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Title: Descriptive Zoopraxography - or the science of animal locomotion made popular
Author: Muybridge, Eadweard, 1830-1904
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Illustration]

DESCRIPTIVE

ZOOPRAXOGRAPHY

OR THE SCIENCE OF ANIMAL LOCOMOTION
MADE POPULAR

BY

EADWEARD MUYBRIDGE

WITH SELECTED OUTLINE TRACINGS REDUCED FROM SOME OF
THE ILLUSTRATIONS OF

"ANIMAL LOCOMOTION"

AN ELECTRO-PHOTOGRAPHIC INVESTIGATION OF CONSECUTIVE
PHASES OF ANIMAL MOVEMENTS, COMMENCED 1872,
COMPLETED 1885, AND PUBLISHED 1887,
UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA

       *       *       *       *       *

PUBLISHED AS A MEMENTO OF A SERIES OF LECTURES GIVEN BY THE AUTHOR
UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT

BUREAU OF EDUCATION

AT THE

WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION, IN ZOOPRAXOGRAPHICAL HALL

1893

       *       *       *       *       *

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA
1893

       *       *       *       *       *

COPYRIGHTED, 1893,
BY
EADWEARD MUYBRIDGE

The Lakeside Press
R. R. DONNELLEY & SONS CO., CHICAGO

       *       *       *       *       *

SOME OF THE SUBSCRIBERS
TO
"ANIMAL LOCOMOTION."
THE ORIGINAL AUTOGRAPHS ARE ON THE SUBSCRIPTION BOOK
IN THE POSSESSION OF THE AUTHOR.

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration]

PREFACE.

In the summer of 1892 while the Author was in California, preparing for a
Lecturing tour through Australia and India, he received an invitation from
the Fine Arts Commission of the World's Columbian Exposition to give a
series of Lectures on ZOOPRAXOGRAPHY in association with the Exposition now
being held in Chicago.

As these Lectures under the more familiar title of "The Science of Animal
Locomotion in Its Relation to Design in Art" had already been given at
nearly all the principal Institutions of Art, Science and Education in
Europe and in the United States, (see appendix A) the Author was induced to
believe that they might be repeated in a popular manner at the Exposition,
with some appreciation of the importance of the facts which his
investigation has revealed, not merely by the student of Nature or of Art,
but by that large and important class of students, known as the general
public.

Under this impression he delayed his far Occidental expedition and returned
to Chicago to find a commodious theater erected for this special purpose on
the grounds of the Exposition, to which the name of Zoöpraxographical Hall
had been given; the Science of Zoöpraxography having had its origin in the
Author's first experiments in 1872. It is not intended in this monograph to
give more than a synopsis of the usual course of Lectures on the subject,
nor to reproduce any of the pictured or sculptured representations which
are necessary for its proper elucidation, but merely to describe the common
methods of limb action adopted by quadrupeds--especially by the horse--in
their various acts of progressive motion, and to illustrate the most
important phases of these movements by tracings from the original
photogravures of the Author's work.

In the presentation of a Lecture on Zoöpraxography the course usually
adopted is to project, much larger than the size of life upon a screen, a
series of the most important phases of some act of animal motion--the
stride of a horse, while galloping for example--which are analytically
described. These successive phases are then combined in the Zoöpraxiscope,
which is set in motion, and a reproduction of the original movements of
life is distinctly visible to the audience.

With this apparatus, horse-races are reproduced with such fidelity that the
individual characteristics of the motion of every animal can readily be
seen; flocks of birds fly across the screen with every movement of their
wings clearly perceptible; two gladiators contend for victory with an
energy which would cause the arena to resound with wild applause, athletes
turn somersaults, and other actions by men, women and children, horses,
dogs, cats and wild animals, such as running, dancing, jumping, trotting
and kicking, are illustrated in the same manner. By this method of analysis
and synthesis the eye is taught how to observe and to distinguish the
differences between a true and a false impression of animal movements. The
Zoöpraxiscopical exhibition is followed by illuminated copies of paintings
and sculptures, demonstrating how the movement has been interpreted by the
Artists of all ages; from the primitive engravers of the cave dwelling
period, to the most eminent painters and sculptors of the present day.

       *       *       *       *       *

INTRODUCTION.

In the year 1872, while the Author was engaged in his official duties as
Photographer of the United States Government for the Pacific coast, there
arose in the city of San Francisco one of those controversies upon Animal
Locomotion, which has engaged the attention of mankind from the dawn of
symbolical design, to the present era of reformation in the artistic
expression of animal movements.

The subject of this particular dispute was the possibility of a horse
having all of his feet free of contact with the ground at the same instant,
while trotting, even at a high rate of speed, and the disputants were Mr.
Frederick MacCrellish and the Hon. Leland Stanford.

The attention of the Author was directed to this controversy and he
immediately sought the means for its settlement.

At this time the rapid dry plate had not yet been evolved from the
laboratory of the chemist, and the problem before him was to develop a
sufficiently intense and contrasted image upon a wet collodion plate, after
an exposure of so brief a duration that a horse's foot moving with a
velocity of more than a hundred lineal feet in a second of time, should be
photographed practically "sharp."

A few days' experimenting and about a dozen negatives, with a celebrated
fast trotter--"Occident"--as a model, while trotting at the rate of a mile
in two minutes and sixteen seconds, laterally in front of the camera,
decided the argument for once and for all time in favor of those disputants
who held the opinion that a horse while trotting was for a portion of his
stride entirely free from contact with the ground. With a knowledge of the
fact that some horses while trotting will make a stride of twenty feet or
more in length, it is difficult to understand why there should ever have
been any difference of opinion on the subject.

These first experiments of Zoöpraxography were made at Sacramento,
California, in May, 1872. A few impressions were printed from the selected
negative for private distribution, and were commented upon by the "Alta
California," a newspaper published in San Francisco.

Thus far the photographs had been made with a single camera, requiring a
separate trotting for each exposure. The horse being of a dark color and
the background white, the pictures were little better than silhouettes, and
it was difficult to distinguish, except by inference, the right feet from
the left.

Several phases of as many different movements had been photographed, which
the Author endeavored with little success to arrange in consecutive order
for the construction of a complete stride.

It then occurred to him that if a number of cameras were placed in a line,
and exposures effected successively in each, with regulated intervals of
time or of distance, an analysis of one single step or stride could be
obtained which would be of value both to the Scientist and the Artist.

The practical application of this system of photographing required
considerable time for its development, and much experimenting with
chemicals and apparatus.

It being desirable that the horses used as models should be representatives
of their various breeds, and the Author not being the owner of any that
could be fairly classed as such, obtained the coöperation of Mr. Stanford,
who owned a fine stud of horses at his farm at Palo Alto, and there
continued his labors.

The apparatus used at this stage of the investigation was essentially the
same as that subsequently constructed for the University of Pennsylvania,
the arrangement of which will be described further on.

Some of the results of these early experiments which illustrated successive
phases of the action of horses while walking, trotting, galloping, &c.,
were published in 1878, with the title of "The Horse in Motion." Copies of
these photographs were deposited the same year in the Library of Congress
at Washington, and some of them found their way to Berlin, London, Paris,
Vienna, &c., where they were criticized by the journals of the day.

In 1882 the Author visited Europe and at a reception given him by Monsieur
Meissonier was invited by that great painter to exhibit the results of his
labors to his brother Artists who had assembled in his studios for that
purpose. M. Meissonier was the first among Artists to acknowledge the value
to Art design of the Author's researches; and upon this occasion, alluding
to a full knowledge of the details of a subject being necessary for its
truthful and satisfactory translation by the Artist, he declared how much
his own impression of a horse's motion had been changed after a careful
study of its consecutive phases.

It is scarcely necessary to point out, in confirmation of M. Meissonier's
assertions, the modifications in the expression of animal movements now
progressing in the works of the Painter and the Sculptor, or to the fact of
their being the result of studious attention to the science of
Zoöpraxography.

In the same year, during a lecture on "The Science of Animal Locomotion in
Its Relation to Design in Art," given at the Royal Institution (see
_Proceedings_ of the Royal Institution of Great Britain, March 13, 1882),
the author exhibited the results of his experiments at Palo Alto, when he,
with the Zoöpraxiscope and an oxy-hydrogen lantern, projected on the wall a
synthesis of many of the actions he had photographed.

It may not be considered irrelevant if he repeats what he on that occasion
said in his analysis of the quadrupedal walk:--

"So far as the camera has revealed, these successive foot fallings are
invariable, and _are probably common to all quadrupeds_....

"It is also probable that these photographic investigations--which were
executed with wet collodion plates, with exposures not exceeding in some
instances the one five-thousandth part of a second--will dispel many
popular illusions as to the gaits of a horse, and future and more
exhaustive experiments, with the advantages of recent chemical discoveries,
will completely unveil all the visible muscular action of men and animals
even during their most rapid movements....

"The employment of automatic apparatus for the purpose of obtaining a
regulated succession of photographic exposures is too recent for it to be
generally used for scientific experiment or for its advantages to be
properly appreciated. At some future time the philosopher will find it
indispensable for many of his investigations."

The great interest manifested in the results of his preliminary labors
convinced the Author that a comprehensive and systematic investigation with
improved mechanical appliances, and newly-discovered chemical
manipulations, would demonstrate many novel facts, not only interesting to
the casual observer, but of indisputable value to the Artist and to the
Scientist. This investigation and the subsequent publication in the
elaborate manner determined upon, assumed such imposing proportions, and
necessarily demanded so large an expenditure, that all publishers, not
unnaturally, shrank from entering the unexplored field.

In this emergency, through the influence of its Provost, Dr. William
Pepper, the University of Pennsylvania with an enlightened exercise of its
functions as a contributor to human knowledge, instructed the Author to
make, under its auspices, a comprehensive investigation of "Animal
Locomotion" in the broadest significance of the words, (see appendix B) and
some of the Trustees and friends of the University constituted themselves a
committee for the purpose of promoting the execution of the work. These
gentlemen were Dr. William Pepper, Chas. C. Harrison, J. B. Lippincott,
Edw. H. Coates, Samuel Dickson and Thomas Hockley.

The Author acknowledges his obligations to these gentlemen for the interest
they took in his labors; for without their generous assistance the work
would probably never have been completed; the total amount expended--nearly
forty thousand dollars--being entirely beyond his own resources. To Drs. F.
X. Dercum, Geo. F. Barker and Horace Jayne, of the University, the Author
is also indebted for much valuable assistance.

[Illustration: Diagram of the Studio at The University of Pennsylvania, and
Arrangement of the Apparatus for Investigating Animal Locomotion.]

STUDIO, APPARATUS, AND METHOD OF WORKING.

For a proper appreciation of the care taken in the Investigation of Animal
Locomotion at the University of Pennsylvania to ensure accurate record of
the consecutive phases of the various movements, attention to the system
adopted is necessary.

In the diagram, B is the _Lateral_ background; consisting of a shed 37
metres or about 120 feet, long, the front of which is open, and divided by
vertical and horizontal threads into spaces 5 centimetres, or about 2
inches, square, and by broader threads into larger spaces 50 centimetres,
or about 19¾ inches, square.

At C and C, 37 metres, or about 120 feet, apart are "_fixed_" backgrounds,
with vertical threads 5 centimetres, or about two inches, from their
centres, with broader threads 30 centimetres, or about 12 inches, from
their centres.

For some investigations, readily distinguishable in the plates,
"_portable_" backgrounds are used, consisting of frames 3 metres wide by 4
metres high,--about 10 feet by 13 feet 4 inches,--over some of which black
cloth and over others white cloth is stretched, all being divided by
vertical and horizontal lines into square spaces of the same description as
those of the lateral background.

These portable backgrounds are used when photographing birds and horses,
and also wild animals when possible to do so.

L. A lateral battery of 24 automatic electro-photographic cameras, arranged
parallel with the line of progressive motion, and usually placed therefrom
about 15 metres or 49 feet.

Slow movements are usually photographed with lenses of 3 inches diameter
and 15 inches equivalent focus; the centres of the lenses being 15
centimetres, or about 6 inches, apart.

Rapid movements are usually photographed with a _portable_ battery of
cameras and smaller lenses.

The centre, between lenses 6 and 7, is opposite the centre of the track T.

For illustrations comprising both "Laterals" and "Foreshortenings," cameras
1 to 12 only are used.

When "Laterals" alone are required, cameras 13 to 24 are connected with the
system and used in their regular sequence.

R. A portable battery of 12 automatic electro-photographic cameras, the
lenses of which are 1¼ inches diameter and 5 inches equivalent focus; the
lenses are arranged 7½ centimetres, or about 3 inches, from their centres.
When the battery is used vertically, lens 6 is usually on the same
horizontal plane as the lenses of the lateral battery.

In the diagram this battery is arranged _vertically_ for a series of "Rear
Foreshortenings," the points of view being at an angle of 90 degrees from
the lateral battery.

F. A battery of 12 automatic electro-photographic cameras, similar to that
placed at R, arranged horizontally for "Front Foreshortenings," the points
of view averaging an angle of 60 degrees from the lateral battery.

O. The position of the operator; the electric batteries; the chronograph
for recording the intervals of time between each successive exposure; the
motor for completing the successive electric circuits, and other apparatus
connected with the investigation.

T T. The track parallel with the lateral battery and covered with
corrugated rubber flooring.

M. The model, approaching the point number "1" on the track where the
series of photographic illustrations will commence.

An estimate having been made of the interval of time which will be
required, between each photographic exposure, to illustrate the complete
movement, or that portion of the complete movement desired, the apparatus
is adjusted to complete a succession of electric circuits at each required
interval of time, and the motor is set in operation. When the series is to
illustrate _progressive_ motion; upon the arrival of the model at the point
marked "1" on the track, the operator, by pressing a button, completes an
electric circuit, which immediately throws into gearing a portion of the
apparatus hitherto at rest. By means of suitably arranged connections, an
electric current is transmitted to each of the 3 cameras marked "1" in the
various batteries, and an exposure is simultaneously made on each of the
photographic plates, respectively, contained therein. At the end of the
predetermined interval of time, a similar current is transmitted to each of
the cameras marked "2," and another exposure made on each of the 3 next
plates, and so forth until each series of exposures in each of the three
batteries is completed. Assuming the operator to have exercised good
judgment in regulating the speed of the apparatus, and in making the first
electric contact at the proper time, and that the figures 1 to 12 represent
the distance traversed by the model in executing the movement desired, the
first three photographic exposures--that is, one exposure in each
battery--will have been synchronously made when the model was passing the
position marked "1" on the track T; the second three exposures will have
been made when the model was passing the position marked "2," and so on
until twelve successive exposures were simultaneously made in each of the
three batteries. This perfect uniformity of time, speed, and distance,
however, was not always obtained.

When this monograph was commenced it was not intended by the author to give
any more than a general idea of the method adopted for obtaining the
results of his investigation; it has, however, been considered that a few
illustrations and brief description of the apparatus devised and used by
him may not be without interest to other students.

For the use of these illustrations he is indebted to the courtesy of Rev.
Jesse Y. Burk, the Secretary of the University, and to J. B. Lippincott
Company, the publishers of "The Muybridge Work at the University of
Pennsylvania," a book which contains, among other essays upon the subject,
"Materials for a Memoir on Animal Locomotion, by Harrison Allen, M. D.,"
and "A Study of Some Normal and Abnormal Movements, by Francis X. Dercum,
M.D., Ph.D."

Figure 1 is a view of the building containing the lateral battery of
twenty-four photographic cameras, all of which were used when as many
consecutive phases of an act of motion were required.

[Illustration: Fig. 1.]

Immediately in front of each of these cameras, and detached therefrom, was
placed an electro-photographic exposor, a side section of which is
represented by Figure 2, in which A is a continuous band of thin rubber
cloth impervious to light; the edges of which are bound with strong tape,
and arranged to run in a groove, and over two rollers RR which are attached
to a frame.

In this endless band are two apertures OO of suitable size, and so arranged
that their full openings as they pass each other shall simultaneously take
place in front of the center of the lens L.

The upper and lower edges of these apertures are kept taut by light steel
rods attached to the tape binding.

To the lower rod of the front aperture is fastened a ring C and a cleat, to
which some elastic rubber bands B are attached; these bands are easily
removable and their number increased at discretion; in some instances of
rapid exposures a tension of twenty-five pounds or more was required. On a
shelf of the frame is a magnet M, over the top of which is arranged a steel
lever G pivoted near the end D which terminates with a slightly indented
projection.

[Illustration: Fig. 2.]

The armature of the magnet is pivoted at H; its upper arm terminates with a
shoulder I. S is a spring to prevent the accidental shifting of the
shoulder from its contact with the lever when the exposor is ready for its
function. N is a set screw to adjust the distance of the armature from the
magnet. To prepare for a series of photographic exposures--the plates
having been already placed in the cameras--the end of the lever G is placed
under the shoulder I; the endless curtain is revolved until the front
aperture O is raised to its proper position, when the ring C is hooked upon
the projecting point D. A cord attached to the rubber bands B is drawn
around the pulley P, and a ring at its end is slipped over a pin, which
keeps the spring at a proper state of tension. Upon the completion of an
electric circuit the armature is drawn towards the magnet; the end of the
lever is released from its contact with the shoulder; the ring C is
released from the projecting point D; the front of the endless curtain is
drawn rapidly downward; the apertures meet in the center of the lens, form
a gradually expanding and then contracting diaphragm, and the exposure is
made. A front view of three electro-photographic exposors is seen in Figure
3. The first of these represents the exposor set and ready for an exposure;
the second shows the meeting of the apertures at the commencement of an
exposure; the third, their position near the completion of the exposure,
they having in the meanwhile uncovered the lens to their full capacity.

[Illustration: Fig. 3.]

Figure 4 illustrates a portable battery of twelve electro-photographic
exposors; it consists of a rectangular box divided into compartments, open
at the front and rear.

[Illustration: Fig. 4.]

In twelve of these compartments are arranged rollers, curtains, magnets,
etc., as previously described, and a compartment through which a focusing
lens is used. The two end compartments provide for the adjustment of the
camera, which is supported in the box to the rear of the exposing
arrangements. A cable of insulated wires for connecting the twelve magnets
with the exposing motor, contains a wire for the return current. As seen in
the engraving, seven of the magnets by the passage of their respective
currents have completed their releasing operations. In the eighth
compartment the two apertures in the exposing band are in the act of
effecting an exposure. The remaining four magnets are awaiting their turn
for action.

Figure 5 is a photographic camera divided into thirteen compartments, each
having a lens of the same construction, and the same focal length; these
are arranged to correspond with the compartments in the electro-exposors.

One of the lenses is provided with a focusing screen, and with it the other
twelve lenses are adjusted to a proper focus without removing the plate
holder behind them from its position in the camera.

The plate holder is constructed to hold three dry plates, each three inches
by twelve inches; the front is divided into twelve compartments, each three
inches square.

[Illustration: Fig. 5.]

Light is excluded from the front by a roller blind, strengthened by thin
narrow slats of hard wood; the blind works in grooves, is drawn over a
concealed roller, and covers the back of the holder when the plates are
being exposed.

Figure 6 is a rear and side view of the circuit maker, conventionally
called the exposing motor.

The motive power is an adjustable weight attached to a cord which is wound
around a drum. Twenty-four binding posts are attached to the table at the
back of the exposing motor; other binding posts are arranged for return or
other currents.

Figure 7 illustrates a front and side view of the upper part of the
exposing motor. Fastened to the frame is a ring of hard rubber, in which
are inserted twenty-four insulated segments of platinum-coated brass; these
segments are connected by insulated wires to the twenty-four binding posts
on the back of the motor table, figure 6.

[Illustration: Fig. 6.]

A shaft, connected by an arrangement of geared wheels to the drum, passes
through the center of the segmented ring and carries a loose collar; a
stout metal rod is firmly attached near its longitudinal center to this
loose collar. One arm of the rod carries a laminated metal scraper, or
contact brush, arranged to travel around the periphery of the ring, and in
its revolution to make contact with each segment in succession. The contact
brush is connected through the arm with one pole of the battery; and each
segment--through its independent wire and magnet of the
electro-exposors--with the other pole.

[Illustration: Fig. 7.]

[Illustration: Fig. 7.]

When twenty-four consecutive phases of an act of motion are to be
photographed from one point of view, all of the insulated segments in the
ring are put in circuit. When twelve consecutive phases are to be
photographed synchronously from each of three points of view, each
alternate segment is placed in circuit with the electric battery.

The manner in which the series of synchronous exposures is effected will be
readily understood by reference to the diagram, 8.

[Illustration: Fig. 8.]

All being in readiness, and the weights and fan wheel adjusted to cause the
contact brush to sweep over the periphery of the ring at the required rate
of speed, the drum, and with it the shaft is set in motion.

At the proper time, pressure on a button completes an independent circuit
through the magnet seen below the segmented ring, figure 7, and in the side
diagram of figure 8.

The action of the armature releases the lower end of the rod on the loose
collar, which, by means of a coiled spring, is immediately thrown into
gearing with the already revolving shaft; the contact brush sweeps around
the segmented ring and effects the consecutive series of exposures at the
pre-arranged intervals of time.

At the University the intervals varied from the one-sixtieth part of a
second to several seconds.

A record of these time intervals was kept by a chronograph, a well known
instrument; it comprises a revolving drum carrying a cylinder of
smoke-blackened paper, on which, by means of successive electric contacts,
a pencil is caused to record the vibrations of a tuning fork, while a
second pencil marks the commencement of each photographic exposure. The
number of vibrations occurring between any two successive exposures marks
the time. The tuning fork used made one hundred single vibrations in a
second of time. To ensure greater minuteness and accuracy in the record,
the vibrations were divided into tenths, and the intervals calculated in
thousandths of a second.

For the purpose of determining the synchronous action of the
electro-exposors while making a double series of exposures, the accuracy of
the time intervals as recorded by the chronograph, and the duration of the
shortest photographic exposures used in the investigation, the two
batteries of portable cameras were placed side by side, and the exposors
were each connected with the exposing motor by separate lengths of a
hundred feet of cable. The two series of cameras were pointed to a rapidly
revolving disc of five feet diameter. The surface of the disc was black,
with narrow white lines radiating from the center to the edge like the
spokes of a wheel. A microscopic examination of the two series of resulting
negatives proved that no variation could be discovered in the synchronous
action of ten of the duplicated series of exposures, and that in the
remaining two a variation existed in the simultaneity of a few
ten-thousandths of a second--a result sufficiently near to simultaneity for
all ordinary photographic work.

[Illustration: Fig. 9.]

A reproduction of the chronographic record of one of these experiments is
seen in figure 9.

The first line records the revolution of the disc; the second the vibration
of the tuning fork; and each group of three long double markings in the
third line indicates a photographic exposure.

The shortest exposures made at the University were--approximately--the one
six-thousandth part of a second; such brief exposures are however for this
class of investigation very rarely needed.

Some horses galloping at full speed will, for a short distance, cover about
fifty-six or fifty-eight feet of ground in a second of time; a full mile
averaging perhaps a hundred seconds. At this speed, a foot recovering its
loss of motion will be thrust forward with an occasional velocity of at
least 120 lineal feet in a second of time.

During the one one-thousandth part of a second the body of the horse will
at this rate move forward about seven one-tenths of an inch, and a moving
foot perhaps one and a half inches, not a very serious matter for the usual
requirements of the amateur photographer.

A knowledge of the duration of the exposures, however, was in this
investigation of no value, and scarcely a matter of curiosity, the aim
always being to give as long an exposure as the rapidity of the action
would permit, with a due regard to the necessary sharpness of outline, and
essential distinctness of detail.

The power used for operating the magnets, through the exposing motor, was
given from a lé Clanché battery of fifty-four cells, arranged in multiple
arc of three series, each of eighteen cells.

During the investigation at the University of Pennsylvania, more than a
hundred thousand photographic exposures were made.

The negative plates were supplied by the Cramer Dry Plate Company of St.
Louis, and the positive plates by the Carbutt Company of Philadelphia. On a
favorable day five hundred or six hundred negatives were sometimes exposed;
on one day the number of exposures reached seven hundred and fifty.

The electrical manipulations were directed by Lino F. Rondinella; the
development room was in charge of Henry Bell. The author takes pleasure in
acknowledging the skill, patience and energy which these gentlemen
exhibited in their respective fields of labor.

Although the one six-thousandth part of a second was the duration of the
most rapid exposure made in this investigation, it is by no means the limit
of mechanically effected photographic exposures, nor does the one-sixtieth
part of a second approach the limit of time intervals. Marey, in his
remarkable physiological investigations, has recently made successive
exposures with far less intervals of time; and the author has devised, and
when a relaxation of the demands upon his time permit, will use an
apparatus which will photograph twenty consecutive phases of a single
vibration of the wing of an insect; even assuming as correct a quotation
from _Nicholson's Journal_ by Pettigrew in his work on Animal Locomotion
that a common house fly will make during flight seven hundred and fifty
vibrations of its wings in a second of time, a number probably far in
excess of the reality.

The ingenious gentlemen who are persistently endeavoring to overcome the
obstacles in the construction of an apparatus for aerial navigation, will
perhaps some day be awakened by the fact that the only successful method of
propulsion will be found in the action of the wing of an insect.

We will now resume the subject proper of this monograph.

It is impossible within its limits to trace the history of the art of
delineating animals in motion, or to illustrate it with examples of the
truthful impressions of the primitive Artists, or of the imaginative and
erroneous conceptions of many of those of modern times. Certain phases of
the facts of Animal Locomotion will alone be treated upon, as demonstrated
by photographic research.

The illustrations and condensed definitions of the various gaits were
prepared by the Author for the "Standard Dictionary." Before studying these
it is essential that the meaning of the terms _step_ and _stride_ should be
distinctly understood.

A STEP is an act of progressive animal motion, in which one of the
supporting members of the body is thrust in the direction of the motion and
the support transferred, wholly, or in part, from one member to another.

A STRIDE is an act of progressive animal motion, which, for its completion,
requires all of the supporting members of the body, in the exercise of
their proper functions, to be consecutively and regularly thrust in the
direction of the movement until they hold the same relative positions in
respect to each other as they did at the commencement of the notation. In
the bipedal walk or run a step is one-half of a stride or full round
movement. With all quadrupeds, except the kangaroo and other jumpers,
_four_ steps are necessary to complete the stride.

THE WALK.

The WALK is a method of progressive motion with a regular individual
succession of limb movements. In the evolution of the terrestrial
vertebrates the walk was probably the first adopted method of locomotion,
and its execution is regulated by the law that the movement of the
_superior_ limb precedes the movement of its lateral _inferior_ limb. This
is proved not merely by the _ordinary_ quadrupedal walk, but by the
suspended motion of the sloth; the crawling of the child upon the ground,
the erect walk of man; and the inverse limb movements of the ape tribe.

The relative time intervals of the foot-fallings vary greatly with many
species of animals, and even with the same animal under different
conditions.

Selecting the horse for the purpose of illustration we find that during the
walk--his slowest progressive movement--he has always two, and for a
varying period of time, or distance, three feet on the ground at once,
while during a very slow walk the support will devolve alternately upon
three feet and upon four feet.

[Illustration: SOME CONSECUTIVE PHASES OF THE WALK.]

If the notation of the foot-fallings commences with the landing of the
right hind foot, the order in which the other feet are placed upon the
ground will be: the right fore, the left hind, and the left fore,
commencing again with the right hind.

Assuming that our observation of the stride of a horse during an ordinary
walk commences with the landing of the right hind foot, the body will then
be supported by both hind and the left fore feet. The left hind is now
lifted, the support of the body devolves upon the diagonals--the right hind
and left fore--and continues so supported until the left hind is in the act
of passing to the front of the right; when the right fore is next placed on
the ground. The left fore is now raised, and the body is supported by the
right laterals, until the landing of the left hind foot relieves its fellow
hind of a portion of its weight. Two steps or one-half of a stride have now
been made, and with the substitution of the right feet for the left, two
other steps will be executed in practically the same manner, and a full
stride will have been completed. We thus see that during the walk a
quadruped is supported by eight different methods, the supporting limbs
being consecutively:

Both hind and left fore.

Right hind and left fore _diagonals_.

Right hind and both fore.

Right hind and right fore _laterals_.

Both hind and right fore.

Left hind and right fore _diagonals_.

Left hind and both fore.

Left hind and left fore _laterals_.

Followed as at the commencement with both hind and left fore.

When, therefore, during a walk, a horse is supported on two legs, with two
feet suspended between them, each pair are laterals. On the other hand,
when the suspended feet are respectively in advance of, and behind the
supporting legs, each pair are diagonals.

These invariable rules have been unknown or ignored by many distinguished
artists of modern times.

THE AMBLE.

The amble is a method of progressive motion with the same sequence of foot
fallings as the walk, but in which a hind foot or a fore foot is lifted
from the ground in advance of its fellow hind foot or its fellow fore foot
being placed thereon. The support of the body therefore devolves
alternately upon a single foot and upon two feet; the single foot being
alternately a hind foot and a fore foot, and the two feet being alternately
laterals and diagonals. At no time is the body entirely unsupported.

The following series of illustrations will clearly demonstrate the
consecutive foot fallings and some characteristic phases of an ambling
stride:

[Illustration: SOME CONSECUTIVE PHASES OF THE AMBLE.]

The amble has various local names, such as the "single foot," the "fox
trot," etc. It has sometimes been erroneously confused with the rack or the
so-called "pace;" it is the most gentle and agreeable to the rider of all
methods of locomotion of the horse, while the rack is the most ungraceful
and disagreeable.

In Scott's romances are many allusions to the "ambling palfry." Ben Jonson
in "Every Man in His Humor" speaks of going "out of the old hackney-pace to
a fine, easy amble," and Dickens in "Barnaby Rudge" refers to "the gray
mare breaking from her sober amble into a gentle trot."

The ambling gait is natural to the elephant, and to the horse, the mule and
the ass; but in many countries these latter animals are not encouraged in
its use.

THE TROT.

The trot is a more or less rapid progressive motion of a quadruped in which
the diagonal limbs act nearly simultaneously in being alternately lifted
from and placed on the ground, and in which the body of the animal is
entirely unsupported twice during each stride.

Selecting for the purpose of illustration the phases occurring during two
steps or one-half of a stride of 18 feet in length by a horse trotting at
the rate of a mile in two minutes and twelve seconds, we find that at the
instant his right fore foot strikes the ground, the left hind foot is a few
inches behind the point where it will presently strike. As the feet
approach the ground, the right hind leg is drawn forward with the pastern
nearly horizontal, while the left fore leg is flexed under the body. After
the feet strike the ground and the legs approach a vertical position the
pasterns are gradually lowered, and act as springs to break the force of
the concussion until they are sometimes bent to a right angle with the
legs.

At this period the fore foot is raised so high as to frequently strike the
elbow, while the diagonal hind foot is comparatively but little above the
ground, and is about to pass to the front of the left hind.

The pasterns gradually rise as the legs pass the vertical until the right
fore foot has left the ground and the last propelling force is being
exercised by the left hind foot; which accomplished, the animal is in mid
air.

The right hind foot continues its onward motion until it is sometimes much
in advance of its lateral fore foot, the former, however, being gradually
lowered, while the latter is being raised. The right hind and both fore
legs are now much flexed, while the left hind is stretched backwards to its
greatest extent with the bottom of the foot turned upwards, the left fore
leg is being thrust forwards and gradually straightened, with the toe
raised as the foot approaches the ground; which accomplished, with a
substitution of the left limbs for the right, we find them in the same
relative positions as when we commenced our examination, and one-half of
the stride is completed.

[Illustration: SOME CONSECUTIVE PHASES OF THE TROT.]

With slight and immaterial differences, such as might be caused by
irregularities of the ground, these movements are repeated by the other
pair of diagonals, and the stride is then complete.

If the stride of a trotting horse is divided into two portions,
representing the comparative distances traversed by the aggregate of the
body while the feet are in contact with, and while they are entirely clear
of, the ground, the relative measurements will be found to vary very
greatly, they being contingent upon length of limb, weight, speed, and
other circumstances.

Heavily built horses will sometimes merely drag the feet just above the
surface, but, in every instance of a trot, the _weight_ of the body is
really unsupported twice during each stride. It sometimes happens that a
fast trotter, during the four steps of a stride, will have all his feet
clear of the ground for a distance exceeding one-half of the length of the
entire stride. Upon landing, a fore foot almost always precedes its
diagonal hind.

It will be observed in the illustrations that while during the fast trot
the fore feet are lifted so high that they frequently strike the breast,
the hind feet are raised but little above the surface of the ground. The
trot is common to all the single-toed and to nearly all the cloven-footed
and soft-footed animals. It has, however, not been recorded as being
adopted by the elephant, the camel, or the giraffe.

THE RACK.

The rack, sometimes miscalled the "pace," is a method of quadrupedal
locomotion in which two lateral feet with nearly synchronous action are
placed upon and lifted from the ground alternately with the other laterals,
the body of the animal being in the intervals entirely without support. The
distance which the propelling feet hurl the animal through the air depends,
as with other movements, upon a variety of circumstances; at a high rate of
speed the distance will be about one-half the total length of the stride.
Upon landing, a hind foot usually precedes its lateral fore.

[Illustration: SOME CONSECUTIVE PHASES OF THE RACK.]

The rack is an ungraceful gait of the horse, and disagreeable to those who
seek comfort in riding.

The movements hitherto described are regular in their action, and a stride
may be divided into two parts, each of which--with a change of limbs--is
practically similar to the other; we now come to methods of progression
which cannot be so divided, and each stride must be considered as a unit of
motion.

THE CANTER.

In the canter we discover the same sequence of foot fallings as in the
walk, but not with the same harmonious intervals of time. The gait
resembles the gallop in respect to its leaving the horse entirely
unsupported for a varying period of time, and in the fact that the spring
into the air is always effected from a fore foot, and the landing upon the
diagonal hind foot; in other respects it materially differs from that
method of progression.

Assuming that during a stride of the canter a horse springs into the air
from a left fore foot, the right hind foot will first reach the ground; the
two fore legs will at this time be flexed under the body, the right being
the first landed, and for a brief period of time the support will devolve
upon the laterals. The right fore foot is rapidly followed by the left
hind. During a very slow canter the other fore foot will sometimes be
landed in advance of the lifting of its diagonal, and the curious phase
presented of all of the feet being in contact with the ground at the same
instant. Usually, however, the first hind foot to touch the ground will be
lifted, and the support thrown upon the diagonals.

The left fore is now brought down, and is followed by the lifting of the
right fore; when the left laterals assume the duty of support. The left
hind is now raised, and with a final thrust of the left fore foot the
animal is projected into the air, to land again upon its diagonal, and
repeat the same sequence of movements.

The above phases are selected from a single complete stride, in which the
landing occurs on the _right_ hind foot. Had the horse sprung from a
_right_ fore foot, the right and left feet would have been reversed through
the entire series.

[Illustration: SOME CONSECUTIVE PHASES OF THE CANTER.]

THE GALLOP.

The gallop is the most rapid method of quadrupedal motion; in its action
the feet are independently brought to the ground; the spring into the air
as in the canter is effected from a fore foot, and the landing upon the
diagonal hind foot.

The phases illustrated are selected from the stride of a thorough-bred
Kentucky horse, galloping at the rate of a mile in a hundred seconds, with
a stride of about twenty-one lineal feet.

The length of stride and the distance which the body is carried forward
without support depend upon many circumstances, such as the breed, build
and condition of the horse, speed, track, etc.

The phases illustrated and the measurement given apply to one stride of one
horse, but may be considered as fairly representing the stride of a
first-class horse in prime racing condition at the height of his speed,
upon a good track.

Assuming--as in this instance--the springing into the air to have been
effected from the right fore foot, the landing will take place in advance
of the centre of gravity, upon the diagonal, or left hind foot; above, will
be suspended the right hind foot, and at a higher elevation, several inches
to the rear, will be the right fore foot, with the sole turned upward. The
left fore leg will be in advance of the right, and also flexed. The force
of the impact and the weight of the horse causes the pastern to form a
right angle with the leg, and the heel is impressed into the ground.

[Illustration: SOME CONSECUTIVE PHASES OF THE GALLOP.]

The right hind foot strikes the ground and shares the weight of the body.
The left hind foot leaves the ground while the right hind pastern is in its
horizontal phase, supporting all the weight. At this period the left fore
leg is perfectly straight, with the toe much higher than the heel, and is
thrust forward until the pastern joint is vertical with the nose, the right
fore knee is bent at a right angle. The left fore foot now strikes and
these diagonals are for a brief period upon the ground together. The left
fore leg, however, immediately assumes the entire responsibility of support
and attains a vertical position, with the pastern at a right angle. The
right fore leg becomes perfectly rigid, and is thrust forward to its
fullest extent. The right fore foot now strikes the ground, the two fore
legs form a right angle, and the hind feet are found thrust backward, the
right to its fullest extent. The left fore leg having completed its
functions of support, is now lifted, and the weight transferred to the
right fore foot alone, which is soon found behind the centre of gravity;
the left hind foot passes to the front of the right fore leg, which,
exercising its final act of propulsion, thrusts the horse through the air;
the left hind foot descends; the stride is completed, and the consecutive
phases are renewed. From this analysis we learn that if the spring is made
from the right fore foot during the rapid gallop of a thoroughbred horse,
it is supported consecutively by

The left hind foot.

Both hind feet.

The right hind foot.

The right hind and the left fore feet.

The left fore foot.

Both fore feet.

The right fore foot.

From which he springs into the air to re-commence the phases with the left
hind foot, while the only phase in which he has been discovered without
support is one when the legs are flexed under the body. All of the feet at
this time are nearly close together and have comparatively little
independent motion; this phase, therefore, more persistently than any
other, forces itself upon the attention of the careful observer, and
conveys to him the impression of a horse's rapid motion in singular
contradiction to the conventional interpretation, until quite recently,
usually adopted by the Artist.

It should not be understood that the term "spring" implies that the body of
the horse is greatly elevated by that action; were it so, much force would
be unnecessarily expended with the result of loss of speed. The center of
gravity of a horse trotting or galloping at a high rate of speed will
preserve an almost strictly horizontal line, the undulations being very
slight.

In the gallop of the horse it is probable there may be sometimes a period
of suspension between the lifting of one fore foot and the descent of the
other, but it has not yet been demonstrated.

The method of galloping described applies to the horse and its allies, and
to most of the cloven and soft-footed animals.

In the gallop of the dog the sequence of foot falling and the action of the
body is materially different, and the animal is free from support twice in
each stride.

[Illustration: THE GALLOP OF THE DOG.]

Assuming that a racing hound after a flight through the air with elongated
body and extended legs (like the conventional galloping horse), lands upon
the left fore foot, the right fore will next touch the ground; from this he
will again spring into the air, and with curved body and flexed legs land
upon the right hind foot, while the right fore feet will be half the length
of the body to the rear. The left hind now descends, another flight is
effected, and again the left fore repeats its functions of support and
propulsion.

These successive foot fallings are common to all dogs when galloping, and
it is worthy of note that the same rotary action in the use of the limbs is
adopted in the gallop of the elk, the deer and the antelope, all of which
animals, like the dog, can for a time excel the horse in speed.

A search through all the dictionaries published at the time of writing, and
accessible to the Author, fails to discover a correct definition of "the
gallop." This motion is in America frequently miscalled the "run," and its
execution "running," but no corresponding explanation of the word is given
by any lexicographer.

In Scott's "Lady of the Lake" occurs "Then faint afar are heard the feet of
rushing steeds in _gallop_ fleet," many other distinguished Authors refer
to the same action by the same name, by which, or its equivalents, it is
universally known in Europe.

THE LEAP.

There is little essential difference in general characteristics of either
of the several movements that have been described, but with a number of
experiments made with horses while leaping, no two were found to agree in
the manner of execution. The leap of the same horse at the same rate of
speed, with the same rider, over the same hurdle, disclosed much variation
in the rise, clearance, and descent of the animal. A few phases were,
however, invariable. While the horse was raising his body to clear the
hurdle, one hind foot was always in advance of the other, which exercised
its last energy alone.

On the descent, the concussion was always first received by one fore foot,
followed more or less rapidly by the other, sometimes as much as 30 inches
in advance of where the first one struck; the hind feet were also landed
with intervals of time and distance.

No attempt will be made to analyze the consecutive phases of various other
acts of Animal Locomotion, such as rearing, bucking, kicking, tossing,
etc., on account of the irregularity which characterizes their execution,
and the difficulty of obtaining reliable data.

The Author has vainly sought for the rules which govern the hind feet of a
playfully disposed mule; but the inquiry has usually been unsatisfactory,
and upon some occasions disastrous. Should these movements be controlled by
any general law, it is of such a complex nature that all attempts to
expound it have hitherto been fruitless.

The figures in the series of circles (see appendix A) were selected from

    "ANIMAL LOCOMOTION"

and arranged by the Author for his less ambitious work,

    "POPULAR ZOOPRAXOGRAPHY."

(See Appendix C).

They were traced by the well known artist, Erwin Faber, and are reproduced
one-third the diameter of the circles arranged for the zoöpraxiscope. Many
of the original phases of movement are omitted on account of the optical
law which in the construction of a zoöpraxiscope requires that the number
of illustrations must bear a certain relationship to the number of
perforations through which they are viewed.

The popular number of thirteen having been selected for the latter, the
same number of figures illustrate actions without lateral progressive
motion.

When the number of illustrated phases is less than the number of
perforations, the succession of phases is in the direction of the motion,
and the disc is necessarily revolved in a reverse direction.

When the number of phases is greater than the number of perforations, the
phases succeed each other in a direction contrary to that of the motion,
and the disc is revolved in the direction of the motion.

An increased or diminished number of figures will respectively result in an
increased or diminished apparent speed of the object.

For further information on the subject, the reader is referred to the

    ZOOPRAXISCOPE.

       *       *       *       *       *


_APPENDIX A._

SYLLABUS OF A COURSE OF TWO LECTURES

ON

ZOOPRAXOGRAPHY

OR

THE SCIENCE OF ANIMAL LOCOMOTION IN ITS RELATION
TO DESIGN IN ART.

Origin of the Author's Investigations--Diagram of the Studio at the
University of Pennsylvania where the Investigation was conducted--Batteries
of Cameras, Electro-exposers, Contact-motor, Chronograph, and other
apparatus used for photographing consecutive phases of animal
movements--Method of obtaining successive exposures of moving objects
synchronously from several different points of view--Normal Locomotion of
Animals--Twelve consecutive phases of a single step of the Horse while
walking; also of the Ox, Elk, Goat, Buffalo, and other cloven-footed
animals; the Lion, Elephant, Camel, Dog, and other soft-footed animals; of
the Sloth while suspended by its claws, and of the Child while crawling on
the ground; of man walking erect--The Normal Method of Locomotion by all
animals essentially the same--The Quadrupedal Walk as interpreted by
Prehistoric Man, by the Egyptians, Assyrians, Phoenicians, Etruscans,
Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, and by eminent artists of mediæval and of
modern times--The Statue of Marcus Aurelius the great source of modern
errors; Marcus Aurelius in London, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Dublin, Paris,
Berlin, Amsterdam, New York, Boston, and many other cities--Albert Durer,
Verrocchio, Meissonier, Paul Delaroche, Landseer, Rosa Bonheur, Elizabeth
Thompson Butler, &c.--Other Quadrupedal movements, the Amble, Rack, Trot
and Canter--Twelve phases in the Gallop of a Horse--Origin of the modern
representation of the Gallop--Gallop as depicted by the Hittites, North
American Indians, Egyptians, Assyrians, Greeks, the mediæval artists--The
modern conventional gallop; evidences of its absurdity; acknowledgment by
the Artist of the necessity of reformation--Leap of the Horse, Kick of the
Mule, &c., all illustrated by photographs the size of life, from nature,
and comparisons made with the interpretation of the same movements by
artists of pre-historic, ancient, mediæval and modern times--Demonstration
of the action of the primary feathers in the wing of a Bird while Flying,
and a solution of the complex problem of Soaring.

AFTER THE VARIOUS METHODS OF LOCOMOTION HAVE BEEN DEMONSTRATED BY ANALYSIS,
THEY WILL BE REPRESENTED SYNTHETICALLY BY THE ZOOPRAXISCOPE.

_Among the many Institutions where Mr. Muybridge has had the honor of
Lecturing on_

ZOOPRAXOGRAPHY

_are the following_:--

Royal Academy of Arts, London.
Royal Society of London.
Royal College of Surgeons, London.
Royal Institution of Great Britain.
Royal Dublin Society.
Royal Geographical Society.
Royal Institution, Hull.
British Association for the Advancement of Science.
Linnean Society, Zoological Society.
Art and Science Schools, South Kensington Museum.
London Institution, Glasgow Philosophical Society.
Newcastle Literary and Philosophical Society.
Birmingham Natural History and Microscopical Society.
Town Hall, Birmingham; Nottingham Arts Society.
Manchester Athenæum.
University of Oxford.
Eton College, Clifton College.
Wellington College, Yorkshire College,
Rugby School, Charterhouse.
Leeds Mechanics' Institute.
Sheffield Literary and Philosophical Society.
Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society.
Warrington Literary and Philosophical Society.
Yorkshire Philosophical Society, Bristol Naturalists' Society.
Bath Associated Scientific and Art Societies.
Ipswich Scientific Society, Photographic Society of Ireland.
Liverpool Associated Literary, Scientific and Art Societies.
St. George's Hall, Liverpool.
School of Military Engineering, Chatham.
The School of Fine Arts; Hall of the Hemicycle, Paris.
The Society of Artists, Berlin.
The Society of Artists, Vienna.
The Society of Artists, Munich.
The Urania Scientific Society, Berlin.
The Polytechnic High School, Vienna.
The Polytechnic High School, Munich.
The University of Turin.
The "Cercle de L'Union Artistique,"
The Studio of M. Meissonier in Paris, Etc., Etc., Etc.

_And at all the principal Institutions of Art, Science, Education and
Learning in the United States of America._

[Illustration: 1. ATHLETE, HORSE-BACK SOMERSAULT.]

ABBREVIATED CRITICISMS.

"On Monday last, in the theatre of the ROYAL INSTITUTION, a select and
representative audience assembled to witness a series of the most
interesting demonstrations of Animal Locomotion given by Mr. Muybridge.

"The Prince and Princess of Wales, Princess Victoria, Louise, and Maud, and
the Duke of Edinburgh honored the occasion by their presence; likewise did
I note among the brilliant company Earl Stanhope, Sir Frederick Leighton,
P.R.A.; Professors Huxley, Gladstone, and Tyndall; and last, not least,
Lord Tennyson, poet laureate.

[Illustration: 2. ATHLETES BOXING.]

"Mr. Muybridge exhibited a large number of photographs of horses galloping,
leaping, etc.... By the aid of an astonishing apparatus called a
ZOOPRAXISCOPE, which may be briefly described as a magic lantern run mad
(with method in the madness), the animals walked, cantered, ambled,
galloped, and leaped over hurdles in a perfectly natural and lifelike
manner. I am afraid that, had Muybridge exhibited his ZOOPRAXISCOPE three
hundred years ago, he would have been burned as a wizard.... After the
horses came dogs, deer, and wild bulls. Finally man appeared (in
instantaneous photography) on the scene, and ran, leaped, and turned back
somersaults to admiration."--GEORGE AUGUSTUS SALA in _Illustrated London
News_.

[Illustration: 3. ATHLETES RUNNING.]

"Both scientific and artistic circles in London are at present greatly
interested in the triumphs of Mr. Eadweard Muybridge in photographing the
successive phases of animal movements. Our leading biologists and artists
have at once perceived and acknowledged the vast importance of the results
of his work."--_The Times, London._

[Illustration: 5. ATHLETE, RUNNING HIGH JUMP.]

"The Archbishop of York occupied the chair.... His Grace congratulated the
crowded and distinguished audience on the opportunity afforded them of
hearing Mr. Muybridge, and said that to everybody who felt an interest in
the phenomena of motion, the magnificent results of the investigation
carried on by Mr. Muybridge and the University of Pennsylvania were
wonderfully instructive."--_York Herald._

"His audiences have been drawn from the very first ranks of art, science,
and fashion."--_British Journal of Photography._

[Illustration: 6. ATHLETE, STANDING LONG JUMP.]

"These demonstrations are marvellously complete, ... exceedingly abundant
and rich in suggestion and instruction, and appeal to almost every class or
condition of humanity."--_Saturday Review, London._

"Mr. Muybridge delighted his audience with his wonderful
photographs."--_The Times, London._

"... Last night Mr. Muybridge gave his final lecture in Newcastle on 'The
Science of Animal Locomotion,' with the whole of the wonderful
illustrations; the Art Gallery being again crowded to excess."--_Newcastle
Chronicle._

[Illustration: 11. ATHLETES. BASE BALL; BATTING.]

"A photographic achievement which seemed to me at the time scarce credible,
and which I was presently assured by one of our ablest English
photographers was absolutely outside the bounds of possibility."--PROFESSOR
R. A. PROCTOR in the _Gentleman's Magazine_.

"At the conversazione of the Royal Society much interest was excited by Mr.
Eadweard Muybridge's lecture. The ZOOPRAXISCOPE afforded the spectator an
opportunity of studying by synthesis, the facts of motion which are also
demonstrated by analysis."--_Illustrated London News._

[Illustration: 14. BOYS PLAYING LEAP-FROG.]

"A really marvellous series of plates."--_Nature, London._

"Artistic people are all talking about Mr. Muybridge, who has come hither
with that rare desideratum--_something new_."--London CORRESPONDENCE,
_Philadelphia Times._

"It is impossible to do justice in this short time to the extraordinary
exhibition given by Mr. Muybridge at the Institute of Technology.... The
interest they excite in the mind of the spectator is
indescribable."--_Sunday Gazette, Boston._

[Illustration: 16. CHILDREN RUNNING.]

"The photographs have solved many complicated questions as to animal
locomotion."--_Art Journal, London._

"The effect was weird, yet fascinating. Plaudit followed plaudit. A better
pleased assemblage of people it would be difficult to find."--_Boston
Journal._

"... Mr. Muybridge then gave his famous lecture and demonstration on Animal
Locomotion. The hall (St. James') was crowded, and many were unable to
obtain seats."--Report of the Photographic Convention, _British Journal of
Photography_.

[Illustration: 17. ELEPHANT AMBLING.]

"A demonstration that vividly interests all the world."--_L'Illustration,
Paris._

"Many of these pictures have great--indeed, astonishing--beauty. The
interest which they present from the scientific point of view is
three-fold:--(_a_) They are important as examples of a very nearly perfect
method of investigation by photographic and electrical appliances. (_b_)
They have also a great value on account of the actual facts of natural
history and physiology which they record. (_c_) They have, thirdly, a quite
distinct, and perhaps their most definite, interest in their relation to
psychology."--PROF. E. RAY LANKESTER, F. R. S., in _Nature_.

[Illustration: 18. LION WALKING.]

"Mr. Meissonier's critical guests were evidently sceptical as to the
accuracy of many of the positions; but when the photographs were turned
rapidly, and made to pass before the lantern, their truthfulness was
demonstrated most successfully."--_Standard, London._

"Meissonier, devoting himself to his friends, evidently cared little for
personal compliments; he was anxious for the well-deserved distinction of
his _protégé_ Muybridge.... 'C'est merveilleusement arrangé!' said
Alexandre Dumas. 'C'est que la nature _compose_ crânement bien!' replied
Meissonier."--_Le Temps_, Paris.

[Illustration: 20. EGYPTIAN CAMEL RACKING.]

"The sensation of the day, and the topic of popular conversation."--_Boston
Daily Advertiser._

"The rapid movements by different animals were most interesting: and
hurdle-racing by horses--the very whipping process being visible--brought
down the house."--_Boston Herald._

"On revolving the instrument, the figures that have been derided by so many
as impossible absurdities, started into life, and such a perfect
representation of a racehorse at full speed as was never before witnessed
was immediately visible."--_The Field, London._

[Illustration: 21. BABOON WALKING.]

"Mr. Muybridge showed that many of our best artists have been in the habit
of depicting animals in positions which they never assume in
nature."--_Chambers' Edinburgh Journal._

"The large school-room (Clifton College) was crowded. The head master
presided. Loud applause and frequent laughter greeted the life-sized
photographs from nature, which by a rapid revolution of the ZOOPRAXISCOPE,
showed among other actions, the ambling of an elephant, the gallop of a
race-horse, the somersault of a gymnast and the flight of a
bird."--_Bristol Mercury._

[Illustration: 22. KANGAROO JUMPING.]

"The lecture theatre of the ROYAL ACADEMY OF ARTS was filled to
overflowing."--_Athenæum, London._

"The Royal Dublin Society's Theatre was filled to its utmost capacity
yesterday afternoon, when Mr. Muybridge resumed his course of Lectures. The
demonstration is simply marvellous."--_Daily Express, Dublin._

"The result of years of labor, and of large expenditure of money is at last
laid before the public in this magnificent work, and the result is one of
which Mr. Muybridge and the University of Pennsylvania may well be
proud."--_Evening Post_, New York.

[Illustration: 23. BUFFALO GALLOPING.]

"A Lecture of an exceptionally interesting character."--_Nottingham
Guardian._

"There was a crowded attendance. Throughout the lecture Mr. Muybridge
retained the close interest of his audience, and drew from them frequent
and warm applause."--_The Scotsman, Edinburgh._

"In all my long experience of London life I cannot recall a single instance
where such warm tributes of admiration have been so unsparingly given by
the greatest in the land, as in the case of Mr. Muybridge's
lectures."--OLIVE LOGAN in the _Morning Call, San Francisco_.

[Illustration: 24. ELK GALLOPING.]

"Mr. Muybridge illustrated his lecture with a series of most valuable
photographs, as well as that most fascinating of scientific toys--the
ZOOPRAXISCOPE."--_Magazine of Art, London._

"His labors attracted considerable attention in the world of science, while
among artists and art critics a pretty controversy set in on the subject of
the horse and his representation in art, which is likely to be revived and
extended to other fields.... With Mr. Muybridge, 'Instantaneous
Photography' has acquired a new significance, ..."--_Saturday Review,
London._

[Illustration: 25. MONKEYS CLIMBING A COCOA PALM.]

"No parallel in the history of photography."--_Photographic Times, New
York._

"An exhibition which Raphael, Tintoretto, Michael Angelo, and other great
masters of the Renaissance would have travelled all over Europe to
see."--_Evening Transcript, Boston._

"The audience was astonished and delighted at the marvellous demonstrations
of Animal Locomotion that were brought before them.... The most remarkable
feature of the British Association meeting this year."--_Newcastle
Journal._

[Illustration: 28. GREYHOUND GALLOPING.]

"The effects of the ZOOPRAXISCOPE made up one of the most unique and
instructive entertainments imaginable."--_Boston Daily Globe._

"A more curious, entertaining, and suggestive exhibition it has not been
our good fortune for a long time to attend."--_Sacramento Record-Union._

"Everybody has heard something of the wonderful success which Mr. Muybridge
has achieved; and in no country in the world is greater interest felt in
his work, particularly as regards horses, than in England."--_Engineering,
London._

[Illustration: 29. MULE, BUCKING AND KICKING.]

"Simply marvels of the photographer's art."--_Mercury_, Leeds.

"Not the least instructive part of the Lecture was the contrast between the
positions of animals as shown in ancient and modern art, with their true
positions as shown by themselves in the camera."--_New York Tribune._

"Professor Marey invited to his residence a large number of the most
eminent men in Europe for the purpose of meeting Mr. Muybridge, and
witnessing an exhibition that should be placed before the whole Parisian
public."--_Le Globe, Paris._

[Illustration: 32. PIGEONS FLYING.]

"The art critic and the connoisseur will find a study of Mr. Muybridge's
work of inestimable value in aiding them to criticize
intelligently."--_Pennsylvanian, Philadelphia._

"The applause which greeted these wonderful pictures from the brilliant
company was hearty in the extreme; and all predicted a new era was open to
art, and new resources made available for the use of
artists."--_Galignani's Messenger, Paris._

"Of immense interest and value."--_Lippincott's Magazine, Philadelphia._

[Illustration: 34. GRECIAN DANCING GIRLS.]

"The ZOOPRAXISCOPE is the latest, most unique, and instructive form of
amusement possible."--_Commercial Gazette_, Cincinnati.

"His work at once attracted the attention of the world."--_Scientific
American_, New York.

"Of much interest and value, as well as a source of great
amusement."--_Observer, London._

"The realism of the motions of the various animals was intense, and the
audience was very enthusiastic."--_Boston Post._

[Illustration: 39. HORSE TROTTING (fast).]

"The Lecturer proceeded to show enlarged photographs of various animals in
motion, as the horse, dog, lion, mule, cat, etc.... These were followed by
some very striking pictures of the flight of birds, which from a scientific
standpoint were by far the most interesting and valuable of the photographs
shown during the evening."--_Lancet_, London.

"Of extreme interest, not only to the artists and scientists, but to the
greater part of his audience, who were neither the one or the
other."--_Birmingham Daily Gazette._

[Illustration: 41. HORSE CANTERING.]

"A host of well-known scientists and artists are greatly interested in this
remarkable work."--_Pall Mall Gazette._

"The lecture on Tuesday night more than fulfilled the expectations which
the audience had formed of Mr. Muybridge's researches."--_Belfast News
Letter._

"Mr. Muybridge might well be proud of the reception accorded him by his
distinguished audience; it would have been difficult to add to the _éclat_
of his appearance, and his lecture was welcomed by a warmth as hearty as it
was spontaneous."--_The Photographic News, London._

[Illustration: 42. HORSE GALLOPING.]

"The illustrations are truly wonderful, and the rapid changing positions
were most instructive."--_Nottingham Express._

"The concert room was crowded.... A vote of thanks to the Lecturer was
proposed by his Grace the Archbishop."--_Yorkshire Chronicle._

"A very brilliant audience was assembled at the Royal Institution.... The
photographs properly studied should be most valuable in affording truer and
more exact data for the painter to base his work upon...."--_The Builder,
London._

[Illustration: 43. HORSE JUMPING.]

"A very important subject to all those interested in art."--_Belfast News
Letter._

"It is now nine years since the photographs of Mr. Eadweard Muybridge
surprised the world by challenging all received conceptions of animal
motion."--_Century Magazine, New York._

"The interest excited by the novelty, both of the demonstrations and the
results, was so great, that Mr. Muybridge has been invited by the
Photographic Society of Ireland to repeat them to-night in a public
lecture."--_The Freeman's Journal, Dublin._

[Illustration: 44. HORSE HAULING.]

"The audience filled the large hall, and by their frequent and hearty
applause, expressed their appreciation of the lecture."--_Irish Times,
Dublin._

"A very large audience again assembled in the Town Hall last evening, on
the occasion of the second Lecture by Mr. Muybridge. The Mayor, who
presided, referred to the first Lecture as perhaps the most unique ever
delivered in Birmingham."--_Birmingham Daily Gazette._

"The attendance was exceedingly large, and the Lecture and admirable
illustrations were loudly applauded."--_The Irish Times, Dublin._

[Illustration: 45. COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION HORSE RACE, GALLOPING.]

"There was a very large attendance, and seldom have we seen so much genuine
admiration and enthusiasm displayed as were evoked by Mr. Muybridge's
illustrations, which were really wonderful."--_The Daily Express, Dublin._

"There was a crowded audience, and the Lecture, which was listened to with
the greatest interest, was warmly applauded."--_The Freeman's Journal,
Dublin._

"No description can do justice to the extent and variety of the subjects
presented in this thorough study of animal movements."--_Ledger_,
Philadelphia.

[Illustration: 46. COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION HORSE RACE, TROTTING.]

"Wonderful and interesting demonstration; its influence will become more
and more potent and universal as the years go on."--_Argus, Albany._

"Will necessarily revolutionize the treatment of the action of the horse in
painting and sculpture. For the physiological study of animal movements
these pictures are a veritable treasure."--_Landwirthschaftliche-Zeitung,
Vienna._

"I am lost with admiration of these photographs of Mr.
Muybridge."--PROFESSOR MAREY, in _La Nature, Paris._

[Illustration: 47. COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION SPEEDWAY.]

"Interesting and instructive to all."--_New York Herald._

"Highly interesting and valuable for every lover of horses."--_Illustrirte
Zeitung, Berlin._

"We cannot more fittingly conclude our review than by repeating our
recommendation of the work to all artistic and scientific bodies."--_The
Nation, New York._

"So perfect was the synthesis that a dog in the lecture room barked and
endeavored to chase the phantom horses as they galloped across the
screen."--_Berkeley Weekly News._

[Illustration: 48. VILLAGE BLACKSMITHS.]

"Noted artists, such as Menzel, Knaus, Begas; eminent scientists, such as
von Helmholtz, Siemens and Förster and even the imperturbable
field-marshal, Count von Moltke, were enthusiastic in their
applause."--_Illustrirte Zeitung._

"A very large number could not obtain admission, so great was the desire to
hear the lecture.... A wonderful surprise even to the careful observer of
Nature."--_Die Press_, Vienna.

"The lecture was received with stormy applause."--_Berliner Post_, Berlin.

"The lecture was given in a popular manner, with scientific accuracy and
artistic taste.... The room was filled to the last corner; nearly all the
Royal Family and the Ministers were present."--_Münchener Neueste
Nachrichten_, Munich.

[Illustration: 49. A FAN FLIRTATION.]

"After attending Mr. Muybridge's demonstrations, we felt no surprise at his
having been received so enthusiastically in Paris."--_Berliner Tageblatt_,
Berlin.

"The lectures of Mr. Muybridge are unquestionably the most intensely
interesting we ever listened to. No one in Berlin should fail to attend
them."--_Norddeutsch Allgem Zeitung_, Berlin.

"Some lectures are too technical for the general public. Here is one in
which everybody is interested. The Lecture Theatre was crammed to
repletion; we thought a few vacant places might have been reserved for
those whose pleasant duty it is to record the brilliant success of Mr.
Muybridge."--_Pall Mall Budget_, London.

[Illustration: 50. ATHLETE, RUNNING LONG JUMP.]

"So great an interest did the demonstrations excite that Mr. Muybridge was
unanimously requested to repeat them. Two days afterward this distinguished
company, including the venerable Field-Marshal (Count von Moltke) himself,
attended a repetition of the lecture."--_Illustrirte Zeitung._

       *       *       *       *       *


_APPENDIX B._

ANIMAL LOCOMOTION.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES.

The results of the investigation executed for the University of
Pennsylvania are

SEVEN HUNDRED AND EIGHTY-ONE SHEETS OF ILLUSTRATIONS,

containing more than 20,000 figures of men, women, and children, animals
and birds, actively engaged in walking, galloping, flying, working,
jumping, fighting, dancing, playing at base-ball, cricket, and other
athletic games, or other actions incidental to every-day life, which
illustrate motion or the play of muscles.

These sheets of illustrations are conventionally called "plates."

EACH PLATE IS COMPLETE IN ITSELF WITHOUT REFERENCE TO ANY OTHER PLATE,

and illustrates the successive phases of a single action, photographed with
automatic electro-photographic apparatus at regulated and accurately
recorded intervals of time, _consecutively_ from one point of view; or,
_consecutively_ AND _synchronously_ from _two_, or from _three_ points of
view.

A series of twelve consecutive exposures, from each of the three points of
view, are represented by an outline tracing on a small scale of plate 579,
a complete stride of a horse walking; the intervals of exposures are
recorded as being one hundred and twenty-six one-thousandths of a second.

[Illustration: REDUCED OUTLINE TRACING OF PLATE 579.--"ANIMAL LOCOMOTION."]



[Illustration: REDUCED TRACING OF SOME PHASES FROM PLATE 758.]



[Illustration: REDUCED TRACINGS OF PLATE 347.]



When one of the series of foreshortenings is made at a right angle with the
lateral series the arrangement of the phases is usually thus:

   1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12    Laterals.

   1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12    Rear Foreshortenings
                                              from points of view on
                                              the same vertical line,
                                              at an angle of 90 deg.
                                              from the Laterals.

   1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12    Front Foreshortenings
                                              from points of view on
                                              the same horizontal
                                              plane, at suitable angles
                                              from the Laterals.


The plates are not _photographs_ in the common acceptation of the word, but
are printed in PERMANENT INK, from gelatinised copper-plates, by the New
York Photo-Gravure Company, on thick linen plate-paper.

The size of the paper is 45 × 60 centimetres--(19 × 24 inches), and the
printed surface varies from 15 × 45 to 20 × 30 centimetres--(6 × 18 to 9 ×
12 inches).

The number of figures on each plate varies from 12 to 36.

To publish so great a number of plates as one undivided work was considered
unnecessary, for each subject tells its own story; and inexpedient, for it
would defeat the object which the University had in view, and limit its
acquisition to wealthy individuals, large Libraries, or Institutions where
it would be beyond the reach of many who might desire to study it.

It has, therefore, been decided to issue a series of One Hundred Plates,
which number, for the purposes of publication, will be considered as a
"COPY" of the work. These one hundred plates will probably meet the
requirements of the greater number of the subscribers.

In accordance with this view is re-issued the following prospectus.

PROSPECTUS

ANIMAL LOCOMOTION,

AN ELECTRO-PHOTOGRAPHIC INVESTIGATION OF CONSECUTIVE
PHASES OF ANIMAL MOVEMENTS,

BY

EADWEARD MUYBRIDGE.

Commenced, 1872--Completed, 1885.

PUBLISHED 1887, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA.

_Exclusively by Subscription_.

CONSISTING OF A SERIES OF

ONE HUNDRED PLATES,

AT A SUBSCRIPTION PRICE OF

ONE HUNDRED DOLLARS For the United States, or TWENTY GUINEAS For Great
Britain;

Or the equivalent of Twenty Guineas in the gold currency
of other countries in Central or Western Europe.

The Plates are enclosed in a strong, canvas-lined, full AMERICAN-RUSSIA
LEATHER PORTFOLIO.

Additional Plates in any required number will be supplied to the subscriber
at the same proportionate rate; these, however, must be ordered at the same
time as the subscription Plates.

It was considered inadvisable to make an _arbitrary_ selection of the one
hundred Plates offered to subscribers, and with the object of meeting, as
far as possible, their diverse requirements, they are invited to make their
own selection, either from the subjoined list of subjects, or from a
detailed catalogue, which will be forwarded free of expense to every
subscriber.

The following are the numbers of Plates published of each class of
subjects, from which the subscriber's selection can be made:--

  Class.                                          Plates Published.
   1. Men, draped                                          6
   2.  "   pelvis cloth                                   72
   3.  "   nude                                          133
   4. Women, draped                                       60
   5.   "    transparent drapery and semi-nude            63
   6.   "    nude                                        180
   7. Children, draped                                     1
   8.     "     nude                                      15
   9. Movements of a man's hand                            5
  10. Abnormal movements, men and women, nude
       and semi-nude                                      27
  11. Horses walking, trotting, galloping, jumping, &c.   95
  12. Mules, oxen, dogs, cats, goats, and other domestic
       animals                                            40
  13. Lions, elephants, buffaloes, camels, deer, and
       other wild animals                                 57
  14. Pigeons, vultures, ostriches, eagles, cranes and
       other birds                                        27
                                                         ---
          Total number of Plates                         781
      Containing more than 20,000 Figures.

Should the selection be made from the Catalogue, it will be advisable to
give the Author permission to change any one of the selected Plates for any
other illustrating the same action, if, in his judgment, the substituted
Plate illustrates that action with a better model, or in a more perfect
manner than the one selected.

With regard to the selection of Plates, however, it has been found by
experience that unless any special subject or plate is required it will be
more satisfactory to the subscriber if he gives the Author GENERAL
INSTRUCTIONS as to the CLASS of subjects desired and to leave the SPECIFIC
selection to him.

Many of the large Libraries and Art or Science Institutions in America and
in Europe have subscribed for, and have now in their possession, a complete
series of the seven hundred and eighty-one Plates, the subscription price
for which is

FIVE HUNDRED DOLLARS

in the United States,

ONE HUNDRED GUINEAS

in Great Britain for the complete series, in eight full AMERICAN-RUSSIA
LEATHER PORTFOLIOS, or if bound in eleven volumes, each plate _hinged_,
full American-Russia leather,

FIVE HUNDRED AND FIFTY DOLLARS

in the United States,

ONE HUNDRED AND TEN GUINEAS

in Great Britain; or its equivalent for any city in Central or Western
Europe.

Subscribers who wish to make use of these Plates for the promotion or
diffusion of knowledge, or for artistic or scientific purposes, will be
afforded facilities for acquiring working copies by special arrangement
with the Author.

The investigations of the Author are so well known; and so generally
recognized as affording the only basis of truthful interpretation or
accurate criticism of Animal Movement, that it is perhaps scarcely
necessary to quote from the many elaborate reviews of "Animal Locomotion,"
which have been published in the American, English, French, and German
Scientific, Artistic, and other Journals. A few extracts therefrom are
however given in Appendix A.

For the value of the present work to the general student of Nature and the
lover of Art, no less than to the Artist and the Archæologist, the
Physiologist and the Anatomist, it is with much pride and gratitude that he
refers to the annexed list of some of his subscribers.

SUBSCRIBERS.

The general or departmental Libraries of the following

UNIVERSITIES.

  Amsterdam
  Andrews, St.
  Basel
  Berlin
  Bern
  Bologna
  Bonn
  Breslau
  Bruxelles
  Edinburgh
  Erlangen
  Freiburg
  Genève
  Genova
  Glasgow
  Göttingen
  Griefswald
  Hallé
  Heidelberg
  Innsbrück
  Jena
  Kiel
  Königsberg
  Leiden
  Leipzig
  Liège
  Louvain
  München
  Napoli
  Oxford
  Padova
  Pisa
  Prag
  Roma
  Rostock
  Strassburg
  Torino
  Tübingen
  Utrecht
  Wien
  Würzberg
  Zürich

IMPERIAL, NATIONAL, OR ROYAL ACADEMIES OF FINE ARTS.

  Amsterdam
  Antwerpen
  Berlin
  Bern
  Birmingham
  Bologna
  Breslau
  Bruxelles
  Budapest
  Dresden
  Düsseldorf
  Firenze
  Frankfurt
  Genova
  Gent
  Leipzig
  Liège
  London
  Manchester
  Milano
  München
  Napoli
  Paris
  Praha
  Roma (_de France_)
  Sheffield
  Torino
  Venezia
  Wien
  Zürich
  Architectural Institute, München
  Herkomer School of Art, Bushey

ART MUSEUMS.

  Amsterdam
  Berlin
  Budapest

ARCHÆOLOGICAL INSTITUTES AND MUSEUMS.

  Dresden
  Griefswald
  Heidelberg
  Königsberg
  Leipzig
  Prag
  Rostock
  Strassburg
  Wien
  Würzburg
  Zürich

INDUSTRIAL ART AND SCIENCE MUSEUMS.

  Berlin
  Dublin
  Edinburgh
  Kensington
  Paris
  Wien

INDUSTRIAL ART SCHOOLS.

  Amsterdam
  Breslau
  Budapest
  Frankfurt
  Nürnberg
  Zürich

LIBRARIES.

  The Royal Library, Windsor Castle.
  Imperial Library, Berlin.
  Birmingham, Free Public
  Edinburgh, Advocates'
  Glasgow, Mitchell Free
  Liverpool, Free Public
  London, British Museum
  Manchester, Free Public
  Nottingham, Free Public
  Paris, National Library

ANATOMICAL INSTITUTES.

  Bern
  Breslau
  Freiburg
  Hallé
  Innsbrück
  Kiel
  Königsberg
  Leipzig
  München
  Pisa
  Prag
  Rostock
  Tübingen
  Würzburg
  Zürich

ROYAL COLLEGES OF SURGEONS.

  Edinburgh
  London

PHYSIOLOGICAL INSTITUTES.

  Basel
  Berlin
  Bern
  Bologna
  Bonn
  Breslau
  Bruxelles
  Erlangen
  Freiburg
  Genova
  Göttingen
  Griefswald
  Hallé
  Heidelberg
  Innsbrück
  Jena
  Kiel
  Königsberg
  Leipzig
  Louvain
  München
  Napoli
  Prag
  Rostock
  Strassburg
  Torino
  Tübingen
  Wien
  Würzburg
  Zürich

VETERINARY INSTITUTES.

  Alfort
  Bern
  Berlin
  Dresden
  London

ANTHROPOLOGICAL MUSEUMS.

  Dresden
  Firenze

ETHNOLOGICAL, NATURAL HISTORY, AND ZOÖLOGICAL
INSTITUTES AND MUSEUMS.

  Amsterdam
  Bruxelles
  Freiburg
  Kiel
  Leiden
  Liège
  Napoli
  Paris
  Rostock

PHYSICAL INSTITUTES.

  Basel
  Bologna
  Bruxelles
  Genève
  Heidelberg
  Padova
  Prag
  Roma
  Rostock
  Utrecht

POLYTECHNIC HIGH SCHOOLS.

  Berlin
  Firenze
  Wien
  Zürich

COLLEGES.

  Charterhouse
  Clifton
  Dublin (Trin.)
  Eton
  Owens
  Wellington

ROYAL PORCELAIN MANUFACTORIES.

  Berlin
  Dresden

ARTISTIC, LITERARY OR SCIENTIFIC CLUBS.

  Düsseldorf, _Malkesten_
  Glasgow, _Western_
  London, _Athenæum_
  Rome, _Internazionale_

------

  Agricultural High School of Berlin
  Faculty of Medicine of Paris
  Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow
  Psychological Institute of Leipzig
  Royal College of Physicians, Edinburgh
  Royal Institution, Edinburgh
  Royal Dublin Society
  Royal Society of London

DEPARTMENTS OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT.

  Bureau of Education
  Bureau of Engraving
  Bureau of Ethnology
  Department of War
  Library of Congress
  National Museum
  Patent Office
  Smithsonian Institution
  Surgeon General's Office.

INSTITUTIONS OF ART AND OF ART TRAINING.

  Baltimore, Maryland Institute.
  Boston, Museum of Fine Arts.
  Chicago, Art Institute.
  Cincinnati, Art Museum.
  Milwaukee, School of Design.
  Minneapolis, School of Design.
  New Bedford, Swain School.
  New York, Cooper Union.
  New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art.
  New York, National Academy of Design.
  Philadelphia, Academy of Fine Arts.
  Philadelphia, School of Industrial Art.
  Philadelphia, School of Design for Women.
  St. Louis, Museum of Fine Arts.
  Washington, Corcoran Gallery of Art.

INSTITUTIONS OF SCIENCE.

  Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia.
  American Institute, New York.
  American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia.
  College of Physicians, Philadelphia.
  Essex Institute, Salem.
  Franklin Institute, Philadelphia.
  Museum of Comparative Zoölogy, Cambridge.
  Museum of Natural History, New York.
  Peabody Museum of Yale College.

UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES.

  Brown
  Columbia
  Cornell
  Harvard
  Johns Hopkins
  Kansas
  Lehigh
  Minnesota
  Nebraska
  New York
  Pennsylvania
  Princeton
  Vassar
  Vermont
  Wellesley
  Yale

LIBRARIES.

  Baltimore--Peabody
  Boston--Athenæum
  Boston--Public
  Brooklyn--L. I. Historical
  Brooklyn Library
  Chicago--Historical
  Chicago--Public
  Cincinnati--Public
  Denver--Mercantile
  Harlem Library
  Massachusetts--State
  Minneapolis--Public
  New Bedford--Public
  New York--Mercantile
  New York--State
  Pennsylvania--State
  Philadelphia Library
  St. Paul--Public
  San Francisco--Public
  Springfield (Mass.)--Public
  Wisconsin--State Historical
  Worcester (Mass.)--Public

It is impossible within the limits of this appendix to record the names of
the many well-known _Dilettanti_, Art Connoisseurs, Manufacturers, etc.,
who have acquired copies of Animal Locomotion, and it is difficult, without
unjust discrimination, to select a few from among the many Eminent Men
whose names and works are known all over the world and who are subscribers.
Among those, however, who have honored the Author by placing their names on
his subscription book--all academical and university distinctions being
omitted--are the following:

ARCHITECTS, PAINTERS OR SCULPTORS.

  Alma-Tadema
  Armitage
  Becker
  Begas
  Bonnat
  Boughton
  Bouguereau
  Bridgman
  Burnham
  Carolus-Duran
  Cavelier
  Conti, Tito
  Dalou
  von Defregger
  Detaille
  Dubois
  Eisenmenger
  Ende
  Faed
  Falguière
  Fildes
  Fremiet
  Frith
  Garnier
  Gérôme
  Gilbert
  Gordigiani
  Gow
  Herkomer
  Hunt, Holman
  von Kaulbach
  Knaus
  Knight
  Kopf
  Leighton, Sir F.
  von Lenbach
  von Löfftz
  Marks
  du Maurier
  Meissonier
  von Menzel
  Millais, Sir J.E.
  Morot
  Munkacsy
  Orchardson
  Ouless
  Parsons
  Passini
  Poynter
  Puvis, de Ch
  Richardson
  Richmond
  Rivière-Briton
  Robert-Fleury
  Rodin
  Roll
  Roth
  Rümann
  Schilling
  Siemering
  St. Gaudens
  Story
  Thornycroft
  Tiffany
  Vibert
  Villefroy
  Vinea
  Wagner
  Ward
  Watts
  Weeks
  Wells
  von Werner
  Whistler
  Zügel.

ARCHÆOLOGISTS, AUTHORS OF ART WORKS, ETC.

  von Berlepsch
  Bullen
  von Duhn
  Ewald
  Falke
  Furness, H. H.
  von Kekule
  Klein
  Muntz
  Overbeck
  Pietsch
  Preuner
  Pulszky
  Ruskin
  di Sambuy, Conte
  Smith, Gen. Sir R.M.
  Treu
  Wolff, Albert.

ANATOMISTS, ANTHROPOLOGISTS, BIOLOGISTS, ETHNOLOGISTS, PALÆONTOLOGISTS,
PATHOLOGISTS, PHYSIOLOGISTS, PSYCHOLOGISTS, ZOOLOGISTS, ETC.

  Acland, Sir H. W.
  Agassiz, A.
  Barrier
  du Bois Reymond
  Bowditch
  Bowman, Sir W.
  Braune, W.
  Brown-Sequard
  Burdon-Sanderson
  Cleland
  Darwin, F.
  Exner, S.
  Fick
  Flower
  Foster
  Galton, F.
  Gill
  Goode, Brown
  Hasse
  Haughton
  Heidenhain
  Hering
  Humphry
  Huxley
  Jensink
  von Kölliker
  von Kries
  Lankester
  Leidy
  Lubbock, Sir J.
  Ludwig
  Mantegazza
  Marey
  Marshall
  Meyer
  Milne-Edwards
  Mivart
  Moleschott
  Mosso
  Munk
  Müller, Max
  Owen, Sir R.
  Pasteur
  Pepper W.
  Pettigrew
  Rabl
  Romanes
  Rückert
  Schiff
  Schütz
  Virchow, R.
  von Voit
  Wear-Mitchell
  Wood
  Wundt
  von Zittell.

PHYSICISTS, ETC.

  Abney
  Blake
  Blazerna
  Bramwell, Sir F.
  Bunsen
  Ditscheiner
  Edison
  Glaisher
  von Helmholtz
  Huggins
  Langley
  Mach
  Matthiessen
  Quincke
  Spottiswoode
  Thomson, Sir W.
  Vogel
  Weber.

MILITARY SCIENTISTS.

  Field Marshal Count von Moltke
  General U. S. Grant
  General W. T. Sherman
  General P. H. Sheridan
  General R. B. Hayes.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE SCIENCE OF ZOOPRAXOGRAPHY.

Made Popular by Suggestive Tracings from "Animal Locomotion."

------

A series of FIFTY ENGRAVINGS, each of which illustrates from 12 to 15
consecutive phases of some complete movement, photographed from life.

The successive phases of each action are arranged in a circle NINE INCHES
IN DIAMETER; for reduced copies of some of which see appendix A.

Printed on six-ply Bristol-board and enclosed in

A STRONG CLOTH PORTFOLIO,

size 10×12 inches; price, Five Dollars in the United States; or One Guinea
in Great Britain.

Sent free of postage upon receipt of price, to any country within the
Universal Postal Union.

          EADWEARD MUYBRIDGE,
              University of Pennsylvania,
                  Philadelphia, U.S.A.
  Or, at 10 Henrietta Street,
      Covent Garden, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

To convert the circles of figures into a

    ZOOPRAXISCOPE,

cut out the disc, and, radiating from the centre thereof, about midway from
the margin, cut or stamp thirteen equidistant perforations; each an inch
long, and about the sixteenth of an inch wide.

Pin the centre of the disc to a handle and revolve it in the direction of
the arrow, at a distance of about twenty-four inches, in front of a mirror.

By looking through the _upper_ series of perforations at the reflection of
the _lower_ series of figures, a semblance of the original movements of
life will be seen.

The figures may be appropriately colored, and the back of the cardboard
disc should be painted a dark color, or covered with a piece of dark
surfaced paper before cutting the perforations.

       *       *       *       *       *

DESCRIPTIVE ZOOPRAXOGRAPHY.

An Elementary Treatise on Animal Locomotion,

BY

EADWEARD MUYBRIDGE.

------

Illustrated with twelve consecutive phases--occurring during a single
stride--of each of the six regular progressive movements of the horse,
traced from the results of an investigation made by the Author for the
University of Pennsylvania.

12 mo. bound in cloth. Price in the United States, One Dollar; in Great
Britain Four Shillings and Three Pence.

Sent upon receipt of price, free of postage to any country within the
Universal Postal Union.

          EADWEARD MUYBRIDGE,
              University of Pennsylvania,
                  Philadelphia, U. S. A.
  Or 10 Henrietta Street,
      Covent Garden, London.





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