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Title: Maps of Old London
Author: Anonymous
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Maps of Old London" ***

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MAPS

OF OLD LONDON

     I. WYNGAERDE (IN THREE SECTIONS)
    II. AGAS
   III. SECTION OF AGAS
    IV. HOEFNAGEL
     V. NORDEN LONDON
    VI. NORDEN WESTMINSTER
   VII. FAITHORNE
  VIII. OGILBY
    IX. ROCQUE

  LONDON
  ADAM AND CHARLES BLACK
  1908

  EDWARD STANFORD,
  GEOGRAPHER TO THE KING,
  12, 13, and 14, Long Acre, London, W.C.

       *       *       *       *       *


EDITOR'S NOTE

An atlas of Old London maps, showing the growth of the City throughout
successive centuries, is now issued for the first time. Up to a recent date
the maps here represented had not been reproduced in any form, and the
originals were beyond the reach of all but the few. The London
Topographical Society has done admirable work in hunting out and publishing
most of them; but these reproductions are, as nearly as possible,
facsimiles of the originals as regards size, as well as everything else. It
is not every one who can afford to belong to the society, or who wishes to
handle the maps in large sheets. In the present form they are brought
within such handy compass that they will form a useful reference-book even
to those who already own the large-scale ones, and, to the many who do not,
they will be invaluable.

The maps here given are the best examples of those extant, and are chosen
as each being representative of a special period. All but one have appeared
in the volumes of Sir Walter Besant's great and exhaustive "Survey of
London," for which they were prepared, and the publishers believe that in
offering them separately from the books in this handy form they are
consulting the interests of a very large number of readers.

The exception above noted is the map known as Faithorne's, showing London
as it was before the Great Fire; this is added for purposes of comparison
with that of Ogilby, which shows London rebuilt afterwards. Besides the
maps properly so called, there are some smaller views of parts of London,
all of which are included in the Survey.

The atlas does not presume in any way to be exhaustive, but is
representative of the different periods through which London passed, and
shows most strikingly the development of the City.

I must acknowledge the valuable assistance I have received from Mr. George
Clinch, F.G.S., in the many difficulties which arose in the course of its
preparation.

  G. E. MITTON.

       *       *       *       *       *


PANORAMA OF LONDON

BY ANTONY VAN DEN WYNGAERDE

DESCRIPTION.--This is the earliest representation of London that has come
down to our time. Accurately speaking, it is not a map, but a picture; but
as many of the old maps are more or less in the same category, we need not
exclude it on that account. Such topographical drawings are apt to be
misleading, owing to the immense difficulties of perspective--witness the
wretched samples hawked about the pavements at the present time. But,
considering the difficulties, this map of Wyngaerde's is wonderfully
accurate, and it has the advantage of being full of architectural details
which no true map could give.

DESIGNER.--Of Wyngaerde himself little is known. He is supposed to have
been a Fleming, and may have come to England in the train of Philip II. of
Spain. He is known to have made other topographical drawings. The date of
the one here reproduced cannot be fixed with perfect certainty, but must
have been between 1543 and 1550.

ORIGINAL.--The original is in the Sutherland Collection at the Bodleian
Library, Oxford, and it measures 10 feet by 17 inches, and is in seven
sheets. A tracing of it, made by N. Whittock, can be seen in the Crace
Collection, Prints Department, British Museum, or in the Guildhall Library.

The present reproduction is from that made by the London Topographical
Society, which photographed the original.

It is reduced, and is here placed in three sections, which overlap for
convenience in handling.

I.

DETAILS.--If we examine the first section, which is that to the extreme
west, we see the Abbey, very much as it is at present, with the exception
of Wren's western towers. On the site of the present Houses of Parliament
is the King's Palace at Westminster. It is impossible here to treat this in
detail, for if that were attempted for all the buildings in this atlas,
space would fail. A concise account of Westminster may be found in the book
of that name in the _Fascination of London_ Series. The chief point to note
in the palace is St. Stephen's Chapel, of which the crypt now alone
remains. About fifteen or twenty years previous to the date of this map
King Henry VIII. had claimed Whitehall from Wolsey, and transferred himself
to it from the old palace, which was growing ruinous.

Across the river opposite to Westminster is Lambeth, standing in a grove of
trees.

Beyond Westminster westward all is open ground, in the midst of which we
see St. James's Hospital, where is now St. James's Palace. Though still
marked "Hospital," it had already been annexed by the King. Where is now
Trafalgar Square we are shown in the map the King's Mews, built by Henry
VIII. for his hawks. Charing Cross is marked by the cross put up in memory
of Queen Eleanor. Along the river banks is a fringe of fine houses and
foliage. We may pick out one or two of these princely buildings--namely,
Durham House, Savoy Palace, and Somerset House (see _The Strand_ in the
above series). The church of St. Clement Danes is only separated from the
open country by a single row of houses.

On the west side of the Fleet River is Bridewell, built by Henry VIII. in
1522 for the entertainment of the Emperor Charles V. Here, in 1529, Henry
and Katherine stayed while the legality of their marriage was being
disputed in Blackfriars across the Fleet. Then we come to Old St. Paul's,
still carrying its tall spire, destined so soon to topple down. Between it
and the river is one of the most famous of the old strongholds, Baynard's
Castle. On the extreme right of the map is the port of Queenhithe, which
can be seen to-day by any wanderer in the City.

II.

Turning the page, we see the old City as it was before the Fire, made up of
gable-ended wooden houses with overhanging stories, crowded close together,
and diversified by the numerous pinnacles and spires of the City churches,
many of which were never rebuilt. The embattled line of the wall hems the
City in on the north, and Cheapside cuts it laterally in a broad highway.
Almost in the centre of the picture is the Guildhall. The interest reaches
its culmination in the spectacle of Old London Bridge, with its irregular
houses, its archways, and its chapel. Note that the engraver has not
omitted to indicate the decaying heads on poles, a succession of which
adorned the bridge throughout the centuries (see _The Thames_ in above
series).

On the south side of the water is St. Mary Overies (see _Mediæval London_,
vol. ii., p. 297). It has as neighbours Winchester and Rochester Houses,
the residences of the respective Bishops of those sees; while the proud
cupolas of Suffolk House--built _circa_ 1516, and later used as the
Mint--are clearly shown. The houses running from it up to the foreground of
the picture are beautifully delineated, and may be taken as models of
Elizabethan architecture; while the man with the harp and the horseman are
quite clearly enough drawn to show their period by the style of their
dress. From some point behind here must Wyngaerde have made his survey, as
it is manifestly impossible it could have been done from Suffolk House, as
stated by one authority.

III.

There are three objects so striking in this picture that attention is at
once claimed by them to the exclusion of all else--the Abbey of Bermondsey,
the Tower of London, and Greenwich Palace. In Bermondsey two Queens
died--Katherine, consort of Henry V., and Elizabeth, consort of Edward IV.
Only a year or two before this map was made had the grand old Abbey been
surrendered to the King (for a full account see _Mediæval London_, vol.
ii., p. 288).

The Tower, taken as a whole, is very much as we still know it; it is one of
the oldest remaining relics of the past. Note the gruesome place of
execution near by, and the guns and primitive cranes at work upon the
wharf. Just beyond it eastward rise the fretted pinnacles of St.
Katherine's by the Tower, on the spot now covered by St. Katherine's Docks.

Stepney Church stands far away on the horizon, cut off from the City by an
ocean of green fields.

Returning to the south side, we see Says Court, Deptford, between
Bermondsey and Greenwich. This was for long the home of John Evelyn, and
was ruinously treated by Peter the Great, who tenanted it during his
memorable stay in this country in 1698. (For Greenwich Palace or Placentia,
see _London in the Time of the Tudors_.)

       *       *       *       *       *

CIVITAS LONDINUM

DESCRIPTION.--This is the earliest map of London known to be in existence,
for though Wyngaerde's survey preceded it in date, as we have seen, that is
a panorama and not a map proper. The present map, which is known as that of
Ralph Agas, itself has a good deal more of the panoramic nature than would
be allowed in a modern one, and is on that account all the more
interesting. The first to connect Agas's name with this map was Vertue
(1648-1756), and he stated its date to be 1560; but, as will be seen in the
description of the next plate, Vertue's claims to strict veracity have now
been shaken, therefore his testimony must be accepted with caution.

DESIGNER.--Ralph Agas, land surveyor and engraver, died in 1621, and he is
described in the register as "an aged." Of course, it is possible that Agas
lived to the age of eighty-five or over, in which case he might not have
been too young to execute this work in 1560, and he himself says, in a
document dated 1606, which has been preserved, that he had been in work as
a surveyor for upwards of forty years. There are two branches into which
the enquiry now resolves itself. First, did Agas really make the map? And,
second, if he did, at what date did he make it? There is no conclusive
evidence on either hand. There is a survey of Oxford, similar in character,
signed by him, and though this is not dated, it is known to have been
completed in 1578, and published ten years later. On the original copy of
this, which is at the Bodleian, there are the following lines:

 "Neare tenn yeares paste the author made a doubt
  Whether to print or lay this worke aside
  Untill he firste had London plotted out
  Which still he craves, although he be denied
  He thinkes the Citie now in hiest pride,
  And would make showe how it was beste beseene
  The thirtieth yeare of our moste noble queene."

ORIGINAL.--The two earliest known copies of the Agas map, which was first
engraved on wood, are both of the same issue; one is at the Pepysian
Library, Magdalen College, Oxford, and the other at the Guildhall. Edward
J. Francis made a careful reproduction of that at the Guildhall in 1874,
and it is from that our present plate is taken. It is, of course, reduced,
for the original is 6 feet and ½ inch long, by 2 feet 4½ inches wide. The
notes attached to this issue are by W. H. Overall, F.S.A., one of the
leading authorities on the question. He doubts Agas's connection with the
map, but thinks if he were the originator it could not have been done
before 1591. The arms in the corner on the two oldest extant maps are those
of James I., but as the arms on the royal barge in the river are those of
Elizabeth, it has been conjectured that the maps are themselves copies of a
later edition, wherein the arms were altered in conformity with
conventional opinion. The chief points which give data from internal
evidence are as follows: St. Paul's Cathedral is bereft of its spire. This
was struck by lightning in 1561, so the map must be subsequent to that
date. The Royal Exchange is apparently built. This was opened in 1570.
Northumberland House, built about 1605, has not been begun. We may take it,
therefore, generally that the original map, which was engraved on wooden
blocks, was made some time in the latter half of Elizabeth's reign, and it
is probable that it was done by Agas.

DETAILS.--The map abounds in interesting detail.

Beginning in the extreme left-hand lower corner, we see St. Margaret's
Church, St. Stephen's Chapel, and Westminster Hall. In the river are swans
of monstrous size. King Street, now merged in Whitehall, is very clearly
shown, also the two heavy gates barring the way. The most northern of
these, designed by Holbein, was called after him, and stood until the
middle of the eighteenth century. North of it, on the west, is the
tilting-ground; and stags browse in St. James's Park. Between the gates, on
the east, are the Privy Gardens, overlooked by the Palace of
Whitehall--most unpalatial in appearance.

Piccadilly is "the Waye to Redinge," and Oxford Street "the Waye to
Uxbridge." Near Whitcomb Lane and the Haymarket women are spreading clothes
in the fields to dry, while cows as large as houses graze around. St.
Martin's Lane leads up to St. Giles, more particularly dealt with in the
description of the next plate. The irregular buildings of St. Mary
Rouncevall, a religious house, had not yet been taken down to make way for
Northumberland House, itself to be replaced by Northumberland Avenue. The
houses of great nobles, with their magnificent gardens stretching down to
the waterside, are still in evidence. North of the well-laid-out Covent
Garden, owned by the Dean and Chapter of Westminster, are nothing but trees
and fields. Passing on quickly down the Strand, we find Temple Bar blocking
the way to the City. This is the old Temple Bar, replaced after the Great
Fire by the one much more familiar to us, which stood until 1878. A very
fine illustration of the old one is given in Sir Walter Besant's _London in
the Time of the Tudors_, p. 245. This book should certainly be studied by
anyone desirous of understanding the map. From Temple Bar past the back of
St. Clement's Church runs a broad road roughly corresponding with our new
Kingsway. Further eastward the Fleet River still flows strongly down from
its northern heights, crossed by many bridges, and just where it joins the
Thames is Bridewell Prison. Further along, on the other side, is Baynard's
Castle, and in front of it, in the river, the Queen's barge, with the royal
arms of Elizabeth in the centre. Some way back from Baynard's Castle a
bridge crosses a street, and is marked "The Wardrop." This was in very
truth the wardrobe or repository of the royal clothes! Drawing a line
northward for some way, we come to Smithfield, where tilting is represented
as in animated progress. Not far northward is St. John's, Clerkenwell, and
its neighbouring nunnery; to the west is the Charterhouse. Turning south
again, past St. Bartholomew's Church, we see the building of Christ's
Hospital, founded by Edward VI. This, it may be noted, is one of the
buildings erected since Wyngaerde's time. Then we come to St. Paul's, shorn
of its spire, with St. Gregory's Church, quite recognizable, in front of
it. There were continual edicts against building in the Tudor and Stuart
reigns, for it was feared London would grow out of hand; but, in spite of
this, houses have enormously increased since Wyngaerde made his survey. The
battlemented wall still encloses the City, but hamlets have sprung up
outside, notably at Cripplegate.

But within the wall there are still some fine gardens and open spaces, one
of which remains to this day in Finsbury Circus. Many roads meet in the
heart of London, where now the Bank, Mansion House, and Royal Exchange
stare across at each other. It is difficult to make out from the medley of
buildings in the map if Gresham's first Royal Exchange is there or not, but
it seems to be so. This was opened in 1570 by the Queen in person. St.
Christopher le Stock's square tower may be seen on the ground now absorbed
by the Bank of England.

Crossing over now to the Surrey side, we see conspicuously the two round
pens for bull- and bear-baiting respectively. There are many
pleasure-gardens, for the Surrey side was for long the recreation-ground of
the Londoner. On the river there are innumerable wherries, and below the
bridge at Billingsgate many ships cluster; one has even managed to get
above the bridge. Off the Steelyard and at the Tower are men and horses in
the water. This is a most interesting point. In those at the Tower it may
be clearly seen that the man is filling the water-casks on the animals'
backs with a ladle. This gives a glimpse into the discomforts endured by
our ancestors before water-pipes were laid on as a matter of course to all
houses. In the eighteenth-century reproductions of this map, oddly enough,
in one instance this detail has disappeared, and in the other it is turned
into a man driving cows into the water with a whip; thus doing away with
all its significance. Far to the north in Spitalfields men are practising
archery; while Aldgate, for long the home of Geoffrey Chaucer, is
conspicuous a little north of the Tower.

As became a man living in days of the Reformation, Agas does not point out
the religious houses then falling into decay or occupied by laymen, yet
what a number of them must have been still in existence! Standing on the
White Tower, and looking north and to the right hand, there must have been
visible outside the wall St. Katherine's by the Tower, Eastminster, and the
Sorores Minores, whose name still remains in the Minories, here marked.
Within the City was Holy Trinity, close to Aldgate--of this a couple of
most rare and interesting plans and a full account may be found in
_Mediæval London_, vol. ii.--and not far off was St. Helen's Nunnery; also
Crutched Friars, Austin Friars, Grey Friars, and, in the extreme west, near
the Fleet, Blackfriars. Of these and many others full accounts may be found
in the volume indicated above.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE PARISH OF ST. GILES IN THE FIELDS

DESCRIPTION.--This plate, on being compared with the preceding one, shows a
strong general resemblance, with a considerable difference in detail. Also,
below are two churches, one of which is marked, "Present St. Giles's
Church, built anno 1734," which shows that the map was made not earlier
than that date. It is, in fact, a part of one of a set of
eighteenth-century maps based on that of Agas, and not only differing from
it in detail, but also differing slightly one from another. Some of these
are unsigned, and some are signed "G. Vertue," and were specifically
claimed by Vertue as having been made by him, and based upon Agas's map of
1560. Recently, however, doubts have been raised as to Vertue's share in
the transaction, and it is now very commonly believed that he did no more
than procure some maps, engraved on pewter and made in Holland, based on
that of Agas. These he altered a little in detail, and then claimed as his
own work. The original pewter plates are in possession of the Society of
Antiquaries, Burlington House. The present example differs in some small
particulars from these. Copies of the maps are not rare, and can be seen at
the British Museum and elsewhere.

DETAILS.--The bit of London here represented is of exceptional interest. It
shows the corner of Tottenham Court Road when High Street and Broad Street,
St. Giles, were the main highway, long before the cutting through of New
Oxford Street. It shows, further, the descent of Holborn into the valley of
the Fleet, the "heavy hill" along which criminals were brought from Newgate
to the place of execution. It shows the site where the gallows stood for
some time, about 1413, before being definitely set up at Tyburn. Close to
this was the Bowl tavern, where the condemned man was allowed his last
draft of ale. The most interesting old hospital for lepers is clearly
shown. (See "Holborn," _Fascination of London_ Series.)

       *       *       *       *       *

"LONDINUM FERACISSIMI ANGLIÆ REGNI METROPOLIS"

BY HOEFNAGEL

DESCRIPTION.--This map seems at first sight to be much less interesting
than those which have preceded it, but that is due chiefly to its small
size. The probable date is 1572, and even if otherwise unknown, it might
have been judged approximately by the costumes of the figures in the
foreground. It must have been contemporary with, or even earlier than,
Agas, with whose work it is interesting to compare it. This map was made by
Hoefnagel, and is taken from Braun and Hogenburg's work, _Civitates Orbis
Terrarum_, in which Braun wrote the text, while Hogenburg and Hoefnagel
engraved the maps. In the left-hand top corner are the arms of Elizabeth,
and in the right-hand corner those of the City. In the later editions the
delicately drawn figures in the foreground are omitted. In his notes on Old
London Maps in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, vol. vi., Mr.
W. H. Overall says it cannot be supposed that all the cities of the world
engraved in Braun and Hogenburg's work were freshly surveyed for the
purpose; and there are several points--such, for instance, as the inclusion
of the steeple of St. Paul's, destroyed in 1561--which point to the fact
that this version was probably taken from existing surveys. The original is
19 inches by 12¾ inches. The bull- and bear-baiting pits on the Surrey side
are quite conspicuous, and so is the royal barge, in very much the same
position in the river as it is in Agas's map. Here is a detailed account of
it in Sir Walter Besant's own words:

DETAILS.--"This is in some respects more exact than the better-known map
attributed to Agas. The streets, gardens, and fields are laid down with
greater precision, and there is no serious attempt to combine, as Agas
does, a picture or a panorama with a map. At the same time, the surveyor
has been unable to resist the fashion of his time to consider the map as
laid down from a bird's-eye view, so that he thinks it necessary to give
something of elevation.

"I will take that part of the map which lies outside the walls. The
precinct of St. Katherine stands beside the Tower, with its chapel, court,
and gardens; there are a few houses near it, apparently farmhouses. The
convent of Eastminster had entirely vanished. Nothing indicates the site of
the nunnery in the Minories, yet there were ruins of these buildings
standing here till the end of the eighteenth century. Outside Bishopsgate
houses extended past St. Mary's Spital, some of whose buildings were still
apparently standing. On the west side St. Mary of Bethlehem stood, exactly
on the site of Liverpool Street Station, but not covering nearly so large
an area; it appears to have occupied a single court, and was probably what
we should now consider a very pretty little cottage, like St. Edmund's
Hall, Oxford.

"Outside Cripplegate the houses begin again, leaving between the Lower
Moorfields dotted with ponds; there are houses lining the road outside
Aldersgate. The courts are still standing of St. Bartholomew's Priory,
Charterhouse, St. John's Priory, and the Clerkenwell nunnery; Smithfield is
surrounded with houses; Bridewell, with its two square courts, stands upon
the river bank; Fleet Street is irregular in shape, the houses being
nowhere in line; the courts of Whitefriars are still remaining. The Strand
has all its great houses facing the river; their backs open upon a broad
street, with a line of mean houses on the north side. On the south of the
river there is a line of houses on the High Street, a line of houses along
the river bank on either side, and another one running near Bermondsey
Abbey.

"Within the walls we observe that some of the religious houses have quite
disappeared--Crutched Friars, for instance. There is a vacant space, which
is probably one of the courts of St. Helen's. The Priory of the Holy
Trinity preserves its courts, but there is no sign of the church. There are
still visible the courts and gardens of Austin Friars. There is still the
great court of the Grey Friars, but the buildings of Blackfriars seem to
have vanished entirely" (_London in the Time of the Tudors_, p. 185).

       *       *       *       *       *

NORDEN'S MAPS OF LONDON AND WESTMINSTER

DESIGNER.--Being on a very small scale, these maps are not so attractive as
some that have been already discussed. John Norden, the designer, was born
about 1548, and seems to have had from the first an extraordinary gift of
delicate penmanship, which he turned to much account in map-making. He
projected a whole "Speculum Britanniæ," but during his lifetime only
managed to publish books on two counties--namely, Middlesex and
Hertfordshire. He left behind him the results of his labours on many other
counties in manuscript, and these have since been published. Norden was
appointed Surveyor of His Majesty's Woods in 1609. The engraving of the
Middlesex maps was done by Peter Van den Keere.

ORIGINALS.--The reproductions are taken from those which appear in Norden's
_Middlesex_, dated 1593. Each map is 9½ inches by 6¾ inches. The wonderful
delicacy of Norden's work makes these maps peculiarly appreciated by
students of London cartography.

       *       *       *       *       *

FAITHORNE AND NEWCOURT

DESCRIPTION.--This map generally goes by the name of Faithorne, the
engraver, but in reality the credit is due quite as much to Richard
Newcourt the elder (d. 1679), who was the draughtsman. It is selected for a
place here because, the date being 1658, it shows the City as it was before
the Fire, and therefore forms a supplement to the map of Ogilby which
follows, and shows the City as it was when rebuilt after the Fire.

ENGRAVER.--William Faithorne the elder was born in 1616, and was an
engraver and portrait painter. He engraved numerous portraits, book-plates,
maps, and title-pages. Among his works are two large maps, entitled "Cities
of London and Westminster," and of "Virginia and Maryland."

ORIGINAL.--The only two copies of the original issue known to be extant are
in the Print Rooms, British Museum, and in the Bibliothèque Nationale of
Paris. The map here given is taken from a sheet of that in the British
Museum, and is on the same scale.

DETAILS.--It will be noticed that the sheet chosen for inclusion in this
atlas shows very nearly the same area as the map of Ogilby which follows,
but does not go quite so far eastward as the Tower. The City wall is
clearly shown along the north side of the City, and the bastion near
Cripplegate stands out; the town ditch can be traced just beyond this
corner running southward. It was the curious and apparently meaningless
angle that the wall makes here which led Sir Walter Besant to suggest that
it may have been designed to exclude the ancient Roman amphitheatre, of
which the site is now lost (see _Early London_, p. 85). The Fleet River is
shown still open and crossed by bridges, of which there are no fewer than
five from Holborn to the mouth. That at Fleet Street shows, indeed, a
continuous line of houses. St. Paul's is very clearly delineated. The
figures within the City refer to the old churches, of which a list is given
below. Notice the gable roofs, still the chief style of domestic
architecture. The lines of the streets in the heart of the City remain
wonderfully the same to our own day. Outside the walls the City is
stretching out great arms into the country. There is one such arm made by
the continuous houses fringing Bishopsgate Street as far as the extreme
northern limit of the map. Then there is a gap between this and Moorgate
Street, including all the ground known at Moorfields and Finsbury. A few
scattered houses and some cultivated fields cover this space, and in one
corner is "Bedlame."

A mass of houses lies westward, running on to the Charter House, northward
of which are open fields, and so to "Clarkin Well."

    THE SEVERALL CHVRCHES WITHIN THE WALLES OF LONDON DISTINGUISHED BY
    SEUERALL FIGURES, BY WHICH ALLSOE THE EYE MAY PARTLY BE GUIDED TO THE
    EMINENT STREETS IN OR NEERE WHICH THEY STAND, WHICH COULD NOT WELL BE
    OTHERWISE DEMONSTRATED, IN REGARD OF THE SMALL SCALE BY WHICH THIS MAPP
    IS DESCRIBED.

   1. Albans in Woodstreet
   2. Alhallows Barkin nere Tower hill
   3. Alhallows in Bread street
   4. Alhallows y^e Greate in Thamas streete
   5. Alhallows the Lesse      do.     do.
   6. Alhallows in Hony lane nere Chepside
   7. Alhallows in Lumber street
   8. Alhallows Stayninge nere Fanshawes street
   9. Alhallows in y^e Wall nere Moorefeilds
  10. Alphage by y^e Wall nere Cripple gate
  11. Andrew Hubard by Philpot lan
  12. Andrew Vndershaft
  13. Andrew in y^e Wardrop aboue Pudle wharfe
  14. Ann at Alders gate
  15. Ann in Black friers
  16. Antholins in Watling streete
  17. Austins nere Paules church
  18. Bartholomew by y^e Exchange
  19. Bennet Finch
  20. Bennet Grace church neer Gracious streete
  21. Bennet at Paules wharfe
  22. Bennet Sherehogg nere Bucklers berry
  23. Bottolph at Billings-gate
  24. Christs Church by Newgate streete
  25. Christophers in Thredneedle streete
  26. Clements in East chepe
  27. Dennis back Church nere E[=a]shastreete
  28. Dunstanes in y^e East nere Tower street
  29. Edmonds in Lumber streete
  30. Ethelborough in Bishops gate street
  31. Faith under Paules
  32. Foster in Foster lane nere Chepside
  65. French Church in Third needle street
  33. Gabriell in Fanshawes streete
  34. Georges in Bottolph lane
  35. Gregories by Paules
  36. Hellins nere Bishops gate
  37. Iames Dukes place nere Aldgat
  38. Iames Garlick hill by Bow lane
  39. Iohn Baptist nere Dow gate street
  40. Iohn Euangelist nere Friday street
  41. Iohn Zachary nere Foster lane
  42. Katherin Coleman nere Fanshawes stret
  43. Katherin Cree church nere Aldgate
  44. Lawrence Iury nere Guild hall
  45. Lawrence Poultney nere Eastchepe
  46. Leonarde in East-chepe
  47. Leonarde in Foster lane
  48. Magnus by the Bridge
  49. Margrett in Lothberry
  50. Margrett Moses next Friday street
  51. Margrett in new Fishstreete
  52. Margrett in Rood lane
  53. Mary Abchurch Lane
  54. Mary Aldermanberry
  55. Mary Aldermary nere Watling streete
  56. Mary le Bow in Chepside
  57. Mary Bothaw in Cannon streete
  58. Mary Cole church in Chepside
  59. Mary Hill aboue Billings gate
  60. Mary Mounthaw aboue Broken warfe
  61. Mary Somersett nere Broken wharfe
  62. Mary Staynings nere Alders gate
  63. Mary Woollchurch nere y^e Stocks
  64. Mary Woollnoth in Lumber streete
  66. Martins Iremonger lane nere Chepside
  67. Martins with^{in} Ludgate
  68. Martins Orgars nere Eastcheape
  69. Martins Outwitch next Bishopsgate stret
  70. Martins Vintree neere y^e 3 Cranes
  71. Mathews in Friday Street
  72. Maudlins milke str[=e]t neere Chepside
  73. Maudlins in Old Fishstreete
  74. Michaell Bashaw behind Guildhall
  75. Michaell in Cornhill
  76. Michaell Crooked Lane neere N Fish'trete
  77. Michaell att Quene Hith
  78. Michaell y^e Querne vper end of Chepside
  79. Michaell Royall att Colledge Hill
  80. Michaell in Woodstreet nere Chepside
  81. Mildred in Bred streete nere Chepside
  82. Mildred in the Poultry
  83. Nicholas Acons Nicholas lane nere L[=u]berstreet
  84. Nicholas Cole Abby in old Fishstreet
  85. Nicholas Olaves in Breadstreet
  86. Olaues in Hart street nere Cruched friers
  87. Olaues in old Iury at y^e lower end of Chepside
  88. Olaues in Silver streete
  89. Pancras in Soper lane nere Bucklerbery
  90. Peters nere Chepside
  91. Peters in Cornehill
  92. Peters nere Paules wharfe
  93. Peters y^e poore nere Brod streete
  94. Steven in Coleman streete nere Moregate
  95. Steven in Wallbrooke
  96. Swithens in Ca[=n]on streete by London stone
  97. Thomas y^e Apostle
  98. Trinitie Church aboue Quene Hith
  99. Dutch Church nere Brodstreete

       *       *       *       *       *

OGILBY'S MAP OF LONDON

DESCRIPTION.--This is more exclusively a plan of the City than any we have
yet considered. It runs roughly from the Tower to Lincoln's Inn Fields, and
the reason why it is thus limited is that it was made as a survey to assist
in the plotting out of land in the City after the Fire.

DESIGNER.--John Ogilby was born about 1600, and did not turn his attention
to surveying until he was about sixty-six, when he secured the appointment
as "King's Cosmographer and Geographical Printer." He died in 1676, the
year before his map was published. He was assisted in the work by William
Morgan, his wife's grandson, and most of the actual engraving of the map
was done by Hollar.

ORIGINAL.--The original is 8 feet 5 inches by 4 feet 7 inches, and is in
twenty sheets. It is on the scale of 100 feet to the inch. It may be seen
in the British Museum (Crace Collection) and in the Guildhall. The two
examples differ a little, and that in the Guildhall has an additional
sheet. The reproduction here given is taken from that made by the London
and Middlesex Archæological Society from the British Museum copy. The arms
of the City are in the left-hand top corner, and those of Sir Thomas
Davies, Lord Mayor 1676-77, in the right-hand corner.

DETAILS.--Beginning at the left-hand top corner, we find pastures,
bowling-greens, and market-gardens. Aylesbury House, next to St. John
Street, has magnificent private gardens, and beyond the Charterhouse
bowling-green there is a wood. Further east the Honourable Artillery
Company, which had been revived by Cromwell, can be seen, with their
equipment and tents. This company is directly descended from the Finsbury
Archers, whom we noted in the last map, and it is interesting to know that
the actual ground on which they are here depicted is still reserved for
their use. Moorfields is neatly laid out and planned, and south of it is
new Bethlehem Hospital, now transferred across the river. Eastward, again,
there is a large open space at Devonshire House Garden, and southward
innumerable gardens can be seen, some of which are preserved to this day
behind City halls, etc., but so hidden that no one who did not know of
their existence could possibly find them.

On tracing the line of the City wall on the north side we see how some of
the churches, notably St. Giles's and St. Botolph's, have taken a part of
the town ditch for the enlargement of their churchyards; near St.
Bartholomew's the town ditch is still marked. This ditch caused the Mayor
and Council as much worry as the increase of houses, because it was the
receptacle for every kind of filth, and its cleansing annually swallowed up
a large sum of money. The Fleet River is shown flowing down in the open,
and is called the New Canal. It is crossed by a bridge at Holborn and
another at Fleet Street. We can mark the sinuous line of the great
thoroughfare of Holborn as it was before the viaduct and approaches were
made. The Strand outside Temple Bar shows the obstructions which have only
finally been removed in our own time. Butcher Row disappeared first in
1813; other streets followed to make way for the new Law Courts, and with
the destruction of Holywell Row and the opening of Kingsway the
improvements here may be considered complete.

To the south are the great houses of Essex and Arundel, with their gardens;
their names are preserved in the streets that flow over their sites.
Somerset House, the Protector's palace, was then standing, and did not make
way for its present representative for another hundred years. The river is
covered with wherries, clustered as thickly as ants. It is still the main
highway for most people, though there were hackney coaches for hire. There
was still only London Bridge by which to get across the river on foot, and
the boats were used as ferries. There were tilt-boats, too, as well as the
smaller wherries; these ran at stated intervals, like our own omnibuses,
and were protected by an awning. Near the Fleet mouth is Bridewell, once a
palace, and the scene of the meeting of Parliament, but given by Edward VI.
to be a prison. On the east is a blank space, where is now the station of
the London Chatham and Dover Railway Co., who purchased it in 1844. The
site of St. Paul's was plotted out, but not yet built upon. In fact, the
rebuilding of the houses was the first consideration, and was done with
remarkable promptness, for in the meantime the poor houseless wretches were
camping on Moorfields. The churches and city halls were therefore left to
the last; yet even so we may see that, though only eleven years had elapsed
since the destruction of the City, about twenty churches had been rebuilt
out of the eighty-seven that were destroyed. The picturesque Old London of
the gable-ends and overhanging stories was gone, never to return; but gone
also was a great deal of rubbish and an insanitariness never afterwards
quite so bad. As for the overcrowding, we must see what Sir Walter Besant
says:

"If we look into Ogilby's map, we see plainly that as regards the streets
and courts London after the Fire was very much the same as London before
the Fire; there were the same narrow streets, the same crowded alleys, the
same courts and yards. Take, for instance, the small area lying between
Bread Street Hill on the west and Garlick Hill on the east, between Trinity
Lane on the north and Thames Street on the south: is it possible to crowd
more courts and alleys into this area? Can we believe that after the Fire
London was relieved of its narrow courts with this map before us? Look at
the closely-shut-in places marked on the maps--'1 g., m. 46, m. 47, m. 48,
m. 40.' These are respectively Jack Alley, Newman's Rents, Sugar-Loaf
Court, Three Cranes Court, and Cowden's Rents. Some of these courts survive
to this day. They were formed, as the demand for land grew, by running
narrow lanes between the backs of houses and swallowing up the gardens.
There were 479 such courts in Ogilby's London of 1677, 472 alleys, and 172
yards, besides 128 inns, each of which, with its open courts for the
standing of vehicles and its galleries, stood retired from the street on a
spot which had once been the fair garden of a citizen's house" (_London in
the Time of the Stuarts_, p. 280).

THE FOLLOWING EXPLANATIONS ARE EXTRACTED FROM OGILBY'S KEY TO THE MAP IN
THE BRITISH MUSEUM

We Proceed to the Explanation of the Map, containing 25 Wards, 122 Parishes
and Liberties, and therein 189 Streets, 153 Lanes, 522 Alleys, 458 Courts,
and 210 Yards bearing Name.

The Broad Black Line is the City Wall. The Line of the Freedom is a Chain.
The Division of the Wards, thus oooo. The Parishes, Liberties, and
Precincts by a Prick-line, .... Each Ward and Parish is known by the
Letters and Figures Distributed within their Bounds, which are placed in
the Tables before their Names.... The Wards by Capitals without Figures.
The Parishes, &c., by Numbers without Letters. The Great Letters with
Numbers refer to Halls, Great Buildings, and Inns. The Small Letters to
Courts, Yards, and Alleys, every Letter being repeated 99 times, and
sprinkled in the Space of 5 Inches, running through the Map, from the Left
Hand to the Right, &c. Churches and Eminent Buildings are double Hatch'd,
Streets, Lanes, Alleys, Courts, and Yards, are left White. Gardens, &c.
faintly Prick'd. Where the Space admits the Name of the Place is in Words
at length, but where there is not room, a Letter and Figure refers you to
the Table in which the Streets are Alphabetically dispos'd, and in every
Street the Churches and Halls, Places of Note, and Inns, with the Courts,
Yards, and Alleys, are named; then the Lanes in that Street, and the
Churches, &c. as aforesaid, in each Lane.

THE SEVERAL MARKS AND NAMES OF THE WARDS, PARISHES, AND LIBERTIES

  WARDS

  A Faringdon Without
  B Faringdon Within
  C Bainard-Castle
  D Bread-Street
  E Queen-Hith
  F Cordwainers
  G Walbrook
  H Vintry
  I Dowgate
  K Broad-Street
  L Cornhil
  M Cheap
  N Bassishaw
  O Coleman-Street
  P Bishopsgate
  Q Cripplegate
        T Tower
  R Aldersgate
  S Billingsgate
  T Lime-Street
  U Langborn
  W Portsoken
  X Aldgate
  Y Candlewick
  Z Bridg

  PARISHES AND LIBERTIES

    1. St. James Clerkenwel
    2. St. Giles Cripple-Gate
    3. St. Leonard Shoreditch
    4. Norton-Folgate Liberty
    5. St. Botolph Bishopsgate
    6. Stepney
    7. St. Stephen Coleman Street
    8. Alhallows on the Wall
    9. St. Andrew Holborn
   10. St. Giles in the Fields
   11. St. Sepulchers
   12. St. Mary Cole-Church
   13. St. Botolph Aldersgate
   14. St. Alphage
   15. St. Alban Wood Street
   16. St. Olave Silver Street
   17. St. Michael Bassishaw
   18. Christ Church
   19. St. Anne Aldersgate
   20. St. Mary Staining
   21. St. Mary Aldermanbury
   22. St. Olave Jewry
   23. St. Martin Ironmonger Lane
   24. St. Mildred Poultry
   25. St. Bennet Sherehog
   26. St. Pancras Soaper Lane
   27. St. Laurence Jewry
   28. St. Mary Magdalen Milk Street
   29. Alhallows Hony Lane
   30. St. Mary le Bow
   31. St. Peter Cheap
   32. St. Michael Wood Street
   33. St. John Zachary
   34. St. Martins Liberty
   35. St. Leonard Foster Lane
   36. St. Vedast, alias Foster
   37. St. Michael Quern
   38. St. John Evangelist
   39. St. Mathew Friday Street
   40. St. Margaret Lothbury
   41. St. Bartholemew Exchange
   42. St. Christophers
   43. St. Mary Woolnoth
   44. St. Mary Woolchurch
   45. St. Michael Cornhil
   46. St. Bennet Fink
   47. St. Peter Poor
   48. St. Peter Cornhil
   49. St. Martin Outwich
   50. St. Hellens
   51. St. Ethelborough
   52. St. Andrew Undershaft
   53. Alhallows Lumbard Street
   54. St. Edmond Lumbard Street
   55. St. Dionis Back-Church
   56. St. Katherine Cree-Church
   57. St. James Dukes Place
   58. St. Katherine Coleman
   59. St. Olave Hart Street
   60. St. Botolph Aldgate
   61. St. Mary White Chapel
   62. Trinity Minories
   63. St. Bartholemew the Great
   64. Alhallows Staining
   65. Alhallows Barking
   66. St. Mary Abchurch
   67. St. Nicholas Accorn
   68. St. Clement East Cheap
   69. St. Bennet Grace-Church
   70. St. Gabriel Fenchurch
   71. St. Margaret Pattons
   72. St. Andrew Hubbart
   73. Dutchy Liberty
   74. St. Clement Danes
   75. Rolls Liberty
   76. St. Dunstan in the West
   77. White Fryers Precinct
   78. St. Bridget
   79. Bridewel Precinct
   80. St. Anne Black-Fryers
   81. St. Martin's Ludgate
   82. St. Gregories
   83. St. Andrew Wardrobe
   84. St. Bennet Paul's Wharf
   85. St. Peter
   86. St. Mary Magdaline Old Fish-Street
   87. St. Nicholas Cole-Abby
   88. St. Austine
   89. St. Margaret Moses
   90. Alhallows Bread-Street
   91. St. Mildred Bread-Street
   92. St. Nicholas Olave
   93. St. Mary Mounthaw
   94. St. Mary Somerset
   95. St. Michael Queen Hith
   96. Trinity
   97. St. Mary Aldermary
   98. St. Thomas Apostles
   99. St. Michael Royal
  100. St. James Garlick-Hith
  101. St. Martin Vintry
  102. St. Antholin's
  103. St. John Baptist
  104. St. Stephen Walbrook
  105. St. Swithin
  106. St. Mary Bothaw
  107. Alhallows the Great
  108. St. Faith's
  109. St. Leonard East Cheap
  110. St. Laurence Poultney
  111. St. Martin Orgar's
  112. Little Alhallows
  113. St. Michael Crooked Lane
  114. St. Magnus at the Bridg
  115. St. Margaret New Fish-Street
  116. St. George Botolph Lane
  117. St. Botolph Billingsgate
  118. St. Mary Hill
  119. St. Dunstans in the East
  120. Little St. Bartholemews
  121. Tower Liberty
  122. St. Katherines

  LIST OF PRINCIPAL BUILDINGS IN OGILBY & MORGAN'S MAP, 1677
  COMPILED FROM THE MAP AND KEY
  The References on the left of the names refer to the marginal numbers on
      the Map

   7-14. African House, Throgmorton Street, B55
    2-5. Ailesbury's House, Earl of, A7
   7-18. Aldgate
  10-17. Alhallows Barking Church
   9-10. Alhallows Bread-street Church
  11-12. Alhallows Church, Great
  11-12. Alhallows Church, Little
   7-10. Alhallows Hony Lane Church [site absorbed into Hony Lane Market]
   9-14. Alhallows Lombard Street Church
   5-14. Alhallows on the Wall Church
   9-17. Alhallows Staining Church, Mark Lane
    9-6. Apothecary's Hall, C1
   5-12. Armorers Hall, Coleman Street, A65
   11-1. Arundel House

   5-10. Barber Chyrurgeons Hall, A59
   6-15. Barnadiston's House, Sir Samuel, B61
    6-3. Barnard's Inn
    6-3. Bell Inn, Holborn, A83
    8-6. Bell Savage Inn, Ludgate Hill, B77
    3-6. Berkley's House, Lord, A11
   6-14. Bethlehem, New
   6-15. Bishops Gate
    6-3. Black Bull Inn, Holborn, A84
    6-3. Black Swan Inn, Holborn, A81
   10-9. Blacksmith's Hall, C29
   7-11. Blackwel Hall, B49
   7-11. Blossom's Inn, B48
    6-9. Bludworth's House, Sir Thomas, Maiden Lane, B3
    9-4. Bolt and Tun Inn, Fleet Street, B98
   6-10. Brewers Hall, Addle Street, B7
   8-17. Brick-Layers Hall, Leaden Hall Street, C52
    9-6. Bridewell
    9-6. Bridewel Precinct Chapel, Bride Lane
    3-9. Bridgwaters House, Earl of, A18
    6-2. Brook House
  10-11. Buckingham's House, Duke of, C19
    6-8. Bull and Mouth Inn, Bull and Mouth Street, A98
  10-15. Butchers Hall, C39

    9-2. Chancery Office, Chancery Lane, B73
    3-6. Charter House
    7-7. Christ Church, Newgate Street
    7-7. Christ Hospital
   7-12. Clayton's House, Sir Robert, Old Jewry, B52
    9-1. Clements Inn
    6-9. Clerks Hall, Silver Street, B4
    9-3. Clifford's Inn
   9-16. Cloth Workers Hall, Mincing Lane, C25
    6-9. Cooks Hall, Aldersgate Street, C50
   6-11. Coopers Hall, Bassishaw Street, B14
    9-9. Cordwainers Hall
   5-10. Cripple Gate
   5-10. Curryers Hall, London Wall, A60
    7-2. Cursitor's Office
  11-17. Custome house
   9-12. Cutlers Hall, Cloak Lane, C21

    6-5. David's House, Sir Thomas. Snow Hill, B34
   5-16. Devonshire House, A73
    9-9. Doctors Commons, C10
    3-7. Dorchester's House, Marquess of, A13
   7-14. Drapers Hall, B57
   6-14. Dutch Church
  11-13. Dyers Hall, New Key, Thames Street

   8-16. East India House, Leaden Hall Street, B88
    6-4. Ely House
   10-1. Essex House
   6-14. Excise Office, Broad Street, C60

  10-15. Fiery Pillar, The [The Monument]
  11-14. Fishmongers Hall, Thames Street
    9-6. Fleet Bridg
    8-5. Fleet [Prison]
   7-12. Founders Hall, Loathbury, B56
   7-12. Frederick's House, Sir John, Old Jewry, B51
   7-14. French Church, B62
    6-3. Furnival's Inn

    6-6. George Inn, Holborn Bridg, A92
   9-10. Gerrard's Hall Inn, C16
   5-11. Girdlers Hall, A63
   3-10. Glovers Hall, Beech Lane, A20
    7-9. Goldsmiths Hall, Foster Lane, B39
    5-1. Gray's Inn
   7-15. Gresham Colledge
    3-7. Grey's House, Lord, A14
   8-12. Grocers Hall, B53
   7-11. Guild Hall

   7-10. Haberdashers Hall, B8
   7-12. Hern's House, Sir Nathiel, Loathbury, B54
    4-6. Hicks's Hall
    7-5. Holborn Bridge
   ----  [Holy] Trinity Church, Trinity Lane [see Trinity Church]
   ----  [Holy] Trinity Minories Church [see Trinity Minories]

    9-3. Inner Temple, Inner Temple Lane
  10-12. Inn-Holders Hall, Elbow Lane, C34
   8-17. Ironmongers Hall, Fenchurch Street, B91
  11-11. Joyners  Hall, Fryer Lane, Thames Street, C37

    6-5. Kings Arms Inn, Holborn Bridg, A90
    9-7. King's Printing House, C3

   5-11. Lariner's Hall, Fore Street, A78
   7-16. Lawrence's House, Sir John, Great St. Hellens, B67
   8-15. Leaden Hall Market
   6-16. Leather-Sellers Hall
    7-2. Lincoln's Inn
   10-1. Lions Inne
  11-14. London Bridg
    5-8. London House, A57
    9-7. Ludgate
   9-10. Lutheran Church, Trinity Lane (N.E. corner Little Trinity Lane)

   8-11. Mercer's Chapel
   8-14. Merchant-Taylors Hall
  10-12. Merchant-Taylors School, Suffolk Lane, C39
    9-3. Middle Temple, Middle Temple Lane
   8-10. Milkstreet or Hony lane Market
   ----  [Monument, The, see "Fiery Pillar"]

   9-17. Navy Office, Mark Lane, C26
   10-1. New Inn
    2-4. New  Prison, or Bridewel, Clerkenwel Green
    2-4. Newcastle's House, Duke of, A6
    7-6. Newgate
    8-7. Newgate Market

  10-10. Painters Stainers Hall
   8-17. Papillion's House, Mr. Tho., Fenchurch Street, C54
   6-14. Pay Office, Broad Street, B22
   8-16. Pewterers Hall, Lime Street, C62
    7-7. Physicians College, B37
   6-14. Pinner's Hall, B21
   6-10. Plaisterers Hall, Addle Street, B6
   6-15. Post Office, General, Bishopsgate Street Within, B59
   8-12. Poultry Compter, B83
    9-8. Prerogative Office, St. Paul's Church Yard, C6

    8-4. Red Lyon Inn, Fleet Street, B75
    7-5. Rose Inn, Holborn-Bridg, A91
   8-14. Royal Exchange

    7-9. Sadler's Hall, Cheapside, B41
   9-13. Salter's Hall, St. Swithins Lane, C23
    6-5. Sarazens Head Inn, Snow Hill, A93
    9-6. Scotch Hall, C2
    6-9. Scriveners Hall
    9-3. Serjeant's Inn, Chancery Lane, B97
    9-4. Serjeant's Inn, Fleet Street
    8-6. Session House, The, Old Bayly
    9-8. Sheldon's House, Sir Joseph, St. Paul's Church Yard, C7
    8-2. Simond's Inn, Chancery Lane, B71
   5-11. Sion College, A61
    9-2. Six Clarks Office, Chancery Lane, B72
  10-12. Skinners Hall, Dough-Gate Hill, C33
    5-6. Smithfield Penns
   11-1. Somerset House
   6-10. St. Alban Wood-Street Church
   5-11. St. Alphage Church, London Wall
    6-4. St. Andrew Holborn Church
  10-15. St. Andrew Hubbart Church, Little East-Cheap [formerly S. side,
      between Buttolph Lane and Love Lane]
   8-16. St. Andrew Undershaft Church, Leaden Hall Street, B66
   10-7. St. Andrew Wardrobe Church
    6-9. St. Anne Aldersgate Church
    9-6. St. Anne Black-Fryers Church
   9-12. St. Antholine's Church, Budg Row
    8-9. St. Austine's Church
    5-7. St. Bartholemew Church, Great
    6-7. St. Bartholemew's Church, Little
   8-13. St. Bartholemew Exchange Church
    6-7. St. Bartholemew's Hospital
   8-13. St. Bennet Fink Church
   8-15. St. Bennet Grace Church
   10-8. St. Bennet Pauls Wharf Church
   8-11. St. Bennet Sherehog Church
    9-6. St. Bridget's Church
    6-9. St. Buttolph Aldersgate Church
   6-19. St. Buttolph Aldgate Church
  11-15. St. Buttolph Billingsgate Church [formerly S. side of Thames
      Street between Buttolph Lane and Love Lane]
   5-16. St. Buttolph Bishopsgate Church
   8-13. St. Christophers Church
   10-1. St. Clement Danes Church
   9-14. St. Clement's Eastcheap Church
    9-3. St. Dunstan's Church
  10-16. St. Dunstan's in the East Church
   9-14. St. Edmond Lumbard Street Church
   6-16. St. Ethelborough Church, Bishopsgate Street Within [immediately N.
      of Little St. Hellens]
    9-8. St. Faith's Church [under-St.-Paul's]
   9-16. St. Gabriel Fenchurch Church [absorbed into the roadway of
      Fenchurch Street, between Rood Lane and Mincing Lane]
  10-15. St. George Buttolph Church, C40
   4-10. St. Giles's Cripplegate Church
    9-8. St. Gregory's Church [site absorbed by St. Paul's]
   7-16. St. Hellen's Church
   7-18. St. James Dukes Place Church, Dukes Place
  10-11. St. James Garlick Hith Church
   9-12. St. John Baptist Church
    9-9. St. John Evangelist Church, Friday Street [formerly E. side, at
      the corner of Watling Street, having the latter street on the north]
    6-9. St. John Zachary Church, Maiden Lane
   8-17. St. Katherine Coleman Church
   8-17. St. Katherine Cree Church, Leaden Hall Street, B68
  10-13. St. Laurence Poultney Church
   7-11. St. Lawrence Jewry Church
  10-15. St. Leonard East Cheap Church
    7-9. St. Leonard Foster-Lane Church
  11-14. St. Magnus Church, Thames Street, C59
   9-13. St. Mary Abchurch Church
   6-11. St. Mary Aldermanbury Church
   9-11. St. Mary Aldermary Church
   9-12. St. Mary Bothaw Church
   6-11. St. Mary Cole Church, Cheapside [formerly S.W. corner of Old
      Jewry]
  10-16. St. Mary Hill Church, C43
   8-10. St. Mary le Bow Church
   7-10. St. Mary Magdalen's Church, Milk Street [site absorbed into Hony
      lane Market]
   10-9. St. Mary Magdaline Old Fish Street Church
   10-9. St. Mary Mounthaw Church
   10-9. St. Mary Somerset Church
    6-9. St. Mary Staining Church, Oat Lane
   8-12. St. Mary Wool Church [site absorbed into Wool Church Market]
   8-13. St. Mary Woolnoth Church, Lumbard Street [opposite Pope's Head
      Alley]
   7-12. St. Margaret Loathbury Church
    9-9. St. Margaret Moses Church, Friday Street [formerly S.W. corner of
      Basing Lane]
   9-15. St. Margaret Patton's Church
  10-15. St. Margaret's New Fish Street Church [site absorbed by the
      Monument]
   7-11. St. Martin Ironmonger Church, Ironmonger Lane [formerly adjoining
      the west end of St. Olave Jewry]
    8-7. St. Martin Ludgate Church
  10-13. St. Martin Orgar's Church
   7-15. St. Martin Outwich Church, Bishopsgate Street Within [S.E. corner
      of Thread Needle Street]
  10-11. St. Martin Vintry Church
    8-9. St. Mathew Friday Street Church
   9-10. St. Mildred Bread-Street Church
   8-12. St. Mildred Poultry Church, B84
   6-11. St. Michael Bassishaw Church
   8-14. St. Michael Cornhil
  10-14. St. Michael Crooked Lane Church
  10-10. St. Michael Queen Hith Church
    7-9. St. Michael Quern Church, Cheapside [site absorbed into roadway of
      Cheapside at junction of Pater Noster Row and Blow Bladder Street]
   9-11. St. Michael Royal Church
    7-9. St. Michael Wood-Street Church, B45
   9-13. St. Nicholas Acorn Church
    9-9. St. Nicholas Cole-Abby Church, Old Fish Street (N.W. corner of Old
      Fish St. Hill)
   9-10. St. Nicholas Olave's Church, Bread-Street Hill [formerly near
      middle of W. side]
   9-17. St. Olave Hart-street Church, C27
   7-12. St. Olave Jewry Church
   5-10. St. Olave Silver Street Church
   8-11. St. Pancras Soaper Lane Church
    9-8. St. Paul's Cathedral
    9-8. St. Paul's House, Dean of, St. Paul's Church Yard, C5
  11-18. [St. Peter-ad-Vincula] Church, Tower of London
   7-10. St. Peter Cheap Church
   6-14. St. Peter Poor Church
   10-8. St. Peter's Church
   8-14. St. Peter's Cornhil
    7-6. St. Sephlcher's Church
   6-12. St. Stephen Coleman Street Church, B56
   9-12. St. Stephen Walbrook Church
  10-12. St. Swithin Church, Cannon Street
   9-11. St. Thomas Apostles Church, St. Thomas Apostles
    7-9. St. Vedast Church, B40
    6-2. Staple Inn
    8-7. Stationers Hall
    6-5. Swan Inn, Holborn-Bridg, A89
   6-10. Swan with Two Necks Inn, Ladd Lane, B11

   9-12. Tallow Chandlers Hall, Dough-Gate Hill, C22
   10-3. Temple Church
    5-9. Thanet House, A58
    6-4. Thavy's Inn, Holborn, A86
  11-19. Tower, The
   ----  Trinity Church, Trinity Lane [site occupied by Lutheran Church,
       which see]
  10-17. Trinity House, Water Lane, C45
   8-19. Trinity Minories Church, B70
    9-8. Turners House, Sir William, St. Paul's Church Yard, C4

  11-11. Vintonners Hall
   8-13. Vyner's House, Sir Robert, Lumbard Street, B85

  10-13. Ward's House, Sir Patient, Lawrence Poultney's Hill, C38
    6-1. Warwick House
  11-13. Watermans Hall, New Key, Thames Street, C28
  11-13. Waterman's House, Sir George, Thames Street, C57
   7-10. Wax Chandellors Hall, Maiden Lane, B43
   6-11. Weavers Hall, Bassishaw Street, B13
   8-17. Whitchurch House, Leaden Hall Street, C53
  10-11. Whittington's College, College Hill, _m_15
   7-10. Wood Street Compter, B46
   9-12. Wool Church Market

       *       *       *       *       *

LONDON IN 1741-45

BY JOHN ROCQUE

DESCRIPTION.--In some ways this map is the most interesting of the whole
series, for it comes nearest to our own times, and yet by studying it we
can infer the remarkable changes that have taken place within the memory of
man. It is much more comprehensive than Ogilby's, including the whole of
the outlying suburbs, and even going as far as Edgware and Tottenham, which
are still no part even of Greater London.

DESIGNER.--Very little is known about John Rocque. He was probably a native
of France, but was residing in England about 1750. He engraved maps and a
few views from his own designs.

ORIGINAL.--The original is in twenty-four sheets, and is 13 feet in length
and 6¾ feet in depth. It can be seen at the British Museum. That which is
here presented is the central part of this, not reduced, but on the same
scale. Its interest is greatly increased by the fact that the names are
printed on the map, and are not given separately as in other instances. To
facilitate this Rocque has marked the houses bordering streets in white,
and only blocked them in black where they line market-gardens and other
parts indicated by a light surface. The map is a model of care and
comprehensive detail.

DETAIL.--Beginning in the lower left-hand corner, we have the Royal
Hospital, with its neatly-laid-out grounds. Close to it the Westbourne,
whose irregular line determined the boundaries of Chelsea, falls into the
Thames; higher up its course is through the Five Fields, now one of the
most wealthy and popular districts of London--namely, Belgravia. St.
George's Hospital is already standing at Hyde Park Corner, and a fringe of
houses lines the road to Knightsbridge. Westminster is still largely open
in the west by Tothill Fields, scene of so many tournaments and jousts, and
the curve of the river encloses innumerable market-gardens. In St. James's
Park the stiff canal, memento of Dutch influence, has not yet been
transformed into the more attractive ornamental water. Carlton House
Terrace has not come into existence. Here Carlton House, which does not
appear to be marked, was standing, and was occupied by Frederick, Prince of
Wales, father of George III. North of this, with the omission of Regent
Street, made in 1813-20, the streets are pretty much as we know them. It is
beyond Oxford Street northward that the difference is striking. This
district was only just being built upon, and the well-laid-out streets soon
run off into open country. "Marybone" Gardens, a favourite tea-garden, and
the church, and a few houses, form a little hamlet just connected with the
other part of London by a single street, and further westward, north of
Berkeley Square, are fields. In the midst of these is the "Yorkshire
Stingo," the public-house from which the first omnibus in the Metropolis
began to run in 1829. The Tyburn Gallows still had much work to do; it was
fifty years later that the last execution took place here. Just within the
Hyde Park is the gruesome record, "where soldiers are shot." If we follow
Oxford Street eastward to Tottenham Court Road, we find that it is only
connected with High Holborn by the curve through High and Broad Streets at
St. Giles's. To the south is the star of Seven Dials, and all the district
so completely altered by the cutting through of Charing Cross Road, and
then Shaftesbury Avenue in modern times. To the north, Montagu House
occupies the site the British Museum was destined to fill; it was purchased
by the Government in 1753, and pulled down about a hundred years later.
Bedford House, the town residence of the Dukes of Bedford, stood until
1800. Behind, Lamb's Conduit Fields run up to Battle Bridge, where one of
the early British battles was fought; this is now the site of King's Cross
Station. Not far off Bagnigge Wells and Sadler's Wells are in the heyday of
their prosperity. The Fleet or River of Wells may be traced passing through
the former, but further south it is covered in, and does not appear in the
open again until below Fleet Bridge, when it is ignominiously called Fleet
Ditch.

Thames side is still fringed with "stairs to take water at" leading from
the great houses on the margin, and there is as yet no embankment.
Westminster and Blackfriars Bridges, however, afford easy access to the
southern side. The labyrinth of the City is not seriously different from
that of the present day except in the omission of Cannon Street. Bethlehem
Hospital is still conspicuous, and the City wall has vanished strangely.
What we now call Finsbury Square is marked as Upper Moorfields. We have to
go far before we clear the houses to the east. Stepney and Bethnal Green
are fairly thickly populated, and though surrounded by open ground, are
connected by houses all the way from the City. But in the bend of the river
by Wapping the chief area is occupied by market-gardens. Crossing over to
the other side, we find the market-gardens very prominent; as London grows
larger she thrusts her sources of supply further from her. The central
ganglion of the Borough Road and its ray-like connections are marked out.
At one end is the "King's Bench," which was close to the Marshalsea,
associated with "Little Dorrit." The Marshalsea itself is not marked.
Dickens was yet to come, and it was only through his writings that it
gained a sentimental interest. A great part of the Borough is very marshy
indeed, and we note frequent ponds. The "Dog and Duck," otherwise "St.
George's Spaw," is almost surrounded by them.

To sum up in Sir Walter Besant's words:

"London, then, in the eighteenth century consisted first of the City,
nearly the whole of which had been rebuilt after the Fire, only a small
portion in the east and north containing the older buildings; a workmen's
quarter at Whitechapel; a lawyer's quarter from Gray's Inn to the Temple,
both inclusive; a quarter north of the Strand occupied by coffee-houses,
taverns, theatres, a great market, and the people belonging to these
places; an aristocratic quarter lying east of Hyde Park; and Westminster,
with its Houses of Parliament, its Abbey, and the worst slums in the whole
City. On the other side of the river, between London Bridge and St.
George's, was a busy High Street with streets to right and left; the river
bank was lined with houses from Paris Gardens to Rotherhithe; there were
streets at the back of St. Thomas's and Guy's; Lambeth Marsh lay in open
fields, and gardens intersected by sluggish streams and ditches; and
Rotherhithe Marsh lay equally open in meadows and gardens, with ponds and
ditches in the east....

"From any part of London it was possible to get into the country in a
quarter of an hour. One realizes the rural surroundings of the City by
considering that north of Gray's Inn was open country with fields; that
Queen Square, Bloomsbury, had its north side left purposely open in order
that the residents might enjoy the view of the Highgate and Hampstead
Hills. On the south side of the river Camberwell was a leafy grove; Herne
Hill was a park set with stately trees; Denmark Hill was a wooded wild; the
hanging woods of Penge and Norwood were as lovely as those that one can now
see at Cliveden or on the banks of the Wye" (_London in the Eighteenth
Century_, pp. 77-79).

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration]

   1. The Palace of Westminster.
   2. St. Stephen's Chapel.
   3. Westminster Hall.
   4. Westminster Abbey.
   5. Old Palace Yard.
   6. The Clock Tower.
   7. The Gate House.
   8. St. Margaret's Church.
   9. The King's Stairs.
  10. Star Chamber.
  11. Lambeth Palace.
  12. Stangate Horse Ferry.
  13. St. James's Hospital.
  14. St. James's.
  15. Whitehall.
  16. Holbein's Gate.
  17. Scotland Yard.
  18. Charing Cross.
  19. King's Mews.
  20. St. Martin's Church.
  21. St. Mary's Hospital.
  22. St. Giles's Church.
  23. Convent Garden.
  24. The Strand.
  25. York House.
  26. Durham House.
  27. Savoy Palace.
  28. Somerset Place.
  29. St. Mary Le Strand.
  30. St. Clement's Dane.
  31. Lincoln's Inn.
  32. Lincoln's Inn Fields.
  33. Gray's Inn.
  34. Ely House.
  35. Fetter Lane.
  36. Rolls Place.
  37. St. Dunstan's Church.
  38. The Temple Church.
  39. The Temple.
  40. Fleet Street.
  41. Grey Friars.
  42. Palace of Bridewell.
  43. St. Bride's.
  44. St. Andrew's Church.
  45. St. Sepulchre's Church.
  46. Fleet Ditch.
  47. St. John's Hospital.
  48. Smithfield.
  49. St. James's, Clerkenwell.
  50. Newgate.
  51. Ludgate.
  52. Blackfriars.
  53. The Wardrobe.
  54. Baynard Castle.
  55. St. Paul's Cathedral.
  56. St. Paul's Cross.
  57. St. Bartholomew's the Great.
  58. Grey Friars.
  59. Queen Hythe.
  64. The Standard.
  66. Rochester House.
  69. The Stews.
  128. Bank Side.

From the Panorama of "London, Westminster, and Southwark, in 1543." By
Anthony Van den Wyngaerde. (Sutherland Collection, Bodleian Library,
Oxford.) _For continuation see pp. 234 and 350._

  _pp. 218, 219._

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration]

   47. St. John's Hospital.
   48. Smithfield.
   49. St. James's, Clerkenwell.
   54. Baynard Castle.
   55. St. Paul's Cathedral.
   58. Grey Friars.
   59. Queen Hythe.
   60. St. Martin's le Grand.
   61. Aldersgate.
   62. Jews' Cemetery.
   63. Cheapside.
   64. The Standard.
   65. Cross, Cheapside.
   66. Rochester House.
   67. Winchester House.
   68. St. Mary's Overie.
   70. St. Thomas's Hospital.
   71. St. George's Church.
   72. Kent Road.
   73. Suffolk House.
   74. St. Giles's, Cripplegate.
   75. Cripplegate.
   76. The Barbican.
   77. St. Albans, Wood Street.
   78. Bow Church.
   79. Broken Wharf.
   80. The Cranes.
   81. The Steel Yard.
   82. Cold Harbour.
   83. Fishmongers' Hall.
   84. St. Thomas of Acons.
   85. Guildhall.
   86. Moorgate.
   87. Austin Friars.
   88. Bishopsgate.
   89. Church of St. Magnus.
   90. London Bridge.
   91. St. Thomas's Chapel.
   92. Bridge House.
   93. St. Olave's Church.
   94. St. Agnes's le Clare.
   95. Hoxton.
   96. St. Botolph, Bishopsgate.
   97. Leadenhall.
   98. Botolph Wharf.
   99. Billingsgate.
  100. St. Mary Spittal.
  101. Walls of London.
  107. High Street, Southwark.

From the Panorama of "London, Westminster, and Southwark, in 1543." By
Anthony Van den Wyngaerde. (Sutherland Collection, Bodleian Library,
Oxford.) _For continuation see pp. 218 and 350._

  _pp. 234-235._

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration]

  100. St. Mary Spittal.
  102. Houndsditch.
  103. Crutched Friars.
  104. Priory of Holy Trinity.
  105. Aldgate.
  106. St. Botolph. Aldgate.
  107. The Minories.
  108. The Postern Gate.
  109. Great Tower Hill.
  110. Place of Execution.
  111. Allhallow's Church, Barking.
  112. The Custom House.
  113. Tower of London.
  114. The White Tower.
  115. Traitors' Gate.
  116. Little Tower Hill.
  117. East Smithfield.
  118. Stepney.
  119. St. Catherine's Church.
  120. St. Catherine's Dock.
  121. St. Catherine's Hospital.
  122. Isle of Dogs.
  123. Monastery of Bermondsey.
  124. Says Court, Deptford.
  125. Palace of Placentia.
  126. Greenwich.

From the Panorama of "London, Westminster, and Southwark in 1543." By
Anthony Van den Wyngaerde. (Sutherland Collection, Bodleian Library.
Oxford.) _For continuation see pp. 234, 235._

  _pp. 350. 351._

       *       *       *       *       *

LONDON IN THE TIME OF THE TUDORS. A REPRODUCTION, REDUCED, OF THE MAP BY
RALPH AGAS, CIRCA 1580.

[Illustration]

This antient and famous City of London, was first founded by _Brute_ the
Trojan, in the year of the World two thousand, eight hundred thirty & two,
and before the Nativity of our Saviour Christ, one thousand, one hundred,
and 30. So that since the first building, it is 2 thousand 6 hundred 60 & 3
years. And afterward was repaired & enlarged by King _Lud_, but at this
present so flourisheth, that it containeth in length from the East to the
West about 3. English miles, from the North to the South about 2. English
miles. It is also so plentifully peopled, that it is divided into a hundred
and 22 Parishes within the Liberties, besides 16 Parishes that are in the
suburbs. It is planted on a very good soyle: for on the one side it is
compassed with corne & pasture ground, and on the other side it is inclosed
with the river of Thames, which not only aboundeth in allkind of fresh
water-fish, but also is so navigable, that it as well bringeth abundance of
commoditities as the plentifulnesse of our Contry doth yeild us:which both
augments the fame thereof abroad, and also increaseth the riches thereof at
hom; so that as it is head and chief City ofthe whole Realm, so is it
likewise head and chief Chamber of the whole Realm, as well for our outward
as inward commoditites. God prosper it at his pleasure. Amen.

  New Troy my name, when firts my fame begun
  By Trajon Brute: who then me placed here:
  On fruitfull soyle, where pleasant Thames doth run
  Sith Lud my Lord, my King and Lover dear,
  Encreast my boundes and London (far that rings
  Through Regions large) he called then my name
  How famous since (I stately seat of Kings)
  Have flourish'd aye: let others that proclaim.
  And let me joy thus happy still to see
  This vertuous Peer my Sovereign King to be.

_From a facsimile reproduction of the original map by Edward J. Francis, in
the possession of John C. Francis._

_MAP ACCOMPANYING "LONDON IN THE TIME OF THE TUDORS," BY SIR WALTER BESANT.
PUBLISHED BY ADAM AND CHARLES BLACK, SOHO SQUARE, LONDON, 1904_

       *       *       *       *       *

THE PARISH OF St. Giles in the Fields, LONDON.

[Illustration]

REFERENCES.

_1. The first ST. GILES'S CHURCH._

_2. Remains of the Walls, antiently enclosing the Hospital precincts._

_3. Site of the Gallows and afterwards of the Pound_

_4. Way to Uxbridge now OXFORD ST._

_5._ ELDE-STRATE, _since called HOG-LANE_.

_6._ LE-LANE, _now MONMOUTH ST._

_7. Site of the_ SEVEN DIALS, _formerly called COCK and PYE FIELDS_.

_8._ ELM CLOSE _since called LONG-ACRE_.

_9. Site of_ LINCOLNS-INN-FIELDS _formerly called FICKETS-FIELDS_.

A VIEW _of part of the North-west Suburbs_ OF LONDON, _as they appeared,
anno 1570. Including the whole of the parish of ST. GILES in the FIELDS and
its immediate Neighbourhood, its_ PAROCHIAL CHURCHES _erected at different
periods &c._

_The part of the North West Suburbs of London, since called Saint Giles's
was about the time of the Norman Conquest an un-built tract of country, or
but thinly scattered with habitations.--The parish derived its name if not
its origin from the ancient Hospital for Lepers, which was built on the
site of the present church by MATILDA queen of King Henry I and dedicated
to Saint Giles: before which time there had been only a small Chapel or
Oratory on the spot.--It is described in old records as abounding with
gardens and dwellings in the flourishing times of Saint Giles's Hospital,
but declined in population and buildings after the suppression of that
establishment and remained but an inconsiderable village till the end of
the reign of Elizabeth, after which period it was rapidly built on and
became distinguished for the number and rank of its inhabitants. The great
increase of St. Giles's Parish occasioned the separation of St. Georges
Bloomsbury Parish from it anno 1734.--The above view (which is partly
supplied by the great Plan of London by Ralph Aggas, and partly from
authorities furnished by parochial documents) was taken anno 1570._

The Seal of the Antient Hospital of St. Giles.

  _pp. 190, 191._

       *       *       *       *       *

LONDINIUM FERACISSIMI ANGLIÆ REGNI METROPOLIS.

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *

LONDON

[Illustration]

LONDON, 1593. BY JOHN NORDEN.]

       *       *       *       *       *

WESTMINSTER

[Illustration]

WESTMINSTER, 1593. BY JOHN NORDEN.]

       *       *       *       *       *

LONDON

[Illustration]

CITY OF LONDON, 1658. BY FAITHORNE AND NEWCOURT.]

       *       *       *       *       *

LONDON IN 1741-5. BY JOHN ROCQUE.

[Illustration]

MAP ACCOMPANYING "LONDON IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY" BY SIR WALTER BESANT.
PUBLISHED BY ADAM AND CHARLES BLACK, LONDON.]

       *       *       *       *       *

A LARGE AND ACCURATE MAP OF THE CITY OF LONDON

Ichnographically Describing all the Streets, Lanes, Alleys, Courts, Yards,
Churches, Halls and Houses, &c. Actually Surveyed and Delineated. By JOHN
OGILBY Esq; His Majesties Cosmographer.

[Illustration]

_For explanations of the references &c. on map see pp 356-396 of the book_

MAP ACCOMPANYING "_LONDON IN THE TIME OF THE STUARTS_" BY SIR WALTER
BESANT. PUBLISHED BY ADAM AND CHARLES BLACK, SOHO SQUARE, LONDON 1903]





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