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Title: The Celtic Magazine, Vol. I, No. VI, April 1886 - A Monthly Periodical Devoted to the Literature, History, - Antiquities, Folk Lore, Traditions, and the Social and - Material Interests of the Celt at Home and Abroad
Author: Various
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Celtic Magazine, Vol. I, No. VI, April 1886 - A Monthly Periodical Devoted to the Literature, History, - Antiquities, Folk Lore, Traditions, and the Social and - Material Interests of the Celt at Home and Abroad" ***

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THE CELTIC MAGAZINE.

No. VI. APRIL 1876.



THE MASSACRE OF GLENCOE.

[CONTINUED.]


Stair meanwhile had made up his mind, and through his influence the
certificate of MacIan having signed his allegiance was suppressed, and
on the 11th of January, and afterwards on the 16th, instructions signed
and countersigned by the King came forth in which the inhabitants of
Glencoe were expressly exempted from the pardon given to the other
clans, and extreme measures ordered against them. A letter was sent by
Lord Stair to Colonel Hill commanding him to execute the purposes of the
Government, but he showed such reluctance that the commission was given
to one Colonel Hamilton instead, who had no scruples. He was ordered to
take a detachment of 120 men, chiefly belonging to a clan regiment
levied by Argyle, and consequently animated by bitter feudal animosity
towards the Macdonalds.

Towards the close of January a company of armed Highlanders appear
wending their way toward the opening of the Valley of Glencoe. The
Macdonalds, fearing they have come for their arms, send them away to a
place of concealment, and then came forth to meet the strangers. They
find it is a party of Argyle's soldiers, commanded by Captain Campbell
of Glenlyon, whose niece (a sister by the way of Rob Roy) is married to
Alastair Macdonald, one of MacIan's sons. They ask if they have come as
friends or foes. They reply, as friends, but as the garrison at
Fort-William is crowded they had been sent to quarter themselves for a
few days at Glencoe. They are received with open arms, feuds are
forgotten, and for a fortnight all is harmony and even hilarity in the
hamlet.

    Loud in all the clustering cottages
    Rose sounds of melody and voice of mirth;
    The measured madness of the dance is there,
    And the wild rapture of the feast of shells.
    Warm hands are clasped to hands that firm reply,
    And friendship glows and brightens into love.

Thus for a fortnight matters go on, when on the 1st of February orders
are issued by Hamilton to his subordinate, Major Duncanson, fixing five
o'clock next morning for the slaughter of all the Macdonalds under
seventy, and enjoining the various detachments of men to be at their
posts by that hour to secure the passes of the glen that not one of the
doomed race might escape. Especial care was to be taken that the old
fox and his cubs should not escape, and that (what cool but hellish
words), "that the Government was not to be troubled with prisoners."
These fell orders Duncanson handed on to Glenlyon, who gladly received
and proceeded to carry them into execution with prompt and portentous
fidelity.

With such injunctions in his pocket, Glenlyon proceeded to act the Judas
part with consummate skill. He supped and played at cards, on the
evening of the 12th, with John and Alexander Macdonald--two of his
intended victims; and he and his lieutenant (Lindsay) accepted an
invitation to dine with old MacIan for the next day. At five o'clock on
the morning of the 13th Hamilton hoped to have secured all the eastern
passes to prevent the escape of any fugitives, but, at all events, then
must Glenlyon begin his work of death.

All now is silent over the devoted hamlet. All are sleeping with the
exception of the two sons of MacIan, who had been led to entertain some
suspicions that all was not right. They had observed that the sentinels
had been doubled and the guard increased. Some of the soldiers too had
been heard muttering their dislike to the treacherous task to which they
had been commissioned. The Macdonalds, in alarm, came to Glenlyon's
quarters a little after midnight, and found him preparing, along with
his men, for immediate service. They asked him what was the meaning of
all this, and he, with dauntless effrontery, replied that he and his men
were intending an expedition against Glengarry, and added, "If anything
had been intended do you think I would not have told Alastair here and
my niece." The young men are only half satisfied, but return, although
grumblingly, to their own dwellings.

Over the valley, meanwhile, a snowstorm has begun to fall, but does not
come to its full height till farther on in the morning. The voice of the
Cona is choked in ice. The great heights behind the Sinai of Scotland
are silent, they have no thunders to forewarn, no lightnings to avenge.
MacIan himself is sleeping the deep sleep of innocence and security. The
fatigues and miseries of his journey to Fort-William and Inverary all
forgotten. Is there no wail of ghost, no cry of spirit coronach, none of
those earnest whispers which have been heard among the hills at dead of
night, and piercing the darkness with prophecies of fate? We know not,
and had there been such warning sounds they had given their oracle in
vain.

Suddenly, at five precisely, a knock is heard at MacIan's door. It is
opened immediately, and the old man bustles up to dress himself, and to
order refreshments for his visitors. Look at him as he stands at the
threshold of his door, clad in nothing but his shirt, and his long grey
hair, with looks of friendship and a cup of welcome trembling in his old
hand; and see his wife has half risen behind him to salute the incomers.
Without a moment's warning, without a preliminary word, he is shot dead
and falls back into her arms. She is next assailed, stript naked, the
gold rings, from her fingers torn off by the teeth of the soldiers, and
then she is struck and trampled on till she is left for dead on the
ground, and next day actually dies. All the clansmen and servants in
the same house are massacred, all save one, an old domestic and a
_sennachie_. He has been unable to sleep all night with melancholy
thoughts, and falling into a deep sleep ere morning is roused by a
horrible dream, leaves the hamlet, dashes through the door, dirks in
vain striking at his shadow, and hands trying in vain to seize his
plaid, he runs to the hut where the two brothers are lying and cries
out, like screams of Banshie through the night, "Is it time for you to
be sleeping while your father is murdered on his own hearth?"

They arise in haste, make for the mountains, and by their knowledge of
the dark and devious paths through that horrible wilderness, are enabled
to escape. From every house and hut there now rise shrieks, shouts,
groans, and blasphemies, the roar of muskets, the cries of men, women,
and children blended into one harmony of hell! The snow is now falling
thick, and is darkening more the dark February morning. Led through the
gloom, as if following the lurid eyes of some demoniac being, the
soldiers find their way from house to house, from one cluster of
cottages to another, rush in, seize their victims, drag them out, and
shoot them dead. In Glenlyon's own quarters nine men, including his own
landlord, are bound and shot, one of them with General Hill's passport
in his pocket. A boy of twelve clings to Glenlyon's knees asking for
mercy and offering to be his servant for life, when one Drummond stabbed
him with his dirk as he was uttering a prayer by which even Glenlyon was
affected. At Auchnain, a hamlet up the glen, Sergeant Barbour and his
troops came upon a party of nine men sitting round a fire, and slew
eight of them. The owner of the house in which Barbour had been
quartered was not hurt, and requested to die in the open air. "For your
bread which we have ate," said the Sergeant, "I will grant your
request." He was taken out accordingly, but while the soldiers were
presenting their muskets he threw his plaid over their faces, broke away
and escaped up the valley.

Thirty-eight persons in all, including one or two women and a little
boy, were put to death, but, besides, many who are supposed to have
perished in the drifts. The murderers, after massacring the inmates, set
the dwellings on fire; and how ghastly and lurid, especially to those
who had escaped up the glen, perhaps as far as those mountains called
the Three Sisters, bound to-day together by a band of virgin snow, must
have seemed the effect of the flames flashing against the white of the
hills, and which they knew were fed and fattened by the blood of their
kindred! Many fled half naked into the storm, and through profound
wreaths of snow, and over savage precipices, reached places of safety.
The snow now avails more to save than to destroy since on account of it,
Hamilton with his 400 men was too late to stop the eastern passes
through which many made their escape. Had he come up in time every soul
had perished. When he arrived at eleven there was not a Macdonald alive
in the glen except one old man of eighty, whose worm-like writhings
prove him still alive--

    One stab, one groan, and the tremendous deed
    Of massacre is done, at which the heath
    Which waves o'er all the Highland hills shall blush,
    And torrents wail for ages, ghosts shall shriek,
    Hell tremble through its dayless depths, and Heaven
    Weep, and while weeping grasp its thunderbolts.
    Beware Glenlyon's blood at _you_ they're armed!
    Beware the curse of God and of Glencoe!

The allusion in this last line is to a story told by Stewart of Garth in
his "History of the Highland Regiments," and on which a ballad by a
deceased poet, B. Symmons, an Irishman of great genius, was founded, and
appeared originally in _Blackwood's Magazine_. There was a brave
officer, Colonel Campbell of Glenlyon, the grandson of the ruffian who
disgraced the Campbell name and human nature at Glencoe. A curse was
supposed to rest upon the family, and the lands of Glenlyon departed
rood by rood from his descendants. The grandson, however, was brought up
by a pious mother, entered the army, and became a prosperous officer. He
was pursuing his profession in Canada when a romantic circumstance
occurred. A young man named Ronald Blair, a private of excellent
character and true courage, was stationed as a sentinel on an outpost.
He loved an Indian maid who came eve after eve to meet him at his post,
steering up the St Lawrence her lonely canoe. One night as she left him
a storm raged on the waters and exposed her and her bark to imminent
jeopardy. She shrieked out her lover's name, and called for help.

    The waves have swamped her little boat,
      She sinks before his eye,
    And he must keep his dangerous post,
      And leave her there to die.

    One moment's dreadful strife--love wins,
      He plunges in the water,
    The moon is out, his strokes are stout,
      The swimmer's arm has caught her,
    And back he bears with gasping heart
      The forest's matchless daughter.

Meanwhile the picket pass and find his post deserted, and, of course,
his life forfeited. He is condemned to die, and Colonel Campbell is
appointed to superintend his execution. The circumstances transpire. A
reprieve is sent by the commanding officer with secret orders, however,
that the sentence be pushed on to all but the last, and not till the
prisoner's prayers are over, and the death fillet bound, is the pardon
to be produced.

    The morrow came, the evening sun
      Was sinking red and cold,
    When Ronald Blair a league from camp
      Was led erect and bold,
    To die a soldier's death, while low
      The funeral drum was rolled.

The musketeers advance to ask the signal when they are to shoot,
Campbell tells them, "Reserve your fire till I produce this blue
handkerchief." The prayer is said, the eyes are bound, the doomed
soldier kneels. There is such a silence that a tear might have been
heard falling to the ground. Campbell's heart beats high with joy and
fear to think that by drawing out the pardon in his pocket he is to turn
despair into delight. He keeps his hand a moment longer on the reprieve,
and then draws it forth, but with it drew--O God, the handkerchief; the
soldiers fire, Ronald Blair falls, and his Indian maid is found clasping
his dead body to her breast and dying by his side, and the frenzied
Colonel exclaims--"The Curse of Heaven and of Glencoe is here."

The troops left the glen with a vast booty--900 kine, 200 ponies, and
many sheep and goats. When they had departed the Macdonalds crept from
their lurking places, went back to the spot, collected the scorched
carcasses from among the ruins, and buried them there. It is said that
the Bard of the Clan took his place on a rock opposite the scene of the
massacre and poured out a lament over his slaughtered kinsmen and their
desolate dwellings. The subject had been worthy of an Ossian. The scene
there is now changed. A house or two only remains where smoked hundreds
of happy hearths. The thistle and the wild myrtle shake their heads in
the winds, and utter their low monody which mingles with, and is swelled
by the voice of the Cona, all seeming to mourn over crime, and to
pronounce for doom. Yet let our conclusion be that of the Judge of the
earth Himself when he says vengeance is mine, I will repay, saith the
Lord, and who mixes mercy with judgment, and makes the wrath of man to
praise him in pardon as well as by punishment. Yet this stupendous crime
was not to pass wholly unpunished. It was a considerable time ere its
particulars and aggravations were fully known. Conceive such an
atrocious massacre perpetrated now! In less than seven days there would
be a cry of vengeance from the Land's End to Caithness. Within a
fortnight demands for the blood of the murderers would be coming in from
every part of the British dominions. In a month the ringleaders would
have been tried, condemned, and hanged, and even Mr Bruce, the late
lenient Secretary of State, would not venture to reprieve one of them.
It was different then. Not a word of it appeared in the meagre
newspapers of that day. Floating rumours there were, but they were all,
in many particular points, wide of the mark, and it was long ere the
particulars condensed into the tragic and terrible tale which is
certainly stranger than fiction. Very little interest was then felt in
Highlands feuds, and as Macaulay truly says, "To the Londoner of those
days Appin was what Caffrarra or Borneo is to us. He was not more moved
by hearing that some Highland thieves had been surprised and killed,
than we are by hearing that a band of Amakosah cattle-stealers had been
cut off, or that a barkful of Malay pirates had been sunk." Gradually,
however, the dark truth came out, and orbed itself into that blood-red
unity of horror, which has since made the firmest nerves to tremble, and
the stoutest knees to shake, which has haunted dreams, inspired poetry,
created new and ghastly shapes of superstition, and which, even yet, as
the solitary traveller is plodding his way amidst the shadows of an
autumn evening, or under the shivering stars of a winter night, can
drench the skin and curdle the blood. No wonder though the actors in the
tragedy felt, in their dire experience afterwards, that the infatuation
of crime dissolves the moment it is perpetrated; that Breadalbane sought
the sons of the murdered MacIan to gain impunity for himself by signing
a document declaring him guiltless; that Glencoe haunted the couch and
clouded the countenance, and shortened the days of Glenlyon. Hamilton
apparently felt no remorse, and his only regret was that any had
escaped, and that a colossal crime had been truncated by some colossal
blunders. He might have said like the Templar in the Talisman, when some
one tells him to tremble, "I cannot if I would." And yet as God comes
often to men without bell, so there might be some secret passage through
which, on noiseless footsteps, remorse might reach even the sullen
chamber of his hardened heart.

Many lessons might be derived from the whole story, none, after all,
more obvious and none more useful than the old old story of the
desperate wickedness of human nature when unpenetrated by brotherly and
Christian feeling; and that he who has sounded the ocean, the grave, the
deepest and the darkest mountain cavern has yet a deeper deep to fathom
in the abyss of his own heart; and that the moral of the subject may be
yet more briefly condensed in the one grand line which Shelley has
borrowed from Burke:--

               "To fear ourselves and love all human kind."

                                                        GEO. GILFILLAN.



PROFESSORSHIP OF CELTIC AT OXFORD.--In a congregation held on Tuesday,
March 7th, a form of statute was promulgated to provide for the
establishment of a Professor of the Celtic languages and literature in
this University. The Principal and Fellows of Jesus College have offered
the sum of £500 annually, to be applied by the University for the
foundation of the professorship, and a further sum of £100 is to be paid
from the University chest, until an equivalent provision is made from
some other source. The statute also provides for the constitution of a
board for electing the professor. Such professor will be required to
reside within the precincts of the University for six months at least,
in each year, between the tenth day of October and the first of July
next following. The professor must apply himself to the study of the
Celtic languages, literature, and antiquities, and give lectures on
those subjects, and also give instruction on the same subject to members
of the University. He is not to hold any other professorship or public
readership in the University. Matters are looking up for the Celtic
languages at last; thanks to the redoubted Professor Blackie. Two Celtic
Professorships are now practically established. We understand that
Charles Mackay, LL.D., F.S.A., the well-known poet, and Celtic scholar,
is a candidate for the Chair.


THE PROPHECIES OF COINNEACH ODHAR FIOSAICHE--THE BRAHAN SEER.--John
Noble, bookseller, Inverness, is about to publish those "Prophecies"
in small book form, collected and edited by Alex. Mackenzie of the
_Celtic Magazine_. Some very remarkable instances of second sight by
others than _Coinneach Odhar_ will also be given. Parties forwarding
any _prophecies_ in their possession, or known in their district, to Mr
Noble, or to Mr Mackenzie, will be conferring a favour, and will receive
due acknowledgment. It is desirable to make the work as complete as
possible.



TEACHING GAELIC IN HIGHLAND SCHOOLS.


THIS is a question which has for some time engaged the earnest
consideration of many who are interested in the welfare of the
Highlands. Much has been said and written on the subject; on the one
hand by those who wish to see the language of the inhabitants excluded
from the schools--nay more, use every means at their command, by word
and deed, to extinguish it altogether. They argue that it is better we
should only possess one living language throughout the whole country,
and that, of course, the language of the Legislature, the Courts of
Justice, and of Commerce. No doubt a good deal can be said for this view
of the case, and we shall have something to say regarding it hereafter.
On the other hand, we have those who would have the language cultivated,
supported, and maintained as an active living tongue, spoken by the
Highlander and used in the common conversation and business of life; and
with that object have it taught in our schools just as we teach English.
Others do not exactly go that length. They wish it taught as a Special
Subject only, in the same way, on the same principle, and with the same
encouragement to schoolmasters and pupils that is given in the case of
Latin and Greek, French and German. And last of all, we have those who
only go the length of advocating its use for conveying information to
Gaelic-speaking children regarding what they read in their English
class-books--making it the medium by which the intelligence of the pupil
is appealed to, and so enable him the more easily and speedily to
understand and grasp the substance of his lessons in English, a language
which is to him as much a foreign one as Sanscrit or Hindustani.

On the present occasion we shall refer more particularly to the
latter--those who wish to give Gaelic the dignity of being taught as a
Special Subject, and those who only wish it applied as a means with
which to reach the intelligence of the child while receiving an English
education. We will admit at the outset, that the primary object of
education in the Highlands, as well as elsewhere, must be to fit the
children for the active duties of after life. We will also admit that a
Gaelic education, however perfect, is not enough for this purpose. If
this be so--and no writer possessed of ordinary common sense can
reasonably dispute it--the teaching of Gaelic in our Highland schools
can be discussed only as a question of secondary importance; unless we
can show that it is through the native language of the scholars that we
can best appeal to their intelligence; and, that while giving Gaelic its
proper place in our system of Highland education, we can also show that
we are taking a more direct and more natural course, in the end, to
secure a more intelligent and vastly superior English education.

No one approaching the subject with an unprejudiced mind, after giving
the smallest consideration to the subject, can maintain that a system
which wholly ignores the only language known to the child when he enters
school for the first time, can be either a sensible, a reasonable, or a
successful one. It is doubtful if ever such a system was adopted
anywhere else, at home or abroad, out of the Highlands of Scotland, and
the Gaelic-speaking districts of Ireland; but whether, or not, it was
ever adopted in the past we are unable, at the present day, to discover
any trace of such an unnatural, senseless, and, we might say without
exaggeration, idiotic system in any other part of the world. The
disadvantages of such a plan of teaching are so apparent to every one
except those teachers and their friends, who are totally ignorant of the
language of the children they are so well paid to teach and who, from
the manner in which they disregard the necessities of children in
Highland districts, must, we are afraid, be held to place their own
interests and that of their class far above the requirements of the
country; forgetting that the Legislature passed the Education Act not so
much in the interest of teachers as with the view to secure a really
substantial education to the pupils. We much regret that there should be
any necessity to point this out, as the interest of both teachers and
children should be identical; but this clearly cannot be, so long as
teachers maintain and advocate a system contrary to reason and common
sense, and opposed to every system of education throughout the civilized
world; and, indeed, quite the reverse of what they do themselves in the
case of all other languages taught by them, except that of English to
Gaelic-speaking children. When the pupil is sufficiently advanced in
English to justify the teacher in taking up any of the Special Subjects,
does he, for instance, while teaching Latin or Greek, French or German,
begin by throwing aside the knowledge of English already acquired by his
pupil, and commence to teach these foreign languages in the same way
adopted by him in teaching the child English--a language quite as
foreign to him as Latin or Greek, French or German? Does he begin with a
Latin spelling book without any translations in English and teach him
these languages on the same parrot system by which he managed to get him
to pronounce and read English, in most cases without ever having carried
with him the intelligence of his pupils? Not he. He knows better. If he
were foolish enough to teach Latin and other foreign languages in such a
way, he would soon discover that his labours were mainly thrown away,
and that he would earn few special grants by the time his pupils left
him. If it be so very absurd to teach all other languages, on such a
false and ruinous plan, upon what reasonable grounds can the system be
maintained in the case of teaching English to a Gaelic-speaking child?
We are afraid the only valid reason which can be given is,--that our
teachers are, as a rule, quite ignorant of Gaelic, and unable to teach
it; and forsooth! the interests of the rising Gaelic-speaking generation
are to be sacrificed to suit the convenience of those paid officials who
are quite unsuitable, and who should never have been appointed to teach
Highland children until they had acquired a knowledge of the language;
any more than we would think of engaging a teacher innocent of any
knowledge of English to teach foreign languages to a child born and bred
in the Midland Counties of England. Would any one in his senses ever
think or dream of such a proposal? and yet this is what some people
maintain to be the correct thing to do in the Highlands of Scotland.

Government has already admitted and provided in the Code for testing the
intelligence of the children through their native tongue; but this
concession is quite useless where the teacher is ignorant of Gaelic, and
worse than useless where the examining inspector is positively unable to
test them as provided for by the Education Department. Would it not have
been better still had it made provision to reach and rouse the
intelligence through, and by means of it. The Legislature has also made
other special provisions for the peculiar situation and educational
requirements of the Highlands, and we feel sure, if it can be shown to
be a necessity, that the Education Department will also alter the Code
so as to put teachers who may possibly be kept back a little in the
first two standards, in consequence of any time that may be lost in
teaching Gaelic, in a more favourable position, and so enable them to
draw the same grant as if they devoted their whole time to the exclusive
teaching of English. We feel sure that no one whose opinion is worthy of
the slightest consideration, will, for a moment, attempt to argue
against a system of teaching children through the only language which
they understand.

To teach thus, successfully, it would be best to adopt class books and
grammars in the earlier stages, in both languages, as is done elsewhere,
in every case where a foreign language is taught. These might be given
up, when the pupil arrived at the third standard. After this he could
pick up all the requisite knowledge of Gaelic with little difficulty;
for be it observed, we are at present only advocating the use of Gaelic
as a _medium_ for imparting a sound and intelligent English education.
We are happy to know that it is still the practice, particularly in
those districts where a snobbish aping of Cockneyism has yet failed to
overpower and crush out the old devotional spirit of the Gael, for the
parents to conduct family worship, at least twice a day, by the reading
of a Chapter and a Psalm out of the Gaelic Bible, while the children,
who come to the age of discretion, have to follow the reader in their
Gaelic Bibles, and thus they soon learn to read Gaelic perfectly. We
think it, therefore, quite unnecessary to teach Gaelic beyond the stage
at which it fails to be useful in helping to a better and more
intelligent understanding of their English class-books, except to those
who are to become ministers or schoolmasters; when the teacher, in the
case of smart boys, should be encouraged to take it up and teach it as a
Special Subject.

We fully appreciate, and make allowance for, the difficulty to be
overcome in providing a special set of Gaelic and English elementary
school-books specially suited for the Highlands, and would be disposed
to forego the unquestionable advantages derivable from them were we
satisfied that the teachers were capable and willing to make up to some
extent for the defect by fully explaining the meaning of the elementary
English lessons to the children through their mother tongue; and then
teach Gaelic as a Special Subject in the more advanced standards to
those who intended to continue their education with the view of
following any of the learned professions. We had ample and conclusive
proof that Gaelic reading can be acquired by Gaelic-speaking children in
a very short time. Not long ago the Gaelic Society of Inverness offered
prizes in the Parish of Gairloch to the best Gaelic scholars; for the
best reading, the best spelling, and the best translations from Gaelic
into English, and from English into Gaelic. We were informed by some of
the teachers that before these prizes were offered they never taught
Gaelic to the children; and even when they decided to compete, only
taught it privately after ordinary school hours. The progress made, as
exhibited by the examination was, on such short notice, really
marvellous. The reading and spelling were almost perfect, and the
translations were such that we believe translations from English to
Latin and Greek, or _vice versâ_, of equal faithfulness would secure a
bursary in some of our Universities. We are writing from actual
experience, having taken a part in the examination; and one single fact
of this kind ought to have more weight in argument than all the theories
which those who are ignorant of the facts can propound.

We have repeatedly heard and seen objections made that a Gaelic
education was calculated to hinder the Gaelic-speaking child in his
progress in English, and that he could not overcome the difficulty of
acquiring a correct English pronunciation with the same ease and
facility as if first taught to read it. We have even heard it stated
seriously that a Highlander who read and wrote Gaelic could never be a
good English writer, and were challenged to prove the contrary.

When we first went to school we knew not a single word of English. We
attended one where it was the rule that no English was to be taught
until we were able to read the Gaelic Testament, after which we had to
translate our Bible lesson on alternate mornings from English into
Gaelic, and from Gaelic into English. There were eight or nine other
schools in the Parish, in one only--the girls' school--in which the same
rule was applied. We had an excellent teacher who taught Latin and Greek
(and we think, in one instance, Hebrew) to the more advanced pupils. We
have made enquiries as to the result, and find that from forty to fifty
of the boys who were taught in our school have raised themselves to good
social positions throughout England, the South of Scotland, and the
Colonies. The few who remained at home are known to be the most
intelligent and best informed in the Parish; and the great majority of
those who have been educated on the system now in fashion have forgotten
all they have ever learned and have taken to the herring fishing, while
a miserable existence about their parents' crofts is enough to satisfy
their highest ambition.

It is quite unnecessary to prove that those who advanced their social
position from home, have acquired a better pronunciation than those who
have never left it, and who have forgotten all they were ever taught;
and in reply to the objection that those who are taught Gaelic can never
write English with the same ease and fluency as those who obtain an
exclusively English education, we assert that those of our Highland
countrymen who knew, spoke, and wrote Gaelic best are pre-eminent
amongst us as the best writers of English--such, for instance, as "Old"
Norman Macleod; the late Dr Norman Macleod; Dr Macleod of Morven and his
three sons; Sir James Mackintosh; Dr Mackintosh Mackay; John Mackenzie
of the "Beauties of Gaelic Poetry;" Dr Maclauchlan; Dr Clerk, Kilmallie;
Sheriff Nicolson; Mr Cameron of Renton; James Macpherson, of Ossianic
fame; Dr Kennedy, Dingwall; Mr Blair, Glasgow; "Nether-Lochaber;" D.
Mackinnon, Edinburgh; The Macdonalds of Fort-William and of the
"Times;" and many others we could mention. We shall be delighted to see
produced a list of writers from the Highlands, even if possessed of the
so-called qualification of a total ignorance of the Gaelic language to
equal these men in English composition. The contention of our opponents
is really so irrational and absurd as to be unworthy of notice, were it
not that we see men of position seriously giving expression to such
absurdities. We have even seen a gentleman who has been elevated since,
much to the surprise of the profession, to the position of an inspector
of schools, stoutly maintaining it in large type in the columns of one
of our northern newspapers. Such arguments amount to this--that a real
and thorough knowledge of his native language, whether it be Gaelic,
English, or French, is a drawback and a disqualification for acquiring
and writing a foreign one, and that the greater his ignorance of his
native tongue the greater the proficiency of a scholar in a foreign one;
while common sense, (which is unfortunately, in educational circles,
sometimes, and especially on this question, very uncommon), and all the
experience of the past go to prove the very opposite.

It is pleasant to find the rational view making steady progress even among
those who were understood for a long time to hold a different opinion. Mr
Jolly, Her Majesty's Inspector of Schools, who is unfortunately ignorant
of the native language of the children whom he examines professionally,
expressed himself unfavourable to teaching Gaelic in Highland schools,
before he had time to examine the question for himself; but having looked
the matter in the face, and given it serious consideration, we are
gratified to find him stating at the last annual meeting of the Gaelic
Society that he belonged to the class who desired that Gaelic should be
used for getting at the intelligence of the children when reading English;
and who afterwards wished the Gaelic language and literature to be
introduced when the children had mastered the mechanical difficulties of
reading, and were able to enter into the meaning and spirit of what they
read. "Although a Lowlander he had every sympathy with those who desired
to preserve the Gaelic; and he held exactly the same views on the subject
of Gaelic teaching as are held by Professor Blackie, the Rev. Alex.
Macgregor, and Dr Clerk, Kilmallie." We have a pretty good idea as to what
the Rev. Mr Macgregor's views on the question are, as well as Professor
Blackie's, and are therefore quite satisfied with Mr Jolly's. The
Professor, we are happy to say, has engaged to give expression to his, in
a definite form, on an early date in these pages; and we feel sure that
they will satisfy all reasonable men.

We attach great value to the expression of such an opinion as Mr
Jolly's, arrived at after mature deliberation and observation of the
requirements of the Highlands; from one who is himself a stranger to the
language, and who would naturally be prejudiced against it; for we must
keep in mind that in expressing such a favourable opinion he was to some
extent weakening his own position as an Inspector of Schools, unable to
examine in a language which he honestly affirmed, and with a candour
which deserves acknowledgment, ought to be used, and at a certain stage
taught in the schools. We are quite satisfied to place this opinion
against the views of another inspector in the north, whose only reply
to the advocates of Gaelic in our schools is--that such a system would
limit the sphere from which to choose teachers--forgetting, or choosing
to ignore, that the teachers ought and must accommodate themselves to
the system which all rational men admit to be the only true and
successful one, and the only one practised everywhere else out of the
Highlands. A gentleman who could publicly use such an argument as, "If
the language ought to be kept alive by being taught in school, surely
Edinburgh and Glasgow are the places where this should be done, where
the children know nothing of it, and not in the Highlands where the
children already speak it with fluency,"--is perfectly innocent of the
real question at issue, and deserves little notice or attention in the
controversy.

We have by no means exhausted the subject, but shall, meanwhile, content
ourselves by laying down the following propositions:--(1), That it being
an acknowledged educational principle that the unknown can only be made
successfully known through the known; and as this principle is not only
acknowledged but practised everywhere else out of the Scottish Highlands
we must hold it to be the only rational one to adopt there also; unless it
can be shown that the Highlander is constructed intellectually entirely
different from the rest of humanity. We must therefore, to be rational,
teach the unknown English through the known Gaelic: (2), We must adapt the
Code to the requirements of the special circumstances of the case: (3),
Our teachers must keep in mind that after all, they are only a part
(although a very important part), of the system by which Parliament has
wisely decided to place education within the reach of every child in
Scotland, and if it can be shown--and it is self-evident--that teachers
who are ignorant of the Gaelic language are not competent or suitable to
carry out the intentions of the Legislature, they must just accommodate
themselves to the requirements of their position, and qualify properly to
discharge their duties by acquiring a sufficient knowledge of Gaelic to
enable them to impart education according to the only rational system, in
use, in all civilised communities: (4), To get the full benefit of the
concessions already made by the Education Department as to the testing of
the child's intelligent understanding of his English reading by means of
his native language, it is absolutely necessary that our Inspectors of
Schools should have a sufficient knowledge of Gaelic to enable them to
test the understanding of the children as intended by the Department, and
now provided for, in the Code.

The great and primary question is, how to impart a sound education to
the rising generation? The means--the teaching staff--are only important
in so far as they serve to bring about the great end and principal
object of all--an education in the true sense of the term.[A]

                                                                 A. M.

FOOTNOTES:

[A] Since the above was in type Mr Fraser-Mackintosh, M.P., has given
notice of his intention, upon Friday, 31st March, to call attention to the
Scottish Education Code of 1876, and to move a resolution on the subject
of Gaelic teaching in the schools in Gaelic-speaking districts.



GENERAL SIR ALAN CAMERON, K.C.B.,

COLONEL 79TH CAMERON HIGHLANDERS.

[CONTINUED.]


CHAPTER IX.

THE first duty which Major Cameron had now (1794) imposed on him by his
"Letter of Service" was to recommend the officers from the "half-pay
list" to be associated with him in raising the regiment. In the
disposition of these he was to a certain extent under the guidance of
his own inclination to have as many as he could, of his old American
brother-officers, with him in the undertaking. After the selection was
made, the names were submitted to the War Office and approved. Reference
to the list of officers selected will prove that Major Cameron was not
unmindful of his brother-officers of the "Royal Emigrant Regiment," his
choice consisting of five officers of the Clan M'Lean, while two only
belonged to his own. The reason of the numerical difference will be
understood to be, in consequence of the above stated restrictions. When
the "half-pay list" was exhausted, by distribution among the numerous
corps being embodied, and Major Cameron was released from the War Office
regulations, the commissions in the regiment were always given to his
Lochaber relatives, as the army list of subsequent years will testify.

Although Major Cameron had been, by this time, absent from Lochaber a
number of years, yet he was not an entire stranger, for he was from time
to time heard of. He had been advised by his brother that the rage and
irritation occasioned by the result of the duel had greatly subsided, if
not, indeed, entirely disappeared, and that his arrival in the country
was not at all likely to revive them. On receipt of this intelligence
Major Cameron, with politic calculation, arranged that he should arrive
in his native place on one of the first days of November, which
arrangement would give him the opportunity of meeting the greater part
of the country people of all classes, this being the week of the winter
market at Fort-William. The idea also struck him that, as he was to be
engaged in "His Majesty's service," the Government might give him, for
his own and his officers' accommodation, quarters in the garrison. His
application to the Board of Ordnance, to this effect, proved successful,
and the building known as "Government House" was placed at his disposal.
His family, at this time, consisted of three sons, respectively named
Philips, Donald, and Nathaniel; the first and last after their mother's
father, and the other after his own father (he of the '45). The eldest
two accompanied him to the Highlands, and remained there long enough to
acquire some acquaintance with the Gaelic language, an acquisition which
they often declared afterwards to have served them advantageously in
their relationship with the soldiers of the 93d.

The day at last arrived when Alan, after an absence of twenty-one years,
was to look again on his native hills, an event which, no doubt,
gladdened and warmed his Highland heart. It is stated that he timed his
first appearance to take place on the last day of the market, and he
observed it punctually. This enabled the people, if so inclined, to meet
him without interfering with their business affairs. His brother was
most useful to him in making proper preparations for his reception.
Quite a multitude went out to meet him and his companions, a mile or so,
and accorded him a most enthusiastic reception. It has, indeed, been
said, that the ovation and the escort of that day resembled more that
usually awarded to an illustrious conqueror than that to a mere
field-officer of the British army. Alan gave instructions to make that
and subsequent days a carnival of hospitality--feasting and rejoicing
without limit. After a reasonable time, however, festivities must
terminate, and business commence. A writer of ripe experience, on
Highland subjects, adverts to the anxious state of public feeling at
this time[B]--"In 1793, and the succeeding years, the whole strength and
resources of the United Kingdom were called into action. In the northern
corner a full proportion was secured. A people struggling against the
disadvantages of a boisterous climate and barren soil, could not be
expected to contribute money. But the personal services of young and
active men were ready when required for the defence of the liberty and
independence of their country." Producing so many defenders of the
State, as these glens have done, they ought to have been saved from a
system which has changed the character of, if not altogether extirpated,
their hardy inhabitants.


CHAPTER X.

THE business of "raising" the regiment was now (1793-94) to commence in
real earnest, and as it was the Major's desire that the complement
should be made up of as many as he could induce to join from his own and
the adjacent districts, his officers and himself visited every part
round about, and with so much success that, between Lochaber, Appin,
Mull, and Morven, 750 men were collected at Fort-William, within a
period of less than two months; at any rate the official accounts record
that number to have been inspected and approved by General Leslie on the
3d January (1794).[C] General Stewart states, "in the instance of the
embodiment of the 79th no bounty was allowed by Government, and the men
were therefore recruited at the solo expense of Mr Cameron and his
officers; nevertheless the measure of the success will be understood by
the early date of their inspection at Stirling, where they received the
denomination of the 79th Cameron Highlanders." The Major was now
desirous to repair as quickly as possible to the place appointed for
inspection, that he might get his corps numbered, and with that
determination, ordered every man to be in readiness for the journey
southwards. Great was the excitement in the little village adjoining the
garrison of Fort-William, on that winter's morning, when Cameron and his
followers collected on its parade-ground, to have the roll called by
"old Archie Maclean" (their first Adjutant), preparatory to bidding
farewell to Lochaber--a last farewell by the greater part of them.
The nearest and dearest must part, and such was the case with the
Lochabermen and their friends, now that "they promised to help King
George." With Alan at their head, this devoted band filed off in well
regulated order, marching with steady step through the village, the
pipers leading, playing the well-known march--"_Gabhaidh sinn an rathad
mor_" (We'll keep the high road), while large numbers of the country
people convoyed them on their route a considerable distance, reluctant
to give the final farewell; deferring it till they were reminded that
they had now a long way to go back. Their affection probably laid them
under a spell that "farewell was such sweet sorrow, they could not say
farewell till to-morrow." A string of horses preceded them, to different
stages, with their creels well provided with creature comforts desirable
for their long journey, along indifferent paths, and over bleak
mountains, to Stirling. At that season of the year, the weather was very
severe, and the absence of any habitations on the way did not admit of
any halting; therefore it was decided to continue their onward course
without interruption, except the short intervals necessary for
refreshments. This decision enabled them to reach the rendezvous at noon
of the third day, when after a day or two's rest, drilling was resumed
without intermission, in consequence of which persistency, the corps
were in a fair state of order by the time the inspecting officer
arrived. "The Cameron Highlanders" underwent this ordeal of military and
medical inspection to the General's entire satisfaction, and he duly
reported the result to the War Office, and, being the first to be so
reported the corps received the first and subsequent number of 79th (the
78th, Mackenzie's Ross-shire regiment, had been completed in the month
of March of the previous year). Meanwhile the exigencies of the service
becoming pressing, the "Office" was induced to dispatch urgent orders to
Cameron to augment the regiment with the necessary 250 men to raise it
to a total strength of 1000 rank and file. In obedience to this summons,
he, with others of his officers, lost no time in returning to the
districts of the Highlands from whence they came. If further proof were
needed of the popularity of Cameron, the fact that he collected the 250
recruits wanted, and reported them at the same place (Stirling), in the
short space of five and twenty days, will be sufficiently convincing.
When the 1000 men were completed on the 30th January (1794), Alan was
advanced to the Lieutenant-Colonelcy of the regiment![D] This marvellous
rapidity may be contrasted with the fact, that when Mr Cameron of
Fassifern was offered a company in the corps being raised by the Marquis
of Huntly in the following month of February, he was obliged to have
recourse to the assistance of his brother-in-law, Macneil of Barra, to
complete the number of 100 men. He could only secure nineteen men in his
own district of Lochaber, notwithstanding that he was aided by the
personal influence of his cousin Lochiel. Alan Cameron did not seek, nor
did he receive the slightest favour from the Chief of his clan, for
reasons which may be subsequently referred to.[E]


CHAPTER XI.

THE colours for the 79th had been prepared, and immediately on its being
registered they were presented (1794), after which the regiment received
the route for Ireland. There they remained till the following June,
where their uniform reached them, which, being the Highland dress, was
similar to that of the other Highland corps, except in the matter of
"facings," which were green. Although the tartan of the Clan Cameron is
one of the handsomest patterns; the ground and prevailing colour being
red, it was thought unsuitable for wear with the scarlet jacket; but
that was not a sufficient reason for its non-adoption as the tartan of
the "Cameron Highlanders," inasmuch as the tartan worn (the Stewart) by
the 72d is of still brighter colour than the Cameron. Neither of these
was the real reason which caused the clan tartan's non-adoption by the
79th.[F] Alan choose rather to have a tartan of his own (or rather
his mother's) design. That pattern is so well known as to need no
description. The first supply was provided by Messrs Holms of Paisley
(now of Greenhead, Glasgow), and designated the "Cameron Earrachd," as
distinguished from that of the Cameron proper. It is the pattern chosen
by the Highland company of the Liverpool Rifle Corps, and by the 2d
Lochaber Company, of which Lochiel was captain.[G]

The Cameron Regiment had scarcely completed its equipment, when it was
ordered to embark for Flanders to reinforce the British and Austrian
armies under the command of the Duke of York, against the French. They
were joined in this expedition by their countrymen of the 42d and the
78th. Their arrival proved to be of the utmost consequence, inasmuch as
that by their support, in reserve, they helped, by a victory over
Picheqru to retrieve a disaster experienced by the Duke shortly before
that. This engagement lasted from an early hour till the afternoon, and
its decision was weighing in the balance, when the Duke charged with the
British troops into the centre of the French army, bayonet in hand, and
thus, brought hostilities to an end for the day. This success, however,
was of small advantage, as the allies were subsequently compelled to
retreat before the overwhelming forces of the French, and, retiring
towards Westphalia, endured the most dreadful hardship and suffering,
both from its inhospitable inhabitants, and the rigour of its climate
(the winter and spring of 1794-5), the elements of which proved more
fatal to the British army than the fire of the enemy. The Camerons lost
200 men. The contingent of the British army withdrew from the Continent
after this fruitless campaign, embarking in April at Bremen. The 79th
was ordered for quarters to the Isle of Wight, where it remained till
the month of July, when it received the route for India, and Colonel
Cameron was ordered to recruit the regiment to the extent of its losses
in Flanders.

                        (_To be Continued._)

FOOTNOTES:

[B] General Stewart's Sketches, vol. II., pp. 245-6.

[C] Historical Record of the 79th Regiment by Captain Robert Jamieson,
Edinburgh, 1863.

[D] Captain Jamieson's Historical Record, Blackwood, Edinburgh, 1863.

[E] The Rev. Mr Clerk's Memoir of Colonel Cameron of Fassifern, p. 109.

[F] Mr Cameron of Lochiel, and Mr Cameron of Earrachd (Alan's father), had
been, or were, at differences about the ownership of part of the property,
when it was alleged that the latter was hardly used in the matter, by the
former and his trustees, of whom Cameron of Fassifern was the most active.
This misunderstanding led to a coolness between the families.

[G] It was returned to the Lord-Lieutenant by this company under the
designation of "Cameron Lochiel." The captain's attention was drawn to the
misnomer, who disclaimed any knowledge of the error. It has transpired
since to have been the act of an officer of the corps, now deceased, who
must have committed this paltry piece of piracy, either from ignorance or
subserviency.



THE SONGS AND MELODIES OF THE GAEL.


THE Gael, their language, their songs, and their melodies, will live or
die together. If the one sinks they shall all sink. If the one rises
they shall all rise. If the one dies they shall die together, and shall
all be buried in the same grave. Is it possible that a people, with such
a language, such songs, and such delicious melodies, shall vanish and
disappear from the earth, and their place become occupied by others? It
cannot happen, and I candidly assert for myself that, were the whole of
the Breadalbane Estate mine, I would willingly part with it for the sake
of being able to master the songs and the melodies of my Highland
countrymen. I have reason to be thankful for the circumstances in which
I was placed in the days of my youth. I had eight brothers and a sister.
My father had a fine ear for music, and an excellent voice, and
frequently gratified our young ears, during the long winter evenings, by
playing on the Jew's harp and singing the words connected with the
different Highland airs. There was also a man in our immediate
neighbourhood who was frequently in the house, who played on the violin,
and who was one of the best players of our native airs I ever listened
to. The consequence was that as I grew up I was very fond of singing,
and to this moment of my life I do not think that it had any bad effect
upon me; and certainly my fondness for Gaelic songs was the first thing
that led me to read the Gaelic language. From fifteen to the age of
twenty I herded my father's sheep among the Grampians. The following is
a true description of my state then:--

    'Nuair bha e 'na bhalach              A laddie so merry
    Gu sunndach, 's lan aighear,          'Mong green grass and heather,
    'S mac-talla 'ga aithris              The voice of the echo
    A cantuinn nan oran,                  Rehearsing his story:
    Toirt air na cruaidh chreagan,        The mountains so rocky
    Le 'n teangannan sgeigeil,            To mimic and mock him,
    Gu fileant 'ga fhreagradh,            Becoming all vocal
    Gu ceileireach ceolmhor.              Like songsters so joyful.

About the age of twenty a change came over me, when I forsook the songs,
but not their melodies, and had recourse to Buchanan's, M'Gregor's, and
Grant's hymns as a source of gratification. I was, in a measure,
prepared to enjoy them, as I found several of the melodies I used to
sing, in the hymns. M'Gregor was my great favourite. He was every inch a
man, a Gael, a scholar, a poet, a Christian, and a great divine. I
regret that his hymns are not more extensively known. Forty-two years
ago I composed several hymns--six or seven years afterwards a few
more--but during the last ten years, I suppose, nearly fifty. I have
done as much as I could to regenerate the songs of my country. My
predecessors carefully avoided cheerful and lively airs, especially
those with a chorus, but I find these generally, when the subject is
applicable to them, the most powerful and the most appropriate for use
in connection with the preaching of the gospel. Last summer I sang one
of them in a Free Church, on a Sabbath evening, to the Gaelic part of
the congregation. As I was descending from the pulpit, the Gaelic
precentor, and a deacon, whispered in my ears, "_Tha i sin fad air
thoiseach air laoidhean Shanci_." (That is far before Sankey's hymns.)

So far as I know, singing Gaelic songs has had no evil effect upon our
countrymen. Indeed, singing is one of the prettiest, and one of the most
harmless things connected with human nature, even in its degenerate
state. A man who can sing a Gaelic song well is properly considered a
favourite. It is felt that he spreads kindness, and infuses joy and
happiness in the social circle--the language and the sweet melody of the
piece will banish all melancholy and bitter feelings from the mind. A
man influenced by a wicked malicious disposition is certainly not
disposed to sing. The practice they have of fulling or shrinking cloth
in the West Highlands has had a great tendency to keep up the native
melodies. Five, six, or seven females are seated in a circle facing one
another. The cloth having been steeped, is folded in a circle. Each
holds it in both hands, while they raise it as high as the breast, and
then bring it down with a thump on the board. In this way it goes
gradually round from the one to the other. A person standing outside
would only hear one thump. The chosen leader commences the song, all
unite, and by raising and lowering their hands they beat time to the
tune. This generally attracts a crowd of listeners. I have seldom
listened to finer singing.

Lachlan M'Lean, the author of "Adam and Eve," and one of the greatest
enthusiasts for the language, the songs, and the music of the Gael, that
ever lived, was one day on board a steamer going from Tobermory to Oban.
A number of Skye females were on board. He placed them seated in a
circle on deck, and they commenced singing, with their handkerchiefs in
their hands, to the great delight of all on board, with the exception of
an elderly austere professor of religion, who frowned upon them and
silenced them. If such be the effect of real religion, I have yet to
learn it. I have no doubt the same man, if he could, would prevent the
larks from singing; and as well attempt to do the one as the other. I am
certain that he would rather have his ears stuffed with cotton than
listen to _Piobaireachd Dho'il Duibh_ played on the bagpipes.

Robert Burns has been greatly vilified by a certain class of preachers. He
and his songs have been held forth as a great curse to his countrymen; but
when these Rev. Divines and their hot, but mistaken, zeal is forgotten,
Robert Burns will shine forth, and in the long run will be found to be a
greater blessing to his country than his accusers. For certainly no man
ever did more to keep up the native language and the melodies of the
Lowland Scotch than he has done. The same is equally true respecting our
Highland bards. _Taing dhuit a Dhonnachaidh Bhain, agus do d' chomh-Bhaird
airson nan oranan gasda, agus nam fuinn bhinn a dh'fhag sibh againn._ I am
certain that the Scotch must return to the melodies in their native
language. Sankey's melodies may do for a short time, but will never find a
lasting lodgment in the Scottish heart like their own delicious melodies.
There is as inseparable a connection between _their_ melodies and their
native language, as there is between our Highland melodies and our native
Gaelic. The Gaelic may easily take up their melodies, but the English
never.

Those tunes that are used in public worship have no melody to my soul
like our native airs, and it is utterly impossible for me to feel
otherwise. This assertion will find a testimony in the bosoms of men,
although their prejudices may be opposed to it. Where is the man that
would compose a song in praise of his fellow-creature, that would
attempt to sing it to a psalm tune? Should he do so, all men would look
upon him as a blockhead. And what is the great difference between
praising a fellow-creature and praising the Redeemer? I can conceive
none, except that the latter deserves a sweeter, and, if possible, a
more delicious melody. I think it was Rowland Hill who wisely said that
"he could not see why the devil should have all the finest tunes," and I
quite agree with him.

It is also a fact, although I understand English as well as Gaelic, that
it has not the same effect upon me in singing it. Although the English
were sung with the greatest art, and in the best possible style, it
would neither warm our hearts nor melt our souls like singing in Gaelic.
I feel that the great "mistress of art" has a tendency to puff me up,
whereas I have no such feelings in my Gaelic. Perhaps one-third of the
songs of the Gael are love songs, and the delicacy of feeling which is
manifest in most of them is extraordinary. They will not offend the most
refined ear; so that we have reason to be proud of our race in that
respect. Our songs may be divided into two classes--the cheerful and
plaintive. In the former we have M'Lachlan's "_Air fatll-ir-inn,
ill-ir-inn, uill-er-inn o_." M'Intyre's song to his spouse, "_Mhairi
bhan og_," and "_Ho mo Mhairi Laghach_"--translated by Professor Blackie
in the first number of the _Celtic_. These are instances of lyric poetry
as beautiful as ever saw the light, and melodies as sweet as can be
listened to. In the other may be placed "_Fhir a bhata 's na ho ro
eile_," which was lately sung in Inveraray Castle in the presence of Her
Majesty. Another is:--

    A Mhalaidh bhoidheach,
    A Mhalaidh ghaolach,
    A Mhalaidh bhoidheach,
    Gur mor mo ghaol duit,
    A Mhalaidh bhoidheach,
    'S tu leon 's a chlaoidh mi,
    'S a dh'fhag mi bronach
    Gun doigh air d'fhaotainn.

What a delicious piece! how full of sweet melody! Can the English
language produce its equal? Poor fellow, he was sincere. The deer would
be seen on wings in the air, fish on tops of mountains high, and _black_
snow resting on the tree branches, before his love to her would undergo
any change.

Perhaps one-fourth of our songs are Elegies to the departed; and the
melodies to which these are sung are as plaintive and melting as can be
listened to. I place at the head of this class the "Massacre of
Glencoe," and Maclachlan's Elegy, to the same air, in memory of
Professor Beattie of Aberdeen. I said in my "Address to Highlanders"
that the Fort-William people might, on the top of Ben Nevis, defy the
English and broad Scotch to produce its equal:--

    Ghaoil, a ghaoil, de na fearaibh,
    'S fuar an nochd air an darach do chrè,
    'S fuar an nochd air a bhord thu,
    Fhiuran uasail bu stold ann a'd bheus,
    'N cridhe firinneach soilleir,
    D'am bu spideal duais foille na sannt,
    Nochd gun phlosg air an deile
    Sin mo dhosguinn nach breugach mo rann.

It is utterly impossible to give a proper expression of that piece in
any other language.

Lachlan M'Lean, already referred to, composed an elegy, to a daughter of
the Laird of Coll, who died in London and was buried there, to the same
air:--

    Och! nach deach do thoirt dachaidh
    O mhearg nigheana Shassuinn 's an uair,
    Is do charadh le mōrachd.
    Ann an cois na Traigh mhor mar bu dual;
    Fo dhidean bhallachan arda
    Far am bheil do chaomh mhathair 'na suain,
    'S far am feudadh do chairdean,
    Dol gach feasgair chuir failte air t'uaigh.

I entered his shop soon after this appeared in the _Teachdaire Gaelach_,
and sung him some verses of it. He could scarcely believe that it was
his own composition. He seemed in a reverie, his eyes speaking
inexpressibles.

"_Gaoir nam Ban Muileach_"--(The wail of the Mull women)--is another
extraordinary piece. I am sorry that I could not get hold of it.
M'Gregor also has three hymns suited to this beautiful air. There is a
good deal of monotony in singing the few first lines, but it reaches a
grand climax of expression at the sixth. The last line is repeated
twice. When two or three sing it together, and the whole join in chorus
at the sixth line, I have seldom heard singing like it.

Dr M'Donald composed an elegy, to the Rev. Mr Robertson, with a very
plaintive air--the air of a song occasioned by the great loss at Caig--

    Ochan nan och, is och mo leon,
    Tha fear mo ruin an diugh fo'n fhoid,
    Tha fear mo ruin an diugh fo'n fhoid,
    'S cha teid air ceol no aighear leam.

Many of the songs of the Gael might be called patriotic songs, and they
make us feel proud that we are Gaels. Their daring feats in the field of
strife against the enemies of our country, as at Bannockburn, Waterloo,
Alma, &c., are celebrated in song. Their quarrels, amongst themselves,
is the only thing that makes us feel ashamed of them. Several of their
songs raise us in our own estimation, with good cause, above our
neighbours the Lowlanders, the English, and the French. The songs of the
Gael embrace every variety--their language, mountains, corries, straths,
glens, rivers, streams, horses, dogs, cows, deer, sheep, goats, guns,
field labour, herding, boats, sailing, fishing, hunting, weddings--some
of them as funny as they can be, and some the most sarcastic that was
ever written. There is always something sweet and pretty about them. The
artless simplicity of the language, with its extraordinary power of
expression, gives them an agreeable access to the mind, which no other
language can ever give.

The power these melodies have over the Gael is really extraordinary. I
was told by a piper, who was at the Battle of Alma, that when on the eve
of closing with the Russians, he, contrary to orders, played "_Sud mar
chaidh 'n cal a' dholaidh, aig na Bodaich Ghallda_," which had a most
powerful effect upon the men, on which account alone he was pardoned. I
saw a man who heard a piper playing "_Tulloch gorm_" in the East Indies,
and it made him weep like a child. About two years ago a young man, a
native of Oban, was out far in the country, in Australia, and having
entered a hotel, he saw a man who had the appearance of being a
Highlander, in the sitting-room. He (of Oban) was in a room on the
opposite side of the passage, and thought to himself "If he is a Gael
I'll soon find out," and leaving the door partially open, that he might
see him without being seen, he commenced playing, on the flute, the most
plaintive Highland airs. No sooner did he begin than the other began to
move his body backward and forward. At last he bent down his body,
covering both his eyes with the palms of his hands, and began to sob out
"_Och! och mise; och! och mise_." He (my informant) then played some
marching airs, and instantly the other raised his head and began to beat
time with both feet. At last he played some dancing airs, when one foot
only was engaged in beating time. He then raised a hearty laugh and
closed the door with a bang. The man rushed forward, but finding the
door closed he settled down a little. The door was opened, and what a
meeting of friends! what union of hearts! what kindness of feeling! what
joy! What was the cause of all these? What but the melodies of the Gael.

Now, I am certain that were I to listen to the native melodies of my
country in distant parts of the world, I would also weep. But there is
nothing that ever I listened to that would affect me so much as: "_Crodh
Chailean_." Many a cow has been milked to that air, and many a fond
mother soothed her child to rest with it, and I am sure it would be a
greater accomplishment for young ladies to be able to sing it properly
than any German or Italian air they could play on the piano:

      Bha crodh aig Mac Chailean,
    Bheireadh bainne dhomh fhein,
    Eadar Bealtuinn is Samhainn,
    Gun ghamhuinn, gun laogh,
    Crodh ciar, crodh ballach,
    Crodh Alastair Mhaoil,
    Crodh lionadh nan gogan,
    'S crodh thogail nan laogh.

Shaw composed several hymns to this air.

I suppose there is not a class of people on the face of the earth that
have finer imaginations than the Gael. This has arisen partly, no doubt,
from their language, so adapted for lyric poetry and composition, and
verses calculated to give scope to the imaginative faculty. It has
arisen likewise from the place of their birth. The roaring Atlantic, the
grandeur of the resounding flood in their rocky glens. Waterfalls, down
dashing torrents, fast flowing rivers. The scream of the curlew, the
lapwing, the plover, and the shrill whistle of the eagle. The shadows of
the clouds seen moving majestically along in the distance--all these
have a great tendency to move and to give wing to the imagination. But I
believe that the ditties they have been accustomed to hear sung in their
youth have had a far greater effect upon them. Could these be all
collected they would form a rare collection. How often has "_Gille
Callum_" been sung--

    Gheibh thu bean air da pheghinn,
    Rogh is tagh air bonn-a-se,
    Rug an luchag uan boirionn,
    'S thug i dhachaidh cual chonnaidh.

When one begins to tell what is not true, it is better to tell
falsehoods which no one can believe. Now I am certain that children at
the age of four would not believe "Gille Callum's" lies, and would
understand at once that they were all for fun, and still it would have
the effect of setting them a-thinking, perhaps more than had it been
sober truth.

The following I have frequently heard:--

    H'uid, uid eachan,
    C'ait am bi sinn nochdan,
    Ann am baile Pheairtean,
    Ciod a gheibh sinn ann,
    Aran agus leann,
    'S crap an cul a chinn,
    'S chead dachaidh.

_Huid, uid_ is used in Perthshire for making horses run. The boy is set
astride on a man's knee, which is kept in motion like a trotting horse.
Stretching both his hands, the boy, in imagination, is trotting to
Perth, where he expects bread and ale; and as a finish to the whole, a
knock on the back of the head, and leave to go home. Many a hearty laugh
have I seen boys enjoy when they got the knock on the head. Another
is--seizing a child's hand, and beginning at the thumb giving the
following names--"_Ordag, colgag, meur fad, Mac Nab, rag mhearlach nan
caorach 's nan gobhar, cuir gad ris, cuir gad ris._" Reaching the small
finger, the thief is seized and severely scourged with the rod, and a
roar of laughter is raised by the youngsters. Placing a child between
the knees and slowly placing the one foot before another with the
following words, is another--

    Cia mar theid na coin do n' mhuileann
    Mar sud, 's mar so,
    'S bheir iad ullag as a phoc so,
    'S ullag as a phoc sin,

And then moving them quicker--

    'S thig iad dachaidh air an trot,
    Trit, trot, dhachaidh.

_Ullag_ means the quantity of meal raised by the three fingers. What a
glee of hilarity is raised when the quick motion commences?

The following is a very imaginative piece, descriptive of a flighty
individual who proposes to do more than he can accomplish:--

    Cheann a'n Tobermhuire           Head in Tobermory,
    'S a chollainn 's a Chrianan,    Body in Crianan,
    Cas a'm Boad hoi-e,              Foot in Boad (Bute) hoi-e,
    'S a chas eil a'n Grianaig       Other foot in Grianaig (Greenock).

It is a most melancholy fact, that at present there is a combined and a
determined effort put forth to banish the native language, and the
native melodies of the Gael entirely from the country, and to bring the
whole population under the sway of the artificial language taught in our
schools, and of its artificial melodies. The foreigner represents our
language as low and vulgar, quite destitute of the sterling qualities
peculiar to his own; and consequently not deserving either to be held
fast, or to be worthy of attentive study. And in order that he may be
the more successful in his effort, he pretends to be our greatest, our
only friend; heartily disposed to make us learned, wealthy and
honourable, yes, and, of course, pious too. I say to him at once,
without any ceremony, keep back, sir, give over your fallacious, your
blustering bombast, we know the hollowness of your pretensions. The Gael
has a language and melodies already, superior to any that you can give
him, and would you attempt to rob him of his birthright and inheritance,
which is dear to him as his heart's blood? Every true friend of the Gael
would certainly give him a good English education; but instead of doing
away with his own language and melodies, it would be such an English
education as would ground him more than ever in a knowledge of his own.
Is it not an acknowledged fact that, there is nothing that grounds
students more thoroughly in a knowledge of a language than to translate
it from his own. This mode of teaching is perhaps more troublesome to
schoolmasters at first, but when once fairly tried and put in practice,
it will, without doubt, be the most agreeable and the most successful
part of their work, and would not have such a deadening effect, either
upon their own minds, or upon those of their scholars.

                                                   ARCHD. FARQUHARSON.

ISLAND OF TIREE.



THE HARP BRINGETH JOY UNTO ME.


    O autumn! to me thou art dearest,
      Thou bringest deep thoughts to me now,
    For the leaves in the forest are searest,
      And the foliage falls from each bough.

    And then as the day was declining,
      While nature was wont to repose,
    A sage on his harp was reclining
      Who sang of Lochaber's bravoes.

    He played and he sang of their glory,
      Their deeds which the ages admire;
    Then softly, then wildly, their story
      He told on the strings of his lyre.

    While praise on the heroes he lavished,
      And lauded their triumphs again,
    A maid came a-list'ning, enravished--
      Enrapt by his charming refrain.

    O! bright were the beams of her smiling,
      I sigh for the peace on her brow,
    Not a trace on her features of guiling,
      My heart singeth songs to her now.

    Inspired by the rapturous measure,
      This fair one skipt over the lea:
    One morning I sought the young treasure,
      Now dear as my soul she's to me.

                              DONALD MACGREGOR.
    Member of the Gaelic Society of London.



THE HIGHLAND CEILIDH.

(CONTINUED.)


"_Oh! nach be 'n ceatharnach am fleasgach, bu mhor am beud cuir as da
gun chothrom na Feinne_" (Ah! what a valiant youth, it would be a pity
to extinguish him without according him Fingalian fair play), shouted
several voices at once. "Did you ever hear the story about Glengarry and
his old castle, when he was buried alive with Macranuil under the
foundation?" asked _Alastair Mac Eachain Duibh_. "I heard it, when, last
year in Strathglass, and you shall hear it." At this stage "Norman"
exhibited signs of his intention to go away for the night, when several
members of the circle, backed up by the old bard, requested the favour
of one more story ere he departed. Norman would rather hear _Alastair's_
story of Glengarry, and would wait for it. "No, no," exclaimed
_Alastair_, "you can have my story any time; let us have one more from
Norman before he leaves, and I will give mine afterwards, for he may
never come back to see us again." "That I will," says Norman, "as often
as I can, for I have just found out a source of enjoyment and amusement
which I did not at all expect to meet with in this remote corner of the
country. However, to please you, I'll give you a story about Castle
Urquhart; and afterwards recite a poem of my own composition on the
Castle, and on the elopement of Barbara, daughter of Grant of Grant,
with Colin Mackenzie, "High-Chief of Kintail."

Glen Urquhart, where Castle Urquhart is situated, is one of the
most beautiful of our Highland valleys, distant from Inverness some
fourteen miles, and expands first from the waters of Loch Ness into a
semicircular plain, divided into fields by hedgerows, and having its
hillsides beautifully diversified by woods and cultivated grounds. The
valley then runs upwards some ten miles to Corriemonie, through a tract
of haughland beautifully cultivated, and leading to a rocky pass or
gorge half-way upwards or thereabouts, which, on turning an inland
valley, as it were, is attained, almost circular, and containing Loch
Meiglie, a beautiful small sheet of water, the edges of which are
studded with houses, green lawns, and cultivated grounds. Over a
heathy ridge, beyond these two or three miles, we reach the flat of
Corriemonie, adorned by some very large ash and beech trees, where the
land is highly cultivated, at an elevation of eight or nine hundred feet
above, and twenty-five miles distant from, the sea. At the base of
Mealfourvonie, a small circular lake of a few acres in extent exists,
which was once thought to be unfathomable, and to have a subterranean
communication with Loch Ness. From it flows the Aultsigh Burn, a
streamlet which, tumbling down a rocky channel, at the base of one of
the grandest frontlets of rock in the Highlands, nearly fifteen hundred
feet high, empties itself into Loch Ness within three miles of
Glenmoriston. Besides the magnificent and rocky scenery to be seen in
the course of this burn, it displays, at its mouth, an unusually
beautiful waterfall, and another about two miles further up, shaded with
foliage of the richest colour. A tributary of the Coiltie, called the
Dhivach, amid beautiful and dense groves of birch, displays a waterfall,
as high and picturesque as that of Foyers; and near the source of the
Enneric river, which flows from Corriemonie into the still waters of
Loch Meigle, another small, though highly picturesque cascade, called
the Fall of Moral, is to be seen. Near it, is a cave large enough to
receive sixteen or twenty persons. Several of the principal gentlemen of
the district concealed themselves here from the Hanoverian troops during
the troubles of the '45.

On the southern promontory of Urquhart Bay are the ruins of the Castle,
rising over the dark waters of the Loch, which, off this point, is 125
fathoms in depth. The castle has the appearance of having been a strong
and extensive building. The mouldings of the corbel table which remain
are as sharp as on the day they were first carved, and indicate a date
about the beginning of the 14th century. The antiquary will notice a
peculiar arrangement in the windows for pouring molten lead on the heads
of the assailants. It overhangs the lake, and is built on a detached
rock separated from the adjoining hill, at the base of which it lies, by
a moat of about twenty-five feet deep and sixteen feet broad. The rock
is crowned by the remains of a high wall or curtain, surrounding the
building, the principal part of which, a strong square keep of three
storeys, is still standing, surmounted by four square hanging turrets.
This outward wall encloses a spacious yard, and is in some places
terraced. In the angles were platforms for the convenience of the
defending soldiery. The entrance was by a spacious gateway between two
guard rooms, projected beyond the general line of the walls, and was
guarded by more than one massive portal and a huge portcullis to make
security doubly sure. These entrance towers were much in the style of
architecture peculiar to the Castles of Edward I. of England, and in
front of them lay the drawbridge across the outer moat. The whole works
were extensive and strong, and the masonry was better finished than is
common in the generality of Scottish strongholds.

The first siege Urquhart Castle is known to have sustained was in the
year 1303, when it was taken by the officers of Edward I. who were sent
forward by him, to subdue the country, from Kildrummie near Nairn,
beyond which he did not advance in person, and of all the strongholds in
the north, it was that which longest resisted his arms.

Alexander de Bois, the brave governor and his garrison, were put to the
sword. Sir Robert Lauder of Quarrelwood in Morayshire, governor of the
Castle in A.D. 1334, maintained it against the Baliol faction. His
daughter, marrying the Earl of Strathglass, the offspring of their
union, Sir Robert Chisholm of that Ilk, became Laird of Quarrelwood in
right of his grandfather. After this period it is known to have been a
Royal fort or garrison; but it is very likely it was so also at the
commencement of the 14th century, and existed, as such, in the reigns of
the Alexanders and other Scottish sovereigns, and formed one of a chain
of fortresses erected for national defence, and for insuring internal
peace. In 1359 the barony and the Castle of Urquhart were disponed by
David II. to William, Earl of Sutherland, and his son John. In 1509 it
fell into the hands of the chief of the Clan Grant, and in that family's
possession it has continued to this day.

How it came into the possession of John Grant the 10th Laird, surnamed
the "Bard," is not known; but it was not won by the broadsword, from
Huntly, the Lieutenant-General of the king. It has been the boast of the
chiefs of the Clan Grant that no dark deeds of rapine and blood have
been transmitted to posterity by any of their race. Their history is
unique among Highland clans, in that, down to the period of the
disarming after Culloden, the broadswords of the Grants were as spotless
as a lady's bodkin. True it is, there were some dark deeds enacted
between the Grants of Carron and Ballindalloch; and at the battles of
Cromdale and Culloden, the Grants of Glenmoriston were present, but far
otherwise was the boast of the Grants of Strathspey--a gifted ancestry
seemed to transmit hereditary virtues, and each successive scion of the
house seemed to emulate the peaceful habits of his predecessor. That
this amiable life did not conceal craven hearts is abundantly evident
from the history of our country. There is a continual record of gallant
deeds and noble bearing in their records down to the present time, and
there are few families whose names, like the Napiers and the Grants, are
more conspicuous in our military annals. But their rise into a powerful
clan was due to the more peaceful gifts, of "fortunate alliances," and
"Royal bounties."

It is much to be regretted that so little has been transmitted to
posterity of the history of this splendid ruin of Castle Urquhart.

The probability is that it is connected with many a dark event over
which the turbulence of the intervening period and the obscurity of its
situation have cast a shade of oblivion.

The most prominent part of the present mass, the fine square tower of
the north-eastern extremity of the building is supposed to have been the
keep, and is still pretty entire. From this point, the view is superb.
It commands Loch Ness from one end to the other, and is an object on
which the traveller fixes an admiring gaze as the steamer paddles her
merry way along the mountain-shadowed water. On a calm day the dashing
echo of the Fall of Foyers bursts fitfully across the Loch, and when the
meridian sun lights up the green earth after a midsummer shower, a
glimpse of the distant cataract may be occasionally caught, slipping
like a gloriously spangled avalanche to the dark depths below. "My
story," said Norman, "in which the castle was the principal scene of
action is quite characteristic of the times referred to. A gentleman of
rank who had been out with the Prince and had been wounded at Culloden,
found himself on the evening of that disastrous day, on the banks of the
river Farigaig, opposite Urquhart Castle. He had been helped so far by
two faithful retainers, one of whom, a fox-hunter, was a native of the
vale of Urquhart. This man, perceiving the gentleman was unable to
proceed further, and seeing a boat moored to the shore, proposed that
they should cross to the old Castle, in a vault of which, known only to
a few of the country people, they might remain secure from all pursuit.
The hint was readily complied with, and, in less than a couple of hours,
they found themselves entombed in the ruins of Urquhart Castle, where
sleep shortly overpowered them, and, the sun was high in the heavens
next day ere any of them awoke. The gentleman's wound having been
partially dressed, the fox-hunter's comrade yawningly observed 'that a
bit of something to eat would be a Godsend.' 'By my troth it would,'
said the fox-hunter, 'and if my little Mary knew aught of poor _Eoghainn
Brocair's_ (Ewan the fox-hunter) plight, she would endeavour to relieve
him though Sassenach bullets were flying about her ears.' 'By heaven!
our lurking-place is discovered!' whispered the gentleman, 'do you not
observe a shadow hovering about the entrance.' ''Tis the shadow of a
friend' replied the _Brocair_; and in an instant a long-bodied,
short-legged Highland terrier sprung into the vault. '_Craicean, a
dhuine bhochd_,' said the overjoyed fox-hunter, hugging the faithful
animal to his bosom, 'this is the kindest visit you ever paid me.' As
soon as the shades of evening had darkened their retreat, _Eoghainn_
untied his garter, and binding it round the dog's neck, caressed him,
and pointing up the Glen, bade him go and bring the _Brocair_ some food.
The poor terrier looked wistfully in his face, and with a shake of his
tail, quietly took his departure. In about four hours '_Craicean_'
reappeared and endeavoured by every imaginable sign to make _Eoghainn_
follow him outside. With this the _Brocair_ complied, but in a few
seconds he re-entered accompanied by another person. _Eoghainn_ having
covered the only entrance to the cave with their plaids, struck a light
and introduced, to his astonished friends, his betrothed young Mary
Maclauchlan. The poor girl had understood by the garter which bound the
terrier's neck, and which she herself had woven, that her _Eoghainn_ was
in the neighbourhood, and hastened to his relief with all the ready
provision she could procure; and not least, in the estimation of at
least two of the fugitives, the feeling maiden had brought them a sip of
unblemished whisky. In this manner they had been supplied with aliment
for some time, when one night their fair visitor failed to come as
usual. This, though it created no immediate alarm, somewhat astonished
them; but when the second night came and neither Mary nor her shaggy
companion arrived, _Eoghainn's_ uneasiness, on Mary's account, overcame
every other feeling, and, in spite of all remonstrance, he ventured
forth, in order to ascertain the cause of her delay. The night was dark
and squally, and _Eoghainn_ was proceeding up his native glen like one
who felt that the very sound of his tread might betray him to death.
With a beating heart he had walked upwards of two miles, when his ears
were saluted with the distant report of a musket. Springing aside he
concealed himself in a thicket which overhung the river. Here he
remained but a very short time when he was joined by the _Craicean_
dragging after him a cord, several yards in length. This circumstance
brought the cold sweat from the brow of the _Brocair_. He knew that
their enemies were in pursuit of them, that the cord had been affixed to
the dogs neck in order that he might lead to their place of concealment;
and alas! _Eoghainn_ feared much that his betrothed was at the mercy of
his pursuers. What was to be done? The moment was big with fate, but he
was determined to meet it like a man. Cutting the cord and whispering to
the terrier, "_cul mo chois_" (back of my heel) he again ventured to the
road and moved warily onward. On arriving at an old wicker-wrought barn,
he saw a light streaming from it, when creeping towards it, he observed
a party of the enemy surrounding poor Mary Maclauchlan, who was, at the
moment, undergoing a close examination by their officer. 'Come girl,'
said he, 'though that blind rascal has let your dog escape, who would
certainly have introduced us to the rebels, _you_ will surely consult
your own safety by guiding me to the spot; nay, I know you will, here is
my purse in token of my future friendship, and in order to conceal your
share in the transaction you and I shall walk together to a place where
you may point me out the lurking place of these fellows, and leave the
rest to me; and do you,' continued he, turning to his party, 'remain all
ready until you hear a whistle, when instantly make for the spot.' The
_Brocair_ crouched, as many a time he did, but never before did his
heart beat at such a rate. As the officer and his passive guide took the
road to the old Castle, _Eoghainn_ followed close in their wake, and,
when they had proceeded about a mile from the barn, they came upon the
old hill road when Mary made a dead halt, as if quite at a loss how to
act. 'Proceed, girl,' thundered the officer, 'I care not one farthing
for my own life, and if you do not instantly conduct me to the spot
where the bloody rebels are concealed, this weapon,' drawing his sword
'shall, within two minutes, penetrate your cunning heart.' The poor girl
trembled and staggered as the officer pointed his sword to her bosom,
when the voice of _Eoghainn_ fell on his ear like the knell of death,
'Turn your weapon this way, brave sir,' said the _Brocair_, 'Turn it
this way,' and in a moment the officer and his shivered sword lay at his
feet. 'Oh, for heaven's sake,' screamed the fainting girl, 'meddle not
with his life.' 'No, no, Mary; I shall not dirty my hands in his blood.
I have only given him the weight of my oak sapling, so that he may sleep
soundly till we are safe from the fangs of his bloodhounds.' That very
night the fugitives left Urquhart Castle and got safe to the forests of
Badenoch, where they skulked about with Lochiel and his few followers
until the gentleman escaped to France, when _Eoghainn Brocair_ and his
companion ventured once more, as they themselves expressed it, 'to the
communion of Christians.' The offspring of the _Brocair_ and Mary
Maclauchlan are still in Lochaber."

                                                          ALASTAIR OG.

                          (_To be Continued._)



                          THE LAST OF THE CLAN.

"_After many years he returned to die._"


    The last of the clansmen, grey-bearded and hoary,
      Sat lone by the old castle's ruin-wrapt shade,
    Where proudly his chief in the bloom of his glory
      Oft mustered his heroes for battle arrayed:
    He wept as he gazed on its beauties departed,
      He sighed in despair for its gloom of decay,
    Cold-shrouded his soul, and he sung broken-hearted,
      With grief-shaking voice a wild woe-sounding lay.--
            "Weary, weary, sad returning,
              Exiled long in other climes,
            Hope's last flame, slow, feebly burning
              Seeks the home of olden times:
            In my joy why am I weeping?
              Where my kindred? Where my clan?
            Whispers from the mountains creeping,
              Tell me 'I'm the only man.'
    "Yon tempest-starred mountains still loom in their grandeur,
      The loud rushing torrents still sweep thro' the glen,
    Thro' low-moaning forests dim spirits still wander,
      But where are the songs and the voices of men?
    Tell me, storied ruins! where, where are their slumbers?
      Where now are the mighty no foe could withstand?
    The voice of the silence in echoing numbers,
      Breathes sadly the tale of fate's merciless hand.

    "Ah me! thro' the black clouds, one star shines in heaven,
      And flings o'er the darkness its fast waning light,
    'Tis to me an omen so tenderly given,
      Foretelling that soon I will sink in my night:
    The coronach slowly again is far pealing!
      The grey ghosts of kinsmen I fondly can trace!
    Around me they gather! and silent are kneeling,
      To gaze in deep sorrow on all of their race!
            Slowly, slowly, sadly viewing
              With their weird mysterious scan,
            Desolation's gloomy ruin!
              All of kindred! all of clan!
            Ah! my heart, my heart is fainting,
              Strangely shaking are my limbs,
            Heav'nward see! their fingers pointing,
              And my vision trembling swims.
            Slowly, slowly, all-pervading,
              O'er me steals their chilly breath,
            See! the single star is fading,
              Ling'ring in the joy of death,
                Darkness swiftly o'er me gathers,
              Softly fade these visions wan,
                Welcome give, ye spirit fathers,
              I'm the Last of all the Clan!"

                                          WM. ALLAN.

    SUNDERLAND.



_LITERATURE._

_BARON BRUNO OR THE UNBELIEVING PHILOSOPHER, AND OTHER FAIRY STORIES._
_By_ LOUISA MORGAN. Macmillan & Co.


WE do not care for Fairy Tales, as a rule, but we have read this book
with genuine pleasure. It is written in a pleasant, easy style, and
though it has the full complement of witchcraft, enchanted princesses,
and, sudden transformations, it deals more with human sympathies and
affections than is usual, in this class of literature. There are five
different stories, of which the scene of two is laid in Germany, one in
Denmark, one in Wales, and the other in the Highlands of Scotland. Baron
Bruno, or the Unbelieving Philosopher, is the story of the Prime
Minister at the Grand Ducal Court of Rumple Stiltzein. The Baron is not
only a clever Statesman, but a Philosopher and Astronomer; albeit, a
sceptic in religious matters. He is so wrapt up in his abstruse studies
that he ignores the pleasures of domestic life, and lives a solitary man
without wife or children. At last he begins to feel the loneliness of
his home life, and overcome in spite of himself, he cries aloud--"To you
distant stars! I nightly offer the homage of a constant worshipper;
would that you in return could give me to know the spell of love, and
teach me what it is that inspires the painter, the poet, and the lover."
This impassioned address is immediately answered by the appearance of a
beautiful maiden, who informs him that she is sent to teach him the
spell of love, and to try to lead him through the influence of human
affections to believe in the immortality of the soul. She becomes his
wife, but exacts a promise from him, that once every month she is to
spend the evening hours in undisturbed solitude, as her life depends on
the strict observance of this. She also tells him that if he doubts her
faith even for a moment she will have to leave him and return to her
celestial home. They live happily for a time, but at length, through the
machinations of a wicked Countess Olga, a spinster of uncertain age, who
had hoped to have gained the Baron for herself, he becomes uneasy, and
one night is so worked upon by the wily insinuations of the spiteful
Countess, and irritated at the non-appearance of his wife at a Grand
State Ball, that he rushes home in a frenzy of suspicion, and regardless
of his promise, breaks in on the Baroness' seclusion. The result is
disastrous, the child dies and his wife returns to her starry home; but
her mission is fulfilled, for over the death-bed of his infant--a scene
full of pathos--his heart softens and he avows his belief. This story is
capitally told, and considerable humour is displayed in the account of a
grand Court Dinner, at which the young Prince and his mischievous
companions amuse themselves by sticking burrs on the footmen's silk
stockings, much to the discomfiture of the poor flunkeys, the dismay of
the high officials, and the indignation of the Grand Duke.

"Esgair: The Bride of Llyn Idwyl," is founded on an old Welsh Legend,
and is a graceful, though rather weird story. "Eothwald, the young
sculptor," tells how a Mermaiden was wooed and won, but in Eothwald's
breast the artist was stronger than the lover, and the poor Mermaid died
broken-hearted.

"Fido and Fidunia" is the longest of the tales, and will, we think, be
the favourite with young folks. Fido is the very embodiment of canine
sagacity, and poor, plain, unsophisticated Fidunia is a well drawn
character, though she seems to be rather hardly dealt by. There is one
thing which may be considered a defect in this otherwise charming book;
all the heroines, though amiable and faultless, come to a sad end. They
are made the scapegoats of their masculine companions. Though this is
too often the case in real life, it is much more pleasant in a Fairy
Tale, that all the amiable characters should be married and "live happy
ever after."

Eudæmon, the hero of the Highland story, is the son of Valbion, the wild
sea-king, who has deserted him and his mother. Eudæmon, as may be
supposed from his mixed parentage, is a singular being, living a
hermit-like life in the lonely Castle Brochel, on the Island of Raasay.
Carefully educated by his mother, he knows all the medicinal properties
of herbs and minerals. This, combined with magic lore inherited from his
father, enables him to perform such wonderful cures that he is known far
and wide as "The Enchanter of the North." His fame reaches the Lowlands,
where lives a beautiful princess, afflicted, through the magical spells
of Valbion, with dumbness. Her parents bring her to Castle Brochel in
the hope that Eudæmon may work her cure. He begins by teaching her the
game of chess, and then tries the power of music. This enables her to
sing but not to speak. To complete the cure it is necessary that she
should visit the abode of the powerful Valbion himself in the mysterious
submerged halls of Thuisto--an expedition fraught with great danger; and
which, though it proves the means of restoring speech to the princess,
proves fatal to Eudæmon, through the indiscretion of the Queen. The poor
Princess in gaining the use of her tongue loses her heart, and, like a
second Ophelia, goes distracted, for the loss of her lover.

The following is given as the Highland Legend of Castle Brochel, on
which the story is founded:--

   On the eastern side of the Isle of Raasay there still stands a lonely
   ruin known as Castle Brochel. Parched upon precipitous rocks at the
   very verge of the ocean, it is easy to imagine how, armed and
   provisioned, this fortress held its own amid the perpetual warfare of
   early Celtic times. Castle Brochel has always borne a doubtful
   reputation. According to tradition, it was originally built with the
   price of blood, for the ancient legend runs somewhat after this
   fashion. Shiel Torquil went forth with his dogs one morning to hunt
   the red deer on the wild mountains Blaven and Glamaig, in the
   neighbouring Island of Skye. Sheil Torquil had with him only one
   retainer, but he was a host in himself, being surnamed, from his
   immense size and strength, the Gillie More. After some time they
   sighted a stag. In the ardour of the chase the dogs soon ran out of
   sight, pursuing their quarry towards the shore at Sligachan. Now it
   so happened that the young Kreshinish in his galley was anchored on
   that side of the island within sight of the beach. He saw the hunted
   animal about to take to the water, and swim, as deer are often known
   to do, across the narrow strait which lies between Skye and Raasay.
   Kreshinish and his men at once landed and took possession, not only
   of the stag itself, but of the dogs which, panting and exhausted,
   were unable to offer any resistance. Shiel Torquil presently appeared
   on the scene and angrily asked for his deer and his hounds.
   Kreshinish refused to deliver them up. A bloody struggle ensued,
   during which the Gillie More inflicted a fatal wound upon the
   ill-fated young chieftain who unwittingly (at first) had interfered
   with the sports of another. This brought the affray to a speedy
   conclusion, and Shiel Torquil with his follower carried off deer and
   dogs in triumph. Not long after this the poor old father of
   Kreshinish came to Skye to seek for the murderer of his son, and
   publicly offered the reward of a bag of silver to any one who would
   show him the guilty man. The Gillie More, hearing of the promised
   guerdon, boldly entered the presence of the elder Kreshinish.
   Confessing that he himself had slain the youthful chieftain, he urged
   in self-defence the young man's overbearing conduct in attempting to
   carry off Shiel Torquil's stag-hounds and game. The bereaved father,
   obliged by the stringent laws of Highland honour to fulfil his solemn
   promise, reluctantly bestowed the bag of silver on the very man who
   had cut off his only child in the early bloom of manhood. The Gillie
   More, however, haunted by remorse, and still fearing the avenger's
   footstep, entreated his master to accept the money and build
   therewith a retreat for them both. Shiel Torquil granted his
   henchman's request. After some time spent in searching for a suitable
   site, they at last selected the wild easterly shore of Raasay. Here
   were speedily raised the frowning walls of Castle Brochel. Secured
   from sudden attack by the inaccessible situation of their refuge, the
   Gillie More and his master lived in peace for many years. Their
   retired habits, and their dislike to intruders, coupled with this
   strange tale of robbery and murder, caused the Castle, though
   newly-built, to be regarded with no friendly eye. When they died, it
   was left untenanted for a considerable time. Many reports were
   circulated concerning the strange sights and sounds to be seen and
   heard at the eerie hour of twilight, or amid the silent watches of
   the night, by the belated traveller who chanced to pass that way by
   sea or by land. At the period of which we speak, Castle Brochel had,
   however, for some time been inhabited by a being whose origin was
   partially shrouded in mystery, the gloomy Eudæmon, known as the
   "Enchanter of the North."

It will be seen that our author is ignorant of the Gaelic language; for
she thinks _Shiel Torquil_--or correctly, _Siol Torquil_--is a proper
name, and applies it to a person, instead of a sept or branch of the
Macleods. She is also defective in her knowledge of Hebridean geography.
Old _Kreshinish_--correctly _Grishernish_--comes _to_ Skye, while we all
know the place, and the man, who was called after it, to be _in_ Skye.

We are divulging no secret however, in stating that, although the author
appears to be but indifferently acquainted with the Highlands, she is of
Highland extraction. And now that the connection is re-established by
her brother, John Darroch, Esq., by his recent purchase of the Estate of
Torridon, she will enjoy better opportunities of making herself more
fully acquainted with the country of her ancestors.

The book is beautifully illustrated by R. Caldecott.


   LOGAN'S SCOTTISH GAEL.--This publication, by Hugh Mackenzie, Bank
   Lane, has reached the fourth part. In the third we have coloured and
   well executed plates of the Bonnets of the Highlanders, and the
   Sporans of the different Highland Regiments; after which we have an
   account of the peculiar Oaths of the Gael; the Chief's Body Guard;
   Mode of Drawing up the Highland Armies; Right of certain Clans to
   certain positions; Military tactics and Mode of Attack; Valour of the
   Celtic Females; Duties of the Bards; Origin, Adaptation to the
   country, and Equity of Clanship; Fosterage; Mode of Electing Chiefs,
   and Titles of Celtic Nobility; Origin of Feudal Tenures; Creachs;
   Blackmail; &c., &c. Part four treats of Gaelic Law and Law Terms;
   Judges; Punishments; Manner of Dress; Painting the Body; Animal's
   Skins; Origin of Clan Tartans; Native Dyes; Costumes; Bonnet; Shield
   Ornaments; Women's Dress; Defensive Armour; Mail and Helmets;
   Shields, and other interesting matter. Great credit is due to the
   publisher for the expeditious progress he is making in bringing out
   the work.


       *       *       *       *       *


TRANSCRIBER'S NOTES

The following amendments to the text have been made:

p. 164 "consumate" changed to "consummate"; "neice" changed to "niece";

p. 180 "inseperable" changed to "inseparable";

p. 181 double quotes in front of "Ghaoil" deleted; "S tu" changed to "'S
tu";

p. 183 closing quotes added after "och mise";

p. 192 "abtruse" changed to "abstruse";

p. 194 comma after "work" changed to full stop.


The spellings "Inverary" and "Inveraray", "Shiel" and "Sheil" appear in
this text.

The spelling "Conceive" on p. 167 has been left unchanged.

There should probably be an extra double quotation mark after "High-Chief
of Kintail" on p. 186, but no addition has been made.

"Picheqru" on p. 178 should probably be "Pichegru" but has been left
unchanged.





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Celtic Magazine, Vol. I, No. VI, April 1886 - A Monthly Periodical Devoted to the Literature, History, - Antiquities, Folk Lore, Traditions, and the Social and - Material Interests of the Celt at Home and Abroad" ***

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