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Title: Guide to Yosemite - A handbook of the trails and roads of Yosemite valley and - the adjacent region
Author: Hall, Ansel
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Guide to Yosemite - A handbook of the trails and roads of Yosemite valley and - the adjacent region" ***

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GUIDE TO YOSEMITE

A HANDBOOK
OF THE TRAILS AND ROADS OF YOSEMITE
VALLEY AND THE ADJACENT
REGION

_by_

ANSEL F. HALL

U.S. NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
IN CHARGE OF INFORMATION
YOSEMITE NATIONAL PARK



Transcriber's Note: Words surrounded by the symbol ~ indicate
instances of bold type.



  [Illustration: Aeroplane View of Yosemite Valley and its Adjacent
  Region.

  Key To Aeroplane View.

   1 Artist's Point
   2 Inspiration Point
   3 Old Insp. Point
   4 Stanford Point
   5 Crocker Point
   6 Dewey Point
   7 Bridal Veil Falls
   8 Cathedral Rocks
   9 Cathedral Spires
  10 Taft Point
  11 The Fissures
  12 Sentinel Rock
  13 Union Point
  14 Glacier Point
  15 Sentinel Dome
  16 Illilouette Falls
  17 Panorama Cliff
  18 Vernal Falls
  19 Nevada Falls
  20 Little Yosemite
  21 Liberty Cap
  22 Mt. Broderick
  23 Half Dome
  24 Mt. Watkins
  25 Indian Rock
  26 Basket Dome
  27 North Dome
  28 Washington Column
  29 Royal Arches
  30 Yosemite Point
  31 Lost Arrow
  32 Yosemite Falls
  33 El Capitan
  34 Ribbon Fall
  35 Mirror Lake
  36 Camp Curry
  37 Yosemite Village and Sentinel Hotel
  38 Yosemite Lodge
  39 Three Brothers, (Eagle Peak)
  40 Red Peak. 11,700 Ft.
  41 Mt. Starr King. 9,181 Ft.
  42 Grey Peak. 11,561 Ft.
  43 Mt. Clark. 11,506 Ft.
  44 Foerster Peak. 12,062 Ft.
  45 Electra Peak. 12,462 Ft.
  46 Rodgers Peak. 13,006 Ft.
  47 Mt. Lyell. 13,050 Ft.
  48 Mt. Florence. 12,507 Ft.
  49 Mt. McClure. 12,500 Ft.
  50 Lake Washburn. 7,640 Ft.
  51 Lake Merced. 7,150 Ft.
  52 Cloud's Rest. 9,924 Ft
  53 Sunrise Mt. 9,800 Ft
  54 Mammoth Peak. 12,215 Ft.
  55 Castle in the Air. 10,760 Ft.
  56 Cathedral Peak. 10,433 Ft.
  57 Gibbs Mountain. 12,700 Ft.
  58 Tenaya Peak. 10,200 Ft.
  59 Dana Mountain. 13,050 Ft.
  60 Lake Tenaya. 8,141 Ft.
  61 Fairview Dome. 9,737 Ft.
  62 Tuolumne Meadows. 8,594 Ft.]



Introduction


This Guide and Trail Companion was brought about by thousands of
requests for practical information concerning the many short
excursions from Yosemite. Besides briefly describing Yosemite Valley,
its scenic features, and the immediately adjacent portion of the
Sierra, detailed information has been introduced concerning each trail
and road in the region. These are described just as they are actually
followed, and attention is called to each point of interest just as it
is discovered during the trip itself. As far as possible, complete
data has been introduced on condition of trails, time required to make
the trips, fishing, camp sites, forage conditions, etc., in short all
kinds of information which would be demanded of a hired guide.

The original draft of this Handbook was prepared in collaboration with
Forest S. Townsley, Chief Ranger of Yosemite National Park. Later, each
of the Park Rangers suggested valuable additions, and several members
of the Sierra Club contributed bits of valuable information. The
author has freely consulted old books and pamphlets in the Bancroft
Historical Library at the University of California and has included
several points of historical interest.

Acknowledgment is also due to Mr. Herbert Maier for the drawings and
maps here reproduced and to the United States Geological Survey for
permission to reproduce a portion of the "Administrative Map of
Yosemite National Park."

Suggestions as to additions or corrections which would make this
booklet more useful to the public would be greatly appreciated and
should be addressed to the author, care of United States National Park
Service, Yosemite, California.

ANSEL F. HALL

In charge of Information
Yosemite National Park

Yosemite, California
May 1, 1920



COPYRIGHT 1920
_by_
ANSEL F. HALL



CONTENTS


~The Yosemite Region~                                               1

~Yosemite Valley~                                                   2
  Origin                                                            2
  Early History                                                     2
  General Features of the Valley                                    3
  The Waterfalls                                                    5

~Yosemite Village~                                                  8

~Yosemite Roads~                                                   13
     I El Portal to Yosemite via El Capitan Road                   14
   I-A Pohono Bridge to Yosemite via Bridalveil Road               18
  II-A Tour of the Floor of the Valley                             20
   III Yosemite to Glacier Point via Chinquapin Road               26
    IV Yosemite to Tenaya Lake, Tuolumne Meadows, and
         Mono Lake via Big Oak Flat and Tioga Roads                30
     V Yosemite to Hetch Hetchy via Big Oak Flat Road
         and Hetch Hetchy Railroad                                 38
    VI Yosemite to El Portal via El Capitan Road                   39
  VI-A Yosemite Village to Pohono Bridge via Bridalveil Road       43

~Yosemite Trails~                                                  46
   1 Yosemite to Glacier Point via Vernal and Nevada Falls and
       return via the Short Trail                                  47
   2 Yosemite to Glacier Point via the Short Trail and return
       via Vernal and Nevada Falls                                 52
   3 Yosemite to North Dome via Yosemite Falls and return
       via Mirror Lake                                             56
   4 Yosemite to North Dome via Mirror Lake and return via
       Yosemite Falls                                              60
   5 Yosemite to Tenaya Lake via Clouds Rest and Forsyth
       Pass and return via Mirror Lake                             63
   6 Yosemite to Tenaya Lake via Mirror Lake and return
       via Forsyth Pass and Clouds Rest                            67
   7 Yosemite to Lake Merced                                       70
   8 Yosemite to Tuolumne Meadows via Sunrise Trail                72
   9 Yosemite to Eagle Peak, El Capitan and Gentry                 75
  10 Yosemite to Ten Lakes via Yosemite Creek                      76
  11 Yosemite to Hetch Hetchy via Yosemite Creek, Harden Lake,
       and Smith Meadow                                            79
  12 Yosemite to Sierra Point                                      81
  13 Little Yosemite                                               81
  14 Half Dome                                                     83
  15 Yosemite to Glacier Point via the Ledge Trail                 85
  16 Glacier Point to Sentinel Dome                                86
  17 Glacier Point to Fort Monroe via Pohono Trail                 87
  18 Fort Monroe to Glacier Point via Pohono Trail                 88
  19 Glacier Point to Wawona via Alder Creek Trail                 90
  20 Glacier Point to Ostrander Lake                               92
  21 Glacier Point to Chilnualna Falls or Johnson Lake via
       the Buck Camp Trail                                         93
  22 Glacier Point to Johnson Lake via Buena Vista Trail           94
  23 Yosemite or Glacier Point to Moraine Meadows via
       Merced Pass Trail                                           96
  24 Wawona Road to El Portal via the Sunset Trail                 97
  25 Wawona Road to El Portal via the Hennessy Trail               98



THE YOSEMITE REGION


"By far the grandest of the western ranges is the Sierra Nevada, a
long and massive uplift lying between the arid deserts of the Great
Basin and the Californian exuberance of grain-fields and orchards;
its eastern slope, a defiant wall of rock plunging abruptly down to
the plain; the western, a long, dry sweep, well watered and overgrown
with cool, stately forests; its crest a line of sharp, snowy peaks
springing into the sky and catching the _alpenglow_ long after the sun
has set for all the rest of America."[1]

          [1] From "Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada," by Charles
          King.

About midway between the north and south ends of this "Snowy Range"
and extending from the ragged summits of its eastern edge to the
semi-arid foothills at the west, lies Yosemite National Park, 1125
square miles of incomparable scenic beauty.

Yosemite Valley, contrary to most peoples' preconceived idea, lies
fully 25 miles west of the Sierra crest. It is countersunk 4000 feet
into the granite of the gently inclined plateau, which above its rim
averages from 7000 to 8000 feet in elevation. The characteristics of
this region immediately adjacent to Yosemite Valley are different from
those of the High Sierra to the past. Very little of it is above the
timber-line, as the dominating summits--Mount Hoffman (10,921) at the
north, Clouds Rest (9924) at the east, Mount Starr King (9179) at the
southeast, and Horse Ridge (9600) at the south--average less than
10,000 feet in altitude. The magnificent forests with which the slopes
are clothed are interspersed with perfectly formed granite domes, with
meadows and wild-flower gardens, with polished granite pavements, and
with innumerable manifestations of Nature which give the trails of the
region an ever-changing charm.



YOSEMITE VALLEY


Bisecting this district from east to west is the great trough of
Yosemite Valley, its bottom gouged down more than half way to sea
level. The same type of geological architecture is exemplified by the
Hetch Hetchy a few miles to the north and by the canyons of the San
Joaquin, Kings and Kern to the south. In none of these however, are
magnitude, beauty and accessibility so ideally combined as in
Yosemite.


ORIGIN

As to the origin of these valleys, and of Yosemite in particular,
there is still some discussion among scientists. Whitney's old theory
of a great cataclysm and the sinking of a small block of the earth's
crust has been entirely displaced, and geologists are now seeking to
determine if glaciers have been solely responsible for the present
landscape or whether ice and water worked hand in hand. A good summary
of the various theories of geological history, as well as a popular
discussion of all the geological phenomena of the region, is contained
in the "Sketch of Yosemite National Park and an Account of the Origin
of Yosemite and Hetch Hetchy Valleys," by Dr. F. E. Matthes of the
U.S. Geological Survey. This government publication may be obtained in
Yosemite at the office of the Superintendent for ten cents.


EARLY HISTORY

Yosemite Valley remained undiscovered by white men until in 1850
marauding Indian bands from the mountains raided several foothill
trading posts. In retaliation the "Mariposa Battalion" was organized
to subdue these mountain tribes and force them into a large
reservation, the San Joaquin Valley. The last to be conquered and the
most warlike were the Yosemites living in fancied security in their
stronghold, the deep grassy valley of "Awahnee." It was in pursuit of
this tribe that the members of the Mariposa Battalion first entered
Yosemite on March 21, 1851. The story of the one-sided campaigns which
extended over two summers is well told by Dr. W. L. Bunnell, the
surgeon of the party, in his "Discovery of the Yosemite and the Indian
War of 1851" (4th Edition, 1911, G. W. Gerlicher, Los Angeles).

An excellent summary of the early history of Yosemite Valley has
recently been published as a Park Service bulletin and may be obtained
free at the government information bureau in Yosemite.


GENERAL FEATURES OF THE VALLEY

All points of scenic interest are indicated in the road and trail
trips, but the following brief discussion of the major features of the
valley may serve to orient the new-comer. In this connection the
aeroplane-view frontispiece will be found exceedingly useful.

First and most impressive are the great rock masses. The square-cut
3200 foot cliff of El Capitan at the Gates of the Valley is regarded
by many as the most awe-inspiring of all great rocks; yet others
affirm that Half Dome, a few miles eastward, is just as mighty and far
more lovable.

The castellated Cathedral Rocks rising half to two-thirds as high as
El Capitan on the opposite side of the valley are dwarfed in
comparison, but are given an individual personality by their
exceptional outline. Just eastward, the marvelously delicate pinnacles
of the Cathedral Spires, each towering over 500 feet from its base,
stand out from the great south wall. Less interesting but very mighty
are the Three Brothers, rising 3800 feet as a great buttress of the
north wall. Opposite them the Sentinel Rock, a huge obelisk-like watch
tower, guards the south ramparts.

At the upper end of the valley the dome formation is dominant. To the
north are the rounded summits of North Dome, Basket Dome and Mount
Watkins. The granite walls below them have fractured in great
concentric arcs, forming the marvelously symmetrical Royal Arches,
at the east end of which is the striking vertical promontory of
Washington Column. At the edge of the perpendicular cliffs of the
south wall is Glacier Point, the finest lookout point in the valley,
and a short distance back from the rim are the symmetrical curves of
Sentinel Dome.

Yosemite Valley is formed by the confluence of two great
canyons--Tenaya Canyon from the northeast and the upper Merced Canyon
from the southeast. Between them originates a great backbone ridge
which extends many miles to the northeast and exhibits many examples
of dome structure and glacial sculpture. Lowest of its promontories is
the roughly hewn Grizzly Peak, which is flanked on the east by the
well rounded summits and smoothly planed sides of Mount Broderick and
Liberty Cap. Then, standing in massive isolation 5000 feet above the
valley and 2000 feet above its immediate base is Half Dome. Further to
the northeast along the ridge are the two Quarter Domes, the Pinnacles
and Clouds Rest, the highest summit in the immediate vicinity of
Yosemite.

Tenaya Canyon, a great glaciated gorge countersunk thousands of feet
into the granite, is practically impassable. The main canyon of the
Merced, however, as it comes from the east, widens to form the Little
Yosemite Valley. With its level meadows and sheer granite walls
flanked by perfectly formed domes, it is marvelously like Yosemite but
smaller. Further eastward is the High Sierra.


THE WATERFALLS

There are five great waterfalls in Yosemite and a number of lesser
ones which would be world-famous were it not for the comparison.
During the flood waters of spring they are at the height of their
beauty, amplifying the living landscape by their many columns and
booming power. Later, as the snow fountains of the high places are
gradually depleted, they take on a more filmy gracefulness but are
lacking in exuberant impressiveness.

Three of the five falls, the Bridalveil, Yosemite and Illilouette,
leap from hanging valleys into the main canyon. All of the minor falls
are of the same type. Vernal and Nevada Falls, on the other hand, are
formed by the entire Merced River pouring over great steps in the
mighty box canyon at the east end of the valley.

First seen and most graceful is the ~Bridalveil~, dropping daintily
620 feet at the right portal of the great valley gate. Well may we
wonder how this charming fall with its exquisite rainbows came to be
called Pohono or "spirit of the evil wind" by the Indians.

Most famous of all, the highest fall in Yosemite and in all the world,
is the ~Yosemite~. Its first sheer plunge of 1430 feet would set it
apart as the greatest of its kind, but by a series of six quick jumps
it descends another 800 feet to the brink of the final precipice, over
which it leaps gracefully 320 feet to the valley floor. Seen from
below, the 2600-foot drop often appears as one fall though in reality
the Upper Fall is fully one third of a mile back of the lower. In
winter a great ice cone, sometimes 500 feet high, forms beneath this
Upper Fall, and its collapse causes riotous ice-floods in early
spring. "Choolook," which in Yosemite dialect meant simply "the fall,"
has a most changing personality. In late summer and autumn he loses
much of his springtime power and obeys every whim of the ever-changing
winds. But the most delightful of all his moods may be seen during the
time of the full moon when the foot of the Lower Fall is veiled by the
delicate iridescence of lunar rainbows.

From the western edge of Panorama Cliff the lace-like ~Illilouette
Falls~ disappears into its box canyon east of Glacier Point. The filmy
character of its 370-foot foam-curtain is almost never appreciated
because of the lack of a proper view-point. The old Indian name
Too-tool-a-we-ack sought to reproduce the sound of gurgling and
falling water.

~Vernal~ and ~Nevada~ pour over the rims of two successive glacial
amphitheatres in the main canyon of the Merced. Both carry a great
volume of water and are much less variable than the mural falls.

~Vernal~, dropping 317 feet in a wide and unbroken sheet, has often
been pronounced the symmetrically perfect of all falls. Its foot is
always bathed in blowing mists which give rise to most exquisite
circular rainbows. Referring to the spray, the Yosemites called the
fall Yan-o-pah or "little water cloud."

~Nevada~, widely tossing out its spray-rockets, gives a vast
impression of power which is probably nowhere equaled except in the
Grand Canyon of the Tuolumne. In its descent of 594 feet it strikes a
projecting ledge, which caused the Indians to name it Yo-wy-we or
"twisting rock."

There is yet another great fall in the Yosemite region, but concerning
it little is known. It is so inaccessible in the mighty Tenaya Canyon
that it is even nameless, and no one has ever reached its base. Seen
from afar pouring over a rounded precipice in the canyon bottom it
appears to be between 600 and 1000 feet in height.

The ~minor falls~ are very beautiful in early spring but all are
ephemeral, blooming delightfully with the melting of snows, but dying
in summer. Largest and best known are the Cascade Falls, which drop
594 feet over the north wall of the lower Merced Canyon and form one
of the chief objects of interest in the ride from El Portal to
Yosemite. Ribbon Fall, highest of all, descends delicately in one
1612-foot leap into a recess just west of El Capitan. From the rugged
south wall Widow's Tears pours 1170 feet to the rock talus. Just west
of Sentinel Rock is a series of picturesque cascades which, in spring,
are dignified by the name of Sentinel Falls. Royal Arch Fall is one of
the most beautiful but most ephemeral of the small falls. During
sudden rainstorms or usually rapid thaws, supplementary falls pour
into the valley over many of its ramparts. John Muir describes the
storm of 1871 in which fifty-six such cataracts appeared in the upper
end of Yosemite Valley.



YOSEMITE VILLAGE


On the banks of the Merced where once stood Haw-kaw-koo´-e-tah, the
home of the Yo-ham´-i-te tribe, is Yosemite Village. The accompanying
map, drawn May 1, 1920, indicates all places of public interest, but
on account of contemplated building activities several changes may be
expected within the next few seasons. Yosemite has recently been
granted a second-class postoffice with branches at Camp Curry and
Yosemite Lodge and with free delivery service to camps on the valley
floor.

At the U.S. National Park Service Administrative Building are the
offices of the Park Superintendent, Chief Ranger and other executive
officers. In front of the building is a free information bureau with a
park ranger in charge. Government maps and bulletins may here be
obtained free or at a very nominal cost. Adjacent is a motorists'
information bureau maintained by the California State Automobile
Association. At the left entrance is the telegraph and telephone
office maintained by the government. The Yosemite Museum, which
contains many excellent exhibits of the flora and fauna of the region
is temporarily housed in this building.

Hotel accommodations in Yosemite Valley are limited to one hotel and
two large hotel-camps. The Sentinel Hotel in Yosemite Village, though
offering good service and a splendid cuisine, has been outgrown and
will soon be superseded by a very much larger and more modern
building.

Camp Curry, a large hotel-camp about one mile east of the village on
the road to Happy Isles, is delightfully situated beneath Glacier
Point, an ideal spot from which to view the famous "Fire Fall," a
beautiful cataract of fire which is nightly pushed from the cliff 3000
feet above. The camp has a wide reputation for its democratic
atmosphere.

  [Illustration: Map of Yosemite Village.

  LEGEND

  = Road  === Sec. Road  --- Footpath

   1. P.O. and General Store
   2. Boyson Studio
   3. Foley Studio
   4. N.P.S. Office
   5. Best Studio
   6. Government Pavilion
   7. Y.N.P. Co. Office
   8. Ivy Cottage
   9. Sentinel Hotel
  10. Cedar Cottage
  11. River Cottage
  12. Rock Cottage
  13. Native Son Sequoia
  14. Fiske House
  15. Bakery and Creamery
  16. Butcher Shop
  17. Pillsbury Studio
  18. Chapel
  19. Garage
  20. Foot Bridge
  21. Sentinel Bridge
  22. Old Jorgensen Studio
  23. Grizzly Hotel Site
  24. New Administration Bldg. Site
  25. Ranger's Clubhouse
  26. Government Barns & Shops
  27. Zoo
  28. Government Cottages
  29. Old Camp Lost Arrow
  30. School House
  31. Camp Yosemite
  32. Camp Yos. Swimming Pool
  33. Government Cottages
  34. Superintendent's House
  35. Yosemite Hospital]

Yosemite Lodge, formerly called Yosemite Camp, is the other large
hotel-camp, and is located one-half mile north of Yosemite Village
near the azalia-bordered Yosemite Creek. It offers most attractive
views of Yosemite Falls and is well maintained by the Yosemite
National Park Company.

At the rim of the valley is Glacier Point Hotel with every modern
convenience, and an unsurpassable view of Yosemite and the High
Sierra.

Lodges are maintained at the Mariposa Grove of Big Trees and at Lake
Tenaya and Merced Lake in the High Sierra.

The general store is adequately stocked to supply the tourist and
camper with all his needs--supplies, clothing, sporting goods, drugs,
etc. The Housekeeping Camps Department supplies all kinds of camping
or outing equipment at very reasonable rates. Opposite the store is
the bakery and creamery, and the meat market.

During the season of 1920 the general garage will be moved from its
location near Yosemite Lodge to a point just southeast of the new
Rangers' Club House. A large free storage garage is maintained by Camp
Curry. Gasoline and oils may be obtained at several service stations
on the floor of the valley and at a few outposts on the park roads.

The Government Pavilion, on the banks of the Merced near the center of
the village, is a social center for dances, lectures, moving pictures,
etc. There is also an excellent entertainment and dance hall at Camp
Curry.

Religious services are held in Yosemite Chapel which faces the
postoffice.

In the village are four studios, two of them doing photographic work
exclusively, and the other two specializing in oils and water-colors.
Studios are also maintained at Yosemite Lodge and Camp Curry.

There are two large swimming tanks, one at Yosemite Lodge and one at
Camp Curry. Both are open to the general public.

Between the village and Camp Curry is the picturesque Le Conte
Memorial Lodge, which is sustained by the Sierra Club. The Yosemite
Library is housed here and hundreds of photographs, flower specimens,
maps, etc., make the building a favorite of the thousands of visitors.
Each year the Extension Division of the University of California
arranges a series of "Le Conte Memorial Lectures," which are here
delivered. They are exceptionally interesting and all well attended,
for in them the most eminent scientific authorities interpret the
natural history, folklore, geology and other subjects exemplified by
the Yosemite region.

North of the Merced and about a third of a mile from the center of the
village is the schoolhouse and a group of other government buildings.
One of these is the menagerie and contains several wild animals
captured in the region. The chief exhibits are a pair of California
mountain lions, and a number of bear. In this vicinity is also the
quaint old Yosemite Cemetery, where rest many of the pioneers of the
early days.

Near Yosemite Lodge is the Yosemite Hospital with a competent
physician and surgeon in charge. During part of the season a dentist
is also in attendance.

About twenty camp grounds have been prepared for the free use of the
public by the Park Service. Water is piped to these localities and a
sanitation system provided for. Applications for camp sites should be
made at the National Park Service office in Yosemite Village. Those
without outfits, who desire to establish camps, may arrange at the
Housekeeping Camps Department of the Yosemite National Park Company
(at Camp 17, a quarter mile east of Sentinel Bridge and north of the
river) to rent all necessary equipment. This will be delivered and set
up ready for occupancy. It is advisable to arrange in advance for the
outfit desired.

An auto-bus service (fare 10c and 25c) to all points on the valley
floor provides a quick and convenient means of transportation. All
main roads are paralleled by trails for the use of pedestrians.

Information as to the hiring of horses and automobiles, arrangements
for camping tours, and about many other items of general interest, is
contained in the "Circular of General Information regarding Yosemite
National Park," which may be obtained free at any of the government
information bureaus.



YOSEMITE ROADS


The roads of Yosemite have just passed their initial stage of
development. Most of the 138 miles of road in the park were built
for old-time stage coaches and for horse travel. With the advent
of the motor has come a second period--that of reconstruction and
improvement. The highway from El Portal to Yosemite and the roads on
the floor of the valley illustrate the type of present-day
construction; but it must be remembered with indulgence that such
roads are just beginning to be, and that most of the park routes,
although not at all bad, are yet mountain roads.

Let us assume that the motorist is now in Yosemite. Besides the routes
to the low country, the following scenic trips may be taken within the
park:

    1. A Tour of the Valley.
    2. El Portal and return.
    3. Glacier Point.
    4. The Mariposa Big Trees.
    5. Tuolumne Big Trees.
    6. Hetch Hetchy.
    7. Lake Tenaya and the High Sierra route to Mono Lake and Tahoe.

Each of these (except number four) is described
in the following road trips.


ROAD TRIP I

EL PORTAL TO YOSEMITE _via_ EL CAPITAN ROAD

(15 miles--1-1/4 hours by stage)

Most charming because of the climax of ever-increasing scenic beauty
and grandeur, is the fifteen-mile ride from El Portal up the gorge of
the Merced to Yosemite. It is rather to be regretted that modern
auto-busses hurry us over the new highway in less than an hour and a
half, giving us scarce time to appreciate the majesty and beauty of
the ever-changing panorama.

Leaving ~El Portal~, the road parallels the north bank of the Merced,
passing beneath gnarled oaks and silver-gray digger pines. In the high
water of early spring, Indian Creek, across the canyon, descends over
the picturesque ~Chinquapin Falls~. Entering the gateway of Yosemite
National Park, we follow up the riotous Merced River, noting here and
there a hardy yellow pine or an incense cedar venturing down to the
canyon bottom. About two miles inside the park is ~Avalanche Falls~
across the river. The trail bridge below is the crossing of the Sunset
Trail, which ascends past the foot of the fall and climbs 2500 feet to
the Wawona Road. A short distance up the canyon the road passes
beneath ~Arch Rock~, a natural tunnel formed by huge blocks of
granite. Just beyond, Grouse Creek descends the south canyon wall by a
series of cascades.

We have now entered the true mountain forest, and ride beneath yellow
pines, incense cedars, Douglas firs and now and then a true fir.
~Elephant Rock~ towers above and to the right. Just below it is
~Battleship Harbor~, a placid stretch of the Merced in which fancied
granite dreadnaughts ride anchor. At the left the old ~Coulterville
Road~ steeply descends the canyon wall and joins the main highway.
This first road to Yosemite was opened in 1874 and was for years the
main stage route from Merced. For the benefit of those who require
entertainment the chauffeur often points out the image of a white
Persian cat on the rock wall to the left. A short distance beyond and
on the same side of the road are ~Wildcat Falls~.

Crossing two small bridges we obtain the best view of Elephant Rock
down the canyon. At the left are the ~Cascade Falls~, during the flood
waters of early spring one of Yosemite's most beautiful cataracts. The
top of the cascade is 594 feet above the road. About a half mile
further is ~Pulpit Rock~, on the south side of the river. It is best
viewed by driving beyond and then looking back down the canyon. Below
the road and at the right is the government power plant, where the
water from the Merced drives two thousand-kilowatt electric
generators. The intake and dam are passed further up the canyon.

Three thousand feet above, the ephemeral ~Widow's Tears Fall~ drops
1170 feet from the rugged ramparts of the south wall. Another mile
takes us past the site of the old Indian village Ah-wah-ma to ~Pohono
Bridge~. From this point two roads ascend the valley, one on either
side of the river. The more picturesque Pohono Road runs up the south
side of the canyon. This is described in Road Trip I-A. The ~El
Capitan Road~, following up the north side of the valley will first be
traced.

A short distance from the bridge we are treated to a most impressive
view of the ~Gates of the Valley~. At the left the sheer 3300-foot
precipice of ~El Capitan~ dominates the entire landscape. Its majesty
is matched by the beauty of the ~Bridalveil Fall~ and ~Cathedral
Rocks~ opposite. Between them is Nature's threshold, the brilliantly
verdant ~Bridalveil Meadows~, dotted with dark green pines and oaks.
Beyond, ~Half Dome~ is partly hidden by the projecting cliff of
~Glacier Point~ at the right. The summit of the lofty bare granite
ridge in the distance is ~Clouds Rest~, the highest point on the
Yosemite walls. If the winter snows be still melting above the rim we
will see at the left the ~Ribbon Fall~ dropping delicately over its
1612-foot precipice into a recess just west of El Capitan. Its Indian
name was Lung-oo-too-koo-ya, or "pigeon fall." Near its base the ~Big
Oak Flat Road~ branches to the left and ascends thru the piles of
shattered granite talus of the north wall. At this point was the
Indian village, Hep-hep´-oo-ma. The road to the right leads past the
El Capitan Checking Station and across ~El Capitan Bridge~ to the
Bridalveil Road (Road Trip ~I-A~) south of the river.

Continuing up the north road we pass thru ~El Capitan Meadows~, where
were the Indian villages of Aw´-o-koi-e, He-le´-jah, Ha-eng´-ah and
Yu-a´-chah. As we skirt the base of the almost vertical wall, the
stage driver will generally point out more or less interesting images.
Chief among these is Tote-ack-ah-noo-la, the "Rock Chief" of the
Indians, whose title was translated into Spanish to make the present
name. In a shallow niche 1189 feet above the road stands a hardy
Jeffrey pine 82.4 feet in height and two feet in diameter. Across the
river are the massive ~Cathedral Rocks~ and the delicately pinnacled
~Cathedral Spires~. Further up the canyon the massively sculptured
pyramids, the ~Three Brothers~, rise abruptly to the north. Opposite
them the road to the ~Bear Pits~ turns into the woods. Turning
northeast, our road passes ~Rocky Point~ at their base. This is
We-äck, the place where Chief Tenaya's three sons were captured in
1851.

One mile beyond is ~Yosemite Lodge~, one of the two large hotel-camps
of the valley. The main buildings occupy the site of Koom-i´-ne, the
largest and most important of the old Indian villages. Just northward
the ~Yosemite Fall~ makes its triple plunge of 2600 feet, the highest
waterfall in the world. The upper fall drops 1430 feet sheer. Crossing
the azalia-bordered ~Yosemite Creek~, the road skirts a wide meadow
and turns sharply across the valley. To the left is a magnificent
panorama of the ~Royal Arches~, ~North Dome~, ~Washington Column~ and
the precipice of ~Glacier Point~. At the right the great obelisk of
~The Sentinel~ rises from the south wall.

Crossing Sentinel Bridge to ~Yosemite Village~ we halt at the
~Sentinel Hotel~ which, with the cottages opposite, occupies the site
of the old Indian village Haw-kaw-koo´-e-tah, the home of the band
called Yo-ham´-i-te, for whom the valley was named. A short distance
beyond is the office of the U.S. National Park Service, where all
campers should stop and register.

We continue up the canyon, now paralleling the south river margin thru
a beautiful pine, fir and cedar forest. Thru the trees we now and then
catch a glimpse of the ~Quarter Domes~ beyond the dominating ~Half
Dome~, and finally the summit of ~Clouds Rest~. Three-quarters of a
mile from the village is the picturesque ~Sierra Club Lodge~ at the
right of the road. A short distance further is ~Camp Curry~,
delightfully situated among the giant pines and cedars at the base of
the towering cliff of Glacier Point. At this spot was the large Indian
village of Too-yu´-yu´-yu, and a short distance to the northeast in
the meadow was Too-lah´-kah´-mah. This famous hostelry, Camp Curry, is
the final destination of all stages. The road continues up the canyon
to Happy Isles.


ROAD TRIP I-A

POHONO BRIDGE TO YOSEMITE _via_ BRIDALVEIL ROAD

(5 miles--20 minutes by stage)

The ~Bridalveil Road~, ascending the south side of the valley, is
scenically superior to the north, or El Capitan Road. Crossing Pohono
Bridge to the south side of the Merced the road immediately enters a
dense and beautiful forest. A short distance takes us to ~Fern
Spring~, justly famous for the purity of its ice cold water. One-half
mile beyond we suddenly emerge at ~Bridalveil Meadows~, obtaining a
most charming view of the Gates of the Valley. At the right,
~Bridalveil Fall~ leaps 630 feet from its hanging valley, the one side
of which is formed by the massively sculptured ~Cathedral Rocks~, and
the other by a solid granite ridge terminating at ~Leaning Tower~,
another eminence of the turreted south wall. On the opposite side of
the canyon rises the sheer face of ~El Capitan~. In the recess at its
west the evanescent streamer of ~Ribbon Fall~ descends in a lace-like
film.

At the edge of the meadow about 100 feet north of the road a dense
grove of oaks and pines shelters the graves of two pioneers, Rose and
Shurban, who were massacred here by the Indians in May, 1852. Near the
river was once the Indian village of Sap-pah´-sam-mah. The road now
passes near ~Bridalveil Fall~, charming glimpses of which are now and
then revealed. A subsidiary road turns to the right and leads to the
foot of the falls. This short side trip should be taken by all
visitors. Just below a very large rock at the east margin of the
stream is the site of the ancient village of Lem-me´-hitch´-ke. In
view of this fact, our stories of the Indians' great fear of Pohono,
"the spirit of the evil wind," may be somewhat overdrawn.

Just below the imposing buttress of the lowermost of the Cathedral
Rocks is ~El Capitan Bridge~, and near it ~Lo-to-ya~ (Flower)
~Spring~. North of the river is El Capitan Checking Station and the
terminus of the ~Big Oak Flat Road~ (Road Trip IV). East of Cathedral
Rocks we are treated to a sudden view of the two marvelously slender
~Cathedral Spires~, each rising 500 feet from its base and appearing
to tower even above the Yosemite rim. Directly opposite across ~El
Capitan Meadows~ is a most comprehensive view of the mighty wall of
Tote-ack-ah-noo-la, the "Rock Chief" of the Indians, whose title was
merely translated into Spanish to make the present name. Chauffeurs
often point out the likeness of the chief and other more or less
imaginary mural images. In a shallow niche 1189 feet above the road
stands a hardy Jeffrey pine 82.4 feet high and two feet in diameter.

In driving beneath the oaks, alders, pines and firs we enjoy
ever-changing vistas across the placid river. ~Three Brothers~,
massively piled promontories of the north wall, are least harshly seen
from this road. Directly ahead rises the watchtower of ~Sentinel
Rock~. At its west flank the transitory ~Sentinel Fall~ descends in a
series of cascades during the spring thaws. Below Sentinel Rock we
pass the site of Galen Clark's cabin, of old Camp Awahnee, and of the
more ancient Indian village of Loi'-ah. About one and a quarter miles
further is Yosemite Village. All campers should register at the
National Park Service headquarters.


ROAD TRIP II

A TOUR OF THE FLOOR OF THE VALLEY

(9 miles--2 hours ride--1/2 to 1 day walk)

Every Yosemite visitor should spend at least one day within the valley
itself before beginning the more strenuous trail trips. There is so
much to be seen from the valley floor that weeks might be spent there
were it not for "the call of the High Country" beyond the walls. The
following itinerary includes a visit to most places of interest in the
upper (east) end of the valley: Sentinel Bridge, Indian Village, Royal
Arches, Washington Column, Indian Cave, Mirror Lake, Half Dome,
Mineral Springs, Tenaya Bridge, Happy Isles, Camp Curry and Le Conte
Memorial Lodge, in the order mentioned.

Road Trips I and VI describe the region west of the village. The
following excursion may be made by motor in two or three hours. Hikers
will find it a moderately long half-day tramp or a leisurely one-day
ramble. An early start should be made in order to see the sunrise at
Mirror Lake. It is well to ascertain the hour beforehand, for this
varies with the season of the year.

From ~Yosemite Village~ we cross Sentinel Bridge and follow the
poplar-bordered road across the meadow. Straight ahead is ~Yosemite
Fall~ and the ~Lost Arrow~, and at our right a most comprehensive view
of ~North Dome~, the ~Royal Arches~, ~Washington Column~, ~Half Dome~
and ~Glacier Point~. At the Grizzly Hotel site the El Capitan Road
(Road Trip VI) branches westward, while our route turns up the canyon.
The distant buildings to the left of the road are the Government
barns, shops and warehouses. In this group is the menagerie which will
well repay a subsequent visit. Nearer is the picturesque old cemetery
where many pioneers of the region lie at rest. A little farther
eastward on the largest open level area in Yosemite is the site of the
important old village of Ah-wah´-ne, from which the valley took its
Indian name.

Continuing along the ~Royal Arch Road~ we soon pass the new Rangers'
Club House. Just beyond, a cross road to the right leads to the
garage. To the northward, high overhead, are the silhouettes of the
~Castle Cliffs~, and at their east the deep cleft of ~Indian Canyon~
which, to the Yosemite tribe, was "Le Hammo" because of the arrowwood
which grew there. Along the precipitous cliffs of the east wall ran
their main trail into Yosemite from the north. From the valley floor
at the base of a cliff just west of the Royal Arches they first
climbed a large oak and then made their way along narrow ledges toward
the northwest. It was at this oak that old Chief Tenaya was captured
in 1851 by Lieutenant Chandler and the scout Sandino.

At the mouth of Indian Canyon is ~Yo´-watch-ke~, the only Indian
village in the valley which is still occupied. During the July
celebrations it is picturesquely alive but at other times the few
dirty o´-chums are almost repulsive. This area on the alluvial fan of
Indian Creek is the warmest spot in the valley and botanists will here
find many plants typical of the lower altitudes.

A short distance further we pass Camp 17 at the right of the road.
About a quarter of a mile beyond and on the opposite side is Camp 20.
At a road junction is a small settlement called Kenneyville, which
occupies the site of the former Indian Camp of Wis´-kah-lah. Here the
~Le Conte Road~ turns south, leading to Camps 15 and 7, and across
Stoneman Bridge to Camp Curry on the Happy Isles Road. Doubling back
to the westward is ~Sequoia Lane~, a road leading to Camps 6 and 7,
and to Yosemite Village, one mile distant.

We continue eastward, passing Camp 8, which is above the road and just
at the west end of the ~Royal Arches~. During the spring thaw the
beautiful but ephemeral ~Royal Arch Fall~ descends over a cliff at the
left. Its Indian name, Scho-ko-ya, meant "basket fall." In the next
half mile our road is flanked by the overhanging cornices of the
colossal arches. They must be viewed from afar if we would realize how
aptly they were called by the Yosemites "Scho-ko-ni," which means "the
movable shade to a cradle basket." At the left of the road and
directly beneath the arches is Camp 9. As we continue along the road,
breaks in the forest reveal intermittent views of ~Washington Column~
towering above to the left, and of the great face of ~Half Dome~
dominating all the east.

A short subsidiary road to the left now leads to ~Indian Cave~
immediately under Washington Column. The Yosemites named this retreat
Hol´-low´, but sometimes called it Lah-koo´-hah, which means "Come
out!" It is a low, broad, deep recess under a huge rock and is said to
have been occupied as a winter shelter; also when the Yosemites were
attacked and almost exterminated by the Mono Lake Piutes. The
overhanging rock is black with the smoke of ages, and far back in the
cave large quantities of acorn shells have been found.

Returning the short distance to the main road, we again turn eastward,
soon passing a group of excellent mineral springs at the right. The
highway now bears gradually to the north into the mouth of ~Tenaya
Canyon~ and in one-half mile ends in a "loop" at the west margin of
~Mirror Lake~. The relative darkness in this deep canyon and the
absence of wind during the early morning hours insures a perfect
reflection for almost every morning of the vacation season. Most
perfect are the reflections of ~Mount Watkins~ (the Wei-yow or
"Juniper Mountain" of the Yosemites) guarding the entrance to the
forbidden gorge of Tenaya. Unfortunately the delta of Tenaya Creek has
greatly encroached upon the mirror and has reduced it to but a remnant
of the beautiful lake which the Indians called Ah-wei´-yo, or "quiet
water." From the end of the road the Tenaya Lake and North Dome Trail
(Trail Trips 4 and 6) continue around the western shore of the lake
and up the canyon.

After the appearance of the sun over the shoulder of Half Dome, we
retrace the last half mile of our route, turning aside for a short
visit to the mineral springs. A little distance further the main road
forks and we take the left-hand branch which crosses ~Tenaya Bridge~.
A detour to the westward now takes us around and over a portion of the
lateral moraine left at the junction of the ancient Tenaya and Merced
glaciers. Near this point was Hoo-ke´-hahtch-ke´, an Indian village
inhabited up to about 1897.

A road which branches to the right offers a short-cut to Camp Curry,
about three-quarters of a mile distant. It passes Camps 11 and 14, and
the site of the Lick House, one of the inns of early days. The main
road, however, bears to the left and parallels the beautiful banks of
the Merced. Less than a mile takes us to the ~Happy Isles Bridge~.
Here the main trail to Vernal and Nevada Falls, Glacier Point, Half
Dome, Clouds Rest, Merced Lake, etc. (see Trail Trips), turns south
and ascends the ~Merced Canyon~. At the right of the bridge is a U.S.
Weather Bureau observation station. On the west side of the stream is
the old power plant and from it starts the footpath to ~Happy Isles~.
The short side trip from island to island should not be missed.
Especially are these charming garden spots noted for the beauty of
their flowering dogwoods, maples and alders. The round trip to Sierra
Point (Trail Trip 12) may easily be accomplished from this point in
one hour. A refreshment stand is maintained in the vicinity. To escape
the dust of the road one may follow the picturesque ~Happy Isles
Trail~ from its beginning near the power house to Camp Curry, one mile
westward.

Our road now bears to the northwest and rounds the imposing buttress
of ~Glacier Point~. One-half mile takes us to a spring at the left of
the road which once supplied the large Indian village of Um´-ma-taw. A
short distance beyond, our route is joined by the short-cut road from
Mirror Lake. Near this road is a cabin often pointed out as having
belonged to John Muir. It was really built and used by James C. Lamon,
a pioneer and the first permanent resident of the valley. Muir's cabin
has long since disappeared and its only existing photograph is in the
possession of Dr. Wm. F. Badé. The orchard at the right occupies the
site of Too´-lah´-kah´-mah, another vanished community of the Yosemite
tribe.

Extending for a considerable distance along the road are the tents and
bungalows of ~Camp Curry~. If we have time to stop, we may be
refreshed by a swim in the huge open-air swimming pool, by cooling
drinks at the soda fountain or by a rest beneath the great pines and
cedars.

From the camp center a road to the north leads across the Stoneman
Bridge to Kenneyville. At the right of the road is the site of the old
Stoneman Hotel, which was built and maintained in the early days by
the State of California, but which burned down in 1896. Close to the
bridge, on the banks of the Merced, was once the large Indian village
of Too-yu´-yu´-yu.

West of the Camp Curry bungalows we pass Camp 16, between the road and
the river. Near this point the ~Ledge Trail~ turns to the south and
mounts the talus slopes above Camp Curry. A short distance beyond is
the new ~Le Conte Memorial Lodge~ picturesquely set among the pines
and incense cedars where once was the Indian village of Ho-low, and
where the old schoolhouse stood until 1911. The lodge is an ideal
place to spend the remainder of the afternoon amongst photographs,
flowers, books and maps, and in a cool and absolutely restful
atmosphere. To the right of the road, where the river makes a big
detour to the north, is Camp 19. One should note the remarkably
perfect reflections in the river below the rock wall parapet during
the remaining half-mile walk to Yosemite Village.


ROAD TRIP III

YOSEMITE TO GLACIER POINT _via_ CHINQUAPIN ROAD

(28 miles--4 to 5 hours by auto)

A trip to Glacier Point should be part of everyone's Yosemite
itinerary. Many motorists prefer to make the excursion by road instead
of by trail. The round trip from Yosemite can be made by machine in
one day, but it is better to reserve accommodations in advance at the
Glacier Point Hotel and remain there over night to view the sunrise
over the High Sierra. Another excellent plan is to send one's machine
around by road while one walks or rides to Glacier Point via the
Vernal and Nevada Falls Trail (Trail Trip 1), returning to the valley
via Chinquapin Road. The description of the first 14.5 miles of this
trip, which follows the Wawona Road as far as Chinquapin, will be of
interest to those leaving Yosemite by that route.

From Yosemite Village we follow the ~Bridalveil Road~ (Road Trip VI-A)
down the valley four and a half miles to the Bridalveil Checking
Station, where the Wawona Road turns to the left. Here all motorists
must register. For safety the park regulations permit the ascent on
even hours only, and at a speed of not more than twelve miles per
hour.

We now climb steadily beneath a dense forest of pines, fir, incense
cedar, oak and laurel, and at one and a half miles halt at ~Artist
Point~ (Alt. 4701, 750 feet above the valley floor). The view of the
~Gates of the Valley~ to the east is claimed to be one of the most
perfect of all Yosemite landscapes.

Gradually climbing another 690 feet we finally halt at ~Inspiration
Point~ (Alt. 5391). The view of Yosemite is similar to that from
Artist Point, but with the depths and distances more impressively
accentuated. Across the canyon is ~Fireplace Bluff~. A view-finder
beside the road indicates each point of interest. All machines should
be registered at the Government Checking Station. Telephone
communication and water are here available.

About half a mile beyond Inspiration Point is ~Fort Monroe~ (Alt.
5540), an old-time stage relay station. This is a fair campsite for
auto parties. A good spring will be found near the Pohono Trail
junction. The visit to the wild-flower gardens and many fine lookout
points of the ~Pohono Trail~ (Trail Trip 18) is an especially fine
one-day walking trip from this point.

Our road now leads thru most magnificent pine forests, which open now
and then to give us short glimpses of the canyon of the Merced,
thousands of feet below. About two miles from Fort Monroe the
~Hennessy Trail~ (Trail Trip 25) branches to the right and descends to
El Portal, ten miles distant. ~Grouse Creek Crossing~, a half mile
further, is a good auto camp. Fishing is fair downstream.

Another two miles takes us to ~Avalanche Creek~. There are here no
camping places and the stream contains no trout. _Caution_: The worst
turn on the road is about 200 yards beyond the crossing. One mile
beyond Avalanche Creek the ~Sunset Trail~ (Trail Trip 24) leaves the
road at the right, descending to the Mid-winter Ranger Station near
Arch Rock on the El Portal Road.

One mile further is ~Chinquapin~, an old stage relay station at the
junction of the Glacier Point and Wawona Roads. There is here a ranger
station and during the summer gas and oil can be obtained. In the
vicinity are many good camp sites. An excellent spring will be found
200 yards north of the ranger cabin. Fishing is fair in ~Indian Creek~
about a quarter of a mile southward; best fishing is downstream. Many
deer are generally to be seen in the region. Chinquapin is especially
noted for its wonderful sunsets. Before leaving, all machines should
take water.

The main road continues southward to Wawona and the Mariposa Grove of
Big Trees and thence to Merced, Madera and Fresno. Our route turns
eastward and climbs abruptly 1300 feet in the next three miles to the
head of the canyon of Indian Creek. This long, hard grade takes us to
the 7500-foot level, where we are at last on the gently sloping
plateau above the valley walls. The following eleven miles is a
delightful succession of mountain meadows and forests of red fir,
lodgepole pine and other sub-alpine species. Numbers of deer can
almost always be seen from the road, especially early in the morning.

~Peregoy Meadow~, about five miles from Chinquapin, was famous in the
early days for its wayside inn on the "Yosemite Trail" from Clarke's
(now Wawona). The old buildings have long since disappeared, but the
trail, now called the ~Alder Creek Trail~ (Trail Trip 19), is still
used. From Peregoy Meadow to Glacier Point are many fine camp sites.
About one mile eastward is ~Bridalveil Creek Crossing~. Fishing is
good upstream, and fair about one mile downstream, but generally poor
near the road.

At a trail junction about one and a half miles further, the ~Ostrander
Lake and Buck Camp Trail~ (Trail Trips 20 and 21) turns southward
(right). Here one may park his machine and walk to ~Ostrander Lake~
via Trail Trip 20 and return, a fifteen mile one-day round trip. The
lake offers some of the best fishing in this section of the park.

Swinging gradually to the northeast the road passes to the east of
~Ostrander Rocks~. A trail to the right leads to Mono Meadow and the
basin of the Illilouette. Three miles further at ~Pothole Meadows~ the
~Peregoy Meadow Trail~ (Trail Trip 19) leaves the road at the left. A
short distance beyond and at the same side of the road is the ~Pohono
Trail~ turn-off (Trail Trip 17). A half mile further, just as the road
starts its final descent to Glacier Point, is a trail to the left
leading to ~Sentinel Dome~. The summit is but a few minutes distant
and from it is revealed a vast panorama of the High Sierra.

A gradual descent in the final one and a half miles takes us past
several lookout points to the road termination at ~Glacier Point
Hotel~. Excellent accommodations are here obtainable. The overhanging
rock and ~Glacier Point~ are 200 yards northward. (For trips from
Glacier Point see Trail Trips 1, 2, and 16 to 23.)


ROAD TRIP IV

YOSEMITE TO TENAYA LAKE, TUOLUMNE MEADOWS AND MONO LAKE _via_ BIG OAK
FLAT AND TIOGA ROADS

(Lake Tenaya 57.7 miles. Tuolumne Meadows 65.2 miles. Mono Lake 88.2
miles)

Most charmingly scenic of all trans-Sierran routes is the historic old
~Tioga Road~. Built by Chinese labor in 1881 to transport ore from the
Tioga Mine (near Mono Lake) across the Sierra to the San Joaquin
Valley, it soon fell into decay when the venture was abandoned. In
1915 the road was purchased by a group of public-spirited citizens and
presented to the government. Since being well repaired it makes
Yosemite accessible from the east and opens up the wonderfully fine
camping country of the High Sierra to the automobile tourist. Hundreds
of motorists take this exceptionally scenic short-cut to Lake Tahoe.
In normal years the road opens July 15th and closes September 30th.
Detailed information may be obtained from the "Circular of General
Information regarding Yosemite National Park," or at the Motorists'
Information Bureau in Yosemite Village. The first twenty-three miles
of the following trip describes the Big Oak Flat Road as far as Carl
Inn, and should be of use to auto parties leaving the park by that
route.

From Yosemite we may follow either the ~Bridalveil~ or the ~El Capitan
Road~ westward. At El Capitan Bridge, four miles west of the village,
the ~Big Oak Flat~ road turns abruptly northward. All machines should
be registered at the nearby checking station. For safety, the park
regulations permit the ascent on even hours only and at a speed of not
more than twelve miles per hour.

Gradually mounting the talus slope of the rough canyon side, we emerge
1200 feet above the valley floor at ~New Inspiration Point~ from which
is our last comprehensive view of the ~Gates of the Valley~. The
outlook, although scenically not as perfect as that from the Wawona
Road, is nevertheless quite attractive, for the depths below when
viewed from this point seem almost always to be permeated by a
transparent blue haze.

Near the top of the steady four-mile climb is ~Gentry Checking
Station~, where motorists should again register. This is a possible
camp for motorists but rather a poor location. One-half mile further
is the "Gentry Townsite," laid out about 1914, and beyond, the site of
the old Gentry Sawmill. There are here a few good places for auto
camps. Water will be found at a spring above the road.

~Cascade Creek~ is crossed a short distance northward. The crossing
offers no good camp sites. Fishing is fair. The short steep grade
beyond the bridge is known locally as "Fords' Rest." We now ascend
~Lilly Creek~ to the crossing about half a mile above. Here the blazes
of the old ~Mono Trail~ may be seen at the left leading down to a
point on the rim of the canyon about three miles distant, where was
once the terminus of the Coulterville Road. In the early days this was
one of the chief routes used by the Indians and cattlemen.

Two miles beyond Cascade Creek is ~Tamarack Flat~ (Alt. 6390), named
from the "tamarack" or lodgepole pine here so abundant. This is a
splendid camping place, but somewhat cold. Fishing is fair and horse
feed may be found upstream. A trail branching to the right leads to
~Aspen Valley~, six miles distant. It is extremely brushy, poorly
marked and almost impassable.

Three miles westward is ~Gin Flat~, the summit of the Big Oak Flat
Road. The meadow, bordered by red and white fir and Jeffrey and
lodgepole pine, offers an attractive but cold campsite. There is a
tradition that a barrel of gin was once buried here by one of the
old-time whiskey peddlers, who was shortly afterwards killed. A more
or less desultory search on the part of not a few "old-timers" failed
to discover the prize, so after a few decades the matter became almost
legendary. But in 1909, as a battalion of negro cavalry were marching
to Yosemite for patrol duty, the tradition was in some way "picked up"
in Groveland by one of the troopers. The commanding officer could
hardly understand why his troops pushed on so readily the next day
until, when camp was pitched at Gin Flat, they started to dig. Not a
stone in the vicinity was left unturned--but the gin was never found.

At ~Crane Flat~ (Alt. 6311) two miles further west are many excellent
camp sites. This camping ground is the one nearest to the ~Tuolumne
Grove of Big Trees~. Water is conveniently piped from a spring to the
vicinity of the ranger cabin. It is a good plan, if camp is to be made
at Crane Flat, to gather firewood _en route_, for it is scarce in the
immediate region. Motorists should register at the log cabin of the
Park Ranger, and all east-bound cars should take water. A road
branching southwestward leads to ~Hazel Green~, about five miles
distant on the Coulterville Road, and to the ~Merced Grove of Big
Trees~, seven and a half miles away. It is narrow and steep, but in
fair condition. About a quarter of a mile from Crane Flat the ~Davis~
(private) ~Road~ turns to the left from the Hazel Green cut-off and
leads to ~Big Meadows~ (4.5 miles) and ~El Portal~ (11.5 miles).

The main road bears to the north a short distance after leaving Crane
Flat and, after one mile of steep descent, enters the ~Tuolumne Grove
of Sequoias~. Most of the thirty trees in the small grove are
advantageously seen from the road, but a short side trip to the
tunnelled ~Dead Giant~ (above and to the right) is well worth while.
This subsidiary road is steep and narrow and most people prefer to
walk to the giant.

One-half mile below the grove the main road passes beneath the rustic
gateway which marks the boundary between ~Yosemite National Park~ and
the ~Stanislaus National Forest~. There are two possible auto camps in
the next mile, but neither are very good. Bearing westward the road
follows down the canyon of ~North Crane Creek~. Good camp sites will
be found at the crossing about two miles below the park line. ~Hogdon
Ranch~, a little more than a mile further, is another good place to
camp. At this abandoned cattle ranch an old road branches to the left.
It is impassable because of washouts. A mile and a half further along
the main road is ~Carl Inn~, a mountain summer resort on the ~South
Fork of the Tuolumne River~. Accommodations are excellent. Gasoline
and oil may here be obtained. There are many fine camp sites in the
vicinity and fishing is fair. One may obtain saddle or pack animals at
the hotel for trail trips in the region.

Just west from the hotel is a main road junction. The ~Big Oak Flat
Road~ to Chinese Camp, Knights Ferry and Stockton continues down the
South Fork, while our road crosses the New England Bridge and bears
northward. One mile takes us to another junction where the ~Hetch
Hetchy Road~ (Road Trip V) branches to the left. The Tioga Road turns
eastward, ascends a rather steep grade thru a fine forest of pine,
cedar and oak, and in 4.2 miles again enters the park at ~Aspen Valley
Ranger Station~. Motorists should stop and register. A government
telephone is here available. There are excellent camping places in the
vicinity and a good spring about two hundred yards northwest of the
ranger cabin.

Two miles inside the park is ~Aspen Valley~, another abandoned cattle
ranch. The long meadow offers a delightful camp. The ~Carlin Trail~,
which is used chiefly by cattlemen, branches to the westward at this
point and makes a rough descent to ~Ackerson Meadow~ six miles
distant. Leading southeast is a trail to ~Tamarack Flat~ on the Big
Oak Flat Road. Over most of its six miles it is so brushy as to be
almost impassable and it is now little used. About one mile north of
Aspen Valley the seldom used "~Packers' Trail~" begins at the left of
the road and bears northward toward ~Hetch Hetchy~. From Aspen Valley
eastward good camping places are so numerous that several will be
passed each hour. They will therefore not be mentioned in the
following text.

Our road now ascends ~Long Gulch~, passes over a low divide, and in
4.2 miles crosses the ~Middle Fork of the Tuolumne River~. This is an
attractive auto camp but horse feed is scarce. The stream is well
stocked with rainbow and eastern brook trout. We now follow along the
well-wooded banks of the Middle Fork and in about three and a half
miles, where the road makes a big bend toward the southeast, we find
the beginning of the trail to ~Harden Lake~, ~Hetch Hetchy~, and ~the
Grand Canyon of the Tuolumne~.

The beautiful little ~Harden Lake~ (Alt. 7575) is only one mile
distant by trail. It is a most attractive place to lunch and the round
trip can easily be made in less than one hour. From points just north
of the lake a most comprehensive view of the Grand Canyon of the
Tuolumne is revealed. Harden Lake contains no trout.

~White Wolf~, some two miles beyond the Harden Lake Trail Junction, is
one of the many fine meadows which our road now traverses. The old
~Ten Lakes Trail~ shown on the U.S.G.S. maps as leading eastward from
this point has been superseded by the new ~Ten Lakes Trail~ up
Yosemite Creek. The old blazes may be followed eastward two and a half
miles to ~Lukens Lake~ (Alt. 8450), a charming little mountain lakelet
surrounded by a park-like forest. It has not yet been stocked with
trout.

About three miles beyond White Wolf the ~Yosemite Creek Trail~ (Trail
Trip 11) branches to the right (south). Yosemite is ten miles distant
by this excellent trail. Passing several small meadows, one of which
is ~Dark Hole~, we descend in about two miles to ~Yosemite Creek
Ranger Cabin~. The station is connected by telephone to Yosemite. From
here a good trail bears to the southwest and joins the main Yosemite
Creek Trail one and a half miles below. Good camp sites are numerous
in the vicinity and at the ~Yosemite Creek Crossing~, about a quarter
of a mile eastward, the new ~Ten Lakes Trail~ follows up the east bank
of the creek. Our road now ascends about two and a half miles of heavy
grades, finally passing over a flat divide and descending almost
imperceptibly to the large meadows at ~Porcupine Flat~, an excellent
camping place. One mile further the ~Yosemite Falls Trail~ branches to
the right and leads southwest five miles to ~Yosemite Point~.

In another mile ~Snow Creek~ is crossed. Fishing is fair down stream.
~Snow Flat~, two and a half miles further, is an especially good place
to camp. It is the usual base camp for the ascent of ~Mount Hoffman~
(Alt. 10,921), three miles to the northwest.

~May Lake~ (Alt. 9400) is about one mile north of the road by a
plainly blazed but rough trail which climbs about 500 feet _en route_.
Beautifully set in the rugged glacial amphitheatre at the east
shoulder of Mount Hoffman, which towers imposingly above, it offers
one of the most attractive side trips of the region. As a campsite it
is unsurpassed. In the days when troops were guardians of the park
this was the officers' private fishing lake--and fishing is most
excellent. It was stocked with Loch Leven trout in 1908, with eastern
brook in 1908 and 1917, and with rainbow in 1908 and 1913.

From ~Snow Flat~ the road rises abruptly for a short distance, then
descends 800 feet in the next three miles to ~Lake Tenaya~. Near a
sharp bend in the road about one mile from the lake, a trail to the
right (Trail Trip 5) leads to Yosemite via Mirror Lake.

~Tenaya Lake~ (Alt. 8141) is one of the gems of the High Sierra. It is
a large, deep, glacial lake imposingly surrounded by granite crags and
domes. Its Indian name, Py-we-ack, meant "lake of the glistening
rocks," referring to the glacier polished granite at its upper end.
The lake and the pyramidal peak to the east were renamed Tenaya when
the last remnant of Chief Tenaya's Yosemite Tribe was captured here by
the Mariposa Battalion on June 5, 1851. The lake is one of the best in
the park for a permanent auto camp. It was stocked with Loch Leven
trout in 1911 and with rainbow, eastern brook, black spotted, and
steelhead in 1917, 1918, and 1919, but fishing is only fair. From the
lower end of the lake the ~Forsyth Pass Trail~ (Trail Trip 6) bears
eastward across the rocky meadows, and the ~Yosemite Trail~ (Trail
Trip 5) takes off toward the southwest.

Our road skirts the western lake shore. At a point where ~Murphy
Creek~ enters from the north are the ruins of a log cabin which was
built by John L. Murphy, one of the early pioneer guides of the
region. The ~McGee Lake Trail~ to ~Waterwheel Falls~ here turns off
from the road. Rounding the polished base of ~Polly Dome~ (Alt. 9786)
we finally halt at ~Tenaya Lake Lodge~ near the white beach at the
lake's upper extremity. Accommodations are excellent and fishing
tackle and rowboats may be rented.

At the head of the long flat canyon bottom is a peculiar glacial
monument often mistaken for Polly Dome. Passing this, our road
continues up the stream to its source, where the great Tuolumne
Glacier overflowed and sent a branch southward to help carve out the
stupendous depths of Tenaya Canyon.

~Tuolumne Meadows~ (Alt. 8594), the most superb of all high mountain
pleasure grounds, lies seven and a half miles from Tenaya Lake. In the
region are innumerable side trips to alpine summits, to lakes and
streams teeming with trout, to thundering waterfalls, and to peaceful
green pastures of the highlands. ~Tioga Pass~ (Alt. 9941) is seven
miles further, and another sixteen miles takes us down Leevining
Canyon to the weird semi-desert region at ~Mono Lake~. The road then
continues northward to ~Lake Tahoe~ about 118 miles distant.


ROAD TRIP V

YOSEMITE TO HETCH HETCHY _via_ BIG OAK FLAT ROAD AND HETCH HETCHY
RAILROAD

(Round trip 77 miles--1 day by motor and railroad)

A new and exceptionally scenic one-day round trip between Yosemite and
Hetch Hetchy has been made possible by the construction activities on
the San Francisco Dam. Throughout the entire season a gasoline
railroad bus runs on daily schedule between Mather (Hog Ranch) and
Hetch Hetchy, stopping long enough to allow one to view the wonderful
canyon and to inspect the enormous engineering project. One may motor
privately from Yosemite to Mather or may ride by the auto stage, which
makes one round trip daily.

From Yosemite we follow the ~Big Oak Flat Road~ (Road Trips VI and IV)
to the road junction one mile north of ~Carl Inn~, a resort on the
~South Fork of the Tuolumne River~. At this junction (23.4 miles from
Yosemite) we turn to the left on the old ~Hog Ranch Road~, which bears
to the northwest thru the pines of the Stanislaus National Forest.

The following six-mile drive to ~Mather~ is entirely thru delightful
woods and meadows--a country quite attractive but with no startling
scenic effects. At Mather is the ~Hog Ranch Ranger Station~, which is
connected by telephone with Yosemite and outside points. Here we again
enter ~Yosemite National Park~.

In the nine-mile rail-motor excursion to Hetch Hetchy we first
traverse a dense pine forest for one mile and then, emerging at the
rim of ~Tuolumne Canyon~, have a wonderfully scenic ride to our
destination.

~Hetch Hetchy~ is a deeply sculptured Yosemite-like valley with the
broad meadows of its level floor flanked by dominating castellated
cliffs. Its most impressive feature is ~Kolana Rock~, a massive
promontory buttressing the precipitous south wall. The two great
waterfalls--~Tueeulala~, the spirit of gracefulness, and ~Wapama~, the
very soul of power--tumble over the north ramparts at the upper end of
the valley. Fortunate, indeed, will be the visitors of the next few
seasons, for the great gorge will be as yet unflooded.


ROAD TRIP VI

YOSEMITE TO EL PORTAL _via_ EL CAPITAN ROAD

(15 miles--1-1/2 hours by stage)

The final hour in Yosemite National Park--that generally spent in the
ride from the valley to El Portal--is one of interest, but it must be
admitted, of anti-climax. Facing westward we lose the wonderful views
which burst upon us in entering, but the trip, for all of that, is
attractive. From Yosemite Village either the Bridalveil or the El
Capitan Road may be followed. The former is the more scenic and is
described as Road Trip VI-A. The latter is set forth in the following
text.

Crossing ~Sentinel Bridge~ our poplar-bordered road bears northward
across a wide meadow from which are magnificent views of ~Yosemite
Falls~ and the ~Lost Arrow~ straight ahead, and ~North Dome~, ~Royal
Arches~ and ~Half Dome~ to the right. At the Grizzly Hotel site a road
forks eastward to Mirror Lake (Road Trip II). Turning westward beneath
the giant black oaks of the meadow border, we soon pass the old
Hutchings Orchard. The memorial bench at the left marks the spot from
which Galen Clarke so loved to contemplate the beauty of "Cholook,"
the fall of falls. A little further are the wild azalia gardens of
~Yosemite Creek~. Just west of the rustic bridge a short branch road
turns to the right to the foot of Yosemite Falls. We continue straight
ahead, passing Yosemite Hospital at the right and then running beneath
the arcade of ~Yosemite Lodge~. Just across the road is the swimming
tank, the tennis courts, laundry, etc. The main buildings occupy the
site of Koom-i´-ne, the largest and most important of the old Indian
villages.

Bearing southward, we now round the base of ~Three Brothers~, the
Waw-haw´-kee or "falling rocks" of the Indians. At the foot of the
great buttress is ~Rocky Point~. The Yosemite tribes called the place
We-äck (the rocks) because, according to their traditions, the huge
boulders in the vicinity fell _upon_ their trail. It is among these
boulders that Tenaya's three sons were captured in 1852, and the
colossal monument above was named for them.

Swinging more directly westward, our road now skirts the base of ~El
Capitan~, the Tote-ack-ah-noo-la or "rock chief" of the Indians. The
image of their fanciful chief is to this day pointed out on the wall
two thousand feet overhead, but he is now called "The Wandering Jew."
In a shallow niche 1189 feet above the road stands a hardy Jeffrey
pine 82.4 feet high and two feet in diameter. For half a mile we pass
thru ~El Capitan Meadows~, where once were the Indian villages of
Yu-a´-chah, Ha-eng´-ah, He-le´-jah and Aw´-o-koi-e. At certain times
during the day the ~Cathedral Spires~ and ~Cathedral Rocks~ on the
opposite side of the valley stand out in remarkable perspective, but
under general light conditions this stereoscopic effect is entirely
lacking.

Beyond El Capitan the ~Ribbon Fall~ may be seen, its dainty streamer
gracefully descending into the rather harsh box-like recess in the
canyon wall. Its Indian name was Lung-o-to-ko-ya, or "pigeon falls." A
cross road to the left passes ~El Capitan Checking Station~ and
crosses ~El Capitan Bridge~ to the ~Bridalveil Road~ south of the
Merced (Road Trips I-A and VI-A). A few steps further along our route
the ~Big Oak Flat Road~ turns to the right and ascends thru the
shattered granite talus of the north canyon side. At this junction was
the old Indian village of Hep-hep'-oo-ma.

Paralleling the Merced, we now and then are treated to glimpses of
~Bridalveil Fall~ dropping gracefully from its hanging valley and
guarded at the left by ~Cathedral Rocks~ and at the right by the
~Leaning Tower~. Where our route traverses a small meadow is the site
of another vanished village, We'-tum-taw. A short distance beyond is
~Black Spring~, which is but a few steps to the right of the road. The
Yosemites called it Poot-poo-toon, and among the rocks surrounding it
was a small community of the same name. Our road now bends gradually
southward following the banks of the Merced. Across the stream is
~Bridalveil Meadow~ and an especially fine view of the ~Gates of the
Valley~. A short distance further is ~Pohono Bridge~, where our road
is joined by the ~Bridalveil Road~ (Road Trips I-A and VI-A) from the
south side of the valley.

About a quarter of a mile westward is the old Mail Carrier's Cabin,
the site of the ancient village of Ah-wah'-ma. Across the canyon the
rugged ramparts of the south rim rise imposingly above and ~Meadow
Brook~ pours over the edge to leap 1170 feet as ~Widow's Tears Fall~.
A small dam in the Merced diverts water for the intake of the two
thousand-watt generators of the new government power house just below
the road. South of the river is a grotesque promontory which is well
named Pulpit Rock.

At the two small bridges about one and a half miles further down the
canyon we pass the foot of ~Cascade Falls~ which, during the flood
waters of early spring, is one of the most attractive scenic features
of the El Portal Highway. From these bridges is also the best view of
~Elephant Rock~, down the canyon. Less than a quarter of a mile
further, ~Wildcat Falls~ pour over the cliff at the right. A short
distance beyond, stage drivers often point out the image of a white
Persian cat on the wall above the road. The old ~Coulterville Road~
now branches to the right and steeply ascends the canyon wall. This
was the first road into Yosemite and was completed in 1874. Just below
Elephant Rock is ~Battleship Harbor~, a placid reach of the Merced in
which fancied granite dreadnaughts ride anchor.

A little more than a mile further down the canyon ~Grouse Creek~
tumbles over the south wall in a series of cascades. We now pass
beneath ~Arch Rock~, a natural tunnel formed by two huge granite talus
blocks. The trail bridge across the Merced, a short distance westward,
is the crossing of the ~Sunset Trail~, which passes the mid-winter
ranger station opposite and ascends past the foot of ~Avalanche Falls~
to the Wawona Road, 2500 feet above.

Two miles further down the canyon we pass out of the park and into the
~Stanislaus National Forest~ thru a region of gnarled oaks and
silver-gray digger pines. During the early season ~Indian Creek~,
across the canyon, forms the picturesque ~Chinquapin Falls~.

One mile below the park line is ~El Portal~, the terminus of the
~Yosemite Valley Railroad~. There is here a hotel and a small store.
On the opposite slope is the incline of the Yosemite Lumber Company
down which flat cars loaded with logs are lowered. From El Portal a
four-hour ride by railroad takes us to ~Merced~.


ROAD TRIP VI-A

YOSEMITE VILLAGE TO POHONO BRIDGE _via_ THE BRIDALVEIL ROAD

(5 miles--20 minutes by stage)

The ~Bridalveil Road~ parallels the south bank of the Merced from
Yosemite to Pohono Bridge, five miles westward. This route is more
attractive and more scenic than the northern, or El Capitan Road,
which is often taken by the stages.

From Yosemite Village we bear westward across the meadows. The
~Sentinel~ towers above at the left and in the distance are the
portals of the valley. About one mile takes us past a Park Ranger's
cabin near the spot where Galen Clarke's house stood until 1919. Just
northward, at the edge of a big meadow, was once the Indian village of
Hoo'-koo-me'-ko-tah.

A little further and directly under the Sentinel stand the remaining
buildings of old Camp Awahnee, occupying the site of the large and
important Indian community of Loi'-ah. The name, which means "a long
water basket," was also the Yosemites' appellation for the great rock
tower above. The ~Short Trail to Glacier Point~ here turns to the left
and begins its zigzag course up the canyon wall. The ~Ford Road~, a
subsidiary route branching to the right, leads to ~The Big Pine~,
which is the largest known specimen of western yellow pine in the
park. During the flood waters of early spring, ~Sentinel Falls~
descend in a picturesque cascade at the western flank of the great
obelisk.

Again continuing westward, we are treated to charming vistas across
the Merced. Especially effective from this angle is the great triple
pyramid of ~Three Brothers~ buttressing the north wall. Just opposite
them on the banks of the river was Kis´-se, the westernmost of the
large Indian villages on the south or "coyote" side of the valley. To
the west a splendid profile of ~El Capitan~ is revealed and suddenly
at the left of the road the ~Cathedral Spires~, each rising 500 feet
from its base, seem to tower above the south rim. The Yosemites called
the latter Po-see´-na Chuck´-ah, or "mouse-proof rocks," from a
fancied resemblance to their acorn caches. A village just below them
in a small meadow near the river was called We´-sum-meh.

We now skirt the powerfully outlined ~Cathedral Rocks~. At ~El Capitan
Bridge~ one may cross to the north side of the river. Directly
opposite is a ranger station at the foot of the ~Big Oak Flat Road~
(Road Trip IV). From that point the ~El Capitan Road~ (Road Trips I
and VI) leads both up and down the valley.

Continuing along the shaded highway, we veer to the south, passing
close to the foot of ~Bridalveil Fall~, charming glimpses of which are
here and there revealed between the trees. Just below a very large
rock at the east margin of ~Bridalveil Creek~ is the site of the
ancient village of Lem-me´-hitch´-ke. Perhaps the unspeakable awe with
which the Yosemites were supposed to look upon Pohono, "the spirit of
the evil wind," has been somewhat exaggerated in the past. A short
subsidiary road turns to the left to the foot of the fall, a brief
side trip which should be taken by all visitors.

A short drive now takes us to the junction with the ~Wawona Road~
(Road Trip III) which bears to the left at ~Bridalveil Checking
Station~ and climbs thru the forests of the canyon-side. Turning to
the right, we soon enter ~Bridalveil Meadow~. Near the river was once
the Indian village of Sap-pah´-sam-mah. At the edge of the meadow,
about 100 feet north of the road, a dense grove of oaks and pines
shelters the graves of two pioneers, Rose and Shurban, who were
massacred here by the Indians in 1852. The view back across the
meadows towards the ~Gates of the Valley~ is one of the best from this
elevation. At the left is the great shoulder of ~El Capitan~, with the
~Ribbon Fall~ almost hidden in a deep recess at its west. At the right
of the portal the beautiful ~Bridalveil~ leaps gracefully from its
hanging valley between ~Cathedral Rocks~ and the ~Leaning Tower~.

Plunging again into the deep woods, we stop for a draught of ice-cold
water at ~Fern Spring~, and a short distance beyond emerge at the
beautiful border of the Merced. Crossing ~Pohono Bridge~ we join the
~El Portal Road~. El Portal is ten miles westward via Road Trip VI,
and Yosemite five miles eastward via Road Trip I.



YOSEMITE TRAILS


For an ideal vacation-land, Yosemite could scarcely be surpassed. Of
the 600 miles of trails in the park probably half are within two days
walking distance of the valley. It is this portion of the park which
is described in the following trail trips--the region which may be
seen on walking tours from the valley as a base camp.

For the person whose days in Yosemite are limited, Glacier Point
undoubtedly offers the most attractive one-day excursion. It is
reached by a number of trails, chief of which are the beautiful Vernal
and Nevada Falls Trail, the steep but thrilling climb up the narrow
Ledge Trail, and the dusty, toilsome ascent of the Short Trail. Most
thrilling of all Yosemite Trails is the ascent of Half Dome, made
possible by the recent construction of a cable-guarded route up its
north shoulder. Further northeastward is the commanding summit of
Clouds Rest, a long one-day round trip, but well repaid by a
magnificent panorama of the High Sierra. North of the Yosemite walls
the most comprehensive views may be had from Eagle Peak. The top of
North Dome is also a vantage point of the first order, but the round
trip is a long one-day climb. The summit of El Capitan, although
exceedingly lofty, is rather disappointing except for the view over
its rim into the abyss below. Sierra Point is but one hour's climb
above the valley and offers an especially good panorama.

Many ideal two-day walking trips from Yosemite are made possible by
accommodations at the lodges in the High Sierra. Chief among these
excursions are the trips to Lake Tenaya, Tuolumne Meadows and Merced
Lake. Other charming trails are described in the following text.


TRAIL TRIP 1

YOSEMITE TO GLACIER POINT _via_ VERNAL AND NEVADA FALLS AND RETURN
_via_ THE SHORT TRAIL

Reverse of Trail Trip 2

(16 miles--8 hours)

If one were so time-poor as to have but one day in Yosemite, he should
by all means climb to Glacier Point via Vernal and Nevada Falls and
return via the Short Trail. This most scenic trip is easily made afoot
in one day and should be taken as follows rather than in the opposite
direction because (_a_) one faces the falls in ascending, and (_b_)
the gradual ascent is less tiring. Early in the season it is a good
plan to carry a sack or newspaper for protection while passing thru
the mist of Vernal Falls.

The ~Vernal and Nevada Falls Trail~ starts near Happy Isles Bridge,
2.3 miles from Yosemite Village. The trail leaves the road at the
right just beyond the bridge, or we may take the footpath through
~Happy Isles~, crossing the river on a foot-log and joining the main
trail a quarter mile above. Ascending the canyon, the trail climbs 200
feet above the roaring Merced, which was here called by the Indians
the "Yanopah" or "water cloud," referring to the mist of Vernal Falls.
A quarter of a mile from the bridge is a fine spring. Here the ~Sierra
Point Trail~ (Trail Trip 12) turns left. Rounding the base of ~Grizzly
Peak~ we pass opposite the mouth of ~Illilouette Canyon~ and see
~Illilouette Falls~ (Drop 350 feet) at its head. The name is a
corruption of the Indian name, Too-tool-a-we-ack. The small dam in the
river below diverts water to the Happy Isles Power House. To the left
of Illilouette Canyon is ~Panorama Cliff~, along the rim of which our
trail runs after a three-hour climb by the Mist Trail (one hour longer
by horse trail).

Descending 100 feet the trail crosses ~Vernal Bridge~, from which is a
fine view of ~Vernal Falls~, a half mile distant. Near this point was
the old Indian Camp of Ap´-poo-meh. Straight ahead the horse trail
climbs 1600 feet and then descends to the top of Vernal Falls.
Pedestrians should take the much more scenic ~Mist Trail~, which turns
left just beyond the bridge, saving thereby one hour and several
hundred feet climb. Paralleling the river we pass ~Lady Franklin
Rock~, from whence may be obtained excellent photographs of Vernal
Falls. The trail mounts thru the boulder-strewn forest and finally
rounds a rocky point on a narrow ledge. Use extreme caution on
slippery wet rocks! We now enter the mist, traversing the luxuriant
garden of flowers and grasses which gives the fall its name. Between
10 and 12 a.m. beautiful ~circular rainbows~ may be seen in the mist.
Climbing the steep slope at the right we obtain fine profiles of the
fall. The trail then swings beneath an overhanging cliff and mounts a
steep narrow ledge to the top of ~Vernal Falls~ (Alt. 5049, Drop 317
feet). The Indians called the fall "Yan-o-pah," or "water cloud,"
which was also the name for the canyon below. Over the rim of the
natural granite parapet we have an excellent outlook down the canyon.
By climbing along the rim southeast of the falls we find a ladder and
hanging trail descending to a grotto, from which a good view of
Glacier Point is obtained.

Above Vernal Falls we pass a glacial tarn called ~Emerald Pool~, at
the upper end of which the Merced rushes down over smooth granite,
forming the beautiful ~Silver Apron~ and ~Waterwheel~.

Just above is the ~Diamond Cascade~ and bridge. Our trail now joins
the horse trail, which descends from the slope above. Crossing the
river at Diamond Cascade, the trail ascends to ~Snow Flat~ below
~Liberty Cap~ (Alt. 7072), which towers above to the left. This
granite dome, the Mah'-ta, or "Martyr Mountain" of the Indians, can be
ascended by a difficult climb up its eastern flank. Good rock-climbers
will find an interesting scramble up the deep defile between this dome
and ~Mt. Broderick~ (Alt. 6705) just northward. At the left of the
trail is the site of the old La Casa Nevada Hotel (The Snow House),
which was built in the early days and burned down in 1897. The old
register is in the Yosemite Museum. The rockslide to the left fell
from the face of Liberty Cap in 1918. Fishing is fair from Diamond
Cascade to Nevada Falls. The trail turns left and mounts 500 feet by
the famous ~Nevada Falls Zigzags~. When white men first visited
Yosemite, part of the Merced descended in a cascade where the trail is
now built. At the top of the switchbacks the trail to ~Little
Yosemite~, ~Clouds Rest~, ~Tuolumne Meadows~ and ~Merced Lake~ (Trail
Trips 13, 5, 8 and 7) continues up the canyon. There is here a
government telephone (Central 1 ring). The new location of a
refreshment stand and rest house in the vicinity is indicated by a
sign.

Our trail turns right and crosses a small bridge, thence turning
southwest to the top of ~Nevada Falls~ (Alt. 5910, Height 594 ft.).
Nevada is "snow" in Spanish and replaces the old Indian name Yo-wy-we.
Note especially the shooting spray rockets. These are most wonderful
when painted by first rays of sunshine at 7.30 to 8 a.m. Many claim
that, looking down from the rim, the Nevada is the valley's most
fascinating and beautiful fall. Above this point the river was called
by the Yosemite Tribe "Yo-wy-we-ack," or the "twisting rock" branch.

Crossing the river just above the falls, the trail climbs abruptly 700
feet by switchbacks. At the summit the ~Mono Meadow~ and ~Merced Pass
Trail~ up ~Illilouette Creek~ turns left (Trail Trip 23). Our trail
turns right and follows the rim of ~Panorama Cliff~ almost level for
about one mile to ~Panorama Point~ (Alt. 6224). From here is a fine
view of ~Royal Arches~, ~Washington Column~ and ~North Dome~ across
the head of ~Yosemite Valley~, and of ~Half Dome~ and ~Grizzly Peak~
to the right. The trail descends 400 feet to the top of ~Illilouette
Falls~ (Alt. 5850, Fall 370 ft.). Good fishing is reported in upper
~Illilouette Creek~. Exploration up this canyon will well repay those
interested in glacial phenomena.

Climbing out of the ~Illilouette Canyon~, the trail runs north thru
open forest. The fallen trees and prostrate bushes are caused by
snow-slides from ~Illilouette Ridge~ above (Alt. 8250. Fine view from
summit). As the trail climbs, the view of ~Mt. Starr King~, ~Mt.
Clark~ and the ~High Sierra~ gradually unfolds. The trail joining from
the south leads to ~Buena Vista Lake~ and ~Royal Arch Lake~ (Trail
Trip 22). From one point in the ascent is an especially good profile
of ~Half Dome~ across the canyon. Following along granite ledges the
trail passes ~Glacier Point Hotel~ (Alt. 7200), from which is a most
comprehensive panorama of the High Sierra. Accommodations are
excellent and one should remain here over night if possible to see the
sunrise. ~Glacier Point~ and the overhanging rock are about 200 yards
beyond the hotel. This lookout point was called Patill'ima by the
Yosemite Tribe. From here we obtain what is without doubt the vastest
and most awe-inspiring view readily accessible to tourists. The valley
floor is 3250 feet below. An inclined shaft elevator thru solid
granite from the foot of the cliff is being planned. For trips from
Glacier Point see Trail Trips 16 to 23.

The descent from Glacier Point to Yosemite is generally made by the
~Short Trail~ (5 miles, 1-1/2 hour walk). From the hotel the trail
follows westward along the canyon wall. Rounding a point we get an
excellent profile view of the ~Gates of the Valley~ with ~Sentinel
Rock at~ the left and ~El Capitan~ at the right. Descending 900 feet
by switchbacks thru a forest of fir, sugar pine, yellow pine, Douglas
fir and incense cedar, we reach ~Union Point~ (Alt. 6314--2350 feet
above the valley floor). There is here a refreshment stand where
cooling drinks and light lunches may be obtained. A short distance
from the point is a shelter cabin and a government telephone (Central
1 ring).

Descending past ~Agassiz Column~, a huge balancing shaft of granite,
the trail zigzags down the mountain side, emerging at several vantage
points from which are obtained especially fine views of ~Half Dome~
and the north end of the valley. The character of the forest now
changes, oaks and laurel entering to replace the diminishing fir. The
trail terminates at the foot of ~Sentinel Rock~ at the site of the old
Camp Awahnee and the more ancient Indian village of Loi'-ah. Yosemite
is 1.3 miles distant by road to the right. During the season a regular
auto-bus service is maintained between this and other valley points.


TRAIL TRIP 2

YOSEMITE TO GLACIER POINT _via_ THE SHORT TRAIL AND RETURN _via_
VERNAL AND NEVADA FALLS

Reverse of Trail Trip 1

(16 miles--8 hours)

The Glacier Point excursion is a most scenic one-day trip and this is
the most widely used of Yosemite trails. Parties are advised to take
the reverse of this trip (Trail Trip 1) thereby obtaining views of the
falls which are unnoticed on the down trip. The ascent is also more
gradual and therefore less tiring.

The ~Short Trail to Glacier Point~ starts from the Bridalveil Road 1.3
miles west of Yosemite at the site of old Camp Awahnee and of the more
ancient Indian village of Loi'-ah. Turning southward we ascend
abruptly thru a dense forest of oak, mountain laurel, scattered pines,
cedar and Douglas fir. As the trail climbs rapidly by switchbacks,
broad-leaved trees disappear, their places being taken by sugar pines
and true firs from above. Frequently the trail emerges at vantage
points from which are obtained especially fine views of ~Half Dome~
and the north end of the valley. A climb of 2350 feet takes us past a
balancing shaft of granite, ~Agassiz Column~, to ~Union Point~ (Alt.
6314). At this fine view-point are a government shelter cabin and
telephone (Central 1 ring.)

The remaining 900-foot climb to Glacier Point is thru a dense forest
with some vast views to the northeast. A short level stretch near the
end leads to ~Glacier Point~ (Alt. 7214). The view from the vicinity
of the overhanging rock is without doubt the vastest and most
awe-inspiring sight readily accessible to tourists. The Yosemite Tribe
called this lookout point Patill'ima. Yosemite is 3250 feet below. An
inclined shaft elevator thru solid granite from the foot of the cliff
is being planned. For trips from Glacier Point see Trail Trips 16 to
23.

The ~Glacier Point Hotel~ and cottages are but 200 yards distant. The
panorama of the ~High Sierra~ from the hotel balcony is especially
fine. Accommodations are excellent and it is recommended that the
tourist remain over night if possible to see the sunrise.

Passing the hotel the trail descends gradually along granite ledges
revealing a most impressive profile of ~Half Dome~ across the canyon.
During the descent into the canyon of the Illilouette several patches
of fallen trees and prostrate brush are passed. These are caused by
the frequent snow slides from the ~Illilouette Ridge~ above (Alt.
8250. Fine view). At a trail forks, the ~Buena Vista Trail~ (Trail
Trip 22) branches south up the ~Illilouette Canyon~. An abrupt descent
by zigzags takes us to a point from which is obtained a good view of
the lace-like ~Illilouette Fall~. The name is a corruption of the old
Indian name Too-tool-a-we-ack. A few feet below we stop at the lip of
the fall (Alt. 5850). The canyon above abounds in glacial phenomena
and will well repay a side trip for those interested in geology.
Fishing is good up the canyon.

A climb of 375 feet takes us to ~Panorama Point~ (Alt. 6224), from
which is an imposing view of the upper end of the valley and the mouth
of ~Tenaya Canyon~. To the right is the sheer edge of ~Panorama
Cliff~, along which our trail now follows almost level for about a
mile. In the canyon below can be seen our route of about two hours
hence. At a trail forks the ~Mono Meadow~ and ~Merced Pass Trail~
(Trail Trip 23) turns right into the ~Illilouette Creek Basin~.

Now begins an abrupt descent of 700 feet by switchbacks to the ~Merced
River~ which, above this point, was called by the Yosemite Tribe the
Yo-wy-we-ack or "twisting rock" branch. A few steps from the bridge is
the top of ~Nevada Falls~ (Alt. 5910, Drop 594 ft.). Nevada is Spanish
for snow and replaces the old Indian name Yo-wy-we. Many claim that
the view from the overhanging ledge is the most fascinating
water-vista of Yosemite. Note especially the shooting spray rockets.
These are most wonderful when painted by the first rays of sunshine at
7:30 to 8 a.m.

About a quarter of a mile upstream the trail crosses a small bridge
and is joined by the ~Clouds Rest~, ~Sunrise~, ~Lake Merced~ and
~Little Yosemite Trail~ (Trail Trips 5, 8, 7 and 13). Here is a
government telephone (Central 1 ring). Fishing is good about two miles
upstream in ~Little Yosemite~. In the following abrupt 500-foot
descent by zigzags some fine profile views of ~Nevada Falls~ are
obtained. When white men first visited Yosemite part of the Merced
cascaded down the steep slope where the trail is now built. As the
trail crosses ~Snow Flat~ at the foot of Nevada Falls, the ruins of
the old "La Casa Nevada," or "Snow House," are seen at the right of
the trail. The old register, which dates back to 1871, is in the
Yosemite Museum. ~Liberty Cap~ (Alt. 7072), which the Indians called
Mah'ta or "Martyr Mountain," towers above to the right. It may be
ascended from the east and good rock climbers will find an interesting
scramble up the deep defile between this dome and ~Mount Broderick~
(Alt. 6705) just northward. The talus of huge rocks above the trail
fell from the face of Liberty Cap in 1918.

A bridge across the Merced takes us directly over the ~Diamond
Cascade~. Below is the ~Silver Apron~. From the bridge upstream is
fair fishing. A short distance beyond the crossing is a fork where the
main or "horse trail" turns to the left and climbs 350 feet up the
canyon wall in order to pass Vernal Falls. Pedestrians should turn to
the right and take the far more scenic ~Mist Trail~, thereby saving a
half hour and several hundred feet climb. Following down the river we
pass the ~Silver Apron~ and ~Waterwheel~, below which is a perfect
glacial tarn called ~Emerald Pool~. Near its mouth is the rim of
~Vernal Falls~ (Alt. 5049, Drop 317 ft.). From behind the natural
breast-high granite parapet we have another excellent outlook. The
fall was called by the Indians Yan-o-pah, or "water cloud," which term
was also applied to the canyon below. By climbing along the rim
southeast of the falls we find a ladder and hanging trail descending
to a ~grotto~, from which is a good view of ~Glacier Point~.

Nearer the fall the ~Mist Trail~ suddenly drops over the edge of the
cliff and follows down a steep, narrow ledge which is well guarded by
chains and iron posts. From here and from the zigzags just below we
obtain excellent profiles of the fall. We now enter the mist, passing
down thru a luxurious growth of grasses and flowers, which caused the
fall to be given its present name. Between 10 and 12 a.m. the
beautiful ~circular rainbows~ may here be seen. Use extreme caution on
slippery wet rocks! Following around the base of a cliff on a narrow
ledge, the trail again enters a forest and parallels the river. We
stop at ~Lady Franklin Rock~, where is obtained one of the best vistas
of the falls (good photograph). A short distance downstream the two
trails reunite just before crossing ~Vernal Bridge~, from which is a
good distant view of the falls. In the canyon below was the old Indian
camp of Ap´-poo-meh.

The trail now mounts about 200 feet above the riotous Merced and in
rounding the base of ~Grizzly Peak~ offers a clear perception of the
deep recess below ~Illilouette Falls~.

Again approaching the river we pass a spring and water trough where
the ~Sierra Point Trail~ (Trail Trip 12) joins from the right. The
~Happy Isles Bridge~ on the main road is a quarter of a mile distant.
We have the choice of descending by the main trail or crossing the
foot-log to ~Happy Isles~, and thence by several bridges and footpaths
to the main road.

The road to the right leads to Mirror Lake. We turn left. Camp Curry
is one mile distant and Yosemite Village 2.3 miles.


TRAIL TRIP 3

YOSEMITE TO NORTH DOME _via_ YOSEMITE FALLS AND RETURN _via_ MIRROR
LAKE

Reverse of Trail Trip 4

(19.5 miles--10 hours)

The ~North Dome~ trip is a strenuous one-day climb and should be taken
as follows rather than Trail Trip 4, thus avoiding the hot ascent of
the Mirror Lake zigzags. One should start early, reaching the top of
the falls before the heat becomes excessive.

The ~Yosemite Falls Trail~ was built in the early days and operated as
a toll trail. It leaves the road a short distance west of ~Yosemite
Lodge~. In the first mile we ascend by sharp zigzags thru a shady
grove of golden oak and laurel, emerging above into the open and
climbing granite ledges to ~Columbia Point~ (Alt. 5031). From here is
a splendid view, especially of the upper end of the valley. Turning
north, the trail ascends a few feet and then follows along a granite
ledge beautifully shaded by oaks, laurel, Douglas fir and pines. At
the left of the trail about a quarter of a mile above Columbia Point
is a spring. A short, rather steep descent takes us to ~Valley View~,
a lookout point a short distance to the right of the trail, from which
is an excellent view of the valley and the ~Upper Yosemite Fall~.
Skirting the base of an almost perpendicular cliff at the left, the
trail approaches the foot of the upper fall and bears to the left.
From this point it is possible to leave the trail and climb to the
foot of the upper fall, entering the cave under its base except during
high water. The climb is dangerous because of slippery rocks.

By switchbacks the trail ascends the steep slope west of the falls,
crossing a small stream after a quarter-mile climb. During the hour
ascent of the zigzags, ~Mount Clark~ (Alt. 11,506), ~Gray Peak~ (Alt.
11,581) and other High Sierra summits may be seen to the southeast.
Across the canyon are ~Glacier Point~ and ~Sentinel Dome~. At a trail
junction 100 feet beyond the canyon rim is a government telephone
(Central 1 ring). Here the ~Eagle Peak~ and ~Yosemite Creek Trails~
continue straight ahead (Trail Trips 9, 10 and 11). Our trail turns to
the right and crosses a small stream. Just beyond, the main trail
passes over a low rise. A branch to the left follows south along the
open ridge for a short distance to the top of the falls. From the
railed lookout point, peering into the chasm below we see what Muir
describes as one of the most impressive phenomena of the valley.
Retracing our route to the main trail and turning left, we cross
~Yosemite Creek~ and climb 300 feet on the further side, thence
turning southward. A short trail to the rim takes us to ~Yosemite
Point~ (Alt. 6935), from which is a vast view of the valley and the
High Sierra. The granite spire at the right and just below is "Le
Hammo," the Lost Arrow of one of the most beautiful Yosemite Indian
legends.

Returning to the main trail we climb parallel to the eastern rim of
the cliff. To the right are ~Castle Cliffs~ and the flat summit of
~North Dome~ beyond. After a climb of 400 feet the trail crosses a
ridge and traverses a dense forest of fir and pine, descending 400
feet and crossing ~Indian Creek~. Directly south is ~Indian Canyon~,
called by the Yosemite Tribe "Le Hamite," because of the arrowwood
which grew there. Their main trail into Yosemite followed along the
precipitous east side of the canyon.

The ~Little Winkle Branch of Indian Creek~ is crossed a half mile
beyond the main stream, and here the ~Snow Flat Trail~ continues
upstream. Turning to the right, our trail passes thru a fir forest
about one mile to ~Indian Ridge~, which it follows south over
disintegrating granite and thru stunted forest to the rounded summit
of ~North Dome~ (Alt. 7531). The view is most comprehensive and the
sheer vertical wall of ~Half Dome~ gives an impression of massiveness
nowhere else obtained. To the north of the trail near the summit is
~Slipper Rock~.

In returning to Yosemite we take all main trails to the right.
Retracing our path up ~Indian Ridge~ it is possible to follow the
trail back to the ~East~ or ~Little Winkle Fork of Indian Creek~, and
turn right on the ~Snow Flat Trail~, but the better and the shorter
way is to follow the plain blazes which turn to the right about a half
mile from the North Dome summit and just west of the crest of ~Indian
Ridge~. Running thru a beautiful forest this trail joins the main
~Snow Flat Trail~ at the ~Little Winkle Branch of Indian Creek~ just
west of ~Indian Rock~.

It is also possible to leave the trail and follow up Indian Ridge from
North Dome, gradually bearing to the right of ~Indian Rock~ and
intersecting the main ~Mirror Lake Trail~ near the top of the zigzags.

Our trail follows up the ~East~ or ~Little Winkle Branch of Indian
Creek~, at the source of which the ~Porcupine Flat Trail~ branches to
the left. The ~Mirror Lake Trail~ swings north of ~Indian Rock~, and
descends east to a branch of ~Snow Creek~, passing ~Snow Creek Falls~.
Further down Snow Creek is the junction with the ~Lake Tenaya Trail~
(Trail Trips 5 and 6). Turning right we further descend Snow Creek and
pass over the rim of the canyon between ~Basket Dome~ (Alt. 7602) at
the right and ~Mt. Watkins~ (Alt. 8235) at the left. In the next one
and a half miles a descent of 2500 feet is made by 108 switchbacks to
the floor of ~Tenaya Canyon~. Following down the canyon one mile, the
trail joins the road at ~Mirror Lake~. Yosemite is three miles distant
by road.


TRAIL TRIP 4

YOSEMITE TO NORTH DOME _via_ MIRROR LAKE AND RETURN _via_ YOSEMITE
FALLS TRAIL

Reverse of Trail Trip 3

(19.5 miles--10 hours)

This is a strenuous one-day climb. The advantage of taking the trip as
follows and seeing the sunrise at ~Mirror Lake~ is more than offset by
physical penalty of climbing the hot and steep ~Tenaya Trail~ zigzags.
The trip is better taken in the reverse direction (Trail Trip 3). If
the following route is adhered to, it is best to leave Yosemite as
early as possible, carrying a canteen which should be filled about
three-quarters of a mile above Mirror Lake.

~Mirror Lake~ is three miles distant by road from Yosemite. Here our
trail leaves the end of the road and skirts the west shore. Following
up the canyon beneath the dense forest about one mile we suddenly turn
left and start the 2500-foot ascent. From the 108 switchbacks are many
fine views. After a long, tiresome climb the trail passes over the
canyon rim between ~Mt. Watkins~ (Alt. 8235) at the right and ~Basket
Dome~ (Alt. 7602) at the left. A short distance takes us to ~Snow
Creek~, which cascades beautifully further down its rough canyon.
Turning upstream we soon arrive at a trail fork where the ~Tenaya Lake
Trail~ (Trail Trip 6) turns right. We turn left, following up the west
branch about a mile further. In high water ~Snow Creek Falls~ is
especially attractive. The trail now makes a wide detour to the north
of ~Indian Rock~ (Alt. 8526). If desirable, pedestrians may leave the
trail and climb to its summit, from which are good views, thence
following south down the long open ridge to the summit of ~North
Dome~.

The trail keeps at a lower elevation, passing thru almost level fir
forests and meadows with a charming diversity of wild-flowers and
trees. Gradually bearing southward our trail follows down the ~East~
or ~Little Winkle Branch of Indian Creek~ from its source. The main
~Snow Flat Trail~ continues down this stream, but we turn left on the
plainly blazed ~cut-off trail to North Dome~. Passing thru the dense
forests on the west flank of ~Indian Ridge~, we finally emerge on the
open disintegrated granite at the crest of the long slope leading
southward to North Dome. Here the ~Yosemite Falls Trail~ joins from
the west. The rounded summit of ~North Dome~ (Alt. 7531) is now easily
reached by a walk thru the open forest and over granite pavements,
which here exhibit very well the geological phenomenon of exfoliation
or weathering in concentric shells. Near the summit and to the north
of the trail is ~Slipper Rock~. From the top is a vast outlook,
especially westward toward the ~Gates of the Valley~ and eastward
where the great wall of ~Half Dome~ dominates the entire landscape.
The floor of ~Yosemite Valley~ is partly hidden by the projecting
~Royal Arch Cliff~. Daring rock climbers who have made the descent to
the edge describe this dizzy precipice as one of the most impressive
in the park.

In returning to Yosemite we take all main trails to the left.
Retracing our path for about half a mile up ~Indian Ridge~, we turn
westward. One mile more thru dense forest takes us past a small stream
and to the ~Little Winkle Branch of Indian Creek~, where the main
~Snow Flat Trail~ joins from upstream. The steep canyon below was
called "Le Hamite" by the Yosemite Indians because of the arrowwood
which grew there. Their main trail into Yosemite followed along the
precipitous east wall of the canyon.

A climb of 400 feet thru the forest now takes us to the summit of a
long ridge which we follow southward, finally paralleling the edge of
a deep precipice just westward from ~Castle Cliffs~ and emerging
abruptly at ~Yosemite Point~ (Alt. 6935). This is one of the justly
famous view-points of Yosemite and offers a remarkable combination of
depths and distances. The granite spire just below and at the right is
the ~Lost Arrow~, the "Le Hammo" of the Yosemite Tribe, the story of
which is one of their most charming legends.

Returning a short distance to the main trail we descend to ~Yosemite
Creek~. On the open ridge just beyond the crossing is a secondary
trail which leads to the rim of the ~Upper Yosemite Fall~, a few
hundred feet distant. The wonderful view from this point is most
thrillingly described by Muir.

Returning to the main trail we cross a small stream where is the
junction with the ~Yosemite Creek~, ~Eagle Peak~ and ~Ten Lakes
Trails~ (Trail Trips 11, 9 and 10). There is here a government
telephone (Central 1 ring). Turning left we descend abruptly 1600 feet
by sharp, dusty switchbacks, finally skirting the bottom of the almost
vertical cliff west of the falls. At this point one can leave the
trail and climb to the foot of the upper fall, in times of low water
even entering the cave beneath its base. The climb is dangerous
because of the slippery rocks.

The trail now passes southward along a granite ledge beneath the shade
of oaks and laurel. A short steep descent at the left of the trail
takes us to ~Valley View~, an excellent lookout point. Less than
one-half mile further is ~Columbia Point~ (Alt. 5031) from which is a
particularly wide and effective panorama. The following 2000-foot
descent to the floor of Yosemite Valley is first along granite ledges
among scattered Douglas firs and golden oaks, and finally beneath the
dense laurel and oak forests of the lower talus slopes. At the foot of
the trail is the ~El Capitan Road~. Auto busses run between this and
other valley points on half-hour service. ~Yosemite Lodge~ is a short
distance eastward and ~Yosemite Village~ is about three-quarters of a
mile distant via Yosemite Lodge and the foot-bridge.


TRAIL TRIP 5

YOSEMITE TO TENAYA LAKE _via_ CLOUDS REST AND FORSYTH PASS AND RETURN
_via_ MIRROR LAKE

Reverse of Trail Trip 6

(32.25 miles--2-day trip)

Owing to the stupendous mountain scenery and the charming diversity of
meadows and forests thru which this trail passes, it deserves to be
ranked among the most scenic of Yosemite Trails. Two days should be
taken for the trip. Excellent accommodations will be found at Tenaya
Lake Lodge, but reservations should be made in advance from Yosemite.

From Yosemite we take the road past ~Camp Curry~ to ~Happy Isles
Bridge~. Here we turn to the right on the main ~Glacier Point Trail~
and follow Trail Trip 1 as far as the trail junction at the top of the
~Nevada Falls~ zigzags. At this point we turn left, rising rather
abruptly about 200 feet and then following up the north bank of the
Merced river. About a half mile takes us to a junction where the
~Little Yosemite Trail~ (Trail Trip 13) continues on up the ~Little
Yosemite Valley~. Our trail turns to the left uphill and mounts by
switchbacks thru a dense stand of pine, fir and cedar. A climb of 1000
feet in one and a half miles takes us to the junction where the ~Half
Dome Trail~ (Trail Trip 14) turns to the left. Our trail turns right
along a gently inclined bench and in one-half mile again branches. To
the right is the ~Sunrise Trail~ (Trail Trip 8). By taking this trail
and branching north on the cut-off route about two miles further, some
distance can be saved by those who do not wish to visit Clouds Rest.

The main trail, which turns to the left, should be followed. It
continues the climb towards the northeast. About half a mile westward
are the two ~Quarter Domes~ (Alt. 8160 and 8276). At an altitude of
8200 we pass a spring. Above this the trail rises sharply by zigzags
to the base of the ~Pinnacles~ (Alt. 9451). A climb of a few hundred
feet along their east flank takes us near the summit of ~Clouds Rest~
(Alt. 9924). A short branch trail up the steep and rocky slope leads
to the crest, from which is a vast view in all directions. This is the
highest of the Yosemite Valley summits.

We descend again to the trail, which turns northeast and follows along
the canyon rim, keeping generally just east of the crest. In two miles
the cut-off trail from Little Yosemite joins from the right. After
gradually bearing to the left, now on the Tenaya Canyon slope, we pass
a small lake at the right of the trail. The lake contains no fish, but
upstream one mile is ~Mildred Lake~ (Alt. 9600), in which are some
very large trout.

Traversing ~Forsyth Pass~, the picturesque trail now descends 1000
feet in the next two and a half miles over rough granite to the rocky
meadows just below ~Lake Tenaya~ (Alt. 8141). This large, deep glacial
lake is beautifully surrounded by granite crags and domes. Its Indian
name, Py-we-ack, meant "lake of the glistening rocks," referring to
the glacier-polished granite at its upper end. The lake and the peak
to the east were renamed "Tenaya" when the last remnant of Chief
Tenaya's Yosemite Tribe was captured here by the Mariposa Battalion on
June 5, 1851. There is here good camping, and pasturage seems
abundant, but horses do not like it and should therefore be hobbled to
prevent straying. The lake was stocked with Loch Leven trout in 1911
and with rainbow, eastern brook, black spotted and steelhead in 1917,
1918 and 1919, but fishing is only fair. Crossing the meadows at the
outlet our trail joins the ~Tioga Road~, which follows the western
margin of the lake to the ~Tenaya Lake Lodge~, about one and a half
miles distant, where good accommodations will be found. The road
continues up the canyon to ~Tuolumne Meadows~ seven and a half miles
distant, and to Mono Lake.

From Tenaya Lake to Mirror Lake are two trails, which unite after
about two and a half miles. The first of these starts from the road
just beyond the sharp bend about one and a quarter miles from the lake
and bears southwest thru the forest. The other, which is far more
scenic, crosses the meadow and park-like forest below the lake,
passing a beautiful little unnamed lake where good camp sites and
horse-feed will be found, but no fishing. Beyond this is a gradual
300-foot ascent along an open ridge. Below is the deep chasm of the
inaccessible and little known ~Tenaya Canyon~. The unbroken granite
abutments of ~Clouds Rest~ sweep down almost 4000 feet. After each
snowstorm these cliffs shed avalanche after avalanche. At about two
and a half miles from Tenaya Lake the less scenic trail from the Tioga
Road joins from the right. Descending southwest thru timber the trail
passes ~Hidden Lake~ (Alt. 8400--picturesque but no fishing) which is
to the left of the trail but invisible without making a detour. About
two miles further is ~Tenmile Meadow~ (Alt. 8400) on a small tributary
of ~Tenaya Creek~. This is a good place to noon. There is here fine
horse-feed, also good camp sites, but no fishing.

An abrupt climb of 650 feet now takes us over a spur ridge and to the
source of the east branch of ~Snow Creek~. There is here a small
meadow at the left of the trail, where good horse-feed and camp sites
will be found. A 1500-foot descent by zigzags thru scattered timber
takes us down a side canyon to ~Snow Creek~, across which is a
foot-log. About 300 yards beyond the crossing, the ~North Dome Trail~
(Trail Trip 4) turns northwest and follows up the west branch of Snow
Creek. We turn left, passing thru a beautiful forest of Jeffrey pine,
lodgepole pine and fir. Fishing is fair, but the trout are small.
About one mile below the crossing we suddenly emerge at the rim of the
canyon between ~Mt. Watkins~ (Alt. 8235) at the left and ~Basket Dome~
(Alt. 7602) at the right. The following abrupt descent of 2500 feet by
108 switchbacks takes us to the bottom of ~Tenaya Canyon~. Turning
downstream our trail enters a dense forest of oaks, laurel, pine and
cedar. One mile of almost level path takes us to ~Mirror Lake~, where
we skirt the west shore to the end of the road. Yosemite is three
miles distant by road.


TRAIL TRIP 6

YOSEMITE TO TENAYA LAKE _via_ MIRROR LAKE AND RETURN _via_ FORSYTH
PASS AND CLOUDS REST

Reverse of Trail Trip 5

(32.25 miles--2-day trip)

~Tenaya Lake~ is one of the gems of the High Sierra. The very scenic
two-day round trip from Yosemite is too long and strenuous to be
attempted in one day. Excellent accommodations will be found at Tenaya
Lake Lodge, but reservations should be made in advance by telephone.
If the trip is to be taken in the following direction one should start
early to avoid the intense heat of the zigzags above Mirror Lake.
Water should be carried.

The trail starts at ~Mirror Lake~, three miles from Yosemite. One
should plan to see sunrise there (about 8 a.m. in summer). Skirting
the west shore the trail follows up the canyon about one mile, thru a
dense forest of oak, laurel, yellow pine, Douglas fir and incense
cedar. Then begins a long, hard climb of 2500 feet up 108 switchbacks
(one and a half miles--two hours).

Above the rim of the canyon the trail follows the west bank of ~Snow
Creek~. Fishing is fair but the trout small. Further down stream are
picturesque cascades. After passing thru a forest of Jeffrey pine,
lodgepole pine and fir for about one mile the trail to North Dome and
Tioga Road (Trail Trip 4) branches to the left. Our trail turns right
and crosses ~Snow Creek~ (foot-log) about 300 yards beyond. We then
climb 1500 feet by zigzags up an east branch of Snow Creek thru
scattered timber. At the headwaters of this creek is a small meadow at
the right of the trail, a good campsite with forage fairly abundant.

Rising over a spur ridge, the trail drops abruptly about 650 feet to
~Tenmile Meadow~ (Alt. 8400) on a small tributary of ~Tenaya Creek~.
This is a good place to noon. It is a fine camp and horse-feed is
abundant, but there is no fishing. Climbing to the northeast thru
timber the trail passes ~Hidden Lake~ (Alt. 8400--picturesque, but no
fishing), which is a short distance to the right of the trail but not
visible from it. About two and a half miles beyond Tenmile Meadow the
trail forks. The left branch leads to the ~Tioga Road~, about one mile
distant, which may then be followed to Lake Tenaya. The trail to the
right is far more scenic. It follows an open granite ridge revealing
the wonderfully glaciated canyon below and ~Clouds Rest~ opposite.
Down the canyon are Half Dome and the head of Yosemite Valley.
Descending about 300 feet the trail passes a beautiful little unnamed
lake, where are good camp sites and abundant pasturage, but no
fishing. From here the trail traverses almost level meadows and a
scattered forest of lodgepole pine one mile to ~Lake Tenaya~ (Alt.
8141). This large, deep glacial lake is beautifully surrounded by
granite crags and domes and is a splendid place for a permanent camp.
Its Indian name was Py-we-ack, or "lake of the glistening rocks,"
because of the glacier-polished granite pavements near the north end.
On June 5, 1851, when the last remnant of old Chief Tenaya's Yosemite
Tribe was captured here by the Mariposa Battalion, the lake and the
dominant pyramidal peak at the east were renamed "Tenaya." Forage is
abundant in the vicinity but it is not liked by horses, so stock
should be hobbled. The lake was stocked with Loch Leven trout in 1911
and with rainbow, eastern brook, black spotted and steelhead in 1917,
1918 and 1919, but fishing is only fair. The ~Tioga Road~ follows
around the western margin of the lake to ~Tenaya Lake Lodge~, about
one and a half miles distant, where good accommodations will be found.
The road continues up the canyon to ~Tuolumne Meadows~, seven and a
half miles distant, and to ~Mono Lake~.

Our return trail starts just below the lake. Crossing the meadow it
mounts the east slope steadily climbing 1000 feet up the rough granite
to ~Forsyth Pass~, two and a half miles distant. Fine views are
obtained all along the trail. Near the summit a small shallow lake can
be seen east of the trail. By leaving the trail and following up the
small stream about one mile, ~Mildred Lake~ (Alt. 9600) can be
reached. This little lake contains some very large trout. From Forsyth
Pass the trail follows southwest along the rim of Tenaya Canyon about
two miles and then forks. The trail to the left descends thru timber
about three miles and joins the ~Sunrise Trail~, making the shortest
route to Yosemite. The trail to the right leads to Clouds Rest and is
far more scenic than the cut-off. It follows just east of the canyon
rim for about two miles and joins the ~Clouds Rest Trail~. A short,
steep ascent by foot over rough granite takes us to ~Clouds Rest~
(Alt. 9925), the highest point near Yosemite. From here is a vast
panorama to all sides. Returning to the trail we descend thru stunted
forest and rough granite. To the right are ~The Pinnacles~ (Alt.
9451). The trail descends about 1000 feet by switchbacks to a spring.
~Quarter Domes~ (Alt. 8160 and 8276) are half a mile west on the
canyon rim. The trail descends thru denser and denser forest. A short
distance below, the ~Sunrise Trail~ joins from the east. After
trending westward along a bench the trail is joined from the northwest
by the ~Half Dome Trail~. Descending thru the pine forest, we now and
then are treated to glimpses of ~Mt. Starr King~ across Little
Yosemite. About one-third of a mile takes us to another junction where
a branch trail turns left descending 400 feet into Little Yosemite.
The main trail passes to the right of a granite knob and reaches the
floor of ~Little Yosemite Valley~ near the lower end, where it is
joined by a trail from up the canyon. Turning right we pass ~Liberty
Cap~ and after a 200-foot descent join the main Glacier Point Trail at
the top of ~Nevada Falls~. There is here a government telephone
(Central 1 ring). We turn right. Yosemite is six miles distant via
Trail Trip 2.


TRAIL TRIP 7

YOSEMITE TO LAKE MERCED

(16.5 miles--6 hours)

The round trip from Yosemite to ~Merced Lake~ is an exceedingly scenic
two-day excursion. One should telephone in advance for accommodations
at the Merced Lake Lodge. Pedestrians may save an hour's hard climb by
taking the Mist Trail to the top of Vernal Falls. An excellent
three-day trip may be made by combining Trail Trips 7 and 6. First
day: Lake Merced. Second day: Clouds Rest and Lake Tenaya via Forsyth
Pass. Third day: Yosemite via the summit of North Dome and Yosemite
Falls Trail.

From Yosemite we take the road on the south side of the valley past
Camp Curry to ~Happy Isles Bridge~. Here we turn right on the main
Glacier Point Trail and follow Trail Trip 1 to the junction at the top
of the ~Nevada Falls~ switchbacks. The ~Glacier Point Trail~ (Trail
Trip 1) turns right and crosses a small bridge. We take the left-hand
trail, which rises about 200 feet and follows up the ~Merced River~.
About half a mile beyond, the ~Little Yosemite Trail~ (Trail Trip 13)
continues up the canyon. The main trail turns to the left and zigzags
upward thru a dense stand of pine, fir and cedar. A climb of about 800
feet in one and a half miles takes us to the junction with the ~Half
Dome Trail~ (Trail Trip 14), which branches left. Our trail turns
eastward along a gently sloping bench. After a quarter of a mile the
~Clouds Rest Trail~ (Trail Trip 5) continues to climb to the left. The
~Merced Lake Trail~ turns right, fording a small creek and thence
following up the west bank of ~Sunrise Creek~, crossing about a mile
above to the east bank. About half a mile above the crossing is
~Hopkins Meadow~, where the ~Sunrise Trail to Tuolumne Meadows~ (Trail
Trip 8) branches to the left.

We turn right, passing thru almost level open granite country for the
next two miles where we obtain grand views of ~Little Yosemite~, of
the deep canyon of the ~Merced~, and of ~Mt. Clark~ and ~Mt. Starr
King~ toward the south. Descending some short, steep switchbacks the
trail again becomes almost level and passes the picturesque little
~Duck Lake~ at the right of the trail. Rising a few feet we now
descend abruptly into ~Echo Creek Canyon~, crossing ~Echo Creek~ about
a quarter of a mile from the Merced River. Here at ~Echo Valley~ are
good camp sites, excellent feed and fine fishing. Echo Creek was
stocked in 1905 with eastern brook trout. Steelhead and German brown
trout will also be found in the river. The old "Merced Lake Trail,"
which is shown on the U.S.G.S. map as ascending Echo Creek is in very
poor condition and is no longer used. From Echo Valley the trail
climbs about 100 feet over a granite spur, in the ascent passing thru
a beautiful forest of western yellow pine. Following for one mile
along the glaciated granite slope, the trail parallels the river,
which here descends in a series of rapids, cascades and low falls.

We arrive finally at ~Lake Merced~ (Alt. 7300). This is one of the
most accessible and well known of the lakes in Yosemite's High Sierra.
At its shores and along the entire seven-mile canyon above are ideal
camping places. Horse-feed is abundant above the lake. Fishing is
excellent in both lake and river. The lake contains Loch Leven, German
brown and rainbow trout. Rowboats may be hired at fifty cents per hour
or $2.50 per day. Merced Lake is undoubtedly the best base camp for
trips thruout the entire upper watershed of the Merced River.

The trail skirts the north edge of the lake, passing into a beautiful
forest of sugar pine and western yellow pine at the upper end. Just
above the lake is ~Merced Lake Lodge~, with excellent accommodations.
One may here rent a fishing outfit and some supplies may be obtained.
~Washburn Lake~ is three miles further up the canyon.


TRAIL TRIP 8

YOSEMITE TO TUOLUMNE MEADOWS _via_ SUNRISE TRAIL

(28 miles--12 hours)

The ~Sunrise Trail~ has long been famous as one of the most scenic
routes between Yosemite and Tuolumne Meadows. The walk is almost too
long to be enjoyed in one day and is better taken in two.

From Yosemite Village we follow the road south of the river, past Camp
Curry to Happy Isles Bridge. There we turn left on the ~Glacier Point
Trail~ and follow Trail Trip 1 to the junction at the top of ~Nevada
Falls~. Again turning left we skirt the south base of ~Liberty Cap~
and climb 200 feet to the ~Little Yosemite Valley~. After following
along the margin of the placid Merced we veer abruptly to the left at
the first trail junction. Straight ahead is ~Little Yosemite~ (Trail
Trip 13). Our route mounts the timbered slope to the northward and we
now and then catch glimpses of the round dome of ~Mt. Starr King~
across Little Yosemite. A climb of 800 feet takes us to the junction
where the ~Half Dome Trail~ (Trail Trip 14) turns northwest. We take
the right-hand trail, which trends eastward along a gently sloping
bench. The ~Clouds Rest Trail~ (Trail Trip 5) now branches northward
directly up the slope.

Our trail bears eastward and shortly crosses a small branch of Sunrise
Creek. The trail now follows up the north bank of ~Sunrise Creek~,
crossing about a mile above to the south side. One-half mile further
is ~Hopkins Meadow~ and a junction where the ~Merced Lake Trail~
(Trail Trip 7) turns right. Horse-feed is here moderately abundant and
camp sites fair. The ~Sunrise Trail~ continues up the canyon and is
shortly joined by the ~Forsyth Pass Trail~ from the north (Trail Trip
5). Reaching the head of Sunrise Creek and ascending the east flank of
~Sunrise Mountain~ by long sandy zigzags, the trail emerges at several
vantage points from which ~Mt. Clark~ is most advantageously seen to
the south. The trail now leads almost level through lodgepole pine and
fir forests, emerging suddenly at the foot of ~Long Meadow~. To the
north is the sharp spire of ~Columbia Finger~ (Alt. 10,700) and
~Tenaya Peak~ (Alt. 10,300) at the left. Horse-feed is abundant here
late in the season but the meadow is generally cold. There is no
fishing in the creek. Just beyond the 400-foot ridge to the west is
~Mildred Lake~, in which are some very large trout.

After following up Long Meadow, the trail rounds the eastern base of
Columbia Finger, passing over glaciated granite and thru stunted
forests. The serrate crest of ~Echo Peak~ (Alt. 11,100) towers
imposingly at the right across the canyon. A rise of a few feet takes
us over ~Cathedral Pass~ (Alt. 9850). Just beyond is a beautiful
unnamed lake above which the spires of ~Cathedral Peak~ rise
impressively at the north. Skirting the east shore of this little lake
at about timber line, the trail bears northward across a sandy plateau
where white bark pine grows abundantly. To the west, down the canyon,
can be seen the upper end of ~Cathedral Lake~ (Alt. 9250) about one
mile distant. Here camping and fishing are good. The lake was stocked
long ago and re-stocked in 1915 by fish from Tuolumne Meadows.
Continuing around the west flank of Cathedral Peak the trail gradually
bears northeast, descending into denser forests of lodgepole pine, fir
and hemlock. To the left can be seen the summit of ~Fairview Dome~
(Alt. 9250) about one mile distant. A gradual descent through the
dense forest, which is especially noted for its many beautiful
mountain hemlocks, takes us finally to the south edge of ~Tuolumne
Meadows~, where the trail joins the Tioga Road. The ranger camp and
Sierra Club Lodge are about one mile east.


TRAIL TRIP 9

YOSEMITE TO EAGLE PEAK, EL CAPITAN AND GENTRY

(14 miles. Eagle Peak and return, 13 miles--8 hours)

The round trip to the summit of Eagle Peak via Yosemite Falls Trail is
one of the most attractive of one-day Yosemite excursions. From the
valley to the crest of El Capitan via the Yosemite Falls Trail,
returning via Gentry and the Big Oak Flat Road, is too long and hard a
trip to be attempted in one day except by the most hardened walkers.
The trail to Eagle Peak is excellent, but from that point to the
summit of El Capitan it is in poor condition. From this point along
the north rim to Gentry the route is so overgrown by brush as to be
almost impassable.

From ~Yosemite~ we follow Trail Trip 3 as far as the trail junction
above the zigzags west of the ~Upper Yosemite Fall~. Here we continue
straight ahead, paralleling ~Yosemite Creek~, to another junction a
quarter of a mile above. The trail to the north leads to ~Ten Lakes~
and ~Hetch Hetchy~ (Trail Trips 10 and 11). We turn to the left,
climbing westward near the north bank of ~Eagle Creek~ over an old
terminal moraine. One mile from the junction is ~Eagle Peak Meadow~
(Alt. 7200), where are good camp sites and forage. Ascending the creek
to its source, the trail continues south along the ridge, climbing
abruptly the last half mile to ~Eagle Peak~ (Alt. 7333), one of
Yosemite's finest lookout points. To the east the 3800-foot precipice
gives a vast impression of depth.

About one-third mile from the summit the little-used ~El Capitan
Trail~ branches to the west. Descending by sharp switchbacks to the
head of a small draw, the trail follows the rim westward thru a brushy
forest, undulating over the flat divides between several brooklets.
Swinging southward our trail emerges on an open transverse ridge,
which it follows a short distance to the summit of ~El Capitan~ (Alt.
7564), from which is a commanding outlook both up and down the valley.
It is possible to carefully descend towards the southeast to the rim,
where a slightly extending ledge allows one to peer over the sheer
wall of the 3000-foot cliff.

The old ~El Capitan Trail to Gentry~ branches to the west about
one-third of a mile north from the summit and continues thru very
brushy country along the north rim to ~Ribbon Creek~, about one mile
distant. From this point if one is a good woodsman and brush-fighter,
the old blazes may be followed thru a three-mile tangle to the ~Gentry
Checking Station~ on the ~Big Oak Flat Road~. Yosemite is then 8.1
miles distant by road.


TRAIL TRIP 10

YOSEMITE TO TEN LAKES _via_ YOSEMITE CREEK

(One way 17 miles--7 hours)

The recently constructed ~Ten Lakes Trail~ makes the exceptionally
beautiful ~Ten Lakes Basin~ and ~Grant Lakes~ easily accessible from
Yosemite. The round trip is too long to be attempted in one day. The
lakes offer most attractive sites for a permanent camp, and several of
them are well stocked with trout.

We follow the ~Yosemite Falls Trail~ (Trail Trip 3) from its beginning
just west of ~Yosemite Lodge~ to the trail junction at the top of the
upper zigzags. Here the ~Yosemite Point and North Dome Trail~ turns
right and crosses a small creek. Those who have not visited the top of
the upper fall should by all means turn aside, for it is but a short
distance--less than five minutes' walk. Our main trail continues
straight ahead paralleling without crossing ~Yosemite Creek~ thru a
beautiful mixed forest where the tree-lover will find a few specimens
of western white pine. At about one-quarter mile (4.0 miles from
Yosemite) the ~Eagle Peak Trail~ (Trail Trip 9) branches to the left.
We follow up the west margin of the creek, generally thru dense
forests, but emerging at times to clatter over polished and striated
granite pavements where monster mountain junipers grotesquely spread
their gnarled branches. Great "potholes" have been formed by the
stream where it rushes over the smoothly planed bedrock. At a point
3.7 miles above the Eagle Peak Trail junction the main trail continues
to the left up the west fork (Trail Trip 11). Our trail, which turns
right and keeps on up the main fork canyon, is considerably less
traveled. In the next 2.3 miles we pass over rough granite up the west
bank of the main stream to the ~Yosemite Creek Ranger Station~ on the
~Tioga Road~. There is here a government telephone. Good camp sites
will be found at the crossing a quarter of a mile east of the cabin
and fair feed upstream. Fishing is fair to poor. There are better
camps, feed and fishing about three miles upstream.

At the Tioga Road the trail is indistinct. We cross the bridge and
follow up the east bank of Yosemite Creek on the main road until the
blazes are sighted. The first third of a mile is easily traversed, but
the following one and a quarter miles are rough. About three miles
above the bridge is a meadow with abundant pasturage. This is a good
campsite and fishing is fair upstream. In the next three miles the
trail gradually ascends to an elevation of 9200 feet, leaving Yosemite
Creek and passing over the flat divide into the Tuolumne River
drainage. At the summit one can leave the trail and walk southeast 1.5
miles to ~Grant Lakes~ (Alt. 9500). These are two beautiful mountain
lakes, the upper one being in a rugged cirque with sheer walls rising
above at the east. Both were stocked in 1917 with rainbow and eastern
brook trout.

The Ten Lakes Trail continues north over the tableland and descends
600 feet by switchbacks into the ~Ten Lakes Basin~ (Alt. about 9400),
seven miles from the Tioga Road. Here are many ideal camp sites and
good forage except early in the season. The lakes were stocked with
eastern brook trout in 1908, 1913, 1915 and 1918 with Loch Leven in
1908, and with steelhead in 1918. Fishing is reported excellent. A
walk of one and a half miles due north takes us without climbing to
the summit of ~Grand Mountain~ (Alt. 9350), from which is obtained a
most impressive view of the ~Grand Canyon of the Tuolumne~ and ~Muir
Gorge~ just below. A still finer and more comprehensive panorama may
be had from the summit of ~Colby Mountain~ (Alt. 9700) on the canyon
rim 2.5 miles northeast from Ten Lakes. For this short side trip one
should leave the trail just before its descent into the basin and
follow northward on the ridge that juts out into the main Tuolumne
Canyon.


TRAIL TRIP 11

YOSEMITE TO HETCH HETCHY _via_ YOSEMITE CREEK, HARDEN LAKE AND SMITH
MEADOW

(31 miles--12 hours)

From Yosemite to Hetch Hetchy is a long one-day trail trip. The
following route is not especially scenic, traversing as it does the
rather flat forested plateau west of Yosemite Creek. The country north
of the Tioga Road is heavily grazed. Feed is sometimes scarce on this
account, and the numerous cattle trails are often confusing. Near
Hetch Hetchy the railroad has obliterated about three miles of trail,
making it necessary to follow the railroad grade. Further changes may
be expected as the work in Hetch Hetchy advances.

From ~Yosemite~ we follow Trail Trip 3 to the trail junction near the
top of ~Yosemite Falls~ zigzags. Here we continue straight ahead up
the west bank of Yosemite Creek, passing beneath a beautiful forest of
Jeffrey pine, white and red fir, lodgepole pine and scattered western
white pine. At about a quarter mile (four miles from Yosemite) a trail
branches left to ~Eagle Peak~ (Trail Trip 9). In tracing the following
few miles up ~Yosemite Creek~ we often cross pavements of glaciated
granite where will be found some magnificent specimens of mountain
juniper. Note also the potholes in the creek bed. At three and
three-quarters miles from the Eagle Peak Trail Junction the ~Ten Lakes
Trail~ (Trail Trip 10) turns northeast, following up the main stream.
Our trail turns left and parallels the west branch of ~Yosemite
Creek~, two and a half miles to the ~Tioga Road~, which we now follow
northwestward for five miles, passing several meadows in which are
good horse-feed and camp sites. One of the largest of these meadows is
~White Wolf~. The small stream south of the road is the headwaters of
the ~Middle Fork~ of the ~Tuolumne River~. There is here fair fishing
but the trout are small.

At a point where the road curves to the southwest, the ~Harden Lake
Trail~ branches to the right. About one mile northward is a trail
junction where the ~Hetch Hetchy Trail~ turns westward and the ~Harden
Lake and Pate Valley Trail~ turns eastward. ~Harden Lake~ (Alt. 7575)
is but a few steps distant but invisible from the Hetch Hetchy Trail.
It is small and contains no trout, but offers an attractive campsite
among the meadows and park-like forests.

From Harden Lake we turn westward and for six miles ride thru unbroken
forest to ~Smith Meadow~ on ~Cottonwood Creek~. Here the ~Smith Peak
Trail~ turns northeast. The 1200 foot climb in two miles to ~Smith
Peak~ (Alt. 7835) is well worth a side trip, as it offers a superb
panorama. The north slope drops precipitously 4200 feet to the Grand
Canyon of the Tuolumne.

At Smith Meadow another trail follows down Cottonwood Creek and leads
to ~Hog Ranch~, seven miles distant. Our trail turns northeast and in
five miles descends to the ~San Francisco Railroad~ grade, which it
intersects about halfway between Hog Ranch and Hetch Hetchy. Since the
trail has here been obliterated it is necessary to follow the railroad
grade which, with pack animals, is rather dangerous on account of the
possible meeting with a train. Two miles northward at the end of the
railroad is the city camp and offices, and a short distance beyond,
the dam-site. From here a good road descends to the floor of ~Hetch
Hetchy~, about one mile distant.


TRAIL TRIP 12

YOSEMITE TO SIERRA POINT

(4 miles--3 hours--Round trip 1/2 day)

For years there was a search for a point in Yosemite from which the
five great waterfalls--Upper and Lower Yosemite, Vernal, Nevada and
Illilouette--might be seen. The quest was finally ended when in 1897
Mr. Charles A. Bailey and a friend computed the location of such a
point by triangulation. To their surprise it was not one of the
dominating summits, but occurred rather low on the west flank of
Grizzly Peak. The first ascent on June 14, 1897, proved the
calculation to be correct and the crag was named Sierra Point in honor
of the Sierra Club.

The trail starts from ~Happy Isles~, which are 2.3 miles distant from
Yosemite. Here we turn south on the main ~Vernal~ and ~Nevada Falls
Trail~ or cross Happy Isles by the footpath. A quarter mile takes us
to a spring and water-trough, where the ~Sierra Point Trail~ branches
to the left and ascends the flank of ~Grizzly Peak~ by switchbacks. A
leisurely ascent may be made in forty-five minutes. From the point is
not only a good view of the falls but an impressive panorama. The
depths and distances are accentuated by the promontories being above
the observer and the canyons far below.


TRAIL TRIP 13

LITTLE YOSEMITE

(Round trip, 14 to 20 miles--6 to 12 hours)

~Little Yosemite~, although quite accessible and most charming in its
diversity of scenery, beauty and absolute restfulness, remains unknown
to most tourists. It deserves at least one day in one's Yosemite
itinerary. Fishing is reported good and those interested in geology or
botany will be well repaid by the trip.

Above Nevada Falls the canyon of the Merced expands to broad level
meadows walled in by precipitous cliffs 1500 to 2000 feet high. Here
in Little Yosemite are exhibited all of the Yosemite features--dome
structure, exfoliation, glacial phenomena, "royal arches," etc., but
on a somewhat smaller scale. Even the forests and flowers are similar,
for the altitude is here only 6000 feet--two thousand feet higher than
Yosemite. The level floor, which has also resulted from the filling in
of an ancient lake, is broken in but three places by the crests of
terminal moraines, which extend across the valley and cause the Merced
to cascade beautifully in "silver aprons." In three miles the polished
granite walls again converge to form a narrow canyon from which the
river emerges, plunging over a beautiful cascade and into a
picturesque glacial tarn. The most outstanding scenic feature of the
valley is the perfectly formed ~Sugarbowl Dome~ (lately renamed
Bunnell Point) at its head. ~Lost Lake~, near the south base of ~Half
Dome~, is a swamp part of the season and later a boggy meadow. It is
interesting only as being in the transition stage between mountain
lake and mountain meadow.

Kah-win´-na-bah´ was the Indian name for the valley as well as the
large summer camp located there. The river was known as the Yanopah.

~Little Yosemite~ is reached by following Trail Trip 1 to the top of
the Nevada Falls zigzags, thence turning left and following Trail Trip
5 to the first junction, from which we continue up the canyon. The
head of the canyon is three miles eastward. The region is an excellent
place for a permanent camp away from the overcrowded valley and one
may easily arrange at Yosemite for the delivery here of a camp outfit
and supplies.


TRAIL TRIP 14

HALF DOME

(Round trip, 20 miles--12 hours)

From the time Yosemite was discovered, the mile-high summit of Half
Dome was regarded as unattainable. The few mountaineers who attempted
its ascent returned saying it would never be climbed. Finally there
came a young Scotchman, Captain George C. Anderson, with an
irrepressible determination to accomplish the feat. After all methods
of clinging to the smooth, steeply inclined granite had failed he
procured drills, hammer and eye-bolts, and set out to reach the summit
by rising from peg to peg. Slowly his ladder grew and finally his goal
was reached on October 12, 1875. Anderson was so enthused over the
wonderful dome and the sublime views from the summit that he
constructed a trail to "The Saddle," from whence his pegs led to the
top. Here he determined to build a hotel, but his untimely death in a
lonely cabin in Little Yosemite prevented its completion.

In 1883 the pegs were swept away by a great, avalanche. Some were
later replaced by daring climbers, but the ascent remained so
dangerous that it was seldom attempted. From 1899 no ascents were made
until 1912, when two adventurous youths fastened ropes to the few
remaining pegs and attained the summit. Following this, the dome was
frequently climbed. In 1919 a public-spirited citizen of San Francisco
donated the money to build a first-class trail to the summit. This was
constructed under the auspices of the Sierra Club, and the once
perilous ascent finally made safe to all.

The round trip to the summit is one of the most thrilling and scenic
one-day Yosemite excursions. Parties should start early and carry
canteens. From ~Happy Isles~ the main ~Glacier Point Trail~ (Trail
Trip 1) should be followed (take the Mist Trail if walking) to the top
of the ~Nevada Falls~ zigzags. Here we turn left and follow the
~Clouds Rest Trail~ (Trail Trip 5). A climb of 800 feet above the
Little Yosemite Valley takes us to a small stream. About 200 yards
further, in a fine grove of Jeffrey pine and incense cedar, the Clouds
Rest Trail bears to the right along a bench, while our trail climbs
the long switchbacks to the left. The remaining 500-foot climb is thru
dense forest. Anderson's old trail crosses our route in one place and
zigzags up the hillside about a quarter mile eastward. Just below the
ridge and about 200 yards to the right of the trail is a spring near
the big pile of stones, which are the only relics of Captain
Anderson's camp. Canteens should be filled here, as no water will be
found higher. A short climb takes us to the crest of the ridge at the
lowest point between ~Quarter Domes~ (Alt. 8276 and 8160) at the
northeast and ~Half Dome~ at the southwest.

At the ridge top is a forest of lodgepole pine and a sudden transition
to pure fir as we cross to the northwestern slope where the climate is
more severe. Climbing beneath these firs we suddenly emerge at the
crest and obtain a wide view of the ~High Sierra~ on one side and the
depths of ~Tenaya Canyon~ on the other. A few minutes' walk along the
open ridge takes us to the rustic entrance which marks the beginning
of the foot trail. The pile of timbers and boards nearby were hewn and
split by Captain Anderson to be used for his Half Dome Hotel. The
foot-trail now climbs abruptly 250 feet by short zigzags and stairs to
"~The Saddle~," along the crest of which we continue to the base of
the final ascent.

If tennis shoes are to be used they should be put on at this point.
The tool-box nearby contains ropes and safety belts for the use of the
public, but the ascent is perfectly safe without them.

From here an 800-foot double cable railing with iron posts every ten
feet leads to the top. On the steep slopes are footholds, and at one
place a fifty-foot ladder carries us over the most dangerous part of
the ascent. Turning to the right at the top of the cableway we follow
the monuments across the surprisingly flat summit to the brink of the
great northeast face, where we find an overhanging shelf of granite.
The panorama at all sides is inexpressibly grand, but some of the
valley features suffer by being dwarfed in the great distances below.

The descent should be started not later than 3 to 4 p.m. in order to
reach Yosemite before dark.


TRAIL TRIP 15

YOSEMITE TO GLACIER POINT _via_ THE LEDGE TRAIL

(2.5 miles. Average 4 hours climb)

Next to Half Dome, the ~Ledge Trail~ is the most thrilling of Yosemite
climbs. The ascent was formerly quite dangerous, but in 1918 a safe
foot-trail was constructed. The record ascent is fifty-three minutes,
but this is a steep, hard, 3200-foot climb and will take the average
individual three to five hours.

The trail starts from the Happy Isles Road, turning southward just
east of the new ~Le Conte Lodge~. It climbs the talus slope above
~Camp Curry~ and turns westward up a steep ledge. As the trail mounts
to view-commanding heights there are many unusual and impressive
glimpses into the depths below. Reaching a steep canyon, the trail
turns sharply to the left and climbs beside a small creek. ~The water
is polluted~ and to drink it is dangerous. Near the top, the trail
gradually becomes less and less steep and finally crosses the canyon
rim only a few feet distant from ~Glacier Point~ and the ~Overhanging
Rock~. Glacier Point Hotel is about 200 yards southward.


TRAIL TRIP 16

GLACIER POINT TO SENTINEL DOME

(Round trip, 2 miles in 2 hours)

The short excursion from ~Glacier Point~ to the summit of ~Sentinel
Dome~ is well worth while. The round trip can easily be made afoot in
two hours and many hikers include it in their "Glacier Point" day.

From the hotel we follow the ~Chinquapin Road~ about a quarter of a
mile. Just beyond a spring at the left of the road, the trail turns to
the right and climbs abruptly beneath the firs and pines. Gradually
the forest becomes more open and park-like, and the firs are replaced
by hardy Jeffrey pines. During the last quarter mile of the ascent we
pass over weathered granite which has exfoliated in slabs near the
top. At the rounded summit is a gnarled and wind-blown Jeffrey
pine--probably the most photographed tree in the park. To the east is
an exceptionally fine panorama of the High Sierra.

In returning to Glacier Point we follow the trail to the south,
intersecting the road about 300 yards away. Here we turn left, noting
the soft decomposing granite which seems particularly susceptible to
weather conditions. The distance beyond to the hotel is one and a half
miles.


TRAIL TRIP 17

GLACIER POINT TO FORT MONROE _via_ POHONO TRAIL

Reverse of Trail Trip 18

(11.7 miles--5 hours. Round trip from Yosemite, 24 miles--13 hours)

This is one of the most beautiful Yosemite trails. With very little
climbing the trail parallels the south rim thru delightfully
attractive forests and wild-flower gardens, emerging from time to time
to reveal vast views across and into the valley. The round trip from
Yosemite to Glacier Point and thence to Fort Monroe via the Pohono
Trail, returning to the valley via the Wawona Road is too long a trip
to be attempted by the average walker in one day. It is best to stay
over night at the Glacier Point Hotel, starting early the next
morning.

Leaving the ~Glacier Point Hotel~ we follow the road southwestward
about two miles, turning to the right at the ~Pohono Trail~ sign. We
now follow thru a dense fir forest for one mile, emerging at the
canyon rim at ~The Fissures~. These are great cracks only a few feet
wide and hundreds of feet deep. Just beyond is ~Taft Point~ (Alt.
7503). From here is a wonderful view, especially of the sheer
3500-foot precipices of ~El Capitan~ and ~Three Brothers~ rising as
massive buttresses of the great north wall.

Swinging south along the rim for a short distance, the trail again
turns westward thru the fir forests passing beautiful small meadows
and wild-flower gardens and descending to ~Bridalveil Creek~. The
bridge has been destroyed but a foot-log is in place. There is fair
fishing in this stream but the fish are small. Bearing west and north
and climbing slightly, the trail emerges at ~Dewey Point~ (Alt. 7316),
another of the promontories of the south rim. From here the ~Cathedral
Rocks~ and ~Leaning Tower~ are viewed from an unusual angle, and ~El
Capitan~ and ~Ribbon Falls~ dominate the opposite wall. Following the
rim westward about half a mile we reach ~Crocker Point~ (Alt. 7090),
from which is obtained another vast outlook. Descending 430 feet thru
the forest we cross a small stream and emerge at ~Stanford Point~
(Alt. 6659), another prominent lookout on the southern ramparts. About
half a mile westward one sees ~Old Inspiration Point~, from which
Yosemite was first seen by white men on March 21, 1851. Retracing our
path a short distance, we turn to the right and cross ~Meadow Brook~,
which flows over ~Widow's Tears~ a quarter mile below. The vicinity is
a Mecca for flower lovers. The trail continues westward, dropping 1400
feet in the next one and a half miles to ~Fort Monroe~ (Alt. 5540), an
old stage relay station on the ~Wawona Road~. Yosemite is eight miles
eastward by this road.


TRAIL TRIP 18

FORT MONROE TO GLACIER POINT _via_ POHONO TRAIL

Reverse of Trail Trip 17

(11.7 miles--5 hours. Round trip from Yosemite, 24 miles--13 hours)

The ~Pohono Trail~ trip is one of the most beautiful of Yosemite
excursions. Striking eastward from Fort Monroe on the Wawona Road, it
traverses a delightful wooded country in which are some of the finest
wild-flower gardens of the park. From time to time it emerges at the
rugged ramparts of the south wall and affords many vast panoramas. The
round trip from Yosemite to Fort Monroe via Pohono Trail and return to
the valley via the Short Trail is too long to be attempted by the
average walker in one day. Even the trip to Glacier Point by this
route is a long one, and it is suggested that the itinerary outlined
in Trail Trip 17 be followed in preference. At Fort Monroe, an old
stage relay station on the Wawona Road, is a fairly good auto camp.
From here one may visit all the lookout points on the south rim by an
easy one-day walk, or may continue to the Glacier Point Hotel (11.7
miles), returning the next day.

The ~Pohono Trail~ turns eastward from the Wawona Road at ~Fort
Monroe~, eight miles distant from Yosemite. In the long steady climb
of 1400 feet in the first two miles we cross two small mountain
streams and near the top of the ascent pass about a quarter mile south
of ~Old Inspiration Point~ (Alt. 6603), from which Yosemite was first
seen by white men on March 21, 1851. The gently sloping trail now
winds beneath the firs thru most luxurious gardens of wild-flowers.
Shortly we cross ~Meadow Brook~ which, a quarter mile below, plunges
over ~Widow's Tears~. Trending northward about half a mile we now
emerge at ~Stanford Point~ (Alt. 6659), one of the promontories of the
south rim. From here, as from all other lookouts along the top of the
great south wall, is a vast panorama. Retracing our path a short
distance we turn to the left, cross another small brook, and climb 350
feet in the next half mile to ~Crocker Point~ (Alt. 7090). Closely
paralleling the rim for another half mile we halt at ~Dewey Point~
(Alt. 7316), the imposing apex of one of the great granite buttresses.
~Cathedral Rocks~ and the ~Leaning Tower~ are here viewed from an
unusual angle. To the northward ~El Capitan~ dominates the north wall
and ~Ribbon Falls~ is most advantageously seen.

A long detour to the southeast now takes us into the ~Bridalveil Creek
Basin~. The trail bridge has been destroyed, but a foot-log is in
place. Fishing is fair, but the trout are small. Turning again
eastward we continue thru the fir forests, passing beautiful small
meadows and wild-flower gardens until we again approach the canyon
rim, which we follow northward for a short distance to ~The Fissures~.
These are great cracks only a few feet wide and hundreds of feet deep.
Just beyond is ~Taft Point~ (Alt. 7503). From here is a wonderfully
vast view, especially of the sheer 3500-foot precipices of ~El
Capitan~ and ~Three Brothers~ on the north wall. Following eastward
along ~Profile Cliff~, our trail again enters the fir and lodgepole
pine forest and leads across the gently sloping plateau about one mile
to the ~Glacier Point Road~. We here turn left and an easy walk of two
miles takes us to the ~Glacier Point Hotel~, where excellent
accommodations will be found. The lookout point and overhanging rock
are about 200 yards northward. For trail trips from Glacier Point
consult Trail Trips 16 to 23.


TRAIL TRIP 19

GLACIER POINT TO WAWONA _via_ ALDER CREEK TRAIL

(20.5 miles--7 hours)

This is one of the oldest trails in the region and was the main
thorofare to Yosemite prior to the construction of roads. The "old
timers" like to tell of the famous hostelries along the
route--Clark's, Westfall's, Peregoy's and McCauley's--which have long
since ceased to be. The trail is not of great importance from the
scenic stand-point, but offers a short-cut between its termini.
Throughout most of its course it is maintained in good condition.

From ~Glacier Point~ we follow the road southwestward about two and a
half miles. A short distance beyond the Pohono Trail turn-off, our
trail branches to the right and enters the fir and pine forest. In the
next four miles we first climb over a low spur and then descend into
the basin of ~Bridalveil Creek~, where we cross the ~Glacier Point
Road~ at ~Peregoy Meadow~. This is a good camping place and forage is
abundant. Fishing in Bridalveil Creek is rather poor near the road.
Bearing southward, our trail emerges in one mile at ~Westfall Meadow~,
another good campsite. Passing across an almost imperceptible divide
we cross the headwaters of ~Alder Creek~ and follow along the west
side of its canyon thru a beautiful forest of western yellow pine,
sugar pine, fir and cedar, part of which has lately been logged. About
three and a half miles below Westfall Meadow is ~Empire Meadows~,
where feed is abundant and camp sites good. Fishing is fair but the
trout are small. The nearest campsite downstream is at the creek
crossing three miles further. Here there is a fair camping place but
forage is scarce.

From this crossing Wawona is about six and a half miles distant.
Rising a short distance above the stream, the trail follows the
5500-foot level detouring around the west flank of a well-wooded
mountain. About three miles from the crossing, a trail to the right
descends to ~Alder Creek Ranger Station~ on the ~Wawona Road~ about
one mile distant. We now continue around the mountain, gradually
bearing to the southeast. The trail in the last two miles is rather
rough and zigzags abruptly down to the main road, which it intersects
a short distance from ~Wawona Bridge~. The hotel, store and postoffice
are just beyond.


TRAIL TRIP 20

GLACIER POINT TO OSTRANDER LAKE

(13.5 miles--5 hours)

At the very source of Bridalveil Creek and only five hours' easy walk
from Glacier Point lies the picturesque Ostrander Lake, famous since
the early days for its splendid fishing. The round trip from Glacier
Point Hotel (twenty-seven miles) may be made in one day by good
hikers, but it is far better to camp at the lake at least one night in
order to be there for the best fishing. Motorists, by parking machines
at the trail junction six miles southwest of Glacier Point on the
Chinquapin Road, can easily make the round trip (fifteen miles) in one
day.

From ~Glacier Point~ we follow the ~Chinquapin Road~ about six miles
to the point where a sign indicates the ~Buck Camp and Ostrander Lake
Trail~ turning to the left. This trail bears south, crossing a small
tributary to ~Bridalveil Creek~, then continues through the open
lodgepole pine forest and crosses the main stream about two miles from
the road. A short distance beyond, the ~Buck Camp Trail~ (Trail Trip
21) continues up the south branch of the creek. Our trail turns
abruptly to the east (left) and again crosses the main stream,
following up the northeast bank. In the first two miles the trail is
good, but the remaining three miles are somewhat rough and steep.

~Ostrander Lake~ (Alt. 8600) is beautifully set in a glacial
amphitheater on the north side of ~Horse Ridge~ (Alt. 9600), which
towers 1000 feet above. It is shallow on the north and west sides but
deep under the bluffs, where are generally deep snowbanks. The lake
was stocked with rainbow trout in 1892, 1893, 1899 and 1911, and with
eastern brook trout in 1893 and 1899. Fishing is excellent.

~Buena Vista Lake~ (see Trail Trip 22) is about four miles distant and
may be reached by walking southeast about two miles through open
forest (no trail) on the north slope of Horse Ridge and joining the
~Buena Vista Trail~ in ~Buena Vista Canyon~. Here we may turn south up
the canyon, at the head of which is Buena Vista Lake.


TRAIL TRIP 21

GLACIER POINT TO CHILNUALNA FALLS OR JOHNSON LAKE _via_ THE BUCK CAMP
TRAIL

(15.5 miles--6 hours)

The old ~Buck Camp Trail~ connects Yosemite with the favorite hunting
grounds of the Chowchilla Tribe. It traverses a beautifully wooded
country but offers no startling scenic effects.

From ~Glacier Point~ we follow the road southwestward about six miles
to a junction, where our trail branches to the left. Bearing southward
we cross a small stream and traverse a rather flat lodgepole pine
forest, finally fording ~Bridalveil Creek~. Just beyond, and at a
distance of about two miles from the road, the ~Ostrander Lake Trail~
(Trail Trip 20) turns to the left. We continue southward, crossing a
tributary of Bridalveil Creek and gradually mounting the slope beyond.
As the trail turns southeast along the flat ridge, the wooded canyon
of ~Alder Creek~ is seen to the west. Two miles further on an almost
imperceptible pass is traversed. Just beyond is the source of one of
the northern tributaries to ~Chilnualna Creek~. This we follow for
about two miles to the main stream, where are good camp sites and
abundant forage. Fishing is fair but the trout are small. One mile
further is the main ~Chilnualna Falls Trail~. Westward one and a half
miles is the ~Chilnualna Ranger Station~, with good camp sites in the
vicinity, and a half mile further is the top of ~Chilnualna Falls~.
The trail eastward leads to ~Grouse Lake~ (two miles), ~Crescent Lake~
(three and a half miles) and ~Johnson Lake~ (four and a half miles).


TRAIL TRIP 22

GLACIER POINT TO JOHNSON LAKE via THE BUENA VISTA TRAIL

(16 miles--7 hours)

This is a good new trail and is the most direct route between Glacier
Point and the excellent fishing lakes of the southern part of the
park. The one-way trip is an easy day's journey from Glacier Point.
For those walking from Yosemite there are good camp sites and
excellent fishing _en route_ at Buena Vista and Royal Arch Lakes.

From ~Glacier Point~ we follow the main ~Vernal-Nevada Falls Trail~
about two miles. Just east of ~Illilouette Ridge~ we take the right
branch and continue southeastward up the canyon of the Illilouette.
About three miles takes us to another trail junction. To the west is
~Mono Meadow~, about one and a half miles distant, and to the
northeast, crossing ~Illilouette Creek~, are the ~Merced Pass Trail~
(Trail Trip 23) and the cut-off trail to the rim of ~Panorama Cliff~.

Our trail continues up ~Illilouette Creek~, finally crossing a low
"hog back" and turning south up ~Buena Vista Creek~. In a glacial
cirque at its head is ~Buena Vista Lake~ (Alt. 9200). The south, or
upper side is backed by a rugged rock bluff from which huge boulders
have fallen into the water, making an excellent place from which to
fish. The lake was stocked with eastern brook trout in 1892, 1908 and
1919, and with rainbow trout in 1892. It is one of the park's best and
most accessible fishing lakes. Surrounded by open parks of timber, it
offers many beautiful camp sites, especially near the outlet. Forage
is fair downstream from the lake but is rather scarce early in the
season. Ostrander Lake is four miles northeast and can be reached by
foot. There are no blazes or monuments to mark the route.

Our trail now mounts abruptly 400 feet to ~Buena Vista Pass~ (Alt.
9600). To the right about half a mile is ~Buena Vista Peak~ (Alt.
9600), and to the left and running east is ~Buena Vista Crest~.
Excellent views are obtained from the trail as it crosses the open
ridge. Near the summit the granite has fractured perpendicularly,
forming regular rectangular slabs.

An 800-foot descent thru the open forest in the next two miles takes
us to the picturesque little ~Royal Arch Lake~ (Alt. 8800). This is a
small lake, deep on the north and east sides, and shallow near the
southwest margin. It is named from the arches in the steep northeast
granite wall, which are similar to the Royal Arches of Yosemite Valley
but on a smaller scale. The lake was well stocked with eastern brook
trout in 1897 and fishing is excellent, especially in the deep water
along the rocky northwest shore. There are fine camp sites here and
good horse-feed.

Skirting the west margin of the lake our trail follows the small
stream about one mile to the main ~Chilnualna Trail~. Eastward is
~Buck Camp~ (two miles), ~Moraine Meadows~ (seven miles), and
~Fernandez Pass~ (eleven miles). We turn westward to ~Johnson Lake~
(Alt. 8550), about a quarter mile distant. This is a small, round,
deep lake beautifully set in meadows and forest. It is bountifully
stocked with eastern brook trout and rainbow trout. The locality is
ideal for camping. Further westward are ~Crescent Lake~ (one mile),
~Grouse Lake~ (two and a half miles), and ~Chilnualna Falls~ (six and
a half miles).


TRAIL TRIP 23

YOSEMITE OR GLACIER POINT TO MORAINE MEADOWS _via_ THE MERCED PASS
TRAIL

(From Yosemite, 22 miles--10 hours. From Glacier Point, 18 miles--7
hours)

The ~Merced Pass Trail~ has been replaced to a large extent by the
more scenic and better built Buena Vista Trail, which offers a
short-cut to the splendid fishing lakes in the upper basin of the
South Fork of the Merced. For those whose destination is the wild
country at the headwaters of the San Joaquin River, the Merced Pass
Trail is still the preferable route. The upper basin of Illilouette
Creek abounds in glacial phenomena and fishing is reported good.

From Yosemite we follow the ~Vernal and Nevada Falls Trail~ (Trail
Trip 1) as far as the rim of ~Panorama Cliff~ just above Nevada Falls.
Here we turn to the right on the ~Mono Meadow Trail~, which bears due
south four miles to the main stream of ~Illilouette Creek~. To reach
this point from ~Glacier Point~ one should follow the ~Vernal-Nevada
Falls Trail~ (Trail Trip 2) for two miles, turn to the right on the
~Buena Vista Trail~ (Trail Trip 22), and after three miles more turn
to the left on the ~Mono Meadow Trail~. A short distance will take one
to the banks of ~Illilouette Creek~.

At this point--twelve miles from Yosemite and five and a half miles
from Glacier Point--the ~Merced Pass Trail~ turns eastward, following
for ten miles up the main stream of the Illilouette and keeping always
within a short distance of its north bank. Gradually ascending to an
elevation of 9295 feet, we traverse ~Merced Pass~. To the right is the
long ridge of ~Buena Vista Crest~ (Alt. 9712). A descent of 600 feet
in the next two miles takes us to ~Moraine Meadows~. This is a
splendid camping region with abundant horse-feed and good fishing.
Nearby will be found a summer ranger outpost. A trail to the east
leads to ~Fernandez Pass~ and the headwaters of the ~San Joaquin~; one
to the southeast to ~Chain o' Lakes~, where is most excellent fishing;
and one to the west to ~Royal Arch~, ~Johnson~, ~Crescent~ and ~Grouse
Lakes~ and ~Chilnualna Falls~.


TRAIL TRIP 24

WAWONA ROAD TO EL PORTAL _via_ THE SUNSET TRAIL

(4 miles--1-1/2 hours)

This is a cut-off trail widely used by the Park Rangers in their
winter patrols but seldom used by the public.

Starting from the ~Wawona Road~ one and a half miles northwest of
~Chinquapin~, the trail runs down the ridge on the north side of
~Indian Creek~. Swinging to the north, the trail passes just west of
~Lookout Point~, from which is a fine view down the canyon of the
Merced. Bearing to the right, it descends to ~Avalanche Creek~, where
it passes just below ~Cougar Falls~. The trail then zigzags down the
canyon wall to the midwinter ranger station and trail bridge across
the ~Merced River~, joining the ~El Portal Road~, about three miles
above El Portal.


TRAIL TRIP 25

WAWONA ROAD TO EL PORTAL _via_ THE HENNESSY TRAIL

(10 miles--4 hours)

The ~Hennessy Trail~ is no longer used by the public since the bridge
across the Merced at its lower end was washed away in 1917. Use the
Sunset Trail (Trail Trip 24).


  [Illustration: Map of Yosemite Valley And Adjacent Region
  From U.S.G.S. Topographic Map of Yosemite National Park
  SCALE · 1 inch = 2 Miles
  Contour Interval 100 Feet]


SUNSET PUBLISHING HOUSE, SAN FRANCISCO





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