectural arrangement contributed much to
their impressiveness. At the same time it was admirably suited to the
peculiar needs of plantation life. The mansion or "great house" was
but the central unit, about which, at carefully spaced intervals,
stood numerous smaller structures, all subsidiary to it. Spoken of
indiscriminately as "offices," these dependent buildings all served
some useful purpose or function in the domestic economy.

The mansion was usually a substantial two-story, rectangular building
of brick, though sometimes it was built of stone or wood. The rather
low-pitched roofs were generally shingled with cypress or slate. Since
many of the activities of the household were carried on in offices
under separate roofs, a central structure approximately seventy-five
feet long and forty-two feet wide was usually regarded as commodious.
The exteriors of these houses were often characterized by an elegant
simplicity achieved through perfection of line and proportion. The
severity of a facade might be relieved by a handsome wooden cornice, a
pedimented hood over the doorway, a string-course and water table of
molded brick, and window and door facings of rubbed brick. Sometimes
pilasters of finely molded brick framed the doorways.

Not infrequently the principal offices, set in advance or in the rear
of the mansion, served as foils to impart greater dignity to it.
Sometimes, as at "Blandfield" and "Mount Airy," the major offices were
connected with the central building by straight or curved lateral
passages. The great house and its dependent structures were generally
placed in such a relation as to form one or more rectangular
courts.[16] The principal offices were often large and contained a
number of rooms.

  [16] At "Mount Vernon" the mansion and its wings together composed
  three sides of an open square, the main house and its wings closing
  the side opposite the open end. At "Stratford Hall" four dependent
  structures formed a square court, inside of which the great house
  stands. Two offices are set twenty-eight feet in advance of the main
  house on the land front. On the water front two others are placed in a
  similar relation to it. At "Shirley" the great house and four
  principal dependent buildings form a long rectangular court, the
  mansion closing the side facing the river.

To one unfamiliar with plantation life, the number and diversity of
the offices about the manor house occasioned astonishment. A Huguenot
exile who visited "Rosegill," the home of Ralph Wormeley, as early as
1686, recorded that the master's residence comprised at least twenty
structures. "When I reached his place," this Frenchman wrote, "I
thought I was entering a rather large village, but later on was told
that all of it belonged to him."[17]

  [17] _A Huguenot Exile in Virginia_, ed. and tr. by Gilbert Chinard
  (New York, 1934), p. 142. In writing of Maryland early in the
  eighteenth century, Sir John Oldmixon said: "Both here [Maryland] and
  there [Virginia] the _English_ live at large at their several
  Plantations, which hinders the Increase of Towns; indeed every
  Plantation, is a little Town of itself, and can subsist itself with
  Provisions and Necessaries, every considerable Planter's Warehouse
  being like a Shop...." Oldmixon, John, _British Empire in America_
  (second edition, 1741), Vol. I, p. 339. Cf. Kimball, Fiske, _Domestic
  Architecture_, _passim_.

Offices near the great house were utilized as counting-rooms,
schoolrooms, and sleeping quarters for the sons of the family as well
as for a variety of other purposes. The kitchen, wash-house, dairy,
smoke-house, and other offices intimately connected with the processes
of housekeeping were usually set farther away in order to keep the
mansion cool in summer and free it of the noise and odors of

  [18] A historian who described the Virginia residences at the
  beginning of the eighteenth century stated that "All their Drudgeries
  of Cookery, Washing, Daries, &c. are perform'd in Offices detacht from
  the Dwelling-Houses, which by this means are kept more cool and
  Sweet." Cf. Beverley, Robert, _The History and Present State of
  Virginia_, Book IV, p. 53.

Within the manor house the lower floors were usually devoted entirely
to social purposes. Halls and chambers were generally finely panelled
in native pine or walnut, and the symmetry of the paneling, the deeply
recessed windows, and the excellent proportion of the doors and
mantels imparted dignity and beauty to the rooms. Frequently the
effect was heightened by fine carving, and occasionally the pink or
orange tones of mantels of sienna marble lent a pleasing touch of

In many of the apartments there were fine cornices, modillions, and
dentils. Delicately fluted pilasters often flanked windows and doors.
Elaborately carved cornice and mantel friezes and frets represented
the most skilled craftsmanship of the period. Sometimes, as at
"Carter's Grove," the miniature carving of the friezes was of
exquisite beauty. Motifs such as the egg and dart, the Wall of Troy,
and the Tudor rose were employed with fine effect.

In the halls ornamentation was frequently given freer scope than
elsewhere. The wide passageways which extended through the houses were
customarily broken midway by arches of fine proportions. The usual
focal point of interest in the hallways, however, was the stairs, the
sweep of which was often majestic. Carved and hidden newel posts were
common, and sometimes the pattern of the posts reappeared in elaborate
friezes below the landing. Twist-carved balusters were placed on the
steps, and running floral and foliated carving decorated the risers or
step-ends of many of the stairs.

For these homes the Virginia aristocrats imported furniture, china,
plate, and other furnishings from England and France. Their letters to
factors in the homeland were filled with descriptions of the articles
wanted, and frequently specified that items must be in the latest
London fashion. Choice pieces of walnut and mahogany, expensive
mirrors, and carpets and hangings of the best quality graced their
drawing rooms. Harpsichords, spinets, and other fine instruments stood
in many homes, and portraits of members of the family, some by the
best artists of the day, hung on their walls. In the dining rooms,
fine crystal and plate emblazoned with the family crest gleamed on
polished sideboards and tables.

Though they sometimes maintained residences at Williamsburg for the
court season, the Virginia great were rarely absentee landlords in the
sense that planters in other colonies were. Rather, they were country
gentlemen residing on their manor plantations, and, as we have seen,
seriously interested in improving their homes and domains. A family
was customarily identified by reference to its seat. "Epping Forest,"
"Marmion," "Berkeley," "Chelsea," "Elsing Green," and the other
musical names by which the homes were called, impart a romantic and
picturesque flavor to the literature of the region, and reveal the
strong hold retained over men's affections by the mother country.

Since no land in the Tidewater was cleared until it was to be
utilized for tobacco culture, and since discarded fields were allowed
to grow up in thickets, the plantation establishments were generally
located at a considerable distance from one another and separated by
heavily wooded tracts.[19]

  [19] The Tidewater plantation economy had spread into the Piedmont
  section prior to the American Revolution. A paroled British officer
  writing of his situation in Albemarle County in 1779, said: "The house
  that we reside in is situated upon an eminence, commanding a prospect
  of near thirty miles around it, and the face of the country appears an
  immense forest, interspersed with various plantations, four or five
  miles distant from each other; on these there is a dwelling-house in
  the center, with kitchens, smoke-house, and out-houses detached, and
  from the various buildings, each plantation has the appearance of a
  small village; at some little distance from the houses, are peach and
  apple orchards, &c. and scattered over the plantations are the negroes
  huts and tobacco-houses, which are large built of wood, for the cure
  of that article." Cf. Anburey, Thomas, _Travels Through the Interior
  Parts of America_, Vol. II, p. 187.

Set in a land abounding in excellent house sites, the planters' homes
generally stood near the bank of one of the great rivers or upon some
natural eminence. In the former case these houses had two fronts, a
land and a water entrance. The approach from the public highway
generally led through a wide avenue of trees, perhaps a mile or more
in length, or the house might be shielded from the public gaze by a
park of stately beeches or poplars. Since overland routes often
presented serious difficulties, the Virginians made highroads of their
rivers and creeks, and the side of the mansion facing the water
generally constituted its true front. This is evidenced by the fact
that one usually ascended the stairs from the water side. Isolated as
the homes were, the Virginians were able to enjoy the seclusion so
greatly prized by the gentry of the mother country, and they developed
to a high degree the hospitable and generous traits and the love of
outdoor sports that have usually characterized country squires.[20]

  [20] A British observer reported in 1779 that "... before the war, the
  hospitality of the country was such, that travellers always stopt at a
  plantation when they wanted to refresh themselves and their horses,
  where they always met with the most courteous treatment, and were
  supplied with every thing gratuitously; and if any neighbouring
  planters heard of any gentleman being at one of these ordinaries, they
  would send a negroe with an invitation to their own house." Cf.
  Anburey, _Travels Through the Interior Parts of America_, Vol. II, p.
  198. This same traveller described the hospitality shown the guests at
  one of the James River plantations. "I spent a few days at Colonel
  Randolph's, at Tuckahoe, at whose house the usual hospitality of the
  country prevailed," he wrote. "It is built on a rising ground, having
  a most beautiful and commanding prospect of James River; on one side
  is Tuckahoe, which being the Indian name of that creek, he named his
  plantation Tuckahoe after it; his house seems to be built solely to
  answer the purposes of hospitality, which being constructed in a
  different manner than in most other countries; I shall describe it to
  you: It is in the form of an H, and has the appearance of two houses,
  joined by a large saloon; each wing has two stories, and four large
  rooms on a floor; in one the family reside, and the other is reserved
  solely for visitors: the saloon that unites them, is of a considerable
  magnitude, and on each side are doors; the ceiling is lofty, and to
  these they principally retire in the Summer, being but little
  incommoded by the sun, and by the doors of each of the houses, and
  those of the saloon being open, there is a constant circulation of
  air; they are furnished with four sophas, two on each side, besides
  chairs, and in the center there is generally a chandelier; these
  saloons answer the two purposes of a cool retreat from the scorching
  and sultry heat of the climate, and of an occasional ball-room. The
  outhouses are detached at some distance, that the house may be open to
  the air on all sides." _Ibid._, p. 208.

The constant activity that centered about the great house is clearly
reflected in the journals, letters, and account books of the day.
Through their pages may be seen the great planter-businessmen, the
members of their families, the overseers and stewards, the free white
artisans, the Negro slaves, and the indentured servants moving about
their daily tasks. The master of the plantation in a counting room
near his mansion balances accounts, writes letters to his factors in
England, or converses with the overseers and stewards from his other
plantations who have come for instructions regarding their work. The
children of the household and their tutor pass to and from the office
used as a schoolroom. A ship from the homeland touches at the
plantation landing and its captain comes ashore to bring letters and
the latest news from the mother country, and perchance to dine at the
planter's table. Visitors from neighboring plantations or from
adjoining counties arrive in sloops or in coaches or sedans. Rooms
reserved for guests are rarely empty and almost any event serves as
the excuse for a celebration. A peripatetic dancing master arrives,
the children of the neighborhood gather, and an informal dance is held
after they have been singly instructed. Even passing strangers are
accorded hospitable entertainment and treated as welcome guests. The
planter and his family frequently ride out in a coach or chair for "an
airing" or to call upon neighbors or relatives. On Sunday, if the
weather be good, he takes his family by water to attend services at
the parish church. Not infrequently a neighbor's servant arrives
bearing venison or some other delicacy for the master's table.

Countless articles are bought or taken from the plantation stores. In
the smith's shop nails and other articles are forged for plantation
use, and the chair of a neighbor is mended or his plows pointed.
Provisions are sent to the outlying plantations and supplies needed
for the home place brought from them. In buildings near the mansion,
tobacco is cured and prized. Hogsheads are rolled to the wharf to be

Such was the nature of the world about "Nomini Hall," the manor house
of Robert Carter III in Westmoreland County, to which Philip Vickers
Fithian, a young Princeton-bred theological student, went as a tutor
to the children of the household in 1773.


Philip Fithian And The Carter Family

During his residence at "Nomini Hall" from October, 1773, to October,
1774, Philip Fithian recorded his impressions of the life about him in
a daily journal and in letters to relatives and friends. These
impressions constitute a detailed and illuminating account. The
civilization he described differed in many respects from that he had
known in New Jersey. His austere Presbyterian training caused him to
look with disfavor or misgiving upon many of the gay diversions and
other social customs of Virginia. Yet he was open-minded to an unusual
degree and not unsympathetic to the people among whom he lived. His
freshness of viewpoint led him to comment upon various features of
Virginia civilization which would doubtless have escaped the attention
of one more familiar with them. He admired many aspects of Southern
life and for the members of the Carter household Fithian developed a
genuine and lasting fondness. The account possesses both vivacity and

At "Nomini Hall" Philip Fithian found himself in an excellent
observation post. Robert Carter, its owner, was the scion of one of
the wealthiest and most influential Tidewater families. His
great-grandfather, John Carter, had emigrated to Virginia from England
in 1649. Acquiring some 13,500 acres in the Northern Neck, the fertile
region between the Rappahannock and Potomac rivers, John Carter had
established his home "Corotoman" on the Rappahannock in Lancaster
County. Becoming ere long a successful planter and businessman, Carter
served first as a Burgess and then as a member of the governor's

Robert or "King" Carter, son of the emigrant, so eclipsed his father
that he has usually been regarded as founder of the family in
Virginia. Bold, capable, and acquisitive, "King" Carter strove
ceaselessly to expand the family fortunes. By strict attention to
business and a close regard for his prerogatives as agent of the
Fairfaxes, the proprietors of the Northern Neck, he ultimately became
the richest and perhaps the most powerful man of his day in
Virginia.[21] First as a Burgess and then as a member and President of
the Council, he exerted a political influence that contributed greatly
to the management of his private affairs. Realizing earlier than most
the need future generations would have for fresh lands, he obtained
for his progeny altogether some 333,000 acres.

  [21] Cf. Wright, Louis B., _Letters of Robert Carter, 1720-1727_ (San
  Marino, 1940), p. viii.

Under the custom of primogeniture, Carter arranged that the bulk of
his lands, including "Corotoman," should go to his eldest son, John
Carter II. He, nonetheless, saw to it that his other sons, Robert,
Landon, Charles, and George should have ample estates. Robert Carter
II, however, died a few months before his father, leaving a young son,
Robert III, and a daughter, Elizabeth. A short time after "King"
Carter's death his surviving sons procured a special legislative
enactment investing the share of the estate intended for the dead son
in the young grandson. When Robert Carter III reached his majority,
therefore, he would become master of more than seventy thousand acres.

The young boy's uncles, John, Landon, and Charles Carter, acted as his
guardians. As a result of his mother's early second marriage to
Colonel John Lewis, he lived at the latter's manor plantation, "Warner
Hall" in Gloucester County. When the lad was nine, he was sent to the
College of William and Mary. Nothing further is definitely known of
how his youth was spent.

On reaching twenty-one Robert at once began preparations for a trip to
England where he remained two years. The purpose of this visit is not
known. It is probable, however, that he was following the example of
his grandfather, his father, and the other sons of "King" Carter who
had all completed their education in the mother country. Indeed the
records of the Inner Temple reveal that he was admitted to the
privileges and assumed the agreeable duties of a member of that august
legal society a few months after he arrived there.[22] Whatever his
motives, though, it is unlikely that a spirited young man, possessed
of ample means and free of parental restraint, would bury himself
entirely within musty college walls. Reports at home had it that he
spent his time in idleness and gay diversions. A portrait painted at
this time by a fashionable artist, probably in the studio of Sir
Joshua Reynolds, shows him arrayed in a fine doublet of silk and a
high lace collar, with a mask in one hand as if to indicate he was
about to hasten away to some masquerade.

  [22] Cf. Jones, E. Alfred, _American Members of the Inns of Court_, p.

Whatever his youthful follies may have been, Robert Carter possessed a
gentle and thoughtful nature. As he matured, he became increasingly a
serious man of business and of scholarly and cultivated tastes.
Returning to Virginia in 1751, he soon married and settled down to the
life of a country squire at "Nomini Hall," the manor house his father
had built in Westmoreland County.

On a visit to Maryland, Carter had met Frances Anne Tasker, the
sixteen-year-old daughter of one of the foremost citizens of that
colony. Struck by the beauty, good sense, and fortune of the young
girl, he had secured her consent to become his wife. Frances Tasker
Carter was an uncommon person. Notwithstanding the numerous children
she had already borne her husband when Philip Fithian entered her
household, she was still beautiful, elegant, and youthful looking. She
was also well-informed and frequently surprised Fithian with the
breadth of her interests. Ever cheerful and agreeable, she managed the
household with fine success and carefully trained her seventeen

Besides a handsome dowry, Frances Tasker brought her husband a family
influence that proved of great assistance in both his public and
private career. Benjamin Tasker, her father, who had wide commercial
connections, had served for thirty-two years as a member and President
of the Council of Maryland, and for a period as acting-Governor. Her
mother, Anne Bladen Tasker, was the daughter of William Bladen who had
been successfully Secretary and Attorney-General of that colony.
Thomas Bladen, her mother's brother, a former governor of Maryland,
had removed to England and become a member of Parliament for Old
Sarum, where he was now in an excellent position to promote the
interests of his American relatives.[23]

  [23] Sisters of Anne Bladen Tasker and Thomas Bladen had married
  Daniel Dulany, Samuel Ogle, and Christopher Lowndes, all men of
  important political and financial connections in their world.

Robert Carter led a busy life at "Nomini Hall." To utilize profitably
the resources of an estate of seventy thousand acres was a task that
demanded foresight and planning. He customarily cultivated as many as
a dozen large plantations at once, and it was necessary that the
operations on the several units be carefully integrated. Though
tobacco constituted the crop of first importance on his estate, entire
plantations were sometimes devoted to producing grain stuffs and
supplies needed at "Nomini Hall" and on the other plantations. From
time to time, too, Carter sought to develop other money crops which
might supplement the constantly dwindling profits from tobacco. The
preparation of new grounds to replace discarded fields constituted a
laborious task that had to be coped with at intervals. He set up and
equipped so many plantations that he resorted at one time to the signs
of the zodiac for names for them.

Apart from the lands he himself cultivated, Carter rented or leased a
large proportion of his estate to others. He developed an elaborate
system of tenancy reminiscent in its principal features of the modern
lien system and "share cropping." Lands were leased for varying
periods under specific agreements as to the uses to be made of them,
the provision of tools and other supplies by the landlord, and the
proportion of the crops to be paid as rent. Other tracts were leased
for a fixed money rental.

To Carter's interests as a planter and a landlord he added those of a
manufacturer. When conditions made it economical or necessary to
furnish his own supplies, he operated textile factories, salt works,
grain mills, and bakeries to fill his own and his neighbors' needs. In
his smiths's shops the simple farm implements of the time were forged
and repaired, and work was also done for near-by planters. Through his
wife's relations he received a one-fifth share in the Baltimore Iron
Works. As part owner of this firm he produced bar and pig iron in
large quantities on a commercial basis, and incidentally supplied raw
materials needed on his plantations. He also carried on extensive
operations as a merchant and factor. From his stores at "Nomini Hall,"
European manufactures and merchandise of every sort were dispensed. He
owned a number of vessels which regularly carried supplies to the
landings of other planters on the Virginia rivers and the Chesapeake
and took their produce off their hands. Sometimes he provided these
men with banking and credit facilities.

The scope of Carter's activities is indicated by the fact that at one
time his slaves numbered over 500. In addition, he employed numerous
white stewards, overseers, clerks, skilled craftsmen, and artisans. In
a labor force so numerous and diversified the most careful adjustments
in human relationships were necessary. In a very real sense Carter
acted as a protector, father, physician, and court of last resort for
all his people. No complaint was too insignificant to receive the
master's consideration.

As part of the obligations of his station, the master of "Nomini Hall"
served as a vestryman and a warden of his church in Cople Parish and
performed other public duties. At the age of twenty-eight he was made
a member of the governor's Council. His large estate made him eligible
and his wife's uncle, Thomas Bladen, supplied the influence in England
necessary to secure his appointment to this highest governing body in
the colony. By virtue of belonging to the Council he also served as a
colonel in the militia. As was customary, he was henceforth known as
Colonel or Councillor Carter. In the latter capacity, he went twice a
year to Williamsburg to advise the royal governor and to sit as a
member of the General Court. For a decade after 1762 he found it
pleasant and convenient to live at the Capital the greater part of the
time. He acquired a residence in the town and established his wife and
children there. With the outbreak of the disturbances which led to the
Revolution, however, he returned with his family to "Nomini Hall"
where he lived during the remainder of his active years, devoting his
time to the development of his estate and the promotion of his
commercial interests, the rearing of his family, and the quiet
enjoyment of his scholarly and cultivated tastes. Despite his many
duties, he spent much time in reading and in scientific investigation.
An accomplished musician, he practiced daily on some of the numerous
instruments at his home.

The social life of the family at "Nomini Hall" was of the most
agreeable sort. Situated on a hill overlooking the Potomac and Nomini
rivers, the mansion was admirably suited to the hospitable tradition
of the region. A large rectangular structure of brick, covered with
stucco, the great house was surrounded by more than thirty dependent
structures or offices and presented an attractive and imposing
appearance. The four principal offices were set off at a distance of
one hundred yards from the corners of the house, and within the
rectangle formed by these buildings was a long bowling green.
Extensive and well-tended gardens provided agreeable promenades for
members of the family and guests. One approached the mansion from the
public highway through a wide avenue of poplars which terminated in a
circle about the house. Viewed through this avenue from a distance,
Fithian asserted, "Nomini Hall" appeared "most romantic, at the same
time it does truly elegant."

The lower floor of the great house contained the master's library, a
dining room, used also as a sitting room, a dining hall for the
children, a ballroom thirty feet long, and a hallway with a fine
stairway of black walnut. The upper rooms were used as sleeping
quarters for members of the family and for guests. The older boys and
their tutor slept above-stairs in one of the large offices that was
also used as a schoolhouse. During the time Fithian was there Carter
arranged to convert one of the lower rooms of this office into a
concert or music room. Here he proposed to place the harpsichord,
harmonica, forte-piano, guitar, violin, and German flutes which were
in the great house, and to bring up for that purpose from his
Williamburg residence, the organ which had been built for him in
London according to his own specifications.

Seven of the nine surviving Carter children[24] and the Councillor's
nephew, Harry Willis, were placed under Fithian's care. Benjamin, the
eldest son, was a quiet, studious boy of eighteen. Robert Bladen, two
years younger, loved the out-of-doors and cared little for learning.
John Tasker, only four, was too young for instruction. Priscilla, the
eldest daughter, was an attractive girl of fifteen. Anne Tasker,
called Nancy, and Frances or Fanny, whom Fithian thought the "Flower
of the Family," were thirteen and eleven respectively. Betty Landon
was ten, and Harriot Lucy, a "bold, fearless, merry girl," was seven.
Sarah Fairfax, the baby, was only a few months old at the time Fithian

  [24] Four of the seventeen Carter children were born after Fithian had
  left the family.

Apart from the members of the family, the tutor, and the numerous
domestics, various other persons maintained a more or less permanent
connection with the household. Among these were Miss Sally Stanhope,
the housekeeper, Mr. Randolph, who served as clerk and steward for
Carter, Mr. Christian, a peripatetic dancing master who visited most
of the great manor houses of the Northern Neck, Mr. Stadley, music
master to the children, and Mrs. Oakley, who had nursed several of
them at Williamsburg.

In no section of the colony were the great planters more numerous than
in the Northern Neck; in none did they dominate society more
completely. The families on the manor plantations associated on terms
of intimacy. Gay assemblies, dances, balls, and banquets brought them
together frequently. Dancing masters held their classes in rotation at
the great plantation houses. At these homes their pupils assembled in
turn, frequently accompanied by parents and friends. After the master
had instructed the young men and women on these occasions, an informal
dance was generally held. These families customarily congregated about
the parish church before and after services to enjoy social exchanges.
Attendance at county court provided another regular opportunity for
commingling. Boat races, barbecues, "Fish-feasts," and horse races
brought friends together at intervals. Sometimes elaborate private
entertainments were given at which music, feasting, and dancing
continued for several days. Rarely a day passed but found some guest
at the Councillor's table. Members of the Carter household constantly
exchanged visits with the plantation families of their neighborhood
and with relatives and friends in adjoining counties. They dined
frequently with the Turbervilles at "Hickory Hill," the Washingtons at
"Bushfield," the Lees at "Chantilly" and "Stratford," and with the
more distant Tayloes at "Mount Airy."

With all these persons the young Princeton tutor was familiar. He
accompanied the Carters frequently when they dined at their friends'
tables, he attended banquets and balls with them, conversed with the
people of the vicinity at the parish churches, met them at races, and
observed their conduct as guests at "Nomini Hall." The sprightly
interest with which Fithian comments upon these men and women and
their way of life makes them seem as real today as then.

For more than a century the manuscript of Fithian's journal and the
letters he wrote home remained unpublished. During that time, some
years apparently after Philip's death, his brother, Enoch, assembled
the letters and papers and the various sections of the journal kept
over a period of years and copied them in several bound volumes from
the loose and various-sized sheets upon which they were written. It is
from this transcript that the journal is known today, and the
irregularities in punctuation, spelling, and capitalization in the
form in which it has been preserved are doubtless due largely to this

The journal kept at "Nomini Hall" and a group of letters written by
Fithian during his residence there were finally published in 1900 by
the Princeton University Library, into whose custody had come seven
manuscript volumes of Fithian's papers in Enoch Fithian's hand. This
publication was edited by John Rogers Williams, a member of the
Princeton Historical Association.[25] A small part of the journal and
certain letters which the editor regarded as "of too intimate and
personal or too trivial a character" were omitted, his object being
"in general to present such as have some bearing on historic places
and personages, together with representative ones showing" Fithian's
"character and circumstances."[26] The editor, moreover, was
interested in Fithian's manuscripts primarily from the standpoint of
the tutor's association with Princeton.

  [25] Some extracts from the Journal were published in the _American
  Historical Review_ of January, 1900.

  [26] Cf. Philip Fithian's _Journal_, edited by John Rogers Williams,
  p. xiv.

In the present edition the manuscripts have been treated with special
reference to the light they throw on life in the Old Dominion. The
journal kept at "Nomini Hall" and all the letters written by Fithian
from Virginia are given in their entirety. Several letters written
after his departure from "Nomini Hall," but which relate to matters
and persons in Virginia, are now printed for the first time.

The journal and letters of Philip Fithian are so revealing of his
personality that one inevitably becomes attached to the young tutor,
and the reader today may well be curious to know his subsequent
career. Having prepared himself for the Presbyterian ministry, Fithian
left the Carter household late in 1774 despite the strong ties of
friendship and gratitude which now bound him to the family. His
decision to return to New Jersey was influenced both by a sense of
duty and his growing attachment for Elizabeth Beatty, the "fair Laura"
of his journal. In December, 1774, he was licensed to preach by the
Presbytery of Philadelphia. That winter he filled vacancies in West
Jersey and the following summer served as a Presbyterian missionary in
the Valley of Virginia and Pennsylvania. He married Elizabeth Beatty
in October, 1775. Early in 1776 he enlisted as a chaplain in the
Revolutionary forces. Shortly after the battle of White Plains he died
as the result of an attack of dysentery and exposure in camp. Though
his promise to visit the family at "Nomini Hall" again was never
fulfilled, the letters he wrote to members of the Carter household
after his departure reveal the tender regard in which all were held.



Philip Vickers Fithian


                                      Nassau-Hall June 26th 1773.


I expected notwithstanding your small offence you would have let me
know before this time whether you had made any determination different
from what you designed when I left you. If you design teaching before
you get into business, there are now several considerable offers made
to young men who are willing to go to Virginia by some of the first
gentlemen in the colony; one particularly who will give as good as
60£, the best accomodations, a room to study in and the advantage of a
library, a horse kept and a servant to wait upon you.

  [27] Philip Vickers Fithian had left his home at Cohansie, New Jersey,
  in 1770, at the age of twenty-three, to enter the College of New
  Jersey at Princeton. Nassau Hall was the principal structure of the
  college, and the institution was often familiarly referred to by that
  name. Fithian was graduated there in September 1772. His parents had
  both died suddenly during the previous February. Andrew Hunter, Jr.,
  of Cohansie, who wrote this letter, was the nephew of the Reverend
  Andrew Hunter, Sr., of Greenwich, New Jersey, under whom Philip was at
  this time studying Hebrew in connection with his preparation for the

Dr Witherspoon[28] is very fond of getting a person to send him. I
make no kind of doubt but if you were to write to the doctor but he
would engage it to you, the terms are exactly as I write you as I have
informed myself that I might let you know--

  [28] Dr. John Witherspoon (1723-1794), a Scottish Presbyterian
  clergyman, served as president of the College of New Jersey at
  Princeton intermittently from 1768 until his death in 1794. A staunch
  Calvinist, Witherspoon exerted a strong influence on American
  educational, religious, and political development. Owing largely to
  the labors of his former students, a number of whom went as clergymen
  and tutors to the Southern colonies, his influence was very extensive
  in that region.

There are a number of our friends and class-mates getting into
business as fast as possible, whether they are called or not I cannot
pretend to judge, this much I would say that I think it is not any
ones duty to run too fast. No less than four Debow, Reese, McCorkle,
Allen, under trials by a presbytery, and Bryan[29] trying to get
license to plead law in some of the best courts on the continent, if
infamy were law or lies were Gospel he might get license either to
plead or preach.

  [29] John Debow, Oliver Reese, Samuel McCorkle and Moses Allen, and
  Andrew Bryan. With the exception of Andrew Bryan of Baltimore who was
  admitted to the bar, all of these young men were licensed as
  Presbyterian ministers.

We have had the pleasure of Laura's[30] company here for some weeks
past, I hope you will not envy us considering that continual pleasure
is too much for such mortals as we to bear.

  [30] Elizabeth Beatty, Fithian's "Laura," frequently visited in the
  home of her brother, Dr. John Beatty, who lived at Princeton. Fithian
  had known Elizabeth earlier in the home of her sister, the wife of the
  Reverend Enoch Green, a Presbyterian minister of Deerfield, New
  Jersey, under whom he had prepared for college. Cf. Williams, John,
  ed., _The Journals and Letters of Philip Vickers Fithian, 1767-1774_,
  p. 55, fn. 3.

I beg that you may no longer refrain from writing, as I should be very
glad to hear many things from you and other of my friends in Cohansie
which you can relate with little trouble. If you have been trying with
me who could keep from writing longest, I own fairly beat. The number
of our students are considerably increased, and our school consists of
thirty-nine--I have heard there are some disagreeable stories going
through your country I wish you would let me know something about
them. Doctr Ward spent part of yesterday with me in his return.

My love to Mr and Mrs Green.

  I am, Sir,

                         Your very friend,

                                                     ANDW HUNTER.


_July 1. [1773]_

Rose at five. Read in the greek Testament, the third Chapter of the
Acts. Breakfasted at seven. Busy the greater part of this Day in
coppying off some loose miscellanous Pieces. P. M. Read the Spectator
in my Course. Received in the Evening, by the Stage, a Letter from Mr
and: Hunter jur In which he invites me to remove, & accept a School,
of very considerable Consequence, in Virginia. He also informs me that
four of our Class-Mates, are on Trial, under a Presbytery, for
Preachers; & one has applied for Licence to plead Law in Maryland;
Poor Boys! hard they push to be in the midst of Tumult, & Labour.


                                          Deerfield July 3. 1773.


I am sorry you impute neglect of writing in me to so wrong a cause, as
an old trivial offense, I confess that I am to blame, and am willing
to stand reproved by you, for having been so long silent. If I should
offer any thing in excuse it would be great hurry arising from the
duty of my station, on which account I have wrote only two or three
letters since you left us. The school in town, which I had in view, as
I make no doubt you know, is now occupied by Mr _Lynn_. And the terms
of the school at _Blandensburg_ are I think too low, to divert me from
the course of my business. I would not however forego a good offer in
a school abroad, for some short time. What you write concerning the
offer of a Gentleman in Virginia, is, I think of considerable
consequence, provided the conditions of teaching are not over
burdensome; I should speedily agree to go and apply for the place,
were I made satisfied as to this.

I shall however, beg the assistance of your friendship, to enquire in
what county the school is; what number and degrees of scholars there
are; and if you think the place suitable, and if the Docter shall
think proper to appoint me to it, I am not unwilling to remove and
accept it. Please to mention this to the Docter; and if he has not
engaged a teacher, and is pleased to accept me, I hope you will
acquaint me as speedily as may be, with what you can learn as to the
time of beginning, the custom of the school, &c. You mentioned four in
your last, who have applied to Presbytery, and are on tryal, I can
tell you another, Mr Heith; he applied to the Philadelphia Presbytery;
but came to town, I understood so late, that before he made
application the Presbytery was dissolved, some of the Members however,
being still in town, at his request, gave him sundry pieces of
exercise, which it is expected the Presbytery will acknowledge, so
that he is the fifth out of our class who is designing soon to appear
in public!

                       I am Sir yours, &c.

                                               PHILIP. V. FITHIAN


_Fryday july 30._

Rose pretty early. Breakfasted with Mrs _Buck_. Wrote a Note, after
Breakfast to Holinshead. Soon after which, I set out for Home, & by
the favour of a young man who lodges at Mr Bucks I rode to the Ferry,
& was home by eleven.

Received several Letters by the Stage to Day; One especially from Mr
Hunter, in which I am pressed to accept the proposal by the Gentleman
in Virginia. The Offer is very proffitable; Colonel _Carter_ has four
Sons. To a private Tutor for which he proposes to give sixty-five
Pounds pr Year; find him all Accomodations; Allow him a Room for his
own Study; And the Use of an eligant Library of Books; A Horse to
ride; & a Servant to Wait. I am inclined to go, but dont meet with
much Encouragement from those who have the Direction of my Studies.

We had Company in the Afternoon; & expected Miss _Grimes_, & Miss
Ewing, til Evening, but they never came.

_Saturday july 31._

Rose early. After Breakfast rode to Deerfield, & consulted with Mr
Green[31] but he gives only his usual Indifference; Dined at Mr
_Nathan Leeks_, the Day excessive hot; Drank Tea at Mrs _Pecks_.[32] &
returned in the Evening to Greenwich.

  [31] The Reverend Enoch Green.

  [32] Mrs. Peck was the mother of Fithian's friend, John Peck of
  Deerfield. The two boys had studied together under the Reverend Enoch
  Green, and had later been classmates at Princeton. John Peck succeeded
  Fithian as tutor of the Carter children at Nomini Hall in 1774, and
  later married Anne Tasker or "Nancy" Carter, and settled in Richmond
  County, Virginia.

_Sunday. August 1:_

Rose pretty early. Attended the Funeral of Mr _Hugh Stethern_. who
died yesterday morning. Many are now ill of what is called the _Fall

Mr _Hunter_[33] preached both Parts of the Day.

  [33] The Reverend Andrew Hunter.

_Monday August 2._

Concluded, this Day, with the Concurrence of Mr _Hunter_, to set of
for Princeton, & know of Dr Witherspoon something more particular
concerning the Proposal for my going to _Virginia_. Busy all the
Afternoon in preparing to go.--Evening very hot. Went on foot to the
Stage.--Drank a Bowl of Punch with Mr _Richard_ Howel, & to bed by

_Monday August 9_

Waited on Dr Witherspoon, about nine o Clock, to hear his Proposal for
my going to _Virginia_--He read me a Letter which he receivd from Col:
Carter, & proposed the following Terms--To teach his Children, five
Daughters, & three Sons, who are from five to seventeen years Old--The
young Ladies are to be taught the English Language. And the Boys are
to study the English Language carefully; & to be instructed in the
Latin, & Greek--And he proposes to give thirty five Pounds Sterling,
which is about Sixty Pounds currency; Provide all Accommodations;
Allow him the undisturbed Use of a Room; And the Use of his own
Library; find Provender for a Horse; & a Servant to Wait--

[Illustration: Man in nightcap?]

--By the Advice of the Dr & his Recommendation of the Gentleman, & the
Place, I accepted the Offer, & agreed to go in the Fall into

I took this morning, from Dr Wiggins, a Balsam that has removed the
Pain wholly from my Breast; he called it the Balsam of _Cappewee_.
Probably I spell it Wrong.

_Teusday August 17._

Rose at seven--Very much fatigued with yesterdays Ride--Found the
Students well; & the Seniors in particular In high Spirits on their
Expectation of speedy Liberty--I begin to grow sick of my Virginia
Voyage; But sick or sorry I must away--I waited on the Dr, But he has
yet received no Intelligence.

After Evening-Prayrs, by particular Requests, I attended in the
respectful Whigg-Society[34]--The Members are Orderly--Their
Exercises are well chosen--And generally well-conducted; & as to
speaking, & Composition well-performed--

  [34] The American Whig Society and the Cliosophic Society were rival
  literary organizations at the College of New Jersey at Princeton.

They conferrd Degrees formally on Six who are to be graduated in the
College the ensuing Commencement. The Moderator for the Time being
confers the Degree; The Formula is short & eligant, & pronounced in
latin--They give also Diploma's, in Latin likewise, which are plain &

    Expence of this Day.

    For the Hire of our Carriage 10s.
    For a Bowl of Punch 1s/6d
    For a Glass of Bitters 4d Sum 11s 10d.


                                   Prince-ton. August 17th: 1773.


If I could only tell you the Incidents of Yesterday, you would laugh
as loud & as cordially as ever--Smith did all the Oddities of Miss

I was, & for my Life, could not avoid, being dumpish & melancholy, in
the midst of Humour & Pleasantry--Smith[35] was in great Distress on
Account of his approaching Examination; He is in the Senior-Class, &
that Class is to be examined for their Degree tomorrow, so that he too
was sour all Day.--Directly opposite to both was your Brother; he was
noisy, & troublesome; We dined at Mr Irwin's. Your Brother kindly rode
with us to the Ferry, where we parted; he for Mr McConkey's; We for
Princeton. I am to day happy as Amusements & good-Company, in this
lovely Habitation of the Muses, can render me.

  [35] William R. Smith, who was one of Fithian's classmates, was
  afterwards ordained as a Presbyterian minister. Cf. Williams, ed.,
  _Fithian_, p. 34, fn. 2.

There is yet, among my Acquaintances, a young Lady; & She is also, I
firmly believe, one of your most agreeable Intimates, whose Friendship
I think so valuable, & whose Manner every Way, is so peculiarly
engaging, that if you should soon see her, whom you have sometimes
heard me call Laura, give my Duty, my Love to her, & acquaint her with
what I have often told you of her, that She is, in my undisguised
Oppinion, "A Pattern for Female Excellence."

Tell her also, that a singular, & very important Occurrence, which
has lately presented itself to me, seems to make it necessary, if it
be any how agreeable to her, She should in some Way, chosen by
Herself, signify to you that I may thereby know, whether She favours
or dislikes what I have told her.

I assure you, Madam, so strong is the Esteem I have for that dear
Girl, which certainly I shall ever retain, that neither, Place, nor
Time, nor any Alteration in my Condition of Life, will blot it out.

This, however, I intrust only to you, & put so great Confidence in the
many Expressions of your Friendship for me, that I hope you will use
your Influence to persuade her that what I write is Truth.

I expect to leave Deerfield[36] & go Home next Week; But I am not
determined yet upon going to Virginia. Dr Witherspoon desires &
advises me to go--My Directors here seem backward, & rather
unwilling.--I myself Am yet in doubt--But, on the Whole, it is
probable I shall go down in October. But whether I do the one or the
other I am always


                                               PHILIP. V FITHIAN.

  [36] Fithian was studying theology in Deerfield under the supervision
  of the Reverend Enoch Green, at the same time he was being taught
  Hebrew by Andrew Hunter, Sr., in nearby Greenwich.


_Monday August 30._

Rose by half after six--Wrote a Letter to Dr Witherspoon concerning my
going to Virginia--I hear that many of my Friends in this Place are
unwilling I should go--I am indeed in a Dilimma--But I have
agreed--Well, I must away--And I hope in the Kindness of him who was
my Fathers God, & has been the Guide of my Youth, that he will save me
from being corrupted, or carried away with the Vices which prevail in
that Country--Wrote a Letter to And: Hunter--In the Evening, rode with
my Letters, to the Stage--Saw there by Chance, the famous Miss _Betsy
Elmore_: famous for _Wit_, Extensive Knowledge, but especially for
_Volubility of Tongue_--


                                      Greenwich august 30th 1773.

  _Revd Sir._

I am sorry that I may inform you of the dissattisfaction which my
friends in general since my return home seem to discover, with my
intention of going this fall to _Virginia_. However willing I am
myself to accept the proposal and go, it will not be easy to break
through the entreaties of those who are my neares[t] relations, and
who have all along, with the warmest friendship interested themselves
to procure my welfare. I do not intend by any means, abruptly to
decline the fulfilling my agreement, but only desire to know, if there
are not some to be found among the late Seniors who would willingly
discharge me by accepting the offer themselves. If not I have only
further to beg, that you would be pleased, Revd Sir, to favour me with
the proposal of the gentleman; and so soon as there is a return from
him, I shall be glad to know the time when I must leave home;

                           I am Revd Sir,
                               with great respect
                                       your humble Servt
                                                PHILIP V. FITHIAN

P. S. Letters come safe sent by the princeton stage, and directed to
me at Greenwich.


                                      Princeton. August 31. 1773.


As an old Sinner, who has been long accustomed to Mishief, cannot bear
to think of quitting his much-loved Practice; so I, from Time to Time,
with few Returns, am intruding my Epistles upon you.

I have just been reading Yorrick's celebrated Letters to Eliza: They
are familiar--They are plain--They are beautiful. I love Eliza, from
the admirable Description he has given of her: But possibly he has
been wholly romantic; & only painted the Woman he could love; or, if
has given his own candid Sentiments, & described that Woman in Truth;
There is in America an Eliza I would venture, from Yorricks own
Picture, to set against it; & let Yorrick himself be Judge, should I
venture never so largely, I am sure I should succeed--

I was, yesterday, at Deerfield, & heard News enough--I was told that a
civil, good looking Gentleman; who had been lately from N--n, told
them he saw me there with you--That I was wild, & noisy--He thinks I
shall make a damn'd droll Figure in a Pulpit, with Powdered-Hair; a
long Cue; & deep Ruffles!--I fancy myself it would appear odd!--I was
told there also every Circumstance of our Ride from Princeton to N--n.
Of my being with your Brother in Philadelphia as I went up, &
returned--Of almost the whole of my Company & Conduct while in Town.

It is something curious, tho' by no Means troublesome, that every part
of my Behaviour, is in whatever Place I go, so circumstantially
inspected.--I shall suppress all I heard of you, only that you are
soon to be married, & I should not have mentioned this, but that I
might let you know it was told in Triumph to dash me!--Yet if it had
wounded my Soul I would have sustained & concealed the Pain, to
outbrave such Insolence! I cannot help, however, when I am alone in my
Chamber, reflecting on the Danger of the Impropriety I may possibly be
guilty of in thus continuing my Intimacy with you.

But I turn it all off with a Smile, &, if the Report be true, with a
Wish, in the Language of the Poet Walter to a Lady of his Acquaintance
"That you may possess all your Wishes, as to earthly Happiness &
Comfort, in the Society of him whom you have preferr'd to the rest of
Men; & that you may feel as much for him, of that Anxiety which arises
from Esteem, as others have felt for you"--I am going, next Month to
Virginia, unless the Remonstrances of my Relations prevail with me to
decline it.

But on I go little thinking how much I may incur your Censure by
writing so freely, & so long--O Laura, I wish most ardently, that I
could with Propriety, from the present Moment, spend all my hours near
your Person.--They would then, with their purple Wings, fly along
through the Sorrows, & Tumults of Life, wholly unnoticed.

                         Laura, yours

                                              PHILIP. V. FITHIAN.


                                       Nassau Hall Septr 6th 1773


I am very sorry that I cannot answer your letter so much to your
satisfaction as I could desire. Doctor Witherspoon is gone to
New-England to the convention and is not expected home 'till the
latter end of this week--he received no account from Virginia before
he went from home. You may trust that I will let you know when ever I
can hear any thing related to your prospect of going to the southward.

Mr Imlay[37] is gone from College and is not expected back 'till near
commencement, however I have talked with some of his acquaintances,
and they say he expects to go.

  [37] William Eugene Imlay was graduated at Princeton in 1773. Cf.
  Williams, ed., _Fithian_, p. 41.

I would have the spelling of your name corrected, but the catalogue is
sent off, and I suppose by this time is in the press. I must thank you
for the good news you give me concerning the young lady's health.

I was very uneasy about the account we heard before you left

We go on pretty well in College, but I hope we shall have two or three
of the _possessed swine_ turned off when the Doctor comes home.

Do write me every week and give what news you can.

                             I am, Sir,
                                 Your friend.
                                                     ANDW HUNTER.


                                             _Wednesday Sept: 8._

Received a Letter from Mr Hunter--No News from Princeton--Nor
Virginia--Evening Mr Paterson came home with Uncle.[38]

  [38] Probably Samuel Fithian, the brother of Philip's father. Philip
  refers to him as "Uncle Fithian" on other occasions.

       *       *       *       *       *


                                     Greenwich. Sept: 10th: 1773.


I hope the World is using you very well, & that you enjoy yourself in
Contentment; & the Society of your Friends with Pleasure. The Reason
of my saying this, is, because many People here are often enquiring
about you; Where you live? How you do? When you will return? The Cause
of your Absence?--And forty other things that none knows, or ought to
speak of, but yourself.

You inform me that you propose to be at the approaching Commencement:
It will not be in my Power, with any Convenience, to go--I can,
however, give you a Caution; Let not Pity so much affect you, nor Fear
so much alarm you, as again, (you remember last Fall) to excite Tears
in your Eyes, or one sorrowful Ake in your Breast, if any of Nassau's
bold Sons shall attempt once more, to support their Right by
suppressing Impertinence & Violence.

There are many going from Philada &, I am told, some Ladies of Note &
Eminence--There are many expected from the Southern Colonies--And,
because of the Connexions, many from York, & the New-England
Goverments. The Assembly, no Doubt, will be large, & splendid--And I
hope the Exercises may be worthy their Attention & Approbation.
Nothing hinders my being there but only my Purpose of going soon to
the Southward.

I may not omitt telling you that--Smith as we were returning Home,
pitied you from his Heart; An agreeable, & sensible young Lady,
separated from genteel Society, & prisoned in a Room in the Woods, in
the Midst of an unpleasant Country, like a penitent Virgin conscious
of her Sins, voluntarily retiring to a lonely Monastary!--But he
forgot, Laura, that infelt Peace, makes us always happy, even tho' our
Circumstances be apparently distressful.

                         I am, Eliza,
                           yours              PHILIP. V. FITHIAN.


_Wednesday. Sept: 15._

Rose at seven; slept but little for I was affraid--Breakfasted on
Oysters, at the Ferry-Mans, with John Holmes, Esq:--Had an Hours
Conversation with him, on Lotteries--Whether they are just &
lawful--He thinks not--At ten we came up to his Brother Benjamin
Holmes's Esq:--They mentioned to me an Intention they have to erect, &
establish a School, among them, that their Children may be taught,
Latin, Greek, & the Practical Branches in Mathematicks--They desired
to know if it would be convenient, & agreeable for me to undertake
with them, to prosecute their Plan. But I must, with Doubt, away to
_Virginia_--It would be a laudable undertaking if such a School could
be founded in this Part of our Province; & I think ought to be duely

I left Mr Holmes's about twelve, & came to Mr Hunters about four,
seventeen Miles--Evening walked Home. Expence 2s/0.

_Sunday. Sept: 19._

Rose half after six--Read some in Pictete--Walked to Sermon by ten;
Smith Rode in order to go home with Mr Hunter after Sermon--Dr Ward
seems very low, confined commonly to his Bed; the Disorder it is to be
feared is a Consumption, & increases in malignity almost daily--How
much will Cohansie feel his Death if by this Illness he is soon taken
of, or by the Violence of it wholly disabled to practice among us, who
has been so long successful in his Work! Received a Letter late last
Night from Mr Hunter at College, and He informs me that the Dr insists
on my Going to Virginia--

       *       *       *       *       *


                                       Philadelphia Octr 3d 1773.


Fe-O-whiraw, whiraw, hi, fal, lal fal, lal de lal dal a fine
song--commencement is over whiraw I say again whiraw, whiraw.

And what is more never was there such a commencement at princeton
before and most likely never will be again. The galeries were cracking
every now and then all day--every mouse hole in the church was cram'd
full--The stage covered with Gentlemen and ladies amongst whom was the
Governor and his lady; and that he might not appear singular Lee[39]
was stiff with lace, gold-lace--

  [39] Henry Lee (1729-1787) of "Leesylvania," in Prince William County,
  Virginia (known later as "Light Horse Harry" Lee) was a student at
  Princeton at this time. He was a brother of "Squire" Richard Lee of
  "Lee Hall" in Westmoreland County. Henry Lee later became the father
  of Robert E. Lee.

A band of music from Philadelphia assisted to make all agreeable and
to crown the whole the eloquence of Demosthenes was heared in almost
every mans mouth, so that the person who spoke last was always the
hero of the tale--O murder! what shall I do I want to say a great deal
to you but cannot for the girls who are almost distracting my heart--O
murder! murder, murder I say what will become of me, murder, murder--I
shall go distracted--I saw Dr Beaty[40] and Betsy--I gave your love to
them--and indeed to tell you the truth I could not for my life help
leaving my own heart, and love, and all with Besy--she is realy a
sweet soul. I wish ten millions and she were mine, I should be a happy
creature, happy indeed to the last degree--. I got cleverly up from
cohansie early in the evening--My love ten thousand times and ten
thousand kisses to all the girls of my acquaintance.

  [40] Dr. John Beatty had been graduated at the College of New Jersey
  in 1769. Cf. Williams, ed., _Fithian_, p. 90, fn. 1.

I cannot quit but must

                                                  WILLM R. SMITH.


_Wednesday. Octob. 6._

Walked with _Paterson_, after Breakfast to Mr _Hunters_, where we met
with Mr _Smith_, & Mr _Irwin_ two young Clergimen, & Mr Hunter Junr.
They came down yesterday, & inform that the Commencement was the most
splendid, & honoured with the greatest Number of Strangers of any one,
perhaps, since it was founded, May it still increase, & long
flourish!--Immediately after Dinner _Smith_ & _Irwin_ set off for
_Cape-May_--Andrew brings me Word that I must by the twentieth of this
Month meet Mr _Imlay_ in New-Castle, who is going down into Virginia.
And I must at last, away--The thought is indeed hard!

_Thursday Octob: 7._

Slept but little last Night; my Mind seems troubled and involuntarily
disturbs me! Rose early--After Breakfast rode to Deerfield. Settled
all my Affairs, & took a formal, final Leave of my Friends, &
Relations there! Rode home in the Evening. By the State I received a
Letter from Mr _McCalla_,[41] with a Suit of _Cloths_. Cost £6/16/6.

Expence in the Evening for a Bowl of _Punch_ 1/6--

  [41] John McCalla, Jr., was a friend of Fithian who lived in

_Fryday Octob: 8._

To Day is the Fast before our Sacrament--O that the mighty God would
teach me true Humiliation for my many Sin's, & give me Grace that
shall enable me to hate & forsake them!--Grace to keep me right in the
Path of Life, & to guide me to his heavenly Kingdom.--Mr Hunter
preached two useful Sermons, describing worthy, & unworthy

_Saturday October 9._

Rode to the _Bridge_, & bought a Saddle, Bridle, Spurrs, &c. for my
intended Journey--Returned before Evening, & of Saml Dennis bought a
Pr of Sadle-Bags.--

[Illustration: Lone rider on horse]

_Monday Octob: 11._

By Six up--Busy in Preparing for my Journey--Agreed with Uncle for his
Horse; I am to give him 25£.--The Money to be paid in May next.

_Teusday October 12._

Rose early; very busy--Had my Boots altered & mended--Was measured for
a Surtout-Coat--Drew up a Form to settle my Affairs before I leave
Home--Afternoon Mrs Peck, Mrs Hoshel, Johnny Peck, Stephen Ranney,
Miss Abby Peck call to see me & take a final Adieu for the
present--The Thought of Leaving Home haunts me at Times!

_Wednesday Octob: 13._

Dismissed Study, & begin to take Leave of Relations & Friends!--

Dined at Mrs Brewsters, and at two went to Mr Danl Mashells; & from
thence to Mr John Gibbon's, At all which Places I gave them my last

_Thursday Octob: 14._

Rose early--Busy in making Preparations--Had my Horse shod, Did sundry
Pieces of Writing--This Eveng Mr _Irwin_, & Smith returned from

_Friday Octob: 15._

Rose early--Did sundry Pieces of Writing--At twelve Mr Irwin gave us a
Sermon, on Felix's trembling before Paul preaching--He preached
without Notes; His Sermon was easy, well-digested, plain, yet
pathetic, short, and in general much admired--

Mr Smith & Mr Hunter junr dined with me--In the Evening of this Day I
had a severe Fit of the Fever & Ague--Violent Pains in my Head, &

_Saturday. Octob: 16._

Rose at seven; feel bewildered, & unesy--Finished some necessary
Writings, & begin before noon to grow better.

_Sunday Octob: 17._

Rose early--Not well--Attended Sermon; Mr Smith preached--Before the
last Sermon was done I was obliged to come Home with my second fit of
the Fever & Ague. It kept on me violently while about seven in the
Evening; then went off in a gentle Sweat!--

_Monday Octob: 18._

My Fit is well gone off, & I feel bravely--Finished & executed some
Writings to Joel Fithian[42] for the Securing the Several Porttions to
the Children--Took my Leave of Mr _Wallings_, & Mr Ewings Families. Mr
Paterson in to see me in the Evening--In the Night we had a fine
Shower--I have through this Day taken the Peruvian Bark, to try if by
any Means I can break my Fits.

  [42] Joel Fithian was the cousin of Philip Fithian, who married
  Elizabeth Beatty Fithian after the latter's death. Cf. Williams, ed.,
  _Fithian_, p. xv.

_Teusday Octob: 19_

Early went to Mr Hunters; took my Leave & left them by eleven--Rode &
took Leave of all my Relations--How hard is it at last? My Heart
misgives, is reluctant, in spite of me; But I must away!

Protect me, merciful Heaven, & keep me under the Wing of thy
over-ruling Providence--Make me know myself, & my constant, &
necessary Dependance on thee!

The Continuation of my Journal, &c.

_Wednesday October 20th 1773._

Left Greenwich by six in the Morning. Rode to Michael Hoshels 8 Miles.
Thence Mr Hoshel, & John Peck along, rode to Quintons-Bridge 8 Miles.
Expence there is 1s/: Rode thence to Penn's-Neck Ferry by two oClock
10 Miles. Expence at Toll-Bridge /2. Ferriage over Delaware 4s/6d.
Oats & Cordial in New-Castle 1s/2d. Rode thence to Mr Achans Tavern 12
Miles. Whole Distance 38 Miles. Whole Expence 6/10.

_Octob: 21._

Expence at Mr Achans 3s/4d. Rode thence to North-East 12 Miles.
Breakfast 1s/6d. Thence to Sesquehannah 10 Miles. Ferriage 1s/: Oats
/9d. At Bush-Town by 4 o Clock 12 Miles. Whole Distance 34 Miles.
Whole Expence 6s/7d.

_Fryday 22d_

Expence at Bush-Town _4/2_. Rode thence to a small, mean Tavern to
Breakfast, 13 Miles--Expence _1/6_. Thence to Baltimore by one O-Clock
13 Miles. Whole distance 26 Miles--Whole Expence _5/8_.

_Saturday 23d_

Expence at Baltimore _15/3_. Rode and forded Petapsko[43] to a small
Tavern 15 Miles. Expence _1/11_. Rode thence to Blandensburg 23 Miles.
Whole distance 38 Miles. Whole Expence _17/2_.

  [43] Patapsco River.

_Sunday 24._

Expence at Blandensburg _5/7_.[44] Rode thence to Georgetown[45] 8
_Miles_. Expence _1/6_. Ferriage _/6_.--From thence we rode by
_Alexandria_,[46] 9 Miles--Thence to Colchester[47] 18 Miles--
Dined--Expence _3/9_. Ferriage _/6_. Rode thence to Dumfries 10
Miles.[48] Whole distance 45 Miles. Whole Expence _11/4_.

  [44] Bladensburg, Maryland.

  [45] Georgetown, then a small town in Maryland, was later incorporated
  in the District of Columbia.

  [46] Alexandria, Virginia.

  [47] Colchester was a thriving shipping center on the Occoquan River,
  now called Occoquan Creek, in Fairfax County, Virginia, near where
  this creek empties into the Potomac. The town had been incorporated by
  an act of the Assembly in 1753 to promote "trade and navigation."

  [48] Dumfries, a town on Quantico Creek, had been settled by a group
  of Scotch merchants, who traded in the colony. Quantico Creek empties
  into the Potomac. Dumfries had been incorporated by Act of Assembly in
  1749. The town had prospered owing to its advantageous position as a
  center of trade in the western section of the Northern Neck.

_Monday 25._

Expence at Dumfries _4/5_. Rode thence to Aquia 10 Miles.[49] Expence
_2/4_--Rode thence to Stafford-Court-House 12 Miles.[50] Whole
Distance 22 Miles. Whole Expence _6/6_.

  [49] Aquia had originated as a Catholic settlement on Aquia Creek
  about the middle of the eighteenth century. A short distance from the
  town were located the celebrated Aquia stone quarries which had been
  opened as early as 1683.

  [50] Stafford Court House, the seat of government of Stafford County.

_Teusday 26._

Expence at Stafford _5/._ Stopped at Colonel Thomas Lees,[51] only a
few Rods from Stafford Tavern. Continued there all day, and the
following Night. Expence to Day _5/_.

  [51] Thomas Ludwell Lee (1730-1778) of "Bellevue" in Stafford County
  was the fourth son of Thomas Lee of "Stratford" in Westmoreland
  County, who had served as president of the Council of Virginia.

_Wednesday 27._

Expence to boy _1/_. Rode from Mr Lees to a small poor Ordinary 13
Miles--Expence _/8_ for Oats--Rode thence, without feeding to Captain
Cheltons.[52] on the Potowmack 32 Miles--Whole Distance 45 Miles.
Whole Expence _1/9_.

  [52] The Chilton family owned plantations in Westmoreland and Fauquier
  Counties. Cf. _William and Mary College Quarterly_, second series,
  Vol. 10 (January 1930), pp. 56-63.

_Thursday 28._

Rode after Breakfast to the Honorable Rob: Carters the End of my
Journey; 12 Miles, by two o-Clock in the Afternoon. Both Myself, and
my Horse seem neither tired nor Dispirited--Occasional Expences on the
Road. In Baltimore for some _Buff-Ball, 1/6_. In Blandensburg for
having straps put to my Saddle-Bags _3/_. In Colchester for Shaving
and Dressing _1/3_. The whole _5/9_. So that my whole Distance appears
to be _260 Miles_, perform'd in seven Days. And my whole Expence
appears to be 3£ 6s 6d.

_Fryday 29._

Settled myself in the Room appointed me--and adjusted my Affairs after
my Ride.

_Saturday 30._

Rode with Mr Carters eldest Son[53] to a Store, about seven
Miles--Bought half a Box of Wafers for 1/--And a quire of paper for
_1/6_. Dined at three--And rode into Richmond Parish 15 Miles to Mr
Fantleroys[54]--Was introduced to Mr Fantleroy--two of his Sons--Mr
Christian[55] a dancing a dancing-Master--

  [53] Benjamin Tasker Carter.

  [54] The Fauntleroy family owned extensive holdings and occupied a
  high social position in Richmond County and other sections of the
  Tidewater. "Mars Hill" and "Crandall" were two seats of the family on
  the Rappahannock River in Richmond County, and in the vicinity of the
  modern towns of Warsaw and Tappahannock. A third manor plantation of
  the Fauntleroys' was "The Cliffs," also on the Rappahannock, some
  miles north of the other two. The name of the family was pronounced
  variously as "Fantleroy," "Fantilroy" and "Fauntleroy." Aphia, Samuel
  and Henry or "Harry" Fauntleroy were the daughter and sons of Moore
  Fauntleroy (1716-1791) of "The Cliffs." Information supplied by Miss
  Juliet Fauntleroy of Altavista, Virginia.

  [55] Francis Christian held his dancing classes in rotation in a
  number of the manor houses of the Northern Neck at this period. After
  the pupils had been instructed an informal dance was usually enjoyed
  on such occasions.

_Sunday 31._

Rode to Church six Miles[56]--Heard Mr Gibbern[57] preach on Felixes
trembling at Pauls Sermon.

  [56] Nomini Church, one of the two Anglican houses of worship in Cople
  Parish, stood on the bank of the Nomini River some five miles from
  Carter's home.

  [57] Isaac William Giberne, an English clergyman, thought to have been
  a nephew of the Bishop of Durham, was licensed to preach in Virginia
  in 1758. The following year he had arrived in the colony and was
  serving as the minister in Hanover Parish in King George County.
  Possessing a high tempered and somewhat contentious nature, Giberne
  was involved in numerous sharp controversies. An exceptionally
  sociable and convivial man, he spent much of his time in visiting and
  gambling and tippling. Admitted by his enemies at that time to be the
  most popular and admired preacher in the colony, he had been invited
  shortly after his arrival in Virginia to preach a sermon before the
  Burgesses. This sermon was later printed at their request. In 1760
  Giberne married a wealthy widow, Mary Fauntleroy Beale of Richmond
  County, a daughter of Moore Fauntleroy of "Crandall." She had
  previously been the wife of Charles Beale. Removing to her plantation,
  "Belle Ville," he was two years later chosen as minister of Lunenburg
  Parish, and served in that capacity until 1795. He is mentioned in
  numerous diaries and letters of the period. Cf. Goodwin, Edward Lewis,
  _The Colonial Church in Virginia_, pp. 271-272; Jonathan Boucher,
  _Reminiscences of an American Loyalist_, _passim_; letter of Miss
  Juliet Fauntleroy of November 21, 1941 in Department of Research and
  Record, Colonial Williamsburg, Inc.

[Illustration: Preacher expounding]

_Monday Novemr 1st_

We began School--The School consists of eight--Two of Mr Carters
Sons--One Nephew--And five Daughters--The endest Son[58] is reading
Salust; Gramatical Exercises, and latin Grammer--The second Son[59] is
reading english Grammar Reading English: Writing, and Cyphering in
Subtraction--The Nephew[60] is Reading and Writing as above; and
Cyphering in Reduction--The eldest daughter[61] is Reading the
Spectator; Writing; & beginning to Cypher--The second[62] is reading
next out of the Spelling-Book, and begining to write--The next[63] is
reading in the Spelling-Book--The fourth[64] is Spelling in the
beginning of the Spelling-Book--And the last[65] is beginning her

  [58] Benjamin Tasker.

  [59] Robert Bladen or "Bob."

  [60] Henry or "Harry" Willis.

  [61] Priscilla.

  [62] Ann Tasker or "Nancy."

  [63] Frances or "Fanny."

  [64] Betty Landon.

  [65] Harriot Lucy.

_Teusday 2._

Busy in School--begun to read Pictete[66]--

  [66] Benedict Pictete had first published his _Teologia Christiana_ in


                                      Westmoreland. Novr 2d 1773.


According as I appointed I take this early oppertunity of acquainting
you that I am arrived safe; and I am to assure you that I find the
place fully equal to my highest expectations--I am situated in the
_Northern-Neck_, in a most delightful Country; in a civil, polite
neighbourhood; and in a family remarkable for regularity, and
oeconomy, tho' confessedly of the highest quality and greatest worth
of any in _Virginia_. I teach only Mr Carters children, and only one
of them is to learn Languages, and he is reading Salust and the Greek
grammer, is seventeen years old, and seems to be a Boy of Genius--the
other two learn writing and Arithmetic--But he has four Daughters,
young Misses that are at times to be taught writing and English--I
have the terms as I expected, and find the place wholly agreeable--and
am strongly solicited to stay many years--But money nor conveniency
shall detain me long from my most important connections at home--You
may expect me in may at the _Synod_. Please to have my compliments to
Mrs Green, to Miss Betsy if at Deerfield, and to my acquaintances that
shall enquire and accept to yourself the

Respect of your humble Servt

                                                 PHILIP V FITHIAN


_Wednesday 3._

Busy in School--

_Thursday 4._

Busy in School--To day the two eldest Daughters, and second Son
attended the Dancing School.[67]

  [67] Priscilla, "Nancy," and "Bob." This school was conducted in
  rotation at a number of manor plantations of the region by Francis
  Christian, a dancing master.

_Fryday 5._

Busy in School--

_Saturday 6._

Catechised in School til twelve--the Children. And dismiss'd them.
Afternoon rode with Ben Carter to the Bank of Potowmack[68]--8
Miles--Returned in the evening--Expence Ferriage _1/_.

  [68] The banks of the Potomac River could be seen in the distance from
  the upper floor of "Nomini Hall."

_Sunday 7._

Rode to Ucomico Church[69]--8 Miles--Heard Parson Smith.[70] He shewed
to us the uncertainty of Riches, and their Insufficiency to make us
happy--Dined at Captain Walkers;[71] With Parson Smith, his Wife; her
Sister, a young Lady; &c--Returned in the Evening.

  [69] Yeocomico Church, one of the two Anglican churches in Cople
  Parish in Westmoreland County. Built in 1706, this structure still

  [70] Thomas Smith was the rector of Yeocomico Church at this period.
  Smith was a man of large means. He had been sent as a youth to be
  educated in the mother country. He first attended a school at
  Wakefield in Yorkshire and later entered Cambridge University, where
  he was graduated in 1763. His son, John Augustine Smith, later became
  president of the College of William and Mary.

  [71] Captain Walker was a friend of Robert Carter and often visited
  "Nomini Hall." Fithian frequently dined at Walker's home.

_Monday 8._

Busy in School--Finished reading the first, and begun to read the
Second Book of Pictetes Theology. Expence to Boy _/4_.

_Teusday 9._

Busy in School--

_Wednesday 10._

Busy in School--The eldest Daughter taken off by her Teacher in Music;
Mr Stadley[72] who is learning her to play the _Forte-piano_--

  [72] Stadley was a German music master who visited "Nomini Hall"
  regularly at this period to instruct the Carter children. He also
  taught in a number of other homes in the Northern Neck. Before coming
  to Virginia, Stadley had taught music in New York and Philadelphia. In
  one of Carter's account books the musician's name is entered as
  "Strader." Cf. Waste-Book, No. 2, September 27, 1773 to December 31,
  1773, p. 45.

_Thursday 11._

Rose by seven--Busy in School--Miss Carter still absent--

_Fryday 12._

Rose by Seven--Ben begun his Greek Grammer--Three in the Afternoon Mr
Carter returned from _Williamsburg_.[73] He seems to be agreeable,
discreet, and sensible--He informed me more particularly concerning
his desire as to the Instruction of his Children--

  [73] Carter was doubtless returning from attendance as a member of the
  General Court at this time.

_Saturday 13._

Catechised the Children and dismissed them about Eleven--Read in
Pictete--and proceeded in writing my Sermon for the Presbytery[74]--
Expence for my Horse _1/3_.

  [74] Fithian was preparing for his examination before the Presbytery
  at Philadelphia at this time.

_Sunday 14._

Rode to Nominy Church about six Miles--the day Cold--Parson Smith
preached--"What shall a man be profited" &c. Rode home after
Sermon--Dined at Mr Carters to day Mrs Turbuville,[75] Miss Jenny
Corbin,[76] and Mr Cunningham[77] a young Merchant.

  [75] "Hickory Hill," the manor house of John Turberville (1737-1799)
  was about a mile distant from "Nomini Hall." Turberville had married
  his first cousin, Martha Corbin. One of their ten children, Letitia
  Corbin Turberville, later became the wife of Major Catesby Jones.
  Their youngest son, George Richard Turberville, married his first
  cousin, Martha Corbin, only daughter of Gawin Corbin of "Peckatone."
  Their eldest son, George Lee Turberville, married Betty Tayloe Corbin.
  The Turbervilles were connected with the Lees of Westmoreland County
  in a number of ways and possessed large landed properties.

  [76] Jane or "Jenny" Corbin was a sister of Mrs. John Turberville of
  "Hickory Hill."

  [77] Cunningham was one of a number of young Scotch merchants who had
  settled in the Northern Neck. He was apparently a member of a firm
  referred to in the account books of Robert Carter of "Nomini Hall" as
  "Messrs. Fisher and Cunningham."

_Monday 15._

Busy in School--Wrote in the Evening at my Sermon.

_Teusday 16._

In School--Writing at my Sermon.

_Wednesday 17_.

Busy in School--

_Thursday 18._

Busy in School--

_Fryday 19._

Busy in School--

_Saturday 20._

Rode to Mr Fishers[78] dined with Mr Cunningham at 3 o-Clock--Rode in
the evening to Mr Lancelot Lees,[79] a young Gentleman, who has lately
come from England; sup'd on Oysters--Rode home about nine o-Clock he

  [78] See fn. 51.

  [79] Lancelot Lee was the son of George Lee of "Mount Pleasant" in
  Westmoreland County who had died in 1761. Lancelot's brother, George
  Fairfax Lee, had inherited their father's manor plantation. Lancelot
  and George Fairfax Lee were cousins of the Lees at "Stratford," "Lee
  Hall," and at "Chantilly."

_Sunday 21._

Rode to Church--Mr Smith preached on the Parable of the rich Man.
Dined at home--Mr Lee dined with us--Reading in Pictete--Feel very
home-Sick--Saw two Brothers quarrel--Doleful Sight.--

_Monday 22._

Busy in School--Mr Lee gave us his Company in the morning in School,
and was very chearful--he left us about twelve o-Clock--

_Teusday 23._

Busy in School--Miss Carter rode out with her Dady and Mama to the
County Court[80]--Writing at my Sermons.

  [80] "Nomini Hall" was some ten miles distant from the seat of
  government in Westmoreland County, which is situated in the present
  town of Montross.


    Who knows what heaven may have in view?
    What yet remains for me to do?
    But knowlege here might give me grief.
    Instead of pleasure and relief;
    I therefore yield and peaceful wait
    On Providence to rule my fate;
    Nor if it long 'til' I must fly
    Unbodied to my judge on high
    Why need I then disturb my mind?
    Why not lye humble and resign'd?--
    Yet tho' 'tis wrong for me to try
    Into these mysteries to pry
    Sure I may sit and simply sing
    (I dare not strike a lofty string)
    The various scenes through which I've past
    I may be now acting my last;
    Here in Virginia, far from friends
    Except those Heaven in pity sends!

                              Novr 23d 1773.

_Wednesday 24._

Busy in School.

_Thursday 25._

Rode this morning to Richmond Court-house,[81] where two Horses run
for a purse of 500 Pounds; besides small Betts almost enumerable.

  [81] Richmond Court House, the seat of government in Richmond County,
  now called Warsaw, is some ten or twelve miles distant from "Nomini
  Hall." There were a number of enthusiastic turfmen in Richmond County
  during the eighteenth century.

One of the Horses belonged to Colonel John Taylor,[82] and is called
_Yorick_--The other to Dr. Flood,[83] and is called _Gift_--The
Assembly was remarkably numerous; beyond my expectation and exceeding
polite in general.

  [82] Colonel John Tayloe (1721-1779) was one of the wealthiest men in
  the Northern Neck. His manor house, "Mount Airy," was located near
  Richmond Court House, and overlooked the Rappahannock River, some two
  miles in the distance. Tayloe was a noted fancier of fine horses.

  [83] Dr. William Flood lived at "Kinsail," a plantation in
  Westmoreland County. He frequently combined the pleasures of horse
  racing with the practice of his profession. Cf. Blanton, Wyndham B.,
  _Medicine in Virginia in the Eighteenth Century_ (Richmond, 1931), p.

The Horses started precisely at five minutes after three; the Course
was one Mile in Circumference, they performed the first Round in two
minutes, third in two minutes & a-half, _Yorick_ came out the fifth
time round about 40 Rod before _Gift_ they were both, when the Riders
dismounted very lame; they run five Miles, and Carried 180 lb--Rode
home in the Evening--Expence to the Boy 7-1/2d--

_Fryday 26._

Busy in School--Robin, & Nancy at dancing-School.

_Saturday 27._

Robin and Nancy yet at Dancing-School--Mr Harry Fantleroy call'd after
dinner to see us. In the Evening Ben & I rode with him to his fathers;
I was introduced to one Mr Walker a Scotch Gentleman, lately a
School-master but has quit, and is going in the Spring for the Gown to

  [84] Since it was often difficult to secure a sufficient number of
  clergymen for the parishes in Virginia, young English schoolmasters
  and tutors were frequently induced to return to the mother country and
  take orders so that they might fill such vacancies.

_Sunday 28._

Rode to Church--the Parson was absent; it is indeed a little cold! The
Clerk read prayers for us--We rode home--Found at Home two young
Ladies, Miss Corbin, and Miss Turburville and Mr George Lee, brother
to the Gentleman here last Sunday, & has lately returned from
England--I was introduced by Mr Carter to the two latter--

_Monday 29._

All our Scholars present--Mr Carter has put into my hands; Tyre's
Dictionary, & the pronouncing Dictionary, to improve his Sons in
Grammar classically, both Latin and English, and he has given me
Fenning in Arrithmetic.

_Teusday 30._

Busy in School--I was solicited the other Day at the Race by one Mr
_Gordon_,[85] to take and instruct two of his Sons, Saturday also I
was again solicited by Mr Fantleroy to take two of his Sons--But I
must decline it--

  [85] Robert Carter's account books reveal that he sometimes had
  business transactions with one George C. Gordon of Westmoreland

_Wednesday Decemr 1st 1773._

Busy in School--Wrote home by the Post, to Mr Green & _Johnny Peck_.
Afternoon Vacant.


                                                  Decemr 1st 1773.


As you desired I may not omit to inform you, so far as I can by a
letter, of the business in which I am now engaged, it would indeed be
vastly agreeable to me if it was in my power to give you particular
intelligence concerning the state and plan of my employment here.

I set out from home the 20th of Octr and arrived at the Hon: Robert
Carters, of Nominy, in Westmorland County, the 28th I began to teach
his children the first of November. He has two sons, and one Nephew;
the oldest Son is turned of seventeen, and is reading Salust and the
greek grammer; the others are about fourteen, and in english grammer,
and Arithmetic. He has besides five daughters which I am to teach
english, the eldest is turned of fifteen, and is reading the
spectator; she is employed two days in every week in learning to play
the Forte-Piana, and Harpsicord--The others are smaller, and learning
to read and spell. Mr Carter is one of the Councellors in the general
court at Williamsburg, and possest of as great, perhaps the clearest
fortune according to the estimation of people here, of any man in
Virginia: He seems to be a good scholar, even in classical learning,
and is remarkable one in english grammar; and notwithstanding his
rank, which in general seems to countenance indulgence to children,
both himself and Mrs Carter have a manner of instructing and dealing
with children far superior, I may say it with confidence, to any I
have ever seen, in any place, or in any family. They keep them in
perfect subjection to themselves, and never pass over an occasion of
reproof; and I blush for many of my acquaintances when I say that the
children are more kind and complaisant to the servants who constantly
attend them than we are to our superiors in age and condition. Mr
Carter has an over-grown library of Books of which he allows me the
free use. It consists of a general collection of law books, all the
Latin and Greek Classicks, vast number of Books on Divinity chiefly by
writers who are of the established Religion; he has the works of
almost all the late famous writers, as Locke, Addison, Young, Pope,
Swift, Dryden, &c. in Short, Sir, to speak moderately, he has more
than eight times your number[86]--His eldest Son, who seems to be a
Boy of Genius and application is to be sent to Cambridge University,
but I believe will go through a course either in Philadelphia or
Princeton College first. As to what is commonly said concerning
Virginia that it is difficult to avoid being corrupted with the
manners of the people, I believe it is founded wholly in a mistaken
notion that persons must, when here frequent all promiscuous
assemblies; but this is so far from truth that any one who does
practise it, tho' he is accused of no crime, loses at once his
character; so that either the manners have been lately changed, or the
report is false, for he seems now to be best esteemed and most
applauded who attends to his business, whatever it be, with the
greatest diligence. I believe the virginians have of late altered
their manner very much, for they begin to find that their estates by
even small extravagance, decline, and grow involved with debt, this
seems to be the spring which induces the People of fortune who are the
pattern of all behaviour here, to be frugal, and moderate. You may
expect me at home by the permission of Providence the latter end of
april next, or the beginning of May; and as I proposed I shall present
my exercises for the examination of the Presbytery; and if they think
proper I shall gladly accept of a licence in the fall: I must beg your
favour to mention me to such of my acquaintances in Deerfield as you
think proper, but especially to Mrs Green, Miss _Betsy_, your family,
and Mrs Pecks--I must also beg you to transmit so much of this
intelligence to Mr Hunter as that my relations in Greenwich may know
that I am through the mercy of heaven in good health. I beg, Sir, you
will not fail to write, and let it be known to Mr Hunter, that a
letter will come as secure by the Post as from Cohansie to
Philadelphia; the Letters are to be directed to me thus, To Mr Philip
V. Fithian at Mr _Carters_ of Nominy, to be left at Hobes Hole[87]

                          I am, Sir, yours

                                                 PHILIP V FITHIAN

  [86] See catalogue of Robert Carter's library in Appendix, pp.

  [87] Hobb's Hole, the present town of Tappahannock, is situated on the
  Rappahannock River in Essex County. The town was a lively center of
  trade and shipping at this period.


_Thursday 2._

Busy in School.

_Fryday 3._

Busy in School. Expence to Boy for trimming my Horse half a Bit.
Evening after School walked in the fields with Mrs _Carter_, Miss
Carter, and Miss Nancy.

_Saturday 4._

About Eleven Ben and I rode to Mr Lees walked over a Part of his Farm;
from his House we see the Potowmack, and a fine River putting from it.
We returned in the Evening, found Mr Fantleroy, and Mr Walker at Home;
at Supper I had the pleasure to toast in my turn Miss Corbin--But I
meant the absent _Laura_!

_Sunday 5._

Rode to Richmond upper Church, a Polite Assembly; Mr Gibbern gave us a
Sermon on, O Death I will be thy Plague &c., a warm discourse Dined at

_Monday 6._

Mr Walker left us after Breakfast. Busy in School.

_Teusday 7._

Mr _Stadley_ Miss Priscilla's Music Master arrived this morning--He
performed several peices on the Violin. Expence for an Orange half a

_Wednesday 8._

Miss Priscilla with her Music Master, they performed together to day--

_Thursday 9._

Mr Stadley left us. Busy in School.

_Fryday 10._

Miss Nancy is beginning on the _Guitar_. Ben finished reading Salusts
Cataline Conspiracy.

_Saturday 11._

Rode and Dined with Captain Walker--Saw and dined with Miss _Simpson_
& Mr Warden.[88]

  [88] John Warden was a young Scotsman. While a student in Edinburgh,
  Warden had been engaged by Dr. Walter Jones of Virginia to serve as a
  tutor in the family of his brother, Colonel Thomas Jones of
  Northumberland County. In the Jones home Warden had enjoyed
  exceptional advantages and he appears to have read law after coming to
  the colony. He later became a distinguished member of the Virginia

_Sunday 12._

Rode to Nominy-Church, parson Smith preached 15 minutes--Advertisement
at the Church door dated Sunday Decemr 12th Pork to be sold to-morrow
at 20/. per Hundred--dined with us to day Captain Walker. Colonel
Richd Lee,[89] & Mr Lanclot Lee. sat after Dinner till Sunset, drank
three Bottles of Medaira, two Bowls of Toddy!--

  [89] Both Richard Lee (1726-1795), commonly called "Squire" Lee, and
  his cousin, Richard Henry Lee (1732-1794), who was known as "Colonel"
  Lee, lived on estates on the Potomac River in Westmoreland County.
  "Squire" Richard Lee's manor plantation was called "Lee Hall." The
  home of Colonel Richard Henry Lee was known as "Chantilly." A second
  Richard Lee, also known as "Squire Lee," and a cousin of the above
  mentioned persons, lived on the Potomac in Charles County, Maryland.

_Monday 13._

Mr Carter is preparing for a Voyage in his Schooner, the Hariot,[90]
to the Eastern Shore in Maryland, for Oysters: there are of the party,
Mr _Carter_, Captain _Walker_, Colonel _Richd Lee_, & Mr _Lancelot
Lee_. With Sailors to work the vessel--I observe it is a general
custom on Sundays here, with Gentlemen to invite one another home to
dine, after Church; and to consult about, determine their common
business, either before or after Service--It is not the Custom for
Gentlemen to go into Church til Service is beginning, when they enter
in a Body, in the same manner as they come out; I have known the Clerk
to come out and call them in to prayers.--They stay also after the
Service is over, usually as long, sometimes longer, than the Parson
was preaching--Almost every Lady wears a red Cloak; and when they ride
out they tye a white handkerchief over their Head and face, so that
when I first came into Virginia, I was distress'd whenever I saw a
Lady, for I thought She had the Tooth-Ach!--The People are extremely
hospitable, and very polite both of which are most certainly universal
Characteristics of the Gentlemen in Virginia--some swear bitterly, but
the practise seems to be generally disapproved--I have heard that this
Country is notorious for Gaming, however this be, I have not seen a
Pack of _Cards_, nor a _Die_, since I left home, nor gaming nor
Betting of any kind except at the Richmond-Race. Almost every
Gentleman of Condition, keeps a Chariot and _Four_; many drive with
six Horses--I observe that all the Merchants & shopkeepers in the
Sphere of my acquaintance and I am told it is the case through the
Province, are young Scotch-Men; Several of whom I know, as
_Cunningham, Jennings, Hamilton, Blain_;--And it has been the custom
heretofore to have all their Tutors, and Schoolmasters from Scotland,
tho' they begin to be willing to employ their own Countrymen--Evening
Ben Carter and myself had a long dispute on the practice of
fighting--He thinks it best for two persons who have any dispute to go
out in good-humour & fight manfully, & says they will be sooner and
longer friends than to brood and harbour malice--Mr _Carter_ is
practising this Evening on the _Guittar_ He begins with the _Trumpet
Minuet_. He has a good Ear for Music; a vastly delicate Taste; and
keeps good Instruments, he has here at Home a _Harpsichord_,
_Forte-Piano_, _Harmonica_,[91] _Guittar_, _Violin_, & _German
Flutes_, & at Williamsburg, has a good _Organ_, he himself also is
indefatigable in the Practice.

  [90] This schooner had been named for Carter's daughter, Harriot Lucy.

  [91] Carter described the harmonica as "the musical glasses without
  water, framed into a complete instrument, capable of through bass and
  never out of tune." Quoted in Williams, ed., _Fithian_, p. 59, fn. 1.

[Illustration: boat ride]

_Teusday 14._

Busy in School--The Weather vastly fine! There has been no Rain of
consequence, nor any stormy or disagreeable Weather, since about the
10th of last Month! From the Window, by which I write, I have a broad,
a diversified, and an exceedingly beautiful Prospect of the high
craggy Banks of the River _Nominy_! Some of those huge Hills are
cover'd thick with _Cedar_, & Pine Shrubs; A vast quantity of which
seems to be in almost every part of this Province--Others are naked, &
when the Sun Shines look beautiful! At the Distance of about 5 Miles
is the River Potowmack over which I can see the smoky Woods of
Maryland; At this window I often stand, and cast my Eyes homeward with
peculiar pleasure! Between my window and the potowmack, is Nominy
Church, it stands close on the Bank of the River Nominy, in a pleasant
agreeable place, Mr Carters family go down often, so many as can with
convenience in a Boat rowed by four Men, and generally arrive as soon
as those who ride.

The mouth of Nominy River where it falls into Potowmack is about 25
miles above the mouth of Potowmack or where it falls into the
Chessapeak-Bay. And about 12 Miles below the mouth of Nominy the River
Ucomico[92] puts up into the country, near which River, and about
three miles from the mouth stands the lower parish Church of
Westmorland County call'd Ucomic Church.[93] The River Potowmack
opposite to us the People say is 18 miles over, but I think it is not
more than 8. Afternoon Captain Grigg,[94] who arrived last Sunday
moning into the River Ucomico from London visited Mr Carter. Evening
reading Picteete.

  [92] The Yeocomico River.

  [93] Yeocomico Church.

  [94] Grigg, the captain of an English vessel, often mingled with the
  plantation families of the Northern Neck when he was in the colony.

_Wednesday 15._

Busy in School--To day Dined with us Mrs Turburville, & her Daughter
Miss Letty[95] Miss Jenny Corbin, & Mr Blain. We dined at three. The
manner here is different from our way of living in Cohansie--In the
morning so soon as it is light a Boy knocks at my Door to make a fire;
after the Fire is kindled, I rise which now in the winter is commonly
by Seven, or a little after, By the time I am drest the Children
commonly enter the School-Room, which is under the Room I sleep in; I
hear them round one lesson, when the Bell rings for eight o-Clock (for
Mr Carter has a large good Bell of upwards of 60 Lb. which may be
heard some miles, & this is always rung at meal Times;) the Children
then go out; and at half after eight the Bell rings for Breakfast, we
then repair to the Dining-Room; after Breakfast, which is generally
about half after nine, we go into School, and sit til twelve, when the
Bell rings, & they go out for noon; the dinner-Bell rings commonly
about half after two, often at three, but never before two.--After
dinner is over, which in common, when we have no Company, is about
half after three we go into School, & sit til the Bell rings at five,
when they separate til the next morning; I have to myself in the
Evening, a neat Chamber, a large Fire, Books, & Candle & my Liberty,
either to continue in the school room, in my own Room or to sit over
at the great House with Mr & Mrs Carter--We go into Supper commonly
about half after eight or at nine & I usually go to Bed between ten
and Eleven. Altho the family in which I live, is certainly under as
good political Regulations, and every way as suitable & agreeable as I
can expect, or even could desire; & though the Neighbourhood is
polite, & the Country pleasant, yet I cannot help reflecting on my
situation last winter, which was near the lovely _Laura_ for whom I
cannot but have the truest, and the warmest Esteem! possibly, If
Heaven shall preserve my life, in some future time, I may again enjoy
her good society.

[95] Letitia Corbin Turberville.

Mr Carter heard this Evening that Captain _Walker_ cannot go to
Maryland, he is thus stop'd.

_Thursday 16._

I can only to day write down my Misfortune; my poor Horse as he was
feeding in a miry Bottom, walked upon a sharp Stick, which stuck into
his Thigh on the under Side about four Inches below his Flank!--The
stick went in more than three Inches!--He is very lame, but they tell
me will recover, The Hostler, when we had lead him to the Stable,
applied Spirits of Turpentine to the part, and in the Evening is to
fill it with Comfrey Roots pounded Soft.

I had the pleasure of walking to Day at twelve o-Clock with Mrs
Carter; She shewed me her stock of _Fowls_ & _Mutton_ for the winter;
She observed, with great truth, that to live in the Country, and take
no pleasure at all in Groves, Fields, or Meadows; nor in Cattle,
Horses, & domestic Poultry, would be a manner of life too tedious to
endure; Dined at three.

_Fryday 17._

I dismissed the children this morning til' monday on account of Mr
Christian's _Dance_, which, as it goes through his Scholars in
Rotation, happens to be here to Day--and I myself also am unwell, so
as not to go out;--Mrs Carter sent me over Coffee for Breakfast; &
soon after some Spirits of _Hartshorn_ for my Head--At twelve she sent
the waiting Man to know if I was better, & what I would choose for
Dinner. I thank'd her, & desired that She would give herself no
trouble; She was careful, however, from her undistinguished kindness,
to send me before Dinner some hot _Barley Broth_,--_Ben Carter_ before
Noon introduced into my Room, Mr _Billy Booth_,[96] a young Gentleman
of Fortune, who is one of Mr Christians pupils--The two Master
Fantleroys came in also to see me--There came to the dance three
_Chariots_, two _Chairs_, & a number of Horses. Towards Evening I grew
Better, & walked down, with a number of young Fellows to the River;
after our return I was strongly solicited by the young Gentlemen to go
in and dance I declined it, however, and went to my Room not without
Wishes that it had been a part of my Education to learn what I think
is an innocent and an ornamental, and most certainly, in this province
is a necessary qualification for a person to appear even decent in

[96] William Booth, who was a planter of considerable means in
Westmoreland County at this time, was probably the father of this

Mrs _Carter_ in the Evening, sent me for Supper, a Bowl of hot Green
Tea, & several _Tarts_. I expected that they would have danced til
late in the Night, but intirely contrary to my Expectation, the
Company were separated to their respective apartments before half
after nine o_Clock_.

_Saturday 18._

Rose by Seven, Sent for Mr Carters Barber and was drest for
Breakfast--We went in to Breakfast at ten;--I confess I have been
seldom more dash'd than when I entered the dining-Room, for I must of
necessity be interrogated by Mr _Carter_ before them all, about my
indisposition, and if I was better.--I went through the several
Ceremonies with as much resolution, and speed as possible, and soon
mixed with the Company in promiscuous conversation. There were present
of Grown persons Mr & Mrs. _Carter_, Mrs _Lee_, & Miss _Jenny Corbin_;
young Misses about Eleven: & Seven young Fellows, including
myself;--After Breakfast, we all retired into the Dancing-Room, &
after the Scholars had their Lesson singly round Mr Christian, very
politely, requested me to step a _Minuet_; I excused myself however,
but signified my peculiar pleasure in the Accuracy of their
performance--There were several Minuets danced with great ease and
propriety; after which the whole company Joined in country-dances,[97]
and it was indeed beautiful to admiration, to see such a number of
young persons, set off by dress to the best Advantage, moving easily,
to the sound of well performed Music, and with perfect regularity,
tho' apparently in the utmost Disorder--The Dance continued til two,
we dined at half after three--soon after Dinner we repaired to the
Dancing-Room again; I observe in the course of the lessons, that Mr
Christian is punctual, and rigid in his discipline, so strict indeed
that he struck two of the young Misses for a fault in the course of
their performance, even in the presence of the Mother of one of them!
And he rebuked one of the young Fellows so highly as to tell him he
must alter his manner, which he had observed through the Course of the
Dance, to be insolent, and wanton, or absent himself from the
School--I thought this a sharp reproof, to a young Gentleman of
seventeen, before a large number of Ladies!--When it grew too dark to
dance, the young Gentlemen walked over to my Room, we conversed til
half after six; Nothing is now to be heard of in conversation, but the
_Balls_, the _Fox-hunts_, the fine _entertainments_, and the _good
fellowship_, which are to be exhibited at the approaching
_Christmas_.--I almost think myself happy that my Horses lameness will
be sufficient Excuse for my keeping at home on these Holidays.--Mr
Goodlet[98] was barr'd out of his School last Monday by his Scholars,
for the Christmas Holidays, which are to continue til twelfth-day; But
my Scholars are of a more quiet nature, and have consented to have
four or five Days now, and to have their full Holiday in May next,
when I propose by the permission of Providence to go Home, where I
hope to see the good and benevolent _Laura_.

[97] "County-dances" were English dances of rural or native origin,
especially those in which an indefinite number of couples stood face
to face in two long lines. Country dances had been popular on greens
and at fairs in England long before they were introduced into polite
society. When the country dance was imported into France the name
became _contre-dance_, and it has been erroneously assumed that
"country-dance" is a corruption of the French term.

[98] Goodlet was apparently a tutor in the Fauntleroy family of "The

When the candles were lighted we all repaired, for the last time, into
the dancing Room; first each couple danced a Minuet; then all joined
as before in the country Dances, these continued till half after Seven
when Mr Christian retired; and at the proposal of several, (with Mr
Carters approbation) we played _Button_, to get Pauns for Redemption;
here I could join with them, and indeed it was carried on with
sprightliness, and Decency; in the course of redeeming my Pauns, I had
several Kisses of the Ladies!--Early in the Evening cam colonel Philip
Lee,[99] in a travelling Chariot from Williamsburg--Half after eight
we were rung in to Supper; The room looked luminous and splendid; four
very large candles burning on the table where we supp'd, three others
in different parts of the Room; a gay, sociable Assembly, & four well
instructed waiters!--So soon as we rose from supper, the Company
form'd into a semicircle round the fire, & Mr Lee, by the voice of the
Company was chosen _Pope_, and Mr Carter, Mr Christian, Mrs _Carter_,
Mrs _Lee_, and the rest of the company were appointed Friars, in the
play call'd "break the Popes neck"--Here we had great Diversion in the
respective Judgments upon offenders, but we were all dismiss'd by ten,
and retired to our several Rooms.

[99] Philip Ludwell Lee (1727-1775) was the eldest son of Thomas Lee,
who had served as president of the Council. He had inherited his
father's manor plantation, "Stratford," on the Potomac River in
Westmoreland County. Like Robert Carter, Philip Ludwell Lee was now a
member of the Council.

_Sunday 19._

Early this morning, I was awaked out of sleep by two youngsters, (for
we are thronged with company, so that two slept in my Room) who were
agreeing upon a Ride the Day after Christmas, (which will be Sunday)
up to Fredricksburg, which lies upon the Rapahannock, fifty Miles
higher up the country than where we live;--Breakfasted at nine, soon
after which all our company dispersed; I had the offer of a Horse, &
was strongly solicited to go to Church, but I declined it--My Horse is
very lame, his Thigh, from the sore down to his knee is much
swell'd!--It runs however, and the Hostler tells me it is mending.
Dined at three; Miss Betsy Lee[100] dined with us--Writing to day my
Sermon for the Presbitery. Sup'd on Oysters.

[100] Probably Elizabeth Lee, daughter of John Lee of Essex County, a
nephew of Thomas Lee of "Stratford."

This is the first day I have missed Church.

_Monday 20._

Rose at half after Seven; the Morning extremely cold--We had in School
to Day as visitors Miss Betsy, and Miss Matilda Lee[101] Mr Carter
gave me for his Daughter Nancy to Read, the "Compleat Letter-writer"--
Also he put into my hands for the use of the School, "the British-Grammar."

[101] Matilda Lee was the daughter of Philip Ludwell Lee of
"Stratford." She later married "Light Horse Harry" Lee.

_Teusday 21._

Rose by Half after seven--the weather serene but sharp and cold.--To
day, before Dinner called in and stayed a short time Mr _Blain_ and Mr
_Lee_ who were going to one Mr Lanes[102] to a _Christning_, which I
understand is one of the chief times for Diversion here--Miss
_Carter_, this afternoon told me that her Mama thought of giving a
small _Ball_ at the approaching Christmas for select friends.

[102] One Joseph Lane was a prominent planter in Westmoreland County
at this time.


                           Nominy-Hall Virginia. Decem: 21. 1773.


If these shall be so fortunate, as to come to your Hands, I beg leave
to acquaint you that I am as agreeably settled as I can possibly be
when so remote from the chief object of my Esteem on Earth--And, that
I am, & have been, since I left Home, through the Kindness of Heaven,
in good Health.

You will be surprized if I tell you that I should have been now in
Cohansie, had I never seen you, or had you been less uncertain of your
future Purpose! That you may not be wholly without a Reason for what I
say, I must tell you, that in your Absence last Summer I found it
difficult to restrain myself from Writing frequently to you; And after
I was compell'd, tho' unwilling, to believe that you would grant me no
Return; lest I should be troublesome or impertinent, when I had an
advantageous Offer from the Gentleman with whom I now reside, I
determined to leave Home a few Months. So far I have jested--But to be
serious, Laura, I hope to see you in the Spring as I propose to be at
Home by the Beginning of May--Perhaps the fine Air; the sprightly
Conversation; the sociable Balls; & various Pleasures so common here,
will have made so very a "Coxcomb" of musty Philander, that you will
blush to confess you ever knew him! Be not hasty to judge--Possibly,
on the other Hand, Laura; even Laura, may appear so dull &
unfashionable that Philander tho' a Coxcomb will look down & despise
her--No Laura, for tho, we have fine Ladies; Gay Fellows, charming
Music; rich & I may say luxurious Entertainment; to all which I am
almost every Week strongly invited; Yet I find greater Pleasure at
Home, where I have every genteel Accomodation I could wish, and a
Family of lovely Children to instruct--You would envy me if I was able
to tell you how kind, obedient, & beautiful the Children are which I
teach!--I have three Boys the youngest of which is about the Age &
Size of your Brother R--Also five Girls between five & fourteen years
Old. The Girls all dress in White, & are remarkably genteel. They have
been educated in the City Williamsburg in this Colony--The two eldest
are now learning Music, one to play the Harpsichord; the other the
Guittar, in the practice of which they spend three Days in the Week--I
have only further to acquaint you that every one is now speaking of
the approaching Christmas.--The young Ladies tell me we are to have a
Ball, of selected Friends in this Family--But I, hard Lot, I have
never learn'd to dance!

                            I am, however,
                         my dear Eliza, thine
                                                 PHI: V. FITHIAN.


_Wednesday 22._

Mr _Cunningham_ came last Evening and staid the Night.--There is a
Report that he is making suit to Miss _Jenny Corbin_.

To day I finished my Sermon for the Presbitery--I read _Pictete_, The
_Spectator_, _Salust_, _History of England_, _English Grammar_,
_Arithmetic_, and the _Magazines_ by turns. Miss _Priscilla_, and Miss
_Nancy_ rode this morning in the Chariot over to Mr _Turburvills_--
Bob, every day at twelve o-Clock, is down by the River Side with his
Gun after Ducks, Gulls &c.--Ben is on his Horse a Riding, Harry, is
either in the Kitchen, or at the Blacksmiths, or Carpenters Shop. They
all find places of Rendesvous so soon as the Beell rings, and all seem
to choose different Sports!--To day dined with us Mr Cox the Gentleman
at whose House I breakfasted the Day after I came first.--Evening Mr
Carter spent in playing on the Harmonica; It is the first time I have
heard the Instrument. The music is charming! He play'd, Water parted
from the Sea.[103]--The Notes are clear and inexpressibly Soft, they
swell, and are inexpressibly grand; & either it is because the sounds
are new, and therefore please me, or it is the most captivating
Instrument I have Ever heard. The sounds very much resemble the human
voice, and in my opinion they far exceed even the swelling Organ.

[103] This song occurs in an opera, _Artaxerxes_, by Thomas Augustine
Arne, which was first performed in London in 1762. The libretto of
Arne was an adaptation of an Italian drama, _Artaserse_, by Metastasio
(Pietro Antonia Domenico Bonaventura). Metastasio was born in 1698 and
died in 1782.

_Thursday 23._

Rose at eight--Rains this morning, the weather is also warmer. Mr
Carter has sent his son Ben to his head _Overseer_, to take notice and
account of the measuring the Crop of Corn--For the Planters now have
just gathered in their Summers Crop!--To Day I write a letter to
_Laura_: Waft it, kind Oppertunity, soon to the dear Maid, and Make it
easy, & desirable for her to make me a Return!--

At Dinner Mr & Mrs _Carter_ gave their opinion concerning what they
thought pleasing and agreeable in a person; Mrs Carter said she loved
a sociable open, chatty person; that She could not bear Sullenness,
and stupidity--Mr Carter, on the other-hand, observed that it is just
which Solomon says, that there is a "time for all things under the
Sun"; that it discovers great Judgment to laugh in Season, and that,
on the whole, he is pleased with Taciturnity--pray which of the two
should I suit?--It is a custom with our _Bob_ whenever he can coax
his _Dog_ up stairs, to take him into his Bed, and make him a
companion; I was much pleased this morning while he and _Harry_ were
reading in Course a Chapter in the Bible, that they read in the 27th
Chapter of Deuteronomy the Curses threatened there for Crimes; Bob
seldom, perhaps never before, read the verse, at last read that
"Cursed be he that lyeth with any manner of Beast, and all the People
shall say Amen." I was exceedingly Pleased, yet astonished at the Boy
on two accounts.--1st At the end of every verse, befor he came to
this, he would pronounce aloud, "Amen." But on Reading this verse he
not only omitted the "Amen," but seem'd visibly struck with
confusion!--2d And so soon as the Verse was read, to excuse himself,
he said at once, Brother _Ben_ slept all last winter with his Dog, and
learn'd me!--Thus ready are Mankind always to evade Correction!--This
Evening, after I had dismiss'd the Children, & was sitting in the
School-Room cracking Nuts, none present but Mr _Carters Clerk_, a
civil, inoffensive, agreeable young Man, who acts both in the
character of a Clerk and Steward, when the Woman who makes my Bed,
asked me for the key of my Room, and on seeing the young Man sitting
with me, she told him that her Mistress had this afternoon given
orders that their Allowance of Meat should be given out to them
to-morrow.--She left us; I then asked the young man what their
allowance is? He told me that excepting some favourites about the
table, their weekly allowance is a peck of Corn, & a pound of Meat a
Head!--And Mr Carter is allow'd by all, & from what I have already
seen of others, I make no Doubt at all but he is, by far the most
humane to his Slaves of any in these parts! Good God! are these
Christians?--When I am on the Subject, I will relate further, what I
heard Mr George Lees Overseer, one Morgan, say the other day that he
himself had often done to Negroes, and found it useful; He said that
whipping of any kind does them no good, for they will laugh at your
greatest Severity; But he told us he had invented two things, and by
several experiments had proved their success.--For Sulleness,
Obstinacy, or Idleness, says he, Take a Negro, strip him, tie him fast
to a post; take then a sharp Curry-Comb, & curry him severely til he
is well scrap'd; & call a Boy with some dry Hay, and make the Boy rub
him down for several Minutes, then salt him, & unlose him. He will
attend to his Business, (said the inhuman Infidel) afterwards!--But
savage Cruelty does not exceed His next diabolical Invention--To get a
Secret from a Negro, says he, take the following Method--Lay upon your
Floor a large thick plank, having a peg about eighteen Inches long,
of hard wood, & very Sharp, on the upper end, fixed fast in the
plank--then strip the Negro, tie the Cord to a staple in the Ceiling,
so as that his foot may just rest on the sharpened Peg, then turn him
briskly round, and you would laugh (said our informer) at the
Dexterity of the Negro, while he was releiving his Feet on the
sharpen'd Peg!--I need say nothing of these seeing there is a
righteous God, who will take vengeance on such Inventions!--Miss
_Priscilla_ and _Nancy_ returned in the evening.

_Fryday 24._

Ben Rode off this morning before day to Mr Fantleroys, for Christmas I
dismiss'd the children while next Wednesday. I was introduced by Mr
Carter at Dinner, to Dr Jones[104] a practitioner in Richmond. I spent
my Day in my Room alone as agreeably as I have done any since I have
been in virginia coppying off my Sermon, & correcting it. Retirement
is as pleasing, & desirable to me here as at _princeton_, or
_Cohansie!_ & by Gods blessing I hope to make it as profitable. In the
Evening I read the two first Books of _popes Homer_. Dr Jones supped
with us, & is to stay the Night. The conversation at supper was on
Nursing Children; I find it is common here for people of Fortune to
have their young Children suckled by the Negroes! Dr Jones told us his
first and only Child is now with such a Nurse; & Mrs Carter said that
Wenches have suckled several of hers--Mrs Carter has had thirteen
Children She told us to night and she has nine now living; of which
seven are with me. Guns are fired this Evening in the Neighbourhood,
and the Negroes seem to be inspired with new Life.[105] The Day has
been serene and mild, but the Evening is hazy.

Supp'd on Oysters.

[104] Dr. Walter Jones of "Hayfield" in Lancaster County, was known as
"the luminary of the Northern Neck." He was the son of Colonel Thomas
Jones, a planter-businessman of Williamsburg and Hanover County. His
mother, Elizabeth Cocke, was a niece of Mark Catesby, the well-known
English naturalist. Dr. Jones had been educated at the College of
William and Mary and he studied medicine at the University of
Edinburgh. At the former institution he became a fast friend of Thomas
Jefferson and of Bathurst Skelton, whose widow Jefferson later
married. Jones achieved distinction both in the field of medicine and
in politics. In 1777 he was appointed physician-general of the Middle
Department, but declined the office, which was later filled by Dr.
Benjamin Rush of Philadelphia. Jones was made a member of the American
Philosophical Society in 1774. He served as a member of Congress for a
number of years. Dr. Jones' wife was Alice Flood, the daughter of
William Flood, the well-known physician and turfman of Richmond

[105] The custom of firing powder during the Christmas season is one
that persists in the South today in various forms.

_Saturday 25._

I was waked this morning by Guns fired all round the House. The
morning is stormy, the wind at South East rains hard Nelson the Boy
who makes my Fire, blacks my shoes, does errands &c. was early in my
Room, drest only in his shirt and Breeches! He made me a vast fire,
blacked my Shoes, set my Room in order, and wish'd me a joyful
Christmas, for which I gave him half a Bit.--Soon after he left the
Room, and before I was Drest, the Fellow who makes the Fire in our
School Room, drest very neatly in green, but almost drunk, entered my
chamber with three or four profound Bows, & made me the same
salutation; I gave him a _Bit_, and dismissed him as soon as
possible.--Soon after my Cloths and Linen were sent in with a message
for a Christmas _Box_, as they call it; I sent the poor Slave a Bit, &
my thanks.--I was obliged for want of small change, to put off for
some days the Barber who shaves & dresses me.--I gave _Tom_ the
Coachman, who Doctors my Horse, for his care two Bits, & am to give
more when the Horse is well.--I gave to _Dennis_ the Boy who waits at
Table half a _Bit_--So that the sum of my Donations to the Servants,
for this Christmas appears to be five Bits, a Bit is a pisterene
bisected; or an English sixpence, & passes here for seven pence
Halfpenny, the whole is _3s 1½d._--

At Breakfast, when Mr Carter entered the Room, he gave us the
compliments of the Season. He told me, very civily, that as my Horse
was Lame, his own riding Horse is at my Service to ride when & where I

Mrs Carter was, as always, cheerful, chatty, & agreeable; She told me
after Breakfast several droll, merry Occurrences that happened while
she was in the City Williamsburg.--

This morning came from the Post-office at Hobbes-Hole, on the
Rappahannock, our News-papers. Mr Carter takes the Pennsylvania
Gazette, which seems vastly agreeable to me, for it is like having
something from home--But I have yet no answer to my Letter. We dined
at four o-Clock--Mr Carter kept in his Room, because he breakfasted
late, and on Oysters--There were at Table Mrs Carter & her five
Daughters that are at School with me--Miss _Priscilla_, _Nancy_,
_Fanny_, _Betsy_, and _Harriot_, five as beautiful delicate,
well-instructed Children as I have ever known!--_Ben_ is abroad; _Bob_
& _Harry_ are out; so there was no Man at Table but myself.--I must
carve--Drink the Health--and talk if I can! Our Dinner was no
otherwise than common, yet as elegant a _Christmas Dinner_ as I ever
sat Down to--The table Discourse was Marriage; Mrs _Carter_ observ'd
that was she a Widow, she should scruple to marry any man alive; She
gave a reason, that She did not think it probable a man could love her
grown old when the world is thronged with blooming, ripening Virgins;
but in fact Mrs Carter looks & would pass for a younger Woman than
some unmarried Ladies of my acquaintance, who would willingly enough
make us place them below twenty!--We dined at four; when we rose from
table it was growing dark--The wind continues at South East & is
stormy and muddy.

Mr _Randolph_ the Clerk told me this Evening a Circumstance concerning
_Bob_ which tho it discovered stupidity, yet at the same time
discovered great thoughtfulness.--It was about his sleeping with the
_Dog_; Mr _Randolph_ told me _Bob_ asked him with great solemnity if
he thought _God Almighty_ knew it!--While we supped Mr _Carter_ as he
often does played on the _Forte-Piano_. He almost never sups. Last
Night and to night I had large clear, & very elegant Spermaceti
Candles sent into my Room;

_Sunday 26._

I rose at eight--The morning is fair; all seem quiet--I went to the
window before I was drest, having only a Gown thrown about me &
enjoy'd a beautiful Prospect of the high Banks of the River Nomini
gilded by the morning Sun--I could not help casting my Eyes with
eagerness over the blue Potowmack and look homewards.--After having
paid my morning secret Devotion to the King of Kings, I sat myself to
the correcting and transcribing my Sermon--I had the pleasure to wait
on Mrs _Carter_ to Church She rode in the Chariot, & Miss Prissy and
Nancy; Mr Carter chose to stay at Home--The Sacrament was to have been
administred but there was so few people that he thought it improper,
and put of til Sunday fortnight. He preach'd from Isaiah 9.6. For unto
us a child is Born &c. his Sermon was fifteen Minutes long! very
fashionable--He invited me very civilly to Dine & spend the Evening
with him, but I could not leave the Ladies! He made me almost promise,
however to call some Day this Week.

At the Church to day I heard an impious Expression from a young
Scotch-Man,[106] Tutor in Mr Washingtons Family; he meant it for a
Satire upon the neglect of the people in suffering their Grave Yard to
lie common--He saw some Cattle & Hogs feeding & rooting in the yard;
"Why, says he, if I was buried here it would grieve me to look up and
see _Swine_ feeding over me"!--But I understand only the lower sort of
People are buried at the Church; for the Gentleman have private

[106] John Lowe (1750-1798), a Scotsman, was the tutor of the children
of Colonel John Augustine Washington, a brother of George Washington,
at this period. John Augustine Washington's manor plantation,
"Bushfield," was located on the Potomac River in Westmoreland County,
a short distance from "Nomini Hall" and "Hickory Hill." Lowe was the
author of a number of ballads which are still popular in Scotland
today. After serving for some time as a tutor and conducting an
academy at Fredericksburg, he was ordained an Anglican clergyman, and
appears to have served as minister in both St. George's and Hanover
Parishes. An unhappy marriage is believed to have led to a dissipation
which resulted in his early death. Cf. Meade, _Old Churches, Ministers
and Families of Virginia_, Vol. II, p. 185; _Virginia Magazine of
History_, Vol. 29 (January 1921), pp. 102-105.

_Monday 27._

At Breakfast Mrs Carter gave me an Invitation to wait on her to Parson
_Smiths_ Mr Carter offered Me his riding Horse, A beautiful grey,
young, lively Colt; We sat out about ten, Mrs Carter, Miss Prissy,
Miss Fanny, & Miss Betsy, in the Chariot; Bob and I were on Horse
back; Mrs Carter had three waiting Men; a Coachman. Driver &
Postillion. We found the way muddy; got there a little after twelve;
Mr Smith was out; I was introduced by Mrs Carter to Mrs Smith, and a
young Lady her Sister who lives with them; At Dinner I was at Mr
Smiths request to "say Grace" as they call it; which is always
express'd by the People in the following words, "God bless us in what
we are to receive"--& after Dinner, "God make us thankful for his
mercies"--As we were sitting down to Table Ben Carter rode up; when we
had dined, the Ladies retired, leaving us a Bottle of Wine, & a Bowl
of Toddy for companions--Ben came with a Message for me to go to a
Ball, but poor fellow, I cant dance!--He prest me very much, but I was
forced to decline it--We returned in the Evening; & found Mr Carter &
Miss Nancy practising Music, one on the Forte-Piano, and the other on
the Guitar. Mr Carter is Learning Bedford, Coles hill, and several
other Church Tunes.

[Illustration: horse-drawn coach]

_Teusday 28._

Last Night there fell a Snow, which is about half Shoe deep, the Air
is sharp, the wind at North, & Snows yet by turns. I finished and laid
by my Sermon for the Presbytery this morning--Breakfasted at ten: Ben
staid last Night at Mr _Turbuville's_ & got Home to day about twelve
from his _Christmas Jaunt_.

Spent most of the Day at the great House hearing the various
Instruments of Music. Evening, at Miss Prissy's Request I drew for her
some Flowers on Linen which she is going to imbroider, for a various

_Wednesday 29._

This Morning our School begins after the Holidays. Bob seems sorry
that he must forsake the Marsh & River when he is daily fowling, &
never kills any Game. At Dinner we had the Company of Dr Franks[107]
who has been all along Mr Carters Clerk; but is now leaving Him. We
had a large Pye cut to Day to signify the Conclusion of the Holidays.
I drew, this afternoon more Flowers for Miss Prissy.

[107] Dr. Henry Francks of Westmoreland County.

_Thursday 30._

Dr Franks is moving, he has lived in the House adjoining our School.
The morning is fine, I rose by eight, breakfasted at ten, Miss Prissy
& Nancy are to-Day Practising Music one on the Forte Piano, the other
on the Guitar, their Papa allows them for that purpose every Teusday,
& Thursday. Ben is gone to the Quarter to see to the measuring the
crop of Corn. On his return in the Evening, when we were sitting &
chatting, among other things he told me that we must have a
House-warming, seeing we have now got possession of the whole
House--It is a custom here whenever any _person_ or _Family_ move into
a _House_, or repair a house they have been living in before, they
make a _Ball_ & give a Supper--So we because we have gotten Possession
of the whole House, are in compliance with Custom, to invite our
Neighbours, and dance, and be merry--But poor me! I must hobble, or
set quiet in the Corner!

_Fryday 31._

I rose at eight. _Ben_ gone again to the quarter--_Harriot_ to Day for
the first time said all her letters--

The Colonel shewed me after Dinner a new invention, which is to be
sure his own, for tuning his _Harpischord_ & _Forte-Piano_: it is a
number of _Whistles_, of various Sizes so as to sound all the Notes in
one Octave. At twelve o-Clock Mr _Carter_ ordered his Boy to bring two
Horses, and himself & Miss _Prissy_ rode out for an airing as the Day
is vastly fine--Assoon as the Bell rang & I had dismissed the Children
I took a walk in the Garden; When I had gone round two or three Platts
Mrs Carter entered and walked towards me, I then immediately turn'd
and met Her; I bowed--Remarked on the pleasantness of the Day--And
began to ask her some questions upon a Row of small slips--To all
which she made polite and full answers; As we walked along she would
move the Ground at the Root of some plant; or prop up with small
sticks the bended _scions_--We took two whole turns through all the
several Walks, & had such conversation as the _Place_ and _Objects_
naturally excited--And after Mrs Carter had given some orders to the
Gardiners (for there are two Negroes Gardiners by Trade, who are
constantly when the Weather will any how permit working in it) we
walked out into the _Area_ viewed some Plumb-Trees, when we saw Mr
Carter and Miss Prissy returning--We then repaired to the Slope before
the front-Door where they dismounted--and we all went into the Dining
Room. I shall in a proper time describe the great-House, & the several
smaller ones in its neighbourhood; the _Area_, _Poplar-Walk_,
_Garden_, & _Pasture_: In the mean time I shall only say, they
discover a delicate and Just Tast, and are the effect of great
_Invention_ & _Industry,_ & _Expence_. At Dinner we were conversing on
the seasons of the Year, & giving our different opinions of which of
the Seasons we each thought most agreeable: Mrs Carter chose the
Months of October, November & December, her reasons were, that we are
always most sensible of pleasure when it succeeds Axiety & Pain;
therefore because these months immediately follow those in which there
is usually Thunder & Lightning & intense Heat, She thinks them most
pleasant: The Colonel agreed with her as to the Months but gave a
different Reason; He supposes that in these Months the Air is more
uniform and settled than at any other so long time in the year. I
preferr'd May, June, and July, because our Bodies at that Season are
generally sprightly, vigorous and healthy, and the world around us is
beautiful & growing to necessary perfection. Miss Prissy & Miss Nancy
were on my side.

Mrs Carter told the Colonel that he must not think her setled (for
they have been for a long time from this place in the City
_Williamsburg_, and only left it about a year and a half ago) till he
made her a park and stock'd it; while these and many other things were
saying, I was surprized at a Remark which Miss _Prissy_ made, "Why
Mama says she, you plan and talk of these things as tho' you should
never die"!

_Saturday January 1. 1774._

Another Year is gone! Last New years Day I had not the most remote
expectation of being now here in _Virginia_! Perhaps by the next I
shall have made a longer and more important Remove, from this to the
World of Spirits!

It is well worth the while, for the better improving of our time to
come to recollect and reflect upon the Time which we have spent; The
Season seems to require it; it will give entertainment at least,
perhaps much substantial pleasure too, to be able to make with a
considerable degree of certainty a review of the general course of our
Actions in the course of a year. This shall be my employment, so far
as I am able to recollect, when I shall have suitable time for the
fixing & laying my thoughts together--

In the mean time I observe that the Day is most pleasant, the wind is
West, not fresh; the air is void of clouds, but near the Earth is
smoky; the Ground is clear of Frost and setled, what can be finer? Mr
Carter Miss Prissy and myself were to have rode out for an Exercise at
twelve, but we were prevented by the coming of a Gentleman, Dr
_Fantleroy_,[108] to whom Mr Carter introduced me--

[108] Dr. Moore Fauntleroy (1743-1802) was the son of William
Fauntleroy of Naylor's Hole in Richmond County. Fauntleroy, who had
studied medicine in Aberdeen and Edinburgh, practiced in Essex County
after his return to Virginia in 1770.

After Dinner was finished which was about four o-Clock, Miss Prissy &
Myself, together with a Servant (for Mr Carter would not trust us
alone he said) rode on Horse-Back to Mr Turbuvilles, about three
quarters of a Mile distance; It is the first time I have been there,
the House is near, & in Sight, and the families intimate. I rode my
Horse for the first time since his misfortune. When we returned about
Candlelight, we found Mrs Carter in the yard seeing to the Roosting of
her Poultry; and the Colonel in the Parlour tuning his _Guitar_.

_Sunday 2._

The weather warm and Damp--The Family rode to Church to-day and are to
dine out. Mr Carter at my request, gave me the Keys of his Book-Cases
and allowed me to spend the Day alone in his Library.

The place seems suitable for Study, & the Day ought to be spent in
serious contemplation; therefore, as I proposed Yesterday, I shall
collect together and write down what I have been doing in the last
Year. But will my Life bear the review? Can I look upon my Actions and
not Blush! And shall I be no less careful, or have no better Success,
in the prosecution of my Duty the Year to come, if I shall be kept
alive to the Close of it?--

In the Beginning of the last year I was in Deerfield, in Cumberland
County New-Jersey, with the Rev'd Mr Green; Under him I studied the
Hebrew-Language and Divinity. I left the college the last of September
1772. After having setled my business at Home, I entered upon the
Study of Divinity with the Rev'd Andrew Hunter; I was with him about a
Month, and on the first of December I went to Mr _Green_ with a design
to acquaint myself with the Hebrew Tongue; he put me to the Grammar,
which I learn'd through, and read some Chapters in the Psalter in the
Course of the Winter: In Divinity, he advised me to read Ridgeleys
body of Divinity for a System: And he gave me several separate
treatisses on Repentance, Regeneration, Faith, &c, & towards spring
gave me subjects to consider in the Sermon-Way. Yet how barren am I
still? It is an arduous task to bring the Mind to close application; &
still greater to lay up and retain useful Knowledge. I continued with
Mr _Green_ & pursued my studies, I hope with some Success till August
1773. when I was solicited by Dr _Witherspoon_ to go into _Virginia_ &
teach in a Gentlemans Family--The Offer seem'd profitable; I was
encouraged by the Dr and was to have his Recommendation--I had
likewise myself a strong inclination to go--Yet I was in great Doubt,
& Wholly undetermined for some Weeks, because many of my friends, and
some of my near Relations opposed my leaving Home, and all seem'd
utterly unwilling to advise to go--It is time, according to the Course
of my Life they said that I was settling to some constant Employment,
and they told me I ought especially to enter with as great speed as
convenient into that plan of Life for which I have in particular had
my Education--That Virginia is sickly--That the People there are
profane, and exceeding wicked--That I shall read there no Calvinistic
Books, nor hear any Presbyterian Sermons--That I must keep much
Company, and therefore spend as much, very probably much more Money
than my Salary--These considerations unsettled for a while my mind--On
the other hand I proposed to myself the following advantages by
going--A longer opportunity for Study than my friends would willingly
allow me If I should remain at home--A more general acquaintance with
the manners of Mankind; and a better Knowledge of the Soil, & Commerce
of these neighbouring Provinces--And a more perfect acquaintance with
the Doctrines, & method of Worship in the established Church in these
Colonies, & especially with the Conduct of the Clergy of which there
have been so many bad reports--All these however when I had laid them
together, seem'd to overbear the others, so that I determined at last
to break through and go!--Here now I am in a strange Province; But I
am under no more nor stronger temptations to any kind of vice, perhaps
not so great as at Cohansie,--unless sometimes when I am solicited to
dance I am forc'd to blush, for my Inability--I have the opportunity
of living with Credit perfectly retired--in a well regulated
family--With a man of Sense--May God help me to walk in his fear &
Gloryfy his Name!--

_Monday 3d._

Last Evening, by Miss Prissy, I was complimented with an Invitation
from Mr _Turburville_ to Dine with Him tomorrow--Squire _Lee_[109] is
as Miss Prissy told me, preparing to make a splendid _Ball_, which is
to last four or five Days; we are to be invited!--But I must stay at
Home and read _Salust_--Mr Carter is at Richmond-Court, which is held
monthly here in every County. In the Evening Mr Warden, a young Scotch
Lawyer came home with him. I spent the Evening in the Parlour--After
Supper when I was call'd upon for my Tost I mentioned with Pleasure
Miss _Betsy Beaty_.

[109] Richard Lee of "Lee Hall."

_Teusday 4._

Rose by eight--Mr _Warden_ breakfasted with us. Miss Prissy befor
Breakfast, as it is her practising Day, gave us sundry Tunes on the
_Forte Piano_. I kept the children while twelve then as we were to
dine out, I dismiss'd them till morning, and prepar'd to ride--Mrs
Carter, Miss Sylla, and Miss Betsy rode in the Chariot, and set off
about half after twelve with three waiting men--Mr Carter, Ben, and
myself, waited, & left Home by half after one, we rode on Horse back,
and waited on ourselves--It was two o-Clock when we got to Mr
Turburvilles where we were to dine--We found there two Gentlemen, with
their Wives, and one of them had also a Son & Daughter Mr Booth also
came in a short time after us; So that there dined to day with Mr
Turburville to day besides his usual Family thirteen Persons.--And if
I mention the Waiting Men With the Carriages they were twenty. We had
an Elegant Dinner, but it did not in any thing exceed what is every
day at Mr _Carters_ Table.

--We all returned Home before Dark--In the Evening the Colonel is busy
in transposing Music, I have not been at any house since I left Home,
which, from the appearance of its Situation, and the Economy of the
Family, or any other apparent Convenience, I would so soon choose to
reside in as a tutor, as the one in which it is my lot to be
placed--The Family is most agreeable! Mr Carter is sensible judicious,
much given to retirement & Study; his Company, & conversation are
always profitable--His main Studies are _Law_ & _Music_, the latter of
which seems to be his darling Amusement--It seems to nourish, as well
as entertain his mind! And to be sure he has a nice well judging Ear,
and has made great advances in the Theory and Practice of music--

Mrs _Carter_ is prudent, always cheerful, never without Something
pleasant, a remarkable Economist, perfectly acquainted (in my Opinion)
with the good-management of Children, intirely free from all foolish
and unnecessary fondness, and is also well acquainted (for She has
always been used) with the formality and Ceremony which we find
commonly in high Life--Ben, the eldest, is a youth of genius: of a
warm impetuous Disposition; desirous of acquiring Knowledge, docile,
vastly inquisitive & curious in mercantile, and mechanical Matters, is
very fond of Horsses, and takes great pleasure in exercising
them--Bob, the other Brother, is By no means destitute of capacity, As
Mr Marshal who was his last Tutor has asserted, & as many now suppose:
He is extremely volatile & unsettled in his temper, which makes it
almost wholly impossible to fix him for any time to the same thing--On
which account he has made but very little advancement in any one
Branch of Study, and this is attributed to Barrenness of Genius--He is
slovenly, clumsy, very fond of Shooting, of Dogs, of Horses, But a
very stiff untoward _Rider_, good natur'd, pleased with the Society of
persons much below his Family, and Estate, and tho' quick and wrathful
in his temper, yet he is soon moderated, & easily subdued--Harry the
Nephew, is rather stoical, sullen, or saturnine in his make. He is
obstinate, tho' Steady, and makes a slow uniform advance in his
Learning, he is vastly kind to me, but in particular to my Horse, of
his health or Indisposition--Miss _Priscilla_, the eldest Daughter
about 16, is steady, studious, docile, quick of apprehension, and
makes good progress in what She undertakes; If I could with propriety
continue in the Family, I should require no stronger Inducement than
the Satisfaction I should receive by seeing this young Lady become
perfectly acquainted with any thing I propose so soon as I communicate
it to her, but the situation of my affairs makes it out of my power
to stay longer than a year; She is small of her age, has a mild
winning Presence, a sweet obliging Temper, never swears, which is here
a distinguished virtue, dances finely, plays well on key'd
Instruments, and is upon the whole in the first Class of the female

_Nancy_ the Second, is not without some few of those qualities which
are by some (I think with great ill nature, and with little or no
truth) said to belong intirely to the fair Sex. I mean great
curiosity, Eagerness for superiority, Ardor in friend ship, But
bitterness and rage where there is enmity--She is not constant in her
disposition, nor diligent nor attentive to her business--But She has
her excellencies, She is cheerful, tender in her Temper, easily
managed by perswasion & is never without what seems to have been a
common Gift of Heaven, to the _fair-Sex_, the "_Copia Verborum_," or
readiness of Expression!--She is only beginning to play the _Guitar_,
She understands the Notes well, & is a graceful Dancer.

_Fanny_ next, is in her Person, according to my Judgment, the Flower
in the Family--She has a strong resemblance of her _Mama_ who is an
elegant, beautiful Woman--Miss Fanny seems to have a remarkable
Sedateness, & simplicity in her countenance, which is always rather
chearful than melancholy; She has nothing with which we can find Fault
in her Person, but has something in the Features of her Face which
insensibly pleases us, & always when She is in Sight draws our
Attention, & much the more because there seems to be for every
agreeable Feature a correspondent Action which improves & adorns it.
Betsy next is young, quiet, and obedient--Harriot is bold, fearless,
noisy and lawless; always merry, almost never displeased; She seems to
have a Heart easily moved by the force of Music; She has learned many
Tunes & can strike any Note, or Succession of Notes perfectly with the
Flute or Harpsichord, and is never wearied with the sound of Music
either vocal or _Instrumental_.

These are the Persons who are at present under my direction, & whose
general Character I have very imperfectly attempted to describe.

_Wednesday 5._

Rose at Seven. The morning very stormy. _Bob_ & _Nancy_ before
Breakfast had a quarrel--Bob called Nancy a Lyar; Nancy upbraided Bob,
on the other Hand, with being often flog'd by their Pappa; often by
the Masters in College; that he had stol'n Rum, & had got drunk; &
that he used to run away &c--These Reproaches when they were set off
with Miss Nancys truely feminine address, so violently exasperated
_Bob_ that he struck her in his Rage--I was at the time in my Chamber;
when I enter'd the Room each began with loud and heavy complaints, I
put them off however with sharp admonitions for better Behaviour.

The morning was so extremely stormy that I declin'd going to
Breakfast--All the others went my Breakfast was sent over--Immediately
after Breakfast Ben came over with a Message from Mr _Carter_, that he
desired me to correct _Bob_ severely immediately--Bob when I went into
School sat quiet in the corner, & looked sullen, and penitent; I gave
some orders to the Children, and went to my Room.--I sent for Bob--He
came crying--I told him his Fathers Message; he confess'd himself
guilty--I sent him to call up _Harry_--He came--I talked with them
both a long Time recommended Diligence, & good Behaviour, but
concluded by observing that I was obliged to comply with Mr Carter's
request; I sent _Harry_ therefore for some Whips.--_Bob_ and poor I
remained trembling in the chamber (for Bob was not more uneasy than I
it being the first attempt of the kind I have ever made)--The Whips
came!--I ordered Bob to strip!--He desired me to whip Him in his hand
in Tears--I told him no--He then patiently, & with great deliberation
took of his Coat and laid it by--I took him by the hand and gave him
four or five smart twigs; he cring'd, & bawld & promis'd--I repeated
then about eight more, & demanded and got immediately his solemn
promise for peace among the children, & Good Behaviour in general--I
then sent him down--He conducts himself through this day with great
Humility, & unusual diligence, it will be fine if it continues. At
noon I went over to Dinner, but it was storming, & continues so bad
that I choose rather to go without Supper than venture out in the

_Thursday 6._

To Day about twelve _Bob_ & _Prissy_ & _Nancy_ went in the Chariot to
Stratford, to attend the Dancing-School--Mr Taylor,[110] the Colonels
principal Overseer dined with us--After School in the Evening, I sat
with _Betsy_ & _Fanny_ while they sung me many songs, When they had
done I waited on them Home, & spent the Evening with Mr & Mrs

[110] The account books of Robert Carter show that William Taylor was
at this period overseer of three of Carter's plantations or
"quarters," called Dicks, Morgans and Rutters.

_Fryday 7._

The morning cold, muddy and drisly--Our School seems still, and
vacant. _Betsy_ & _Fanny_ at their Leisure are constantly knitting
with small smoth stiff straws, in imitation of their Sister _Sylla_,
who knits sometimes. The Colonel told me last Evening that he proposes
to make the vacant End of our School-Room, Where Dr Frank lived a
Concert-Room, to hold all his instruments of Music--As he proposes to
bring up from _Williamsburg_ his _Organ_, & to remove the
_Harpsichord_, _Harmonica_, _Forte-piano_, _Guittar_, _Violin_, &
_German-Flutes_, & make it a place for Practice, as well as

This afternoon _Dennis_, a Boy of about twelve Years old, one of the
Waiters at Table, as he was standing in the front Door which is vastly
huge & heavy; the Door flew up, and drew off the Skin & Flesh from his
middle Finger caught between, took off the first Joint, and left the
Bone of the greater part of the Rest of the Finger naked.

_Saturday 8._

Catechised the Children, and dismiss'd them about ten. The morning
pleasant--Rode before Dinner to Mr Blains Store--Was introduced to Dr
_Thompson_,[111] Mr _Balantine_,[112] Mr _Carr_ a young Scotch-Man
Clerk, to Mr Blain; dined with Mr Blain. Parson _Smith_, his Wife, &
her Sister were there--Colonel Washington, his Wife, & their Daughter
Miss Jenny a young Lady of few words, a sanguine Countenance, and as
to her Size, something below what Ladies call elegant; neat but not
_flashy_ in her Dress; Some of her Dress I admired because I have seen
_Laura_ in the like, yit strongly shewed me that it is not Dress alone
I admire in Her. All these had been at a Widding in the country and
were returning--In Dr _Thomsons_ Room there was hanging against the
Wall a Skeleton!--Balantine, either to shew himself a true
full-blooded Buck, or out of mere wantonness & pastime turned the
Bones (as they were fixed together with Wires) into many improper and
indecent postures; but this officious industry met with such reception
from the company as it Justly merited, and as I wish'd might happen;
for they gave visible signs of their contempt of his Behaviour--About
Six in the Evening the Chariot returned with _Bob_, Miss _Prissy_ &
_Nancy_ from the Dance at _Stratford_--They brought News as follows:
Miss Prissy told us, that they had an elegant Dance on the Whole; that
Colonel Philip Lee, where they met to Dance, was on Fryday, at the
Wedding of which I made mention Just now; that Mr _Christian_ the
Master danced several Minuets, prodigiously beautiful; that Captain
Grigg (Captain of an English Ship) danced a Minuet with her; that he
hobled most dolefully, & that the whole Assembly laughed!--_Bob_ told
us that there was a Race between Mr ---- And Colonels Horses--that
they run a Mile, & that _Dottrell_[113] belonging to Mr ---- won the
Race;--_Bob_ told me in private, after we were alone in my Room, that
Colonel Lee took an Opportunity, & asked him in the Hearing of a large
company at Supper, what sort of _Fellow_ he is whom your _Papa_ had
provided for your _Tutor_--_Bob_ told me that for answer he Informed
him I was good and agreeable--That Miss Jenny Corbin, (a young Lady
with whom I have had the greatest Opportunity of being acquainted, of
any young Lady in Virginia) gave him so favourable an Account of my
Behaviour, that he was pleased to say He should be glad to see me at
his House, & of my company--But after having heard this much, I shall
esteem myself pardonable, & shall always think it proper to refuse
without thanks his warmest Invitations; & will plead for my excuse
nothing else than mere inclination.

[111] Thomas Thompson was a well known physician of Westmoreland
County. Robert Carter retained the services of Thompson for the blacks
on his plantations for a number of years.

[112] Probably James Balendine of the firm referred to in the Carter
account books as "Messrs. James Balendine & Co."

[113] "Dotterell" was an English blooded horse that had been bred by
Sir John Pennington. He was regarded as the swiftest in that country
with the exception of one, called "Eclipse." Dotterell had been
imported into the colony in 1766 by Philip Ludwell Lee of "Stratford"
in Westmoreland County.

[Illustration: man at writing table in bed chamber]

In the Evening about seven o-Clock it snowed exceeding fast til Eight
when it ceased, it being the second Snow we had this winter here, At
Supper we had much conversation about the Dance. Mrs Carter & myself,
sat while ten and the Colonel read philosophy.

_Sunday 9._

The Morning very cold--None from our Family went to church; _Bob_
beg'd of me to let him go, I refused him; he then asked to go and dine
with Mr Turburville, I gave him no liberty.--I wrote to-Day a letter
to _Laura_, I wish it _speed_ & _Success_--I wrote also a letter to Mr
_Bryan_ in Baltimore; Another to the Gentleman who keeps the "Fountain
Inn" in _Baltimore_; & one to Dr _John Beaty_--_Bob_ returned in the
Evening after having stole away and spent the day at Mr _Turburvill's_
with a Note to his Papa from Squire _Lee_, in which Mr Carter & his
Family are invited to the Ball at his House on Monday the 17th Instant
But I must stay alone.


                           Nominy-Hall. Virginia. Jan: 9th: 1774.


The long Distance there is between us, & Uncertainty of the
Conveyance, makes it improper for me to write what I wish to tell you.
I may not, however, neglect to acquaint you that you still possess the
largest earthly Share of my Regard; & that my Fidelity towards you is
unshaken & inviolable.

I continue this Winter, by the Kindness of Heaven, in perfect Health;
& expect to return by the last of April next, if no Accident comes
between, when I promise myself Madam, much Pleasure, much Peace in
your Company.

The Family in which I live, is so kind, & suitable to my Wish, that I
would gladly continue in it--Or, at least, provide some well-qualified
Person to succeed me since I must by previous Agreement, shortly leave
it, as I do not propose to let my coming here put off my entering on
the Great-World.

If I shall be so happy as to meet with you in the Spring, I will tell
you many curious Occurrences of this Winter; but none with greater
Truth than that I have been your constant Admirer.

                                              PHILIP. V. FITHIAN.


_Monday 10th_

The Morning very cold--Dined with us to-day Mr _Sanford_ a Captain of
a Sloop which trades out of _Potowmack_ to _Norfolk_--I wrote out some
Exercises for _Bob_ & _Harry_--In the Evening the Colonel began with a
small Still to distill some Brandy from a Liquor made of Pisimmonds. I
set Ben this Evening to writing. I likewise gave _Catalines_ Speech in
_Salust_ to commit to memory in Latin, which he is to pronounce
Extempore. In the Evening I borrowed of _Ben Carter_ 15s.--I have
plenty of Money with me, but it is in Bills of Philadelphia currency &
will not pass at all here.

_Teusday 11._

The morning very cold--As cold I think, and the Frost seems to be as
intense & powerful as I have ever known it either at Cohansie or at
Princeton. This morning I put Ben to construe some Greek, he has yet
no Testament, I gave him therefore Esops Fables in Greek, and Latin. I
also took out of the Library, and gave him to read Gordon, upon
Geography. Ben seem'd scared with his Greek Lesson, he swore, & wished
for Homer that he might kick Him, as he had been told Homer invented

_Wednesday 12._

I gave _Sam_ Mr Carters Barber, for shaving & dressing me, & for
mending my Shoes, two pisterenes, which pass here for half a
Crown--The morning is serene, pleasant, but cold yet. Miss _Hariot_
this morning being over curious tasted some Mercury Mixture in Mr
_Randolph's_ Room, it made her very sick; I was frighted, the family
was frighted! she puked, & threw it off her Stomach, & was soon

I gave _Martha_ who makes my Bed, for a Christmas Box, a _Bit_, which
is a pisterene cut into two equal parts--I gave to John also, who
waits at Table & calls me to Supper a _Bit_. So that My whole Expence
to-Day has been _3/9_. Mrs Carter invited me to Day to go to the Ball,
I excused myself, & declined it.

_Thursday 13._

Mr Cunningham came before Noon to skait--At twelve we all went down to
Mr Carters Millpond--none had skaits but Mr Cunningham--we diverted
ourselves on the Ice til two, when we went up to dinner--Immediately
after Dinner Mr _Carter_ Miss _Prissy_ & _Nancy_ rode out to Mr
_Lanes_.--Mr _Cunningham_ staid the Night, Prissy play'd for us--She
has since I came made great advances--

_Fryday 14._

The morning very foggy, & warmer--I gave to Tom the Coach-man who
cured my Horse two _pisterenes_ & half a _Bit_, which is two &
ninepence 2/9. Mr Cunningham breakfasted with us--When I went into
School there came a complaint from Miss _Sally Stanhope_[114] of _Bob_
that he was rude, swore, & quarrell'd at Breakfast, poor untoward,
unfortunate Boy he gives me great Trouble--

[114] Miss Sarah Stanhope was the housekeeper at "Nomini Hall."

_Saturday 15._

I rose at seven--The morning fair the ground muddy--_Ben_ asked me to
ride with him to Mr Blains Store I chose rather to stay at Home--Ben
is preparing for the approaching Ball--Bob urged me to let him go to
Mr Lees, but he is so unruly & mischeivous when abroad that I was
obliged to refuse him the liberty of going. I spent some hours to Day
with the Girls when they were practising Music on the Guitar, &
Forte-piano, Priscilla plays her tunes true and exceeding finely--In
the Evening _Ben_ returned from Mr Blains--He told me the Store was
thronged with company--Sup'd on chocolate, & hoe-Cake, so called
because baked on a Hoe before the fire--The Colonel and his Daughter
busy at Music.

_Sunday 16._

The morning frosty & cold--_Ben_, _Bob_, _Harry_, & Mr _Randolph_ went
to Church--I stay at Home; Read Pictete--I feel very desirous of
seeing Home: of hearing good Mr Hunter Preach; of seeing my dear
Brothers & Sister; Indeed the very soil itself would be precious to
me!--I am shut up in my chamber; I read a while, then walk to the
North window, & look over Potowmack through Maryland towards Home;
then throw myself down into my Chair again & console myself that I
have every necessary, & convenient Accommodation here, which I should
have; nay much more than I should allow myself were I at Home. I am
contented--This whole world is only a Point almost unnoticeable, when
compared with the numerous _Systems_ which compose the _universe_, &
yet they all are under the particular Direction & Government of
_Almighty God_; How insignificant therefore is it for me and how
foolish to be uneasy, & solicitous whether I live in _Cohansie_, in
_Princeton_, or in _Virgininia_; Or in _America_, or in _Europe_, so
long as I am still supported, & upheld by the Divine Agency!--I am
fully satisfied--Guide me, propitious Heaven! Help me to Glorify my
God; To honour the holy Religion which I profess; & If I shall be
fitted, & introduced to the Ministry, may I still go on and be of
advantage to my fellow Mortals!--

Evening, The Boys are returned; _Bob_ brings me the _parsons_
Compliments; Mr _Cunninghams_; & that Miss Corbin enquired If I was
well!--Bob [also] informed me that the _Parson_, Mr _Blain_,
_Cunningham_, _Balantine_, & others are to come to Captain
_Turburvilles_ Mill-Pond to Skate before they go to the Ball--

_Monday 17._

At Breakfast the Colonel gave orders to the Boys concerning their
conduct this Day, & through the course of the Ball--He allows them to
go; to stay all this Night; to bring him an Account of all the company
at the Ball; & to return tomorrow Evening--All the morning is spent in
Dressing.--Mr Carter & Mrs Carter pressed me to go; But, mindful of my
Promise when I left Home, I stay and enjoy myself in quiet.--I give
the Children a Holiday to Day--I gave Dennis the Waiter half a Bit a
Present--Mrs _Carter_, Miss _Prissy_, & _Nancy_ dressed splendidly set
away from Home at two.

_Teusday 18._

Mrs _Carter_, & the young Ladies came Home last Night from the Ball, &
brought with them Mrs _Lane_, they tell us there were upwards of
Seventy at the Ball; forty one Ladies; that the company was genteel; &
that Colonel _Harry Lee_,[115] from _Dumfries_, & his Son _Harrey_ who
was with me at College, were also there; Mrs Carter made this an
argument, and it was a strong one indeed, that to-day I must dress &
go with her to the Ball--She added also that She Desired my Company in
the Evening when she should come Home as it would be late--After
considering a while I consented to go, & was dressed--we set away from
Mr Carters at two; Mrs _Carter_ & the young Ladies in the Chariot, Mrs
Lane in a Chair, & myself on Horseback--As soon as I had handed the
Ladies out, I was saluted by Parson _Smith_; I was introduced into a
small Room where a number of Gentlemen were playing Cards, (the first
game I have seen since I left Home) to lay off my Boots
Riding-Coat&c--Next I was directed into the Dining-Room to see Young
Mr _Lee_; He introduced me to his Father--With them I conversed til
Dinner, which came in at half after four. The Ladies dined first, when
some Good order was preserved; when they rose, each nimblest Fellow
dined first--The Dinner was as elegant as could be well expected when
so great an Assembly were to be kept for so long a time.--For Drink,
there was several sorts of Wine, good Lemon Punch, Toddy, Cyder,
Porter &c.--About Seven the Ladies & Gentlemen begun to dance in the
Ball-Room--first Minuets one Round; Second Giggs; third Reels; And
last of All Country-Dances; tho' they struck several Marches
occasionally--The Music was a French-Horn and two Violins--The Ladies
were Dressed Gay, and splendid, & when dancing, their Silks & Brocades
rustled and trailed behind them!--But all did not join in the Dance
for there were parties in Rooms made up, some at Cards; some drinking
for Pleasure; some toasting the Sons of america; some singing "Liberty
Songs" as they call'd them, in which six, eight, ten or more would put
their Heads near together and roar, & for the most part as
unharmonious as an affronted--Among the first of these Vociferators
was a young Scotch-Man, Mr _Jack Cunningham_; he was nimis bibendo
appotus; noisy, droll, waggish, yet civil in his way & wholly
inoffensive--I was solicited to dance by several, Captain Chelton,
Colonel Lee, Harry Lee, and others; But George Lee,[116] with great
Rudeness as tho' half drunk, asked me why I would come to the Ball &
neither dance nor play Cards? I answered him shortly, (for his
Impudence moved my resentment) that my Invitation to the Ball would
Justify my Presence; & that he was ill qualified to direct my
Behaviour who made so indifferent a Figure himself--Parson Smiths, &
Parson Gibberns Wives danced, but I saw neither of the Clergymen
either dance or game[117]--At Eleven Mrs Carter call'd upon me to go,
I listned with gladness to the summons & with Mrs Lane in the Chariot
we rode Home, the Evening sharp and cold!--I handed the Ladies out,
waited on them to a warm Fire, then ran over to my own Room, which was
warm and had a good Fire; oh how welcome! Better this than to be at
the Ball in some corner nodding, and awaked now & then with a midnight
Yell!--In my Room by half after twelve; & exceeding happy that I could
break away with Reputation.--

[115] Colonel Henry Lee of "Leesylvania."

[116] Apparently George Fairfax Lee of "Mount Pleasant."

[117] Parson Giberne was not so fortunate in escaping criticism on
other occasions. Fithian, himself, notes his gambling several times,
and the Reverend Jonathan Boucher, Landon Carter and Robert Wormeley
Carter all comment upon it in their journals.

_Wednesday 19._

Rose at Nine while the Bell was ringing--Breakfasted at ten, Mr
_Carter_ and I alone, the Ladies yet in Bed--I gave the Children the
third Holiday; _Bob_ _Ben_ & _Harry_ are yet at the Dance--Mrs Carter
declines going to Day, I took a Walk out before Dinner, & with my
Pen-knife carved _Laura's_ much admired Name, upon a smooth beautiful
Beech-Tree--Towards Evening Mrs Lane left us & rode home--_Bob_ came
Home about six, but so sleepy that he is actually stupified!--

_Thursday 20._

_Ben_ came Home late in the Night--This morning he looks fatigued out.
We began to study to Day but all seem sleepy and dull. Dined with us
to-day Mr _Lee_ a Gentleman from Augusta County, who has lately been
to the Settlements on Ohio.

Evening I began some Verses on Miss Carter for a present at the
approaching Valantine[118]--But I drew the Picture from Laura.

[118] See this valentine in Appendix, pp. 230-233.

_Fryday 21._

All seem tolerably recruited this morning; we hear, the company left
the Ball last Evening, quite wearied out; tho' the Colonel intreated
them to stay the proposed Time.

To Day about twelve came to Mr _Carters_ Captain _John Lee_, a
Gentleman who seems to copy the Character of _Addisons Will Wimble_.
When I was on my way to this place I saw him up in the country at
Stafford; he was then just sallying out on his Winters Visit, & has
got now so far as here, he stays, as I am told about eight, or ten
Weeks in the year at his own House, the remaining part he lives with
his waiting Man on his Friends.--

_Saturday 22._

Captain Lee with us to Day--The Weather cold; I set in my Room all Day
working at my Verses for Miss Carter.

_Sunday 23._

None went to Church on account of the Cold--Afternoon the Sun shone
fair--I took my Horse & rode about a Mile & returned--Captain _Lee_
left us this Day.

_Monday 24._

Still very cold snows some--Dined with us Colonel _Frank_ L.
_Lee_,[119] & Colonel _Harrison_ of Maryland--Miss _Nancy_ unwel of a
cold.--There are great Professions of Liberty here expressed in Songs
Toasts, &c. Yesterday News came of the Arrival of Ships with Tea; into
_Boston_, _New-york_, _Philadelphia_. & of the New-Yorkers burning the
House of his Excellency Governor _Tryon_. for having said that, if
orders concerning the Tea had been transmitted to him he would have
landed it tho' under the mouths of the Cannon!--Gentlemen here in
general applaud & honour our Northern Colonies for so manly, &
patriotic Resistance!--

[119] Francis Lightfoot Lee (1734-1797) of "Menokin" in Richmond
County was the fourth son of President Thomas Lee of "Stratford." His
wife was Rebecca Tayloe, a daughter of Colonel John Tayloe of "Mount
Airy." Lee served as a member of the House of Burgesses from Loudoun
County and later from Richmond County.

_Teusday 25._

Still sharp & cold--Miss Nancy much indisposed with a sore
throat--Dined with us Mr _Cunningham_. Toasts the _King_, _Queen_,
_Governor_ & _Colonel_, of _Virginia_. Northern Sons of Liberty. & a
good price for our comodities.--This Day the Person who carried my
Letters to Baltimore returned without any Letters or Intelligence.

_Wednesday 26._

The weather this morning seems to have moderated--Miss _Nancy_ is
poorly but better--In the Evening I ran a Foot Race with Ben & Harry
fo exercise, & a prize of ten Apples to the winner. We ran from the
School-House round the stable, & Kitchen & Great-House which Distance
is about 70 Rod--I came out first about One Rod; but almost wholly
spent; I went to my Chamber and lay down, sick, fainty, & quite
distressed. I puked several times; after having rested a while,
however, I revived & went well to Supper, & Spend the Evening in
Writing. At Supper from the conversation I learned that the slaves in
this Colony never are married, their Lords thinking them improper
Subjects for so valuable an Institution!--

_Thursday 27._

The morning mild Serene and moderate--The Colonel is making
preparations for a Journey to _Anapolis_, where he Designs next Month.
In the Evening, (for here they call the time between Dinner and
day-light-End Evening,) He & Mrs Carter shewed me their House; the
original Design, the present form; & what is yet to be Done--Miss
_Nancy_ came down stairs to Day--

_Fryday 28._

Snows this morning Briskly--Ben in a great Fever lest the Weather
shall stop him from a Ride he has alloted for tomorrow--At twelve the
Snow ceased, Depth about five Inches--I corrected _Harry_ for the
first time to-day for expressing himself indecently to _Prissy_.

[Illustration: room full of smoke]

_Saturday 29._

_Ben_ is preparing himself to go out--while we were dining about three
it began to Snow briskly--After Dinner when I went over to my Room I
was very much surprised to find my Room full of Smoke & Flame!--A kind
Providence only prevented the total Loss of our School-House & all its
Furniture, & our own Clothes Books &c!--A Coal of Fire had by accident
(as the Hearth is very narrow) fall'n on the floor, it took fire, &
when I entered it was burning rapidly--It had burnt three Boards about
eight Inches from the Hearth, & most certainly in a short time would
have been inextinguishable--I put it out however speedily, & had all
the fire removed--

The Weather is as wintry here in every Respect as I have ever known
it in New-Jersey--Mr Carter has a Cart & three pair of Oxen which
every Day bring in four Loads of Wood, Sundays excepted, & yet these
very severe Days we have none to spare; And indeed I do not wonder,
for in the _Great House_, _School_ House, Kitchen, &c. there are
twenty Eight steady fires! & most of these are very Large!--After
Supper, when all had retired but Mrs Carter, Mr Carter & Myself, the
Conversation being on serious Matters, Mr Carter observed that he much
dislikes the common method of making Burying Yards round Churches, &
having them almost open to every Beast--He would have them at some
small distance from the Church, neatly & strongly inclosed, and the
Graves kept up decent, & plain, but would have no splendid, nor
magnificent Monument, nor even Stone to say "Hic jacet."--He told us
he proposes to make his own Coffin & use it for a Chest til its proper
use shall be required--That no Stone, nor Inscription to be put over
him--And that he would choose to be laid under a shady Tree where he
might be undisturbed, & sleep in peace & obscurity--He told us, that
with his own hands he planted, & is with great diligence raising a
_Catalpa_-Tree at the Head of his Father who lies in his Garden--Mrs
Carter beg'd that She might have a Stone, with this only for a
Monument, "Here lies _Ann Tasker Carter_."[120] with these things for
my consideration I left them about ten and went to my cold Room, & was
hurried soon to Bed; Not however without reflecting on the importance
of our preparation for this great Change!

[120] Frances Ann Tasker Carter died in 1787 and was buried in the
family graveyard at "Nomini Hall." Her husband, who died seventeen
years later, was buried in Baltimore.

_Sunday 30._

Very stormy this morning with Rain and Hail which instantly freezes;
the trees hang bending with Ice, & the ways are all glassy &
slippery--None think of going to Church this day--Mrs Carter & I after
Breakfast had a long conversation on religious affairs--Particularly
on differing Denominations of Protestants--She thinks the Religion of
the established Church without Exception the best of any invented or
practised in the world. & indeed she converses with great propriety on
these things, & discovers her very extensive Knowledge; She allows the
Difference between the Church, & Presbyterianism to be only exceeding
small, & wishes they were both intirely united! Through this whole Day
it storms but the Evening is terrible! almost an Inundation of Rain;
The wind violent at North-East; The Snow, Hail, and Rain freezing
together on the Ground! This Evening the Negroes collected themselves
into the School-Room, & began to play the _Fiddle_, & dance--I was in
Mr Randolphs Room;--I went among them, _Ben_, & _Harry_ were of the
company--_Harry_ was dancing with his Coat off--I dispersed them
however immediately.

_Monday 31._

Excessive sloppy--Miss _Nancy_ came to School to Day--I finished my
verses which are to be presented as a Valantine to Miss _Prissy

_Teusday February 1st 1774._

Fair & mild but vastly muddy--About twelve Squire _Lee_ & young _Harry
Lee_, who was a College-Fellow, came to see us. They staid while about
five. The Toasts at Dinner were as usual--The Colonel & Mrs Carter
seem Much pleased with Harry, & with his manner.

_Wednesday 2._

The weather vastly fine. At twelve o-Clock the Colonel & Miss _Prissy_
rode out for an airing--_Prissy_ This day began Multiplication. We had
also a large elegant Writing Table brought to us, so high that the
Writers must stand.

_Thursday 3._

Prissy, & Nancy practising music--We had last night Thunder,
Lightning, & a very great shower.

_Fryday 4._

I put Ben this day into virgil--We had our Room mended & came into
it--at twelve I rode out to Mr Taylors about two Miles, in again by
Dinner-Time--Dined with us one Mrs Hut--This Evening, in the
School-Room, which is below my Chamber, several Negroes & _Ben,_ &
_Harry_ are playing on a _Banjo_ & dancing!--

_Saturday 5:_

I spent the morning in my Room, _Ben_, & _Bob_ are gone out. About
twelve came on a visit Mr _Goodlett_, & _Saml Fantleroy_;[121] I spent
the remainder of the day with them.--At Dinner when call'd upon for a
Toast I gave Miss _Sally Hollinshead_. Mr Goodlett told me he has had
an Invitation, to accept a School in _Leeds_,[122] a town on the River
Rapahannock, about 25 Miles from this up & across the Country.

[121] Samuel Griffin Fauntleroy (1759-1826) was the son of Moore
Fauntleroy of "The Cliffs" in Richmond County.

[122] Leedstown was a thriving center of trade and shipping. It had
been incorporated in 1742.

_Sunday 6._

I rode to Church; Mrs Carter & Miss Prissy & Nancy were out--Mr Smith
gave us a Sermon 14 Minutes long on Charite--But poor Fellow he seem'd
Cold as his Subject! Mr Fantleroy; & Mr Goodlett dined with us and set
off for Home as soon as we rose from Dinner--This day two Negro
Fellows the Gardiner & cooper, wrangled; & at last fought; It happened
hard however for the Cooper, who is likely to lose one of his Eyes by
that Diabolical Custom of gouging which is in common practise among
those who fight here--Evening Ben returned; he has been into
Northumland to see one Mr _Jones_. Mr Goodlett, to Day, shewed me a
piece of his own performance, a paraphrase on part of the Book of Job,
done in Lattin-Verse.

_Monday 7._

The Day pleasant, & seems to have some appearance of Spring--Mr Blain
call'd this Affternoon, & told us that by a Letter he hears Lady
_Dunmore_ is arrived from New-York[123]--and that many good & wealthy
Families arrived in the same Ship--It is indeed amazing, & it will
soon astonish the whole World, to consider the Rapidity of the growth
of these Colonies--

[123] John Murray, Earl of Dunmore, served as Governor of the colony
from 1771 to 1775. Lady Dunmore did not arrive in Virginia to join him
until the latter part of February of 1774.

At Supper, Mr Carter informed me it is his purpose to manifacture
30.000 Bushels of wheat in his New-Mill which is yet scarcely

_Teusday 8._

Before Breakfast _Nancy_ & _Fanny_ had a Fight about a Shoe Brush
which they both wanted--Fanny pull'd off her Shoe & threw at Nancy,
which missed her and broke a pane of glass of our School Room. they
then enter'd upon close scratching &c. which methods seem instinctive
in Women. Harry happen'd to be present & affraid lest he should be
brought in, ran and informed me--I made peace, but with many threats--

Mrs Carter has ordered the Gardener to sew Lettice, & plant Peas this
Day in the Garden.--

_Wednesday 9._

This day very blustry & cold--I gave Prissy a Coppy of Secretary-Hand,
at her particular Request--

_Thursday 10._

We had the Virginia Gazette[124] to day in which the accounts
concerning the destroying the Tea at Boston are confirm'd--& also an
account of the Burning of the House of Governor Tryon. Dined with us
Colonel _Frank Lee_; his Wife & Captain _John Lee_. Toasts after
Dinner, the _King_. _Queen_. Absent Friends, Governor of Virginia, &
his Lady just arrived, & Success to American Trade & Commerce

[124] The _Virginia Gazette_ was founded by William Parks at
Williamsburg in 1736. This journal continued to issue until 1778. In
1766 a rival sheet bearing the same name was established and was
published in Williamsburg until 1776. In 1775 a third _Virginia
Gazette_ had been established which continued to issue until 1780.

_Fryday 11._

The Company staid all Night--at Breakfast the conversation was on a
terrible Distemper which is in this County at present; & which in
Maryland last year about this time carried off hundreds, and is call'd
the "_putrid Quinsy_." Mr Carter has a Man lying now dangerously ill
of it!

What they do in the Disorder is, when the Inflamation is first
observ'd, bleeding; then give the _Bark_ & _Salt-petre_, or _Nitre_,
and _Gargles_ to cleanse the mouth--

Our company left us before dinner--Last night I took Bob to my Room,
after having in the course of the Day corrected him thrice, & reasoned
with him concerning the impropriety of his Behaviour; at the same time
I acquainted him with my final resolution to send him over for
correction every Day to his Papa's Study, which had so strong an
Effect on him (as all the Children are in remarkable Subjection to
their Parents) that he firmly pomised to attend to my advice, & thro'
this Day has been punctual to his word.

I spent the evening with the Family to hear the music. For every
evening Prissy & Nancy play the whole Evening for practice & besides
every Week half of Teusday, Thursday, & Saturday. We were informed
that the _Carter_ who goes with the Team is ill of the sore Throat!--

_Saturday 12._

After having dismised the School I went over to Mr Carters Study--We
conversed on many things, & at length on the College of William &
Mary at _Williamsburg_. He informed me that it is in such confusion at
present, & so badly directed, that he cannot send his Children with
propriety there for Improvement & useful Education--That he has known
the Professors to play all Night at Cards in publick Houses in the
City, and has often seen them drunken in the Street!--That the Charter
of the College is vastly Extensive, & the yearly income sufficient to
support a University being about 4.000£. Sterling.--That the Necessary
Expence for each Scholar yearly is only 15£ Currency.

Two of the officers of the Institution, Mr Bracker, & Mr Henly[125]
Clergymen are at present engaged in a paper War published weekly in
the Williamsburg Gazette's.

[125] John Bracken served as minister of Bruton Parish Church at
Williamsburg from 1773 to 1818. He also served for a period as master
of the grammar school at the College of William and Mary, and for two
years as president of the college. At this time Bracken had just
incurred the bitter enmity of Samuel Henley, professor of divinity and
moral philosophy at the college, who had hoped to secure the
appointment given his rival. The two men aired their grievances in a
long and acrimonious controversy carried on in the columns of the
_Virginia Gazette_. Henley, a Tory, left the colony for England in
1775 and never returned. He later became principal of the East India
College at Hertford.

Miss Fanny quite unwell of a Cold with a pain in her Breast. Evening
Mrs Carter complain'd of a sore throat; and _Ben_ also, complains that
his Throat is quite troublesome--Mr Randolph too is confin'd in his
Room all day! We seem to be all sickning!--

_Sunday 13._

Things look better this morning Mrs Carter, & _Ben_ seem relieved, Mr
Randolph, & Fanny are better. The morning very blustry with wind &
Snow--None go to Church from here to day--In my Room I read _Pictete_.

_Monday 14._

Mr _Randolph_ this Morning happens to be Miss _Nancy's Valentine_; &
Miss _Prissy_ mine,--The morning sharp & very cold--

_Teusday 15._

I have a call this morning from _Bob_ & _Harry_ for a Holiday, for
Shrove Teusday; I shall dismiss them at twelve o-Clock. I gave Miss
Carter my Verses for her Valentine, Dined with us Mrs _Ford_. I
finished reading the first, & began the Second Volume of _Pictete_.

_Wednesday 16._

I happened last monday to offend _Prissy_, She retains her anger &
seems peculiarly resentful!--_Ben_ agreed for half a Bit a Week to
play the Flute every Night, or read, for me, twenty Minutes after I am
in Bed.

[Illustration: teacher and students]

_Thursday 17._

Prissy seems much affronted; The Cause was as follows Monday
afternoon, by Chance I tapp'd her on the Head, & wholly in Jest; She
seem'd vex'd, but Teusday morning which is her day for practice on the
Forte-Piano, after Breakfast, I desir'd her to walk over to the
School, she refused, & gave for an Excuse that She must begin to
play--Both these things laid together were the cause of her

_Fryday 18._

The Weather pleasant and moderate--_Bob_, _Nancy_, & _Prissy_, are
setting off this morning to the Dance, which is at Mr _Washingtons_[126]--

[126] At "Bushfield" on the Potomac River.

_Saturday 19._

at Dinner we were conversing on Reading, among many remarks the
Colonel observed that, He would bet a Guinea that Mrs Carter reads
more than the Parson of the parish! No panegyrick on the Gentleman? Mr
Christian the Dancing Master, Came home with the young Ladies.

_Sunday 20._

Last Evening the virginia News-papers came; but nothing from the

Rode to Nomini Church; Parson Smith read Prayers, but it was too Cold
a Day to give us a Sermon; After Service _Mr & Mrs Carter_, the
Parson, his wife & Sister; Mr _Camel_ the Comptroler; _Ben_, _Bob_,
Miss _Pierce_, Miss _Sanford_, and My self were invited to Colonel
Washingtons to Dinner. His House has the most agreeable Situation, of
any I have yet seen in Maryland or Virginia; the broad Potowmack,
which they account between 7 and 8 Miles over, washes his Garden on
the North. the River Nomini is within a stones throw on the West, a
levil open Country on the East; a Lane of a mile & three quarters
accurately measur'd. lies from the House South-East it has from the
House the whole distance a uniform Descent, & at the Gate at the End
of this Lane the Situation is just six feet lower than at the
House--There are no Marshes near, which altogether make the place
exceeding Description. The Roads are now miry & disagreeable.

_Monday 21._

Prissy seems again reconciled--Miss _Stanhope_ the Housekeeper is ill
of a Rheumatism--They are begining to work in the Garden with vigor.
Dined with us Docter _Franks_.

_Teusday 22._

Mr _Carter_ rode to the County-Court. I read to day several chapters
in the Greek testament. Mr _Carter_ has given orders to his Hands to
rigg, & fit his Schooner a Vessel of about 40 Tons for Business.
Docter Franks with us yet. Mrs _Carter_ was taken ill last Evening &
has not been out of her chamber to Day. Miss _Stanhope_ the
Housekeeper is also confin'd to her Room with Rheumatic Pains.

_Wednesday. 23._

Mr _Carter_ has an invitation to dine at Lee-Hall to Day, which he
accepts--before Dinner came in Miss _Corbin,_ & Miss _Booth_; two
young Ladies pretty well gone in what we call the Bloom of Life; Mr
Carter was out, Mrs Carter is ill, & Ben was not Drest; Bob & I
therefore at Dinner must be Directors of the ceremonies at Table! But
happily for me I have them at last all by heart--At five Bob & I had
the Pleasure to walk home with them, (for they were on foot) to Assist
them in Crossing the River Nomini which lies between us & Mr
Turburville's. Evening Mrs Carter seems no better--Miss Sally came out
of her Room--

_Thursday 24._

Frogs croaked last Evening. This morning the Birds of several kinds
are singing; and some presages of Spring seem visible. Mrs Carter
continues no better, A messenger is sent for Docter _Jones_, with
orders, that if he is from Home to pursue him.--

Mr _Gregory_,[127] the Colonels Gardiner came this morning & began
with Mr _Carters_ two Fellows who have been in the Garden all
winter--They planted this day the common garden Peas.

The Colonel at Dinner gave Ben & I a Piece of Music to prepare on
our Flutes, in which he is to perform the thorough Bass--Evening
Mrs Carter Some Better.

[127] James Gregory was employed at various seasons to assist and
instruct the colored gardeners at "Nomini Hall."

_Fryday 25._

Mrs Carter better--The Day pleasant--There is a report that the
Jail-Fever, or Yellow or putrid Fever, is at one Mr Atwel's on
potowmack, in this County; that it was brought in a Ship which came
lately with convict Servants; that two have already died, one this
morning: & that many of Mr Atwells Slaves are infected!--

Docter Jones spent the Evening with us; He complimented _Ben_ _Bob_, &
myself with an invitation to dine with him next Sunday.

_Saturday 26._

Mr _Carter's_ Merchant Mill begins to run to-day--She is calculated to
manufacture 25.000 Bushels of Wheat a Year--I walked at twelve with
the Colonel to view her; it is amazing to consider the work and
Ingenuity--He told me his Bill for the materials and work was

_Ben_ to day Rode to Mr _Fantleroys_. Evening the Colonel & I
performed the _Sonata_. I had the Pleasure to hear the Colonel say
that I have my part perfect.

_Sunday 27._

I rode to day to Richmond Church, Parson Gibbern preached about 20
Minutes on the Text "he that walketh uprightly walketh wisely"--this
seems to be a polite part of the parish.--After Sermon Ben & I rode to
Docter _Jones's_; he was from home. Mrs Jones a young, Handsome,
polite Lady, received & entertained us exceeding civilly.--On our
return home, we called to see Mr Hamilton, who by a accident was
thrown from a Horse, & received a sad cut in his Face! he lies at Mr

_Monday 28._

Mrs Carter confined yet to her Room, but much better--Prissy & I on
good terms once more--Breakfasted with us Mr _Taylor_.[128] Ben
determines to ask his Papa to-morrow for Liberty to go home with me in
April. Evening we performed the Sonata I the first; Ben the second; &
Mr Carter the thorough Bass on the _Forte Piano_.

[128] Probably Colonel John Tayloe of "Mount Airy."

_Teusday March 1st 1774._

By one of Mr Carters Sailors we heard this morning that the Fever
mentioned some Days ago continues. Afternoon Mr Lane[129] a young
Gentleman, formerly my acquaintance at Princeton came to see me; with
one Mr Harison--He stays all night.

[129] Joseph F. Lane of Loudoun County, Virginia.

_Wednesday 2._

I gave my little family a Holiday, with an intention to ride with Mr
Lane after Dinner--We walked to the Mill, & about the works, but
before twelve it began to rain, & prevented our going out--Mrs
_Carter_ came out of her chamber & dined with us, & seems to be well
over Illness.

Mr Lane lives in Louden County 20 Miles from Dumfries; & is to return
to Princeton towards the close of this month.

_Thursday 3._

Late last Evening the Packets came in: In the Pennsylvania Gazette I
saw that Docter _Elmer_ of my acquaintance in Jersey; & Docter Jones
at whose House I dined Last Sunday are created members of the American
Philosophical Society.--In the virginia Papers there is an Account of
an Earthquake felt on monday the 21 ult. at _Williamsburg_,
_Richmond_, & _Fredericksburg_--After Breakfast Mr Lane left us, He
was drest in black superfine Broadcloth; Gold-Laced hat; laced
Ruffles; black Silk Stockings; & to his Broach on his Bosom he wore a
Masons Badge inscrib'd "Virtute and Silentio" cut in a Golden Medal!
Certainly he was fine!--Mrs Carter continues better. Evening we
performed again in the several parts our Sonata--_Ben_ mentioned to
his Mama, as Mr Lane's coming hindred his asking his _Papa_ for his
Consent to go to Philadelphia.

She seems to be not unwilling.

Expence to Day for Paper a Bitt, or 7½d.

_Fryday 4._

I gave the _Hostler_ directions for preparing my Horse for the
approaching expedition. In a Ship arrived last week in Potowmack Mr
Carter received half a Dozen of the latest Gent. Magazines with
several other new Books,

This day I wrote two Letters to be forwarded by Mr Lane, one to a
young Lady in Philadelphia the other to my Sister.

No news of beautiful _Laura_; perhaps I may say of her, to myself:
Quid insanis, Philippe, tua lura _Laura_,--Alium--secuta est! Keep
her, kind Heaven, & in her Friendship make me happy! After School at
Evening, on account of some difference about the Key of the
School-Room Ben gave Harry a smart, but just correction; I kept in my
Room that I might be wholly unconcerned in the matter.

There came in about eight o-Clock a man very drunk, & grew exceeding
noisy & troublesome, & as the Evening was cold & stormy Mr Carter
thought it improper to send him away; he was therefore ordered into
the Kitchen, to stay the Night: Him Bob soon after persuaded to the
School-house; I soon heard from my Room the noise & guesed immediately
the Cause. I waited however 'til half after ten, when all seemed
silent; I then took a candle & went into the School-Room, And before
the Fire Bob had brought a matt, & Several Blankets, & was himself in
a sound sleep covered with the Blankets on the same Matt between the
drunken Man, & a Negro Fellow, his Papas Postilion! I mention this as
one Example among a thousand to shew the very particular Taste of this
Boy!--I could mention another which would illustrate what I have said
of this passion for Horses when I gave a Scetch of his character,
_Ben_ has a very sightly young mare which he has in keeping for our
intended Journey; this morning Bob agreed to give his Brother a
Pisterene, & a rich Tortoise-Shell Handled Knife bound elegantly with
Silver, only for Liberty to ride this Mare every day to Water, until
his Brother sets away, & would consent to be limited as to the Gait he
should use in Riding--I borrowed the late Magazines & read them in my
Leisure. I am daily more charmed & astonished with Mrs Carter. I think
indeed she is to be placed in the place with Ladies of the first

_Saturday 5._

Very stormy this morning, no going out: I spend the day very agreeably
at Home. Mr Carter appointed to _Ben_, & I another _Sonata_ to
practise. He wrote for Miss _Nancy_ also "Infancy" to get by Heart &
sing it with the _Guitar_. The day continues stormy; _Bob_, however,
has ventured out; for neither Heat, nor Cold, nor Storm can stay

We dined at three--The Colonel at Dinner observed that many of the
most just, & nervous sentiments are contain'd in Songs & small
Sketches of Poetry; but being attended with _Frippery Folly_ or
_Indecency_ they are many times look'd over. I am remarkably pleased
with the Monument erected to the memory of General _Wolfe_ in the
universal Magazine for September 1773. The General is there
represented in an expiring Posture, supported by an English Soldier,
who seems to comfort him in his last moments, by directing his closing
Eyes to a Figure representing Victory, holding in one hand a
palm-Branch, the emblem of peace; & a Crown or Wreath of immortality
in the other, which she offers the dying commander; while he himself
seems to make a final effort to express his Sattisfaction at her
Appearance. On the corners of the Base are two Lions couchant, the
Emblems of the british Nation, supporting the Sarcophagus or marble
Urn, & intended to express the gratitude of his native country for his
eminent Services. On the first pannel of the Base is an elegant alto
Relievo, representing the debarkation of the Troops at the Foot of the
Heights of Abraham.

The Writer says that the Height of the Monument from the Ground-Line
to the top of the Tent, is nearly twenty-seven feet; that the figures
are considerably larger than the Life, & beautifully executed.

On an oval Tablet on the front of the Urn are inscribed the
underwritten Lines.

  To the Memory
  James Wolfe Esqr

  Major-General, & Commander in Chief of the British Land Forces on
  an Expedition against Quebeck. Who, surmounting by Ability &
  valour All Obstacles of Art & Nature,

  Was slain,
  In the moment of Victory.

  At the head
  of his conquering Troops, on the 13th of September 1759;

  The King,
  and the Parliament of Great Britain
  Dedicate this Monument.

Honour is here indeed done to merit, and Valour is justly eternized!--

I was reading in the Evening to _Bob_ in the Monthly Review the
remarks on the Poetry and writings of _Phillis Wheatly_[130] of
Boston; at which he seem'd in astonishment; sometimes wanting to see
her, then to know if She knew grammer, Latin, &c. at last he expressed
himself in a manner very unusual for a Boy of his turn. & suddenly
exclaimed, Good God! I wish I was in Heaven!--The Weather is so stormy
I chose to forego my Supper, rather than venture into the dark, &
Water. In bed a little after ten which is our usual time.

[130] Phillis Wheatley had been brought from Africa to Boston as a
slave in 1761. Educated by the daughters of her owner, John Wheatley,
Phillis manifested remarkable acquisitive powers and soon attracted
attention by the excellent character of her verse. Her first bound
volume, _Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral_, was
published in 1773.

_Sunday 6._

I rose at eight--The morning cold & stormy--_Ben___ is distressed that
he cannot go to Church; I cannot say but I enjoy myself with great
Satisfaction tho' I stay most of my time in my Chamber; & often have
to withstand the solicitations of Gentlemen to visit them.

Breakfasted at half after nine. Mr Lane the other Day informed me that
the _Anabaptists_ in _Louden County_ are growing very numerous; & seem
to be increasing in afluence; and as he thinks quite destroying
pleasure in the Country; for they encourage ardent Pray'r; strong &
constant faith, & an intire Banishment of _Gaming_, _Dancing_, &
Sabbath-Day Diversions. I have also before understood that they are
numerous in many County's in this Province & are Generally accounted
troublesome--Parson _Gibbern_ has preached several Sermons in
opposition to them, in which he has labour'd to convince his People
that what they say are only whimsical Fancies or at most Religion
grown to Wildness & Enthusiasm!--There is also in these counties one
Mr Woddel,[131] a presbiterian Clergyman, of an irreproachable
Character, who preaches to the people under Trees in summer, & in
private Houses in Winter, Him, however, the people in general dont
more esteem than the Anabaptists Preachers; but the People of Fashion
in general countenance, & commend him. I have never had an opportunity
of seeing Mr _Woddel_, as he is this Winter up in the Country, but Mr
& Mrs _Carter_ speak well of him, Mr & Mrs _Fantleroy_ also, & all who
I have ever heard mention his Name. Like _Bob_ I am at once fill'd
with pleasure & surprise, when I see the remarks of the Reviewers
confirmed as to the Writings of that ingenious _African Phillis
Wheatly_ of Boston; her verses seem to discover that She is tolerably
well acquainted with _Poetry_, _Learning_, & _Religion_. In the
universal Magazine for September 1773 are the following Lines on her
being brought from _Africa_ to _America_ by herself.

[131] James Waddell (1739-1805) was an outstanding Presbyterian
minister in the colony. His gentle manner and forceful sermons did
much to advance the cause of his church. At this period he was the
pastor of a congregation in the Northern Neck, composed of families of
Northumberland and Lancaster Counties. He later exerted a strong
influence in the Shenandoah Valley and Piedmont sections. After 1787
he was blind for a number of years and was later celebrated as "The
Blind Preacher" in William Wirt's _The Letters of the British Spy_.

    "Twas mercy brought me from my Pagan Land,
    Taught my benighted Soul to understand,
    That there's a God; that there's a Saviour too;
    Once I Redemption neither sought nor knew,
    Some view our sable Race with scornful Eye,
    "Their Colour is a diabolic Dye."
    Remember, christians, Negroes, black as Cain,
    May be refin'd, & join the Angelic Train.

--The people Went to day as usual into the Woods with the Cart & Oxen
for Wood, as the cold and stormy Weather the several days past has
occasioned large, & steady fires--It seems however to be a Breach of
the Law of the Sabbath. _Ben_ impatient of staying at home rode out
about Eleven, when the weather is more moderate; _Bob_, _Harry_ & Mr
_Randolph_ also are all going out; I seem happy when intirely alone, &
have undisturbed liberty to spend in Devotion God's holy Sabbath of

Before Night it grew fair when on a Sudden all are out, so that we
seem like a Town; but most of the Inhabitants are black--We dined at
three, no company. Evening _Bob_ returned & brought Mr Turburville's
Compliments, with a strong invitation for me to visit him--A little
before the Sun went down I took a walk down the Poplar Avenue; which
must certainly be vastly pleasant in Summer--At the farthest end of
this Walk I gathered & eat some Pisimmonds from a large Tree which
were exceeding sweet, & agreeable. Supped at nine, At Supper The
Colonel informed me that he has invented this Day a method for finding
the difference of the value of money in this _Province_ and in
_Maryland_. We do not spend Sundays thus in Jersey. In Bed by ten. Ben
at home.

[Illustration: making a fence]

_Monday 7._

The morning vastly clear & cool--The Colonel rode to Richmond court at
twelve, with Mr _Randolph_, I walked to see the Negroes make a fence;
they drive into the Ground Chesnut stakes about two feet apart in a
strait Row, & then twist in the Boughs of _Savin_[132] which grows in
great plenty here--Ben, to Day, began Virgils Georgics--And Prissy
began Division--By accident to day in the Garden I took up Mr _Gegory_
the Gardiners Spade, for which he instantly called on me for my
forfeit--This Gardiner through the Summer from this Time has half a
Crown daily Wages--Dined at half after two.

[132] An American juniper or "red cedar."

_Teusday 8._

I rose by six--the morning fine. Breakfasted at nine. At twelve I
walked, to the mill together with Mr & Mrs Carter; Miss Prissy &
Nancy, to see them bake Biscuit, & pack flour; here too I had a
Forfeit for kneeding biscuit. The Colonel shewed me and explain'd the
Pan of his Mill; his Canals; Waste-gates; Toll Mill, Merchant Mill:
&c. The tide flows quite to the Mill & is navigable with Canoes &
Flats--He told me that his Wastgate as it stands alone cost him
95£.--And that nothing less than 5000£ Capital can continue the works
& keep them supplied. The Ovens bake 100lb of Flour at a Heating;
there are in the Bake-house two Ovens. Dined half after two.

The Colonel formed last Sunday, & is yet compleating Tables for
finding the Difference between _Virginia_, & _Maryland_ Currency, as
he is entering largely into Trade he finds it necessary to be better
acquainted with the Exchange. _Ben_ agreed to ask his Papa at Supper
for Leave to go with me to Philadelphia but poor Boy his resolution
fail'd him!

_Wednesday 9._

Up by seven, very Windy--Evening I rode with Ben to Mr _Lanes_ to see
young Lane; he was out however, & we soon returned--Mr Warden was at
Mr Lanes. Evening we played in our small Concert our old Sonata; &
besides Feltons Gavott,[133] supp'd at nine.

[133] William Felton (1713-1769), an English clergyman, was well known
in the eighteenth century as a composer, and performer on the
harpsichord and organ. "Felton's Gavot," which was long highly
popular, had been introduced into Legrenzio Vincenzo Ciampi's opera
"Bertoldo in Corte" in 1762. The music was written for the gavot, a
lively dance of French peasant origin, in which the feet were raised
in the step instead of being slidden.

_Thursday 10._

Mrs _Carter_ informed me last Evening that this Family one year with
another consumes 27000 Lb of Pork; & twenty Beeves. 550 Bushels of
Wheat. besides corn--4 Hogsheads of Rum, & 150 Gallons of Brandy.
Breakfasted with us Mr Warden, at twelve, with Mr Randolph, I went a
fishing, but we had only the luck to catch one apiece. Dined with us
Mr _Cunningham_, he has lately had a severe turn of the Pleurisy--I
supped with Mr Randolph on Fish--

_Fryday 11._

The finest morning we have yet had: the _Robbins,_ & _blue Birds_
singing all around us. _Prissy_, _Nancy_, & _Bob_ go this day to the
_Dance_ which is at Mr Turburville's--It come here next--I wrote a
Letter to Mr Rees[134] at Trenton--At twelve with Ben I rode to Mr
_Lanes_ to see young Mr _Lane_, he happened to be at Home, &
introduced to me Mr _Middleton_ an old facetious but pofane Gentleman.
We dined with Mr Lane. When call'd on for my Toast I gave Miss _Sally
Hollinshead_, of Philadelphia Dined at three--

[134] Oliver Reese.

I heard a mocking Bird sing this Day. supped at eight & in Bed early
for I am much fatigued with riding.

_Saturday 12._

I rose by six--Breakfasted with us Captain _Blackwel_; master of a
Ship lying in _Ucomico_--I heard _Harry_, Miss _Fanny_, & _Besy_
repeat their catechism--At ten Mr Lane called on us to go on Board
Captain Blackwels Ship to Dine--We consented and set off by Eleven; We
rode to a place called Horn-Point, which is about a Mile up the River
Ucomico, & in sight of the wide _Potowmac_, off this point at about a
Quarter of a miles Distance lay Captain Griggs, & Captain Blackwels
Ships, they sent immediately a Boat to carry us on board, but on
telling us that neither of the Captains were at Home, we chose rather
to turn Back--The distance from Mr _Carters_ to this Point, is called
twelve miles; the Land seems to be exceeding poor, as it is covered
for most of the way with Large _Pines_, & shrubby _Savins_, &
destitute almost intirely of Cultivation--From Horn-Point we agreed to
ride to one Mr Camels, who is Controller of the customs &c here;
cheifly to see a Daughter of his to whom we were equally strangers, we
arrived at Mr Camels about two o-Clock, & were severally introduced to
Miss Pinkstone Camel, a young woman of about sixteen, neat, handsome,
genteel, & sociable; & in my opinion she possesses as much of these as
any young Lady in Virginia whom I have yet seen--It has been Mr Camels
misfortune, in the course of trade, to be reduced to low
circumstances, on which account his Family does not now meet with so
great respect, as I am told they formerly did--

From Horn Point to the Comptrolers, the distance is call'd four miles.
Before Dinner we Borrowed the Comptrolers Barge, which is an over
grown Canoe, & diverted ourselves in the River which lies full
fronting the House; & we were the better pleased with the sport as all
our motions were in the sight of Miss Camel--We dined at half after
three on Fish, & wild Duck--our drink Grogg, & Water. From the
Comptrolers at 5 o-Clock we set of Homewards; we call'd on our way at
Captain _Meddletons_,[135] whom I take to be exceedingly Profane in
his Language; we were introduced to his two Daughters; they seemed
however aukward in their Behaviour, & dull, & saturnine in their
Disposition--The distance from the Comptrolers to Captain seven
Miles--We left there at eight in the evening, & rode to Mr Joseph
Lanes Esqr which distance is called five miles, & arrive at 9
o-Clock--here we had an elegant Supper--with good _Porter_ &
Madeira--after Supper, when call'd on for my Toast, I gave Miss _Betsy
Beaty_ of Newington, Pennsylvania--At half after ten we set off and
rode home; Distance three miles, Our poor Horses went the distances
which I have laid down and were not fed in the course of the day; as
they have no taverns in these parts--Our whole Distance 31 Miles
Expence to the Sailors for their trouble is 1s 10d. Exceedingly
fatigued with Riding.

[135] Middleton.

_Sunday 13._

Soon after Breakfast Captain Scott (master of a Schooner laden with
Wheat, & bound from Alexandria for Philadelphia, which about ten days
past in a gale of wind run aground and is like to lose her Cargo) come
to hire Mr Carters Schooner to assist in unloading her that the vessel
may be saved; the vessel run aground, & now lies nearly opposite the
mouth of the River Nomini in Potowmack!--The Colonel is engaged in
taking off a Description of the River _Ucomico_; the Road from hence
to Horn-Point; & Mondays-Point[136] with the Houses on the several
ways--This day I declin'd going to Church, chiefly on account of my
Horse, who went so far yesterday--It is however the first time that I
have kept myself at home in good weather--Evening Mr Carter received a
Packet of Letters from _Anopolis_ by the Post, but none comes to me
this long Winter--Bob to-day rode to Richmond Church, & in the Evening
brought from Counsellor _Taylor_[137] a strong invitation to come and
see him.

[136] Mundy's Point is located on the Yeocomico River near the mouth
of that stream.

[137] Colonel John Tayloe of "Mount Airy."

_Monday 14._

Bob this morning begg'd me to learn him lattin; his Reason he tells me
is that yesterday Mrs _Taylor_[138] told him he must not have either
of her Daughters unless he learn'd Latin he urged me so strong that I
put him some Lessons for leasure hours. Rainy most of this day, & in
the afternoon from the West arose a black cloud which was attended
with several pretty hard Claps of Thunder--We had with us one Mr
_Neal_ a good Sort of self sufficient Gentleman--

[138] Mrs. John Tayloe of "Mount Airy" was the former Rebecca Plater,
daughter of Governor George Plater of Maryland.

_Teusday 15._

This morning, as Ben & Bob were agreeing on the price of a Rudiman
Grammar, which _Bob_ wanted to purchase of _Ben_; after some time when
Bob would not give 2/10. Bens great demand for a Book almost worn
out, which when new, may, by thousands be had in Philadelphia for 2/.
that Currency--He threw his Book into the fire, & destroy'd it at
once!--An Instance of two ruling Foibles which I discover in Ben viz.
obstinacy, & avarice. And another I mentioned the other day, of his
agreeing, for half a Bit, or 3½d a week, to play the flute for a
limited time, every night after I am in Bed; of this however he has
grown tired, & given up his wages on account of the Labour, or
Confinement of the Task--And I should be deceived, if a very little
money would not excite him to submit to almost any menial service--Bob
however; for the present is frustrated in his purpose of learning
Grammer, & it seems to chagrin him as much, as tho' he actually
believed in what Mrs Taylor[139] told him last Sunday, that without he
understands Latin, he will never be able to win a young Lady of Family
& fashion for his Wife.--At the Noon play-Hours _Bob_ & _Nelson_ the
Boy who waits on the School had a fight, I know not on what account;
it was Bobs misfortune in the course of the Battle to receive a blow
on his cheek near his Eye, which is visible, & brought the
intelligence of the Quarrel to me, for all were wholly silent till I
made inquiry, when all in a moment seem'd to turn & try to convict
him--In the Evening, after School, I took them both to my Room and
examined them of the reason, Place, and manner of their fighting; from
themselves it seem'd plain that they fought for mere Diversion I
therefore dismiss'd Nelson, & kept Bob til near Supper & then gave him
a smart correction & dismiss'd him.

[139] Mrs. Tayloe.

_Wednesday 16._

The morning cloudy & windy, Breakfasted at nine--Mr Randolph hurt
himself by a Fall from a fence to day badly--Dined at half after
two--Towards Evening the clouds all scattered, the wind fell, & left
the air pleasant: The Birds also seemed glad and merry--The whole
reminded me of a beautiful, & memorable passage in _Milton_. "If
Chance the Radiant Sun with farewel-Sweet, Extend his Evening Beam the
fields revive, The Birds their notes renew, the bleating Herds Attest
their joy that Hill & valley rings."

After school, I had the honour of taking a walk with Mrs Carter
through the Garden--It is beautiful, & I think uncommon to see at this
Season peas all up two & three Inches--We gathered two or three
Cowslips in full-Bloom; & as many violets--The English Honey Suckle is
all out in green & tender Leaves--Mr Gregory is grafting some
figs--Mrs Carter shewed me her Apricot-Grafts; Asparagus Beds &c
Before Supper a Black cloud appeared in the West, at which Mrs Carter
discovered much concern as She is uncommonly affraid both of wind and

_Thursday 17._

This morning Mr Carter put Miss _Fanny_ to learning the Notes--While
we were breakfasting Mr _Stadley_ the musician came; Miss _Prissy_ is
with him; _Nancy_ learns the _Guitar_, under the direction of her
_Papa_, as Mr Stadley does not understand playing on the
_Guitar_--Dined with us a young Gentleman Mr Fantleroy from
_Hobbes-Hole_--He seems to be a modest sensible, genteel young
Fellow--I had the pleasure of taking a walk in the Garden at five with
Mr _Stadley_; _Bob_ along--He is a man of Sense, & has great Skill in
music. I spent the Evening in the Room in the midst of music.

_Fryday 18._

The morning damp & disagreeable--Mr Stadley continues to Day with Miss
_Prissy_. We received this morning the _Williamsburg_ Gazette's--
Several Addresses appear, and poetical Encomiums on the Countess of
Dunmore lately arrived there.

Mr. Bracken. & Mr. Henley, are still contending in furious Combat, but
poor Henley seems to be on the verge of a Defeat--I have all along
intended, & shall now attempt to give a short discription of
Nomini-Hall, & the several Buildings, & improvements adjoining it; as
well for my own amusement, as also to be able with certainty to inform
others of a Seat as magnificent in itself & with as many surrounding
Conveniences, as any I have ever seen, & perhaps equal to any in this

Mr _Carter_ now possesses 60000 Acres of Land; & about 600
Negroes--But his Estate is much divided, & lies in almost every county
in this Colony; He has Lands in the neighbourhood of Williamsburg, &
an elegant & Spacious House in that City--He owns a great part of the
well known Iron-Works near Baltimore in Maryland--And he has one or
more considerable Farms not far from Anopolis. He has some large
tracts of Land far to the West, at a place call'd "Bull Run," & the
"Great Meadows" among the mountains. He owns Lands near Dumfries on
the Potowmack; & large Tracts in this & the neighbouring
Counties.--Out of these Lands, which are situated so remote from each
other in various parts of these two large Provinces, Virginia, &
Maryland, Mr Carter has chosen for the place of his habitation a high
spot of Ground in Westmoreland County at the Head of the Navigation of
the River Nomini, where he has erected a large Elegant House, at a
vast expence, which commonly goes by the name of _Nomini-Hall_. This
House is built with Brick, but the bricks have been covered with
strong lime Mortar; so that the building is now perfectly white; It is
seventy-six Feet long from East to west; & forty-four wide from North
to South, two Stories high; the Pitch of the lower story seventeen
Feet, & the upper Story twelve--

It has five Stacks of Chimneys, tho two of these serve only for
ornament. There is a beautiful Jutt, on the South side, eighteen feet
long, & eight Feet deep from the wall which is supported by three tall
pillars--On the South side, or front, in the upper story are four
Windows each having twenty-four Lights of Glass. In the lower story
are two Windows each having forty-two Lights of Glass, & two Doors
each having Sixteen Lights--At the East end the upper story has three
Windows each with eighteen Lights; & below two Windows both with
eighteen Lights & a Door with nine--

The North side I think is most beautiful of all; In the upper Story is
a Row of seven Windows with eighteen Lights a piece; and below six
windows, with the like number of lights; besides a large Portico in
the middle, at the sides of which are two Windows each with eighteen
Lights.--At the West end are no Windows--The Number of Lights in all
is five hundred, & forty nine--There are four Rooms on a Floor,
disposed of in the following manner. Below is a dining Room where we
usually sit; the second is a dining-Room for the Children; the third
is Mr Carters study; & the fourth is a Ball-Room thirty Feet
long--Above stairs, one Room is for Mr & Mrs Carter; the second for
the young Ladies; & the other two for occasional Company--As this
House is large, & stands on a high piece of Land it may be seen a
considerable distance; I have seen it at the Distance of six Miles--At
equal Distances from each corner of this Building stand four other
considerable Houses, which I shall next a little describe. First, at
the North East corner, & at 100 yards Distance stands the
School-House; At the North-West Corner, & at the same Distance stands
the stable; At the South-West Corner, & at the same Distance, stands
the Coach-House; And lastly, at the South-East corner, & at an equal
distance stands the Work-House. These four Houses are the corner of a
Square of which the Great-House is the Center--First the School-House
is forty five feet long, from East to West, & twenty-seven from North
to South; It has five well-finished, convenient Rooms, three below
stairs, & two above; It is built with Brick a Story & a half high with
Dormant Windows; In each Room is a fire; In the large Room
below-Stairs we keep our School; the other two Rooms below which are
smaller are allowed to Mr Randolph the Clerk; The Room above the
School-Room Ben and I live in; & the other Room above Stairs belongs
to _Harry_ & _Bob_. Five of us live in this House with great Neatness,
& convenience; each one has a Bed to himself--And we are call'd by the
Bell to the Great-House to Breakfast &c--The Wash-House is built in
the same form, & is of the same Size of the School-House--From the
front yard of the Great House, to the Wash-House is a curious
_Terrace_, covered finely with Green turf, & about five foot high with
a slope of eight feet, which appears exceeding well to persons coming
to the front of the House--This _Terrace_ is produced along the Front
of the House, and ends by the Kitchen; but before the Front-Doors is a
broad flight of steps of the same Height, & slope of the _Terrace_.

The Stable & coach-House are of the same Length & Breadth as the
School- and Wash-House, only they are higher pitched to be convenient
for holding Hay & Fodder.[140]

[140] This manor plantation has remained in the possession of Carter's
descendants to the present time. The original manor house was
destroyed by fire in 1850. A wooden structure erected shortly after
that time still stands. Carter's daughter, Harriot Lucy, married a
well-known lawyer, John James Maund. A daughter of Harriot Lucy and
John James Maund became the wife of Dr. John Arnest. "Nomini Hall" is
today the residence of Dr. Arnest's grandson, Mr. T. M. Arnest, who is
the great-great-grandson of Councillor Robert Carter. The only known
representation of the original manor house is a crude water-color
sketch done by an amateur artist "E. Maund," a relative, who visited
the family and made the sketch shortly before the house burned in
1850. One obtains a clearer understanding of the imposing character of
this manor house from Fithian's comments regarding it. This is
especially true of his observation made when spending an evening once
at "Mount Airy," the "elegant seat" of Colonel John Tayloe in Richmond
County. "The House," he said, referring to "Mount Airy," "is about the
size of Mr. Carter's...."

Due East of the Great House are two Rows of tall, flourishing,
beautiful, Poplars, beginning on a Line drawn from the School to the
Wash-House; these Rows are something wider than the House, & are about
300 yards Long, at the Eastermost end of which is the great Road
leading through Westmorland to Richmond. These Rows of Poplars form an
extreemely pleasant avenue, & at the Road, through them, the House
appears most romantic, at the same time that it does truly
elegant--The Area of the Triangle made by the Wash-House, Stable, &
School-House is perfectly levil, & designed for a bowling-Green, laid
out in rectangular Walks which are paved with Brick, & covered over
with burnt Oyster-Shells--In the other Triangle, made by the
Wash-House, Stable, & Coach House is the Kitchen, a well-built House,
as large as the School-House, Bake-House; Dairy; Store-House & several
other small Houses; all which stand due West, & at a small distance
from the great House, & form a little handsome Street. These Building
stand about a quarter of a Mile from a Fork of the River Nomini, one
Branch of which runs on the East of us, on which are two Mills; one
of them belongs to Mr Turburville, the other to Mr Washington, both
within a mile--another branch of the River runs on the West of us, on
which and at a small distance above the House stands Mr Carters
Merchant Mill,[141] which I have in other places described; to go to
the mill from the House we descend I imagine above an 100 Feet; the
Dam is so broad that two carriages may pass conveniently on it; & the
Pond from twelve to Eighteen Foot water--at the fork Mr Carter has a
Granary, where he lands his Wheat, for the mill Iron from the Works

[141] A merchant mill was a mill in which flour was manufactured and
packed for sale. The owner of such a mill customarily purchased wheat
for manufacture. In Virginia it was a common practice for the owner of
the mill to pay for the wheat in flour. A mill used exclusively for
grinding grain for local consumption was called a grist or custom
mill. A portion of the grist was usually allowed the owner for his

In the Evening Mr _Carter_ sent for _Ben_ & I to play over the
_Sonata_ which we have lately learn'd; we performed it, & had not only
Mr Stadleys Approbation, but his praise; he did me the honour to say
that "I play a good Flute." He took a Flute also and play'd; which put
me in mind, at once, of the speech of the Shepherd in virgil.--Non tu
in Triviis, indocte, solebas Stridenti miserum Stipula disperdere
cament [carmen]. For when compared to him, the best that Ben or I can
do, is like Crows among Nightingales--We play'd till ten, and
separated, I gave to Miss Harriot, for saying a good lesson, half a

_Saturday 19._

The morning still wet & disagreeable--Last night I dreamed much of the
Girl, which, I most of all others, esteem, & admire; of _Laura_; But
oh! I dreamed She was treacherous!--If it be true, I must suppress the
Greatness of my Disappointment by reflecting that I had not well
enough considered this Sentiment of the _poet_, That,--Varium et
mutabile Femina--I discover weakness when I am writing in this manner;
but Anxiety, and mighty-Love carry me over the bounds which I set for
the regulation of my conduct--Dreams indeed are vain & false; But
perhaps _Laura_ may think that Lovers vows are vain & trifling as
they!--I spend the day in my Room looking over the Catalogue of the
_Reviewers_ for August, September, October & November 1773.--Ben, &
Bob, & Harry, out tho the Day is bad--Mr _Stadley_ is yet busy with
the young Ladies--

_Sunday 20._

The weather still cloudy, damp, and disagreeable, but it is perfectly
calm; people here attribute this so long dullness to the Sun crossing
the Line which is to happen to-morrow--After Breakfast Mr Stadley
left us, The day is so bad none of us go to Church--Before Dinner I
received from Mr Lane, by his Servant a Note, informing me that he is
to set out tomorrow for home--In return, by the Same bearer, I wrote
him my Compliments in a letter; desiring him to remember me to my
Acquaintances in Pennsylvania, & New Jersey, as he will probably soon
see many of them--I spent much of this Day in Mr Carters Library among
the works of mighty-Men; I turned over _Calmets_, Scripture prints,
they are beautiful, & vastly entertaining--At Dinner by some means, I
know not how a conversation was introduced concerning the Souls of
Women; Mrs _Carter_ observed that She has heard they have no
Souls--Says Miss Priscilla in a moment if I thought so I would not
have spent all this morning in Reading; nor would Women, (Said the
well discerning Miss) be careful to avoid any Shameful, or Sinful
Action--It is not unlikly but those are the private Sentiments of many
among the Fair; & no doubt they would be generally and publickly
practised if it should be universally admitted that the Soul of a
Woman is not to exist after the present Life.

_Monday 21._

This day the days and nights are equal--The Sun enters _Aries_--Aries
[Libra] dies Somniq: pares ubi fecerit Horas, Et medium suis atq:
Umbris jam dividet Orbem. _Virgil._ Georgic I.

At Breakfast Mrs Carter asked me who is foremost in Arithmetic;
whether Bob, or Prissy? At which Mr Carter observed, that him of his
Sons whom he finds most capable of doing Business when he leaves the
World, & his Estate, Shall have the management of the whole, & support
the Rest. It seemed to me to be not an ill-chosen Incentive to
Diligence among the Boys--

This morning still cloudy, the wind at South--about ten a black-gloomy
cloud appeared in the west; it came over like Virgils--Omnia Ventorum
concurrere proelia [vidi]--The wind changed with the cloud to the
westward--Dined with us Mr Washington & Mr Philip Smith, Brother to
the Parson of this parish, to whom I was formally introduced--Toasts
as usual--Towards Evening it grows more pleasant & after School, I had
the pleasure of a walk in the Garden with Mrs Carter, Miss Stanhope, &
Miss Harriot--The peas have grown admirably since my last Walk; &
indeed all the Herbs seem sprouting--Harry this Day finished vulgar
Fractions, & began Practice. Expence to day as Pin-Money a Bit or

_Teusday 22._

Once more the weather fine--Last night by some accident, the Main
Spring of my Watch either unhook'd or broke, for when I thought She
had run down, & trying to wind her, I found the Chain made no
Resistance As there is no oppertunity here of having her refitted, I
seem in considerable difficulty--In Spite of all my strongest opposing
efforts, my thoughts dwell on that Vixen _Laura_. I strive to refuse
them admission, or harbour them in my heart, yet like hidden fire they
introduce themselves, & seize; & overcome me when perhaps I am
pursuing some amuseing or useful Study; on giving precepts &
Directions to my little fair Seminary--At ten Mr Lane & Mr John
Simpson call'd to see us--At twelve we had a pleasant walk in the
Garden--Mr Carter, & Mrs Carter along--Mr Lane informs that he has by
particular Request, in the Absence of the Parson, Read the funeral
Service twice since he has been in the county, which is only a few
Weeks--He sets off for home soon; Mr Carter says he is in Love, & I
think it is with Miss _Camel_. I was introduced to Mr _Simpson_: He
talks much; & often mentions his having been to England--They Dined
with us; Toasts as usual. Evening I have the Tooth Ach.

_Wednesday 23._

I was almost wholly deprived of Sleep last night with a pain in my Jaw
& Teeth; which conti[n]ues this morning so bad I scarce know what, or
how to do--Frail, & weak nature; how we are forever teas'd, & vexed
with Anciety in our minds, or Pains & other distresses in our
Bodies!--We dined at half after two--It is now seven in the Evening &
I am about entering into bed, as the pain has entirely left me, that I
may satisfy my Body for last nights loss of my usual rest, I leave Ben
by the Fire, poring over a History of England, nodding Sometimes,
however, & impatient of the distance of nine o-Clock.--

_Thursday 24._

At Breakfast Mr Carter entertained us with an account of what he
himself saw the other Day, which is a strong Representation of the
cruelty & distress which many among the Negroes suffer in Virginia! Mr
Carter dined at Squire Lees some few Weeks ago; at the same place,
that day, dined also Mr George Turburville & his Wife--As Mr Carter
rode up he observed Mr Turburvilles Coach-Man sitting on the
Chariot-Box, the Horses off--After he had made his compliments in the
House, He had Occasion soon after to go to the Door, when he saw the
Coachman still sitting, & on examination found that he was there fast
chained! The Fellow is inclined to run away, & this is the method
which This Tyrant makes use of to keep him when abroad; & so soon as
he goes home he is delivered into the pityless Hands of a bloody
Overseer!--In the Language of a Heathen I query whether cunning old
_Charon_ will not refuse to transport this imperious, haughty
Virginian Lord When he shall happen to die over the Styx to the
Elysian Gardens; lest his Lordship in the passage should take affront
at the treatment, & attempt to chain him also to the Stygean Galley
for Life!--

Or, In the language of a Christian, I query whether he may be admitted
into the peaceful Kingdom of Heaven where meekness, Holiness, &
Brotherly-Love, are distinguishing Characteristicks?--

Tho the Pain in my Teeth has entirely left me, I am not therefore free
from distress; for to day I am attacked with a pain in my Head, &
Fever; which hinders me from Walking out at twelve as is my Custom!--

_Fryday 25._

I rose by seven--& through Gods mercy I feel myself much relieved of
yesterdays complaints--The weather cloudy, cold, rainy at times, &
unpleasant--Evening _Ben_ took courage & asked his _Papa_ for his
consent to allow him to go with me to Philadelphia--The Colonel very
kindly, & at the same time very Politely consented--For he would not
agree till he knew of me whether it is agreeable to me, & at my
Request that he is to go--

_Saturday 26._

_Ben_ & _Bob_ are soon after Breakfast on Horseback; Breakfasted with
us one Lee, a Gentleman of what they call here the back Woods--He
seems indeed a little stiff in his manner; but he has had a long
Ride--I spend the Day close in my Room Reading Writing &c--

_Sunday 27._

An odd Jumble of affairs happened this morning--_Bob_ drest himself &
came into our Room & in his usual way began to be pretty free in
telling us _News_. Amongst a vast quantity of other stuff he informed
_Ben_ & I that he heard Mr _Randolph_ has the P... we both join'd in
severely reprimanding for attempting to propogate so unlikely a
Tale--Why, Brother Ben, said the mischeivous Wretch I heard in this
Neighbourhood, yesterday a Report concerning you not much to your--but
I will conceal it--This inraged Ben he at first however persuaded him
but soon began to threaten loudly unless he told the whole--why then,
Brother said Bob, it is reported that two Sundays ago you took Sukey
(a young likely Negro Girl maid to Mrs Carters youngest Son) into your
stable, & there for a considerable time lock'd yourselves
together!--Before Bob had done, the Bell rung for Breakfast & we
parted--All went to Church to-day but Miss _Nancy_, _Harry_, &
_Myself_--I spend the day agreeably in Mr _Carters_ Library--Evening
when the Colonel returned, (for he dined at Squire Lee's) he informed
me of an affair which happened yesterday in this County, One Smith, a
Man of a Middle age who lives with his aged Father, & his Father too
is old & declining fast with disease--This youth has lately made a
will for his Father which he yesterday compell'd him to sign; & after
the Good old Man had obliged him, he beat and abused him (tho his
father) in desperate manner it is thought with a design to destroy
him! Soon after this he discharged a musket at his own Brother who was
at some distance from him & lodged in his body eighteen large
Shott!--Docters were immediately call'd--& officers directed to take
the villian but he, with his Wife have hid themselves in a Thicket &
have as yet evaded the search of the Sheriff--

Sup'd with us one Mr Mathews a Steward for Mr Carter in Louden.

[_Monday 28_]

Breakfasted with us Mr Mathews; he seems to be a man of great Gravity,
says little, & Sighs often--The day is warm & vastly mild; it is the
first Day we have in all our Rooms been without any Fire--At twelve I
rode to Mr Taylors two miles; he was out, I sat half an hour with Miss
Taylor & returned to Dinner, the Ride exceeding pleasant, and my Horse
seems (as jockeys say) in good Flesh & well prepar'd for our
approaching & much wished for Journey--Evening Mr _Simpson_ came in,
sup'd & stays the Night. He has last Week, been destilling Mr Carter's
Liquor made of Pisimonds--it is soft, mild, of a fair pure Colour,
burns clear, but does not answer the Colonels Expectations; so that he
does not propose to recommend it to his Neighbours in this or the
Neighbouring Counties as a useful experiment. When call'd on for my
Toast, at Supper I gave Miss _Jenny Corbin_; Mrs _Carter_ gave Captain
_Lee_; & Mr _Simpson_ gave Miss _Jones_.

_Teusday 29._

To warm to day for fire, but we have the wind very strong from the
West--Mr _Carter_ rode to Court--Soon after Breakfast I receiv'd a
Letter from Mr _Andrew Bryan_ of Baltimore, Maryland formerly at
College my Class-Mate--the Letter bears Date January 21st 1774 Dated
at _Baltimore_. He informs me of his good Health, & that, he shall
soon forward my Letters inclosed to him; perhaps kind oppertunity
shall have before this hour favoured my wish, & brought to Laura
advices of my State--At twelve I rode out, with Ben, an hour & better,
the Day vastly windy. About four Colonel Philip Lee's Chariot arrived,
in which came four young Misses to be ready for the Dance which
happens here tomorrow--I am informed this Evening that Smith the
Villian mentioned last Sunday was to day apprehended, & committed to
the prison in this County

[Illustration: prisoner being taken to prison]

_Wednesday 30._

Rainy & cold--The Colonel informed me this morning that the general
Opinion of the Gentlemen at Court yesterday seem'd to be that the
County would be free'd of three Villians if the old abused Father, the
wounded Son & Brother, & the offending guilty Son were to be all
hanged--The Day so bad Mr _Christian_ does not attend--Mrs
_Washington_ came however, with Miss Jenny her Daughter; the two
Fantleroys came also, & Miss Corbin, & Miss Turburville, & one Miss
Hale[142] a new _Scholar_--Mr Carters Man play'd & the Dance goes on
with great Spirit & neatness. Evening there is as common a good play.
Separated all for Bed by half after nine.

[142] The Heale family was a well-known one in Lancaster County where
they lived on "Peach Hill" and other manor plantations. The name was
apparently pronounced Hale all through the eighteenth century.
Priscilla Heale was the daughter of George Heale of Lancaster County.
Heale had served as a Burgess from that county.

_Thursday 31._

All our company continue. The morning fair & cool--Yesterday & to-day
I am strongly solicited to dance--I decline however & must
persevere.--Mr & Mrs Turburville came in before Dinner--With the two
Fantleroys, Ben, Bob, & Harry, I had a pleasant walk through the
Fields, to the Mill &c. I paid my forfeit to the Baker 7½d--The
Plumb-Trees are beginning to blossom--Towards Evening our company all
left us.

_Fryday April 1st 1774._

Good Fryday--A general Holiday here--Wednesday & thursday I gave up my
School on account of the Dance, and they must have this Day for
Devotion!--The Colonel, _Ben Harry_, & _myself_ all go to Ucomico
Church--Parson _Smith_ gave the usual Prayers for the Day and a long
Sermon very suitable & well chosen.

After Service we were invited and went Home with Captain Walker to
dine; I was here introduced to Dr Steptoe[143] & a young Gentleman
Brother to the Parson Both seem agreeable, & appear to be men of Sense
Dined here also the Parson, his Wife, Sister, Mr Warder the Lawyer

[143] Dr. George Steptoe of "Windsor" in Westmoreland County had been
graduated in medicine at Edinburgh in 1767.

Towards Evening we rode home I observed as I rode along People are
universally plowing up their Land for planting Corn & for Tobacco And
in one field I saw several Women planting Corn I think however, it is
early even here--They raise no Flax, their Land in general being so
poor that it will not produce it--And their Method of farming is
slovenly, without any regard to continue their Land in heart, for
future Crops--They plant large Quantities of Land, without any Manure,
& work it very hard to make the best of the Crop, and when the Crop
comes off they take away the Fences to inclose another Piece of Land
for the next years tillage, and leave this a common to be destroyed by
Winter & Beasts till they stand in need of it again to plough--The
Land most commonly too is of a light sandy soil, & produces in very
great quantities shrubby _Savins_ & _Pines_, unless in the Vallies
(for it is very hilly) & near the Potowmack where it is often vastly
rich--Mr Carter has been lately solicited & was to have gone this Day
with a number of Gentlemen to Horn-Point on the River Ucomico, with an
intention, if they think the Situation will be proper, to establish
Ware-Houses, & form a small Town--It is however, in my opinion, a
fruitless Scheme--

_Saturday 2._

The morning stormy. I kept the children in til twelve o-Clock then
dismissed them--I spent the greater part of this Day in reading
Miscellaneous Pieces out of Magazines--The weather cleared before
Evening--At five with _Ben_, I rode over to Mr Turburville's, chiefly
to see a young Lady[144] lately from London; who has come over at Mr
Turburville's Invitation in the character of Governess to Miss
Turburville She seems to be young, genteel, & is not without personal
excellence--I received together with Mr _Carters_ Family an Invitation
from Mr Turburville to dine with him to morrow; which I propose to

[144] Miss Sally Panton.

_Sunday 3._

The Day pleasant; I rode to church--after the Service proper for the
Day, Mr Smith entertained us with a Sermon from Pauls Defence before
King Agrippa "How is it thought a thing impossible with you that God
should raise the dead," He in this gave us a very plain & just
Discourse on the doctrine of the resurection--This being
Easter-Sunday, all the Parish seem'd to meet together High, Low,
black, White all come out--After Sermon the Sacrament was
administered, but none are admited except communicants to see how the
matter is conducted--

After Sermon I rode to Mr Turburville's (for I found to day the true
spelling of his name) There dined with him, Ladies Mrs _Carter_, &
Mrs _George Turburville_: Gentlemen, Colonel _Carter_, Squire-_Lee_,
Mr _Cunningham_, & Mr _Jennings_, Merchants; Mr _George Lee_, & _Ben
Carter_ & Myself--We had an elegant dinner; Beef & Greens; roast-Pig;
fine boil'd Rock-Fish, Pudding, Cheese &c--Drink: good Porter-Beer,
Cyder, Rum, & Brandy Toddy. The Virginians are so kind one can scarce
know how to dispense with, or indeed accept their kindness shown in
such a variety of instances.--I had again an oppertunity of seeing
Miss _Sally Panton_ which is the name of Mrs Turburville's English
Governess--But the common voice seems to be against me as to her being
Handsome--But her huge _Stays_ low Head _dress_; enormous long
_Waist_, a Dress entirely contrary to the liking of Virginia Ladies,
these I apprehend make her in their Eyes less personable, than to any
one wholly unprejudiced--Her _Stays_ are suited to come up to the
upper part of her shoulders, almost to her chin; and are swaithed
round her as low as they can possibly be, allowing Her the liberty to
walk at all: To be sure this is a vastly modest Dress!--She speaks
French & is to teach the Language to Miss Turburville, & also Writing,
& reading English--Upon the whole, if her Principles of Religion, &
her moral behaviour, be as unexceptionable as her person, & her
Manner, let Mr and Mrs Carters opinions go again me I shall think her
agreeable--Miss _Prissy_ Miss _Nancy_; & Miss _Fanny_ all stay the
night at Captain Turburville's--At Church, Mr Low, a young Scotch
Gentleman, tutor in Colonel _Washingtons_ Family, solicited me to
carry his Recommendations from Scotland, to Dr Witherspoon as he is
desirous to be licensed in one of our northern Presbyteries--I shall
do him the Favour.[145]--The country begins to put on her Fowery
Garment, & appear in _gaity_--The _Apricots_ are in their fulles
Bloom; Peaches also, & Plumbs, & several sorts of Cheries are
blossoming; as I look from my Window & see Groves of Peach Trees on
the Banks of Nomini; (for the orchards here are very Large) and other
Fruit Trees in Blossom; and amongst them interspers'd the gloomy
Savin; beyond all these at a great Distance the blue Potowmack; & over
this great River, just discern the Woods of Maryland & conceive that
beyond them all lies Cohansie my native pleasant Residence; & when I
think with myself that by Gods permission, in a very few days more I
shall be in the midst of Society, quite remote from formality, and
from the least fear of giving offence by being familiar, or of being
aw'd to silence by ostentatious vanity: how the thought fires me!
Direct my Way, merciful God, and keep my Feet from falling, & my
Heart from disobeying thy pure & perfect commandments--And make my Way
prosperous that I may go and return again, still doing thy Pleasure, &
honouring thy great Name!--

[145] Lowe was apparently not licensed as a Presbyterian minister at
this time for he shortly afterwards appears as an Anglican clergyman
in St. George's and Hanover Parishes in Virginia.

_Monday 4._

Easter Monday; a general holiday; Negroes now are all disbanded till
Wednesday morning & are at Cock Fights through the County; This
morning I make a general payment First to Sam the Barber 8/2. Second
to Tom the Hostler 7/6. third to Nelson who waits on me /3½. Sum

Mr & Mrs _Carter_, with Mr _Cunningham_ & _Ben_ (as Mr Cunningham came
home with us last Night) all rode to Day to Richmond Court--I was in
the morning strongly solicited to go, but chose to decline it--After
Breakfast, came home from Mr Turburville's our young Ladies, they
inform me that Miss Panton discovered a strong inclination to be
better acquainted with me; which indeed is a Curiosity that I cannot
say I am altogether destitute of. I shall therefore, when I find it
convenient make Miss Panton a visit--

I was before Dinner very strongly urged, by Mr Taylor, Mr Randolph, &
some others to attend a Cock-Fight, where 25 Cocks are to fight, &
large Sums are betted, so large at one as twenty five Pounds, but I
choose rather to stay at Home. I read to day, & am much charmed with a
Speech of _Plato's_ over Alexander the _Great_ lying dead before
him--"O thou, who deceived by vain-Glory didst think of grasping at
every thing, others are now going to gather the fruits of thy labours
& thy Fatigues. Of so many conquests, there remains of thee but the
terrible account, which thou art obliged to render unto the sovereign

I have also to Day with considerable attention been looking over
Junius's Letters. His sentiments are strong, & bold. His language is
chaste, & concise. & his Genius seems free and vast--I cannot easily
omit transcribing a short passage from his Letter to the Revd Mr
_Horne_ in which he is speaking of Lord _Chatham_. as it pleases me
vastly. "As for the common, sordid views of avarice, or any purpose of
vulgar Ambition, I question whether the applause of _Junius_, would be
of service to Lord Chatham. My vote will hardly recommend him to an
increase of his pension, or to a Seat in the Cabinet. But if his
Ambition be upon a levil with his understanding--If he judges of what
is truely honourable for himself with the same superior Genius which
animates & directs him to Eloquence in Debates, to Wisdom in Decision,
even the Pen of _Junius_ shall contribute to reward him. Recorded
Honour shall gather round his Monument, & thicken over him. It is a
solid Fabric, & will support the Lawrels that adorn it--I am not
conversant in the language of panegyric--These praises are extorted
from me; but they will wear well, for they have been dearly earned."--

Junius, however, does not seem to have been at all ignorant of his own
merit; for in the close of the same letter he says "Such Artifices
cannot long delude the understanding of the People; &, without meaning
an indecent Comparison I may venture to foretell, that the _Bible_ &
_Junius_ will be read when the Commentaries of the Jesuits are
forgotten. We supped at nine--Mr Carter tired and early in Bed.

After Supper I had a long conversation with Mrs Carter concerning
Negroes in Virginia, & find that She esteems their value at no higher
rate than I do. We both concluded, (& I am pretty certain that the
conclusion is just) that if in Mr Carters, or in any Gentlemans
Estate, all the Negroes should be sold, & the Money put to Interest in
safe hands, & let the Lands which these Negroes now work lie wholly
uncultivated, the bare Interest of the Price of the Negroes would be a
much greater yearly income than what is now received from their
working the Lands, making no allowance at all for the trouble & Risk
of the Masters as to the Crops, & Negroes.--How much greater then must
be the value of an Estate here if these poor enslaved Africans were
all in their native desired Country, & in their Room industrious
Tenants, who being born in freedom, by a laudable care, would not only
inrich their Landlords, but would raise a hardy Offspring to be the
Strength & the honour of the Colony.

_Teusday 5._

It is with difficulty I am able to collect the members of our School
together for Business. Holidays have become habitual, & they seem
unwilling to give them over. As the Negroes have this Day for a
Holiday our Schollars thinks it hard that they should be compell'd to
attend to Business. I summon them together however, and shall keep
them to constant Study until the time of my setting away. Miss
Priscilla this morning told me, of Miss Panton, a moving story: Last
Sunday Evening after we left there She took a lonely Walk, & being
asked why She chose to walk without a companion, she answered that she
was thinking of Home & of her Friends, & indulging her fond Grief on
account of their absence!--Such a feeling as this I have not been a
stranger to, I therefore Sympathize with the poor young Girl. The Day
agreeably pleasant--Towards Evening Miss _Corbin_ came over to pay us
a visit After School I waited on the Ladies in the Dining-Room the
conversation was on Fashions, which instantly introduced the oddity of
Miss _Panton_. But Miss Corbin with a _Sneer_, & with ill-nature
enough, swore She would not think of imitating such a thing as
her!--O!--Tantam Animis cælestibus Iræ?--I spent the Evening in
cheerful chat with the Ladies. I think I have not had a more sociable
& unconstrained feeling since I left Home, & my forgiving Friends.

_Wednesday 6._

Ben is making a great Bustle about going to Philadelphia--He almost
counts the Hours--We propose to go next Wednesday. But with composure,
& Patience, yet with great Satisfaction I anticipate the near
approaching Day. _Ben_ begs me to acquaint him with the manners of the
People in regard to Religion, and he swears he can suit himself to any
serious, or formal Visage--

Mrs _Carter_, & Miss _Corbin_, after Breakfast rode to Colonel
Frank-Lee's--We dine alone. I informed the Colonel that I do not think
it will be convenient for me to continue with him longer than one
year--He discovered some dissattisfaction; I told him my reason & he
assented--he honours me, by putting in me so much confidence as to
commission me to find out and recommend to Him some young Gentleman to
succeed me in the instruction of his Children--He flattered my vanity
also by reading a Letter to me which I am to bear to Dr Witherspoon,
the contents of it as follows--

     "Robert _Carters_ compliments to Dr _Witherspoon_: He has
     the pleasure to acquaint Him that Mr Fithians Method of
     teaching, & his conduct are highly approved here; He is
     about to visit his friends in _New-Jersey_, & will bring
     these from Sir,

                                Your humble Servt"--

He informed me that he does indeed prefer a Tutor for his Children who
has been educated upon the Continent, not on a supposition that such
are better Schollars, or that they are of better principles, or of
more agreeable Tempers; but only on account of pronunciation in the
English Language, (as most of his Children are to be taught chiefly in
this) in which he allows young Gentlemen educated in good Schools on
the Continent, to excel the Scotch young Gentlemen, & indeed most of
the English.--Evening came in & staid the Night Captain Blackwell.

[Illustration: man in horse-drawn cart]

_Thursday 7._

Breakfasted with us Miss _Corbin_. The Day pleasant--Mr Carter
proposes to set away soon after Dinner--He seems, however, to prepare
himself for his Journey with all the sedateness of a philosopher--Besides
the Commands he gave me yesterday, he desires me to wait on Mr
Willing[146] Merchant in Philadelphia & know if he will trade here for
either Flour or Bread in any Quantity.--He has given Ben & me an
Invitation to ride & spend this Evening with him at Colonel
_Tayloe's_--We set out about three; Mr _Carter_ travels in a small,
neat _Chair_, with two waiting Men--We rode across the Country which
is now in full Bloom; in every field we saw Negroes planting Corn, or
plowing, or hoeing; we arrived at the Colonels about five, Distance
twelve miles. Here is an elegant Seat!--The House is about the Size of
Mr. _Carters_, built with Stone, & finished curiously, & ornamented
with various paintings, & rich Pictures. This Gentleman owns
_Yorick_, who won the prize of 500£ last November, from Dr Floods
Horse _Gift_--In the Dining-Room, besides many other fine Pieces, are
twenty four of the most celebrated among the English Race-Horses,
Drawn masterly, & set in elegant gilt Frames.--He has near the great
House, two fine two story stone Houses, the one is used as a Kitchen,
& the other, for a nursery, & Lodging Rooms--He has also a large well
formed, beautiful Garden, as fine in every Respect as any I have seen
in _Virginia_. In it stand four large beautiful Marble Statues--From
this House there is a good prospect of the River _Rapahannock_, which
opposite here is about two miles across; We can also from the chambers
easily see the Town Hobbes-Hole & the Ships which lie there. I was
introduced by Mr _Carter_ to the Colonel, to Miss Polly, & to Miss
Kitty his Daughters--& to a Lady (Mrs Thornton,)[147] that happened
there, & to a young Gentleman, Mr Corvin[148]--The young Ladies played
several tunes for us, & in good Taste on the _Harpsichord_; We supp'd
at nine; & had the usual Toasts.

[146] Thomas Willing (1731-1821) was associated with Robert Morris in
the house of Willing and Morris. He was later president of the Bank of
North America and the Bank of the United States.

[147] Mrs. Charlotte Belson Thornton was the widow of Colonel Presley
Thornton (1722-1769) of Northumberland County. Mrs. Thornton had been
born in England and she returned to the mother country with her
children just prior to the outbreak of the Revolution. Her three sons
served in the British forces during the War. At the conclusion of
hostilities two of them, Presley and John Tayloe Thornton, returned to

[148] Perhaps a member of the Corbin family. Elizabeth Tayloe, sister
of Colonel John Tayloe, had married Richard Corbin of "Laneville," in
King and Queen County.

_Fryday 8._

The Ladies before breakfast gave us several tunes on the
Harpsichord--About ten Mr Carter set out for _Williamsburg_, to the
general Court, which sits twice a year, each Time twenty four Days
Sundays excluded--We had some agreeable Conversation this morning;
Horses seem to be the Colonels favourite topic--He inquired of me
however, where I was born; where educated; & if I am pleased with
_Virginia_--He told me he saw Dr Witherspoon, & conversed with him an
Evening last Fall, & is much pleased with his manner, & Qualities--He
informed me that Dr _Morgan_[149] of Philadelphia breakfasted with him
a few Days ago; he calls the Docter facetious, sensible, & prudent.
The Colonel desired me to enquire for some Gentleman of undoubted
ability to teach in a Family--I shall apply to Mr _Saml Leek_
junr[150] & if he declines I will look no further--Ben & I took our
Leave about Eleven, and returned Home--The Day is cloudy and cold, the
wind hard at North, & threatens Snow--This evening Ben met with a sad
repulse; Mrs _Carter_ proposes going to Williamsburg soon, & says She
must have his company! Poor Boy, he feels the Force of Disappointment!
And I confess I am a little vexed--

[149] Dr. John Morgan was one of the founders and most eminent
professors of the medical school at Philadelphia which is now a part
of the University of Pennsylvania. Morgan later served as
director-general of hospitals and physician-in-chief of the American
army from 1775-1777.

[150] Samuel Leake, Jr., of Cohansie, New Jersey, was at this time a
student at Princeton. Leake apparently did not accept the position in
Mrs. Thornton's home.

_Saturday 9._

Mrs Carter gave Ben liberty to go with me as far as Anopolis, provided
we set out soon, & accordingly we propose to set off to-morrow or
Monday morning, I begin therefore to prepare for the Ride. The Day is
rainy & cold, & I am in a vastly disagreeable Humour--

_Sunday 10._

Mrs _Carter_ yesterday, in the Character of a truely fond Mother,
altered her mind concerning _Ben_ many Times and in several different
manners: At first she agreed for him to go with me as far as Anopolis
without a waiting Man; then She concluded he was not well and had
better decline going entirely; towards Evening She gave him full
liberty if he will take a Waiting-Man; & will not set away till Monday
morning; This I urged not being pleased from the Begining with going
on the Sabbath--I gave yesterday to the Shoemaker a Bit--& a Bit to
the Wash woman; half a Bit to her little Girl; & half a Bit to
_Nelson_ the Boy who waits on our School; the whole is 11½. This
morning is extremely pleasant the Country full of Flowers, & the
branches full of lovely singing Birds.--Before Breakfast, I saw a Ring
of Negroes at the Stable, fighting Cocks, and in several parts of the
plantation they are digging up their small Lots of ground allow'd by
their Master for Potatoes, peas &c; All such work for themselves they
constantly do on Sundays, as they are otherwise employed on every
other Day. Sermon to Day, is at Ucomico, too far for my Horse
immediately before his Journey--Neither Mrs _Carter_ nor any of the
Family go--At Dinner I received a Letter from Mr _Lowe_, with his
Testimonials from the College in Edinburg which I am to present to the
Presbytery of Philadelphia and if it shall be accepted, I am to bring
such Exercises as they may appoint--

_Monday 11._

Bens Mare lame; Nat must stay, Ben & I set out at eight Rode by
Westmoreland Court-House, Mattox Church; fed at Mattox-Bridge,[151]
Rode by round-hill Church,[152] to Tylors Ferry[153] by three o-Clock
36 Miles--passed over the Ferry 7 Miles Ferriage 6/2--At a small House
in Virginia for a gallon of Corn 1/4.--At a small Tavern at the Ferry
on the Maryland side Expence 9d rode from thence three Miles to Squire
Lees who has the Naval office here--Spent the Evening with young Mr
_Lee_, Miss Lee, Miss Booth, & Miss Washington--Toasts--I gave Miss
Nancy Galloway--Between the Ferry & Mr Lees we passed through four

[151] Mattox Bridge was some eighteen miles from Westmoreland Court
House, and twenty-eight from "Nomini Hall."

[152] Round Hill Church was the "upper church of Washington Parish"
and stood at the site of what is now the town of Tetotum.

[153] Tyler's Ferry in Westmoreland County, Virginia, was opposite
Cedar Point on the Maryland side of the Potomac River.

_Teusday 12._

Up soon, expence to Boy 3d. Rode to Port Tobacco[154] 13 Miles good
Road--Fine Hill near the town; betwen Mr Lees & Port Tobacco 13
Gates--This is a small Town of not more than twenty or twenty Houses
mostly of one story--Expence for a gallon of Oats ... 8d, for bitters
4d, the Day fine--Rode thence to Piscataway;[155] the road good 15
Gates--ma[n]y fine streams of pure water--and many beautiful
hills--This is a small Town of low Houses not more than two in it two
Stories High; It lies however in a fine rich valey--Expence for
Dinner, Wine & Oats 5/ ... from Piscataway we rode to upper
Marlboroug[156] the road something hilly, we passed through 15 Gates,
two elegant Seats Mr Wests, & Mr Diggs[157]--arrived at
Marlborough[158] by six it is a pleasant levil spot, 16 Miles from
Alexandria[159]--they have a Presbyterian Meeting House which Mr Hunt
supplies--They have a latin School also here; & an elegant
Ball-Room--Piscataway is seven miles from Alexandria. In bed by nine--

[154] Port Tobacco, Maryland.

[155] Piscataway, Maryland.

[156] Upper Marlborough, Maryland.

[157] The Digges family was a well known one in both Maryland and

[158] Marlborough, Maryland.

[159] Alexandria, Virginia.

_Wednesday 13._

Up early, the morning fine. Expence here 4/11 Rode thence through a
pleasant country four miles to a small Ferry over Patuxen,[160]
Ferriage /6. then 12 Miles to South River three quarters of a Mile
over Ferriage 6d then we rode thro a piny sandy road four miles to
Anopolis 32 Gates--This is a pleasant situated Town: the Inhabitants
appear gay & cheerful--I put up at the Coffee-House--An agreeable
Woman keeps it Expence to a Barber for shaving & dressing _1/6_--For
oats Coffee &c 3/1--To Boy /10. I roved through the Town til five then
I entered into a Boat the wind South West & Sailed over the Bay for
_Rock-Hall_[161] distance 25 miles--the Boats are extremely good, well
built, & strongly manned, & indeed there is need, for the Bay is
broad, & often boistrous; we arrived at Rock Hall by half after nine;
I was very sick on the passage, & I never was sick before on the
water--The ferriage here for a Man & Horse is 15/.--To the Ferry Men
for a Quart of Rum 1/3. And for my footing never having crossed the
ferry before I paid 1/. The whole expence of this Day is 1£ 8s 7d.

[160] Patuxent River.

[161] Rock Hall, Maryland.

_Thursday 14._

The morning fine. I have from this place a view of the broad
Chesapeek--Expence here for Tea in the Evening, Oats Cordial &c 4/10,
set away half after Six--To Boy /3d. Rode from Rock Hall over a
delightful part of the country to Chester-Town 13 Miles[162]--this is
a beautiful small Town on a River out of the Bay navigable for Ships.
The Situation is low & I apprehend it is subject to summer Fevers--It
has an elegant I may say grand Court-House, in which is the town
Clock--Mr _Wall_[163] the Commedian, has been for several Evenings
past exhibiting Lectures in Electricity, & I understand with some
considerable applause. They have a lottery here on foot & to be drawn
in May next for to assist them in building a market-House Town-Wharf
&c.--I breakfast here, & feed, Expence 2/3. to Boy 2d--In this Town &
the neighbouring Country rages at present a malignant, putrid Fever, &
what is generally called the spotted Fever!--From chester Town I rode
to George-Town, 16 miles--The Land levil, fertile, & vastly
pleasant--In this Town I visited Mr _Voorhees_, an eminent Merchant
here, & he seems to be a Gentleman of peculiar smartness Industry &
Oconomy--The Fever I now mentioned, is also here, & the whooping-Cough
is very general & malignant--I lodged with this Gentleman--We had
Evening prayers--Since I left Cohansie I have not heard the like--This
is a small Town, & lies on a fine River, which divides it from another
small Town directly opposite call'd Frederick.[164]

[162] Chestertown, Maryland.

[163] Wall gave a lecture on electricity in Williamsburg, Virginia,
the following year. He is doubtless identical with the comedian and
"Mental Physician," Dr. Llewellyn Lechmere Wall, who was described as
"of Orange County," North Carolina in 1797. He appeared in numerous
comedies in Newbern that year. Cf. _Virginia Gazette_ (Pinckney, ed.),
January 5, 1775; original playbill in Department of Research, Colonial
Williamsburg, Inc., Williamsburg, Virginia.

[164] Frederick, Maryland.

_Fryday 15._

I rose early--After Breakfast I rode to see Miss _Rachel
Stocktin_,[165] now Mrs _Ryley_; She lives on this River, about a mile
higher up, in a large very elegant brick House; in considerable
grandeur--Poor Girl She herself is much indisposed either of a bad
Cold, (as She thinks) or of this epidemical Fever; Mrs _Ryley_
introduced me ceremoniously to Miss _Ryley_ her Husbands _Sister_, She
has a small handsome Fortune, & is perhaps agreeable--I returned to
Town, & dined with Mr _Voorhees_, & immediately after crossed over the
Ferry for _Port-Penn_.[166] Expence at _George-Town_ for my Horse 2/3
to Boy 4d. I rode next to small village called _Warwick_,[167] a
pitful place indeed--Expence here 1/11 Boy /2. then I rode on to
Port-Penn, the Country beautiful, the Land apparently very rich, the
Timber strait, & large; I entered Port-Penn just as the Sun went down,
but could not prevail with the Ferry-Man to carry me over before the
morning--In George-Town I was told the following distressing _News_:
that Dr _Ward_, & my Aunt _Fithian_ of Cohansie are both Dead; that
my Aunt died in a very sudden unusual manner!--That Miss Polly Bullock
of Philadelphia is dying in a Consumption!--In the Evening I called in
to see Mr _Steward_ an ancient, gray headed, wealthy Gentleman in
_Port-Penn_, who, by some Weakness in his Back, has been unable to
walk at all for four years, he is hearty, religious, cheerful, seemed
much pleased, & thanked me often for calling to see him, & desired by
me his kindest Compliments to Mr Hunters Family--I spend the Evening
alone with quiet & content.--In Bed by nine--

[165] Stockton.

[166] Port Penn, Delaware.

[167] Warwick, Maryland.

[Illustration: ferry crossing]

_Saturday 16._

I rose early, & expected to pass soon over the Ferry--The wind
moderate at North West but the boat is aground, & I must wait until
eleven, when She is expected to float--I was much alarmed in the
night, thinking I had in Maryland taken the putrid Fever; I lay
sleepless, felt feverish, had pains in my Head--But I feel wholly
relieved this morning. At twelve the Boat came--We run over--Expence
at _Port-Penn_ 4/8. Ferriage 5/-. Once more through Gods Mercy in
New-Jersey. The Favours of God our common Parent are innumerable, &
great beyond our merit--I rod with Pleasure from Elsenborough to
Greenwich; I stopt to see the forsaken Mrs Ward; She seems to be
truely distress'd! I arrived by Sunset at my Uncles he also seems much
afflicted, with his Loss--He informed me that many have Died in the
Neighbourhood of Greenwich this winter. Dr Ward, Squire Millar, Mr
Boy'd Merchant--Aunt Fithian, aunt Ware, Rachel Peck, Rachel Ware,
David Mills, Mrs Mills &c. a very Mortal Winter!

_Sunday 17._

The morning vastly pleasant & Cohansie looks a delightsome as ever it
used I went to meeting. How unlike _Virginia_, no rings of Beaux
chatting before & after Sermon on Gallantry; no assembling in crowds
after Service to dine & bargain; no cool, spiritless harangue from the
Pulpit; Minister & people here seem in some small measure to reverence
the Day, there neither do the one or the other--I spent the day at

_Monday 18._

I took a tour over to Town before dinner to see old acquaintances The
Neighbourhood looks in nothing altered Mr _Potter_ took home my
Brother Amos with an intention if it shall suit to learn him the
Shopkeeping business--Afternoon I rode to Mr Hunters--And in the
Evening with Andrew to Deerfield, spent the Evening til ten at Mr
Greens in company with the amiable Miss Beatty--Mrs Green is much
indisposed, has lately had a daughter--The School here is at the
present time larger than it has ever been; there are now seven viz.
John Leek, Reading-Beatty,[168] James & John Ramsey, Stephen Ranney,
Seeley Fithian, & Thomas Greenman--We rode to Mrs _Pecks_. Joseph
since I left home, has married Mrs _Hannah_.

[168] A brother of Elizabeth Beatty.

_Teusday 19._

Rose by six. Breakfasted with Mrs _Peck_. Soon after we again visited
Mr Green--I spent the Day most agreeably. Kind Heaven has indulg'd my
wish;--In the Evening I went up & staid the Night at Mrs _Pecks_.

_Wednesday 20._

Soon after breakfast I rode home and visited several of my
acquaintances--I had my Hair cut short--Feel myself much indisposed.
Looked over, sorted & adjusted my Books.--

_Thursday 21_

Spent all this day in preparing for my approaching examination before
the Revd Presbytery--I am to review Greek Testament--Moral & Natural
Philosophy--Logic--Geography And if I have time I must look over the
Lattin Classics.

_Fryday 22._

Rode to the Stage early for the Papers thence I went Mr Hunters where
I met with that great master of music, Mr _Lyon_[169]--He sung at my
request, & sing with his usual softness & accuracy--He is about
publishing a new Book of Tunes which are to be cheifly of his own
Composition--He has removed out of Halifax into the Northern part of
New-England, but poor Man, since he left Cohansie he has felt the
hardy arm of want!--

[169] James Lyon, a graduate of the College of New Jersey, had
compiled and published a large collection of church music, _Urania, or
a choice collection of Psalm-Tunes, Anthems and Hymns_.

I returned towards Evening but promised first to visit him again
tomorrow afternoon--

_Saturday 23._

At home drawing off some of Mr Lyons Tunes, & revising my own
Exercises--The morning pleasant but the weather dry. Afternoon
according to appointment I visited Mr Lyon at Mr Hunters. He sings
with great accuracy I sung with him many of his Tunes & had much
Conversation on music, he is vastly fond of music & musical genius's
We spent the Evening with great sattisfaction to me

_Sunday 24._

I left Mr Hunters Early I wrote a line to Miss Beatty, for a excuse
for not seeing her yesterday Attended Sermon at Greenwich. I rode in
the Evening to the Bridge to hear Mr Green, my old, much respected
Tutor preach, he came & delivered himself admirably without making Use
of Notes at all I staid the Night at Mr Seeleys, visited Mrs Ramsey, &
Dr Elmer & spoke with many of my acquaintances--

_Monday 25._

I breakfasted with Mrs Ramsey, then rode to Mrs Boyds, & by Mr Ewing I
was introduced to herself & her two Daughters Miss _Matty_ & Miss
_Sally_--I had heard that this family is genteel, industrious &
religious. I saw now & beleived it--Lately, by a sore stroke of
providence Mr Boyd the Head has been remov'd by Death!--

Left Mrs Boyds & rode to Ephraim Seeleys junr--then about Eleven rode
to Deerfield; dined with Mr Green. I had the pleasure to spend the
afternoon and evening with Miss Beatty.

_Teusday 26._

Visited Mr Nathan Leek, he seems to be still loquacious, &
historical--He gave me a long and full account of the present
difference between Messrs _Hunter_, _Greenman_, & _Brown_,--He told me
likewise the Beginning & continuation of the quarrel of the
Magistrates-freeholders, & other officers about raising money by
taxation for repairing Cohansie-Bridge--After Dinner, with Miss
_Beatty_ I rode and visited Mrs Boyd--

_Wednesday 27._

John Peck agreed to succeed me at Mr Carters in Virginia I spoke to Mr
Samuel Leek junr concerning Mr Taylors proposal;[170] he is doubtful
about an answer

[170] Colonel John Tayloe.

Paid John Peck for postage of my Letter to him last Winter 4/. Bought
a watch-seal 1/. Rode to Greenwich after Dinner.

_Thursday 28._

I waited on the Miss Boyds to day to Mr _Hollinsheads_, New
England-Town. His Family are in good health; there I saw the amiable
Miss _Debby Pratt_.--Mr _Hollinshead_ informed me that the Presbytery
have been only a little pleased with the Examination of Messrs ----
probably mine will be worse! Returned to Mrs Boyds in the Evening

_Fryday 29._

I rode to Mr Green's after breakfast--Mr. Dicky Howel came in; we
spent the afternoon & Evening with Mr Green & Miss Beatty; Mr Green
is, to be sure, vastly sensible, very intelligible, dry, witty,
satirical, yet good and exceeding agreeable.

_Saturday 30._

Breakfasted with the parson--Rode home soon after breakfast--proceeded
in preparing for the near approaching examination--The latter part of
this Day very stormy.

_Sunday May 1st 1774._

Very cool the wind violent at North West--I spent the morning in
looking over the Greek-Testament--To day preached for us Mr _Aiken_.
He seems to be much applauded by the People.

_Monday 2._

Very early I rode over to Mr Holinshead's at Miss Pratts request to
carry her to Mr Hoshels to be ready to-morrow morning for the
Stage--We rode to the Bridge & dined at Mrs Boyds--After dinner we
rode to Mr Hoshels--Miss _Debby Pratt_ according to her general
character, is in every measure what I have said somewhere before,
_Genteel_, _modest_, _Religious_ & _cheerful_--

_Teusday 3._

I conducted Miss Pratt to the Stage this morning by five & took my
leave--I immediately after returned to the Bridge, thence to Mr
Holinsheads by eight o Clock--Returned home by twelve.

_Wednesday 4._

Last night & this morning fell a very considerable Snow, so much that
I imagine had it not melted after it fell it would have been six
inches deep! Afternoon I walked to Deerfield--Miss Beatty a

_Thursday 5._

At the Bridge before noon to agree with Mr Potter about taking my
Brother Amos prentice--We put it off some Days--Expence for a Watch
Key 9d. Last Night was very cold; I shall scarce be beleived if I say
that I saw, handled, & measured Ice this morning two Inches thick!

_Fryday 6._

Still very cold. To Day is the fast before Sacrament. Mr Hunter gave
us two Sermons. The leaves on the Trees are grown black, the Fruit
must be past recovery, probably. the Flax too.

_Saturday 7._

I did several errands for myself in Greenwich--Before Noon Mr
Patterson call'd to see me; He is shortly to be married to Miss Amy
Ewing--She is a Girl of Reading, Taste, & Delicacy; has a good share
of personal Beauty, open, sociable, & kind in her manner, & on the
whole agreeable--Mr Paterson seemed always to me formal, has a
peculiar, universal Fondness for the Fair is a great mathematician, a
good English Scholar & Philosopher, & is frugal & industrious. I rode
with Mr Patterson to Mr Hunters, he informed me many things concerning
the new School or small Acadamy lately instituted at Wilmington, in
which he is second Master. Evening I wrote a sentimental Letter to
Miss _Beatty_.

_Sunday 8._

To day at Greenwich was administred, & I received the holy
Sacrament--Grant, great God, that I may have been a worthy
communicant! I dined with Mrs Ward. She speaks with great Respect,
Affection, and Sincerity of her late worthy Partner.

_Monday 9._

Til Eleven I am busy in looking over Exercises for the approaching
Presbytery. After Dinner I made Mrs Brewster a Visit. Mr Ben Peck in
my opinion is rashly entering on an important matter; he is going to
begin in a few Days the Study of Phisic under the direction of Dr
Bowen; whose kowledge & Practice, by those who are in fact Judges in
the Art seems to be wholly exploded. There is a Report that Mrs
Brewster is in prospect of being married to a Gentleman from Maryland;
She talks freely of it, says She can fancy him; that he is a man of
Fortune, of character & to her agreeable--But there is one She regards
more who has left her, however, without hope!--

_Teusday 10._

Yesterday, in a private lonely manner, at nine in the morning, were
married Mr Patterson & Miss Amy Ewing. I wish them from my heart a
long, unbroken, & strong friendship for each other, & mutual, unmixed
happiness. After breakfast according to a previous appointment, I rode
to Deerfield Dine at Mrs Pecks. I am ashamed that I may record here
what does no honour to my old Aunt, I saw her with three Partners
round a Table playing Cards at that vulgar game fit only for the
meanest gamblers "all Fours"[171]--At three I visited Miss _Beatty_
that amiable Girl, I always see with pleasure, am happy where She is &
feel uneasy & disturbed always when I must leave her. Since June in
the year 1770 I have had an acquaintance with her--& since May in the
year 1771 I have happily had an Intimacy. Her Goodness has at length
indulged my importunate Solicitations & in her Society I hope to be
happy--I spent the Evening til eleven with her, & in the most
entertaining manner, Mr Howel & Mr John Peck call'd in a small Time.

[171] "All-fours," derived its name from the four chances involved,
for each of which a point was scored. The game was later renamed

_Wednesday 11._

I rose a little after seven. It is not my custom to lie in bed so
long, but I was with Lazy Boys, _Reading Beatty_, and _Stephen
Ranney_. Mrs Green is better, but Miss _Beatty_ says she has the
_Hipp_--Soon after breakfast I returned Home--Mrs Pecks Family Mr
Howel, & Miss Beatty at the same time set out on a visit to Mr
Hoshels. There came a report to Day that Mr Stephen Reeve Silver Smith
of Philadelphia is broken up, & has left the City; disagreeable News
this to his Relations here--There was an Ox killed this Day at
Bridge-Town which weighed upwards of a thousand weight, supposed to be
the largest ever kill'd in the County.

_Thursday 12._

I wrote a chronological Letter to Miss _Beatty_. Spent the Day at
home. Feel pensive on leaving Cohansie.

_Fryday 13._

I rode before Dinner to Mr _Hunters_. Andrew is finishing his
Exercises for the Presbytery--Mrs Hunter advised me to shew my Pieces
to Mr _Hunter_ for correction I agreed--Four o Clock I rode to the
Bridge, drank Tea with Mrs Boyd. They are Girls of Great prudence, &
good breeding--

_Saturday 14._

After breakfast I wrote a private Letter to Laura, befor Dinner rode
to Mr _Hunters_ gave him my Pieces; he examined them, made some small
alterations, & advised me to present them to the Presbytery--Took my
Leave of several Friends in Greenwich--

_Sunday 15._

I wrote a Letter to Dr Beatty, & a Letter to Charles Beatty[172] of
the Junior Class at Nassau Hall--To Day is the yearly Meeting with
the Baptists--Last Evening was the first thunder Gust we have had
this Season, it was not however Severe.

[172] A brother of Elizabeth Beatty.

Mr James Ward was excommunicated this Day from our Church--

_Monday 16._

We set out for Philadelphia from Mr Hunters by five Expence by the way
3/6. In Town by five.

_Teusday 17._

Took lodgings at Mrs Cheesmans--Expence for a Register 3/9.--Spoke for
a mourning Ring. Motto I. & H. ob: Feb: 1772.--

Met in Presbytery at eleven A. M.--Business of last Session looked
over, at one adjourn'd til three--at three met. Mr Evans[173]
pronounced his first exercise a Sermon length an hour--After him Mr
Keith produced his length 44 Minutes. Afternoon I spent several hours
with the Miss Sprouts

[173] Israel Evans had been graduated at Princeton in 1772, and had
afterwards studied theology under Dr. Witherspoon there.

_Wednesday 18._

I passed my first examination before the Presbytery; after which I
read my thesis & Sermon both which were accepted--In this examination
I was questioned on my personal Religion, & on the Latin, & Greek
Languages. I spent the evening at Mr Armitages.

_Thursday 19._

Waited on the Synod--Preparing to set out to-morrow. Visited several
Ladies--Spent the afternoon agreeably with the Miss Holinsheads--Evening
I visit Miss Bedford--Waited on Dr Witherspoon on Colonel Carters & on
Mr Lowes account.

_Fryday 20._

Before noon I waited on the agreeable Miss Debby Pratt. I spoke with
Miss Sally Boyd. Afternoon I took my Leave at Mr McCalla's, & Mrs
Cheesemans where I lodge--At six with Miss _Ruth Webster_, her Sister
_Alhe_ [Althea], & Betsy, & Polly Armitage I walked to a lovely Garden
near the Hospital call'd Lebanon, drank some Mead, & had a most
agreeable Ramble--At ten the same Evening I entered on Board the
_Swallow_ Captain Balinger for Cohansie--

_Saturday 21._

I waked & found myself only a little below the Fort--The morning
pleasant--the Wind a head--I wrote a Letter on Board to Johnny Peck to
acquaint him with Dr Withespoons Opinion--I wrote also to Miss
_Webster_. About five in the evening we anchored off _Marcus Hook_, we
went on Shore; Drank a bowl of punch with Mr Andrew Ferguson who has
lately moved here--He informed me that two young Gentlemen of Fashion
& Substance in Town are making their addresses to _Laura_--She is
worthy the Regard of the most worthy on Earth.

_Sunday 22._

I found myself this morning a few miles above Port Penn. Perfectly
calm--I wrote a Letter this morning to Miss Beatty--The _Sea Nymph_
Captain Blewer came in Sight, Mr Cook & Mr Howel are passengers--About
twelve a Breese sprung up at South--& with the Tide we entered our
Creek by four, & I was at Home by five--Spent the evening in writing--

_Monday 23._

Busy in getting ready to set away. Wrote a Letter to Dr _Beatty_--&
one to Miss _Pratt_. The morning warm. I took my leave of the People
in town of my acquaintance & set out for Virginia a little after
noon--Mr Donaldson is very ill--There are strange & rediculous reports
concerning him--That he has sent since his illness to Mr Ewing to be
married to Tempy Fithian--Left Home about two o Clock--at the Ferry by
five. The Boat is on the other side--Half after five she set off, the
wind fair over by half after six--We left the shore at Seven. The wind
light at West North West before we were over the wind fell--I was
obliged to take to the Oar--& pull like a Turk--The flood strong
against us--I rowed thus a full hour--My poor hands, when I got ashore
were sore enough--I was set ashore more than a mile above _Port
Penn_--Had to ride down on high rotten Bank through the dark--Once I
got mired--On the whole it has been the worst adventure I have had in
my travels.--I reached the Tavern in Port Penn by half after Nine.
Call'd for half a Gill of bitters to qualify my humours; & a dish of
Tea to cheer me, & soon to Bed. Ferriage 5/.

_Teusday 24._

The morning pleasant & cool. Expence at _Port Penn_, 3/--Rode thence
by the Trap five miles thence to middleton[174] five miles. Thence to
Warwick four miles. Here I breakfasted. Expence for myself & Horse
1/7.--Thence I rode to George Town. Expence for oats 6d--Thence I rode
to _New-Town_[175] fifteen Miles expence for--2/--For having my Coat
altered in the Sleeves and Shoulders 2/. Expence for a pair of black
worsted Stockings 6/.--Mr _Stephen Reeve_[176] is in George Town
Working for Money Money to Gamble--This evening I feel more fatigued &
dispirited than since I first went to Virginia--

[174] Middleton, Delaware.

[175] New Town, Maryland.

[176] Stephen Reeve was a Philadelphia silversmith.

_Wednesday 25._

Expence at Newtown 4/9. Rode befor Breakfast to Rock-Hall the morning
rainy--The Day calm & (hard Disappointment) I must stay til
to-morrow!--My Land-Lord invited me to a race about four miles off, &
as the day grew better I went; the Purse was fifty Dollars. I was
surprised to see that almost, I think quite one third of the of the
People were in mourning--A discouraging aspect for one who has any
intention to settle in this part of Maryland, but none to leave the
World--Many who wore black & Scarfs I took notice swore most
desperately!--Not Death the formidable King of terrors can frighten
men from provoking God by Sin!--Afternoon I was troubled with a Tooth
Ach--I returned about two--Laid down til six--Slept but little--A
thousand things perplex me. I am unwilling to leave Home.--I have
already overstaid my Time--I am vexed at having to continue here--I
have left the Girl I love--I am keeping myself out of publick
business--O ten thousand difficulties embarrass me!--Heavenly Father,
to thee in trouble I fly, comfort, sustain, guide & uphold me--Evening
Seven Gentlemen came in--They went to Cards--I to Bed--Troubled much
with a Tooth Ach--

_Thursday 26._

Slept but little--Breakfasted--Set off at seven--four in company
expence 26s/6. Arrived at Annopolis--Bought at Annopolis a pair of
buckles 2/9. Expence ... 10d--Left Annapolis at five for
Marlborough--Ferriage 6d--Rode to a point of Patuxen 22
Miles--Tooth-Ach still troubles me--In Bed by eleven, tired &

_Fryday 27._

Expence at this little Town 2/9--Ferriage a full mile up the River
Patuxen 1/. Rode from the River to upper Marlborough three miles
thence without stoping to Piscataway 15 miles--Here I dined--My pain
has wholly left me--Two young Ladies Daughters of the Landlady, rather
gay & noisy than discreet, very forward in discourse, both in Love
with Scotch Merchants & both willing to be talked to, gave me much
Diversion--Expence here 3/4--Rode thence in the Evening to Port
Tobacco 15 miles. staid here the night--For company all the night in
my Room I had Bugs in every part of my Bed--& in the next Room several
noisy Fellows playing at Billiards.

[Illustration: leaving on horseback]

_Saturday 28._

Left Port Tobacco by six, rode to Mrs Laidlers Ferry. At Port Tobacco
expence 3/10. 12 Miles Breakfasted with Mrs. Laidler Breakfast & Oats
1/7 Ferriage 6/. The broad beautiful Potowmack looks smooth & unbroken
as tho' it was fettered in Ice: it is to where we land on the other
Side eight miles a little down the River the passage over, in the best
time of this loveliest month was vastly agreeable--From Tylers[177]
in Virginia where I landed about twelve o-Clock I rode to Mattox
Bridge eight miles; thence to Mattox Church six miles--Here I bought
some Ears of corn for my Horse--Thence to Westmorland Court House 16
miles--Here is a Tavern I got a Bowl of Punch & fed 2/6--Thence I rode
to Nomini Hall about Eeight in the Evening 10 miles--I found Mr & Mrs
Carter at home sitting together--They received me with great
welcome--_Ben_, _Bob_, Miss _Fanny_ & _Betsy_ came in to see me--The
others in bed--sup'd on _Crabs_ & an elegant dish of Strawberries &
cream--How natural, how agreeable, how majestic this place seems!

[177] Tyler's Ferry.

_Sunday 29._

I rose by half after six--Ben informed me that Bob has behaved vastly
ill since I left him--He has reported several mischievous & false
stories of his brother; That has been intimate in some bad
families--That he has injured his own fathers Servants &c--The morning
pleasant--I did not attend Church, Ben out of kindness kept me company
at Home--I had however chosen to stay alone--The family is invited to
dine with Mr Turburville--Mr & Mrs _Carter_, Miss Priscilla & Nancy
with three Servants went from Church--_Ben_, _Bob_, Miss _Fanny_,
_Betsy_ & _Harriot_ with two Servants cross'd the River--Miss _Sally_
with _Tasker_ & one Servant rode in a Chair--Dined with us Captain
Dennis, of the Ship Peggy; Dr _Steptoe_; & Mr _Cunningham_. Politicks
were the topic--and indeed the Gentlemen seemed warm--The Governor of
this province dissolved the Assembly last week after they had made a
resolve that a general & solemn fast be observed thro' this whole
Colony, on Account of the melancholy aspect of American Affairs at
present, to be kept the first day of June, which is next Wednesday,
when the alarming Act of Parliament which has lately come over is to
take place at Boston--Parson Smith accordingly gave it out at the
Church to Day & it is to be observed--I only saw Miss Sally Panton,
she did not dine with us--I am told She has an Estate in England of
50£ Sterling pr Annum, but for some unknown cause came over, probably
the same as drew me from home--After dinner we had a Grand & agreeable
Walk in & through the Gardens--There is great plenty of Strawberries,
some Cherries, Goose berries &c--Drank Coffee at four, they are now
too patriotic to use tea--Soon after we set out for Home--The young
Ladies chose to walk and Cross the water with us--I am much more
pleas'd with the Face of the Country since my return than I have ever
been before--It is indeed delightsome!--

_Monday 30._

Our little beautiful Seminary collected They seem all glad to see me,
& willing to enter on business--I am truely fond of the young growing
beauties--Soon they will be the admiration of the world, & ornaments
in their family--This morning I asked & received four Guineas of Mr
Carter to satisfy Mr Taylor of whom I had a small Sum. Mr Randolph is
yet here, & is recovered of the hurt I formerly mentioned--After
Dinner my Toast was the amiable _Laura_--Evening called in & staid
only a few minutes Captain Dennis, & Parson Gibbern--At Supper I had
an agreeable conversation with Mr & Mrs Carter on the _Times manners_,

_Teusday 31._

Very warm--I feel well reliev'd of the Fatigues of my ride--The lower
Class of People here are in a tumult on the account of Reports from
Boston, many of them expect to be press'd & compell'd to go and fight
the Britains!--Evening I asked the Colonel if he proposes to observe
the fast, & attend Sermon tomorrow; he answered that "No one must go
from hence to Church, or observe the Fast at all"--By this, (for it is
hard to know his opinion from any thing he declares) I conclude he is
a courtier.--Last Night, & this evening the Colonel sup'd with us,
which is more than he has done before since I have been in the

_Wednesday June 1st 1774._

Cool & pleasant--I began my English Exegesis--or Thesis.

_Thursday 2._

I took out of the Colonels Library for Assistance in making my pieces
Biblia-Sacra, & Mr Hammonds Exposition of the New Testament. I toasted
Miss _Beatty_ to day in a Bumpper of old Medaira--Evening Mr Carter at
the Harpsichord.

_Fryday 3._

The dancing School happens in course to day at Mr Washingtons--Mrs
_Carter_ takes _Bob_ & _Nancy_ with her--Our School seems
silent--Writing at my English Thesis--I put _Harry_ & _Bob_ this week
to read Popes Homer but Homers inimitable fire cannot charm or move
them!--Evening _Ben_ rode to the Dance--We were informed that in
Queen-Anns in Maryland many die at present, of a Fever that follows a
slight Ague!--I took a Ramble, in the evening, as usual, through the


                                       Nomini Hall June 3d. 1774.


I have the pleasure to inform you I arriv'd safe and had a pleasant
ride; I expect to hear from you by every post but have received no
letter yet--If you did not receive my letter dated "Delaware-River, on
board the Swallow," this is to request you to apply immediately to Dr
Witherspoon who promised me in Philadelphia that he would recommend
you here; the reason of my demanding dispatch is, that Mr Carter
proposes to write to England for a Tutor if he cannot be speedily
satisfied of having one from the Northward--If I attempt to write news
I must inform you that the Assembly of this province is dissolved on
passing a resolve to keep the first day of June through the whole
province a solemn fast, the resolve past however, and the day was
kept--The frost of the 4th. of May was much more fatal here than to
the Northward, for not only Garden produce, but Wheat and Rye in the
upper parts of the province are blasted and the owners mow them down
for fodder; and here the Woods look like winter!--I expect to hear
from you several times this summer, I beg you will not disappoint me.

My compliments to acquaintances--

                              From, Sir,
                                                PHILIP V. FITHIAN


                            Nomini-Hall, Virginia. June 3d. 1774.


It will not be wonderful if I inform you that this Colony is in great
tumult and confusion. The general Voice is _Boston_. You will have
heard before the reception of this, that the Governor dissolved the
Assembly in this province on their making a resolve to keep the first
day of June on which the Act of Parliament is to take place at Boston,
(excepting the days of grace) a solemn fast. The people agree however
in general to unite with the people of Boston and the other northern
trading Cities, and by their example to influence all the Colonies,
not to make any resistance to the Britains, but to keep themselves
independant, and refuse to receive their comodities, and keep within
themselves, their own more valuable comodities, because they are for
the support of life--So stedfast are the people here that the Captain
of a Ship belonging to an eminent house in London was yesterday
refused any more Tobacco til' there is intelligence from the

The frost which happened the 4th. of May, was by far more severe and
fatal here than either in Maryland, New-Jersey, or Pennsylvania--The
expected produce of Gardens and Peaches, (which were some planters
chief dependance) are not only almost wholly destroy'd, but in the
upper parts of the province Wheat and Rye are so much cut off that the
owners think it best to mow it down for fodder!--

I have the pleasure to inform you that I had a speedy and pleasant
ride; found the family in good health; that it is a time of general
health in the County--and that I am again agreeably settled to

Please to make my compliments to Mrs Hunter, Miss Nancy, Andrew, and
to Uncles family--I am, sir

                       Your most obedient
                        Most humble Servt:
                                                PHILIP V. FITHIAN


_Saturday 4._

The day cool & agreeable--I kept the children in til twelve tho' with
great difficulty; they were for asserting their liberty. & pleaded the
custom of las winter--I finished a rough incorrect plan of my English
Thesis, & laid it by for future examination--

After dinner I begun the Lecture, wrote an introduction--Towards
evening I took my hat & a Sermon, & retired to a Shady Green where I
rambled about til dusk committing my Sermon to memory--We have omitted
Supper, & in its place substituted Coffee which we commonly take about
seven in the evening--Ben, this Afternoon rode to Colonel Frank Lee's.
The ground is very dry; The Frost of the fourth of May has been much
more severe and fatal here than in the northern colonies--The peaches
here, except on Farms lying near the Potowmack are wholly destroy'd, &
these were the choisest expectation of some, who think Brandy their
most valuable comodity!--And I am told that in Louden, & the other
upper counties, (which indeed are the best for grain) Wheat & Rie are
cut off, so intirely that the owners mow it down for fodder!--And in
these lower Counties in many places the Woods appear like November, &
the Leaves are actually dropping!--To be sure it is unusual &

_Sunday 5._

The weather cool & agreeable--Sermon is to Day at Ucomico, at the
lower church, I choose therefore to stay in my Room--How pleasant is
retirement! And how easy is it to enjoy it--This may seem strange, but
it is true--I have but very few acquaintances, & they easily dispense
with my Absence--I have an elegant inviting apartment for Study--I
have plenty of valuable & entertaining Books--And I hav business of my
own that requires my attention--At Home my Relations call me proud and
morose if I do not visit them--My own private business often calls me
off & unsettles my mind--There too lives the Girl who has subdued my
heart!--All these put together, when they operate at once, are a
strong incitement to divert me from Study. Yet I love Cohansie! And in
spite of my resolution, when I am convinced that my situation is more
advantageous here, yet I wish to be there--How exceedingly capricious
is fancy! When I am Home I then seem willing to remove, for other
places seem to be full as desirable--It is then Society which makes
places seem agreeable or the Contrary--It can be nothing else--Adam
when he had no troublesome painful thoughts within him; and had a
flowery Paradise for his habitation & enjoyment, was not yet fully
happy while he possessed it alone; much less can we his offspring,
frail, & variable, enjoy much sattisfaction without intercourse with
one another--I have just spoken in praise of Society & retirement; And
I now observe we are of such a make that, if we be happy, these must
alternately succeed each other--It is something like the opinion of
_Socrates_ concerning pleasure & pain, that if we possess the one, we
may expect it will not be long before we shall meet with the
other--Towards evening At Mrs Carters request I waited on Miss
_Priscilla_, _Nancy_, & _Fanny_ who rode on Horse-back for an
airing--Wrote a Letter to the Revd Mr Andrew Hunter, Cohansie New
Jersey--In the evening Ben returned full of news of _Boston_, that we
must fight that the troops are arrived & impudent &c, &c.


                               Nominy-Hall Virginia June 5: 1774.

I have the Pleasure, since you allow me the Honour of corresponding
with you, to acquaint you that I had a speedy & delightsome Passage
from Home to this Place: It was you know, in the best Time of the
lovliest of Months.

The Delaware, the broad Chesapeak, & the beautiful Potowmack were mild
& lovely as a handsome, Woman's Presence when her Mind is at Rest--But
are fine Women, Laura, as easily thrown into Confusion & Tumult as

I expect these, if you receive them at all, will find you at N--n. If
they should, please to make my kind Respects to your Brother--&
compliment him on his new Alliance.

I shall wish, very much, to see you at C--e in the Fall, but if it be
inconvenient I do not ask you to pay any Manner of Regard, in this
Case, to my Inclination. The Face of this Part of Virginia is now
indeed beautiful. I wish often that you was here for a While to see,
because I am unable to describe, the charming Landskips, & long
delightsome Prospects of our winding River which we have from the high
Hills! But especially in the Evening when I commonly (as it is the
Custom of the Family) walk for half an hour through the Garden in
Company generally with three brisk mischievous Girls you would I am
certain, for you delight in Gardens, & love the Company of noisy, gay,
& agreeable young Girls, be highly entertain'd.--And as for myself, if
you was here, I should take these Walks & Arbours to be a verdant
flowery Elysium!--I must not omit to thank you for your Letter of Feb:
last; because a Line from you is rare & valuable as the Phenix of

Write to me, best of Girls, the Moment you receive this, that I may
know how, & where you be; & let me hear often from you this Summer.

You may rest assured of my Constancy in continuing a free & full

                                               PHILIP V. FITHIAN.


_Monday 6._

Mr _Carter_ rode to richmond court--At Dinner I had a long and useful
conversation with Mrs Carter She told me openly & candidly the Several
failings of her children, & indeed She knows them perfectly--In
particular she knows not what to do with her perverse Son _Bob_--He
abuses his Mama, Miss Sally, the children, Family, and is much given
to slander. Poor unhappy youth, I fear he will come to an unhappy end!
This afternoon I found it necessary to correct Bob severely for
impertinence in School--Mr Carter at Court received his Invoice from
London for this Spring, in which was a gold Seal for _Ben_ with a Coat
of Arms price five Guineas!--

_Teusday 7._

The morning pleasant, cool & agreeable--I corrected Harry this morning
for telling me a Lie--Stomachful & sullen as any youth--The day warm
but very bearable--Breakfasted with us Mr Blain & Mr Warden, all the
conversation is Politicks; But People seem moderate & yet settled in
their determinations to stand out

_Wednesday 8._

The morning pleasant--Mr _Carter_ rode to the Ucomiko Ware-houses to
examine in the Shipping some of his Tobacco--We have no Company. The
day is very warm--A flaming sultry Sun, a dusty scorched Ground, Mr
_Carter_ returned, the day being smoky introduced, at Coffee, a
conversation on Philosophy, on Eclipses; the manner of viewing them;
Thence to Telescopes, & the information which they afforded us of the
Solar System; Whether the planets be actually inhabited &c.


                             Nomini Hall Virginia June 8th. 1774.

After I acquaint you that, by the kindness of providence I arrived
safe and am in good health, I shall not neglect to inform you that the
Virginians are warm and active in supporting the liberties of America;
the first day of June throughout this Colony, by a resolve of the
House of Burgesses, or Assembly of Representatives for the province
was kept a solemn Fast, and kept religiously too, to invoke almighty
God to assist our falling country, and save us from oppression and
Tyranny--The ware-Houses are already hindring the Shipping Tobacco,
and it is expected there will shortly be a general embargo laid on all
exportable commodities--The people here wish for the union of all the
Colonies, and for firm perseverance in what shall seem most conducive
to the good of America, notwithstanding this Colony and Maryland will
suffer vastly, because Tobacco is a comodity less saleable among
ourselves than most of the produce of the Northern Colonies, and it is
in these the staple--

I am seated once more to great sattisfaction in my business, the
family and neighbourhood are well, but I propose and expect by the
permission of providence to return home the latter end of October; in
the mean time, I am,

                           Dear Unkle
                       Your most obliged Nephew
                                                 PHILIP V FITHIAN

P. S. Please to remember me to the family, &c.


_Thursday 9._

The morning haizy, no Wind, & very warm--I wrote a Letter to Uncle
_Samuel Fithian_--After Dinner Mr Carter set out for Williamsburg--by
him I sent to the Post-office at _Hobbes-Hole_, My Letters to Mr
_Hunter_, Uncle _Fithian_, Miss _Beatty_. & Mr _Peck_--After School in
the evening I had an agreeable walk with Mrs _Carter_ in the Garden--

[Illustration: couple walking]

_Fryday 10._

Cool but exceeding dry--Writing at my Lecture. Mrs _Carter_ was to day
sadly frighted with a Lizard, that lives under the House--After
School, with Ben I wakked over to Mr Turburville's to gather Cheries,
which are there in great plenty--Mrs _Carter_ in the evening after our
return, gave me a Lecture for taking _Ben_ to _Annapolis_ when I went
last Home without a waiting-Man--Wrote at my Lecture til eleven. Ben
sleeps at the Great-House in the absence of his _Papa_.

_Saturday 11._

I was sitting in the Colonels Library I took a Catalogue of the whole
of His Books--& he tells me he has left behind him at Williamsburg,
with many other things 458 volumes besides Music & Pamphlets.[178]

[178] See this catalogue of Carter's library in Appendix, pp. 221-229.

It is with considerable Difficulty that I keep the Children in School
til twelve o Clock as they used to go out all the last winter at
Breakfast--_Bob_ especially is vastly vociferous on the Occasion--Our
Bells for School & play-Hours are at present under good Regulations.
The Children come in as soon as they rise and are Drest which is
usually about seven--The Bell rings at eight for Breakfast--At nine it
Rings for two purposes; for the Children to enter School, & for the
Gardiners, Carpenters, & other workmen to come into Breakfast--At ten
it Rings them to work. At twelve it rings for the School play
hours--At two it rings for us to Dine, & the workmen--And the las[t]
bell is at three for School & for the workmen to go to Labour--I
dismiss them by my watch at half after Five.--After Dinner I rode
alone to Mr Blains Store; bought a pen-knife, nine Jacket-Buttons, & a
primmer for Miss _Harriot 3/_. It is alarming to observe how hard, &
dusty the Country is; towards evening some clouds arose & looked
promising in the West, but they bring no rain--No rain has fell here
since the 24th of May, & then but a Scanty Shower, & most of the time
since windy.

_Sunday 12._

_Ben_ & Mr _Randolph_ had a small wrangle about Horses: The Day is
vastly hot, the wind small at West, clear & very Dry I choose
therefore to stay at Home--I lent my Horse to _Ben_, & staid myself at
Home to write my Lecture, Mrs _Carter_ the two Misses, & Ben went to
Church, Mr Randolph went on Board Captain Blackwells Ship to
dine--_Bob_ pleaded hard with me for Leave to go on Board the Ship,
but I kept him at home with me--Evening I finished my Lecture & laid
it by for future examination. Some Clouds & Lightning in the west but
no rain.

Monday 13.

_Ben_ gave _Bob_, for some imprudent Language a drubbing this
morning--About nine we had a Shower but soon over & of little use; be
to God, however, that we have any--I begun, to day my Sermon for the
Presbytery--The change in the weather since yesterday is remarkable.
This afternoon is so cool that I should be glad of a winter
suit--yesterday afternoon was so hot I could not be comfortably cool
in a thin gown, with all the windows of my chamber up. Evening, John
the waiting Man play'd, & the young Ladies spent the evening merrily
in dancing--I staid til ten, saw them & Conversed with Mrs Carter.

_Teusday 14._

I added last night to my Bed-Clothes a Quilt, Blanket, & my own
Clothes & lay under them all, none too warm--The children call'd for a
Fire in the school-Room, & were so cold I was obliged to dismiss them
before the Bell--I believe there is no Frost--Befor Breakfast, Mr
_Stadley_ the musician came from Colonel _Taylors_ at _mount Airy_.

Miss Priscilla & Nancy attend his instructions. Mr Stadley shewed me
some Verses he is carrying from Mr Washingtons to His Daughter they
seem good and are as follow.

    A Hymn for a dying Believer.

    1st  Happy Soul thy Days are ended,
         All thy mourning Days below,
         Go by Angel-Guards attended
         To the Sight of Jesus, go.

    2d   Waiting to recieve my Spirit,
         Lo thy Saviour stands above,
         Shews the purchase of his merit
         Reaches out the Crown of Love.

    3d   For the Joy he Sets before thee
         Bear a momentary pain,
         Die to live the Life of Glory
         Suffer, with thy Lord to reign.

Spent the evening very agreeably with Mrs Carter & Mr Stadley, we sat
about a good Fire in the Dining-Room, and it seems as necessary &
agreeable as in November or December.--

_Wednesday 15._

So cold that I ordered a Fire in the School-Room--Mr Stadley with us
yet--I took out of the Library to read for entertainment the
"Amusement of the _German Spa_; it is a well written piece--Designed
entirely for Amusement Before dinner Mrs Taylor,[179] with her two
Daughters Miss Polly, & Kitty came in a Chariot--_Bob_ was in a moment
on Fire; He is deeply Smitten with Polly's Charms--beg'd me for Leave
to go out of School & dress--I allow'd him, The Day was vastly windy &
the drouth is alarming!--Close Attention for two weeks past has
fatigued me so much, that yesterday, & to Day I have laid aside Study,
& read only for Relaxation--I took a whim in my head & would not go to
Dinner, my Head was not dress'd, & I was too lazy to change my
clothes--Mrs Carter, however, in the evening lash'd me severely. I
told her I was engaged in reading a pleasant Novel.--That I was not
perfectly well--But She would not hear none, & said I was rude, &
censurable--Mr Stadley spent the evening in playing several songs &
Sonata's on the Harpsichord & violin--

[179] Mrs. Tayloe.

_Thursday 16._

Mr Stadley left us before Breakfast--Reading at the Amusement of
_Spa_--Drew off some Tunes--

_Fryday 17._

Bob was missing last night I was at his Room at twelve o Clock he was
absent--This morning I examined him, he told me he was at Mr
Turburville's, but told me several palpable Lies--I gave him however
severe correction--We had this morning about 5 o Clock a smart Gust of
wind, Rain & Thunder, but soon over.

_Saturday 18._

_Ben_ not very well--At twelve _Bob_ teaz'd me for leave to go to a
Cock-Fight & Horse-Race about two Miles off, I gave him Leave with his
promising to be home by Sun Set.--Spent the Afternoon in my room
writing--Towards evening 'Squire _Lee_ call'd in, & brought a late
London News-Paper in which we are informed that another Act of
Parliament has pass'd taking from the People of Boston all power of
trying any Soldier, or Person whether for commiting any Crime; &
obliging all such offenders to be sent home for legal Tryal--Heaven
only knows where these tumults will End!--He informed us likewise that
last Saturday in Richmond (our neighbour County) the people drest &
burnt with great marks of Destestation the infamous Lord _North_--Mrs
_Carter_, after the 'Squire left us quite astonished me in the Course
of the evening. with her perfect acquaintance with the American

_Sunday 19._

The day cool--Sermon is at Ucomico, so that we all stay at Home Mrs
Carter was in the morning frightned thinking that several of the
Negro-Girls in the Family are unwell with the Measles, but I believe
it to be only a Frett of the Heat Ben is unwel; He has a sick Stomach;
at Times aguish; complains of Pains in his Breast & Side; & in the
morning Spits Blood. He keeps about however, but his fond Mama
discovers great anxiety.--I spend the Day in my Room writing at my
Sermon, & reading the plain & useful _Pictete_.

_Monday 20._

So cool that I sit with my Cloths buttoned, & am chilly. the children
also complain of the cold; this must certainly be unwholesome
weather--Breakfasted with us Mr _Cox_--Ben continues no better, he
lays by Study to day & keeps in--I myself either conceit or in reality
have a Fever & head-Ach to Day--Before twelve we had a moderate Shower
no wind nor Thunder--Mrs _Carter_ wrote a note to Dr _Jones_ & Desired
him to call & See _Ben_, towards evening he came; He thinks _Ben_ has
only Symptoms of an Agu approaching--He prescribed some Physick--Drank
Coffee with us, & went home about six--I lightens in the North.

_Teusday 21._

Harry is unwel, takes this morning Physick, and keeps his Room--Ben is
in the same way--_Priscilla_ & Nancy are practising Musick, so that to
Day we have only four in School--At five in the Evening, Ben, _Prissy_
& I rode out on Horse back for exercise; before we returned Captain
_Dobby_, of the Ship _Susannah_ an agreeable, sensible, polite
Gentleman came, & 'Squire _Lee_--The conversation, at Coffee was on
American affairs, the 'Squire shew'd us one of Mr Dunlaps
papers,[180] in which are accounts that the Northern Colonies are
zealous & stedfast in resolutions to maintain their Liberties--We sat
til eleven--

[180] John Dunlap had established the _Pennsylvania Packet_ in 1771.

_Wednesday 22._

Breakfasted with us Captain _Dobby_, & Mr Taylor, their conversation
promiscuous--Clear & warm, not sultry, _Harry_ better & in School, but
_Ben_ continues indisposed. I wrote to Day some at my Sermon--After
School, with Mrs Carter & the young Ladies & _Bob_, I walked through
the Garden--But I seem not suited in being confin'd wholly at Home,
yet my stay is quite voluntary--

_Thursday 23._

Very warm all the morning--From twelve to two I was writing at my
Sermon--While we were at dinner a very black cloud rose in the West:
Mrs Carter, is fearful when it thunders, so that I did not leave the
Room till it was over, about four, there was a strong Gale of wind,
some thunder, & a refreshing Shower. At five with Mrs Carter & the
young Ladies I took a walk; She shewed me from a high Hill several
beautiful Prospects--I was diverted tho it was a little cruel, to see
the Girls gather the Blossoms of some Prickly-Pears.

_Fryday 24._

Lat night we had a Gust of Rain & Thunder; very acceptable--To Day in
course Mr Christians Dance happens here--He came before
Breakfast--Miss _Jenny Washington_ came also, & Miss _Priscilla Hale_
while we were at Breakfast--Miss Washington is about seventeen; She
has not a handsome Face, but is neat in her Dress, of an agreeable
Size, & well proportioned, & has an easy winning Behaviour; She is not
forward to begin a conversation, yet when spoken to She is extremely
affable, without assuming any Girlish affectation, or pretending to be
overcharg'd with Wit; She has but lately had oppertunity of
Instruction in Dancing, yet She moves with propriety when she dances a
_Minuet_ & without any _Flirts_ or vulgar _Capers_, when She dances a
_Reel_ or _Country-Dance_: She plays well on the Harpsichord, &
Spinet; understands the principles of Musick, & therefore performs her
Tunes in perfect time, a Neglect of which always makes music
intolerable, but it is a fault almost universal among [Illustration:
formally dressed group]

young Ladies in the practice; She sings likewise to her instrument,
has a strong, full voice, & a well-judging Ear; but most of the
Virginia-Girls think it labour quite sufficient to thump the Keys of a
Harpsichord into the air of a tune mechanically, & think it would be
Slavery to submit to the Drudgery of acquiring Vocal Music; Her Dress
is rich & well-chosen, but not tawdry, nor yet too plain; She appears
to Day in a Chintz cotton Gown with an elegant blue Stamp, a Sky-Blue
silk Quilt, spotted apron; Her Hair is a light Brown, it was crap'd
up, with two Rolls at each Side, & on the top a small cap of beautiful
Gawze and rich Lace, with an artificial Flower interwoven--Her person
& carriage at a small distance resembles not a little my much
respected _Laura_. But on close examination her Features are something
masculine, those of _Laura_ are mild and delicate: Mr _Christien_ very
politely requested me to open the Dance by stepping a Minuet with this
amiable Girl, but I excused myself by assuring Him that I never was
taught to Dance.--Miss Hale is about fourteen; a slim, puny silent
Virgin; She has black Eyes, & black Hair, a good sett of Eye-Brows,
which are esteem'd in Virginia essential to Beauty; She looks innocent
of every human Failing, does not speak five Words in a Week, & I dare
say from her Carriage that her Modesty is invincible; She is drest in
a white Holland Gown, cotton Diaper quilt very fine, a Lawn apron, has
her Hair crap'd up, & on it a small Tuft of Ribbon for a Cap She is
but just innitiated into the School, and only hobbles yet Once I saw
her standing; I rose immediately and begg'd her to accept my Chair;
She answered most kindly, "Sir I thank you." that was all I could
extract from this Wonder of the Sex for the two Days she stay'd, & I
seemed to have an equal Share too in the Favours of her Conversation;
so that I cannot be any way particular in describing the mental
faculties of Miss _Hale_. it is sufficient to say that I think She is
far removed from most of the foibles of Women--Some time after these
came Colonel Lee's[181] Chariot with five young Misses--These five,
with Miss Washington & Miss Hale & Miss Nancy Carter, & Bob are Mr
Christiens Compliment of Scholars in this School except Miss
Turburville who is just now up the country with an Uncle, where She is
to Stay some time together with Miss Corbin. Miss Betsy Lee[182] is
about thirteen; a tall slim genteel Girl; She is very far from Miss
Hale's taciturnity, yet is by no means disagreeably forward; She
dances extremely well, & is just begining to play the Spinet--She is
drest in a neat shell Callico Gown, has very light Hair done up with a
Feather, & her whole carriage is easy inoffensive, & graceful--The
other Miss Lee's are small Towards evening came in George Lee, & Mr
_Grubb_, an English Gentleman; the Company danced after candle-light a
Minuet round, three Country Dances, several Reels, when we were Rung
to Supper after Supper we sit til twelve drinking loyal Toasts--

[181] Colonel Richard Henry Lee of "Chantilly."

[182] This Betsey Lee was perhaps Elizabeth, the daughter of John Lee
of Essex County, a nephew of President Thomas Lee.

_Saturday 25._

Ben & I slept til eight--we breakfasted at nine, soon after Christien
collected his School and gave them a Lesson round--About ten the two
Gentlemen left us. They quit Dancing about two--After Dinner Mrs
_Carter_ & the young Ladies, with Mr _Christien_ Ben & Myself walked
in the garden, & through the Pasture, There are several beautiful
prospects of the green Bottoms, & of the River Nominy from the High
hills--By Miss Washington I wrote a letter to Mr Lowe, acquainting him
with what was done for him in the business he sent by me to
Philadelphia. The Day is cool, & intirely agreeable & the Ground has
been refreshed by a Shower or two lately--I am told that the people
are already reaping not only Rye but Wheat in the Neighbourhood;
certainly it is earlier than we reap to the Northward.--


                                      Nomini Hall June 25th 1774.
                                      To Mr John Lowe. Bushfield.


I should have waited on you immediately after my return from
Philadelphia, to acquaint you with what was done in regard to the
business you intrusted me with, and to return the certificate which I
now send inclosed; but necessary business detain'd me for a few days
at home, and when _Bob_ was at the Dance at Mr _Washingtons_ he
informed me you proposed shortly to be here. As I expect to see you
shortly I shall write nothing particular, but only inform you that
your intention was considered and approved:

                             I am, Sir,
                            Your humble Servt:
                                                 PHILIP V FITHIAN


_Sunday 26._

Mr _Smith_ to Day is out of the Parish so that we have no sermon--I
shut up myself therefore in my chamber to reading--Eleven I am sent
for to see Mr Lowe who is come--I invite him to my Room, where we sit
til Dinner--He informed me of the Manner of Trials in Scotland, which
Candidates undergo. It is similar & indeed almost the same as with our
Presbytery Evening Mr Carter returned about seven o-Clock from
Williamsburg; He has been unwell himself while there, & he informs us
that many are indisposed in that City While we were at Coffee I was
taken with a Sudden & unusual pain in my Breast, a sickness at my
stomach, attended with a trembling and dizzy faintness; I retired to
my Room immediately, laid myself down in bed but had a Fever most of
the Night--

_Monday 27._

I feel myself perfectly reliev'd blessed be God who upholds my Life Mr
_Carter_ says the people are reaping on the Road as he came. He opened
& shewed me a curious Case of mathematical Instruments price ten
Guineas; He shewed me _Bens Seal_ five Guineas--We have to day several
plentiful Showers--Evening at Coffee the Colonel shew'd me a book of
vocal Musick which he has just imported, it is a collection of
psalm-Tunes, Hymns, & Anthems set in four parts for the Voice; He
seems much taken with it & says we must learn & perform some of them
in their several parts with our voices & with instruments.--Lightning
in several parts of the Heaven Mrs _Carter_ is much afraid, & can
never eat if a cloud is rising nor lie down to sleep.

_Teusday 28._

Warm this morning. Mr _Carter_ rode to Court. I wrote some at my
sermon but it goes on slowly--_Ben_ is not perfectly well, he studies,
however, at times a little, to day he makes Doctr _Jones_ a visit--The
Day very hot; people I understand are reaping in this County--Evening
we have in the West & North-West amazing Lightning--Mrs _Carter_
retired to her Chamber, where She always chooses to sit quite alone in
bad Weather--

_Wednesday 29._

Writing at my Sermon--The day cool & agreeable. I was never so much
confined as now, not even when I was at College, for I used to go with
my sweet mates, as Virgil calls them, about the Fields, or to the
Brooks to wash, & often ride to Trenton for exercise & pleasure--&
sometimes to _Newington_ & spend an Afternoon with that dear girl
_Laura_--Here in Virginia I have no Call out, people seem sociable &
kind but I want Spirit to improve & relish Society Soon, however,
soon, if I keep my Health, I shall be again at Liberty.

_Thursday 30._

The morning pleasant none too hot to be agreeable--My Charge seem
rising slowly, & uniformly in their several Parts--Harry begun at
Reduction & is now working Fellowship; he improves too in Writing. Bob
began at Addition and is working Compound Division: he is the best
writer in the School--Ben begun with reading Salust he is now reading
Virgil & the Greek-Testament. He writes extremely bad--Priscilla began
Addition & is working Division; She improves in writing, & reads
tolerably--Nancy mends fast in writing, but reads carelessly thick &

--I mentioned to Day Mr _Peck_ to Mr _Carter_ He objected at first to
his Age as rather too young for the Duty of a Tutor, he assented
however & requested me to write him word that he is desired to come by
the Time I shall leave Virginia--

_Fryday July 1. 1774._

I rose at six. The morning bearable Breakfasted with us 'Squire
Lee.--About one came in Captain _Blackwell_, Mr _Grubb_, & _Lancelot
Lee_. the two youngsters came suddenly into our Room, bold gay &
noisy. We conversed with them till the Bell rung for Dinner, when we
all repair'd to the dining-Room: Captain Blackwel is to sail in about
ten Days for London. I gave the Children the afternoon for Recreation.

_Saturday 2._

Mr _Grubb_ called again about twelve with an intention to ride out to
the Potowmack but there came on a Rain & kept us at Home--We spent the
afternoon sociably in our Room. Miss _Nancy Carter_ last Night or this
morning, in some whimsical freak, clipt off her Eye-Brows; She has a
very good Skin; exceeding black hair, & black-well arched, full
Eye-brows, which, as I said the other day are much esteemed in
Virginia--She denies positively that She cut them herself, & swears
some mischievous person has done it when She was sleeping. But I am
inclined to think it is an experiment She has been making on herself
to see how she can vary the looks of her face. It made me laugh when I
saw it first, to think how early & how truely She copies Female

Towards evening we rode out merely for exercise, & straggled at last
to Mr _Simpsons_; near his house we saw two trees standing near each
other both of which have lately been struck by Lightning & are torn to
shivers in several parts--

Mr Grubb agreed to stay the night. we supt on Artichoks, &
Huckleberries & Milk--The toasts, after Supper, were the King, Queen
& Royal Family, the Governor & his family, & then young Ladies of our
acquaintance--We were alone. Mr and Mrs Carter left us immediately, so
that we spent the evening without restraint.

_Sunday 3._

We were all to go to Church to day, but we were prevented by a storm
of thunder & Rain; the Ground is now sufficiently wetted--I have not
heard a Sermon on Sunday since the fifteenth of May; a longer Vacancy
from publick worship than I have ever had since my first remembrance.
About ten an old Negro Man came with a complaint to Mr Carter of the
Overseer that he does not allow him his Peck of corn a Week--The
humble posture in which the old Fellow placed himself before he began
moved me. We were sitting in the passage, he sat himself down on the
Floor clasp'd his Hands together, with his face directly to Mr
_Carter_, & then began his Narration--He seem'd healthy, but very old,
he was well dress'd but complained bitterly--I cannot like this thing
of allowing them no meat, & only a Peck of Corn & a Pint of Salt a
Week, & yet requiring of them hard & constant Service. We have several
Rains this day so that the Ground is sufficiently wetted--I spent the
greater part of the day writing at my Sermon.

_Monday 4._

I begun to read the first Volume of Tristam-Shandy--He is droll in the
account he gives us of his Birth & Family--We have several good
showers to day, the weather is warm, funky, very damp, & I fear will
not turn out long to be healthful. With us in Jersey wet Weather about
this time not only is prejudicial to the Harvest, but is generally
thought, & I believe almost never fails being a forerunner of Agues,
Fall-Fevers, Fluxes, & our Horse-Distempers--Fearing these, any of
which so far from Home, would be painful & expensive, I keep myself
much at Home, contrary to the repeated & strong invitations of the
youngsters--And indeed my Duty, seems to require my Presence pretty
constantly; & I am forced to produce an Example for what I find it
necessary to enforce on our Boys, in order to do it with some face,
for they always call upon me for a Reason for every one of my
precepts--It is now the Height of Harvest--There is at Mr
Turburville's a young Lady, from the Isle-of Wight, Miss _Betsy
Lee_,[183] a Sister of _George_ & _Lancelot Lee's_--It is proposed
that Ben & I go this Evening to the Captain's & Invite her
here--Accordingly after School we rode on our errand, We found besides
Miss _Lee_--Mr _George Turburville_, his _Wife_, Mr _Grubb_, &
_Lancelot Lee_--After the ceremony of Introduction, & our Congees were
over, we took our seats in a cool passage where the Company were
sitting; all the Company when we entered were laughing at Master
_Lee_, who had been gathering Mulberries, & either through
_carelessness_ or _Greediness_ had stained his ruffles--At any Rate
they looked like a scarlet Clock in a Bunters stocking, both
indilicate & impudent--The attention of the Company however being
wholly taken up with Mr Lee, I had the opportunity, which I wanted, of
examining the person of his Sister, without being interrupted either
by the notice of others, or by my own timidity--Miss _Betsy Lee_, I am
told is but lately entered her twenty sixth year; She is a well set
maid, of a proper Height, neither high nor low--Her Aspect when she is
sitting is masculine & dauntless; she sits very erect; places her feet
with great propriety, her Hands She lays carelessly in her lap, &
never moves them but when she has occasion to adjust some article of
her dress, or to perform some exercise of the _Fan_--She has a full
face, sanguine Complection, her Nose is rather protuberant than
otherwise; Her Eyes are exactly such as _Homer_ atributes to the
Goddess _Minerva_; & her Arms resemble those which the same Poet
allows to _Juno_. When She has a Bonnet on & Walks, She is truely
elegant; her carriage neat & graceful, & her presence soft &
beautiful--Her hair is a dark Brown, which was crap'd up very high. &
in it she had a Ribbon interwoven with an artificial Flower--At each
of her ears dangled a brilliant Jewel; She was pinched up rather too
near in a long pair of new fashioned Stays, which, I think, are a
Nusance both to us & themselves--For the late importation of Stays
which are said to be now most fashionable in London, are produced
upwards so high that we can have scarce any view at all of the Ladies
Snowy Bosoms; & on the contrary, they are extended downwards so low
that whenever Ladies who wear them, either young or old, have occasion
to walk, the motion necessary for Walking, must, I think, cause a
disagreeable Friction of some part of the body against the lower Edge
of the Stays which is hard & unyielding--I imputed the Flush which was
visible in her Face to her being swathed up _Body_ & _Soul_ & _limbs_
together--She wore a light Chintz Gown, very fine, with a blue stamp;
elegantly made, & which set well upon her--She wore a blue silk
Quilt--In one word Her Dress was rich & fashionable--Her Behaviour
such as I should expect to find in a Lady whose education had been
conducted with some care & skill; and her person, abstracted from the
embelishments of Dress & good Breeding, not much handsomer than the
generality of Women--

[183] This Elizabeth Lee was the daughter of the late George Lee of
"Mount Pleasant" and his first wife Judith Wormeley of "Rosegill" in
Middlesex County. She died unmarried.

What made me desirous to see, & curious to reconnoitre this young
Lady, was, a Sentence that was dropt yesterday by a respectable Member
of our Family, intimating a Desire that I may, on seeing Miss Lee,
after having known, by report, her faultless character, be so pleased
with her person as to try to make her mine, & settle in this
Province--That kind Body, who is for making me happy by settling me in
Virginia, & connecting me with one of the best families in the
Government, little knows how painful it would be if I was indeed
compell'd by any accident of Fortune to spend the remainder of my Days
in Virginia if is the pleasure of Providence that I am to continue for
any length of time in the World--Strong, & sweet are the bands which
tye us to our place of nativity; If it is but a beggarly Cottage, we
seem not satisfied with the most elegant entertainment if we are
totally seperated from it--But if a Princess should solicit me to
accept, together with Herself, 50000£ a Year--I declare, with as great
_pleasure_ as _truth_, that the esteem, & Fidelity which I possess for
my dear, dear _Eliza_ would make me without reflection, evade & refuse
the Proposal--Ben & I returned Home before dark--We had the 'Squire to
drink Coffee with us--He brought us a Newspaper containing the debate,
of the House of Commons concerning the Repeal of the Tea-duty.

_Teusday 5._

While we were at Breakfast came from Hobbes-Holes Mrs _Oakly_ a Woman
who has acted as nurse for several of Mrs Carters Children with great
credit--All the family speak of her with Love & regard--This day is
very warm, but no rain--I gave all the Girls this day to chat with
their old acquaintance--Tho' the weather is warm & very Damp we have
here no Musquetoes; I have not seen one, since I came into the
Province as I can now recollect which seems to me a little strange;
for at Princeton in Jersey some warm evenings in July & August they
are so numerous as to be troublesome, & that is more than twenty miles
from Salt Water, this not more than three times as many _Rod_.--In
the evening, among several other things Mr Carter informed me that he
has on this plantation a Negro Man called Prince who is now unwell of
a Strain--This Man, he swears, he would not sell for 500£ ready
Cash--I was almost ready to say it is more Money than I would give for
all he owns on his Estate--The evening is very pleasant I had an
oppertunity on the Pavement before the Hall Door of shewing away on
Astronomy to Mrs _Carter_, I lectured for half an hour on the
Milky-Way, on several of the Stars, on Jupiter in particular, & on the
Course of Comets--

In bed by half after ten as usual.

_Wednesday 6._

Ben seems pretty well recovered--We dined to day on the Fish call'd
the Sheeps-Head, with Crabs--Twice every Week we have fine Fish, &
every Day good Fruit for Dinner, caudled Apples, Hurtle-Berries with
milk &c--Yes, says Mrs Carter at Supper, this hot weather takes away
all my life; the small Lightning that we now have makes me uneasy &
melancholy--I love to see her in such Distress--_Beauty_ & _Virtue_
when combined together & Strugling against Misfortune; O how such
objects move, & awaken the most delicate sensations of our Souls--Call
in Nancy to her Guitar, says the Colonel. In She minces slow & silent
from her supper--She scratches her Instrument, after a long
preparation, into the Air of "Water parted from the Sea." What, pray
Miss Nancy, what bewitched you with a desire of clipping your
Eye-Brows--The Genius of Woman shines forth in this little Girlish
trick--Pray Mr _Fithian_, was you ever taught Singing? Yes Sir, I
attended two years--Had you any instructions in particular for using
the Shake[184]--I am giving Nancy some Lessons, but She is vastly
indolent--Nancy, play over and sing the Funeral Hymn--Excuse me, Papa,
I have lost the Verses--Happy Soul, thy Days are ended,--Go on--How
steady & how sharp it lightens in the North too--Good Night.

[184] A trill, or rapid reiteration of two notes comprehending an
interval not greater than one whole tone, nor less than a semitone.

_Thursday 7._

Yes Fanny may sit down to Breakfast--Where's Ben--The Weather is hot &
Ben for enjoyment had stript himself naked--Of every thing but his
shirt & Trowsers--Where's Ben--He is not very well, Madam,--This Day
says the Colonel after having Prefac'd our Breakfast with a--"God
bless us in what we are to recieve"--is our Rye yonder to be mown
down; mown down thinks I, do they mow their Grain in Virginia--Yes two
Negroes take naked Sythes & mow down the Grain; others are imploy'd in
raking it into heaps, but much of it is left--Shall I help you, Mr
Fithian, to a Dish of Coffee?--I choose a deep Plate, if you please,
Ma'am, & Milk--Our Corn, Madam, in Jersey is inferior to yours in this
Province--Or your Cooks, Sir, are less Skilful in managing it--Well,
Nancy, I have tuned your Guitar; you are to practice to Day with
Priscilla, who is to play the Harpsichord, till twelve o Clock; You
can repeat the Verses of the Funeral Hymn?--I can Sir--What, Harry, do
you hesitate at that plain Sum in Arithmetical Progression?--_Bob_,
attend to your Business--When I am bedizen'd with these clamorous
children, sometimes I silently exclaim--Once I was told, now I know I
feel how irksome the Pedagoging Scheme is--Fanny--I say, Fanny, dont
you hear me, Fanny, and Betsy, sit down--pray, Sir, must I multiply
here by 32--Yes, thick-Scull--But Mr Fithian, I dont know how to
divide by 5½--Look, Sir, do you see what Mouth's _Harry Willis_ is
making?--I can say my Lesson--Buz, Buz--To divide by 5½ you must
double both your Dividend & divi[sor]--Half after two we were rung to
Dinner; poor _Tasker_, his Fever has continued high since yesterday
afternoon, he lies quiet, and asks for nothing--If his Disorder does
not abate to night, I shall give him in the morning a dose of "James's
Powder"--Will you lend me Jack, he meant my Horse, says Mr Randolph,
to ride tomorrow to Captain Cheltons; Yes Mr Randolph, I will oblige
Jenny so far.

_Fryday 8._

I swear, says Bob, Harry belies me. I never told the Nurse that
Harriot should stay in School all Day--It was Mama's order that so
long as Mrs _Oakly_ the Nurse stays, Harriot is to go into School
after Breakfast, & after Dinner, & say a lesson each time--I was
passing through the Hall from Breakfast--The Nurse, a short Stump of a
[wom]an, who blundered by mere accident, when she was young, out of
the road in which Virgins commonly travel, & felt the difficulties of
being a Mother, several years before She enjoyed the Pleasures of
being a Wife--She call'd to me, & begg'd me to close the Quarrel; You
shall have, said I, dear Madam, with the greatest Freedom my
consent--Harriot shall be with you--At Breakfast--Where is Ben?--He
breakfasts with the House-keeper Madam--At School--What a likeness
there is in the manners of Boys; Bob, & Harry had skulk'd behind the
writing-Table with their Slates on their Knees, & their Faces close
together, just as I have done a thousand Times, in our little
School-House in _Greenwich_--But once I was threshed confoundedly for
a piece of such hidden play--_Tom Parks_ [blotted] asleep, poor Fellow
he is now sleeping in the Dust;--Then he was fast asleep on a Bench,
with his mouth open--I fill'd his mouth with Snuff!--He sprung
up--Nature was in distress, & found all her Avenues too scanty at that
time to clear out at once the tickling penetrating Powder--He
snuffed--He coughed--He--He told the Master, & then I was
tickled--Indeed he made my Feet beat time to his Lash---Says Bob to
Harry, behind the Table, I wonder Mr _Fithian_ has not fallen in Love
yet with some of our Nominy-Girls--Here he sits from Month to
Month--(Not many Months longer said I to myself)--Mr _Marshal_[185]
was always out; I suppose Mr _Fithian_ never thinks of Girls--Indeed
says _Harry_, drawing his chair clos[e &] lowering his voice, I never
in my Life saw a Man who thought so little of these things--Here Tom
the Coachman came in with a wood Tarripin which he brought to be a
resident in our Room to catch the Bugs & Cockroaches--

[185] James Marshall, Fithian's predecessor as tutor of the Carter
children, had formerly been an usher at the College of William and
Mary. Marshall had inherited a plantation in Orange County. The
_Virginia Gazette_ of April 18, 1773 had announced the death of
Marshall, at "Nomini Hall" and had corrected the error in its next

Yes, Harry, & Bob, _Fithian_ is vulnerable by Cupids Arrows--I assure
you, Boys, he is, Not by the Girls of Westmorland--O my dear Laura, I
would not injure your friendly Spirit; So long as I breathe Heavens
vital air I am unconditionally & wholly Yours--At Dinner, Mrs Carter
call'd for the Chariot, Mrs Turburville will think me rude, unless I
welcome her Home. I will take Priscilla this Afternoon & make her a
visit--I saw in a moment that _Miss_ was better pleased with the
notion of trotting off in the Carriage, than to be [blotted] up with
Multiplication & Division--O yes, says Mrs _Oakly_, I know Dadda
_Gumby_ at _Williamsburg_. I think you look as brisk, as hearty & as
young now as you did ten years ago--_Gumby_--I & my old Woman, here
Master, are the two oldest Negres in Mr _Carters_ Estate. Here we
live, Master, on our worthy Landlords Bounty--The _Nurse_, _Betsy_, &
_Harriot_ were at Gumby's House which stands about twenty Rod from the
Garden--I was walking, with a Book in my Fist, musing & stumbling
along--I saw them, I went up, & with a lower Bow than I should give to
a Nurse, if Women were plenty, says I, pray Mrs _Oakly_ do you know
Dadda Gumby? We stood chattering with the old African, or rather he
stood chattering with us, relating one story after another, leaving
some of his Narrations half untold, beginning others in the middle
having entered into the true Spirit of Loquacity--Dennis, in the
Height of a Story about his Grandfathers Uncle's harpooning a
_Porpoise_ summoned me to Coffee--Mrs Oakly, will you walk?--Come
Betsy--Where's Ben?--Says the Colonel has Ben r[e]tired from the
World?--He rode out this Evening, Sir, about five o Clock for
Exercise--Mrs Carter, Mr Carter, good Night--

_Saturday 9._

I was waked by _Sam_ the Barber thumping at my Door--I was dressed--In
Powder too; for I propose to see & dine with Miss _Jenny Washington_
to Day. D--n the Bugs & Chinches, says _Ben_ rolling over on the Bed,
& rubbing his Eyes, I have slept none for them--Mr Fithian, do you
rest any o-Nights? Dont these cursed Bugs keep you awake?--No Sir; for
you see I commonly sit & read til half after ten, or eleven--So that
by the Time I lay my poor Skin & Bones on the Bed, I am so much
fatigued with the tumultuous Business of the Day, & the Study of the
Evening that my sleep the rest of the night is sound & unbroken--
Priscilla hangs her head a little this morning, She looks feverish,
dispirited, sits on a low bench, with her Elbow in her Lap, & Leaning
her head upon her hand, swings backwards and forwards, just as I have
seen beautiful Quaker Girls when they are weeping at the frightful
distortions & Grimaces of some deep-inspired _Father_. But _Priscilla_
& _Tasker_ are unwell--Fanny teizes me for a Picture, I must draw her
a slip, she says, on Paper like the one I drew for Her the other Day
with my finger in the Sand--I love the little careless Girl, & will
oblige her--On the writing-Table in the School-Room I found this
morning an old Book of Esops Fables done into English Verse; In the
Margins of this Book up & Down Bob had in his scribbling Way recorded
the Names of several young Ladies of Westmorland & Richmond Counties.
I shall set them down, as I turned over the Leaves & found them--I do
not insinuate, by writing this Story, the smallest reproach to either
of the Ladies; I mention it solely to shew _Bob's_ Taste, & the
Meditations of his heart when wholly alone. In the Life of Esop, page
23, at the Bottom of the Leaf his own Name is written at full length &
in as elegant a hand as he is master of with a Dash below.

                        _Robert Bladen Carter._

He has in the same manner introduced it a few leaves further on, he
has done this to be a kind of Preface for what is to follow; he has
also very cleverly interspersed it with the Ladies, either that the
Ladies Names should be a foil to set his off to advantage, or that his
Name be a Foil to adorn the Ladies--In the Life of Woglog the great at
the first page

  Miss Lucy Carter of Sabine-Hall.
    Page 3d at the Bottom of the Leaf
  Miss Lettitia Turberville of Hickory Hill.
    Page 8.
  Miss Betsy Carter of Sabine-Hall.
    Page 9.
  Miss Priscilla Carter of Nomini-Hall--his Sister:
    Esops Fables Page 1st he writes the Name of the Girl he loves
    above all others
  Polly Tayloe the Lovely of Mount-Airy.
    Page 39th Miss Betsy Lee.
    Page 41.
  Miss Kitty Tayloe. Mount Airy.
    Page 43.
  Miss Lydia Pettit has d--m'd ugly Freckles in her Face, otherways
  She is handsome & tolerable--
    Page 45.
  Miss Betsy Gaskins.[186]
    Page 47.
  Miss Sally Tayloe.
    Page 50.
  Miss Jenny Washington of Bushfield is very Pretty.

Then he Bolts in

      Robert Carter.
    Page 57.
  Miss Polly Tolliver.[187]
    Page 59.
  Miss Steerman is a beautiful young Lady.
  Miss Jane Corbin.
  -- Aphia Fantleroy.
  -- -- Edwards.
  -- Betsy Jones
  -- Sally Panton.

[186] The Gaskins family lived in Northumberland County. Elizabeth
Gaskins, daughter of Colonel Thomas Gaskins of that County married
Edward Digges of "Bellfield" in York County in 1775.

[187] The Taliaferro family was a prominent one in Tidewater Virginia.
While the name is pronounced "Tolliver," it is believed to be of
Italian origin.

But this afternoon Mrs _Oakly_ is taken with a Fever; I suppose, She
was out last evening without any thing on her head rather too late,
when I saw her at Daddy Gumby's--

_Sunday 10._

A Sunday in Virginia dont seem to wear the same Dress as our Sundays
to the Northward--Generally here by five o-Clock on Saturday every
Face (especially the Negroes) looks festive & cheerful--All the lower
class of People, & the Servants, & the Slaves, consider it as a Day of
Pleasure & amusement, & spend it in such Diversions as they severally
choose--The Gentlemen go to Church to be sure, but they make that
itself a matter of convenience, & account the Church a useful weekly
resort to do Business--I am told, for I have not yet been to Church
since my Return, that all the Sermons are in the forensic Style, & on
political Subjects. But I shall go to Church to Day--I am sorry that I
may relate an accident which happened last night--By some accident; or
by the carelessness of some Negroes Mr Turburville's Barn took fire
and burnt Down--His loss is judged at 300£ which is something
considerable for a Man who is with the greatest Anxiety turning every
ear of Corn into Money--At Church Parson _Smith_ Read to the
Congregation an Order Issued out lately by the Governor to elect
Burgesses in the several Counties--He preached us a Sermon on
Brotherly Love--Dined with us to Day Mr Parker,[188] a Lawyer of this
County, & his Son, a young Man about 20 who is also licensed to plead
Law--And Mr _Cunningham_--I am not very well to Day. I have pains in
several parts of my Body--Mr _Lowe_ informed me that Colonel
Washington is unwell of a sort of _Cholic_--

[188] Richard Parker (1729-1813) of "Lawfield" was a distinguished
lawyer in Westmoreland County at this time.

_Monday 11._

Indeed says Mrs Carter at Breakfast a Fire this morning would be very
pleasant--Yes says I, for I have had the look & feeling of November
all the morning; My Room shut up, My Coat buttoned, & yet my Body cold
Besides!--Mr Carter on this, advanced a strange Assertion, that there
is not a single Person on this whole Continent, if this Change is as
powerful through the Continent as it is here, who is not to day, in a
greater or less Degree affected with a Fever!--My poor skinny Body, I
know is in a prodigious Tumult; I impute it tho to my ride Yesterday
to Church in the schorching Sun; & to drinking five or six Glasses of
Wine extraordinary--_Priscilla_ & _Harriot_ are confined at Home of an
eruptive Fever, some think it a Swine Pox at any Rate they are sick, &
break out into Pustules--I am in such Ferment to Day that I cannot sit
nor Walk, nor Write with any Stomach--I made out tho' with some
Difficulty to finish a rough Draught of my Sermon, & laid by for
future Perusal.

_Teusday 12._

Indeed I enjoy this fine cool weather, says Ben as he lay on his Back
in the Bed rubbing his Eyes, & ears about half after six o-Clock;
_Lancelot Lee_ had never I am sure, more sensible Pleasure in
swallowing a well prepar'd Dinner--To be sure I have slept last Night
with the sweetest composure in Spight of the Chinches, & in spight of
my Disorder!--Get up, Lump of Indolence, said I to him; Get up & clap
to _Virgil_ instead of lying there & boasting--Breakfasted with us
Captain Guthrie, of a Small Schooner of _Norfolk_; & Mr Stadley the
Musician--I love this good German, He used to teach in _New York_ &
_Philadelphia_--He has much simplicity & goodness of heart--He
performs extremely well--He is kind & sociable with me--Dined with us
one--one--Mr--Mr--I forget his name--I know his trade tho': An
Inspector--He is rather Dull, & seems unacquainted with company for
when he would, at Table, drink our Health, he held the Glass of Porter
fast with both his Hands, and then gave an insignificant nod to each
one at the Table, in Hast, & with fear, & then drank like an Ox--The
Good Inspector, at the second toast, after having seen a little our
Manner "Gentlemen & Ladies (but there was none in Womans Cloathing at
Table except Mrs Carter) The King"--I thought that during the Course
of the Toasts, he was better pleased with the Liquor than with the
manner in which he was at this Time obliged to use it--I made a
b[e]gining of my Latin Thesis--"Cuinam Usui inservi: at Lex moralis
sub Evangeliis." I made out to write thus much--Duabus hisce
Propositionibus sequentibus simulatim Respondeo.--But if I wrote so
much every Day for a twelve Month my Thesis will be short. The Day is
pleasant, cool enough: & my disorder which has been for several days a
growing painful _Dysentery_, seems to have subsided--


                                       Nominy-Hall July 12. 1774.


The Summer is advancing briskly on, & bringing me with it every Day
still nearer to you--And to my last Change--With you I am looking for
the purest Happiness in Friendship & Love that I can derive from any
thing below; And it will add to measure of Felicity if I can make the
Woman I choose to protect & esteem think me worthy her Regard.

I said that the swift Advances of Summer are bringing me swiftly on to
Death--In Virginia there are numberless Admonitions to this
Reflection, but I suppress any farther Declaration. I wrote you by Mr
---- early last Month; & at the same Time I wrote to several of my
Acquaintances: but if they lived in the Moon I could hear from them as
often as I do now when only a Couple of Hundred Miles, or a little
more, separates us: Would it not be more agreeable to me if they
did--? For then I should every Night almost, see, at least, the Place
of their Habitation, tho' we could have no Correspondence.

You are such a Pilgrim, Laura; I mean such a Rover, that I am at some
Loss to know how to direct a Letter to you; & I want my Letters, while
they are on their Passage to go through as few Hands as possible, not
because I write any _Secrecy_, or _Scandal_, for you will not allow
either the one or the other; but only that you may speedily receive &
read the Little I do write, fresh from my Heart.

I suppose that Miss ---- has before now seen Cohansie--And cloyed of
it too, no Doubt. She is a lively, sportful Soul. But that dear Place,
which ingrosses so many of my Thoughts, has not Variety enough to
entertain her long--You yourself, who are not always soaring on
Follie's Wing, through the Regions of Vanity & Nonsense, sometimes
find the Country dull--But Miss ---- does not find Satisfaction in the
City; it is plain then since that young Lady cannot find Contentment
either in City or Country, that She cannot be happy at all.

Merciful, merciful Heaven! O grant me what I am trying hard to obtain;
grant that my Inclinations be all duely bended to a perfect
Satisfaction with my Lot here--! With such a Temper I shall be at
Rest, be happy, if I continue here in Virginia; Or I shall be happy
if I remove into new Jersey; But, must I declare it, Laura, that if I
am destitute of this, I should be wretched, tho' your Friend &
Companion--I am,

                           Laura, thine
                                              PHILIP. V. FITHIAN.


_Wednesday 13._

I drew off this morning for Dadda _Gumby_ a List of his Children, &
their respective ages--He himself is 94--For this office I had as many
_Thanks_, As I have had _blessings_ before now from a Beggar for
Sixpence--Thank you, thank you, thank you Master, was the language of
the old Greyheaded pair.--Call on us at any time, you shall have
_Eggs_, _Apples_, _Potatoes_--You shall have every thing we can get
for you--Master!--In this Torrent of Expressions of Gratitude I was
rung to Breakfast; I bow'd to the venerable old Negroes, thank'd them
in my Turn for their Offers, & left them--

[Illustration: man greeting elderly pair]

Indeed, said the Colonel at Breakfast, cool as it was last Night, I
kept my Window up the whole night--I am not fond of your hot a dust
Air--Was yours up Mr Fithian no truly; so long as I can breath without
panting I am for keeping my Window down, & my Room close on summer
nights; especially here in Virginia, Madam, where the Dews are so
heavy, and so dangerous--The Postilion keeps a fox at the Stable & I
am often much diverted with his Cunning Tricks. The other Day, Mrs
Carter was lying in the long room among the Books on the Couch; In
jumps Reynard, through a broken Pane of Glass, & begins to frisk & hue
about the Room like a Bedlam--How is Nurse, pray, says the Colonel at
Dinner? She has her Ague & Fever again to Day, Sir--This is a fine
Sheeps-Head, Mr Stadly shall I help you?--Or would you prefer a _Bass_
or a _Perch_?--Or perhaps you will rather help yourself to some picked
_Crab_--It is all extremely fine, Sir, I'll help myself--Well says the
Colonel when we had almost finished our Dinner with a Glass of
sparkling Porter on the Table before him, we have but fasted to Day;
here stands a fine Ham, & a Shoulder of excellent Mutton yet
untouched--At least, says the merry, good-hearted Man, we have kept
_Lent_--Yesterday evening I scribled a little for _Laura_, & to Day I
drank her Health from my Heart in generous Medaira--Yes, best of
Women, when you are the Toast I drink wine with Pleasure--

_Thursday 14._

To Day is the election of Burgesses in Richmond the neighbouring
County--Come, Fithian, will you go? My old objection recurs; I am too
busy--I met this morning in Wingates Arithmetic, with the following
merry Problem--"To discover a Number which any one shall have in his
mind, without requiring him to reveal any part of that or any Number
whatsoever"--After any one has thought upon any number at Pleasure;
bid him double it, & to that double bid him add any such even number
as you please to assign: Then from the Sum of that Addition let him
reject one half, & reserve the other half; Lastly, from this half bid
him subtract the Number which he first thought upon; then you may
boldly tell him what Number remains in his mind after that Subtraction
is made, for it will be always half the Number which you assigned him
to add--A Reason for the Rule is added. "Because, if to the double of
any number (which number for Distinction sake I call the first) a
second number be added, the half of the Sum must necessarily consist
of the said first number, & half the Second: Therefore if from the
said half sum the first Number be subtracted, the remainder must of
necessity be half the second Number which was added--Mr Inspector
dined with us again to day--We had after Dinner, _Lime Punch_ &
_Madaira_: but he chose & had a Bowl of _Grogg_--You are a mean Puppy,
a treacherous, ungenerous Scoundrel, says _Bob_, to Harry just as I
entered the School after Dinner--you told Mr _Lowe_, you did more, you
published in Mr Washingtons Family that Mr _Fithian_ horsed me for
Staying out all night--That he call'd in John the Waiter to help
him--& that you was sent to cut & bring in Whips--After School with
Ben I rode out the Day is warm, & the Ground grows to be very dry--I
was not a little Surprized to see Corn out in Tassel--But the Tobacco
looks dismal, it is all poor, much of it is dead with the drouth; I
think, however, that the Season is ten days or two Weeks earlier here
than in New Jersey.--

Mr Stadly, left us to Day. I love that Man, he is gone to Colonel

[189] Colonel John Tayloe.

_Fryday 15._

I got up a little before six & as it is very warm, I threw up the
window to enjoy the Morning's fine salubrious Air--I saw a _Lady_--She
was walking to the _Poplars_--She appeared small but walked
genteel--She walked slow & looked on the ground--Her Dress look'd to
be extremely good, but was only thrown carelessly on; She had a Silk
shade thrown over her shoulders in which her hands were muffled--I had
the Idea in a moment of a Woman in some kind of Difficulty--But how
can such a woman have been to Mr Carters & done Business, who was not
there last night.?--It was Mrs _Oakly_--She has the Ague and was
walking for the benefit of the _Morning Air_.--We are rid of two
_troubles_ from this morning till Monday: for _Bob_ & _Nancy_ are gone
to the Dancing School--They dance at Colonel Lee's--Two great
troubles, indeed, for this hot weather I can hardly keep them in the
Room, much less to any useful business--Please to excuse me from
Dinner, says Mrs Carter, & retired to her Chamber--There appears in
the North a black Cloud, where it Thunders--Send us a Shower in Mercy,
bountiful Heaven, tho' our Sins deserve thy Frowns & Judgments.--The
Cloud thickens. it rises--At last there comes a kind Shower--After the
Rain about six Ben & I took a Ride for exercise, the Corn litterally
looks glad--I have made a party, Says Mr Carter at Coffee, for a Trip
by Water to morrow, Mr Fithian will you be one?--With all my heart
Sir, if it is agreeable--We are to ride then to Mr _Atwels_ says he, &
there enter my new Barge; with her we will go down the River
Machodockin to Potowmack then up the Potowmack & enter the River
Nomini, & up that River Home--


                                    Nomini-Hall. July 15th. 1774.


I have communicated your intention to Mr _Carter_; he begs you will by
no Means disappoint him.

I wrote you a letter by the post early in June possibly it was lost,
for either letters are lost, or you and the rest of my friends in
_Jersey_ use me vastly ill, for I have not received a line since I
have been in Virginia--You had better go into the school and acquaint
yourself with the method of teaching, and procure some copper plate
copies: I am by the goodness of heaven very well; I hope you will
remember me to all friends at Princeton to relations and friends at
Cohansie; desire _Charles_ to carry my _Homer_ to cohansie when he
goes down in the vacancy; tell him I shall be at home if no unforeseen
accident prevents by the last of october.

You had better provide yourself with recommendations from several,
especially from Doctor Witherspoon, something of the kind will not be
a hindrance, but may possibly at some J[u]ncture be of eminent

                             I am, Sir, Yours,
                                                 PHILIP V FITHIAN

Mr John Peck.


_Saturday 16._

The _Colonel_, _Ben_, & _myself_ rode on Horse-back about Six to Mr
Atwels; four lusty, hearty Men had gone on foot before who were
Oarsmen: Here we were to enter a Boat never Rowed before, & proceed
down the River Machodock to Mr _Carters_ Store-Houses which are now
building near the mouth of that River--But I am going to venture upon
a Description of a Scene which I am sure I shall not do Justice to--A
Scetch of three Rivers--Their Beautiful Banks--Several Gentlemens
Seats--Their commodious harbours--In particular that near which Mr
_Carter_ is erecting Store-Houses--The whole is to be an account of
our peregrination this 16th burning day of July 1774--With several
remarks.--What a Crack of Thunder there was! I must run to the Window
& view the Cloud--It is a small white remote Cloud in the North-West.
I am summoned to Coffee--Mrs _Carter_ gave us a Dish round--Amazing
what a Flash of Lightning! how fast it rises!--Ben child, says the
lovely Woman, take my Seat & fill out the Coffee. Please to excuse me;
& She then retired up chamber--We finished our Coffee--The Gust came
up, & to be sure I have seldom seen one more terable! Long, bright,
forked bolts seemed to dart incessantly through the broken parts of
the Cloud; some of them would appear perpendicular others horizontal,
and some would split, & in a Moment seem to bespangle, with sparks of
Fire, the whole Front of the Cloud! And these were continually
succeeded with alarming alternate Cracks of Thunder!--It brings,
however to the scorched Earth a plenteous needful Supply--By nine it
is past, & opens a serene beautiful western Sky--I resume my

I have said, that we rode on Horseback to Mr _Atwels_ where we were to
go on board & have our Horses sent back. This House is called six
Miles from the mouth of Machodock--It stands on the Bank of the River;
The Boat that carried us is built for the purpose of carrying the
young Ladies and others of the Family to Nominy Church--It is a light
neat _Battoe_ elegantly painted & is rowed with four Oars--We went on
board; The Sun beamed down upon us, but we had each an Umberella--The
River is here about Gunshot over; the Banks are pretty low, but hard
to the very Water--I was delighted to see Corn & Tobacco growing, or
Cattle & Sheep feeding along the Brink of this River on both Sides, or
else Groves of Pines, Savins & Oaks growing to the side of the
Bank--We passed by an elegant small Seat of Mr _Beal_;[190] it was
small, but it was neat--We arrived at Mr _Carters Store-Houses_ in 50
minutes, they are 5 Miles from Mr _Atwels_, & one from Potowmack--These
Houses are building for the reception of Iron, Bread, Flour &c. there
are two Houses each 46 Feet long by 20.--They stand at the Bottom of a
Bay which is a safe & spacious harbour--Here we Breakfasted at
ten.--At twelve we pushed of from thence & rowed by parson Smiths
Glebe & in sight of his house in to the broad beautiful Potowmack--: I
think it is here ten Miles or twelve over has a fine high hard Bank;
no Marshes--but Cornfields, Trees, or Grass!--Up the lovely Water we
were rowed six Miles in to the Mouth of Nominy--We went on Board a
small Schooner from _Norfolk_ which lay in Nominy-Bay--Mr Carter is
loading her with Flour & Iron--Here we were in Sight of Stratford,
Colonel Lee's, Seat.--We were in Sight too of Captain Cheltons--And of
Colonel Washingtons Seat at Bushfield--From the Schooner we Rowed up
Nominy-River--I have forgot to remark before that from the time of our
setting out as we were going down Machodock, & along the
Potowmack-Shore, & especially as we were rowing up Nominy we saw
Fishermen in great numbers in Canoes, & almost constantly taking in
Fish Bass & Perch--This was beautiful!--The entrance of Nomini is very
shoal, & stony, the Channel is very narrow, & lies close to the
Easternmost Side--On the edges of these shoals, or in Holes between
the Rocks is plenty of Fish--The Banks of Nominy are steep and vastly
high, twenty & thirty Feet, & in some places almost perpendicular; The
Course of the River is crooked, & the prospects on each Side vastly
romantic & diversified--We arrived at the Granary near Nominy-Hall
about six--I went to my room to take off an Account of the
expedition--When the Gust soon hindred.

[190] The Beales were a prominent family in Richmond and Westmoreland
counties. Several members of this family had intermarried with the
Carters. Robert Carter's uncle, Landon Carter of "Sabine Hall," had
taken Elizabeth Beale as his third wife in 1746. Landon's son, Robert
Wormeley Carter, married Winifred Beale, and Robert Wormeley's sister,
Judith, married Reuben Beale.

_Sunday 17._

The Air this morning serene & cool--I do not go to Church. At last I
have finished my Presbyterial pieces roughly they are to be reviewed &
corrected; In the mean Time tho', (as Workman say) I must blow a
little, for to be sure I am fatigued--Mr _Fithian_, says Mr _Carter_
at Dinner with a serious Air, you see we cannot with conveniency
attend _Ucomico_ Church. If I should propose having prayrs read in the
great Room on that vacant Day would you encourage & assist me?--I
answered him that I was heartily agreed--You then, Sir, says he, may
read the _prayrs_--& I will read the _Lessons_. The Afternoon
extremely hot I could not leave my Room til the Sun had hid his
flaming Place behind the Earth--Then I walked through the Garden--The
whole Family seem to be now out Black, White, Male, Female, all
enjoying the cool evening--

_Monday 18._

Pray Sir let all our Windows be put up, says Bob the Moment he came
down from his chamber, & let the Doors be set open or we shall faint
with Heat--Such a night I never spent before--The Heat says he, and
these cursed Chinches made me intirely restless--I scribbled over a
Letter to Mr _John Peck_, & one to Miss ... pray Mr Fithian says
Nancy draw me a picture such as you drew for Fanny last Week--At two,
just before we sit Down to Dinner a Cloud appear'd in the West--Mrs
Carter excused herself from Dinner; while we were dining the Cloud
came over, very moderate tho' with plenty of Rain--It is now, says Mrs
Carter at Coffee, cool enough, a fine fair evening, a Northerly breeze
& lovely evening--Mrs Oakly came into my Room this evening--It was to
take her leave; she is to leave us early tomorrow morning--Good night,
said I to the little Woman, I wish you a safe passage over the
Rappahannock, & a pleasant journey home--I drew off as well as I could
a rough plan of Nominy-Hall for Nancy.

_Teusday 19._

Nurse left us early this morning postilion Nat. carried her in a chair
to the Ferry--The Day is fine cool enough--After School in the evening
I rode out to a Corn-field, about a Mile & a half off, where I usually
go for exercise, the Corn is beginning pretty generally to tassel, & I
saw one hill in Silk, and in Blossom--To day I put _Harry_ into
decimal Arithmetic--

_Wednesday 20._

Shut the Door, _Harriot_, says _Fanny_ I I'm so cold I shake--indeed
the morning is cool enough to sit with December clothes on!--I spent
the little time I have for myself to Day in forming my Latin
_Exegesis_--Mr _Taylor_ the head Overseer Dined with us--At _Coffee_
The Colonel & myself entered somehow into Dispute upon the advantage
in working an Oar--He asserted & tried to prove that the advantage
lies in having the Oar longer from the _Thole-pin_ or where it lies on
the Boat to the water, than from the _Thole-pin_ to the Rowers hand in
a mathematical sense; He allow'd the Water to be the Fulcrum or Prop,
& the Boat to be the weight, & the Rower to be a secondary Power--But
the resistance of the Water to the Oar he call'd the chief & primary

_Thursday 21._

Lazy Fellows! _Ben_, _Bob_, _Harry_, & _Myself_ all this Morning slept
til near seven!--It was a sleepy Morning tho', for the Girls to give
us countenance slept too--My Leisure time to Day is spent in forming
my Latin Exegesis--Only just before the Sun went Down _Ben_ & I had
our Horses & rode to our accustomed Resort the Corn-field, now many of
the Hills are in Silk--We returned to Coffee--The Day has been very
warm; the evening is light & pleasant, &, Thank, to our common, &
bountiful Preserver, I am in good Health--

_Fryday 22._

My Exegesis goes on lustily; I have finished three pages--Indeed Sir,
says _Harry_ I cannot reduce 7s 6d into the decimal of a Pound
Sterling--you must reduce 7s & 6d to pence; for a numerator; then you
must reduce a Pound Sterling to Pence for a Denominator; this
Numerator you divide by the denominator & the Quotient will be the
Decimal sought--Well _Ben_ you & Mr _Fithian_ are invited by Mr
Turberville, to a Fish feast to-morrow, said Mr Carter when we entered
the Hall to Dinner--I am uncertain whether my Latinitas will not be a
Shackle too heavy to allow me to favour his kind invitation.

_Saturday 23._

_Priscilla_, & _Fanny_, each presented me with a fine Jessamine
Nosegay this morning--At eight I dismissed the School: _Ben_, _Bob_, &
_Harry_ go to the _Fish-Feast_, I to making latin--While we were
Dining a black turbulent Cloud came over from the West (I believe the
Boys will commend my choice now) It rained, it Thundered hard, &
continued exceeding stormy til after six in the Evening; I spent the
Afternoon however in Quiet & to advantage--I am more & more pleased
with my Situation. the Time draws nigh when I must enter on a new, &
perhaps less agreable exercise--There were many at the River; the Boys
tell me, among others Miss _Betsy Lee_--I do not, however, repent my
having staid at Home--The Colonel shewed me some Powder which was made
in _Frederick_ in this Province--It seems good--He charged a _Pistol_,
it fired quick & strong--

_Sunday 24._

I lazy slept til seven--The Boys seem sick of their yesterdays
Voyage--I rode to Nomini-Church--The Parson invited me home but we
have company--Mr _Turberville_, _Mr Cunningham_, _George_ & _Lancelot
Lee_ dined with us--After the ordinary Toasts we were call'd on to
Toast Ladies: I gave Miss _Jenny Washington_--The Lee's came over to
our School-Room I swear says George, there is no Devil!--There is no
Devil, I swear!--He went on in such an impious, & at the same time
whimsical & foolish manner, that I left the Room, and went over to Mr
& Mrs Carter, with whom nothing is heard indecent or profane--After
the Company were gone as we were walking near the Poplar Avenue, says
Mrs Carter how sweet, & pure the Air is; how much the weather
resembles September!--Indeed I think it feels like the fever &
Ague!--_Bob_ in the Evening brought me Colonel Taylors[191]
compliments, who begs I will wait on him soon; He wants to know if I
have provided a Tutor for Mrs _Thornton_ Mr _Leek_ told me something
about coming, but not til next Spring, & I judge that Mrs Thornton
will be impatient before that time--Do you now indeed, sincerely, in
your Heart, Sir says Ben to me after we had retired to our Chamber,
believe that there is a Devil?--For my part, tho' I made _George Lee_
think otherwise, I do not--I told him that it was universally allowed
by writers of the greatest reputation for Learning and Religion in the
established Church of England, whose Canons he profess'd to believe &
adhere to--And that, if he would attend to my advice, he ought not to
doubt its Reality.

[191] Colonel John Tayloe.

_Monday 25._

_Harry_ & _Bob_ go shrugging up their backs with their Coats Buttoned
about the School, first one then the other complaining of the
cold--The Girls too, in their white Frocks, huddle close together for
the benefit of warming each other, & look like a Flock of Lambs in the
Spring--I wish they were half as innocent--I myself, after having
added a Waistcoat, am notwithstanding disagreeably Cold--The air is
clear, the wind strong from the West--I proceeded in my Latin
Exegesis, & shall, I hope, shortly be through it--I gave to _Nancy_ at
her Request, my Scetch of _Nominy-Hall_--I propose to take off one for

_Teusday 26._

The morning cool enough--Order me a Horse & Chair, says the Colonel
after Breakfast, for I must go to Westmoreland-Court--I piddled at my
Exegessis, but (as they say here in Virginia) I did a mighty
little--Priscilla after School invited me to ride with her, but I had
preengaged to go on Board the _Harriot_; She now lies in Nominy about
half a mile Distant--_Bob_ conducted me on board, She is a neat
vessel, carries 1400 Bushels--_Bob_ strip'd & swam round us half an
hour--Coffee; Well, Sir, says the Colonel at las I can treat you with
several Letters--My heart jumped--A fine Repast indeed, valuable
because exceeding rare! But shall I hear any thing from--_Laura_?--On
this he gave me Letters from,

  1. Rev'd Enoch Green, Dated Feb: 1774.
  2. From Laura, Dated Feb: 13th 1774.
  3. From John Peck Dated Nassau Hall July 2. 1774
  4. From John Peck dated Feb: 25th 1774.
  5. From the Revd: Andrew Hunter, dated Cohansie June 24th. 1774.
  6. From Andrew Hunter Junr: Dated June 24th. 1774. Cohansie.
  7. From Mr James Ewing, Dated Bridge-town July 7th. 1774.

For these Letters I paid--12s 5d--Pennsylvania Currency, & I am very
proud of my Bargain--

Mr Peck informs me that he is to succeed me in this place--Mr _Hunter_
& Mr Ewing inform me of the Death of Uncle Ephraim Seeley! That he
died of a _Diabetes_ which has long troubled him! He has left no Doubt
a mourning Family--Mr _Hunter_ writes me word that _Andrew_ was
licensed to preach about the middle of June. Laura says--They all
express with Concern the great Commotions which at present exist
through the Colonies.

_Wednesday 27._

Somehow I have taken a bad Cold, & am low-spirited to Day--The Colonel
was all the forenoon down at the _Harriot_ in the Sun, so that when we
went in to dine he seem'd fatigued & eat nothing--We have an Addition
to our numerous Family, one Mr ---- I forget his name, he is a Cooper,
tho', & an Irishman, & seems to be pretty smart; I sat the Evening
with him in Mr Randolphs Room.

_Thursday 28._

Evening, after the Sun had gone, with _Priss_ I walked in the Garden.
we gathered some few Figs which are just growing ripe--My Leisure to
Day I spent in finishing off my Latin Exercises.

_Fryday 29._

I feell wholly relieved of my cold--I wrote & sent to the Post a
Letter to Mr _John Peck_, to remind & hurry him in his way here--O! it
is very hot--The wind itself seems to be heated! We have a fine Room,
& sufficiently open; & I dress in a thin Waist-Coat, & a loose, light
linen Gown; The _Boys_, _Harry_ & _Bob_ have nothing on, in School,
but their shirts & Breeches; and I laugh'd cordially to see the
contrivance of _Fanny_, the loveliest of them all, to grow cool, She
sat on a low bench, & put her Hand in her pocket, & seem'd exceeding
diligent in looking for something--But before She took out her hand
She had off both her Stockings, & left them both in her pocket!--Mrs
_Carter_ in particular seems to be overcome with the extreme Heat &
looks like a fainting, expiring yet lovely Creature!--At seven I rode
out to the Corn-field, the Sun was almost down, & was hid behind a
large white thick Cloud where it Thunders--The Corn is roll'd up with
the heat & Drouth! Yet it is strange there is no Musquetoes--I have
seen one & heard another, & this is the whole compliment I have either
_seen_, _heard_ or _felt_ since I have been in _Virginia_--While we
were drinking _Coffee_ the Lightning, as it began to grow Dark, began
to stream, it was at some Distance, but was incessant, bright, &
awful--The Colonel, however sat, & with unmoved Composure observed it;

_Saturday 30._

The weather is something cooler & bearable this Morning--_Frank
Christien_ one of Mr _Lowe's_ Scholars came to visit _Harry_ & _Bob_,
so that I discharged them about eleven, & retired to my Chamber to
writing--I sent Mr _George Lee_ a note this morning begging him to
excuse _Ben_ & I from attending his Fish-Feast this Day--Captain
_Dobby_ dined with us; he is a Man of much Spirit and Humour: A great
Mimick--He acquainted us that at Hobbs's-Hole this Day is a Boat-Race
on the River Rappahannock Each Boat is to have 7 Oars: to row 2 Mile
out & 2 Miles in round a Boat lying at Anchor--The Bett 50£--And that
in the Evening there is a great Ball to be given--I believe both the
_Rowers_ & _dancers_, as well _Ladies_ as _Gentlemen_ will perspire
freely--Or in plain English they will soak in Sweat! The Captain
invited us on Board his Ship next Teusday to Dine with him & wish them
a pleasant Passage as the Ship is to Sail the day following--If the
Weather is not too burning hot I shall go provided the Others go
likewise. Ben towards evening rode to Colonel Tayloe's--


  To Mr. George Lee.                             July 30th. 1774.


With my compliments I am to inform you that _Ben_:-_Carter_ is, of
necessity, to go this day into _Richmond_; and as my company alone
will not be equal to the trouble you must be at I give you this timely
notice that you may avoid it,

                                 I am,
  with my thanks for your
  Invitation, Sir,
                      Your most humble Servt:
                                                   P. V. FITHIAN.


_Sunday 31._

Daddy _Gumby_ saw me walking--I had just got up, it was early I had
only a Gown thrown round me--He walked towards me--Well Master you
never call for no Eggs. I can now give you a _Water Melon_--No,
Thomas, with your Wife & family enjoy these things. I am well provided
for--Well, Master, I promised you Eggs, for writing you will think I
never designed to pay you--God yonder in Heaven Master will burn
_Lyars_ with _Fire_ & _Brimstone_!--I speak Truth I will not deceive
you Men are wicked, Master; look see the Grass is burnt: God burns it
to punish us! Is the ground dry, Dadda. O! all dry, all burnt--Pray,
Pray, Master, do you go to Church?--No No Dadda it is too hot--Too
hot, Good God, too hot! I shall affront you, Master--Too hot to serve
the Lord! Why I that am so old & worn out go on Foot.--I felt a little
non plus'd, I confess, but walk'd to my Room & went none to Church--I
expected that we should have had prayrs at home, but it was not
mentioned--Fanny towards Evening brought me half a _Water-Melon_--I
accepted & thank'd the little pretty Slut, she seems so artless, &
delicate I esteem her exceedingly--I walked out about Sun-set, when it
is a little cool, along the River Nominy--

_Monday August 1st 1774._

The Colonel rode to Richmond Court--The morning very hot--A Cloud
appeared about two o Clock as we were going to Dinner in the West
where it thundered--Mrs. _Carter_ kept her Chamber--There is almost no
Rain--I looked to day over Dr _Burney's_ present State of Musick in
Germany--I think it more entertaining than realy useful--Ben to Day
begun the _Eneid_--Poor Mr _Randolph_ seems to be sickening with the
_Ague_ & _Fever_!--Evening the Colonel returned & gave us Captain
Dobby's repeated Invitation.

_Teusday 2._

_Ben_ & I drest ourselves pretty early with an intention to Breakfast
with Colonel _Tayloe_, but the Servant who went with us was so slow in
preparing that we breakfasted before we set out--We arrived at Colonel
Tayloe's however by half after nine--The young Ladies we found in the
Hall playing the Harpsichord--The morning cool with a fine Breeze from
the North for I forgot to mention that about Midnight last Night a
violent Gust of Blackness, Rain, & Thunder came on & gave us present
Relief from the scorching Sun; there was no Dust & the riding was
pleasant--The Colonel, his Lady, Miss Polly, Miss Kitty, Miss Sally,
rode in their Great Coach to the Ferry--Distance about 4 miles--Ben &
I on Horseback--From Colonel Tayloe's to this Ferry opposite to
Hobbs's Hole the Land is levil & extremely good; Corn here looks very
rank is set thick with Ears, & they are high & large, three commonly
on a Stalk--Here I saw about an Acre & a half of Flax, which the
people were just pulling, exceedingly out of Season--This is the only
Flax I have seen since I have been in the Colony; I am told they raise
much in the upper Counties--Here too is a great Marsh covered with
thick high Reed--The Face of this part of the Country looks fertile,
but I apprehend it is far from being healthy--We came to the Bank of
the Rappahannock; it is here about 2 Miles over the Shipping on the
other Side near the Town lying at Anchor look fine; no large Vessels
can haul along the Wharves on account of shoal Water--There were six
Ships riding in the Harbour, and a number of Schooners & smaller
Vessels--Indeed, says Mrs _Tayloe_, Captain Dobby has forgot us. here
we have been waiting for a full half hour, shall we take the Ferry
Boat Colonel & cross over, & not stand any longer in the burning
heat?--I was pleased not a little with the proposal tho' at the same
time, I laughed with myself at Mrs Tayloe's truely Womanish
impatience!--At last they are coming--The long-Boat came, well
furnished with a large Awning, and rowed with four Oars--We entered
the Ship about half after twelve where we were received by Captain
Dobby, with every possible token of welcome--Since I have been in
Virginia, my inclination, & my fixed purpose before I left home, both
of which were very much assisted by a strict Attention to the
instructing my little Charge, these have kept me pretty constantly,
almost wholly, indeed out of that kind of Company where dissipation &
Pleasure have no restraint--This entertainment of Captain Dobby's,
elegant indeed, & exceeding agreeable, I consider as one among a
prodigeous throng of more powerful similar Causes, of the fevers &
other Disorders which are common in this Colony, & generally
attributed to the Climate which is thought to be noxious & unhealthy.
The Weather here indeed is remarkably variable But taking away &
changing the usual & necessary Time of Rest; Violent Exercise of the
Body & Spirits; with drinking great quantities of variety of Liquors,
these bring on Virginia Fevers--The Beaufort is a Stately Ship;
Captain Dobby had an Awning from the Stern over the Quarter quite to
the Mizen-Mast, which made great Room, kept off the Sun, & yet was
open on each Side to give the Air a free passage. At three we had on
Board about 45 Ladies, and about 60 Gentlemen besides the Ships Crew,
& Waiters Servants &c. We were not throng'd at all, & dined all at
twice--I was not able to inform myself, because it seemed improper to
interrupt the General pleasure, with making circumstantial inquiries
concerning Individuals, & saying pray, Sir, what young Lady is that
yonder in a Lute-String Gown? She seems genteel; where does her Father
live? Is she a Girl of Family & Breeding? Has She any Suitors? This
when one could not be out of the Inspection of the Company, would have
seemed impertinent so that I did not much enlarge my Acquaintance with
the Ladies, which commonly seems pleasing & desirable to me; But I
took Notice of Several, & shall record my remarks--The Boats were to
Start, to use the Language of Jockeys, immediately after Dinner; A
Boat was anchored down the River at a Mile Distance--Captain _Dobby_
and Captain _Benson_ steer'd the Boats in the Race--Captain _Benson_
had 5 Oarsmen; Captain _Dobby_ had 6--It was _Ebb-Tide_--The Betts
were small--& chiefly given to the Negroes who rowed--Captain Benson
won the first Race--Captain Purchace offered to bett ten Dollars that
with the same Boat & same Hands, only having Liberty to put a small
Weight in the Stern, he would beat Captain _Benson_--He was taken, &
came out best only half the Boats Length--About Sunset we left the
Ship, & went all to Hobbs's Hole, where a _Ball_ was agreed on--This
is a small Village, with only a few Stores, & Shops, it is on a
beautiful River, & has I am told commonly six, eight, & ten Ships
loading before it the Crews of which enliven the Town--Mr Ritche[192]
Merchant; he has great influence over the People, he has great Wealth;
which in these scurvy Times gives Sanction to Power; nay it seems to
give countenance to Tyranny--The Ball Room--25 Ladies--40
Gentlemen--The Room very long, well-finished, airy & cool, &
well-seated--two Fidlers--Mr _Ritche_ stalk'd about the Room--He was
Director, & appointed a sturdy two fisted Gentleman to open the Ball
with Mrs _Tayloe_--He danced midling tho'. There were about six or
eight married Ladies--At last Miss _Ritche_ danced a Minuet with ----
She is a tall slim Girl, dances nimble & graceful--She was _Ben
Carters_ partner--Poor Girl She has had the third Day Ague for twelve
months past, and has it yet She appeared in a blue Silk Gown; her Hair
was done up neat, without powder, it is very Black & Set her to good
Advantage--Soon after he danced Miss _Dolly Edmundson_[193]--A Short
pretty Stump of a Girl; She danced well, sung a Song with great
applause, seemed to enter into the Spirit of the entertainment--A
young Spark seemed to be fond of her; She seemed to be fond of him;
they were both fond, & the Company saw it--He was Mr Ritche's Clerk, a
limber, well dress'd, pretty-handsome Chap he was--The insinuating
Rogue waited on her home, in close Hugg too, the Moment he left the
Ball-Room--Miss _Aphia Fantleroy_ danced next, the best Dancer of the
whole absolutely--And the finest Girl--Her head tho' was powdered
white as Snow, & crap'd in the newest Taste--She is the Copy of the
goddess of Modesty--Very handsome; she seemed to be loved by all her
Acquaintances, and admir'd by every Stranger, Miss _McCall_--Miss
_Ford_--Miss _Brokenberry_[194]--_Ball_--Two of the younger Miss
_Ritche's_--Miss _Wade_--They danced till half after two. Captain
Ritche invited Ben & I, Colonel Tayloe & his Family with him--We got
to Bed by three after a Day spent in constant Violent exercise, &
drinking an unusual Quantity of Liquor; for my part with Fatigue,
Heat, Liquor, Noise, Want of sleep, And the exertion of my Animal
spirits, I was almost brought to believe several times that I felt a
Fever fixing upon me, attended with every Symptom of the Fall

[192] Archibald Ritchie was a prominent merchant of Hobb's Hole.

[193] The Edmundsons were a prominent family in Essex County. Thomas
Edmundson, whose will was proved in 1759, had a daughter named Dorothy

[194] The Brockenbrough family had been a well-known one in Richmond
County since the beginning of the eighteenth century. William
Brockenbrough (1715-c.1778) had married Elizabeth Fauntleroy, whose
sister Mary was the wife of Parson Giberne.

[Illustration: dance party]

_Wednesday 3._

We were call'd up to Breakfast at half after eight--We all look'd
dull, pale, & haggard!--From our Beds to Breakfast--Here we must
drink hot Coffee on our parching Stomachs!--But the Company was
enlivening--Three of the Miss Tayloe's--Three Miss Ritche's--And Miss
_Fantleroy_--This loveliest of all the Ring is yet far below--_Laura_
If they were set together for the choice of an utter Stranger; he
would not reflect, but in a moment spring to the Girl that I mean to
regard--After Breakfast the young Ladies favoured us with several
Tunes on the Harpsichord--They all play & most of them in good
Taste--at eleven we went down to the River; the Ships Long Boat was
waiting, Captain _Purchace_ of the _Beaufort_ helped us on Board--I
gave the Boatswain a Pisterene for his trouble--Half a Bit for the
Pasture of my Horse--We rode to Colonel Tayloe's--The Ladies all
retired for a nap before Dinner. We sat in the Hall, & conversed with
the Colonel a sensible, agreeable Sociable person--Miss _Garrot_ is
Governess of the Young Ladies; She too is chatty, satirical, neat,
civil, had many merry remarks at Dinner, we staid til about six took
our Leave, & rode Home--Found all well; gave an account of ourselves,
of our entertainment, & of our Company to Mr & Mrs Carter at Coffee--&
retired soon to Bed--

_Thursday 4._

I made out to get up by seven--A little fatigued tho'--Many are
sickening with a Fever, & great numbers have the Ague--Protect me if
it be thy will, God of my Life, & give me a Heart to praise thy name
for all my Favours--Dined with us the Inspector--I walked through the
Garden, several times banishing by solitude, as much as possible
reflection on several Days past.--

_Fryday 5._

I have no Stockings; & I swear I wont go to the Dancing School This
was the first I heard of _Bob_--Are Bob & Nancy gone to Mr
_Turberville's_ said the Colonel at Breakfast--_Nancy_ is gone Sir,
Bob stays at Home he has no shoes! poh! What nonsense! says the
Colonel--Call _Bob_, & Call the Clerk--He sent Mr Randolph to the
Store for a pair of Shoes, Bob he took to his Study and flogg'd
severely for not having given seasonable Notice, & sent him instantly
to the Dance--

_Saturday 6._

Last night, & this morning haizy mistty the Wind South East threatens
a Rain--Transcribing my pieces, yesterday and to Day--I had a strong
invitation to Dr Thompsons Fish-Feast, but the Rainy Weather hindred;
I spent the Day in Quiet in my Chamber writing--Dadda Gumbey sent me a
small Water-Melon.

_Sunday 7._

I set out for Church--It was cloudy, it Thundered in the West: But I
rode on Bob was with me--We arrived at the Church & had our Saddles
put into a Chariot--When a violent Gust came on--We were all in the
Church; many Ladies were present--The Thunder was violent! Many
discovered great Terror--Neither the Parson, nor Clerk attended--There
we sat in Silence til the Storm was over, when each sallied out &
splashed homewards--Mr & Mrs Carter were to have gone by Water--They
had set off But saw the Cloud befor they had rowed far, & wisely
returned--Towards Evening Miss Betsy _Carter_, Miss Polly _Carter_ of
Richmond, & Miss _Turberville_ came over to see our Girls. Miss Betsy
plays the Harpsichord extremely well, better I think than any young
Lady I have seen in Virginia.

_Monday 8._

All once more in School--Dined with us _George Lee_ & Mr _Grubb_--They
spent the afternoon at the great House--After Coffee Lee rode Home--Mr
_Grubb_ staid with us all night--Dennis came into our Room to bring us
a Bowl of Punch; Grubb shut the Door, and accused him of having been
caught with Bett, the Dairy Girl, in the Stable last Saturday
Night--Dennis seem'd in great distress, he denied the Fact tho' with
great steadiness--Nelson our Boy came in with a candle--Dennis here,
says _Grubb_ to _Nelson_, has been accusing you, Sir, of several
crimes; he says you gave him half a _Bitt_ last Saturday Night, to
stand at the Stable-Door while he with Bett--Nelson star'd--Grubb
opened a huge _Molls Atlas_ that lay in the Room; & read off their
Case & indictment--The Boys seem'd crazy--We dismiss'd them when all
the novelty was over, but they darted like Indians so soon as they
were at liberty--We sat up til eleven--Ben drank for his Toast, Miss
_Julia Stockton_ of New Jersey; Grubb Miss Betsy Carter--I with
pleasure the Rival of them all--

_Teusday 9._

I propose to visit Dr Jones to Day say's Mrs _Carter_ at
Breakfast--See & have the Carriage ready for me by ten o-Clock
_Benny_--She took with her _Priss_, and _Nancy_--We have a thin
School--Mr _Grubb_ dined with us--Staid til evening, when with Ben he
rode home--I finished & glad enough I feel my Latin Thesis--The
Weather is now very tolerable, we had to Day a fine Shower about

_Wednesday 10._

All in School--Miss _Fanny_ very much troubled with the festered Bites
of _Seed Ticks_--Mr _Stadley_, whom I always see with Pleasure came
towards evening--After School he gave the Girls a lesson each--About
Six we have a fine Shower, with Thunder and Lightning, especiall in
the evening the Lightning Sharp--

_Thursday 11._

Dined with us two Gentlemen Names unknown--They informed us that a
Flux is in a neighbouring County, of which many die!--The Ague too is
growing frequent _Fanny_ has a fit this afternoon--I begin to be a
little alarmed at the early approach of these Disorders, which I fear
will be distressful here!--Through the kindness of heaven I am yet in
perfect health--Mr _Carter_ & Mr _Stadley_ performed both on the
_harmonica_ I am charm'd with the Sounds! The melody is swelling,
grave & grand! The weather vastly hot--

_Fryday 12._

Very hot--_Sam_ our Barber is Seized with the Ague & Fever--Fanny is
confined to her chamber with a Fever occasioned, I am apt to believe,
by the inflamed bites of the Seed-Ticks, which cover her like a
distinct Small Pox.--Dined with us by particular invitation, Mr
_Turberville's_ Family, and Miss _Betsy Lee_--The conversation at
Table was on the Disorders which seem growing to be epidemical,
_Fevers_, _Agues_, _Fluxes_--A gloomy train!--Fearing these, I keep
myself at home; make my diet sparing & uniform; Use constant moderate
Exercise; Drink as little Wine as possible, & when I must drink Toasts
I never fail to dilute them with well with Water; I omit almost every
kind of fruit; & make my time for _Sleeping_ from Night to Night the
same, Viz to Bed by ten, & rise by six invariably--I never lived so
much by Rule as I do this Summer; & I am taught the Art, & have a
Steady Example in Mr & Mrs _Carter_--Mr _Stadley_ played on the
Harpsichord & harmonica several Church Tunes & Anthems, with great


                                    Nomini Hall August 12th 1774.
                     "Si bene moneo[Maneo], attende."--


I never reflect, but with secret, and peculiar pleasure, on the time
when I studied in _Deerfield_ with you, & several other pleasant
Companions, under our common, & much respected instructor, Mr _Green_.
And I acknowledge now, with a thankful heart, the many favours, which
I received from your family while I was a member of it. This sense of
obligation to your Family. And personal friendship for you, have
excited me, when it was in my power, to introduce you to the business
which I now occupy; into a family, where, if you be prudent and
industrious, I am confident you will speedily acquire to yourself both
Honour & Profit--But inasmuch as you are wholly a stranger to this
Province; & have had little or no Experience in the business which you
ar[e] shortly to enter upon; & lest, from common Fame, which is often
erroneous, you shall have entertained other notions of the manners of
the People here, & of your business as a Tutor, than you will find,
when you come, to be actually true; I hope you will not think it
_vain_ or _untimely_, if I venture to lay before you some Rules for
your direction which I have collected from a year's observation. I
shall class what I have to say in the following order. First. I shall
attempt to give you some direction for the plan of your Conduct among
your neighbours, & the People in General here, so long as you sustain
the character of a Tutor. Then I shall advise you concerning the rules
which I think will be most profitable & convenient in the management
of your little lovely charge, the School. Last of all. I shall mention
several Rules for your personal conduct. I choose to proceed in the
order I have laid down, as well that you may more fully & speedily
recieve my mind, as that you may also the more readily select out and
apply what you shall find to be most necessary.

First. When you have thought of removing, for a Time, out of the
Colony in which you was born, & in which you have hitherto constantly
resided, I make no doubt but you have at the same time expected to
find a very considerable alteration of manners, among your new
acquaintances, & some peculiarities toto Caelo different, from any you
have before been accustomed to. Such a thought is natural; And you
will if you come into Virginia, in much shorter time than a year, be
convinced that it is just. In New-Jersey Government throughout, but
especially in the Counties where you have any personal acquaintance,
Gentlemen in the first rank of Dignity & Quality, of the Council,
general Assembly, inferior Magistrates, Clergy-men, or independent
Gentlemen, without the smallest fear of bringing any manner of
reproach either on their office, or their high-born, long recorded
Families associate freely & commonly with Farmers & Mechanicks tho'
they be poor & industrious. Ingenuity & industry are the Strongest, &
most approved recommendations to a Man in that Colony. The manners of
the People seem to me, (probably I am overborn by the force of
prejudice in favour of my native Soil), to bear some considerable
resemblance of the manners in the ancient Spartan Common-Wealth--The
Valour of its Inhabitants--was the best, & only security of that State
against the enemy; & the wise laws of its renowned Legislator were the
powerful Cement which kept them firm & invincible--In our Government,
the laborious part of Men, who are commonly ranked in the midling or
lower Class, are accounted the strenth & Honour of the Colony; & the
encouragement they receive from Gentlemen in the highest stations is
the spring of Industry, next to their private advantage. The Levil
which is admired in New-Jersey Government, among People of every rank,
arises, no doubt, from the very great division of the lands in that
Province, & consequently from the near approach to an equality of
Wealth amongst the Inhabitants, since it is not famous for trade. You
know very well that the Lands in a small township are divided, & then
again subdivided into two & three Hundred Separate, proper, creditable
estates; for example _Deerfield_ & _Fairfield_ two Townships, or
Precincts, in which you & I are tolerably well acquainted, in the
former of which, are the Seats of two Judges of the Sessions; & in the
latter resides one of the representatives in General Assembly for the
County; But if 16000£ would purchase the whole landed estates of these
three Gentlemen, who are supposed to be the most wealthy in the
County, if we rate their Land at the Low Consideration of 4£ per acre,
with all conveniences, each would have 4000 Acres. Now you may suppose
how small a quantity many must have when two or three hundred
Landholders reside in each of these small Precincts; Hence we see
Gentlemen, when they are not actually engaged in the publick Service,
on their farms, setting a laborious example to their Domesticks, & on
the other hand we see labourers at the Tables & in the Parlours of
their Betters enjoying the advantage, & honour of their society and
Conversation--I do not call it an objection to this, that some few,
who have no substance but work like Slaves as nec[e]ssity drives them
for a few Months in the year; with the price of this Labour they visit
Philadelphia; & having there acquired a fashionable Coat, & a Stock of
Impudence, return home to spend the remainder of the year, in idleness
& disgrace!--But you will find the tables turned the moment you enter
this Colony. The very Slaves, in some families here, could not be
bought under 30000£. Such amazing property, no matter how deep it is
involved, blows up the owners to an imagination, which is visible in
all, but in various degrees according to their respective virtue, that
they are exalted as much above other Men in worth & precedency, as
blind stupid fortune has made a difference in their property;
excepting always the value they put upon posts of honour, & mental
acquirements--For example, if you should travel through this Colony,
with a well-confirmed testimonial of your having finished with Credit
a Course of studies at Nassau-Hall; you would be rated, without any
more questions asked, either about your family, your Estate, your
business, or your intention, at 10,000£; and you might come, & go, &
converse, & keep company, according to this value; & you would be
dispised & slighted if yo[u] rated yourself a farthing cheaper. But
when I am giving directions to you, from an expectation that you will
be shortly a resident here, altho you have gone through a College
Course, & for any thing I know, have never written a Libel, nor stolen
a Turkey, yet I think myself in duty bound to advise you, lest some
powdered Coxcomb should reproach your education, to cheapen your price
about 5000£; because any young Gentleman travelling through the
Colony, as I said before, is presum'd to be acquainted with Dancing,
Boxing, playing the Fiddle, & Small-Sword, & Cards. Several of which
you was only entering upon, when I left New-Jersey; towards the Close
of last year; and if you stay here any time your Barrenness in these
must be detected. I will however allow, that in the Family where you
act as tutor you place yourself, according to your most accute
Calculation, at a perfect equidistance between the father & the eldest
Son. Or let the same distance be observed in every article of
behaviour between you & the eldest Son, as there ought to be, by the
latest & most approved precepts of Moral-Philosophy, between the
eldest Son, & his next youngest Brother. But whenever you go from
Home, where you are to act on your own footing, either to a Ball; or
to a _Horse-Race_, or to a _Cock-Fight_, or to a _Fish-Feast_, I
advise that you rate yourself very low, & if you bett at all, remember
that 10,000£ in Reputation & learning does not amount to a handfull of
Shillings in ready Cash!--One considerable advantage which you promise
yourself by coming to this Colony is to extend the Limits of your
acquaintance; this is laudable, & if you have enough of prudence &
firmness, it will be of singular advantage--Yet attempt slowly & with
the most Jealous Circumspection--If you fix your familiarity wrong in
a single instance, you are in danger of total, if not immediate
ruin--You come here, it is true, with an intention to teach, but you
ought likewise to have an inclination to learn. At any rate I solemnly
injoin it upon you, that you never suffer the spirit of a Pedagogue to
attend you without the walls of your little Seminary. In all
promiscuous Company be as silent & attentive as Decency will allow
you, for you have nothing to communicate, which such company, will
hear with pleasure, but you may learn many things which, in after
life, will do you singular service.--In regard to Company in general,
if you think it worth the while to attend to my example, I can easily
instruct you in the manner of my Conduct in this respect. I commonly
attend Church; and often, at the request of Gentlemen, after Service
according to the custom, dine abroad on Sunday--I seldom fail, when
invited by Mr or Mrs _Carter_, of going out with them; but I make it a
point, however strongly solicited to the contrary, to return home with
them too--Except in one of these cases, I seldom go out, but with a
valuable variety of books I live according to Horace's direction, &
love "Secretum Iter et fallentis Semita Vitae." Close retirement and a
life by Stealth. The last direction I shall venture to mention on this
head, is, that you abstain totally from Women. What I would have you
understand from this, is, that by a train of faultless conduct in the
whole course of your tutorship, you make every Lady within the Sphere
of your acquaintance, who is between twelve & forty years of age, so
much pleased with your person, & so fully satisfied as to your
abilities in the capacity of--a Teacher; & in short, fully convinced,
that, from a principle of Duty, you have, both by night & by day
endeavoured to acquit yourself honourably, in the Character of a
Tutor; & that, on this account, you have their free & hearty consent,
without making any manner of demand upon you, either to stay longer in
the County with them, which they would choose, or whenever your
business calls you away, that they may not have it in their Power
either by charms or Justice to detain you, & when you must leave them,
have their sincere wishes & constant prayrs for Length of days & much
prosperity, I therefore beg that you will attend litterally to this
advice, & abstain totally from Women. But this last precaution, which
I have been at some pains to dress in the plainest language, I am much
inclined to think, will be wholly useless in regard to you,
notwithstanding it is founded in that _Honour_ and _Equity_ which is
on all hands allow'd to be due from one Sex to the other, & to many of
your _age_, & _Standing_ no doubt would be entirely salutary. Because
the necessary connections which you have had with the Fair, from your
Puberty upwards have been so unfavourable & ill-fated, that instead of
apprehending any danger on the score of over fondness, I am fearful
your rancour has grown so inveterate at length, as, not only to
preserve you, in thought & practice, pure of every Fleshly foible, but
has carried you so far towards the other extream, as that you will
need many persuasions, when your circumstances shall seem to require
it, to bring you back to a rational & manly habit of thinking & acting
with respect to the Sex; which yet, after all (& eternally will
continue to be, tho it is so much courted & whined after) if
considered in the fullest manner, & set forth to the best advantage,
never rises above its divine definition viz "The weaker Vessel." But
without detaining you any longer with a matter merely depending on
accident or Circumstance I pass on to the second General Head; in
which "Ludis atque Jocis amotis [amatis]" I shall offer to your
consideration & recommend for your practice several Rules concerning
the managment of the School.

2. You will act wisely, if, from the begining, you convince all your
Scholars which you may easily do, of your abilities in the several
branches, which you shall profess to teach; you are not to tell them,
totidem Verbis, "that you understand, perhaps as well as any man on
the Continent both the Latin & Greek Classicks;" "& have gone through
the usual Course in the noted College of New-Jersey, under Dr
Witherspoon, so universally known & admired, where you have studied
Criticism, Oratory, History, not to mention Mathematical &
philosophical Studies, & dipt a good way into the French-Language, &
that you have learn'd a smattering of Dancing, Cards &c. &c. &c." For
Dun-p or Hack---n or the most profound dunce in your College or School
would have too much sense to pass such impudence by, & not despise and
reproach it; but you may speedily & certainly make them think you a
"Clever Fellow" (which is a phrase in use here for a good Scholar) if
you never mention any thing before them, only what you seem to be
wholly master of--This will teach them never to dispute your
determination, & always to rely upon your Judgment; two things which
are most essential for your peace, & their advantage. That you may
avoid yourself of this with certainty I shall recommend for your
practice the following method, as useful at least, if not intirely
necessary. Read over carefully, the lessons in Latin & Greek, in your
leisure hours, that the story & Language be fresh in your memory, when
you are hearing the respective lessons; for your memory is
treacherous, & I am pretty certain it would confound you if you should
be accosted by a pert School-Boy, in the midst of a blunder, with
"Physician heal thyself"!--You ought likewise to do this with those
who are working Figures; probably you may think that because the
highest Cypherer is only in decimal arithmetic, it is not there fore
worth your critical attention to be looking previously into the
several Sums. But you are to consider that a sum in the Square-Root,
or even in the Single Rule of three direct, is to your Pupils of as
great importance, as the most abstruse problem in the Mathematicks to
an able artist; & you may lay this down for a Maxim, that they will
reckon upon your abilities, according as they find you acquainted &
expert in what they themselves are studying. If therefore you have
resolution (as I do not question your ability) to carry this plan
which I have laid down into execution; you will thereby convince them
of the propriety of their Subordination to you, & obedience to your
instructions, so that you may lead them, without any resistance, and
fix them to the Study of whatever Science you think proper, in which
they will rise according to their respective Capacities. I have said
that you ought to strive "from the beginning" in fixing this very
material article in the minds of your Scholars, Viz a Sense of your
authority; for one error of Judgment, or false determination will
diminish your Ability with them more than doing forty things with
truth would increase your authority--They act in this case as you
would do in the company of a number of Strangers--A whole evenings
conversation, if it was tolerable good Sense, would perhaps make
little or no impression on you; But if through hast[e] in speaking, or
inattention, any one should let fall a sentence either remarkably
foolish, or grossly wicked, it would be difficult if not impossible to
persuade you presently that the author was not either a
_thick-Scull_, or a _Villain_!--The education of children requires
constant unremitting attention. The meanest qualification you can
mention in a useful teacher is _diligence_ And without diligence no
possible abilities or qualifications can bring children on either with
speed or profit. There must be a Combination of qualifications which
must all operate strongly & uniformly. In short, give this said
Pedagogizing the softest name you will, it is still a "difficult
Task." You will meet with numberless difficulties, in your new
imployment, which you never dreamt had yet existence. All these you
must endeavour to resist & Subdue. This I have seen compared to a Man
swimming against a current of Water. But I am mistaken if you will
agree, after having six months practice, that the comparison be strong
as the truth: You will add to the figure, I am certain, & throw into
the Current sharp fragments of _Ice_, & _Blocks_, which would make
swimming not only difficult but dangerous! I am not urging these
things to discourage you; they are hints for your direction, which, if
you will attend to, tho' at first the practice seem rough &
unpleasant, shall yet make the remainder of your task pleasing, & the
whole of it useful, I will mention several of these Obstacles that you
may the more easily guard against them. You will, in the first place,
be often solicited, probably oftner than you would wish, to ride
abroad; this, however, if you do it moderately, & in seasonable time,
& go to proper company, I recommend as conducive to health to one in
your sedentary manner of living. But if you go much into company, you
will find it extremely difficulty to break away with any manner of
credit till very late at night or in most cases for several days, & if
you are wanting to your School, you do manifest injury to your
Imployer. In this case, I advise you to copy Mr _Carter_. Whenever he
invites you, ride. You may _stay_, and talk, & drink, & ride to as
great excess as he; & may with safety associate yourself with those
whom you find to be his intimates. In all other Cases, except when you
ride to Church, at least till you are very intimate in the Colony, you
had better ride to a certain Stump, or to some noted plantation, or
pretty landscape; you will have in this every advantage of exercise,
the additional advantage of undisturbed Meditation, & you will be
under no Jealous apprehension in point of behaviour, nor any restraint
as to the time of your return.

Another current difficulty will be petitions for holidays. You must
have good deal of steadiness if you are able to evade cleverly this
practice which has grown so habitual to your little charge from a
false method in their early education that they absolutely claim it as
a necessary right.

You must also as much as you can, avoid visible partiality. At least
you must never suffer your fondness for one Scholar to grow so
manifest, as that all your School shall see you look over a fault in
him or her which same fault, if commited by another, you severely
chastise. This will certainly produce in the others hatred & contempt.
A fourth difficulty, and the last I shall mention, consists in knowing
when, & in what measure to give the Boys Liberty to go from Home. The
two younger Boys are wholly under your inspection; so that not only
the progress they make in learning, but their moral Conduct (for both
of these are critically observed & examined) either justifies or
condemns your management to the World. If you keep them much at home,
& close to business, they themselves will call you unfeeling and
cruel; & refuse to be industrious; if you suffer them to go much
abroad they are certainly out of the way of improvement by Study,
probably, by discovering their gross Ignorance, they will expose to
ridicule both themselves & all their former instructors, & possibly
they may commit actual Crimes so as very much to injure themselves; &
scandalize their family; but in each of these you will have a large
share of blame, perhaps more than the parents, or even the Boys
themselves--It will be said that the parents gave them no licence
relying wholly on your judgment & prudence, this will in good measure
justify them to the world. And as to the Boys they are full of
youthful impetuosity & vigour, & these compel them, when they are free
of restraint, to commit actions which with proper management they had
surely avoided. I say, when you lay these things together, & view them
on every side you will find so many perplexities arising in your mind,
from a sense of ignorance of your duty, that you will proceed with
caution & moderation, & will be carefull to examine with some
precision into the circumstances of _time_, _company_, & _Business_
when you license them to go out entirely at the risk of your
Reputation--But the practice of three or four Weeks will give you a
more full notion of these & many other incidents than I am able now
either to recollect or express; I shall have gained my End if these
hints prevent you from setting off wrong, & doing inadvertantly at
first what your Scholars will assert to be precedents for your after
conduct. I go on, therefore, in the third place as I proposed,

3. To mention several Rules for your personal conduct. The happy
Education which you have had in point of religion, you ought to
consider as an important and distinguishing Blessing of Heaven. That
train of useful _Instruction_, _Advice_ & _Example_ to which you have
been accustomed from your infancy is a more perfect, & will be a safer
guide in your future walk, than any directions I am able to give you.
You have taken notice of a method for Assistance in Composition, which
Longinus recommends. Place, says he, in imagination, several eminent
ancient Authors before your Eyes, & suppose that they inspect your
Work, a Sense of inferiority would make you diligent, & your
composition accurate. Perhaps the same advice when transferr'd to
Morality, would be equally salutary. Unless it be objected that a
Belief of Gods presence at all times in every place is the strongest
possible restraint against committing Sin. This I constantly admit;
but when I consider how easily our minds are put in motion, & how
strongly they are sometimes agitated merely by the senses, & that the
senses are aff3ected most by things which fall under their immediate
notice, I am fully convinced that if some such plan as I have just
mentioned should be fallen upon, & practised, it would make a visible
and useful change in our behaviour--In this place I think it needful
to caution you against hasty & ill founded prejudices. When you enter
among a people, & find that their manner of living, their _Eating_,
_Drinking_, _Diversions_, _Exercise_ &c, are in many respects
different from any thing you have been accustomed to, you will be apt
to fix your opinion in an instant, & (as some divines deal with poor
Sinners) you will condemn all before you without any meaning or
distinction what seems in your Judgment disagreable at first view,
when you are smitten with the novelty. You will be making ten thousand
Comparisons. The face of the Country, The _Soil_, the _Buildings_, the
_Slaves_, the _Tobacco_, the method of spending _Sunday_ among
Christians; _Ditto_ among the Negroes; the three grand divisions of
time at the Church on Sundays, Viz. before Service giving & receiving
letters of business, reading Advertisements, consulting about the
price of Tobacco, Grain &c. & settling either the lineage, Age, or
qualities of favourite Horses 2. In the Church at Service, prayrs read
over in haste, a Sermon seldom under & never over twenty minutes, but
always made up of sound morality, or deep studied Metaphysicks. 3.
After Service is over three quarters of an hour spent in strolling
round the Church among the Crowd, in which time you will be invited by
several different Gentlemen home with them to dinner. The Balls, the
Fish-Feasts, the Dancing-Schools, the Christnings, the Cock fights,
the Horse-Races, the Chariots, the Ladies Masked, for it is a custom
among the Westmorland Ladies whenever they go from home, to muffle up
their heads, & Necks, leaving only a narrow passage for the Eyes, in
Cotton or silk handkerchiefs; I was in distress for them when I first
came into the Colony, for every Woman that I saw abroad, I looked upon
as ill either with the _Mumps_ or Tooth-Ach!--I say, you will be often
observing & comparing these things which I have enumerated, & many
more that now escape me, with the manner of spending Money time &
credit at Cohansie: You are young, &, (you will allow me the
Expression) in the morning of Life. But I hope you have plann'd off,
and entered upon the work which is necessary to be performed in the
course of your Day; if not, I think it my duty to acquaint you, that a
combination of the amusements which I have just now mentioned, being
always before your Eyes, & inviting your Compliance will have a strong
tendency to keep you doubtful & unsetled, in your notions of Morality
& Religion, or else will fix you in a false & dangerous habit of
_thinking_ & _acting_, which must terminate at length in Sorrow &
despair. You are therefore, if you count any thing upon the value of
my advice, to fix the plan in which you would spend your life; let
this be done with deliberation, Candour, & precission, looking to him
for direction, by fervent Prayr, who is the "Wonderful Counsellor;" &
when you have done this, let no importunity of whatever kind prevail
over you, & cause you to transgress your own Limitations. I have
already exceeded the usual bounds of an Epistle. But you will easily
pardon a little prolixity, when I assure you it flows from a heart
deeply impressed with a sense of the many difficulties which you must
encounter, & the dangers which will surround you when you come first
out from the peaceful recess of Contemplation, & enter, young and
unexperienced, into the tumultuous undiscerning World. I submit these
hints to your consideration, & have nothing more than sincere & ardent
wishes for your present & perpetual Felicity.

                           I am, Sir,
                                               PHILIP. V FITHIAN.

On going to Virginia in
Character of a Tutor.


_Saturday 13._

_Prissy_ took the Ague last Night. She had an easy Fit--This Morning
is quite cold, & will, I fear hasten on or at least provoke the
present disorders--The good Mr _Stadley_ left us this Morning
Breakfasted with us a Gentleman from _Maryland_. At Dinner he was
join'd by another from the same Province they are both unknown--I rode
out with Miss _Prissy_ to the Cornfield for Exercise--We gathered &
brought home some good Roasting-Ears of Corn--Evening came in Colonel
_Henry Lee_[195] He is chosen to be one of the seven who represent
this Colony in the general Congress to be held next Month in
Philadelphia--He sets out next Sunday Sennight--

[195] Richard Henry Lee of "Chantilly."

_Sunday 14._

Colonel Lee stays Breakfast (to Speak in the phrase of Ladies)--The
morning fine--Sermon is to Day at Ucomico so that I am to stay in my
Room; _Ben_, however, & _Bob_, & _Harry_, & Mr _Randolph_ all
go--_Fanny_ is yet confin'd to her Chamber--

_Monday 15._

Began a Letter to Jack Peck, giving him advice in Respect to his
coming into this Colony--The People are better, only Miss _Fanny_ with
her Sores continues in her Chamber; I bought & sent her however this
evening a present a large _Musk Melon_--Dined with us Squire _Lee_, he
talks of going to Philadelphia to the Congress; He informs us that in
Maryland is a Tea-Ship, from the India Company--

_Teusday 16._

The Colonel is summoned to a Meeting of Vestry-Men, at the
Glebe--Nothing very extraordinary occurs, unless I mention that _Bob_
in the former part of this Day kept pretty quiet in his Seat, and
worked out three Sums in Reduction compound, without much
direction!--About five from the South East came on suddenly a Gust of
Rain & Wind, Evening the Colonel returned but a good deal vexed--One
of the Members were absent so that the Remainder could do no

[Illustration: graveyard scene]

_Wednesday 17._

This Day is the annual Examination at Nassau-Hall--I wish the
Candidates Success & Honour. Last year I had the Pleasure to be
present & hear the Examination--I saw _Laura_ too; & the Vixen abused
me! She shall repent of that insult; Indeed She must feel, tho' I
wound myself in the experiment, the Consequence of Slighting
good-humour & Civility--There likewise I saw _Belinda_ my late
agreeable Correspondent. She had left town this unlovely Month, for
the benefit of Princeton's pure salubrious Air--She laboured in a
Consumption There too I took my last fare-well!--For soon after her
return to Town the disorder fixed, & in a few Months destroy'd a
_wise_, _useful_, _religious_ Girl--Her death surely was untimely,
since she took with her all her virtues, which, with great pleasure &
Sincerity She used to diffuse among her giddy Equals!--I am at a Loss
to express my feeling for the Death of a young Lady, with whom I had
only a short, yet a benificial Intimacy--The Circumstance of my first
Acquaintance with her was wholly Accidental, yet I soon believed &
accounted it advantageous--I thought her capable of improving me with
Sentiment, & I speedily found that my expectation was true--We
commenced a Litterary Correspondence, of which I only say that She
always express'd herself with so much Truth, Ease & Humour as to make
me read her Letters with eagerness and satisfaction--If I would record
a Motto for her, it Should be--"Virtue without Melancholy."
Breakfasted & dined with us two Gentlemen from Maryland--They come
over for the benefit of Mr _Carter's_ Mill; as Mills are scarce near
the Potowmack in Maryland; but the reason I am a stranger to--Read
some in Dr Swift--Writing on to Mr Peck--The weather is close & this
evening I heard two Musquetoes, only one of which ventured to light
upon me--I dare say they are thicker at Cohansie!--Each Wednesday &
Saturday we dine on Fish all the Summer, always plenty of _Rock_,
_Perch_, & _Crabs_, & often Sheeps-Head and Trout!--

_Thursday 18._

Very ill most of last night with a violent Dysentery; I fear a
frequency of this disease will at-length fix & ruin me--It continues
to Day, & with no less rage, I cannot eat nor drink, am low Spirited
Think constantly of Home;--Sometimes repent my having come into this
Colony, & blame myself for having been persuaded to turn out of my
road to public Business--But when I reflect closely I justify the
Conduct, & resign myself _Body_ & _Soul_ & _Employment_ to God who has
the Hearts of all in his hand, & who I am persuaded, if he has any
thing for me to do in Life, will preserve, & in a measure fit me for
it, if not, I am in his Hand, let him do as seemes good in his
Eyes--At Dinner the Colonel invited me to ride with him to a Mill of
his which is repairing, about eight miles Distance; I accepted his
Invitation, gave the children a few Hours for Play, & went with the
Colonel _Ben_ was along--The Face of the earth seems covered with
mocking-Birds, but not one of them sing, they seem vastly busy but it
is in collecting Food--Not a bird, except now & then _Robbin-Redbreast_
is heard to sing in this Feverish Month--Nature seems cheerless and
gloomy! The Evening is hot, but the Ride was agreeable, it was useful
too; for I grow much better; The Jolting of the Horse seemed salutary,
my Pain subsided, I returned almost wholly relieved in the evening,
drank my Coffee, went soon to my Room, gave thanks to my divine
_restorer_ & laid me down to rest--

_Fryday 19._

I slept through the night in _quiet_ and ease, & rose perfectly
relieved Mr _Carter_ at Breakfast advised me to take with him Some
_Salt-Petre_, as a useful Dieuretick but I declin'd--Mr _Grubb_ came
in about twelve o-Clock from _Sabine-Hall_. Colonel _Carter_ gave an
Entertainment Yesterday to celebrate his Birth-Day; & had a numerous
& gay Company.--This young Gentleman (Mr _Grubb_) appears to be a
person of Capacity & Improvement; he was Educated in England, & has
been assistant to a Merchant on _James's River_ in this Colony for
some time past. This Summer he has been totally Idle--He proposes week
after week to set out for Williamsburg, & Sail thence home, but he
stays. He has much good nature, is an agreeable companion--I pity
him.--He seems fond of Miss _Betsy Lee_--But he is too fluctuating in
his mind to settle there, or with any Girl whatever Yet--

_Saturday 20._

_Ben_ Mr _Taylor_, Mr _Grubb_, & _Harry_ went to the Potowmack to a
Fish Feast--Come, Fithian, what do you mean by keeping hived up
sweating in your Room--Come out & air yourself--But I choose to stick
by the Stuff. The Colonel too, very kindly, offered me a Seat in his
Chariot to Nomini Court-House, but I declin'd Mr Lane & Mr Warden came
in towards evening--Both in high Spirits. But Mr _Lane_ was (as they
say) "Half Seas over"--they sat & chated noisily til nine--Evening
clear a full Moon, & very light--Our neighbourhood seems alive with
little Negro Boys playing in every part--

_Sunday 21._

Nomini Church--Parson Smith gave us after Prayrs, which he was obliged
to read himself, a useful Sermon; poor man he seemed to labour
hard--Dined with us Captain _Walker_, Mr _Lane_, Mrs _Lane_, Mr
_Wadman_, Mr _Warden_.

Soon after Dinner I left the company & retired to my chamber where I
seem commonly most happy--


                            Nomini-Hall Virginia, augt 21st 1774.


I have an oppertunity by some gentlemen, who go from this Colony to
the Congress, of writing you a line according to promise, since I saw
you, I have been in good health; The reigning spirit in Virginia is
liberty--And the universal topic politicks--I suppose it to be the
same with you God Almighty knows where these civil tumults will end;
probably not without War & Blood!--I have but little to say but to
present you my best regards, remember me to your sister--To Miss
Cunningham--The Miss Armitages--Miss Cooks--I hope to see you the last
of october, when I expect to be in Town--Probably you can make it
convenient for you to take a ramble into the country at that time. I
hope to be at leisure, and shall be proud to attend you--Mr Blain, who
favours me by carrying these is a Gentleman of my acquaintance in this
Colony, a Merchant of Note, I shall thank you if you will take some
notice of him,--And by him, as he is to return immediately I beg you
write--Tell me how matters go in Town--Tell me what you know of the
Country--Tell me much about the _Sex_ you love--Remember to ask Mr
Blain the hour he returns, and dont fail to send me a line

                                   I am, Sir,
                                with great regard,


                                               PHILIP V. FITHIAN.


                                   Nomini Hall. Augt: 21st. 1774.


I wrote you a line in great haste, just before I left home, and two
days before that I had the pleasure of your company with ladies in an
evening excursion--We have here no artificial gardens; Nor can we
select out a company of sociable equals whenever we are in a humour
for a walk--Here we either strain on Horseback from home to Church, or
from house to House if we go out at all--Or we walk alone into a dark
Meadow, or tall wood--But I love solitude, and these lonely recesses
suit exactly the feeling of my mind--I recieved lately a letter from
Cohansie, in which I am informed of the Death of Uncle _Seeley_--The
family and neighbourhood will have suffered a great loss!--I suppose
you join in the general language, and assert your liberties and
oppose oppression. I hope at least you are on the right side of the

The City, I dare say, is in great tumult if not in consternation. I
wish it was convenient for me to be in town when the gentlemen from
the respective Colonies shall meet in general Congress--This is out of
my power, but I can wish for their union, and usefulness. Mr _Blain_,
the gentleman who forwards my letter, is a Merchant of Note, in this
Colony, you will oblige me if you take notice of him while he is in
Town.--You will not fail to write me a line, and give to Mr Blain the
moment you recieve mine, least he leave town and I be disappointed.

My compliments to all friends,
                       from Sir,
                                                   P. V. FITHIAN.

Mr Nathl: Donnald Junr:


                                    Nomini-Hall August 21st 1774.


I send you these inclosed in a line to your Brother.

I do this that you may recieve the letter, for there seems to be
little security in a letter directed to you, the youngsters are so
curious to examine what is written for you--I understand that you
never recieved my last dated "May 1774. Delaware River on board the
swallow." I wish I could detect the impudent interceptor--You have
then at last condescended to visit Cohansie! I hear by Mr _Ewing_ that
you was in the Country several weeks--Does it delight you, to hear the
noise of Birds, of Lowing Cows, of Sheep, and of chatt'ring poultry,
instead of the City-Cries? But I forget myself--Did you see that your
Merchant, who, as I mentioned to you, is so moved with youn[g] person
and manner? I suppose he was your constant and unwearied gallant--I
expect that according to promise, you spent some part of your time
with my sister--She a little Vixen, has never scribbled me a line, but
I am level with her, for I have been as silent as she--Miss Beatty,
that girl you seem so passionately fond of, is I expect, before this
returned--She is indeed a lovely girl, if I say more you will call me
partial--At any rate, as you correspond, I beg you will present her
with my compliments, which are indeed but empty, thread-bare
things--But Madam, I assure you they are the most valuable articles I
can now transmit--I expect to be in town by the latter end of October,
or beginning of November--If you are not too busy when you recieve
this, I beg you will sit yourself instantly down and write me a
friendly answer--This I think my due since I have written to you only,
and to no other Lady either in town or country

                              I am, Madam,
                                                    P. V. FITHIAN
To Miss Ruth Webster.


_Monday 22._

Mr _Grubb_ & Ben returned last evening--They spent their Day in
_Richmond_[196]--I wrote to day several letters. to Philadephia One to
Miss _Webster_. To her _Brother_. To _John McCalla_ junr--To Mr
_Donald_--These I send by 'Squire _Lee_ who is to be of the
Party--After School _Ben_, _Grubb_, & Myself rode to the
_'Squires_--He took us into his Garden, shewed and gave us great
Plenty of fine Peaches, _Nectarines_ &c

[196] Richmond County.

He has a large Garden, & great abundance of fruit--His People were
shaking the trees to prepare the Peaches for Brandy


                            Nomini Hall Virginia Augt: 22d: 1774.


Since I left you I have heard not a syllable about you, whether the
ague has left you, whether you have left the City removed to
Alexandria, as you proposed in the spring, in short both yourself and
fame have been, as to you, wholly silent--

I have now an oppertunity which I gladly improve of sending you a
line, and I beg that by the same conveyance you will send me an
Answer--There are many from this Colony to attend the general
Congress, seven by appointment, the others out of curiosity, by Mr
_Blain_, a gentleman of my acquaintance in this Colony, a Merchant of
Note I forward this; you will oblige me if you use him with

I cannot write home at present; if you should write soon to Cohansie,
please to mention to whoever you write to that I am in good health;
that the neighbourhood is in good health; and that I propose to return
about the latter end of october--I can transmit nothing now concerning
public affairs, you will know by the gentlemen from this province that
the reigning spirit is liberty--I hope Mr and Mrs Hollinshead keep
clear of the fevers this fall; but I fear they will suffer in that
common calamity. I think they ought to remove to the City for a few
weeks in september when the disorder rages where they reside--My best
compliments attend your family, and to Miss _Pratt_, Miss _Boyd_ and
others of my acquaintance in town as shall be convenient.

  I am, Sir, with great truth
      and Regard your most obedient
             Most humble Servt:
                                                    P. V. FITHIAN

Mr John McCalla Junr:

I shall thank you if you will send me the latest Journal, Gazette, and
the Packet.


_Teusday 23._

Blessed be God who yet preserves me in perfect health--_Priss_ has
another fitt of the Ague these Disorders are giving Alarms. in a few
Weeks I suppose they will grow numerous & troublesome--A violent Gust
of Wind, Rain, & some Thunder we had about twelve o clock, the Country
seems to be afloat--A [I] received this Morning a Note from a School
Master in the Village, who signs himself "Brother Quill" He sends me
with his compliments a Question. To multiply 12£ 12s 12½d by itself
in Cross multiplication--And tells me the Answer is 160£ 1s 6d his
way, viz by Decimals--I did not alter his answer, but suffered him to
continue satisfied with his own performance.--

_Wednesday 24._

Stormy--A poor Man arrived from Maryland with Grain to grind. It was
wet--He saw Mr Carter and Mr _Randolph_--Mr Randolph wore a red
Coat--the Marylander asked _Bob_ which was the master of the
House--_Bob_ with his usual impudence answered, the Man you see drest
in a scarlet Coat--Who then says he is the other in a frowsled
Wig?--He is says _Bob_ my fathers Clerk--The Colonel heard this
Anecdote of _Bob_, which entertained him, While we were dining. I hear
nothing of the Ague abroad, it seems to go by turns, sometimes brief
then exceeding scarce--all this day the wind North East rainy.

_Thursday 25._

Still stormy. The Gentlemen who are sailing up the Bay to the Congress
have a disagreeable time--This is a true August Northeaster, as we
call it in Cohansie--_Ben_ is in a wonderful _Fluster_ lest he shall
have no company to-morrow at the Dance--But blow high, blow low, he
need not be afraid; _Virginians_ are of genuine Blood--They will dance
or die!--I wrote some at my Letter for Mr _Peck_--The people here
pronounce Shower "Sho-er"--And what in New-Jersey we call a Vendue
here they a "Sale"--All Taverns they call "Ordinary's"--When a Horse
is frolicsome & brisk, they, say at once he is "gayly"--she [if he] is
mischievous, they call him, "vicious."--At five, with _Ben_. I rode
out for exercise--After a while we arrived at _George-Lee's_--He gave
us some excellent Peaches--He returned with us to Mr Turberville's--We
met here with Miss _Betsy Lee_, Mr _Grubb_, _Lancelot Lee_ & here we
spent the evening--_Fish-Feasts_, & _Fillies_, Loud disputes
concerning the Excellence of each others Colts--Concerning their
Fathers, Mothers (for so they call the Dams) Brothers, Sisters,
Uncles, Aunts, Nephews, Nieces, & Cousins to the fourth Degree!--All
the Evening Toddy constantly circulating--Supper came in, & at Supper
I had a full, broad, sattisfying View of Miss _Sally Panton_--I wanted
to hear her converse, but poor Girl any thing She attempted to say was
drowned in the more polite & useful Jargon about Dogs & Horses!--For
my Part, as I was unwilling to be singular, if I attempted to push in
a word, I was seldom heard, & never regarded, & yet they were
constantly refering their Cases to me, as to a supposed honest fellow,
I suppose because I wear a black Coat, & am generally silent; at Home
I am thought to be noisy enough; here I am thought to be silent &
circumspect as a _Spy_--How different the Manners of the People! I try
to be as cheerful as I can. & yet I am blamed for being stupid as a

_Fryday 26._

Mr Christian came while we were at Breakfast--Soon after came Miss
_Washington_, Miss _Hale_ & the Miss _Lee's_--I kept myself in my Room
pretty Close--Towards evening Mrs _Carter_, Miss _Washington_, Miss
_Hale_, Mrs _Christien_ & _Myself_ had a thorough ramble, first thro'
the Garden--We gathered some Figs, the Ladies seem fond of them, I
cannot endure them--Then we stroll'd down the Pasture quite to the
River, admiring the Pleasantness of the evening, & the delightsome
Prospect of the River, Hills, Huts on the Summits, low Bottoms, Trees
of various Kinds, and Sizes, Cattle & Sheep feeding some near us, &
others at a great distance on the green sides of the Hills, People,
some fishing, others working, & others in the Pasture among the
Horses;--The Country emphatically in her goodly Variety! I love to
walk on these high Hills where I can see the Tops of tall Trees lower
than my Feet, at not half a miles Distance--Where I can have a long
View of many Miles & see on the Summits of the Hills Clusters of Savin
Trees, through these often a little Farm-House, or Quarter for
Negroes; these airy Situations seem to me to be the Habitations of
Health, and Vigor--We return'd, & all were apparently well satisfied
with the walk--Evening was spent jovially in Dancing, at Supper, I
left the Company, being not very well, & retired to my Chamber, Thanks
to my heavenly Father, that I can enjoy a competent Measure of Health
when many are sick around--A Note from Mr Lowe. Miss _Betsy Lee_, &
her Brother came in just at night--Miss _Lee_ seems cheerful, dances
well, sings agreeably, appears free of formality, & Haughtiness the
Common foible here,--

_Saturday 27._

The morning spent in setting coppies, Sums &c, for the School--After
Breakfast, I spent a couple of Hours in the Dancing-Room--Mr _Lee_ in
our Room raved against the Scotch--He swore that if his Sister should
marry a Scotchman, he would never speak with her again; & that if he
ever Shall have a Daughter, if She marries a Scotchman he shoots her
dead at once!--At twelve I rode to Mr Washingtons, the Country
extremely pleasant Dined with the _Parson_, his _Brother_, Mrs
_Smith_, Miss Pettit, Mr Blain, Mr Buckner,[197] & several of Mr
_Lowes_ Boys; Mr Lowe was from home. On my return I found no company,
except _Grubb_ who had come in my absence. We spent the Evening after
sipping our Coffee in Chat with Mr & Mrs Carter.

[197] Richard Buckner (1730-1792) of "Albany" in Westmoreland County
was a planter who sometimes had business dealings with Robert Carter.
Members of the Buckner family had been prominent planter-merchants in
Tidewater Virginia since John Buckner had emigrated from England and
settled in Gloucester County shortly after the middle of the
seventeenth century. John Buckner had imported the first printing
press into the colony.

_Sunday 28._

Mr _Grubb_ rose very early, having yesterday made every previous
necessary preparation, & set out for Home about One hundred miles
Distance. He has so much good Nature, is always so cheerful, & at the
same time void of any thing malicious, clamorous & impudent, that I
cannot but esteem & very much respect him--On some whimsical
unsubstantial Miff or other, however, our Girls cannot endure him--he
wrote them some Copies the other Day, & tho' he writes a much finer
neater hand than I they would not allow it, nor hardly--Strive to
imitate--I laughed at the ridiculous, the perfect Picture of Female
_Caprice_, & _Obstinacy_ in Miniature--Sermon is to Day at Ucomico, so
that I keep my Room--I wrote several Letters which are to be forwarded
by Mr _Blain_, one to _Jack Peck_, one to _John Duffield_,[198] at Dr
Shippen's[199] Junr Philadelphia, & one to _Laura_. I begun also a
Sermon I understand by Mrs _Carter_ & _Ben_ who were at Church, that
the _Parson_ was unable to read Prayrs or Preach, having a Fever, but
that there was a thronged Assembly; many I am told, have the Ague &
Fever, but none are dangerous or have it fixed--

[198] John Duffield was graduated at Princeton in 1773. He served as a
tutor there during the next two years.

[199] Dr. William Shippen (1736-1806) was a distinguished physician of
Philadelphia. He was at this time professor of surgery and anatomy at
the medical school of the College of Philadelphia. Shippen had married
Alice Lee, a sister of Richard Henry, Arthur, Frances Lightfoot, and
William Lee.


                                    Nominy-Hall. August 28: 1774.

There is a Letter of yours lying before me, in which you say "that if
I had continued writing to you, it is more than probable you had been
as negligent as ever; but that my leaving off for a Time has at last
extorted a Letter from you"--Mighty pretty! I dare say the Sentiment
is genuine, & you may be assured that I allow & believe it.

You are not, therefore, to account this any thing more than the Ghost,
the Shade of a Letter; for, thinking this an extraordinary Case, I
have gone beyond my usual Manner of speaking, in Order to convince you
of my Resolution--And _swore_ that I will not interrupt you til' I
have received several.

If you receive this by the Conveyance I expect (I send it by Col:
_Lee_ who attends the Congress) it will be a few Days before I leave
Virginia; for I intend, by the Permission of Heaven, being at Home by
the beginning of November at farthest.

In the mean Time, since I ardently wish your constant and perpetual
Felicity, from a deep-rooted Friendship, which I have discovered in a
thousand Variations, suffer me to borrow a Form of Mr Addison, & put
up one important Prayr in your Behalf "Ye guardian Angels to whose
Care heaven has intrusted its dear Laura, guide her still forward in
the Paths of Virtue, defend her from the Insolence & wrongs of this
undiscerning World; At length, when we must no more converse with such
Purity on Earth, lead her gently hence, innocent & unreproveable to a
better Place, where by an easy Transition from what She now is, She
may shine forth an Angel of Light."

It would be bold & presumptuous, or I would with Earnestness &
Sincerity extend the Wish a little farther, but transfer it to
Fortune, & pray that She would make you mine. I ought, however, to be
cautious here--In so nice a Case, Truth & Virtue are often thought

I advise you, upon the whole, to consult & examine the Prospect you
have of substantial Happiness, when you are about to change your State
for Life. Inform yourself, so far as you are able, of the _Quality_ &
_Measure_ of what you think your chief Happiness--Your Satisfaction &
Comfort will consist in.

Place this against necessary Distress & Perplexity; You will thereby
have a clearer & fuller View of both; Your Judgement will be less
confused; & more likely to fix to Advantage;--You are to consider that
a wrong Choice brings on a Train of Curses; but view it in the other
Light, & it is almost a State of unmixed Pleasures--

                       I am, Madam yours
                                              PHILIP. V. FITHIAN.


_Monday 29._

Miss _Fanny_ in School to Day, but not entirely well of her Sores made
by the _Ticks_--_Ben_ complains of a pain in his breast; he seems to
have many symptoms of Weakness in his breast--I attempted to take a
rough Draught of the Great House for myself--Evening after Coffee the
C[o]lonel entertained us by playing on the Harmonica.

_Teusday 30._

Mr _Carter_ rides to Westmoreland Court. By him I send my Letters to
Mr _Blain_, who is going to the Congress--_Ben_ seems to be no better;
has a slight Fever, pain in his Breast, & Uneasiness, I fear he is
bordering on a Consumption--His fond Mother discovers great Anxiety, &
true affection. Once I too had a fond indulgent Mother; when I was
sick, or otherwise distress'd, She was always impatient til my Health
& Ease returned; & She used to urge me likewise by precept & example
to strive for an habitual Preparation for Sickness and Death! But oh!
She has gone & left me, & Friendship seems to have been buried with
her!--Formality & Pretence are common enough, but Sincerity &
affection are exceeding rare--Mrs _Carter_ thinks it better for _Ben_
to sleep at the Great-House til he grows better, for the advantage of
giving him medicine--I seem now when it is late in the Evening,
lonely, & a little fearful, at least I think on what I made a Subject
for a merry Hour, when I was at Home last, & a young Lady was
complaining of being fearful at Night, & afraid to sleep in a Room
alone--There are now (asleep I suppose) in this House, below Stairs Mr
_Randolph_, & Mr _Burney_ the Cooper; two clever lusty youngsters, &
in the Room next to mine _Bob_ & _Harry_ sleep--I feel yet gloomy;
_Ben_ is missing, & which is worse, he is sick--

_Wednesday 31._

Last Fryday, Saturday, Sunday, Monday, Teusday, & this Day have been
perfectly fair, but yesterday & to Day are very hot--_Ben_ quits
reading & is quite unwell--Dined with us Mr _Wadman_: He is, I
believe, a Man of a good understanding, but desperate in his religious

_Thursday Septemr: 1st: 1774._

One other _Calm_, _sunny_, _sweltering_ day

The Colonel says it is the hottest Day we have had--I keep myself
caged up in my Room, & cannot venture out on my usual _walk_ or Ride
for exercise--Through divine goodness I continue in perfect Health,
but as skinny & meagre as tho' I was continually sick--_Ben_ seems a
little more pert today--Evening it Lightens in the North West.

_Fryday 2._

Extreme hot to day--Yesterday a Negro Child about six years old
sickened as to appearance with the Ague & Fever, & to Day about eleven
in the morning it expired! It is remarkable that the Mother has now
lost seven successively, none of which have arrived to be ten years
old!--The Negroes all seem much alarm'd, & our School make it a
Subject for continual Speculation; They seem all to be free of any
terror at the Prescence of Death; _Harry_ in special signified a Wish
that his turn may be next. I should be glad if his desire were wise; &
he was as fit for the business of the other world, as he seems willing
to leave the business of this--In the evening this unexpected Death
was the Subject of Conversation in the House--Mr _Carter_ observed,
that he thought it the most desirable to die of a Short Illness. If he
could have his Wish he would not lie longer than two days; be taken
with a Fever, which should have such an unusual effect on his Body as
to convince him that it would be fatal, and gradually increase till it
affected a Dissolution--He told us that his affairs are in Such a
state that he should be able to dictate a Will which might be written
in five Minutes, & contain the disposal of his estate agreeable to his
mind--He mentioned to us the Substance--"That he would leave Mrs
_Carter_ 6000£ Serling; & leave the remainder of his Estate to be
disposed among his children as the Law directs."--

He told us likewise, with great firmness, that if he hives [lives] to
see his children grown, he will pay no regard to age, but give his
wealth to Him who bids fairest to be useful to mankind--That he allows
all an equal oppertunity of improvement, but the One who is found then
improved shall with the Learning inherit also the Substance--_Dennis_
the Lad who waits at Table, I took into the School to day at his
Fathers request, He can spell words of one syllable pretty readily. He
is to come as he finds oppertunity.

_Saturday 3._

Indeed says Mrs Carter at Breakfast, the Lightning, Rain, & Thunder,
disturbed me, & kept me padding from Room to Room all Night; I first
had the Girls Beds removed as far as possible from the Chimneys--then
had lights placed in the passage; and then but without _rest_ or
_pleasure_, I wandered through the house silent & lonely like a
disturbed Ghost!--It has however effected an agreeable change in the
Air; which is now cool & agreeable. I was invited this morning by
Captain _Fibbs_ [Gibbs] to a _Barbecue_: this differs but little from
the Fish Feasts, instead of Fish the Dinner is roasted _Pig_, with the
proper apendages, but the Diversion & exercise are the very same at
both--I declined going and pleaded in ex[c]use unusual & unexpected
Business for the School--By appointment is to be fought this Day near
Mr _Lanes_ two fist Battles between four young Fellows. The Cause of
the battles I have not yet known; I suppose either that they are
lovers, & one has in Jest or reality some way supplanted the other; or
has in a merry hour call'd him a _Lubber_, or a _thick-Skull_, or a
_Buckskin_, or a _Scotchman_, or perhaps one has mislaid the others
hat, or knocked a peach out of his Hand, or offered him a dram without
wiping the mouth of the Bottle; all these, & ten thousand more quite
as triffling & ridiculous, are thought & accepted as just Causes of
immediate Quarrels, in which every diabolical Stratagem for Mastery is
allowed & practised, of Bruising, Kicking, Scratching, Pinching,
Biting, Butting, Tripping, Throtling, Gouging, Cursing, Dismembring,
Howling, &c. This spectacle, (so loathsome & horrible!) generally is
attended with a crowd of People! In my opinion, (others may think for
themselves) animals which seek after & relish such odious and filthy
amusements are not of the human species, they are destitute of the
remotest pretension to humanity; I know not how they came by their
form, by the help of which they are permitted to associate with Men,
unless it has been (unfortunate for the World!) by an intermixture of
the meaner kind of Devils with prostitute Monkeys!--This however, I
cannot determine; But I think all such should be deemed by the
community infectious, & suspended at least any kind of intercourse,
til, either the lineage be settled & recorded, or those shrew'd
Characteristicks of a spurious, illegitimate claim to kindred with men
be in a good Measure abated.

_Sunday 4._

We had last night a flood of rain, the wind North East stormy--No
Church to Day--Mr Carter sent down to his Mill-Dam, & channel all his
people to try if they can secure them; he gives them Rum, & a Shilling
a man--

I read Prayrs, by the desire of the Parents, at the Grave over the
deceased Child _Priscilla_, _Nanccy_, _Fanny_, _Betsy_, _Ben_, _Bob_,
_Harry_, & Myself, & about forty or fifty Negroes were present.
Neither the Father nor the Mother of the Child went out; imitating the
example they see in others, & stay from an affectation of overflowing

_Monday 5._

There is wonderful _To do_, this morning among the Housekeeper &
children, at the great house. They assert that a Man or a Spirit came
into the Nursery about one o-Clock this morning--That if it was indeed
a Spirit the Cause of his appearance is wholly unknown; but if it was
Flesh & blood they are pretty confident that the design was either to
rob the House, or commit fornication with _Sukey_, (a plump, sleek,
likely Negro Girl about sixteen)--That the doors & windows were well
secured, but that by some secret manner, unknown to all, the _Thing_
opened the Cellar door, went through the Cellar, & up the narrow dark
Stairs (which are used only on necessary occasions, as when the great
Stair way is washing or on some such account)--That it left the said
Cellar door standing open, & besides unbar'd, & threw open the East
Window in the little Room, in order, as they wisely supposed, to have,
if it should be hurried, a ready passage out--That it had previously
put a small wedge in the Lock of the Nursery Door, where several of
the young Ladies, & the said _Sukey_ sleep, so that when they were
going to Bed they could not Lock nor bolt the door, but this they all
believed was done in mischief by the children, & went thereupon to
bed, without suspicion of harm, with the door open--That Sukey some
time in the Night discovered Something lying by her Side which she
knew to be a Man by his having Breeches--That She was greatly
surprised, & cry'd out suddenly to the others that a Man was among
them, & that the Man _tickled_ her, & said _whish, whish_--That on
this She left the Bed & run & squeased herself in by the side of Miss
Sally the House-keeper, but that by this time the Whole Room was awake
& alarmed--That when the thing knew there was a discovery it stamped
several times on the floor, shook the Bedstead by the side of which it
lay, rattled the Door several Times & went down Stairs walking very
heavy for one barefoot--That on its leaving the Room the Hous[e]Keeper
went to Ben Carters Chamber, & that he rose & they all went down &
found the Doors & window as I have mentioned--All this with many other
material accidents is circulating through the family to Day; some
conclude it was a Ghost because it would not speak--But, more probably
it was one of the warm-blooded, well fed young Negroes, trying for the
company of buxom _Sukey_--The Colonel however, at Breakfast gave out
that if any one be caught in the House, after the family are at Rest,
on any Pretence what ever, that Person he will cause to be
hanged!--This Afternoon _Nelson_ the Lad who waits in our School, was
in the woods about half a mile off, where he met with & kill'd a
_Rattle-Snake_ having six Rattles--He cut off the head, & brought Home
the remainder of the Body, which we have skin'd & stuff'd--Mrs Carter
complains to Day of the Tooth-Ach, & a slight Fever.

_Teusday 6._

The day fine--It is whispered to Day that B... is the Ghost that
walk'd in the Nursery the other night, but I think the report is
false, and arises from calumny. We had an expectation of company to
day, but are disappointed. We dined on Fish & Crabs, which were
provided for our company, to-morrow being Fish-Day--I begun a Sermon
Job XXIII. 3. 4. We have too vagrant Tinkers with us mending several
articles, one of whom is this afternoon violent sick with the Fever &
Ague--I rode to my old spot, the Corn field, by chance met with Mr
Taylor. I walked with him among the Tobacco Cotton &c. He gave me
Directions for raising the latter.--Cotton must be planted about the
middle of May in rich Land, prepared with Hills, & made very mellow.
When up it must be weeded & kept clean, it must be top'd & suckered as
Tobacco, otherwise it runs too much to vine. Towards the Fall it will
begin to open, when the opened pods mu[s]t be gathered & laid by til
dry, then the Cotton pick'd out & clean'd--

_Wednesday 7._

Mrs Carter not very well; is troubled with a small tooth-Ach Fever & a
Cold--Every leisure minute I spend in writing at my Sermon--Dined with
us Mr Sorrel, & Mr .... on Fish, Rock, Perch, fine _Crabs_, & a large
fresh _Mackerel_. Yesterday & to day I have been a little pained &
pretty much alarmed, at an unusual feeling in my right arm. Almost all
the Summer I have felt an obstruction when I would lift up my arm. But
now it is a trembling steady _knawing_ down the under part of my arm &
Wrist, without unless when I move it suddenly--Evening I walked throug
the pasture to the River, the Hills are green, since the late rains, &
look fine tip'd with the setting Sun.

_Thursday 8._

Cloudy & cool. I rise now by half after six--I found it necessary to
flogg _Bob_ & _Harry_ on account of lying in bed, after I come into
School--At twelve Mr & Mrs _Carter_, with all the Family except _Ben_,
Harry & Myself; Ben staid of choice, & Harry I kept at Home on account
of a sullen Impudence when I dismiss'd them--I told them that they
both had my leave to go but at the same time it was my advice that
they should stay--Harry then answered "D--n my Soul but i'll go!" At
this I informed him that he had at once dismiss'd himself from my
authority. & without singular signs of Submission I should never take
him under my direction more--And therefore that he had general &
unbounded Liberty to go not only to the Horse Race, but _where_ &
_when_ he chose--He seem'd startled, & began to moderate his answer: I
ordered him out of the Room, & told him to use his liberty. Mrs
_Carter_ took with her all the young Ladies & all her children--_Ben_
& I with great satisfaction dined alone. Nelson, to Day, kill'd
another Rattle Snake; near the place where he kill'd the other, which
had twelve Rattles--Harry grew sick and refused to go to the Race, he
came soon to my room & with every Sign of Sorrow for his conduct
begg'd me to forgive him, at first I refused, but at length I took him
in, yet informed him that I shall pass over no other instance of what
may be called rudeness only.--The Colonel on his return, in the
evening informed us that the Race was curious, & that the Horses were
almost an even match--That the Betts were Drawn & no Money paid--That
the Rider of one of the Horses weighed only forty Seven pound--Strange
that so little substance in a human Creature can have strength &
skill sufficient to manage a Horse in a Match of Importance--Something
alarming happened a few nights ago in the Neighbourhood at Mr
_Sorrels_[200] a House in sight--It is supposed that his Negres had
appointed to murder him, several were found in his bed chamber in the
middle of the night--his Wife waked--She heard a whispering, one
perswading the other to go--On this She waked her Husband, who run to
his Gun; but they escaped in the dark--Presumption is so strong
together with a small confession of the Fellows, that three are now in
Prison--The ill Treatment which this unhappy part of mankind receives
here, would almost justify them in any desperate attempt for gaining
that _Civility_, & _Plenty_ which tho' denied them, is here, commonly
bestowed on Horses!--Now, Laura, I sleep in fear too, though my Doors
& Windows are all secured!--

[200] Thomas Sorrel owned a plantation near "Nomini Hall" in
Westmoreland County.

_Fryday 9._

Mr _Stadley_ came in before Breakfast. He inform'd us that Governor
_Dunmore_ has gone to the Frontiers with about 400 Men to subdue the
Indians--That the Indians seem disheartened, & leave their towns, &
are unwilling to fight--Mrs _Carter_, out of Compliment, this morning
presented to _Ben_ & _I_ for staying at home yesterday, a large fine
_Cake_--Dined with us a Stranger--_Ben_ with great Humour either out
of a _Bravado_ or for Revenge gave out in the Family to day that it is
the opinion of a certain _Female_, of considerable Note in the family,
that all the male Children which shall be born in this unlucky year,
tho' they may be fair to the Sight, will be yet unable, from a
Debility of Constitution, to do their Duty, with respect to Women,
either married or single--That She has two reasons for this opinion,

1. Because the Air appears to her extremely _barren_, _weak_, &
_ungenerative_--2. Because the Peaches, & other Fruit, are observed
this year to have in them very few Kernels, at the same time that the
Peaches are sweet & fair--I think that _Ben_, by this stratagem,
whether it be real or otherwise, is levil with the invidious Vixen
which suspected him of entering the Nursery to visit black-faced

_Saturday 10._

With the Boys I Surveyed a small field lying along the Richmond Road;
the Colonel has a good _Theodolite_ & other Aparatus for
Surveying--English Magazines, & Reviews arrived to Day--One of the
Books lately published I am desirous to purchase viz.--Dr _Henry's_
History of Great Britain on a new Plan. This history is to be
contained in ten Books, each of which will be divided into seven
chapters. In the first Chapter of every Book, the Author relates, the
civil & military History of Great Britain--The second chapter contains
the ecclesiastical History of the same period: the third presents us
with the history of our political constitution, Government, Laws, &
Courts of justice: the fourth is employed upon what relates to
Learning & Learned men: the fifth investigates the State of the useful
& ornamental Arts: the sixth enquires into that of commerce, Shipping,
Money, with the prices of commodities: & the last Chapter of every
Volume is alloted to a Detail of the Manners, Virtues, Vices,
remarkable Customs, Language, Dress, Diet, & Diversions of the Great
Britains--Six o-Clock, Mrs _Turberville_, Miss _Jenny Corbin_, and
Miss _Turberville_ came in; Miss _Corbin_ has been, all the Summer, at
her Brothers on Rapahanock forty miles distant.[201]--I saw, in the
evening, in Mr Randalls[202] Room, a Young man about twenty years old,
totally deaf, & dumb! He is well-set, lusty, & likely; he is cheerful,
good natur'd, extremely dextrous, quick of apprehension, &, in short,
very conversable, & sociable by signs--he was taken to the much famed
Dr _Graham_,[203] when he was in this Colony trumpeting about his own
unproved Abilities; he fumbled with the unfortunate Lad, by blooding,
gouging, boreing &c. putting him to torture and expence without any
possible expectation of help--He Sustains among his neighbours the
Reputation of being, _honest_, _industrious_, & _useful_--He supports
by Labour his mother, & himself; He is remarkably fond of Cloths; &
vastly curious, & nice in examining every article of dress, where he
has the smallest intimacy--He abstains entirely from strong
Liquor.--And what most of all produced admiration in me, was his
taking a Pen & writing his Name "_Coley Reed_" in a good legible Hand,
better indeed, than the Bulk of planters are able to do! But he can
write nothing more--

[201] Gawin Corbin of "Yew Spring" in Caroline County.

[202] Apparently Randolph Carter's clerk.

[203] There were frequent references in the _Virginia Gazette_ during
the previous year to the arrival in Williamsburg of "Dr. Graham, the
celebrated oculist and aurist, at Philadelphia."

_Sunday 11._

_Ben_ rode out yesterday after Dinner and returned this morning; but
came on foot, I begin to suspect him of being actually engaged in what
several alledge against him--But I will keep off so long as I possibly
can, so unwelcome, so unwelcome & so Base a thought of its
Reality--After Breakfast Mr _Stadley_ left us; I feel always Sorry
when he leaves the Family; his entire _good-Nature_, _Cheerfulness_,
_Simplicity_, & _Skill_ in Music have fixed him firm in my
esteem--None go to Ucomico Church to day--Towards evening, I took a
book in my hand, & strolled down the Pasture quite to the Bank of the
River--Miss _Stanhope_, _Priss_, _Nancy_, _Fanny_ & _Betsy Carter_
were just passing by--They walked to the _Mill_; there they entered a
Boat, & for exercise & amusement were rowed down the River quite to
the granary, & then went to angling--I walked to them, & together we
all marched Home to _Coffee_.

_Monday 12._

We threatned having a Fire this morning--I wrote at my Sermon--From
the Ship lying at _Leeds_, arrived this afternoon our new Coach--It is
a plain carriage, upper part black, lower Sage or Pea-Green--The
Harness is neat strong, & suitable for the Country. Price 120£
Sterling--In the same Ship Mrs _Carter_ imports about 30£ value in
plate in a pair of fashionable Goblets; Pair of beautiful Sauce-Cups;
& a Pair of elegant Decanter-holders--_Ben_ introduced into our Room a
plain useful Book-Case, in which we class & place our Books in order.
after School, I took a Book, and walked through the Pasture strolling
among Horses, Cows, & Sheep, grazing on the Hills & by the River.

_Teusday 13._

We thought of Fire this morning, but put it off--Ben's mare is not yet
heard of, though he has had a Boy almost constantly searching about
for her--It is curious to see the Girls imitating what they see in the
great House; sometimes tying a String to a Chair & then run buzzing
back to imitate the Girls spinning; then getting Rags & washing them
without water--Very often they are knitting with Straws, small round
stockings, Garters &c--Sometimes they get sticks & splinter one end of
them f[o]r _Brushes_, or as they call them here _Clamps_, & spitting
on part of the floor, they scrubb away with great vigor--& often at a
small game with Peach-stones which they call _checks_--Evening after
School I rode to the much Frequented Cornfield, Mr Taylor was from
Home the evening cloudy, cool, but fine, The Planters now begin to cut
their Tobacco.

_Wednesday 14._

Mr _Carter_ received word to day that he has had brought very lately
for his Mill 7000 Bushels of Wheat at 4s 6d pr Bushel.--I am at a Loss
to know where he will dispose of such vast Quantities!--The Colonel
who is often pidling in some curious experiment, is to day making some
Printers Ink--He tells me the Materials are Lint-seed-Oil,
Wheat-Bread, Onions, & Turpentine, a rank compound truely--then for
Black, Lamp-Black, red, Vermillion--_Ben_, found his mare lost in last
Saturday's Visit, poor Brute! She was confin'd in the Pasture where he
left her, in which being very large She had been concealed.--Mr
_Smith_, who was wounded last Spring by a Shot of his Brother is
lately dead, & it is said by the Wounds which he received from his

_Thursday 15._

_Ben_ is much better: he has return'd to his Bed in my Room, but
complains often of the pain in his Breast.--I put him to begin & read
some select odes in Horace--He works arithmetic but is only in
Reduction--He dispises Greek, & therefore makes little or no progress
in that Language--He is reading in course the Eneid Lib 3--He has an
unconquerable Love for Horses; he often tells me that he should have
been a skilfull, & useful Groom; that he should be more fond & careful
of a favourite Horse than of a _Wife_, or than his _victuals_, or than
any thing whatever! I never saw a Person, in any Diversion, Recreation
or amusement, who seemed so full of Pleasure & enjoyment as he is when
on Horse back, or even in the company of a Horse! He seems to possess
as warm a regard for them as Dr _Swift_ had for the Houyhnhnms--But I
cannot discover that Ben has so cordial an enmity to Mankind as
_Swift_ had for the Yahoos.--_Bobs_ passion for the same Animal is no
less strong, but it is furious, & cruel, he rides excessive hard, &
would ride always--_Harry's_ Genius seems towards Cocks, & low Betts,
much in company with the waiting Boys, &, against my strongest
Remonstrances, & frequent severe corrections, he will curse, at times,
horribly, & swear fearfully! he always, however, omits it when I am

_Fryday 16._

Mrs _Carter_, this morning, with _Prissy_, _Nancy_, & _Bob_ went in
the New-Coach to the _Dance_ at Stratford, the morning is mild, fair
& cool--The Colonel informed me that now his Mill-House Bake-Houses,
Store Houses &c. with a clear unobstructed navigation is compleated, &
that, he will rent them all to a Person properly qualified--or gladly
employ a person who is capable, trusty & industrious enough to be the
sole Director of so great & valuable Property--Dined with us captain
_Walker_--He threw out several exceeding unpopular Sentiments with
regard to the present amazing Disturbances through the Colonies--One
in special I think proper to record because it fixes his Character, &
declares him, in Spite of all pretence, an enemy to America--He
asserted that no Officers (at Boston or elsewhere) are obliged, either
by Law, or Right, to question or refuse any kind of orders which they
receive from their Sovereign, or commanding Officer--But I account
every man, who possesses, & publishes such sentiments in this Crisis
of the Fate of a vast Empire, as great an enemy to America at least,
as Milton's _Arch-Devil_ was to Mankind!--After School, we took the
Theodolite, the Colonel along, & run several Lines, He seems perfectly
well acquainted with the Art.

_Saturday 17._

At eight I dismiss'd my small charge. Immediately after Breakfast I
took some Boys, & went a Surveying; _Ben_, impatient of tiresome
scurvy Home, strain'd off through the County--I run in to Dinner, the
Colonel & I dined alone, we drank a Glass of Madeira, as a Health to
absent Friends, after which I went again to the Field & survey'd till
six in the evening; The Business of this Day has been to go round the
inner Pasture About half an Hour after Sunset (when Women who love
their Husbands & Families always come Home) Mrs Carter & the Girls
arrived from Stratford She informed us that there was a large,
genteel, and agreeable Company at the Dance; that the Ague & Fever
have been & continue troublesome in that Neighbourhood; & that Word is
arrived from Boston that Governor Gage has fired on the Town, & that
it is expected his orders are to burn & beat it to Destruction! _Ben_
returned about seven from Westmoreland Courthouse--He informed us that
Mr _Sorrels_ Negroes had their trial there to Day, concerning their
accusation of entering their Masters House in the night with an
intention to murder Him--It was there proved (so far as Negroes
evidence will go) that a Brother of this Sorrels early last Spring
bribed some Negroes to Poison his Brother; & when that diabolical
Attempt could not succeed, he has since tried to perswade them to
murder Him!--But all Evidence against the Negroes was so weak & dark
that the judges ordered them to be whiped & dismised them--Though the
Law considers all Testimony given by a Negro against a White-Man as
weak & unsubstantial; yet what the Negro said to Day on Oath of the
younger Mr Sorrel, seems to gain much Belief with many who are candid,
& unbiased Judges; & with me beyond all Scruple, it fixes on him the
cursed Character of a _Fratricide_!--

_Sunday 18._

The Colonel gave me, at Breakfast the offer of a Seat in his Boat to
Church. The Morning was fine, & Nomini-River alive with Boats Canoes
&c some going to Church, some fishing, & some Sporting--Mr _Smith_
gave us a very practical Sermon against the common vices here, in
particular against the practise of abusing Slaves--The report
concerning Boston is much talked off & still confirmed!--We dined all
at Mr Turberville's; Miss _Corbin_ looks _fresh_ & _plump_ as ever.
Towards evening arose a pretty furious Thunder-Gust, which we hardly
escaped on our way home I observed that several, but in special Mr
_Carter_ is not pleased with Mr Smith's Sentiments of Slavery.

_Monday 19._

The morning fine & cool, & produces in our School at last a fine
Fire!--Fire looks & feels most welcome; and I observe it makes our
children remarkably garrulous & noisy--I took cold by Saturdays
unusual exercise, & to Day have a Pain through my head, sore throat, &
the other common troubles in a Cold--This Day begins the examination
of The Junior class at Nassau-Hall. Every time I reflect on that Place
of retirement & Study, where I spent two years which I call the most
pleasant as well as the most important Period in my past life--Always
when I think upon the _Studies_, the _Discipline_, the _Companions_,
the _Neighbourhood_, the _exercises_, & _Diversions_, it gives me a
secret & real Pleasure, even the Foibles which often prevail there are
pleasant on recollection; such as giving each other _names_ &
_characters_; Meeting & Shoving in the dark entries; knocking at Doors
& going off without entering; Strowing the entries in the night with
greasy Feathers; freezing the Bell; Ringing it at late Hours of the
Night;--I may add that it does not seem disagreeable to think over the
Mischiefs often practised by wanton Boys--Such are writing witty
pointed anonymous Papers, in _Songs_, _Confessions_, _Wills_,
_Soliliques_, _Proclamations_, _Advertisements_ &c--Picking from the
neighbourhood now & then a plump fat Hen or Turkey for the private
entertainment of the Club "instituted for inventing & practising
several new kinds of mischief in a secret polite Manner"--Parading bad
Women--Burning Curse-John--Darting Sun-Beams upon the Town-People
Reconoitering Houses in the Town, & ogling Women with the
Telescope--Making Squibs, & other frightful compositions with
Gun-Powder, & lighting them in the Rooms of timorous Boys, & new
_comers_--The various methods used in naturalizing Strangers, of
incivility in the Dining-Room to make them bold; writing them sharp &
threatning Letters to make them smart; leading them at first with long
Lessons to make them industrious--And trying them by Jeers & Repartee
in order to make them choose their Companions &c &c--Evening after
School with Mrs Carter, & the Girls I took a Walk thro the Pumpkin &
Potatoe Vines. the Air is clear, cold & healthful. We drank our Coffee
at the great House very sociably, round a fine Fire, the House And air
feels like winter again.

_Teusday 20._

Among the many womanish Fribbles which our little Misses daily
practise, I discovered one to Day no less merry than natural; _Fanny_
& _Harriot_ by stuffing rags & other Lumber under their Gowns just
below their Apron-Strings, were prodigiously charmed at their
resemblanc to Pregnant Women! They blushed, however, pretty deeply on
discovering that I saw them--We have to day both in the School &
great-house steady Fires--Mr _Thomas Edwards_ a reputable Planter in
the Neighbourhood died this day about one o-Clock--I saw him last
Sunday at Church when he was in good Health; was taken the same
Evening, & hurried off at once!--Frail Man, how easily subdued!--

_Wednesday 21._

We have a more particular account of the Death of Mr _Edwards_. About
a twelve-month ago, he was suddenly siezed with a Fit of the Palsy,
his Foot, Side, Arm, & part of his Face then failed, & became useless,
after some time, however, he grew better, & has since been apparently
well; til Sunday evening last after the Shower, as he was walking in
his Garden, he fell down in an instant, there happened to be help at
hand, he only said these emphatical Words--"_Now I must die_"--He was
carried in, & expired as I mentioned yesterday!--I am told that the
Flux is in the upper part of this County--My cold continues; in the
Evening on going to bed, I took a dose of Honey & Rum--

_Thursday 22._

A pure cold northerly wind still blows, & we all keep Fires--Peaches &
Fruit are omitted at Dinners, & Soup or Broth is brought in; Milk and
Hominy at Breakfast too are laid by & Coffee & Sage Tea brought in;
Our Suppers are Coffee & Bred & butter--_Neatness_ _variety_ &
_Plenty_ are reigning Characters in our worthy oconomist Mrs Carter. I
read to Day, & am charm'd with a ---- of Lord Chesterfield. Letters to
his natural Son, which I propose to purchase--After School, with Ben,
I took a walk to Mr Turberville's--He has received a line from Colonel
Lee at Philadelphia that the Congress is going on--That the account
concerning Boston is false--Evening Lancelot Lee came in, & staid the
night--He gave Ben & myself an Invitation to dine with him tomorrow, I
took out of the Library & began to read Watts's Logic--

_Fryday 23._

I spent some time in reviewing Geography & Logic--Mr Lee left us about
twelve, & Ben rode out with him--Evening from Mr Turberville's I saw
some _Barberry's_, _Sloes_, & _Pomegranates_, neither of which I had
seen before--

_Saturday 24._

Together with my Cold I have to Day a most disagreeable gathering on
my middle Finger--I keep myself at home reading Logic--Evening the
Colonel invited me to walk with him; he took me to his Mill,
_Coopers_, _House_, _Channel_, _Meadows_ &c, and was vastly particular
in describing to me their particular uses--I begin to look with eager
Sollicitude to the time of my revisiting my friends & Relations--It
is, happily near--

_Sunday 25._

The morning clear cool & very dry--I rode to Ucomico-Church, I was
surprised when the Psalm begun, to hear a large Collection of voices
singing at the same time, from a Gallery, entirely contrary to what I
have seen befor in the Colony, for it is seldom in the fullest
Congregation's, that more sing than the Clerk, & about two others!--I
am told that a singing Master of good abilities has been among this
society lately & put them on the respectable Method which they, at
present pursue--I dined at _Mr Fishers_, among others I saw there, Dr
_Steptoe_, & Mr _Hamilton_ who have lately been to Philadelphia--They
give various Reports concerning political affairs, & as to the
Congress nothing certain, so that I say nothing on that Score--Their
Remarks on the City & Inhabitants; The Country &c are curious--They
allow the City to be fine, neat, & large; they complain a little of
the small Rooms, Uniformity of the Buildings, & several other like
faults--They call the Inhabitants grave & reserved; & the Women
remarkably homely, hard favour'd & sour!--One Colonel Harrison[204]
from a lower County in this Colony, offer'd to give a Guinea for every
handsome Face that could be found in the City, if any one would put a
Copper on every Face that did not come up to that Character!--This is
an impeachment of the Ladies which I have never heard before, I do not
give my opinion either for or against it--The face of the Country, &
the method of farming that way delights them: but at this I dont

[204] Probably Benjamin Harrison of "Berkeley" in Charles City County,
who attended the Congress in Philadelphia in 1774.

_Monday 26._

Yesterday the Inspector, whom I have named & described before, desired
the Parson to wait on them in his family and christen his Child--Is
the child sick? No Sir--Why then today? it is the Mothers Desire
Sir--Why was it not brought to Church? The Mother is unwell, Sir--The
Parson excused himself, & promised to come some Days hence, but the
long winded officer, inured to Stubbornness, hung on, &, without
moderation or Apology _demanded_ his presence!--And prevail'd.--
Something in our palace this Evening, very merry happened--Mrs
_Carter_ made a dish of Tea. At Coffee, she sent me a dish--& the
Colonel both ignorant--He smelt, sipt--look'd--At last with great
gravity he asks what's this?--Do you ask Sir--Poh!--And out he throws
it splash a sacrifice to Vulcan--

[Illustration: man with telescope]

_Teusday 27._

This morning the Colonel with his Theodolite observed the Centre of
the Sun at his rising, & found it bore East 5° South--This he is doing
to fix a true East & West Line for regulating the Needle at any time.
This Bearing he corrected by finding the Suns Declination, & fixed his
Points--After the morning we let our fire go down--Both yesterday, &
this evening I rode out to exercise myself & horse against our
approaching Journey--Mr _Hodge_, a Merchant of _Leeds_ & Mr _Leech_ a
Merchant of Dumfries came Home with the Colonel from Westmoreland-Court--
Both chatty, in special Mr Leech; both well-bred, sensible, &
sociable--The loyal Toast was _Wisdom_ & _unity_ to the Conferrences
now assembled--And when Women were to be toasted, I gave Miss _Jenny

_Wednesday 28._

The weather remarkably dry, since Sunday sennight, we have not had a
drop of Rain, nor even a cloudy Sky, and till yesterday, & steady,
cold, serene northerly Wind--To Day is the annual Commencement at
Nassau Hall--


                             [Nomini Hall. September 28 (?) 1774]

You will please to acquaint Mr Rigmaiden[205] that I received and
looked over his Note, and should have attempted to answer it but for
the following reasons. I observe that the first author of the question
very rudely calls Mr Rigmaiden a fool for not working it by

[205] In 1771 William Rigmaiden was the master of a free school in
Richmond County that was supported by Landon Carter. _William and Mary
College Quarterly_, Vol. XIII, series 1, p. 158.

And I observe too that Mr Rigmaiden throws back the word fool, (I
suppose in revenge) upon the other, and if I should intermeddle in the
case it is more than probable, that I should be called the third fool,
by either the one or the other, at least I think the hazard of this
too great to set against any Honour I could recieve by resolving
it--But since Mr _Rigmaiden_ intimates in his note that he is at
something of a loss to know whether himself or the other have the
least claim to the character; I shall propose a question in
arithmetick, which will fully decide any dispute of this nature, for I
pronounce the man who can work it off at once, to be no fool in

A Man has 5000£ which he puts to interest for 30 years 6£ per Cent.
per Annum. I demand how much of this he must spend every day, to spend
it all, principal and interest in the thirty years, and let the daily
sums in the whole time be equal?

As to the question given, "to Multiply 12£ 12s 12½d by itself", It
must have been a punn, or from one not well skill'd in figures. If it
was the former, it does not deserve to be answered at all, because
that would be indulging wanton impertinence; and if it was the latter,
I am not able to understand how such a person should venture to
question Mr _Rigmaidens_ answer--Upon the whole, I am apt to think it
is all a punn which, "Brother Quill" (as he is pleased to style
himself) has ventured to throw out, and on this account, until I am
better satisfied that the sentiment is genuine, I decline wholly
entering farther into the matter.

                       I am, Sir, Yours
                                                      P V FITHIAN

Nomini Hall.


_Thursday 29._

Warm to day, but dry & clear. Mr _Leech_ & Mr _Hodge_ spent last
evening with us; the Conversation was on exchange--Loyal Toasts,
_Agreement_, & _Firmness_ through the american Colonies--Ladies. mine
was Miss Corbin--The Colonel informed us that early next week he shall
set out for Williamsburg--Soon after I hope to set out for Cohansie!


                                   Nomini Hall Septr: 29th. 1774.

                   "Aetas Parentum, pejor avis, tulit
                   Nos nequiores; mox daturos
                   Progeniem vitiosiorem."


You will comprehend, at once, the design of Horace in the Ode from
which this motto was taken, And, perhaps, you may think the
application of it here unmeaning, and impertinent. In order to free
you wholly from every such secret suspicion, you will please to take
notice, that the dignity of your very respectable family, (which is a
sacred thing) depends almost entirely upon your _Capacity_,
_improvement_, and _behaviour_, an attempt, therefore, to guide and
enlarge either or all of these may not be called unmeaning; and, as
you have honoured me for some time past in the character of a Tutor,
by submitting to my advice and instruction, I cannot suppose you so
utterly destitute of candour and gratitude as to put the name of
impertinence on what is the _close_ and _sum_ of my duty to you:
especially as there is but little probability that I shall ever see
you more, and can, therefore, have no possible incitement from
interest, to flatter nor oppertunity of indulging any kind of revenge.
These remarks, I presume, are sufficient to remove from you any
hurtfull prejudice. I therefore go on, to make several observations
with moderation and freedom, which, at least, I hope you will duely
consider, and if they please you, practise. Give me leave then, first
of all to tell you, That you possess a critical tho' a high station,
and that in your road throug[h] life you are liable to innumerable
dangerous [dev]iations. On many accounts your station is critical; I
shall enumerate only a few.

--The rest is lost--



_Fryday 30._

Warm, but clear & dry--Dined with us Mr _Blain_; He gave us a large
account of affairs at the Congress, of the City, Country, Manners,
Persons, Trade &c--But he swears the Women are coarse & hardy--Evening
I informed the Colonel that it is hardly probable I shall continue in
his family til his return from the general Court, & at the same time,
desired him to give me a discharge so that I expect to have all things
adjusted before he leaves Home--We have now entered on the Winter
plan, have Coffee just at evening & Supper between eight & nine
o-Clock--It is wonderful to consider the Consumption of provisions in
this family--I have before spoken of Meat, & the steady Rate of flour
weekly, for the great House is 100Lb of which 50 is the finest, & 50
the Seconds--But all the Negroes, & most of the Labourers eat Corn.

_Saturday October 1st. 1774._

Wind South West cloudy. After Breakfast with the Boys I went a
Surveying along the River round the lower pasture at twelve, _Ben_,
_Bob_, _Harry_ all gallop off--I spent the afternoon plotting my
work--I paid Sam our Barber for _Blacking_, _Dressing_ &c 12/.

_Sunday 2._

Parson Smith is out of the Parish so that we have no service--With
_Ben_ I rode to Mr _Washingtons_. Mr Lowe again absent--Dined with us
Mrs _Turberville_, Miss _Corbin_, Miss _Pierce_--we found the Colonel
in the evening busy at his Instrument of Music--We drank our Coffee &
retired early to our Room, & read til ten, then thanking our bountiful
Preserver we retired to our bed.--

_Monday 3._

I gave Tom the Hostler, for his care of my Horse 3s--After Breakfast
the Colonel settled & paid me for my Years Service 40£ Sterling--This
is better than the scurvy annuity commonly allowed to the Presbyterian
Clergy--He is very Busy in adjusting his affairs, he set out however,
by twelve for Williamsburg, after taking final leave of me--_Ben_
accompanies him to Richmond Court--Afternoon Miss Corbin & Miss
Turberville came in to stay a while with Mrs _Carter_. Bob went
yesterday to Mr Lanes there was Parson _Gibbern_ ill of his last weeks
Bout; he was up three nights successively drinking & playing at Cards,
so that the liquor & want of sleep put quite out of his Sences--A rare
tale this to relate of a Man of God!--To use the language of the
vulgar, "Old Satan will sadly belabour such overgrown Sinners"!--

_Teusday 4._

Dined with us Mrs Turberville and Miss _Letty_ we were all Tete a
Tete, vastly merry & garrulous--I gave Nelson for a Stirrup Buckle a
Bit--I am preparing my Saddle. Cloth's, Bags, Horse, & myself for the
intended Ride--

_Wednesday 5._

Dined with us Mr Taylor, he informs us that the crops of Tobacco are
like to be good--Evening I wrote a Letter to Mrs Thornton
Northumberland, concerning Mr Leek's coming into her Family as a
Tutor--I had a fine walk with the young Ladies through the
Pasture--They make me proud by expressing much concern at my necessary
Departure, throwing out many Wishes that I would continue with them--


                                    Nomini Hall. Octr. 5th. 1774.

I saw Mr Leek last Spring, and, as directed by Colonel Taylor,[206] I
enquired if he would undertake the education of several children in
this Colony: he seem'd willing, but would make no promise, nor enter
into any agreement til he is fully instructed as to the number and
standing of his pupils, the conditions of the agreement, and time when
he is to begin.

[206] Colonel John Tayloe.

I expect to return shortly to Philadelphia, and write these to
acquaint you that I would willingly forward a letter to him, if you
are yet desirous of employing him to instruct your family.

you will please, Madam, if you think proper to write, to direct the
letter thus "To Mr Samuel Leek junr: Cohansie, New Jersey--"

I shall leave this place about the 18th instant.

              I am Madam, your
             Most humble Servt:
                                                      P V FITHIAN



_Thursday 6._

I paid Natt who drives the Team half a Bit as a Forfeit for taking
hold of his plough--And to Harry 18d for a stirrup-leather & sundry
other Articles--The School presented me with a petition formally drawn
up for a holiday to day on account of the race at Mr Turberville's,
which I granted--_Priscilla_, _Nancy_, _Ben_, & _Bob_ go Harry & I,
making in my opinion the wisest choice both stay.


                                     Nomini Hall Octr: 6th. 1774.

I approve highly of the method you have taken in asking for liberty to
attend the race this afternoon, and think myself bound to give you an
answer in the same manner.

This Race happening so soon after the other, which was at the same
place, and so much like it seems to promise nothing that can require
your attendance, it is therefore my _desire_ and _advice_ that you
stay contented at home. But if your inclination be stronger than
either of these, and you still choose to go, you have my consent
provided you return by Sun set in the Evening.

                                                 PHILIP V FITHIAN


_Fryday 7._

Nancy, & Bog go to the Dance at Schantille[207]--Mrs Carter after
Breakfast took _Prissy_, _Fanny_ & Harriot, & made Mrs Washington a
Visit, _Ben_, _Harry_, Betsy & I are left at Home alone I spent to Day
in writing off Mr Peck's Letter--Evening I am troubled with a drunken
Carpenter; he saw a Light in my Chamber--up he bouzes, with a Bottle
of Rum in his hand; Who keeps Home?--I asked him in--Have you any
water Sir?--Not any I told him--Not a Drop, Sir?--No--My Flute was
lying on the Table, he took it for a Trumpet & tooted in for two or
three Minutes Then again he begs, O Sir call in a Servant & have me
some Water--But I left the Room glad to be free of his foolish
Impertinence. At Supper Mrs Carter informed us that Captain _Walker's_
little Son has the putrid Quinsey, but we hope it is only a bad sore
Throat by a Cold--I have a Complaint of a painful Jaw, for these
several Days

[207] "Chantilly."

_Saturday 8._

Expence to the Smith for mending my Stirrup a Pisterene 1/3--Ben this
morning Wrote a letter to his Papa--I finished off mine for Mr Peck
The Pain in my face is a good deal troublesome. Dined with us Colonel
Frank Lee & his Lady; Mr Turberville Mrs Turberville & Miss Letty.

_Sunday 9._

_Ben_ & _Harry_ ride to Ucomico Church I at home spend the day in my
Room, I walked out towards evening & saw a number of Negroes very
busy at framing together a small House--Sundays they commonly spend in
fishing making Potatoes &c, building & patching their Quarters or
rather Cabins--

_Monday 10._

The General Court at Williamsburg begins to sit this Day--We have no
intelligence of the carryings on of the Congress; our Papers this
Summer come vastly seldom, it is said that the Post Men are bribed &
give away the News Papers. I expect that Mr Peck is about setting out
from Home for this place--I wish him a speedy & successful passage,
for I am now impatient of Delay til I visit again my acquaintances &
Home--The day is cold, the wind at North & the ground extremely dry--

_Teusday 11._

Mr _Stadley_ came this morning. He brings no news of the Congress, but
much of the great Race lately at Fredericksburg--Every Evening, for
the Benefit of exercise I ride out, and commonly carry with me one of
the small Girls, who partaking of the prevailing Spirit, are
passionately fond of Riding--

_Wednesday 12._

I was told often before I left Home that coming into Virginia would
bring me into the midst of many dangerous Temptations: Gay Company,
frequent entertainments, little practical devotion, no remote
pretention to Heart religion, daily examples in Men of the highest
quality, of Luxury, intemperance, & impiety: these were urged, by my
kind acquaintances, as very strong dissuasions against my leaving
home; the admonitions I accepted with great Thankfulness, tho' I could
not allow them to turn me off from my purpose & I resolved with as
much sincerity & Firmness as I could to carry them with me in every
part of my behaviour. The close of the time of my Stay here is I
expect now near at hand: And if I may judge myself of the carrying my
resolutions into practice, I should pronounce that I have not been
wanting in my duty in this respect. Some few who frequently ask me to
go from home, say I am dull, unsociable, & splenetic: But the
Gentlemen generally here have a good & reasonable manner of judging in
this case they are well pleased with strict & rigid virtue in those
who have the management of their children, if it does not grow to
factious enthusiasm; so that Levity, tho perhaps they would wink at it
lessens, & in a while would take away the Reputation & business of a
Family Tutor--Of this I was fully convinced in a short time after my
coming into the Colony, & saw too the very great advantage of the
Precaution which I received from my friends, for they assisted me in
setting out on a safe, and prudent Plan, which has, I hope directed me
to propriety of conduct with regard to my private character, &
likewise to my little lovely Charge.

[Illustration: man on ladder in tree]

_Thursday 13._

Good Mr Stadley left us this morning. I took leave with great
reluctance of this worthy Man, & do not expect to see him more!--After
Breakfast Mrs Carter with the young Ladies, rode to Colonel Tayloe's.
My jaw continues growling & keeps me uneasy, I very much fear some
hurtful humours are collecting themselves there together--To day at
twelve o-Clock _Bob_ providentially escaped with his life--He went up
into a tall Chesnut tree to cut down Boughs & gather Chesnuts &
foolishly he began to cut the Limb on which he was standing, at a
little distance from his feet--Chesnut splits extremely easy, so that
when the Limb was about half cut off it split down; this so weaked the
part on which Bob stood that his weight instantly split it too, & down
he must have tumbled upwards of thirty feet but he happily caught a
bough on his way down.--

_Fryday 14._

The Disorder in my face continues, slow, uniform, & Steady; it does
not hinder me from rest by night or from any exercise or business by
day; But It keeps me in continual doubt, & anxiety, whether it be not
something gathering which will be peculiarly distressful--But my
temper, I fear, in these respects is very phlegmatic; I find it
unpleasing to myself, & it would be certainly unpleasant to any one
who was interested in my complaints--I am of so strange a constitution
that very trifles make me utterly unhappy--A mere conceit, frivolous &
unsubstantial often takes away my rest--This feeling I have possest
from my infancy; I remember very well that a Cuff on my Ear would make
me sullen for Several days when I was too young to go out to school;
Afterwards a disappointment of an hours play would mak me disrelish
for a long time both play-fellows, & all Diversion! When I was at the
College one Blunder at recitation, or in any performance of my duty
would make one [me] dull, low-Spiritted, & peevish; In fact any
disappointment, even the most inconsiderable seems to have a general
Effect on my Passions & mingle fear, & anger, & rage, together with
many others which are excited by different & disagreeable
modifications of our Bodies, &, tho' I am conscious of this frailty in
myself, I have not yet brought myself under so good subjection, as to
make these humours give way intirely to Philosophy or Religion--It is,
however, my constant study how I may accomplish this much wish'd for
habit--While we are dining there is a large shower of rain but by no
means plentiful, for the earth is uncommonly dry--Mrs _Carter_ to day
asked me if Mr Peck is to be here before my setting out: I answered
that he is--And says she, is he grave as you?--

_Saturday 15._

I rode after Breakfast to Dr Thompsons with a settled purpose of
having my troublesom tooth drawn out but on examination he found it
to be too far back, & too short to be extracted--More sorry I.--Dined
with us besides the family, Mr _Munro_, young Mr Washington, and
Master Christien--Here is a fine Prospect from an exceeding high
eminence, of the Potowmack; River Nominy; our House, which is six
miles distant; Lee Hall Bush-field; all remote.--Evening I rode Home,
the country pleasant Bought several articles as presents for the young
Ladies, a neat gilt paper Snuff Box for Miss Priscilla, a neat best
clear Hair-Comb a piece for Miss Nancy & Fanny. A broad elegant Sash a
piece for Miss Betsy & Harriot Value of all 15s. Soon after my return,
when I was in the Chamber adjusting my articles Ben came bawling at my
window Mr Peck's come, Mr Peck's come! I step'd to the window, & saw
presently that what he said was fact, my Heart bounc'd & I with it
bolted down to meet him But he comes empty of a letter, & barren of
news, at least all he brings seems gloomy; none at all of the great
Congress; very little of the present momentious political affairs;
that it has been at Cohansie an unhealthy season; that good & useful
Mr Hunter has been ill of a disorder in his head: that Mrs Reve is
gone & left a Brood of infants! that young _Tom Jennifer_ of
Port-Tobacco, my acquaintance at College too is dead! that matters go
in their usual course at Cohansie & Princeton; that _Laura_ is not in
new Jersey! All his intelligence is similar to this, which is to me
harsh & unharmonious as a Ravens ominous Croak!--To Day Harry boil'd
up a Compound of Poke-Berries, Vinegar, Sugar &c to make a red Ink or
Liquid--I spent the evening til two in the morning in conversation.

_Sunday 16._

A fine morning--We rose by Seven but we were informed that there is no
Sermon so that out of compliment to Mr Peck's weariness we kept close
at home rathar than ride to Richmond. We spent the Day in our chamber
til towards evening when with the young Ladies we took a turn down the
River Many we saw fishing--Mrs Carter with _Priss_ rode to Captain
Turberville's--We all return'd and assembled by evening at the great

_Monday 17._

Before Breakfast I heard all the School a lesson round Mr Peck
Present--After Breakfast I heard their Tables, Grammer &c & then in
Spite of my resolution with great reluctance, I resigned up to Mr Peck
my little much-loved Charge!--The pain in my Face is quite gone--To
day I saw a Phenomenon, Mrs Carter without Stays!--She complains of a
pain in her breast, that prevents her wearing them, she says that She
is always supposing the worst, & fears it is a Cancer breeding
there--I hope it may be only fear--I am more & more every day pleased
with the manner, Temper, Oconomy, & whole management of this good
Lady--Now I am to take my final Leave!--Towards evening we all went
down on the River & had a pleasant exercise--

_Teusday 18._

Early to Day I wrote a Note to Mr Lowe and Harry Fantleroy to dine
with us to day, & soon received their promise--After Dinner with Mr
Lowe on the violin, I play'd over many tunes on the Flute, he plays
with good Taste and accuracy--At five we all walk'd over to Mr
Turberville's--I gave to our Wash-Woman some old Linen & as a Box
2/4--We spent the evening in Music Chat & pleasantry--But this said
thing which I hear of that turn-Coat _Laura_, that She loves & courts
one Mr _Rodman_ this distresses me exceedingly But this relieves me,
for I have had it always in my View that--Varium & mutabile semper
Feminae--Tho I have made a Solemn vow which I have no inclination at
all to forego, yet if it shall appear that she has listened to
another, my dearest vow is not inviolable; I will retreat from every
former Promise, I will not hearken to womanish solicitations, but I
shall in return for her want of goodness treat her with contempt; &
Sincerely pity, instead of resent, her ineffectual Caprice--


                                    Nomini-Hall Octr: 18th: 1774.

Ben: Carter's compliments with mine wait on you this morning, and beg
your company with us to day to dine, if it be convenient.

We also present our compliments and the same request to Mr Fantleroy.

I should not have ventured to encroach upon your hours of business,
but as Mr Peck, the gentleman who succeeds me in this family arrived
last saturday so that I propose to set out tomorrow and should be glad
to see you before I leave Virginia.

                             I am, Sir,
                             Your most humble Servt.
                                                     P V FITHIAN.


_Wednesday 19._

Mr Lowe & Fantleroy left us early But I agreed to stay till
tomorrow--I gave to Nelson on going away 2/2--To Miss Sally the
House-Keeper 5/.--

_Thursday 20._

I rose by three, & left Home by half after four--Gave Nelson & Dennis
half a Bit a piece--rode thence to Westmoreland Court House ten Miles
by half after six--Fed my Horse & drank some Brandy--Expence a
Bit--Rode thence to Mattox Bridge 18 miles--Fed here three quarts of
Bran & Corn for a Bit--The Bloody-Flux is now extremely bad in this
Neighbourhood--I am told that scarce a Family is clear of it, & of
every family some die!--Rode thence to _Tylers_ Ferry 8 miles the road
extremely dry & dusty--At two I set off for Maryland, the wind fresh
at South East arrived at Mrs Laidlers by five Ferriage 7/6 I gave the
Ferrymen a Bottle of Rum--Here I dined on fryed Chicken, Ham, with
good Porter--Accomodations good--I[n] Bed by half after Seven--

_Fryday 21._

Directly over my Room was a sick Woman that kept a dismal groaning all
night--My window-Shutters Clapt the Potowmack howl'd, yet I Slept--My
Bill at Mrs Laidlers--A Bottle of Porter 2/. Dinner 1/3
Bed./6d--Bottle of Rum for Ferrymen 1/3--Gallon Oats./8d--Stable &
Foder 1/.--A smart looking Girl at Mrs Laidlers made me smile--She was
complaining to me of the unhealthy Climate, that these three months
past she has had a constant Ague & Fever, & been in the Country only
six months--Pray Miss said I did you come from Britain?--No Sir, I
came from London--Rode thence to Port-Tobacco--It has been extremely
sickly here this Fall--Bill to Barber 1s/8--Breakfast 1/--Hay and Oats
1/3--Mrs Halkinson my Landlady, a poor aged, distress'd Widow, when
she found that I was acquainted with her little son at Princeton,
seemed a little to revive; she beg'd me to encourage her Son to be
diligent & industrious, to caution & admonish him from h[er] against
bad company & wicked practices--She told me of her great & sore loss
of an only Daughter, a young woman of 15 this Summer, since which, she
told me in tears, that She has been a stranger to health & Quiet--O
relentless Death!--How universal & severe are thy Commissions! From
Mrs Laidlers to Port Tobacco is called 13 miles--I rode thence thro' a
fog of Dust to Piscatua 14 miles. The Landlady here is very ill--That
dismal disorder the bloody-Flux has been extremely bad at
Port-Tobacco, & in the Neighbourhood of this town, but is
subsided--Expence here half a Gill of Brandy./3d--Oats &
Fodder./6d--Left this Village half after four, and rode to
upper-Marlborough, almost blinded with sweat & dust!--Arrived by
seven, a little tired this Evening--Distance 16 Miles--Whole distance
yesterday including the Ferry 8 miles 44 Miles--Whole Expence
8/7--That epidemical distemper above mentioned has been likewise
raging in the Neighbourhood of this Town--Bill at Marlborough To Tea
1/3--To lodging ./8--To Oats 1/1--To stabling 1/.--

_Saturday 22._

Rode thence to Patuxen Ferry 4 mile Ferriage./6d--Thence to South
River 12 miles, Ferriage./6d--To Boy ./4--Thence to Annapolis 4
miles--Bill here To Dinner & Club 4/6--To Hay & Oats 1/3--To two
Silver watch Seals 15/6 To half Gallon Rum for Ferryman 2/6--To Hay
for Horse /8--To Barber 1/--Left Annapolis at 6 no wind returned about
8 to the Coffee-House To Ferriage across the Bay 17/6--

_Sunday 23._

Teusday evening last the people of this Town & of Baltimore obliged
one Anthony Stewart a Merchant here to set fire to a Brig of his
lately from London in which was 17 Chests of Tea--The People seem
indeed to be full of patriotic Fire--Second Bill at Annapolis--Supper
1/6--Lodging ./9 Hay 1/3--2 Gallons Oats 1/6--Articles for the Voyage
4/.--Landed about 5 at Kent-Island,[208] rode thence to a small Ferry
for Oats & Ferriage 1/.--thence we rode to Queens Town 15
miles[209]--Bill there 5/2½

[208] Kent Islands, Maryland.

[209] Queenstown, Queen Anne County, Maryland.

_Monday 24._

Rode from Queens Town over a low levil Country 7 miles to a small
Tavern--Breakfasted 1/7 rode thence by a small Town call'd
Churchill--thence to the Head of Chester River 22 miles here I dined
my Company gone to the Chester Races which happen to morrow--Expence
2/4 Rode thence to Warwick 12 miles My Horses feet swell this Evening

_Teusday 25._

Bill at Warwick--supper 1/3--Oats./8--Stable Hay & Lodging 2/.--Glass
of Wine Bitters./4--Rode thence to Port Penn 15 miles expence there
1/7--Ferriage 5/.--Arrived once more by Gods Kindness in New-Jersey
among my friends & relations I found many of my Acquaintances have
gone off the Stage Uncle _Seeley_; _Damon James_; Mrs _Reeve_; _James
Boyd_; & several others--And many are Sick--Our Family through divine
Goodness are in Health.--


                                       Greenwich Novem: 30: 1774.

--The Widow left the Room after begging that I would stay to Coffee--I
was seated near the Toilet on which Miss had thrown her Piece of
Drawing.--I viewed it, She saw me, & began a fine Apology--That her
Situation is so lonely, being out of the Way of Entertainment by
Company!--That Music & Drawing are her chief & necessary
Amusements--That She was glad of the Opportunity of an Hours
Conversation even of an utter Stranger--That She came to America about
the 20th: of last May, with a Brother who is since returned--That her
Aunt is desirious She may stay in Mary-land & be a Companion and
Intimate with her--That since July She has had the Ague and Fever,
which had left her only a few Days--And, said She, I want very much to
up to Philada:--I heard all this with great Attention &
Patience;--When She had finished her Story, I asked her in turn
several Questions which she answered with Propriety, & the greatest
Apparent Frankness--Til She came to the Answer which I have before set
down, then I smil'd--You came then from Britain, Miss--No Sir, I came
from London!--Fearing a Proposal to wait on her down to Annapolis, &
thence to Philadelphia, the moment I had drank two Dishes of Coffee,
which was a few Minutes before Sunset I mounted & rode twenty Miles--

Do you know Mr ---- who lodged at Mrs ---- in Philada said P.---- to
me as we were sitting together in the Parlour this rainy Afternoon,
she sewing at a Lawn Wrist-band, & I pouting over Watts's Logic--Yes,
Madam, I have some Acquaintance with him--And he knows Miss ---- said
She, I saw him last Spring at Mr A---- She had sometime before told
him that you was remarkably & impertinently intimate with Miss
Beatty--That She herself, & Miss Beatty both had disapproved of your
Conduct, & had by themselves, agreed to inform you of their Sentiments
& to advise you to enter upon a different Behaviour--She told him that
She had at last prevailed over you so far as to declare to her that
you would never make any further Addresses to Miss ---- because She
had a few Days before made a pointed and ill-natured Remark upon your
going to Virginia--And pray Madam, did you believe such Trash--? But
Trash or Substance it makes me feel grave--I was to Day looking over
my Papers & saw Something Apropos, if I can turn to it presently you
shall have it--It is an Extract from my Virginia Journal.

I have heard lately some very dull Stories, & am consequently in a
very dull gloomy kind of Humour--Every Day I am expecting a more
vigorous Feeling--Perhaps it will come tomorrow, but today I must tell
you that my Feeling accords precisely with what I have recorded of
myself last March.


                                        _Teusday March 22. 1774._

--In spite of all my strongest opposing Efforts my Thoughts dwell on
that Vixen Laura--I strive to refuse them Admission, or harbour them
in my Heart, yet like hidden Fire they introduce themselves, & sieze &
overcome me, when perhaps I am pursuing some favorite Study, amusing
or useful, or giving Directions to my little lovely Charge--

I had an Invitation to go to night to hear Mr Worth, a Baptist
Minister preach; Polley, Salley, Ruth, Sister, Dr King were to be
along-- But it storms, & has been storming all Day so violently that
I have not dared yet to venture myself so far as the Stable to see my
Horse--Nature is like your Pulse Laura; There is a constant Succession
of black & white, Pain & Ease, Good & Evil--Yesterday was as fair, &
to Day as directly the contrary as ever I saw two--Had you ever a
Swellyng on your Finger--? It throbb'd--The Pain came & went by
turns--This is not my Thought, I stole it from Mr Addison--He tells us
of the Conversation & Behaivour of the great Socrates the morning he
was to die. "When his Fetters were knocked off, being seated in the
midst of his Scholars, and laying one of his Legs over the other in a
very unconcerned Posture, he began to rub it where it had been galled
by the Iron: And willing to improve every Oppertunity of instructing
them he observed the Pleasure of that Sensation which now arose in
those very Parts of his Leg that just before had been so much pained
by the Fetter. Upon this he reflected on the Nature of Pleasure & Pain
in General that they constantly succeed each other"--If you are
curious you may read the whole beautiful Story of their Alliance &
Marriage in the Spect: No: 183.

We poor earthly Creatures are, as to fortune & Feeling, exactly like
the Nails in a turning Wheel, to Day up, to morrow Down--Always either
sinking or rising. I have been descending for several Days, & am this
very Moment down on the cold Earth in which lowly Posture I sincerely
tell you I am in good or evil Fortune--fortune kind or cross.

                           forever yours
                                              PHILIP. V. FITHIAN.


                                        Greenwich Decem: 1. 1774.

--"From a Settlement made May 12: 1774 there appears a Balance due
from Laura of N. n to Lucius, fifteen Letters & a Visit; the whole to
be paid on or before the 20th: of Novem. next ensuing--Which Payment
if not well & truely made by the said Laura, within the Time above
limited, then the said Lucius is, & by these Presents shall be now &
forever possest of the full Liberty of siezing, destraining, or taking
any or every Part of the said Delinquents Goods & Chattels, &
disposing of the same, as he shall think proper til the said Balance
be made up--And in Case there shall be failure of Effects, then it is
& Shall be lawful for the said Lucius to take under his immediate
Direction the Person of the said Laura--

This 1. Day of Decem: on which I am examining a little into my
Accompts is the 11:Day since the Time of Payment allow'd to that young
Lady is fully expired--"Curse not the King, said Solomon, in thy
Bed-Chamber, not even in thy Heart"--Why? "The Birds of the Air will
tell it."--Very fine, this! Bring Scrippture among your Pounds,
Shillings, & Pence--Very fine, young black Coat--Don't be too fast,
Madam, I've got a Gown on, & my Hair is cu'd--On the 4: of July 1774.
about three in the Afternoon, I was sitting alone in my Chamber, in
Virginia, thinking--Among many other Conclusions I remember well, it
was determined in my mind that this same Laura who is now so much in
my Debt, is actually worth 50,000£ Sterling, pr Annum--Where is the
Impropriety then, of my mentioning Solomon's Advice?--Does it now hurt
your Conscience, Madam?--

If you can have Patience, I will tell you, from my Virginia Journal
the true Cause of that Conclusion.

                                        --Monday. July 4th: 1774.

"Miss Nancy Carter, at Dinner, informed us that Miss Lee, a young Lady
from Richmond is now at Mr Turberville's, & she begg'd that her
Brother, & I would go in the Evening & invite her here--We consented,
& after School took Horses & rode on our Errand; Besides Miss Lee, we
found Capt: Turberville, his Lady, Daughter, & several young

After the Ceremony of Introduction, & our Devoirs were over, we took
Seats, in a Cool Hall where the Company were sitting;--All when we
entered were smiling at young Mr ---- who had been gathering
Mulberries, & stained his Ruffle--The Attention of the Company being
wholly taken up with him, I had the Oppertunity which I wanted, of
examining the Person of his Sister, without being interrupted either
by the Notice of others, or by my own Timidity. Miss Lee, I am told,
is now entering her 20th Year; She is handsome. Her Eyes are exactly
such as _Homer_, attributes to the Goddess _Minrva_; and her Arms
resemble those which the same Poet allows to _Juno_--Her Hair is a
dark leaden Colour; & was craped & knotted up very high, & in it
neatly-woven, a Ribband, with a Sprig of green Jessamine--She wore a
light Chintz Gown, very fine, with a blue Stamp, eligantly, &
fashionably made, & which set well upon her--In one word, her Dress
was neat & genteel; her Behaivour such as I should expect to find in a
Lady whose Education had been conducted with Care & Skill, & her
Person, abstracted from the Embellishments of Dress & Good-Breeding,
not much above the Generality of Women.

What made me desirous to see, and curious to examine this young Lady,
was a Sentence that was dropt yesterday by a respectable Person in our
Family, intimating a Desire that I may, on seeing Miss Lee, after
having known, by Report, her faultless Character, be so far pleased
with her Person, as to try to make her mine, & settle in this
Colony--That kind Person who is for making me happy by setling me in
Virginia, & connecting me with one of the best Families in the
Government little knows how painful it would be, if I was indeed
compell'd by any Accident of Fortune, to spend the Remainder of my
Days in Virginia, if it is the Pleasure of Providence, that I am to
continue for any Length of Time in the World.

"_Strong_, & _sweet_ are the Bands which tye us to our Place of
Nativity; If it be but a beggarly Cottage, we seem not satisfied with
the most rich & splendid Entertainment if we are separated totally
from it.

"But if a Princess should ask me to accept together with herself,
50,000, £ Sterling pr Annum; I declare with as great Pleasure as Truth
that the Esteem and Fidelity which I possess for my ever-dear Eliza
would make me, without Reflection, evade & refuse the Offer."

This is not strained Panegyrick; it is still the faintest Image of my
Heart, tho' the Sentiment may seem strong & improbable.

                                               PHILIP. V FITHIAN.


                                   Philadelphia Octr. 12th. 1775.

It gave me high satisfaction when I saw your brother first in our
province. I was cordially glad.--He came unexpected, and that
circumstance increased my pleasure at seeing him at all. He is now in
this city--Has been in several parts of East and West Jersey--Has
tolerable health--And a steady cheerfulness, which I am willing to
believe, arises from pretty constant entertainment.

I hear with much surprise, that none of my letters, since I left your
family, have been so fortunate as to arrive safe. I impute this to the
jealousy of the public, concerning the contents of letters passing
through the continen[t].

Mr Peck carries you, with these, my best wishes--That you may rise
rapidly in the early improvement of your mind in each useful and
ornamental undertaking to which you may be directed--That you may have
much real unmixed happiness in the friendships which your age and rank
will soon lead you to form--And that the transporting scenes which at
a distance, you discover to be painted on your future life, may, as
they rise before you one after another, give you as much peaceful
enjoyment as so great imperfection can bestow.

You will please to give my best duty to your dear Mama.

I shall write to Miss Nancy. Do not fail by any means whatever, to
mention me to Miss _Fanny_, _Betsy_, and _Harriot_--Dear Harriot, Dear
Betsy, dear Fanny--Lovely, lovely Girls! And Tasker too, if he has not
forgot me, O tell him,--Tell them all how much I want to see
them--Tell them I will surely come for such impatience as mine cannot
bear disappointment.

You will also please to give my kind respects to Miss Sally Stanhope,
and to all the family without one exception.

May I ask you to send me a line? My desire of se[e]ing as well as
hearing from you is so strong I will venture--O write; three lines, if
you send no more, will put you to some little trouble, but none can
tell how welcome three lines from you would be to

                            Your most obliged,
                                 And most humble Servt:
                                                    P. V. FITHIAN


                                 Philadelphia Octobr: 13th. 1775.

No Dances, and but little music! You will begin to ask what is the
world coming to?--No Tea, nor Gause, nor Paris-net, nor lawn, nor
lace, nor Silks, nor Chintzes; Good Sirs--Good Sirs!--Well Nancy, in
these hard times, I must want Stocks, and you must want Caps--But you
look best, when I recollect, in your Hair; you look ten thousand
thousand times over the best without any Cap at all, so that in spight
of me I shall be outdone. I want to know how you and the Guitar agree

Pray do you ride out often? If you do, who rides with you; or do you
boldly ride alone?--Tell me who is yet mistress at Checks--I believe,
if you will allow me to guess at so great a distance, it is Fanny. My
dear Nancy I want much to see you. I would give this moment my hand
full of half-Bits, or their value in coppers, if I thought you wish to
see me.

                         Good-by, Good-by
                                                PHILIP V. FITHIAN


                                    Greenwich Octobr: 16th. 1775.

It gives me pleasure to hear by your brother and Mr Peck, that, in
continual health, you are growing rapidly to lusty Manhood--I am more
pleased to hear that by growing industry you are rising faster in the
progress of your education. Diligence overcomes all difficulties, Be
diligent, in a proper course of business, and you will be great.

Mr Peck informs me that Henry has left the school and is in an other
way of business; I wish him success in whatever course fortune shall
lead him in. You will give him my kind respects. I should have written
him a letter but I am drove on to the last hour of your brothers stay
before I finish these.

Mr Peck or your Brother can inform you farther in any questions of my
place and business,

I must now write myself dear Bob always respectfully

                                                PHILIP V. FITHIAN



                                    Greenwich Octobr. 17th. 1775.

I was much gratified at your indulgent permission of your Son to
visit, for a time, these northern Provinces. I think it will on the
whole, be several ways advantageous to him. When I first saw him, he
was feeble, and daily feverish; now he is better--He attended the
commencement at Princeton; has been some time in Philadelphia--Seems
cheerful--I think entertained--And will not return home without having
made some useful observations--I am however fearful, that his
constitution is not sufficiently vigorous, without scrupulous
attention to exercise and nourishment, to afford him lasting health.

With regard to the public concerns they are here at so high a pass,
and so complex, I must refer you to _Ben_ and Mr _Peck_.

I hear with great anxiety of Mrs Carters Illness; but hope, through
the kindness of auspicious Heaven, that before you receive these, She
will again enjoy her usual health. You will please to remind her of my
constant strong esteem; it flows from the remembrance of a succession
of unmerited kindness.

I have wrote frequently since I left your family, but am surprized to
hear that all my letters have been intercepted or lost.

I am, Sir, with great truth & Esteem

                       Your most obliged
                          Most obedient
                                                PHILIP V. FITHIAN





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To Miss _Priscilla Carter_.

Presented as a Valentine.

    When _Custom_ calls I must away,
    She calls me now, & chides my Stay;
    She asks my usual annual care,
    To compliment some worthy Fair;
    To hasten to _Apollo's_ Shrine,
    For Aid to form a _Valentine_.
      But if _Apollo_ I invoke,
    Gay _Fancy_ I shall sure provoke
    Who swears these yearly Rhimes should be,
    From Order, Sense, & Learning free;
    That if each line be fill'd with Stuff,
    Twill please a Lady well enough
    That Fancy only can inspire
    A Youthful Heart with frantic Fire,
    To write such inconsistent Lines,
    As always please in Valentines;
    That if Apollo lends his Aid,
    And I address a well-bred Maid;
    With Verses plain yet fill'd with sense,
    The Girl would curse my Impudence;
    Pedantic, earth-born Fellow! he,
    A hobbling Tutor write to me!
    Let him go teach his Scholars Greek,
    Or learn, himself, to dance, to speak;
    And learn to please, or never dare,
    Disturb the Quiet of the Fair.
    She spoke; but why should I obey,
    What unsubstantial Phantoms say?
      Yet _Fancy_ urg'd her case so well,
    No human Mind could guess or tell,
    What hidden Scheme she had in View,
    Nor what the _Baggage_ meant to do:
    'Till _Pallas_ Queen of wisdom came,
    And told the mischief of the Dame,
    For Fancy, Madam, early knew,
    Twas my Desire to write to you;
    She therefore whisper'd in my Ear,
    That you would nought but Nonsense hear
    In hopes to baffle my Design,
    Or form a vulgar Valentine.
    But Pallas told me what to do
    If I design'd to write to you,
    Make _Humour_, Truth, & Sense conspire,
    With genuine poetic-Fire,
    To form a Song in Taste & Ease,
    Such would your Infant-Bosom please.
      Now, Miss, accept in humble Lays,
    My weak attempt to sing your Praise;
    Nor think it rudeness when I try,
    To hold your virtues up on high,
    To shew their bright yet living Blaze
    And make inraptured Numbers gaze;
    _Slander_ herself must disappear,
    Or justify my Conduct here,
    Since _Fancy_, _Wit_, & _Pallas_, too,
    Are all contending, Miss, for you.
      I in the common sportful Way,
    With pleasure now of you might say,
    That both your Eyes are glowing Darts,
    Which only seen do wound our hearts;
    That Venus' Son by her command
    Waits always at your fair Right-Hand,
    And that the _Loves_ in Beauty drest,
    Are always hov'ring near your Breast;
    But, tho Such words appli'd to you,
    In every sense should all be true;
    And if you hear such pleasant Rhimes,
    Sung in your Ear ten thousand Times:
    Yet always doubt what makes you more,
    Than ever _Mortal_ was before.
      When any Girl; with beauty drest,
    And Innocence above the Rest,
    Tho' _Fortune_ has withheld her Store,
    And left the blushing Maiden poor,
    Yet Ladie's look with envious Eyes,
    And well-born Men the _Angel_ prize.
      Or when the God of Wealth is kind,
    Who does not _worth_ nor _Beauty_ mind,
    And gives some sordid _Woman_ Gold,
    Our foolish Sex is bought & sold;
    We cringe, & court, & sigh, & whine
    And swear the Nymph is quite divine.
      And sometimes, tho' Examples here,
    Exceeding seldom do appear,
    When a good Girl of solid sense,
    Who does not make the least pretence,
    To what our Fancies rate so high,
    A great estate & sparkling Eye;
    Who knows tis only want of these,
    Makes her incapable to please,
    And therefore Studies hard to find,
    And plant such Virtues in her Mind
    As shall the place of Friends supply
    With constant mirthful Company:
    Sometimes these Virtues far outdo,
    The power of _wealth_ & _Beauty_ too,
    And make a low-born Virgin rise,
    To seem a _Goddess_ in our Eyes.
      But when we image in our Mind,
    Beauty, & Wealth, & Genius join'd,
    And see them all to one belong,
    The Colours are so bright so strong;
    None can resist the powerful Blaze
    But all with _Love_, & _Rapture_ gaze
      If Madam, my Presage be true,
    I may apply all these to you;
    And free from _Fear_, or _Interest_ say,
    That on some happy Future Day,
    When years shall have the _worth_ exprest,
    Which yet lies prison'd in your Breast;
    And settled more the charming Grace,
    Of grave _good Humour_ in your Face;
    As you have been by _Fortune_ blest,
    And born of _Fame_, & _Wealth_ possest,
    Those full-blown Charms the world will see,
    And with one common voice agree,
    That such perfection is design'd
    To be a pattern for Mankind.
    Sure then I've cause with Heart sincere,
    To bless the _Chance_ which led me here,
    And plac'd me down by _Wisdom's_ Flow'r,
    Which still grows lovelier every Hour;
    Whose tender Branches bud & shoot
    And promise early useful Fruit;
    Tho' _Chance_ has given me in Care,
    To Nurse this plant & make it fair,
    Yet generous _Nature_ had before,
    Been so unsparing of her Store,
    That unemploy'd, with wondering Eyes,
    I only stand, & see it rise!

                              PHILIP. V FITHIAN.

       Virginia     }
  February 2d: 1774.}


  Achan's Tavern, Del., 18

  Addison, Joseph, 58, 180

  Aesop, _Fables_, 54, 132

  Agriculture, 94, 125, 127, 133
    attempts to diversify, xv
    "new grounds," xiv, xxviii
    tobacco the mainstay of, xiv
    wasteful system of cultivation, xiv, 88
    _see also_ land, tenancy

  Ague, _passim_

  Aiken, Mr., 103

  "Albany," Westmoreland County, Buckner home, 248

  Alexandria, Va., 18, 77, 97, 240, 247

  Allen, Moses, 3, 240

  Allestree, _A Gentleman's Calling_, xvii

  All Fours (game), 104, 247

  American Colonies, rapid growth of, 63
    toasts to trade of, 64
    _see also_ American Revolution, Continental Congress

  _American Historical Review_, Fithian manuscripts published in,
        xxxii, 239

  American Revolution, xxix, 246, 137, 173-74
    disturbances leading to, 111, 112, 113, 115, 122-23, 149
    political discussions preceding, 110, 116, 137, 173, 191
    sympathy for Northern colonies, 59, 113, 117
    views of Carter on issues leading to, 111, 196

  American Whig Society, 7, 240

  _Amusement of the German Spa_, 121

  Amusements, _see_ Assemblies, Balls, Barbecues, Betting, Billiards,
        Boat races, Books, Cards, Christmas, Cockfighting, Dancing,
        Dice, Drinking, Fencing, Fox-hunts, Gambling, Games, Gardens,
        Horses, Horse-racing, House-warmings, Magazines, Music, Skating

  Anabaptists, _see_ Baptist Church

  Anburey, Thomas, 238

  Andrews, Robert, 237

  Anglican Church, 25, 29, 31, 41, 77, 84, 137, 167, 243
    Anabaptists opposed by ministers of, 72-73
    Bruton Parish, 65, 245
    Carter serves as vestryman and warden, xxix
    choirs, 195
    Cople Parish, xxix
    doctrines of, 61, 148
    Hanover Parish, 244, 246
    Lunenburg Parish, 241
    Mrs. Carter admires, 61
    order to elect Burgesses read in, 137
    reading of ministers, 66
    Richmond Parish, 19
    St. George's Parish, 244, 246
    schoolmasters take orders in, 25, 243
    slaves attend services, 89
    social character of gatherings, xxxi, 137, 167
    _see also_ Nomini Church, Yeocomico Church

  Annapolis, Md., 59, 77, 79, 96, 97, 108, 118, 209

  Anthems, 127, 158

  Apples, 132, 140

  Apricots, 79, 90

  Aprons, 124, 125

  Aquia, Va., 19, 241

  Aquia Creek, 241

  Architecture, handbooks on, xviii, xix
    plan of Nomini Hall, 60, 146, 181
    master builders from England, xx
    of Mount Airy, 94, 246
    offices are integral parts of residences, xx
    residences based on homes of English gentry, xix
    _see also_ titles of catalogue in Appendix

  Arithmetic, 25, 83
    problem submitted to Fithian, 197

  Armitage, Polly, 106
    family, 173

  Arne, Thomas Augustine, 243

  Arnest, Dr. John, 246
    T. M., 246

  _Artaxerxes_ (opera), 243

  Artichokes, 128

  Artisans, xxix
    _see also_ carpenters, coopers, shoemakers, tinkers

  Asparagus, 79

  Assemblies, xxxi
    _see also_, Virginia, General Assembly of

  Astronomy, 132

  Atwell, Mr., 68, 142, 143, 144

  Augusta County, 58

  Awnings, for boats, 153

  Bakeries, xxviii, 75, 191

  Bakers, 88

  Balantine (Balandine), Mr., 51, 56, 244

  Balinger, Capt., 106

  Ballrooms, 97, 154
    at Hobb's Hole, 154
    at Nomini Hall, 80
    at "Tuckahoe," 239

  Balls, xxxi, 34, 53, 57, 162, 168
    at Hobb's Hole, 151, 154
    at Lee Hall, 42, 43, 47, 56-58, 244
    at Nomini Hall, 35
    at Sabine Hall, 171

  Baltimore, 18, 53, 59, 87, 209
    _see also_ Baltimore Iron Works

  Baltimore Iron Works, 79, 82
    Carter secures interest in, xxviii

  Banjos, 62

  Bank of North America, 117

  Bank of the United States, 117

  Bankers, xxviii

  Banquets, xxxi

  Baptist Church, growth of membership, 72
    in Loudoun County, 72
    ministers of, 211
    opposed by Anglican minister, 72

  Barbecues, xxxi, 183

  Barberries, 194

  Barbers, 33, 54, 91, 97, 135, 158

  Barges, 76
    of Robert Carter, 143

  Barley broth, 32

  Bateaux, 144

  Baylor, John, xviii
    family, educated in England, xviii, 237

  Beale, Mr., 144, 248
    Charles, widow of, marries Reverend Giberne, 241
    Elizabeth, 248
    Judith (Carter), 248
    Mary (Fauntleroy), _see_ Giberne, Mary (Fauntleroy Beale)
    Reuben, 248
    Winifred, 248
    family, 248

  Beatty, Charles, 105
    Elizabeth ("Laura," "Eliza," "Betsey"), xxxii, 4, 8-9, 14-15,
          21, 27, 28, 32, 34, 37, 47, 53, 58, 70, 77, 82, 84, 100,
          101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 107, 108, 111, 118, 131, 141,
          149, 156, 157, 170, 174-175, 179, 187, 206, 207, 247
      Fithian expresses love for, 139-140
      letters to, 8-9, 12-13, 35-36, 53, 115-116, 139-140, 179-180,
            210-212, 212-214
      marries Philip Fithian, xxxii
      second marriage to Joel Fithian, 240
    Dr. John, 14, 105, 107, 240
    Reading, 100, 105, 247

  _Beaufort_ (ship), 156

  Bedford, Miss, 106

  Beef, 75, 90

  "Belinda," 170
    corresponds with Fithian, 170

  "Belle Ville," Richmond County, Giberne home, 241

  "Bellfield," York County, Diggs home, 248

  Benson, Capt., 154

  "Berkeley," Charles City County, Harrison home, xxii

  Bernard, John, quoted, 237

  _Bertoldo in Corte_ (opera), 246

  Bett (dairy girl), 157

  Betting, 29, 154, 162, 186, 190

  Beverley, Harry, of "Hazelwood," ideas on education, xvii
    Robert, of "Blandfield," plans education for son, xviii

  _Bible_, 92, 111

  Billiards, 109

  Birds, 75, 76, 78, 96

  Biscuits, baked in Carter's mills, 75

  Bitters, 107, 210

  Bladen, Ann, _see_ Tasker, Ann (Bladen)
    Thomas, xxvii, 239

  Bladensburg, Md., 5, 18, 240

  Blain, Mr. (Scotch merchant), 29, 35, 51, 55, 116, 173, 174, 176,
        179, 181, 199
    at Nomini Hall, 63
    store of, 119

  "Blandfield," Essex County, Beverley home, ha-ha at, xx, 238
    offices at, xxi

  Blewer, Capt., of the _Sea Nymph_, 107

  Bloody Flux, 208-209

  Boat races, xxxi
    at Hobb's Hole, 150, 154

  Boats, 192
    of Robert Carter, 144, 145
    _see also_ Boat races

  Books, xvii, 25, 26, 39, 54, 58, 70, 83, 91, 92, 100, 103, 111,
        112, 121, 128, 135, 157, 188, 194, 243
    as means of transmitting British culture, xvii
    at Carter's Williamsburg home, 119, 247
    at Nomini Hall, 26, 119, 247
    on architecture, xviii, xix, 237
    on courtesy and conduct, xvii
    on farming, xviii
    on gardening, xviii, xix
    on history, xviii
    on law and legal procedure, xviii
    on medicine and surgery, xviii
    on military tactics, xviii
    on politics and statecraft, xviii
    on religion, xviii
    _see also_ titles of catalogue in Appendix

  Booth, Miss, 67, 96
    Billy, 32, 47, 243
    William, 243

  Boston, 72, 191, 192, 194, 245
    political disturbances at, 59, 64, 110, 111, 113, 121
    troops at, 115

  Boucher, Jonathan, quoted, 245

  Bowen, Dr., 104

  Bowling greens, xx, xxix
    at Nomini Hall, 81

  Boxing, 161

  Boxwood, English, xx

  Boyd, Miss, 176
    Mr., 100, 101
    Mrs., 101, 102
    James, 210
    Sally, 106
    family, 102

  Bracken, Rev. John, quarrels with Henley, 65, 79, 245

  Brandy, 75, 90, 114, 175, 208, 209
    Carter distils, 54

  Break the Pope's Neck (game), 34

  Brewster, Mrs., 16, 104

  Brick, walks of, xx

  Broadcloth, 69

  Brocades, 57

  Brockenborough (Brockenberry), Miss, 155, 248
    William, 248
    family, 248

  Brooches, 69

  "Brother Quill," schoolmaster, 176, 197

  Brown, Mr., 102
  Bryan, Andrew, 3, 53, 240

  Buck, Mrs., 5

  Buckner, Mr., 179, 248
    John, 248
    Richard, 248
    family, 248

  Buckskin (epithet), 183

  Buff-ball, 19

  Bull Run, Carter tracts at, 79

  Bullock, Polly, 99

  Burney, Mr., a cooper, 181
    Dr. Charles, 152

  Burwell, Nathaniel, views on education of son, xvii, 237

  "Bushfield," Westmoreland County, Washington home, xxxi, 41,
        120, 126, 136, 145, 179, 200, 206, 244
    dancing school at, 66, 111, 126
    description of, 67

  Bushtown, Md., 18

  Button (game), 34

  Byrd, Susan, educated in England, xviii
    William II, educated in England, xviii

  Calico gowns, 125

  Calmet's Scripture Prints, 83

  Cambridge University, 242
    Ben Carter plans to enter, 26
    Caius College, xviii
    Virginians at, xviii, xix

  Camel, _see_ Campbell

  Campbell, Mr., Controller of Customs, 67, 76
    Miss, 76, 84
    Pinkstone, 76

  Canals, 75

  Canoes, 75, 192

  Caps, 125

  Cards, 29, 57, 65, 72, 104, 108, 161, 163, 247

  Carpenters, 202

  Carpenter's shops, 37

  Carr, Mr., 51

  Carriages, 47, 157

  Carter, Anne Tasker (Nancy), xxx, 20, 25, 27, 28, 35, 37, 39, 40,
        42, 55, 56, 59, 60, 62, 63, 65, 66, 75, 86, 90, 110, 111, 115,
        122, 125, 128, 132, 133, 142, 146, 156, 184, 189, 190, 215, 241
      attends dancing school, 25
      cuts off eyebrows, 128
      description of, 49
      letter to, 215
      plays guitar, 28, 132
      quarrels with Bob, 49
    Benjamin, xxx, 19, 22, 28, 29, 32, 37, 38, 39, 42, 43, 54, 55, 58,
          59, 60, 62, 63, 65, 67, 68, 69, 70, 72, 73, 74, 75, 82, 84,
          85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 91, 93, 94, 95, 96, 110, 112, 114, 115,
          116, 118, 119, 121, 122, 123, 125, 128, 130, 131, 132, 134,
          135, 138, 142, 143, 144, 147, 148, 151, 152, 154, 155, 157,
          158, 169, 171, 172, 175, 177, 179, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188,
          189, 190, 194, 198, 199, 201, 202, 206, 207, 217, 241
      at Mount Airy, 151
      character and traits of, 48, 70, 77-78, 190
      illness of, 121, 122, 181, 182, 217
      passion for horses, 70, 190
      plans to enter Cambridge University, 26
      plays flute, 65, 71
      visits other colonies, 214
    Betsy, of "Sabine Hall," 136, 157
    Betty Landon (Betsy), xxx, 42, 50, 76, 110, 134, 135, 184, 189,
          202, 206, 215
      description of, 49
    "Bob," _see_ Robert Bladen Carter
    Charles, xxvi
    Elizabeth (sister of Robert Carter III), xxvi
    Frances (Fanny) xxx, 42, 49, 50, 51, 63, 65, 76, 79, 90, 110, 115,
          132, 135, 146, 147, 150, 152, 184, 189, 193, 206, 215
      description of, 49
      suffers from bite of ticks, 158, 169, 181
    Frances Anne (Tasker), wife of Robert Carter III, xxvii, 27,
          32, 33, 34, 37, 39, 40, 41, 42, 44, 45, 48, 54, 56, 58,
          61, 63, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 73, 74, 75, 78, 79,
          83, 84, 87, 91, 92, 93, 95, 96, 110, 111, 115, 116, 118,
          119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 125, 132, 133, 137, 138, 141, 142,
          144, 146, 148, 150, 157, 158, 162, 178, 179, 181, 182, 183,
          186, 189, 193, 194, 195, 200, 202, 204, 207, 217
      buried at Nomini Hall, 61, 245
      character and traits of, xxvii, 32, 33, 40, 48, 71, 194, 207
      description of, 40
      discusses her children, 116
      expresses preference for simple burial, 61
      Fithian admires, 71, 150, 207
      good management of children, 64, 116
      imports plate, 189
      teases Fithian, 205
      thunder and lightning frighten, 79, 123
      views on slavery, 92
      wide reading and knowledge of, 66
    George, xxvi
    Harriot Lucy, xxx, 82, 83, 110, 119, 133, 134, 138, 146, 193,
          202, 206, 246
      description of, 49
      marries John James Maund, 246
      pranks of, 193
      schooner named for, 29, 243
      tastes mercury, 54
    John Tasker ("Tasker"), xxx, 133, 135, 215
    Judith, _see_ Beale, Judith (Carter)
    Landon, xviii, 237, 245
      diary of, cited, 237
      supports free school, 248
    Lucy, of "Sabine Hall," 136
    "Nancy," _see_ Anne Tasker Carter
    Polly, of "Sabine Hall," 157
    Priscilla, xxx, 21, 22, 24, 26, 27, 35, 37, 39, 41, 42, 43, 44,
          47, 55, 56, 60, 62, 63, 65, 74, 75, 83, 90, 92, 110, 115,
          122, 128, 133, 135, 136, 138, 147, 149, 150, 169, 176, 184,
          189, 202, 206, 242
      description of, 48
      Fithian composes valentine for, 58, 230-233, 245
      learns music, 22, 26
      letter to, 214-215
      tutor offends, 66
    Robert ("King"), xv, xviii, xxvi
    Robert II, xxvi
      grave of, 61
    Robert, III, "Councillor," of "Nomini Hall," 3, 5, 6, 24, 26, 29,
          30, 32, 33, 37, 40, 42, 47, 48, 51, 53, 55, 58, 59, 61, 62,
          63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 73, 75, 79, 82, 83, 84,
          85, 86, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 94, 95, 106, 110, 111, 112, 116,
          117, 118, 126, 127, 129, 132, 135, 140, 142, 143, 144, 145,
          146, 147, 150, 152, 156, 157, 158, 162, 165, 171, 172, 177,
          179, 181, 182, 184, 190, 191, 194, 196, 246
      buried at Baltimore, 245
      character and traits of, xxvi, xxvii, 48, 70, 140
      compares value of Virginia and Maryland currency, 74
      descendants own Nomini Hall, 246
      early life and education, xxvi-xxvii
      economic activities of, xxvii-xxviii, 63, 68, 79, 117, 144
      expresses preference for simple burial, 61
      expresses wish for sudden death, 182
      lands owned by, 79
      letter to, 217
      marries Frances Anne Tasker, xxvii
      member of Governor's Council and General Court, xxix, 26
      mills of, _see_ mills
      musical interests of, xxx, 30, 42, 48, 51, 69, 111, 181
      plans disposition of estate, 83, 182
      political attitude of, 111
      portrait of, xxvii
      reading of, xxix, 53
      registers at Inner Temple, xxvi
      scientific interests of, xxix, 190, 191, 196
      serves as vestryman and warden, xxix
      strong discipline of, 26, 64, 156
      studious habits of, 26
      visits England, xxvi
    Robert Bladen (Bob), xxx, 20, 38, 40, 42, 43, 49, 54, 55, 56, 58,
          64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 70, 71, 72, 73, 75, 77, 78, 82, 83, 85,
          86, 88, 110, 111, 116, 119, 121, 123, 125, 126, 127, 133,
          134, 142, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 156, 169, 177, 181, 184,
          186, 199, 201, 202, 204, 241
      admires Miss Tayloe, 121
      attends dancing school, 25
      character and traits of, 48, 49-50, 55, 64, 70, 72, 78, 110,
            116, 127, 186
      description of, 48
      inscribes names in books, 135-136
      letters to, 201, 216
      plays prank on father, 177
      reflections on Phillis Wheatley, 72
      wishes to learn Latin, 77
    Robert Wormeley, of "Sabine Hall," 244, 248
    "Tasker," _see_ John Tasker Carter family, 64, 89, 90
      ancestry and heritage of, xxv-xxvii
      attends Nomini Church often, 31
      Fithian characterizes, 21
      pranks of children, 177, 189
      servants treated courteously by, 26
      social and economic position of, xxv-xxx, 21
      strong discipline in, 26, 64
      studies of children, 20, 26

  "Carter's Grove," James City County, Burwell home, xvii, xxii

  Carving, in decoration of homes, xxii

  Castiglione, _The Courtier_, xviii

  Catalpa trees, 61

  Catechism, Carter children repeat, 76

  Cateness, Miss, 8

  Catesby, Mark, 244

  Cattle, 144

  Cedar Point, Md., 247

  Chairs, riding, xxiv, 33, 94, 110, 149

  Chandeliers, 239

  "Chantilly," Westmoreland County, Lee home, xxxi, 29, 125, 169,
        202, 243, 247, 248
    dancing school at, 202

  Chariots, 33, 34, 37, 41, 42, 47, 87, 125, 157, 172

  Charles City County, 248

  Chatham, Lord, _see_ Pitt, William

  Checks (game), 189, 216

  Cheese, 90

  Cheeseman, Mrs., 106

  "Chelsea," King William County, Moore home, xxii

  Chelton, Capt., 19, 57, 145, 241
    _see also_ Chilton

  Cherries, 90, 110, 118

  Chesapeake Bay, 97

  Chesterfield, Lord, _Letters to His Son_, 194

  Chestertown, Md., 98

  Chester River, 210

  Chilton family, 241

  Chinches, 109, 135, 138

  Chintzes, 124, 130, 215

  Chocolate, 55

  Choirs, 195

  Christenings, 35, 168, 195

  Christian, Francis, dancing master, xxx, 19, 32, 33, 34, 66, 123,
        124, 125, 178, 241
    strict discipline of, 34
    Mrs. Francis, 178
    Frank, pupil of John Lowe, 150, 206

  Christmas, entertainment and good fellowship at, 33-34, 39-40
    firing of powder at, 39, 244
    _see also_ Christmas boxes

  Christmas boxes, 40, 54

  Cider, 57, 90

  Clerks, xxix, 38, 177
    _see also_ Francks, Dr.; Randolph, Mr.

  Cliosophic Society, 240

  Clothing, women's, 57
    _see also_ Aprons, Broadcloth, Brocades, Calico gowns, Caps,
          Chintzes, Fashions, Hats, Headdress, Gauze, Laces, Quilts,
          Silks, Stays, Stockings, Stocks

  Coaches, xxix, 152, 189, 190

  Coachmen, 55, 84-85, 134

  Coach-houses, 81

  Coats-of-arms, 116

  Cocke, Elizabeth, _see_ Jones, Elizabeth (Cocke)

  Cock-fighting, 91, 96, 121, 162, 168, 190

  Coffee, 32, 110, 114, 117, 122, 126, 127, 133, 142, 144, 146, 150,
        156, 171, 179, 181, 189, 193, 194, 200

  Coffee House, Annapolis, Md., 97, 209

  Cohansey (Cohansie), N. J., 4, 14, 36, 90, 98, 100, 101, 105, 106,
        114, 115, 139, 143, 174, 176, 198, 201, 206, 239, 247

  Colchester, Va., 18, 240

  College of New Jersey, _see_ Princeton University

  College of Philadelphia, 27, 237, 248

  College of William and Mary, 49, 242, 244, 248
    Bob Carter at, 49
    conditions at, 64-65

  Combs, 206

  Comedians, 98, 247

  Comfrey roots, 32

  Consumption, 181

  Continental Congress, 169, 174, 176, 194, 195, 199

  Cook, Mr., 107
    family, 173

  Coopers, 149, 181

  Cople Parish, _see_ Anglican Church

  Corbin, Betty Tayloe, _see_ Turberville, Betty Tayloe (Corbin)
    Gawin, 188, 242, 248
    Jane (Jennie), 23, 25, 28, 31, 33, 37, 51, 56, 67, 87, 88, 93,
          94, 125, 136, 188, 192, 198, 200, 242
    Richard, 95, 247
    family, 247

  Cordials, 97

  Corn, 75, 88, 94, 110, 129, 133, 142, 144, 146, 150, 152

  Cornices, xxii

  "Corotoman," Lancaster County, Carter home, xxvi

  Corvin, Mr., 95, 247

  Cotton, 185

  Counterpanes, 42

  Counting-rooms, xxi

  Country dances, 33, 34, 57, 123, 125, 243

  Courtyards, xxi, 238

  Cowslips, 78

  Cox, Mr., 37, 122

  Crabs, 110, 141, 171, 185, 186

  Craftsmen, skilled, on Carter's estate, xxix

  "Crandall," Richmond County, Fauntleroy home, 19, 241

  Cunningham, Mr., merchant, 23, 29, 37, 54, 56, 59, 90, 91, 110,
        137, 242
    dines at Nomini Hall, 23, 75, 242
    Miss, 173

  Currency, of Philadelphia, not accepted, 54
    of Virginia and Maryland, value compared, 74, 75

  Cursing, 190
    _see also_ Swearing

  Custis, Jacky, xvii

  Custom mills, 246

  Dairies, xxi, 81, 240

  Damon, James, 210

  Dancing, xvii, xxx, xxxi, 33, 57, 58, 120, 125, 161, 163
    Anabaptists oppose, 72
    of slaves, 62
    Virginians addicted to, 177
    _see also_ Assemblies, Balls, Country dances, Dancing masters,
          Dancing schools, Gavottes, Jigs, Minuets, Reels

  Dancing masters, xix, xxiii, xxxi, 19, 33-34
    _see also_ Christian, Francis

  Dancing schools, 19, 21, 25, 168, 242
    at Bushfield, 66, 111, 245
    at Chantilly, 202, 248
    at Nomini Hall, 32-34, 87, 88, 123-125, 178
    at Stratford Hall, 50, 142, 190, 191

  Debow, John, 3, 240

  Deerfield, New Jersey, 6, 10, 15, 27, 100, 102, 103, 104, 240
    Fithian studies at, 9, 240

  Delaware River, 112

  Dennis, (servant boy), 40, 51, 56, 135, 157, 182, 208

  Dennis, Capt., of the _Peggy_, 110, 111
    Samuel, 16

  Diabetes, 149

  Diaries, xxiii
    of Jonathan Boucher, 245
    of Landon Carter, 245
    of Robert Wormeley Carter, 245

  Dice, 29

  Digges (Diggs), Edward, of "Bellfield," 248
    Mr., 97
    family, 247

  Dobby, Capt., of the _Susannah_, 122, 150, 152, 153

  Doctors, 39, 51, 67, 68, 69, 86, 88, 122, 156, 157, 205, 243,
        244, 246

  Donaldson, Mr., 107

  Donnald, Nathaniel, Jr., 175
    letter to, 173-174

  Dotterell (horse), 52, 244

  Dovecots, xx

  Drinking and Drunkenness, 65, 70, 153, 172, 200, 241
    _see also_ Bitters, Brandy, Cider, Cordials, Grogg, Porter, Punch,
          Toddy, Wine

  Ducks, 76

  Duffield, John, 179, 248

  Dulaney, Daniel, 239

  Dumfries, Va., 56, 69, 79, 196
    as shipping center, 18, 240

  Dunlap, John, 122, 247

  Dunmore, John Murray, Earl of, 110, 187, 245
    Charlotte Murray, Lady, 63, 65, 79, 245

  Durham, Bishop of, 241

  Dysentery, xxxii, 137-138, 171

  Earrings, 130

  Earthquakes, 69

  East India College, Hertford, England, 245

  East India Company, 169

  Eclipse (horse), 244

  Eclipses, 117

  Edmundson, Dolly, 154
    Dorothy, 248
    Thomas, 248
    family, 248

  Education, based on English traditions, xvi
    free school in Richmond County, 248
    planters provide for in wills, xix
    practical and polite subjects prescribed, xvii
    Virginians at English and Scotch schools and universities,
          xviii, xix
    Virginians at Inns of Court, xix, xxvi
    William and Mary College, _see_ College of William and Mary
    worth assessed, 161
    _see also_ Books, Dancing masters, Governesses, Music masters,
          Offices, Schoolmasters, Tutors

  Edwards, Miss, 136
    Thomas, 193, 194

  Egg and dart, decorative motif, xxii

  Eggs, 140, 151

  Electricity, lectures on, 98, 247

  "Eliza," _see_ Beatty, Elizabeth

  Elmer, Dr., 69, 101

  Elmore, Betsy, 9

  Elsenborough, N. J., 99

  "Elsing Green," King William County, Dandridge home, xxii

  England, 95, 172
    education of Virginians in, xviii-xix, xxvi-xxvii, 242
    endeavors to develop resources of Virginia, xiii
    Parliament of, 110, 113, 131
    royal family, toasts to, 59, 64, 128-129, 138
    Tidewater Virginia maintains close contact with, xiii
    tutors and governesses from, xix, 89, 90, 112
    Virginia aristocracy modeled on gentry of, xvi

  English language, 94

  "Epping Forest," Lancaster County, Ball home, xxii

  Eruptive fever, 138

  Essex County, 243, 247, 248

  Evans, Israel, 106, 247

  Ewing, Mr., 17, 101, 107, 174
    Miss, 6
    Amy, 103-104
    Matty, 101
    Sally, 101

  Factories, textile, xvi, xxviii
    _see also_ Mills

  Factors, xvi

  Fairfax County, 240

  Fairfax family, xxvi

  Falling gardens, xx, 237
    at Sabine Hall, 237

  Fans, 130

  Farming, _see_ Agriculture

  Fashions, discussions of, 29, 90, 93, 168

  Fasts, political, 110, 111
    Carter family does not observe, 111

  Fauntleroy (Fantilroy), Mr., 25, 28, 63, 68, 73
    Mrs., 73
    Aphia, 136, 154, 241
    Elizabeth, 156
    Henry (Harry), 207, 241
    Juliet, 241
    Mary, _see_ Giberne, Mary (Fauntleroy Beale)
    Dr. Moore, 45, 241, 244
    pronunciation of name, 241
    Samuel, 241
    Samuel Griffin, 62, 245
    William, 244
    family, 33, 79, 88, 241, 243
      homes of, 241

  Fauquier County, 241

  _Felton's Gavott_, 75, 245

  Fences, 74

  Fencing, xvii

  Fenning, _Arithmetic_, 25

  Ferguson, Andrew, 107

  Fiddles, 161
    slaves play, 62

  Figs, 178

  Fish, 75, 76, 90, 132, 141, 145, 171, 185, 186

  Fish feasts, xxxi, 147, 150, 156, 162, 168, 172, 177, 183

  Fisher, Mr., 195, 242

  Fishermen, 145

  Fisher and Cunningham (merchants), 23, 242

  Fishing, 75

  Fithian, Amos, 100, 103
    "Aunt," 98, 100
    Elizabeth (Beatty), _see_ Beatty, Elizabeth
    Enoch, copies manuscripts of brother, xxxi
    Joel, marries widow of Philip Fithian, 17, 240
    Philip Vickers, xxvii, xxxi-xxxii, 3-7, 9-11, 15, 16, 22, 24,
          26, 27, 32, 37, 55-56, 57, 67-68, 70, 71, 78, 85, 93, 96-97,
          100, 107, 114-115, 118, 126, 131, 134, 140, 141, 144, 145,
          147, 149, 151, 158, 170, 171, 177-178, 180, 184, 210, 241
      accepts position as tutor, xxiv, 6-7
      admiration and affection for Carter family, xxxii, 111, 207,
      advises Peck on conduct as tutor, 159-168
      attends balls, 56-57, 154-155
      attends races, 24-25, 150-151, 154
      Carter approves teaching of, 93
      catalogues library at Nomini Hall, 119
      Col. Lee offends, 52
      completes Latin thesis, 158
      contrasts Virginia with New Jersey, 60-61, 100, 159-163, 167-168
      corresponds with "Belinda," 170
      death of parents, 239
      declines additional pupils, 25
      despondency of, 108, 109, 114-115, 127, 171
      early life and education of, xxv, xxxii, 159, 205, 239
      enters Presbyterian ministry, xxxii
      George Lee offends, 57, 244
      hesitation over going to Virginia, 7, 9-10, 16, 46-47
      illness and death of, xxxii
      later career of, xxxii
      letters from, to Elizabeth Beatty, 8-9, 10-11, 12-13, 35-36,
            53, 115-116, 139-140, 179-180, 210-212, 212-214
        to Benjamin Carter, 198-199
        to Nancy Carter, 215-216
        to Priscilla Carter, 214-215
        to Robert Carter III, 217
        to Robert Bladen Carter, 201-202, 216
        to Nathaniel Donnald, 173-174
        to Samuel Fithian, 117
        to Rev. Enoch Green, 21, 26-27
        to Andrew Hunter, Jr., 4-5
        to Andrew Hunter, Sr., 113
        to George Lee, 151
        to John Lowe, 126, 207-208
        to John McCalla, 175-176
        to John Peck, 143, 159-168
        to Larkin Randall, 197-198
        to Mrs. Charlotte Thornton, 201
        to Paletiah Webster, 172-173
        to Ruth Webster, 174-175
        to Harry Willis, 201-202
        to Dr. John Witherspoon, 9-10
      letters to, from, Andrew Hunter, Jr., 3-4, 11-12
        from William R. Smith, 14-15
      makes sketches of Nomini Hall, 148
      manuscripts long unpublished, xxxi
      marries Elizabeth Beatty, xxxii
      poem by, 24
      premonition of death, 171
      Presbyterian training of, xxv
      regrets inability to dance, 33, 43
      regular habits of, 155
      retirement agreeable to, 72, 129
      returns to New Jersey, 208
      reviews his life, 45-47
      salary and perquisites as tutor, 6, 31-32, 200
      tolerant attitude of, xxv
      travels as missionary, xxxii
      urged to marry in Virginia, 131
      views on slavery, 38, 84-85, 92, 132, 187
      visits and dines at other plantations, 67, 69, 75, 88, 89, 156
      warned of immorality in Virginia, 46-47
    Samuel, 240
      letter to, 117, 118
    Seeley, 100
    Tempy, 107
    "Uncle," 117

  Fitzhugh, William, xv, xvii

  Flats, 75

  Flax, 88, 152

  Flood, Alice, _see_ Jones, Alice (Flood)
    Dr. William, physician and turfman, 24, 95, 242, 244

  Flour, 75, 144, 246

  Flowers, artificial, 124, 130
    _see also_ Gardens

  Flutes, 49, 68, 82, 202, 207
    _see also_ German flutes

  Flux, 129, 158
    _see also_ Bloody flux

  Fodder, 81, 112, 114

  Foot races, 59

  Ford, Mrs., 65
    Miss, 155

  Forfeits, 88, 201

  Forte pianos, 22, 26, 30, 41, 55, 66, 69

  Foundries, xvi

  Fountain Inn, Baltimore, Md., 53

  Foxes, 141

  Fox hunts, 34

  Francks, Dr. Henry, 43, 67, 244

  Frederick, Md., 98, 247

  Frederick County, 147

  Fredericksburg, 35, 69
    academy at, 244
    races at, 203

  Free schools, in Richmond County, 248

  French horns, 57

  French language, 90

  Frets, in decoration of homes, xxii

  Fried chicken, 208

  Friezes, in planters' homes, xxii

  Frontiers, Indian disturbances on, 187

  Funeral hymns, 132, 133

  Gage, Governor Thomas, of Massachusetts, 191

  Galloway, Nancy, 96

  Gambling, 241
    _see also_ Betting, Gaming

  Games, at Nomini Hall, 34
    _see also_ All Fours, Billiards, Button, Break the Pope's Neck,
          Cards, Checks, Seven-Up

  Gaming, 29, 200
    Anabaptists oppose, 72

  Garden houses, xx

  Gardners, xx, 44, 63

  Gardening, handbooks on, xix
    _see also_ titles of catalogue in Appendix

  Gardens, xix-xx, 106, 110, 112
    at Bushfield, 67
    at Lee Hall, 175
    at Mount Airy, 95
    at Nomini Hall, 43-44, 63, 78-79, 83
    _see also_ Falling gardens, Gardeners, Garden houses

  Gargles, 64

  Garrot, Miss, 156

  Gaskins, Betsy, 136
    Colonel Thomas, 248
    family, 248

  Gauze, 124, 215

  Gavottes, 75, 246

  _Gentleman's Magazine_, 70, 71

  Geography, 194

  Georgetown, Md., 18, 98, 108, 240

  German flutes, 30

  Giberne (Gibbern), Rev. Isaac William, 20, 28, 68, 111, 241, 248
    attends ball at Lee Hall, 57
    convivial habits of, 200, 241
    marries widow of Charles Beale, 241
    opposes Anabaptists, 72-73
    sketch of, 241
    Mary (Fauntleroy Beale), 57, 241

  Gibson, John, 16

  Gift (horse), 95

  Gloucester County, 248

  "Golden Age," in Tidewater Virginia, xiii

  Good Friday, 88

  Goodlet, Mr., schoolmaster, 62, 63
    barred out of school, 34, 243

  Gooseberries, 110

  Gordon, Mr., 25, 243
    George, C., 243

  Gouging, 63, 183

  Governesses, 156
    from England, xix, 89, 90

  Graham, Dr. (oculist), 188, 248

  Grain, Virginia counties suited for, 114

  Granaries, 82, 145, 189

  Great houses, xx, 59
    _see also_ Manor houses

  Great Meadows, Carter tracts, at, 79

  Greek language, 54, 106, 163, 190

  _Greek Testament_, 101, 103, 128

  Green, Rev. Enoch, 4, 25, 46, 100, 101, 102, 149, 159, 240
    Fithian studies under, 240
    letters to, 21, 26-27
    Mary (Beatty), 4, 21, 27, 100, 105

  Greenman, Thomas, 100, 102

  Greens (vegetables), 90

  Greenwich, N. J., 6, 9, 10, 18, 99, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 134, 239

  Gregory, Mr., gardener, 68, 74, 78, 245

  Griggs, (Grigg), Capt., 52, 76, 243
    visits Nomini Hall, 31

  Grimes, Miss, 6

  Grist mills, 82, 246

  Grog, 142

  Grubb, Mr., 125, 128, 130, 157, 171, 172, 175, 177, 179

  Guitars, 28, 30, 36, 51, 55, 71, 79, 132, 133, 216

  Gusts (storms), 144

  Guthrie, Capt., 138

  Ha-has, xx, 238

  Hale, _see_ Heale

  Halkinson, Mrs., 209

  Hamilton, Mr., merchant, 29, 195
    accident of, 69

  Hammond, _Expositor of the New Testament_, 111

  Handkerchiefs, 29, 168

  Hanover County, 244

  Harmonicas, 30, 181, 243
    Robert Carter plays on, 37, 158

  Harness, 189

  Harpsichords, xxii, 123, 124, 157
    at Hobb's Hole, 156
    at Mount Airy, 95, 152
    at Nomini Hall, 26, 36, 111, 121

  _Harriot_ (ship), 149

  Harrison, Col., of Maryland, 59
    Col., of Virginia, 195
    Benjamin, of "Berkeley," 248

  Hartshorn, spirits of, 32

  Hats, gold-laced, 69

  Hay, 81

  Headdress, 90, 125

  Heale, George, 246
    Priscilla, 88, 123-125, 178, 246
    family, 246
    name pronounced Hale, 88, 246

  Heith, Mr., 5

  Henley, Rev. Samuel, quarrels with Bracken, 65, 79, 245

  Henry, _History of Great Britain_, 188

  "Hickory Hill," Westmoreland County, Turberville home, xxxi, 23,
        42, 45, 53, 89, 90, 118, 121, 129, 130, 136, 177-178, 192,
        194, 206, 207, 242
    dancing school at, 75
    fish feasts at, 147
    Fithian dines at, 47, 89-90, 192

  Highways, gates on, 97
    water routes as, xxiii

  Hobb's Hole (Tappahannock), 27, 40, 79, 95, 131, 152, 243
    ball at, 154-155
    boat races at, 150, 153-154
    description of, 152-153
    post office at, 118
    trade and shipping at, 152-153, 154, 243

  Hodge, Mr., merchant, 196, 198

  Hoe-cakes, 55

  Holidays, 43, 65, 88, 91, 92

  Hollingshead, Mr., 5, 103, 176
    Mrs., 176
    Sally, 62, 75
    family, 106

  Holmes, Benjamin, 13, 14
    John, 13

  Homer, 130

  Honey, 194

  Honey Suckle, 78

  Horace, 190

  Horn Point, 76, 77, 89

  Horses, 32, 70, 115, 119, 167
    conversations regarding, 95, 119, 177
    distempers of, 129
    passion of Carter boys for, 70, 190
    _see also_ Horse racing

  Horse racing, xxxi, 52, 121, 162, 168, 186, 187
    at Fredericksburg, 203
    at "Hickory Hill," 201-202
    at Richmond Court House, 24-25, 242

  Hoshel, Mr., 103, 105
    Mrs., 16
    Michael, 18

  Hospitality, universal among Virginians, xxiii, 29, 43, 89-90,

  Hostlers, 32, 70, 91

  Housekeepers, _see_ Nomini Hall

  House-warmings, 43

  Howel, Mr., 105, 107
    Dicky, 102
    Richard, 6

  Huckleberries, 128

  Hunt, Mr., 97

  Hunter, Rev. Andrew, Jr., 5, 6, 9, 14, 15, 17, 100, 105, 113, 149
    letters from Fithian, 4-5
    letters to Fithian, 3-4, 11-12
    Rev. Andrew, Sr., 6, 14, 15, 17, 27, 46, 55, 99, 100, 101, 102,
          103, 105, 106, 113, 115, 118, 149, 206, 240
      letter from Fithian, 113
      prepares Fithian for ministry, 239
    Mrs. Andrew, 105, 113

  Hurtleberries, 132

  Hut, Mrs., 62

  Hymns, 120, 247
    _see also_ Funeral hymns

  Imlay, William Eugene, 12, 15, 240

  Indentured servants, xiv

  Indians, disturb frontiers, 187

  "Infancy" (song), 71

  Ink, 206
    _see also_ Printers' Ink

  Inner Temple, _see_ Inns of Court

  Inns of Court, Virginians at, xix
    Robert Carter registers at Inner Temple, xxvi-xxvii

  Inspectors, 138, 141-142, 156, 195

  Irishmen, as coopers, 149

  Iron, xxviii, 79, 82, 144, 145
    _see also_ Baltimore Iron Works

  Irwin, Mr., 8, 15, 17

  Isle of Wight County, 129

  Jail fever, 68, 69

  James' Powder, 133

  James River, 172

  Jennifer, Thomas, 206

  Jennings, Mr., 29, 90

  Jessamines, 147

  John (table servant), 54, 142
    as musician, 120

  Jones, Alice (Flood), 69, 244
    Betsy, 180
    Elizabeth (Cocke), 244
    Col. Thomas, 243, 244
    Dr. Walter, 39, 68, 69, 122, 157, 243, 244
      member of American Philosophical Society, 69
    family, 63, 87, 244

  Junius, _Letters_, 91, 92

  Keith, Mr., 106

  Kent Island, Md., 210, 248

  King and Queen County, 247

  "Kinsail," Westmoreland County, Flood home, 242

  Kitchens, xxi, 81, 238

  Knives, 70

  Laces, 124, 215

  Laidler, Mrs., ferry of, 109, 208

  Lancaster County, 244, 245

  Land, efforts to engross, xiv
    estates composed of numerous tracts, xv
    _see also_ Agriculture, Tenancy

  Lane, Joseph, 35, 69, 75, 172, 200, 243
    Mrs. Joseph, 56, 58, 172
    Joseph F., of Loudoun County, 69-70, 72, 75, 83, 84, 245

  "Laneville," King and Queen County, Corbin home, 247

  Latin classics, 101, 163

  Latin language, 72, 77, 78, 106

  Latin thesis, Fithian completes, 158

  "Laura," _see_ Beatty, Elizabeth

  Law, books on, xviii
    Carter reads, 48
    Virginians at Inns of Court, xix, xxvi-xxvii, 239
    _see also_ titles of catalogue in Appendix

  "Lawfield," Westmoreland County, Parker home, 248

  Lawn, 215

  Lawyers, 88, 137, 248
    Scotchmen as, 47

  Leake (Leek), John, 100
    Nathan, 102
    Samuel, Jr., 95, 102, 148, 200, 201, 247

  Lebanon Hospital, 106

  Lee, Mr., of Augusta County, 58
    Alice, _see_ Shippen, Alice (Lee)
    Arthur, 248
    Betsy, 35, 125, 129-130, 131, 136, 158, 172, 177, 178, 243, 247
    Col. Francis Lightfoot, of "Menokin," 59, 64, 93, 114, 202, 245, 248
    George, 25, 38, 57, 90, 125, 130, 148, 150, 151, 244, 247
      letter to, 151
    George Fairfax, 57, 242, 244
    Henry ("Light Horse Harry"), of "Leesylvania," 56, 57, 62, 240, 243,
      at Princeton, 14, 240
    John, of Essex County, 243, 247
    Capt. John, 64
      description of, 58
    Judith (Wormeley), 247
    Lancelot, 23, 29, 128, 130, 138, 148, 177, 194, 242
      returns from England, 23
    Matilda, 35, 243
    Col. Philip Ludwell, of "Stratford Hall," 34, 51, 87, 145, 243, 244
    Rebecca (Tayloe), wife of Col. Francis Lightfoot Lee, 64
    "Squire" Richard, of "Lee Hall," 29, 53, 57, 90, 121, 128, 169,
          175, 240, 243
      at Nomini Hall, 29
    "Squire" Richard, of Maryland, 96, 97, 243
    Col. Richard Henry, of "Chantilly," 125, 194, 243, 247, 248

    Robert E., 240
    Thomas, of "Stratford Hall," 243, 245, 247
    Thomas Ludwell, of "Bellevue," 19, 241
    William, 248
    family, 23, 28, 33, 34, 35, 51-52, 55, 56, 57, 58, 87, 96, 130-131,
          178, 242, 243, 244, 247, 248

  "Lee Hall," Westmoreland County, Home of Squire Richard Lee, 67, 84,
        206, 242, 243, 244
    ball at, 47, 53, 56-57, 58, 244

  Leech, Mr., 196

  Leeds, 63, 189, 196, 245
    school at, 63

  Leek, _see_ Leake

  "Leesylvania," Prince William Countty, Lee home, 244

  Lent, 141

  Liberty Songs, 57

  Libraries, in planters' homes, xvii-xviii, 6, 119
    _see also_ titles of catalogue in Appendix

  Lightning, _see_ Thunder and lightning

  Linseed oil, 190

  Liquors, 153, 155

  Logic, 194

  London, 89, 113, 128, 208, 211
    newspapers from, 121

  Lotteries, 13, 98

  Loudoun County, 114

  Lowe, John, 41, 90, 96, 106, 125, 126, 137, 142, 150, 178, 179, 200,
        207, 208, 244
    letters to, 126, 207-208
    tutor at "Bushfield," 41, 244

  Lowndes, Christopher, 239

  Lyon, James, 101, 247

  McCall, Miss, 155

  McCalla, Mr., 106
    John, Jr., 15, 106, 175, 240
      letter to, 175-176

  McConkey, Mr., 8

  McCorkle, Samuel, 3, 240

  Machodoc River, 143, 144, 145

  Magazines, 89, 188
    _see also_ _Gentleman's Magazine_, _Monthly Review_,
          _Universal Magazine_

  Manor houses, activities about, xxiii-xxiv
    architecture of, xx-xxi
    description of interiors, xxi-xxii
    names of, xxii
    sites of, xxiii
    two entrances to, xxiii
    _see also_ Great houses

  Manor plantations, xv, 237, 246
    as centers of estates, xv
    as residences of proprietors, xv, 237
    in Northern Neck, xxx-xxxi

  Manufactories, xvi
    on estate of Robert Carter, xxviii
    _see also_ Mills

  Manure, 89

  Marble, Sienna, xxi

  Marches, 57

  Marcus Hook, N. J., 107

  Marlborough, Md., 97, 109, 209, 247

  "Marmion," King George County, Fitzhugh home, xxii

  "Mars Hill," Richmond County, Fauntleroy home, 241

  Marshall, James, tutor, 48, 134, 247-248

  Marshes, xiii

  Martha (servant), 54

  Mashell, Daniel, 16

  Masonic Order, 69

  Mathematics, xvii
    _see also_ Arithmetic; titles of catalogue in Appendix

  Mathews, Mr., steward, 86

  Mattox Bridge, 96, 110, 247

  Mattox Church, 96, 110

  Maund, E., 246
    John James, 246
    _see also_ Carter, Harriot Lucy

  Mead, 106

  Meddleton, _see_ Middleton

  Medicine, xviii
    _see also_ titles of catalogue in Appendix

  Menzies, Mr., tutor, xviii

  Merchant Mills, 68, 75, 82, 246

  Merchants, 23, 173, 174, 176, 242
    at Dumfries, 196
    at Hobb's Hole, 154, 248
    at Leeds, 196
    planters as, xxviii
    Scotchmen, as, 29, 90
    _see also_ Blain, Cunningham, Hamilton, Jennings

  Metastasio, 243-244

  Middleton, Capt., 75, 76, 246
    daughters of, 76

  Middleton, Del., 108, 247

  Militia, Carter as Colonel of, xxix

  Millar, Squire, 100

  Mills, grain, xvi, xxviii, 246
    of Robert Carter, 63, 74-75, 82, 88, 170-171, 189, 190, 194, 246
    of John Turberville, 82
    of J. A. Washington, 82
    _see also_ Baltimore Iron Works, Custom mills, Grist mills,
          Merchant mills, Toll mills

  Mills, Mrs., 100
    David, 100

  Milton, John, quoted, 78

  Minerva, 130

  Minuets, 33, 34, 52, 57, 123, 124, 125, 154

  Mocking-birds, 76

  Moll, _Atlas_, 157

  Monday's Point, _see_ Munday's Point

  Monkeys, 183

  _Monthly Review_, 72

  Morgan (overseer), 38
    Dr. John, 95, 247

  Morris, Robert, 246

  "Mount Airy," Richmond County, Tayloe home, xxxi, 120, 136, 142,
        151, 152, 204, 242, 245, 246, 248
    compared to Nomini Hall, 94, 246
    description of, 94-95, 246
    Fithian visits, 94-95, 156
    gardens at, 95
    offices at, xxi

  "Mount Pleasant," Westmoreland County, Lee home, 23, 242, 247
    fish feast at, 150

  Mulberries, 130

  Munro, Mr., 206

  Music, xxxi
    at Lee Hall, 57
    at Mount Airy, 152
    at Nomini Hall, 30, 37, 42, 43, 47, 48, 62, 65, 66, 68, 69, 71, 75,
          111, 119, 120, 122, 123-124, 125, 127, 132, 200, 243, 247
    by slaves, 120
    Carter invents device for testing instruments, 43
    instruments owned by Carter, 30, 51
    religious, 101, 124, 127, 132, 158, 247
    vocal, 124, 127, 132
    _see also_ Anglican Church, Anthems, Balls, Dancing schools, Hymns,
          Music masters, Musical instruments, Musicians, Shakes, Singing
          masters, Songs, Sonatas

  Music masters, xix, 22, 28, 79, 120, 158, 187, 203, 204, 242
    _see also_ Stadley, Mr.

  Musical instruments, xxix, xxx
    _see also_ Banjos, Fiddles, Flutes, Forte-pianos, French horns,
          Harmonicas, Harpsichords, Organs, Spinets, Violins

  Musicians, 120

  Musk melons, 169

  Mutton, 141

  Nails, xxiv

  Nassau Hall, _see_ Princeton University

  Nat (servant), 96, 146, 201

  Navigation Acts, effects, of, on tobacco industry, xiv

  Neal, Mr., 77

  Nectarines, 175

  Nelson (servant), 78, 91, 96, 157, 185, 200, 208

  New England Town, N. J., 102

  "New grounds," _see_ Agriculture

  New Jersey, contrasted with Virginia, 60-61, 100, 159-164, 167-168
    Fithian returns to, 208-210
    _see also_ names of towns in

  Newington, Pa., 77, 127

  New York, Lady Dunmore arrives at, 63, 245

  Newspapers, 40, 131
    irregular delivery of, 203
    _see also_ _Pennsylvania Gazette_, _Pennsylvania Packet_,
          _Virginia Gazette_

  Newton, Md., 108, 247

  Nomini Church, Cople Parish, Westmoreland County, 20, 23, 29,
        31, 144, 148, 172, 241
    advertisement at door of, 29
    Carter family attends often, 31

  "Nomini Hall," Westmoreland County, Carter home, xxiv-xxv, xxvii,
        xxviii, xxix, xxxii
    area, the, at, 44, 81
    ball at, 35
    Carter family returns from Williamsburg to, xxix, 44
    center of Carter estate, xxvii-xxviii
    clerks at, 38, 177
      _see also_ Francks, Dr. Henry; Randolph, Mr.
    compared to Mount Airy, 94
    dancing school at, 32-34, 87-88, 123-125, 178-179
    description of, xxix-xxx, 80-82, 110, 115-116
    fire destroys great house, 246
    Fithian arrives at, 19
    gardeners at, 44, 63
    gardens at, 67, 78-79, 81, 83, 112, 116, 118, 123, 125, 145, 150,
          156, 178
    graves at, 61, 245
    guests at, _passim_
    housekeeper at, 55, 134, 185, 243
      _see also_ Stanhope, Sarah
    library catalogued, 119, 247
    life at, described by Fithian, 31-32, 116
    music at, _see_ Music
    offices at, 80-82
    orchards at, 90
    owned by descendants of Robert Carter, 246
    park planned for, 44
    plans of residence, 59-60, 146, 181
    poplar avenue at, 73, 81, 142
    postillion at, 42, 70, 146
    provisions consumed at, 75, 199
    quarters of Fithian at, 81
    school at, 20, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 66, 70, 81, 111, 112, 116, 118,
          119, 120, 122, 127, 128
    sketches of, made by Fithian, 146, 148, 181
    stables at, 59, 81, 86
    storehouses at, 81
    study of Robert Carter, 64, 80
    terraces at, 81
    wood fires at, 61, 73

  Nomini River, 67, 68, 77, 80, 90, 125, 143, 145, 152, 192, 206
    mills on, 81-82

  Norfolk, 138, 145

  North, Lord Frederick, burnt in effigy in Richmond County, 122

  Northern Neck, xxv, xxx-xxxi, 21, 241, 242, 245
    Fithian describes life in, 21
    gay and hospitable society in, xxx-xxxi
    Presbyterian Church in, 73, 245

  Northumberland County, 201, 243, 245, 246, 248

  Norton, John, 237

  Nurses, 131
    _see also_ Mrs. Oakley
    _see also_ Wet nurses

  Oakley, Mrs., nurse, xxx, 131, 133, 135, 137, 141, 142, 146

  Oaks, 144

  Oats, 97

  Occoquan River, 240

  Oculists, 248

  Offices (subsidiary buildings about great house), xx-xxi, 238
    as counting-rooms, xxi
    as foils for great house, xxi, 80-81, 238
    as kitchens, xxi, 59, 81, 95, 238
    as schoolrooms, xix, xxi, 59, 81
    as sleeping quarters, xxi
    at Mount Airy, 95
    at Nomini Hall, xxix-xxx, 79-81
    at "Rosegill," xxi

  Ogle, Samuel, 239

  Ohio River, settlements on, 58

  Old Sarum, England, xxvii

  Onions, 190

  Orange County, 248

  Orangeries, xx

  Orchards, xx

  Ordinaries, meaning of term in Virginia, 177
    _see also_ Taverns

  Organs, xxx, 30, 37, 51

  Ovens, 75

  Overseers, xvi, xxiii, xxix, 37, 38, 50, 86, 129, 146, 185
    cruelty to slaves, 85, 129

  Oxen, 61, 73

  Oxford University, Virginians at, xix

  Oysters, 29

  Oyster shells, walks of, xx, 81

  Page, John, Jr., 237

  Paintings, xxii, 94-95

  Pamphlets, 119

  Paneling, in plantation houses, xxi-xxii

  Panton, Sally, governess, 89, 91, 93, 110, 136, 177, 246
    description of, 90

  Paris net, 215

  Parker, Mr., 181
    Richard, 248

  Parks, xx, 44

  Parks, Tom, 134
    William, 245

  Parliament, _see_ England

  Parterres, xx

  Patapsco River, 18, 240

  Patterson, Mr., 12, 15, 17, 103, 104

  Patuxent Ferry, Md., 97, 209, 247

  Patuxent River, 109, 247

  Peachem, Henry, _The Compleat Gentleman_, xvii

  "Peach Hill," Lancaster County, Heale home, 246

  Peaches, 90, 113, 114, 175, 177, 194

  Peas, 78, 96

  Peck, Mrs., 6, 16, 100, 104, 240
    Abby, 16
    Ben, 104
    John, 16, 18, 25, 102, 105, 107, 118, 128, 146, 149, 150, 169,
          171, 177, 179, 202, 203, 205, 206-207, 208, 215, 216, 217, 240
      arrives in Virginia, 206
      letters to, 112, 143, 159-168
      marries Nancy Carter, 240
    Rachel, 100

  _Peggy_ (ship), 110

  Penknives, 119

  Pennington, Sir John, 244

  Penn's Neck, N. J., 18

  Pennsylvania, 83
    Fithian visits as missionary, xxxii
    _see also_ names of towns in

  _Pennsylvania Gazette_, 40, 69

  _Pennsylvania Packet_, 247

  Persimmons, 54, 73-74, 86

  Peruvian bark, 17, 64

  Pettit, Lydia, 136, 179

  Philadelphia, 11, 59, 70, 75, 77, 78, 94, 106, 125, 126, 138, 169,
        179, 201, 211, 217, 247, 248

    Virginians at, 174-176, 180, 194-195

  Philosophy, Carter reads, 53, 117
    _see also_ titles of catalogue in Appendix

  Pictet, Benjamin, _Theologia Christiana_,
    Fithian studies, _passim_

  Piedmont Virginia, Presbyterian Church in, 73, 245
    Tidewater plantation economy spreads to, 238

  Pierce, Miss, 67, 200

  Pilasters, xxii

  Pines, 76, 89, 144

  Piscataway, Md., 97, 109, 209, 247

  Pitt, William, 91

  Plantations, of Robert Carter III, xxviii
    names of, xxviii
    separated by wooded tracts, xxiii, 238
    size of, xiv-xv
    typical activity on, xxiii-xxiv
    _see also_ Manor houses, Manor plantations

  Planters, aristocratic ideals of, xvi
    correspondence with merchants overseas, xvi, xxii
    desire polite accomplishments for sons, xvi-xvii
    dominate social and political life, xv
    education of children of, _see_ Education
    extravagance and debts of, 27
    homes modeled on residences of English gentry, xix
    hospitality of, xxiii, 29, 43, 90, 238-239
    libraries of, xvii-xviii
    not absentee landlords, xvi
    varied economic functions of, xvi, xxviii-xxix

  Plater, Gov. George, of Maryland, 246

  Plato, 91

  Pleurisy, 75

  Plows, xxiv, 88-89

  Plums, 90

  Poetry, 24, 72,73
    Carter comment on, 71

  Pokeberries, 206

  Politics, _see_ American Revolution, Planters

  Pomegranates, 194

  Pope's Homer, 39, 112

  Porpoises, 135

  Porter, 57, 77, 90, 138, 141, 208

  Port Penn, Del., 98, 99, 107, 108, 210

  Port Tobacco, Md., 97, 109, 206, 247

  Porticos, at Nomini Hall, 80

  Postal system, 25, 27, 40, 77, 150, 215

  Postillions, 42, 70, 141, 146

  Potatoes, 96, 140, 193

  Potomac River, 22, 41, 55, 76, 77, 89, 90, 109, 114, 128, 143, 144,
        145, 171, 172, 206, 240, 242, 243, 245

  Potter, Mr., 100, 103

  Powder (gun), 147

  Powder (hair), 135

  Pratt, Debby, 102, 103, 106, 107, 176

  Presbyterian Church, 61, 90, 97, 105, 126, 246
    Fithian qualifies for ministry of, xxxii, 22, 96, 101, 102, 106, 242
    Fithian serves as missionary in, xxxii
    in Northern Neck, 73, 245
    in Piedmont Virginia, 245
    in Valley of Virginia, 245
    opposition to ministers of, 73, 245
    salaries of clergy of, 200

  _Present State of Music in Germany_, 152

  Prickly pears, 123

  Primers, 119

  Primogeniture, custom of, xxvi

  Prince (slave), 132

  Princeton, N. J., 6, 12, 14, 69, 209, 217, 247
    _see also_ Princeton University

  Princeton Historical Association, xxxii

  Princeton University (Nassau Hall), 3, 13, 14, 27, 87, 105, 127, 143,
        163, 170, 192-193, 239, 240, 247, 248
    commencement at, 12-13, 14, 192-193
    tutors from, xix, 237
    _see also_ Princeton, N. J., Witherspoon, Dr. John

  Printers' ink, 190

  Printing presses, 248

  Prisons, 187

  Profanity, 76
    _see also_ Swearing

  Psalm tunes, 127, 247

  Puddings, 90

  Pumpkins, 193

  Punch, 57, 142, 157

  Purchase, Capt., 154, 156

  Putrid fever, 98, 99

  Putrid quinsy, 64, 202

  Quarters, on plantations, 178, 244

  Queen Anne County, Md., 112

  Queenstown, Md., 210, 248

  Quilts, 124
    cotton diaper, 125
    silk, 131

  Races, in Maryland, 108, 210
    _see also_ Horse-racing, Boat races, Foot races

  Ramsey, Mrs., 101
    James, 100
    John, 100

  Randall, Mr., 188
    Larkin, letter to, 197-198
    _see also_ Randolph, Mr.

  Randolph, Mr. (clerk and steward), xxx, 38, 41, 54, 55, 65, 73, 74,
        75, 78, 81, 91, 111, 119, 133, 156, 169, 177, 181
    Col. T. M., of "Tuckahoe," hospitality of, 239

  Ranney, Stephen, 16, 100, 105

  Rappahannock River, 40, 95, 146, 150, 153, 188, 241

  Rattle-snakes, 185, 186

  Reed, Coley, 188

  Reels, 57, 123, 125

  Reese, Oliver, 3, 75, 240, 246

  Reeve, Mrs., 206, 210
    Stephen, 105, 108, 247

  Religion, _see_ Anglican Church, Baptist Church, Presbyterian Church,

  Sabbath, the observance of in Virginia, 72-73, 137, 167
    Anabaptists oppose diversions on, 72-73
    slaves work on, 202-203

  "Sabine Hall," Richmond County, Carter home, 136
    entertainment at, 171-172
    falling gardens at, 237-238

  Saddle-bags, 19

  Sailors, 69, 77

  Sallust, 20, 28, 37, 128

  Salt, 129

  Saltpeter, 171

  Salt works, xxviii

  Sam (barber), 54, 91, 158, 199

  Sanford, Miss, 67
    Mr., 54

  Sashes, 206

  Savins, 74, 76, 89, 144, 178

  Schoolmasters, 63, 176
    Scotchmen as, 25
    take orders in Anglican Church, 25, 243

  Schoolrooms, xxi, 31, 34, 59
    tutor barred out, 34

  Schooners, 67, 145, 153
    owned by Carter, 67, 77

  Scotchmen, 179
    as lawyers, 47
    as merchants and shopkeepers, 29, 109, 242
    as schoolmasters and tutors xix, 29, 90, 94

  Scotch universities, Virginians at, 243, 244, 246

  Scotland, 90, 126

  Scott, Capt., 77

  _Sea Nymph_ (ship), 107

  Sedans, xxiii

  Seeley, Mr., 101
    "Uncle," 173, 210
    Ephraim, 149
    Ephraim, Jr., 102

  Serpentine drives, xx

  Seven-Up (game), 247

  Shakes, 132

  Sheep, 144, 178

  Shenandoah Valley, 245

  Shippen, Alice (Lee), 248
    Dr. William, 179, 248

  Ships, xxiii, 77, 154, 189
    Planters own, xvi, xxviii
    refused cargoes of tobacco, 113

  Shoemakers, 96

  Shopkeepers, Scotchmen as, 242

  Shrove Tuesday, 65

  Silks, 57

  Silver, xxii
    Mrs. Carter imports, 189

  Silversmiths, 105

  Simpson, Mr., 84, 87, 128

  Singing masters, 195

  Skating, 54-55, 56

  Slavery, Fithian expresses views on, 38-39, 84-85, 92, 132, 187
    Mrs. Carter discusses, 92
    sermon on, 192
    _see also_ Slaves

  Slaves, 74, 94, 133, 137, 140, 154, 167, 172, 184-185
    accompany Carter family to church, 110
    allowed plots for cultivation, 96
    cruelty to, 38-39, 84-85
    dancing of, 62
    education of, 182-183
    grief felt by, 184
    holidays for, 91, 92
    illness among, 68, 182
    of Robert Carter, xxviii, 79, 132
    rations of, 38
    religion of, 151-152
    Sabbath observance by, 202-203
    testimony not accepted in courts, 192
    value considered, 92, 132

  Sloes, 194

  Sloops, xxiii

  Smallpox, xix

  Smallswords, 161

  Smith, John Augustine, 242
    Philip, 83
    Rev. Thomas, 22, 23, 42, 51, 56-57, 63, 67, 83, 88, 89, 110,
          126, 137, 145, 172, 192, 200, 242
    Mrs. Thomas, 42, 51, 57, 67, 88, 179
    William R., 8, 13, 15, 17, 240
      letter to Fithian, 14-15

  Smith family (outlaws), 86, 87, 190

  Smithies, xxiv, xxviii

  Smoke-houses, xxi

  Snuffboxes, 206

  Social life, aristocratic ideals of, xvi
    at Nomini Hall, described by Fithian, 31-32
    characteristic dress of women, 29
    chariots kept by well-to-do planters 29
    customs and manners compared with those of New Jersey, 100, 159-163,
    erroneous impressions concerning, 46-47
    formality in, 90
    haughtiness common in, 178
    modeled on that of English gentry, xvi
    politeness and hospitality, 29, 43, 90
    recent changes in, 27
    _see also_ Amusements, Religion

  Socrates, 115

  Sofas, 239

  Soil, depletion of, _see_ Agriculture

  Solar system, 117

  Sonatas, 68, 75, 82

  Songs, 37, 71, 132, 243-244
    _see also_ Liberty songs

  Sons of America, 57

  Sons of Liberty, 59

  Sorrel, Mr., 186, 187, 191, 248
    Thomas, 248

  Spelling-books, 20

  Spinets, xxii, 123, 125

  Sports, xxiii

  Spotted fever, 98

  Stables, 59, 81, 86

  Stadley, Mr., music master, xxx, 22, 28, 79, 82, 120, 121, 138, 141,
        142, 158, 169, 187, 203, 204, 242

  Stafford County, 241

  Stafford Court House, Va., 19, 58, 241

  Stairways, xxii, xxiii

  Stanhope, Sarah (Sally), 55, 67, 68, 83, 110, 116, 185, 189, 208, 244

  Statues, marble, 95

  Stays, 90, 131

  Steerman, Miss, 136

  Steptoe, Dr. George, 88, 110, 195, 246

  Stethern, Hugh, 6

  Steward, Mr., 99

  Stewards, xvi, xxiii, xxix, 38, 86

  Stewart, Anthony, 209

  Stills, 54

  Stockings, 69, 150, 156

  Stocks, 216

  Stockton, Julia, 157
    Rachel, 98, 247

  Stone, Aquia, 241

  Stores and Storehouses, 55, 119, 244
    of Robert Carter, xxviii, 81, 144, 191

  "Stratford Hall," Westmoreland County, Lee home, xxxi, 145, 242,
        244, 245
    dancing school at, 50, 51, 190, 191

  Strawberries, 110

  Sukey (slave), 86, 184-185

  Supper, at Nomini Hall, description of, 34

  Surveying, xvii, 191, 199
    books on, xviii
    _see also_ titles of catalogue in Appendix

  _Susannah_ (ship), 122

  _Swallow_ (ship), 106, 112

  Swearing, in Maryland, 108

  Swift, Jonathan, 171, 190

  Swine pox, 138

  Scythes, 133

  Taliaferro, Polly, 136, 248
    family, 248
    pronunciation of name, 248

  Tappahannock, 241
    _see also_ Hobb's Hole

  Tarts, 33

  Tasker, Anne (Bladen), xxvii, 239
    Benjamin, xxvii
    Frances Anne, _see_ Carter, Frances Anne (Tasker)
    family, social and economic position of, xxvii

  Taverns, 18, 53, 96, 109
    called ordinaries in Virginia, 117

  Tayloe, Col. John, of "Mount Airy," xxxi, 24, 69, 77, 94, 102, 120,
        142, 148, 152, 155, 201, 242, 245, 246, 247, 248
    Elizabeth, 247
    Kitty, 95, 121, 136, 152
    Polly, 95, 121, 136, 152
      Bob Carter admires, 121
    Rebecca, _see_ Lee, Rebecca (Tayloe)
    Rebecca (Plater), 78, 121, 152, 153, 154, 246, 247
    Sally, 136, 152
    family, xxxi, 77
    _see also_ Taylor

  Taylor, Mr., 86, 111, 200
    Mr. (overseer), 50, 62, 86, 91, 146, 185, 189, 244
    Miss, 86

  Tea, 33, 97, 107, 215
    ban on drinking, 110
    disturbances caused by duty on, 59, 209
    repeal of duty on, 131

  Telescopes, 117

  Tenancy, xxviii, 92

  Terraces, xx, 81, 237-238
    _see also_ falling gardens

  "The Cliffs," Richmond County, Fauntleroy home, 241, 243, 245

  _The Spectator_, 4, 37
    Priscilla Carter studies, 20

  Theodolites, 187, 191, 196

  Tholepins, 146

  Thompson, Dr. Thomas, 51, 156, 205, 244

  Thornton, Charlotte (Belson), 95, 148, 201, 246
    Col. Presley, 246

  Thunder and lightning, frighten Mrs. Carter, 79, 123, 144

  Tibbs, Capt., 183

  Ticks, 158, 169, 181

  Tidewater Virginia, emigration from begins early, xiv
    England seeks to exploit products of, xiii
    "Golden Age," in, xiii
    great landowners dominate life in, xv
    methods of operating estates in, xv-xvi
    tobacco industry in, xiv

  Tinkers, 185

  Tobacco, 88, 117, 142, 144, 185, 200
    shipments of, stopped, 113, 117
    wasteful system of cultivation, xiv
    _see also_ Tobacco industry

  Tobacco industry, adversely affected by various factors, xiv

  Toddy, 29, 57, 90

  Toll mills, 75

  Tom (coachman), 55, 134

  Tom (hostler), 91, 200

  Toothache, 29, 84, 108, 185, 186

  Tories, 191, 245

  Towns, plans for building, 89
    _see also_ Aquia, Colchester, Fredericksburg, Hobb's Hole, Leeds,
          Norfolk, Williamsburg

  Trade, no social stigma attached to, xvi
    Carter engages in, 75

  Travel, by water, xxiii, 31, 144-145, 192
    overland, 144, 149
    _see also_ Carriages, Chairs, Chariots, Coaches, Sedans

  Trenton, N.J., 127

  _Tristram Shandy_, 129

  Trumpet Minuet, 30

  Tryon, Gov. William, 64

  "Tuckahoe," Goochland County, Randolph home, description of, 238-239

  Tudor Rose (decorative motif), xxii

  Turberville, Betty Tayloe (Corbin), 242
    George, 84, 130
    Mrs. George, 84, 90, 130
    George Richard, 242
    John, of "Hickory Hill," 47, 73, 88, 110, 137, 147, 202, 242
    Letitia Corbin (Letty), 25, 31, 88, 89, 90, 125, 136, 157, 200,
          202, 242
    Martha (Corbin), 31, 88, 188, 200, 202, 242
    family, xxxi, 158

  Turpentine, 190

  Tutors, xviii, xix, 3, 6-7, 93-94, 95, 109, 143, 201, 238, 243,
    American-born, 29, 93-94, 112
    at Bushfield, 41, 244
    at Sabine Hall, xviii
    barred out of schoolroom, 34
    conduct prescribed for, 159-168
    Englishmen as, xix, 112
    salaries and perquisites of, 3, 6-7
    Scotchmen as, xix, 29, 41, 90, 93-94, 244
    social position of, xix

  Tyler's Ferry, 96, 110, 208, 247

  Tyre, _Dictionary_, 25

  Ucomico Church, _see_ Yeocomico

  Ucomico River, _see_ Yeocomico River

  Umbrellas, 144

  _Universal Magazine_, quoted, 71-72, 73

  Upper Marlborough, Md., 97, 209, 247

  _Urania, or a choice collection of Psalm-Tunes, Anthems and Hymns_, 247

  Valentines, 58, 62, 65, 245
    for Priscilla Carter, 65, 230-233

  Valley of Virginia, xxxii

  Vice, erroneous impressions concerning prevalence in Virginia, 9, 46-47

  Violins, 30, 57, 121, 207
    _see also_ Fiddles

  Virgil, 74, 82, 83, 128, 138, 152

  Virginia, characteristic dress of women, 29
    compared with New Jersey, 60-61, 100, 159-164, 167-168
    false impression regarding ungodliness in, 9, 46-47
    fasts in, 110, 111, 112
    General Assembly of, 117
      dissolved by Governor, 110, 112
    General Court of, 26, 95, 199, 203
    Governor of, dissolves Assembly, 110, 112
      toasts to, 59, 64, 129
    Governor's Council, xxix
    hospitality and politeness in, 29, 43, 90
    Indian disturbances on frontier, 187
    peculiarities of speech in, 177
    political unrest, _see_ American Revolution
    Sabbath observance in, 73, 137, 167-168
    social character of religious gatherings, 29, 162
    _see also_ Piedmont Virginia, Tidewater Virginia, Valley of Virginia

  _Virginia Gazette_, 64, 65, 67, 69, 79, 245, 247, 248

  Vorhees, Mr., 98, 247

  Waddell, Rev. James, 73, 245

  Wade, Miss, 155

  Wadman, Mr., 172

  Waiting-men, 94, 96

  Walker, Mr., 25, 28
    Capt., 22, 28, 29, 32, 88, 172, 191, 202, 242

  Wall, Mr., comedian, 98, 247
    Dr. Llewellyn Lechmere, 247

  Wallings, Mr., 17

  Ward, Dr., 4, 14, 98, 100
    Mrs., 99, 104
    James, 106

  Warden, Mr., 75, 88, 116, 172
    John, tutor, 28, 243

  Ware, "Aunt," 100
    Rachel, 100

  Warehouses, 89, 117
    hinder shipping of tobacco, 117

  Warsaw, Va., 241

  Warwick, Md., 98, 210, 247

  Washington, George, 238, 244
    ideas on education, xvii
    Jenny, 51, 88, 123, 125, 135, 136, 148, 178, 196
    Col. John Augustine, of "Bushfield," 51, 66, 83, 90, 137, 142,
          145, 244, 245
    Mrs. John Augustine, 51, 88, 202

  Wash-houses, 81

  Washer-women, 96, 207

  Waste-gates, 75

  Watch seals, 84, 209

  Watches, 84

  Watermelons, 151, 152, 157

  _Water Parted from the Sea_ (song), 37, 132, 243

  Watt, _Logick_, 194

  Webster, Althea (Alhe), 106
    Betsy, 106
    Peletiah (Palatiah), letter to, 172-173
    Ruth, 106, 107
      letter to, 174-175

  Weddings, 51

  Wellford, Mrs. William Harrison, 237

  West, Mr., 97

  Westmoreland County, 135, 241, 242, 243, 244, 248

  Westmoreland County Court, 87, 149, 181

  Westmoreland Court House, Va., 96, 208, 247
    tavern at, 110

  Wet nurses, 39

  Wheat, 75, 112, 114, 125
    Carter purchases for mill, 190
    exported to Philadelphia, 77

  Wheatly, Phillis, 72, 245
    poem by, quoted, 73

  White Plains, battle at, xxxii

  Wiggins, Dr., 7

  Wildernesses, xx

  _Will Wimple_, 58

  Williams, John Rogers, edits Fithian manuscripts, xxxii, 239

  Williamsburg, xxx, 26, 34, 40, 44, 69, 79, 95, 126, 134, 172, 198,
        245, 247, 248
    Carter home at, xxix, 79
    library of Carter at, 119
    organ at, 30, 51
    public houses at, 65
    Robert Carter visits, xxix, 200
    _see also_ College of William and Mary

  Willing, Mr., 94
    Thomas, 246

  Willis, Harry, xxx, 20, 48, 54, 55, 59, 60, 62, 63, 65, 70, 76, 82,
        86, 88, 112, 116, 122, 123, 133-134, 142, 146, 147, 148, 150,
        169, 172, 181, 182, 184, 186, 190, 199, 201, 202, 206, 216, 241
    commences school, 20
    letter to, 201-202

  "Windsor," Westmoreland County, Steptoe home, 246

  Wine, 29, 42, 57, 77, 97, 111, 138, 141, 158, 191

  Wirt, William, 245

  Witherspoon, Dr. John, 3, 6, 11, 46, 90, 93, 95, 106, 107, 112, 143,
        163, 240
    advises Fithian to accept position, 7, 9, 14
    career and influence of, 240
    letters to, 9-10

  Wolfe, Gen. James, description of monument to, 71-72

  Women, discussions regarding souls of, 82

  Woodcutters, 74

  Wormeley, Judith, _see_ Lee, Judith (Wormeley)
    Ralph, at Oriel College, Oxford University, xix

  Worth, Mr., 211

  Yeocomico Church (Ucomico Church), Cople Parish, Westmoreland County,
        22, 88, 96, 114, 122, 145, 169, 179, 202, 242
    choir in, 195
    _see also_ Smith, Rev. Thomas

  Yeocomico River, 31, 77, 89, 246
    ships in, 76

  "Yew Spring," Caroline County, Corbin home, 248

  Yorick (horse), 24, 94

  Zodiac, plantations named for signs of, xxviii

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's note:

Page 6: After Breakfast rode to Deerfeild (changed Deerfeild to

Page 43: turn'd and and met Her (removed duplicate and)

Page 75: out old Sonata; (changed out to our)

Page 76: the Land seeems (seeems changed to seems)

Page 91: sordid veiws of avarice (veiws changed to views)

Page 92: would not onlyly inrich (onlyly changed to only)

Page 116: valuable as as the Phenix (removed duplicat as)

Page 134: Here here he sits (removed duplicate here)

Page 144: in in 50 minutes (removed duplicate in)

Page 159: removinging ( removed double "ing")

Page 197: "to Multiply 12£ 12s 12-1/2d by itself, (closing " supplied)

Page 229: I thherefore (replaced thherefore with therefore)

Page 213: about three in in the Afternoon (removed repeated in)

Page 248: promiinent (replaced with prominent)

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use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.