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Title: Popular Technology; Volume 2 - or, Professions and Trades
Author: Hazen, Edward
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Popular Technology; Volume 2 - or, Professions and Trades" ***

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    POPULAR TECHNOLOGY;

    OR,

    PROFESSIONS AND TRADES.

    [Illustration: The AUTHOR.]

    BY EDWARD HAZEN, A. M.,

    AUTHOR OF

    "THE SYMBOLICAL SPELLING-BOOK," "THE SPELLER AND
    DEFINER," AND "A PRACTICAL GRAMMAR."

    EMBELLISHED WITH EIGHTY-ONE ENGRAVINGS.

    IN TWO VOLUMES.

    VOL. II.


    NEW YORK:
    HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS.

    1870.



    Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1841, by

    HARPER & BROTHERS,

    in the Clerk's Office of the Southern District of New York.



CONTENTS

of

THE SECOND VOLUME.

                                                    Page

    The Musician, and the Musical Instrument Maker     7
    The Sculptor                                      18
    The Painter                                       29
    The Engraver                                      42
    The Copperplate Printer                           51
    The Lithographer                                  54
    The Author                                        58
    The Printer                                       63
    The Type-Founder                                  73
    The Stereotyper                                   77
    The Paper-Maker, and the Bookbinder               81
    The Bookseller                                    92
    The Architect                                     97
    The Carpenter                                    111
    The Stone-Mason, the Brick-maker, &c.            114
    The Painter, and the Glazier                     129
    The Turner                                       136
    The Cabinet-Maker, and the Upholsterer           140
    The Chair-Maker                                  149
    The Carver, and the Gilder                       153
    The Cooper                                       157
    The Wheelwright                                  161
    The Potter                                       169
    The Glass-Blower                                 178
    The Optician                                     187
    The Goldbeater, and the Jeweller                 198
    The Silversmith, and the Watchmaker              213
    The Coppersmith, the Button-Maker, &c.           224
    The Tin-Plate Worker, &c.                        233
    The Iron-Founder                                 242
    The Blacksmith, and the Nailer                   255
    The Cutler                                       261
    The Gunsmith                                     266
    The Veterinary Surgeon                           271



[Illustration: MUSICAL INSTRUMENT MAKER.]

THE MUSICIAN, AND THE MUSICAL INSTRUMENT MAKER.


THE MUSICIAN.

1. The word _Music_, in its modern application, has reference to the
science which treats of the combination of sounds. It is founded upon
the law of our nature, that every leading passion has its peculiar
tone or note of expression understood by all human beings. Music,
therefore, may be supposed to have been practised in the earliest
ages; although it must have been a long time before it arose to the
importance of a science.

2. According to the Mosaic records, Jubal, one of the descendants of
Cain, played upon musical instruments, many hundred years before the
flood. In the early period of the nations of antiquity, and in fact
among all semi-barbarous people of later periods, the character of
poet and singer were united in the same individual; and the voice was
frequently accompanied by musical instruments. The oldest song which
has descended to our times, and which is stated to have been exhibited
in this manner, was that sung by Miriam, the sister of Moses, on the
occasion of the passage of the Red Sea by the children of Israel.

3. The Hebrews employed music in their celebration of religious
worship, which consisted, in part, in chanting solemn psalms with
instrumental accompaniments. It was also used by them on the occasion
of entertainments, as well as in the family circle. It reached its
greatest perfection amongst the Jews, in the days of David and
Solomon. It is supposed, that the priests of Egypt were versed in
music, before the settlement of the family of Jacob in that country;
but how far the Israelites were indebted to them for a knowledge of
this pleasing art, is altogether uncertain.

4. Music was held in very high estimation among the Greeks, who
attributed to it incredible effects. They even assure us that it is
the chief amusement of the gods, and the principal employment of the
blessed in heaven. Many of their laws, and the information relative to
the gods and heroes, as well as exhortations to virtue, were written
in verse, and sung publicly in chorus to the sound of instruments.

5. It was the opinion of the philosophers of Greece, that music was
necessary to mould the character of a nation to virtue; and Plato
asserts, that the music of his countrymen could not be altered,
without affecting the constitution of the state itself. But in his
time and afterwards, complaints were made of the degeneracy in this
art, and a deterioration of national manners through its influence.
The degeneracy probably consisted in its application to the
expression of the tender passions; it having been previously applied,
in most cases, to awaken patriotic and religious feeling.

6. The invention of music and of musical instruments, as in the cases
of most of the arts and sciences among the Greeks, was attributed by
the poets to some of the gods, or else to individuals of their own
nation. It appears, however, from their traditions, that they received
this art, or at least great improvements in its execution, from
Phoenicia or Asia Minor. It began to be cultivated scientifically in
Greece about 600 years before the advent of Christ.

7. The Romans seem to have derived the music which they employed in
religious services from the Etruscans, but that used in war and on the
stage from the Greeks. At an early period of their history, it was a
great impediment to the progress of the art, that it was practised
only by slaves.

8. The Roman orators pitched their voice, and regulated the different
intonations through their speech, by the sound of instruments; and on
the stage, the song, as well as part of the play itself, was
accompanied with flutes. Wind-instruments of various kinds, comprised
under the general name of _tibiæ_, and sometimes the cythera and harp,
accompanied the chorus. In all these applications of music, the Romans
had been preceded by the Greeks.

9. The Hebrews employed accents to express musical tones, but most
other nations of antiquity used letters of the alphabet for this
purpose; and, as they had not yet conceived the idea of the octave or
parallel lines, to express a variety of tones in a similar manner by
the aid of a key, they required a number of notes that must have been
exceedingly perplexing.

10. The Greeks are said to have had about one thousand notes, half of
which were for vocal, and the other half, for instrumental music. All
these were expressed by placing the letters of their alphabet, or
parts of them, in different positions. Accents were also used, partly
by themselves, and in connexion with the letters.

11. The lines of a poem, set to music, were placed under the letters
expressing the tones. The letters for the instrumental part were
placed first, and under them those for the voice. The notes of the
Greeks and Romans were not required to indicate the time in which they
were to be pronounced, since in general the syllables of their
language had a natural and distinct quantity. In the cases in which
there was a liability to mistake, the syllables were marked with A, if
long, and with B, if short.

12. The Romans expressed the fifteen chief tones of the Greeks with
the fifteen first letters of the Latin alphabet; and these were
reduced to seven, by Pope Gregory I., towards the end of the sixth
century; so that the first seven capital letters were used for the
first octave, the small letters for the higher octave, and the small
letters doubled, for the highest octave. Parallel lines were soon
after invented, on which the letters were written.

13. Musical sounds were expressed in this manner until the year 1024,
when, according to some authors, Guido Aretine, a monk of Arezzo,
invented points and rhombuses. He also introduced the use of five
parallel lines, upon and between which his notes were written. The
seven letters which had formerly been used as notes, now became clefs.

14. Still, however, the means of determining the duration of sound
belonging to each note, without consulting the quantity of syllables
in the verses to be sung, were yet to be provided. This desideratum
was supplied by one Franco, a German of Cologne, who lived towards the
end of the eleventh century. Some, however, attribute this improvement
to John de Murs. The division of one note into others of less value
was invented, in the sixteenth century, by Jean Mouton, chapel-master
to King Francis I. of France.

15. The knowledge of music, as a science, was preserved in Europe,
after the overthrow of the Western empire, through the influence of
the Church. The apostles, and Hebrew converts generally, had been
accustomed to the sacred music of the Jews; and, on this account, it
was easy to continue the use of the same psalms and hymns in the
Christian Church.

16. Many of the Grecian and Roman melodies were also set to words
adapted to Christian worship. In regard to the manner of singing, in
the early days of the Church, it was sometimes in _solo_, sometimes in
_alternate strains_, and at other times in _chorus_; in which the
whole assembly joined, repeating what had been before sung or read. In
the fourth century, with the view of securing the proper execution of
this part of divine worship, _precentors_ were instituted, who were
considered regular officers of the Church.

17. Pope Gregory I., surnamed the Great, distinguished himself by
establishing a new singing-school, which became a model for many
others, in the western division of the Church. In consequence of these
schools, the singing became more artificial; and this, together with
the circumstance that the hymns were in Latin, which had become
obsolete, at length excluded the people from any participation in this
part of the public worship.

18. Gregory also made a selection of the existing songs of the Church,
and introduced a _chant_, which, through his influence, and that of
his successors, was at length extended throughout Europe. It received
the appellation of the _Gregorian chant_ from his name. It was also
called the _choral song_, because it was sung by a choir. This chant
is said to be the foundation of our present church-music.

19. Music, in distinct parts, was not known until after the
introduction of the improved method of writing music, invented, as
before stated, by Guido Aretine and Franco. The development of
harmony, in four parts, was assisted by the _choral_; but it was more
particularly advanced by musical instruments, and especially by the
organ. In the fifteenth century, music began again to be treated
scientifically.

20. The Reformation produced great changes in the character of sacred
music. Before that event took place, this part of religious worship
was confined to a few fixed forms of texts, as in the mass, and this
is still the case in the Roman Catholic Church; but the Protestants
allow great variety both in the poetry and music. Luther's agency in
the production of these changes was very considerable. During the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, church music became continually
more brilliant, and always more corrupted, by the intermixture of
profane music.

21. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, there grew up, at the
courts of the European monarchs, the free chamber style, from which
arose that which was afterwards used in the theatre. The opera, which
originated with three young noblemen at Florence in 1594, has
contributed especially to the splendor and variety of modern vocal
music, the advancement of which is claimed particularly by the
Italians, as that of the instrumental kind is claimed by the Germans
and French.

22. The composition of music, and its execution either vocally or
instrumentally, as well as the business of imparting a knowledge of it
to others, are embraced in the employment of the musician; although it
is seldom, that all these branches are practised by one and the same
individual. Music is one of the fine arts, and, during the middle
ages, was one of the branches of what was then considered a learned
education.

23. Since the scientific revival of music, the art has had so many
distinguished professors, that we will not even attempt to give a list
of their names. Their number was increased, and the art greatly
perfected, by the singing-schools, called _conservatories_,
established especially in Italy, either at the public expense, or by
the liberality of individuals.


MUSICAL INSTRUMENT-MAKER.

1. This artist unites in his business some of the operations of the
cabinet-maker, turner, and brazier. He also is dependent upon the
wire-drawer, and the tanner and currier, for some of his materials. So
great, however, is the number of musical instruments, and so different
their nature and construction, that the business of making them is
divided into several branches, all of which are never pursued, or
carried on, by one person. But, without reference to the several
divisions of this business, we will proceed to mention or describe the
principal instruments which are now in most common use.

2. The _organ_ is the largest of all musical instruments, and, in its
improved state, so complex that a mere description of it cannot be
well understood. Nevertheless, we will endeavor to give the reader
some idea of the general principles on which it is constructed.

3. The most essential and prominent parts of this machine are the
_wind-chest_, the _pipes_, and the _bellows_. The former of these is
an oblong box, made perfectly air-tight, and placed in a horizontal
position. The top of this chest is perforated with several rows of
holes of different sizes, and into these are inserted the pipes. Those
for the higher notes are of a cylindrical form, and are made of a
mixture of metals, chiefly of tin and lead; but those designed for the
expression of the lowest notes of the base are made of wood, in a
square form. The dimensions of these pipes are regulated by a
_diapason_, or _scale_.

4. There are as many of these rows of pipes, which are called _stops_,
as there are kinds of tones in the organ; and to every row or stop is
a plug, attached to a slide, which is denominated a _register_, and
which is designed to regulate the admission of wind into the pipes.
The pipes are also furnished with valves, which can be opened at
pleasure, by means of keys similar to those of the piano-forte. Some
organs have few, others have many stops; and, in order to regulate the
force of sound, most church organs have two or three rows of keys,
whereby a greater or less number of pipes may be filled, and the
powers of the instrument may be controlled in what is called the
_small organ_, or let loose, so as to become the _full organ_.

5. The fingering of an organ is similar to that of the piano-forte, so
far as relates to the position of the keys; but, on account of the
great number of holding notes in organ music, and the manner in which
the sound is produced, the fingers are more kept down; whence it is
considered injurious for performers on the piano-forte to practise on
the organ, lest that lightness of touch, so necessary for the former
instrument, be affected. It is hardly necessary to remark that, during
the performance on the organ, the wind-chest is filled by means of the
bellows.

6. The structure of the organ is lofty, elegant, and majestic; and its
solemnity, grandeur, and volume of tone, have obtained for it a
pre-eminence over every other instrument for the sacred purposes to
which it has been applied. The largest organ known is in St. Peter's
Church, at Rome. It has one hundred stops.

7. The church organ was probably suggested by the _water organ_ of the
Greeks, which was invented five or six hundred years before our era.
At what period, organs began to be employed in churches, cannot now be
ascertained. By some, it is said that Pope Vitelianus caused them to
be used in Rome in the seventh century. Others are of opinion, that
they were not introduced until three hundred years later. But, be this
as it may, the church organ was not in common use until the fourteenth
century; and now it is very different in its construction from that of
early times. It has received many additions and improvements since the
beginning of the fifteenth century.

8. The _hand_ or _barrel organ_ consists of a moveable cylinder, on
which, by means of wires, pins, and staples, are marked the tunes
which it is intended to perform. These pins and staples, by the
revolution of the barrel, act upon the keys within, and give admission
to the wind from the bellows to the pipes. The hand organ is so
contrived that the revolution of the barrel gives motion to the
bellows.

9. There are several instruments belonging to the class of _horns_,
all of which are made of brass or silver. Those of the latter kind of
metal are by far the softest in tone, but brass is the material most
commonly employed. The chief instruments belonging to this class are
the trumpet, the French horn, the bugle, the Kent bugle, the trombone,
and the bass-horn. The _serpent_ seems to be the connecting link
between the trumpet and the flute.

10. The instruments classed with the flute, are the common flutes of
various keys, German flutes, and several kinds of flageolets. Nearly
allied to these are the clarionet, the hautboy, and bassoon. The
breath is applied to the flageolet through an ivory tube at the end;
and, in the three last named instruments, a thin reed, capable of a
free vibration, is a part of the mouth-piece.

11. Of the instruments which produce musical sounds by the vibration
of strings, there are a great number, of which the following are the
principal;--the lyre, the harp, the guitar, the lute, the dulcimer,
the harpsichord, the spinnet, the piano-forte, the violin, the
violincello, and the base-viol. The strings of the three last are
agitated with a bow; but those of this class first mentioned, are
vibrated by the thumb and fingers, by some little instrument held in
the hand, or by little hammers, moved by keys, as in the piano-forte.

12. The _piano-forte_ is said to be the invention of Gottlieb
Schroder, of Hohenstein, in Saxony, born in Dresden, about the year
1717. Before the introduction of this instrument, the clavichord,
harpsichord, and spinnet, supplied its place. On all of these
instruments complete harmony can be produced by a single performer,
and the most difficult series of tones can be executed with rapidity,
by means of a simple mechanism.

13. The _piano-forte_ has been gradually improved, until it has become
one of the most elegant instruments in the whole compass of musical
practice. In firmness and strength of tone, the English piano-fortes
formerly surpassed all others; but, within a few years, they have been
equalled, and in some respects excelled, by those of American
workmanship. The manufacture of this instrument constitutes the most
extensive branch of musical instrument-making.

14. The instruments of percussion are the military drum, base-drum,
kettle-drum, tabor, tamborine, and the triangle. The kettle-drum has
received its name from its conformation. It has but one head, and is
used in orchestres, and by the cavalry of modern armies, especially in
Europe. The tabor has two heads, about three inches apart, and is
beaten with one stick. The tamborine has one head, drawn over a hoop,
to which are attached small bells and bits of tin, to make a jingling
sound. The time is beaten on the head with the hand.

15. The _bag-pipe_ is a wind instrument of high antiquity among the
northern nations of Europe; but it has been so long a favorite with
the natives of Scotland, that it may be considered their national
instrument. It consists of a leather bag and three pipes. The first of
the pipes is that by which the droning noise is produced, the second
emits wind from the bottom of the bag, and the third is that on which
the music is made.

16. During the performance on the bag-pipes, the bag is placed under
the arm, and worked like a bellows, while the notes are modulated as
on a flute or hautboy, by stopping and opening the holes, nine in
number, with the ends of the fingers and thumb. The bag is filled by
means of the breath blown into it through a pipe. In Rome, at the time
of Advent, the peasants of the mountains express their veneration for
the Virgin by playing on this instrument before her image.



[Illustration: The SCULPTOR.]

THE SCULPTOR.


1. Sculpture is one of the fine arts. In its most extended sense, it
includes not only modelling figures in clay, wax, and plaster of
Paris, and carving them in wood, stone, and marble, but also _casting_
them in bronze, lead, or iron, as well as enchasing and engraving.

2. The productions of this art are known under various denominations,
but the principal are _statues_, _busts_, and _bas-reliefs_. The first
of these are entire representations of men or animals in full relief;
the second are upper parts of statues; and the last are figures more
or less elevated from the body or ground on which they are formed.

3. The different degrees of elevation in reliefs, are expressed by
various terms borrowed from the Italian. A figure is said to be in
_alto relievo_, or _high relief_, when but a small proportion of it is
buried in the back-ground; in _mezzo relievo_, or _middle relief_,
when one half of it is above the surface; and in _basso relievo_, or
_low relief_, when but little elevated, like figures upon coin.
Bas-reliefs are usually applied as ornaments to buildings, and to the
pediments of statues.

4. The subjects of sculpture, with a few exceptions, are the same as
those of painting; and the course of study essential to proficiency in
either, is very similar. They both require much taste and practice,
and a thorough knowledge of the human form and other objects
frequently represented. The young artist begins with imitating the
most perfect models of Grecian art; and, after having become well
acquainted with their beauties, he proceeds to the imitation of
nature.

5. When any considerable work in stone or marble is to be done, the
sculptor forms a model of clay or wax, to guide him in the execution.
The soft material is moulded to the proposed form with the hands and
small instruments of ivory. The model is by far the most difficult
part of the work, and it is here the genius of the artist is to be
displayed. The process of copying the model in stone or in any other
substance, is an operation merely mechanical, and can often be done by
another person as well as by the scientific sculptor himself.

6. The model having been prepared, the block of marble or stone is
marked at certain points corresponding to its chief elevation and
concavities. The material is then wrought to the rough outline of the
figure, by means of strong steel points, drills, and other perforating
tools; and the asperities are afterwards removed with chisels, and
with rasps and files of different shapes. When a high polish is
required, it is produced by friction with pumice-stone, tripoli, and
straw ashes.

7. Marble and stone are carved in a similar manner; but the latter,
being softer, can be wrought with less difficulty. The defects which
may be met with in the stone are repaired with a composition of
plaster of Paris and the same stone, pulverized and mixed with water.

8. _Casts_ in plaster of Paris and bronze are taken from models,
statues, busts, bas-reliefs, and living persons. To do this, it is
necessary to form a mould from the subject to be copied. This is done
by spreading over it some soft substance, which can be readily forced
into all the cavities, and which will harden by drying or cooling.
Plaster of Paris is the most usual material employed for this purpose.

9. When the subject is a bas-relief, or any other one-sided figure of
a similar kind, the mould can be withdrawn without injury, in a single
piece; but if it is a statue, or any other figure of like form, it is
necessary to divide the mould into several pieces, in order to a safe
removal. These pieces again united constitute a perfect mould. While
the artist is forming the mould on the face of a living person, the
latter breathes through tubes inserted into the nostrils.

10. In taking casts from such a mould, the internal surface is oiled
to prevent adhesion, and then plaster mixed with water is poured into
it through a small orifice. The mould is afterwards turned in every
direction, that the plaster may cover every part of the surface; and
when a sufficiency of it has been distributed to produce the requisite
strength, and the plaster has acquired the proper solidity, the
several pieces are removed from the cast, which, of course, is an
exact resemblance of the subject on which the mould was formed.

11. Superfluous portions of the material, produced by the seams in the
mould, are removed with suitable instruments, and applications of
fresh plaster are made, where necessary to repair blemishes. The cast
is finished by dipping it in a varnish made of soap, white wax, and
water, and afterwards rubbing it with soft linen. The polish produced
in this manner, approaches that of marble.

12. The durability of plaster casts, exposed to the weather, is
greatly increased by saturating them with linseed oil combined with
wax or rosin. They are made to resemble bronze by the application of a
soap composed of linseed oil and soda, and colored with the sulphate
of copper and iron.

13. Moulds are, also, formed of a warm solution of glue, which hardens
upon cooling, and such are called _elastic_ moulds. This material is
sometimes preferred on account of its more easy separation from
irregular surfaces. For small and delicate impressions in bas-relief,
melted sulphur is sometimes employed; also a strong solution of
isinglass in proof spirits. All three of the substances last mentioned
yield sharper impressions than plaster of Paris.

14. Statues designed to occupy situations in which they may be exposed
to the weather and mechanical violence, are often made of bronze cast
in moulds. The external portions of the mould are made on the pattern,
out of plaster, brick-dust, and water. The mould is then covered on
the inside with a coating of clay as thick as the bronze is intended
to be, and the several pieces are afterwards put together, or
_closed_. The internal cavity is next filled with a composition like
that on the other side of the clay.

15. When this has been done, the several pieces forming the outside of
the mould are separated, and the clay carefully removed. These having
been again united, and the core or internal portion of the mould
secured in its true position, the whole is bound with iron hoops, and
thoroughly dried. The melted bronze is poured into the cavity formed
by the removal of the clay, through an aperture made for the purpose.
The cast is afterwards rendered smooth by mechanical means.

16. It is conjectured with much reason, that sculpture was one of the
arts practised before the deluge, and that it was transmitted to
posterity by the survivors of that catastrophe. The first images were
probably made for the purpose of perpetuating the memory of the dead;
but, in process of time, they became objects of adoration. As the
Chaldeans were unquestionably the first idolators after the flood, so
are they supposed to have been the first who made progress in
sculpture.

17. The first notice of this art in the Mosaic writings, is found in
the passage relative to the teraphim, or idols, which Rachel, the wife
of Jacob, carried clandestinely from her father's house; and the first
persons mentioned in the Bible, as artists, are Aholiab and Bezaleel,
who formed the cherubim which covered the mercy-seat, together with
some other furniture of the tabernacle, and the sculptured ornaments
of the garments of the high-priest.

18. From the same authority, we learn that the nations expelled from
Canaan, by the Jewish people, were not ignorant of sculpture and
painting; for Moses repeatedly commands the latter to destroy the
_pictures_ and molten images which might be discovered in their
progress through the land. The Israelites crossed the river Jordan
about 1500 years before the commencement of our era.

19. From this time to the end of the Jewish polity, we often meet in
the Scriptures with indications of the fine arts; but the splendor of
Solomon's temple, clearly points out the days of that prince as the
period in which they had attained their greatest perfection in Judea.

20. The Babylonians, Assyrians, and Phoenicians, became considerably
skilful in sculpture, at a very early period, as we learn from early
history, and some existing remains. The same remark is also applicable
to the inhabitants of Hindostan. But writers have been more particular
in noticing the style of design among the Egyptians, because the
progress of the arts among that people is more easily traced, and
because it is supposed to elucidate that of most other ancient
nations.

21. The chief objects of sculpture, among the Egyptians, were pillars,
and other architectural ornaments, idols, the human figure, animals,
and hieroglyphics, engraved in a kind of bas-relief on public
edifices, and the forms of animals. Most of the great works of this
nation are supposed to have been executed during and after the reign
of Sesostris, who lived in the days of Rehoboam, king of Israel, or
about 1000 years before the Christian era.

22. But of all the nations of antiquity, the Greeks were the most
distinguished for sculpture. They derived the first rudiments of the
art from the Phoenicians, or Egyptians, although they assert that they
themselves were its inventors. Its existence, in a rude state, among
that people, preceded that of letters or scientific architecture.

23. Dædalus, who lived about 100 years after Moses, was the first
sculptor among the Greeks, of any notoriety. The statues made before
his time, were stiff, formal figures, having the arms attached to the
body, and the legs united, like the mummy-shaped productions of
Egyptian art. He separated the legs of his statues, and placed them,
and the upper extremities, in a natural position. He also was the
first sculptor who made the eyes of his statues open. On account of
these improvements, the Greeks said, that his divine genius made
statues walk, and see, and speak.

24. The disciples and imitators of Dædalus were called his sons, and
artists, generally, _Dædalides_. Soon after this period, schools of
design were established in the island of Ægina, at Corinth, at Sicyon,
and in Etruria, in Italy: but it seems that no good representations of
the human form were effected until near the time of Phidias, who was
born 444 years before Christ.

25. This most distinguished of all the votaries of sculpture,
flourished at or near the same time with the dramatic poets, Æschylus,
Euripides, and Sophocles; the philosophers, Socrates, Plato, and
Anaxagoras; and the statesmen and commanders, Pericles, Miltiades,
Themistocles, Cimon, and Xenophon. This was the most refined period of
Grecian history, and of all others, the most favorable in its moral
and political circumstances, for the development of genius.

26. Phidias was the author of the _ideal style_, which, in the fine
arts, may be defined, the union of the perfections of any class of
figures. Among the distinguished productions of this artist, the
colossal statues of Minerva and Jupiter Olympius, made of gold and
ivory, have excited the greatest astonishment. The former, executed
for the Parthenon of Athens, was twenty-six cubits in height; and the
latter, for a splendid temple at Elis, was about the same height,
although seated upon a throne.

27. The favorite disciples of Phidias, were Alcamenes, of Attica, and
Agoracritus, of Paros; and at the same time with them, flourished
Polycletus, of Argos, Miron, of Boeotia, and Pythagoras, of Rhegium.
The _beautiful style_ soon succeeded to the ideal; the authors of
which, were Praxiteles and Scopas, who brought the art to the highest
perfection,--since, in their productions, they united beauty and
grace. After the days of these two artists, sculpture began to
decline; although it continued to be practised with considerable
success, for some centuries after this period.

28. The great superiority of the Greeks in the art of sculpture, is
ascribed to various causes; among which are classed, their innate love
of beauty, and their own elegance of form, combined with the frequent
opportunities of studying the human figure, in places where youth were
in the habit of performing athletic exercises in a state of nudity. To
these may be added, the practice of awarding to citizens a statue of
their own persons, for eminent services to the state, and for
excelling in exercises at the public games.

29. The fine arts were nearly extinguished in Greece, by the conquest
of the Romans; who, with ruthless rapacity, seized upon, and
transferred to their metropolis and villas, the superb works of taste
with which the country abounded. By these means, however, a taste for
the arts was produced among the Romans, who encouraged with great
liberality the Greek artists who resorted in great numbers to their
city.

30. The arts at length declined at Rome, and finally became nearly
extinct in that city, soon after Byzantium was made the capital of the
Roman empire, in 329 of the Christian era. The new capitol was
enriched by the most valuable statuary of the old metropolis, and by a
farther pillage of Greece. Artists were also encouraged with a
munificence similar to that of former times; and many new subjects in
painting and sculpture, in illustration of the Christian scriptures,
were executed as embellishments for the sacred buildings of the city.

31. The art of sculpture necessarily declined during the time of the
unsettled state of Europe, which followed the conquests by the
barbarous nations. It, however, was not altogether lost, but was
occasionally practised, although in a very rude manner, in several
kingdoms of Europe. In the eleventh century, after the terrors of the
northern invasions had passed away, and the governments had become
more established, the arts of design began a regular course of
improvement, which has been denominated their revival.

32. This improvement was promoted by means of the frequent intercourse
which had sprung up between the commercial cities of Italy and the
Greek empire. In 1016, the Pisans founded their great church, called
the Dome of Pisa; and, in its construction, they employed many noble
pillars and other fragments of Grecian edifices. They also engaged
upon the work several Grecian sculptors and painters, who exerted in
their service the little skill which had come down from antiquity.

33. The specimens of ancient art thus introduced at Pisa, and the
works of these artists, at length incited several Italians to
emulation; among whom was Nicolo Pisano, who became the restorer of
true taste in the arts, in the thirteenth century. At this period, the
crusades had diffused such a zeal for the Christian religion, that
magnificent churches were built in every part of Italy, in the
designing of which, and in their decoration with sculpture, Pisano and
his scholars were universally employed.

34. John Pisano, the son of Nicolo, was also an architect and sculptor
of eminence; and by him was built, for King Charles, a castle, and
several churches, at Naples. He also executed several pieces of
sculpture, and superintended the construction of some edifices in
Tuscany. This sculptor, who died in 1320, had several pupils, of whom
Agostino and Agnolo Sanesi were the best sculptors of the time.

35. In 1350, an academy of design was formed at Florence by the union
of several painters, sculptors, and architects. This institution was
called after St. Luke, whom tradition makes a painter by profession.
The society was afterwards munificently patronised by the Medici, a
noble and wealthy family of that city.

36. From this school, there soon proceeded a great number of skilful
artists, among whom were the sculptors Lorenzo Ghiberti, Donatello,
and Brunileschi; and after these, others perhaps still more
distinguished, until it produced Michael Angelo Buonarotti, who, as a
universal genius in the arts of design, has excelled every other
artist, whether ancient or modern.

37. This great man was born in Florence, in 1474. His father, having
discovered his talent for designing, made him a pupil of Dominic
Ghirlandaio, who instructed him in the first principles of the art of
drawing. He studied statuary under Bartoldo; and, in his sixteenth
year, copied the head of a satyr in marble, to the admiration of all
connoisseurs. On account of his great promise, he was liberally
patronised by Lorenzo de Medicis, who, besides allowing him a pension,
gave him a lodging in the palace, and a place at his table. After the
death of this prince, he enjoyed the same favors from his son, Pietro
de Medicis.

38. His reputation as an artist having been established at Florence,
he was called to Rome by Julius II. From this time, he remained
chiefly in the service of the popes, for whom he executed many
inimitable works, both of sculpture and painting. He was also an
architect of the first order; and, as such, was employed on St.
Peter's Church, as well as on several other public edifices. He died
in 1564, at an advanced age.

39. Sculpture, having been brought to as high a state of perfection as
it was ever likely to be carried, began to decline in Italy, as it had
done before, under similar circumstances, in ancient times; but as
barbarism did not again occur to overwhelm it, it did not entirely
disappear. It continued to be practised, although in a very inferior
degree, until it was again revived by Antonio Canoya, near the close
of the eighteenth century.

40. The French nation, from its vicinity and intercourse with Italy,
obtained from that country the means of improvement in every branch of
the fine arts. Accordingly, native artists of considerable merit
occasionally appeared. The kings of France, also, often employed
Italian architects and sculptors on their great public works. In the
reign of Francis I., Leonardo da Vinci, and two other artists from
Italy, established a school of fine arts similar to that of St. Luke,
at Florence; and the genius of the people, added to national
munificence, have kept a respectable school of sculpture to the
present time.

41. Considerable ability in sculpture has likewise been exhibited by
native artists of Spain, Germany, Holland, England, and some other
countries of Europe; but whatever skill has been displayed in any of
these countries has been derived, in an indirect manner, at least,
from Italy. In the United States, the fine arts have been cultivated
with considerable spirit. An academy for this purpose has been
established both in New York and Philadelphia, and a picture gallery
has been connected with the Athenæum in Boston, in which the annual
exhibition of paintings is respectable.



[Illustration: The PAINTER.]

THE PAINTER.


1. Painting is the art of representing visible objects, by means of
lines and colors, on a plane surface, so as to produce the appearance
of relief. It is justly ranked among the highest of that class of arts
denominated fine, or liberal; and its tendencies and powers being
similar to those of poetry, it is considered an employment worthy of
men of the most exalted rank.

2. The theory and practice of this ingenious and delightful art, are
divided by its professors into five distinct branches,----_invention_,
_composition_, _design_, _chiaro-scuro_, and _coloring_. _Invention_
relates to the choice of subjects to be introduced into a picture. It
is this which gives the highest character to the artist, as it
affords the greatest opportunity to display the powers of his mind.

3. _Composition_ regards the general distribution and grouping of
figures, the choice of attitudes, the disposal of draperies, the
situation of the scene itself, as well as the arrangement and
connexion of the various parts of the scenery. Invention and
composition are employed particularly in the first rough sketch of a
picture.

4. _Design_ refers to the expression of a proposed picture in simple
contour, or outlines. It is applied in making the first rough sketch
of the picture, whether in miniature or in its full size, as well as
in the more accurate expression of the form of the figures, in its
final finish. The artist, in making his design, is guided in drawing
his lines by the rules of _perspective_, according to which he is able
to _foreshorten_ objects, and thereby diminish the space which they
occupy, without giving them the appearance of diminished magnitude.

5. _Perspective_ has been defined the art of delineating the outlines
of objects on any given surface, as they would appear to the eye, if
that surface were transparent, and the objects themselves were seen
through it, from a fixed position. For example; when we look through a
window at a mass of buildings, and observe that part of the glass to
which each object, line, or point appears opposite, we find that their
apparent position is very different from their real. A delineation of
these objects on the glass, as they appear, would be termed a
representation in perspective.

6. Correct perspective is the foundation of scientific painting; and,
next in importance to this, is a proper distribution of light and
shade. This branch of the art is called _chiaro obscuro_, or, when
abridged, _chiaro-scuro_. The term is Italian in its origin, and its
literal meaning is _clear_ and _obscure_. To the skilful management of
light and shade, we are indebted for the strength and liveliness of
pictures, and their relief, or the elevation which certain parts
appear to assume above the plane upon which the objects are
represented.

7. By the aid of perspective and chiaro-scuro, very good
representations in one color are attained. Drawings in India-ink and
crayons, as well as pictures taken from engraved plates and wood-cuts,
are specimens of such productions. But a nearer approach to the
appearance of nature, is made by the employment of colors analogous to
those which are found to exist in the objects to be represented.

8. To produce various hues in painting, the artist employs coloring
substances, which, either alone or by mixture, are analogous to them
all; and, in their use, he is careful to apply them in such a manner,
that the true colors remain distinct from the lights and shades
necessary to produce the objects in relief. Artificial colors are
divided into _warm_ and _cold_. The former are those in which red and
yellow predominate; the latter are blue, gray, and others allied to
them.

9. Before coloring substances can be applied in painting, they must be
reduced to extreme fineness, and be mixed with some tenacious fluid,
to cause them to adhere to the surface on which they are to be spread.
The fluid employed for this purpose, and the mode of applying the
colors, have given rise to the different kinds of painting, of which
the following are the principal: _crayon_, _water-color_, _distemper_,
_fresco_, and _oil-painting_.

10. The most simple mode of applying the colors is by means of
crayons. They are made of black lead, a species of chalk, or of a
mixture of coloring matter with gum, size, or clay. For painting in
_water-colors_, the substances employed in communicating the tints
are combined with gum, and formed into cakes or lozenges. When about
to be used, they are dissolved in water, on glass or a glazed surface.
The application in painting, is made by means of a camel's-hair
pencil.

11. Painting in _distemper_ is used for the execution of works on a
large scale, such as stage scenery, and the walls of apartments. The
coloring substances are mixed with water, rendered tenacious by size
or solutions of glue, or by skimmed milk, increased in tenacity by a
small quantity of thyme. Linseed or poppy oil often serves as a
vehicle for the colors, in this kind of painting.

12. Paintings in _fresco_ are executed on walls of plaster. The
coloring matter mixed with water, being applied to the plaster while
the latter is in a fresh state, sinks in, and incorporates itself with
it, so as to become very durable. During the execution of the work,
the plaster is applied to the wall in successive portions, no more
being added at a time, than can be conveniently painted before it
becomes dry. Works of this kind must be executed with great rapidity;
and, on this account, patterns, called _cartoons_, are previously
drawn on large paper, to guide the artist in his operations.

13. _Oil painting_ derives its name from the mixture of the colors in
oil. The oils used for this purpose are extracted from vegetables;
and, on account of the rapidity with which they dry, are denominated
drying oils. For most purposes, this mode of painting is decidedly
superior to all others. It admits of a higher finish, as it allows the
artist to retouch his works with greater precision. The colors also
blend together more agreeably, and produce a more delicate effect. Oil
paintings are executed on canvas, wood, or copper.

14. Paintings are imitated with surprising elegance, by cementing
together colored pieces of glass and marble, as well as those of wood.
Representations by these means, are called _Mosaics_, or _Mosaic
paintings_. The cause of their having received this appellation cannot
be ascertained. Some, without much reason, attribute the origin and
name of this branch of the art to Moses. Others suppose that works of
this kind have been thus denominated, because they were first employed
in grottoes dedicated to the _Muses_.

15. Drawings and paintings are divided into classes, according to the
nature of the objects represented, the principal of which are
_historical_, _architectural_, _landscape_, _marine_, _portrait_,
_still life_, _grotesque_, _botanical_, and _animal_. The subordinate
divisions of these branches are very numerous.

16. The propensity to imitation, so deeply rooted in the human mind,
is the foundation of the arts of design; and there can scarcely be
indicated a lengthened period in the history of man, in which it was
entirely inactive. It may have first been accidentally exhibited in
tracing the form of some object in the sand; or resemblances in sticks
and stones, may have originally suggested the idea of imitations by
means of lines and colors.

17. Although painting and sculpture may be supposed to have existed,
at least in a rude state, at a very early period, and even before the
deluge, yet the reign of Semiramis, queen of Assyria, 2000 years
before Christ, is the earliest to which authentic history extends.
Diodorus Siculus relates that the queen, having thrown a bridge across
the Euphrates, at Babylon, erected a castle at each end of it, and
inclosed them with walls of considerable height, with towers upon
them. The bricks of which they were constructed, were painted before
they underwent the fire, and were so put together, that single
figures, and even groups of them, were represented in colors.

18. This author supposes also, that the arts had attained nearly an
equal degree of cultivation about the same time in Egypt, sculpture,
as best serving idolatrous purposes, being in both countries much in
advance of the sister art of painting. But, in neither country, was
painting or sculpture brought to a great degree of perfection.

19. In Egypt, independent selection of objects, and variety of
exhibition, never appear to have been much regarded. When a specific
form of character had been once adopted, so it remained, and was
repeated unchanged for ages. Little action, and no expression, was
given to figures. The chief employment of the Egyptian artists, seems
to have been the painting of the chests of mummies, and the ornaments
on barges and earthenware.

20. Painting, in the early days of its existence, was employed chiefly
in the exhibition and preservation of historical facts; and, wherever
it remained faithful to these objects, it was obliged to sacrifice the
beautiful to the significant. Only in those countries where
alphabetical writing existed, could painting elevate itself to a fine
art.

21. The Pelasgi, who expelled or subdued the earlier inhabitants of
Greece, and colonized that country, probably brought with them the
rudiments of this art; and it at length grew up with its sister arts.
In some of the stages of its progress, this intelligent people, no
doubt, received useful hints from other countries, and especially from
Egypt; yet they finally surpassed all the nations of antiquity in this
branch of art.

22. The Greeks, with singular care, have preserved the names of their
artists from the earliest periods of their practice. Ardens, of
Corinth, Telephanes and Crato, of Sycion, and some others, are noticed
as such, when painting had advanced no farther than the mere
circumscription of shadows by single lines.

23. The different kinds of painting, as marked by the successive
stages of the art among the Greeks, are as follows; 1. The _skiagram_,
or drawing in simple outlines, as in the circumscriptions of shadows.
2. The _monogram_, including both the outlines and others within them.
3. The _monochrom_, or picture in a single color. 4. The _polychrom_,
or picture of many colors.

24. Although the names of the Grecian artists were carefully
preserved, the time in which they lived was not distinctly marked
until the 16th Olympiad, or 719 years before the commencement of our
era. At this time, Candaules, king of Lydia, purchased a picture
called the Battle of the Magnetes, for which he paid its weight in
gold, although painted on boards. The name of the fortunate artist was
Bularchus.

25. Notwithstanding the fame of this picture, Aglaophon and
Polygnotus, of Thasos, who flourished 300 years after this period,
were the first eminent painters. Polygnotus is said to have been the
first who gave a pleasing air to the draperies and head-dresses of
females, and to have opened the mouth so far as to exhibit the beauty
of the teeth.

26. Still, painting is considered to have been in an inferior state,
until the appearance of Timanthes, Parrhasius, and Zeuxis, who
flourished about 375 years before Christ. These again were surpassed
by their successors, Protogenes, Pamphilus, Melanthius, Antiphilus,
Theon, Euphranor, Apelles, and Aristides, who carried the art to the
greatest perfection to which it attained in ancient times.

27. Of the preceding list of artists, Apelles was the most famous,
especially as a portrait painter. He was the intimate friend of
Alexander the Great, who would never permit any other person to paint
his likeness. His most celebrated painting, was this prince holding
the lightning with which the picture is chiefly illuminated. By a
happy application of perspective and chiaro-scuro, the hand with the
lightning seemed to project from the picture.

28. From the time of these great masters, painting gradually declined,
although the art continued to be practised by a succession of eminent
men, who contended against the blighting influence of the luxury and
the internal broils of their countrymen. But soon after Greece became
subject to the Roman power, the practice of the fine arts nearly
ceased in that country.

29. Before the foundation of Rome, the arts were cultivated, to some
extent, in Etruria and Calabria; but the first Roman painter mentioned
in history, was Fabius, a noble patrician, who painted, in the year of
the city 450, the temple of the goddess Salus, and thereby obtained
for himself and family the surname of _Pictor_. Yet the citizens do
not seem to have profited by this example; for no other painter
appeared among them until 150 years after that period. At this time,
Pacuvius, the poet, amused himself, in the decline of life, with
painting the temple of Hercules.

30. They were thus inattentive to the cultivation of this, as well as
of the other fine arts, because they considered warfare, and the arts
which tended directly to support this interest, as alone worthy of the
attention of a citizen of their republic; and painting, even after the
time of Pacuvius, was considered effeminate and disgraceful. Rome,
therefore, cannot be said, at any time, to have produced a single
artist who could approach the excellences of those of its refined
neighbors, the Greeks.

31. They, however, having ornamented their metropolis and villas with
specimens of the arts plundered from the cities of Greece and Sicily,
began, at length, to appreciate their excellences; and finally, under
the first emperors, they encouraged, with great munificence, the
Greeks who resorted to their city for employment.

32. But, both sculpture and painting, as well as architecture,
declined with Roman civilization. Still, they continued to exist,
especially in the Byzantine or Eastern empire, although in a very
inferior state. The art under consideration was preserved chiefly by
its application to the purposes of Christianity. It was revived in
Italy, in the beginning of the twelfth century, by means of several
Grecian artists, who had been employed to ornament the churches, and
other edifices at Pisa, Venice, and Florence.

33. The works of Apollonius, one of these Greeks, excited in Giovanni
Cimabue a spirit of emulation; and, having been initiated into the
practice of the art, he executed a picture of the Virgin Mary, as
large as life, for a church dedicated to her, at Florence. This
production excited enthusiastic delight in his fellow-citizens, who
carried it in procession, with the sound of trumpets, to its place of
destination, and celebrated the day as a public feast.

34. Encouraged by this applause, Cimabue pursued the art with ardor;
and, although considered a prodigy in his time, his utmost efforts
failed to produce tolerable specimens of the art. He, however, far
excelled his immediate predecessors; and, by introducing more correct
proportions, by giving more life and expression to his figures, and by
some other improvements, he became the founder of the art as it exists
in modern times. He was born at Florence, in 1240, and died at the age
of sixty.

35. The favorite pupil of Cimabue, was Giotto, whom he raised from a
shepherd to be a painter; and by him the art was still more relieved
from the Greek imperfections. He abandoned the use of labels as means
of distinguishing the different figures of a picture, and aimed at,
and attained to, real expression. He marked out to the Italians the
course in which the art should be pursued, as Polygnotus had done to
the Greeks near 1800 years before; although, like him, he failed in
fully exemplifying his principles.

36. His abilities procured him the patronage of Pope Boniface VIII.,
who employed him at Rome. From this time, the art of painting became
attached to the papal dignity, and few succeeding pontiffs have
neglected its use. The skill and celebrity of this ingenious artist
excited great emulation, and the arts having obtained an earnest of
profit and honor, no longer wanted skilful professors or illustrious
patrons.

37. In 1350, fourteen years after the death of Giotto, his disciple,
Jacopo Cassentino, and nine other artists, founded the Academy of St.
Luke, at Florence. This was a grand epoch of the arts; as from this
institution arose a large display of talent, increasing in splendor
until, within 150 years, it gave to the world, Masaccio, Leonardo da
Vinci, Michael Angelo Buonarotti, and Raphael, besides others of great
ability.

38. The art advanced but little after the time of Giotto, until the
appearance of Masaccio. Under the hand of this great master, painting
is said to have been greatly improved; and it was to him, that the
artists who succeeded were indebted for a more sure and full direction
of the course in which they ought to proceed. He was born in 1402, and
died in 1443.

39. Leonardo da Vinci, who was born about two years after the death of
Masaccio, brought the art to still greater perfection; and being
endowed with uncommon genius, all the arts and sciences did not seem
to afford a field sufficient for the exertion of his talents. He
grasped at all, and succeeded far better than his predecessors in
everything he undertook; but he wasted much of his time in
experiments. Had he confined his great powers to the art of painting,
he would probably have never been exceeded.

40. About the year 1410, oil came to be used as a vehicle for paints.
It seems to have been first applied to this purpose in Flanders, by
John Van Eyck, of Brussels; or it was, at least, first used by him
successfully. The first hint of its utility in this application is
thought, with reason, to have been obtained from its use as a varnish
to pictures painted in water-colors.

41. The art of painting was introduced into Flanders about the time of
Giotto, by several Flemings, who had been to Italy for the express
purpose of learning it. It was also diffused in practice, about the
same time, in Germany; and a particular style of the art grew up in
each of these countries. But it was in Italy alone that the art may be
said to have flourished in a high state of cultivation; and even
there, the principal productions originated from artists of the
Florentine school.

42. The art of painting was perfected, perhaps, as far as human
ability can carry it, in the first half of the sixteenth century, by
Michael Angelo Buonarotti, Raphael, Titian, and Correggio; although it
cannot be said that all its excellences were united in the productions
of any one of these distinguished professors. Such a union has never
yet been displayed, nor can it hardly be expected.

43. The art was essentially aided in its progressive stages of
advancement by the liberal patronage of the family of the Medici, at
Florence, and by the pontiffs, at Rome. Angelo and Raphael were both
employed at Rome by Julius II. and Leo X., as well as by others who
succeeded them in the papal chair, in ornamenting the palaces and
sacred buildings. Their productions have never been exceeded in any
country, and they still remain the objects of careful study by artists
of this profession.

44. Titian was also liberally patronised at Rome, and in other parts
of Italy, as well as in Spain and Germany, chiefly as a portrait and
landscape painter. The unrivalled productions of these great masters,
however, were fatal to the art in Italy, since their superior
excellence extinguished emulation, by destroying the prospect of equal
or superior success.

45. The flourishing state of the art in Italy, for so long a period,
might be expected to have produced a taste for its cultivation in
other parts of Europe; but this was the case only to a limited extent.
No other countries have yet been particularly distinguished for
artists in this branch of the fine arts, except Flanders and Holland;
and these were chiefly indebted for the distinction to Peter Paul
Rubens, of Antwerp, who was born at Cologne, in 1577, and to Paul Van
Rhyn Rembrandt, who was born in 1606, in his father's mill, near
Leyden. Some of the scholars of these masters were eminent painters.
Anthony Vandyck, a pupil of the former, in particular, is said to have
never yet been equalled as a portrait-painter.

46. Very little is known of the art in Spain, until about the year
1500, although it is supposed to have been cultivated with some
success before that time. The examples which were left there by Titian
produced a favorable impression, and several native artists of
considerable eminence afterwards appeared; but the art became nearly
extinct in the following age.

47. The proximity of France to Italy, and the employment of Leonardo
da Vinci and other eminent artists of Italy by Francis I., together
with the establishment of a school of fine arts, as stated in the
preceding article, might have been expected to lay the foundation of
exalted taste in this kingdom. Nevertheless, the only French painters
whose names have come down to us with any pretensions to excellence
for one hundred and fifty years, were Jean Cousin, Jaques Blanchard,
Nicholas Poussin, and Charles Le Brun. The last, although inferior to
Poussin, is at the head of the French school of painting.

48. The successors of Le Brun were not wanting in ability, yet, with a
few exceptions, they failed in reaching an enviable eminence in the
art, on account of their servile imitation of the false taste of their
popular model. The fantastic style of Le Brun became unpopular in
France some time previous to the revolution in that country; and
another, of an opposite character, and by artists of other nations
thought to be equally distant from true taste, has been since adopted.

49. Very little is known of the state of the fine arts in England
until the time of Henry VIII., who encouraged the abilities of Hans
Holbein, an eminent painter from Switzerland. But painting and
sculpture, and particularly the former, having become intimately
interwoven with the religion of the Church of Rome, fell into
disrepute in England after the change of opinion on this subject in
that country. They, however, began to revive in the eighteenth
century, and England and English America have since produced some
eminent painters, among whom are Hogarth, Reynolds, Opie, West,
Copley, Trumbull, and Peale.



[Illustration: The ENGRAVER.]

THE ENGRAVER.


Engraving is the art of cutting letters or figures in wood, metals, or
stone. It was practised in very ancient times, and in different
countries, for the purposes of ornament and monumental inscription;
but the idea of taking impressions on paper, or on any other
substance, from engraved surfaces, is comparatively modern.


THE WOOD ENGRAVER.

1. The Chinese are said to have been the first who engraved figures or
letters on wood, for the purpose of printing. The precise time at
which they commenced the practice, is totally unknown; but a book
printed by them in the tenth century, is now extant. It is thought by
some antiquarians, that the Europeans derived the art from the
Chinese, through the Venitians, who traded in that part of the world
earlier than any other Europeans.

2. This opinion is somewhat probable, from the circumstance that the
tools employed by the early engravers in Europe, are similar to those
used in China; and also, like the Chinese, they engraved on the side
of the grain. However this may be, it is certain that the art was
practised in various parts of Europe in the fourteenth century. The
earliest subjects executed, were figures of saints, rudely engraved in
outline. The prints taken from them were gaily colored, and sold to
the common people as original paintings. The principal persons engaged
in this traffic were monks, to whom the art was confined for a
considerable time.

3. At length, larger subjects, with inscriptions in imitation of
manuscript, were executed. The success of these prints gave rise to a
more extensive application of the art. Scriptural subjects, of many
figures, with texts of scripture, were engraved, and impressions were
taken from them on one side of the paper, two sheets being pasted
together to form a leaf. Entire sets were bound up together, and thus
were formed the first printed books, which, being produced entirely
from wood-cuts, are known by the name of _block-books_. These books
made their appearance about the year 1420.

4. One of the earliest of these productions is denominated "The
Apocalypse of St. John;" another, "The Poor Man's Bible." But one of
the latest and most celebrated, is called "The Mirror of Salvation,"
published in 1440. Part of the text was printed from solid blocks, and
part, from moveable wooden types. From this fact, it is easy to
discover the origin of printing. After this, most, if not all, of the
books, were printed from moveable types; but, as they were
embellished with wood cuts, the demand for such engravings was very
much increased, although they were, at first, by no means elegant.

5. Near the close of the fifteenth century, the art began to assume a
higher character, principally by the talents of Michael Wolgermuth and
William Pluydenwurf. Albert Durer made still greater improvements,
and, in 1498, published his celebrated Apocalypse of St. John, printed
from folio blocks. Other celebrated engravers succeeded him in the
sixteenth century, which may be considered the era when wood engraving
was at its highest point of elevation. After this, the art declined,
and was considered of little importance, until it was revived in 1775,
by the distinguished William Bewick, of Newcastle, England. It is
still practised, especially in England and the United States, in a
manner which reflects credit on the ingenuity of the age.

6. The earlier artists operated on various kinds of wood, such as the
apple, pear, and beech; but these, being too soft, are now used only
for calico-printing and other common purposes. Box-wood, on account of
its superior texture, is used for every subject that can be termed a
work of art. That from Turkey is the best.

7. The engravers, in the infancy of the art, prepared the wood as the
common block-cutters now do. The tree was cut the way of the grain, in
planks, and of course they engraved on the side of the grain, as upon
a board. This mode of preparation enabled them to execute larger
subjects. The engravers now prefer the end of the grain, and therefore
cut the log transversely.

8. The end on which the engraver is to exert his skill, is planed and
scraped, to render the surface smooth, and the block having been cut
to the proper size, the drawing is made upon it in India ink, or with
a lead-pencil. The block is now ready for the artist who, in executing
the work, holds it with one hand, on a cushion made of sand and
leather, while, with the other, he cuts away the superfluous wood. The
part intended to make the impression in printing, is left standing.

9. Wood engravings, well executed, are scarcely inferior to those of
copper and steel, and, for many purposes, they are preferred. They are
remarkably convenient, since they can be inserted into a page of
types, where illustrations or embellishments may be required, and be
printed without separate expense. They will also bear a great number
of impressions--generally 100,000. In this respect, they are decidedly
superior to metallic plates. They can likewise be multiplied
indefinitely by the process of stereotyping.


THE COPPERPLATE ENGRAVER.

1. The engravers on metallic surfaces are termed copperplate
engravers, not because copper is the only metal on which they exert
their skill, but because it is the one on which they usually operate.
The plates are prepared for the artist by the coppersmith, by rubbing
them with brickdust and charcoal, after having cut them of a proper
size from sheets of copper.

2. The instruments employed by this artist are few and simple, the
principal of which are, the _graver_, the _dry-point_, the _scraper_,
and the _burnisher_. The _graver_ is a small bar of steel, of a square
or lozenge form, and, with the short handle into which it is inserted,
about five inches in length. One of the angles of the bar is always on
the under side of the instrument, and the point is formed by bevelling
the end from the upper side, or angle. The square form is used for
broad strokes, and the lozenge for fine ones.

3. The _dry-point_, or needle, is a steel wire with a long
cylindrical handle; or it is simply a wire of sufficient length and
size to be used without a handle. The _scraper_ has nearly the form of
a triangular pyramid; and the cutting part, which has three edges, is
two or three inches long. The _burnisher_ has a form nearly conical,
and, without the handle, is about three inches long. The last two
instruments are frequently made of the same piece of steel, properly
forged at each end. In such case, the middle part of the steel is the
handle by which they are held.

4. Of engraving on copper, the following are the principal varieties
or styles: 1. Line engraving; 2. Stippling; 3. Etching; 4. Mezzotinto;
5. Aquatinta. For the purpose of conveying some idea of these
different branches, we will describe them under distinct heads.

5. _Line engraving._ The first thing done, in this species of
engraving, is to transfer to the plate an exact copy of the outlines
of the design to be executed. In accomplishing this, the plate is
moderately heated, and covered with a thin coating of white wax. A
piece of transparent paper is then laid over the design to be copied,
and traced in outline with a black-lead pencil. The outline thus
sketched is turned down upon the coating of white wax, and the whole
is subjected to the action of a rolling-press; or it is kept for a
while under heavy weights. By the application of this pressure, the
lines are transferred from the paper to the wax on the plate in a
reversed position, which is necessary to make the impression of the
finished plate resemble the original.

6. The pencil-marks on the wax having been lightly traced on the
copper with the dry-point, and the wax having been melted off, a
perfect outline is found on the plate. Small subordinate parts of the
design are transferred to the plate in the same manner, except that
the transparent paper is brought in forcible contact with the waxed
surface by means of the burnisher.

7. At this stage of the process, the artist commences the use of the
graver. While operating with this instrument, he holds the handle in
the palm of his hand, and pushes the point forward with a firm and
steady motion, until a line is produced by a removal of a portion of
the metal. By a succession of such strokes, judiciously applied, the
work is completed. The _burrs_, or little elevations of the copper,
left by the graver on each side of the lines, are removed by means of
the scraper and burnisher. Mistakes or blemishes are erased from the
plate, either with the burnisher, or by friction with charcoal.

8. _Stippling._ The second mode of engraving is called stippling. This
resembles the last method in its process, except that the effect is
produced by means of minute punctures or excavations, instead of
lines. These are made either with the dry-point or graver. When
produced by the former instrument, they are of a circular form; when
by the latter, they are rhomboidal or triangular. This style of work
is always more slow, and consequently more expensive, than engraving
in lines. It has, however, some advantages in the softness and
delicacy of its lights and shades, and the prints struck from it
approach more nearly to paintings.

9. _Etching._ This mode of engraving is far more easy than any other,
being performed chiefly by chemical corrosion. In fact, any person who
can draw, may _etch_ coarse designs tolerably well, after having
learned the theory of the operation. To perform it, the plate is first
covered with a thin coating of some resinous substance, upon which the
acid employed can have no action. The design, and all the lines it
requires, are next traced on the plate with steel points, called
_etching needles_, which are instruments similar to the dry-point.

10. The second part of the process is the corrosion, or, as it is
technically called, _biting in_. This is effected by pouring upon the
design a quantity of diluted nitric acid, after having surrounded the
edges of the plate with a wall of soft wax, to prevent the escape of
the fluid. A chemical action immediately takes place in all the lines
or points where the copper has been denuded by the needle. After the
first biting has been continued long enough, in the judgment of the
operator, the acid is poured off, and the plate examined.

11. The light shades, if found sufficiently deep, are then covered
with varnish, to protect them from further corrosion. The biting is
then continued for the second shades, in the same manner, and
afterwards, for the third and succeeding shades, until the piece shall
have been finished. The plate having been cleaned, and carefully
examined by the aid of a proof impression, the deficiencies which may
be discovered are supplied with the graver.

12. _Mezzotinto._ In the production of this kind of engraving, the
whole surface of the plate is first roughened, or covered with minute
prominences and excavations too small to be obvious to the naked eye;
so that an impression taken from it, in this state, would present a
uniform velvety, black appearance. This roughness is produced
mechanically by means of a small toothed instrument, called a
_cradle_.

13. When the plate has been thus prepared, the rest of the process is
comparatively easy. It consists in pressing down or rubbing out the
roughness of certain parts of the plate, with the burnisher and
scraper. Where strong lights are required, the plate is restored to a
smooth surface; for a medium light, it is moderately burnished, or
partially erased; and, for the deepest shades, the ground is left
entire, and sometimes etched, and corroded with nitric acid.
Impressions from mezzotinto plates approach more nearly to oil
paintings than any other prints. This kind of engraving was invented
by Prince Rupert, in 1649.

14. _Aqua-tinta._ There are several methods by which this kind of
engraving can be executed; we, however, will describe the one which
seems to be the most simple and obvious. The outline of the picture
having been etched or engraved in the usual manner, the surface of the
copper is sprinkled equally with minute particles of rosin. This dust
is fixed to the surface by heating the plate until the rosin has
melted.

15. The ground having been thus laid, the parts of the plates not
intended to be occupied by the design are _stopped out_ by means of
thick varnish. The plate is now surrounded with a wall of wax, as for
etching, and diluted nitric acid is poured upon it. A chemical action
immediately takes place, by which the surface exposed between the
resinous particles is minutely excavated.

16. The lighter shades are stopped out at an early stage of the
process, and the _biting in_ is continued for the darker ones. After
the plate is judged to be sufficiently corroded, it is cleansed, and
an impression is taken on paper. The process is finished by burnishing
the shades, to give them greater softness, and by touching up the
defective parts with the graver.

17. This mode of engraving is well adapted to light subjects,
sketches, landscapes, &c.; but, owing to the fineness of the ground,
the plates wear out rapidly, and seldom yield, when of ordinary
strength, more than six hundred impressions. The prints taken from
such plates bear a strong resemblance to paintings in Indian ink, or
to drawings in black-lead pencil. Aqua-tinta is the most precarious
kind of engraving, and requires much attention on the part of the
artist. It was invented by a Frenchman, named Leprince, who, for a
time, kept the process a secret, and sold his impressions for original
drawings.

18. _Steel engraving._ The process of engraving on steel plates
differs but little in its details from that on copper plates; and the
chief advantage derived from this method, arises from the hardness or
toughness of the material, which renders it capable of yielding a
greater number of impressions.

19. This mode of engraving was first practised, in England, by the
calico-printers; but steel was first employed for bank-notes, and for
common designs, by Jacob Perkins, of Newburyport, Massachusetts; and
by him, in conjunction with Asa Spencer, of New-London, and Gideon
Fairman, of Philadelphia, the use of steel in this application was
generally introduced, not only in the United States, but also in Great
Britain, some time before the year 1820.

20. The plates are prepared for the engraver from sheets of steel
about one-sixth of an inch in thickness. A plate cut from a sheet of
this kind is first softened by heating it with charcoal, and suffering
it to cool gradually in the atmosphere. It is next _planished_, or
hammered on a peculiar kind of anvil, to make it perfectly level, and
afterwards ground on one side upon a grindstone. The operation is
completed by polishing it with Scotch stone and charcoal. When steel
was first substituted for copper, it was hardened before it was used
in printing; but it is now used in its soft state, as it comes from
the hands of the artist.



[Illustration: COPPERPLATE PRINTER.]

THE COPPERPLATE-PRINTER.


1. The copperplate-printer takes impressions on paper from engraved
plates by means of a rolling press. This machine, together with some
of the operations in its application, are well exhibited in the above
picture.

2. The period at which the practice of printing from engraved plates
commenced, cannot be ascertained with any degree of certainty. The
Dutch, the Germans, and the Italians, contend for the honor of
introducing it; but the weight of testimony seems to be in favor of
the claims of the Italian sculptor and goldsmith, Tommaso Finiguera,
who flourished at Florence, about the middle of the fifteenth century.

3. It is stated that this artist, accidentally spilling some melted
brimstone on an engraved plate, found, on its removal, an exact
impression of the engraving, marked with black, taken out of the
strokes. This suggested to him the idea of taking an impression in ink
on paper, by the aid of a roller. It is hardly necessary to state,
that the experiment succeeded. Copperplate-printing was not used in
England until about 150 years after its first employment at Florence,
when it was introduced from Antwerp, by Speed.

4. The ink used in this kind of printing is made of a carbonaceous
substance, called Frankfort black, and linseed or nut oil. Oil is
used, instead of water, that the ink may not dry during the process;
and it is boiled till it has become thick and viscid, that it may not
spread on the paper. The materials are incorporated and prepared with
the stone and muller, as painters prepare their colors.

5. In taking impressions from an engraved plate, it is first placed on
an iron frame over a heated stove, or over a charcoal fire in a
furnace, and while in this position, the ink is spread over it with a
roller covered with coarse cloth, or with a ball of rubber made of the
same material, and faced with buckskin. The heat renders the ink so
thin that it can penetrate the minute excavations of the engraving.
The plate having been thus sufficiently charged, is wiped first with a
rag, then with the hand, until the ink has been removed from every
portion of it, except from the lines of the engraving.

6. The plate is next placed on the platform of the press, with its
face upwards, and the paper, which has been previously dampened, is
laid upon it. A turn of the cylinders, by means of the arms of the
cross, carries the plate under a strong pressure, by which portions of
the paper are forced into all the cavities of the engraving. The ink,
or part of it, leaves the plate, and adheres to the paper, giving an
exact representation of the whole work of the artist. The roller by
which the pressure is applied is covered with several thicknesses of
broadcloth.

7. The number of good impressions yielded by engraved copperplates,
depends upon various circumstances, but chiefly on the fineness and
depth of the work; and these qualities depend mainly upon the style in
which it has been executed. Line engravings will admit of four or five
thousand, and, after having been retouched, a considerable number
more.

8. Plates of steel will yield near ten times as many good impressions
as those of copper, and this too without being hardened. Besides, an
engraving on steel may be transferred to a softened steel cylinder, in
such a manner that the lines may stand in relief; and this cylinder,
after having been hardened, may be brought in forcible contact with
another plate, and thus the design may be multiplied at pleasure.

9. The bank-note engravers have now a great variety of designs and
figures on steel rollers, which they can easily transfer to new
plates. This practice, as applied to plates for bank-notes, originated
with Jacob Perkins. It is supposed that he must have been led to it by
an English engraver in his employ, who may have explained to him the
manner in which the British calico-printers produced engravings on
copper cylinders. This is not altogether improbable, since the
principle in both cases is substantially the same.

10. In consequence of the increased demand for maps and pictorial
embellishments in books, as well as for single prints as ornaments for
rooms, engraving and copperplate-printing have become employments of
considerable importance; and these arts must doubtless continue to
flourish to an indefinite extent, in a country where the taste for the
fine arts is rapidly improving, and where wealth affords the means of
liberal patronage.



[Illustration: LITHOGRAPHER.]

THE LITHOGRAPHER.


1. The word _lithography_ is derived from two Greek words--_lithos_, a
stone, and _grapho_, to write; and the art to which the term is
applied has reference to the execution of letters, figures, and
drawings, on stone, and taking from them fac-simile impressions. The
art is founded on the property which stone possesses, of imbibing
fluids by capillary attraction, and on the chemical repulsion which
oil and water have for each other.

2. Every kind of calcareous stone is capable of being used for
lithography. Those, however, which are of a compact, fine, and equal
grain, are best adapted to the purpose. The quarries of Solenhofen,
near Pappenheim, in Bavaria, furnished the first plates, and none have
yet been found in any other place, to equal them in quality; although
some that answer the purpose tolerably well, have been taken from
quarries in France and England.

3. In preparing the stones for use, they are first ground to a level
surface, by rubbing two of them face to face, sand and water being
interposed. Then, if they are designed for _ink drawings_, they are
polished with pumice-stone; but, if for _chalk drawings_, with fine
sand, which produces a grained surface adapted to holding the chalk.

4. When stones of proper size and texture cannot be conveniently
obtained, slabs are sometimes constructed of lime and sand, and united
with the caseous part of milk. The first part of the process which may
be considered as belonging peculiarly to the art, consists in making
the drawing on the stone. This is done either in ink, with steel pens
and camel's hair pencils, or with crayons made of lithographic chalk.
The process of drawing on stone differs but little from that on paper,
with similar means.

5. For lithographic ink, a great number of receipts have been given;
but the most approved composition consists of equal parts of wax,
tallow, shell-lac, and common soap, with a small proportion of
lamp-black. Lithographic chalk is usually composed of the same
materials, combined in different proportions.

6. When the drawing has been finished, the lithographic printer
prepares it for giving impressions, by using upon its surface a weak
solution of acid and other ingredients, which corrode the surface of
the stone, except where it is defended from its action by the grease
of the chalk or ink. As soon as the stone has been sufficiently eaten
away, the solution is removed by the application of spirits of
turpentine and water.

7. The ink employed in this kind of printing, is similar in its
composition to other kinds of printing ink. It is applied to the
drawing by means of a small wooden cylinder covered with leather. The
paper, which has been suitably dampened, is laid upon the stone, and
after it has been covered, by turning down upon it a thick piece of
leather stretched upon an iron frame, a crank is turned which brings
the stone successively under the press.

8. An impression of the drawing having been thus communicated to the
paper, the sheet is removed, and the process is repeated, until the
proposed number of prints have been taken. Before each application of
the ink, the whole face of the stone is moderately wet with water by
means of a sponge; and although the roller passes over the whole
surface of the stone, yet the ink adheres to no part of it, except to
that which is covered with the drawing.

9. The number of impressions which may be taken from chalk drawings,
varies according to their fineness. A fine drawing will give fifteen
hundred; a coarse one, twice that number. Ink drawings and writings
give considerably more than copperplates, the finest yielding six or
eight thousand, and strong lines and writings many more.

10. Impressions from engravings can be multiplied indefinitely, with
very little trouble, in the following manner. A print is taken in the
usual way from the engraved plate, and immediately laid with its face
upon water. When sufficiently wet, it is carefully applied to the face
of a stone, and pressed down upon it by the application of a roller,
until the ink is transferred to the stone. Impressions are then taken
in the manner before described.

11. The invention of lithography is ascribed to Aloys Senifelder, the
son of a performer at the theatre of Munich. Having become an author,
and being too poor to publish his works in the usual way, he tried
many plans, with copperplates and compositions, in order to be his
own printer. A trial on stone, which had been accidentally suggested,
succeeded. His first essays to print for publication, were some pieces
of music, executed in 1796.

12. The first productions of the art were rude, and of little promise;
but, since 1806, its progress has been so rapid, that it now gives
employment to a great number of artists; and works are produced, which
rival the finest engravings, and even surpass them in the expression
of certain subjects. The earliest date of the art in the United
States, is 1826, when a press was established at Boston, by William
Pendleton.



[Illustration: The AUTHOR.]

THE AUTHOR.


1. The word author, in a general sense, is used to express the
originator or efficient cause of a thing; but, in the restricted sense
in which it is applied in this article, it signifies the first writer
of a book, or a writer in general. The indispensable qualifications to
make a writer are--a talent for literary composition, an accurate
knowledge of language, and an acquaintance with the subject to be
treated.

2. Very few persons are educated with the view to their becoming
authors. They generally write on subjects pertaining to the profession
or business in which they have been practically engaged: a clergyman
writes on divinity; a physician, on medicine; a lawyer, on
jurisprudence; a teacher, on education; and a mechanic, on his
particular trade. There are subjects, however, which occupy common
ground, on which individuals of various professions often write.

3. Authorship is founded upon the invention of letters, and the art of
combining them into words. In the earliest ages of the world, the
increase of knowledge was opposed by many formidable obstacles.
Tradition was the first means of transmitting information to
posterity; and this, depending upon the memory and will of
individuals, was exceedingly precarious.

4. The chief adventitious aids in the perpetuation of the memory of
facts by tradition, were the erection of monuments, the periodical
celebration of days or years, the use of poetry, and, finally,
symbolical drawings and hieroglyphical sketches. Nevertheless, history
must have remained uncertain and fabulous, and science in a state of
perpetual infancy, had it not been for the invention of written
characters.

5. The credit of the invention of letters was claimed by the
Egyptians, Phoenicians, and Jews, as well as by some other nations;
but as their origin preceded all authentic history not inspired, and
as the book of inspiration is silent in regard to it, no satisfactory
conclusion can be formed on this point. Some antiquarians are of
opinion, that the strongest claims are presented by the Phoenicians.

6. The Pentateuch embraces the earliest specimen of phonetic or
alphabetic writing now extant, and this was written about 1500 years
before Christ. Many persons suppose that, as the Deity himself
inscribed the ten commandments on the two tables of stone, he taught
Moses the use of letters; and, on this supposition, is founded the
claim of the Jewish nation to the honor of the first human application
of them.

7. If we may believe Pliny, sixteen characters of the alphabet were
introduced into Greece by Cadmus, the Phoenician, in the days of
Moses; four more were added by Palamedes during the Trojan war, and
four afterwards, by Simonides. Alphabetical writing evidently sprung
from successive improvements in the hieroglyphical system, since a
great part of the latter has been lately discovered to be syllabic or
alphabetic.

8. A considerable number of very ancient alphabets still exist on the
monumental remains of some of the first post-diluvian cities, and
several of later date, in manuscripts which have descended to our
times. The letters employed in different languages have ever been
subject to great changes in their conformation. This was especially
the case before the introduction of the art of printing, which has
contributed greatly towards permanency in this respect.

9. The mode of arranging the letters in writing has, also, varied
considerably. Some nations have written in perpendicular lines, as the
Chinese and ancient Egyptians; others from right to left, as the Jews;
and others, again, alternately from left to right, as was the method
at one period among the Greeks. The mode of writing from left to right
now generally practised, is preferable to any other, since it leaves
uncovered that portion of the page upon which writing has been made.

10. In ancient times, literary productions were considered public
property; and, consequently, as soon as a work was published,
transcribers assumed the right to multiply copies at pleasure, without
making the authors the least remuneration. They, however, were
sometimes rewarded with great liberality, by princes or wealthy
patrons. This literary piracy continued, until a long time after the
introduction of the art of printing.

11. In almost every kingdom of Europe, and in the United States, the
exclusive right of authors to publish their own productions, is now
secured to them by law, at least for a specified number of years. The
first legislative proceeding on this subject in England, took place in
1662, when the publication of any book was prohibited, except through
the permission of the lord-chamberlain. The title of the book, and the
name of the proprietor, were, also, required to be entered in the
record of the Stationers' Company.

12. This and some subsequent acts having been repealed in 1691,
literary property was left to the protection of the common law, by
which the amount of damages which could be proved to have actually
occurred in case of infringement, could be recovered, and no more. New
applications were, therefore, made to parliament; and, in 1709, a
statute was passed, by which the property of copyright was guarded for
fourteen years, with severe penalties. This privilege was connected
with the condition, that a copy of the work be deposited in nine
public libraries specified in the act.

13. In 1774, the Parliament decided that, at the end of fourteen
years, the copyright might be renewed, in case the author were still
living. The law continued on this footing until 1814, when the
contingency with regard to the last fourteen years was removed; and,
if the author still survived, the privilege of publication was
extended to the close of his life.

14. In the United States, the jurisdiction of this subject is vested
by the Constitution in the Federal Government; and, in 1790, a law was
passed by Congress, securing to the authors of books, charts, maps,
engravings, &c., being citizens of the United States or resident
therein, privileges like those granted in England, in 1774. In 1831,
the law was altered, and again made to conform to that of England in
regard to the period of the privileges. The English and American laws
differ in no essential provision. Until the year 1839, foreigners were
permitted to hold copyrights in England.

15. In France, the first statute regarding literary property was
passed in 1793, when the right of authors to their works was secured
to them during their lives, and to their heirs for ten years after
their decease. The decree of 1810 extended the right of the heirs to
twenty years. In Russia, the period of copyright is the same as in
France, and the property is not liable for the payment of the author's
debts.

16. In some of the German states, the right is given for the lifetime
of the author; in others, it is made perpetual, like any other
property; but then the work may be printed with impunity in any of the
other states in which a right has not been secured. In Germany and
Italy, especially, authors are very poorly remunerated; and in Spain,
the book trade has been so much oppressed by a merciless censorship,
that authors are compelled to publish their works on their own
account.

17. From the preceding statement it appears, that few legislators have
been willing to place the productions of intellectual labor on the
same honorable footing with other kinds of property. No reason,
however, can be assigned for the distinction, except the unjust and
piratical usage of two or three thousand years.

18. Authors seldom publish their own works. They generally find it
expedient, and, in fact, necessary, to intrust this part of the
business to booksellers and publishers, from whom they usually receive
a specified amount for the entire copyright, or a certain sum for each
and every copy which may be sold during the term of years which may be
agreed upon. The compensation is commonly insufficient to pay them for
preparing the works for the press; but they are as well paid in this
country as in any other. In this particular, however, there has been a
manifest improvement within the last ten years.



[Illustration]

THE PRINTER.


1. From what has been said in a preceding article, it is manifest that
the art of printing arose from the practice of engraving on wood.
Letters were cut on wood as inscriptions to pictures, and were printed
at the same time with them, by means of a hand-roller. The impressions
were taken on one side of the paper; and, in order to hide the
nakedness of the blank side, two leaves were pasted together. These
leaves were put up in pamphlet form, and are now known under the
denomination of _block-books_, because they were printed from wooden
blocks.

2. Although the art of typographical printing can be clearly traced to
wood engraving, yet so much uncertainty rests upon its history, that
the honor of its invention is claimed by three cities--Harlem, in
Holland, and Strasburg and Mentz, in Germany; and, at the present
time, it is difficult to determine satisfactorily the merits of their
respective claims. The obscurity on this point has arisen from the
desire of the first printers to conceal the process of the art, that
their productions might pass for manuscripts, and that they might
enjoy the full benefit of their invention.

3. The advocates of the claims of Harlem state, that Laurentius Coster
applied wooden types, and some say, even metal types, as early as
1428, and that several persons were employed by him in the business up
to the year 1440, when his materials were stolen from him by one of
his workmen or servants, named John, while the family were engaged in
celebrating the festival of Christmas eve. The thief is said to have
fled first to Amsterdam, then to Cologne, and, finally, to have
settled in Mentz, where, within a twelvemonth, he published two small
works, by means of the types which Laurentius Coster had used.

4. These claims in favor of Harlem, however, were not set forth until
120 years after the death of Coster; and the whole story, as then
stated by Hadriamus Junius, was founded altogether upon traditionary
testimony. Perhaps wood engravings, with inscriptions, may have been
executed there; if so, the account may have originated from that
circumstance.

5. The statements which seem to be the most worthy of credit, bestow
the honor of this invention on a citizen of Mentz. Here, it appears,
that John Geinsfleisch, or Guttemburg senior, published two small
works for schools, in 1442, on wooden types; but, not having the funds
necessary to carry on the business, he applied to John Faust, a rich
goldsmith, who became a partner, in 1443, and advanced the requisite
means. Soon afterwards, J. Meidenbachius and some others were admitted
as partners.

6. In the following year, John Guttemburg, the brother of
Geinsfleisch, made an addition to the firm. For several years before
this union, or from 1436, Guttemburg had been attempting to complete
the invention at Strasburg; but it is said that he had never been able
to produce a clean printed sheet. The brothers may, or may not, have
pursued their experiments without receiving any hints from each other,
before their union at Mentz.

7. Soon after the formation of this partnership, the two brothers
commenced cutting _metal types_, for the purpose of printing an
edition of the Bible, which was published in Latin, about the year
1450. Before this great achievement of the art had been effected,
Geinsfleisch appears to have retired from the concern, some say, on
account of blindness.

8. The partnership before mentioned, was dissolved, in 1450, and Faust
and Guttemburg entered into a new arrangement, the former supplying
money, the latter, personal services, for their mutual benefit; but
various difficulties having arisen, this partnership was also
dissolved, in 1455, after a lawsuit between them, which was decided
against Guttemburg.

9. Faust, having obtained possession of the printing materials,
entered into partnership with Peter Shoeffer, who had been for a long
time a servant, or workman, in the printing establishment. In 1457,
they published an edition of the _Psalter_, which was then considered
uncommonly elegant. This book was, in a great measure, the work of
Guttemburg, since, during the four years in which it was in the press,
he was, for two years and a half, the chief operator in the
printing-office.

10. Guttemburg, by the pecuniary aid of Conrad Humery and others,
established another press in Mentz, and, in 1460, published the
"_Catholicon Joannis Januensis_." It was a very handsome work, but not
equal in beauty to the Psalter of Faust and Shoeffer. The latter was
the first printed book known to have a genuine date. From this time,
it has been the practice for printers to claim their own productions,
by prefixing to them their names.

11. Notwithstanding the great advancement which had been made in the
art of printing, the invention cannot, by any means, be considered
complete, until about the year 1458, when Peter Shoeffer contrived a
method of casting types in a matrix, or mould. The first book executed
with cast metal types was called "_Durandi Ralionale Divinorum
Officiorum_," published in 1459. Only the smaller letters, however,
were of this description, all the larger characters which occur, being
_cut types_. These continued to be used, more or less, as late as the
year 1490.

12. In 1462, Faust carried to Paris a number of Latin Bibles, which he
and Shoeffer had printed, and disposed of many of them as manuscripts.
At first, he sold them at five or six hundred crowns, the sums usually
obtained by the scribes. He afterwards lowered the price to sixty.
This created universal astonishment; but, when he produced them
according to the demand, and when he had reduced the price to thirty,
all Paris became agitated.

13. The uniformity of the copies increased the wonder of the
Parisians, and information was finally given against him to the police
as a magician. He was accordingly arrested, and a great number of his
Bibles were seized. The red ink with which they were embellished, was
supposed to be his blood. It was seriously adjudged, that the prisoner
was joined in league with the devil; and had he not disclosed the
secret of his art, he would probably have shared the fate of those
whom the magistrates of those superstitious times condemned for
witchcraft.

14. It may be well to inform the reader, that, although the story of
Faust's arrest, as above detailed, is related as a fact by several
authors, yet by others it is thought to be unworthy of credit. It is
also generally supposed, that the celebrated romance of "Doctor
Faustus and the devil" originated in the malice of the monks towards
Faust, whose employment of printing deprived them of their gain as
copiers. It seems more probable, however, that it arose from the
astonishing performances of Doctor John Faust, a dealer in the black
art, who lived in Germany in the beginning of the sixteenth century.

15. Faust and Shoeffer continued their printing operations together,
at least, until 1486, about which time it is conjectured, that the
former died of the plague, at Paris. Geinsfleisch, or, as he is
sometimes called, Guttemburg senior, died in 1462; and his brother
Guttemburg junior, in 1468, after having enjoyed, for three years, the
privileges of nobility, which, together with a pension, had been
conferred upon him by Archbishop Adolphus, in consideration of his
great services to mankind.

16. More copies of the earliest printed books were impressed on vellum
than on paper; but very soon paper was used for a principal part of
the edition, while a few only were printed on vellum, as curiosities,
to be ornamented by the illuminators, whose ingenious art, though in
vogue before and at that time, did not long survive the rapid
improvements in printing.

17. We are informed, that the Mentz printers observed the utmost
secrecy in their operations; and, that the art might not be divulged
by the persons whom they employed, they administered to them an oath
of fidelity. This appears to have been strictly adhered to, until the
year 1462, when the city was taken and plundered by Archbishop
Adolphus. Amid the consternation which had arisen from this event, the
workmen spread themselves in different directions; and, considering
their oath no longer obligatory, they soon divulged the secret, which
was rapidly diffused throughout Europe.

18. Some idea may be formed of the celerity with which a knowledge of
printing was extended, from the fact that the art was received in two
hundred and three places, prior to the year 1500. It was brought to
England, in 1471, by William Caxton, a mercer of the city of London,
who had spent many years in Germany and Holland. The place of the
first location of his press was Westminster Abbey. The first press in
North America was established at Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1639.

19. Printed newspapers had their origin in Germany. They first
appeared in Augsburg and Vienna, in 1524. They were originally without
date or place of impression; nor were they published at regular
periods. The first German paper with numbered sheets was printed, in
1612; and, from this time, must be dated periodical publications in
that part of Europe.

20. In England, the first newspaper appeared during the reign of
Elizabeth. It originated in a desire to communicate information in
regard to the expected invasion by the Spanish armada, and was
entitled the "English Mercury," which, by authority, was printed at
London by Christopher Barker, her highness's printer, in 1588.

21. These, however, were extraordinary gazettes, not regularly
published. Periodicals seem to have been first extensively used by the
English, during the civil wars in the time of the Commonwealth. The
number of newspapers in Great Britain and Ireland amounted, in 1829,
to 325, and the sums paid to the government for stamps and duties on
advertisements, amounted to about £678,000 sterling.

22. No newspaper appeared in the British colonies of America until
1704, when the "News Letter" was issued at Boston. The first paper
published in Philadelphia, was issued in 1719; the first in New-York,
in 1733. In 1775, there were 37; and in 1801, there were, in the whole
United States, 203; in 1810, 358; at the present time, there are about
1500, and the number is annually increasing.

23. The first periodical paper of France originated with Renaudot, a
physician in Paris, who, for a long time, had been in the habit of
collecting news, which he communicated verbally to his patients, with
the view to their amusement. But, in 1631, he commenced the
publication of a weekly sheet, called the "Gazette de France," which
was continued with very little interruption, until 1827. There are
now, probably, in France, about 400 periodical publications most of
which have been established since the commencement of the revolution
of 1792.

24. Periodicals devoted to different objects have been established in
every other kingdom of Europe; but, in many cases, they are trammelled
by a strict censorship of the respective governments. This is
especially the case with those devoted to politics or religion. But
all Europe, with its 200,000,000 of inhabitants, does not support as
many regular publications as the United States, with its 17,000,000.

25. The workmen employed in a printing-office are of two kinds:
_compositors_, who arrange the types according to the copy delivered
to them; and _pressmen_, who apply ink on the types, and take off
impressions. In many cases, and especially where the business is
carried on upon a small scale, the workmen often practise both
branches.

26. Before the types are applied to use, they are placed in the cells
or compartments of a wooden receptacle called a _case_, each species
of letter, character and space, by itself. The letters which are
required most frequently, are lodged in the largest compartments,
which are located nearest to the place where the compositor stands,
while arranging the types.

27. The compositor is furnished with a _composing-stick_, which is
commonly an iron instrument, surrounded on three sides with ledges
about half an inch in height, one of which is moveable, so that it may
be adjusted to any length of line. The compositor, in the performance
of his work, selects the letters from their several compartments, and
arranges them in an inverted order from that in which they are to
appear in the printed page.

28. At the end of each word is placed a _quadrat_, to produce a space
between that and the one which follows. The quadrats are of various
widths, and being considerably shorter than types, they yield no
impression in printing. A thin brass rule is placed in the stick, on
which each successive line of types is arranged. When the
composing-stick has been filled, it is _emptied_ into the _galley_,
which is a flat board, partly surrounded with a rim.

29. On this galley, the lines are accumulated in long columns, which
are afterwards divided into pages, and tied together with a string, to
prevent the types from falling asunder, or into _pi_, as the printers
term it. A sufficient number of pages having been completed to
constitute a _form_, or, in other words, to fill one side of a sheet
of printing-paper, they are arranged on an _imposing-stone_, and
strongly locked up, or wedged together, in an iron _chase_.

30. The first impression taken from the types is called the _proof_.
This is carefully read over by the author or proof-reader, or both,
and the errors and corrections plainly marked in the margin. These
corrections having been made by the compositor, the form is again
locked up, and delivered to the pressman.

31. The pressman having dampened his paper with water, and put every
part of his press in order, takes impressions in the following manner:
he places the sheet upon the _tympan_, and confines it there by
turning down upon it the _frisket_; he then brings them both, together
with the paper, upon the form, which has been previously inked. He
next turns a crank with his left hand, and thereby places the form
directly under the _platen_, which is immediately brought, in a
perpendicular direction, upon the types, by means of a lever pulled
with his right hand.

32. After the impression has been thus communicated, the form is
returned to its former position, and the printed sheet is removed. The
operation just described, is repeated for each side of every sheet of
the edition. In the cut at the head of this article, the pressman is
represented as in the act of turning down the frisket upon the tympan.
The business of the boy behind the press is to apply the ink to the
types by means of the _rollers_ before him. In offices where much
printing is executed, the roller-boy is now dispensed with, simple
machinery, attached to the crank of the press, called a _patent
roller-boy_, being substituted in his place.

33. Within the present century, great improvements have been made in
the printing business generally, especially in the presses, and in the
means of applying the ink. In the old _Ramage_ press, the power was
derived from a screw which was moved by a lever; but, in those by
several late inventors, from an accumulation of levers.

34. In 1814, printing by machinery was commenced in London, and
rollers became necessary for inking the forms. These were made of
molasses, glue, and tar, in proportions to suit the temperature of the
weather. From these originated composition balls in the following
year, and in 1819, hand rollers. Formerly the ink was applied by
means of pelt balls stuffed with wool.

35. The power-press first used in this country, was invented, in 1823,
by Mr. Treadwell, a scientific mechanic, of Boston, who was originally
a watch-maker by trade. It acts on the same principle with the hand
press, and is equal to three of these of the best construction. Daniel
Fanshaw, who first applied steam to printing in the United States,
introduced several of these presses into New-York, in 1826. Messrs.
Adams and Tufts, of Boston, have each invented a power-press which act
on the same principle with Mr. Treadwell's.

36. The presses noticed in the preceding paragraph, are used chiefly
in printing books and periodicals requiring moderate speed in their
production. But they do not answer the purposes of the daily press in
large cities, where from twenty thousand to sixty thousand impressions
of a single paper are required every day. To supply this immense
demand of the public was the original aim of the inventors of
power-presses in England. The first attempt to construct a printing
machine was made, in 1790, by William Nicholson, of London; but his
machine was never brought into use. The next attempt was made by Mr.
Konig, an ingenious German, who but partially succeeded. The first
really useful machine was constructed by Messrs. Applegate and Cowper.

37. The machines used in this country are modifications of that
originally invented by Mr. Napier, of England. The paper is brought in
contact with the form of types by means of a cylinder, while the form
is passing underneath it. The press is constructed with one or two
cylinders. A double cylinder press will give from 4000 to 6000
impressions an hour. The improvements on this press were made by
Robert Hoe & Co., who have permitted Mr. Napier to introduce them into
his press in England.



[Illustration]

THE TYPE-FOUNDER.


1. The types cast by the type-founder are oblong square pieces of
metal, each having, on one end of it, a letter or character, in
relief. The metal of which these important instruments are composed,
is commonly an alloy consisting principally of lead and antimony, in
the proportion of about five parts of the former to one of the latter.
This alloy melts at a low temperature, and receives and retains with
accuracy the shape of the mould. Several hundred pounds of type-metal
are prepared at a time, and cast into bars filled with notches, that
they may be easily broken into pieces, when about to be applied to
use.

2. In making types, the letter or character is first formed, by means
of gravers and other tools, on the end of a steel punch. With this
instrument, a _matrix_ is formed, by driving it into a piece of
copper of suitable size. A punch and matrix are required for every
character used in printing. A metallic mould for the body of the type
is also made; and, that the workman may handle it without burning his
hands, it is surrounded with a portion of wood. The mould is composed
of two parts, which can be closed and separated with the greatest
facility.

3. The type-metal is prepared for immediate use by melting it, as fast
as it may be needed, in a small crucible, over a coal fire. The caster
having placed the matrix in the bottom of the mould, commences the
operation of casting by pouring the metal into the mould with a small
ladle. This he performs with his right hand, while with the other he
throws up the mould with a sudden jerk; then, with both hands he opens
it, and throws out the type. All these movements are performed with
such rapidity, that an expert hand can cast about fifty types of a
common size in a minute. Some machines have been lately introduced,
which operate with still greater rapidity.

4. Each type, when thrown from the mould, has attached to it a
superfluous portion of metal, called a _jet_, which is afterwards
broken off by hand. The jets are again cast into the pot, or crucible,
and the types are carried to another room, where the two broad sides
are rubbed on a grindstone. They are next arranged on flat sticks
about three feet long, and delivered to the _dresser_, who scrapes the
two sides not before made smooth on the grindstone, cuts a groove on
the end opposite the letter, and rejects from the row the types which
may be defective.

5. The whole process is completed by setting up the types in a
printer's composing-stick, and tying them up with packthread. Much of
the work in the type-foundry is performed by boys and females. In the
preceding cut are represented a man casting types at a furnace, and a
boy breaking off the jets; also two females rubbing types on a large
grindstone. The fumes arising from melted lead in the casting-room are
considered deleterious to health.

6. Various sizes of the same kind of letter are extensively used, of
which the following are most employed in printing books--Pica, Small
Pica, Long Primer, Bourgeois, Brevier, Minion, Nonpareil, Pearl, and
Diamond. A full assortment of any particular size is called a _fount_,
which may consist of any amount, from five pounds to five hundred, or
more. The master type-founder usually supplies the printer with all
the materials of his art, embracing not only types, leads, brass
rules, and ordinary ornaments, but also cases, composing-sticks,
galleys, printing-presses, and other articles too numerous to be
mentioned.

7. The inventor of the art of casting types was Peter Shoeffer, first
servant or workman employed by Guttemburg and Faust. He privately cut
a matrix for each letter of the alphabet, and cast a quantity of the
types. Having shown the products of his ingenuity to Faust, the latter
was so much delighted with the contrivance, that he made him a partner
in the printing business, and gave him his only daughter, Christina,
in marriage.

8. The character first employed was a rude old Gothic, mixed with
secretary, designed on purpose to imitate the hand-writing of those
times, and the first used in England were of this kind. To these
succeeded what is termed _old English_, or _black letter_, which is
still occasionally applied to some purposes; but Roman letter is now
the national character not only of England, but of France, Spain,
Portugal, and Italy. In Germany, and in the states surrounding the
Baltic, letters are used which owe their foundation to the Gothic,
although works are occasionally printed for the learned in Roman.

9. The Roman letter owes its origin to the nation whence it derives
its name, although the faces of the present and ancient Roman letters
differ materially, on account of the improvements which they have
undergone at various times. For the invention of the Italic character,
we are indebted to Aldus Manutius, who set up a printing-office in
Venice, in 1496, where he also introduced Roman types of a neater cut.

10. Before the American revolution, type-founding was carried on at
Germantown, Pennsylvania, by Christopher Sower, at Boston by Mr.
Michelson, and in Connecticut by Mr. Buel; but there was too little
demand for types, to afford these enterprising individuals much
patronage. Soon after the close of the revolution, John Baine
established a foundery in Philadelphia. The printers, however, were
not supplied with every necessary material and implement of the art
from American founderies, until 1796, when Messrs. Binny & Ronaldson
commenced the business in the same city. Baine and Ronaldson were both
from Edinburgh, Scotland. The first type-foundery was established in
New-York, in 1809, by Robert Lothian, a Scotch clergyman, and father
of the ingenious type-founder, George B. Lothian.

11. In the year 1827, William M. Johnson, of New-York, invented the
machine for casting types now used by John T. White, and in 1838,
David Bruce, Junr., produced another, which was purchased by George
Bruce. George B. Lothian has also lately invented a machine for the
same purpose, and likewise one for reducing types to an equal
thickness. Both of these machines act with great accuracy. There are
now in the United States sixteen type-founderies; viz., two in Boston,
six in New-York, three in Philadelphia, one in Baltimore, one in
Pittsburg, one in Cincinnati, one in Louisville, and one in St.
Louis.



[Illustration: STEREOTYPER.]

THE STEREOTYPER.


1. The word _stereotype_ is derived from two Greek words--_stereos_,
solid, and _tupos_, a type. It is applied to pages of types in a
single piece, which have been cast in moulds formed on common printing
types or wood-cuts. They are composed of lead and antimony, in the
proportion of about six parts of the former to one of the latter.
Sometimes a little tin is added.

2. The types are _set up_ by _compositors_, as usual in printing, and
_imposed_, or locked up, one or several pages together, in an iron
_chase_ of a suitable size. Having been sent to the _casting-room_,
the types are slightly oiled, and surrounded with a frame of brass or
type-metal. They are then covered with a thin mixture of finely
pulverized plaster and water. In about ten minutes, the plaster
becomes hard enough to be removed.

3. The mould, thus formed, having been baked in an oven, is placed in
an iron pan of an oblong shape, and sunk into a kettle of the melted
composition above mentioned, which is admitted at the four corners of
the cover to the cavities of the mould beneath. The pan is then raised
from the kettle, and placed over water. When the metal has become
cool, the contents of the pan are removed, and the plaster is broken
and washed from the plate.

4. As fast as the pages are cast, they are sent to the
_finishing-room_. Here they are first planed on the back with a
machine, for the purpose of making them level and of an equal
thickness. The letters are then examined, and, when deficient, are
rendered perfect by little steel instruments called _picks_.
Corrections and alterations are made by cutting out original lines,
and inserting common printing types, or lines stereotyped for the
purpose. The types are cut off close to the back with pincers, and
fastened to the place with solder. The plates, when they are finished,
are about one-sixth of an inch in thickness.

5. When all the pages of a work have been completed, they are packed
in boxes, which are marked with certain letters of the alphabet, to
indicate the form or pages which they contain. While the pages are
applied in printing, they are fastened to blocks of solid wood, which,
with the plates, are intended to be the same in height with common
types.

6. The first stereotype plates were cast by J. Van der Mey, a
Dutchman, who resided at Leyden about the year 1700. A quarto and
folio Bible, and two or three small works, were printed from pages of
his casting; but at his death, the art appears to have been lost,
although the plates of these two Bibles are still extant, the former
at Leyden, and the latter at Amsterdam.

7. In 1725, William Ged, of Edinburgh, without knowing what had been
done in Holland by Van der Mey, began to make stereotype plates. But
being unable to prosecute the business alone for want of funds, he
united in partnership with three others. One of the partners being a
type-founder, supposing that success in the enterprise would injure
his business, employed men to compose and print the proposed works in
a manner that he thought most likely to spoil them.

8. Accordingly, the compositors, while correcting one error in the
proof, made intentionally several more; and the pressmen battered the
letter, while printing the books. By these dishonest and malicious
proceedings, the useful enterprise of Mr. Ged was defeated. He,
however, afterwards printed, in an accurate manner, two or three
works. The first of these was a Sallust, the pages of which were set
up by his son, James Ged, who was but an apprentice to the
printing-business. This part of the work was performed in the night,
when the workmen were absent from the office.

9. After the death of Mr. Ged, no attention was paid to the art, and a
knowledge of it was lost at the decease of his son, which took place,
about the year 1771: but it was a third time invented by Alexander
Tilloch, Esq., who, in conjunction with Mr. Foulis, printer to the
University of Glasgow, made many experiments, until plates were
produced yielding impressions which could not be distinguished from
those of the types from which they had been cast. But owing to
circumstances unconnected with the real utility of the art, the
business was not prosecuted to a great extent.

10. About the year 1804, the art was again revived by the late Earl
Stanhope, assisted by Mr. A. Wilson, a printer, who turned his whole
attention that way. In their efforts to complete the invention, they
were assisted by Messrs. Tilloch and Foulis; and, although they
succeeded after many experiments, they were strenuously opposed in
their efforts to introduce the practice, the printers supposing,
perhaps with some reason, that it would prove injurious to their
business.

11. This useful art was introduced into the United States by J. Watts,
an Englishman from London, who had acquired a knowledge of the process
from A. Wilson. He entered into a partnership with Joseph D. Fay and
Pierre C. Van Wyck, Esquires. They first stereotyped the Westminster
Catechism, which was printed by J. Watts & Co., for Messrs. Whiting &
Watson, in 1813. They also stereotyped a New Testament. But the
business proving to be unproductive, Fay and Van Wyck retired from the
concern. Watts afterwards stereotyped about one third of an octavo
Bible. The moulding of all the plates produced in Watts's foundery was
executed by Mrs. Watts. On the 21st of March, 1815, Watts sold all his
plates, together with his materials and knowledge of the process, to
B. S. and J. B. Collins, for $6500. The Messrs. Collins afterwards
carried on the business successfully.

12. In 1812, David Bruce went to England for the express purpose of
obtaining a knowledge of the art, as it was kept a profound secret by
Watts; and having learned the method of one Nicholson, of Liverpool,
and having also acquired some knowledge of Earl Stanhope's plan, he
returned to New-York, and commenced stereotyping, in conjunction with
his brother, George Bruce, in the year 1813. They soon completed two
setts of 12mo plates for the New Testament, one of which they sold to
Matthew Carey, Nov. 8, 1814. Soon afterwards, they finished the whole
Bible. David Bruce invented the machine for planing the plates, in
1815.



[Illustration]

THE PAPER-MAKER, AND THE BOOKBINDER.


THE PAPER-MAKER.

1. The materials on which writing was executed, in the early days of
the art, were the leaves and bark of trees and plants, stones, bricks,
sheets of lead, copper, and brass, as well as plates of ivory, wooden
tablets, and cotton and linen cloth.

2. The instruments with which writing was practised were adapted to
the substance on which it was to be formed. The _stylus_, which the
Romans employed in writing on metallic tablets covered with wax, was
made of iron, acute at one end, for forming the letters, and flat or
round at the other, for erasing what may have been erroneously
written.

3. For writing with ink, the _calamus_, a kind of reed, sharpened at
the point, and split like our pens was used. Some of the Eastern
nations still write with bamboos and canes. The Chinese inscribe their
characters with small brushes similar to camel's hair pencils. We have
no certain evidence of the application of _quills_ to this purpose
until the seventh century.

4. As the literature of antiquity advanced, a material adapted to
works of magnitude became necessary, and this was found both in the
skins of animals, and in the celebrated plant papyrus, of Egypt; but
the time when they were first applied to this purpose cannot be
determined, although it is probable that the former has the preference
as regards priority.

5. The papyrus was an aquatic plant, which grew upon the banks of the
Nile. In the manufacture of paper from this reed, it was divested of
its outer covering, and the internal layers, or laminæ, were separated
with the point of a needle or knife. These layers were spread parallel
to each other on a table, in sufficient numbers to form a sheet; a
second layer was then laid with the strips crossing those of the first
at right angles; and the whole having been moistened with water, was
subjected to pressure between metallic surfaces. The pressure, aided
by a glutinous substance in the plant, caused the several pieces to
become one uniform sheet.

6. Parchment was manufactured from the skins of sheep and goats. In
the preparation, these were first steeped in water impregnated with
lime, and afterwards stretched upon frames, and reduced by scraping
with sharp instruments. They were finished by the application of
chalk, and by rubbing them with pumice-stone. The skins of very young
calves, dressed in a similar manner, was called vellum. Parchment and
vellum are still used for deeds and other important documents.

7. When Attalus, about 200 years before Christ, was about to found a
library at Pergamus, which should rival that of Alexandria, one of the
Ptolemies, then king of Egypt, jealous of his success, prohibited the
exportation of papyrus; but the spirited inhabitants of Pergamus
manufactured parchment as a substitute, and formed their library
principally of manuscripts on this material. From this fact, it
received the name of _Pergamena_ among the Romans, who gave it also
the appellation of _Membrana_.

8. The greatest quantity of paper was manufactured at Alexandria, and
the commerce in this article greatly increased the wealth of that
city. In the fifth century, paper was rendered very dear by taxation;
and this probably was an inducement for an effort to produce a
substitute. Accordingly, in the eighth century, it began to be
superseded by cotton paper, although it continued in use in some parts
of Europe, until three hundred years after the period last mentioned.

9. The manufacture of cotton paper was introduced into Spain, in the
eleventh century, by the Arabians, who became acquainted with it in
Bucharia as early as A.D. 704. About the year 1300, it was commenced
in Italy, France, and Germany; and, in some of the paper-mills of
these countries, paper was made from cotton rags. Linen paper is
thought to have originated in Germany, about the year 1318.

10. The first paper-mill in England was erected by a German, named
Spillman, in 1588; but no paper, except the coarse brown sorts, was
made in that country, until about the year 1690. The finer kinds, both
for writing and printing, were, before that time, imported from the
Continent. But the paper of English manufacture will now compare with
that of any other country. The French also make very fine paper.

11. In the United States, this manufacture has rapidly increased in
amount within a few years. According to an estimate made in 1829, it
appears that the whole annual product of the mills is worth between
five and seven millions of dollars, and that the rags collected in
this country amount to about two millions. The number of hands
employed in the business are ten or eleven thousand, of whom about
one-half were females. The manufacture has since been considerably
increased, although the number of operatives may have been diminished,
on account of the introduction of improved machinery.

12. Nature has supplied us with a great variety of substances from
which paper may be fabricated, as flax, hemp, cotton, straw, grass,
and the bark of several kinds of trees; but the fibres of the three
first productions, in the form of rags, are the most usual materials.
Most of these are primarily purchased from the people at large, by
retail booksellers, country merchants, and pedlers, who in turn
dispose of them to persons called rag-merchants, or directly to the
paper-makers. When the rags come from the original collectors, all
kinds are mixed together; but they are assorted according to their
color and the nature of their original fibre, either by the
rag-merchants, or by the paper-makers themselves.

13. In our attempts to afford the reader an idea of this manufacture
in general, letter-paper has been selected, as affording the best
means of illustration; since for this kind of paper, the best stock is
employed, and the greatest skill is exerted in every stage of the
process.

14. The process of the manufacture is commenced by cutting the rags
into small pieces, by the aid of a sharp instrument, commonly a piece
of a scythe, which is placed in a position nearly perpendicular before
the operator. In the reduction of very coarse rags, such as
sail-cloth, a cutting machine is also employed. Then, with the view of
sifting out the loose particles of dirt, the rags are deposited in a
large octagonal sieve made of coarse wire, and placed in a close box
in a horizontal position. The sieve is moved by machinery, like the
bolt of a flour-mill.

15. The second stage of the process consists chiefly in the reduction
of the rags to a _pulp_. This is effected by the action of a cutting
machine, the essential parts of which are two sets of blunt knives,
the one stationary, and the other revolving. The machine is placed in
a large elliptical tub, in which the rags are also deposited, with a
suitable quantity of water. The liquid and fibrous contents of the tub
are kept moving in a circle by the action of the machine, through
which it passes at one point of its revolution.

16. The maceration occupies from ten to twenty hours, according as the
material is more or less rigid; and, during part of this time, water
is permitted to run in at one side of the tub, and out at the other,
to render the pulp perfectly clean. Towards the close of this process,
the pulp, if necessary, is bleached by means of chloride of lime, and
oil of vitriol. It is also sometimes colored by adding a quantity of
dye-stuff. The bleaching and coloring are effected without
interrupting the action of the machine. The rags having been thus
reduced, the pulp, together with a suitable quantity of water, is let
out into a reservoir, from which it is drawn off into a _vat_, as fast
as it may be needed for the production of the paper.

17. With this vat is connected the paper-making machine; and the part
of the latter which first comes in contact with the material is a
hollow cylinder, surrounded with a fine web of wire-cloth. This
cylinder being immersed in the contents of the vat more than one-half
of its diameter, the water passes off with a uniform rapidity, and the
fibrous particles which had been suspended in it, settle with a
remarkable uniformity on the outside of the brazen web. As the
cylinder revolves, a continued sheet is produced, which is taken up by
an endless web of woollen cloth, and carried round another cylinder of
equal diameter, and then between two more, by which it is partially
pressed.

18. From between these rollers, the paper passes out, in a continued
sheet, upon a large cylindrical reel, called the _lay-boy_; and when a
certain quantity of it, which is determined by a gauge, has been
accumulated, the lay-boy is removed to a low table. The paper is then
cut, with a toothless handsaw, into sheets twice the size of
letter-paper. This part of the operation is very quickly performed, as
a workman can cut up and pile in heaps, to be pressed, twenty reams in
half that number of minutes, and attend to the machine at the same
time.

19. After the paper has been successively pressed, and handled by
separating the sheets two or three times, it is hung up on small
poles, in an airy room, to be dried; and having been again pressed, it
is sized by holding a quantity of the sheets at a time in a thin
solution of glue and alum, the former of which is prepared in the
paper-mill for the purpose, from shreds and parings of raw hides. The
paper is freed from superfluous portions of the size, by submitting it
to the action of a press. It is again dried as before, and again
pressed; after which, the several sheets are examined, and freed from
lumps and other extraneous substances.

20. They are then severed in half with a cutting machine, and
afterwards calendered, by passing the sheets successively between
rollers; or they are pressed between smooth pasteboards. In the latter
case, hot metallic plates are sometimes interposed between every few
quires of the sheets. The paper, when treated in this way, is called
hot-pressed. It is next counted off into half-quires, put up into
reams, pressed, trimmed, and finally enveloped in two thick sheets of
paper, which completes the whole process of the manufacture.

21. The manufacture of paper, as just described, seems to be a tedious
process; yet with two machines and a suitable number of hands, say
sixty or eighty, three hundred reams of letter-paper can be produced
from the raw material in a single day. It is hardly necessary to
remark, that paper is of various qualities, from the finest bank-note
paper, down to the coarsest kinds employed in wrapping up merchandise,
and that, for every quality, suitable materials are chosen. The
process of the manufacture is varied, of course, to suit the
materials. None but writing and drawing paper requires to be sized.

22. Until after the beginning of the present century, paper was made
exclusively _by hand_, and this method is still continued in a
majority of the mills in the United States, although it is rapidly
going out of use. It differs from that just described chiefly in the
manner of collecting the pulp to form the paper, this being effected
by means of a _mould_, a frame of wood with a fine wire bottom, of the
size of the proposed sheet. In the use of this instrument, a quantity
of the pulp is taken up, and while the _vatman_, or _dipper_, holds it
in a horizontal position, and gives it a gentle shaking, the water
runs out through the interstices of the wire, and leaves the fibrous
particles upon the mould in the form of a sheet. The sheets thus
produced are pressed between felts, and afterwards treated as if they
had been formed by means of a machine.

23. The first idea of forming paper in a continued sheet originated in
France; but a machine for this purpose is said to have been first made
completely successful in England, by Henry and Sealy Fourdrinier. Many
machines made after their model, as well as those of a different
construction, are in use in the United States, to some of which is
attached an apparatus for drying, sizing, and pressing the paper, as
well as for cutting it to the proper size. Very few machines, however,
yield paper equal in firmness and tenacity to that produced by hand.


THE BOOKBINDER.

1. Bookbinding is the art of arranging the pages of a book in proper
order, and confining them there by means of thread, glue, paste,
pasteboard, and leather.

2. This art is probably as ancient as that of writing books; for,
whatever may have been the substance on which the work was executed,
some method of uniting the parts was absolutely necessary. The
earliest method with which we are acquainted, is that of gluing the
sheets together, and rolling them upon small cylinders. This mode is
still practised in some countries. It is also everywhere used by the
Jews, so far as relates to one copy of their law deposited in each of
their synagogues.

3. The name Egyptian is applied to this kind of binding, and this
would seem to indicate the place of its origin. Each volume had two
rollers, so that the continued sheet could be wound from one to the
other at pleasure. The square, or present form of binding, is also of
great antiquity, as it is supposed to have been invented at Pergamus,
about 200 years before Christ, by King Attalus, who, with his son
Eumenes, established the famous library in that city.

4. The first process of binding books consists in folding the sheets
according to the paging. This is done by the aid of an ivory knife,
called a _folder_; and the operator is guided in the correct
performance of the work by certain letters called _signatures_, placed
at the bottom of the page, at regular intervals through the book.

5. Piles of the folded sheets are then placed on a long table in the
order of their signatures, and gathered, one from each pile, for every
book. They are next beaten on a stone, or passed between steel
rollers, to render them smooth and solid. The latter method has been
introduced within a few years. This operation certainly increases the
intrinsic value of the book; but it is not employed in every case,
since it is attended with some additional expense, and since it
diminishes the thickness of the book, and consequently its value in
the estimation of the public at large.

6. The sheets, having been properly pressed, are next sewed together
upon little cords, which, in this application, are called _bands_.
During the operation these are stretched in a perpendicular direction,
at suitable distances from each other, as exhibited in the foregoing
cut. The folded sheets are usually notched on the back by means of a
saw, and at these points they are brought in juxta-position with the
bands. After the pages of several volumes have been accumulated, the
bands are severed between each book. The folding, gathering, and
sewing, are usually performed by females.

7. At this stage of the process, the books are received by the men or
boys, who generally _take on_ one hundred at a time. The workman first
spreads some glue on the backs of each book with a brush. He then
places them, one after the other, between boards of solid wood, and
beats them on the back with a hammer. By this means the back is
rounded, and a groove formed on each side for the admission of one
edge of the pasteboards.

8. These having been applied, and partially fastened by means of the
bands, which had been left long for the purpose, the books are
pressed, and the leaves of which they are composed are trimmed with an
instrument called a _plough_. The pasteboards are also cut to the
proper size by the same means, or with a huge pair of shears. In the
preceding picture, a workman is represented at work with the plough.
The edges are next sprinkled with some kind of coloring matter, or
covered with gold leaf. A strip of paper is then glued on the back,
and a _head-band_ put upon each end.

9. The book is now ready to be covered. This is done either with calf,
sheep, or goat skin, or some kind of paper or muslin; but, whatever
the material may be, it is cut into pieces to suit the size of the
book; and, having been smeared on one side with paste, if paper or
leather, or with glue, if muslin, it is drawn over the outsides of the
pasteboards, and doubled in upon the inside.

10. The covers, if calf or sheep skin, are next sprinkled or marbled.
The first operation is performed by dipping the brush in a kind of
dye, made for the purpose, and beating it with one hand over a stick
held in the other; the second is performed in the same manner, with
the difference that they are sprinkled first with water, and then with
the coloring matter.

11. After a small piece of morocco has been pasted on the back, on
which the title is to be printed in gold leaf, and one of the waste
leaves has been pasted down on the inside of each of the covers, the
books are pressed for the last time. They are then glazed by applying
the white of an egg with a sponge.

12. The books are now ready for the reception of the ornaments, which
consist chiefly of letters and other figures in gold leaf. In
executing this part of the process, the workman cuts the gold into
suitable strips or squares on a cushion.

13. These are laid upon the books by means of a piece of raw cotton,
and afterwards impressed with types moderately heated over a charcoal
fire; or the strips of gold are taken up, and laid upon the proper
place with instruments called _stamps_ and _rolls_, which have on them
figures in relief. The portion of the leaf not impressed with the
figures on the tools, is easily removed with a silk rag. The books are
finished by applying to the covers the white of an egg, and rubbing
them with a heated steel _polisher_.

14. The process of binding books, as just described, is varied, of
course, in some particulars, to suit the different kinds of binding
and finish. A book stitched together like a common almanac, is called
a pamphlet. Those which are covered on the back and sides with
leather, are said to be _full-bound_; and those which have their backs
covered with leather, and the sides with paper, _half-bound_.

15. The different sizes of books are expressed by terms indicative of
the number of pages printed on one side of a sheet of paper; thus,
when two pages are printed on one side, the book is termed a folio;
four pages, a quarto; eight pages, an octavo; twelve pages, a
duodecimo; eighteen pages, an octodecimo. All of these terms, except
the first, are abridged by prefixing a figure or figures to the last
syllable: thus, 4to for quarto, 8vo for octavo, 12mo for duodecimo,
&c.

16. The manufacture of account-books, and other blank or _stationary_
work, constitutes an extensive branch of the bookbinder's business. It
is not necessary, however, to be particular in noticing it, as the
general process is similar to that of common bookbinding. Those
binders who devote much attention to this branch of the trade, have a
machine by which paper is ruled to suit any method of keeping books,
or any other pattern which may be desired.



[Illustration: BOOKSELLER.]

THE BOOKSELLER.


1. The book-trade has arisen from small beginnings to its present
magnitude and importance. Before the invention of typography, it was
carried on by the aid of transcribers; and the booksellers of Greece,
Rome, and Alexandria, during the flourishing state of their
literature, kept a large number of manuscript copyists in constant
employ. Among the Romans, the transcribers or copyists were chiefly
slaves, who were very valuable to their owners, on account of their
capacity for this employment.

2. In the middle ages, when learning was chiefly confined to the
precincts of monastic institutions, the monks employed much of their
time in copying the ancient classics and other works; and this labor
was often imposed upon them as a penance for the commission of sin.
From this cause, and from an ignorance of the true meaning of the
author, much of their copying was inaccurately performed, so that
great pains have been since required in the correction of the
manuscripts of those times.

3. This mode of multiplying copies of books was exceedingly slow, and,
withal, so very expensive, that learning was confined almost
exclusively to people of rank, and the lower orders were only rescued
from total ignorance by the reflected light of their superiors. For a
long time, during the reign of comparative barbarism in Europe, books
were so scarce, that a present of a single copy to a religious house
was thought to be so valuable a gift, that it entitled the donor to
the prayers of the community, which were considered efficacious in
procuring for him eternal salvation.

4. After the establishment of the universities of Paris and Bologna,
there were dealers in books, called _stationarii_, who loaned single
manuscripts at high prices; and, in the former place, no person, after
the year 1432, could deal in books in any way, without permission from
the university, by which officers were appointed to examine the
manuscripts, and fix the price for which they might be sold or hired
out.

5. For a long time after the invention of printing, the printers sold
their own publications; and, in doing this, especially at some
distance from their establishments, they were aided by those who had
formerly been employed as copyists. Some of these travelling agents,
at length, became stationary, and procured the publication of works on
their own account.

6. The first bookseller who purchased manuscripts from the authors,
and caused them to be printed without owning a press himself, was John
Otto, of Nuremburg. He commenced this mode of doing business, in 1516.
In 1545, there were, for the first time, two such booksellers in
Leipsic. The great mart for the sale of their books was Frankfort on
the Maine, where were held three extensive fairs every year. Leipsic,
however, soon became, and still continues, the centre of the German
book-trade.

7. The first Leipsic catalogue of books appeared as early as the year
1600; but the fairs at that place did not become important, as regards
the book-trade, until 1667, when it was attended by nineteen foreign
booksellers. The booksellers of Germany, as well as some from distant
countries, meet at the semi-annual fairs held in that city, to dispose
of books, and to settle their accounts with each other. Every German
publisher has also an agent there, who receives his publications, and
sends them, according as they are ordered, to any part of Germany.

8. In no other part of the world, has such a connexion of booksellers
been formed, although almost every kingdom of Europe has some city or
cities in which this branch of trade is chiefly concentrated; as
London, in England; Edinburgh, in Scotland; and Amsterdam, Utrecht,
Leyden, and Haerlem, in the Netherlands. In Spain and Portugal, the
price of every book is regulated by the government.

9. A very convenient method of effecting the sale and exchange of
books among booksellers, has been adopted in the United States; and
this is by auction. A sale of this kind is held in Boston once, and in
New-York and Philadelphia twice, every year; and none are invited to
attend it but the _trade_; hence such sales are denominated
_trade-sales_.

10. The sale is usually conducted by an auctioneer who has been
selected by a committee of the trade in the city in which it is to be
held. In order to obtain a sufficient amount of stock for the purpose,
the agent issues proposals, in which he informs publishers and others
concerned in this branch of business, of his intention, and solicits
invoices of books, to be sold at the time specified. A catalogue of
all the books thus sent for sale, is distributed among the
booksellers.

11. The booksellers having assembled, the books which may have been
accumulated from different parts of the Union, are offered in
convenient lots, and _struck off_ to the highest bidder. Each
purchaser holds in his hand the printed catalogue, on the broad margin
of which he marks, if he sees fit, the prices at which the books have
been sold; and the record thus kept affords a tolerable means of
determining their value, for a considerable time afterwards.

12. A sale of this kind occupies from four to six days; and, at the
close of it, a settlement takes place, in which the parties are
governed by the terms previously published. The payments are made in
cash, or by notes at four or six months, according to the amount which
the purchaser may have bought out of one invoice. The conductors of
the sale are allowed about five per cent. commission for their
services.

13. A vast number of books is also sold, every year, at auction, to
miscellaneous collections of people, not only in the cities and
considerable towns, but likewise in the villages throughout the
country. By many booksellers, this method of sale is thought to be
injurious to the trade, since it has reduced the prices of books, and
interfered with the regular method of doing business. These
disadvantages, however, have been far overbalanced by the increased
number of readers which has been thus created.

14. The circulation of books is likewise promoted by means of
travelling agents, who either sell them at once, or obtain
subscriptions for them with the view to their future delivery. These
methods have been employed more or less from the very commencement of
the printing business; and they have probably contributed more to the
general extension of knowledge than the sale of books by stationary
booksellers. In fact, they are among the most prominent causes of the
vast trade in books, which is now carried on, especially in the United
States.

15. Nevertheless, publishers, who do not employ agents to vend their
books, generally consider them interlopers upon their business; and
the people themselves, who owe a great share of their intellectual
cultivation to this useful class of men, are generally averse to
afford them the necessary patronage, because they require a small
advance on the city prices to pay travelling expenses.

16. A considerable amount of books is also sold by merchants who
reside at some distance from the cities and large towns. They,
however, seldom venture to purchase those which have not been well
known and approved in their neighborhood; and, in a majority of cases,
regard them as mere subjects of merchandise, without taking into
consideration the effects most likely to be produced by these silent,
but powerful agents, when circulated among their customers.

17. Some booksellers in Europe confine their trade chiefly to
particular departments; such as law, theology, and medicine. Others
deal in toy-books, and books of education, or in rare and scarce
books. This is the case, to a limited extent, in the United States,
although our booksellers commonly keep an assortment of miscellaneous
publications, as well as various articles in the stationary line; such
as paper, quills, inkstands, and blank work.



[Illustration: The ARCHITECT.]

THE ARCHITECT.


1. Architecture, in the general sense of the word, is the art of
planning and erecting buildings of all kinds, whether of a public or
private nature; and it embraces within its operations a variety of
employments, at the head of which must be placed the Architect.
Architecture is of several kinds, such as _civil_, _naval_,
_military_, and _aquatic_; but it is the first only that we propose to
notice in the present article.

2. The construction of buildings as means of shelter from the weather,
appears to have been among the earliest inventions; and, from the
skill exhibited in the construction of the ark, we have reason to
believe that architecture had been brought to considerable perfection
before the deluge. This opinion is also supported by the fact stated
in holy writ, that the descendants of Noah, not more than one hundred
years after the great catastrophe just mentioned, attempted to build a
city and a lofty tower with bricks burned in the fire. This project
could never have been thought of, had they not been influenced by the
knowledge of former centuries.

3. The confusion of the language of the people caused their dispersion
into different parts of the earth; and, in their several locations,
they adopted that method of constructing their dwellings, which the
climate required, and the materials at hand admitted; but, whatever
the primitive structure may have been, it was continued, in its
general features, from age to age, by the more refined and opulent
inhabitants; hence the different styles of building, which have been
continued, with various modifications, to the present day.

4. The essential elementary parts of a building are those which
contribute to its support, inclosure, and covering; and of these the
most important are the foundation, the column, the wall, the lintel,
the arch, the vault, the dome, and the roof. Ornamental and refined
architecture is one of the fine arts; nevertheless, every part of an
edifice must appear to have utility for its object, and show the
purpose for which it has been designed.

5. The _foundation_ is usually a stone wall, on which the
superstructure of the building rests. The most solid basis on which it
is placed is rock, or gravel which has never been disturbed; next to
these are clay and sand. In loose or muddy situations, it is always
unsafe to build, unless a solid basis can be artificially produced.
This is often done by means of timber placed in a horizontal position,
or by driving wooden piles perpendicularly into the earth; on a
foundation of the latter description, the greater part of the city of
Amsterdam has been built.

6. The _column_, or _pillar_, is the simplest member of a building,
although it is not essential to all. It is not employed for the
purpose of inclosure, but as a support to some part of the
superstructure, and the principal force which it has to resist is that
of perpendicular pressure. The column is more frequently employed in
public than in private buildings.

7. The _wall_ may be considered the lateral continuation of the
column, answering the purposes both of support and inclosure. It is
constructed of various materials, but chiefly of brick, stone, and
marble, with a suitable proportion of mortar or cement. Walls are also
made of wood, by first erecting a frame of timber and then covering it
with boards; but these are more perishable materials, which require to
be defended from the decomposing influence of the atmosphere, by paint
or some other substance.

8. The _lintel_ is a beam extending in a right line from one column or
wall to another over a vacant space. The _floor_ is a lateral
continuation or connexion of beams, by means of a covering of planks.
The strength of the lintel, and, in fact, every other elementary part
of a building used as a support, can be mathematically determined by
the skilful architect.

9. The _arch_ answers the same purpose as the lintel, although it far
exceeds it in strength. It is composed of several pieces of a
wedge-like form, and the joints formed by the contact of flat surfaces
point to a common centre. While the workmen are constructing the arch,
the materials are supported by a _centring_ of the shape of its
internal surface. The upper stone of an arch is called the
_key-stone_. The supports of an arch are called _abutments_; and a
continuation of arches, an _arcade_.

10. The _vault_ is the lateral continuation of an arch, and bears the
same relation to it that a wall bears to a column. The construction of
a simple vault is the same with that of an arch, and it distributes
its pressure equally along the walls or abutments. A complex or
groined vault is made by the intersection of two of the common kind.
The groined vault is much used in Gothic architecture.

11. The _dome_, or _cupola_, is a hemispherical or convex covering to
a building or a part of it. When built of stone it is a very strong
kind of structure, even more so than the arch, since the tendency of
the parts to fall is counteracted by those above and below, as well as
by those on each side. During the erection of the cupola, no centring
is required, as in the case of the arch.

12. The _roof_ is the most common and cheap covering to buildings. It
is sometimes flat, but most commonly oblique, in shape. A roof
consisting of two oblique sides meeting at the top, is denominated a
_pent_ roof; that with four oblique sides, a _hipped_ roof; and that
with two sides, having each two inclinations of different obliquities,
a _curb_ or _mansard_ roof. In modern times, roofs are constructed of
wood, or of wood covered with some incombustible material, such as
tiles, slate, and sheets of lead, tin, or copper. The elementary parts
of buildings, as just described, are more or less applicable in almost
every kind of architecture.

13. The architecture of different countries has been characterized by
peculiarities of form and construction, which, among ancient nations,
were so distinct, that their edifices may be identified at the present
day even in a state of ruin; and, although nearly all the buildings of
antiquity are in a dilapidated state, many of them have been restored,
in drawings and models, by the aid of the fragments which remain.

14. The different styles of building which have been recognised by the
architect of modern times, are, the Egyptian, the Chinese, the
Grecian, the Roman, the Greco-Gothic, the Saracenic, and the Gothic.
In all these, the pillar, with its accompaniments, makes a
distinguished figure. The following picture has therefore been
introduced by way of explanation. The columns are of the Corinthian
order of architecture.

[Illustration]

15. _The Egyptian style._--The first inhabitants of Egypt lived in
mounds, caverns, and houses of mud; and, from these primitive
structures, the Egyptians, at a later period, derived their style of
architecture. The walls of their buildings were very thick, and
sloping on the outside; the roof was flat, and composed of blocks of
stone, extending from one wall or pillar to another; and the columns
were short and large, being sometimes ten or twelve feet in diameter.
Pyramids of prodigious magnitude, and obelisks composed of a single
stone, sometimes often exceeding seventy feet in height, are
structures peculiarly Egyptian. The architecture of the Hindoos seems
to have been derived from primitive structures of a similar character.

[Illustration: AN EGYPTIAN TEMPLE.]

16. _The Chinese style._--The ancient Tartars, and other wandering
tribes of Asia, appear to have lived in tents; and the Chinese
buildings, even at the present day, bear a strong resemblance to these
original habitations, since their roofs are concave on the upper side,
as if made of canvas instead of wood. Their porticoes resemble the
awnings spread out on our shop-windows in the summer. The Chinese
build chiefly of wood, although they sometimes use brick and stone.

[Illustration: A CHINESE PAGODA.]

17. _The Grecian style._--This style of building had its origin in the
wooden hut or cabin, the frame of which primarily consisted of
perpendicular posts, transverse beams, and rafters. This structure was
at length imitated in stone, and by degrees it was so modified and
decorated in certain parts, as to give rise to the several
distinctions called orders of architecture. The Greeks, in perfecting
their system of architecture, were probably aided by Egyptian
examples, although they finally surpassed all other nations in this
important art.

18. _Orders of architecture._--By the architectural orders are
understood certain modes of proportioning and decorating the column
and entablature. They were in use during the best days of Greece and
Rome, for a period of six or seven centuries. The Greeks had three
orders, called the _Doric_, the _Ionic_, and the _Corinthian_. These
were adopted and modified by the Romans, who also added two others,
called the _Tuscan_ and the _Composite_.

19. _Doric order._--The Doric is the oldest and most massive order of
the Greeks. The column, in the examples at Athens, is about six of its
diameters in height; in those of an earlier date, it is but four or
five. The temple here adduced to illustrate this order was built by
Cimon, son of Miltiades, about the year 450 before Christ. It is said
to be in a state of better preservation than any other of the ancient
Greek edifices at Athens. It will be seen that the shafts are
_fluted_, that is, cut in semicircular channels, in a longitudinal
direction. The United States' Bank, at Philadelphia, is a noble
specimen of this order.

[Illustration: THE TEMPLE OF THESEUS.]

20. _Ionic order._--This order is lighter than the Doric, its column
being eight or nine diameters in height. Its shaft has twenty-four or
more flutings, separated from each other by square edges; and its
capital consists, in part, of two double scrolls, called _volutes_,
usually occupying opposite sides. These volutes are supposed to have
been copied from ringlets of hair, or from the horns of the god
Jupiter Ammon. The following example of this order consists of three
temples, each of which was dedicated to a different individual, viz.,
Erectheus, Minerva Polias, and the nymph Pandrosus.

[Illustration: THE ERECTHEUM AT ATHENS.]

21. _Corinthian order._--The Corinthian is the lightest and most
decorated of all the Grecian orders. Its column is usually ten
diameters in height, and its shaft is fluted like that of the Ionic.
Its capital is shaped like an inverted bell, and was covered on the
outside with two rows of the leaves of the plant acanthus, above which
are eight pairs of small volutes. It is said that this beautiful
capital was suggested to the sculptor Callimachus by the growth of an
acanthus about a basket, which had been accidentally left in a
garden.

22. The Greeks sometimes departed so far from the strict use of their
orders, as to employ the statues of slaves, heroes, and gods, in the
place of columns. A specimen of this practice is exhibited in the cut
illustrative of the Ionic order. It belongs to the temple dedicated to
Pandrosus.

23. The most remarkable buildings of the Greeks were their temples.
The body of these edifices consisted of a walled cell, usually
surrounded by one or more rows of pillars. Sometimes they had a
colonnade at one end only, and sometimes at both ends. Their form was
generally oblong, and as the cells were intended as places of resort
for the priests rather than for assemblies of the people, they were
but imperfectly lighted. Windows were seldom employed; and light was
admitted at the door at one end, or through an opening in the roof.

24. Grecian architecture is supposed to have been at its greatest
perfection in the days of Pericles and Phidias, when sculpture is
admitted to have attained its highest excellence. It was
distinguished, in general, by simplicity of structure, fewness of
parts, absence of arches, and lowness of pediments and roofs.

25. _Roman style._--The Romans adopted the three Grecian orders, with
some modifications; and also added two others, called the Tuscan and
Composite. The former of these they borrowed from the nation whose
name it bears, and the latter they formed by uniting the
embellishments of the Doric and the Corinthian. The favorite order in
Rome and its colonies was the Corinthian. Examples of single pillars
of these orders may be seen at the end of this article.

26. The temples of the Romans generally bore a strong resemblance to
those of the Greeks, although they often differed from the specimens
of that nation in several particulars. The stylobate of the latter was
usually a succession of platforms, which likewise served the purposes
of steps, by which the building was approached on all sides. Among the
Romans, it was usually an elevated structure, like a continued
pedestal, on three sides, and accessible in front by means of steps.
The dome was also very commonly employed rather than the pent roof.
The following is an example of a temple at Rome.

[Illustration: TEMPLE OF ANTONIUS AND FAUSTINA.]

27. _Greco-Gothic style._--After the dismemberment of the Roman
empire, the practice of erecting new buildings from the fragments of
old ones became prevalent. This gave rise to an irregular style of
building, which continued in use during the dark ages. It consisted of
Greek and Roman details combined under new forms, and piled up into
structures wholly unlike the original buildings from which the
materials had been taken. Hence the appellations _Greco-Gothic_ and
_Romanesque_ have been applied to it. The effect of this style of
building was very imposing, especially when columns and arches were
piled upon each other to a great height.

28. _Saracenic style._--This appellation has been given to the style
of building practised by the Moors and Saracens in Spain, Egypt, and
Turkey. It is distinguished, among other things, by an elliptical form
of the arch. A similar peculiarity exists in the domes of the Oriental
mosques, which are sometimes large segments of a sphere, appearing as
if inflated; and at other times, they are concavo-convex on the
outside. Several of these domes are commonly placed upon one building.
The _minaret_ is a tall slender tower, peculiar to Turkish
architecture.

29. _Gothic style._--The Goths, who overran a great part of the
Western empire, were not the inventors of the style of architecture
which bears their name. The term was first applied with the view to
stigmatize the edifices of the middle ages, in the construction of
which, the purity of the antique models had not been regarded. The
term was at first very extensive in its application; but it is now
confined chiefly to the style of building which was introduced into
various parts of Europe six or eight centuries ago, and which was used
in the construction of cathedrals, churches, abbeys, and similar
edifices.

[Illustration: GOTHIC CATHEDRAL AT YORK.]

30. The Gothic style is peculiarly and strongly marked. Its principles
seem to have originated in the imitation of groves and bowers, under
which the Druid priests had been accustomed to perform their sacred
rites. Its characteristics are, pointed arches, pinnacles and spires,
large buttresses, clustered pillars, vaulted roofs, and a general
predominance of the perpendicular over the horizontal.

31. The ecclesiastical edifices of this style of building are commonly
in form of a cross, having a tower, lantern, or spire, erected at the
point of intersection. The part of the cross situated towards the west
is called the _nave_; the eastern part, the _choir_; and the
transverse portion, the _transept_. A glance at the following diagram
will enable the reader to understand the form of the ground-work more
fully.

[Illustration]

32. Any high building erected above a roof is called a _steeple_,
which is also distinguished by different appellations, according to
its form: if it is square topped, it is a _tower_; if long and acute,
a _spire_; or if short and light, a _lantern_. Towers of great height
in proportion to their diameter are denominated _turrets_. The walls
of Gothic churches are supported on the outside by lateral
projections, called _buttresses_, which extend from the bottom to the
top, at the corners and between the windows. On the top of these are
slender pyramidal structures or spires, called _pinnacles_. The summit
or upper edge of a wall, if straight, is called a _parapet_; if
indented, a _battlement_.

33. Gothic pillars or columns are usually clustered, appearing as if a
number were bound together. They are confined chiefly to the inside of
buildings, and are generally employed in sustaining the vaults which
support the roof. The parts which are thrown out of a perpendicular
to assist in forming these vaults, have received the appellation of
_pendentives_. The Gothic style of building is more imposing than the
Grecian; but architects of the present day find it difficult to
accomplish what was achieved by the builders of the middle ages.

34. In the erection of edifices at the present day, the Grecian and
Gothic styles are chiefly employed, to the exclusion of the others,
especially in Europe and America. Modern dwelling-houses have
necessarily a style of their own, so far as relates to stories,
windows, and chimneys; and no more of the styles of former ages can be
applied to them, than what relates to the unessential and decorative
parts.

[Illustration: DORIC. IONIC. CORINTHIAN. COMPOSITE. TUSCAN.

PILLARS AND ENTABLATURES OF THE FIVE ORDERS.]



[Illustration: CARPENTER.]

THE CARPENTER.


1. It is the business of the carpenter to cut out and frame large
pieces of timber, and then to join them together, or fit them to brick
or stone walls, to constitute them the outlines or skeleton of
buildings or parts of buildings.

2. The joiner executes the more minute parts of the wood-work of
edifices, comprehending, among other things, the floors,
window-frames, sashes, doors, mantels, &c. Carpentry and joinery,
however, are so nearly allied to each other, that they are commonly
practised by the same individuals; and, in this article, they will be
treated together.

3. Carpentry and joinery, as well as all other trades connected with
building, are subservient to the architect, when an individual of this
particular profession has been employed; but it most commonly
happens, that the master-carpenter acts in this capacity. This is
especially the case in the erection of common dwellings, and, in fact,
of other edifices where nothing very splendid is to be attempted. It
is to be regretted, however, that the professional architect has not
been oftener employed; for, had this been the case, a purer taste in
building would have generally prevailed.

4. Contracts for the erection of buildings are often made with the
carpenter, as master-builder or architect. In such cases, it is his
business to employ persons capable of executing every kind of work
required on the proposed edifice, from the bricklayer and stone-mason
to the painter and glazier. It not unfrequently happens, however, that
the person himself, who proposes to erect a building, chooses to
employ the workmen in the different branches.

5. The constituent parts of buildings having been explained in the
article on architecture, it is unnecessary to enter here into minute
details on this point; nor would a particular description of the
various operations of the carpenter and joiner be useful to the
general reader, since, in every place, means are at hand by which a
general view of this business may be obtained by actual inspection.

6. The carpenter and joiner are guided, in the performance of their
work, by well-defined rules, drawn chiefly from the science of
Geometry, and which they have learned from imitation and practice, as
well as, in many cases, from the valuable works which have been
published on these branches of the art of building.

7. The principal tools with which they operate are the axe, the adze,
the saw, the auger, the gauge, the square, the compasses, the hammer,
the mallet, the crow, the rule, the level, the maul, and the plane;
and of many of these there are several kinds.

8. The timbers most employed in building in the United States are
chiefly pine, oak, beech, black walnut, cypress, larch, white cedar,
and hemlock; but of these pine is in the greatest use. Oak and beech
are much used in constructing frames, in which great strength is
required. Of the pine, there are several species, of which the white
and yellow are the most valuable; the former of these grows in the
greatest abundance in the Northern, and the latter, in the Southern
states.

9. Vast quantities of timber are annually cut into boards in
saw-mills, and floated down the rivers from the interior, during the
time of high water in the spring and fall, and sometimes at other
seasons of the year. The boards, or, as they are frequently
denominated, planks, are placed in the water, one tier above another,
and fastened together with wooden pins. Several of such _rafts_ are
connected by means of withes to form one; and, at each end of this,
are placed one or two huge oars, with which it may be guided down the
stream. Upon these rafts, shingles and laths are also brought to
market.

10. Logs and scantling to be employed in the frames of buildings are
also conveyed down the rivers in the same manner. The business
connected with the production of shingles, laths, boards or planks,
and staves, is called lumbering; and it is carried on, more or less
extensively, in the regions near the sources of all the large rivers
in the United States, and in the British possessions in North America.

11. The trade in lumber has also given rise to another class of men,
called lumber merchants; these purchase the lumber from the original
proprietors, who bring it down the rivers, and, in their turn, sell it
to builders and others. The lumbering business employs a large
capital, and a numerous class of our citizens.



[Illustration: STONE-MASON.]

THE STONE-MASON, THE BRICKMAKER, &c.


THE MASON.

1. The art of Masonry includes the sawing and cutting of stones into
the various shapes required in the multiplied purposes of building,
and in placing them in a proper manner in the walls and other parts of
edifices. It is divided into two branches, one of which consists in
bringing the stones to the desired form and polish, and the other, in
laying them in mortar or cement.

2. The rocks most used in building in the United States, are marble,
granite, greenstone, scienite, soap-stone, limestone, gypsum, and
slate. These are found in a great many localities, not only on this
continent, but on the other side of the Atlantic. Of these stones,
there are many varieties, which are frequently designated by their
sensible qualities, or by the name of the place or country whence
they are obtained; as _variegated_, _Italian_, _Egyptian_, or
_Stockbridge marble_, and _Quincy stone_.

3. _The Stone-cutter._--Stone-cutters procure their materials from the
_quarry-men_, whose business it is to _get out_ the stones from the
quarries, in which they lie in beds, consisting either of strata piled
upon each other, or of solid masses. Stones of any desirable
dimensions are detached from the great mass of rock, by first drilling
holes at suitable points, and then driving into them wedges with a
sledge. These blocks are usually removed from the quarries, and placed
on vehicles of transportation, by means of huge cranes, with which is
connected suitable machinery.

4. The blocks of stone, received in their rough state by the
stone-cutter, are divided, if required, into pieces of smaller size,
by means of a toothless saw, aided by the attrition of sand and water.
The other rough sides of the blocks are reduced to the proper form by
means of steel _points_ and _chisels_ driven with a mallet. A kind of
hammer with a point or chisel-like edge, is also used to effect the
same object, especially in the softer kinds of stone.

5. For some purposes, the stones are required to be polished. This is
especially the case with those employed in the ornamental parts of
buildings. In the execution of this part of the work, the surface is
rubbed successively with sand, freestone, pumice-stone, Scotch stone,
crocus, and putty. When the face is a plane, the sand is applied by
means of another stone, which is moved backwards and forwards upon it.
In this way, two surfaces are affected at the same time.

6. In polishing irregular surfaces, the different kinds of stone are
used in masses of convenient size; and the part applied to the surface
to be polished is first brought to a form corresponding to it. The
putty is an oxyde of tin, in form of powder. Crocus is the peroxyde of
iron. The building-stone capable of receiving the highest polish is
marble; and it is on this material that the stone-cutter, and the
architectural carver or sculptor, exert their utmost skill; but some
of the other stones which have been mentioned, possess the same
quality to a considerable extent.

7. Carving architectural ornaments, such as pillars with their
capitals, is a refined branch of this business; or it may rather be
considered, of itself, a branch of sculpture. In the execution of this
kind of work, the operator is guided by patterns, formed from the
well-defined rules of the science of building. Very few stone-cutters
attempt the execution of work so very difficult.

8. From the manufacture of mantel-pieces and monuments for the dead,
the stone-cutter derives a great proportion of his profits. This will
be manifest even to the superficial observer who may visit a few of
the many stone-cutters' yards, to be found in any of our large cities.
In some of these, blocks of marble are cut into slabs by the aid of
steam-power.

9. In districts of country, also, where valuable stone is abundant,
water is extensively employed for the same purpose. This is especially
the case in Berkshire county, Massachusetts, where marble of a good
quality is abundant. A great proportion of the marble slabs used by
the stone-cutter are obtained from such mills. Some other operations
of this business are also sometimes performed by the aid of machinery.


THE STONE-MASON.

1. In Philadelphia, and in many other cities not only in this country,
but also in Europe, the stone-cutters _set their own work_; and this
practice has led to the habit of applying the term stone-mason to
both stone-cutters and those who lay stone in mortar and cement. In
New-York, however, as well as in some of the cities farther east,
these two employments are kept more distinct. The stone-cutters in
Philadelphia are sometimes denominated marble-masons.

2. But, in every city, there are persons called stone-masons, whose
business consists exclusively in constructing the walls and some other
parts of buildings with stone; and their operations are considerably
enlarged in those places where there are no marble-masons. In many
cases, the bricklayer is also so far a stone-mason, as to lay the
foundation-walls of the buildings which he may erect. This is
especially the case in the country, where the divisions of labor are
not so minute as in cities. It may be well here to remark, also, that
the bricklayers, in some places, perform the services of the
marble-mason.

3. The marble-mason, in joining together several pieces in a monument,
employs a kind of cement composed of about six parts of lime, one of
pure sand, a little plaster, and as much water as may be necessary to
form it to the proper consistency. No more of this cement is used than
is required to hold the blocks or parts together, as one great object
of the artist is to hide the joints as much as possible. The substance
thus interposed, becomes as hard as the marble itself.

4. The cement employed in laying marble in common or large edifices,
is somewhat different from that just described, as it consists of
about three fourths of lime and one of sand. The latter substance is
obtained, in an unmixed state, on the bays in every part of the world;
hence it has received the appellation of _bay sand_.

5. When it cannot be conveniently had in a pure state, particles of
the same kind can be separated in sufficient quantities from their
admixture with other substances. This is effected by sifting the
compound through a sieve, into a small stream of water, which carries
off the lighter particles that are unfit for use, whilst the sand, by
its superior specific gravity, sinks to the bottom. The part which may
be too coarse, remains in the sieve. This, however, except the
rubbish, can be used in the coarser kinds of masonry.

6. The mortar, used in laying bricks and common stone, has a greater
proportion of sand, which is generally of an inferior quality.
Besides, the materials are incorporated with less care. Lime for the
purposes of building is procured chiefly by calcining limestone in a
kiln, with wood, coal, or some other combustible substance. It is also
obtained by burning chalk, marble, and marine shells. Water poured
upon newly-burnt or _quick_ lime, causes it to swell, and fall to
pieces into a fine powder. In this state it is said to be _slacked_.

7. Masonry is often required in situations under water, especially in
the construction of bridges and locks of canals. Common mortar resists
the action of the water very well, when it has become perfectly dry;
yet, if it is immersed before it has had time to harden, it dissolves,
and crumbles away.

8. The ancient Romans, who practised building in the water to a great
extent, discovered a material, which, when incorporated with lime,
either with or without sand, possessed the property of hardening in a
few minutes even under water. This was a kind of earth found at
Puteoli, to which was given the name of _pulvis puteolanus_, and which
is the same now called _puzzolana_.

9. A substance denominated _tarras_, _terras_, or _tras_, found near
Andernach, in the vicinity of the Rhine, possesses the same quality
with puzzolana. It is this material which has been principally
employed by the Dutch, whose aquatic structures are superior to those
of any other nation in Europe. Various other substances, such as baked
clay and calcined greenstone, reduced to powder, afford a tolerable
material for water-cements. Several quarries of water lime, which is
similar in appearance to common limestone, has been lately discovered
in the United States, which, being finely pulverized and mixed with
sand, makes very good water-cement.

10. In buildings constructed with marble and other costly stones, the
walls are not composed of these materials in their entire thickness;
but, for the sake of cheapness, they are formed on the inside with
bricks, commonly of a poor quality, so that in reality they can be
considered only brick walls faced with stone. These two kinds of
materials have no other connexion than what is produced by the mortar
which may have been interposed, and the occasional use of clamps of
iron. Such walls are said to be liable to become convex outwardly from
the difference in the shrinking of the cement employed in laying the
two walls.

11. The principal tools employed in cutting and laying stone are the
saw, various kinds of steel points, chisels and hammers, the mallet,
the square, the compasses, the level, the plumb-rule, the trowel, and
the hod, to which may be added, the spade and the hoe. The last three
instruments, however, are handled almost exclusively by laborers.

12. Besides these, contrivances are required to raise heavy materials
to the various positions which they are to occupy. These consist, for
the most part, of one or two shafts, commonly the mast of an old
vessel, to which are attached tackle extending in various directions,
and also those by which the blocks are to be raised. The rope
belonging to the hoisting tackle is pulled by a machine worked with a
crank.

13. Masonry is one of the primitive arts, and was carried to great
perfection in ancient times. The pyramids of Egypt are supposed to
have stood about three thousand years, and they will probably remain
for centuries to come, monuments as well of the folly as of the power
and industry of man. The temples and other magnificent structures of
Greece and Rome, exhibit wonderful skill in masonry, and leave but
little, if anything new, to be achieved in modern times.


THE BRICKMAKER.

1. Brick is a sort of artificial stone, made principally of
argillaceous earths formed in moulds, dried in the sun, and burned
with fire.

2. The earliest historical notice of bricks is found in the book of
Genesis, where it is stated that the posterity of Noah undertook to
build a city and a lofty tower of this material. Whether the bricks
were really exposed to the action of fire, as the passage referred to
seems to imply, or only dried in the sun, is an unsettled point. But
Herodotus, who visited the spot many centuries afterwards, states that
the bricks in the tower of Babylon were baked in furnaces.

3. It is evident, however, that the earliest bricks were commonly
hardened in the sun; and, to give them the requisite degree of
tenacity, chopped straw was mixed with the clay. The manufacture of
such bricks was one of the tasks imposed upon the Israelites, during
their servitude with the Egyptians.

4. The extreme dryness and heat of the climate in some of the eastern
countries, rendered the application of fire dispensable; and there are
structures of unburnt bricks still remaining, which were built two or
three thousand years ago. Bricks both sun-dried and burned, were used
by the Greeks and the Romans.

5. The walls of Babylon, some of the ancient structures of Egypt and
Persia, the walls of Athens, the rotunda of the Pantheon, the temple
of Peace, and the Thermæ, or baths, at Rome, were all built of brick.
The most common bricks among the Romans were seventeen inches long and
eleven broad; a size, certainly, far preferable, as regards
appearance, to those of modern manufacture.

6. In the United States, a great proportion of the edifices,
particularly in the cities and towns, are constructed of bricks, which
are usually manufactured in the vicinity of the place where they are
to be used. The common clay, of which they are made, consists of a
mixture of argillaceous earth and sand, with a little oxyde of iron,
which causes them to turn red in burning. The material for bricks is
dug up, and thrown into a large heap, late in the fall or in the
winter, and exposed to the influence of the frost until spring.

7. The operation of making bricks is conducted very systematically;
and, although every part of the work seems to be very simple, it
requires considerable dexterity to perform it properly and to the best
advantage. The workmen, in the yards about Philadelphia, are divided
into _gangs_ consisting of three men and a boy. The first is called
the _temperer_, who tempers the material with water and mixes it with
a spade; the second is called the _wheeler_, who conveys it on a
barrow to a table, where it is formed in moulds by the _moulder_,
whence it is carried to the _floor_ by the boy, who is denominated the
_off-bearer_.

8. The bricks are suffered to remain on the floor a day or two, or
until they have become dry enough to be handled with safety. They are
then removed and piled into a _hack_, under cover, in such a manner
that the air may circulate freely between them. It is the business of
the whole gang to remove the bricks from the floor, and also to place
them in the kiln to be burned. In both cases, each one has his due
proportion of labor to perform.

9. The day's work of a gang, when the weather is favorable, is to make
and pile in the hack a tale of bricks, which consists of 2332, or an
even 2000. The former number is called a _long tale_, and the latter,
a _short tale_. Considerable skill and much care are required in
burning the bricks in a proper manner; too much fire would cause them
to vitrify, and too little would leave them soft, and unfit for
atmospheric exposure.

10. In many places, the clay is mixed or prepared for the moulder by
driving round upon it a yoke of oxen, or by means of a simple machine,
consisting of a beam, into which has been driven a great number of
spokes. One end of this beam is confined in a central position, while
the other is moved round in a sweep by animal power.

11. Machines have also been invented by the aid of which the clay may
be both mixed and moulded; but these have been very little used. A
machine, however, is often employed in pressing bricks which have been
formed in the usual manner. The pressing is done after the bricks have
become partially dry. Such bricks are employed in facing the walls of
the better kinds of structures.

12. _Tiles._--Tiles are plates used for covering roofs. They resemble
bricks in their composition and mode of manufacture, and are shaped in
such a manner that when placed upon a building, the edge of one tile
receives that next to it, so that water cannot percolate between them.
Tiles, both of burnt clay and marble, were used by the ancients; and
the former continue to be employed in various parts of Europe. Flat
tiles are used for floors in many countries, and especially in Italy.


THE BRICKLAYER.

1. The particular business of the bricklayer is to lay bricks in
mortar or some other cement, so as to form one solid body; but he
frequently constructs the foundations of buildings in rough stones,
and, in some cities, he sets hewn stone in the superstructure. In the
country, plastering is likewise connected with this business.

2. Bricklaying consists in placing one brick upon another in mortar,
chiefly in the construction of walls, chimneys, and ovens. In
connecting these materials, especially in walls, two methods are
employed, one of which is called the _English bond_, and the other,
the _Flemish bond_. In the former method, the bricks are most commonly
of one quality, and are laid crosswise and lengthwise in alternate
rows. The bricks which are laid across the wall are called _headers_,
and those which are laid in the other direction are called
_stretchers_. The brick-work of the Romans was of this kind, and so
are the partition-walls of many modern brick edifices.

3. The bricks employed in the walls constructed according to the
Flemish method, are of two, and frequently of three, qualities. Those
placed in the front, or on the external surface, are manufactured with
greater care, and, in some cases, are formed in a larger mould. A wall
put up on this principle may be said to consist of two thin walls
composed of stretchers, with occasional headers, to unite them
together. The space between them, when the wall is thick, is filled in
with the inferior bricks.

4. The inclosing walls of all brick edifices are erected on this plan,
although they are thought to be more insecure than those constructed
on the old English method. The reasons alleged for the preference, are
its superior beauty, and a considerable saving in the most expensive
kind of bricks. Greater security might be attained by the use of
larger bricks, say sixteen inches in length, and wide and thick in
proportion. Besides, an edifice constructed of well-made bricks of
this size would be but little inferior in appearance to marble itself.

5. Most of the instruments used by the bricklayer are also employed by
the stone-mason; and they have, therefore, been already mentioned. The
particular method of laying bricks, in their various applications, can
be learned by actual inspection in almost every village, city, or
neighborhood, in our country, a more particular description of the
bricklayer's operations is hence unnecessary.

6. Before closing this subject, however, it may be well to state that
the chimney appears to be an invention comparatively modern, since the
first certain notice we have of it is found in an inscription at
Venice, in which it is stated that, in 1347, a great many chimneys
were thrown down by an earthquake. It is conjectured that this
valuable improvement originated in Italy, inasmuch as it was here that
chimney-sweeping was first followed as a business.

7. Before the introduction of the chimney, it was customary to make
the fire in a hole or pit in the centre or some other part of the
floor, under an opening formed in the roof, which, in unfavorable
weather, could be closed by a moveable covering. Among the Romans, the
hearth or fire-place was located in the _atrium_ or hall, and around
it the _lares_, or household gods, were placed. To avoid being
infested with smoke, they burned dry wood soaked in the lees of oil.
In warming other apartments of the house, they used portable furnaces,
in which were placed embers and burning coals.

8. It is said by Seneca, who flourished about the middle of the first
century of the Christian era, that in his time, a particular kind of
pipes was invented, and affixed to the walls of buildings, through
which heat from a subterranean furnace was made to circulate. By this
means, the rooms were heated more equally. In the southern parts of
Italy and Spain, there are still very few chimneys. The same may be
said of many other countries, where the climate is pleasant or very
warm.

9. Hollinshead, who wrote during the reign of Queen Elizabeth, thus
describes the rudeness of the preceding generation in the arts of
life: "There were very few chimneys even in capital towns: the fire
was laid to the wall, and the smoke issued out at the roof, or door,
or window. The houses were wattled, and plastered over with clay; and
all the furniture and utensils were of wood. The people slept on straw
pallets, with a log of wood for a pillow."


THE PLASTERER.

1. In modern practice, plastering occurs in many departments of
architecture. It is more particularly applied to the ceilings and
interior walls of buildings, and also in rough-casting on their
exterior.

2. In plastering the interior parts of buildings, three coatings of
mortar are commonly applied in succession. The mortar for the _first
coat_ is composed of about twelve parts of sand, six of lime, and
three of hair, with a sufficient quantity of water to bring it to the
proper consistence; that for the _second coat_ contains a less
proportion of lime and hair; and that for the _third coat_ is composed
exclusively of lime and water.

3. The mortar is applied directly to the solid wall, or to thin strips
of wood called _laths_, which have been fastened with small nails to
the joists, and other parts of the frame of the building. The tools
with which the plasterer applies the mortar are _trowels_ of
different sizes and shapes, and the _hawk_. The latter instrument is
a board about a foot square, with a short handle projecting at right
angles from the bottom.

4. In all well-finished rooms, cornices are run at the junction of the
wall and ceiling. The materials of these cornices are lime, water, and
plaster. The lime and water are first incorporated, and the plaster is
added with an additional quantity of water, as it may be needed for
immediate application. The composition is applied in a semifluid
state, but the plaster causes it _to set_, or to become solid
immediately. In the mean time, the workman applies to it, in a
progressive manner, the edge of a solid piece of wood, in which an
exact profile of the proposed cornice has been cut.

5. Ornaments of irregular shape are cast in moulds of wax or plaster
of Paris, and these are formed on models of the proposed figures in
clay. Such ornaments were formerly the productions of manual
operations performed by ingenious men called _ornamental plasterers_.
The casts are all made of the purest plaster; and, after having been
polished, they are fastened to the proper place with the same
substance saturated with water.

6. The branch of this business called _rough-casting_, consists in
applying mortar to the exterior walls of houses. The mode in which the
work is performed varies but little from that adopted in plastering
the walls of apartments. It, however, requires only two coats of the
cement; and, when these have been applied, the surface is marked off
in imitation of masonry. It is likewise sometimes colored, that it may
resemble marble or some other stone.

7. The cement is commonly made of _sharp sand_ and lime; but sometimes
a kind of argillaceous stone, calcined in kilns and afterwards reduced
to powder by mechanical means, makes a part of the composition. The
qualities of this material were first discovered by a Mr. Parker, who
obtained letters patent for this application of it, in England, in
1796; hence it has been called _Parker's cement_.


THE SLATER.

1. Slate stone is valuable for the property of splitting in one
direction, so as to afford fragments of a sufficient size and thinness
to answer several purposes, but especially for covering houses and for
writing slates. The best slates are those which are even and compact,
and which absorb the least water.

2. The slates used in the United States, are obtained either from our
own quarries, of which there are several, or from those of Wales, in
the county of Caernarvonshire. The stone is quarried in masses, which
are afterwards split into pieces of suitable thinness. These are
trimmed to an oblong figure by means of a knife and a steel edge,
which act upon the slate much in the manner of a large pair of shears.

3. As it is impossible to dress all the slates to the same size
without much waste of material, those engaged in their manufacture
have introduced several sizes, the smallest of which are made of the
fragments of the larger kinds. These are designated by names known to
the trade, and to those practically conversant with the art of
building.

4. The slates, when brought to market, especially those from Wales,
require additional dressing to fit them for use. The manner of
applying them to roofs differs but little from that employed in
putting on shingles, as they are lapped over each other in the same
way, and confined to their place by means of nails of a similar kind.
The nails, however, have a broader head, and are somewhat larger,
varying in size to suit the dimensions of the slate. The holes in the
slate for the nails are made with a steel point attached to the
slater's hammer, or to his knife, technically called a _saix_.

5. Slates are preferable to shingles on account of their durability,
and, in a majority of situations, for their fire-proof quality. They,
however, are objectionable on account of their weight and
expensiveness, and are therefore beginning to be superseded in this
country by sheets of zinc, and by those of iron coated with tin.
Copper and lead are also used for roofs, but the metals just mentioned
are beginning to exclude them altogether.

6. A serious objection to metal roofs has been their liability to
crack, caused by the contraction and expansion of the material, in
consequence of variations in the temperature of the weather; but a
particular method of putting the sheets together has been lately
devised, which appears to obviate the difficulty. Tiles are not used
in this country, although in Europe they are very common.



[Illustration: PAINTER & GLAZIER.]

THE PAINTER, AND THE GLAZIER.


THE HOUSE AND SIGN PAINTER.

1. The painting which is the subject of this article relates to
forming letters and sometimes ornamental and significant figures on
signs, as well as to the application of paints to houses and other
structures, for the purpose of improving their appearance, and of
preserving them from the influence of the atmosphere and other
destructive agents.

2. The substances capable of being employed by the house and sign
painter, comprise a great variety of articles, derived from the
mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms; but he ordinarily confines
his selection to but few, among which are white lead, litharge,
Spanish brown, yellow ochre, chrome yellow, red ochre, terra di
sienna, lampblack, verdigris, linseed-oil, spirits of turpentine, and
gold-leaf.

3. White lead and litharge are manufactured in great quantities at
chemical works, sometimes established for the express purpose of
making these and some other preparations of lead. The substances of
which we are now speaking, are produced in the following manner: the
lead, in form of a continued sheet, about three feet long, six inches
wide, and one line in thickness, is wound spirally up in such a
manner, that the coils may stand about half an inch apart.

4. The metal in this form is placed vertically in earthen vessels, at
the bottom of which is some strong vinegar. These vessels, being
placed in sand, horse manure, or tan, are exposed to a gentle heat,
which causes the gradual evaporation of the vinegar. The vapor thus
produced, assisted by the oxygen which is present, converts the
exposed surface into a carbonate of lead, the substance known as white
lead, or ceruse.

5. The corrosion of one of these sheets occupies from three to six
weeks, during which time it is repeatedly uncoiled and scraped.
Litharge, or flake white, is nothing more than the densest and
thickest scales produced in the manner just described. It can be
obtained in a pure state from the dealers in paints, whereas the white
lead of commerce is most commonly adulterated with chalk.

6. Spanish brown, yellow ochre, and terra di sienna, are earths
impregnated with iron in different degrees of oxydation. Red ochre is
yellow ochre burned. Chrome yellow is extensively manufactured in
Baltimore, from the chromate of iron, found near that city. In
chemical phraseology, the manufactured article is the chromate of
lead, since the chromate is separated from the iron by the aid of a
solution of the nitrate or acetate of lead.

7. Linseed-oil is obtained from flax-seed by pressure. It is
afterwards filtered, and then suffered to remain at rest, to
precipitate and clarify. This oil improves in quality by keeping, as
it becomes, in a few years, as transparent as water. In this state, it
is employed in the finest painting.

8. Before the oil is used, it is commonly boiled with a small quantity
of litharge and red lead, to cause it to dry rapidly, after the paint
has been applied. During the boiling, the scum is removed as fast as
it rises, and this is mixed with inferior paints of a dark color.
Linseed-oil, thus prepared, is vended by dealers in paints, under the
name of boiled oil.

9. Spirits of turpentine is produced by distilling with water the
resinous juice or sap of several species of the pine. The residuum,
after distillation, is the turpentine of commerce. Spirits of
turpentine is mixed with paints, to cause them to dry with rapidity.
Like oil, it improves with age, and it is sold in the same manner by
the common wine measure.

10. White lead, and several other principal paints, are purchased in
their crude condition, and reduced to a state of minute division in
paint-mills. They are afterwards mixed with boiled oil, and put up in
kegs of different sizes for sale. Many articles, however, are
pulverized, and sold in a dry state. The preparation of paints is
commonly a distinct business, and very few painters seem to be
acquainted with the mode in which it is performed.

11. In mixing colors for house and sign painting, white lead forms the
basis of all the ingredients. This the color preparer, or the painter
himself, modifies and changes by the addition of coloring materials,
until it is tinged with the proposed hue. The pigments derived from
vegetable bodies, produce, when first applied to surfaces, a
brilliant effect; but they cannot long resist the combined influence
of air and light, while the mineral colors, in the same exposure,
remain unchanged.

12. Painters, in the execution of their work, commonly lay on three
coats of paint. In communicating a white, the two first coats are
composed of white lead and oil; and in the last, spirits of turpentine
is substituted for the oil, for the inside work. For the outside of
buildings, especially in warm and dry climates, this liquid is
inapplicable, since it causes the paint to crack and flake off. It is,
however, frequently used, when the painter is compelled to do his work
at too low a rate, or when he is regardless of his reputation.

13. For other colors, the composition for the different coats is the
same, except for the two last, in which other coloring substances are
added to the materials just mentioned, to give the proposed hue. The
tools for painting houses are few in number, and consist chiefly of
brushes of different sizes, made of hog's bristles.

14. _Graining_ is understood, among painters, to be the imitation of
the different species of scarce woods used for the best articles of
furniture. But the manner in which this kind of work is executed can
be hardly gathered from a concise description, although it may be
easily learned from a practical exhibition of the process by a
painter.

15. _Ornamental painting_ embraces the execution of friezes and other
decorative parts of architecture on walls and ceilings. The ornaments
are drawn in outline with a black-lead pencil, and then painted and
shaded, to give the proper effect. Some embellishments of this kind
are executed in gold-leaf, in the same manner with gold letters on
signs. This kind of work is called _gilding in oil_.

16. Painting in oil, as applied to the execution of designs, seems to
have been invented, or at least to have been brought into notice, in
the early part of the fifteenth century, by John Van Eyck, of
Flanders. Before this time, house-painting, so far as the exterior was
concerned, could have been but little, if at all, practised.

17. One profitable branch of common painting is that of painting and
lettering signs. In performing this kind of work, the sign is first
covered with two or three uniform coats of paint. The letters are next
slightly sketched with chalk or a lead-pencil, and then formed in
colors with a camels'-hair brush. When the letters are to be gilt, the
process, so far, is precisely the same. The leaf is laid upon the
letters, while the paint is in a tenacious state, and is suffered to
remain untouched, until the oil has become dry, after which the
superfluous gold is removed. The whole is then covered with an oil
varnish, which, in plain lettering, completes the operation.


THE GLAZIER.

1. Glazing, as practised in this country, consists chiefly in setting
panes of glass in window-sashes. In the performance of this operation,
the glazier first fits the panes to the sash by cutting away, if
necessary, a part of the latter with a chisel; he then fastens the
glass slightly with little pieces of tin, which have been cut to a
triangular shape; and, lastly, he applies _putty_ at their junction
with the sash, and by this means confines them firmly and permanently
to their place. The putty is made of linseed-oil and whiting. The
latter of these materials is chalk cleared of its grosser impurities,
and ground in a color-mill.

2. Plain glazing is so simple, that no person need serve an
apprenticeship to learn it; and there are but few who confine their
attention to this business exclusively. It is commonly connected with
some other of greater difficulty, such as that of the carpenter and
joiner, or house and sign painter, but with the latter more frequently
than any other.

3. When the glass, as received from the manufacturer, may not be of
the size and shape required for a proposed application, the panes are
cut by means of a diamond fixed in lead, and secured by a ferrule of
brass, which is fastened to a small cylindrical handle of hard wood.
This instrument is used, in conjunction with a straight edge, like a
pencil in ruling lines on paper for writing. The glass is afterwards
broken in the direction of the fracture, by a slight pressure
downwards.

4. Although glass windows seem to us to be indispensable to comfort,
yet glass had been manufactured many centuries in considerable
perfection, before it was applied to this purpose. The houses in
oriental countries had commonly no windows in front, and those on the
other sides were provided with curtains, or with a moveable
trellis-work in summer, and in winter with oiled paper.

5. In Rome and other cities of the empire, thin leaves of a certain
kind of stone called _lapis specularis_ were used. Windows of this
material, however, were employed only in the principal apartments of
great houses, in gardens, sedans, and the like. Paper made of the
Egyptian papyrus, linen cloth, thin plates of marble, agate, and horn,
seem likewise to have been used.

6. The first certain information we have of the employment of glass
panes in windows, is found in the writings of Gregory of Tours, who
flourished in the last quarter of the sixth century. This prelate
states that the churches were furnished with windows of colored glass,
in the fourth century after Christ. The oldest glass windows now in
existence were of the twelfth century, and are in the Church of St.
Denis, the most ancient edifice of this description in France.

7. Æneas Sylvius accounted it one of the most striking instances of
splendor which he met with in Vienna, in 1458, that most of the houses
had glass windows. In France, all the churches had these conveniences
in the sixteenth century, although there were but few in private
dwellings. Talc, isinglass, plates of white horn, oiled paper, and
thinly shaved leather, were used instead of glass. A similar state of
things prevailed in England.

8. The glass used for the windows of churches and other public
buildings, after the fourth century, was very commonly intrinsically
colored or superficially painted. Painting on glass had its origin in
the third century, and at first it consisted in the mere arrangement
of small pieces of glass of different colors in some sort of symmetry,
and constituted a kind of mosaic-work.

9. Afterwards, when more regular designs came to be attempted, such as
the human figure, the whole address of the artist went no farther than
drawing the outlines of the objects in black on glass resembling in
color the subjects to be represented. The art, in this state of
advancement, was spread over a great part of Europe.

10. About the beginning of the fifteenth century, a method of fixing
metallic colors in glass by means of heat was discovered, and from
this the art derived great advantages. It flourished most during the
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries; but it declined in the following
age, and in the eighteenth century it was very little practised in any
country. It has, however, been partially revived, of late, in Germany.
A very good specimen of this kind of painting, as well as of colored
glass, may be seen in St. John's Church, in Philadelphia.



[Illustration: TURNER.]

THE TURNER.


1. Turning is a very useful art, by which a great variety of articles
are almost exclusively manufactured. Besides this, it constitutes a
considerable part of the operations of several trades and occupations,
such as the chairmaker, machinist, cabinet-maker, brass-founder, &c.,
since every substance of a solid nature can be submitted to the
process.

2. Turning is performed in a _lathe_, an apparatus constructed in
various ways, according to the particular purposes to which it is to
be applied, although, in all cases, the general principle of its
operation is the same. The kind represented in the above picture, is
used for plain or circular turning in wood. On examination, it will be
perceived, that two wheels of different sizes make essential parts of
it. On the extended axle of the smaller one, is fastened the piece to
be turned; and immediately in front of this is the _rest_, on which
the cutting instrument is supported during the performance of the
operation.

3. When the material to be turned is wood, it is commonly cut to the
proper length with a saw, and brought to a form approaching to the
cylindrical by means of an axe or drawing-knife. It is next fastened
in the lathe. This is done by different means, varying according to
the particular form of the thing to be turned. In plain circular
turning, as applied to bed-posts, legs of tables, and rounds for
chairs, the piece is supported at each end. That at the left hand is
driven upon a piece of steel, which has been screwed upon the extended
axle of the small wheel; and the other end is fixed upon a steel
point, placed in an upright moveable piece called a _puppet-head_.

4. In case the wood is to be turned on the inside, as in making a
bowl, cup, or mortar, the piece is supported altogether at one end, by
means of a hollow cylinder of wood, brass, or iron, called a _chuck_,
which receives it on one side, and on the other is screwed upon the
end of the axle. The axle is sometimes called the _mandril_, and any
extension of it, by means of a piece added to it for a centre, on
which anything may be turned which will admit of a hole through it, is
denominated an _arbor_.

5. The tools used in turning wood and ivory, are _gouges_ and
_chisels_ of different sizes and shapes. In using these, they are
placed upon the _rest_, and brought in contact with the revolving
material of the proposed figure. The gouge is employed in cutting away
the rough exterior, and the chisel, in producing a still further
reduction, and a greater smoothness of surface.

6. In working in very hard wood and in ivory, the _grooving tool_, a
sharp pointed instrument somewhat similar to the graver, is used in
the first part of the operation; and by this the grain of the
substance is cut into contiguous grooves, and prepared for an easy
reduction by the chisel. The instruments for turning metals are
numerous, but they differ in some respects from those for cutting
wood.

7. In almost every kind of turning, a tool called the _calipers_ is
necessary for measuring the diameters of the work. In its form, it
bears some resemblance to the compasses or dividers. One or both of
the legs, however, are curved; and one kind of this instrument has
four legs, two curved, or two straight, at each end, with a pivot in
the centre, on which it is opened and shut. The former of these is
employed in measuring the dimensions of outside work, and the latter,
for that on the inside. This kind is called the _in-and-out_ calipers;
and it is especially useful in turning a cylinder, or pin, which shall
exactly fit an internal cylinder already made, and _vice versâ_.

8. There is but little difference in the management of turning
different substances. The principal thing to be attended to is to
adapt the velocity of the motion to the nature of the material; thus
wood will work best with the greatest velocity that can be given to
it. Brass should have a motion about half as quick as wood, and iron
and steel still less; for, in operating on metallic substances, the
tool is liable to become hot, and lose its temper; besides which, a
certain time is requisite for the act of cutting to take place.

9. When compared with many other mechanical operations, the art of
turning may be considered as perfect in its accuracy and expedition.
The lathe is, therefore, resorted to for the performance of every work
of which it is capable; nor is its use confined to the production of
forms perfectly cylindrical, for it can be easily made to produce
figures of irregular shape, such as lasts, gunstocks, &c.

10. The lathe was well known to the Greeks and Romans, as well as to
many other nations of antiquity. Diodorus Siculus, who wrote in the
time of Julius Cæsar and Augustus, says that it was invented by one
Talus, a nephew of Dædalus. Pliny ascribes it to Theodore, of Samos,
and mentions one Thericles, who had rendered himself very famous by
his dexterity in managing the lathe. The Greek and Latin authors
frequently mention this instrument; and, among the ancients, it was
customary to express the accuracy and nicety of a thing by saying, it
was formed in a lathe.



[Illustration: CABINET MAKER.]

THE CABINET-MAKER, AND THE UPHOLSTERER.


THE CABINET-MAKER.

1. It is the business of the cabinet-maker to manufacture particular
kinds of household furniture, such as tables, stands, bureaus,
sideboards, desks, book-cases, sofas, bedsteads, &c., as well as a
certain description of chairs made of mahogany and maple. Many of the
operations of this business are similar to those of the carpenter and
joiner, although they require to be conducted with greater nicety and
exactness.

2. The qualifications of a finished cabinet-maker are numerous and of
difficult acquisition; so that they are seldom concentrated in any
single individual. He requires not only a correct taste, but also a
knowledge of drawing, architecture, and mechanics, besides the
abilities of a good practical workman.

3. A knowledge of drawing is especially useful in designing new
articles of furniture, or in improving the form of those which have
been already introduced. It also enables the artist to determine with
accuracy what would be the general effect of furniture, were different
pieces of it placed in any proposed apartment; and, combined with
architectural knowledge, it enables him to adapt the style of his
wares to that of the building for which they may be designed.

4. In general, the principles of this business are fixed, so far as
relates to the mode of operating in the execution of the work; yet
continual changes are made in the form and construction of its various
articles, so as to keep pace with the advancement of correct taste, or
with the caprices of fashion. In fact, the shapes of furniture are
almost as changeable as those of female dress; and this causes many
expensive pieces to fall into disuse, while others are introduced,
which, for a time, are considered indispensable to comfort, and which
in turn enjoy but a temporary favor.

5. The cabinet-maker uses various kinds of wood in the manufacture of
his wares; but those which are most frequently employed in the United
States are pine, maple, poplar, cherry, black walnut, white oak,
beach, mahogany, and rose, all of which are abundant in this country,
except the last two. Mahogany is brought in great quantities from the
West Indies and South America; rose-wood is obtained chiefly from the
West Indies and Brazil, although it was first introduced into notice
from the island of Cyprus.

6. The applicability of mahogany to the manufacture of cabinet-ware,
was accidentally discovered in London, about the year 1724. A
physician, named Gibbons, received a present of some of the planks
from his brother, a sea-captain, who had brought them from the West
Indies, chiefly as ballast. The doctor was, at that time, erecting a
house, and, supposing them to be adapted to the purposes of building,
gave them to his workmen, who, on trial, rejected them as being too
hard to be wrought with their tools.

7. A cabinet-maker was next employed to make a candle-box of some of
it, and he also complained of the hardness of the timber; but, when
the box was finished, it outshone in beauty all the doctor's other
furniture. He then required a bureau to be made of the same kind of
material; and this, having been finished, became the subject of
exhibition to his friends, as a piece of remarkable beauty. The wood
was immediately taken into general favor, and it soon became an
article of merchandise of considerable importance.

8. In giving the reader a view of the operative part of this business,
we have selected the bureau as affording the best means of
illustration. The material which composes the frame and drawers of
this piece of furniture, is commonly some kind of soft wood, such as
pine or poplar; and this is faced with thin layers of mahogany in
those parts which are to be exposed to view.

9. The materials for the frame and drawers are first marked out, and
the several pieces reduced to the form and dimensions required, with
planes and other instruments. Thin pieces of mahogany are firmly fixed
to the surfaces which require them. This part of the work is called
_veneering_. The workman prepares the surface of the soft wood for the
_veneer_, by cutting it into small contiguous grooves by means of a
small plane, the cutting edge of which is full of little notches and
teeth.

10. Melted glue having been spread upon both surfaces with a brush,
the parts are placed in contact, and firmly pressed together by means
of _hand-screws_. Before the screws are applied, the surface of the
veneer is covered with a piece of heated board, termed, in this
application, a _caul_. One piece of this kind commonly serves a veneer
on each side of it at the same time.

11. The mahogany thus attached to the softer wood, is afterwards
wrought with the _toothed-plane_, and others of the common kind. It is
then scraped with a flat piece of steel, having edges which act upon
the surface in the same manner as pieces of broken panes of glass. The
polishing is finished, so far as it is carried at this stage of the
process, by the use of sand-paper.

12. The several pieces which compose the frame of the bureau are put
together with the joint called _mortice_ and _tenon_; and those which
form the four sides of the drawers, with that called _dove-tail_. The
bottom is united to the sides on the right and left, and sometimes in
front, by the _groove-and-tongue_, and its rear edge is fastened with
a few nails. The _bearers_ of the drawers are fastened on by means of
nails.

13. The joints are made to fit not only by the accuracy of the work,
but by the application of glue previous to the union of the parts;
this is especially the case with the mortice and tenon. The back of
the bureau is composed of some cheap wood, such as pine or poplar; but
the panel at each end is most commonly plain mahogany through its
entire thickness.

14. The parts which are to be exposed to view are next to be varnished
and polished. The material for the former purpose is called _copal
varnish_, because one of the principal ingredients in it is a kind of
gum called copal, which is obtained from various parts of South
America. This kind of varnish is made by melting the gum with an equal
quantity of linseed-oil and spirits of turpentine or alcohol.

15. To give the work a complete finish, four coats of varnish are
successively applied; in addition to these, a particular kind of
treatment is used after laying on and drying each coat. After the
application of the first coat, the surface is rubbed with a piece of
wood of convenient form; after the second, with sand-paper and
pulverized pumice-stone; after the third, with pumice-stone again; and
after the fourth, with very finely powdered pumice-stone and
rotten-stone. A little linseed-oil is next applied, and the whole
process is finished by rubbing the surface with the hand charged with
flour.

16. Some parts of several pieces of furniture are turned in the lathe;
and, in large cities, this part of the work is performed by professed
turners. The veneering of certain kinds of work of a cylindrical form
is, also, in some cases, a distinct business; but, in places distant
from large cities, the whole work is commonly performed by the
cabinet-maker himself.

17. Mahogany is brought to market in logs hewn to a square form; and
persons who deal in it, commonly purchase it in large quantities, and
cause it to be sawn into pieces of suitable dimensions for sale.
Formerly, and in some cases at present, slabs were sawn into thin
pieces for veneering by hand; but, within a few years, a more
expeditious method, by the circular saw, has been adopted. In
performing the operation by this means, the slab is placed upon its
edge, and shoved along against the teeth of the rapidly-revolving saw.
It is kept in the proper position by holding the right side of it
firmly against an upright plank, called the _rest_.

18. Mahogany is either _plain_, _mottled_, or _crotched_;
nevertheless, the different kinds expressed by these terms are met
with in the same tree. The variegated kinds are found at or near the
joining of the limbs to the trunk; and these are used almost
exclusively for veneering. The plain sort is employed for more common
purposes, and in those parts of furniture required to be less splendid
in appearance. It may be well to remark, also, that plain mahogany is
often veneered, as well as the softer woods. Black walnut, white oak,
rose, and several other woods, are likewise used for veneering,
although not so much as mahogany. Our native woods will be hereafter
more used in this way, since mahogany is becoming scarce.

19. In Europe, particularly in England, the business of the
cabinet-maker is commonly united with that of the upholsterer; and
this is sometimes the case in the United States. All, however, who
make sofas and chairs, intrude enough upon the latter business to
cover and stuff them; or they employ a journeyman upholsterer to
perform this part of the work.


THE UPHOLSTERER.

1. The upholsterer makes beds, sacking-bottoms, mattresses, cushions,
curtains for windows and beds, and cuts out, sews together, and
fastens down, carpets. One branch of his business, also, consists in
covering or lining and stuffing sofas, and particular kinds of chairs,
the frames of which are made by cabinet-makers and fancy chair-makers.

2. Beds are stuffed with the feathers of geese and ducks. The sack
which contains them, when in use, is called a _tick_, and the striped
stuff of which it is composed, is called _ticking_. The feathers used
by the upholsterer, are purchased from the feather-merchants, who in
turn procure them from country merchants and pedlers. The dealer in
feathers also employs travelling agents to collect them in different
parts of the country.

3. Beds and pillows are also made of down obtained from the nests of
the eider-duck, which is found in the northern parts of Europe and
America, above latitude 45°. Eider-down is worth about two dollars
per pound, and five or six times that quantity is sufficient for a bed
of common size.

4. Mattresses are made of curled hair, moss, shavings of ratan, flock,
straw, corn-husks, and cat-tail flag. The hair most employed for this
purpose grows upon the tails of cattle, and upon the manes and tails
of horses. It is purchased, in its natural state, from tanners, by
persons who make it a business to prepare it for use. The last process
of the preparation consists in twisting it into a kind of rope. These
ropes are picked to pieces by the upholsterer, and the hair, in its
curled and elastic state, is applied to stuffing mattresses, cushions,
chairs, and sofas.

5. Moss is obtained from the Southern states of our Union, where it is
found in great abundance, and of a good quality. Flock is made by
reducing to a degree of fineness, by machinery, coarse tags of wool,
pieces of woollen cloth, old stockings, and other woollen offals of
little or no value in any other application. Of all the materials for
stuffing upholstery, hair is much the best, and, although it costs
more in its original purchase, it is much cheaper in the end.

6. In making and putting up window and bed curtains, considerable
taste is required to insure success. A knowledge of drawing is
particularly useful here, in improving the taste, as well as in
exhibiting to customers the prevailing fashions, or any changes which
may be proposed. The trimmings consist chiefly of tassels, fringes,
and gilded or brass fixtures.

7. We have not space for a particular description of the manner in
which any of the operations of the upholsterer are performed; nor is
this necessary, since the work itself, in almost every specimen of it,
affords obvious indications of the manner of its execution. We will
merely remark, that a great proportion of it is performed by females.

8. In the first ages of the world, it was the universal practice to
sleep upon the skins of beasts, and this is still the custom among the
savage nations of the present day. The Greeks and the Romans, in the
early part of their history, slept in this manner, and so did the
common people of some parts of Germany, even until modern times.

9. The first advancement from the use of skins was the substitution of
rushes, heath, or straw, which was primarily strewed loosely on the
ground or floor, and finally confined with ticking; and these and
similar materials are still used by the poor in various parts of the
world. So late as the close of the thirteenth century, the royal
family of England slept on beds made of straw.

10. During the civilized periods of antiquity, the wealthy commonly
filled their beds with feathers. After the Romans had become
luxurious, they used several kinds of beds, among which were the
_lectus cubicularis_, or chamber bed, whereon they slept; the _lectus
discubitorius_, or table bed, whereon they ate; and the _lectus
lucubratorius_, on which they studied.

11. The Romans adopted the Eastern fashion of reclining at their
meals, at the close of the second Punic war, about 200 years before
Christ, when Scipio Africanus brought some little beds from Carthage,
which were thence called _Punicani_. These beds were low, made of
wood, covered with leather, and stuffed with hay or straw. Before this
time, they sat down to eat on plain wooden benches, in imitation of
the heroes of Homer, or after the manner of the Cretans and
Lacedæmonians.

12. From the greatest simplicity, the Romans at length carried their
supping beds to the most surprising magnificence. The bedsteads were
sometimes made of gold or silver, and very commonly of wood, adorned
with plates of these metals or with tortoise shell. On the couch was
laid a mattress or quilt, stuffed with feathers or wool.

13. Three persons commonly occupied one couch. They lay with the upper
part of the body reclined on the left arm, the head a little raised,
the back supported by cushions, and the limbs stretched out at full
length or a little bent. The feet of the first were placed behind the
back of the second, and his feet behind the back of the third.
Reclining at meals was customary in Asia, in the time of our Savior,
as is clearly shown in John, xiii., 23 and 25, and this rendered it
convenient for Mary to anoint the feet of Jesus, while at the table.

14. The Romans, during the republic, made their tables of a square
form, and on three sides of it was placed a couch; but, under the
emperors, a long couch of a semicircular form having been introduced,
the table was made of a similar shape to conform to it. In either
case, one side was left empty, to admit of the approach of the
servants.

15. We have no certain evidence that carpets were known in the
civilized periods of antiquity. They appear to have originated in
Persia, at a time comparatively modern, and to have spread in a
gradual manner towards the West. They were unknown in England in the
reign of Elizabeth; for it was then the fashion to strew the floor
with hay and rushes. Even the presence-chamber of this princess was
covered in this manner. The manufacture of carpets was not commenced
in England, until the year 1750. They are now extensively manufactured
in the United States.



[Illustration: CHAIR MAKER.]

THE CHAIR-MAKER.


1. The chair was invented at so early a period, that its origin cannot
now be ascertained. It was used by all the civilized nations of
antiquity; and some of their patterns for this species of furniture
have been revived, with some modifications, in modern times; for
example, a stool for sitting at the piano, now called the X, is the
lower part of a chair used in the Roman empire near two thousand years
ago. The seat and back were stuffed with some soft elastic substance.

2. The seats used by the barbarous conquerors of the Roman empire,
hardly deserve the name of chairs, as they commonly consisted of
little or nothing more than a stool with three or four legs. Even the
great Alfred, who swayed the sceptre of England in the latter part of
the ninth century, possessed nothing approaching nearer to a chair
than a three-legged stool made of oak timber. This species of seat was
at length improved into a chair by the addition of another leg and a
back.

3. The next step in the art of chair-making was to cover the seats
with cloth, and to stuff them with some kind of wadding. The material
of which the frames were made was oak; and for a long period, they
were exceedingly heavy and inconvenient. The armed-chair is said to
have been contrived by an alderman of Cripplegate. Such chairs,
however, were in use among the ancient Greeks and Romans.

4. Our old-fashioned chair, with four upright posts, several
horizontal rounds and slats, together with wooden splints or flags for
the bottom, is comparatively modern, although it is impossible to
state the period of its introduction. Very few of any other kind were
used in the United States, until near the beginning of the present
century.

5. The Windsor chair seems to have been first used for a rural seat in
the grounds about Windsor castle, England; whence its name. It was
originally constructed of round wood, with the bark on; but the
chair-makers soon began to make them of turned wood, for the common
purposes of house-keeping. We cannot learn that any were made in this
country before the close of the revolution, in 1783.

6. A great proportion of the chair-maker's stuff is brought to the
proper form by means of the lathe; and this machine is used for this
purpose in every practicable case; but this part of the work is not
performed in the cities, since it is found to be less expensive and
more convenient, to purchase the timber turned in the country. Slats
for the back, bent to the proper shape, are also obtained from the
same source.

7. The Windsor chair is varied in its construction and finish, in
some particulars; but, in all cases, it has a seat made of thick plank
of cypress, bass, or some other soft wood. The slats, when employed,
are also made of the same wood, or of soft maple. The parts which are
turned, are commonly of the wood last mentioned.

8. In constructing chairs from these materials, the workman undertakes
several at a time, say from one to two or three dozens. We may
suppose, as is frequently the case, that he first cuts up a quantity
of planks to the proper size for the seats, and reduces them to the
proposed form and smoothness by means of the drawing-knife, adze,
spoke-shaves, and sand-paper. He next cuts the various pieces which
are to compose the frame, to the proper length, turns the ends of
those which need it, to make the joint, and bores the requisite holes
with a _bit_. In putting the parts together, the joints are made to
fit very closely, and their union is rendered permanent by means of
glue.

9. The chairs are next covered with three coats of paint, and with two
coats of copal or some other kind of varnish; and this, for plain
work, completes the whole process of the manufacture. But, when they
are to be ornamented, gold or copper leaf or bronze is put on before
the application of the last coat of varnish. The bronze used by
painters, is finely pulverized copper, tin, or zinc.

10. The _ornamenter_ uses paper patterns, which he applies to the
surface to be ornamented, to guide him in the execution of his work.
The powder is laid on with a camel's-hair brush, or with a piece of
raw cotton. Light and shade are produced by a proper distribution of
the powder, or by paint of a dark colour. The bronze is made to adhere
by means of _size_, which has been previously laid on.

11. Several other kinds of chairs are, also, made by the common
chair-maker; and the frames, or some parts of them, are sawn out of
planks with a narrow-bladed saw, which can be easily guided upon the
line of any pattern. The principal parts of the frame are commonly put
together with the mortice and tenon; and the bottoms are composed of
cane, flags, or a peculiar kind of rush. The cane is likewise used in
the backs of chairs, especially in those having rockers.

12. The manufacture of mahogany chairs with stuffed seats, sometimes
constitutes a distinct branch of business; at other times, it is
connected with that of making sofas; and again, with cabinet-making in
general. It is generally supposed, that rockers were first applied to
chairs in this country, but at what time or by whom, it cannot be
determined.



[Illustration: CARVER & GILDER.]

THE CARVER, AND THE GILDER.


THE CARVER.

1. Carving, in its widest sense, is the art of forming figures in
various hard substances by means of some cutting instruments, such as
a chisel or graver; but, in the restricted sense in which the term is
generally applied, it has reference to the production of figures in
wood.

2. Carving in wood, in all countries where it has been practised, has
ever preceded sculpture, or carving in stone. It is, therefore, an art
of the highest antiquity; and, although the same with sculpture in
some of its applications, yet it differs from it somewhat in the mode
of execution, according with the nature of the material.

3. The art of carving is very extensive in its application, being
used in the decorative parts of architecture, both civil and naval,
and likewise in ornamenting cabinet-ware, as well as in forming
patterns for casting in metals, particularly in iron and brass. The
Gothic style of architecture is peculiarly rich in carved work; and
the productions of some ages are more so than those of others.

4. The style of Louis the Fourteenth, of France, so called because
practised in his reign, was more overloaded with ornament than any
other. A lighter and more beautiful style succeeded, which is still
employed for some purposes; but generally the chaste and simple line
of Grecian ornament now prevails.

5. In executing any proposed work, a drawing is first made on paper,
commonly with a lead-pencil. The part of the paper not embraced in the
outline is then cut away, and the remaining portion is laid upon the
surface of the wood. The outlines are next drawn on the wood, by
moving the pencil around those on the paper. The design having been
thus transferred, the superfluous portions of the wood are cut away
with carving tools, of which there is a considerable variety of both
size and form. The tools are driven with a mallet or with the palm of
the hand, but in most cases with the latter.

6. A capacity for designing, and a knowledge of drawing and modelling,
are particularly necessary to make a finished carver. Without these
qualifications, at least in some degree, one may be a mechanic, but
not an artist. The subject most difficult of execution, is the human
figure, and in producing it with accuracy, the same qualifications in
the artist are required, and the same general process is pursued, as
in producing it in marble.


THE GILDER.

1. Carving and gilding are, in most cases, ostensibly united as one
business, although in fact they are branches of manufacture totally
distinct. The gilder, therefore, who writes over his door, "Carver and
Gilder," seldom has any practical knowledge of carving. For every
thing in this line of work, he is dependent on the carver, who
commonly pursues his business in a private way.

2. The operation of gilding, as performed by those whose business is
now under consideration, is executed chiefly on wood. It is employed
most frequently for picture and looking-glass frames, and for
upholstery fixtures. It is a mechanical process, and consists in
applying gold-leaf to surfaces, in such a manner as to adhere with
tenacity.

3. Before the application of the metal, a tedious process must be
performed, by way of preparation. The surface to be gilded is
successively covered with from five to seven coats of glutinous size,
made by boiling scraps of parchment in water, with the addition of a
little whiting. The average thickness of the coat thus produced, is
about one-sixteenth of an inch.

4. The surface is next rubbed with freestone and pumice stone, of a
shape corresponding with the pattern of the frame, while a small
quantity of water is occasionally applied, to increase their effects.
After this, the sizing is rendered still smoother, by friction with
sand-paper. This surface is then covered with three coats of
_burnished gold size_, which is composed of English pipe clay, venison
suet, and French bole, or red chalk, mixed in a suitable quantity of
weak parchment size. The preparation is completed by rubbing the
surface with worn sand-paper, by washing it in water with a sponge,
and by rubbing it with a piece of cloth.

5. The leaf is laid on with a broad, but thin brush, called a _tip_.
Before the gold is applied, however, the surface is well wet with
alcohol and water. When dry, the parts designed to be bright, are
burnished with a polished agate or flint. In the best kind of work, a
second coat of the leaf is required. In gilding irregular surfaces,
such as the ornaments at the corners of frames, a size made of
linseed-oil, white lead, yellow ochre, and japan, is laid on a few
hours before the application of the leaf. This is called _gilding in
oil_.

6. The ornaments on the frames are cast in moulds, and are made of a
composition of glue, whiting, rosin, turpentine, and Burgundy pitch.
The moulds are taken from patterns, originally executed by the
carver.



[Illustration: COOPER.]

THE COOPER.


1. The cooper manufactures casks, tubs, pails, and various other
articles for domestic use, as well as vessels for containing all kinds
of liquids and merchandise of a dry nature. He also applies hoops to
boxes which are to be transported, with their valuable contents, to a
distance from the cities.

2. The productions of this art being of prime necessity, the trade
must have been exercised at a very early period. Roman writers on
rural economy speak of the existence of its productions more than two
thousand years ago; nevertheless they are still unknown in some
countries, and there the inhabitants keep or carry liquids in skins
daubed over with pitch.

3. Bottles of this kind were used, more or less, in all parts of the
Roman empire, in the days of our Savior; and to such he alluded, when
speaking of putting new wine into old bottles. Earthen vessels of
various dimensions, were also in extensive use at the same time. The
custom of keeping wine in such vessels, is still common in the
southern parts of Europe. Pliny accords to the Piedmontese the merit
of introducing casks. In his time, they were daubed with pitch.

4. Cedar and oak are the woods chiefly employed as materials in this
business; and the persons who carry it on, as well as journeymen,
confine their attention to the production of wares from one or the
other of these woods; hence the division of the workmen into _cedar
coopers_ and _oak coopers_.

5. It is not always the case, however, that every cooper executes all
kinds of work belonging to either one of these divisions of the trade;
but this is not because there is any peculiar difficulty attending any
part of the business, but because some particular kind of coopering is
required in preference to others; for example, in some places, flour
barrels are the casks most needed; in others, those for sugar,
tobacco, pearlash, or some kind of spirits.

6. In illustrating the general operations of this business, we will
describe the process of making a tub. The timber is first cut to the
proper length with the kind of saw used in the cities for cutting
fire-wood. It is next split into pieces with a _frow_, the curvature
of which corresponds, at least with some degree of exactness, to that
of the proposed vessel. The several pieces are then shaved on the
edges with a straight _drawing-knife_, on the inside with one of a
concave form, and on the outside with one of corresponding convexity.

7. After this, they are jointed on a long plane, which is placed with
its face upwards, in an inclined position. The workman is guided in
giving the proper angle to the surface cut with the plane, by a
wooden gauge of peculiar form. The staves, having been thus prepared,
are set up in a _truss-hoop_; and after this has been driven down, one
or two others which are to remain are put on. The outside is then made
smooth with a convex drawing-knife, and the inside with a
smoothing-plane, the edge of which is circular, to correspond with the
form of the surface. The inside of small wooden vessels is generally
made smooth with a crooked drawing-knife.

8. The staves are now sawn off to a uniform length at the bottom, and
a groove is cut for the insertion of the bottom. The latter operation
is performed by means of a cutting instrument fixed in a kind of
gauge. The several pieces to compose the bottom are brought to the
proper form and smoothness with a straight drawing-knife; and, having
been slightly fastened together by wooden pins, the whole, as one
piece, is inserted in its proper place by driving it down from the top
on the inside. The whole process is finished by driving on the hoops,
and making the holes in the handles.

9. The cedar employed in this business is a considerable tree, which
grows in various parts of the world, but especially in the United
States, where it occupies large tracts called _cedar_ or _cypress
swamps_. The wood is soft, smooth, and of an aromatic smell. It is
likewise much used for shingles. The Dismal Swamp, lying in Virginia
and North Carolina, contains an abundance of this kind of timber.

10. The operations in oak vary from those in cedar so far as to
conform to the nature of the material, and the form of the vessels
manufactured. In bringing the staves to the proper form, the workman
is guided altogether by the eye; and, if they must be bent, they
require to be heated. The fire for this purpose is made of shavings
and chips in a small furnace of sheet iron, called a _crusset_. The
hoops, both for cedar and oak wares, are made of thin strips of iron,
or of small oak, hickory, ash, or cedar saplings. Within a few years,
several machines have been invented, for getting out staves, and for
bringing them to the proper form, as well as for performing several
other parts of the cooper's operations.

11. The coopers in England derive a great deal of their employment
from the West India trade. Barrels, puncheons, and hogsheads, are
carried out of the country filled with dry goods, and are returned
filled with rum and sugar. In the United States, much work of this
kind is done for the same market; but then the staves and heads are
only fitted and marked here, to be afterwards put together in the West
Indies.



[Illustration: WHEELWRIGHT.]

THE WHEELWRIGHT.


1. The artisan who makes the wood-work of common wheel carriages, or
the wheels of coaches, is denominated a wheelwright; but, under this
head, we propose to include whatever we may say on constructing and
finishing wheel carriages in general.

2. It must be evident, even to a superficial observer, that this
business, in its different branches, occupies a large space in our
domestic industry, since almost every farmer in the country owns a
vehicle of some sort, and since the streets of our busy cities and
towns exhibit, during a great part of the day, scenes of bustle
occasioned, in a great measure, by the passing and repassing of
carriages of different kinds.

3. The principal kinds of wheel carriages made in this country, are
the cart, the wagon, the gig, and the coach; and of each of these
there are various sorts, differing in strength and mode of
construction, to suit the particular purposes to which they are to be
applied. The business of making these vehicles is divided into a
number of branches; but, as the manufacture of the coach embraces a
greater variety of operations than any other species of carriage, we
have selected it as affording the best means of explaining the
operations of the whole business.

4. In large establishments for making coaches and other vehicles of
the best workmanship, the operators confine their attention to the
execution of particular parts of the work; for example, one man makes
the wheels, another the carriage and body, another fashions and
applies the iron, another does the painting and polishing, and another
the trimming. In smaller establishments, a greater proportion of the
work is executed by one person.

5. The wheels of the coach, as well as those of every other vehicle in
which they are used, are composed of a _hub_, and several _spokes_,
and _felloes_. The hubs are commonly made of a kind of tough wood,
called _gum_, which is reduced to the desired form in the lathe. The
hole through the centre is made with a common auger, and enlarged with
one tapering towards the point, and having through its whole length
two cutting edges. The mortices for the spokes are made with a chisel
driven with a mallet.

6. The spokes are made of white oak, and the felloes, of ash or
hickory; and both are brought to the required form and smoothness with
the saw, axe, drawing-knife, spoke-shave, chisel, and sand-paper. The
constituent parts of the _carriage_, or _running gears_, are the
_axles_, _perch_, and _spring_-_beds_, or _bolsters_, to which are
added the _tongue_, or _pole_, and some other parts connected with it.

7. The joints in this part of the vehicle are made perfectly tight by
the application of putty; whereas, in the body, glue is used for this
purpose. The latter substance will not answer in the former case,
since it cannot bear exposure to water. The wood generally employed
for the carriage part, as well as for the frame of the body, is ash;
and the several parts are sawn from planks of suitable thickness. In
this part of the work, the operator is guided by patterns made of thin
pine boards. The panels of the body are made of thin boards of poplar
or bass-wood. The manner in which the several parts are dressed and
put together is too obvious to need description.

8. The wheels and the carriage, after having received one coat of
paint, are sent to the blacksmith to be ironed. The hub is bound, at
each end with hoops of iron, commonly plated with brass or silver, and
the outside rim or felloes are bound with an iron _tire_, and fastened
with strong nails or spikes. The tires are made red-hot before they
are applied, that they may be made to fit in every part with accuracy.

9. Bands, bolts, or strips of iron, are applied to those parts of the
wood-work which may be exposed to friction, or which require
additional strength. The axles are also made of wrought iron, either
by the blacksmith who executes the other iron work, or by persons who
manufacture them by the quantity for sale. The same remark is
applicable to the _thorough-boxes_, which are inserted into the hub to
prevent injury by friction, and to cause the wheel to revolve with
freedom and accuracy.

10. The painting, varnishing, and polishing, of the body of the coach,
when done in the best manner, comprise a tedious process. It is first
covered with a coat of paint; the grain of the wood is then filled up
with putty, and the surface is again covered with paint. Five coats of
_filling_, composed of ochre, japan varnish, and spirits of
turpentine, are next successively applied. After the surface has been
rubbed with a solid piece of pumice-stone, it is again painted, and
rubbed with sand-paper. Several coats of paint are next laid on, and
the work is finished by the application of a few coats of
copal-varnish, and by the use of pumice-stone. The painting and
varnishing of the wheels and carriage part, is far less expensive and
tedious.

11. The nature of the trimmings, and the manner in which they are put
together and applied, need not be described, since a few moments'
inspection of a finished vehicle of this kind, will give any one a
clear conception of the whole of this branch of the business. So far
as trimming the inside, and the manufacture of cushions are concerned,
the operations are similar to those of the upholsterer.

12. Wheel carriages may be classed among the primitive inventions,
although the first authentic notice we have of their use, we find in
the scripture history of Joseph, the son of Jacob, in which it is
related, that this great and good man "was made to ride in the second
chariot" of the king's, and that he sent wagons from Egypt to convey
thither his father and family from the land of Canaan.

13. Covered wagons were used in the days of Moses; and the wandering
Scythians, in the time of the Romans, had them covered with leather.
The seat for the driver is said to have been invented by Oxylus, an
Ætolian, who took possession of the kingdom of Elis, about 1100 years
before Christ. Many of the nations of antiquity used chariots in the
field of battle, and the axles were sometimes armed with scythes or
some other sharp cutting instruments. Two persons commonly occupied
one vehicle, one of whom drove the horses, and the other fought the
enemy. The inhabitants of the promised land fought in chariots, even
before the settlement of the people of Israel in that country; and
the Greeks likewise employed them, for warlike purposes, at the siege
of Troy.

14. The carriages used by the Romans were of various kinds, some of
which were carried on the shoulders of men, and others, having two or
four wheels, were drawn by horses, asses, mules, or oxen.
Nevertheless, neither they, nor any other nation of antiquity, ever
suspended the body of any carriage on leathers, or supported it on
springs; and the use of almost every species of vehicle for the
conveyance of persons, was banished by the policy of the barbarous
nations that afterwards became masters of civilized Europe, the feudal
lords conceiving it important, that their military vassals should
serve them on horseback.

15. Even as late as the sixteenth century, ministers rode to court,
and magistrates of imperial cities to council, on the back of this
animal; and, in the same manner, kings and lords made their public
entry on the most solemn occasions. In accounts of papal ceremonies
which occurred during several centuries, we find no mention of a
state-coach; but, instead of it, state-horses or state-mules. The
horse for his holiness was required to be a gentle and tractable nag,
of a gray color; and a stool with three steps was necessary to aid him
in mounting. The emperor or kings, if present, held his stirrup, and
led his beast. Bishops also made their public entrance on horses or
asses richly decorated.

16. Covered carriages, however, were known in the principal states of
Europe in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries; but they were at
first used only by women of rank, since the men thought it disgraceful
to ride in them. At this period, when the electors of the German
empire did not choose to be present at the meetings of the states,
they excused themselves to the emperor by stating that their health
would not permit them to ride on horseback, and it was not becoming
for them to ride like women.

17. But, for a long time, the use of carriages was forbidden even to
women; and, as late as the year 1545, the wife of a certain duke
obtained from him, with great difficulty, the privilege of using a
covered carriage in a journey to the baths. The permission was granted
on the condition that her attendants should not enjoy the same favor.
Nevertheless, it is certain that emperors, kings, and princes, began
to employ covered carriages on journeys, in the fifteenth century; and
a few instances occur of their use in public solemnities. Ambassadors
appeared, for the first time, in coaches, at a public solemnity, in
1613, at Erfurth.

18. In the history of France, we find many proofs, that, in the
fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries, the French monarchs
commonly rode on horses, the servants of the court on mules, and the
princesses, together with the principal ladies, sometimes at least, on
asses. Carriages of some sort, however, appear to have been used at a
very early period there. An ordinance of Philip the Fair, issued in
1294, forbids their use by the wives of citizens.

19. In the year 1550, three coaches were introduced into Paris; one of
which belonged to the queen, another to Diana de Poictiers, and the
third to Raimond de Laval, a cavalier of the court of Francis I., who
was so large that no horse could carry him. It is not certain,
however, that the body of these vehicles were suspended on leather
straps. The inventor of this material improvement cannot be
ascertained, nor is it positively determined, that it had been made,
until about the middle of the seventeenth century.

20. Coaches were introduced into Spain and Portugal, in the year 1546,
and into Sweden near the close of the same century. In the capital of
Russia, there were elegant coaches as early as the beginning of the
seventeenth century. In Switzerland, they were rare, as late as 1650.
Carriages began to be used at Naples in the thirteenth century; from
this place they spread all over Italy; and here, also, glass panels
originated.

21. Carriages of some sort were used in England at a very early
period, and those first employed by the ladies, were called
_whirlicoats_. According to some authors, coaches were introduced in
the year 1555; but, according to others, not until twenty-five years
after this period. Before the latter date, Queen Elizabeth, on public
occasions, rode on the same horse with her chamberlain, seated behind
him on a pillion; although, in the early part of her reign, she owned
a chariot.

22. In 1601, men were forbidden the use of the coach by act of
Parliament, the legislators supposing such indulgence to be too
effeminate; but this law seems to have been little regarded, as this
vehicle was in common use, about the year 1605. Twenty years after
this time, hackney coaches began to ply in London; but these were
prohibited, in 1635, on the alleged ground that the support of so many
horses increased the expense of keeping those belonging to the king.
Two years after this, however, fifty coaches were licensed, and, in
1770, there were one thousand.

23. The stage-coach was first employed in France, and was introduced
into England, near the middle of the eighteenth century, by Jethro
Tull, the celebrated agriculturist. They were not employed, in any
country, in the transportation of the mail, until the year 1784.
Before this time, it was carried chiefly on horseback.

24. In the United States, the manufacture of carriages of every kind
has greatly increased within a few years, and those lately made
exhibit many improvements on those of former periods. The places which
seem to be most distinguished for the manufacture of good carriages,
in this country, are Philadelphia, Newark, and Troy.



[Illustration: POTTER.]

THE POTTER.


1. The artisan called the potter converts plastic materials into hard
and brittle vessels of various kinds, denominated, in general terms,
_earthen ware_.

2. Alumine is the basis of all clays, and is the only earth that
possesses the degree of plasticity which renders the operations of the
potter practicable. It is, however, never found or used in a pure
state, but in combination with other substances, particularly with
silex, lime, magnesia, and the oxyde of iron.

3. In the manufacture of vessels from argillaceous compounds, the
different degrees of beauty and costliness depend upon the quality of
the raw materials, and the labor and skill expended in the operation.
The various productions of the pottery may be classed under the
following denominations--common earthen ware, white earthen ware,
stone ware, and porcelain; but of each of these there are many
varieties.

4. _Common earthen ware._--This ware is made of a kind of clay very
generally diffused over the earth, and which is essentially the same
with that employed in making bricks. The potters are often supplied
with this material by the brickmakers, who select for them that which
is too tenacious, or _fat_, for their own purpose. All common clays
contain more or less of the oxyde of iron, which causes the wares made
of them to turn red in burning.

5. In preparing the clay for use, the potter adds to it, when
necessary, a portion of fine loam, in order to lessen its tenacity,
and to prevent the vessels to be made of it from cracking, while
undergoing the fire. When the materials have been mixed, and partially
incorporated with water, the mass is thrown into a tub, fixed in the
ground about one-half of its depth. In the centre of this tub, is
placed a shaft, in a perpendicular position, from which radiate, in a
horizontal direction, a number of knives or cutters.

6. This machine is put in motion by horse-power, and by it the clay is
repeatedly cut, and properly kneaded. The workman then cuts it into
thin slices with a small wire, and, having rejected all matters not
fit for his purpose, he further kneads it with his hands, and forms it
into lumps, corresponding in amount of matter with the different
vessels which he proposes to make.

7. For the best kinds of this ware, the same species of clay is used;
but then it is differently prepared. It is first dissolved in water;
and, when the coarser particles have settled to the bottom of the
vessel, the fluid suspending the rest is drawn off, and made to pass
through a sieve into a reservoir. After the particles of the material
have precipitated, the water is drawn off, and the residuum is thrown
upon a large flat pan or reservoir made of bricks, where the mass is
freed from its superfluous moisture by evaporation in the air, or by
means of artificial heat applied beneath. It is then laid by in a damp
place, for future use.

8. Before the clay, thus purified from extraneous and coarser
particles, is formed into vessels, it is beaten with a stout piece of
wood, until the mass has become of an equal consistence throughout,
and then repeatedly cut into two pieces with a wire, and slapped
together to expel the air. The former of these operations is called
_wedging_, and the latter, _slapping_.

9. _White and cream-colored wares_ are made of clays which contain so
little oxyde of iron, that it does not turn red in burning, but, on
the contrary, improves in whiteness in the furnace. There are several
species of white clay, found in many different localities, most of
which, however, are known under the denomination of _pipe-clay_; or
they are distinguished by the names of the places where they are
obtained.

10. In preparing these clays for use, they are reduced to a minute
division by machinery, and afterwards dissolved in water, and
otherwise treated in a manner similar to that used for the better
kinds of common wares, as described in the seventh and eighth
paragraphs. For the purpose of diminishing the shrinkage in the fire,
and with the view of increasing the whiteness of the ware, pulverized
flint-stone is added to the clay, in the proportion of about one part
of the former to five of the latter.

11. In reducing the silex to the requisite fineness, it is first
brought to a red heat; and, while in this state, it is thrown into
cold water, to diminish the cohesion of its parts. It is then pounded
by machinery, levigated with water in a mill, sifted, mashed, and
otherwise treated like the clay. The materials are mixed while in a
state of thin pulp.

12. The several operations performed by the potter, in converting the
clay thus prepared into different kinds of vessels, and in completing
the whole process of the manufacture of earthen ware, may be included
under the following divisions, viz., throwing, turning, pressing,
burning, painting and printing, and glazing. They are not, however,
all used in producing and finishing vessels of every shape and
quality.

13. _Throwing._--This operation is performed on a potter's wheel,
which consists of a round table, and some simple means to put it in
motion. The clay having been placed on the centre of this machine, the
workman communicates to the latter a rotary motion with his foot, and
gives the proposed form to the material with his hands, which have
been previously wet with water, to prevent them from sticking. This
method is used for all vessels and parts of vessels of a circular
form; and, in many cases, no other operation is necessary to give them
the requisite finish, so far as their conformation is concerned.

14. _Turning._--The vessels are cut from the thrower's wheel with a
small wire; and when, by the evaporation of moisture, they have become
firm enough to endure the operation, they are turned on a lathe. The
objects of this operation are to communicate to them a more exact
shape, and to render them more uniform in thickness. The potter's
wheel, with the addition of some contrivance to hold the pieces in a
proper position, is frequently used for turning. The coarser kinds of
common wares are never turned.

15. _Pressing._--Vessels, or parts of vessels, which are of an
irregular shape, and which cannot be formed on the wheel, are usually
made by a process called _pressing_. This kind of work is executed in
moulds made of plaster of Paris, and these are formed on models of
clay or wood, which have been made in the exact shape of the proposed
vessel. Sometimes individual specimens of the wares of one country or
pottery are used as models in another; in such cases, the expense of
the moulds is considerably diminished.

16. The moulds frequently consist of several parts, which fit
accurately together; for example, the mould for a pitcher is composed
of two pieces for the sides, and one for the bottom. In forming a
pitcher in such a mould, the material, which has been spread out to a
proper and uniform thickness, is laid upon the inside of each portion
of it, and the superfluous clay is trimmed off with a knife. The mould
is then closed, and thin strips of clay are laid over the seams; the
removal of the several pieces of the mould, completes the operation.

17. Handles, spouts, figures in relief, and other additions of this
nature, are separately made in moulds, and stuck on the vessel with
the same kind of materials, sometimes mingled with a small proportion
of plaster of Paris. These appendages are added after the vessels have
become partially solid in the air.

18. _Burning._--All vessels, even after they have been dried in the
atmosphere, are in a very frangible state; and, to render them
sufficiently firm for use, they are submitted to the process of
burning in a kiln. To preserve the ware from injury while enduring the
fire, the several pieces are enclosed in cylindrical boxes called
_saggers_, which are made of baked clay. These boxes are placed one
above another around the sides of the kiln, which is of a circular
form, and gradually tapering to the top.

19. In burning the coarser wares, every piece is not thus inclosed;
but, between every two saggers, a naked piece is placed. A moderate
fire is first raised, which is gradually increased, until the
contents of the kiln are brought to a red heat. The burning occupies
between twenty-four and forty-eight hours. All wares, except the
coarsest kinds, are twice, and sometimes thrice, burned; and, after
having been once submitted to the process, they are said to be in a
state of _biscuit_.

20. _Painting and printing._--When the vessels are to be ornamented
with colors, it is necessary, in most cases, that this part of the
work be done after the first burning. In China, and at the porcelain
manufactory in Philadelphia, the drawings are executed by hand with a
pencil. The same method is used in Europe in elaborate pieces of
workmanship. But, in the common figured wares, where but one color is
used, the designs are first engraved on metallic plates, and
impressions are taken from them on thin paper, by means of a
copperplate printing-press.

21. In transferring to vessels designs thus produced, the paper, while
in a damp state, is applied closely to the surface of the biscuit, and
rubbed on with a piece of flannel. The porosity of the earthen
material causes the immediate absorption of the coloring matter,
which, in all cases, is some metallic oxyde. For a blue color, the
oxyde of cobalt is used; and for a black, those of manganese and iron.
The paper is washed from the ware with a sponge.

22. _Glazing._--To prevent the penetration of fluids, and to improve
the appearance of the ware, a superficial vitreous coating is
necessary. This can be produced by the aid of various substances; but,
in a majority of cases, red lead is the basis of the mixture employed
for this purpose. Equal parts of ground flints and red lead are used
for the common cream-colored wares. These materials are mixed with,
and suspended in, water, and each piece is dipped in the liquid. The
moisture is soon absorbed by the clay, leaving the glazing particles
on the surface, which, in the burning that follows, is converted into
a uniform and durable vitreous coating.

23. _Stone ware._--The materials of this ware, as well as the mode of
preparing them, differ but little from those of the common and better
kinds of earthen wares. The clays, however, which contain but little
or no oxyde of iron are chosen, since this substance would cause the
ware to melt and warp, before a sufficient degree of heat could be
applied to give it the requisite hardness.

24. The glazing is formed by a vitrification of the surface of the
vessels, caused by the action of common salt thrown into the kiln,
when it has been raised to its greatest heat. This glazing is more
perfect than that on ordinary earthen wares, being insoluble by most
chemical agents. It is hardly necessary to remark that this method of
glazing precludes the use of saggers.

25. _Porcelain._--This ware exceeds every other kind in the delicacy
of its texture, and is peculiarly distinguished by a beautiful
semi-transparency, which is conspicuous when held against the light.
In China, it is made chiefly of two kinds of earth; one of which is
denominated _petuntze_, and the other _kaolin_; but both are varieties
of feldspar, found in the mountains, in different localities. They are
brought to the manufactories from a distance in the form of bricks;
the materials, as taken from the mines, having been reduced to an
impalpable powder in mortars, either by the labor of men or by
water-power.

26. These materials are combined in different proportions in the
manufacture, according to the quality of the proposed ware. In the
best kind, equal quantities are used; but for those of inferior
quality, a greater proportion of petuntze is employed. The
translucency so much admired in porcelain, or _tseki_, as the Chinese
call it, is owing to the petuntze, which, in burning, partially melts,
and envelops the infusible kaolin.

27. It is not known who was the inventor of porcelain, as the Chinese
annals are silent with regard to this point; nor do we know more of
the date at which the manufacture was commenced. It is certain,
however, that it must have been before the fifth century of the
Christian era. Since this ware has been known to Europeans, it has
been manufactured chiefly, and in the greatest perfection, in the
large and populous village of King-te-ching.

28. Porcelain was first brought to Europe from Japan and China, and
for a long time its materials and mode of manufacture remained a
secret, in spite of the efforts of the Jesuit missionaries, who
resided in those countries. At length, in 1712, Father Entrecolles
sent home to France, specimens of petuntze and kaolin, together with a
summary description of the process of the manufacture.

29. Shortly after this important event had transpired, it was
discovered that materials nearly of the same kind existed in abundance
in various parts of Europe. The manufacture of porcelain was,
therefore, soon commenced in several places; and it has since been
successfully carried on.

30. The porcelain wares of Europe are superior to those of the
Chinese, in the variety and elegance of their forms, as well as in the
beauty of the designs executed upon them; but, as some of the
processes successfully practised in China, remain still to be learned
by the Europeans, the Oriental porcelain has not yet been equalled in
the hardness, strength, and durability of its body, and in the
permanency of its glaze. The manufacturers of Saxony are said to have
been the most successful in their imitations in these respects.

31. The porcelain earths are found in various parts of the United
States, but particularly at Wilmington, in the state of Delaware.
Nevertheless, there is now but one porcelain manufactory in our
country, and this is yet in its infancy. The establishment is located
in Philadelphia, and it has been lately incorporated, with the
privilege of one hundred thousand dollars capital.

32. The principle of induration by heat, is the same in the
manufacture of earthen wares as in making bricks; and, as the latter
can be more easily dispensed with than the former in a primitive state
of society, it is but reasonable to suppose that earthen ware was
first invented; but the art of making bricks must have been practised
before the deluge, or the posterity of Noah would not have attempted
so soon as about one hundred years after that catastrophe, to build a
city and a tower of these materials. It is, therefore, evident, that
this art was of antediluvian origin; and it was probably one of the
earliest brought to any degree of perfection.

33. The art of the potter was practised more or less by every nation
of antiquity, and the degree of perfection to which it was carried in
every country corresponded with the state of the arts generally. The
Greeks were consequently very celebrated for their earthen wares. The
Etruscans have also been particularly noted for their manufacture of
the elegant vases which have been dug, in modern times, from the
depositories of the dead, in Lower Italy.

34. Until the commencement of the manufacture of porcelain in Europe,
this art continued in a very rude condition, although practised to a
considerable extent in many places. It was much improved in England
about the year 1720, by the addition of flints to the usual material;
and, between thirty and forty years after this, it was brought to
great perfection, in all its branches, chiefly through the scientific
exertions of the celebrated potter, Josiah Wedgewood.



[Illustration: GLASS BLOWER.]

THE GLASS-BLOWER.


1. Glass is a substance produced from a combination of silicious
earths with alkalies, and, in many cases, with metallic oxydes. The
basis of every species of glass is silex, which is found in a state
nearly pure in the sands of many situations. It is also found in the
common flints and quartz pebbles.

2. When quartz pebbles or flints are employed, they must be first
reduced to powder. This is done by grinding them in a mill, after they
have been partially reduced, by heating them in the fire, and plunging
them into cold water. Sand has the advantage of being already in a
state of division sufficiently minute for the purpose. To prepare it
for application, it only requires to be washed and sifted, in order to
free it from the argillaceous and other substances unfit for use. A
great proportion of the sand employed in the manufacture of the better
kinds of glass in the United States, is taken from the banks of the
Delaware River.

3. The alkaline substances used are potash and soda. For the finer
kinds of glass, pearlash, or soda procured by decomposing sea-salt, is
used; but, for the inferior sorts, impure alkalies, such as barilla,
Scotch and Irish kelp, and even wood-ashes, as well as the refuse of
the soap-boiler's kettle, are made to answer the purpose. Lime, borax,
and common salt, are also frequently used as a flux in aid of some of
the other substances just mentioned.

4. Of the metallic oxydes which make a part of the materials of some
glass, the deutoxyde of lead, or, as it is usually denominated, red
lead, is the most common. This substance is employed in making flint
glass, which is rendered by it more fusible, heavy and tough, and more
easy to be ground or cut, while, at the same time, it increases its
brilliancy and refractive power.

5. Black oxyde of manganese is also used in small quantities, with the
view of rendering the glass more colorless and transparent. Common
nitre produces the same effect. White arsenic is also added to the
materials of this kind of glass, to promote its clearness; but, if too
much is used, it communicates a milky whiteness. The use of this
substance in drinking vessels is not free from danger, when the glass
contains so much alkali as to render any part of it soluble in acids.

6. The furnace in which the materials are melted is a large conical
stack, such as is represented at the head of this article. In some
cases, it is surrounded by a large chimney, which extends above the
roof of the building. In the sides are several apertures, near which
are placed the crucibles, or melting-pots, containing the materials.
The fuel is applied in an arch, which is considerably lower than the
surface of the ground on which the operators stand, while at work.

7. The melting-pots are made chiefly of the most refractory clays and
sand. Much of the clay used for this purpose, in many of the
glass-houses in the United States, is imported from Germany. The
materials, having been sifted, and mixed with a suitable quantity of
water, the homogeneous mass is formed into crucibles, by spreading it
on the inside of vessels which are much in the shape of a common
wash-tub. After the clay has become sufficiently solid to sustain
itself, the hoops are removed from the vessel, and the several staves
taken apart.

8. The crucibles are suffered to dry in the atmosphere for two or
three months, after which they are applied to use as they may be
needed. Before they are placed in the main furnace, they are gradually
raised to an intense heat in one of smaller dimensions, built for this
express purpose. The fuel employed in fusing the _metal_ is chiefly
pine wood, which, in all cases, is previously dried in a large oven.
Four of the five furnaces near Philadelphia, which belonged to Doctor
Dyott, were heated with rosin.

9. The materials having been mixed, in the proposed proportions, which
are determined by weight, they are thrown into the melting-pots, and,
by a gradually increasing heat, reduced to a paste, suitable for
application by the blower. This part of the process is commonly
performed at night, while the blowers are absent from the works.

10. The applications of glass are so exceedingly extensive, that it is
inconvenient, if not impossible, to manufacture every species of it at
one glass-house or at one establishment. Some, therefore, confine
their attention to the production of window glass, and such articles
of hollow ware as may be made, with profit, from the same kind of
paste. Others make vials and other species of ware, employed by the
druggist, apothecary, and chemist. And again, the efforts, at some
factories, are confined entirely to the manufacture of flint glass, or
to that of plate glass for mirrors.

11. The principal operations connected with the manufacture of
different species of glass, after the paste has been prepared, may be
included under the following heads; viz., blowing, casting, moulding,
pressing and grinding; although all these are never performed in one
and the same establishment.

12. _Blowing._--The operation of blowing is nearly or quite the same
in the production of every species of glass ware, in which it is
employed. The manipulations, however, connected with making different
articles, are considerably varied, to suit their particular
conformation. This circumstance renders it impossible for us to give
more than a general outline of the process of this manufacture.

13. In the formation of window glass, the workman gathers upon the end
of an iron tube a sufficient amount of the metal, which he brings to a
cylindrical form by rolling it upon a cast iron or stone table. He
then blows through the tube with considerable force, and thus expands
the glass to the form of an inflated bladder. The inflation is
assisted by the heat, which causes the air and moisture of the breath
to expand with great power.

14. Whenever the glass has become too stiff, by cooling, for
inflation, it is again softened by holding it in the blaze of the
fuel, and the blowing is repeated, until the globe has been expanded
to the requisite thinness. Another workman next receives it at the
other end, upon an iron rod, called a _punt_, or _punting iron_, when
the blowing iron is detached. It is now opened, and spread into a
smooth sheet, by the centrifugal force acquired by the rapid whirl
given to it, in the manner exhibited in the preceding cut. The sheet
thus produced is of a uniform thickness, except at the centre, where
the iron rod had been attached.

15. An inferior kind of window glass, the materials of which are sand,
kelp, and soap-boilers' waste, is made by blowing the _metal_ into
cones, about a foot in diameter at their base; and these, while hot,
are touched on one side with a cold iron dipped in water. This
produces a crack, which runs through the whole length of the cone. The
glass then expands into a sheet somewhat resembling a fan. This is
supposed to be the oldest method of manufacturing window or plate
glass.

16. The window glass produced in the manner first described, is called
_crown glass_; and the other, _broad glass_. But by neither of these
methods can the largest panes be produced. The blowing for these
differs from the methods just described, in that the material is blown
into an irregular cylinder, open at its further end. When a sufficient
number of these cylinders have accumulated, the end to which the
blowing iron had been attached, is _capped off_ by drawing round it a
circle of melted glass, and the cylinder is divided longitudinally by
touching it through its whole length with a hot iron. The cylinders,
in this state, are put into the annealing oven, where, by aid of a
heat which raises the glass to redness, it is expanded into sheets.
These sheets are then broken into panes of several sizes by the aid of
a diamond and a straight edge, as in the case of glass blown by other
methods.

17. _Casting._--Plate glass formed by the method last mentioned, is
denominated _cylinder glass_; and it is used not only for windows, but
also for mirrors not exceeding four feet in length. Plates of greater
dimensions are produced by a process called _casting_. The casting is
performed by pouring the material, in a high state of fusion, upon a
table of polished copper of large size, and having a rim elevated
above its general surface, as high as the proposed plate is to be
thick. To spread the glass perfectly, and to render the two surfaces
parallel, a heavy roller of polished copper, resting upon the rim at
the edges, is passed over it.

18. Plates thus cast are always dull and uneven. To render them good
reflectors, it is necessary to grind and polish them. The plate to be
polished is first cemented with plaster of Paris to a table of wood or
stone. A quantity of wet sand, emery, or pulverized flints, is spread
upon it, and another glass plate, similarly cemented to a wooden or
stone surface, is placed upon it. The two plates are then rubbed
together, until their surfaces have become plane and smooth. The last
polish is given by colcothar and putty. Both sides are polished in the
same manner.

19. _Moulding._--Ornamental forms and letters are produced on the
external surface of vessels, by means of metallic moulds; and the
process by which this kind of work is performed is called moulding. In
the execution, the workman gathers upon the end of his iron tube, a
proper amount of the material, which he extends, and brings to a
cylindrical form, by rolling it upon his table. He then expands it a
little by a slight blast, and afterwards lets it down into the mould,
which is immediately filled by blowing still stronger through the
tube.

20. The vessel is then taken from the mould, and disengaged from the
tube. The same tube, or a punting iron having been attached to the
bottom, the other end is softened in the fire, and brought to the
proposed form with appropriate tools, while the iron is rolled up and
down upon the long arms of the glass-blower's chair. The ornamental
moulds are made of cast iron, brass, or copper, and are composed of
two parts, which open and shut upon hinges. The moulds for plain
vials, castor oil bottles, small demijohns, &c., are made of the kind
of clay used for the crucibles. These consist merely of a mass of the
clay, with a cylindrical hole in it of proper diameter and depth.

21. _Pressing._--This process is applied in the production of vessels
or articles which are very thick, and which are not contracted at the
top. The operation is performed in iron moulds, which consist of two
parts, and which have upon their internal surfaces the figures to be
impressed upon the glass. The material, while in an elastic condition,
is put into the lower part of the mould; and the other part, called
the _follower_, is immediately brought upon it with considerable
force.

22. Every species of glass, before it can be used with safety, must be
_annealed_, to diminish its brittleness. The annealing consists merely
in letting down the temperature by degrees. Small boys, therefore,
convey the articles, whatever they may be, as fast as they are made,
to a moderately heated oven, which, when filled, is suffered to cool
by degrees.

23. _Cutting._--The name of _cut glass_ is given to the kind which is
ground and polished in figures, appearing as if cut with a sharp
instrument. This operation is confined chiefly to flint glass, which,
being more tough and soft than the other kinds, is more easily
wrought. In addition to this, it is considerably more brilliant,
producing specimens of greater lustre.

24. An establishment for grinding glass contains a great number of
wheels of cast iron, stone, and wood, of different sizes; and the
process consists entirely in holding the glass against these, while
they are revolving with rapidity. When a considerable portion of the
material is to be removed, the grinding is commonly commenced on the
iron wheel, on which is constantly pouring water and sharp sand, from
a vessel above, which, from its shape, is called a _hopper_.

25. The period of the invention of glass is quite unknown; but the
following is the usual story of its origin. Some merchants, driven by
a storm upon the coasts of Phoenicia, near the River Belus, kindled a
fire on the sand to cook their victuals, using as fuel some weeds
which grew near. The ashes produced by the incineration of these
plants, coming in contact with the sand, united with its particles,
and, by the influence of the heat, produced glass.

26. This production was accidentally picked up by a Tyrian merchant,
who, from its beauty and probable utility, was led to investigate the
causes of its formation, and who, after many attempts, succeeded in
the manufacture of glass. The legend probably originated in the fact,
that glass was very anciently made at Tyre; and that the sand on the
seashore in the immediate neighbourhood of the Belus, was well adapted
to glass-making.

27. It is certainly probable, that an accidental vitrification might
have given rise to the discovery; but the circumstance would have been
more likely to take place in some operation requiring greater heat
than that necessary for dressing food in the open air. The invention
of glass must have been effected as early as fifteen hundred years
before our era. It was manufactured very anciently in Egypt; but
whether that country or Phoenicia is entitled to the preference, as
regards priority in the practice of this art, cannot be determined.

28. Glass was made in considerable perfection at Alexandria, and was
thence supplied to the Romans as late as the first quarter of the
second century. Before this time, however, Rome had her glass
manufactories, to which a particular street was assigned. The
attention of the workmen was directed chiefly to the production of
bottles and ornamental vases, specimens of which still remain, as
monuments of their extraordinary skill.

29. In modern times, the manufacture of glass was confined
principally to Italy and Germany. Venice became particularly
celebrated for the beauty of the material, and the skill of its
workmen; and as early as the thirteenth century, it supplied the
greatest part of the glass used in Europe. The artists of Bohemia,
also, came to be held in considerable reputation.

30. The art was first practised in England, in the year 1557, when a
manufactory was erected at Crutched Friars, in the city of London, and
shortly afterwards, another at the Savoy, in the Strand. In these
establishments, however, were made little else than common window
glass, and coarse bottles, all the finer articles being still imported
from Venice. In 1673, the celebrated Duke of Buckingham brought
workmen from Italy, and established a manufactory for casting plate
glass for mirrors and coach windows. The art, in all its branches, is
now extensively practised in great perfection, not only in Great
Britain, but in many of the other kingdoms of Europe.

31. Before the commencement of the late war with England, very little,
if any, glass was manufactured in the United States, except the most
common window glass, and the most ordinary kinds of hollow ware.
Apothecaries' vials and bottles, as well as every other variety of the
better kinds of glass wares, had been imported from Europe, and
chiefly from England.

32. Our necessities, created by the event just mentioned, produced
several manufactories, which, however, did not soon become
flourishing, owing, at first, to inexperience, and, after the peace,
to excessive importations. But adequate protection having been
extended to this branch of our national industry, by the tariff of
1828, it is now in a highly prosperous condition--so much so, that
importations of glass ware have nearly ceased.



[Illustration: OPTICIAN.]

THE OPTICIAN.


1. The word optician is applicable to persons who are particularly
skilled in the science of vision, but especially to those who devote
their attention to the manufacture of optical instruments, such as the
spectacles, the camera obscura, the magic lantern, the telescope, the
microscope, and the quadrant.

2. Light is an emanation from the sun and other luminous bodies, and
is that substance which renders opaque bodies visible to the eye. It
diverges in a direct line, unless interrupted by some obstacle, and
its motion has been estimated at _two hundred thousand miles_ in a
second.

3. A _ray of light_ is the motion of a single particle: and a parcel
of rays passing from a single point, is called _a pencil of rays_.
_Parallel rays_ are such as always move at the same distance from each
other. Rays which continually approach each other, are said to
_converge_; and when they continually recede from each other, they are
said to _diverge_. The point at which converging rays meet is called
the _focus_.

4. Any pellucid or transparent body, as air, water, and glass, which
admits the free passage of light, is called a _medium_. When rays,
after having passed through one medium, are bent out of their original
course by entering another of different density, they are said to be
_refracted_; and when they strike against a surface, and are sent back
from it, they are said to be _reflected_.

5. A _lens_ is glass ground in such a form as to collect or disperse
the rays of light which pass through it. These are of different
shapes; and they have, therefore, received different appellations. A
_plano-convex_ lens has one side flat, and the other convex; a
_plano-concave_ lens is flat on one side, and concave on the other; a
_double convex_ lens is convex on both sides; a _double concave_ lens
is concave on both sides; a _meniscus_ is convex on one side, and
concave on the other. By the following cut, the lenses are exhibited
in the order in which they have been mentioned.

[Illustration]

6. An _incident ray_ is that which comes from any luminous body to a
reflecting surface; and that which is sent back from a reflecting
surface, is called a _reflected ray_. The _angle of incidence_ is the
angle which is formed by the incident ray with a perpendicular to the
reflecting surface; and the _angle of reflection_ is the angle formed
by the same perpendicular and the reflected ray.

7. When the light proceeding from every point of an object placed
before a lens is collected in corresponding points behind it, a
perfect image of the object is there produced. The following cut is
given by way of illustration.

[Illustration]

8. The lens, _a_, may be supposed to be placed in the hole of a
window-shutter of a darkened room, and the arrow at the right to be
standing at some distance without. All the light reflected from the
latter object towards the lens, passes through it, and concentrates,
within the room, in a focal point, at which, if a sheet of paper, or
any other plane of a similar color, is placed, the image of the object
will be seen upon it.

9. This phenomenon is called the _camera obscura_, or dark chamber,
because it is necessary to darken the room to exhibit it. The image at
the focal point within the room is in an inverted position. The reason
why it is thrown in this manner will be readily understood by
observing the direction of the reflected rays, as they pass from the
object through the lens. In the camera obscura, it is customary to
place a small mirror immediately behind the lens, so as to throw all
the light which enters, downwards upon a whitened table, where the
picture may be conveniently contemplated.

10. From the preceding explanation of the camera obscura, the theory
of vision may be readily comprehended, since the eye itself is a
perfect instrument of this kind. A careful examination of the
following representation of the eye will render the similarity
obvious. The eye is supposed to be cut through the middle, from above
downwards.

[Illustration: _a a_, the _sclerotica_; _b b_, the _choroides_; _c c_,
the _retina_; _d d_, the _cornea_; _e_, the _pupil_; _f f_, the
_iris_; _g_, the _aqueous humor_; _h_, the _crystalline humor_; _i i_,
the _vitreous humor_.]

11. The _sclerotica_ is a membranous coat, to which the muscles are
attached which move the eye. The _cornea_ is united to the sclerotica
around the circular opening of the latter, and is that convex part of
the eye, which projects in advance of the rest of the organ. The space
between this and the crystalline lens is occupied by the aqueous humor
and the iris. The _iris_ is united to the choroides, and it possesses
the power of expanding and contracting, to admit a greater or less
number of rays.

12. The _crystalline lens_ is a small body of a crystalline appearance
and lenticular shape, whence its name. It is situated between the
aqueous and vitreous humors, and consists of a membranous sack filled
with a humor of a crystalline appearance. The _vitreous humor_ has
been thus denominated on account of its resemblance to glass in a
state of fusion. The _retina_ is a membrane which lines the whole
cavity of the eye, and is formed chiefly, if not entirely, by the
expansion of the optic nerve.

13. The rays of light which proceed from objects pass through the
cornea, aqueous humor, crystalline lens, and vitreous humor, and fall
upon the retina in a focal point, to which it is brought, chiefly by
the influence of the cornea and the crystalline lens. The image, in
an inverted position, is painted or thrown on the cornea, which
perceives its presence, and conveys an impression of it to the brain,
by means of the optic nerve.

14. _Optical instruments._--The art of constructing optical
instruments is founded upon the anatomical structure, and
physiological action of the eye, and on the laws of light. They are
designed to increase the powers of the eye, or to remedy some defect
in its structure. In the cursory view which we may give of a few of
the many optical instruments which have been invented, we will begin
with the _spectacles_, since they are the best known, and withal the
most simple.

15. The _visual point_, or the distance at which small objects can be
distinctly seen, varies in different individuals. As an average, it may
be assumed at eight or nine inches from the eye. In some persons, it is
much nearer, and in others, considerably more distant. The extreme, in
the former case, constitutes _myopy_, or _short-sightedness_, and, in
the latter case, _presbyopy_, or _long-sightedness_.

16. _Myopy_ is chiefly caused by too great a convexity of the cornea
and the crystalline lens, which causes the rays to converge to a
focus, before they reach the retina. Objects are, therefore,
indistinctly seen by myoptic persons, unless held very near the eye to
throw the focus farther back. This defect may be palliated by the use
of concave glasses, which render the rays proceeding from objects more
divergent.

17. _Presbyopy_ is principally caused by too little convexity of the
cornea and crystalline lens, which throws the focal point of rays
reflected from near objects, beyond the retina. This defect is
experienced by most people, to a greater or less degree, after they
have advanced beyond the fortieth year, and occasionally even by
youth. A remedy, or, at least, a palliation, is found in the use of
convex glasses, which render the rays more convergent, and enable the
eye to refract them to a focus farther forward, at the proper point.

18. The opticians have their spectacles numbered, to suit different
periods of life; but, as the short-sighted and long-sighted conditions
exist in a thousand different degrees, each person should select for
himself such as will enable him to read without effort at the usual
distance.

19. The great obstacle to viewing small objects at the usual distance,
arises from too great a divergence of the light reflected from them,
which causes the rays to reach the retina before they have converged
to a focus. This defect is remedied by convex lenses, which bring the
visual point nearer to the eye, and consequently cause the rays to
concentrate in a large focus upon the retina. The most powerful
microscopic lenses are small globules of glass, which permit the eye
to be brought very near to the object.

20. _Microscopes_ are either _single_ or _double_. In the former case,
but one lens is used, and through this the object is viewed directly;
but, in the latter case, two or more glasses are employed, through one
of which a magnified image is thrown upon a reflecting surface, and
this is viewed through the other glass, or glasses, as the real object
is seen through a single microscope.

21. The _solar microscope_, on account of its great magnifying powers,
is the most wonderful instrument of this kind. The principles of its
construction are the same with those of the camera obscura. The
difference consists chiefly in the minor circumstance of placing the
object very near the lens, by which a magnified image is thrown at the
focal point within the room.

22. In the case of the camera obscura, the objects are at a far
greater distance from the glass on the outside than the images, at the
focal point, on the inside. The comparatively great distance of the
object, in this case, causes the image to be proportionably smaller.
In the solar microscope, a small mirror is used to receive the rays,
and to reflect them directly upon the object.

23. The _magic lantern_ is an instrument used for magnifying paintings
on glass, and for throwing their images upon a white surface in a
darkened room. Its general construction is the same with that of the
solar microscope; but, in the application, the light of a lamp is
employed instead of that from the sun.

24. _Telescopes_ are employed for viewing objects which from their
distances appear small, or are invisible to the naked eye. They are of
two kinds, _refracting_ and _reflecting_. The former kind is a
compound of the camera obscura and the single microscope. It consists
of a tube, having at the further end a double convex lens, which
concentrates the rays at a focal point within, where the image is
viewed through a microscopic lens, placed at the other end.

25. In the construction of reflecting telescopes, concave mirrors, or
specula, are combined with a double convex lens. A large mirror of
this kind is so placed in the tube, that it receives the rays of light
from objects, and reflects them upon another of a smaller size. From
this they are thrown to a focal point, where the image is viewed
through a double convex lens. The specula are made of speculum metal,
which is a composition of certain proportions of copper and tin.

26. Many optical appearances are of such frequent recurrence, that
they could not have escaped the earliest observers; nevertheless, ages
appear to have elapsed, before any progress was made towards an
explanation of them. Empedocles, a Greek philosopher, born at
Agrigentum in Sicily, 460 years before Christ, is the first person on
record who attempted to write systematically on light.

27. The subject was successively treated by several other
philosophers; but the ancients never attained to a high degree of
information upon it. We have reason to believe, however, that convex
lenses were, in some cases, used as magnifiers, and as burning
glasses, although the theory of their refractive power was not
understood.

28. The magnifying power of glasses, and some other optical phenomena,
were largely treated by Al Hazen, an Arabian philosopher, who
flourished about the year 1100 of our era; and, in 1270, Vitellio, a
Polander, published a treatise on optics, containing all that was
valuable in Al Hazen's work, digested in a better manner, and with
more lucid explanations of various phenomena.

29. Roger Bacon, an English monk, who was born in 1214, and who lived
to the age of seventy-eight, described very accurately the effects of
convex and concave lenses, and demonstrated, by actual experiment,
that a small segment of a glass globe would greatly assist the sight
of old persons. Concerning the actual inventor of spectacles, however,
we have no certain information; we only know that these useful
instruments were generally known in Europe, about the beginning of the
fourteenth century.

30. In the year 1575, Maurolicus, a teacher of mathematics, at
Messina, published a treatise on optics, in which he demonstrated that
the crystalline humor of the eye is a lens, which collects the rays of
light from external objects, and throws them upon the retina. Having
arrived at a knowledge of these facts, he was enabled to assign the
reasons why some people were short-sighted, and others long-sighted.

31. John Baptista Porta, of Naples, was contemporary with Maurolicus.
He invented the camera obscura, and his experiments with this
instrument convinced him, that light was a substance, and that its
reception into the eye produced vision. These discoveries corresponded
very nearly with those by Maurolicus, although neither of these
philosophers had any knowledge of what the other had done. The
importance of Porta's discoveries will be evident, when it is
observed, that, before his time, vision was supposed to be dependent
on what were termed _visual rays_, proceeding from the eye.

32. The telescope was invented towards the latter end of the sixteenth
century. Of this, as of many other valuable inventions, accident
furnished the first hint. It is said, that the children of Zacharias
Jansen, a spectacle-maker, of Middleburg in Holland, while playing
with spectacle-glasses in their father's shop, perceived that, when
the glasses were held at a certain distance from each other, the dial
of the clock appeared greatly magnified, but in an inverted position.

33. This incident suggested to their father the idea of adjusting two
of these glasses on a board, so as to move them at pleasure. Two such
glasses inclosed in a tube completed the invention of the simplest
kind of the refracting telescope. Galileo greatly improved the
telescope, and constructed one that magnified thirty-three times, and
with this he made the astronomical discoveries which have immortalized
his name.

34. John Kepler, a great mathematician and astronomer, who was born at
Weir, in Wurtemburg, in the year 1571, paid great attention to the
phenomena of light and vision. He was the first who demonstrated that
the degree of refraction suffered by light in passing through lenses,
corresponds with the diameter of the circle of which the concavity or
convexity is the portion of an arch. He very successfully pursued the
discoveries of Maurolicus and Porta, and asserted that the images of
external objects were formed upon the optic nerve by the concentration
of rays which proceed from them.

35. In 1625, the curious discovery of Scheiner was published, at Rome,
which placed beyond doubt the fact, that vision depends upon the
formation of the image of objects upon the retina. The fact was
demonstrated by cutting away, at the back part, the two outside coats
of the eye of an animal, and by presenting different objects before
it. The images were distinctly seen painted on the naked retina.

36. Near the middle of the seventeenth century, the velocity of light
was discovered by Roemer; and, in 1663, James Gregory, a celebrated
Scotch mathematician, published the first proposal for a reflecting
telescope. But, as he possessed no mechanical dexterity himself, and
as he could find no workman capable of executing his designs, he never
succeeded in carrying his conceptions into effect. This was reserved
for Sir Isaac Newton; who, being remarkable for manual skill, executed
two instruments of this kind, in the year 1672, on a plan, however,
somewhat different from that proposed by Gregory.

37. In the course of the year 1666, the attention of Sir Isaac Newton
was drawn to the phenomena of the refraction of light through the
prism; and, having observed a certain surprising fact, he instituted a
variety of experiments, by which he was brought to the conclusion,
that light was not a homogeneous substance, but that it is composed of
particles, which are capable of different degrees of refrangibility.

38. By the same experiments, he also proved, that the rays or
particles of light differ from each other in exhibiting different
colors, some producing the color red, others that of yellow, blue, &c.
He applied his principles to the explanation of most of the phenomena
of nature, where light and color are concerned; and almost every thing
which we know upon these subjects, was laid open by his experiments.

39. The splendor of Sir Isaac Newton's discoveries obscures, in some
measure, the merits of earlier and subsequent philosophers; yet
several interesting discoveries in regard to light and color, as well
as many important improvements of optical instruments, have been made
since his time, although the light by which these have been achieved,
was derived principally from his labors.



[Illustration: GOLDBEATER.]

THE GOLD-BEATER, AND THE JEWELLER.


GOLD.

1. The metals most extensively employed in the arts are gold, silver,
copper, lead, tin, and iron. These are sometimes found uncombined with
any other substance, or combined only with each other; in either of
these cases, they are said to be in a _native state_. But they are
more frequently found united with some substances which, in a great
measure, disguise their metallic qualities, or, in other words, in a
state of _ore_. The mode of separating the metals from their ores,
will be noticed in connexion with some of the trades in which they are
prepared for, or practically applied in, the arts.

2. Gold is a metal of a yellow color, a characteristic by which it is
distinguished from all other simple metallic bodies. As a
representative of property, it has been used from time immemorial;
and, before coinage was invented, it passed for money in its native
state. In this form, gold is still current in some parts of Africa;
and even in the Southern states of our own country, in the vicinity of
the gold mines, the same practice, in a measure, prevails.

3. Gold is rarely employed in a state of perfect purity, but is
generally used in combination with some other metal, which renders it
harder, and consequently more capable of enduring the friction to
which it is exposed. The metal used for this purpose is called an
_alloy_, and generally consists of silver or copper.

4. For convenience in commerce, this precious metal is supposed to be
divided into twenty-four equal parts, called _carats_. If perfectly
pure, it is denominated gold 24 carats fine; if alloyed with one part
of any other metal or mixture of metals, it is said to be 23 carats
fine. The standard gold coin of the United States and Great Britain is
22 carats fine; or, in other words, it contains one-twelfth part of
alloy. Gold, made standard by equal parts of copper and silver,
approaches in color more nearly to pure gold than when alloyed in any
other manner.

5. Gold is found in veins in mountains, most usually associated with
ores of silver, sulphurets of iron, copper, lead, and other metals. It
is often so minutely distributed, that its presence is detected only
by pounding and washing the ores in which it exists. But the greatest
part of the gold in the possession of mankind, has been found in the
form of grains and small detached masses, amid the sands of rivers and
in alluvial lands, where it had been deposited by means of water,
which had detached it from its original position in the mountains.

6. To separate or extract gold from the foreign matters with which it
may be combined, the whole is first pounded fine, and then washed by
putting it in a stream of water, which carries off the stony
particles, while the gold, by its specific gravity, sinks to the
bottom. To render the separation still more perfect, this sediment is
mixed with ten times its weight of quicksilver, and put into a leather
bag, in which it is submitted to a pressure that forces the fluid part
through its pores; while the more solid part of the amalgam, which
contains most of the gold, remains.

7. To separate the quicksilver from the gold, the mass is subjected to
the process of _sublimation_ in earthen retorts, which, as applied to
metals, is similar in its effects to distillation, as applied to
liquids. When gold is contained in the ores of other metals, they are
roasted, in order to drive off the volatile parts, and to oxydize the
other metals. The gold is then extracted by amalgamation, by
liquefaction with lead, by the aid of nitric acid, or by other methods
adapted to the nature of the ore.

8. Gold obtained in any of these methods is always more or less
alloyed with some other metal, especially with silver or copper; but a
separation is produced, so far as it is required for the purposes of
commerce, by two processes, one of which is called _cupellation_, and
the other _parting_. The former of these operations consists in
melting the gold with a quantity of lead, which readily oxydizes and
vitrifies, and which causes the same changes to take place in the
metal to be detached from the mass of gold. The operation is called
cupellation, because it is usually performed on a _cupel_, a vessel
formed of bone-ashes, or sometimes of wood-ashes.

9. Cupellation is effectual in removing copper, but not so with regard
to silver; the latter is separated by means of a process called
_parting_. The metal is rolled out into thin sheets or strips, and cut
into small pieces. These are put into diluted nitric acid, which, by
the aid of a moderate heat, dissolves the silver, leaving the gold in
a porous state.

10. Another process, called _cementation_, is also sometimes used. It
is performed by beating the alloyed metal into thin plates, and
arranging them in alternate layers with a cement containing nitrate of
potash, and sulphate of iron. The whole is then exposed to heat, until
a great part of the baser metals has been removed by the action of the
nitric acid liberated by the nitre. Cementation is often employed by
goldsmiths, to refine the surface of articles in which the gold has
been combined, in too small a proportion, with metals of less value.

11. The average amount of gold annually obtained in every part of the
globe cannot fall far short of twenty-millions of dollars in value, of
which South America supplies about one half, and Europe, about one
twenty-fifth part. The amount yielded by the Southern states of our
Union, cannot be accurately ascertained, but the whole sum coined at
the United States' Mint in 1834, from gold obtained in this quarter,
amounted to $898,000, and since 1824 to that time, to $3,679,000. In
1824, the sum was but $5000. Our Southern mines will probably continue
to increase in productiveness.


THE GOLD-BEATER.

1. Gold, not being subject to intrinsic change by atmospheric action,
or by that of common chemical agents, is extensively used in gilding
various substances, either with the view of preserving them from
decay, or for the purpose of embellishment. To prepare the gold for
application in this manner is the business of the gold-beater.

2. The metal is first melted with some borax in a crucible, and formed
into an _ingot_ by pouring it into an iron mould. The mass is next
hammered a little on an anvil, to increase the cohesion of its parts,
and afterwards repeatedly passed between steel rollers, until it has
become a riband as thin as paper.

3. Two ounces and a half of this riband are cut into 150 pieces of
equal dimensions. These are hammered a little to make them smooth, and
then interlaid with pieces of fine vellum four inches square. The
whole, with twenty other pieces of vellum on each side, is inclosed in
two cases of parchment. The packet is then beaten on a marble anvil
with a hammer weighing sixteen pounds, until the gold has been spread
to near the size of the vellum leaves, it, in the mean time, being
often turned over.

4. The gold leaves are next divided into four equal squares, with a
steel knife on a leather cushion; and the 600 leaves thus produced,
are interlaid with a kind of leather or parchment made of the
intestines of the ox, and beaten with a hammer weighing twelve pounds,
until the leaves have been extended as before. They are again
quartered and interlaid, and beaten with a hammer weighing six or
eight pounds.

5. The gold having now been sufficiently extended, the packets are
taken apart, and the leaves cut to a proper and uniform size, by means
of a cane frame on a leather cushion. The leaves, as fast as they are
trimmed, are placed in a book, the paper of which has been covered
with red bole, to prevent the gold from sticking. Of the two ounces
and a half of gold thus treated, only about one ounce remains in
perfect leaves, which, altogether, amount to 2000 three inches and
three-eighths square. The books contain twenty-five leaves, so that
one ounce of gold makes eighty books.

6. Gold extended into leaves, is alloyed, in a greater or less degree,
with silver or copper, or both, because, in a pure state, it would be
too ductile. The newest skins will work the purest gold, and make the
thinnest leaf, because they are the smoothest. The alloy varies from
three to twenty-four grains to the ounce, but in general it is six, or
one part of alloy to eighty of gold.

7. A kind of leaf called _party gold_, is formed by the union of a
thin leaf of gold and a thicker one of silver. The two are laid
together, and afterwards heated and pressed, until they have cohered.
They are then beaten and otherwise treated, as in the process just
described. Silver, and likewise copper, are also beaten into leaves,
although they will by no means bear so great a reduction as gold.
Considerable quantities of copper leaf are brought from Holland, which
in commerce is known by the denomination of "Dutch leaf," or "Dutch
gold."

8. The ancient Romans were not ignorant of the process of
gold-beating, although they did not carry it so far as we do. Pliny
informs us that they sometimes made 750 leaves four fingers square,
from an ounce of gold. At Præneste was a statue of Fortune, gilt with
leaves of a certain thickness; hence those beaten to the same degree
of thickness were called _Prænestines_. Those of another and less
degree of thickness, were called _quæstoriales_, for a similar reason.

9. The Romans began to gild the interior of their houses immediately
after the destruction of Carthage. The wainscots of the Capitol were
first ornamented in this manner; and afterwards it became fashionable
to gild the walls and ceilings of private dwellings, as well as
articles of furniture.

10. _Gold wire._--The ductility of gold is more conspicuous in wire
than in leaves. The wire thus denominated, is in reality silver wire
covered with gold. It is formed by covering a silver rod with thick
leaves of gold, and then drawing it successively through conical holes
of different sizes, made in plates of steel. The wire may be reduced,
in this manner, to a degree of extreme fineness, the gold being drawn
out with the silver, and constituting for it a perfect coating.

11. Wire thus formed is often used in the manufacture of _gold
thread_. Before it is applied in this way, it is flattened between
rollers of polished steel, and then wound on yellow silk by machinery.
The coating of gold on the silver wire employed in this way, does not
exceed the millionth part of an inch in thickness.


THE JEWELLER.

1. The jeweller makes rings, lockets, bracelets, brooches, ear-rings,
necklaces, watch-chains, and trinkets of like nature. The materials of
the best quality of these ornaments are gold, pearls, and precious
stones, although those of an inferior kind are often used.

2. There are several stones to which is applied the epithet
_precious_, of which the following are the principal: the diamond, the
ruby, the sapphire, the topaz, the chrysolite, the beryl, the emerald,
the hyacinth, the amethyst, the garnet, the tourmalin, and the opal.
To these may be added rock crystal, the fine flints of pebbles, the
cat's-eye, the oculis mundi or hydrophanes, the chalcedony, the
moon-stone, the onyx, the carnelian, the sardonyx, agates, and the
Labrador-stone. These stones, together with different kinds of pearl,
are also called gems or jewels.

3. The precious stones are valuable, as articles of merchandise, in
proportion to their scarcity, weight, transparency, lustre, and
hardness. In most of these particulars, the diamond is superior to any
other; but those of the same size are not always of equal value, for
all are not of the same color or brilliancy. The very best are said to
be _diamonds of the first water_. The diamond was called adamant by
the ancients, although this term was not confined exclusively to this
stone.

4. The weight and consequent value of the most precious stones are
estimated in _carats_, one of which is equal to four grains troy
weight, and the value of each carat is increased in proportion to the
size of the stone. In England, the cost of a cut diamond of the first
water is thus estimated:

                 1 carat is           = _l._8
                 2  do.  is 2 × 2 × 8 =    32
                 3  do.  is 3 × 3 × 8 =    72
                 4  do.  is 4 × 4 × 8 =   128

By the foregoing examples, it will be seen that the weight is
multiplied by itself, and the product by the price per carat, which
may be some other sum, according to the general characteristics of the
stone.

5. This rule, however, is not extended to diamonds of more than 20
carats in weight; nor is this or any other rule of estimate strictly
adhered to in every case; nevertheless, it probably comes pretty near
to general usage. In the same country, a perfect ruby of 3-1/2 carats
is worth more than a diamond of equal weight. A ruby weighing one
carat may be worth 10 guineas; two carats, 40 guineas; three carats,
150 guineas; six carats 1000 guineas. A ruby of a deep red color,
exceeding 20 carats, is called a carbuncle; and of these, 108,
weighing from 100 to 200 carats each, are said to have been in the
throne of the Great Mogul.

6. Some of the European sovereigns have, in their possession, diamonds
of great value, several of which were originally brought to England
from India. The _Pitt_ or _Regent diamond_ was purchased in India by
Robert Pitt, grandfather of the Right Honorable William Pitt, for
£12,500 sterling. It was brought to England in a rough state, and
£5000 were there expended in cutting it; but the cuttings themselves
were worth £7000 or £8000. It was sold to the Duke of Orleans, for the
King of France, at the enormous price of £136,000. Its weight is 136
carats; and, before it was cut, it was as large as a common pullet's
egg.

7. A celebrated diamond, in the possession of the emperor of Russia,
is denominated the _Effingham_ or _Russian diamond_. It was brought to
England by the Earl of Effingham, while governor-general of India, and
sold to the Empress Catharine for £90,000. It is inferior in shape to
the last mentioned, but superior to it in magnitude, it weighing 198
carats. The Queen of England has a diamond which cost £22,000.

8. The largest diamond hitherto known was found in the island of
Borneo, and it is now in the possession of the Rajah of Mattan. Many
years ago, the governor of Batavia offered, in exchange for it,
$150,000, and two large brigs of war with their equipments and outfit;
but the rajah refused to part with the jewel, to which the Malays
supposed miraculous power belonged, and which they believed to be
connected with the fate of his family. The weight of this diamond is
367 carats.

9. Other jewels, belonging to different sovereigns, as well as to
private persons, might be mentioned; but a sufficient number has been
noticed to enable the reader to form some idea of the extravagant
expenditures often made for articles of imaginary value. We will
merely add that the royal family of Portugal is in possession of a
stone which was formerly supposed to be a diamond, but which has
lately proved to be some kind of crystal of little value. The weight
of this stone is 1680 carats; and, until its real character was
discovered, it was valued at 224 millions sterling.

10. The value of precious stones was much increased in ancient times,
by the absurd notion commonly entertained, that they possessed
miraculous powers in preventing or curing diseases, as well as in
keeping off witches and evil spirits. These notions still prevail more
or less in heathen nations; and many, even in countries called
Christian, wear them, or something else, as amulets for the same or
similar purposes.

11. _The Gem-sculptor._--Figures and letters are often cut in precious
stones by the gem-engraver, or gem-sculptor, whose art, according to
the opinion of some writers, originated with the Babylonians; but,
according to others, it had its commencement in India or Egypt. In the
latter country, it was first employed in the production of
hieroglyphical figures on basalt and granite rocks. This art, which is
denominated lithoglyptics, or the glyptic art, was held in great
estimation by the Greeks in ancient times. It arose to eminence with
the other fine arts; and, like them, it had its zenith of perfection,
was buried with them in the ruins of the Roman empire, and with them
revived towards the end of the fifteenth century.

12. The productions of gem-sculpture are chiefly of two kinds. The
first of these are _cameos_, which are little bas-reliefs, or figures
raised above the surface. They are commonly made of stones, the strata
of which are of different colors, so that the figure is different in
color from the ground on which it has been raised. The other
productions of this art are denominated _intaglios_. The work of these
is the reverse of that first mentioned, since the figure is cut below
the surface of the stone, so that they serve as seals to produce
impressions in relief upon soft substances.

13. This artist performs his work by means of a lathe, with the aid of
diamond dust. The instruments are made of soft iron, and are fixed in
leaden chucks, which can be readily fastened to one end of the
mandril. The diamond dust is made into thin paste with olive oil, and
is applied to the point of the instrument. The small invisible
particles insinuate themselves into the iron, where they remain
permanently fixed. In producing figures and letters with a tool thus
charged with the hardest substance in nature, the precious stone is
brought in contact with it while in rapid motion.

14. The engraved gems of antiquity have been greatly esteemed, as
works of art, by the curious, and various methods have, therefore,
been devised to imitate them. This has been done in glass in such
perfection, both as to form and color, that good judges can scarcely
distinguish the imitations from the originals. The impression of the
gem is first taken in some kind of fine earth; and, upon the mould
thus formed, the proposed material is pressed, while in a plastic
state.

15. The precious stones generally have likewise been imitated with
great success. The basis of the different compositions is a _paste_
made of the finest flint glass, the materials of which have been
selected and combined with great care. The desired color is produced
with metallic oxydes. A great number of complex receipts are in use
among manufacturers of these articles.

16. _The Lapidary._--The precious stones and imitations of them in
glass are brought to the desired form by the lapidary. The instrument
with which this artist chiefly operates is a wheel which is made to
revolve horizontally before him. It is put in motion by means of an
endless rope extending from another wheel, which is moved with the
left hand of the operator, while, with his right, he holds, in a
proper position, the substance to be reduced.

17. The precious stones, being of small size, cannot be held with
steadiness on the wheel with the hand, nor with any holding
instrument; they are, therefore, first fastened, by means of
sealing-wax, to the end of small sticks. By this simple means, and a
small upright post, against which the hand or the other end of the
stick is rested, the workman can hold a stone in any position he may
desire.

18. The lapidary's wheel is made of different kinds of metals. The
diamond is cut on a wheel of soft steel, by the aid of its own dust
mixed with olive oil. The Oriental ruby, sapphire, and topaz, are cut
on a copper wheel in the same manner, and polished with tripoli and
water. Stones of a less degree of hardness are cut and polished on a
leaden or tin wheel with emery and rotten stone.

19. The ancients were not acquainted with any method of cutting the
diamond, although they applied its powder to polishing, cutting, and
engraving other stones. Gems of this kind, either rough, or polished
by nature, were set as ornaments, and were valued according to the
beauty and perfection of their crystallization and transparency. The
value of any precious stone, or jewel, depends much upon the skill of
the lapidary.

20. _The Pearl-fisherman._--Pearls are obtained from a testaceous fish
of the oyster kind, found in the waters of the East and West Indies,
as well as in other seas of different latitudes. These oysters grow in
some parts of the globe, in clusters, on rocks in the depths of the
sea. Such places are called _pearl-banks_, of which the most
celebrated are near the islands of Ceylon and Japan, and in the
Persian Gulf. The finest and most costly pearls are the Oriental.

21. Pearls are considered by some to be morbid concretions, or
calculi, produced by the endeavor of the animal to fill up the holes
which may have been made from without by small worms. Others suppose
them to be mere concretions of the animal juice about some extraneous
matter which may have been intruded by some means into the shell.

22. To collect the shells containing these singular productions, is
the business of _divers_, who have been brought up to this dangerous
occupation. They must generally descend from eight to twelve fathoms,
and must remain beneath the surface of the water for several minutes,
during which time they are exposed to the attacks of the voracious
shark. In addition to the danger from this cause, the employment is
very destructive of health.

23. In preparing a diver for his descent, a rope is tied round the
body, and a stone, weighing twenty or thirty pounds, is fastened to
the foot to sink him. His ears and nostrils are filled with cotton,
and a sponge dipped in oil is fastened to his arm, to which he may now
and then apply his mouth, in order to breathe without inhaling water.
In addition to these equipments, he is furnished with a knife, with
which the shells may be detached from the rocks, and with a net or
basket, in which they may be deposited.

24. Thus equipped, he descends to the bottom, and having filled his
depository, or having stayed below as long as he may be able, he
unlooses the stone, gives the signal to his companions above, who
quickly draw him into the boat. At some pearl-fisheries, the
diving-bell is employed, which in some degree obviates some of the
dangers before stated.

25. The shells thus obtained are laid by, until the body of the animal
has putrified, when they commonly open of themselves. Those which
contain any pearls, generally have from eight to twelve. The pearls
having been dried, are assorted according to their various magnitudes;
and, to effect this separation, they are passed through nine sieves of
different degrees of fineness. The largest pearls are about the size
of a small walnut; but such are very rare. The smallest are called
_seed pearls_.

26. Pearls are of various colors, such as white, yellow, lead-color,
blackish, and totally black. The "white water" is preferred in Europe,
and the "yellow water," in Arabia and India. In regard to their form,
they vary considerably, being round, pear-formed, onion-formed, and
irregular. The inner part of the pearl muscle is called _nacre_ or
_mother of pearl_, and this is manufactured into beads, snuff-boxes,
spoons, and a variety of other articles.

27. Pearls were objects of luxury among the ancients. A pearl valued
by Pliny at a certain sum, which, reduced to our currency, amounts to
$375,000, was dissolved by Cleopatra, and drunk to the health of
Antony, at a banquet. These beautiful productions are not estimated so
highly at present. The largest will sometimes command four or five
hundred dollars, although very few, which are worth over forty or
fifty dollars, are ever brought to this country.

28. The gem-engraver and the jeweller were both employed by Moses, in
preparing the ornaments in the ephod and breast-plate of the
high-priest. In the former were set onyx stones, and in the latter,
twelve different stones. On the gems of both ornaments, were engraved
the names of the twelve tribes of Israel.

39. We, however, have evidence of the practice of the arts, connected
with the production of jewelry, long before the days of the Jewish
lawgiver. We learn from the twenty-fourth chapter of Genesis, that the
servant of Abraham presented a golden ear-ring, and bracelets for the
hands, to Rebecca, who afterwards became the wife of Isaac. Perhaps
these were brought from Egypt by the patriarch, about seventy years
before.

30. Men have ever been fond of personal ornaments, and there have been
but few nations since the flood, which have not encouraged the
jeweller in some way or other. In modern times, the art has been
greatly improved. The French, for lightness and elegance of design,
have surpassed other nations; but the English, for excellence of
workmanship, have been considered, for ages, unrivalled.

31. In the United States, the manufacture of jewelry is very
extensive, there being large establishments for this purpose in
Philadelphia, and in Newark, N. J., as well as in several other
places. So extensive have been the operations in this branch of
business, and to such advantage have they been carried on, that
importations from other countries have ceased, and this, too, without
the influence of custom-house duties.

32. The capital necessary in carrying on the business of the jeweller,
is considerable, inasmuch as the materials are very expensive. The
operations likewise require the exercise of much ingenuity. These,
however, we shall not attempt to describe, since our article on this
subject has already been extended beyond its proper limits, and since,
also, they could be hardly understood without actual inspection.



[Illustration: WATCH MAKER.]

THE SILVERSMITH, AND THE WATCH-MAKER.


SILVER.

1. Silver is a metal of a fine white color, and, in brilliancy,
inferior to none of the metals except steel. In malleability, it is
next to gold, it being capable of reduction into leaves not more than
the 1/160000 of an inch in thickness, and of being drawn into wire
much finer than a human hair.

2. The relative value of silver and gold has varied considerably in
different ages. In the prosperous period of ancient civilization, one
pound of gold was worth twelve of silver. In Great Britain, the
relative value of the two metals is one to fifteen and one-fifth, and,
on the continent of Europe, it is about one to fifteen. In the United
States, the relative value of these two metals has been recently
established by Congress at one to sixteen. In China and Japan, it is
said to be one to nine or ten.

3. There are two methods of separating silver from its various ores,
and these are called _smelting_ and _amalgamation_. In the former
method, the ore and a due proportion of lead are heated together; and
the latter, from its great affinity for silver, unites with it, and
separates it from other substances. The two metals are afterwards
separated from each other, by melting them on a cupel, and then
exposing them to a current of atmospheric air, by which the lead is
converted into an oxyde, while the silver remains untouched. This
process is called _cupellation_.

4. In the other method, the first thing done is to roast the ore, to
expel the sulphur and other volatile parts. It is then reduced to an
impalpable powder by machinery; and having been sifted, it is agitated
sixteen or eighteen hours in barrels, with a quantity of quicksilver,
water, and iron, combined in certain proportions. This agitation
causes the several substances composing the _charge_, to unite
according to their respective affinities.

5. The silver and mercury combine, forming an amalgam, which, having
been put into a leather sack, a part of the latter is separated from
the rest by filtration, still leaving six parts of this metal to one
of the silver. The amalgam is next submitted to the action of heat in
a distilling furnace, by which the mercury is sublimated.

6. The value of the silver annually taken from the mines in all parts
of the world, is supposed to be about $20,000,000, of which Mexico and
South America yield the greater part. The several silver mines of
Europe and Asia produce about two millions and a half.


THE SILVERSMITH.

1. The artisan who forms certain articles of gold and silver, is
called indifferently a goldsmith or a silversmith. The former
denomination is most commonly employed in England, and the latter, in
the United States.

2. The most common subjects of manufacture by the silversmith are
cups, goblets, chalices, tankards, spoons, knives, forks, waiters,
bread-trays, tea-pots, coffee-pots, cream-pots, sugar-bowls,
sugar-tongs, and pencil-cases. Many of these articles he sometimes
makes of gold; this is especially the case in Europe, and some parts
of Asia. In the United States, the people are commonly satisfied with
the less expensive metal.

3. A great proportion of the silver used by this mechanic, has been
previously coined into dollars. In working these into different
utensils or vessels, he first melts them in a crucible, and casts the
silver into solid masses by pouring it into iron moulds; and having
forged it on an anvil, he reduces it still further, and to a uniform
thickness, by passing it several times between steel rollers. In
giving additional explanations of the operations of the silversmith,
we will describe the manner in which a plain tea-pot is manufactured.

4. In forming the body, or containing part, the plate, forged and
rolled as just described, is cut into a circular form, and placed on a
block of soft wood with a concave face, where it is beaten with a
convex hammer, until it has been brought to a form much like that of a
saucer. It is then placed upon an anvil, and beaten a while with a
long-necked hammer with a round flattish face.

5. It is next _raised_ to the proposed form by forging it on a long
slender anvil, called a _stake_, with a narrow-faced hammer, which
spreads the metal perpendicularly from the bottom, or laterally,
according to the position in which it may be held when brought in
contact with the metal.

6. After the piece has been thus brought to the proposed form, it is
_planished_ all over by beating it with a small hammer on the outside,
while it rests on a small steel head on the inside. During the
performance of these operations, the silver is occasionally _annealed_
by heating it in the fire; but it is worked while in a cold state,
except in the first forging, when it is wrought while a little below
red heat.

7. The several pieces which compose a tea-pot of ordinary
construction, amount to about fifteen, nearly all of which are rolled
and forged in the manner just described. The knob on the lid, the
handle, and the spout, are sometimes cast, and at other times, the two
pieces of which they are formed are cut from a plate, and brought to a
proper figure by impressing them with steel dies.

8. The figures seen on the cheaper kinds of silver tea-pots, as well
as on other vessels and utensils, are commonly made by passing the
plates or strips between engraved steel rollers, or by stamping them
with steel dies. The dies are commonly brought in sudden and violent
contact with the metal by means of an iron _drop_, which is let fall
from a height upon it.

9. After the several parts have been brought to the proper shape, and
to the requisite finish, they are firmly united together by means of a
solder composed of about three parts of silver and one of brass and
copper. Before the spout and handle are soldered on, the other parts,
which have been thus united into one piece, are brought to a certain
degree of polish.

10. This is effected chiefly in a lathe, by holding against the piece,
while in rapid motion, first a file, then a scraper, and afterwards
pumice stone and Scotch stone. It is then held against a rapidly
revolving brush, charged with fine brickdust and sweet oil. The handle
and spout are next soldered on. After this, the vessel is annealed,
and put in _pickle_, or, in other words, into a weak solution of oil
of vitriol. It is then scoured with sand and water, and the whole
operation is completed by burnishing the smooth parts with a steel
instrument.

11. In the more expensive kinds of wares, the raised figures and the
frosty appearance are produced by a process called _chasing_. In
executing this kind of work, a drawing is first made on the silver
with a lead pencil. The several parts are then raised from the other
side, corresponding as nearly as possible to it. The vessel or piece
is then filled with, or placed upon, melted cement, composed of pitch
and brick-dust; and, after the cement has become hard by cooling, the
chaser reduces the raised parts to the form indicated by the drawing,
by means of small steel punches. The roughness of surface, and frosty
appearance, are produced by punches indented on the end.

12. The operations of the silversmith are exceedingly various, many of
which could be hardly understood from mere description. We would,
therefore, recommend to the curious, actual inspection, assuring them
that the ingenuity displayed in executing the work in the different
branches of the business, is well worthy of their attention. We will
merely add, that spoons, knives, and forks, are not cast, as is
frequently supposed, but forged from strips of silver cut from rolled
sheets.

13. The earliest historical notice of gold and silver is found in the
thirteenth chapter of Genesis, where it is stated that Abraham
returned to Canaan from Egypt, "rich in cattle, in silver, and in
gold." This event took place about 1920 years before Christ, it being
but little more than 400 years after the deluge. From the authority
of the same book, we also learn, that during the life of this
patriarch, those metals were employed as a medium of commercial
intercourse, and as the materials for personal ornaments, vessels, and
utensils.

14. From the preceding facts, we have reason to believe that gold and
silver were known to the antediluvians; for, had not this been the
case, they could hardly have been held in such estimation so early as
the time of Abraham. In short, they were probably wrought even in the
days of the original progenitor of the human race, as was evidently
the case with iron and copper.


THE CLOCK AND WATCH MAKER.

1. The great divisions of time, noted by uncivilized men, are those
which are indicated by the changes of the moon, and the annual and
diurnal revolutions of the earth; but the ingenuity of man was very
early exercised in devising methods of measuring more minute periods
of duration.

2. The earliest contrivance for effecting this object was the
sun-dial. This instrument was known to the ancient Egyptians,
Chaldeans, Chinese, and Bramins. It was likewise known to the Hebrews,
at least as early as 740 years before Christ, in the days of Ahaz the
king. The Greeks and the Romans borrowed it from their Eastern
neighbors. The first sun-dial at Rome was set up by Papirius Cursor,
about 300 years before Christ. Before this period, the Romans
determined the time of day by the rude method of observing the length
of shadows.

3. The sun-dial, as it is now constructed, consists of a plate,
divided into twelve equal parts, like the face of a clock, on which
the falling of a shadow indicates the time of day. The shadow is
projected by the sun, through the intervention of a rod or the edge
of a _plate stile_ erected on the plane of the dial. But, since the
dial was useful only in the clear day, another instrument was
invented, which could be used at all times, in every variety of
situation; and to this was given the name of _clepsydra_.

4. This instrument is supposed to have been invented in Egypt; but, at
what period, or by whom, it is not stated. Its construction was
varied, in different ages and countries, according with the particular
modes of reckoning time; but the constant dropping or running of water
from one vessel into another, through a small aperture, is the basis
in all the forms which it has assumed. The time was indicated by the
regularly increasing height of the water in the receiving vessel.

5. The clepsydra was introduced into Greece by Plato, near 400 years
before Christ, and, about 200 years after this, into Rome, by Scipio
Africanus. It is said that Pompey brought a valuable one from the
East, and that Julius Cæsar met with one in England, by which he
discovered that the summer nights were shorter there than in Italy.

6. The use which Pompey made of his instrument, was to limit the
length of speeches in the senate. Hence he is said, by a historian of
those times, to have been the first Roman who put bridles upon
eloquence. A similar use was made of the clepsydra in the courts of
justice, first in Greece, and afterwards in Rome.

7. A kind of water-clock, or clepsydra, adapted to the modern
divisions of time, was invented near the middle of the seventeenth
century; and these were extensively used, in various parts of Europe,
for a considerable time; but they are now entirely superseded by our
common clocks and watches, which are far more perfect in their
operation, and, in all respects, better adapted to the purposes to
which they are applied.

8. The invention of the clock is concealed in the greatest obscurity.
Some writers attribute it to the monks, as this instrument was used in
the twelfth century in the monasteries, to regulate the inmates in
their attendance on prayers both by night and by day. Others suppose
that a knowledge of this valuable instrument was derived from the
Saracens, through the intercourse arising from the crusades. Be this
as it may, clocks were but little known in Europe, until the beginning
of the fourteenth century.

9. Richard, abbot of St. Alban's, England, made a clock in 1326, such
as had never been heard of until then. It not only indicated the
course of the sun and moon, but also the ebbing and flowing of the
tide. Large clocks on steeples began to be used in this century. The
first of this kind is supposed to have been made and put up in Padua
by Jacobus Dondi.

10. A steeple clock was set up in Boulogne, in 1356; and, in 1364,
Henry de Wyck, a German artist, placed one in the palace of Charles
V., king of France. In 1368, three Dutchmen introduced clock-work into
England, under the patronage of Edward III. Clocks began to be common
both in England and on the Continent, about the end of the fifteenth
century.

11. The clock of Henry de Wyck is the most ancient instrument of this
kind of which we have a description. The wheels were made of wrought
iron, and the teeth were cut by hand. In other respects, also, it was
a rude piece of mechanism, and not at all capable of keeping time with
accuracy. But, rude as it was, it is not likely that it was the
invention of a single individual; but that, after the first rude
machine was put in motion, it received several improvements from
various persons. This has, at least, been the case with all the
improvements made on the clock of Henry de Wyck, to the present day.

12. The application of the pendulum to clock-work appears to have been
first made by Vincenzo Galileo, in 1649; but the improvement was
rendered completely successful, in 1656, by Christian Huygens, a Dutch
philosopher. The laws of the oscillation of the pendulum were first
investigated by Galileo, the great Italian philosopher, and father of
the Galileo just mentioned. His attention was attracted to this
subject by the swinging of a lamp suspended from the ceiling of the
Cathedral, at Pisa, his native city.

13. The clocks first made were of a large size, and were placed only
in public edifices. The works were, at length, reduced in their
dimensions, and these useful machines were gradually introduced into
private dwellings. They were finally made of a portable size, and were
carried about the person. These portable clocks had, for their
maintaining power, a main-spring of steel, instead of a weight, which
was used in the larger time-keepers.

14. The original pocket-watches differed but little, if at all, in the
general plan of their construction, from the portable clocks just
mentioned. The transition from one kind of instrument to the other
was, therefore, obvious and easy; but the time of the change cannot be
certainly determined. It is commonly admitted, however, that Peter
Hele constructed the first watch, in 1510.

15. Watches appear to have been extensively manufactured at Nuremburg,
in Germany, soon after their invention, as one of the names by which
they were designated, was _Nuremburg eggs_. These instruments, as well
as clocks, were in common use in France, in 1544, when the company of
clock and watch makers of Paris was first incorporated.

16. In 1658, the spring balance was invented by Doctor Nathaniel
Hooke, an English philosopher. At least the invention is attributed to
him by his countrymen. On the Continent it is claimed for Christian
Huygens. Before this improvement was made, the performance of watches
was so defective, that the best of them could not be relied upon for
accurate time an hour together. Their owners were obliged to set them
often to the proper time, and wind them up twice a day.

17. After the great improvements had been effected in the clock and
watch by Huygens and Hooke, several others of minor importance were
successively made by different persons; but our limits do not allow us
to give them a particular notice; we will only state that the
repeating apparatus of both clocks and watches was invented, about the
year 1676, by one Barlow, an Englishman; that the compensation or
gridiron pendulum was invented by George Graham, of London, in 1715;
and that jewels were applied to watches, to prevent friction, by one
Facio, a German.

18. Clocks and watches are constructed on the same general principles.
The mechanism of both is composed of wheel-work, with contrivances to
put it in motion, and to regulate its movements. The moving or
maintaining power in large clocks is a weight suspended by a cord to a
cylinder. In watches, and sometimes in small clocks, this office is
performed by a steel spring. In the clock, the regulation of the
machinery is effected by the pendulum, and in the watch, by the
balance-wheel, or spring balance. In either case, the maintaining
power is prevented from expending itself, except in measured portions.

19. The time is indicated by hands, or pointers, which move on the
dial plate. The minute hand is attached to the axle of the wheel which
makes its revolution in sixty minutes, and the hour hand to the one
which makes the revolution in twelve hours. Greater and smaller
divisions of time are kept and indicated on the same principle. The
part of a clock which keeps the time, is called the going part; and
that which strikes the hour, the striking part.

20. The division of labor is particularly conspicuous in the
manufacture of watches, as the production of almost every part is the
labor of a distinct artisan. The workman who polishes the several
parts, and puts them together, is called, among this class of
tradesmen, the _finisher_ or _watch-maker_. Those, therefore, who deal
largely in watches in England, purchase the different parts from the
several manufacturers, and cause them to be put together by the
finisher.

21. Watches are extensively manufactured in various parts of Europe,
but particularly in French Switzerland, France, and England. The
London watchmakers have been celebrated for good workmanship, for more
than a century and a half. This manufacture has not yet been commenced
in the United States, although the machinery, or _inside work_, is
very often imported in tin boxes, and afterwards supplied with dial
plates and cases. This is especially the case with the more valuable
kinds of watches.

22. Brass clocks are manufactured in most of our cities, and in many
of our villages, and wooden clocks, in great numbers, in the state of
Connecticut. These last are carried by pedlers into the remotest parts
of the country, so that almost every farmer in our land can divide the
day by the oscillations of the pendulum.



[Illustration: COPPERSMITH.]

THE COPPERSMITH, THE BUTTON-MAKER, AND THE PIN-MAKER.


COPPER.

1. Copper is a ductile and malleable metal, of a pale yellowish red
color. It is sometimes found in a native state, but not in great
quantities. The copper of commerce is principally extracted from the
ores called sulphurets. Copper mines are wrought in many countries;
but those of Sweden are said to furnish the purest copper of commerce,
although those of the island of Anglesea are said to be the richest.

2. In working sulphureted ore, it is first broken into pieces, and
roasted with a moderate heat in a kiln, to free it from sulphur. When
the ore is also largely combined with arsenic, a greater degree of
heat is necessary. In such a case, it is spread upon a large floor of
a reverberatory furnace, and exposed to a greater heat. By this
treatment, the sulphur and arsenic are soon driven off.

3. The ore is then transferred to the fusing furnace, and smelted in
contact with fuel. The specific gravity of the copper, causes it to
sink beneath the _scoria_ into a receptacle at the bottom of the
furnace. To render the metal sufficiently pure, it requires repeated
fusions, and, even after these, it usually contains a little lead, and
a small portion of antimony.

4. _Alloys of copper._--Copper is combined by fusion with a great
number of metals, and, in such combinations, it is of great importance
in the arts. When added in small quantities to gold and silver, it
increases their hardness, without materially injuring their color, or
diminishing their malleability. An alloy, called white copper,
imported from China, and denominated, in that country, _pakfong_, is
composed of copper, zinc, nickel, and iron. It is very tough and
malleable, and is easily cast, hammered, and polished. When well
manufactured, it is very white, and as little liable to oxydation as
silver.

5. Copper, with about one-fourth of its weight of lead, forms
_pot-metal_. _Brass_ is an alloy of copper and zinc. The proportion of
the latter metal varies from one-eighth to one-fourth. Mixtures,
chiefly of these two metals, are also employed to form a variety of
gold-colored alloys, among which are _prince's metal_, _pinchbeck_,
_tombac_, and _bath-metal_.

6. A series of alloys is formed by a combination of tin and copper.
They are all more or less brittle, rigid, and sonorous, according to
the relative proportions of the two metals; these qualities increasing
with the amount of tin. The principal of these alloys are, _bronze_,
employed in the casting of statues; _gun-metal_, of which pieces of
artillery are made; _bell-metal_, of which bells are made; and
_speculum-metal_, which is used for the mirrors of reflecting
telescopes.

7. The alloys of copper were very prevalent among the nations of
antiquity, and were used, in many cases where iron would have answered
a much better purpose. The instruments of husbandry and of war, as
well as those for domestic uses generally, were usually made of
bronze, a composition which furnishes the best substitute for iron and
steel. The Corinthian brass, so celebrated in antiquity, was a mixture
of copper, gold, and silver.

8. The earliest information of the use of this metal by mankind, is
found in the fourth chapter of Genesis, in which it is stated, that
"Tubal-Cain was the instructer of every artificer in brass and iron."
This individual was the seventh generation from Adam, and was born
about the year of the world 500.


THE COPPERSMITH.

1. Copper, being easily wrought, is applied to many useful purposes.
It is formed into sheets by heating it in a furnace, and compressing
it between steel rollers. The operation of rolling it constitutes a
distinct business, and is performed in mills erected for the express
purpose.

2. The rolled sheets are purchased according to weight by the
coppersmith, who employs them in sheathing the bottoms of ships, in
covering the roofs of houses, and in constructing steam-boilers and
stills. He also fabricates them into a variety of household utensils,
although the use of this metal in preparing and preserving food, is
attended with some danger, on account of the poisonous quality of the
verdigris which is produced on the surface.

3. An attempt has been made to obviate this difficulty, by lining the
vessels with a thin coating of tin. This answers the purpose fully, so
long as the covering of tin remains entire. But, in cases of exposure
to heat, it is liable to be melted off, unless it is kept covered with
water.

4. This metal can be reduced by forging to any shape; but, during the
process, it will bear no heat greater than a red heat; and, as it does
not admit of welding, like iron, different pieces are united with
bolts, or rivets, of the same metal, as in the case of the larger
kinds of vessels, or by means of solder made of brass and zinc, or
zinc and lead, as in the case of those of smaller dimensions.

5. Brass is applied to a greater variety of purposes in the arts than
copper. This preference has arisen from its superior beauty, from the
greater facility with which it can be formed into any required shape,
and from its being less influenced by exposure to the ordinary
chemical agents.

6. Some of the articles manufactured of brass, are forged to the
required form, and others are made of rolled sheets; but, in most
cases, they pass through the hands of the brass-founder, who liquifies
the metal, and pours it into moulds of sand. For the sake of
lightness, and economy of material, many articles are made hollow; in
such cases, they are cast in halves or pieces, and these are
afterwards soldered together.

7. Pieces which have been cast are generally reduced in size, and
brought more exactly to the proposed form, either in a lathe, with
tools adapted to turning, or in the vice, with files and other
suitable instruments. The operators in brass form a class of mechanics
distinct from those who work in copper.


THE BUTTON-MAKER.

1. Trifling as the manufacture of buttons may appear, there are few
which include a greater variety of operations. The number of
substances of which they are made is very great, among which are
gold, silver, various alloys of copper, steel, tin, glass,
mother-of-pearl, bone, horn, and tortoise-shell, besides those which
consist of moulds of wood or bone, covered with silk, mohair, or
similar materials.

2. In making gilt buttons, the _blanks_, or bodies, are cut from
rolled plates of brass, with a circular punch driven by means of a fly
wheel. The blanks thus produced, are planished with a plain die, if
they are intended for plain buttons; or with one having on it an
engraved figure, if they are to be of the ornamental kind. In either
case, the die is usually driven with a fly press.

3. The shanks are next placed on one side of the proposed button, and
held there temporarily with a wire clasp. A small quantity of solder
and rosin having been applied to each shank, the buttons are exposed
to heat on an iron plate, until the solder shall have melted. The
shanks having been thus firmly soldered on, the buttons are turned off
smoothly on their edges in a lathe.

4. The buttons are next freed from oxyde, by immersing them in diluted
nitric acid, and by friction in a lathe. They are then put into a
vessel containing a quantity of nitric acid supersaturated with
mercury. The superior attraction of the copper for the acid, causes a
portion of it to be absorbed; and the mercury held in solution by it,
is deposited on the buttons, which are next put into a vessel
containing an amalgam of mercury and gold.

5. The amalgam is formed by melting the two metals together, and
afterwards pouring them into cold water. The composition having been
put into a bag of chamois leather, and a part of the mercury pressed
through the pores, the remaining portion is left in a condition
approaching the consistency of butter, and in a fit state for use.
Before the buttons are put into the amalgam, a small quantity of
nitric acid is added.

6. The buttons having been covered with the amalgam, as before stated,
the mercury is discharged, that the gold may adhere directly to the
brass. This object is effected by heating the buttons in an iron pan,
until the amalgam begins to melt, when they are thrown into a large
felt cap, and stirred with a brush. This operation is repeated several
times, until all the mercury has been volatilized. The whole process
is finished by again burnishing them, and putting them on cards for
sale.

7. White metal buttons are made of brass alloyed with different
proportions of tin. They are cast, ten or twelve dozens at a time, in
moulds formed in sand, by means of a pattern. The shanks are placed in
the centre of the moulds, so that, when the metal is poured in, they
become a part of the buttons. The buttons are next polished in a
lathe, with grindstone dust and oil, rotten stone and crocus martis.
They are then boiled with a quantity of grained tin, in a solution of
crude red tartar or argol, and lastly, finished with finely-pulverized
crocus, applied with buff leather.

8. Glass buttons are made of various colors, in imitation of the opal
and other precious stones. While manufacturing them, the glass is kept
in a state of fusion, and a portion of it for each button is nipped
off out of the crucible with a metallic mould, somewhat similar to
that used for running bullets, the workman having previously inserted
into it the shank.


THE PIN-MAKER.

1. There is scarcely any commodity cheaper than pins, and none which
passes through the hands of a greater number of workmen in the
manufacture, twenty-five persons being successively employed upon the
material, before it appears in these useful articles, ready for sale.

2. The wire having been reduced to the required size, is cut into
pieces long enough to make six pins. These pieces are brought to a
point at each end by holding them, a handful at a time, on a
grindstone. This part of the operation is performed with great
rapidity, as a boy twelve years of age can sharpen 16,000 in an hour.
When the wires have been thus pointed, the length of a pin is taken
off at each end, by another hand. The grinding and cutting off are
repeated, until the whole length has been used up.

3. The next operation is that of forming the heads, or, as the
pin-makers term it, _head-spinning_. This is done with a
_spinning-wheel_, by which one piece of wire is wound upon another,
the former, by this means, being formed into a spiral coil similar to
that of the springs formerly used in elastic suspenders. The coiled
wire is cut into suitable portions with the shears, every two turns of
it being designed for one head. These heads are fastened to the
_lengths_ by means of a hammer, which is put in motion with the foot,
while the hands are employed in taking up, adjusting, and placing the
parts upon the anvil.

4. The pins are now finished, as to their form; but still they are
merely brass. To give them the requisite whiteness, they are thrown
into a copper vessel, containing a solution of tin and the lees of
wine. After a while, the tin leaves the liquid, and fastens on the
pins, which, when taken out, assume a white appearance. They are next
polished by agitating them with a quantity of bran in a vessel moved
in a rotary manner. The bran is separated from them, as chaff is
separated from wheat.

5. Pins are also made of iron wire, and colored black by a varnish
composed of linseed oil and lamp-black. This kind is designed for
persons in mourning. Pins are likewise made with a head at each end,
to be used by females in adjusting the hair for the night, without the
danger of pricking. Several machines have been invented for this
manufacture, one of which makes a solid head from the body of the pin
itself; but the method just described still continues to be the
prevailing one.

6. Pins are made of various sizes. The smallest are called minikins,
the next, short whites. The larger kinds are numbered from three to
twenty, each size increasing one half from three to five, one from
five to fourteen, and two from fourteen to twenty. They are put up in
papers, according to their numbers, as we usually see them, or in
papers containing all sizes. In the latter case, they are sold by
weight.

7. It is difficult, or even impossible, to trace the origin of this
useful little article. It is probable, however, that it was invented
in France, in the fifteenth century. One of the prohibitions of a
statute, relating to the pin-makers of Paris of the sixteenth century,
forbid any manufacturer to open more than one shop for the sale of his
wares, except on new-year's day, and on the day previous.

8. Hence we may infer, that it was customary to give pins as
new-year's presents, or that it was the usual practice to make the
chief purchases at this time. At length it became a practice, in many
parts of Europe, for the husband to allow to his wife a sum of money
for this purpose. We see here the origin of the phrase, _pin-money_,
which is now applied to designate the sum allowed to the wife for her
personal expenses generally.

9. Prior to the year 1443, the art of making pins from brass wire was
not known in England. Until that period, they were made of bone,
ivory, or box-wood. Brass pins are first mentioned in the English
statute book, in 1483, when those of foreign manufacture were
prohibited.

10. Although these useful implements are made in London, and in
several other places in England, yet Gloucester is the principal seat
of this manufacture in that kingdom. It was introduced into that
place, in 1626, by John Silsby, and it now contains nine distinct
manufactories, in which are employed about 1500 persons, chiefly women
and children. Pins are also manufactured extensively in the villages
near Paris, and in several other places in France, as well as in
Germany.

11. The business of making pins has been lately commenced in the city
of New-York, and it is said that the experiment has been so
successful, both in the perfection of the workmanship, and in the
rapidity of the production, that pins of American manufacture bid fair
to compete, at least, with those of foreign countries.



[Illustration: TINPLATE WORKER.]

THE TINPLATE WORKER, &c.


TIN.

1. Tin is a whitish metal, less elastic, and less sonorous than any
other metal, except lead. It is found in the mountains which separate
Gallicia from Portugal, and in the mountains between Saxony and
Bohemia. It also occurs in the peninsula of Molucca, in India, Mexico,
and Chili. But the mines of Cornwall and Devonshire, in England, are
more productive than those of all other countries united.

2. There are two ores of tin, one of which is called _tin stone_, and
the other _tin pyrites_; the former of these is the kind from which
the metal is extracted. The ore is usually found in veins, which often
penetrate the hardest rocks. When near the surface of the earth, or at
their commencement, they are very small, but they increase in size,
as they penetrate the earth. The direction of these veins, or, as the
miners call them, _lodes_, is usually east and west.

3. The miners follow the lode, wheresoever it may lead; and, when they
extend to such a depth, that the waters become troublesome in the
mine, as is frequently the case, they are pumped up with machinery
worked by steam, or drawn off by means of a drain, called an _adit_.
The latter method is generally adopted, when practicable.

4. The ore is raised to the surface through shafts, which have been
sunk in a perpendicular direction upon the vein. At the top of the
shaft, is placed a windlass, to draw up the _kibbuts_, or baskets,
containing the ore. Near St. Austle, in Cornwall, is a mine which has
not less than fifty shafts, half of which are now in use. Some of the
veins have been worked a full mile, and some of the shafts are nearly
seven hundred feet deep.

5. At St. Austle Moor, there is a mine of _stream tin_, about three
miles in length. The tin, together with other substances, has been
deposited in a valley, by means of small streams from the hills. The
deposite is about twenty feet deep, and the several materials of which
it is composed, have settled in strata, according to their specific
gravity. The ore, being the heaviest, is, of course, found at the
bottom.

6. The ore, from whatever source it may be obtained, is first
pulverized in a stamping mill, and then washed, to free it from the
stony matter with which it may be united. The ore, thus partially
freed from foreign matter, is put into a reverberatory furnace, with
fuel and limestone, and heated intensely. The contents of the furnace
having been brought to a state of fusion, the lime unites with the
earthy matters, and flows with them into a liquid glass, while the
carbon of the coal unites with the tin. The metal sinks, by its
specific gravity, to the bottom of the furnace, and is let out, after
having been exposed to the heat about ten hours.

7. The tin thus obtained, is very impure; it therefore requires a
second fusion, to render it fit for use. After having been melted a
second time, it is cast into blocks weighing about three hundred
pounds. These blocks are taken to places designated by law, and there
stamped, by inspectors appointed for the purpose by the Duke of
Cornwall. In performing this operation, the inspector cuts off a
corner, and stamps the block at that place, with the proper seal, and
with the name of the smelter. These precautions give assurance, that
the metal is pure, and that the duty has been paid.

8. The duty is four shillings sterling per hundred weight, which is
paid to the Duke of Cornwall, who is also Prince of Wales. The revenue
from this source amounts to about thirty thousand pounds a year. The
owner of the soil also receives one sixth, or one eighth of the ore as
his _dish_, as the miners call it. The miners and the smelters receive
certain proportions of the metal for their services.

9. Tin was procured from Britain at a very early period. The
Phoenicians are said by Strabo to have passed the Pillars of Hercules,
now the Straits of Gibraltar, about 1200 years before Christ. But the
time at which they discovered the tin islands, which they denominated
_Cassorides_, cannot be ascertained from history, although it is
evident from many circumstances, that the Scilly Islands, and the
western ports of Britain, were the places from which these early
navigators procured the tin with which they supplied the parts of the
world to which they traded.

10. For a long time, the Phoenicians and the Carthaginians enjoyed the
tin trade, to the exclusion of all other nations. After the
destruction of Carthage by the Romans, a colony of Phocean Greeks,
established at Marseilles, carried on this trade; but it came into the
hands of the Romans, after the conquest of Britain by Julius Cæsar.

11. The Cornish mines furnish incontestable proofs of having been
worked many hundred years ago. In digging to the depth of forty or
fifty fathoms, the miners frequently meet with large timbers imbedded
in the ore. Tools for mining have also been found in the same, or
similar situations. The mines, therefore, which had been exhausted of
the ore, have, in the course of time, been replenished by a process of
nature.

12. To what purposes the ancients applied all the tin which they
procured at so much labor and cost, is not precisely known. It is
probable, that the Tyrians consumed a portion of it, in dyeing their
purple and scarlet. It formed then, as it now does, many important
alloys with copper. The mirrors of antiquity were made of a
composition of these metals.

13. The method of extracting tin from its ores was probably very
defective in ancient times. At least, it was so for several centuries
before the time of Elizabeth, when Sir Francis Godolphin introduced
great improvements in the tin works. The use of the reverberatory
furnace was commenced, about the beginning of the eighteenth century,
and soon after pit-coal was substituted for charcoal.

14. This metal, in its solid state, is called _block-tin_. It is
applied, without any admixture with any other metal, to the formation
of vessels, which are not to be exposed to a temperature much above
that of hot water. A kind of ware, called _biddery ware_, is made of
tin alloyed with a little copper. The vessels made of this
composition, are rendered black by the application of nitre, common
salt, and sal ammoniac. _Foil_ is also made by pressing it between
steel rollers, or by hammering it, as in the case of gold by the
gold-beaters.

15. But tin is most extensively applied as a coating to other metals,
stronger than itself, and more subject to oxydation. The places which
are usually denominated tin, are thin sheets of iron coated with this
metal. The iron is reduced to thin plates in a rolling-mill, and these
are prepared for being tinned, by first steeping them in water
acidulated with muriatic acid, and then freeing them from oxyde by
heating, scaling, and rolling them.

16. The tin is melted in deep oblong vessels, and kept in a state of
fusion by a charcoal fire. To preserve its surface from oxydation, a
quantity of fat or oil is kept floating upon it. The plates are dipped
perpendicularly into the tin, and held there for some time. When
withdrawn, they are found to have acquired a bright coating of the
melted metal. The dipping is performed three times for _single tin
plate_, and six times for _double tin plate_. The tin penetrates the
iron, and forms an alloy.

17. Various articles of iron, such as spoons, nails, bridle-bits, and
small chains, are coated with tin, by immersing them in that metal,
while in a state of fusion. The great affinity of tin and copper,
renders it practicable to apply a thin layer of the former metal to
the surface of the latter; and this is often done, as stated in the
article on the coppersmith.

18. Tin and quicksilver are applied to the polished surface of glass,
for the purpose of forming mirrors. In silvering plain looking-glasses,
a flat, horizontal slab is used as a table. This is first covered with
paper, and then with a sheet of tin foil of the size of the glass. A
quantity of quicksilver is next laid on the foil, and spread over it
with a roll of cloth, or with a hare's foot.

19. After as much quicksilver as the surface will hold, has been
spread on, and while it is yet in a fluid state, the glass is shoved
on the sheet of foil from the edge of the table, driving a part of the
liquid metal before it. The glass is then placed in an inclined
position, that every unnecessary portion of the quicksilver may be
drained off, after which it is again laid flat upon the slab, and
pressed for a considerable time with heavy weights. The remaining
quicksilver amalgamates with the tin, and forms a permanent,
reflecting surface.


THE TIN-PLATE WORKER.

1. The materials on which the tinner, or tin-plate worker, operates,
are the rolled sheets of iron, coated with tin, as just described. He
procures the sheets by the box, and applies them to the roofs and
other parts of houses, or works them up into various utensils, such as
pails, pans, bake-ovens, measures, cups, and ducts for conveying water
from the roofs of houses.

2. In making the different articles, the sheets are cut into pieces of
proper size, with a huge pair of shears, and these are brought to the
proposed form by different tools, adapted to the purpose. The several
parts are united by means of a solder made of a composition of tin and
lead. The solder is melted, and made to run to any part, at the will
of the workman, by means of a copper instrument, heated for the
purpose in a small furnace with a charcoal fire.

3. On examining almost any vessel of tin ware, it will be perceived,
that, where the parts are united, one of the edges, at least, and
sometimes both, are turned, that the solder may be easily and
advantageously applied. It will also be discovered that iron wire is
applied to those parts requiring more strength than is possessed by
the tin itself. The edges and handles are especially strengthened in
this manner.

4. The edges of the tin were formerly turned on a steel edge, or a
kind of anvil called a _stock_, with a mallet; and, in some cases,
this method is still pursued; but this part of the work is now more
expeditiously performed, by means of several machines invented by Seth
Peck, of Hartford Co., Connecticut. These machines greatly expedite
the manufacture of tin wares, and have contributed much towards
reducing their price.

5. This manufacture is an extensive branch of our domestic industry;
and vast quantities of tin, in the shape of various utensils, are sold
in different parts of the United States, by a class of itinerant
merchants, called _tin-pedlers_, who receive in payment for their
goods, rags, old pewter, brass, and copper, together with feathers,
hogs' bristles, and sometimes ready money.


LEAD.

1. Next to iron, lead is the most extensively diffused, and the most
abundant metal. It is found in various combinations in nature; but
that mineralized by sulphur is the most abundant. This ore is
denominated _galena_ by the mineralogists, and is the kind from which
nearly all the lead of commerce is extracted.

2. The ore having been powdered, and freed, as far as possible, from
stony matter, is fused either in a blast or reverberatory furnace. In
the smelting, lime is used as a flux, and this combines with the
sulphur and earthy matters, while the lead unites with the carbon of
the fuel, and sinks to the bottom of the furnace, whence it is
occasionally let out into a reservoir.

3. Lead extracted from galena, often contains a sufficient proportion
of silver to render it an object to extract it. This is done by
oxydizing the lead by means of heat, and a current of air. At the end
of this operation, the silver remains with a small quantity of lead,
which is afterwards separated by the process of cupellation. The oxyde
is applied to the purposes for which it is used, or it is reduced
again to a metallic state.

4. The lead mines on the Mississippi are very productive, and very
extensive. The principal mines are in the neighborhood of Galena, in
the north-western part of Illinois, and these are the richest on the
globe. The lead mines in the vicinity of Potosi, Missouri, are also
very productive. About 3,000,000 pounds are annually smelted in the
United States.

5. Lead, on account of its easy fusibility and softness, can be
readily applied to a variety of purposes. It is cast in moulds, to
form weights, bullets, and other small articles. Cisterns are lined,
and roofs, &c., are covered with sheet lead; and also in the
construction of pumps and aqueducts, leaden pipes are considerably
used. The mechanic who applies this metal to these purposes, is called
a plumber.

6. Lead is cast into sheets in sand, on large tables having a high
ledge on each side. The melted lead is poured out upon the surface
from a box, which is made to move on rollers across the table, and is
equalized, by passing over it a straight piece of wood called a
_strike_. The sheets thus formed, are afterwards reduced in thickness,
and spread to greater dimensions, by compressing them between steel
rollers.

7. Leaden pipes may be made in various ways. They were at first formed
of sheet lead, bent round a cylindrical bar, or mandrel, and then
soldered; but pipes formed in this manner, were liable to crack and
break. The second method consists in casting successive portions of
the tube in a cylindrical mould, having in it a core. As soon as the
tube gets cold, it is drawn nearly out of the mould, and more lead is
poured in, which unites with the tube previously formed. But pipes
cast in this way are found to have imperfections, arising from flaws
and air bubbles.

8. In the third method, which is the one most commonly practised, a
thick tube of lead is cast upon one end of a long polished iron
cylinder, or mandrel, of the size of the bore of the intended pipe.
The lead is then reduced, and drawn out in length, either by drawing
it on the mandrel through circular holes of different sizes, in a
steel plate, or by rolling it between contiguous rollers, which have a
semicircular groove cut round the circumference of each.

9. The fourth method consists in forcing melted lead, by means of a
pump, into one end of a mould, while it is discharged in the form of a
pipe, at the opposite end. Care is taken so to regulate the
temperature, that the lead is chilled just before it leaves the mould.

10. _Shot_ is likewise made of lead. These instruments of death are
usually cast in high towers constructed for the purpose. The lead is
previously alloyed with a small portion of arsenic, to increase the
cohesion of its particles, and to cause it to assume more readily the
globular form. It is melted at the top of the tower, and poured into a
vessel perforated at the bottom with a great number of holes.

11. The lead, after running through these perforations, immediately
separates into drops, which cool in falling through the height of the
tower. They are received below in a reservoir of water, which breaks
the fall. The shot are then proved by rolling them down a board placed
in an inclined position. Those which are irregular in shape roll off
at the sides, or stop, while the spherical ones continue on to the
end.



[Illustration: IRON-FOUNDER.]

THE IRON-FOUNDER, &c.


IRON.

1. The properties which iron possesses in its various forms, render it
the most useful of all the metals. The toughness of _malleable iron_
renders it applicable to purposes, where great strength is required,
while its difficult fusibility, and property of softening by heat, so
as to admit of forging and welding, cause it to be easily wrought.

2. Cast iron, from its cheapness, and from the facility with which its
form may be changed, is made the material of numerous structures.
_Steel_, which is the most important compound of iron, exceeds all
other metals in hardness and tenacity; and hence it is particularly
adapted to the fabrication of cutting instruments.

3. Iron was discovered, and applied to the purposes of the arts, at a
very early period. Tubal-Cain, who was the seventh generation from
Adam, "was an instructer of every artificer in brass and iron." Noah
must have used much of this metal in the construction of the ark, and,
of course, he must have transmitted a knowledge of it to his
posterity.

4. Nevertheless, the mode of separating it from the various substances
with which it is usually combined, was but imperfectly understood by
the ancients; and their use of it was, most likely, confined chiefly
to the limited quantity found in a state nearly pure. Gold, silver,
copper, and tin, are more easily reduced to a state in which they are
available in the arts. They were, therefore, often used in ancient
times, for purposes to which iron would have been more applicable.
This was the case especially with copper and tin.

5. Fifteen distinct kinds of iron ore, have been discovered by
mineralogists; but of these, not more than four have been employed in
making iron. There are, however, several varieties of the latter kind,
all of which are classed by the smelters of iron under the general
denomination of _bog_ and _mountain_ or _hard_ ores.

6. The former has much of the appearance of red, brown, or yellowish
earth, and is found in beds from one to six feet thick, and in size
from one fourth of a rood to twenty acres. The mountain, or hard ore,
to a superficial observer, differs but little in its appearance from
common rocks or stones. It is found in regular strata in hills and
mountains, or in detached masses of various sizes, and in hilly land
from two to eight feet below the surface.

7. The bog-ore is supposed to be a deposite from water which has
passed over the hard ore. This is evidently the case in hilly
countries, where both kinds occur. Some _iron-masters_ use the bog;
some, the hard; and others, both kinds together. In this particular,
they are governed by the ore, or ores, which may exist in their
vicinity.

8. The apparatus in which the ore is smelted, is called a
_blast-furnace_, which is a large pyramidal stack, built of hewn stone
or brick, from twenty to sixty feet in height, with a cavity of a
proportionate size. In shape, this cavity is near that of an egg, with
the largest end at the bottom. It is lined with fire-brick or stone,
capable of resisting an intense heat.

9. Below this cavity is placed the _hearth_, which is composed of four
or five large coarse sandstones, split out of a solid rock, and
chiselled so as to suit each other exactly. These form a cavity for
the reception of the iron and dross, when melted above. The hearth
requires to be removed at the end of every _blast_, which is usually
continued from six to ten months in succession, unless accidentally
interrupted.

10. The preparation for a blast, consists principally in providing
charcoal and ore. The wood for the former is cut in the winter and
spring, and charred and brought to the furnace during the spring,
summer, and autumn. What is not used during the time of hauling, is
stocked in coal-houses, provided for the purpose.

11. The wood is charred in the following manner. It is first piled in
heaps of a spherical form, and covered with leaves and dirt. The fire
is applied to the wood, at the top, and when it has been sufficiently
ignited, the pit is covered in; but, to support combustion, several
air-holes are left near the ground. The _colliers_ are obliged to
watch the pit night and day, lest, by the caving in of the dirt, too
much air be admitted, and the wood be thereby consumed to ashes.

12. When the wood has been reduced to charcoal, the fire is partially
extinguished by closing the air-holes. The coals are _drawn_ from the
pit with an iron-toothed rake, and, while this is performed, the dust
mingles with them, and smothers the fire which may yet remain. Wood is
also charred in kilns made of brick.

13. The hard ore is dug by _miners_, or, as they are commonly
denominated, _ore-diggers_. In the prosecution of their labor, they
sometimes follow a vein into a hill or mountain. When the ore is found
in strata or lumps near the surface, they dig down to it. This kind of
ore commonly contains sulphur and arsenic, and to free it from those
substances, and to render it less compact, it is roasted in kilns,
with refuse charcoal, which is too fine to be used for any other
purpose. It is then broken to a suitable fineness with a hammer, or in
a crushing mill. The bog-ore seldom needs any reduction.

14. Every preparation having been made, the furnace is gradually
heated with charcoal, and by degrees filled to the top, when a small
quantity of the ore is thrown on, and the blast is applied at the
bottom near the hearth. The blast is supplied by means of one or two
cylindrical bellows, the piston of which is moved by steam or water
power.

15. The coal is measured in baskets, holding about one bushel and a
half, and the ore, in boxes holding about one peck. Six baskets of
coal, and as many boxes of ore as the furnace can carry, is called a
_half charge_, which is renewed as it may be necessary to keep the
furnace full. With every charge is also thrown in one box of
limestone.

16. The limestone is used as a flux, to aid in the fusion of the ore,
and to separate its earthy portions from the iron. The iron sinks by
its specific gravity, to the bottom of the hearth, and the earthy
portions, now converted into glass by the action of the limestone and
heat, also sink, and float upon the liquid iron. This scum, or, as it
is usually called, scoria, slag, or cinder, is occasionally removed by
instruments made for the purpose.

17. When the hearth has become full of iron, the metal is let out, at
one corner of it, into a bed of sand, called a _pig-bed_, which is
from twenty to thirty feet in length, and five or six in width. One
concave channel, called _the sow_, extends the whole length of the
bed, from which forty or fifty smaller ones, called _pig-moulds_,
extend at right angles. The metal, when cast in these moulds, is
called _pig-iron_, and the masses of iron, _pigs_.

18. _Pig-iron_, or, as it is sometimes called, _crude iron_, being
saturated with carbon and oxygen, and containing also a portion of
scoria, is too brittle for any other purpose than castings. Many of
these, such as stoves, grates, mill-irons, plough-irons, and kitchen
utensils, are commonly manufactured at blast furnaces, and in many
cases nearly all the iron is used for these purposes. In such cases,
the metal is taken in a liquid state, from the hearth, in ladles.

19. In Great Britain and Ireland, and perhaps in some other parts of
Europe, iron-ore is smelted with _coke_, a fuel which bears the same
relation to pit-coal, that charcoal does to wood. It is obtained by
heating or baking the coal in a sort of oven or kiln, by which it
becomes charred. During the process, a sort of bituminous tar is
disengaged from it, which is carefully preserved, and applied to many
useful purposes.


THE IRON-FOUNDER.

1. The appellation of _founder_ is given to the superintendent of a
blast-furnace, and likewise to those persons who make castings either
of iron or any other metal. In every case, the term is qualified by a
word prefixed, indicating the metal in which he operates, or the kind
of castings which he may make; as _brass_-founder, _iron_-founder, or
_bell_-founder. But whatsoever may be the material in which he
operates, or the kind of castings which he may produce, his work is
performed on the same general principle.

2. The sand most generally employed by the founder is _loam_, which
possesses a sufficient proportion of argillaceous matter, to render it
moderately cohesive, when damp. The moulds are formed by burying in
the sand, wooden or metallic patterns, having the exact shape of the
respective articles to be cast. To exemplify the general manner of
forming moulds, we will explain the process of forming one for the
_spider_, a very common kitchen utensil.

3. The pattern is laid upon a plain board, which in this application
is called a _follow board_, and surrounded with a frame called a
_flask_, three or four inches deep. This is filled with sand, and
consolidated with rammers, and by treading it with the feet. Three
wooden patterns for the legs are next buried in the sand, and a hole
is made for pouring in the metal.

4. One side of the mould having been thus formed, the flask, with its
contents, is turned over, and, the follow board having been removed,
another flask is applied to the first, and filled with sand in the
same manner. The two flasks are then taken apart, and the main
pattern, together with those for the legs, removed. The whole
operation is finished by again closing the flasks.

5. The mode of proceeding in forming moulds for different articles, is
varied, of course, to suit their conformation. The pattern is often
composed of several pieces, and the number and form of the flasks are
also varied accordingly. Cannon-balls are sometimes cast in moulds of
iron; and to prevent the melted metal from adhering to them, the
inside is covered with pulverized black lead.

6. Rollers for flattening iron are also cast in iron moulds. This
method is called _chill-casting_, and has for its object the hardening
of the surface of the metal, by the sudden reduction of the
temperature, which takes place in consequence of the great power of
the mould, as a conductor of heat. These rollers are afterwards turned
in a powerful lathe.

7. Several _moulders_ work together in one foundery, and, when they
have completed a sufficient number of moulds, they fill them with the
liquid metal. The metal for small articles is dipped from the hearth
or crucible of the furnace with iron ladles defended on every side
with a thin coating of clay mortar, and poured thence into the moulds.
But in casting articles requiring a great amount of iron, such as
cannon, and some parts of the machinery for steam engines, the iron is
transferred to the moulds, in a continued stream, through a channel
leading from the bottom of the crucible. In such cases, the moulds are
constructed in a pit dug in the earth near the furnace. Large ladles
full of iron are, in some founderies, emptied into the moulds by the
aid of huge cranes.

8. Although the moulders have their distinct work to perform, yet they
often assist each other in lifting heavy flasks, and in all cases, in
filling the moulds. The latter operation is very laborious; but the
exertion is continued but a short time, since the moulds, constructed
during a whole day, can be filled in ten or fifteen minutes.

9. Iron-founderies are usually located in or near large cities or
towns, and are supplied with crude iron, or pig metal, from the blast
furnaces in the interior. The metal is fused either with charcoal or
with pit coal. In the former case, an artificial blast is necessary to
ignite the fuel; but in the latter, this object is often effected in
air furnaces, which are so constructed that a sufficient current of
air is obtained directly from the atmosphere.

10. The practice of making castings of iron is comparatively modern;
those of the ancients were made of brass, and other alloys of copper.
Until the beginning of the last century, iron was but little applied
in this way. This use of it, however, has extended so rapidly, that
cast iron is now the material of almost every kind of machinery, as
well as that of innumerable implements of common application. Even
bridges and rail-roads have been constructed of cast iron.


THE BAR IRON MAKER.

1. Bar-iron is manufactured from pig-iron, from _blooms_, and directly
from the ore; the process is consequently varied in conformity with
the state of the material on which it is commenced.

2. In producing bar-iron from pigs, the latter are melted in a furnace
similar to a smith's forge, with a sloping cavity ten or twelve inches
below, where the blast-pipe is admitted. This hearth is filled with
charcoal and dross, or scoria; and upon these is laid the metal and
more coal. After the coal has become well ignited, the blast is
applied. The iron soon begins to melt, and as it liquefies, it runs
into the cavity or hearth below. Here, being out of the reach of the
blast, it soon becomes solid.

3. It is then taken out, and fused again in the same manner, and
afterwards a third time. After the third heat, when the iron has
become solid enough to bear beating, it is slightly hammered with a
sledge, to free it from the adhering scoria. It is then returned to
the furnace; but, being placed out of the reach of the blast, it soon
becomes sufficiently compact to bear the _tilt-hammer_.

4. With this instrument, the iron is beaten, until the mass has been
considerably extended, when it is cut into several pieces, which, by
repeated beating and forging, are extended into bars, as we see them
for sale. The tilt-hammer weighs from six to twelve hundred pounds,
and is most commonly moved by water power.

5. For manufacturing bar-iron directly from the ore, the furnace is
similar in its construction to the one just described, and the
operations throughout are very similar. A fire is first made upon the
hearth with charcoal; and, when the fuel has become well ignited, a
quantity of ore is thrown upon it, and the ore and the fuel are
renewed as occasion may require. As the iron melts, and separates from
the earthy portions of the ore, it sinks to the bottom of the hearth.
The scoria is let off occasionally, through holes made for the
purpose. When iron enough has accumulated to make a _loop_, as the
mass is called, it is taken out, and forged into bars under the
tilt-hammer.

6. This way of making bar-iron is denominated the _method of the
Catalan forge_, and is by far the cheapest and most expeditious. It is
in general use in all the southern countries of Europe, and it is
beginning to be extensively practised in the United States. When a
Catalan forge is employed in making _blooms_, it is called a
_bloomery_.

7. The blooms are about eighteen inches long, and four in diameter.
They are formed under the tilt-hammer, and differ in substance from
bar-iron in nothing, except that, having been imperfectly forged, the
fibres of the metal are not fully extended, nor firmly united. The
blooms are manufactured in the interior of the country, where wood is
abundant, and sold by the ton, frequently, in the cities, to be
converted into bar or sheet iron.

8. These blooms are converted into bar-iron, by first heating them in
an air-furnace, by means of stone coal, and then passing them between
chill cast iron rollers. The rollers are filled with grooves, which
gradually decrease in size from one side to the other. When the iron
has passed through these, the bloom of eighteen inches in length, has
become extended to nearly as many feet. The bar thus formed, having
been cut into four pieces, the process is finished by welding them
together laterally, and again passing them between another set of
rollers, by which they are brought to the form in which they are to
remain.

9. Blooms are also laminated into two sheets, on the same principle,
between smooth rollers, which are screwed nearer to each other every
time the bloom is passed between them. Very thin plates, like those
which are tinned for the tin-plate workers, are repeatedly doubled,
and passed between the rollers, so that in the thinnest plates,
sixteen thicknesses are rolled together, oil being interposed to
prevent their cohesion. The last rollings are performed while the
metal is cold.

10. Rolled plates of iron are frequently cut into rods and narrow
strips. This operation is performed by means of elevated angular rings
upon rollers, which are so situated that they act reciprocally upon
each other, and cut like shears. These rings are separately made, so
that they can be removed for the purpose of sharpening them, when
necessary. The mills in which the operations of rolling and slitting
iron are performed, are called rolling and slitting mills.


THE WIRE DRAWER.

1. Iron is reduced to the form of wire by drawing rods of it through
conical holes in a steel plate. To prepare the metal for the operation
of drawing, it is subjected to the action of the hammer, or to that of
rollers, until it has been reduced to a rod sufficiently small to be
forced through the largest hole. The best wire is produced from rods
formed by the method first mentioned.

2. Various machines are employed to overcome the resistance of the
plate to the passage of the wire. In general, the wire is held by
pinchers, near the end, and as fast as it is drawn through the plate,
it is wound upon a roller, by the action of a wheel and axle, or other
power. Sometimes, a rack and pinion are employed for this purpose, and
sometimes a lever, which acts at intervals, and which takes fresh hold
of the wire every time the force is applied.

3. The finer kinds of wire are made from the larger by repeated
drawings, each of which is performed through a smaller hole than the
preceding. As the metal becomes stiff and hard, by the repetition of
this process, it is occasionally annealed, to restore its ductility.
Wire is formed of other metals by the same general method.


THE STEEL MANUFACTURER.

1. Steel is a compound of iron and carbon; and, as there are several
methods by which the combination is produced, there are likewise
several kinds of steel. The best steel is said to be made of Swedish
or Russian bar-iron.

2. The most common method of forming steel is by the process of
_cementation_. The operation is performed in a conical furnace, in
which are two large cases or troughs, made of fire-brick, or good fire
stone; and beneath these is a long grate. On the bottom of the cases
is placed a layer of charcoal dust, and over this a layer of bar-iron.
Alternate strata of these materials are continued to a considerable
height, ten or twelve tons of iron being put in at once.

3. The whole is covered with clay or sand, to exclude the air, and
flues are carried through the pile from the furnace below, so as to
heat the contents equally and completely. The fire is kindled in the
grate, and continued for eight or ten days, during which time, the
troughs, with their contents, are kept red hot. The progress of the
cementation is discovered by drawing a _test_ bar from an aperture in
the side.

4. When the conversion of the iron into steel appears to be complete,
the fire is extinguished; and, after having been suffered to cool for
six or eight days, it is removed. Iron combined with charcoal in this
manner, is denominated _blistered steel_, from the blisters which
appear on its surface, and in this state, it is much used for common
purposes.

5. To render this kind of steel more perfect, the bars are heated to
redness, and then drawn out into bars of much smaller dimensions, by
means of a hammer moved by water or steam power. This instrument is
called a tilting hammer, and the bars formed by it, are called _tilted
steel_. When the bars have been exposed to heat, and afterwards
doubled, drawn out, and welded, the product is called _shear steel_.

6. But steel of cementation, however carefully made, is never quite
equable in its texture. Steel possessing this latter quality is made,
by fusing bars of blistered steel, in a crucible placed in a wind
furnace. When the fusion has been completed, the liquid metal is cast
into small bars or ingots, which are known in commerce by the name of
_cast steel_. Cast steel is harder, more elastic, closer in texture,
and capable of receiving a higher polish than common steel.

7. Steel is also made directly from cast iron, or at once from the
ore. This kind is called _natural_ or _German_ steel, and is much
inferior to that obtained by cementation. The best steel, produced
directly from the ore, comes from Germany, and is made in Stiria. It
is usually imported in barrels, or in chests about three feet long.

8. Steel is sometimes alloyed with other metals. A celebrated Indian
steel, called _wootz_, is supposed to be carbonated iron, combined
with small quantities of silicium and aluminum. Steel alloyed with a
very small proportion of silver, is superior to wootz, or to the best
cast steel. Some other metals are also used with advantage in the same
application.

9. Steel was discovered at a very early period of the world, for aught
we know, long before the flood. Pliny informs us, that, in his time,
the best steel came from China, and that the next best came from
Parthia. A manufactory of steel existed in Sweden as early as 1340 of
the Christian era: but it is generally thought, that the process of
converting iron into steel by cementation originated in England, at a
later period. The method of making cast steel was invented at
Sheffield, in the latter country, in 1750, and, for a long time, it
was kept secret.

10. It has been but a few years, since this manufacture was commenced
in the United Sates. In 1836, we had fourteen steel furnaces, viz.; at
Boston, one; New-York, three; Troy, one; New-Jersey, two;
Philadelphia, three; York Co., Pa., one; Baltimore, one; and
Pittsburg, two. These furnaces together are said to be capable of
yielding more than 1600 tons of steel in a year. The American steel is
employed in the fabrication of agricultural utensils, and it has
entirely excluded the common English blistered steel.



[Illustration: BLACKSMITH.]

THE BLACKSMITH, AND THE NAILER.


THE BLACKSMITH.

1. The blacksmith operates in wrought iron and steel, and, from these
materials, he fabricates a great variety of articles, essential to
domestic convenience, and to the arts generally.

2. This business is one of those trades essential in the rudest state
of society. Even the American Indians are so sensible of its
importance, that they cause to be inserted in the treaties which they
make with the United States, an article stipulating for a blacksmith
to be settled among them, and for a supply of iron.

3. The utility of this trade will be further manifest by the
consideration, that almost every other business is carried on by its
aid. The agriculturist is dependent on it for forming utensils, and
mechanics and artists of every description, for the tools with which
they operate; in short, we can scarcely fix upon a single utensil,
vehicle, or instrument, which does not owe its origin, either directly
or indirectly, to the blacksmith.

4. This business being thus extensive in its application, it cannot be
presumed that any one person can be capable of executing every species
of work. This, however, is not necessary, since the demand for
particular articles is frequently so great, that the whole attention
may be directed to the multiplication of individuals of the same kind.
Some smiths make only anchors, axes, scythes, hoes, or shovels.

5. In such cases, the workmen acquire great skill and expedition in
the manufacture. A tilt hammer is often used in forging large masses
of iron, and even in making utensils as small as the hoe, the axe, and
the sword; but the hammer which may be employed bears a due proportion
in its weight to the mass of iron to be wrought. In all cases in which
a tilt hammer is used, the bellows from which the blast proceeds is
moved by water or steam power.

6. In the shop represented at the head of this article, sledges and
hammers are used as forging instruments, and these are wielded by the
workmen themselves. The head workman has hold of a piece of iron with
a pair of tongs, and he, with a hammer, and two others, with each a
sledge, are forging it upon an anvil. The two men are guided in their
disposition of the strokes chiefly by the hammer of the
master-workman.

7. In ordinary blacksmith shops, two persons commonly work at one
forge, one of whom takes the lead in the operations, and the other
works the bellows, and uses the sledge. From the part which the latter
takes in the labor, he is called the _blower_ and _striker_. A man or
youth, who understands but little of the business, can, in many cases,
act in this capacity tolerably well.

8. The iron is rendered malleable by heating it with charcoal or with
stone coal, which is ignited intensely by means of a blast from a
bellows. The iron is heated more or less, according to the particular
object of the workman. When he wishes to reduce it into form, he
raises it to a _white heat_. The _welding heat_ is less intense, and
is used when two pieces are to be united by _welding_. At a red heat,
and at lower temperatures, the iron is rendered more compact in its
internal texture, and more smooth upon its surface.

9. The joint action of the heat and air, while the temperature is
rising, tends to produce a rapid oxydation of the surface. This result
is measurably prevented by immersing the iron in sand and common salt,
which, uniting, form a vitreous coating for its protection. This
coating is no inconvenience in the forging, as its fluidity causes it
to escape immediately under the action of the hammer.

10. Steel is combined with iron in the manufacture of cutting
instruments, and other implements, as well as articles requiring, at
certain parts, a great degree of hardness. This substance possesses
the remarkable property of changing its degree of hardness by the
influence of certain degrees of temperature. No other substance is
known to possess this property; but it is the peculiar treatment which
it receives from the workman that renders it available.

11. If steel is heated to redness, and suddenly plunged into cold
water, it is rendered extremely hard, but, at the same time, too
brittle for use. On the other hand, if it is suffered to cool
gradually, it becomes too soft and ductile. The great object of the
operator is to give to the steel a quality equally distant from
brittleness and ductility. The treatment by which this is effected is
called _tempering_, which will be more particularly treated in the
article on the cutler, whose employment is a refined branch of this
business.


THE NAILER.

1. Nail-making constitutes an extensive branch of the iron business,
as vast quantities of nails are annually required by all civilized
communities. They are divided into two classes, the names of which
indicate the particular manner in which they are manufactured; viz.,
_wrought nails_ and _cut nails_.

2. The former are usually forged on the anvil, and when a finished
head is required, as is commonly the case, it is hammered on the
larger end, after it has been inserted into a hole of an instrument
formed for the purpose. Workmen by practice acquire surprising
dispatch in this business; and this circumstance has prevented the
general introduction of the machines which have been invented for
making nails of this description. Wrought nails can be easily
distinguished from cut nails, by the indentations of the hammer which
have been left upon them.

3. In making cut nails, the iron is first brought into bars between
grooved rollers. The size of the bars is varied in conformity with
that of the proposed nails. These bars are again heated, and passed
between smooth rollers, which soon spread them into thin strips of
suitable width and thickness. These strips, having been cut into
pieces two or three feet in length, are heated to a red heat in a
furnace, to be immediately converted into nails, when designed for
those of a large size. For small nails, the iron does not require
heating.

4. The end of the plate is presented to the machine by the workman,
who turns the material over, first one way and then the other; and at
each turn a nail is produced. The machine has a rapid reciprocating
motion, and cuts off, at every stroke, a wedge-like piece of iron,
constituting a nail without a head. This is immediately caught near
the head, and compressed between _gripes_; and, at the same time, a
force is applied to a die at the end, which spreads the iron
sufficiently to form the head. From one to two hundred can be thus
formed in a minute. This fact accounts for the low rate at which cut
nails are now sold, which, on an average, is not more than two cents
per pound above that of bar iron.

5. On account of the greater expense of manufacturing wrought nails,
they are sold much higher. It is said that nine-tenths of all the
nails of this kind, used in the United States, are imported from
Europe. We thus depend upon foreign countries for these and many other
articles, because they can be imported cheaper than we can make them;
and this circumstance arises chiefly from the difference in the price
of labor.

6. The first machine for making cut nails was invented in
Massachusetts about the year 1816, by a Mr. Odion, and soon afterwards
another was contrived, by a Mr. Reed, of the same state. Other
machines, for the same purpose, have likewise been constructed by
different persons, but those by Odion and Reed are most commonly used.
Before these machines were introduced, the strips of iron just
described, were cut into wedgelike pieces by an instrument which acted
on the principle of the shears; and these were afterwards headed, one
by one, with a hammer in a vice. The fact, that the manufacture of
this kind of nails originated in our country, is worthy of
recollection.

7. In 1841, Walter Hunt, of New-York, invented a double reciprocating
nail engine, which is owned by the New-York Patent Nail Company. This
machine works with surprising rapidity, it being capable of cutting
five or six hundred ten-penny nails in a minute. One hand can tend
three engines, as he has nothing more to do than to place the heated
plate in a perpendicular position in the machine.

8. This manufacture includes, also, that of tacks and spikes; but
since, in the production of these, the same general methods are
pursued, they need no particular notice. The different sizes of tacks
are distinguished by a method which indicates the number per ounce; as
two, three, or four hundred per ounce. Spikes are designated by their
length in inches, and nails by the terms, two-penny, three-penny,
four-penny, ten-penny, and so on up to sixty-penny.



[Illustration: CUTLER.]

THE CUTLER.


1. Under the head of cutlery, is comprehended a great variety of
instruments designed for cutting and penetration, and the business of
fabricating them is divided into a great number of branches. Some
manufacture nothing but axes; others make plane-irons and chisels,
augers, saws, or carvers' tools. Others, again, make smaller
instruments, such as table-knives, forks, pen-knives, scissors, and
razors. There are also cutlers who manufacture nothing but surgical
instruments.

2. The coarser kinds of cutlery are made of blistered steel welded to
iron. Tools of a better quality are made of shear steel, while the
sharpest and most delicate instruments are formed of cast steel. The
several processes constituting this business may be comprised in
forging, tempering, and polishing; and these are performed in the
order in which they are here mentioned.

3. The general method of _forging_ iron and steel, in every branch of
this business, is the same with that used in the common blacksmith's
shop, for more ordinary purposes. The process, however, is somewhat
varied, to suit the particular form of the object to be fashioned; for
example, the blades and some other parts of the scissors are formed by
hammering the steel upon indented surfaces called _bosses_. The bows,
which receive the finger and thumb, are made by first punching a hole
in the metal, and then enlarging it by the aid of a tool called a
_beak-iron_.

4. The steel, after having been forged, is soft, like iron, and to
give it the requisite degree of strength under the uses to which the
tools or instruments are to be exposed, it is hardened. The process by
which this is effected is called _tempering_, and the degree of
hardness or strength to which the steel is brought is called its
_temper_, which is required to be _higher_ or _lower_, according to
the use which is to be made of the particular instrument.

5. In giving to the different kinds of instruments the requisite
temper, they are first heated to redness, and then plunged into cold
water. This, however, raises the temper too high, and, if left in this
condition, they would be too brittle for use. To bring them to a
proper state, they are heated to a less degree of temperature, and
again plunged into cold water. The degree to which they are heated,
the second time, is varied according to the hardness required. That
this particular point may be perfectly understood, a few examples will
be given.

6. Lancets are raised to 430 degrees Fahrenheit. The temperature is
indicated by a pale color, slightly inclined to yellow. At 450
degrees, a pale straw-color appears, which is found suitable for the
best razors and surgical instruments. At 470 degrees, a full color is
produced, which is suitable for pen-knives, common razors, &c. At 490,
a brown color appears, which is the indication of a temper proper for
shears, scissors, garden hoes, and chisels intended for cutting cold
iron.

7. At 510 degrees, the brown becomes dappled with purple spots, which
shows the proper heat for tempering axes, common chisels, plane-irons,
&c. At 530 degrees, a purple color is established, and this
temperature is proper for table-knives and large shears. At 550
degrees, a bright blue appears, which is proper for swords and watch
springs. At 560 degrees, the color is full blue, and this is used for
fine saws, augers, &c. At 600 degrees, a dark blue approaching to
black settles upon the metal, and this produces the softest of all the
grades of temper, which is used only for the larger kinds of saws.

8. Other methods of determining the degree of temperature at which the
different kinds of cutlery are to be immersed, a second time, in cold
water, are also practised. By one method, the pieces of steel are
covered with tallow or oil, or put into a vessel containing one of
these substances, and heated over a moderate fire. The appearance of
the smoke indicates the degree of heat to which it may have been
raised. A more accurate method is found in the employment of a fluid
medium, the temperature of which can be regulated by a thermometer.
Thus oil, which boils at 600 degrees, may be employed for this
purpose, at any degree of heat which is below that number.

9. The _grinding_ of cutlery is effected on cylindrical stones of
various kinds, among which freestone is the most common. These are
made to revolve with prodigious velocity, by means of machinery. The
operation is therefore quickly performed. The _polishing_ is commonly
effected by using, first, a wheel of wood; then, one of pewter; and,
lastly, one covered with buff leather sprinkled with an impure oxyde
of iron, called _colcothar_ or _crocus_. The edges are set either
with hones or whetstones, or with both, according to the degree of
keenness required.

10. Almost every description of cutlery requires a handle of some
sort; but the nature of the materials, as well as the form and mode of
application, will be readily understood by a little attention to the
various articles of this kind which daily fall in our way.

11. A process has been invented, by which edge tools, nails, &c., made
of cast iron, may be converted into good steel. It consists in
stratifying the articles with the oxyde of iron, in a metallic
cylinder, and then submitting the whole to a regular heat, in a
furnace built for the purpose. This kind of cutlery, however, will not
bear a very fine edge.

12. The sword and the knife were probably the first instruments
fabricated from iron, and they still continue to be leading subjects
of demand, in all parts of the world. The most celebrated swords of
antiquity were made at Damascus, in Syria. These weapons never broke
in the hardest conflicts, and were capable of cutting through steel
armor without sustaining injury.

13. The fork, as applied in eating, is an invention comparatively
modern. It appears to have had its origin in Italy, probably in the
fourteenth century; but it was not introduced into England, until the
reign of James the First, in the first quarter of the seventeenth. Its
use was, at first, the subject of much ridicule and opposition.

14. Before the introduction of the fork, a piece of paper, or
something in place of it, was commonly wrapped round some convenient
projection of the piece to be carved; and, at this place, the operator
placed one hand, while he used the knife with the other. The carver
cut the mass of meat into slices or suitable portions, and laid them
upon the large slices of bread which had been piled up near the
platter, or carving dish, and which, after having been thus served,
were handed about the table, as we now distribute the plates.

15. The knives used at table were pointed, that the food might be
taken upon them, as upon a fork; and knives of the same shape are
still common on the continent of Europe. Round-topped knives were not
adopted in Paris, until after the banishment of Napoleon Bonaparte to
Elba, in 1815, when every thing English became fashionable in that
city.

16. In France, before the revolution of 1789, it was customary for
every gentleman, when invited to dinner, to send his knife and fork
before him by a servant; or, if he had no servant, he carried them
himself in his breeches pocket. A few of the ancient regime still
continue the old custom. The peasantry of the Tyrol, and of some parts
of Germany and Switzerland, generally carry about them a case,
containing a knife and fork, and a spoon.

17. The use of the fork, for a long time, was considered so great a
luxury, that the members of many of the monastic orders were forbidden
to indulge in it. The Turks and Asiatics use no forks, even to this
day. The Chinese employ, instead of this instrument, two small sticks,
which they hold in the same hand, between different fingers.

18. The manufacture of cutlery is carried on most extensively in
England, at Birmingham, Sheffield, Walsall, Wolverhampton, and London.
London cutlery has the reputation of being the best, and this
circumstance induces the dealers in that city, to affix the London
mark to articles made at other places. In the United States, there are
many establishments for the fabrication of the coarser kinds of
cutlery, such as axes, plane-irons, saws, hoes, scythes, &c., but for
the finer descriptions of cutting instruments, we are chiefly
dependent on Europe.



[Illustration: GUN-SMITH.]

THE GUN-SMITH.


1. It is the business of the gun-smith to manufacture fire-arms of the
smaller sorts; such as muskets, fowling-pieces, rifles, and pistols.

2. The principal parts of the instruments fabricated by this
artificer, are the barrel, the stock, and the lock. In performing the
operations connected with this business, great attention is paid to
the division of labor, especially in large establishments, such as
those belonging to the United States, at Springfield and Harper's
Ferry; for example, one set of workmen forge the barrels, ramrods, or
some part of the lock; others reduce some part of the forged material
to the exact form required, by means of files; and again another class
of operators perform some part of the work relating to the stock.

3. The barrel is formed by forging a bar of iron into a flat piece of
proper length and thickness, and by turning the plate round a
cylindrical rod of tempered steel, called a _mandril_, the diameter of
which is considerably less than the intended bore of the barrel. The
edges of the plate are made to overlap each other about half an inch,
and are welded together by heating the tube in lengths of two or three
inches at a time, and by hammering them with very brisk, but moderate
strokes, upon an anvil which has a number of semicircular furrows upon
it.

4. In constructing barrels of better workmanship, the iron is forged
in smaller pieces, eight or nine inches long, and welded together
laterally, as well as lengthwise. The barrel is now finished in the
usual way; or it is first made to undergo the additional operation of
_twisting_, a process employed upon those intended to be of superior
quality. The operation is performed by heating small portions of it at
a time, and twisting them successively, while one end is held fast.

5. The barrel is next bored with several bits, each a little larger
than the preceding one. The last bit is precisely the size of the
intended calibre. After the barrel has been polished, and the breech
closed with a screw, its strength and soundness are tested by means of
a ball of the proper size, and a charge of powder equal in weight to
the ball. Pistol-barrels, which are to go in pairs, are forged in one
piece, which is cut asunder, after it has been bored.

6. Barrels for rifles are much thicker than those for other small
arms; and, in addition to the boring in common barrels, they are
furrowed with a number of grooves or _rifles_, which extend from one
end of the cavity to the other, either in a straight or spiral
direction. These rifles are supposed to prevent the rolling of the
ball in its passage out, and to direct it more unerringly to the
object of aim.

7. The stocks are commonly manufactured from the wood of the
walnut-tree. These are first dressed in a rough manner, usually in the
country. After the wood has been properly seasoned, they are finished
by workmen, who commonly confine their attention to this particular
branch of the business. In each of the United States' armories, is
employed a machine with which the stocks are turned, and also one,
with which the place for the lock is made.

8. The several pieces composing the lock are forged on anvils, some of
which have indented surfaces, the more readily to give the proposed
form. They are reduced somewhat with the file, and polished with
substances usually employed for such purposes. The several pieces of
the lock having been put together, it is fastened to the stock with
screws. Other particulars in regard to the manufacture of small-arms
will be readily suggested by a careful inspection of the different
kinds, which are frequently met with.

9. The period at which, and the country where, gunpowder and fire-arms
were first invented, cannot be certainly determined. Some attribute
their invention to the Chinese; and, in confirmation of this opinion,
assert that there are now cannon in China, which were made in the
eightieth year of the Christian era. On this supposition, their use
was gradually extended to the West, until they were finally adopted in
Europe, in the fourteenth century.

10. Others, however, attribute the invention of gunpowder to Berthold
Schwartz, a monk, who lived at Mentz, between the years 1290 and 1320.
It is said, that in some of his alchemistic experiments, he put some
saltpetre, sulphur, and charcoal, into a mortar, and having
accidentally dropped into it a spark of fire, the contents exploded,
and threw the pestle into the air. This circumstance suggested to his
mind the employment of the mixture for throwing projectiles. Some
traditions, however, attribute the invention to Constantine Antlitz,
of Cologne.

11. The fire-arms first used in Europe were cannon, and these were
originally made of wood, wrapped in numerous folds of linen, and well
secured with iron hoops. They were conical in shape, being widest at
the muzzle; but this form was soon changed for the cylindrical. At
length they were made of bars of iron, firmly bound together with
hoops of the same metal. In the second half of the fourteenth century,
a composition of copper and tin, which was brought to form by casting
in sand, came into use.

12. Cannon were formerly dignified with great names. Charles V. of
Spain had twelve, which he called after the _twelve apostles_. One at
Bois-le-Duc is called the _devil_; a sixty-pounder, at Dover Castle,
is called _Queen Elizabeth's pocket-pistol_; an eighty-pounder, at
Berlin, is called the _thunderer_; two sixty-pounders, at Bremen, the
_messengers of bad news_. But cannon are, at present, denominated from
the weight of the balls which they carry; as six-pounders,
eight-pounders, &c.

13. Fire-arms of a portable size were invented, about the beginning of
the sixteenth century. The musket was the first of this class of
instruments that appeared, and the Spanish nation, the first that
adopted its use as a military weapon. It was originally very heavy,
and could not be well supported in a horizontal position without a
_rest_. The soldiers, on their march, carried only the rest and
ammunition, while each was followed by a youth who bore the musket.

14. The powder was not ignited with a spark from a flint, but with a
match. Afterwards, a lighter match-lock musket was introduced, which
was carried by the soldiers themselves. The rest, however, maintained
its ground, until about the middle of the seventeenth century. The
troops throughout Europe were furnished with fire-locks, such as are
now used, a little before the beginning of the eighteenth century.

15. The bayonet was invented, about the year 1640, at Bayonne; but it
was not generally introduced, until the pike was entirely
discontinued, about sixty years afterwards. It was first carried by
the side, and was used as a dagger in close fight; but, in 1690, the
custom of fastening it to the muzzle of the fire-lock was commenced in
France, and the example was soon followed throughout Europe.

16. Gunpowder, on which the use of fire-arms depends, is a composition
of salt-petre, sulphur, and charcoal. The proportion of the
ingredients is varied considerably in different countries, and by
different manufacturers in the same country. But good gunpowder may be
made of seventy-six parts of salt-petre, fifteen of charcoal, and nine
of sulphur. These materials are first reduced to a fine powder
separately, and then formed into a homogeneous mass by moistening the
mixture with water, and pounding it for a considerable time in wooden
mortars.

17. After the paste has been suffered to dry a little, it is forced
through a kind of sieve. By this process it is divided into grains,
the size of which depends upon that of the holes through which they
have been passed. The powder is then dried in ovens, and afterwards
put into barrels, which are made to revolve on their axis. The
friction produced by this motion destroys the asperities of the
grains, and renders their surfaces smooth and capable of easy
ignition.



[Illustration: FARRIER.]

THE VETERINARY SURGEON.


1. The horse, as well as the other domestic animals, is subject to a
great variety of diseases, which, like those affecting the human
system, are frequently under the control of medicinal remedies; and
the same general means which are efficacious in healing the disorders
of our race, are equally so in controlling those of the inferior part
of the animal creation.

2. The great value of the domestic animals has rendered them, from the
earliest periods, the objects of study and attention, not only while
in health, but also when laboring under disease. For the latter state,
a peculiar system was early formed, including a _materia medica_, and
a general mode of treatment considerably different from those for
human patients.

3. Of the authors of this system, whether Greek or Roman, nothing
worthy of notice has been transmitted to us, beyond an occasional
citation of names, in the works of Columella, a Roman writer, who
flourished in the reign of Tiberius Cæsar, and in Vegetius Renatus,
who lived two centuries afterwards. The former treated at large on the
general management of domestic animals, and the latter more
professedly on the diseases to which they are liable.

4. Both of these writers treated their subject in elegant classical
Latin; but neither they nor any other ancient author whose works have
reached us, had any professional acquaintance with medicine or
surgery. Celsus is the only physician of those times who is said to
have written on animal medicine; but this part of his works is not
extant.

5. Xenophon is the oldest veterinary writer whose work remains; but
his treatise is confined to the training and management of the horse
for war and the chase. The chief merit of the ancient writers on this
subject consists in the dietetic rules and domestic management which
they propose. Their medical prescriptions are said to be an
inconsistent and often discordant jumble of many articles, devoid of
rational aim or probable efficacy.

6. On the revival of learning in Europe, when the anatomy and
physiology of the human body had become grand objects of research in
the Italian schools, veterinary anatomy attracted the attention of
Ruini and others, whose descriptive labors on the body of the horse
have since served for the ground-work and model to all the schools in
Europe.

7. The works of the veterinary writers of antiquity were eagerly
sought and translated in Italy and France, and the art was extensively
cultivated, sometimes under regular medical professors. Every branch
of the equine economy was pursued with assiduity and success, whether
it related to harness and trappings, equitation and military menage,
or the methodical treatment of the hoof, and the invention of various
kinds of iron shoes. Evangelista of Milan distinguished himself in the
education or breaking of the horse; and to him is attributed the
invention of the martingale.

8. The new science having been extended over a great proportion of the
continent of Europe, could scarcely fail of occasional communication
with England; nevertheless, the medical treatment of horses and other
domestic animals continued exclusively in the hands of farriers and
cow-doctors, until some time in the first quarter of the eighteenth
century.

9. At this period, that branch of this art which relates to the
medical and surgical treatment of the horse, attracted the attention
of William Gibson, who had acted in the capacity of army surgeon in
the wars of Queen Anne. He was the first author of the regular medical
profession, in England, who attempted to improve veterinary science;
and the publication of his work forms an era in its annals, since his
work became, and has continued to the present day, the basis of the
superior practice of the English.

10. The eighteenth century was abundantly fruitful in veterinary
pursuits and publications. France took the lead; but a zeal for this
branch of science pervaded Germany and the states north of that part
of Europe, and colleges were established in various countries, with
the express view of cultivating this branch of the medical art. It is
said that the French have improved the anatomical and surgical
branches of the art, and the English, those which relate to the
application of medicines.

11. The first veterinary school was instituted at Lyons, in 1762.
Another was established at Alfort, in 1766. A similar institution was
opened at Berlin, in 1792, and in the same year, one at St. Pancras,
near London. In these colleges, lectures are given, and degrees
conferred. In the diplomas, the graduate is denominated _veterinary
surgeon_. A great number of these surgeons have been dispersed in the
armies of Europe, as well as through the different countries, where
they have been employed in the medical and surgical treatment of
diseased animals, to the great advantage of their owners.

12. From the preceding account, it is evident, that the light of
science has shone conspicuously, in Europe, on the domestic animals,
in relation to their treatment, both while in health, and when
laboring under disease. In the United States, we have no institution
for the cultivation of this branch of knowledge. The press, however,
has been prolific in the production of works treating on the various
branches of the veterinary art; and many persons, by their aid, have
rendered themselves competent to administer to animals in cases of
disease, in a rational manner.

13. Nevertheless, the practice of animal medicine is confined chiefly
to illiterate men, who, from their laborious habits, or from other
causes, have not attained to that degree of information on animal
diseases, and the general effects of medicine, that might enable them
to prescribe their remedies on scientific principles. But this state
of things is not peculiar to our country; for, notwithstanding the
laudable efforts of enlightened men in Europe, the blacksmiths form a
vast majority of the horse-surgeons and physicians in every part of
it; and the medical treatment of the other domestic animals is
commonly intrusted to persons who are still more incompetent.

14. The attention of blacksmiths was very early turned to the diseases
of the horse, from the practice of supplying him with shoes. The
morbid affections of the foot were probably the first which attracted
their notice; and descanting upon these induced the general belief,
that they understood every other disease which might affect the
animal.

15. These men, as artificers in iron, were originally termed ferrers
or ferriers, from the Latin word _ferrum_, iron; and their craft,
ferriery. These terms, by a usual corruption or improvement in
language, have been changed to farrier and farriery, both of which
still remain in general use, the former as applied to persons who shoe
horses and administer to them medicines and surgical remedies, and the
latter to the art itself, by which they are, or ought to be, guided.

16. The appellation of veterinary surgeon is applicable to persons who
have received a diploma from some veterinary college, or who have, at
least, studied animal medicine scientifically. There are a few such
individuals in the United States; and the great value of the domestic
animals, and the general increase of knowledge, certainly justify the
expectation, that their number will increase.


THE END.


       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes:

Obvious spelling and punctuation errors were repaired. Period
spellings were retained (for example: orchestres, etc.), along with
valid alternate spellings of the same word. "Stationary" is used for
"stationery" consistently in this text. Retained.

There were several words that the original included in both hyphenated
and non-hyphenated forms; these were retained.

Heading punctuation and formatting, which varied in the original, has
been standardized.

Illustrations on P. 63 (Printer), 73 (Type-founder), and 81
(Paper-maker) have no captions in the original.

P. 66, "Durandi Ralionale divinorum officiorum" in the original is the
official title in several sources. Retained "Ralionale" spelling.

Changes not covered by notes above were:

    P. 10, "now became clefs"; original reads "clifs."
    P. 159, "convex drawing-knife"; original reads "onvex."





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