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Title: Guernsey Pictorial Directory and Stranger's Guide - Embellished with Numerous Wood-cuts
Author: Bellamy, Thomas
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Guernsey Pictorial Directory and Stranger's Guide - Embellished with Numerous Wood-cuts" ***

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Transcriber's Note

This etext differs from the original as follows. The oe ligature
is represented as [oe]. Minor inconsistencies of punctuation and
capitalization have been corrected, as well as these definite
typographical errors: amunition to ammunition; anemonies to anemones;
betweeen to between; bear to bare; Chedder to Cheddar; considerble to
considerable; Farenheit to Fahrenheit; heigth to height; millepedes to
millipedes; mugworth to mugwort; pewets to pewits; pontentilla to
potentilla; purpuerea to purpurea; venemous to venomous. Besides that
the corrections mentioned in errata at the end have also been made.
Because the author favored what are now seen as antiquated and eccentric
spellings, many other questionable words have been left unchanged.
Examples of these are goal for gaol, grove(d) for groove(d),
encumberance, bason, chesnut, brocoli, transome.


              STRANGER'S GUIDE.


               THOMAS BELLAMY.

          [Illustration: Ivy-Gate.]



        Entered at Stationers' Hall.

          PRINTED BY T. J. MAUGER.


The Guides hitherto tendered the public, having in some measure fallen
short of furnishing the Stranger with a just notion of the island and its
interior beauty, from want of illustration and leisure for natural
observation; the Author of the following desultory pages, flatters himself
by simplicity of arrangement, utility of matter, and a few tail-pieces
strongly illustrative of native scenery, to introduce a bearing towards the
same: and here it is but just to remark that his daily memoranda during his
temporary sojourn has been the chief source of his information, which, if
deemed of sufficient importance to attract the attention of strangers, he
solicits for it that candour, which he has some right to claim when he
labours for the welfare of others, and is anxious only for the information
of the visitor. It now only remains to render a fit apology for the
inaccuracy of some of the wood-cuts, and the disproportion of others; which
if duly considered, in connexion with the work, as being executed by one
hand, together with the views, within the short space of five months,
perhaps will be sufficient. However, the Author takes this opportunity of
mentioning, that should he be so far encouraged as to issue a second
edition, he trusts his friends and others will favor him with their
drawings, especially upon such things appertaining unto the antiquity,
architecture, botany and natural history of the island. Hitherto, at the
suggestion of others, he laments having borrowed many of his views from
by-gone works, which on being compared with the original of the day, have
fallen considerably short of truth, especially as regards the improved
character of sylvan and other extensive ornamental innovation; and, in this
respect, he alludes chiefly to the country churches, which though in all
their architectural portions are confessedly correct, nevertheless in the
back scenery are somewhat defective. He likewise acknowledges with much
pleasure that he is indebted for three of the engravings to two gentlemen,
whose native talents are an ornament to the island; he alludes to Mr F. C.
Lukis, and Mr Charles Mac Culloch; also for some excellent information from
Col. Lane, Mr John Allaire, jun., and several others.

To conclude, the stranger is begged to understand, that as he may
occasionally fall in with the word "Baillif," it is used in direct
contradistinction to the English word "Bailiff," which if properly rendered
signifies a menial or subordinate officer, whereas "Baillif" of Guernsey
carries the important meaning of chief magistrate or judge.

                _Guernsey, August 7, 1843._


Is situate in the great gulf or bay of St Michael, in the English Channel,
7 to 8 leagues West of the Norman coast, but subject to the British Crown,
and frequently treated of in topographical works, under article
Southamptonshire. It lieth between 49d. 24m. and 49d. 33m. North lat., and
2d. 32m. and 2d. 48m. West longitude. It is distant about 108 miles
South-West of Southampton; 99 miles South-West of Portsmouth; 90 miles
South-East from Plymouth, and 61 miles South of Portland. In relation to
others of the Channel Islands, it is 7 leagues North of Jersey; 5 leagues
South-West of Alderney; and 2 leagues West of Serk. The two last are
dependencies of Guernsey, as are also Herm and Jethou, which serve to
shelter the roadstead, that otherwise would be of no importance. In
approach, the shores of Guernsey do not present the same attractions as
those of Jersey, being altogether more sterile, and of a less fertile
aspect. The form of the island is triangular, and its whole circumference
upwards of thirty miles, and is deeply indented with commodious bays and
harbours. Its length from North-East to South-West is twelve miles; its
breadth from North to South about nine, and contains twenty-four square
miles, or fifteen thousand three hundred and sixty acres, and about four
thousand and seventy houses, with a fluctuating population of from 25,000
to 30,000 inhabitants.

The face of the country is varied with gentle risings and hills, being
watered with springs, ponds, and fine clear gravelly brooks, many of which
are constantly employed in turning over-shot mill-wheels. On the North or
vale side, the coast, with the exception of a few cairns and risings, is
generally low and flat, making a gradual elevation from a level very little
above high-water mark, to the South side, which is beautifully intersected
by deep ravines and craggy hills, for the most part covered with wild
herbage, on the whole forming a true miniature representation of Welch
scenery, the crags rising precipitately to the height of 280 feet above the
level of the sea.

For considerable distances off the land, the island is circumgirt with
sharp sunken rocks, which together with the line of breast-works,
batteries, and a regular and efficiently supplied fort and citadel, renders
it upon the whole almost impregnable.

[Illustration: A View of rough Sea, near Richmond.]

Formerly, in the Valle, there was a noble sheet of water, extending for
upwards of two miles in length and one in breadth, which of late years, by
great labour and expence has been drained off. At present, it is an inland
marsh, but a vestige of the pool may still be seen throughout the winter
months, as inundating a space of about three acres a little to the West of
Noirmont, and which may be plainly seen from Grandes Roques and the road
leading thereto.

[Illustration: Grande Mare.]

The inhabitants have still a few small and convenient fish-ponds, and one
the property of Mr Arnold, near the Valle church, when full, is upwards of
three acres, has pleasure boats on it, and abounds in excellent fish, such
as tench, mullet and eels; which latter, properly speaking, are the only
kind that inhabit the rivulets and fresh water pools of the island.

[Illustration: Mr Arnold's House and Pool.]

The houses lie scattered throughout the island; mansions, farm-houses, and
even cottages being excellently built; and if not pleasantly surrounded
with orchards, trees and shrubs, at least with neat little gardens,
flowers-beds and bowers. Most of the mansions have green-houses, for a late
paper says, "in our country rambles we took many a peep into the
kitchen-gardens and green-houses, and were highly gratified in observing
the paths syringed and fresh, and sickly plants watered at the roots with
liquid manure: and were careful to note in thinning them they went over
twice instead of all at once; which we understood to be much better, as
they avoided wounding them. They examined newly budded stocks, which were
secured by tying to the tree, and encouraged by removing suckers and buds
beneath. They disbudded wall-trees, and nailed in the young shoots, as they
became sufficiently advanced; moved earth frequently with the spade under
the walls, and slipped off all infected shoots," &c.

Indeed, whatsoever direction one takes from St Peter-Port, the capital and
only town in the island, he is sure to fall in with indications of wealth,
refinement and good taste; and if he cannot exactly decide on the splendour
of architectural finish, he will at least discern something beyond the
usual order, that evidently mark competence and ease. This unique
appearance is not only confined to the houses, for with scarcely an
exception every detached house has some elegant ground tastefully arranged
into a lawn replete with beautiful and rare shrubs, which, for the most
part, are kept in tolerable condition, and their foliage allowed to droop
gracefully on either side of a small winding carriage-road. In this
respect, perhaps the Grange, the Rohais, and the St Andrew's roads may
appear most conspicuous, and even the cottages, in these, and many other
parts of the suburbs, assume a very different aspect to what they usually
do in England and the sister-isle; for here, even in the less respectable
parts of the town, small cottages, having gardens, afford generally a good
display of jonquils, pansies, ranunculuses, polyanthus, hyacinths, daisies,
anemones, &c., which in some front gardens are excellently arranged,
whereas in others, from lack of room, are entirely omitted, but have in
their place a mossy lawn and a few exotic shrubs, elegantly arranged, which
considerably heightens their respectability and effect.

[Illustration: Mont Durant House.]

The residence of the wealthy Mr John Allaire, proprietor of the island of
Jethou, and other considerable estates in Guernsey.

On the opposite side of the road, is Summerland, the property of Tupper
Carey, Esq., remarkable for its castellated style of building, some gay
green views, and a variety of elegant adjoining grounds.

[Illustration: Summerland.]

On the Rohais road may be seen Hirzelbourne, a kind of Indian villa, the
property of Captain De Lisle, which unfortunately is nearly concealed from
public view by a lofty wall.

[Illustration: Hirzelbourne.]

A little below is Frogmore, the residence of Dr Carey, remarkable for its
ponderous veranda, whimsically constructed of rustic elm-stumps. The
adjoining grounds are neat, and the gardens may be said to be tastefully

[Illustration: Frogmore.]

At Petite-Marche, is the mansion of Sir Thomas Saumarez, heavily shrouded
in front by dense shrubberies, and open in the back to sloping meads, well
studded with trees. From the lawn there is also a fine view of the isles of
Serk, Herm, and Jethou.

[Illustration: Sir Thomas Saumarez's House.]

The view of the town from this spot, is very excellent, and from a drawing
as given in Jacob's Annals, would appear to be much admired.

[Illustration: View taken from the back of Sir Thomas Saumarez's House.]

Opposite is Belmont, the residence of Mr William Brock, so much admired for
its foliage and timber, being circumgirt on all sides with trees of no
ordinary size, that would in fact be no small appendage to a nobleman's
domain. It is to be lamented that many of the trees are now being cut down.

[Illustration: Mr Brock's house.]

Adjoining l'Hyvreuse, or New Ground, is Castle Carey, which has so truly a
picturesque effect from the sea and Castle Cornet. (_Vide Trees,

[Illustration: Castle Carey.]

As we diverge from the town, villas become larger until they in almost
every respect assume the air and character of noblemen's seats, and perhaps
as such Havilland Hall would fall in identity with those of England, as it
is a noble quadangular building, supported in front by four lofty columns,
and is the present residence of the Governor, General Napier. Connected
with the building are spacious grounds and plantations which consist of
beautiful meadows through which babbles a rippling brook. At the foot of
this splendid mansion, or rather on the other side of the valley, is the
family farm and dairy which is got up much after the English style, the
whole being the properly of Col. De Havilland, a native of the Island.

[Illustration: Havilland Hall.]

The scenery in Guernsey, generally speaking, is not much enriched with
sylvan beauty, and perhaps the above mansion, together with St George, and
Woodlands are the most conspicuous. Although a dense wood or coppice is
hardly known here, nevertheless, there is a good sprinkling of elm and
other timber; the former of which is of a peculiar growth and quality,
being in its structure not much unlike the poplar. The fields are commonly
divided by hedge rows of oak, elm and ash, but in the lowland districts of
the Valle with turf banks, surmounted with furze, which grows rapidly for
three years, when it is cut for fuel. Should the ground be too wet and
swampy for the growth of furze, stone fences are adopted in its stead.

It has been said the social interchanges of life have been much embarrassed
among those who dwell in the capital by too nice an attention to the
different classes or gradations of rank, in preference to a selection of
company founded on the claims of merit and good fellowship; and that the
same has been deemed ridiculous and troublesome, insomuch that it even
descends to the retail traders of so small an Island possessing no native
nobility. The answer to this is quickly rebutted when we deliberately dwell
on the proper and just position of a society within a small circumference,
who have a moral as well as judicial example to bestrew, lest by too close
a connection the stream be defiled, and that excellent justice for which
Guernsey has been so long famous, become corrupt and contaminated. Perhaps
speaking with evenness and temperament, no spot in the world for upwards of
half a century has put forth such pure and undefiled justice as Guernsey,
for the rigorous exaction of which the main bulk of the present population
feel themselves indebted to their late venerable and respected bailiff.[A]

  [A] Daniel De Lisle Brock, Esq., died Sept. 24, 1842.

It has also been stated that mediocrity, rather bordering on poverty
prevail throughout the country, and a rigid economy consequently practised.
An assertion of this kind may do well abroad, and private pique may go much
towards its aggrandizement; but the stranger who by integrity has upheld
himself amongst us, would for the love of candour be the first to give a
retrograde evidence, and to establish a cause, which for the sake of truth
we fain would plead. It has been acknowledged by those who have left us,
the community of Guernsey is the happiest they have ever fell in with, and
one in particular says: "The pictures of want, filth, and crime, which so
frequently shock the eye of humanity in our own country, and which appear
to an extraordinary extent in Ireland, and in the county of Dorset, are not
to be met with in Guernsey; but in their stead are to be seen happy signs
of abundance, comfort and contentment. Contrary to Dorset and Somerset the
poor man has his neat little house, is surrounded by his cheerful family,
and is under no apprehension that he shall not be able, with moderate
labour, to provide a full meal and a comfortable lodging, for all who are
dependent on him. What are the causes of this superior state of things in
Guernsey? Why is it, that within so short a distance of the above places
where the pining labourer is but half fed and half clad, the man of
Guernsey should have a well stored board and abundance of clothing? The
climate is not peculiar; the land is not remarkably fertile; yea, many
parts of England are quite equal to Guernsey in both these particulars. How
then is it that Guernsey should be so much a-head in the career of
happiness? Guernsey has superior laws--superior institutions, and the state
of things in Guernsey is one among the thousand proofs that have been
given, that the prosperity and happiness of a people are much more
dependent on its laws, institutions, and the manner which its government is
carried on, than on climate and fertility of soil. I have twice visited the
Island of Guernsey under circumstances favourable for becoming acquainted
with its condition: and in the hopes of directing general attention to a
model from which even a nation might derive advantage."

One of the most striking changes which the visitor, whether from England or
France, meets with on his landing in Guernsey, is the entire absence of
beggars; which are so truly abundant in England, especially in the pauper
districts of Dorset and Ireland. That miserable compound of imposture and
real distress--the wandering mendicant--is there unknown. A tradesman who
has been established at St Peter-Port for upwards of thirty years, assured
me that during the whole period of his residence in the Island he has never
once seen a beggar. For myself I neither saw nor heard of one; and I was
satisfied, from all I learnt, that a beggar in Guernsey is a being of a
past age--a creation of history--a fit subject for the speculation of the
antiquary--but too completely covered with the dust of ancient times, for
those of the present day to examine. Not only is the island free from
beggars, but it is free also from those debasing but unfortunate creatures
whom the twilight of evening brings forth from their hiding places, like
swarms of moths, to join the giddy dance round the flame that is soon to
destroy them. Prostitution proceeds from the same sources as
mendicity--want and ignorance; and where the latter is not found, the
former will rarely be met with. Be that as it may, however, the fact is,
that the streets and roads of Guernsey are not disgraced by the appearance
either of the prostitute or the beggar.

St Peter-Port, the capital, is situate on the profile of a hill about the
middle of the East coast, and extends for a considerable distance, the
streets in the old town being narrow, whilst those of the upper or new one
are very superior, but having the appearance of being built in valleys. On
being slightly acquainted with the town, the stranger's uppermost remark is
always the number of steps, when he is apt to exclaim: "There is no end to
them!" The opening of a new street, the erection of a market-house, and the
purchase of the adjacent land cost the States £80,000, the profits of which
enabled them to erect a fish-market on a magnificent scale. The public
buildings around are extensive and handsome, and consist chiefly of the
Mechanics' Library, a semi-arcade of shops, and the Assembly Rooms
opposite, underneath which is the Poultry Market.

[Illustration: Assembly Rooms and Market-Place.]

Besides this the town boasts of a spacious Court of Justice, a Prison,
Hospital, Public Libraries, Theatre, Billiard Rooms, Reading Rooms, &c.

The Harbour is the most inferior appendage to the town, being only
surrounded by a pier of loose stones, not having mortar or anything withal
to bind them together, and only extending Northward 460 feet by 757
Southwards. Plans upon plans have from time to time been laid down for a
new one, but hitherto the States have not summed up resolution enough to
accede to them. One would suppose it had never been touched since king
James granted the _Petite Coutume_, which was a levy on the imported
commodities and native manufacture of the island, for the support of the

The entrance of the pier is defended by Castle Cornet, a fortress built on
a rock, well defended by batteries on all sides, and is about a quarter of
a mile from the pier head. It commands a fine view of the town, harbour,
heights, and adjacent isles, and may be esteemed an interesting object from
the land. It has a signal post which announces every vessel sailing for or
passing the island; as also a flag-staff on which is hoisted the British
flag in fine weather and on extraordinary occasions. It is supposed to have
taken its name from the distinguished family of Cornet, who are mentioned
as being present at the dedication of the Town Church. The Castle contains
artillery and infantry barracks, and several ammunition stores sufficient
to admit of about three hundred barrels of gunpowder, and a proportionable
supply of shot.

[Illustration: Castle Cornet.]


_Academies._--Notwithstanding there is a spacious College which embraces
all the useful branches of a classical and commercial education, there are
a variety of schools and seminaries, which for the most part are
conveniently situated. They are moderate in their terms, and are chiefly on
the day-boarding system. The principal are Messrs Hayes and Piercy, &c.,
and for Ladies, Misses Walsh, Mills, and Cross. Besides these, there are
Sunday Schools and others, such as the Church of England, two; Wesleyan,
two; Independent, two; New Connection, two; Bryanites, Primitive
Methodists, Baptist, and National Infant Schools, whose united scholars
amount to 2,270.

_Agreements and Rents._--On renting a house a simple agreement signed by
the two parties is sufficient, and if any misunderstanding should hereafter
occur, the Court always take into consideration the position of the
stranger, and adjust it in a lenient and amicable way. An indenture or
agreement drawn by a professional man, is far less expensive than in
England; but there is hardly any occasion for either. In these affairs no
stamps or any other kind of taxed papers are used. Respectable and
convenient town houses let from £20 to £40 per annum, and in the country,
with the advantage of a large garden or orchard, from £10 to £20 per annum.


_Andrew's Church, St._--Has a low embattled tower, and a short square spire
at the end of the nave, with a South aisle and chancel. Most of the windows
are modernized, and two of them were evidently square-headed with trefoils
rudely sculptured out of the granite, much after the style of the Forest
Church. As the windows are small, perhaps to introduce more light the
mullions have been removed. The walls are supported by heavy buttresses,
and the whole Church is vaulted. At the back of the pulpit seat is a panel
which represents St George and the dragon, which in all probability is
Guernsey manufacture, and identities the perfection to which sculpture had
attained in days of yore. Unfortunately the pulpit is painted mahogany
colour, which does away with the carving of the original oak that ought to
be regarded with veneration, as it is the only remaining pulpit of
antiquity in the Island.

[Illustration: St Andrew's Church.]

_Antiquities._--Vide "The Stranger's Guide."

_Banks and Bankers._--There are three Banks; the States' Bank, the Guernsey
Banking Company, 29, High-street, and the Guernsey Commercial Banking
Company, 22, High-street. The chief business of these companies is to draw
and cash bills on London and Paris, to discount local promissory notes, and
to advance money. Their hours of business are from ten o'clock in the
morning until three in the afternoon.

Taking into consideration the smallness of the Island, these Banks pretty
well inundate the public with paper, nevertheless their security perhaps,
is rendered greater than any thing of the kind in England, and may be
deemed one of the causes of our prosperity. The paper money issued by the
States of the Island is something after the following manner: if the roads
for instance are out of repair, or that it is absolutely necessary to build
a new pier, then immediately the States, after a close conference, issue on
their security, one pound notes, which as the work proceeds are sent out.
On the public work yielding an income after its completion, the notes are
gradually brought in again, and new undertakings commenced if necessary. By
means of this "truly healthy" currency, undertakings of considerable
magnitude are occasionally executed. Moreover, the purposes for which the
notes are issued are of advantage to every man in the Island; so that every
one looks upon them as coming from the Bank to which he is a partner.
Formerly the notes were not payable on demand; and the States had not so
much as an office for their presentation: nevertheless the notes were never
refused, as the people found by experience that their representatives, the
States, did not issue the notes in greater abundance than the demand for
them justified.

The Savings Bank is under the direction of a committee of the principal
people of the Island, most of them members of the States, and is on a safe
foundation, the whole capital being vested in the public funds. When the
name and occupation of a depositor is entered, he receives 3 per cent for
his money.

_Barracks._--Vacant Barracks capable of admitting upwards of 5,000 troops,
are erected in various parts of the Island. Their repairs are kept up by
occasional grants from the Home Government, and a proper officer is
appointed for their annual over-hauling.

_Bats_--Are by no means numerous, or of such size, colour and quantity as
those of Jersey. They inhabit the vale districts rather than the upland

_Beggars_--Are not known here, and should there be an importation, the
Constables take it upon themselves to manage their departure by encumbering
the Captain who brought them with the expense of their return. An affair of
this kind cost our late venerable Baillif much trouble in rebutting
_versus_ the corporation of Southampton, who at several times either sent
or permitted their landing.

_Birds_--That are constantly with us are: the red legged crow, the common
crow, sparrow,[A] tit-mouse, long tailed do., common wren, golden crested
do., lark, sky do., magpie, sparrow-hawk, blackbird, and thrush. Those
which occasionally visit us or remain only throughout the winter season
are: the ring dotterel, skitty, quail,[B] plover, starling, red-wing,
fieldfare, curlew, tern, snipe, woodcock,[C] &c. The swallow and swift
generally leaves us about the middle of October and return in the spring.
Perhaps no place of equal extent can boast of having such a variety of
birds, for besides the above we have the occasional visit of the hoopoe,
ring-ouzel, mountain-finch, hooded crow, golden oriole, sanderling, godwit,
lapwing, grey plover, Northern diver, wild goose, brent do., wild duck,
together with a few others of the hawk tribe. The heron may be said to be
rather peculiar to the small adjacent Island of Herm; and those beautiful
birds, the bittern and egret, were both shot by a person in the fens,
technically called by sportsmen the "Pontine Marshes."

  [A] Sparrows are exceedingly numerous and work great ravages in corn
      and other grain fields, wherefore the States for years past, have
      granted an annual sum of £70 or so much per head for their
      destruction. At a meeting of the States for 1830, an Act was passed
      by way of awarding a premium for the further destruction of
      sparrows, wherein it was agreed, for that year only, to give four
      doubles for every sparrows head, and one for each egg.

  [B] According to a memorandum dated Nov. 19, 1841, the author
      has:--"Shot a quail in a sand field behind Mr De Lisle's house,
      Grande Rocque, which on opening had its crop full of cress seed,
      with a few berries of the common nightshade. From this it would
      seem they are fond of hot seeds and poisonous berries. Also killed
      three terns at one shot on my passage to Herm in a boat, which are
      rare kind of birds."

  [C] In a memorandum dated the 10th Nov., 1842, I find my old cat
      "Pinkey" caught a fine woodcock down near a little straw built
      duckery on the margin of a brook over-run with trees, osiers, and
      willows. This to the sportsman may appear remarkably strange, and
      tend to convince him that woodcocks are not over and above scarce


_Boarding Houses and Lodgings._--Lodgings may be obtained in various parts
of the town from 8s. to 15s. per week, and in the most enviable situations
they hardly ever exceed 1l. Country lodgings adequate to the former may be
obtained at about 8s. to 12s. per week, in which there is the excellent
advantage of being able to obtain fresh cream and butter. Lewis's Boarding
House, Glatney, and Shore's Commercial one, High-street, with one or two
others, are the principal. Terms from 15s. to 2l. per week, which of course
will be comprehended according to the style of accommodation, as the
cheapest spot in the world may be abused by an unnecessary suit of
apartments and superfluous living.

Lewis's Boarding House is pleasantly situated, fronting the sea, and
commands an extensive prospect of the adjacent Isles and France, as also
all vessels in and out of the harbour. It is a commodious building, having
a numerous suit of rooms, which are airy and spacious, and might
accommodate some fifteen or twenty families with ease and comfort. On the
top is a kind of rotunda, which is a cool retreat in the heat of summer, as
there is always a breeze from the channel; here the visitor, with a
telescope, if the weather is clear, can plainly distinguish the houses of
France and Jersey. At the back of the house are excellent gardens abounding
with fruit and flowers.

[Illustration: Lewis's Boarding House.]

_Boatmen._--By late regulations respecting these, every boatman is bound to
have the number of his boat painted outside on each bow, and inside on the
stern; he is also bound to give the Harbour-Master a correct list of his
boat's crew, under a penalty of 14 livres tournois. Passengers are limited

       6 for a Boat from 14 to 18 feet long.
       8 for a Boat from 18 to 22 feet long.
      10 for a Boat from 22 to 26 feet long.
      12 for a Boat from 26 feet and upwards.

No boat under fourteen feet in length is allowed to take passengers from
the pier to the roads, or from the roads to the pier; under a penalty of 14
livres tournois for each passenger.

Each division is to perform the duty turn by turn weekly; and none but the
boats of the division on duty are authorized to land passengers from the
steamers, under a penalty of 3 livres tournois.

The boatmen are bound to put on shore, in a place of safety, the luggage
and effects of the passengers they land, that their owners, or porters whom
they have engaged, may take them away, under a penalty of 10 livres

During the landing of passengers and their effects, porters or any one
else, are forbidden to place themselves at the top of the steps where the
said landing takes place, or to go down the same, until the passengers with
their effects have left them; under a penalty of 10 livres tournois.

Boats belonging to the division not on duty, may take passengers from the
pier, or elsewhere, to put them on ship board; but they are not in any way
to incommode the landing of those passengers arriving, who are to have the
preference either of descending from the vessel into the boats, or of being
taken ashore. Boatmen, porters, and all others, are bound to make room for
those who land, under a penalty of 14 livres tournois.

Fares:--Conveyance of passengers from the pier or from the rocks, St
Julien, to the roads, or from the roads to the said pier or rocks, tenpence
each passenger, ordinary luggage included. Conveyance within the pier or at
the pier heads, or from the vessel ashore, five pence each passenger; the
whole under a penalty of 14 livres tournois.

_Bread._--Is nearly the same price as in England, and by some is considered
of a better quality.

_Butter._--Together with meat are the only dear articles of consumption in
the Island, yet when we take into consideration, the Guernsey lb. being 2
oz. more than that of England, the difference is not so great. Butter
throughout the summer is usually 1s. to 1s. 1d. per lb., in winter 1s. 6d.
to 2s.

_Carts._--Apparently are extremely awkward and inconvenient, nevertheless
from their structure are well calculated for their intended purposes, which
is for hay, vraic and other such like litter. Waggons are never used by the
farmers, and but very seldom by the town's people.


_Castles._--At present there are the Valle, Castle Cornet, and Ivy Castle
in the marshes, which latter appears to have been a Norman structure, and
is now laid out into a kind of garden belonging to the Governor, which is
densely surrounded with trees. The Valle Castle or St Sampson's, is
situated on a craggy eminence overlooking the sea. It has still its
ramparts mounted with cannon, and has capacious barracks for troops, which
are in a tolerable state of repair. The Castle du Grand Geoffrey stood in
the parish of St Mary de Castro, but there are no remains of it now

[Illustration: Ivy Castle.]

_Câtel Church._--Consists of a chancel, nave, South aisle and North
transept, is dedicated to Notre Dame de la Delivrance, and was consecrated
in the year 1203. It has a square tower pinnacled at each angle, surmounted
by a fine octagonal spire, which together with the whole building has
undergone many alterations during the last century. On one of the chancel
walls antique specimens of fresco paintings may be seen, and in a window of
the North transept, tracery coarsely wrought out of the stone forming the
lintel. The North wall of the chancel and transept of this Church, are
supposed to be the remaining portions of old walls, that formed a fort
called "Castel du Grand Sarazin," whence it is believed the Church took its
name. The place where the Castle standard was stuck is still to be seen,
being a projecting hollow stone about the middle of the chancel and
transept, where also other evidences may be traced. In the Church-yard is
interred the late Right Honourable Lord De Saumarez.

[Illustration: Câtel Church.]

_Cemeteries._--The public burial ground is laid out with much good taste
and judgement, and was purchased by the parish some few years since. The
whole is enclosed by a solid handsome wall of blue granite, adorned with
drooping shrubs. Some of the tombs are highly finished, and the mausoleum
of Isaac Carey, Esquire, of Hauteville, constructed by his late heirs, is a
splendid piece of work, and is carried to a considerable depth. To the
left, or between this and the College, is the "Stranger's Burial Ground,"
through which runs a new road walled on either side. At the other end of
the town and in a solitary place is a small walled enclosure or burial
ground, belonging to the Society of the Foxonian Quakers.

[Illustration: Carey's Mausoleum.]

_Chapels._--May be said to be numerous both in town and country, and almost
every religion may be accommodated. In the country the chief Dissenting
chapels are: the Calvinists, Baptists, Methodists and New Connexion.--_Vide

_Cheese._--English cheese is not over abundant, as the expences in
obtaining it are too great to satisfy that character of economy which the
English residents display; consequently cheese, such as Cheddar,
Bridgewater, and the like, fetch from 1s. 3d. to 1s. 6d. per lb. The Dutch
ball are the ones commonly in demand, and being of a variety of qualities
meet with a ready sale at from 4d. to 8d. per lb., which latter price will
ensure those of the best quality.

_Climate._--Is considered by Doctor Hoskins, who is a native surgeon of
considerable experience, to be a close representation of the West of
England or the Isle of Wight, but entirely exempt from the "auguish
disposition" of Hastings. The thermometer seldom rises above 80 degrees of
Fahrenheit, rarely as low as 37 deg. and never remains long stationary at
the freezing point.

_Clothes._--All cloth coming from England, and there being no draw back,
the taylor's bill may be considered somewhat a shade higher. In mending and
repairing, taylor's work is done at a much more reasonable price than in
England. Articles of French manufacture can be obtained at their usual
moderate prices, &c.

_Coals._--Are obtained at twenty-one shillings per ton, but the usual way
of purchasing them is by the quarter, which is a much less quantity,
thereby rendering it more convenient for families removing. By the quarter
they are 7s. 6d. in the winter, but less in the summer, as the freight is
not so expensive. A quarter is ten English bushels.

_College, the._--In its internal structure is well adapted for scholastic
duty and exercise, but the space much more ample than the present insular
education can warrant. Its architecture, though mixed is regular, and were
it not for an air of lightness in the material, would carry with it the
beauty of a monastic finish--a finish so truly regarded by all genuine
taste. Perhaps with equal fallacy a few minor points of the exterior may be
decided on in the same way; however the observer will discern for himself.

[Illustration: The College.]

The education of the establishment includes Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Divinity,
History, Geography, French and English Literature, Mathematics and
Arithmetic. Instruction in these branches of education is secured by the
College fee of 12l. per annum. Should any other studies be needed there are
extra masters without and within the College that superintend the following
acquirements:--Drawing, Surveying, the Spanish, Italian and German
languages, Music, Fencing and Drilling. There are two public examinations
at Midsummer, conducted by two Masters of Arts of the University of Oxford,
selected for that purpose by the heads of Exeter, Jesus, and Pembroke

Board and tuition with the Principal of the College is 60l. per annum,
including the 12l. of College dues; with the Vice-Principal 50l.; and with
the mathematical master 60l.

A drawing of the ancient gate-way is still preserved, of which a view is
here engraved.

[Illustration: Ancient College Gate-way.]

_Consuls._--For the protection of trade, these have been established by the
following powers: France, Spain, Portugal, Naples, Sicily, Belgium,
Holland, Prussia, Russia, Denmark and Sweden.

_Court, Royal._--The present building where the Royal Court holds its
sittings was erected in the year 1799, on an elevated spot at the upper end
of Smith-street, at a cost of about 7000l. The Greffe Office is to the
right, in which are kept all registries both of public and private
ordinances and private agreements. On the left is the common Court, where
justice business is transacted; behind this is the room for the advocates,
the witnesses and officers of the Court. Above stairs is the Grand Hall for
the meetings of the States, and where law and criminal causes, not decided
upon in the Court below, are heard and determined. Here are the full-length
portraits of our late Governor, Sir John Doyle, Daniel De Lisle Brock,
Esq., Baillif, Lord Seaton, a former Governor of the island, and the late
Lord De Saumarez.

[Illustration: The Royal Court House.]

_Cows._--Those commonly known by the name of "Alderney Cows" in England
need but little description, save that the Channel Isles being their
natural soil, they thrive well and produce almost double the quantity of
butter to what they do in England[A], France, or elsewhere. Hence it often
comes within the range of an observer to witness upwards of fifteen pounds
of butter from a cow per week throughout the summer. Foreign cows,
according to law, are not permitted in the Island, and even a farmer would
not allow a Jersey one to be seen on his land. Cheese is not made in the
Island, though it is said the Duke of Bedford tried the experiment by
sending dairymen, who reported the milk was too rich. By the tethering
system no grass is wasted, for the cow is only allowed range of from twelve
to fifteen feet, and is shifted three or four times per diem.

  [A] According to a memorandum dated April 4, 1829, Guernsey cows
      degenerate and become extremely feeble in England; that whereupon
      their bones protrude through the skin, and such was the case at
      Cheddington in Dorset, where I then resided. In another memorandum,
      when living at St Martin's, Jersey, I find an old woman of that
      parish had a remarkable fine cow that produced 18 and 19 lb. of
      butter per week throughout the months of May and June.

[Illustration: Tethered Cows.]

_Cyder._--Is plentiful and in most cases particularly good, though an evil
report gives it out as water dashed. The price varies according to the
season; at times being as low as 14s. whilst at others 30s. per hodgs.
Several hundred hogsheads are annually shipped for England.

_Diseases._--From the climate being open and healthy are few, and chiefly
consist of rheumatic complaints. Should the reader be over critical on this
head, he had better consult the "History of Guernsey," by Jonathan
Duncan.--_Vide Climate._

_Doctors and Physicians._--Considering the healthiness of the clime we are
somewhat overstocked, there being no less than twenty-four practising the
profession. There is no regular physician in the Island.

_Donkeys._--Are few, as they are merely employed in carrying corn to the
country wind-mills, or with families rusticating in the country. A number
may be generally seen browsing on Lancresse Common. They may be hired at
2s. or 2s. 6d. per day; if by the hour, 3d. is the general charge.


_Doubles_--Are the current copper coin of the Island, eight of which form
an eight double piece, which represent an English penny.

_Eggs._--Native eggs in summer are 6d. to 8d. per dozen, and during the
winter from 1s. to 1s. 6d. French ones being imported in large quantities
are from 5d. to 6d. per dozen.


_Exciseable Articles._--Groceries being exempt from all kind of duty and
imposition are a luxury as well as novelty to those just arrived from a
heavily taxed country; thus it is very common to hear recent visitors
walking home under a burden of untaxed articles, exclaiming: "Well! we
can't do this in England;--we can't get 3 lbs. of sugar for 10d.!" Tobacco
is 1s. per lb., snuff 1s. to 2s. per lb. Sugars 3d. to 5d. per lb. Teas 2s.
to 5s. per lb. Coffee (raw) 4d. per lb. Fried 8d. per lb. Ground do. 1s.
Soap 4d. per lb. Candles (dips) 6-1/2 d. per lb. Moulds 7d. per lb. Cocoa
1s. per lb. Best Chocolate 13d. per lb.

N.B. There being no duty on mahogany, deal, or any other kind of wood,
furniture is much cheaper than in England.

_Fish._--Abundant, and considered by strangers remarkably cheap. That
generally seen in the market in the greatest abundance are: turbot, brill,
whiff, megrim, sole, lemonsole, plaice, dab, marysole, dorey, mullet,
surmulet, mackerel, red gurnard, basse, wrasse, bream, gilt-head, herring,
pilchard, horse-mackerel, gar-fish, common cod, pollock, ling, atherine,
conger, ray, sand-eel, with numerous others. Lobsters, crabs, shrimps and
cray-fish are equally abundant, and may be obtained at the following
reasonable prices: Lobsters[A] 9d. crabs, (exceedingly large) 2d. to 8d.,
shrimps 3d. per pint, turbot 6d. per lb., soles 1s. per pair, dorey 1s.
bream 2d., whiting (exceedingly large) 6d. The ormer, a very delicate fish,
scarcely known in England, represents a veal cutlet, and is rather common
with us.

  [A] Lobsters would be much cheaper were they not taken in considerable
      quantities to Jersey, France, Portsmouth, Weymouth and Southampton;
      hence it has been remarked that early in the morning the market is
      glutted with lobsters, whereas immediately on the arrival of the
      steamers they are all gone.

_Fish Market, the_--Is a beautiful structure and has been erected of late
years. The interior is light and airy, and the slabs, which are handsomely
cut and groved are of black and variegated marble, being well supplied with
abundance of fresh water from pipes, which by means of cocks is brought
over the slabs at a moment's notice, thereby washing them immediately. The
Arcade is a spacious area, upwards of a hundred and ninety feet in length,
and proportionably broad, having two lines of sittings extending the length
of the building. The exterior towards the vegetable market, or facing the
Assembly Rooms, is handsomely occupied in shops, the Mechanics' Library,
and other offices. By an ordinance of the Royal Court every person selling
fish is obliged to do it in this arcade, for the use of which they pay one
penny a day. The whole arrangements, as well as variety, abundance, and
excellency of fish, at once impress the stranger with high notions of the
public spiritedness of the people, who have taken so much pains to provide
a fit receptacle for one single article of human sustenance.

_Farms_--Are hardly ever beyond fifty or sixty vergées, and in their
arrangements are contrary to every thing English. The yard is simply a few
out-houses, consisting of a stable, hay-loft, cart-house, and
cyder-factory, which latter apparatus is a set of large groved stones set
in a circle, around which passes a stone wheel guided by a wooden machine,
and drawn by a horse or ox. The apples being thus mashed in the trough or
grove are turned out, pressed, and racked off secundum artem. The corn is
thrashed in an out-house on the ground floor, and afterwards winnowed in
the air with a sheet and sieve.

[Illustration: Farm.]

_Flies._--In entomology little can be said, unless by the most acute
observer. As far as annoyance is produced, perhaps England or France would
exceed us; for, in no single instance, can be traced a multitude of insects
that work mischief either to cattle, trees, or any thing else, unless
it is the scarcely perceptible nuisance wrought by a species of the
millipedes,[A] which abound in dry lands, and occasionally disfigure the
healthy appearance of potatoes, if not timely destroyed.

  [A] According to a memorandum dated October 4, 1841, these insects do
      not injure or impair the quality of the potatoe, but only disfigure
      it. However voracious their attack, they cannot represent the evil
      of the moles in Jersey, which plough up as it were whole fields,
      and overthrow the year's produce.


_Flowers._--Floriculture has long been a favourite pursuit among the
inhabitants, which no doubt has been the chief cause of rendering this
department of gardening so famous. Although the best gardens are of no
great extent, yet they often contain beautiful, rare, and valuable plants;
and there are few cottages which have not a considerable space dedicated to
flowers. The mildness of the climate is such, that a variety of tender
plants are grown in the open air, which would hardly endure the same
exposition in the warmest spots of Devonshire or Cornwall. When the
temperature falls to 6 degrees below freezing point, the season is
considered unusually severe; consequently, many of the Cape heaths and
hardier geraniums, together with a number of Australian shrubs and plants,
and even those from central America endure our ordinary winters in screened
situations without the least injury whatever. Thus, the eob[oe]a scandens,
maurandia barclayana, and other creepers of a similar nature are found to
spring up naturally from seed under the walls where they are planted; and
even the Bath scarlet geranium has for several years been an ornament to
cottage walls, to the height of ten or eleven feet. Fuchsias make such
rapid progress that they finally become shrubs, when from their
encumberance they are trained to poles like standard roses. Bulbs are
cultivated with considerable advantage, as the frost is of such short
duration, that it rarely ever freezes more than an inch or two in depth,
and should a slight fall of snow happen it is their complete protection.
From a garden review, given by the late _Horticultural Chronicle_, it
appears there were orange trees laden with fruit in every respectable
garden; and in that of the dowager Lady De Saumarez there was one
remarkably curious, from its rind being grown out into a kind of spar. In
these gardens, and also in those of Sir Thomas Saumarez and Mr Brock, of
Belmont, were montanariums, sanguisorb, large tree myrtles, creeping serius
(eight yards long), mimosa (tree), paradoxia, candula, clematis azuria
grandiflora; and in the green-house of Mr Brock were no less than from
twelve to fifteen hundred calceolaria, together with innumerable others,
all teeming with health and vigour.


_Fogs and Mists._--At times rise up from the Channel, and consequently pass
over the island, not unfrequently involving, throughout November, the
Northern or lowland parishes in mist.

_French Women._--As the island is almost wholly supplied with provisions
from France, these women may be seen located in the market in considerable
numbers; and the English stranger at first sight wonders who and what they
are. Sometimes they perambulate the country with baskets containing eggs,
poultry, nuts, &c., and in this way things are often procured at the door
exceedingly moderate. Their dress is peculiar to the provinces of France
from whence they come, and as they never wear bonnets, the head-dress is
most fantastically arranged. The annexed engraving represents one of their


_Frogs._--Are few, and only seen in marshy wet ground. There are no toads
in the island, neither will they exist here, for the experiment has been
tried from Jersey, where they abound in myriads, especially in umbrageous
lanes. From a memorandum dated July 4, 1834, while living in Jersey, I find
they creep from their lurking holes in the banks or hedges, throughout the
summer evenings, in numbers almost incredible, especially in St Martin's
parish, at times oft approaching in size nearly the Surinam toad.

_Frost and Snow._--Neither are severe, and the latter seldom remains on the
ground beyond three days. One may be here two or three winters without
witnessing both together, and not unfrequently without the least appearance
of either. Like other maritime situations, the cold seems to be mitigated
by caloric imparted to the atmosphere from the surrounding ocean; and the
exuberance of the various exotics which flourish unguarded at all seasons
in the open air, puts forth sufficient evidence of the mildness of the
climate. The double camelias bloom abundantly in November, and orange-trees
endure the winter with only a slight occasional covering of matting. A
correspondent of the _Horticultural Chronicle_ observes that on riding
towards St Saviour's he was much pleased to see two magnificent
orange-trees hid in boxes as a shelter from the side winds, at the house of
a Mr Hartley, and which then looked exceedingly handsome, as they were
ornamented with some two or three dozen of fine ripe fruit.[A]

  [A] In a memorandum, Saturday, Feb. 6, 1841, I find that the winter of
      that year was the severest we have had for many years past. It
      destroyed many precious plants, especially myrtles and
      orange-trees, indeed its ravages were so extensive as to strip down
      huge limbs from the most robust trees, and in such quantities in
      the sister-isle, that many dreaded the consequences. This frost
      appears to have been very remarkable, for the preceding evening was
      marked by a dense mist, which in contact and in co-operation with a
      sudden frost, glazed the trees and shrubs with masses of ice, and
      gave them the appearance of solid icicles, which gave rise to the
      following witticism: "If the whole island were not christianized,
      it was at least crystalized." It proved fatal to several
      interesting exotics, which had been the pride of many a garden. The
      Cape heaths and Australian shrubs were almost all destroyed. Every
      species of leptospermum, which had braved our winters for forty
      years, were killed. The general scenery at the time was so
      exceedingly beautiful, from the ramifications of the trees being
      wrought up into so many magical and fantastical shapes, that I
      endeavoured to make a sketch of one, but the cold was too intense
      to allow me to accomplish my object. The snow and frost continued
      to increase from Monday the 1st, and on the 3rd and 5th all
      creation was white.

_Furniture._--Of all kinds may be obtained on reasonable terms, as it has
of late been contrived by some speculative people to enter on a business of
this kind. Families, ere they determine on taking up their abode here,
would do well in being accommodated with a loan of furniture. On the
contrary, should they purchase new, with a view to sell it hereafter, they
will have just cause to repent, as it will not realize one quarter of its
original value.

_Gardens._--Are considered, by eminent horticulturists, not only numerous,
but beyond every thing exuberant and flourishing. Some few years ago,
gardening was considered but an indifferent occupation; but as things take
a change for the best, Guernsey was one of the foremost to bring this
elegant amusement to its proper bearing. Aided and abetted by the natural
good qualities of soil and climate, horticulture made rapid strides, and
soon out-stripped some of the vaunted paradises of Europe, and the fruits,
flowers, and vegetables that the Channel Isles' markets continually teem
with, sufficiently testify the same. Among the list that may be seen
continually pouring into our market, in their various seasons, may be
enumerated the following: peaches, apricots, figs, strawberries, melons
(rather inferior), walnuts, chesnuts, raspberries, mulberries, medlars,
cucumbers, varieties of grapes, (in-door and out,) and abundance of apples
and pears; the latter are exported to England in considerable quantities,
together with grapes, figs, and melons; the last mentioned are imported
from Lower Normandy and Britany, and are of a delicious flavour. Large
chaumontel pears, being generally destined for presents in England, fetch a
good price, and at times 3l. to 5l. per hundred is readily obtained for
them, and even more, if they weigh from twelve to eighteen ounces. The
small ones, which are generally the largest crop, may be obtained
exceedingly reasonable by the bushel. The Guernsey fig being also much
esteemed, large quantities are brought into the market, where they only
fetch from 3d. to 4d. per dozen. Whole vergées of strawberries may be seen
in the country for the same purpose, and yield 1-1/2d. per lb. Grapes
(out-door) are from 2d. to 3d. do., Spanish muscatel 6d. do. Melons are
from 6d. to 1s. The principal nurseries are Nant's, Luff's, and Lumby's.


_Gas._--Is supplied to houses in town and the suburbs, from two spacious
gas-holders sufficiently large to supply three times the present
consumption. The town is but partially lit with gas; the old oil-lamp being
still in general use. The proprietor of the works is Mr Thomas Edge, of
Westminster, who erected them in 1830.

_George, Fort._--Is the principal fortification of the island, and is
constructed on the improved form of a square, having four bastions
connected by curtains, with a ravelin to the South, and a counter-scarp to
the South-West. It will admit about three thousand men, and has thirty-four
pieces of cannon, four mortars, and a caronade. Most of the batteries are
erected in a form for repelling the enemy at sea, and some of them are very
formidable. From the ramparts or parade ground there is one of the most
extensive and diversified prospects in the island; and underneath the
former are spacious casemates, which in case of a siege can be converted
into barracks. It was completed in the year 1812, at a national cost of
200,000l., but was commenced immediately after the breaking out of the
American war, in 1782.

_Goal._--The public goal was erected in 1811, and cost the island 11,000l.
It is a solid structure, built entirely with blue granite, and has a neat
front elevation, in which are two galleries; the lower one for debtors, the
upper one for criminals. The debtors have five cells, in all of which are
fire-places, and the creditors by whom they are incarcerated are obliged to
find them in blankets, a bedstead and straw palliasses; but must supply
themselves with bed, bedding, and other furniture at their own expence.
They are unlocked throughout winter and summer at eight o'clock in the
morning, and are locked up at sun-set every evening. They have a large
court yard to walk in. The cells are provided with bell-pulls,
communicating with the bed-room of the Governor, in case of sickness.

The felons' cells are ten in number, eight for the men, and two for the
women; but it has been observed by the benevolent Mrs Fry, that the cells
for the latter are not sufficiently apart from those of the men, insomuch
that when locked up they can converse with each other, especially when
taking air, being only separated by a partition of sheet iron and bars.
Felons and criminals are allowed exercise on the gallery in front of their
cells, and according to the prison regulations are to be unlocked from ten
in the forenoon till two in the afternoon; though, in point of fact, this
space of time is generally extended by the Governor, particularly in the
summer season. In four of the cells are fire-places, and prisoners are
allowed straw palliasses, three blankets and a rug; firing they must
provide at their own expence. On a prisoner becoming refractory he may be
deprived of his liberty, and by a report of the case to the Baillif within
twenty-four hours, may be confined to the black-hole. Irons are not used on
felons about to undergo the last penalty of the law, and prisoners under
solitary confinement perform no work. There is no sick ward nor chapel,
neither is there a chaplain appointed to visit the prisoners, but bibles
and religious tracts are provided for their use.

The Governor has a house within the prison walls in which debtors may be
accommodated, provided they pay an additional sum of 1s. 9d. per week.
Debtors not having the wherewithal to maintain themselves, are allowed 9d.
per day, which the creditor at whose suit they are imprisoned is bound to
pay them, otherwise they are set at liberty. Criminals are provided for out
of the revenue belonging to the Crown. Strangers are permitted to visit
debtors from nine in the morning until four in the afternoon, from the 1st
of October to the 1st of April, and from nine in the morning until seven in
the afternoon from the 1st of April to the 1st of October.

[Illustration: The Goal.]

_Herbs and Medical Plants._--Are in great abundance in every part of the
island, but as a list of them would be out of place in a work of this kind,
it only remains for me to mention those which are in the greatest profusion
under foot, and which, from close observation I have found to be most
useful in medicine, cookery, and other purposes. They are:--wood-sage,
camomile, samphire, lords and ladies, fools-stones, blue-bells,
pennyworth,[A] ladies' smock, hagnebuts, eryngo,[B] fox-glove, night-shade,
high-taper, mugwort, robin-run-in-the-hedge and mouse-ear, with numerous

  [A] From a memorandum dated April 3, 1832, I find that pennyworth or
      hart's-tongue steeped in vinegar for twenty-four hours, to be the
      most efficient remedy for corns I ever knew, and on communicating
      it to a few others, they were pleased to acknowledge the same. I
      have many other memorandums on Guernsey herbs; but as they are
      written in Latin, and were mislaid up to the hour of publishing,
      are consequently omitted.

  [B] Hops are antiseptic, and are an excellent thing for packing game
      in, for in a memorandum, Wednesday, September 7, 1842--"Received a
      hamper of grouse from a friend in Newcastle; were a fortnight at
      sea, and perhaps had been killed for upwards of a month:
      nevertheless, from their mouths and other parts being well stuffed
      with hops, arrived in pretty tolerable condition." Wild hops may be
      observed growing in several parts of the island, especially about
      some of the hedges in the Valle, and near the Friquet. Camomile
      flower is also remarkably abundant in this vicinity, and in a field
      called the Queen's meadow the ground is literally covered with
      it.--_Memorandum, August 12, 1842._

[Illustration: Lords and Ladies.]

_Hay._--Varies in price, but is hardly ever beyond 6l. per ton, if so, the
season must be unusually bad. The upland hay is generally esteemed the

_Horses._--Are small, cross grained, and given to biting; but are lusty and
hard workers. They are cheaper than in England, and a hack may be kept in
the best order for about 20l. per annum. Horses at the livery stables may
be hired at from 4s. to 7s. per day. There are no taxes on horses,
carriages or livery servants.


_Hospital._--This excellent institution, the admiration of every stranger,
is under the direction of a Treasurer, Vice-Treasurer, six Directors, and
six Collectors, elected by the rate-payers: and although called an
hospital, partakes of the properties of a poor-house, a refuge for the
destitute, a work-house, a penitentiary, and for the destitute youth of
both sexes a seminary of instruction; and, but for the receptacle for
lunatics, its interior economy reflects the greatest credit on the island.
There is a chaplain whose salary is 30l. per annum, and the medical
department is under the most liberal regulations. The boys and girls have
schools, in which they are educated in all things useful for their future
occupations through life. Indeed, the system pursued is in accordance with
the most approved methods of modern times, for the expences are partly
defrayed by the labour of the inmates, together with a strict performance
of all the other in-door work, which is effected with the utmost
regularity, order and cleanliness imaginable. So much is the general system
admired, that it is spoken of in exceeding high terms by Quail and several
other writers and travellers. A late visitor says:--"On entering the
hospital, the scene was an active one, insomuch that almost all the men
were occupied, some in weaving cloth, some as tailors, others as
shoe-makers, &c., whilst the women were engaged in washing.[A] On the
whole, whether we regard this hospital as an asylum from misery, or as a
school of morality, I must say that I have never yet seen any institution
in the kingdom that would stand in competition with it."

  [A] In addition to washing for the hospital, a great deal is taken in
      from families living in the neighbourhood; by which means the women
      do much towards paying the expence of their maintenance. The
      greater part of the cloth, shoes, &c., which the men manufacture,
      is sold. The men are also employed as scavengers.

      The number of inmates admitted in 1840, were 121 men, 100 women, 34
      boys, and 27 girls, forming a total of 282. In the same year were
      indentured, 6 boys and 2 girls, whilst those discharged, escaped,
      or expelled were 33 boys, and 25 girls. The total expenditure of
      the said year was £4,358 8s. 5d. The following items pretty clearly
      indicate the comforts that reign within, as also the good feeling
      and humanity of the people of Guernsey:--14,526 lbs. of beef; 4,085
      lbs. of bacon and pork; 471 qrs. of wheat; 115-1/2 hhds. of beer;
      3,964 lbs. of butter; 1,400 faggots; 2,562 gallons of milk,
      together with many other things in due proportion. The average
      yearly expence of each inmate, is not more than seven pounds,
      notwithstanding that at least half of those in the hospital are
      boys and girls who produce but little, being the greater part of
      the day in school; and then there are also many lunatics and infirm
      people who are totally unable to do any thing towards their own
      support, and who are treated with great kindness, and allowed
      abundance of good food and clothing.

The Country Hospital is nearly on the same principle, and is situated in a
secluded kind of valley, in the Câtel parish.

[Illustration: Hospital Bread Knife.]

[Illustration: Hospital Bread Machine.]

_Inns and Hotels._--In town, these are replete with every accommodation and
comfort. The principal are Marshall's and Gardner's, and from both being
situated in High-street, a very little distance from the pier, the porters
are enabled without delay to set the visitor at ease. At the country inns
may be obtained good plain fare, such as bread, butter, eggs, bacon, milk,
cream, fish, cider, beer, spirits and wine, which latter article is not
always to be had, and if so, is sometimes of an indifferent quality.
Besides inns, there are other houses in the country that entertain pic-nic
parties throughout the summer, some of which are very superior in their
accommodations, and exceedingly moderate in their charges. They may be
easily discovered as the drivers of the coaches and omnibuses which run
round the island, either know or put up at them.

[Illustration: Marshall's Hotel.]

[Illustration: St James's Church.]

_James's Church, St._--Was erected in 1818, and was consecrated on the 6th
of August in the same year. It is situated opposite the side of the new
Prison and near the College play ground, and is generally allowed to be a
handsome specimen of Grecian architecture, the tower, portico and dome
being considered the chief features. The funds for erecting it were raised
in part from the sale of the pews, and from liberal donations granted by
the late Lord De Saumarez, of which 400l. went in purchase of four hundred
free sittings for the poor and the children of the national schools; 120l.
for the dome and tower, and latterly a donation of 400l., together with
many other contributions and assistance, amounting in the whole to upwards
of 1000l. The rest was raised by public subscription.

The church contains 1300 sittings, amongst which are four for the use of
the minister, and twelve for casual strangers. The service, on Sundays is
at half past ten in the morning, and in the evening at half past six.
Prayers are also read on Wednesdays and Fridays at noon, and also on
festivals. The sacrament of the Lord's supper is twice in the quarter. The
bell of this church cost 100l. and the organ 500l.

_John's Church, St._--Was erected in the year 1836, and in its style
emulates the early English, though many of those genuine features are lost
sight of. Contrary to every other church, the tower is at the East and the
altar at the West end. It is built of well-wrought blue granite, and from
being situated in the centre of a woody district, forms a considerable
addition to the landscape. The foundation stone was laid by the late Lord
De Saumarez, and it contains 600 sittings, 200 of which are free for the
poor. The services are in English; two full services on Sundays, and weekly
evening lecture. The endowment consists of a parsonage-house, adjoining the
church, and 13l. per annum secured on rents; together with the surplus of
the pews, which after payment of the current expences of the church, may
amount to about 90l. per annum, provided the pews are all let.

[Illustration: St John's Church.]

_Land._--The price at which it is rented will scarcely be credited by
strangers, as it must be exceedingly inferior, if it does not fetch 3l. per
vergée, which is at the rate of 7l. 10s. per statute acre. The Couture,
which is the best sample, may be valued at 5l. per vergée per annum. Land
for building, in the vicinity of the town, is so enormously high, that at
times it has fetched one thousand pounds per English acre.

_Letters._--Are delivered in the town and suburbs, almost immediately after
the arrival of the packet. In the country it is not so, for it sometimes
happens that the packet is signaled as early as eight o'clock, whereas the
letters have not been delivered until four o'clock in the evening.[A] The
Post-Office Packets come in regularly twice a week, Sundays and Thursdays,
unless prevented by exceedingly severe weather.

  [A] This delay evidently proceeds from want of more letter-carriers,
      and which I have since heard is the case. According to my Jersey
      diary, letters were regularly brought to my house at Le Hocquette,
      about two miles and a half from town, between one and two o'clock,
      provided the packet had a tolerable passage.--_Mem. Aug. 10, 1840._

_Light-house._--Also called the Round-house, is situated at the head of the
South pier, and was erected for the convenience of mariners approaching the
road-stead and harbour in the night. It is a large lantern, in which
several gas-burners are introduced, and the light may be seen coming
through the Small Russel from the Northward, the Great Russel from the
Eastward, and from the Southward when rounding St Martin's Point.

[Illustration: Light-House.]

_Libraries._--There are two: one belonging to the Mechanics' Institution,
and Redstone's circulating library, in both of which are reading rooms. In
the former lectures are delivered throughout the winter.

_Manufactories._--Are few, the principal being those for potatoe spirit,
vinegar, Roman cement, bricks, soap and candles, paper and cordage. The
main portion of the spirit, vinegar, cement and bricks is for exportation;
whilst the soap, candles, and cordage are for local consumption. The
largest distillery is at the Bouet, near Ivy Castle, belonging to Messrs
Valpy and Lainé. It has a steam-engine, and every necessary apparatus for
distilling spirit from native potatoes, when it is exported for the London
market, where it is rectified. Three years' export of this article is as
follows: 1834, 8,468 gallons; 1835, 52,639 gallons; 1836, 17,644 gallons.

_Margaret Church, St._--The parish church of the Forest was consecrated on
the 3d September, 1163. It has a nave, North aisles and chancel; and has a
low tower and octagonal spire at the junction of the chancel and nave. The
North aisle is of modern structure, with plain granite lintels, and a
square-headed piscina in the East wall. One of the South windows appears to
have been divided into two lights, with an orbit between, and the rude
ornamented heads cut out of blocks of granite. Like every thing else, this
window has submitted to the chisel of modern art, wherefore the ornamental
portions have been worked off in order to form a segmental head. The inside
wall of the chancel is splayed, and the East window semi-circular and
cinque-foil. The East and West sides of the tower are longer than the
others, consequently impart to the spire an ugly and deformed appearance.

[Illustration: The Forest Church.]

_Martellos._--Are round towers situated on the coast in different parts of
the island, at stated distances, particularly on the Northern or vale side,
and are garrisoned with soldiers in time of war.


_Martin's Church, St_--Consists of a nave, chancel and aisle. The two
former, with the tower, which is at the junction of the two, are of the
early English style, and the latter with the windows of the building of
modern formation. There was once a slab that contained a brass plate
representing a lay-man or merchant with his lady. The stone is still there,
but much defaced, and probably in a few years will entirely disappear. The
porch, facing the South, which is of the decorative style, is the most
elegant in the island. The corner buttresses are terminated with ornamental
pinnacles of crochets and finials, and are set diagonally at one stage.
According to the "Dédicace des Eglises," this church was consecrated on the
4th of February, 1199, in the tenth year of the reign of Henry II, king of

[Illustration: St Martin's Church.]

_Meat_--Is very good, and surpasses that of Jersey, but is dearer than in
England, though to an English resident, if he draws his income from
England, it will not appear so, considering there are 18 ounces to the
pound, and that he gets from 5 to 6 per cent premium for his money. Beef
sells at 5d. to 8d. per lb.; mutton, 6d. to 8d.; veal 5d. to 7d.; pork 4d.
to 6d.; bacon, 6d., 9d. and 11d.

_Meat Market, the_--Is commodious, clean and airy, and is perhaps one of
the most convenient, both for buyer and seller that can be found in any
part of the world, and is as well furnished with meat as any market in

[Illustration: The Meat Market.]

_Mechanics' Wages_--Are regulated according to occupation and ability.
Journeymen smiths and ironmongers earn from 12s. to 24s., carpenters
average about 18s., masons and plasterers 15s., tailors (in the busy
season) 20s., printers 10s. to 18s., shoe-makers 10s. to 15s., shopmen 15s.
per week.

_Militia_.--In time of peace, all subjects of her Majesty, not being
natives of the island, and who do not possess real property therein, are
exempt from the said service; but otherwise, after a residence of a year
and a day, are as liable to be called on as the natives themselves. Also
every subject exercising for his profit any trade, business, calling, or
profession whatever, shall, after a year and a day, be subject to the laws,
ordinances, and regulations thereof.

_Mills._--In the country wind-mills are common, as they may be seen in
almost every parish, where from their being situated on eminences,
occasionally beautify the landscape. They are not exactly after the English
fashion, as they have a vertical top that shifts with the wind. There are
also both in town and country water-mills driven by small rivulets, and
steam-mills, but of the latter there is only one in the country, in the
parish of St Martin. Of late years a new method or mill for grinding apples
has been adopted. It consists of two cylinders furnished with knives
crossing each other as they revolve; by which simple but improved process
the apples are cut, bruised and prepared for the press cheese at the same


_Miscellaneous Societies_--Are, the Guernsey Mutual Insurance Society for
Shipping,[A] Provident Society, Society for promoting Christianity among
the Jews, Church Pastoral Society, Church of England Society, Irish
Society, Société Evangelique, Irish Scripture Readers Society, Society for
the Promotion of Christian Knowledge, Bethel Union, Amie des Pauvres,
Humane Society, Benevolent or Stranger's Friend Society, Charitable
Association, all of which have been instituted since 1811.

  [A] This Society commenced on the 31st December, 1838, with a mutual
      risk of only £14,000 and consists of a chairman, secretary, and a
      Committee of six persons. The amount insured in 1842 was more than
      £70,000. The amount of the present year is upwards of £66,000. Each
      vessel entered carries a flag composed of a white lozenge on a red
      ground, and the number is marked in blue figures on the white
      lozenge. The number of vessels on the Society's books for the
      present year is 87.

_Missionary Societies._--Are, the Church Missionary Society, Society for
the Promotion of the Gospel in foreign parts, Wesleyan Missionary Society,
London Society (Independents), Methodist, New Connexion Society, Moravian
Society, Primitive Methodists Society, Bible Christian Society, Baptists
Society, &c., all of which have been established from 1817 to 1840, and
whose united contributions amount to 1,333l.

_Money._--French frank pieces form the current silver coin of the island,
twenty-four of which are the legal tender for the Guernsey pound currency.
The frank is ten pence English, and is divided into single, double and five
frank pieces. Notwithstanding the above is the active and lawful specie of
the island, all things are bought and sold by the shilling English. Of late
years the Government were about to introduce the English currency, but for
great interests best known to the island, it was vigorously resisted. On an
English shilling there is a premium of one half-penny, but on the sovereign
fourteen pence.

_New Ground_--Is a fine piece of table land, purchased by the inhabitants
of the town, in 1782, h for the purpose of forming a promenade, and which
now from the luxurious growth of the trees, and other ornamental displays,
vies with any thing of the kind on the Continent. The lower part figures as
a grove, through which is a spacious gravel walk, canopied in summer with
dense foliage. The smaller walks are only partially shaded, but have seats
and resting places tastefully arranged. On the North side is Beau Séjour,
the residence of Mr Harry Dobrée, which has all the character of an English
villa, and may strikingly remind one of those in the New Forest.

[Illustration: Beau Séjour.]

_Newspapers_--Are, two in English and one in French. The English are the
_Star_ and _Comet_, published on Mondays and Thursdays. The French, the
_Gazette de Guernesey_, published every Saturday. The former are 2d. each,
the latter 1-1/2d.

_Omnibuses_--Are four: the _Defiance_, _Favourite_, _Victoria_, and
_Nelson_. One starts from the Town Church for St Sampson's every morning at
8, 9, and 12 o'clock, and in summer to St Saviour's and different part of
the island every Saturday afternoon. Pic-nic parties are taken to any part
of the island.

_Oxen_--Arrive to considerable size, and in the country are employed at the
plough and in drawing carts. After a certain servitude, or when they are
seven or eight years old, they are fattened and sold to the butcher. Their
size and weight are of such importance as to have attracted the notice of
Quail; for in his report he says: "Those of 1200 lbs. or 60 score, appear
not unfrequently, and from the evidence of the clerk of the market, there
was one which attained the weight of 1500 lbs."


_Parsnips_--Are the best farming crop in the island, and are cultivated to
some extent. They are chiefly used for fattening cattle and hogs, from
which the pork and ox beef derive a superior flavour. They are also given
in small quantities to milch cows during the winter, thereby imparting to
the milk and butter a richness which would not be obtained were the animal
fed entirely upon dry fodder.

[Illustration: No. 1, is the original Guernsey Parsnip, No. 2, the Jersey

_Passports._--Persons about to take their departure for France must provide
themselves with passports, which are obtained gratis at the Secretary's
Office, Government-House, between the hours of ten and twelve o'clock.

_Peat_--In the Northern parts of the island is found in great abundance,
and a load, which will go much further than a ton of coals, is sold at
about 1l.[A] It is dug up on the sea shore and the adjacent marshes in the
neighbourhood of Grande Roque, and is used by the English in that part of
the island, the natives preferring vraic on account of the superior ashes
which it yields. It is not so good as the Welsh peat; and is called in the
vernacular tongue of the island _gorban_, or a god-send, a name given it by
one of the ancestors of the present Baillif, who first discovered it as
being a valuable article of fuel. At the Amballes, a place near town, and
situated considerably above the level of the sea, peat was found when
digging for the foundation of the gas-works, June 12, 1830, at about
forty-five feet from the surface, under a block of granite.

  [A] A correspondent of the _Horticultural Chronicle_ advises its being
      mixed with coal, when it makes a fine cheerful fire, useful in
      certain cookery, and were it not for the gas of the latter, would
      be much more pleasant than wood.

[Illustration: Peat-heaps, with a View of Roc-du-Guet, or Watch Rock.]

_Peter-Port Church, St_;--Or, the Town Church, consists of a chancel, nave,
North and South aisles, and North and South transepts, with a square tower
at their intersection. It is of the later gothic style of France, termed
the Flamboyant, and many of its portions are richly decorated within and
without. An old stone pulpit, which was removed from its extremely
mutilated state, was once one of the antique ornaments of the South pier of
the chancel; and in the East end of the North aisle is a slab on which are
three figures, the right and left being apparently ecclesiastics; but as
the stone is so much worn by the attrition of time, it is difficult to
decipher. In the East walls of the North and South ailes are most elegant
piscing, the canopies of which are crocketed, finialed, and pinnacled, and
the interior moulding of the arch and sides formed of crumpled leaves and
creeping animals. The shelves consist of brackets of leaves, above which
are two niches, square-headed and trefoiled. The mouldings and canopies of
the North porch and West door are crocketed, finialed and pinnacled, and
are deserving of considerable notice. In the South transept are octagonal
pillars without capitals, so that the mouldings of the archivolt run into
them, and in the East wall is a piscina cut in granite, ogee-headed and
trefoiled with a shelf across it. The tower, which has a window in each
side, is square and embattled, and is surmounted by a short octagonal
spire, that was erected in the year 1721. At the angles of the tower and
elsewhere, are line-course gurgoyles representing human figures, scutcheons
and lions' heads and shoulders.

This church was consecrated on the 1st of August, 1312; and was the last of
the ancient churches consecrated by a Roman Catholic Bishop in the island.
It has a very handsome pulpit and reading-desk, and of late years the whole
building has been renovated. It also contains a fine deep-toned organ,
which originally cost between seven and eight hundred pounds, and which has
since been removed to the North aisle, where it appears to considerable
advantage. The tower has a clock, and a merry peal of eight bells, and its
height from the vane to the ground is 132 feet, being the highest in the
island. There are two French services and one in English every Sunday, and
there are sittings for 1400 persons.

[Illustration: East View of the Town Church.]

_Peter-in-the-Wood Church, St_--Has undergone less change than any other in
the island, as the tracery of the windows still remain untouched, and the
ornamental parts almost perfect. It has many Norman portions, and the
windows in the North and South walls of the chancel are in that style, the
inside walls being splayed and quite plain. It is built on the West side of
a hill, which causes the chancel to rise several feet higher than the West
end of the nave, insomuch that walking from the tower to the chancel is not
unlike going up hill. The nave once contained a monumental brass plate
representing a respectable personage or merchant, which from the cut of the
stone appears to be about the year 1560. The consecration of this church
took place in the year 1167.

[Illustration: St Peter-in-the-Wood's Church.]

_Pools_--At present, are few, and are chiefly in the marshy districts of
the vale, and on Lancresse common; but as they are formed or rather
considerably enlarged by the winter rains, are consequently void of fish.
Heylin, chaplain to the Earl of Danby, says, in 1629: "Is a lake on the
North-West part of the island, near unto the sea, of about a mile or more
in compasse, exceedingly well stored with carpes, the best that ever mortal
eye beheld, for taste and bignesse." This lake still assumes something of
its original form throughout November, in spite of the innumerable and
expensive efforts to drain it off. In summer it is dried up, but during the
height of the inland water, it is still a great attraction for a variety of

  [A] In my "Adversaria et Notitiæ Herbarum," for autumn, 1841, speaking
      of this pool, I have:--"Waded through the water, and shot six
      purres; ... in the middle of the pool, and on a large solitary
      stone, covered with moss, picked up a Sandwich tern that had been
      struck by a hawk." Memorandums about the same date record, that my
      friend and relation Mr John Bellamy Henderson, surgeon, shot many
      curious birds there, amongst which were dunlins, a lesser stint,
      and a large sandpiper. In the winter season curlews show a great
      preference for this inland water.

[Illustration: Mare de Carteret.]

_Porters._--By an act of the Royal Court, for the better regulations of
boatmen and porters, each passenger's effects are to be carried to the
hotels and lodging houses in the lower town for six pence; any other
imposition is fined by a penalty of 10 livres tournois. Every porter is to
wear a brass badge on his left arm, and he is forbidden to touch the
passengers' luggage or effects without their leave. He is to stand behind
or along the walls of the pier until called for; under the penalty of
suspension of his badge. No porter is to carry a second load of luggage
until all the others present at the landing have each carried one in their
turn, under a penalty of 10 livres tournois.

_Poultry_--Is almost wholly French, very little of native produce being
brought to market. Turkeys sell from 3s. to 5s. each, fowls 2s. 6d. to 3s.
per couple, geese 2s. to 2s. 6d. each, ducks nearly the same as fowls.


_Religions._--The Church of England is predominant; there being upwards of
six places of worship in town, besides the country churches. The next are
the Wesleyan Methodists, who have upwards of 1827 sittings. Ebenezer
chapel, Saumarez-street, in English, is open on Sundays at half-past ten in
the morning, and six in the evening; on Wednesdays and Fridays at seven in
the evening. Le Marchant-street chapel in French, on Sundays at nine in the
morning, and six in the evening; on Tuesdays and Thursdays at seven in the
evening. Wesley chapel, Bouet, in French on Sundays at nine in the morning
and six in the evening; on Tuesdays and Thursdays at seven in the evening.
In English on Sundays at half-past two in the afternoon, and on Mondays at
seven in the evening.

The Independents have three chapels, Eldad, Union-street; one in
New-street, and another called Clifton Chapel; the whole of which contain
sittings for about 1726 people. The service of the New-street chapel is in
French, and on Sundays begins at half-past ten in the morning, and six in
the evening; also on Wednesdays at seven in the evening. The service of
Clifton Chapel is in English, and commences at half-past ten in the morning
and at six in the evening on Sundays; on Tuesdays at seven in the evening.
The Eldad Chapel, Union-street, is in English, and on Sundays commences at
half-past ten in the morning, and half-past six in the evening; on
Thursdays at seven in the evening.

[Illustration: Clifton Chapel.]

The New Connexion have two chapels, Zion, in Clifton, and Hospital-lane
preaching room. The service at Zion is in English, at half-past ten in the
morning and six in the evening on Sundays; on Wednesdays and Fridays at
seven in the evening. Preaching room in French on Sundays at ten in the
morning and six in the evening, and on Thursdays at seven in the evening.
These chapels contain sittings for about 748 people.

The Bryanites have a chapel called Salem, in Vauvert-road, which contains
upwards of 380 sittings. The service is in English at half-past ten in the
morning and six in the evening on Sundays. On Tuesdays and Thursdays at
seven in the evening.

The Society of the original Foxonian Quakers have a meeting-house at
Clifton. Friends meet on seventh days at ten in the morning and three in
the afternoon throughout the winter, and at six in the summer. On fourth
days at ten in the morning. There are about 120 sittings; but Friends are
few, there being only about thirty members.

[Illustration: Friends' Meeting-house.]

The Primitive Methodists, Catholics, Baptists and Unitarians have one each,
and unitedly contain 930 sittings.

At the Roman Catholic chapel, Burnt-lane, high mass at half-past ten in the
morning on Sundays;--preaching in English. Vespers, six in the evening.

Primitive Methodists. In Pollet-street in English on Sundays at half-past
ten in the morning and six in the evening. On Tuesdays and Thursdays at
seven in the evening.

Unitarians. Allez-street, New-Town, on Sundays at ten in the morning and
six in the evening, in English.

Bethel Union. At the preaching room on the Quay, near the North Pier, at
half-past ten in the morning, half-past two in the afternoon, and half-past
six in the evening, in English;--on Thursdays at seven in the evening.

_Reptiles and Snakes_--Are not known in the island, neither will they exist
on being introduced. Heylin, of old, speaking of Guernsey, says:--"The aire
hereof is very healthfull, as may be well seen in the long lives both of
men and women; and the earth said to be of the same nature with Crete and
Ireland, not apt to foster any venomous creature in it." The only reptile
of the snake genus is the slow-worm, and even that exceedingly rare.

_Rivers and Brooks._--Being confined to small streams, the student of good
old Isaac Walton is denied the pleasure of fly-fishing. Night-lining in the
pools and deep holes for eels is very frequent.

_Roads_--Are reckoned equal to any on the Continent, and are entirely
exempt from turnpike tolls. It is only within the last half century good
roads have been established, for which the public are indebted to the
exertions and ingenuity of the late Sir John Doyle, while Governor of the
island, notwithstanding he met with the most ignorant opposition from the
country people or farmers, whose real interest it chiefly served; and which
they now acknowledge to be the veins of the island, whereby they circulate
the wealth and produce of their soil. In this excellent undertaking, which
was the era of civilization in Guernsey, Government lent a hand, by
allowing the money derived from the sale of the Braye du Valle to be
applied for the same. At present, the roads are kept in repair by a rate on
land proprietors bordering the main roads, and by grants of money from the
States. The lanes that here and there intersect the island, may be said to
be the old roads, and furnish the green-lane botanist with delightful,
cooling, and shady walks throughout the heat of summer.

_Ruins_--Are not numerous, the chief being the old chapel of St Apoline,
and the priory in the island of Lihou. The former is in the parish of St
Saviour, amid a solitary and woody district, which has all the appearance
of monastic seclusion. It is about seven and twenty feet long, by thirteen
across, having a narrow square headed opening at the East end, and a rude
segmental doorway, and a narrow window divided into two parts on the South
side. The whole is covered with a ponderous vaulted roof of stones, and is
the most ancient ruin in the island, being supposed to be built about the
year 900. The sides of the walls and roof appear to have been once adorned
with fresco paintings, as several figures of saints and the Virgin Mary are
still discernible on the South ceiling. The silver-gilt chalice, belonging
to this chapel, is one of the few relics of Romish times which the island
possesses, and it is now in the custody of the present Baillif, John
Guille, Esq., of St George. Round the bowl are the words "Sancte Paule ora
pro nobis." From this it is supposed the chapel was originally called St
Paul's, which by the attrition of time has worn itself into Apoline.

The priory on the little isle of Lihou, belonging to Mr James Priaulx,
consists of little more than a few broken walls. Sufficient however remains
to enable one to determine its different compartments, of which the chapel
forms the principal portion.[A]

  [A] During the last war, the Lieutenant-Governor supposing this chapel
      might be turned into some use by the enemy, issued orders for its
      complete demolition, which was effected by a barrel of gunpowder.
      Lately a pavement of small green and red glazed Norman tiles have
      been discovered, as also some silver monastic medals, and silver
      pennies of Edward I.

[Illustration: St Sampson's Church.]

_Sampson's Church, St_--Is evidently the most ancient structure in the
island, being consecrated in the year 1111. It has been so affected by
modern innovation and addition, that its original character is scarcely
identified. The interior is plain and massive, and not a single ornamental
moulding can be discovered. For some unknown purpose a squinch has been
thrown over the North-East angle, of an arched arcade in the North wall of
the North aisle. The tower is of the early English style, plain, roofed
with stone, and situated over the North side of the nave, which appears to
be an additional structure.

[Illustration: St Saviour's Church.]

_Saviour's Church, St_--Consists of a nave, chancel, South aisle, and
transept, and a lofty square tower, which rises at the West end of the
nave. The East window of the South aisle is large and pointed, without
mouldings, whilst those on the South side are small and segmental. The
aisle has a buttress supporting one of its walls, which being united with
that of the chancel, gives it the appearance of being built prior to it.
The South transept is small, and the window considerably modernized. The
piers of the nave are without capitals, some round and others octagonal.
The tower is embattled, having pointed and square headed windows, and is
surmounted by a short octagonal spire. The corner buttresses have flowers
on their tops, and are two stages high. Besides this church, there is in St
Saviour's parish two Methodists chapels built in 1820, an Independent one,
opened in 1817, and one for Baptists.

_Servants._--As several shops keep a register of these, their characters
and wages are easily obtained. Good maid servants get 9l. per annum; others
from 5l. to 6l. do. Butlers, coachmen, &c., vary according to situation and

_Shells._--The conchologist has an ample field before him, and the little
isle of Herm is so replete with them, as to be considered the first spot in
the kingdom both as regards beauty and quantity.

_Shoes._--Notwithstanding leather is entirely exempt from duty, shoes
cannot be said to be cheap, as they are from 8s. 6d. to 9s. per pair. At
the shoe marts some of an inferior quality may be had from 3s. to 6s. Boots
are in proportion.

_Shops, French Toy and Fancy._--One in High-street is exceedingly gaudy,
being replete with the best fancy articles of Paris, and rich with
specimens from "l'Industrie Nationale," &c. Many useful things can be
procured there remarkably cheap, especially paper, perfumes, and ornaments.

_Shooting._--Heretofore, every person was allowed to carry a gun, and no
protection granted for game; but now the Royal Court have enacted certain
restrictions respecting guns, dogs and ferrets; but as they are exceedingly
mild, it will not be amiss to mention there is excellent sport in snipe,[A]
woodcock, plover,[B] fieldfare, and blackbird shooting; as during the
winter months there is a great influx of these birds. So lenient indeed are
the laws respecting shooting, that an informer cannot gratify any malicious
view, unless he resign all damages awarded by the Court towards some
charitable institution or purpose; moreover, it is believed shooting is
encouraged for the purpose of initiating youth for the service of the
rising militia. Shooting in an orchard is under a penalty of 20l., as it
destroys the bud.

  [A] In a memorandum dated October 31, 1842--"Went down to Grande Rocque
      with my gun;--observed flocks of the red-legged crow at an
      immeasurable height in the air. On alighting, they eagerly sought
      small shells that covered the plains by myriads. Returning home
      late in the evening, I heard, for the first time, at some altitude,
      the cacephata attagenarum, or harsh sounds of a number of snipes. A
      similar thing occurred in Jersey, therefore I take it for granted
      that snipes generally visit these islands about this time." Again,
      for June 9th of the present year, I have:--"Fair, but windy
      day.--Went out to Woodlands, to fetch some arbutus wood for
      engraving, where I was informed a bittern was shot in an adjoining
      garden, by a man named Abraham Machon; also, that in severe
      winters, among other birds driven here, are wild swans; that a few
      years since, several of these birds lodged on some rocks in the
      Valle, and were so exhausted as to suffer themselves to be taken by
      the hand, of which two were exhibited in the Market and fetched 10
      shillings each.

  [B] Besides the plover, we have the occasional influx of a a number of
      pewits, and as proof that the flocks are not small, Mr Henry Le
      Lacheur, jun., of the Forest, killed nine at one shot, during the
      severe frost of 1837.

_Societies, Bible._--The British and Foreign Bible Society, established
1812--contributions 420l. Guernsey Auxiliary to the Trinitarian Bible
Society, established 1836--contributions 48l. Ladies' Association to ditto,
established 1831--contributions 85l.

_Spirits, Wines, and Cordials._--The best Cognac brandy is always imported
from France, and is never less than 6s. or more than 7s. per gallon.
Inferior brandies distilled from beet-root, potatoes, or apples, may be
obtained from 2s. 6d. to 4s. per gallon, and rises in quality according to
price. The best hollands is 3s. 4d. and the best Jamaica rum 4s. 4d. per
gallon. Liqueurs and cordials are equally moderate; crême de noyau, noyau
rouge, crême de fine orange, ditto de citron, ditto de framboise, ditto des
Barbades, ditto de canelle, &c., are all 3s. per bottle, and we may add as
somewhat less, parfait amour, Jamaica shrub, ratafia de cinq fruits, and
curaçoa double, which latter article may be had for 1s. 8d.

The prices of wines are as follow: best port, 25s. per dozen; best sherry,
22s. ditto; fine malmsey, 28s.; ampurdam, 8s.; benicarlo, 8s.; hock, 15s.
to 38s.; mountain, 8s. 6d. to 12s.; Teneriffe, 11s.; Syracuse, 24s.;
Constantia (pints), 12s.; Calcavala, 12s.; Bucellas, 10s.; Vidonia, 18s.;
Grenache, 8s. 6d.

French red wines (clarets)--Château Margaux (pints), 18s.; La Fitte, 36s.;
Léoville, 28s.; La Tour de Carnet, 24s.; St Julien, 18s.; St Emilion, 15s.;
Medoc, 12s. French white wines--Champaign (white and pink), 50s.; in pints,
26s.; burgundy (sparkling), 24s.; hermitage, 36s.; château grillé, 18s.;
haut sauterne, 24s.; Barsac, 24s.; grave, 10s. to 15s.; roussillon sec, 8s.
6d.; rancio, 12s.; picardan (sec), 18s.; cornas, 15s.; crosse, 18s.; tavel,
10s., together with numerous others. There is 1s. 6d. per dozen allowed on
the above when the bottles are returned, as they have been included.

_States_--Are of two kinds, the administrative and elective. The
administrative States are composed of the Baillif and twelve Jurats, eight
Rectors from the parishes, the Attorney-General, six deputies from the town
parish, and nine from the rural parishes, in all thirty-seven members. The
States of election are composed as above, with the addition of the
Constables and Douzeniers of each parish. The town parish alone sends
forty-eight members; formerly it only returned twenty-four. This body
corporate is the little parliament of the island, and every inhabitant is
supposed to be represented therein. They are convened by a printed notice,
called a _Billet d'Etat_, issued by the Baillif, and communicated to every
and each of the members at least a week before the time of meeting.

_Taxes_--Are not levied on strangers, unless they become proprietors of
land or enter into some business. The tax or rate on the native is about
one-ninth that of England; for a more curious detail of which, the reader
is referred to the History of Guernsey, by Jonathan Duncan.

_Thieves_--Until of late years were totally unknown here, and but for the
continued vigilance of the present constabulary force would be considerably
on the increase. Strange to relate, hardly ever a native is caught
committing the slightest depredation on his neighbours; convicted rogues
and thieves being, for the most part, from Somerset and Dorset,[A]
especially the latter. Formerly, from the leniency of the law, they were
merely banished to the place from whence they came; but now, from a better
understanding of the rights of society, they are sent to the hulks of their
own country, waiting a further removal to Van Dieman's Land.

  [A] It appears that starvation, want of food, raiment, and depression
      of wages are the chief causes that drive these labourers and
      wretched mendicants to the Channel Isles; for, according to an
      article--"The Labourers of Dorsetshire"--in Lloyd's weekly London
      newspaper for March 19th of the present year, it appears by a
      respectable reporter of the Corn League, that for starvation,
      abject want, total ignorance, depravity, and lowness of wages and
      raiment, that that county exceeded every thing on record. According
      to a letter in the "Morning Chronicle," the reporter of the League
      was strictly enjoined to keep at some distance within the base of
      truth, that there might be no room for contradiction, and to that
      rule he rigidly adhered; nevertheless, it appears the poor people
      never taste tea, coffee, nor sugar;--animal food five or six times
      in the year, and beer the same. Those who live near the sea,
      chiefly exist upon turnip tops, and because they have no money to
      procure salt, boil them in sea water.


_Tithes_--Yield but a slender income to the Clergy, in consequence of the
great breadth of potatoes under cultivation, on which the farmer is exempt;
but the rectors have had, of late years, an increase of income taken from
the revenues belonging to the Crown in this island, so that all the livings
of the country parishes are not less than 101l. nor more than 166l. per
annum. St Peter-Port, on account of its casualities, yields 480l. per
annum. Tithes are fixed on the twelfth and ninth portion of corn and

_Tonnage Dues._--English vessels not registered in Guernsey, pay 6d. per
ton on all goods landed and loaded; but when from a French port 6d. per ton
on the tonnage of the vessel. Foreign vessels pay the same, measured as
British tonnage. Fishing vessels and yachts are exempt, but pay the pass on
leaving the harbour. Vessels exporting coals are exempt; but those landing
wines, whether for the inhabitants or on strangers' account, pay a duty of
fifteen sous per ton.

[Illustration: New Torteval Church.]

_Torteval Church_--Is comparatively new, the old one having been pulled
down in the year 1815. The tower and spire of this church are round, like a
sugar-loaf, and of considerable height; and the ascent to the top by a kind
of cork-screw flight of steps. The interior affords room for a much larger
congregation than the parish now produces. The pulpit is erected under a
dome or arch in the centre of the chancel, immediately opposite the
communion table, and is said to impart a strange tone to the clergyman's

The old church of which the engraving at page 85, represents, had a
nave, chancel, South aisle, porch, and low, square tower, pinnacled and
surmounted by an octagonal spire at the West end of the nave. It was built
by Sir Phillip De Carteret, in the year 1140, in consequence of a vow made
at sea. Sir Phillip was the son of Sir William De Carteret, co-Lord with
the King of France of the barony of Carteret in Normandy.


_Trees_--Most commonly met with are, the Guernsey elm, oak, ash, and
poplar, with a sprinkling here and there of Turkey oak. The Guernsey elm,
which is a tall, poplar-like tree, is peculiar to the soil, and may be seen
beautifying almost every sylvan district. The New Ground or parade, is
almost wholly circumgirt with this fine forest tree, which, in connexion
with Carey Castle, is an object of much attraction when seen from the
roads; insomuch that the latter has the appearance of a noble mansion in
the midst of a large and thickly wooded park. Contrary to England and most
other countries, the trees in various districts are stunted down to pollard
fashion, of which the annexed engraving is a faithful representation, after
the first year.


[Illustration: Old Torteval Church.]

_Valle Church, the_--For antiquity, is the second church in the island, and
is dedicated to St Michael the Archangel. It has undergone a complete
modernization, and a new roof has just now been put up. A monumental brass
was once inlaid in a stone situate in the East end of the North aisle,
which was supposed to represent the Abbot of St Michael. The chancel which
forms the original church, is said to be of a later Norman style than that
of St Sampson's, and there is still preserved its consecration, which
happened in the year 1117. The pillars are round, and the supporters of the
fabricated roof are wrought with a kind of zig-zag moulding. The East
window of the North aisle, if examined narrowly, exhibits a kind of
fret-work, and is divided into three lights.

[Illustration: The Valle Church.]

_Vergée._--A measure of ground, two and a half of which complete an English
acre. A vergée lets from 1l. to 6l. per annum, and may be purchased from
20l. to 100l.; but the purchaser may either pay the whole or in part, when
the remainder stands over as mortgage, which is divided into quarters and
called "rents."

_Vraic_--Is sea-weed, and is eagerly sought after by the farmers, both as
fuel and manure for their grounds, than which, they uphold nothing can be
better. The ashes, as a manure, are certainly unrivalled, and so
appreciated are their value, that "no sea-weed, no corn," has passed into a
proverb. They are sold at about 1s. 6d. the Guernsey bushel.

_Weights and Measures._--The pound is two ounces more than the English;
thus, twenty-eight ounces Guernsey, are thirty and a half avoirdupois. The
weights at the meat-market are under the direction of the States. They are
of solid brass, beautifully bright, with their numbers engraved on them,
and are locked up every night by the clerk of the market. Defalcations of
weight in meat, butter, or bread, is punished with a heavy penalty, and if
among the butter women, the whole of their stock is seized by the constable
whose duty it is to investigate the matter, and confiscate it for the
benefit of the town hospital.

_Wheat, Oats, and Barley._--The red wheat is preferred on account of its
producing heavier crops, and being less subject to the ravages of small
birds, which are very numerous here, especially sparrows. Wheat, during the
last twenty years, has been about two-thirds of the price at which it has
been sold in England. In the summer of 1830, wheat was twenty shillings per
quarter, Guernsey measure; whilst the price in England at the same time was
sixty or seventy shillings per quarter. At one time, the rigorous corn-law
was about to be extended here; but the inhabitants bestired themselves, and
succeeded in warding off the terrible blow, for which they were greatly
indebted to the exertions of the late venerable Baillif.

Barley generally follows wheat, and is considered by agriculturists of an
excellent quality, so much so, that when Quail wrote, one would have
thought that it was chiefly used for bread. It is sold to the brewers for
malting, at 3s. the Guernsey bushel, (56 lbs. English.)

Oats and rye are not much grown, as they are obtained on the Continent much
cheaper than they can be raised, and in respect to the keeping of a horse
are much more reasonable than in England.

_Wood for firing._--In the country, may be obtained at the following
prices: liberal sized faggots, consisting of ash, elm, or apple tree, fetch
from 18s. to 1l. per hundred. Should a still greater moderation of price be
regarded, old ship planks in the neighbourhood of the pier may be had.
Norwegian and Swedish deals, twelve feet long, nine inches broad, and three
inches thick, are sold for 2s. and 2s. 6d. each, or 15l. per 120, as there
is no duty on them, or any other kind of timber.





The first thing that a stranger, on landing, seeks, is rest and quietude;
for which purpose, he generally locates himself at one or other of the
hotels. Ordering dinner, he prepares an appetite by a walk in and about the
town, which he will find to be a quiet, though thriving place, with good
handsome shops. He may be arrested by the town church, which is as handsome
a structure as any in England; and in many of its portions displays some
cunning specimens of the ancient chisel. Should he be thinking of becoming
a resident, he may probably stroll into the shambles, the fruit and poultry
markets, and from thence to that splendid area the fish-market, where
doubtless, if the slabs are in the same condition as in the earlier part of
the morning, he will exclaim: "Well, this beats any thing of the kind I
have ever seen!" On deliberating on the building and its vast supply, he
will put us down as a fish-eating people, unless by enquiry he finds that
vast quantities are exported. Having communed within himself on the various
markets, he will not be a little amused with the fantastic head-dresses of
the Norman women.

Proceeding through the town, he may visit the Grange, Rohais and St
Andrew's roads, where he will find handsome, uniform buildings, much after
the style of his own country; and having as it were by necessity passed the
College, he will stop short to give it an extra consideration best known to
himself. By the bye, he may fall in with the New Ground or parade, with
which he can scarce fail to be pleased, as it is the admiration of every

Having procured a tolerable appetite, he will, in all probability, sit down
to a dinner of John dorey or turbot, which, with the addition of a piece of
roast beef as good as that of old England, and a good supply of delicious
vegetables and fruit, may be a further proof of the qualities of Guernsey.
After dinner being generally considered an interlude for good feelings and
a kindly impression, the visitor no doubt will be anxious to chat with his
neighbour on the economy of living in Guernsey and so on, or in his absence
may skim the pages of a Guide or Almanack. Such being the case, he retires
to bed to dream of the morrow's excursion, which, in all probability, will
be towards the outskirts of the town; in which case, should he select the
Rohais, he had better drop into Luff's nursery, as he will find in it much
to interest the florist and the horticulturist. Taking a circuitous bend to
the left through the fields adjoining Mr Martin's, he will fall in with
Havilland Hall, the present residence of the Governor, which from over the
hill has a fine appearance, and is seen to its best advantage. It is
remarkable for its altitude, and an entrance of four lofty Doric columns,
which but for a gentle swell in the middle, would be somewhat grand. The
rest can scarce fail to be admired, as it consists of a deep ravine,
babbling brooks, hanging woods, sheltered vale and cultivated farm.

Leaving the secluded quietude of Havilland Hall, you again fall in with one
or the other of the public roads in the suburbs, wherein may be marked the
growing importance of the town in the newly cut roads, and the handsome
houses on either side. From the English tourist's knowledge of affairs so
far, methinks I hear him exclaim: "What, from housekeeping, rent, and taxes
in England, I am persuaded I can live here for about one half of my income.
Indeed I can save one fourth owing to the entire absence of duty on
excisable articles in England; not only can I live cheaper, but with much
comfort and satisfaction to my wife and family. Here are no taxes,
toll-bars, or any other kind of imposition, consequently can keep my horse
and carriage at an average rate of 20l. per annum."

Keeping on he will arrive at Fort George, which is an elevation from whence
he can see many objects of attraction, such as Doyle's Monument, on the
right, and the small adjacent isles of Sark, Herm, and Jethou in the
distance; and with a telescope, if the day is clear, the houses and trees
of St Peter's, in Jersey, and not unfrequently a clear out-line of the
coast of France over the main. In other positions he will also make a
tolerable discovery of the craggy line of coast scenery from the
precipitous crags and ravines of Fermain Bay, to the little point of
Jerbourgh. Amongst some of these are pretty little retreats begirt with
trees and underwood, which from their neatness may be pictured into the
abodes of peace and contentment. Fort George is a brick building, and is
surrounded by a deep trench over which is a draw-bridge at the entrance.
The interior is well supplied with ammunition, and the ramparts are
surmounted with plenty of guns which are kept in excellent repair. The
adjoining grounds are spacious and open, part of which is reserved for an
exercising arena to the garrison; the remainder is let for grazing and
general cultivation.

Having taken an excursory glance of the town and its suburbs, the visitor
will probably return home, satisfied that if what he has already seen is
sufficient to demand his attention, the country scenery will, in a greater
or lesser degree the same. Devoting the afternoon to reading and
conversation, he will find in the "Directory" all necessary information for
making a tour of the island, which, together with the aid of the "Guide,"
will occasionally introduce him to the chief places worthy of notice,
particularly antique ruins, Druids' altars, pools and churches, which
latter, in a measure, have been made station posts. The rich fertile
plains, the upland woods, and the indented and irregular coast, will also
come in for their full share of observation; indeed every thing that may be
found to interest the agriculturist, horticulturist, artist, botanist, and
tourist, will be carefully noticed, and if possible brought within the
range of his own natural observation. Should he be only desirous of an
out-line or broad cast view of the island, he had better take a horse, as
he can be satisfied in a few hours. However, presuming the contrary, he
will arise invigorated from rest and change of air to a substantial
breakfast, when tapping his egg, he will propound over the coffee-pot the
shortest and most rural cut to St Sampson.


The road from town to St Sampson, winds through a low and flat country,
occasionally interrupted by marshes, and in the winter oftentimes by inland
water. The soil is sandy, and in some places boggy, consequently yielding
but indifferent crops in contrast with the other districts of the island.
The farms are but indifferent, and the gardens, from having a Southern
aspect, produce abundance of flowers. A little while ago, at Glatney, at a
house called La Piette, was a beautiful aloe upwards of fourteen feet in
height, which the year before last was in full bloom. Lining the road are a
few genteel cottages, evidently built for strangers and families visiting
the Island. To the left is Ivy Castle, which from being situated in a marsh
is hardly to be approached unless in summer and the weather remarkably dry.
It is a Saxon building and is surrounded with trees, which give it a
novelty of appearance. At present the interior is laid out in a kind of
garden, and belongs to the Governor.

On the top of Delancey Hill, were once barracks sufficiently capacious for
5000 troops. They are now pulled down and the land let out by Government,
upon conditions of being re-entered upon, as occasion may require, &c. From
this height may be seen a variety of views, such as Sark, Herm, and Jethou,
and on the other hand the sloping meads of the Valle, losing themselves in
the gentle uplands of the Câtel. Underneath are the Salt Pans, or shallow
pools laid out for the purpose of making bay-salt. In this neighbourhood
the botanist may discover specimens of orobanche major, ruscus aculeatus
and spartium scoparium, the former of which is by no means uncommon on
Delancey Hill and the adjacent furze fields.

The sea coast abounds in shells and curious pebbles, and is defended from
the encroachment of the sea by grey and blue granite, which more or less is
the usual belt of the Island.

At La Grosse Hougue is a small demi-dolmen which stands on the brow of a
hill, so that it may be seen on either side. A small quantity of pottery
was found under it, and it is said the late proprietor found human bones
when breaking up an adjoining field. Several celts or stone wedges were
picked up on this Hougue, and at a short distance from the hill is a stone
pulpit, or as it is called "La Chaire du Prêtre." It appears to be on its
natural bed, and to be shaped with some design, of which the purpose may be
well conjectured. Some suppose it to have belonged to the chapel of St
Clair which once stood on an estate of that name, situate at a short
distance. Near this spot are three upright stones, which probably belonged
to a cromlech, as at several times various remains have been found. In the
vicinity the botanist can basket a few specimens of osmunda regalis, the
leaves of which are rather bluer than the English, and the protuberances
more numerous.

On entering St Sampson's church, the whole of the interior will be remarked
to be exceedingly rude, plain and massive in its architecture, and the
walls partially deepened with the dark green tints of age and antiquity.
Most of its original character is lost and buried beneath the continued
alterations of modern art, and the observer of ancient tracery and
sculptorship will find but little to amuse him beyond a mutilated piscina
or circular door-way. A squinch thrown across an arcade may be conjectured
for strength were it not confuted by two buttresses on the outside.

St Sampson's Harbour is almost the attraction of every one, as it is one of
those excellent inland waters formed by nature, which by a comparatively
low expenditure may be converted to an excellent purpose, and the
mechanical genius will readily declare the feasibility. The Valle Castle is
apparently situated on an abrupt mound, and as it were overlooking the sea,
that gives it a truly picturesque effect meriting the attention of the
artist. On entering one is pleasingly disappointed to find its interior far
superior to what may be expected, as it is kept in good order, and is
replete with every necessary preparation of barracks, which purpose it
represents. The area within is spacious and open, and will afford room for
the exercise of some hundred troops; the apartments are numerous, and the
ramparts above well worthy the attention of the visitor.

It is said a late Lord Mayor of London was formerly a stone-cutter at this
harbour, and that he subsequently acquired great wealth. It appears that
having left England for a youthful frolic, he came to Guernsey in great
distress, where he was employed as a journeyman stone-cutter by a
respectable farmer in the Valle. Returning to London, he fell in with a
street paved with Guernsey stone, and from his knowledge of the island was
hired by the contractor as a foreman, when by his industry he amassed a
fortune, was elected Alderman, and finally elevated to the civic dignity of
Lord Mayor of London. Strange to remark it remained unknown to the island
until Sir John Doyle, then Lieutenant-Governor of Guernsey, dining one day
at the Mansion-House, was asked by the Alderman next to him how his old
master was at the Valle? "Your master!" replied the General, somewhat
surprised. "Yes," said the Alderman, "the master for whom I worked as a
journeyman stone-cutter at St Sampson's harbour, when I was a wild young
man; pray remember me kindly to him as William Staines, and say that I
shall be most happy to receive him in London."

Pursuing the road, you arrive at the entrance of Lancresse Common, where
there is a small public-house called the Valle Tavern, which from the
encouragement given it on race days and annual reviews, affords every
comfort for the traveller. Here he can unload his basket, and call for a
pint of good wine, or if he likes can order a beef-steak whilst he takes a
peep in and about the adjoining church. Such being the case, he will find
it an antiquated building, but which, from many modern alterations, smacks
of deformity, especially the vaulted roof. The chancel is the earliest
part, but of a much later Norman style than that of St Sampson's. The
tracery on an East window in the North aisle is wrought up to a
considerable effect by the chisel, and somewhat represents a lyre. The
aisle is altogether of the decorative style, and in the East end is a
stone, in which was once a monumental brass containing effigies of a man,
his wife, and children, and which for some time was given out as the Abbot
of St Michael.

[Illustration: Vale Tavern]

Having refreshed himself and smacked his lips over a good glass of
tawny-port, he will in all probability proceed towards the Cromlechs. If
so, I would remind him on entering the common, to cast his eye to the
right, where, as an artist, he will see a pretty wooded ait, called
"Snipe-Isle," half hid among tall spear and standing in the middle of a
glittering pool of water. There is a small flat bottomed boat, but as the
water is exceedingly shallow it forms only a winter pool, being dried up
throughout the summer. The back scenery enriches the picture in clumps of
trees, hoary rocks, and the expansive ocean; and the little holme is a
dense mass of trees.

[Illustration: Snipe Isle.]


Lancresse Common forms an annual race course, which in the summer, during
the race week, is rendered exceedingly gay from the erection of booths and
other displays. About the centre of the Common, on a gentle rising, are a
number of immense stones, forming a cave in which one can stand erect. They
once contained human ashes, pottery, celts, and an arrow-head, together
with many other curious remains. The sepulchre is covered with several
ponderous stones, one of which is of an immense size, and apparently only
supported on the pinnacles or edges of two erect smaller ones. These
remains are surrounded by an elevated circular mound, with two evident
entrances through the North and West sides, which may be perceived to
resemble those spots of convocation among the ancient Druids, which so
frequently occur in other countries. Standing on the apex of the large
altar stone the views become very extensive, and combine a great diversity
of scenery. The Valle Castle with the immediate foreground, and the
tapering masts of the shipping forms a fine picture in contrast with the
back scenery of the town and the adjacent heights of Fort George.


On the Eastern part of the plain, immediately below the hill above
mentioned, is another cromlech, circumgirt on all sides with curious
stones, the position of which are very singular, if placed in contrast with
those adjoining. About an hundred yards from hence, towards the North-east,
may be seen the portion of a circle rendered perfect by the upright stones
still standing; and in 1837, in an adjacent spot, were discovered several
stone graves. A little to the right may be perceived a cairn, which is
called "La Rocque Balan," where Fancy can fashion divine honours were paid
to the God of Belenus, the Sun or Apollo. There are many of these remains
in this locality, and a logan stone, with some others, have been swept away
by the ruthless hands of the peasantry.

Extending the walk to the extreme point, the geologist will discover
spacious quarries of blue and grey granite, which are worked for
exportation to London. This is a very solitary spot, and being a
considerable jut into the sea, is defended by quantities of immense rocks
in the utmost state of confusion, amongst which are found many curious
marine plants.

Taking an inland direction, the agriculturist will perceive extensive
fields of a deep sandy loam, well charged with vraic or sea weed, that put
forth considerable crops of beet-root, which in this light soil attain
their utmost bulk, by reason of the freedom allowed for their proper
expansion. Contrary to the English fashion, the fields contain a mixed
crop, such as brocoli plants, potatoes, and parsnips, the former of which
are generally well bestrewed with vraic. In the neighbourhood is the rock,
"La Hougue Patris," which is almost hid among the furze, and which contains
an impression that Fancy may whimsically fashion into the tread of an hoof.
The peasantry regard it as something mysterious, and call it "Le Pied du
B[oe]uf." The resemblance is so exact that it is no marvel it should thus
forcibly draw their attention. "Les Brayes," the rocks opposite, are said
to contain the same kind of impression on which ignorant speculation has
worked up many superstitious and base stories.

[Illustration (from next page)]

Making a circuitous bend, you pass through a low, flat, kind of valley, or
immediately under the residence of Mr Augustus Dobrée, whose house is
situated on a mound or height, that can scarce fail to be recognized, as it
is the only one of importance in the neighbourhood. The country, in this
part, still continues marshy, subject to damps and inundations, and
yielding but scanty crops of potatoes, parsnips and beet, which latter
rarely attains a bulk beyond three inches in thickness and thirteen in
length. The botanist will be amused with a variety of specimens of aquatic
plants and by an unbounded quantity of cotyledon umbilicus which shrouds
every old wall. The artist will find a picture combining wood, hill, vale
and rustic buildings, completed by a brilliant gleam of inland waters.

Continuing the road to Grande Rocque, the gardens on either side continue
to increase in beauty, until they break out into full bloom at the Friquet
and other richer parts of the Câtel parish. On this rout the botanist will
fall in with the Queen's meadow, which in the months of July and August,
literally speaking, is a sheet of camomile flower.


From Grande Rocque the views are very excellent; to the right, on an
eminence at the Western point of the bay, is Roc-du-Guet, or Watch-Rock, a
small battery that in war time was a telegraphic station.


Straight a-head is a small, but neat cottage, standing alone on the sand
plains, the residence of a Mr Saunders; behind are the sloping uplands of
Câtel, which, as they approach the town, are diversified with sylvan beauty
and elegant houses. To the left, on some distant sand plains, and on a
gentle rising is a curious old rock, technically called the "Giant's Head,"
from its vast resemblance to that fancied form. It is the resting place of
the cormorant and other wild birds of prey, and the hollow on the top of
the head is filled with half digested fish bones and beetles. In summer it
is generally the resort of pic-nic parties, whose groups form a very quaint
appearance at this curious place. Between this and Grande Rocque is Grande
Mare, which was formerly a noble sheet of water abounding with carp and
other fish. At present only a vestige of it can be seen during the winter
months, as it has been drained off at a considerable expence.

[Illustration (from prior page)]


Continuing the road, on the right is a fine old Saxon arch leading to
Blancbois, a large farm belonging to Mr Lainé. A little further is
Saumarez, the mansion of the Lady Dowager De Saumarez, a quadrangular
building, remarkable for a kind of belfry on the top which gives it a
curious effect. It is built of granite and is surrounded with umbrageous
trees, and tastefully laid out gardens, abounding in flowers. In the front
is a small pool, which from being hemmed in by a wall is rather a deformity
than an addition, as it smacks of the artificial. The adjoining grounds are
pretty, but of the usual character, small and circumscribed, and some
connected gardens figure boldly for a number of fine myrtles, outlandish
trees and numerous lillies of the valley. The district is nearly the same
as we have just past, with the exception of the orchard scenery being much
more florid, the fields sheltered with trees, and the ground much better
dairy land.


A cow generally yields from twelve to fifteen pounds of butter throughout
the summer, and the farms are somewhat remarkable for their fine ducks. The
grounds connected with the curious house of Miss Le Marchant have an
English aspect to a considerable degree, and in the centre of one, the
property of the late Mr Le Pelley, is a curious old elm.


Someways to the left in a well screened valley, and immediately behind the
parsonage-house, is the country hospital. It was built in 1753 and has
upwards of forty vergées of excellent land attached to it which in part
supports its inmates, who are employed in its cultivation, thereby enjoying
the advantage of constant fresh air and exercise. The apartments are
commodious and cleanly, and are the receptacle of the destitute and infirm
of all the country parishes, as also two-thirds of those orphans and widows
who are left by soldiers dying in garrison. The sick ward conveniently
fronts a sunny garden abounding with flowers and fruits, the former of
which goes much towards exhilarating the sick. Divine Service is performed
by the country ministers in turn, and the children which attend have
nurseries and schools.


St George, the residence of Colonel Guille, our present Baillif, is
charmingly situated amid woods of stately oak, beech and other timber, and
is esteemed by Englishmen and others of sound taste to be a better specimen
of English country scenery than any other in the island. The stranger
perhaps will see but little to attract him in the house, as it is small,
and but little discretion in the style; but then this is amply compensated
in the back scenery, which includes park-like grounds, rendered doubly
interesting from being beautified with sheep, which may be perhaps the only
opportunity he will have of seeing them in the island, and even here they
are, according to the law, either tied by the leg or pent in folds.


Diverging towards the sea on an eminence overlooking the wide main, and a
considerable territory of fens, called the "Pontine Marshes," is a kind of
look-out house or summer retreat belonging to the above gentleman. Here the
stranger has a broad-cast view of the fenny country beneath, which in the
winter is the beat of the wild-fowl shooter, as it is the resort of the
bittern, the heron, and a variety of other curious birds[A]; therefore if
he can regard the gunner and his dog wading through a wild tract of rushes,
marshes and vistas of tall spear, with a picturesque eye, this is the spot.
Looking inland he will see the beautiful wooded district he has just left,
connecting itself in an apparently unbroken chain until it loses itself
amid the beautiful confines and valley of the King's Mills, where, on
retreating back a little, he will soon find himself. Throughout this rout
the botanist will fall in with digitalis purpurea, convallaria majalis,
artemisia vulgaris, and a curious specimen of salix, together with
abundance of teucrium scordonia, which is as common and unregarded an herb
as any in the island, though possessing such excellent medical properties
as a tonic. However, hoping he will take this hint, and give it a trial, we
must leave him for the sake of the conchologist and geologist, whom no
doubt have both taken a rout by the sea-shore, and by this time must have
bagged a variety of shells, inasmuch as this line of coast displays some
beautiful sorts, such as black, white, yellow and red.

  [A] A certain town gentleman shot a fine bittern in these marshes, as
      also that beautiful bird, the egret, or lesser-bittern.

The neighbourhood abounds in a deep and rich soil capable of producing the
best crops, such as wheat, barley, potatoes and parsnips, which latter
crop, if the stranger has been here any time, he must have discovered, is
the chief growth of the Guernsey farmer. There are many rich fields in this
vicinity that can and do grow about twenty and a quarter tons to the
English acre, which, when dug, generally sell at about one shilling per
bushel, but afterwards rise in proportion. In the more sheltered parts are
waving corn fields, which though equally fine elsewhere, nevertheless are
shaken by the winds from the altitude of the situation. Vraic is not so
much used as in the Valle.

The King's Mills is a secluded and delightful situation, and more or less
is the attraction of all visitors. The orchard scenery is florid, and the
ground exceedingly good from being stimulated by the invigorating salts of
the vraic, and the cyder has been considered the best in the island. The
scenes abound with much interest, and are by no means too clogged for the
pencil of the artist. The herbs are generally medical and of the tall


A little way up the stranger will break upon the most lovely valley he ever
sat eyes on. It is in fact a bason, circumgirt on all sides, with a more or
less quantity of beautiful trees and underwood. In the centre, on a gentle
rising, are the farm premises of Mr Dorey, which is entered from the road
by a curious old broken Saxon arch. Adjoining the farmyard, is a gigantic
holly-tree, measuring at the base seven feet two inches in circumference,
and midway up four feet six inches and one eight, having for its
recommendation a clean and healthy stem whereon not a single knot or other
imperfection can be traced upon its silver-skinned bark from the root
upwards. The tree itself stands about fifty feet, and the trunk twenty-five
feet. In the above valley is every thing that can fascinate the poet, the
painter, and the admirer of the picturesque, and if the stranger's visit to
this charming spot should be in the autumn, he may perhaps indulge with the
author; for it was a beautiful day, on the threshold of winter, that he
visited it under the following impression:--

[Illustration from previous page]

Here, fain would we look back or linger where we are, for many charms yet
surround us; true, indeed, a fairer vision is receding from us,--brighter
skies and a greener earth; but when we look around, and see the beauteous
hues which yet garnish the woods, and the few blossoms that still faintly
smile upon their stalks, we feel a sympathy with the melancholy cast of the
season; and almost fancy that neither the cheerful visions of the spring,
the glowing luxuriance of summer, nor the mellow tints of autumn, equal the
sombre charm of the closing scene. Surely none speak to the heart with such
impressive language, none so full of calm thoughts, sober recollections,
and gentle feelings. Who that ever trod this sylvan valley, rustling
beneath his feet the heaps of leaves that once danced greenly and gaily on
the outstretched bows, but dwells on abject prospects, blighted hopes,
joys, loves, affections cherished and buried? Who that hears amid this
stillness, the drop of a leaf amid its companions, but is feelingly and
touchingly reminded that all natural things decay. He feels that the
holiday of youth is past into summer--summer into autumn, and that he too
must soon drop as noiseless and as silent as that leaf before him in the
winter of his life. But let me for a moment part from this moral strain,
and walk in fellow companionship to yonder mound and beat the leaves in our
way, for there are many lovely pictures which linger before the eye as we
wade through them in the stillness of an October noon; such as the deep red
of some, the ashen hue of others, with all the intermediate tints of orange
and yellow, and the brown duskier hues that deepen into nothingness and
decay. The dark shining green of the holly, with its scarlet berries in
connexion with the adjoining laurel, bears to the poetic feeling
amalgamized ideas of youth and age,--the berry bearing tribe of bushes
bending to the earth with the weight of their neglected riches, and the
dark sloe with its hoar-frost film, all tend to form a fit subject for the
pen of the immortal Gilpin in his Northern Tints of Forest Scenery, in
which peculiar strain he is the most exalted of all living and dead

    "The little red leaf, the last of its clan,
    That dances as long as dance it can,
    Hanging so light and hanging so high
    On the top-most twig that looks up to the sky."

Now we have emerged from the trees, let me point to yonder water-mill, that
lies immediately under the côtil. How beautifully plays the feathery foam
over the wheel, and how it dances and leaps over the little one which so
swiftly runs round! In October everything is clear and distinct; there is
none of that raw mistiness which in summer clogs the distant prospect, nor
any of that dancing vapour which a mid-day sun exhales from the heated
earth. We can almost count the leaves of the trees, and as the slanting
sun-beam thwarts the level of the meadow, high-taper and fox-glove rise
conspicuously into view. It is in October that a boundless prospect is
enjoyed to the full, and all that the horizon embraces is distinctly laid
before us. Oft do I recollect from Le Hocquette, watching with intense
interest the fiery setting of the evening sun, which, as it dipped the
horizon sent up rich spires of rays, and as it were in a flood of heavenly
light gilding it with an eternal glory, while the heavy gloom of Noirmont
point was distinct even to a mushroom on the outline, all contributing to
render the scene gorgeous in the extreme.


Connected with this valley, and intersected with a variety of hill and
dale, is Woodlands, perhaps the most beautiful estate in the island. The
building is somewhat irregular, and unfortunately situated in the lowland
that causes dampness, and enforces the idea of gloom. This, however, is
amply compensated in the diversity of the scenery, which comprehends a
tasteful display of wood, garden, and upland; altogether forming a spot of
true monastic seclusion, which the visitor can scarce fail to identify. The
intersectional valleys are so screened from the winds, that the magnolia
grandiflora is a mere ornamental shrub in the adjoining woods, and attains
the extraordinary height of forty feet, and blossoms every year. A species
of syringa, from Constantinople, with long pendant flowers, and the spice
plant, with many others equally rare, seem to invigorate as though in their
native soil. It is here the excellent seedling apple called "la Pomme
Susanne," or Mollet Pippin was raised, named from a former proprietor, who
left an orchard rich with a variety of sorts.


On this estate, in a sequestered little nook, half hid by the waving
umbrage of the beech, is the Domaillerie cottage, remarkable as the only
place where the Guernsey Lily grows wild, the leaves of which, in the month
of September may be seen sprinkled as if with original gold dust, and at
times there are from seven to nine bells on each stalk. This cottage is
also the subject of a legend which represents it as once being inhabited by
an extraordinary old woman, of a tall stooping figure and fierce black
eyes. Until of late years it has been the cause of some superstitious
speculation among the neighbouring peasantry, and a large stone, hid under
piles of deep green foliage, still marks the spot where she expired. At
present, the cottage is converted into a lumber-house, and a gothic window
in the gable, gives it the appearance of an old catholic chapel.

At Lassy is a comfortable little inn, kept by one Alexander, who has got
himself famous for a peculiar method in making pan-cakes, whereby he can
almost suit the palate of every one. Here the stranger has an opportunity
of a return by the omnibus, which on certain days passes this way.

At the point of Le Crocq, near Richmond, is a vertical stone, or fichade,
which is evidently of some antiquity. In the neighbourhood are fragments of
pottery, and some years ago stone instruments were picked up, together with
a gold coin, which was recently found. On a promontory at Le Rée, near the
isle of Lihou, is a cromlech, which has not received such damages, from the
attrition of Time, as the rest. It is on the side of the road which leads
to the above little isle, and at present consists of two large cap-stones,
which measure about twenty feet across. They cover a considerable chamber,
and are supported by a number of props. The entrance is at the East end,
and the interior is dark and gloomy; the interstices being filled or
blocked up with stones and other rubbish. Other cromlechs are pointed out
as being in the neighbourhood, but there is no dependance on them, and the
one above mentioned is said to be the far-famed "Creux des Fées," about
half a mile from which is a small, but interesting one, consisting of three
or four stones. Beneath it were found burnt ashes and bones, as also
portions of urns and coarse pottery. It may be found on the top of the hill
Catioroc, and is called by the peasantry "Le Trepied." These latter
cromlechs are the property of Mr Bonamy Maingay, and are well worthy of

The little isle of Lihou does not possess any Celtic remains, and this has
been attributed to its early occupation by the monks, and the erection of a
chapel and priory, which were built about the tenth or eleventh century, or
some time before the consecration of the Valle church. The site of the
chapel presents a heap of walls in ruins, and until lately were shrouded in
gloomy night-shade and rank fox-glove, whose tendrils have for years
supported the drooping arch, the fallen urn, and mouldering monument; and,
as it were in mockery of the dead, clasping the falling column. Remnants of
the chapel still remain, and excavations which have heretofore been made,
have brought to light many curious details. It consisted of a chancel and a
nave, with a square tower on its North-East side. It was vaulted with
stone, and the North wall of the nave with a few feet of the roof is still
standing. The above excavations were commenced in the chancel, the walls of
which were just visible above the turf. It contained the ribs of the roof
and portions of the columns and windows, the former of which were of Caen
stone. On sinking to a depth of four feet a pavement of small green and red
Norman tiles was discovered, and from observations made in different parts
of the chapel, it would appear the whole had been thus paved. Under this
pavement a few silver monastic coins and pennies of Edward I. were found. A
range of buildings may be traced at the lower part of the chapel,
overlooking the sea, and others have disappeared from the encroachment of
the waves at spring-tides. In a Southern bank is a drain, apparently
leading to the kitchen, in which were found large quantities of fish-bones,
scales, and other matter. To the East is a walled enclosure, which is said
to be the "garden"; at a short distance from this is a round-house or
dovecot, where the monks reared their pigeons, and in an adjoining spot is
a piece of ground which still goes by the name of the "Cimetière." At one
end of the chancel are some steps which appear to be the chief entrance,
and the rugged causeway leading from the island to the opposite shore is
supposed to have been made by the monks. In the rocks on the South side are
two natural baths, supposed to have been hollowed by the attrition of the
waters and pebbles, as the action of the waves is remarkably strong here.
They are supposed to have been used by the monks during the existence of
the priory. The island is very much exposed and scarcely anything besides
tufted herbage will grow there; nevertheless there is a good house,
containing useful apartments and a fine billiard room and table.

Leaving Lihou on the other side of Rocquaine bay is a creek, on which were
once some ruins.

Towards the sea the botanist will find abundance of eryngo or sea-holly,
which is a truly marine plant and exceedingly nutritious, the young tops
being eaten as asparagus; also fine specimens of samphire, which is far
superior to that of Grande Rocque and the neighbourhood. Here, and in the
vicinity of Lihou are the chief places for the gathering of vraic, which
from the 17th of July to the 31st of August is one general scene of
activity, and is well worthy the attention of the stranger, as it is a
peculiar feature in the island character.

In this bustling affair he will observe bands of country people, men,
women, and children, trooping towards the rocks in one uniform spirit of
hilarity and glee, of whom some are not unfrequently crowned with flowers
and other fantastical head-dresses. On the receding of the tide they
disperse themselves among the rocks, the strongest, be it on horse-back or
on foot, striving to attain the richest point. When the vraic is abundant
they gather it with a kind of sickle or reaping hook, throwing it in heaps
on a certain rock marked by a number of pebbles or chalking the name. Where
carts are not accessible they bear it at full speed on horse-back, and some
few on their shoulders. On the approach of the tide or end of their labour,
the lads lead the lasses to bathe, which is a fund of amusement to those
unaccustomed to the sight, for what with the merriment of the men and the
shrieks of the timid girls, all is confusion and uproar. However this soon
subsides as the evening mellow approaches, as there is no small expectation
of something that exceeds all, inasmuch as it is usual to have an
entertainment on the like scale. Such being the case, the country inns
throw up a kind of canopy, which is tastefully decorated with flowers and
surmounted with fern; the whole of the fabric being propped up with posts.
A variety of cheer takes place, which is closed by an evening dance,
generally undertaken by the young _vraicquers_. This highly characteristic
native scenery is equally prevalent at the bays of Le Rée, La Parelle and
the Vazon.

The land in this district is liberally supplied with vraic, which in
connexion with a good active soil is capable of producing the best crops,
especially potatoes, which in some instances are six Guernsey bushels to
the perch, or at the rate of about twenty tons to the English acre. The
farms are generally from thirty to forty vergées, and if there is a
predominance of meadow land, they usually manure two vergées, which is
about one fifteenth. In other districts they manure one in four, and
disperse at least four loads to the vergée. The medical herbs are in usual
character with those of Torteval and other upland parishes, wherefore the
botanist will fall in with tolerable specimens of potentilla tormentilla,
which according to the dryness of the soil, varies in its virtues as an


Returning to town, on the left, are the ruins of an old Catholic chapel
called St Appoline, which at present is converted into a furze-house and
cow stable, consequently the interior remains of its mural antiquity are
fast vanishing away. In the adjoining house may be seen the clapper of the
bell, portions of a sun-dial, and an ornamented stone cross which it is
said once stood on the summit of the East gable. At the back of the
proprietor's house is an old building, in the walls of which are some
arched windows and a fire place, that is conjectured to have formed the
kitchen. The neighbourhood has a monastic seclusion, which may render it
probable as being the place of old monkish hospitality. On the inside of
the vaulted roof are some curious figures in fresco, one of which evidently
represents the Virgin Mary. Those on the lower parts are entirely
demolished from the injury done to the plaster by the furze and other
lumber. On the South side is a window forming an opening of forty-eight by
thirteen inches, being divided into two parts by a horizontal stone or
transome. The stones are of considerable dimensions, and are occasionally
laid horizontally.

Keeping the road to town one will fall in with the Câtel church, which has
undergone many alterations and repairs. It is built on the site of an
ancient fort called the "Castel du Grand Sarazin," and the North wall of
the chancel and transept are still remaining portions of the old castle
walls, the masonry of which is exceedingly rude, the large and small stones
being thrown together confusedly and without order. Of late years some
incongruous and rude fresco figures have been discovered on a wall of the
North transept. In the church-yard is the tomb of the late Lord De
Saumarez, a native of the island, much beloved and esteemed. The tomb is
guarded by an iron railing and is exceedingly plain, at once affording a
striking instance of the un-ostentatious disposition of the late Lord.


Someways to the right is Pouchez, the charming estate of Mr Moullin,
diversified with rich meadows, hill and dale, and discretional openings
amid a gay profusion of deep green foliage, ivy-mantled stumps and pollard
oaks; which together with a few old mossy walls, and rural buildings, full
well claims the attention of the tourist.

The road from hence to the Rohais, from its altitude, affords a most
expansive view over the vale country beneath, especially from the fir
clump. Should the evening be on the mellow wane, he may indulge himself
with a seat, and with the combined feelings of the painter and the poet
contemplate on the placidity of the distant landscape. Unfurled like a map
before him lay rocks, trees, pools, cottages and the distant horizon,
glittering like liquid silver under the expiring glory of the setting sun.
Here he will catch a glimpse of cottages half hid under piles of deep green
foliage, which his fancy may ingeniously colour into a hamlet of peace and
contentment;--there a handsome villa and a sweep of inland water gleaming
in the evening red, with here and there a cottage curling its smoke amid
the calm serenity of the scene, or a wind-mill on a distant knoll flagging
in the evening breeze.

On the Rohais road the houses have a respectable appearance, and the land
apparently under a higher state of cultivation than he has hitherto seen.
Being elevated and laying open to the North, the gardens are sometimes
severely touched by the winds, and though most of them are protected by
high walls, it nevertheless is not a sure preventive. The houses in general
have an English cut, either being centered in beautiful green daisy fields,
or hid in high shrubberies and trees. The air, from the upland situation of
the neighbourhood, is considered remarkably pure and wholesome, being a
close representation to that of Torteval, which undoubtedly is the
healthiest parish in the island.




By way of making a circuit of the island, the stranger will select the road
to Fort George, which has been already noticed. A little beyond is Fermain
bay, delightfully environed with rocks, trees and furze hills, which latter
are romantically intersected with winding path-ways, evidently not to be
trod by the timid pedestrian, as they run round steep declivities of
blooming furze blossom, and at times verge on precipices. At low watermark
the little bay presents a fine sandy bottom, consequently is an occasional
resort for sea bathing; towards the shore the pebbles are large, and thrown
in such quantities and with such violence as to be worn completely round by
the attrition of the confined waves. On a height to the left are two land
marks, placed for the purpose of warning mariners coming down the Great
Russel, the situation of the Lower Heads, a dangerous reef of rocks, laying
about mid-way between this and Sark. From this point Southwards the line of
coast is one continued scene of rocky steeps, ravines, and broken
declivities more or less mantled with golden furze bloom, at times belted
with ivy, and fringed with wild flowers. Indeed the whole connected
together is one of singular beauty and well merits the attention of the
artist. The little bay is defended by a martello tower and battery.

To the right is Bonair, the residence of our late lamented Baillif or
head magistrate, Daniel De Lisle Brock, Esq., which is prettily situated
on an upland, sloping towards the sea, and belted with luxuriant timber.
A little further on, on the opposite side is the manor house of
Saumarez, belonging to John Thomas De Saumarez, Esq., Comptroller or
Solicitor-General. With the exception of a few modern additions and
innovations, the building has a considerable appearance of antiquity.
According to an inquest about five centuries since, or in the reign of
Edward III., this house is mentioned as being in the possession of the
Saumarez family from time immemorial. About that time the principal
fortress of the island was Jerbourg, when the office of Castellan was
granted to the lord of this manor, a situation of no small trust; at
present the title is profitless.

The greater part of St Martin's church is of the early English style, but
the windows of modern formation. The porch affords fine specimens of the
ancient chisel, and is considered the handsomest in the island. The corner
buttresses are cut from the hard granite, and the massive sculpture work is
considered exceedingly good. The dedication was attended with the splendour
of the Catholic church in which the feudal pomp of the baronial times was
eminently conspicuous. It took place about the year 1199, and there were
present the Governors of Rennes, Honfleur and Caen, Totness and
Southampton, and eighty-four lords displayed their banners.

Some ways to the right, and near St Andrew's church, is "la Croix au
Baillif," or Baillif's Cross, which took its name from the following
circumstance, that happened in the earlier part of the thirteenth century.
Gaultier De La Salle, the then Baillif of the island, lived about half a
mile hence, at a place called "la Ville au Roi," which may still be seen
with its sculptured granite door-way and stone spiral staircase. The
adjoining houses are only tenanted by poor people, and the walls of the old
mansion are still supported by the clasping embrace of ivy, and its roof
screened by the umbrage and waving verdure of some tall neglected trees.
Gaultier De La Salle had a poor neighbour named Massey, who chiefly
depended for support on the produce of a small adjoining patch of ground
connected with the Baillif's estate, and to which was attached a right of
passage to a well belonging to La Salle. This privilege was a great
annoyance to the Baillif, wherefore he tried various means to deprive him
of it; but being unsuccessfull in them all, he at length devised a scheme
for taking away his life. Accordingly, La Salle hid two of his own silver
cups, and expressing strong suspicion of his neighbour, poor Massey was
instantly taken up and brought to trial on circumstantial evidence.

Now, as theft, to a certain degree, in those days, was a capital offence,
and the accuser a person of high authority, and backed by the most corrupt
witnesses, the case was soon brought to proof, and Massey found "guilty."
Wherefore the judges, on their last deliberation came forth with sentence
of death on their lips. There was a pause--a dead silence in the Court; and
the unfortunate prisoner, after vainly asserting his innocence, now awaited
his condemnation hopelessly; when suddenly a noise was heard, the trampling
of many feet, and a man rushed breathless into the Court, holding up the
silver cups, and exclaiming, "they are found." He informed the judges that
having been employed that morning in removing some sheaves of corn
belonging to the Baillif into the barn, he and his fellow labourers had
found the cups in the middle of the rick. Hardly had he said this, than De
La Salle passionately exclaimed: "Fool! did I not tell thee _not to_ touch
_that_ rick; I knew--" He stopped in confusion; but his words were marked.
Every eye was turned on the guilty Baillif, and the Court resolved that the
base accuser should suffer the "lex talionis a criminê ejus," or
retaliation on account of his crime. Massey was instantly set at liberty;
and, after a short trial, Gaultier De La Salle was sentenced to death. On
his way to execution, he stopped at this spot, and partook of the
sacrament; in remembrance of which a cross was erected, called the
"Baillif's Cross." The spot is now only marked by a stone in the pathway,
with a cross cut in it. The place where Massey lived is called "le Courtil
Massey," or Massey's Field, to this day. The Baillif's estate being
forfeited to the Crown, has ever since been called "la Ville au Roi," or
the King's Town.


The Doyle column stands on the high land of Jerbourg, and was erected by
the States of the island in the year 1820. The ground on which it is built
is elevated from the sea 350 feet, and the column itself 101 from the
foundation, forming a total of 451 feet. The gallery is defended by an iron
balustrade, is fourteen feet square, will contain from thirty to forty
persons, and is ascended by cocklestairs guarded by railings. The entrance
is on the East side, and the door of the gallery faces the South-East. It
is built of Guernsey granite with an oak frame placed in the wall at every
ten feet, and may be seen ten leagues distance at sea from the West and
Southern direction, being considered by mariners of the greatest
importance. It was raised to commemorate with grateful remembrance the many
public services rendered the island by the late General Sir John Doyle,
whilst Lieutenant-Governor, from the year 1803 to 1817. From the top may be
caught a most extended view of earth, sky, and water. At one's feet lay
Sark, Herm and Jethou; and Jersey, France and Alderney, so plain as almost
to be able to distinguish the outline of form, such as indentations,
creeks, coves, and inlets of projecting rocks and crags, more or less
whitened with the moss of age and antiquity. Inland, fields waving with
corn and verdure, and if in his poetic fancy the tourist cannot conjure up
something of a sylvan scene, a rolling river or a sweep of inland water, is
his own fault. The key of the Monument is delivered to the public gratis,
and is kept at an adjoining public house, on whose sign are the words
"Doyle--pub. grat."

On the small promontory of Jerbourg was formerly a castle, the keeper or
castellan of which was of the De Saumarez family, unto whom the manor has
for several centuries belonged. At present not so much as the walls are
remaining. From several trenches and ditches, which are still remaining, it
is conjectured there was once a Roman encampment here, and this is not at
all improbable as tradition gives us the same. Jerbourg barracks are
situate on an adjoining spot and are sufficiently capacious for about three
hundred troops.


Taking the road to Petit-Bo bay, about mid-way, the artist will catch a
lively picture, such as bold and majestic crags in the front;--a streak of
the ocean, the deep ravine beneath, with a foaming little waterfall,
rivulet and mill, beautified with a cove of silver sand, all tending to
elevate the idea, and reduce into the mind a fit assemblage for the finest
picture, such as "beauty in the lap of horror." An ill-formed paper-mill
and an artificial mud pond may be said to overthrow the quietude and
seclusion of the spot. However, it is so much like that where Napoleon
rests in St Helena, only in a lesser form, that a correspondent of the
local press, who had evidently visited the Emperor's tomb, wrote thus:
"When you descend the road from the Forest church, keep to your right and
proceed directly on to the brow of the cliff overlooking the small battery.
A ravine there presents itself. If you will be kind enough next to look
towards the cliff immediately opposite, you will observe a pretty lofty
eminence. On that height, in imagination, I placed Madame Montholon's
house, which you must remember is described by many travellers as looking
down upon the Emperor's tomb. About an hundred feet below this, picture to
your imagination a beautiful green sward, sloping in graceful declivity
down the valley. Next on the left hand, place a small cottage, the
residence of the old sentinel at St Helena, and at the foot of his little
garden, a sentry box, where a record is kept for the entry of visitors'
names; beside this, bursting out from a crevice in the rock, you may fancy
the celebrated spring, out of which the departed warrior was accustomed to
drink. The water is the purest and most refreshing to be found in the
island. Carry your eye a little further down, and the sacred tomb is seen
surrounded by an iron railing. A large willow tree waves its graceful
foliage over this romantic spot. A plain stone, with the awful word
"Napoleon," rests on the grave. Immediately beneath the tomb, a natural bed
of scarlet geraniums, intermingled with myrtles and evergreens, extend to
the rocks beneath, over whose rugged heads the sea breaks, thus terminating
one of the most picturesque and romantic scenes to be found on the
terrestrial globe."

Continuing the road, the country wears a diversity of scenery, being
occasionally interrupted by hills and abrupt risings towards the sea. In
dells screened from the roughness of the winds, and where there is a good
aperture for the sun, gardens do well; and cottage vines[A] are equally as
vigorous as in Jersey, and exotics require little or no protection besides
that of a slight covering. The broad and narrow leaved double-flowering
myrtle flourishes in the open air, and the orange with only the aid of a
wall perfects its fruit. The Guernsey fig[B] growing as a standard of great
strength, with a variety of other outlandish plants and shrubs, bespeak a
situation favorable both for flowers and fruits. In the neighbourhood,
amongst a variety of plants, the botanist will find allium ampeloprasum, or
vine leek, which, according to Mr B. Saunders,[C] a member of the Botanic
Society, is also found wild on a nearly inaccessible cliff beyond the
Artillery Barracks.

  [A] The small cluster grape seems to be the hardiest, and indeed the
      only one that thrives in England to any advantage, for some years
      ago I have:--"Cold frosty morn,--ice thick,--pump frozen;--went to
      spend a few days with my relation the Rev. Thomas Bellamy, of
      Chetnole, in Dorsetshire. After generously partaking of wine, with
      other clergymen, before a blazing log-wood fire, I was informed
      that the great vine that entered the room where we were sitting,
      and which covered the inside of a spacious bow-window, had a few
      years since produced a hogshead of wine. Certainly it is the
      largest and most spacious vine I have ever seen, as it overruns the
      whole of the back building, and occupies a space of not less than
      fifteen yards!"--_Mem. Jan. 19, 1829._

  [B] Among some old papers pertaining to my "Notitiæ," I find, the
      fig-tree thrives well as an espalier even as far North as
      Yorkshire, but the fruit exceedingly small, green, and unripe. At
      Ampleforth College, in that county, an entertainment was given by
      the Right Hon. Lord Clifford, and if my memory serves me right,
      among other things in the bill of fare, were twenty-nine geese,
      fifty plates of nuts, and three do. of dough figs. The former were
      quickly dispatched, but of the latter scarce a dozen were taken,
      and even those but partly eaten, notwithstanding covers were laid
      for upwards of a hundred.--_December, 1823._

      May 2, 1842.

The sea coast in this district is exceedingly craggy and at a place called
the "Gouffre," which in summer is often the resort of pic-nic parties, the
rocks are thrown in the most haggard yet beautiful state of wild confusion,
and the foaming of the sea at an immense depth below, like the boiling of a
cauldron, fully demonstrates the disturbed state of the elements. The
seeker of solitude and the admirer of rude nature can almost enjoy
themselves to repletion, as perhaps this place cannot be represented save
in some of the wilds of America or the deep ravines of Merionethshire, at
all events solitude can never be more faithfully portrayed.

A little further on towards Petit-Bo is a sequestered little fishing nook,
called "La Moye," consisting of one or two fisherman's huts deeply seated
in a ravine replete with furze, grig and wild flowers. At the bottom is a
cave formed by the confused state of the rocks, which acts as a harbour or
anchorage for a few fishing boats, the which, if the stranger be fond of
the water, he can hire for a trifle. The fish here as well as in Petit-Bo
bay are rock-fish, whitings, sword-fish, &c.

A little to the Westward of the Gouffre is a place called the "Bigard,"
famous for its rocks, pinnacled masses and confused precipices, which
confining the sea within its narrow chasms, causes it to fret and roar
beyond every thing grand, at once laying bare to the observer from the
heights and crags above, one continued and fearful action of scenery.

The country about the Forest church consist of a stiff but active soil, and
in many parts of a rich loam. Sylvan beauty ornaments the country
occasionally, and furze hedges more or less disappear for those of thorn
and other bushes. Parsnip crops in this quarter are about 17,600 lbs. per
vergée, provided they are grown in a putrid, dry sandy soil, of which there
is many a field. The _Coquaine_ parsnip thrives best in the deep sandy loam
of the Valle, where it sometimes attains the extraordinary length of four
feet, and in circumference generally from eight to twelve inches. The
leaves of this variety grow to a considerable height, and proceed from the
whole crown of the root. The _Lisbonaise_ gains in weight and substance
what the other does in length, consequently does not require the depth of
soil. The leaves of this species are small and short, and only break from
the centre in which there is a hollow cup, and the root tapers away in
abrupt ringlets.

As the stranger can scarce fail to be awakened at the bustle attendant on
the preparation of the ground for this seed, together with the holiday-like
supper at the end, it will not be amiss to take a brief survey of the
operations. As the small farms into which Guernsey is divided will not
allow every individual farmer to keep sufficient cattle for this work, it
is performed by a combination of neighbours, who are repaid by the like
joint-stock assistance, in which there is a mutual understanding as to the
loan of ploughs and other instruments. Towards the latter end of February
the ground is prepared by means of ploughs; a small one precedes, and opens
the furrow to the depth of four inches, and a large one follows, with four
or six oxen and as many horses, that deepens the furrow to twelve or
fourteen inches;--this plough is called "la grande charrue." As soon as the
clods are capable of being broken, the harrowing commences, which is
repeated till the soil is pulverised and reduced nearly to a state of
garden mould. The seed is then broad-cast over the ground, but on a day
when the wind is just sufficient to ensure an even dispersion; after which
it is covered with the harrow. The quantity sown to the vergée is half a
denerel or two quarts.


In this and St Martin's parish there has been lately introduced a very
excellent sort of pig, which in breed is supposed to be an admixture
between the English and Chinese kinds. Until lately a good specimen was to
be seen at a public-house kept by ---- Hopkins, whose mode of feeding is
first with raw parsnips, then with boiled, and towards the end of the
fattening a little barley meal. By this kind of feeding the quantity of
pork is much encreased, but the quality is impaired, as the fat becomes
flabby. To provide against this he adds an extra quantum of saltpetre in
the curing, which answers tolerably well. However, be it as it may, they
are much more profitable than the foreign long-legged ones, so common in
the Valle and other districts. Hogs of this kind, twenty months old, when
killed at Christmas, have weighed from 400 to 420 lbs.


As the stranger may not have hitherto had a proper opportunity of observing
the manner of Guernsey churning, it may not be unacceptable to give him an
idea. In England, either the barrel churn or the patent vertical ones are
generally used, whereas here the old fashioned upright one has maintained
its ground through all time and change, which if not deemed a cleanly way
is certainly an expeditious one. The milk, which is churned with the cream,
is commonly put in the churn over night, and that generally on the third
day. When it is curdled it is churned, the acidity of the milk quickening
the butter, which is not to be excelled in any part of the world.

On the left is a Wesleyan chapel, and a little beyond is the Forest church,
which has an ugly appearance, from the East and West sides of the tower
being longer than the other two. It has been so patched and altered by
modern art, that little or nothing of the original structure remains, and
the ornamental portions of a South window, have long since been destroyed.
The hedges in the vicinity are mostly holly and thorn, and the latter,
which is generally shrouded with ivy, compensates in a great measure for
the absence of timber. On the more exposed parts, the hedges are furze, the
usual fence-fashion of the island, which, in spring, beautifies and
perfumes the country. The naturalist will observe the entire absence of
those insects peculiar to the lowland parishes; as also the appearance of
the finch, yellow-hammer, and other alpine birds.

Close to the "Bourg," or village of the Forest, opposite a place called "le
Chêne," is a road leading through an inland valley of surprising beauty,
terminating at the Vauxbellets, the elegant mansion of Mr Frederick
Mansell. An adjoining lane leads to the Hurel, a cluster of poor, dirty
looking huts, evidently inhabited by people of the same order. They have
the character of being a half gipsy, half beggar race, bearing the name of
Pipet, and as their features are foreign to the Guernsey peasantry, none
will intermarry or have any thing to do with them. The country people look
upon them with an evil eye, for when they are permitted to circumambulate
the neighbourhood for their "irvières," or New Year's gift, no one likes to
send them away empty-handed, lest peradventure evil befall them, their
cattle, or their children.

The country between the Forest and Torteval church is but thinly supplied
with wood, and notwithstanding the orchard scenery is much less than
elsewhere, the fruit is considered of a sharper and better flavour. The hay
is sweet and good, and yields upon an average about one ton per vergée. The
gardens, from being too much exposed, produce but little fruit, and in
vegetables but ill accord with those of the Câtel and some other of the
parishes. In some positions, the celebrated Chaumontel pear dwindles to
nothing; the fruit being very little larger than a walnut. The same may be
applied to the purple and green fig, which, as a standard, readily attains
perfection in other districts, but here, unless screened by a wall, comes
to nothing. Melons will not ripen without the aid of glass, and grapes
present but a sorry appearance with those of the vale parts.

As the "sarcleur" is as freely used here as elsewhere, the mode of using it
may not be unworthy the attention of the stranger. The farmer, he will
observe, has one knee on the ground, when he attacks the weeds by pushing
forward the edge of the sarcleur under their roots, turning them over, and
with the flat side occasionally striking them, in order to disengage the
adhereing mould. From this contracted attitude, the labourer is enabled to
make greater progress than might be supposed. Flax was once grown here, in
common with many other parts of the island; but as the quality was inferior
to that imported from the Northern parts of Europe, it was consequently
stopped; notwithstanding, some thousand pounds in weight, have been
exported to Bridport, Lime, and Poole.


1. Dock Spade. 2. Fork Dock Weeder. 3. Hand Meadow Weeder. 4. Le Sarcleur.
5. La Fourchette du Jardin.]

On the South side of this parish is the "Creux Mahie," or "Malière," which
is an immense cavern, upwards of 200 feet in length, and 40 or 50 in width,
and from 20 to 60 in height, having at times a curious vaulted roof, and a
rough and uneven bottom. As the attrition of the water on this coast is
very violent, it is supposed to have been formed by the waves, in common
with other encroachments of the sea. On making an investigation, the
visitor had better explore it by means of a bundle of furze, which being
divided into several fires, and lit at distinct distances, will expose to
him the whole mystification of the interior. He had also better apply to
some of the neighbouring cottages for a guide, as the locality is intricate
and difficult to make out.

Torteval church is a plain but neat building, and at once strikes the
stranger as being remarkable for its tower and spire. From the top is an
extensive view of the surrounding country.

To the artist, Torteval furnishes an highly picturesque district, and there
seems, as it were, only one thing wanting, that the high and lofty crags,
and abrupt rocks overlooking the sea were crowned with some "ivy-mantled
tower," ruins or fragments of old castles. With this exception, it is in
such scenes like this that the artist ought to roam; for here he can catch
numerous ravines, projecting head-lands, and pinnacled masses, which are
occasionally relieved by a few straggling sheep and distant trees. The
abrupt hills break into numerous slopes and glens, leading in a Northerly
direction; from hence arise those tortuous valleys which produce such
diversified and rural scenery pictured in the centre of the island. The
rocks furnish an abundant compound of gneiss, of which an interesting
series may be discovered at "Les Thielles." Here alternate lines of dark
strata may be seen traversing cliffs of reddish gneiss, which in the bay of
"Bon Repos," are dashed into the most wanton state of confusion, their
softer portions being worn away by the action of the pent up waves, which
gush through the caverns of this fragment-like coast. In rough weather, and
when the sea becomes confined within these narrow limits, the roar of the
water and the lashing of the waves are such as to present one turbulent and
fearful commotion, threatening instant and total destruction to any
unfortunate vessel which should be driven on this dangerous coast.

In certain places, where proper shelter is granted, the soil of this parish
is highly productive, and when manured at the rate of ten load of vraic per
vergée, will occasionally produce upwards of 50 bushels of potatoes, though
the general average is from 30 to 40 per vergée. Such soil lets for about
2l. 10s. per vergée. The hay is famed for its sweetness, and an English
acre will throw off about three tons and a half; which, though by no means
equal in quantity to that of the Valle, nevertheless gains the point in
quality. Parsnips may be said to be small, and much inferior in size to
those elsewhere, as the indurated state of the soil will not admit of a
proper expansion of the root. These crops are about fifteen tons per acre,
whereas at St Saviour's and the Valle they are from twenty to twenty two
tons per acre; nevertheless they are of a good quality, and hogs not only
look healthy, but yield a preferable pork. In fattening of pigs, parsnips
have ever been found most profitable, as it is a root yielding a much
greater portion of saccharine, mucilaginous and nutritious matter than
either the potatoe, beet, turnip, or perhaps any other plant, and its
general use throughout the island fully demonstrates the same. The butter
is rather pale, but the quality is exceedingly good.

In the neighbourhood, the naturalist will find much to amuse him, such as
the appearance of the yellow-hammer on the hedges, farms, corn-ricks, and
elsewhere. After the same order he may place the cross-bill, ring-ouzel,
missel-thrush, starling, mountain finch, hooded crow, and a few others. The
great variety of rocks, cliffs, and creeks, also afford an excellent field
for observation; and the insects and birds that give a decided preference
to the altitude of this parish, in contrast with that of the Valle, furnish
space for extensive research. The botanist will notice quantities of
potentilla tormentilla, which is said to impart a fine flavour to the
mutton of sheep feeding on it; and this is by no means improbable, as
English agriculturists always regard it as a lucky event when their
sheepwalks are well bestrewed with this invaluable plant; insomuch that it
is not only found to heighten the quality of the mutton, but to cure the
sheep of that dreadful disease the dry-rot. Some parts are so exposed to
the sea and rough winds, that many of the orchards suffer severely from
blight and the green canker, and the trees generally are so checked in
their growth from moss gathering, that little if any fruit at certain
seasons arrive to perfection. To provide against this, some few have got
into the practice of scraping them, and it has been observed they use a
certain instrument with considerable advantage, of which the present
engraving will convey a tolerable idea.


St Peter's church has a much more ancient appearance than any other in the
island, and the remains of antiquity, such as the chisel work about the
windows, and other ornamental parts are almost perfect. The tracery of a
rose window over the door of the North aisle, is gone, and perhaps it is
difficult to decide what it meant. The church-yard is neat, and the
tombstones in a much better condition than are usually met with.

Following the road, on the left hand side, is the menhir, which is a large
columnar stone, in an erect attitude, and standing in a field appertaining
to the estate of the Paysans. It can scarce be omitted, as it is said to
attract the attention of every passer-by from its imposing station; and
although the natives in the neighbourhood are entirely ignorant of its
original intent and use, nevertheless hold it in a kind of veneration. It
stands about eleven feet from the surface of the ground, where no doubt it
has stood in the same position for some thousands of years. By some, it is
supposed to be an idolatrous pillar: whereas others are of opinion it is a
monumental chronogram, in commemoration of some great chieftain or notable
event. Be it as it may, it certainly puts one in mind of another of these
rude monuments of antiquity, stationed at the foot of the hill near the
remains of the chapel of St Brioc, where is pointed out a stone bearing an
impression of two enormous feet.

On the estate of Mr Thomas Lainé, in the adjoining parish, may be seen the
grave of a chieftain of old, which was discovered in the year 1818, by some
workmen who were planting a tree in the côtil. Whilst digging the hole,
they were stopped by some large stones, which being removed, there appeared
the tomb of the ancient warrior. The grave was walled in, and was six feet
nine inches long. There were no bones, and the present remains are in the
possession of the proprietor of the estate and Mr F. C. Lukis, of Grange
road. They consist of a lance, a piece of ornamental brass, a sabre in a
steel scabbard, and a vase. The lance has a handle which is supposed to be
cedar wood, and the vase was full of blackish composition, conjectured to
be the ashes of some distinguished personage; and was found about thirty
paces from the grave, in a depth of nearly fifteen inches of ground. The
inner part is of the colour of a dried chesnut leaf, and the outside of a
dark brown, whilst the pottery was of the finest clay. Its weight was
upwards of two pounds; height, eight inches, and breadth at the top six
inches. This vase, and the spear, are in the possession of Mr Lukis, and
form no small addition to that gentleman's interesting collection of
antiquities. The following is from a drawing taken some years back.
Unfortunately the flat stones that covered the grave were not sufficiently
closed, wherefore the body from the access of the external air has been
decomposed, thereby only leaving us the above remains.


Taking the road for town the tourist will fall in with the Câtel church
which has been already noticed. The roads in this district, as well as in
most parts of the island, are remarkably good and may furnish the traveller
with another specimen of insular comfort; for here, if they are not exactly
equal to some of those of England, at least have this advantage, that they
are entirely exempt from tolls, bars, gates, and every other imposition,
whereby his carriage or horse may be stopped at every stone's throw. The
roads are generally seventeen feet broad, and the raised foot-way, that
always forms the one side, from three to four; thereby allowing two
vehicles to run abreast without fear of encroachment on the foot-paths. The
by-lanes which he may have frequently entered, afford a tolerable specimen
of what the old roads were, previously to the spirited undertaking of Sir
John Doyle in 1810. Similar to the roads, they have a narrow rough
causeway, but in general much higher, and in their present condition,
afford many a rural retreat for the green-lane botanist, as they are more
or less screened from the summer's heat by umbrageous trees. In the sylvan
districts, they are not unfrequently graced with the waving verdure of the
beech, and on their mossy banks put forth a profusion of herbs, primroses,
and other wild flowers, forming a cool and pleasant retreat for solitude,
reading, and botany.

With these, or the like reflections, the stranger may reach town, where
peradventure, should his walk be towards the latter end of autumn, the
approaching charms of winter yet await him.--Closed shutters, a blazing
fire, slippers, and an easy chair; and, whether it be fancy or not, I
cannot tell, but it strikes me forcibly, that a _smoking goose_ and a
bottle of old port, always seem more dainty when viewed beneath the
sparkling rays of four candles, than the most superb banquet that ever
glittered beneath the all-glorious beams of the brightest sun that ever
shone out of an Eastern sky.




     1     5,  for Southamtonshire, read Southamptonshire.
    53    20,  for 1826, read 1836.
    63    11,  for parts, read part.
    83    18,  for an engraving is given at p., read the engraving at page.
    97    18,  for cait, read ait.
   119     9,  for tatention, read attention.

[Illustration: Torteval Church from Pleinmont.]

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