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Title: Dickens and His Illustrators - 2nd. Ed.
Author: Kitton, Frederic G.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Illustration: "And so as Tiny Tim observed, God bless us every one!"

Charles Dickens]



From a scarce Lithograph by


This Portrait was published during the Novelist's last visit to America
(1867-68), by Fields, Osgood & Co., of Boston, their advertisement
describing it as "an Authentic Portrait of Charles Dickens, drawn on
stone by S. Eytinge, Jr., whose Illustrations of Dickens's Novels have
been so popular." The late Mr. J. R. Osgood did not recall any actual
sitting for the Portrait, but remembers that Eytinge often saw Dickens
while making the drawing. The impression from which the present
reproduction was made is particularly interesting on account of the
quotation from "A Christmas Carol" in the autograph of Dickens.

_Lent by Mr. Stuart M. Samuel._













  _are respectfully dedicated_



In the matter of pictorial embellishment, the writings of Charles
Dickens may be regarded as occupying a unique position. The original
issues alone present a remarkable array of illustrations; and when we
remember the innumerable engravings specially prepared for subsequent
editions, as well as for independent publication, we are fain to confess
that, in this respect at least, the works of "Boz" take precedence of
those of any other novelist. These designs, too, are of particular
interest, inasmuch as they are representative of nearly every branch of
the art of the book-illustrator; both the pencil of the draughtsman and
the needle of the etcher have been requisitioned, while the brush of the
painter has depicted for us many striking scenes culled from the pages
of Dickens.

The evolution of a successful picture, as exhibited by means of
preparatory sketches, is eminently instructive to the student of Art.
The present volume should therefore appeal not merely to the Dickens
Collector, but to all who appreciate the artistic value of tentative
studies wrought for a special purpose. The absolute _facsimiles_, here
given for the first time, enable us to obtain an insight into the
methods adopted by the designers in developing their conceptions, those
methods being further manifested by the aid of correspondence which,
happily, is still extant.

Referring to Dickens's intercourse with his Illustrators, Forster
significantly observes that the artists certainly had not an easy time
with him. The Novelist's requirements were exacting even beyond what is
ordinary between author and illustrator; for he was apt (as he himself
admitted) "to build up temples in his mind not always makeable with
hands." While resenting the notion that Dickens ever received from any
artist "the inspiration he was always striving to give," his biographer
assures us that, so far as the illustrations are concerned, he had
rarely anything but disappointments,--a declaration which apparently
substantiates the statement (made on good authority) that the Novelist
would have preferred his books to remain unadorned by the artist's
pencil. That the vast majority of his readers approved of such
embellishment cannot be questioned, for the genius of Cruikshank and
"Phiz" has done much to impart reality to the persons imagined by
Dickens. We are perhaps even more indebted to the excellent
illustrations than to the Author's descriptions for the ability to
realise the outward presentments of Pickwick, Fagin, Micawber, and a
host of other characters, simply because the material eye absorbs
impressions more readily than the mental eye.

That Dickens's association with his Illustrators was something more than
mere coadjutorship is evidenced both in Forster's "Life" and in the
published "Letters." From these sources we derive much information
tending to prove the existence of a warm friendship subsisting between
Author and Artists; indeed, the latter (with two or three exceptions)
were privileged to enjoy the close personal intimacy of Dickens and his
family circle. Recalling the fact that the Novelist not unfrequently
availed himself of the traits and idiosyncrasies of his familiars, it
seems somewhat strange that in the whole range of his creations we fail
to discover a single attempt at the portraiture of an artist; for those
_dilettanti_ wielders of the brush, Miss La Creevy and Henry Gowan, can
scarcely be included under that denomination.

During the earlier part of this century the illustrators of books
seldom, if ever, resorted to the use of the living model. Such experts
as Cruikshank, Seymour, "Phiz," Maclise, Doyle, and Leech were no
exceptions to this rule; but at the beginning of the sixties there arose
a new "school" of designers and draughtsmen, prominent among them being
Leighton, Millais, Walker, and Sandys. Those popular Royal Academicians,
Mr. Marcus Stone and Mr. Luke Fildes (the illustrators respectively of
"Our Mutual Friend" and "Edwin Drood"), are almost the only surviving
members of that confraternity; they, however, speedily relinquished
black-and-white Art in order to devote their attention to the more
fascinating pursuit of painting. While admitting the technical
superiority of many of the illustrations in the later editions of
Dickens's works (such as those by Frederick Barnard and Charles Green),
the collector and bibliophile claim for the designs in the original
issue an interest which is lacking in subsequent editions; that is to
say, they possess the charm of association--a charm that far outweighs
possible artistic defects and conventions; for, be it remembered, these
designs were produced under the direct influence and authorisation of
Dickens, and by artists who worked hand in hand with the great romancer

It is averred that "Phiz," who rightly retains the _premier_ position
among Dickens's Illustrators, placed very little value upon his
tentative drawings, which, as soon as they had served their purpose,
were either thrown upon the fire or given away incontinently to those
who had the foresight to ask for them. Fortunately, the recipients were
discriminating enough to treasure these pencillings, many of them having
since been transferred to the portfolios of collectors. For the
privilege of reproducing interesting examples I am indebted to Her Grace
the Duchess of St. Albans, Mr. J. F. Dexter, Mr. M. H. Spielmann, Mr.
W. H. Lever, Messrs. Robson & Co., the Committee of Nottingham Castle
Museum, and others. I am especially grateful to Mr. Augustin Daly, of
New York, for so generously permitting me to photograph the famous
"Pickwick" drawings by Seymour, together with a hitherto unpublished
portrait of that artist. The portrait of Dickens forming the
frontispiece to this volume is reproduced from a unique impression of a
very scarce lithograph in the possession of Mr. Stuart M. Samuel.

In order to give an effect of continuity to my Notes, I have lightly
sketched the career of each Artist, introducing in chronological
sequence the facts relating to his designs for Dickens. In several
cases, the proof-sheets of these chapters have been revised by the
representatives of the Artists to whom they refer, and for valued aid in
this direction my cordial thanks are due to the Rev. A. J. Buss, Mr.
Field Stanfield, Mr. A. H. Palmer, and Mr. F. W. W. Topham. Those of
Dickens's Illustrators who are still with us have furnished me with much
information, and have kindly expressed their approval of what I have
written concerning them. I therefore avail myself of this opportunity of
tendering my sincere thanks, for assistance thus rendered, to Mr. Marcus
Stone, R.A., Mr. Luke Fildes, R.A., Mr. W. P. Frith, R.A., and Sir John
Tenniel, R.I., whose mark of approbation naturally imparts a special
value to the present record. I am still further indebted to Mr. Stone
and Mr. Fildes for the loan of a number of their original drawings and
sketches for Dickens, which have not hitherto been published.

Owing to the circumstance that many of the so-called "Extra"
Illustrations are now extremely rare, my list of them could never have
been compiled but for advantages afforded me by collectors, in allowing
me to have access to their Dickensiana. The kind offices of Mr. W. R.
Hughes, Mr. Thomas Wilson, Mr. W. T. Pevier, and Mr. W. T. Spencer are
gratefully acknowledged in this connection, as well as those of Mr.
Dudley Tenney of New York, who has rendered me signal service in respect
of American Illustrations.

To Forster's "Life of Dickens" and to the published "Letters" I am
naturally beholden for information not otherwise procurable, while
certain interesting details concerning "Phiz's" drawings and etchings
are quoted from Mr. D. C. Thomson's "Life and Labours of Hablôt K.
Browne," which is more extended in its general scope than my
previously-issued Memoir of the artist.

I am privileged to associate the names of Miss Hogarth and Mrs. Perugini
with this account of Charles Dickens and his _collaborateurs_; to the
former I am obliged for permission to print some of the Novelist's
correspondence which has never previously been made public, while the
latter has favoured me with the loan of photographic portraits. Finally,
I must express my indebtedness for much valuable aid to George
Cattermole's daughter, Mrs. Edward Franks, the "cousin" to whom the
Novelist alluded in a letter to her father dated February 26, 1841, and
to whose "clear blue eyes" he desired to be commended.


ST. ALBANS, _September 1898_.



  PREFACE                                                          vii
  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS                                             xv
  GEORGE CRUIKSHANK                                                  1
  ROBERT SEYMOUR                                                    29
  ROBERT W. BUSS                                                    47
  HABLÔT K. BROWNE ("PHIZ")                                         58
  GEORGE CATTERMOLE                                                121
  ILLUSTRATORS OF THE CHRISTMAS BOOKS                              136
  JOHN LEECH                                                       138
  RICHARD DOYLE                                                    149
  CLARKSON STANFIELD, R.A.                                         153
  DANIEL MACLISE, R.A.                                             161
  SIR JOHN TENNIEL                                                 172
  FRANK STONE, A.R.A.                                              175
  SIR EDWIN LANDSEER, R.A.                                         180
  SAMUEL PALMER                                                    182
  F. W. TOPHAM                                                     189
  MARCUS STONE, R.A.                                               192
  LUKE FILDES, R.A.                                                204


  I. ILLUSTRATORS OF CHEAP EDITIONS                                219
  II. CONCERNING "EXTRA ILLUSTRATIONS"                             227
  III. DICKENS IN ART                                              243

  INDEX                                                            249


  _No. of
  Plate._    _Subject._                      _Artist._

  1. Portrait of CHARLES DICKENS       SOL. EYTINGE, Junr.  Frontispiece
  2. Portrait of GEORGE CRUIKSHANK            BAUGNIET     Facing page 1
  3. "Jemima Evans."--_Sketches by Boz_     G. CRUIKSHANK        „     4
  4. "The Four Miss Willises."--_Sketches
       by Boz_                                    „              „     6
  5. "Thoughts about People."--_Sketches
       by Boz_                                    „              „     8
  6. "The Parish Engine."--_Sketches by Boz_      „              „    10
  7. Studies for Scenes and Characters.--_Sketches
       by Boz_                                    „              „    12
  8.  "Mr. Bumble Degraded in the Eyes of the
        Paupers."--_Oliver Twist_                 „              „    14
  9. "Mr. Claypole as he Appeared when his Master
       was Out."--_Oliver Twist_                  „              „    16
  10. "Oliver Amazed at the Dodger's Mode of
        'Going to Work.'"--_Oliver Twist_         „              „    18
  11. Studies for Bill Sikes, Nancy, and the
        Artful Dodger.--_Oliver Twist_            „              „    20
  12. Studies for Bill Sikes in the Condemned
        Cell.--_Oliver Twist_                     „              „    22
  13. Study for "Fagin in the Condemned
        Cell."--_Oliver Twist_                    „              „    24
  14. First Idea for "Fagin in the Condemned
        Cell" and other Sketches.--_Oliver
        Twist_                                    „              „    26
  15. Portrait of ROBERT SEYMOUR               TAYLOR            „    29
  16. "Mr. Pickwick Addresses the Club."--_The
        Pickwick Papers_                     R. SEYMOUR          „    32
  17. "The Pugnacious Cabman."--_The Pickwick
        Papers_                                   „              „    34
  18. "Dr. Slammer's Defiance of Jingle."--_The
        Pickwick Papers_                          „              „    36
  19. First Study for "The Dying Clown."--_The
        Pickwick Papers_                          „              „    38
  20. "The Runaway Chaise."--_The Pickwick
        Papers_                                   „              „    40
  21. "The Pickwickians in Mr. Wardle's
        Kitchen."--_The Pickwick Papers_          „              „    42
  22. Portrait of ROBERT W. BUSS              R. W. BUSS         „    47
  23. Unused Design for the Title-Page.--_The
        Pickwick Papers_                          „              „    48
  24. "The Break-down."--_The Pickwick Papers_    „              „    50
  25. "A Souvenir of Dickens"                     „              „    52
  26. Dolly Varden.--_Barnaby Rudge_              „              „    54
  27. Florence Dombey and Captain Cuttle.--_Dombey
        and Son_                                  „              „    56
  28. Portraits of HABLÔT K. BROWNE and ROBERT
        YOUNG                             From Photographs       „    58
  29. "A Sudden Recognition, Unexpected on
        Both Sides."--_Nicholas Nickleby_   H. K. BROWNE         „    64
  30. Studies for the Cheeryble
        Brothers.--_Nicholas Nickleby._           „              „    68
  31. Master Humphrey and the Deaf
        Gentleman.--_Master Humphrey's Clock_     „              „    72
  32. "The Dombey Family."--_Dombey and Son_      „              „    76
  33. "Paul and Mrs. Pipchin."--_Dombey and Son._ „              „    80
  34. "Mr. Peggotty's Dream comes True."--_David
        Copperfield_                              „              „    84
  35. "Mr. Chadband 'Improving' a Tough
        Subject."--_Bleak House_                  „              „    92
  36. Dolly Varden.--_Barnaby Rudge_        H. K. BROWNE         „    98
  37. Miss Haredale.--_Barnaby Rudge_             „              „   110
  38. Portrait of GEORGE CATTERMOLE      From a Photograph       „   121
  39. Quilp's Wharf.--_The Old Curiosity
        Shop_                              G. CATTERMOLE         „   124
  40. The Death-bed of Little Nell (Two
        Studies).--_The Old Curiosity Shop_       „              „   126
  41. The Night Watchman and The "Maypole"
        Inn.--_Barnaby Rudge_                     „              „   130
  42. The Murder at the Warren.--_Barnaby Rudge_  „              „   132
  43. Portrait of JOHN LEECH       Sir J. E. MILLAIS, P.R.A      „   138
  44. "Richard and Margaret."--_The Chimes_   J. LEECH           „   140
  45. "John, Dot, and Tilly Slowboy."--_The
        Cricket on the Hearth_                    „              „   142
  46. "Caleb at Work."--_The Cricket on the
        Hearth_                                   „              „   144
  47. "The Tetterbys."--_The Haunted Man_         „              „   146
                                        {From a Photograph, and}
  48. Portraits of RICHARD DOYLE and
        D. MACLISE, R.A.                {from the Painting by  } „   149
                                        {E. M. Ward, R.A       }
  49. Portraits of CLARKSON STANFIELD, R.A.,
        and FRANK STONE, A.R.A             From Photographs      „   153
  50. "War" and "Peace."--_The Battle of
        Life_                             C. STANFIELD, R.A      „   156
  51. "The Tower of the Chimes" and "The
        Spirit of the Chimes."--_The Chimes_  D. MACLISE, R.A.   „   162
  52. "Milly and the Old Man."--_The Haunted
        Man_                                F. STONE, A.R.A      „   176
  53. Portraits of SIR JOHN             {From a Photograph, and}
      TENNIEL, R.I., and SIR            {from the Painting by  }
      EDWIN LANDSEER, R.A               {Sir F. GRANT, P.R.A}    „   180
  54. Portraits of F. W. TOPHAM and
        SAMUEL PALMER                     From Photographs       „   182
  55. "The Villa D'Este."--_Pictures
        from Italy_                          S. PALMER           „   186
  56. Portrait of MARCUS STONE, R.A       From a Photograph      „   192
  57. Studies for "Mr. Venus Surrounded
        by the Trophies of his Art."--_Our
        Mutual Friend_                    MARCUS STONE, R.A      „   194
  58. Monsieur Defarge and Doctor
        Manette.--_A Tale of Two Cities_          „              „   196
  59. "Black and White."--_American Notes_        „              „   198
  60. "Taking Leave of Joe."--_Great
        Expectations_                             „              „   200
  61. Portrait of LUKE FILDES, R.A        From a Photograph      „   204
  62. Study for the Head of Neville
        Landless.--_The Mystery of Edwin
        Drood_                             L. FILDES, R.A        „   206
  63. Studies for Edwin Drood.--_The
        Mystery of Edwin Drood_                   „              „   208
  64. Studies for Mr. Jasper.--_The
        Mystery of Edwin Drood_                   „              „   210
  65. Study for "Good-bye, Rosebud,
      Darling."--_The Mystery of Edwin Drood_     „              „   212
  66. Study for Mr. Grewgious.--_The Mystery
        of Edwin Drood_                           „              „   214
  67. Do.     do.       do.         do.           „              „   216
  68. Portraits of ALFRED CROWQUILL
       (A. H. Forrester) and FREDERICK
       BARNARD, R.I                       From Photographs       „   228
  69. Portraits of F. W. PAILTHORPE and
        CHARLES GREEN, R.I.                       „              „   232

_The Frontispiece Portrait of Charles Dickens was photo-engraved by Mr.
E. Gilbert Hester, and the Collotype Plates were prepared and printed by
Mr. James Hyatt._




From the Lithograph by


This Portrait is a reproduction of a proof impression, showing the
retouching by Cruikshank himself.



    First Start in Life--Early Productions--"SKETCHES BY
    BOZ"--Introduction to Dickens--First and Second Series of the
    "Sketches"--Extra Plates--Additional Designs for the Complete
    Edition--Portraiture of Artist and Author--Historic Value of
    Cruikshank's Illustrations--Some Slight
    Inaccuracies--Frontispiece of the First Cheap
    Edition--Tentative Sketches and Unused Designs--"OLIVER
    TWIST"--Incongruities Detected in a Few of the
    Plates--Thackeray's Eulogium--Working Tracings and
    Water-Colour _Replicas_--Trial Sketches--A Note from
    Cruikshank to Dickens--Sketches of Bill Sikes in the
    Condemned Cell--How the Design for "Fagin in the Condemned
    Cell" was Conceived--A Criticism by Ruskin--The Cancelled
    Plate--Cruikshank's Claim to the Origin of "Oliver
    Twist"--Designs for Dickens's Minor Writings in BENTLEY'S
    MISCELLANY--"The Lamplighter's Story"--Cruikshank's Last
    Illustration for Dickens--"Frauds on the Fairies"--The
    Artist's Remuneration--Death.

The name of George Cruikshank, which stands first in the long and
imposing list of Dickens Illustrators, is familiar to every one as that
of a pencil humorist of no common calibre, whose genius as a designer
and whose marvellous skill as an etcher have evoked enthusiastic praise
from John Ruskin and other eminent critics. He undoubtedly inherited his
artistic talent from his father, who was not only an etcher and
engraver, but (as George himself has recorded) "a first-rate
water-colour draughtsman." So experienced an artist was therefore
thoroughly capable of training his sons, George and Isaac Robert, for
the same profession.

Like most boys, George dreamt of the sea, aspiring to become a second
Captain Cook; but, happily, the death of his father compelled him to
take up seriously the work of designing, in order that he might assist
in maintaining his mother and sister. His first start in life
originated in a publisher seeing some of his sketches, which indicated
such unusual talent that he was immediately engaged to illustrate
children's books, songs, and other cheap literature peculiar to the
period. Then the young artist essayed the more profitable arena of
political caricaturing, distinctly making his mark as a satirist
Realising at this time his imperfections as a draughtsman, he determined
to acquire the art of drawing with correctness, entering the Royal
Academy as a student; but, finding it difficult to work on pedantic
lines, his resolution soon waned, and, after one course of study, he
left the place for a short interval of--forty years! Although he never
became the learned artist, nor was able to draw with academic accuracy,
he wielded his pencil with a facility and vigour that delighted all
beholders, and this deftness, combined with a remarkable sense of humour
and satire, speedily brought him commissions from every quarter.

It was as a book-illustrator that George Cruikshank undoubtedly
excelled, and some idea of his industry in this direction (during a
period of eighty years of his busy life) may be obtained from G. C.
Reid's comprehensive catalogue of his works, where we find enumerated
more than five thousand illustrations on paper, wood, copper, and steel.
This, however, by no means exhausts the list, for the artist survived
the publication of the catalogue several years, and was "in harness" to
the end of his long career. If the works described by Mr. Reid be
supplemented by the profusion of original sketches and ideas for his
finished designs, the number of Cruikshank's productions may be
estimated at about fifteen thousand!

Before his introduction to Charles Dickens in 1836, the versatile artist
had adorned several volumes, which, but for his striking illustrations,
would probably have enjoyed but a brief popularity. His etchings and
drawings on wood are invariably executed in an exceedingly delicate
manner, at the same time preserving a breadth of effect unequalled by
any _aquafortiste_ of his day. "Only those who know the difficulties of
etching," observes Mr. P. G. Hamerton, "can appreciate the power that
lies behind his unpretending skill; there is never, in his most
admirable plates, the trace of a vain effort."

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =Sketches by Boz, 1833-36.=]

Dickens's clever descriptions of "every-day life and every-day people"
were originally printed in the _Monthly Magazine_, the _Evening
Chronicle_ and the _Morning Chronicle_, _Bell's Life in London_, and
"The Library of Fiction," and subsequently appeared in a collected form
under the general title of "Sketches by Boz." Early in 1836 Dickens sold
the entire copyright of the "Sketches" to John Macrone, of St. James's
Square, who published a selection therefrom in two duodecimo volumes,
with illustrations by George Cruikshank. It was at this time that
Charles Dickens first met the artist, who was his senior by about a
score of years, and already in the enjoyment of an established
reputation as a book-illustrator. That the youthful author, as well as
his publisher, realised the value of Cruikshank's co-operation is
manifested in the Preface to the "Sketches," where Dickens, after
appropriately comparing the issue of his first book to the launching of
a pilot balloon, observes: "Unlike the generality of pilot balloons
which carry no car, in this one it is very possible for a man to embark,
not only himself, but all his hopes of future fame, and all his chances
of future success. Entertaining no inconsiderable feeling of trepidation
at the idea of making so perilous a voyage in so frail a machine, alone
and unaccompanied, the author was naturally desirous to secure the
assistance and companionship of some well-known individual, who had
frequently contributed to the success, though his well-known reputation
rendered it impossible for him ever to have shared the hazard, of
similar undertakings. To whom, as possessing this requisite in an
eminent degree, could he apply but to George Cruikshank? The application
was readily heard and at once acceded to; this is their first voyage in
company, but it may not be the last." Each of the two volumes contains
eight illustrations, and it may justly be said of these little vignettes
that they are among the artist's most successful efforts with the
needle. Although highly popular from the beginning, the "Sketches" were
now received with even greater fervour, and several editions were
speedily called for. As the late Mr. G. A. Sala contended, the
coadjutorship of so experienced a draughtsman as George Cruikshank, who
knew London and London life "better than the majority of Sunday-school
children know their Catechism," was of real importance to the young
reporter of the _Morning Chronicle_, with whose baptismal name (be it
remembered) his readers and admirers were as yet unacquainted.

During the following year (1837) Macrone published a Second Series of
the "Sketches" in one volume, uniform in size and character with its
predecessors, and containing ten etchings by Cruikshank; for the second
edition of this extra volume two additional illustrations were done,
viz., "The Last Cab-Driver" and "May-day in the Evening."[1] It was at
this time that Dickens repurchased from Macrone the entire copyright of
the "Sketches," and arranged with Chapman & Hall for a complete edition,
to be issued in shilling monthly parts, octavo size, the first number
appearing in November of that year. The completed work contained all the
Cruikshank plates (except that entitled "The Free and Easy," which, for
some unexplained reason, was cancelled) and the following new subjects:
"The Parish Engine," "The Broker's Man," "Our Next-door Neighbours,"
"Early Coaches," "Public Dinners," "The Gin-Shop," "Making a Night of
It," "The Boarding-House," "The Tuggses at Ramsgate," "The Steam
Excursion," "Mrs. Joseph Porter," and "Mr. Watkins Tottle."

    Footnote 1: A set of the twenty-eight etchings, proofs
    before letters (First and Second Series), realised £30 at
    Sotheby's in 1889. Lithographic _replicas_ of the plates in
    the Second Series were published in Calcutta in 1837.

Cruikshank also produced a design for the pink wrapper enclosing each of
the twenty monthly parts; this was engraved on wood by John Jackson, the
original drawing (adapted from one the artist had previously made for
Macrone) being now in the possession of Mr. William Wright, of Paris.
The subject of the frontispiece is the same as that of the
title-page in the Second Series. The alteration in the size of the
illustrations for this cheap edition necessitated larger plates, so that
the artist was compelled to re-etch his designs. These reproductions,
although on an extended scale, were executed with even a greater degree
of finish, and contain more "colour" than those in the first issue; but
the general treatment of the smaller etchings is more pleasing by reason
of the superior freedom of line therein displayed. As might be
anticipated, a comparison of the two sets of illustrations discloses
certain slight variations, which are especially noticeable in the
following plates: "Greenwich Fair;" musicians and male dancer added on
left. "Election for Beadle;" three more children belonging to Mr. Bung's
family on right, and two more of Mr. Spruggins's family on left, thus
making up the full complement in each case. "The First of May"
(originally entitled "May-day in the Evening"); the drummer on the left,
in the first edition, looks straight before him, while in the octavo
edition he turns his face towards the girl with the parasol. "London
Recreations;" in the larger design the small child on the right is
stooping to reach a ball, which is not shown in the earlier plate.



_Facsimile_ of Unused Designs for "Sketches by Boz" by



Additional interest is imparted to some of the etchings in "Sketches by
Boz" owing to the introduction by the artist of portraits of Charles
Dickens and himself, there being no less than five delineations of the
face and figure of the youthful "Boz" as he then appeared. In the
title-page of the Second Series (as well as in the reproduction of it in
the octavo edition), the identity of the two individuals waving flags in
the car of the balloon has been pointed out by Cruikshank, who wrote on
the original pencil-sketch, "The parties going up in the balloon are
intended for the author and the artist,"--which may be considered a
necessary explanation, as the likenesses are not very apparent.

In the plates entitled "Early Coaches," "A Pickpocket in Custody," and
"Making a Night of It," Cruikshank has similarly attempted to portray
his own lineaments and those of Dickens; he was more successful,
however, in the illustration to "Public Dinners," where the presentments
of himself and the novelist, as stewards carrying official wands, are
more life-like. There exist, by the way, several seriously-attempted
portraits of Dickens by Cruikshank, concerning the earliest of which it
is related that author and artist were members of a club of literary men
known during its brief existence as "The Hook and Eye Club," and that at
one of their nightly meetings Dickens was seated in an arm-chair
conversing, when Cruikshank exclaimed, "Sit still, Charley, while I take
your portrait!" This impromptu sketch, now the property of Colonel
Hamilton, has been etched by F. W. Pailthorpe, and a similar drawing is
included in the Cruikshank Collection at South Kensington. Among other
contemporary portrait-studies (executed in pencil and slightly tinted in
colour) is one bearing the following inscription in the artist's
autograph: "Charles Dickens, Author of Sketches by Boz, the Pickwick
Papers, &c., &c., &c.,"--an admission that seems to dispose of
Cruikshank's subsequent claim to the authorship of "Pickwick."



_Facsimile_ of an Unused Design for "Sketches by Boz" by



It has been remarked that Cruikshank was so accurate in the rendering of
details that future antiquaries will rely upon his plates as
authoritative in matters of architecture, costume, &c. For example, in
the etching of "The Last Cab-Driver," he has depicted an obsolete form
of cabriolet, the driver being seated over the right wheel; and in that
of "The Parish Engine" we may discover what kind of public
fire-extinguisher was then in use--a very primitive implement in
comparison with the modern "steamer." In the latter plate, by the way,
we behold the typical beadle of the period, who afterwards figured as
Bumble in "Oliver Twist." _Apropos_ of this etching, Mr. Frederick
Wedmore points out (in _Temple Bar_, April 1878) that it is "an
excellent example of Cruikshank's eye for picturesque line and texture
in some of the commonest objects that met him in his walks: the
brickwork of the house, for instance, prettily indicated, the woodwork
of the outside shutters, and the window, on which various lights
are pleasantly broken. I know no artist," he continues, "so alive as
Cruikshank to the pretty sedateness of Georgian architecture. Then, too,
there is the girl with basket on arm, a figure not quite ungraceful in
line and gesture. She might have been much better if Cruikshank had ever
made himself that accurate draughtsman of the figure which he hardly
essayed to be, and she and all her fellows--it is only fair to
remember--might have been better, again, had the artist who designed her
done his finest work in a happier period of English dress." Mr. Wedmore
alludes to another etching in "Sketches by Boz" as being "perhaps the
best of all in Cruikshank as proof of that sensitive eye for what is
picturesque and characteristic in every-day London. It is called 'The
Streets, Morning,' the design somewhat empty of 'subject,' only a
comfortable sweep who does not go up the chimney, and a wretched boy who
does, are standing at a stall taking coffee, which a woman, with pattens
striking on pavement and head tied up close in a handkerchief, serves to
the scanty comers in the early morning light. A lamp-post rises behind
her; the closed shutters of the baker are opposite; the public-house of
the Rising Sun has not yet opened its doors; at some house-corner
further off a solitary figure lounges homeless; beyond, pleasant light
morning shadows cross the cool grey of the untrodden street; a church
tower and spire rise in the delicate distance, where the turn of the
road hides the further habitations of the sleeping town."

It may be hypercritical to resent, on the score of inaccuracy, an
occasional oversight on the part of Cruikshank; but it is nevertheless
interesting to note that in the plate entitled "Election for Beadle,"
Cruikshank has omitted from the inscription on Spruggins's placard a
reference to "the twins," the introduction of which caused that
candidate to become temporarily a favourite with the electors; in
"Horatio Sparkins," the "dropsical" figure of seven (see label on right)
is followed by a little "1/2d." instead of the diminutive "3/4d."
mentioned in the text; in "The Pawnbroker's Shop" it will be observed
that the words "Money Lent" on the glass door should appear reversed,
so as to be read from the outside; while in the etching illustrating
"Private Theatres," the artist has forgotten to include the "two dirty
men with the corked countenances," who are specially referred to in the

The first cheap edition of "Sketches by Boz," issued by Chapman & Hall
in 1850, contained a new frontispiece, drawn on wood by Cruikshank,
representing Mr. Gabriel Parsons being released from the kitchen
chimney,--an incident in "Passage in the Life of Mr. Watkins Tottle."

George Cruikshank not unfrequently essayed several "trial" designs
before he succeeded in realising to his satisfaction the subject he
aimed at portraying. Some of these are extremely slight pencil
notes--"first ideas," hastily made as soon as conceived--while others
were subjected to greater elaboration, and differing but slightly,
perhaps, from the etchings; on certain drawings are marginal
memoranda--such as studies of heads, expressions, and attitudes--which
are valuable as showing how the finished pictures were evolved. The
majority of the designs are executed in pencil, while a few are drawn
with pen-and-ink; occasionally one may meet with a sketch in which the
effect is broadly washed in with sepia or indian-ink, and, more rarely
still, with a drawing charmingly and delicately wrought in
water-colours. Besides original sketches, the collection at the South
Kensington Museum contains a series of working tracings, by means of
which the artist transferred his subjects to the plates. There are no
less than three different suggestions for the frontispiece of the first
cheap edition of "Sketches by Boz," together with various renderings of
the design for the wrapper of the first complete edition, in which the
word "Boz" in the title constitutes a conspicuous feature, being formed
of the three letters superimposed, while disposed about them are several
of the prominent characters. Probably the most interesting in this
collection is a sheet of slight sketches signed by the artist, although
they are merely tentative jottings for his etchings. One of these
pencillings (an unused subject) represents a man proposing a toast
at a dinner-table, doubtless intended as an illustration for "Public
Dinners"; and here, too, are marginal studies of heads--including one of
a Bill Sikes type--together with a significant note (apparently of a
later date) in the autograph of Cruikshank, which reads thus: "Some of
these suggestions to Chas. Dickens, and which he wrote to in the second
part of 'Sketches by Boz'!"



_Facsimile_ of an Unused Design for "Sketches by Boz" by



A large number of studies for "Sketches by Boz" may also be seen in the
Print Room of the British Museum, many of which are very slight. In some
instances we find the same subject rendered in different ways, and it is
worthy of note that a few of these designs were never etched; among the
most remarkable of the unused sketches is a rough drawing for the
wrapper of the monthly parts (octavo edition), with ostensible portraits
of author and artist introduced. This collection includes "first ideas"
for "Thoughts about People," "Hackney Coaches," "The Broker's Man," &c.,
and a careful examination shows that the sketches for the plates
illustrating "Seven Dials" and "The Pickpocket in Custody" are entitled
by the artist "Fight of the Amazons" and "The Hospital Patient"
respectively. In one of the trial sketches for "The Last Cabman," the
horse is represented as having fallen to the ground, the passenger being
violently ejected from the vehicle.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =Oliver Twist, 1837-39.=]

On August 22, 1836, Charles Dickens entered into an agreement with
Richard Bentley to edit a new monthly magazine called _Bentley's
Miscellany_, and to furnish that periodical with a serial tale. George
Cruikshank's services as illustrator were also retained, and his design
for the wrapper inspired Maginn to indite, for "The Bentley Ballads,"
the "Song of the Cover," whence this characteristic verse is quoted:--

  "Bentley, Boz, and Cruikshank stand
      Like expectant reelers;
  'Music!' 'Play up!' pipe in hand
      Beside the _fluted_ pillars

  "Boz and Cruikshank want to dance,--
      None for frolic riper;
  But Bentley makes the first advance,
      Because he pays the piper."

The first number of the _Miscellany_ was issued in January 1837, and in
February appeared the initial chapter of the editor's story, entitled
"Oliver Twist, or, the Parish Boy's Progress," which was continued in
succeeding numbers until its completion in March 1839, with etchings by

The dramatic character of this stirring romance of low London life
afforded the artist unusual scope for the display of his talent; indeed,
his powerful pencil was far more suited to the theme than that of any of
his contemporaries. The principal scenes in the novel proved most
attractive to him, and he fairly revelled in delineating the tragic
episodes associated with the career of Fagin and Sikes. These
twenty-four etchings are on the same scale as those in the first
collected edition of the "Sketches," but they are broader and more
effective in treatment. In October 1838,--that is, about five months
before completion in the _Miscellany_,--the entire story was issued by
Chapman & Hall in three volumes post octavo, and there can be no doubt
that its remarkable success was brought about in no small measure by
Cruikshank's inimitable pictures. Nearly eight years later (in January
1846) a cheaper edition, containing all the illustrations, was commenced
in ten monthly parts, demy octavo, and subsequently published in one
volume by Bradbury & Evans. On the cover for the monthly numbers
Cruikshank has portrayed eleven of the leading incidents in the story,
some of the subjects being entirely new, while others are practically a
repetition of the etched designs. The plates in this edition, having
suffered from previous wear-and-tear, were subjected to a general
touching-up, as a comparison with the earlier issue clearly indicates,
such reparation (carried out by an engraver named Findlay, much to
Cruikshank's annoyance) being especially noticeable in cases where
"tones" have been added to wall-backgrounds and other parts of the
designs. Apart from actual proof impressions, the "Oliver Twist"
etchings are naturally to be found in their best state in _Bentley's
Miscellany_, where they are seen in their pristine beauty. In some of
the plates it will be observed that Cruikshank has introduced "roulette"
(or dotted) work with excellent effect, although, of course, this
disqualifies them as examples of pure etching. The first cheap edition
of "Oliver Twist," issued in 1850 by Chapman & Hall, contains a
frontispiece only by George Cruikshank, representing Mr. Bumble and
Oliver in Mrs. Mann's parlour, as described in the second chapter.



_Facsimile_ of the Original Drawing for the First Octavo Edition of
"Sketches by Boz" by



It has been said that Cruikshank could not draw a pretty woman. At any
rate, he neglected his opportunity in "Oliver Twist," for he fails in so
depicting Rose Maylie, while his portrayal of Nancy is particularly ugly
and repelling, whereas she certainly possessed physical charms not
unfrequently found in women of her class. Although the artist has
imparted too venerable an appearance to the Artful Dodger, he has seized
in a wonderful manner the characteristics of criminal types in his
rendering of Fagin and Bill Sikes. In many of Cruikshank's etchings the
accessories are very _àpropos_, and sometimes not without a touch of
quiet humour. For example, in the plate representing Oliver recovering
from the fever, there is seen over the chimney-piece a picture of the
Good Samaritan, in allusion to Mr. Brownlow's benevolent intentions with
respect to the invalid orphan; while in that depicting Mr. Bumble and
Mrs. Corney taking tea, may be noticed the significant figure of Paul
Pry on the mantelshelf. Some of the designs are marked by slight
incongruities, which, however, do not detract from their interest. In
the etching "Oliver Plucks up a Spirit," it will be observed that the
small round table which the persecuted lad overthrows during his
desperate attack upon Noah Claypole could not possibly assume, by such
accidental means, the inverted position as here shown. In the plate
entitled "The Evidence Destroyed," the lantern (according to the text)
should have been lowered into the dark well, but doubtless the error
was intentional on the part of the artist, in order to secure effect; in
"Mr. Fagin and his Pupil Recovering Nancy," the girl is represented as
being exceedingly robust, whereas she was really "so reduced with
watching and privation as hardly to be recognised as the same Nancy."
Again, in the illustration depicting Sikes attempting to destroy his
dog, we see in the distance the dome of St. Paul's, while, as a matter
of fact, the desperate ruffian had not reached a point so near the
metropolis when he thought of drowning the faithful animal.[2] In "The
Last Chance," where the robber contemplates dropping from the roof of
Fagin's house to escape his pursuers, the rope (described in the
letterpress as being thirty-four feet long) is barely half that length,
and could never have extended to the ground; while the dog, who lay
concealed until his master had tumbled off the parapet, must have been
distinctly visible to all observers if he stood so prominently on the
ridge-tiles as here indicated. The latter etching is one of the most
fascinating of the series, for here Cruikshank has realised every
feature of the dramatic scene,--the harassed expression on the evil face
of the hunted criminal, the squalid tenements half shrouded by
approaching darkness, the excitement of the people crowding the windows
of the opposite houses; indeed, the tragic and repulsive element in the
picture constitutes a remarkable effort on the part of the artist.

    Footnote 2: In a large water-colour _replica_ of this
    subject, signed "George Cruikshank, Octr. 14th, 1873, in my
    82nd year," the artist stated that the landscape represented
    the old Pentonville fields, north of London.




_Facsimile_ of the Original Sketches by GEORGE CRUIKSHANK

In the centre of the sheet the Artist has written: "Some of these
suggestions to Chas. Dickens, and which he wrote to in the second part
of 'Sketches by Boz.'"


In considering the story as a whole, it is difficult to say how much of
the powerful impression we are conscious of may be due to the
illustrator. In his famous eulogy on Cruikshank, Thackeray remarked: "We
are not at all disposed to undervalue the works and genius of Mr.
Dickens, and we are sure that he would admit as readily as any man the
wonderful assistance that he has derived from the artist who has given
us portraits of his ideal personages, and made them familiar to all
the world. Once seen, these figures remain impressed on the memory,
which otherwise would have had no hold upon them, and the Jew and
Bumble, and the heroes and heroines of the Boz Sketches, become personal
acquaintances with each of us. O that Hogarth could have illustrated
Fielding in the same way! and fixed down on paper those grand figures of
Parson Adams, and Squire Allworthy, and the great Jonathan Wild." Again,
with more especial reference to the "Oliver Twist" designs, the kindly
"Michael Angelo Titmarsh" wrote: "The sausage scene at Fagin's; Nancy
seizing the boy; that capital piece of humour, Mr. Bumble's courtship,
which is even better in Cruikshank's version than in Boz's exquisite
account of the interview; Sykes's[3] farewell to his dog; and the
Jew--the dreadful Jew--that Cruikshank drew! What a fine touching
picture of melancholy desolation is that of Sykes and the dog! The poor
cur is not too well drawn, the landscape is stiff and formal; but in
this case the faults, if faults they be, of execution rather add to than
diminish the effect of the picture; it has a strange, wild, dreary,
broken-hearted look; we fancy we see the landscape as it must have
appeared to Sykes, when ghastly and with bloodshot eyes he looked at it.
As for the Jew in the dungeon, let us say nothing of it--what can we say
to describe it?"

    Footnote 3: The name of Sikes is frequently thus mis-spelt.
    It is odd that Dickens himself first wrote it "Sykes," as may
    be seen in the original manuscript of the story.

The complete set of twenty-four working tracings of the original designs
for "Oliver Twist," some of which exhibit variations from the finished
etchings, realised £140 at Sotheby's in March 1892. Water-colour
_replicas_ of all the subjects were prepared by Cruikshank in 1866 for
Mr. F. W. Cosens, which the artist supplemented by thirteen smaller
drawings and a humorous title-page, the entire series being reproduced
in colour for an _edition de luxe_ of "Oliver Twist," published by
Chapman & Hall in 1894. The Cruikshank Collections in the British and
South Kensington Museums include many of the artist's sketches and
"first ideas" for the "Oliver Twist" plates, as well as a number of the
matured designs. Here are several trial sketches for the monthly wrapper
of the first octavo edition, executed in pencil with slight washes of
sepia added; the original drawings for "Rose Maylie and Oliver" (known
to collectors as the "Fireside" plate, to which reference will presently
be made), and for "Mr. Bumble Degraded in the Eyes of the Paupers" (with
marginal sketches), the title of which is appended in Dickens's
autograph, where, instead of "the eyes," the word "presence" was
originally written. Here, also, we find the first sketch of Noah
Claypole enjoying an oyster-supper, with the following query written by
the artist: "Dr. Dickens, 'Title' wanted--will any of these do? Yours,
G. Ck." The proposed titles are then given, thus: "Mr. Claypole
Astonishing Mr. Bumble and 'the Natives';" "Mr. Claypole Indulging;"
"Mr. Claypole as he Appeared when his Master was Out,"--the latter being
adopted. On the back of a pen-and-ink drawing of "Oliver's Reception by
Fagin and the Boys," Cruikshank suggested a different title, viz.,
"Oliver Introduced to the Old Gentleman by Jack Dawkins." A beautiful
little water-colour drawing of the subject, entitled "Oliver Introduced
to the Respectable Old Gentleman," is in the Print Room of the British
Museum, where we may also discover a portrait of Oliver himself--a
profile study of the head as seen in the drawing now referred to. On the
back of a sketch of Mr. Brownlow at the bookstall (for the plate
entitled "Oliver Amazed at the Dodger's Mode of 'Going to Work'") is the
rough draft of an unsigned note in the autograph of Cruikshank,
evidently addressed to Dickens:--

     "_Thursday Eg., June 15, '37._

     "MY DEAR SIR,--Can you let me have a subject for the second
     Plate? The first is in progress. By the way, would you like
     to see the Drawing? I can spare it for an hour or two if you
     will send for it."



_Facsimile_ of the Original Sketch for "Oliver Twist" by GEORGE

The Inscription above the Sketch is in the Autograph of Dickens.


I am enabled to reproduce in _facsimile_ a very interesting sheet of
sketches for prominent characters in "Oliver Twist," containing no
less than five studies of Fagin, including the "first idea" for the
famous etching of the Jew in the condemned cell. Still more noteworthy
are four studies of Bill Sikes in the condemned cell, evidently made
early in the progress of the book, thus seeming to indicate that the
artist conjectured this would be the fate of the burglar instead of the
Jew; or is it possible that the existence of these studies may be
considered as a corroboration of his assertion (in a letter to the
_Times_, presently to be quoted) that he, and not Dickens, must be
credited with the idea of putting either Sikes or Fagin in the cell?

Concerning Cruikshank's powerful conception of Fagin in the condemned
cell ("the immortal Fagin of 'Oliver Twist,'" as Thackeray styled him),
it is related by Mr. George Hodder (in "Memories of my Time") that when
the great George brought forth this picture, where the Jew is seen
biting his finger-nails and suffering the tortures of remorse and
chagrin, Horace Mayhew took an opportunity of asking him by what mental
process he had conceived such an extraordinary notion; and his answer
was, that he had been labouring at the subject for several days, but had
not succeeded in getting the effect he desired. At length, beginning to
think the task was almost hopeless, he was sitting up in bed one
morning, with his hand covering his chin and the tips of his fingers
between his lips, the whole attitude expressive of disappointment and
despair, when he saw his face in a cheval-glass which stood on the floor
opposite to him. "That's it!" he involuntarily exclaimed; "that's just
the expression I want!" and by this accidental process the picture was
formed in his mind. Many years afterwards Cruikshank declared this
statement to be absurd, and when interrogated by Mr. Austin Dobson, who
met the artist at Mr. Frederick Locker's house in 1877, he said he had
never been perplexed about the matter, but attributed the story to the
fact that, not being satisfied whether the knuckles should be raised or
depressed, he had made studies of his own hand in a glass, and
illustrated his account by putting his hand to his mouth, looking, with
his hooked nose, wonderfully like the character he was speaking of.
Respecting another illustration in the story, where "The Jew and Morris
Bolter begin to Understand each Other," Professor Ruskin observes that
it is "the intensest rendering of vulgarity, absolute and utter," with
which he is acquainted.

The latter portion of "Oliver Twist" was written in anticipation of the
magazine, in order that the complete story might be promptly launched in
volume form. The illustrations for the final chapters had consequently
to be produced simultaneously and with all possible speed, so that the
artist had no time to submit his designs to Dickens. One of these
plates, viz., "Rose Maylie and Oliver," depicted a scene in the new home
of the Rev. Harry Maylie; he, his wife, and mother, are seated by the
fire, while Oliver stands by Rose Maylie's side. When Dickens first saw
this etching he so strongly disapproved of it that the plate was
forthwith cancelled and another design substituted; but, the book being
then on the eve of publication, it was impossible to prevent a small
number of impressions of this illustration being circulated, and copies
of the work containing the scarce "Fireside" plate are therefore eagerly
sought after by collectors. Dickens, in expressing to Cruikshank his
disapprobation of this etching, undoubtedly realised the delicacy of the
situation, in the possibility of injuring the susceptibilities of the
artist, as the following carefully-worded intimation testifies:--

"I returned suddenly to town yesterday afternoon, to look at the latter
pages of 'Oliver Twist' before it was delivered to the booksellers, when
I saw the majority of the plates in the last volume for the first time.

"With reference to the last one--Rose Maylie and Oliver--without
entering into the question of great haste, or any other cause, which may
have led to its being what it is, I am quite sure there can be little
difference of opinion between us with respect to the result. May I ask
you whether you will object to designing this plate afresh, and doing so
_at once_, in order that as few impressions as possible of the present
one may go forth?

"I feel confident you know me too well to feel hurt by this enquiry,
and, with equal confidence in you, I have lost no time in preferring



_Facsimile_ of the Original Sketch for "Oliver Twist" by


The Inscriptions are in the Autograph of the Artist.


It seems, however, that Cruikshank did not immediately proceed to carry
out the author's wish, but endeavoured to improve the plate by
retouching and adding further tints by means of stippling, &c. In the
South Kensington Collection there is an early proof of the etching in
which the shadow tints are washed in with a brush, and the fact that
these alterations were subsequently carried out is established by the
existence of a unique impression of the plate in its second state. This
proof was probably submitted to Dickens and again rejected, for no
impressions having the stippled additions are known to have been
published. The substituted design, bearing the same title as the
suppressed one, does not much excel it in point of interest, as the
artist himself readily admitted; it represents Rose Maylie and Oliver
standing in front of the tablet put up in the church to the memory of
Oliver's mother, this etching appearing in _Bentley's Miscellany_ and in
all but the earliest copies of the book. The substituted plate (like
many others in the volume) was afterwards considerably "touched up," for
it will be noticed that in the earlier impressions Rose's dress is light
in tone, while subsequently it was changed to black.

A very circumstantial story relative to Cruikshank's connection with
"Oliver Twist" was published in a Transatlantic journal called _The
Round Table_, and reprinted immediately after Dickens's death in a
biography of the novelist by Dr. Shelton Mackenzie, who avers that he
had been informed that Dickens intended to locate Oliver in Kent, and to
introduce hop-picking and other picturesque features of the county he
knew so well: that the author changed his purpose, and brought the boy
to London: and further, that for such important alterations in the plot
Cruikshank was responsible. But the more remarkable portion of this
narrative is Dr. Mackenzie's account of his visit to Cruikshank in
1847, at the artist's house in Myddleton Terrace, Pentonville,
concerning which he writes:--

"I had to wait while he was finishing an etching, for which a printer's
boy was waiting. To while away the time, I gladly complied with his
suggestion that I should look over a portfolio crowded with etchings,
proofs, and drawings, which lay upon the sofa. Among these, carelessly
tied together in a wrap of brown paper, was a series of some twenty-five
to thirty drawings, very carefully finished, through most of which were
carried the now well-known portraits of Fagin, Bill Sikes and his dog,
Nancy, the Artful Dodger, and Master Charles Bates--all well known to
the readers of 'Oliver Twist'--and many others who were not introduced.
There was no mistake about it, and when Cruikshank turned round, his
work finished, I said as much. He told me that it had long been in his
mind to show the life of a London thief by a series of drawings,
engraved by himself, in which, without a single line of letterpress, the
story would be strikingly and clearly told. 'Dickens,' he continued,
'dropped in here one day just as you have done, and, while waiting until
I could speak with him, took up that identical portfolio and ferreted
out that bundle of drawings. When he came to that one which represents
Fagin in the condemned cell, he silently studied it for half-an-hour,
and told me that he was tempted to change the whole plot of his story;
not to carry Oliver Twist through adventures in the country, but to take
him up into the thieves' den in London, show what their life was, and
bring Oliver safely through it without sin or shame. I consented to let
him write up to as many of the designs as he thought would suit his
purpose; and that was the way in which Fagin, Sikes, and Nancy were
created. My drawings suggested them, rather than his strong
individuality suggested my drawings."



_Facsimile_ of the First Sketch for the Etching by



Forster naturally characterises this story as a deliberate untruth,
related with "a minute conscientiousness and particularity of detail
that might have raised the reputation of Sir Benjamin Backbite himself,"
and points out that the artist's version, as here narrated, is
completely refuted by Dickens's letter to Cruikshank, which
unquestionably proves that the closing illustrations had not even been
seen by the novelist until the book was ready for publication.
Cruikshank, on reading in the _Times_ a criticism of Forster's
biography, in which this charge against Dickens was commented upon, at
once indited the following letter to that journal, where it appeared on
December 30, 1871:--

     "_To the Editor of 'The Times._'

     "SIR,--As my name is mentioned in the second notice of Mr.
     John Forster's 'Life of Charles Dickens,' in your paper of
     the 26th inst., in connection with a statement made by an
     American gentleman (Dr. Shelton Mackenzie) respecting the
     origin of 'Oliver Twist,' I shall be obliged if you will
     allow me to give some explanation upon this subject. For
     some time past I have been preparing a work for publication,
     in which I intend to give an account of the origin of
     'Oliver Twist,' and I now not only deeply regret the sudden
     and unexpected decease of Mr. Charles Dickens, but regret
     also that my proposed work was not published during his
     life-time. I should not now have brought this matter
     forward, but as Dr. Mackenzie states that he got the
     information from me, and as Mr. Forster declares his
     statement to be a falsehood, to which, in fact, he would
     apply a word of three letters, I feel called upon, not only
     to defend the Doctor, but myself also from such a gross
     imputation. Dr. Mackenzie has confused some circumstances
     with respect to Mr. Dickens looking over some drawings and
     sketches in my studio, but there is no doubt whatever that I
     did tell this gentleman that I was the originator of the
     story of 'Oliver Twist,' as I have told very many others who
     may have spoken to me on the subject, and which facts I now
     beg permission to repeat in the columns of the _Times_, for
     the information of Mr. Forster and the public generally.

     "When _Bentley's Miscellany_ was first started, it was
     arranged that Charles Dickens should write a serial in it,
     and which was to be illustrated by me; and in a conversation
     with him as to what the subject should be for the first
     serial, I suggested to Mr. Dickens that he should write the
     life of a London boy, and strongly advised him to do this,
     assuring him that I would furnish him with the subject and
     supply him with all the characters, which my large
     experience of London life would enable me to do.

     "My idea was to raise a boy from a most humble position up
     to a high and respectable one--in fact, to illustrate one of
     those cases of common occurrence, where men of humble
     origin, by natural ability, industry, honest and honourable
     conduct, raise themselves to first-class positions in
     Society. And as I wished particularly to bring the habits
     and manners of the thieves of London before the public (and
     this for a most important purpose, which I shall explain one
     of these days), I suggested that the poor boy should fall
     among thieves, but that his honesty and natural good
     disposition should enable him to pass through this ordeal
     without contamination; and after I had fully described the
     full-grown thieves (the Bill Sykeses) and their female
     companions, also the young thieves (the Artful Dodgers) and
     the receivers of stolen goods, Mr. Dickens agreed to act on
     my suggestion, and the work was commenced, but we differed
     as to what sort of boy the hero should be. Mr. Dickens
     wanted rather a queer kind of chap, and, although this was
     contrary to my original idea, I complied with his request,
     feeling that it would not be right to dictate too much to
     the writer of the story, and then appeared 'Oliver Asking
     for More;' but it so happened just about this time that an
     inquiry was being made in the parish of St. James's,
     Westminster, as to the cause of the death of some of the
     workhouse children who had been 'farmed out,' and in which
     inquiry my late friend Joseph Pettigrew (surgeon to the
     Dukes of Kent and Sussex) came forward on the part of the
     poor children, and by his interference was mainly the cause
     of saving the lives of many of these poor little creatures.
     I called the attention of Mr. Dickens to this inquiry, and
     said that if he took up this matter, his doing so might
     help to save many a poor child from injury and death; and I
     earnestly begged of him to let me make Oliver a nice pretty
     little boy, and if we so represented him, the public--and
     particularly the ladies--would be sure to take a greater
     interest in him, and the work would then be a certain
     success. Mr. Dickens agreed to that request, and I need not
     add here that my prophecy was fulfilled: and if any one will
     take the trouble to look at my representations of 'Oliver,'
     they will see that the appearance of the boy is altered
     after the two first illustrations, and, by a reference to
     the records of St. James's parish, and to the date of the
     publication of the _Miscellany_, they will see that both
     dates tally, and therefore support my statement.




_Facsimile_ of Original Sketches by


_Lent by Messrs. Robson & Co._


     "I had, a long time previously to this, directed Mr.
     Dickens's attention to Field Lane, Holborn Hill, wherein
     resided many thieves and receivers of stolen goods, and it
     was suggested that one of these receivers, a Jew, should be
     introduced into the story; and upon one occasion Mr. Dickens
     and Mr. Harrison Ainsworth called upon me at my house in
     Myddleton Terrace, Pentonville, and in course of
     conversation I then and there described and performed the
     character of one of these Jew receivers, whom I had long had
     my eye upon; and this was the origin of 'Fagin.'

     "Some time after this, Mr. Ainsworth said to me one day, 'I
     was so much struck with your description of that Jew to Mr.
     Dickens, that I think you and I could do something
     together,' which notion of Mr. Ainsworth's, as most people
     are aware, was afterwards carried out in various works. Long
     before 'Oliver Twist' was ever thought of, I had, by
     permission of the city authorities, made a sketch of one of
     the condemned cells in Newgate prison; and as I had a great
     object in letting the public see what sort of places these
     cells were, and how they were furnished, and also to show a
     wretched condemned criminal therein, I thought it desirable
     to introduce such a subject into this work; but I had the
     greatest difficulty to get Mr. Dickens to allow me to carry
     out my wishes in this respect; but I said I must have
     either what is called a Christian or what is called a Jew in
     a condemned cell, and therefore it must be 'Bill Sikes' or
     'Fagin;' at length he allowed me to exhibit the latter.

     "Without going further into particulars, I think it will be
     allowed from what I have stated that I am the originator of
     'Oliver Twist,' and that all the principal characters are
     mine; but I was much disappointed by Mr. Dickens not fully
     carrying out my first suggestion.

     "I must here mention that nearly all the designs were made
     from conversation and mutual suggestion upon each subject,
     and that I never saw any manuscript of Mr. Dickens until the
     work was nearly finished, and the letter of Mr. Dickens
     which Mr. Forster mentions only refers to the last
     etching--done in great haste--no proper time being allowed,
     and of a subject without any interest; in fact, there was
     not anything in the latter part of the manuscript that would
     suggest an illustration; but to oblige Mr. Dickens I did my
     best to produce another etching, working hard day and night,
     but when done, what is it? Why, merely a lady and a boy
     standing inside of a church looking at a stone wall!

     "Mr. Dickens named all the characters in this work himself,
     but before he had commenced writing the story he told me
     that he had heard an omnibus conductor mention some one as
     Oliver Twist, which name, he said, he would give the boy, as
     he thought it would answer his purpose. I wanted the boy to
     have a very different name, such as Frank Foundling or Frank
     Steadfast; but I think the word Twist proves to a certain
     extent that the boy he was going to employ for his purpose
     was a very different sort of boy from the one introduced and
     recommended to him by, Sir, your obedient servant,


     "HAMPSTEAD ROAD, _December 29, 1871_."




_Facsimile_ of Original Sketches by



In 1872 Cruikshank issued a pamphlet entitled "The Artist and the
Author, a Statement of Facts," where he positively asserted that not
only was he the actual originator of "Oliver Twist," but also of
many of Harrison Ainsworth's weird romances; that these authors "wrote
up to his suggestions and designs," just as Combe did with regard to
"Dr. Syntax" and Rowlandson's previously-executed illustrations. In
another published letter, dated more than a year prior to that printed
in the _Times_, the artist emphatically declared that the greater part
of the second volume of "Sketches by Boz" was written from his hints and
suggestions, and he significantly added, "I am preparing to publish an
explanation of the reason why I did not illustrate the _whole_ of Mr.
Dickens's writings, and this explanation will not at all redound to his
credit." Indeed, so thoroughly was he imbued with this conviction, that
on April 20, 1874, in responding to a vote of thanks accorded him by the
Mayor of Manchester for an address on Intemperance, he reiterated his
statement relative to the origin of "Oliver Twist." The Mayor having
referred to the artist's designs in Dickens's novels, Cruikshank
intimated that the only work of the novelist he had illustrated was
"Sketches by Boz"; his worship remarked, "You forget 'Oliver Twist,'"
whereupon Cruikshank replied, "That came out of my own brain. I wanted
Dickens to write me a work, but he did not do it in the way I wished. I
assure you I went and made a sketch of the condemned cell many years
before that work was published. I wanted a scene a few hours before
strangulation, and Dickens said he did not like it, and I said he must
have a Jew or a Christian in the cell. Dickens said, 'Do as you like,'
and I put Fagin, the Jew, into the cell. Dickens behaved in an
extraordinary way to me, and I believe it had a little effect on his
mind. He was a most powerful opponent to Teetotalism, and he described
us as 'old hogs.'"[4]

    Footnote 4: This is, doubtless, a reference to an article by
    Dickens entitled "Whole Hogs," which appeared in _Household
    Words_, August 23, 1851, protesting against the extreme views
    of the Temperance party.

Unfortunately for Cruikshank's claim to the origin of "Oliver Twist," he
allowed more than thirty years to elapse before making it public. When
questioned on this point he would say that ever since these works were
published, and even when they were in progress, he had in private
society, when conversing upon such matters, always explained that the
original ideas and characters of these works emanated from him! Mr.
Harrison Ainsworth has recorded that Dickens was so worried by
Cruikshank putting forward suggestions that he resolved to send him only
printed proofs for illustration. In a letter to Forster (January 1838)
the novelist wrote, alluding to the severity of his labours: "I have not
done the 'Young Gentleman,' nor written the preface to 'Grimaldi,' nor
thought of 'Oliver Twist,' or _even supplied a subject for the plate_,"
the latter intimation sufficiently indicating that Dickens was more
directly concerned in the selection of suitable themes for illustration
than Cruikshank would have us believe. The author of "Sketches by Boz"
abundantly testified in those remarkable papers that his eyes, like
Cruikshank's, had penetrated the mysteries of London; indeed, we find in
the "Sketches" all the material for the story of poor Oliver, where it
is more artistically and dramatically treated. It is not improbable, of
course, that from Cruikshank's familiarity with life in the Great City
he was enabled to offer useful hints to the young writer, and even
perhaps to make suggestions respecting particular characters; but this
constitutes a very unimportant share in the production of a literary
work. To what extent the interchange between artist and author was
carried can never be satisfactorily determined; but of this there can be
no doubt, that Cruikshank's habit of exaggeration, combined with his
eagerness in over-estimating the effect of his work, led him (as Mr.
Blanchard Jerrold remarks) "into injudicious statements or
over-statements," which were sometimes provocative of much unpleasant
controversy. It is, however, no exaggeration to say that the pencil of
George Cruikshank was as admirable in its power of delineating character
as was the mighty pen of Charles Dickens, and that in the success and
popularity of "Oliver Twist" they may claim an equal share.



_Facsimile_ of a Trial Sketch by



[Sidenote: =Minor Writings in "Bentley's Miscellany."=]

Certain humorous pieces written by Dickens for Richard Bentley were also
illustrated by Cruikshank. The first paper, entitled "Public Life of Mr.
Tulrumble, once Mayor of Mudfog" (published in January 1837), contains
an etching of Ned[5] Twigger in the kitchen of Mudfog Hall, and the next
contribution, purporting to be a "Full Report of the Second Meeting of
the Mudfog Association for the Advancement of Everything" (September,
1838) is embellished with a very ludicrous illustration, entitled
"Automaton Police Office and Real Offenders, from the model exhibited
before Section B of the Mudfog Association." This design depicts the
interior of a police-court in which all the officials are automatic--an
ingenious rendering of the idea propounded by Mr. Coppernose to the
President and members of the Association. To the second paper the artist
also supplied a woodcut portrait of "The Tyrant Sowster," of whom he
made no less than six studies before he succeeded in producing a
satisfactory presentment of Mudfog's "active and intelligent" beadle.

    Footnote 5: In the original title on the plate, Ned Twigger's
    Christian name is incorrectly given as Tom.

In his juvenile days Dickens wrote a farce entitled "The Lamplighter,"
which, owing to its non-acceptance by the theatrical management for whom
it was composed, he converted into an amusing tale called "The
Lamplighter's Story." This constituted his share in a collection of
light essays and other papers gratuitously supplied by well-known
authors, and issued in volume form under the title of "The Pic Nic
Papers," for the benefit of the widow of Macrone, Dickens's first
publisher. The work, edited by Dickens, was launched by Henry Colborn in
1841, in three volumes, with fourteen illustrations by Cruikshank,
"Phiz," and other artists. The first volume opened with "The
Lamplighter's Story," for which Cruikshank provided an etching entitled
"The Philosopher's Stone," the subject represented being the unexpected
explosion of Tom Grig's crucible. This was the last illustration
executed by the artist for Dickens's writings,[6] and it may be added
that some impressions of the plate were issued in proof state "before
letters," but these are exceedingly rare. Although for many years
afterwards they continued fast friends, it may be (as Mr. Graham Everitt
conjectures) that Cruikshank found it impossible to co-operate any
longer with so exacting an employer of artistic labour as Charles
Dickens, who remonstrated, with some show of reason, that he was the
best judge of what he required pictorially,--an argument, however, which
did not suit the independent spirit of the artist. Of his genius Dickens
was ever a warm admirer, and remarking upon the exclusion of so able a
draughtsman from the honours of the Royal Academy, because, forsooth!
his works were not produced in certain mediums, the novelist pertinently
asks: "Will no Associates be found upon its books one of these days, the
labours of whose oil and brushes will have sunk into the profoundest
obscurity, when many pencil-marks of Mr. Cruikshank and Mr. Leech will
be still fresh in half the houses in the land?"

    Footnote 6: Cruikshank designed the illustrations for the
    "Memoirs of Grimaldi," 1838, but this work was merely edited
    by Dickens, and therefore does not come within the scope of
    the present volume.

It will be remembered that George Cruikshank published a version of the
Fairy Tales, converting them into stories somewhat resembling Temperance
tracts. Dickens was greatly incensed, and, half-playfully and
half-seriously, protested against such alterations of the beautiful
little romances, this re-writing them "according to Total Abstinence,
Peace Society, and Bloomer principles, and expressly for their
propagation;" in an article published in _Household Words_, October 1,
1853, entitled "Frauds on the Fairies," the novelist enunciates his
opinions on the subject, and gives the story of Cinderella as it might
be "edited" by a gentleman with a "mission." This elicited a reply from
Cruikshank (in a short-lived magazine bearing his name, and launched by
him in 1854), which took the form of "A Letter from Hop-o'-my-Thumb
to Charles Dickens, Esq.," commencing with "Right Trusty, Well-Beloved,
Much-Read, and Admired Sir," the artist contending that he was justified
in altering "a common fairy-tale" when his sole object was to remove
objectionable passages, and, in their stead, to inculcate moral
principles. There is no doubt, however, that Dickens's rebuke seriously
affected the sale of the Fairy Library.





_Facsimile_ of Original Drawings by



In 1847 Dickens instituted a series of theatrical entertainments for
certain charitable objects, the distinguished artists and writers who
formed the goodly company of amateur actors including George Cruikshank.
On one occasion they made a tour in the provinces, giving performances
at several important towns, and on the conclusion of this "splendid
strolling" Dickens wrote an amusing little _jeu d'esprit_ in the form of
a history of the trip, adopting for the purpose the phraseology of Mrs.
Gamp. It was to be a new "Piljian's Projiss," with illustrations by the
artist-members; but, for some reason, it was destined never to appear in
the manner intended by its projector. Forster has printed all that was
ever written of the little jest, where we find a humorous description of
Cruikshank in Mrs. Gamp's vernacular: "I was drove about like a brute
animal and almost worritted into fits, when a gentleman with a large
shirt-collar and a hook nose, and a eye like one of Mr. Sweedlepipe's
hawks, and long locks of hair, and wiskers that I wouldn't have no lady
as I was engaged to meet suddenly a turning round a corner, for any sum
of money you could offer me, says, laughing, 'Halloa, Mrs. Gamp, what
are _you_ up to?' I didn't know him from a man (except by his clothes);
but I says faintly, 'If you're a Christian man, show me where to get a
second-cladge ticket for Manjester, and have me put in a carriage, or I
shall drop!' Which he kindly did, in a cheerful kind of a way, skipping
about in the strangest manner as ever I see, making all kinds of
actions, and looking and vinking at me from under the brim of his hat
(which was a good deal turned up), to that extent, that I should have
thought he meant something but for being so flurried as not to have no
thoughts at all until I was put in a carriage...." When Mrs. Gamp was
informed, in a whisper, that the gentleman who assisted her into the
carriage was "George," she replied, "What George, sir? I don't know no
George." "The great George, ma'am--the Crookshanks," was the
explanation. Whereupon Mrs. Gamp continues: "If you'll believe me, Mrs.
Harris, I turns my head, and see the wery man a making picturs of me on
his thumb-nail at the winder!" The artist took part in several plays
under Dickens's management, but, although it is not recorded that he
created great sensation as an actor, it seems evident that his
impersonations met with the approval of the novelist, who was a thorough
martinet in Thespian matters.

That George Cruikshank was by no means a prosperous man is perhaps
explained by the fact that he never was highly remunerated for his work.
"Time was," wrote Thackeray, "when for a picture with thirty heads in it
he was paid three guineas--a poor week's pittance, truly, and a dire
week's labour!" The late Mr. Sala declared that for an illustrative
etching on a plate, octavo size, George never received more than
twenty-five pounds, and had been paid as low as ten,--that he had often
drawn "a charming little vignette on wood" for a guinea. On February 1,
1878, this remarkable designer and etcher--the most skilled
book-illustrator of his day--passed painlessly away at his house in
Hampstead Road, having attained the ripe old age of eighty-five. His
remains were interred at Kensal Green, but were ultimately removed to
the crypt of St. Paul's Cathedral, where a bust by Adams perpetuates his




From an Unpublished Drawing by


_Lent by Mr. Augustin Daly._


     Early Years--A Taste for High Art--Drawings on Wood for
     _Figaro_ and _Bell's Life in London_--Essays the Art of
     Etching--Designs for "Maxims and Hints for an
     Angler"--Proposes to Publish a Book of Humorous Sporting
     Subjects--A "Club of Cockney Sportsmen"--Charles Whitehead
     and Charles Dickens--The Inception of "THE PICKWICK
     PAPERS"--Seymour's Illustrations--The Artist Succumbs to
     Overwork--Suicide of Seymour--Dickens's Tribute--Seymour's
     Last Drawing for "Pickwick"--"The Dying Clown"--His Original
     Designs--Seymour's Conception of Mr. Pickwick--Letter from
     Dickens to the Artist--"First Ideas" and Unused Sketches--A
     Valuable Collection--Scarcity of Seymour's "Pickwick"
     Plates--Design for the Wrapper of the Monthly Parts--Mrs.
     Seymour's Account of the Origin of "The Pickwick Papers"--An
     Absurd Claim Refuted--"THE LIBRARY OF FICTION"--Seymour's
     Illustrations for "The Tuggses at Ramsgate."

Concerning the artist who was primarily engaged in the illustration of
"Pickwick," very little has been recorded, owing perhaps to the fact
that his career, which terminated so tragically and so prematurely, was
brief and uneventful. The following particulars of his life and labours,
culled from various sources, will, I trust, enable the reader to
appreciate Robert Seymour's true position respecting his connection with
Charles Dickens's immortal work.

Born "in or near London" in 1798, Robert Seymour indicated at a very
early age a decided taste for drawing, whereupon his father, Henry
Seymour, a Somerset gentleman, apprenticed him to a skilful
pattern-draughtsman named Vaughan, of Duke Street, Smithfield.[7]
Although this occupation was most uncongenial to young Seymour, it
caused him to adopt a neat style of drawing which ultimately proved of
much utility. He aspired to a higher branch of Art than that involved
in the delineation of patterns for calico-printers; but for a time he
remained with Vaughan, pleasantly varying the monotony of his daily
routine by producing miniature portraits of friends who consented to sit
to him, receiving in return a modest though welcome remuneration. Still
cherishing an inclination towards "High Art," he and a colleague named
Work (significant patronymic!) deserted Vaughan, and, renting a room at
the top of the old tower at Canonbury, they purchased a number of
plaster-casts, lay-figures, &c., from which the two juvenile enthusiasts
began to study with great assiduity. In Seymour's case tangible results
were speedily forthcoming, for he presently painted a picture of
unusually large dimensions, quaintly described by his fellow-student as
containing representations of "the Giant of the Brocken, the Skeleton
Hunt, the Casting of Bullets, and a full meal of all the German horrors
eagerly swallowed by the public of that day." This remarkable canvas
was, it seems, a really creditable work, and found a place on the walls
of a gallery in Baker Street Baazar. Seymour, like many other ambitious
young artists possessing more talent than pence, quickly realised the
sad fact that, though the pursuit was in itself a very agreeable one, it
meant penury to the painter unless he owned a private fortune or
commanded the purse-strings of rich patrons. The artist's widow
afterwards declared that he invariably sold his pictures direct from the
easel; but there is no doubt that with him "High Art" proved a financial
failure, and he reluctantly turned his attention to the more lucrative
(if less attractive) occupation of designing on wood, for which he was
peculiarly fitted by his previous practice in clean, precise
draughtsmanship during that probationary period in Vaughan's workshop.

    Footnote 7: In another account (written by a contemporary of
    the artist) it is stated that Seymour was the natural son of
    Vaughan himself, and that the child bore the name of the
    mother, under whose care he remained until his father
    acknowledged the paternity, when he took the boy into his

Seymour was endowed by Nature with a keen sense of the ludicrous, and
this, aided by a knowledge of drawing, enabled him to execute designs of
so humorous a character that his productions were immediately welcomed
by the proprietors of such publications as _Figaro_ and _Bell's Life in
London_, to which were thus given a vitality and a popularity they did
not previously possess. Although at first the recompense was but scanty,
hardly sufficient, indeed, to procure the necessaries of life, yet
Robert Seymour felt it was the beginning of what might eventually
resolve itself into a fairly remunerative vocation. His talent speedily
brought him profitable commissions for more serious publications, while
his pencil was simultaneously employed in sketching and drawing amusing
incidents, especially such as related to fishing and shooting,--forms of
sport which constituted his favourite recreation. Living at this time in
the then rural suburb of Islington, he had many opportunities of
observing the methods of Cockney sportsmen, who were wont to wander
thither on Sundays and holidays, and whose inexperience with rod and gun
gave rise to many absurdities and comic fiascos, thus affording the
young artist abundant material for humorous designs.

Until 1827, Seymour confined his labours to drawing for the
wood-engravers. He now essayed the art of etching upon plates of steel
or copper, simulating the style and manner of George Cruikshank; he even
ventured to affix the _nom de plume_ of "Shortshanks" to his early
caricatures, until he received a remonstrance from the famous George
himself. Having attained some proficiency in both etching and
lithography, he determined to make practical use of his experience, and
in 1833 designed a series of twelve lithographic plates for a new
edition of a work entitled "Maxims and Hints for an Angler," in which
the humours of the piscatorial art were excellently rendered; he also
executed a number of similar designs portraying, with laughable effect,
the adventures and misadventures of the very "counter-jumpers" whose
ways and habits came under his keen, observant eye. These amusing
pictures, drawn on stone with pen-and-ink, and published as a collection
of "Sketches by Seymour," achieved an immense popularity, and were
chiefly the means of rendering his name generally familiar.

Seymour was very fond of horticultural pursuits, and took great pains in
cultivating his own garden; but the result of his efforts in this
direction proved disappointing, and when dilating upon his want of
success, it was suggested that the misfortunes of an amateur gardener
might be made the subject of some entertaining drawings. After pondering
over this idea, and mindful of the fact that he still possessed a number
of unpublished sketches reflecting upon the abilities of amateur
sportsmen, he resolved upon reproducing some of a sporting character.
His original notion was to bring out a work similar in plan to that of
"The Heiress," a pictorial novel which he illustrated in 1830, and he
first proposed the subject to the printseller McLean in 1835, and then
to Spooner, the well-known publisher. The latter highly approved the
project, and in discussing it they concluded it would be desirable to
supplement the pictures with suitable letterpress. The undertaking was
so far advanced that Seymour etched four plates, but, owing to
unforeseen delays on the part of Spooner, the matter was held in
abeyance for about three months, by which time Seymour determined to
issue the work on his own responsibility, and to endeavour to get H.
Mayhew or Moncrieff to write for it.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =The Pickwick Papers, 1836-37.=]

When, in February 1836, Edward Chapman (of Chapman & Hall) called upon
him with reference to a drawing which the firm had commissioned him to
undertake, the artist mentioned the scheme of a work to be illustrated
by him, having, as a central idea, a "Club of Cockney Sportsmen."
Chapman thought favourably of the notion, and proposed that it should be
brought out in two half-guinea volumes; but Seymour, desiring the widest
circulation, insisted on the plan he originally conceived, that of
shilling monthly numbers. Then came the question, Who should prepare the
requisite text? Leigh Hunt, Theodore Hook, and other prominent writers
of the day declined to undertake it, and shortly afterwards Seymour,
having just been reading "Sketches by Boz," the humour and originality
of which highly delighted him, proposed that Dickens should be
asked to contribute the letterpress.



_Facsimile_ of the Original Drawing for "The Pickwick Papers" by


_Lent by Mr. Augustin Daly._


Mr. Mackenzie Bell has given (in the _Athenæum_, June 11, 1887) a
slightly different version of this part of the narration, and states
that Charles Whitehead, an early friend of Dickens, "used constantly to
affirm that he had been asked to write to Seymour's sketches, and that,
feeling uncertain of being able to supply the copy with sufficient
regularity, he [not Seymour] recommended Dickens for the task. This
appears very likely to have been the case," adds Mr. Bell, "as at that
time Whitehead, who was eight years older than Dickens, was already
known as a facile and fecund writer, his coarse yet powerful romance of
'Jack Ketch' having been very popular for some time. It is even possible
that 'The Pickwick Papers' may have been suggested to Dickens by a
passage in the preface of 'Jack Ketch,' where a humorous allusion is
made to the possibility of the author producing his more mature
experiences under the unambitious title of 'The Ketch Papers,' a work
which never appeared." It may be mentioned that Dickens had just sent in
his MS. of "The Tuggses at Ramsgate" for "The Library of Fiction,"
edited by Whitehead, who was already familiar with the budding
novelist's ability as an author. This carries us to the point whence
Dickens takes up the thread of the story, as printed in the preface to
the first cheap edition of "Pickwick" (1847), where he writes:--

"I was a young man of three-and-twenty when the present publishers
[Chapman & Hall], attracted by some pieces I was at that time writing in
the _Morning Chronicle_ newspaper (of which one series had lately been
collected and published in two volumes, illustrated by my esteemed
friend George Cruikshank), waited upon me to propose a something that
should be published in shilling numbers.... The idea propounded to me
was that the monthly something should be a vehicle for certain plates to
be executed by Mr. Seymour, and there was a notion, either on the part
of that admirable humorous artist or of my visitor (I forget which),
that a 'Nimrod Club,' the members of which were to go out shooting,
fishing, and so forth, and getting themselves into difficulties through
their want of dexterity, would be the best means of introducing these. I
objected, on consideration, that although born and partly bred in the
country, I was no great sportsman, except in regard of all kinds of
locomotion; that the idea was not novel, and had been already much used;
that it would be infinitely better for the plates to arise naturally out
of the text; and that I should like to take my own way, with freer range
of English scenes and people, and was afraid I should ultimately do so
in any case, whatever course I might prescribe to myself at starting. My
views being deferred to, I thought of Mr. Pickwick, and wrote the first
number, from the proof-sheets of which Mr. Seymour made his drawing of
the Club, and that happy portrait of its founder, by which he is always
recognised, and which may be said to have made him a reality. I
connected Mr. Pickwick with a club because of the original suggestion,
and I put in Mr. Winkle expressly for the use of Mr. Seymour."



_Facsimile_ of the Original Drawing for "The Pickwick Papers" by


_Lent by Mr. Augustin Daly._


The first monthly part of "The Pickwick Papers" appeared early in April
1836, consisting of twenty-six pages of text and four etchings by
Seymour. Judging from a letter written by Dickens at the time the scheme
was first proposed, it seems that the illustrations were to have been
engraved on wood. The artist was then excessively busy, for besides
pledging himself to produce four plates for each monthly issue of
"Pickwick," he had numerous other engagements to fulfil, so great was
the demand for his designs. Although a rapid executant, the commissions
he received from publishers accumulated to such an extent, that the
excessive strain resulting from overwork at starvation prices began
seriously to affect his health. Not only did the monthly supply of the
"Pickwick" plates constitute an additional demand upon his mental
resources, but he was harassed by the uncertainty of receiving from the
printer the proofs from which he deduced his subjects, these sometimes
being delayed so that very little time was allowed for the preparation
of the plates. Unhappily his brain was unable to bear such
pressure; constant business worries and anxieties induced symptoms of
insanity, and before he had completed the second quartette of etchings
for "Pickwick," the unfortunate artist committed suicide. This
deplorable act took place on April 20, 1836, in a summer-house in the
garden at the back of his residence in Liverpool Road, Islington, where,
by the aid of a string attached to the trigger of a fowling-piece, he
deliberately sent the charge through his head.

Seymour, we are assured, had not the slightest pecuniary embarrassment;
he was quite happy, too, in his domestic affairs, extremely fond of his
family, and naturally of a very cheerful disposition. His melancholy
fate caused a general feeling of regret among the public, with whom he
was a great favourite, and to whom he was then better known than Dickens
himself. In the second number of "Pickwick" appeared the following just
tribute to the merits of the artist: "Some time must elapse before the
void the deceased gentleman has left in his profession can be filled up;
the blank his death has occasioned in the Society, which his amiable
nature won, and his talents adorned, we can hardly hope to see supplied.
We do not allude to this distressing event, in the vain hope of adding,
by any eulogium of ours, to the respect in which the late Mr. Seymour's
memory is held by all who ever knew him."

In the original announcement of "The Pickwick Papers" we read: "Seymour
has devoted himself, heart and graver, to the task of illustrating the
beauties of 'Pickwick.' It was reserved to Gibbon to paint, in colours
that will never fade, the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire--to Hume
to chronicle the strife and turmoil of the two proud Houses that divided
England against herself--to Napier to pen, in burning words, the History
of the War in the Peninsula;--the deeds and actions of the gifted
Pickwick yet remain for 'Boz' and Seymour to hand down to posterity."
This projected collaboration, alas! was speedily frustrated by the
unexpected tragedy, for Seymour had produced but seven plates when he
terminated his life, the following being the subjects of his designs in
the order of their publication:

  _First Number._


  _Second Number._


The Address issued with the Second Part contains an apology for the
appearance therein of only three plates instead of four, as promised.
"When we state," says the author, "that they comprise Mr. Seymour's last
efforts, and that on one of them, in particular, (the embellishment to
the Stroller's Tale,) he was engaged up to a late hour of the night
preceding his death, we feel confident that the excuse will be deemed a
sufficient one." Dickens had seen the unhappy man only once, forty-eight
hours before his death, on the occasion of his visit to Furnival's Inn
with the etching just referred to, which, altered at Dickens's
suggestion, he brought away again for the few further touches that
occupied him to a late hour of the night before he destroyed himself.[8]
In an unpublished letter (dated April 3, 1866) addressed by the novelist
to a correspondent who required certain particulars respecting
"Pickwick," he thus referred to the artist: "Mr. Seymour shot himself
before the second number of 'The Pickwick Papers' ... was published.
While he lay dead, it was necessary that search should be made in
his working room for the plates to the second number, the day for the
publication of which was then drawing on. The plates were found
unfinished, with their faces turned to the wall. It was Mr. Chapman who
found them and brought them away."

    Footnote 8: The artist's son asserts that the last plate
    Seymour etched for "Pickwick" (viz., "The Dying Clown") was
    submitted to Dickens a fortnight (not forty-eight hours, as
    recorded by Forster) before his death. It seems that
    Seymour's final drawing was for a woodcut, executed for John
    Jackson, the engraver, to whom the artist delivered it on the
    evening of the fatal day, April 20, 1836.



_Facsimile_ of the Original Drawing for "The Pickwick Papers" by


_Lent by Mr. Augustin Daly._


In 1887 Messrs. Chapman & Hall appropriately celebrated the Jubilee of
"The Pickwick Papers" by publishing an _Edition de luxe_, with
_facsimiles_ of the original drawings made for the work, or, rather, of
as many of these as were then available. In the editor's preface it is
stated that four out of the seven drawings etched by Seymour for
"Pickwick" had disappeared, but it afterwards transpired that two of the
missing designs remained in the possession of the artist's family, until
they were sold to a private purchaser, who, in 1889, disposed of them by
auction. Of these drawings, therefore, only one, viz., "The Sagacious
Dog," is undiscoverable. The album in which the missing designs were
found also contained other original drawings for "Pickwick," as well as
the Dickens letter to Seymour and an excellent portrait of the artist;
this important collection included the three published designs (viz.,
"Mr. Pickwick Addresses the Club," "The Pugnacious Cabman," and "Dr.
Slammer's Defiance of Jingle,"--the latter differing slightly from the
etching), together with the first sketch for "The Dying Clown," and two
unpublished drawings (evidently alternative subjects, illustrating
incidents in the fifth chapter), respectively representing "The Runaway
Chaise" and "The Pickwickians in Mr. Wardle's Kitchen." All these
drawings, except that of "The Dying Clown," are outlined with
pen-and-ink, and the effects washed in with a brownish tint. Perhaps the
most astonishing circumstance in connection with this collection is the
extravagant sum it realised in the auction-room, for, as might be
anticipated, many were anxious to secure so valuable a memento. The
bidding was brisk until £200 was reached, when competition was confined
to the representative of Mr. Augustin Daly (of New York) and another
whose name is unrecorded, the result being that the prize fell to Mr.
Daly for £500--probably a record figure for such an item. No one
experienced greater surprise at this enormous price than the purchaser
himself, who assures me that, although he imposed no limit, it was never
his intention to offer so fabulous an amount; indeed, the sum he had in
his mind was not so much as a quarter of that at which this attractive
album eventually fell to the hammer. Owing to the generosity of Mr.
Daly, I am enabled to reproduce in _facsimile_ the whole of these
extremely interesting designs, which he brought to England expressly for
this purpose.

Seymour's method of work was to sketch with pencil or pen the outline of
his subject, and add the shadow effects by means of light washes of a
greyish tint. A precision and neatness of touch characterise these
"Pickwick" drawings, the most interesting of which is undoubtedly that
representing Mr. Pickwick addressing the Club, a scene such as Seymour
may have actually witnessed in the parlour of almost any respectable
public-house in his own neighbourhood of Islington. Here we have the
first delineation of the immortal founder of the famous Club, "that
happy portrait," as Dickens said of it, "by which he is always
recognised, and which may be said to have made him a reality." Seymour
originally sketched this figure as a long thin man, the familiar
presentment of him as a rotund personage having been subsequently
inspired by Edward Chapman's description of a friend of his at Richmond
named John Foster, "a fat old beau, who would wear, in spite of the
ladies' protests, drab tights and black gaiters." It is curious,
however, that in "The Heiress," illustrated by Seymour six years
previously, we find in the second plate a character bearing a striking
resemblance to Mr. Pickwick, and in "Maxims and Hints for an Angler"
(1833), the artist similarly portrayed an old gentleman marvellously
like him, both as regards physique and benignity of expression; indeed,
this seems to have been a favourite type with Seymour, and thus it would
appear that, in making Dickens's hero short and comfortable, he
only reverted to an earlier conception.




_Facsimile_ of the Original Drawing for "The Pickwick Papers" by


_Lent by Mr. Augustin Daly._


The drawing which ranks second in point of interest is the artist's
first idea for "The Dying Clown," illustrating "The Stroller's Tale."
The original sketch is a slight outline study in pen-and-ink of the
figures only, the facial expressions being cleverly rendered. In the
Victoria edition of "The Pickwick Papers" a _facsimile_ is given of a
later and more developed version of the subject; this differs from the
published etching, the alterations being the result, doubtless, of the
criticism bestowed upon the drawing in the following letter addressed by
Dickens to the artist,--apparently the only written communication from
him to Seymour which has been preserved:--

     "15 FURNIVAL'S INN,

     "_Thursday Evening, April 1836._

     "MY DEAR SIR,--I had intended to write to you to say how
     much gratified I feel by the pains you have bestowed upon
     our mutual friend Mr. Pickwick, and how much the result of
     your labours has surpassed my expectations. I am happy to be
     able to congratulate you, the publishers, and myself on the
     success of the undertaking, which appears to have been most

     "I have now another reason for troubling you. It is this. I
     am extremely anxious about 'The Stroller's Tale,' the more
     especially as many literary friends, on whose judgment I
     place great reliance, think it will create considerable
     sensation. I have seen your design for an etching to
     accompany it. I think it extremely good, but still it is not
     quite my idea; and as I feel so very solicitous to have it
     as complete as possible, I shall feel personally obliged if
     you will make another drawing. It will give me great
     pleasure to see you, as well as the drawing, when it is
     completed. With this view I have asked Chapman and Hall to
     take a glass of grog with me on Sunday evening (the only
     night I am disengaged), when I hope you will be able to look

     "The alteration I want I will endeavour to explain. I think
     the woman should be younger--the dismal man decidedly
     should, and he should be less miserable in appearance. To
     communicate an interest to the plate, his whole appearance
     should express more sympathy and solicitude; and while I
     represented the sick man as emaciated and dying, I would not
     make him too repulsive. The furniture of the room you have
     depicted _admirably_. I have ventured to make these
     suggestions, feeling assured that you will consider them in
     the spirit in which I submit them to your judgment. I shall
     be happy to hear from you that I may expect to see you on
     Sunday evening.--Dear Sir, very truly yours,


In compliance with this wish, Seymour etched a new design for "The
Stroller's Tale," which he conveyed to the author at the appointed time,
this being the only occasion on which he and Dickens ever met. Whether
the novelist again manifested dissatisfaction, or whether some other
cause of irritation arose, is not known, but it is said that Seymour
returned home after the interview in a very discontented frame of mind;
he did nothing more for "Pickwick" from that time, and destroyed nearly
all the correspondence relating to the subject. It has been stated that
he received five pounds for each drawing, but it is positively asserted,
on apparently trustworthy evidence, that the sum paid on account was
only thirty-five shillings for each subject,[9] and that the artist
never relinquished the entire right which he had in the designs.

    Footnote 9: R. W. Buss, the successor of Seymour as
    illustrator of "Pickwick," records that ten shillings was the
    price accorded to the artist for each plate.

As in the case of "The Stroller's Tale," there are noticeable
differences between the drawing and the etching of the last of Seymour's
published designs, depicting Mr. Winkle and the Refractory Steed. In
this plate it will be observed that, although the general composition is
identical with that in the drawing, the positions of the horse's
forelegs are reversed, and trees have been introduced on the left of the



_Facsimile_ of an Unused Design for "The Pickwick Papers" by


This Drawing illustrates an incident in the fifth chapter.

_Lent by Mr. Augustin Daly._


An examination of Seymour's etchings for "Pickwick" shows that, in the
application of the dilute nitric acid to corrode the lines produced by
the etching-point, the artist was greatly troubled, and, in order to
save his designs and keep faith with the publishers and the public, he
was probably compelled to apply for help in his need to one of the
artist-engravers residing in his neighbourhood. It has been suggested
that certain faults in his plates caused by defective "biting" were
remedied by means of the engraving tool; but, so far as I have been able
to discover, there is no evidence of this. His plates possess the
quality of pure etching; indeed, in that respect they are superior to
those by "Phiz" in the same work. It should, however, be noted that
there are extant very few copies of "Pickwick" containing impressions
from Seymour's own plates; perhaps in not more than one copy out of a
hundred will they be found, and this scarcity is explained by the fact
that when the plates suffered deterioration through printing, the
artist's death prevented him from duplicating them, so that the subjects
had to be copied and re-etched by "Phiz." Seymour reversed his designs
upon the steel plates, so that when printed they appear exactly as
originally drawn. There is reason to infer, from an entry in the
artist's memorandum-book, that the first four subjects were etched
before he showed them to Dickens, and that they were afterwards
re-etched and modified in some degree to suit the author's views.

Besides these illustrations, Seymour is responsible for the design
appearing on the green wrapper of the monthly parts, which was engraved
on wood by John Jackson. A glance at this at once convinces us how
strongly the "sporting" element was at first intended to predominate,
for here are displayed trophies of guns, fishing-rods, and other
sporting implements; at the top of the page is seen the veritable Winkle
aiming at a sparrow, while below, seated on a chair in a punt,
peacefully reposes Mr. Pickwick with his rod, watching for a "bite"; in
the background of the picture may be recognised Putney Church, as well
as the old wooden bridge which once spanned the Thames at this point.



_Facsimile_ of an Unused Design for "The Pickwick Papers" by


This Drawing illustrates an incident in the fifth chapter.

_Lent by Mr. Augustin Daly._


After the publication of "The Pickwick Papers" many veracious reports as
to its origin were circulated. In some of these statements Dickens was
entirely deprived of the credit of its inception, and partly to assert
his claim, but principally because he believed his readers would be
interested in the truth of the matter, he related the facts in the
already-quoted Preface to the first cheap edition. About two years later
he was considerably annoyed by the appearance of a pamphlet purporting
to give "An Account of the Origin of the Pickwick Papers," the author of
which was the "widow of the distinguished artist who originated the
work." Mrs. Seymour printed in her _brochure_ a distorted version of
Dickens's Preface, and attempted a reply thereto, by which she
endeavoured to show the fallacy of his statements. The following extract
from this privately-printed pamphlet sufficiently indicates the tenor of
Mrs. Seymour's attempt to prove that the honour belonged exclusively to
the artist: "Mr. Dickens edited a work called 'The Pickwick Papers,'
which was originated solely by my husband in the summer of 1835, and but
for a cold (which brought on a severe illness) which he caught on Lord
Mayor's Day, on taking his children to view the procession from the Star
Chamber, would have been written, as well as embellished, by himself;
this cause alone prevented him from doing so, as the numerous
periodicals he was constantly engaged upon had greatly accumulated
during his illness."[10] Although such a claim, so seriously maintained,
necessitated immediate refutation, Dickens allowed a considerable time
to elapse before making a formal denial thereof. With a view to future
action, however, he wrote to Edward Chapman for his recollections of the
primary events in the history of the work, and accordingly received from
him the following reply, dated July 7, 1849: "In November [1835] we
published a little book called 'The Squib Annual,' with plates by
Seymour, and it was during my visit to him to see after them that he
said he should like to do a series of Cockney sporting plates of a
superior sort to those he had already published. I said I thought it
might do if accompanied by letterpress and published in monthly parts;
and this being agreed to, we wrote to the author of 'Three Courses and a
Dessert' (a Mr. Clarke). I proposed it; but receiving no answer, the
scheme dropped for some months, till Seymour said he wished us to
decide, as another job had offered which would fully occupy his time.
And it was on this we decided to ask you to do it.... I am quite sure
that from the beginning to the end nobody but yourself had anything
whatsoever to do with it."

    Footnote 10: In 1889 Mrs. Seymour's own copy of this
    exceedingly scarce pamphlet (of which only three copies are
    known to exist) was purchased by Mr. Daly for £74 at
    Sotheby's. It contains a few slight corrections by Mrs.

Further publicity was bestowed upon the subject in a letter contributed
to the _Athenæum_ of March 24, 1866, by Seymour's son, who not only
repeated the principal arguments adduced by the pamphlet, but promised
further particulars in a subsequent communication. Whereupon Dickens,
rightly considering that the opportunity had now arrived for
emphatically repudiating the whole story, forwarded the following letter
for publication in the ensuing number of the _Athenæum_:--

"As the author of 'The Pickwick Papers' (and of one or two other books),
I send you a few facts, and no comments, having reference to a letter
signed 'R. Seymour,' which in your editorial discretion you published
last week.

"Mr. Seymour the artist never originated, suggested, or in any way had
to do with, save as illustrator of what I devised, an incident, a
character (except the sporting tastes of Mr. Winkle), a name, a phrase,
or a word, to be found in 'The Pickwick Papers.'

"I never saw Mr. Seymour's handwriting, I believe, in my life.

"I never even saw Mr. Seymour but once in my life, and that was within
eight-and-forty hours of his untimely death. Two persons, both still
living, were present on that short occasion.

"Mr. Seymour died when only twenty-four [twenty-six] printed pages of
'The Pickwick Papers' were published; I think before the next three or
four [afterwards corrected to "twenty-four"] were completely written; I
am sure before one subsequent line of the book was invented."[11]

    Footnote 11: The unpublished sketch by Seymour in Mr. Daly's
    collection, depicting the Pickwickians in Mr. Wardle's
    kitchen, illustrates a scene described on page 50, so that
    Dickens's memory was slightly at fault.

[Here follows the account of Mr. Hall's interview with the novelist, as
given in the Preface of the 1847 edition, and the letter thus

"In July 1849, some incoherent assertions made by the widow of Mr.
Seymour, in the course of certain endeavours of hers to raise money,
induced me to address a letter to Mr. Edward Chapman, then the only
surviving business-partner in the original firm of Chapman & Hall, who
first published 'The Pickwick Papers,' requesting him to inform me in
writing whether the foregoing statement was correct."

A few days later Dickens wrote to his eldest son a letter in which he

"There has been going on for years an attempt on the part of Seymour's
widow to extort money from me by representing that he had some
inexplicable and ill-used part in the invention of Pickwick!!! I have
disregarded it until now, except that I took the precaution some years
ago to leave among my few papers Edward Chapman's testimony to the gross
falsehood and absurdity of the idea.

"But, last week, I wrote a letter to the _Athenæum_ about it, in
consequence of Seymour's son reviving the monstrosity. I stated in that
letter that I had never so much as seen Seymour but once in my life, and
that was some eight-and-forty hours before his death.

"I stated also that two persons still living were present at the short
interview. Those were your Uncle Frederick and your mother. I wish you
would ask your mother to write to you, for my preservation among the
aforesaid few papers, a note giving you her remembrance of that
evening--of Frederick's afterwards knocking at our door before we were
up, to tell us that it was in the papers that Seymour had shot himself,
and of his perfect knowledge that the poor little man and I looked upon
each other for the first and last time that night in Furnival's Inn.

"It seems a superfluous precaution, but I take it for the sake of our
descendants long after you."[12]

    Footnote 12: This letter was first published in the
    Introduction, by the late Mr. Charles Dickens the Younger, to
    Macmillan & Co.'s edition of "The Pickwick Papers," 1892.

The "few papers" here alluded to were destroyed before the novelist's
death, with the exception of Edward Chapman's confirmatory letter.
Needless to say, both Mrs. Charles Dickens and Frederick Dickens
entirely corroborated the novelist's assertions respecting his own share
and that of Seymour in the origin of "Pickwick."

In concluding this account of a most unpleasant controversy, we may
reasonably surmise that had not Seymour communicated his idea to
Chapman, "Pickwick" would never have been written. The proposal for a
book similar in character certainly emanated from the artist, and in
this sense he was, of course, the originator of that work, while to him
also belongs the honour of inventing, pictorially, the portraits of the
Pickwickians. But it was "Boz, glorious Boz," who vitalised the happy
conception, by imparting thereto such prodigality of fun and so much
individuality that "The Pickwick Papers" at once leaped into fame, and,
as all the world knows, was received with acclamation by every section
of the public.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =The Library of Fiction, 1836.=]

Coincident with the publication of the first monthly number of "The
Pickwick Papers," there appeared the initial part of a new serial called
"The Library of Fiction," which, under the editorship of Charles
Whitehead, was launched by the same publishers. Whitehead, whose name
has already been mentioned in connection with "Pickwick," became
acquainted with Dickens at the time the latter was writing "Sketches by
Boz," which he so much admired that he endeavoured to persuade the young
author to contribute something of a similarly striking character to the
projected "Library of Fiction." Dickens consented, and we find that his
amusing little story, entitled "The Tuggses at Ramsgate," constitutes
the opening paper. Several of the articles and tales in "The Library of
Fiction" were illustrated, and it is interesting to note that Dickens's
contribution to the first part was embellished with two designs by
Robert Seymour, engraved on wood by Landells. It is generally considered
that Seymour's woodcut illustrations are by far the best specimens of
his talent, and the engravers of that day were exceedingly happy in
reproducing the delicacy of touch and brilliancy of effect which
distinguished the drawings made by him direct upon the blocks.

Seymour's first design represents the Tuggs family and their friends,
Mr. and Mrs. Captain Waters, on the sands by the seaside, and it is
interesting to learn that the fat man seated on a chair in front is said
to be a portrait of the artist, as he appeared during the latter part of
his life. The second illustration, depicting the incident of the irate
Captain Waters discovering Mr. Cymon Tuggs behind the curtain, also
formed the subject of George Cruikshank's etching for the little story
when it was reprinted in the first edition of "Sketches by Boz,"
published about some three years later, and, in comparing the separate
designs, we find that they are almost identical, except that the two
prominent figures in the etching are in reverse of those in the




From the Painting by Himself.

_Circa 1837._


     Alteration in the Plan of Publishing "Pickwick"--The
     Difficulty Respecting a New Illustrator--Buss Elected to
     Succeed Seymour--Studies Art under G. Clint, A.R.A.--His
     Painting of "Christmas in the Olden Time"--His Ignorance of
     the Etcher's Art--Practises Drawing in Pen-and-ink--"THE
     PICKWICK PAPERS"--Buss's First Plate Approved by the
     Publishers--Failure of Subsequent Attempts--Expert
     Assistance Obtained--Plates Cancelled--Buss
     Dismissed--Substituted Designs by "Phiz"--"Pickwick"
     Drawings by Buss--His Unused Designs for "Pickwick"--His
     Illustrations for Marryat, Ainsworth, &c.--Accurate
     Draughtsmanship--"THE LIBRARY OF FICTION"--Buss's
     Illustrations for "A Little Talk about Spring and the
     Sweeps"--His Paintings, Humorous and Historical--Some
     Dickens Pictures--Drawings of Scenes in "Dombey and Son"--An
     Unfinished Portrait of Dickens--Drawings on Wood for Charles
     Knight--Exclusion of the Artist Buss's Pictures from the
     Royal Academy--Endeavours to Obtain Pupils--Lectures on
     Art--His Wife and Daughter Establish a School for Girls--A
     Professor of Drawing and a Teacher of Science--Praiseworthy
     Industry--Death of the Artist.

Charles Dickens's brother-in-law, the late Mr. Henry Burnett, was a
frequent visitor at the home of the novelist during the "Pickwick"
period, and years afterwards he vividly recalled the consternation,
disappointment, and anxiety of the young writer on receipt of the
melancholy news concerning the distressing fate of Robert Seymour, the
first illustrator of "The Pickwick Papers." Dickens greatly admired the
productions of that unfortunate artist, and, realising how successfully
he had so far portrayed the characters in the work, apprehended there
would be much difficulty in discovering a draughtsman who could
interpret him with equal felicity. Indeed, there was quite a dearth of
suitable talent, the only artist then living capable of etching his own
designs being George Cruikshank. Unfortunately, there was not much time
for consideration, as the third number of "Pickwick" had to be provided
for without delay.

The crisis brought about by the unexpected death of Seymour compelled
Chapman & Hall to promptly carry into effect a resolution they had
formed of issuing future numbers of "The Pickwick Papers" on an improved
plan, with a view to enhancing the attractiveness and popularity of the
work. They determined that each succeeding number should consist of
thirty-two pages of letterpress instead of twenty-four, and that there
should be two illustrations in lieu of four--an arrangement which held
good to the end. The difficulty respecting an illustrator to succeed
Seymour had now to be grappled with, whereupon the publishers called to
their assistance the eminent wood-engraver, John Jackson, who advised
them to approach Robert William Buss, as being the only artist of his
acquaintance likely to prove the most suitable for the purpose. Chapman
& Hall acted upon this suggestion, and Buss, after much persuasion and
at great personal inconvenience, agreed to temporarily relinquish very
important engagements in order to assist them in their dilemma.



_Facsimile_ of an Unpublished Drawing by R. W. BUSS


Robert William Buss is referred to in an address issued with the third
part of "Pickwick" as "a gentleman already well known to the public as a
very humorous and talented artist." He was born on August 29, 1804, in
Bull-and-Mouth Street, St. Martin's-le-Grand, and in due course
apprenticed to his father, an enameller and engraver on gold and silver.
Like Seymour, he was inoculated with the prevailing mania for "High
Art," and this inclination becoming too strong to be thwarted, his
indulgent father not only permitted the cancelling of his indentures,
but even defrayed the cost of a year's study in Art, placing him under
his old friend George Clint, A.R.A. (a landscape painter, and
subsequently the President of the Society of British Artists), whose son
Alfred married the younger Buss's only sister. Having thus, at the age
of twenty-one, gained some practical experience in his adopted
profession, Robert Buss thought himself competent to start life on his
own account by painting portraits and subject-pictures. In this
direction he met with fair success, but it was as a painter of humorous
incidents that he first made his reputation, these finding eager
purchasers among well-known collectors and _connoisseurs_. Among his
earliest achievements was a painting representing "Christmas in the
Olden Time," which he exhibited in the gallery of the Society of British
Artists in 1838. This work, however, although warmly praised by the
critics, proved a most unhappy venture, as the price realised by the
artist for what represented the result of a year's labour hardly
recouped him for the expenses incurred by its production.[13]

    Footnote 13: The picture afterwards changed hands for six or
    seven times the amount originally received by the painter. It
    eventually became the property of his daughter, the late Miss
    Frances Mary Buss, for many years the Head-mistress of the
    North London Collegiate School for Girls, in the
    Drawing-School of which institution this interesting canvas
    now hangs.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =The Pickwick Papers, 1836-37.=]

It was doubtless this painting with which Buss was occupied when Mr.
Hall (of Chapman & Hall) called upon him respecting the illustrations
for "Pickwick." "Taken quite by surprise," relates the artist, when
recalling his association with Dickens's famous work, "I told him [Mr.
Hall] I had never in the whole course of my life had an etching-needle
in my hand, and that I was entirely ignorant of the process of etching,
as far as practice was concerned. He assured me it was very easy to do,
and that with my talent I was sure to succeed." After some hesitation,
overcome by Mr. Hall's promise that consideration would be shown towards
his want of experience, Buss yielded to the pressure thus put upon him,
and consented to put aside his picture (although most anxious to
complete it for exhibition at the Royal Academy), with a view to
embarking upon his new undertaking.

In preparing studies for his pictures, Buss had accustomed himself to
the use of bold effects, obtained by means of chalk or black-lead
pencils of various degrees of hardness, blackness, and breadth of point.
He therefore deemed it necessary to undergo a course of training which
would enable him to impart to his work that delicacy of touch so
essential in the art of etching upon copper or steel, and devoted
himself almost day and night (as there was really no time to lose) to
practice in drawing with pen-and-ink,--a fact (he observes) "of which
Mr. Hall was utterly and entirely ignorant." There are still extant a
few of these experimental efforts (chiefly figures and faces copied
from line engravings), including a sheet containing a dozen sketches of
heads--studies of characters in "Pickwick," apparently based upon
Seymour's etchings--which testify not only to his energy, but also to
his rapidly-acquired skill in the adoption of what was to him a novel
medium. In these drawings, by the way, he used ordinary ink for the
general design, diluting it for the delicate shades and distant objects,
thus assimilating the effect of his pen-and-ink work with the variations
resulting from the "biting-in" and "re-biting" of etchings.



_Facsimile_ of an Unpublished Drawing by R. W. BUSS

Illustrating an incident in the ninth chapter of "The Pickwick Papers."


After labouring incessantly for a period of three weeks, the artist felt
prepared to make his first attempt in etching, taking for his subject
"Mr. Pickwick at the Review." Referring to this plate, he says: "Of
course it was full of faults, inevitable to any one in the early stage
of practice in etching. But it was shown to Messrs. Chapman & Hall, and
approved by them, though not as one of the illustrations to be
published.[14] All this occupied much time, which was every hour
becoming more and more valuable, as the date of publication was close at
hand. I had barely time to prepare my two subjects for the next number
of 'Pickwick' in pencil and submit them for approval to the publishers,
who returned them, being much pleased with my efforts. The subjects I
selected were the Fat Boy watching Mr. Tupman and Miss Wardle in the
arbour, and the Cricket-Match." Buss now essayed to reproduce his
designs upon the plates; but the result proved disastrous, the too
violent action of the improperly diluted acid tearing up the
etching-ground, which also broke up under the needle, creating sad
havoc. Dreading the possible consequences of delay, he placed his
original drawings in the hands of an expert engraver, to be copied on
the plate and "bitten-in." "This work," remarks the artist, "he did very
well indeed, but, as might have been expected, had I had time for
thought, the free touch of an original was entirely wanting. The etching
itself failed, but the 'biting-in' was admirably done. Time was up. The
plates must be placed at once in the printer's hands, and so (there
being no help for it) the plates were printed, the numbers stitched and
duly published. Thus my name appeared to designs of which not one touch
of mine was on the plates." Had opportunities been given, Buss would
have cancelled these plates, and prepared fresh ones of his own etching.
The immediate effect of this fiasco was the termination of his
connection with "The Pickwick Papers," the artist being actually engaged
in preparing designs for the succeeding number when he received a note
informing him that the work had been placed in other hands. Under the
circumstances, it is not surprising that Buss felt this curt dismissal
very keenly, for it must be remembered that he ventured upon the
undertaking mainly to oblige the publishers, who, it appears, had
promised him every consideration on account of his inexperience with the

    Footnote 14: This design has been reproduced by
    photo-lithography, impressions of which may occasionally be
    found in copies of "Pickwick."

Forster disposes of the subject of Buss's association with "Pickwick" in
a very few words, merely observing that "there was at first a little
difficulty in replacing Seymour, and for a single number Mr. Buss was
interposed," thus intimating that the engagement was a temporary one. In
commenting upon this, the artist's son, the Rev. Alfred J. Buss,
expresses a belief that his father could not certainly have regarded it
in this light. "Is it reasonable to suppose," he asks, in _Notes and
Queries_, April 24, 1875, "that he would have consented to devote three
weeks of his time, at the most valuable season to an artist, to the
practice of an entirely new department of art, if it had been clearly
stated that his engagement was of the transitory nature Mr. Forster
would imply, and the more especially when we bear in mind that the price
to be paid for the etchings was only fifteen shillings each?" It was
Forster's scanty and misleading reference to Buss's engagement as
illustrator of "Pickwick" which induced the artist to draw up for his
children a concise and clear account of everything that transpired.

It is not recorded whether Buss and Dickens became personally
acquainted, nor, indeed, that they ever met. We may therefore surmise
that all business transactions were carried on through the publishers,
who probably forwarded to the artist proofs of the letterpress in order
that he might select therefrom the subjects for illustration. The third
number of "Pickwick" contains the only two published etchings by Buss
for that work, viz., "The Cricket-Match" and "The Fat Boy Awake on this
Occasion only." These plates, the effect of which was poor and thin,
contrasted unfavourably with the Seymour etchings immediately preceding
them, and were therefore suppressed as speedily as possible, others by
"Phiz" (Hablôt K. Browne) being substituted before many copies had been
issued.[15] In one of the latter an entirely different design is
given,--that is to say, instead of "The Cricket-Match," we have "Mr.
Wardle and his Friends under the Influence of 'the Salmon,'" depicting
an incident described in the succeeding chapter.

    Footnote 15: The two cancelled etchings by Buss have been
    copied on steel, but, being printed on India paper, are not
    likely to be mistaken for the original plates. Impressions of
    the Buss etchings are exceedingly scarce, only about seven
    hundred copies of the number containing them having been

The drawings by Buss for "Pickwick" have fortunately been preserved.
Besides the original designs for the published etchings, there are still
in existence several tentative sketches prepared by the artist in
anticipation of future numbers,--those, indeed, upon which he was at
work when he received his _congé_. Some of these sketches are vigorously
limned with pen-and-ink outlines and the effects laid in with a brush,
while others are rendered in pencil supplemented by washes of
indian-ink. The following is a complete list of Buss's original drawings
for "Pickwick":--

     MR. PICKWICK AT THE REVIEW.[16]--_Unused design._--This
     subject was etched by the artist as a specimen of his work
     to be submitted to Chapman & Hall. Only two impressions are
     known to exist, while the plate itself was irretrievably
     injured through the surface being scratched with a piece of
     coarse emery paper.

     THE CRICKET-MATCH.[16]--_Published design._

    Footnote 16: Reproduced in _facsimile_ in the Victoria
    edition of "Pickwick," 1887.



From an Unfinished Painting by R. W. BUSS

_Size of Original Picture, 36 in. by 27 in._

_Lent by the Rev. F. Fleetwood Buss._


     THE CRICKET-MATCH.--_First sketch_, varying entirely from
     the etching. The wicket-keeper is seen behind the fat man,
     receiving the ball full in his face.


     varying from the etching. Tupman is represented on his knees
     by the side of Miss Wardle, who is holding a watering-pot,
     while the Fat Boy is seen behind, facing the spectator.

     varying from the etching. Here Tupman is standing, with his
     left arm around Miss Wardle's waist, and the Fat Boy is in
     front, in much the same attitude as represented in the
     published design; indeed, there are very slight differences
     between this sketch and the accepted drawing.

     SALMON."[17]--_Unused design._

    Footnote 17: Reproduced in _facsimile_ in the Victoria
    edition of "Pickwick," 1887.

     THE BREAK-DOWN.--_Unused design._ Pickwick, in an attitude
     of despair, stands facing the spectator; behind him Wardle
     is seen in the act of shaking his fist at the eloping party
     in the retreating chaise; while a postboy on the left holds
     the head of one of the horses belonging to the vehicle which
     has come to grief.

     MR. WINKLE'S FIRST SHOT.--_Unused design._ The central
     figure is Winkle, holding his gun; close by stands Snodgrass
     in an attitude of fear, while Pickwick and Wardle are
     sheltering behind a tree.

     STUDY FOR THE TITLE-PAGE.--_Unused design._ In this rough
     sketch Pickwick is the prominent personage, as he stands
     facing the spectator, with his right hand in the pocket of
     his smalls, and his left arm resting on what appears to be a
     mound of earth. Separately displayed upon the face of this
     mound are medallion portraits, in emblematical frames, of
     Pickwick, Snodgrass, Winkle, and Tupman, while above all is
     suspended a female figure typical of Fame, blowing a
     miniature trumpet and holding a laurel wreath over the head
     of Pickwick. The letters forming the words "Pickwick Club"
     are made up of various articles suggestive of conviviality
     and sport--such as corkscrews, bottles, wine-glasses,
     pistol, stirrup, &c.

These drawings sufficiently indicate that the artist possessed a decided
power with the pencil, which he turned to good account shortly after the
abrupt termination of his connection with "The Pickwick Papers." For
example, in 1839 he successfully illustrated, by means of etching, Mrs.
Trollope's diverting story, "The Widow Married," then appearing as a
serial in the _New Monthly Magazine_, and among the more remarkable of
his later efforts with the etching-needle are his designs for novels by
Marryat, Ainsworth, and other well-known writers of the day, many of the
plates being equal, in the matter of technique, to those by "Phiz," thus
denoting that, had an opportunity been afforded him, he might have made
his mark with "Pickwick." It may be said of Buss (as is asserted
concerning Cruikshank) that his works, whether in colour or
black-and-white, are regarded as affording authentic information
respecting costumes and other accessories; for he was exceedingly
conscientious in matters of detail, preferring to incur infinite trouble
to secure accuracy rather than rely upon his imagination.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =The Library of Fiction, 1836.=]

Like Seymour, Buss was associated with Dickens in connection with that
ephemeral work, "The Library of Fiction." Besides "The Tuggses at
Ramsgate," the novelist wrote for its pages a paper called "A Little
Talk about Spring and the Sweeps," containing an illustration drawn by
Buss and engraved on wood by John Jackson, who, it will be remembered,
introduced the artist to Chapman & Hall. This short tale was reprinted
in the first complete edition of "Sketches by Boz," 1839, under the
title of "The First of May," with an etching by Cruikshank
depicting an incident differing entirely from that which forms the
subject of Buss's woodcut.



From an Original Water-colour Drawing by R. W. BUSS

_Lent by the Rev. A. J. Buss._


       *       *       *       *       *

As a painter of humorous scenes and historical events, Buss gained
considerable popularity. From 1826 to 1859 he contributed nearly every
year subject-pictures and portraits to the Exhibitions of the Royal
Academy, Suffolk Street Gallery, and British Institution, and among his
numerous canvases (many of which have been engraved) may be
mentioned:--_Humorous_--"The Biter Bit," "The March of Intellect," "The
Monopolist," "An Unexpected Reception," "Soliciting a Vote," "Chairing
the Member," "Mob Tyranny," "The Mock Mayor of Newcastle-under-Lyme."
_Historical_--"The Introduction of Tobacco by Sir Walter Raleigh,"
"James Watt's First Experience with Steam," "Hogarth at School,"
"Chantrey's First Essay in Modelling," "Nelson's First Victory over the
French Fleet." The artist was also occasionally inspired by Shakespeare
and Dickens, and it is specially interesting to note that he painted at
least three pictures of scenes in the novelist's works, viz., "Joe
Willet Taking Leave of Dolly Varden" (from "Barnaby Rudge"), exhibited
at the Royal Academy in 1844, and now in a South Australian public
picture-gallery; "The Cricket's Chirp" (Peerybingle, Dot, and Tilly
Slowboy, from "The Cricket on the Hearth," Chirp the First), exhibited
at Suffolk Street, 1846; and a representation of Trotty Veck peeping
into the basket containing his dinner of tripe which his daughter brings
him. In an album of studies and notes for his pictures (arranged by the
artist for preservation as an heirloom) may be found several sketches
for the first-named subject, and in addition to these are two small
water-colour drawings, oval in form, of scenes in "Dombey and Son,"
representing "Mr. Dombey more Magnificent than Usual," and "Captain
Cuttle visited by Florence Dombey," the latter being especially well
rendered. Whether these have ever been engraved I am unable to say, but
the probability is they have not. Curiously enough, the last picture on
Buss's easel purported to represent "A Dream of Dickens." This
unfinished canvas (still in the possession of a member of the artist's
family) contains a portrait of the novelist seated in his study, with
visions of scenes from his various works around him. The portrait is
adapted from the well-known photograph by Watkins, while the incidents
depicted are taken from the original illustrations.

Although Buss's large picture of "Christmas in the Olden Time" proved,
for the artist, a financial failure, it benefited him in being the means
of introducing him to Charles Knight (perhaps the most enterprising
publisher of that day), who, recognising in the young painter a diligent
student of manners and customs, engaged his services on the Pictorial
Edition of Shakespeare's Works, "Old England," the _Penny Magazine_, and
Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales," all of which were issued under Knight's
auspices. The Rev. A. J. Buss well remembers his father making these
drawings on wood blocks, which were engraved by Jackson, Sly, and
others, and recalls that, some years after, he obtained a commission
from Mr. Hogarth, a printseller, to execute some Christmas subjects for
reproduction by line-engraving.

After 1854 Buss's pictures were for some reason excluded from the Royal
Academy Exhibitions, and this so seriously affected the sale of his work
that he was compelled to have recourse to teaching drawing as a means of
supplementing a precarious income. As early as 1843 he had issued
circulars announcing a course of lessons in drawing on Dupin's method,
having previously purchased many expensive models, and rented a room in
Duke Street, Grosvenor Square; but all in vain, for not a single pupil
was forthcoming! He then prepared a series of lectures on English Comic
and Satiric Art, which he delivered in London and the chief provincial
towns in England, these being illustrated by large diagrams.



From an Original Water-colour Drawing by R. W. BUSS

_Lent by the Rev. A. J. Buss._


During the period of struggle for a livelihood, the artist's wife and
daughter came nobly to his assistance by establishing, in 1850, the
North London Collegiate School for Ladies (as it was then
designated), which developed into the leading school in the cause
of Female Education. In order to give it a higher grade than other
similar seminaries had then attained, Buss not only became its professor
of drawing, but teacher of science too, first devoting himself to the
study of Chemistry, Botany, Human Physiology, Mechanics, Hydraulics,
&c., and he soon became qualified for his self-imposed responsibilities.
His artistic capabilities here stood him in good stead, for they enabled
him to prepare large diagrams with which to illustrate his lectures; in
addition to this, he made his own models for demonstrating the science
of Mechanics--thus proving the power he possessed of adapting himself to
circumstances, in the earnest desire to obtain a living and in his love
for wife and children. "I do not think," observes the Rev. A. J. Buss,
when corresponding with me on this subject, "I ever knew a man so
industrious as my father. I have a clear remembrance almost from my
childhood of his industry,--early morning in his painting-room--up to
late hours drawing on wood and etching. He _deserved_ better fortune
than he secured; and I have only learnt to admire him the more, the more
I think of his career."

At the death of his wife, the artist led a very retired life, in a
studio most picturesquely fitted up with ancient furniture, and here it
was that he devoted the latter years of his life in preparing for
publication his lectures on Art, being aided and encouraged in his
congenial task by his affectionate daughter, the late Frances Mary Buss,
who subsequently gained high distinction in connection with Education.
This profusely-illustrated volume, printed for private circulation, was
issued in 1874, and bore the following title: "English Graphic Satire,
and its relation to Different Styles of Painting, Sculpture, and
Engraving. A Contribution to the History of the English School of Art."

Robert William Buss died at his residence in Camden Street, Camden Town,
on February 26, 1875, in his seventy-first year. The end came very
quietly and painlessly to him who had fought the battle of life so
honestly and so fearlessly.



     An Illustrator required for "Pickwick"--Leech and Thackeray
     offer their Services--Thackeray's First Meeting with
     Dickens--"Mr. Pickwick's Lucky Escape"--Leech's Specimen
     Drawing--HABLÔT K. BROWNE ("Phiz") Elected to Succeed
     Buss--His Etching of "John Gilpin's Ride" Awarded a Silver
     Medal--His Designs for "SUNDAY UNDER THREE HEADS" and "THE
     LIBRARY OF FICTION"--Mr. J. G. Fennell's Reminiscences of
     the Artist--Thackeray's Congratulations to "Phiz"--A Modest
     Banquet--"Phiz" as an Etcher--Assisted by Robert
     Young--Their First Plate for "Pickwick"--An All-Night
     Sitting--Particulars Concerning a "First Edition" of
     "Pickwick"--The Success of the Work Assured--The _Sobriquet_
     of "Phiz"--The Artist's Signatures--Method of Preparing the
     "Pickwick" Illustrations--Variations in Duplicated
     Plates--George Augustus Sala's Opinion of the "Pickwick"
     Plates--The Etchings Criticised--"Phiz's" Original Drawings
     for "Pickwick"--His Tentative Designs--Differences between
     the Drawings and the Etchings--Dickens's Hints to the
     Artist--"Phiz's" Sketch of Mr. Pickwick--A Series of New
     Designs--Vignettes for the Library Edition--Woodcuts for the
     Household Edition--Frontispiece for "THE STRANGE
     and "SKETCHES OF YOUNG COUPLES"--Sale of the Original
     Drawings--"NICHOLAS NICKLEBY"--Dickens and "Phiz" in
     Yorkshire--The Prototype of Squeers--A Significant
     Memorandum--Mr. Lloyd's Recollections of William Shaw, a
     Yorkshire Pedagogue--The "Nickleby" Etchings
     Criticised--Particulars Concerning the Plates--The Original
     Drawings--A Missing Design--Dickens's Instructions to
     "Phiz"--Variations in the Illustrations--Pictorial
     Wrapper--Vignettes for the Library Edition.



From an Unpublished Photograph

_Lent by Mr. Gordon Browne, R.I._


From a Photograph by


_Lent by Mr. R. Young._


It is certainly extraordinary that within the space of a few weeks two
vacancies for the post of illustrator of "Pickwick" should have
occurred. It was about the beginning of June 1836 (the date of the
publication of the third part, containing his two etchings) when Buss
unexpectedly received the intimation that his services would be no
longer required, and no sooner had this fact become known than there was
quite a rush of aspiring artists eager to offer their professional aid,
among them being several who had already made a reputation as
draughtsmen--such as "Crowquill" (Alfred Forrester), Lee, and
others. It is of special interest to learn that John Leech and William
Makepeace Thackeray were also desirous of obtaining the appointment, but
the honour was destined for another. Thackeray had practised etching for
some years, having, while an undergraduate at Cambridge, taken lessons
of an engraver and printseller named Roe, who carried on his profession
in the University town, and under that gentleman's superintendence he
etched a series of plates illustrative of college life, which were first
published in 1878. Possessing a natural gift for drawing, the famous
satirist (in his early days) earnestly desired to follow Art as a
profession, and so far encouraged his bent by copying pictures in the
Louvre; but his studies seem to have been of a desultory character, and
of little value in making him a sound draughtsman. When, on returning to
London, he heard that a designer was required for the "Pickwick"
illustrations, he immediately sought an interview with Dickens at his
rooms in Furnival's Inn, taking with him some specimens of his work, and
more than twenty years afterwards, in responding to the toast of
"Literature" at the Royal Academy banquet, he thus referred to the
memorable incident: "I can remember when Mr. Dickens was a very young
man, and had commenced delighting the world with some charming humorous
works, of which I cannot mention the name, but which were coloured light
green and came out once a month, that this young man wanted an artist to
illustrate his writings, and I recollect walking up to his chambers with
two or three drawings in my hand, which, strange to say, he did not find
suitable. But for that unfortunate blight which came over my artistical
existence, it would have been my pride and my pleasure to have
endeavoured one day to find a place on these walls for one of my
performances." Although at the time he was doubtless surprised at, and
sorely disappointed by, "Boz's" want of appreciation, he afterwards
acknowledged there was some justification for it, and good-humouredly
alluded to the rejection of his services as "Mr. Pickwick's lucky
escape." Who can say whether "Vanity Fair" and "Esmond" would ever have
been written had this mighty penman been elected to succeed Buss?[18]

    Footnote 18: According to the following anecdote, Thackeray
    did not over-estimate his own powers as a draughtsman. Mr. M.
    H. Spielmann tells us that after Edmund Yates had started an
    illustrated magazine, which had but a brief existence,
    Thackeray wrote to him: "You have a new artist on _The
    Train_, I see, my dear Yates. I have been looking at his
    work, and I have solved a problem. I find there _is_ a man
    alive who draws worse than myself!"

Thackeray's schoolfellow and life-long friend, John Leech, also
submitted a design to Chapman & Hall, in the hope of being successful
where others had failed, but the little drawing, slightly tinted in
colours, depicting the amusing scene in the Bagman's story of Tom Smart
and the high-backed chair, did not indicate the possession by the artist
of the necessary qualifications. He was accordingly dismissed; but it
was reserved for this amiable man and accomplished draughtsman not only
to adorn with his pencil the pages of the "Carol" and other Christmas
books of Charles Dickens, but to be afterwards honoured by the
friendship and esteem of England's great novelist.

       *       *       *       *       *
[Sidenote: =Sunday under Three Heads, 1836.=]

As all the world knows, the privilege of illustrating Dickens's most
popular work was secured by Hablôt Knight Browne ("Phiz"), this clever
designer being rightly regarded as artistic exponent-in-chief of
Dickens's creations. At this time he had barely attained his majority,
and, unlike Cruikshank, who came to the pictorial embellishment of
"Sketches by Boz" and "Oliver Twist" with a distinct reputation, was an
almost untried artist. About his eighteenth year, while serving his
apprenticeship with the Findens, the well-known line-engravers, Browne
was awarded a silver medal offered for competition by the Society of
Arts for "the best representation of an historical subject"--a large
etching portraying John Gilpin's famous ride through Edmonton. _Apropos_
of this etching Mr. Mason Jackson writes in the _Athenæum_, June 11,
1887: "Mr. Chapman (of Chapman & Hall) was delighted with 'John Gilpin's
Ride,' and forthwith applied to Browne, who thus succeeded Seymour and
Buss as the illustrator of 'Pickwick.'" After a careful comparison of
dates, I venture to point out the probability that it was not with a
view to the illustration of "Pickwick" that Edward Chapman paid his
first visit to Browne, as generally supposed, but for the purpose of
engaging his services as designer of some woodcuts for a pamphlet which
the firm was about to publish, entitled "Sunday under Three Heads--As it
is; As Sabbath Bells would make it; As it might be made." This brochure,
written by Dickens under the pseudonym of "Timothy Sparks," is prefaced
by a Dedication dated June 1836, and was therefore in progress prior to
the publication of the fourth number of "Pickwick," containing "Phiz's"
first designs, which appeared during the following month. When, in after
years, Mr. Morton Brune enquired of the artist concerning his share in
this little production, he replied: "The work of Dickens mentioned by
you was illustrated by me when quite a youngster, and I am sorry to say
I can give no information about it--recollecting nothing whatever."[19]
Besides a trio of heads (printed on both wrapper and title-page), there
are three full-page illustrations, engraved by C. Gray and Orrin Smith.
This excessively scarce pamphlet was issued as a protest against the
extreme views of Sir Andrew Agnew and the Sabbatarian party, and had
immediate reference to a Bill "for the better observance of the
Sabbath," then recently rejected in the House of Commons by a small
majority. "Sunday under Three Heads" was originally published at two
shillings, and now realises as much as £10 in the auction-room. There
are two or three _facsimile_ reprints in existence, but the
reproductions of the woodcuts are comparatively poor.

    Footnote 19: As early as 1837 Browne designed (as an
    advertisement for Bentley) a little woodcut (now very rare)
    in which he depicted Charles Dickens leading by the lappel of
    his waistcoat a burly and perspiring porter, who is seen
    carrying a huge bale of copies of _Bentley's Miscellany_, of
    which magazine the novelist was then the editor.

It should be mentioned that "Phiz" (together with Seymour and Buss)
assisted in the illustration of "The Library of Fiction," published by
Chapman & Hall in 1836-37, so that his artistic efforts were by no
means unfamiliar to the firm at this time. In his design facing page 293
of the first volume of that work there may be discovered the figure of
an obese individual who is the very counterpart of Tony Weller.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =The Pickwick Papers, 1836-37.=]

An intimate friend of Hablôt K. Browne, Mr. John Greville Fennell
(formerly of the _Field_ journal), confirms my opinion that the artist's
earliest association with the writings of Dickens was his connection
with "Sunday under Three Heads"; but, as the engravings in that pamphlet
only bore the designer's initials, it is more than probable that Browne
himself was then an absolute stranger to the future novelist. Within a
very brief period, however, certain events conspired to bring about the
beginning of an acquaintance which ripened into a friendship that never
ceased during Dickens's life-time. Mr. Fennell writes: "It was I who,
while superintending E. & W. Finden's establishment, sold his first
drawing to Adolphus Ackermann, and induced him (H. K. B.) to reproduce
Buss's two illustrations (viz., The Cricket-Match[20] and The Fat Boy
Awake on this Occasion only), which I sent down to Chapman & Hall." It
was apparently through Mr. Fennell's intervention that the publishers
were enabled to recognise Browne's ability as an etcher, and to discover
in the specimens submitted to them that he was the very man to occupy
the position then recently vacated by Buss. He first heard of his
appointment from his generous rival, Thackeray, who at once made his way
to the artist's abode in Newman Street for the purpose of congratulating
him, and it is said that they immediately repaired to a neighbouring
public-house, where a banquet consisting of sausages and bottled stout
was held in honour of the occasion.

    Footnote 20: So far as I am aware, no illustration by "Phiz"
    of this subject is extant.

At this juncture, Browne (who considered line-engraving too tedious a
process) suspended operations at Finden's establishment, and, through
the friendly auspices of Mr. Fennell, his indentures were cancelled two
years before they had expired. In conjunction with a kindred spirit, he
hired a modest room as a studio, and employed his time in the more
congenial pursuit of water-colour drawing. As the result of a solemn
compact between them to produce three drawings daily, Browne, who worked
very rapidly, was enabled to pay his share of the rent by the proceeds
of his labours. In order to familiarise himself with the human form, he
attended the evening class at the "Life" School in St. Martin's Lane,
having as a fellow-pupil that famous painter of the "nude," William
Etty, who afterwards joined the ranks of the Royal Academicians.

In 1836 (when in his twenty-first year) Browne had acquired considerable
facility with his pencil, and soon proved that his selection as the
illustrator of "Pickwick" was thoroughly justified. By means of the
training he had undergone at the Findens, he had obtained a mastery over
the difficulties and mysteries of etching, which now proved eminently
serviceable. Buss declared that "Phiz" was by no means an expert when he
commenced working for "Pickwick," being compelled to obtain help from an
experienced engraver named Sands, who "touched up the drawings with his
own needle, adding shade where required, and then applied the acid and
did all the necessary 'biting-in' and 'stopping-out.'" The facts,
however, are rather over-stated, as witness that early effort (perhaps
unknown to Buss), viz., the etching of John Gilpin, which was
undoubtedly unaided work, testifying that the artist was then quite
capable of running alone. It is acknowledged, however, that, so far as
the "biting-in" was concerned, he invariably secured co-operation, not
on account of his own incapacity, but merely to save time, and for this
purpose he generally sought and obtained the requisite help of his
quondam fellow-apprentice, Robert Young.

Browne speedily communicated to Mr. Young the welcome intelligence
respecting the "Pickwick" appointment; indeed, we are told that he went
at once to his friend's chambers, and on entering said, "Look here, old
fellow: will you come to my rooms to assist me with a plate I have to
etch?" Mr. Young, who was still in the employ of Finden, had acquired
such a thorough knowledge of the art of biting-in designs upon steel
plates, that Browne realised the importance of securing his co-operation
without delay, and, happily for him, his friend readily acceded to his
wish; whereupon "Phiz" suggested that he should take his key with him,
as they might be late. The design having already been drawn upon the
plate, the two conspirators devoted the entire night to the operation of
biting-in, the outcome of which was the production of the plate
depicting the eventful meeting of Mr. Pickwick and Sam Weller at the old
White Hart Inn, perhaps the most notable illustration in the book. Mr.
Young's share of the undertaking consisted in the application and
manipulation of acid, which corroded the plate where exposed by the
needle--a troublesome and delicate operation, requiring considerable
experience, as, by too lengthy or too brief a subjection of the metal to
the action of the acid, the plate would be ruined, and the labour of the
artist rendered of no avail.

Mr. Young writes in reply to my enquiry respecting this and subsequent
collaboration: "I did not bite-in the whole of 'Phiz's' etchings. I was
some years abroad, during which he had assistance from two engravers,
Sands and Weatherhead. 'Phiz' was quite capable of doing this part of
the work himself, for he had two or three years' practice during his
apprenticeship at Finden's; but he had no time for such work, being
always fully occupied in etching or drawing on wood."



_Facsimile_ of the Original Drawing for "Nicholas Nickleby" by


Above the Sketch is written the following, in the autograph of
Dickens:--"I don't think that Smike is frightened enough [or that
Squeers is] earnest enough, for my purpose."

_Lent by Mr. M. H. Spielmann._


The title-page of "Pickwick" intimates that the volume contains
"Forty-three illustrations by R. Seymour and Phiz," thus ignoring Buss's
contributions. The fact is (as stated in the preceding chapter) that
only a few copies of Part III., containing the two plates by Buss, were
issued, these being quickly superseded by a couple of new designs by
Browne; therefore, a copy of an absolutely first edition of the book
should include seven etchings by Seymour, two by Buss, and thirty-four
by "Phiz." Two plates, viz., "The Fat Boy Awake on this Occasion only"
and "Mr. Wardle and his Friends under the Influence of 'the
Salmon'" were etched for Part III. (after those in Part IV.), to take
the place of Buss's cancelled designs. In early copies of the first
edition all the plates were printed without titles, and throughout the
first twelve numbers each plate bore only a reference in figures to the
page which it was intended to illustrate. In the remaining numbers
(Parts XIII. to XX.) the reference figures were withheld, the plates
showing in the first published copies neither figures, titles, nor
publishers' imprint.

For the first three parts of "The Pickwick Papers" there was so limited
a demand that the publishers seriously contemplated a discontinuance of
the work, a fate which, from the same cause, threatened Thackeray's
famous novel, "Vanity Fair," in the early stages of its career. Happily,
such a disaster was averted by the appearance in the fourth part of Sam
Weller, who at once achieved such enormous popularity that the sale went
up by leaps and bounds, the number of copies disposed of increasing from
a few hundreds to several thousands. This was an extremely happy augury,
not only for author and publishers, but for the young artist whose
connection with the book began at this critical time, and the
extraordinary circulation so suddenly imparted to the work was doubtless
principally instrumental in obtaining for him other commissions, with
which he was soon overflowing. Browne's earliest printed plates are
signed "Nemo," and referring to this he says: "I think I signed myself
as 'Nemo' to my first etchings (those of No. 4) before adopting 'Phiz'
as my _sobriquet_, to harmonise--I suppose--better with Dickens's
'Boz.'" The third and succeeding plates bear the signature of "Phiz," a
sign-manual which presently became well known to all readers of the
novels of Dickens, Ainsworth, and Lever. Although he seldom appended his
surname to his designs, we not unfrequently find (in his woodcuts
especially) the initials "H.K.B.," in lieu of the more familiar
pseudonym. It seems the public could never quite realise that the
different signatures were those of the same artist, and were wont to
remark that "Browne's work was better than Phiz's."

The "Pickwick" illustrations were produced in couples, that is, two
subjects were etched on one plate, this being printed at a single
operation and the sheets afterwards divided. "Phiz" was exceedingly
rapid in his work when time was limited, and could design and etch a
plate in the course of a day, and have it bitten-in and ready for the
printer by the next morning. Unlike Seymour, he almost invariably drew
his subjects on the steel without reversing them, so that they appeared
reversed in the printing; it is evident, however, that he sometimes
failed to remember this when preparing his designs, so that occasionally
we find that his figures are left-handed, and other similar
incongruities. Doubtless, the artist's motive in thus copying his
drawings directly upon the plate was to facilitate operations, for in
this way he could dispense with the aid of a mirror.

A noteworthy consequence of the increased sale of the "Pickwick" numbers
was the serious deterioration of the plates caused by friction in
printing, as for every impression the plate must be inked and the
superfluous ink removed by wiping with the hand. In those days the
process called "steel-facing," by means of which the etched or engraved
surface is hardened, was unknown, so that, comparatively, only a few
impressions could be struck off before the plate indicated any
appreciable sign of wear-and-tear. The designs were therefore etched in
duplicate, and this appears to have commenced at the date of the
publication of the tenth part of "Pickwick." The system of duplicating
the plates readily accounts for the interesting variations observable in
different copies of the first issue; as, for example, the faces in the
illustration delineating Mr. Pickwick's first meeting with Sam Weller
are much improved in the _replica_, while other details are greatly
altered; in the original plate portraying Mr. Pickwick in the pound,
there are two donkeys and four pigs, while the later impression has but
one donkey and two pigs; in the etching where Master Bardell is seen
kicking Mr. Pickwick, the boy was first drawn with his head down, but
was subsequently represented with it raised, the attitudes of Snodgrass
and Winkle being also slightly changed; the second version of the plate
entitled "The Break-down" (which, by the way, bears a remarkable
resemblance to Buss's unused drawing of the same subject) differs
considerably from the first, and this remark applies to many of the
other designs; but it is chiefly in the earlier plates that these
variations are particularly noticeable. It is by no means surprising
that such unimportant alterations exist, for an artist like "Phiz" would
find it infinitely tiresome to slavishly copy, line for line, the
original designs, especially if he saw an opportunity for improving

The late George Augustus Sala held the opinion that Hablôt Browne's
earlier illustrations to "Pickwick" are "exceedingly humorous, but
exceedingly ill-drawn," and believed that it was the amazing success of
the author which spurred the artist to sedulous study, thus conducing in
a remarkable degree towards the development of his faculties.
Remembering, however, that "Phiz" had only just attained his majority,
we cannot but admire the deftness and skill he then displayed in so
difficult an art as etching, for, although some of the illustrations are
marked by a certain grotesqueness, these plates are marvels of

In the preface to the first edition of "The Pickwick Papers" we read:
"It is due to the gentleman, whose designs accompany the letterpress, to
state that the interval has been so short between the production of each
number in manuscript and its appearance in print, that the greater
portion of the illustrations have been executed by the artist from the
author's mere verbal description of what he intended to write." It was
customary at this time for Dickens to call upon Browne, and hastily
explain his intentions respecting the chapters to be illustrated, and
from notes then made by the artist the requisite designs were evolved.
This satisfactorily accounts for certain inaccuracies in the plates, for
which, however, "Phiz" cannot justly be censured; for example, in the
etching representing Mr. Pickwick hiding behind the door of the young
ladies' seminary, the cook should have been the only person shown beyond
the threshold; and in the plate depicting the discovery of Jingle in
the Fleet, we see Job Trotter standing behind Mr. Pickwick, whereas,
according to the text, he had not entered the room at that precise
moment. On the other hand, we may detect some defects for which "Phiz"
must be held responsible; as, for instance, the inaccurate perspective
of the mantelshelf in the plate entitled "The Red-nosed Man
Discourseth," and the absence of proportion in the size of the figures
of Mr. Pickwick and the old lady in the etching portraying Christmas Eve
at Mr. Wardle's, a similar anomaly appearing in the etching of Mr.
Pickwick's encounter with Mrs. Bardell in the Fleet. Again, there surely
never existed so enormous a sedan-chair as that from the roof of which
Mr. Pickwick expostulates with Sam Weller when he attacks the executive
of Ipswich, or that into which Mr. Winkle bolts in his _robe de nuit_.
In the skating scene, curiously enough, there is no indication of skates
being worn by any member of the company. "Phiz" sometimes posed his
figures in attitudes which, if not physically impossible, are unnatural
and unpicturesque; it must be admitted, however, that he usually
succeeded where George Cruikshank invariably failed, that is, in
delineating pretty women, of whom his skilled pencil has given us quite
an extensive gallery.

A set of proofs of "Phiz's" plates sold for twenty guineas at Sotheby's
in 1889. A reprint of "Pickwick," published at Launceston, Van Diemen's
Land, in 1838-39, was illustrated by means of lithographic copies
(signed "Tiz") of some of the original etchings. At the same time there
appeared an American edition, issued in parts by Turney, New York, with
_facsimiles_ of the plates engraved on steel.




_Facsimile_ of Original Drawings by


_Lent by Mr. J. F. Dexter._


It fortunately happens that, with two exceptions, the original drawings
by "Phiz" for "The Pickwick Papers" have been preserved; the missing
designs are "Mr. Wardle and his Friends under the Influence of 'the
Salmon'" and the vignette for the title-page, where Tony Weller is seen
ducking Stiggins in the horse-trough. Photogravure reproductions of all
the existing designs (some having Dickens's autograph) were published in
the Victoria edition by Chapman & Hall in 1887. The majority of the
drawings were executed in pencil or pen-and-ink, the effects washed in
with a brush, the remainder being entirely brushwork. The following is a
list of "Pickwick" designs by "Phiz" such as were merely tentative, and
therefore never etched:--

     MR. WINKLE'S FIRST SHOT.--_Trial sketch_, illustrating an
     incident in the seventh chapter. A sketch of the same
     subject was made by Buss.

     CHRISTMAS EVE AT MR. WARDLE'S.--_Trial sketch_, varying but
     slightly from the approved design.

     THE GOBLIN AND THE SEXTON.--_First sketch_, in pencil,
     varying considerably from the etching. An attenuated sprite,
     with sugar-loaf hat and arms akimbo, is seated on the top of
     a flat gravestone beside Gabriel Grub, who, pausing in the
     act of raising a bottle to his lips, gazes with astonishment
     at his uncanny visitor. Behind is seen a church porch.

     THE GOBLIN AND THE SEXTON.--_Second sketch_, similar in
     character, but more complete. Positions of figures reversed,
     and the goblin more robust. In the published etching the
     artist has introduced as a background a view of an
     ecclesiastical building, which bears some resemblance to St.
     Alban's Abbey.

     THE WARDEN'S ROOM.--_Trial sketch_, varying considerably
     from the approved design. The attitudes of dancer and seated
     figure are different, the man in the bed adjoining Mr.
     Pickwick's throws up both arms and one leg, while in either
     hand he holds a nightcap and beer-jug. Other figures are
     introduced on the right.

In comparing the drawings with the plates, important variations are
sometimes apparent. In the remarkable etching, "The Election at
Eatanswill," the artist has introduced fresh figures, while others are
altered; in "Mr. Pickwick in the Pound," we see in the first state of
the etching two donkeys and four pigs, instead of one donkey and three
pigs, as in the drawing; in "Job Trotter encountering Sam in Mr.
Muzzle's Kitchen," the pretty housemaid was originally represented
sitting on Sam Weller's knee; in "The Valentine," the artist's first
intention was to portray Tony Weller without hat and cape; and in
"Conviviality at Bob Sawyer's," a human skeleton is visible behind Mr.
Ben Allen, which was omitted in the etching.

The interest of a few of these drawings is considerably enhanced by the
fact that they contain instructions and suggestions in the autograph of
Dickens. The first so treated is "Mrs. Leo Hunter's Fancy-dress
Déjeuné," the drawing differing in many respects from the etching,
chiefly in the attitudes and arrangement of the figures; under it the
author has written: "I think it would be better if Pickwick had hold of
the Bandit's arm. If Minerva _tried_ to look a little younger (more like
Mrs. Pott, who is perfect), I think it would be an additional
improvement." The design was altered in accordance with the spirit of
the criticism, and we find Minerva, instead of a plump and matronly
personage, the very opposite in the matter of physique. It is worthy of
note that in the first state of the etching the face of the Russian
officer in the rear bore too close a caricature resemblance to that of
Lord Brougham, the subsequent change in his appearance being due to some
remonstrance against the artist's freedom. The drawing depicting Mr.
Pickwick's first interview with Serjeant Snubbin contains the following
hint from the author: "I think the Serjeant should look younger, and a
great deal more sly and knowing; he should be looking at Pickwick too,
smiling compassionately at his innocence. The other fellows are
noble.--C. D." As a matter of fact, the drawing is more successful than
the etching, the Serjeant's face in the former indicating that it had
been obliterated and altered to suit Dickens's idea. In the original
design for the etching representing "Mr. Winkle's Situation when the
Door 'Blew to,'" the artist portrayed Mr. Winkle holding the candlestick
in front of him; but Dickens objected to this, and wrote at the top of
the drawing: "Winkle should be holding the candlestick above his head, I
think. It looks more comical, the light having gone out" The change was
made, but the curious thing is, neither author nor artist remembered the
fact that at the moment depicted Mr. Winkle had actually discarded the
useless candlestick. Under the same drawing Dickens penned the following
comment: "A _fat_ Chairman so short as our friend here, never drew
breath in Bath;" "Phiz" has also written in the margin: "Shall I leave
Pickwick where he is or put him under the bed-clothes? I can't carry him
so high as the second floor.--H. K. B." (Mr. Pickwick's rooms are
described as being in the "upper portion" of the house, but it would
seem that Dickens had originally placed him on the "second floor," which
suggests that the text was altered to suit the illustration. In reply to
this query the author wrote: "I would leave him where he is decidedly.
Is the lady full dressed? She ought to be.--C. D." Mr. Pickwick was left
accordingly; likewise the fat chairman, whose abnormal obesity was
reproduced in the etching as it appears in the drawing. In the sketch of
"Mr. Winkle Returns under Extraordinary Circumstances," the artist had
not made Sam Weller and the housemaid quite as Dickens desired,
whereupon the novelist appended the following queries: "Are Sam and the
housemaid clearly made out; and [would it not be be]tter if he was
looking on with his arm roun[d Mary?] I rayther question the accuracy of
the housemaid."[21] As the sketch, in its present state, realises
Dickens's ideas, we may assume that it was altered by the artist before
he transferred his design to the plate; indeed, there seems to be
evidence of this in the blurred appearance of the young couple in the
drawing, in the margin of which "Phiz" has written the following
instructions about the biting-in: "The outlines of the figures I have
etched with a broad point unintentionally; bite them slightly, that they
may not be too hard, especially Pickwick." The last of the drawings
containing the novelist's handwriting is that illustrating "The Ghostly
passengers in the Ghost of a Mail," this bearing the unusual signature,
"Charles {his} + {mark} Dickens," by which the novelist evidently
meant to express his satisfaction with the artist's treatment of the
subject. In the "English Humorists" Exhibition held in London a few
years since, there was a capital study by "Phiz" of Mr. Pickwick,
apparently an enlarged _replica_ of the familiar figure and pose as seen
in Seymour's illustration of him as he appeared when addressing the
Club; it is a water-colour drawing on buff paper, supplemented by
marginal sketches of the head and bust of Pickwick with his hat on,
together with two studies of hats; upon the side of the drawing is
inscribed the following memorandum: "Nankeen tights, black cloth
gaiters, _white_ waistcoat, blue coat, brass buttons, square cut in the

    Footnote 21: The words in brackets are unfortunately cut off
    the sketch.



_Facsimile_ of the Original Drawing for "Master Humphrey's Clock" by


Beneath the Sketch is written the following, in the autograph of
Dickens:--"Master Humphrey ADMIRABLE. Could his stick (with a crooked
top) be near his chair? I misdoubt the deaf gentleman's pipe, and wish
he could have a better one."

_Lent by Mr. J. F. Dexter._


In 1847 "Phiz" prepared six new designs for "The Pickwick Papers," which
were delicately engraved on wood; the series was issued independently,
and simultaneously with the first cheap edition of the book. These
drawings are undoubtedly superior to the etchings, being the more
matured work of the artist. The following were the subjects chosen: "Mr.
Winkle's First Shot," "The Effects of Cold Punch," "Mr. Pickwick at
Dodson and Fogg's," "The Kiss under the Mistletoe," "Old Weller at the
Temperance Meeting," "The Leg of Mutton 'Swarry.'" "Phiz" also
contributed to each of the two volumes of the Library Edition
(1858-59)[22] a vignette illustration for the title-page, the subjects
being Mr. Pickwick and the Wellers, and Sam Weller with the Pretty
Housemaid; they were engraved on steel from the original drawings in
water-colours. In 1867 the artist was seized with a form of paralysis,
the use of the right hand being so greatly impaired that he was unable
to make the forefinger and thumb meet; this compelled him to hold the
pencil or brush in a clumsy fashion, and to draw with a sort of
sweeping movement of the whole arm. It was under such distressing
conditions that in 1873-74 he executed a commission to illustrate
Chapman & Hall's Household Edition of "The Pickwick Papers." These
fifty-seven designs are necessarily extremely poor in treatment, and
painfully indicate the effect of the injury his hand had sustained;
indeed, the wonder is that he could draw at all. It must be admitted,
however, that much of the feebleness of the woodcuts is due to the
engraver, as the original outline sketches (which were transferred to
the boxwood blocks and there developed) exhibit in a wonderful degree
both freedom and precision of touch. A small collection of these
drawings was sold at Sotheby's in December 1887, each drawing realising
the average price of seven pounds. Sets of the "Pickwick" designs in the
Household Edition, coloured by F. W. Pailthorpe, have been issued as
"extra" illustrations.

    Footnote 22: The early volumes in the Library Edition, issued
    during 1858-59, have only vignettes on the title-pages. The
    later issues of this edition (1862-68) contain several
    illustrations, some of these being reprints of the plates in
    the first edition, while others were specially designed.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =The Strange Gentleman, 1837.=]

In 1836, as soon as Dickens terminated his connection with the
Reporters' Gallery in the House of Commons, he was induced to take a
considerable interest in the then newly-erected St. James's Theatre, and
even essayed to write for his friend J. P. Harley ("as a practical
joke," he afterwards explained) a comic burletta called "The Strange
Gentleman," which was adapted from "The Great Winglebury Duel" in
"Sketches by Boz." The little farce was published by Chapman & Hall
during the following year with a frontispiece by "Phiz," the subject of
the plate being suggested by the concluding scene, where the Strange
Gentleman proposes marriage to Julia Dobbs; the two seated figures are
vigorously drawn, and on a larger scale than those in the "Pickwick"
designs. "The Strange Gentleman" is perhaps the rarest of Dickens's
writings, and the extraordinary sum of £45 was realised at Sotheby's in
August 1892 for an exceptionally fine copy. It has since been
beautifully reprinted in _facsimile_, with a new frontispiece etched by
F. W. Pailthorpe.

[Sidenote: =Sketches of Young Gentlemen, 1838.=]

In the same year Chapman & Hall published a booklet (anonymously written
by E. Caswell) entitled "Sketches of Young Ladies," by "Quiz," with six
etchings by "Phiz," the author of which was erroneously believed to be
Charles Dickens, whose literary style it somewhat resembled. The "Young
Ladies" being referred to here in a rather ungallant fashion, Dickens
essayed (as a kind of protest) a similar work, in which he pokes fun at
the idiosyncrasies of youths of the sterner sex. Like its predecessor,
the "Sketches of Young Gentlemen" were written anonymously, and
similarly contained six etched illustrations by "Phiz."

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =Sketches of Young Couples, 1840.=]

In 1840 there appeared a third booklet, entitled "Sketches of Young
Couples;" of this Dickens was also the unavowed author, while "Phiz"
contributed the usual six etchings. In the third of these designs (only
two of which are signed) we are reminded of his presentment of the
Kenwigses in "Nicholas Nickleby," the illustrations for which story were
then occupying the artist's attention. These little productions were
issued in green paper covers, decorated with designs by "Phiz."

The sets of six original drawings for "Sketches of Young Ladies" and
"Sketches of Young Gentlemen" realised £40 and £39 respectively at
Sotheby's in 1897.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =Nicholas Nickleby, 1838-39.=]

In the advertisement announcing the publication of "Nicholas Nickleby,"
it was stated that each monthly part would be "embellished with two
illustrations by 'Phiz'." This is not strictly accurate, for to the
twenty parts the artist contributed but thirty-nine plates, the full
complement, however, being made up with a portrait of the author (as the
frontispiece), engraved by Finden from the painting by D. Maclise,

The most interesting of the "Nickleby" plates are undoubtedly those
depicting scenes at Dotheboys Hall, that representing Squeers at the
Saracen's Head containing the most familiar presentment of its amiable
proprietor. Thus, as he stood mending his pen, the novelist and artist
saw the living prototype, and had taken mental notes of the odd figure,
who, as will presently be related, was among the several schoolmasters
they interviewed.[23]

    Footnote 23: Among the few drawings executed by "Phiz" for
    _Punch_, there is a representation of an orthodox
    pettifogging attorney perched upon a stool, whose portrait is
    that of the very Squeers. It constitutes one of a series of
    "_Punch's_ Valentines," and was published in the second
    volume, 1842.

It was the novelist's intention to expose in this story the terrible
abuses practised in the cheap boarding-schools of Yorkshire, and, in
order that he might realise their true character, he determined to
investigate for himself the real facts as to the condition of those
notorious seminaries. Accordingly, at the end of January 1838, he and
"Phiz" started on this memorable journey, in bitterly cold weather, and,
visiting several schools in the locality, they came into direct contact
with the proprietors. One of these was William Shaw, the identical
schoolmaster who, some years previously, had been heavily fined for what
was represented at the trial as gross maltreatment of his pupils.
According to the following entry in the novelist's private diary (under
date February 2, 1838), there can be no doubt that he had this
individual principally in his mind when delineating the infamous
Squeers:--"Mem.--Shaw, the schoolmaster we saw to-day, is the man in
whose school several boys went blind some time since from gross neglect.
The case was tried, and the verdict went against him. It must have been
between 1823 and 1826. Look this out in the newspapers." Mr. Lloyd, a
well-known Glasgow comedian, who spent twelve months in Shaw's school at
Bowes, Yorkshire, afterwards testified to the truth of the _outward_
appearance of the man as described by Dickens and portrayed by the
artist in the pages of the novel, "allowing, of course, for both being
greatly exaggerated. A sharp, thin, upright little man, with a slight
scale covering the pupil of one of his eyes. Yes, there he stands, with
his Wellington boots and short black trousers, not originally cut too
short, but from a habit he had of sitting with one knee over the other,
and the trousers being tight, they would get 'rucked' half-way up the
boots. Then, the clean white vest, swallow-tailed black coat, white
necktie, silver-mounted spectacles, close-cut iron-grey hair,
high-crowned hat worn slightly at the back of his head--and there you
have the man." It certainly seems remarkable that Mr. Lloyd and others
who knew Shaw recollect him as a most worthy and kind-hearted gentleman,
but this perhaps is explained by certain facts concerning him and his
school that were published in the _Athenæum_, February 1894, together
with a commentary upon a reprint of the trial in which he was the

It is a curious fact that several Yorkshire schoolmasters actually
claimed to be the prototype of Squeers; indeed, a member of the
fraternity (probably Shaw himself) declared that he remembered being
waited on by two gentlemen, one of whom held him in conversation while
the other took his likeness; "and although" (says the author in his
preface to the story) "Mr. Squeers has but one eye, and he has two, and
the published sketch does not resemble him (whoever he may be) in any
other respect, still he and all his friends know at once for whom it is
meant, because the character is _so_ like him." I think there can be no
doubt that both Dickens and "Phiz," when delineating Squeers, reproduced
too closely the idiosyncrasies of one individual, and that the author's
description, as well as the artist's presentment, bore so obvious a
likeness to Shaw, that he became the scapegoat for others worse than
himself, and suffered accordingly.



_Facsimile_ of the First Study for the Etching by


The "Query" written beneath the Drawing is in the autograph of the
Artist. It was addressed to Dickens, and reads as follows:--"_Qy._
Whether 'twere better to have him standing thus, stiff as a poker, with
a kind of side glance at his daughter,--or sitting, as in the other?"
The Etching differs considerably from the Drawing.

_Lent by Mr. J. F. Dexter._


In some of the etchings may be discovered slight incongruities (as, for
example, in the first plate, where Ralph Nickleby's hat is too small for
his head), while in others there is a palpable touch of exaggeration. In
the illustration, "The Country Manager Rehearses a Combat," the artist
has omitted to introduce the figure of the landlord who ushered into the
managerial presence Nicholas and Smike, and the broad-swords should have
been basket-hilted weapons. In the etching, where Nicholas instructs
Smike in the art of acting, Nicholas wears the rapier on the wrong
side, this oversight doubtless resulting from the non-reversal of the
design upon the plate. The "Nickleby" illustrations are, as a whole,
very successful; in many instances the expressions are capitally
rendered, although it is to be regretted that the artist did but scant
justice to the physical attractions of Kate Nickleby and Madeline Bray.

There were sixty-three quarto plates etched for the thirty-nine
illustrations in the story, each plate carrying two designs; some of
these were etched three times, while in seven instances the quarto plate
was reproduced no less than four times. In none of these duplicated
plates will be found such marked variations in detail as may be noted in
the _replicas_ of the "Pickwick" designs, so that the collector need
only seek for well-printed impressions.[24]

    Footnote 24: The "Nickleby" plates were copied by J. Yeager
    for the first American edition of the story.

All the original drawings for "Nickleby," with one exception, are still
in existence; they were disposed of on July 16, 1880, in Robinson &
Fisher's auction-rooms, when they realised in the aggregate rather more
than a hundred pounds. The missing design is that depicting Nicholas in
his capacity as tutor in the Kenwigs family. These drawings are executed
in pencil and wash, some being especially valuable by reason of marginal
notes in the autograph of the novelist. At the top of the original
sketch for "A Sudden Recognition, Unexpected on Both Sides" (kindly lent
by Mr. M. H. Spielmann for reproduction), Dickens has pencilled a note
to the artist, a portion of which (that within the brackets) has been
cut away: "I don't think that Smike is frightened enough [or that
Squeers is] earnest enough, for my purpose,"--a criticism which was
apparently not productive of much alteration in the direction indicated,
unless effected in the sketch before the subject was etched.

The late Mr. F. W. Cosens, who possessed several preliminary studies of
the Kenwigs children, had in his collection a note from Dickens giving
minute instructions to "Phiz" respecting the design for the plate
entitled "Great Excitement of Miss Kenwigs at the Hairdresser's Shop."
The novelist desired his illustrator to depict "a hairdresser's shop at
night--not a dashing one, but a barber's. Morleena Kenwigs on a tall
chair, having her hair dressed by an under-bred attendant, with her hair
parted down the middle and frizzed up into curls at the sides. Another
customer, who is being shaved, has just turned his head in the direction
of Miss Kenwigs, and she and Newman Noggs (who has brought her there,
and has been whiling away the time with an old newspaper) recognise,
with manifestations of surprise, and Morleena with emotion, Mr.
Lillivick, the collector. Mr. Lillivick's bristly beard expresses great
neglect of his person, and he looks very grim and in the utmost

The original drawing for "Nicholas Starts for Yorkshire" presents
several important variations from the published plate, the positions of
the figures being considerably altered, the most remarkable differences
being that Ralph Nickleby and Squeers in the sketch are placed on the
side opposite the coach and more in the background, the coachman reading
the way-bill is transferred to the spot where Squeers now stands, while
there is another coachman looking over his shoulder, who is omitted in
the etching; the coachman with the whip (as seen in the plate) was not
introduced in the sketch. For the monthly parts "Phiz" designed a
pictorial wrapper; on either side of this wood-engraving is a corpulent
figure mounted on tall stilts, surmounted by an allegorical scene
typifying Justice, with cornucopia, &c., and below is seen the culprit
Squeers wading through a river, guided by imps carrying lanterns.

For the two volumes of the Library Edition of "Nicholas Nickleby"
(1858-59) "Phiz" prepared small designs, delicately tinted in
water-colours, which were engraved on steel as vignettes for the
title-pages; the subjects represented are "The Nickleby Family" and "The
Mad Gentleman and Mrs. Nickleby," the original drawings realising £14
each at Sotheby's in 1889.



     "MASTER HUMPHREY'S CLOCK"--A Quaint Advertisement--Woodcuts
     instead of Etchings--"Phiz's" Contributions--Instances of
     his Exaggerated Grotesqueness--Mr. Frederic Harrison's
     Comment--A Powerful Design--Illustrations in "The Old
     Curiosity Shop" Criticised--Ruskin's Attack upon the Designs
     in "Barnaby Rudge"--His Admiration of the Woodcut of
     "Barnaby and Grip"--"Phiz's" Frontispieces--His Letter to
     Dickens--An Amusing Epistle from Dickens to his Publisher--A
     "Clock Dinner"--Original Drawing of Master Humphrey and the
     Deaf Gentleman--Frontispiece for the First Cheap Edition of
     "Barnaby Rudge"--Vignettes for the Library Edition--New
     Designs for "Master Humphrey's Clock"--Portraits of Dolly
     Varden, Little Nell, and Barbara--Sale of Water-Colour
     Drawings--"MARTIN CHUZZLEWIT"--The Illustrations
     Characterised--How they were Prepared--Slight Errors by
     "Phiz"--The Original Drawings--Minute Instructions from
     Dickens to the Artist--A Humorous Rejoinder--Sale of the
     "Chuzzlewit" Designs--Vignettes for the Library
     Edition--"DOMBEY AND SON"--The Plates Etched in
     Duplicate--Introduction of the Oblong Form of Illustration--Method
     of Obtaining _Chiaroscuro_--Some Anomalies in the Etchings--Working
     under Difficulties--Dickens's Anxiety Respecting the
     Designs--Studies for Mr. Dombey--A Letter of Instructions--Hints
     to the Artist--Dickens Disappointed--The Etching of "Mrs.
     Pipchin and Paul"--"Doctor Blimber's Young Gentlemen"--A Remarkable
     Oversight--Explicit Directions from Dickens to "Phiz"--Original
     Drawings for "Dombey and Son"--Slight Variations from the
     Etchings--"Dombey" Sketches Presented to Dickens--A Portrait
     of Little Paul--Pictorial Wrapper--Extra Plates--Criticism by
     Dickens--Portraits of Alice and Florence Dombey--Frontispiece
     for the First Cheap Edition--Vignettes for the Library Edition.

[Sidenote: =Master Humphrey's Clock, 1840-41.=]

Charles Dickens's next work, entitled "Master Humphrey's Clock," which
comprises "The Old Curiosity Shop" and "Barnaby Rudge," was first issued
in weekly instalments, as well as the customary monthly parts, the new
venture being thus announced: "Now wound up and going, preparatory to
its striking on Saturday, the 28th March, Master Humphrey's Clock,
Maker's name--'Boz.' The Figures and Hands by George Cattermole, Esq.
and 'Phiz.'" A novel feature of this undertaking was the illustrations,
which were not etched as hitherto, but engraved on wood and dropped into
the text, the total number of designs being one hundred and ninety-four,
including three frontispieces and twenty-four initials. Of these "Phiz"
produced by far the greater proportion, he being responsible for no less
than a hundred and fifty-three, including two frontispieces and all the
initials; the subjects of many of the latter, by the way, have no
connection with the letterpress. Some of the drawings are unsigned,
while others have appended to them the artist's initials or monogram,
occasionally reversed. At this time "Phiz" was almost as anonymous as
"Boz," but when "Master Humphrey's Clock" ultimately appeared in volume
form, his identity was fully established on the title-page as "Hablôt
Browne." The result of a careful analysis of the illustrations discloses
the fact that "Phiz" produced sixty-one for "The Old Curiosity Shop" and
"Barnaby Rudge" respectively, and seven for the miscellaneous papers
relating to "The Clock," exclusive of the initials. The greater number
of figure-pieces fell to his pencil, while the architectural subjects
were entrusted to his coadjutor, George Cattermole.



_Facsimile_ of the Original Sketch for "Dombey and Son" by


A subsequent and more complete Drawing of this subject is included in
the Duchess of St. Albans' Collection.

_Lent by Mr. J. F. Dexter._


In many of the drawings (admirably engraved by S. Williams, Landells,
Gray, and Vasey) Browne hardly did himself justice, their exaggerated
grotesqueness tending to deprive these little pictorial compositions of
much of their artistic value. Observe, for example, the repulsive
features of Kit, his mother, and the child in the tenth chapter of "The
Old Curiosity Shop," and note how positively diabolical are his
representations of Sampson Brass and his sister, and of Dick Swiveller.
It is difficult to believe that the terrible-looking creature intended
for the Marchioness, in the fifty-seventh and sixty-fifth chapters,
would ever have developed into a "good-looking" girl, as she really did,
according to the text. It is probably such unpleasing illustrations as
these which induced Mr. Frederic Harrison in _The Forum_ to condemn,
with exceeding severity, the artist's propensity for caricature; "the
grins, the grimaces, the contortions, the dwarfs, the idiots, the
monstrosities of these wonderful sketches could not be found in human
beings constructed on any known anatomy." Other woodcuts are of
course excellent, especially those in which Mr. Pickwick and the Wellers
are resuscitated. One of the most striking, however, is the weird
water-scape showing the corpse of Quilp washed ashore--a vista of
riparian scenery which, for the sense of desolate breadth and loneliness
it suggests, it would be difficult to excel. An illustration deserving
special examination is the tailpiece for the chapter immediately
following the end of "The Old Curiosity Shop," where the artist has
depicted Master Humphrey in his arm-chair, surrounded by Lilliputian
figures, among which may be recognised some of the principal actors in
the story.

A careful comparison of the illustrations with the text of "The Old
Curiosity Shop" reveals certain slight inaccuracies on the part of the
artist. For example, in the twenty-seventh chapter we read that Quilp
leant upon his stick as he beckoned to the boy carrying his trunk,
whereas "Phiz" depicts him raising the stick. In the woodcut portraying
Kit and his party at Astley's Theatre, the umbrella should be held by
Barbara's mother, and not Kit's. Again, in a subsequent chapter, we are
told that Sampson Brass's hat was "grievously crushed," but "Phiz" has
represented it with the crown suspended by a single thread,--a striking
instance of his tendency to exaggeration. The careful reader will also
note (in the seventeenth chapter) that the stilt on the right leg of the
"young gentleman" in "Grinder's lot" is at least twelve inches shorter
than its fellow, and that Mrs. Jarley's horse (in the twenty-sixth
chapter) is considerably out of proportion with its surroundings; the
caravan, too, is incorrectly drawn, and Mrs. Jarley with the drum should
have been placed upon the platform of the van. The inherent humour of
"Phiz" was often _àpropos_, an amusing instance being discoverable in
the illustration of Miss Monflathers and her young ladies (in the
thirty-first chapter), where the inscription on the board above the wall
reads, "Take notice--Man traps."

Although the designs in "Barnaby Rudge" are not entirely exempt from
the charge of exaggeration, they are, on the whole, more pleasing. The
artist seems to have fairly revelled in the scenes depicting the
rioters, and, while failing in his conception of Sir John Chester, he
successfully realised the more picturesque figures of Barnaby and
Maypole Hugh, the latter being admirably limned. Professor Ruskin,
however, in his "Ariadne Florentina," denounces these woodcuts in
language more caustic even than that of Mr. Frederic Harrison: "Take
up," he says, "for an average specimen of modern illustrated works, the
volume of Dickens's 'Master Humphrey's Clock' containing 'Barnaby
Rudge.'... The cheap popular Art cannot draw for you beauty, sense, or
honesty; and for Dolly Varden, or the locksmith, you will look through
the vignettes in vain. But every species of distorted folly or vice ...
are pictured for your honourable pleasure on every page, with clumsy
caricature, struggling to render its dulness tolerable by insisting on
defect." The drawing of Barnaby and the Raven (the final illustration in
the second volume) is one of the few the author of this pungent
criticism can bring himself to admire. "The raven," he observes, "like
all Dickens's animals, is perfect; and I am the more angry with the rest
because I have every now and then to open the book to look for him."
Respecting these woodcuts, it may be pointed out that Dickens omitted to
mention which arm Joe Willet was deprived of "in the defence of the
Salwanners." Curiously enough, "Phiz" similarly fails to assist us in
deciding the point, as, in the illustrations depicting him after the
war, he is seen _minus_ the right arm in four instances, while in
another woodcut it is the left which has disappeared.

The frontispieces designed by Browne for the second and third volumes
are both elaborate and fanciful. In the first is seen an enormous
hour-glass containing a crowd composed of some of the minor characters
in the story, while surrounding it are representations of the more
prominent persons. It was originally intended that George Cattermole
should execute this drawing, but, being prevented by illness, it fell
into the hands of "Phiz," who thereupon wrote to the novelist:--

     "_Sunday Morning._

     "MY DEAR DICKENS,--Will you give me some notion of what sort
     of design you wish for the Frontispiece for second volume of
     _Clock_? Cattermole being put _hors de combat_--Chapman with
     a careworn face (if you can picture that) brings me the
     block at the eleventh hour and requires it finished by
     Wednesday. Now, as I have two others to complete in the
     meantime, something nice and _light_ would be best adapted
     to my _palette_, and prevent an excess of perspiration in
     the relays of wood-cutters. You shall have the others to
     criticise on Tuesday.--Yours very truly,


In the frontispiece to the third volume is portrayed an ornamental
clock, at the summit of which is seated Master Humphrey, while on either
side and at the base are introduced the presentments of Barnaby with his
raven and other individuals in the tale. "Phiz" was also responsible for
the elaborate design on the wrapper of the weekly numbers.

The following amusing epistle, having reference to the initial letter
drawn by "Phiz" for the sixty-fifth chapter, was addressed by Dickens to
a member of his publishing firm, Edward Chapman, the "precipice" here
mentioned being a humorous allusion to the latter's approaching

     "BROADSTAIRS, _Thursday, 16th September 1841_.

     "MY DEAR SIR,--Know for your utter confusion, and to your
     lasting shame and ignominy, that the initial letter HAS BEEN
     provided, that it was furnished to the artist at the same
     time as the subject--and that it is a


     "--which stands for
     --Deuced--Dark--Divorce--and Drop--all applicable to the Precipice
     on which you stand.

     "Farewell! If you did but know--and would pause, even at
     this late period--better an action for breach than--but we
     buy experience. Excuse my agitation. I scarcely know what I
     write. To see a fellow-creature--and one who has so long
     withstood--still if--will _nothing_ warn you?

     "In extreme excitement
       C. D.
     "My hand fails me.
       PUT IT OFF
     "P.P.P.S.--AND LEAVE ME

On the conclusion of the second volume of "Master Humphrey's Clock," a
dinner was given by Dickens to celebrate the event. Serjeant Talfourd
presided, and the guests included those engaged in the production of the
work. "Phiz," in accepting the invitation to be present, wrote as

     33 HOWLAND STREET [1841].

     "MY DEAR DICKENS,--I shall be most happy to remember not to
     forget the 10th April, and let me express a _dis_interested
     wish that, having completed and established one 'Shop' in an
     'extensive line of business,' you will go on increasing and
     multiplying suchlike establishments in number and prosperity
     till you become a Dick Whittington of a merchant, with
     pockets distended to most Brobdignag dimensions.--Believe
     me, yours very truly,




_Facsimile_ of the Original Drawing for "David Copperfield" by


In the published version the figure of Rosa Dartle (on the left) is
omitted, and David's hat is placed upon the table.

_Lent by Her Grace the Duchess of St. Albans._


Through the courtesy of Mr. J. F. Dexter, I am enabled to reproduce in
_facsimile_ one of the original designs for "Master Humphrey's Clock,"
depicting Master Humphrey and the Deaf Gentleman. This drawing, executed
in pencil, differs slightly from the engraving; underneath it Dickens
has written, "Master Humphrey ADMIRABLE. Could his stick (with a crooked
top) be near his chair? I misdoubt the deaf gentleman's pipe, and wish
he could have a better one."

To the first cheap edition of "Barnaby Rudge," 1849, "Phiz" contributed
the frontispiece,--a drawing on wood (engraved by W. T. Green)
representing Dolly Varden, with Hugh hiding in the bushes. In the
Library Edition (1858-59) the stories were published independently, each
in two volumes, with pretty vignettes on the title-pages, specially
designed by the same artist and engraved on steel. The original drawings
were delicately tinted in water-colours, the subjects being Little Nell
and her Grandfather, Dick Swiveller and the Marchioness, Dolly Varden
and Joe Willet, Barnaby and Hugh. In these engravings the female
characters are much more charmingly conceived than are those in the

In 1848, when the first cheap edition of the story appeared, Hablôt
Browne made four new designs as "Extra Illustrations" for "The Old
Curiosity Shop," viz., Little Nell and her Grandfather, the Marchioness,
Barbara, and the Death of Little Nell. They were beautifully engraved in
stipple, and issued as an independent publication by the artist and his
coadjutor, Robert Young, whose joint venture it was. In the following
year they produced a similar set of four plates illustrating "Barnaby
Rudge," viz., Emma Haredale, Dolly Varden, Mrs. Varden and Miggs, and
Hugh and Barnaby. The portraits of the various characters were engraved
by Edwards and Knight, under the superintendence of Browne and Young.
The original drawing of Dolly Varden, one of "Phiz's" happiest
conceptions, is in the possession of Her Grace the Duchess of St.
Albans, together with an unengraved study for Emma Haredale. There are
extant, in Mr. J. F. Dexter's collection, two other studies for the
Dolly Varden plate, neither of which has been reproduced; the same
gentleman also owns the drawings of Nell and Barbara, the latter being
slightly different from, and superior to, the engraving.

A complete series of original water-colour drawings by "Phiz" for "The
Old Curiosity Shop" and "Barnaby Rudge," including an unused design for
a tailpiece, were sold at Sotheby's in 1897, and realised £610. These
drawings were executed as a commission for Mr. F. W. Cosens.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =Martin Chuzzlewit, 1843-44.=]

Browne's versatile pencil was again actively employed in embellishing
the story begun by Dickens soon after his return from America in 1842,
and to this he contributed forty etchings. Here the figures are drawn on
a larger scale than usual, thus affording more scope for the delineation
of character.

The frontispiece is a most elaborate design, representing the principal
characters and incidents in the story, with Tom Pinch at the organ as a
central idea. In the illustration where Mark Tapley is seen starting
from his native village for London, "Phiz" exhibits his sense of the
picturesque in the old gables and dormers of the ancient tenements in
the background, while that depicting "Mr. Pecksniff on his Mission" is
an excellent verisimilitude of such a locality as Kingsgate Street of
fifty years since. But the etching in "Chuzzlewit" which may be
described as the artist's happiest effort as a comic creation is that
where Mrs. Gamp "propoges" a toast. Here he has admirably illustrated
the text,--the two midwives in friendly chat, surrounded by bandboxes
and other accessories, while behind are seen the immortal Sarah's rusty
gowns, which, depending from the bedposts, "had so adapted themselves by
long usage to her figure, that more than one impatient husband, coming
in precipitately at about the time of twilight, had been for an instant
stricken dumb by the supposed discovery that Mrs. Gamp had hanged

All the designs for "Martin Chuzzlewit" were etched on quarto plates,
two on each plate. Five of these plates were etched three times, these
including, besides the frontispiece and vignette title, the first six
illustrations in the book, and two which appeared in the fourteenth
number, viz., "Mr. Pinch Departs to Seek his Fortune," and "Mr. Nadgett
Breathes, as Usual, an Atmosphere of Mystery." A careful examination of
different copies of the first edition will disclose minute variations in
these particular illustrations, worthy of special mention being the
vignette title, where, in the earliest impressions, the £ mark is
incorrectly placed after the figures in the amount of reward on the

In the majority of the "Chuzzlewit" etchings there is a vigour and
precision of touch indicating the artist's riper experience. It must,
however, be admitted that a few of the plates are so feeble in execution
in comparison with the rest as to suggest that "Phiz's" drawings were
copied on the plate by a less expert etcher. An instance of this poverty
of execution will be found in the first design, depicting "The Meekness
of Mr. Pecksniff and his Charming Daughters," and the fact that this
plate is unsigned seems significant; in reply to my enquiry respecting
it, Mr. Robert Young assured me that "no one ever copied or etched
plates for Browne; he traced the subject on the steel himself, and
etched every line before it was bitten in. I know no reason for the
omission of his signature to any of his plates."

In a few instances the artist has not strictly followed the text. For
example, in the plate where Mr. Pecksniff calls upon Mrs. Gamp, the
pie-shop is placed next door, whereas it is clearly described as being
next door _but one_. In the etching of Mark Tapley "finding a jolly
subject for contemplation," instead of Mark's name being inscribed in
full upon the "Rowdy Journal" door, his initials only should appear, "in
letters nearly half a foot long, together with the day of the month in
smaller type;" the four horses harnessed to the coach in which Tom Pinch
departs to seek his fortune ("Phiz's" horses, by the way, are always
well drawn) are described as "greys," while in the plate only one is
thus represented. Such discrepancies, however, although interesting to
note, are unimportant. As usual, we find in the accessories (such as the
titles of books and pictures) sly touches of humour peculiarly _àpropos_
of the principal theme. "Phiz's" design for the wrapper of the monthly
parts is emblematical of the story; here "silver spoons" and "wooden
ladles," as embodied in the original title, play a conspicuous part.

The "Chuzzlewit" drawings, all of which have been preserved, are
executed in pencil, some having washes of neutral tint. They vary but
slightly from the etchings, the greatest differences being noted in the
first two designs, this doubtless arising from the difficulty
experienced by the artist in immediately seizing the author's meaning.
In one special instance Dickens favoured his illustrator with very
precise instructions. Respecting the American scenes, the artist desired
more details than usual, so he received from the novelist the following
letter (now in Mr. J. F. Dexter's collection), giving particulars for
the plate representing "The Thriving City of Eden, as it appeared in

"Martin and Mark are displayed as the tenants of a wretched log hut (for
a pattern whereof see a vignette brought by Chapman & Hall) in a
perfectly flat, swampy, wretched forest of stunted timber in every stage
of decay, with a filthy river running before the door, and some other
miserable log houses distributed among the trees, whereof the most
ruinous and tumble-down of all is labelled 'Bank and National Credit
Office.' Outside their door, as the custom is, is a rough sort of form
or dresser, on which are set forth their pot and kettle and so forth,
all of the commonest kind. On the outside of the house, at one side of
the door, is a written placard, 'Chuzzlewit and Co., Architects and
Surveyors,' and upon a stump of tree, like a butcher's block, before the
cabin, are Martin's instruments--a pair of rusty compasses, &c. On a
three-legged stool beside this block sits Martin in his shirt sleeves,
with long dishevelled hair, resting his head upon his hands--the
picture of hopeless misery--watching the river and sadly remembering
that it flows towards home. But Mr. Tapley, up to his knees in filth and
brushwood, and in the act of endeavouring to perform some
impossibilities with a hatchet, looks towards him with a face of
unimpaired good humour, and declares himself perfectly jolly. Mark, the
only redeeming feature. Everything else dull, miserable, squalid,
unhealthy, and utterly devoid of hope--diseased, starved, and abject.
The weather is intensely hot, and they are but partially clothed."

The artist, naturally bewildered by such elaborate directions, has
written underneath this note: "I can't get all this perspective in,
unless you will allow of a long subject--something less than a mile!"

For the plate, "Martin Chuzzlewit Suspects the Landlady," two drawings
were prepared, but the second was probably only to guide the biter-in of
the steel as to the effect of light and shade required; for it
occasionally happened that "Phiz" had not time to give verbal
instructions to his assistant, when he would send a rough indication of
what was needed in the matter of _chiaroscuro_. In the original drawing
representing "The Meekness of Mr. Pecksniff and his Charming Daughters,"
the figure of Tom Pinch differs from the plate, and shows signs of
having been quickly sketched in, as though the first idea was not to
introduce him at all; in a second delineation of the same subject this
figure is limned with greater care.

The original designs for "Chuzzlewit" were disposed of at Sotheby's in
1889 for £433, 13s., the beautifully-finished drawing of the
frontispiece realising £35, while that of "Mrs. Gamp 'Propoges' a
Toast," rightly considered as one of the artist's _chef-d'oeuvres_,
was purchased for £35, 10s.

To the Library Edition (1858-59) "Phiz" contributed a vignette for the
title-page of each of the two volumes of "Martin Chuzzlewit," which were
engraved on steel from the original water-colour drawings. The subject
of the first design is almost a repetition of the etching in the
original issue, and depicts the "Meekness of Mr. Pecksniff and his
Charming Daughters," the ladies being certainly more attractive in the
later conception. In the second vignette we see Mrs. Gamp and Betsy
Prig, at the moment when the latter, in her wrath, denied the existence
of the memorable Mrs. Harris.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =Dombey and Son, 1846-48.=]

Among the forty illustrations prepared by "Phiz" for "Dombey and Son"
will be found some of the artist's happiest efforts. By this time his
experience with the etching-needle enabled him to execute his designs
upon the steel plates with wonderful facility and dexterity, and
continual practice had made him almost perfect in this particular branch
of art. All these plates were etched in duplicate; the greater number
were drawn on quarto plates, having two subjects on each as usual, but
the frontispiece, the last four illustrations, and the duplicates of
three others were etched singly on steels of octavo size.[25]

    Footnote 25: An American edition (published in 1844) contains
    fourteen clever _replicas_ of the "Dombey" etchings.

The duplicates do not vary much; that in which an alteration is most
noticeable, although hardly perceptible, is "Abstraction and
Recognition," the bills on the wall near Alice in one plate being less
mutilated than in the other. There was such a large circulation of the
book in part form that the printing from the plates could not be
executed quickly enough, the etchings being rarely sent in until the
last minute; so that it became necessary to resort to lithographic
transfers until the duplicate plates could be etched. In "Dombey and
Son" the artist first introduced the oblong form of illustration, this
lending itself more appropriately to the subjects so treated, and in
succeeding novels we find a fair sprinkling of designs of this shape.
When nearing the end of the story he essayed, with considerable success,
a new method of obtaining _chiaroscuro_, and he afterwards adopted it
whenever striking effects were required. The only plate in "Dombey" so
treated is "On the Dark Road," on which, by means of a ruling-machine, a
tint had been placed before the subject was drawn, and, by a process of
biting-in, stopping-out, and burnishing, an effect resembling mezzotint
was obtained. The machine was kept in Mr. Young's studio at Furnival's
Inn, and could be manipulated by a boy, the operation of "ruling" being
a purely mechanical one; it was the subsequent treatment by acid and
burnisher, in reproducing the tones of the original drawing, that
required the knowledge of an expert.

A few anomalies may be discovered in the "Dombey" plates. In the various
representations of Captain Cuttle the artist has depicted him, in two
instances, with the hook upon the left arm instead of the right. When
comparing the three plates portraying Sol Gills's little back-parlour,
certain little discrepancies are apparent, such as the altered position
of the model of a brig, &c. In the plate entitled "The Wooden Midshipman
on the Look-out," Florence is delineated as a well-developed young
woman, whereas, according to the text, she was then but a mere child of
fourteen. In the same illustration the artist has drawn a pair of horses
(or rather their heads) which can have no possible connection with the
omnibus near by, although they are evidently intended to be associated
therewith. In the etching "Abstraction and Recognition," Alice and her
mother standing in the archway are much too tall; it is interesting to
note here the advertisement on the wall of Cruikshank's "Bottle," which
may be considered as denoting the popularity of that remarkable series
of pictures, then being issued. Two palpable errors are discoverable in
the illustration entitled "On the Dark Road," for not only does the
driver hold the reins in the wrong hand, but it will be seen that the
wheels of the rapidly-moving carriage are really represented as
stationary, while the "off" wheels are omitted altogether. In the last
plate but one, the figure of Florence is not sufficiently visionary, and
therefore fails to convey the author's meaning respecting the
conscience-stricken Dombey.

Hablôt Browne invariably laboured under some disadvantage when designing
his illustrations for Dickens; indeed, he was sometimes compelled to
draw his inspiration merely from the author's verbal explanation or
reading of a particular passage; so it is not surprising that we
discover an occasional discrepancy. In the case of "Dombey," he
experienced a difficulty of another kind, for during the writing of the
story Dickens was living at Lausanne in Switzerland, and the sketches
had to be sent there for his criticism and approval, which not only
caused delay, but gave the artist some trouble in understanding the
suggestions made by the author when returning the drawings.



_Facsimile_ of the Original Drawing for "Bleak House" by


In the Etching the figure of Jo is placed on the opposite side of the

_Lent by Her Grace the Duchess of St. Albans._


Several letters from Dickens to Forster at this time express solicitude
concerning these plates. Writing from Lausanne on the 18th of July 1846,
he said: "The prints for illustration, and the enormous care required,
make me excessively anxious." A nervous dread of caricature on the face
of his merchant-hero had led him to indicate by a living person the type
of city gentleman he would have had the artist select. "The man for
Dombey," he explained, "if Browne could see him, the class man to a T,
is Sir A----E----, of D----'s;" and this is all he meant by his
reiterated urgent request, "I do wish he could get a glimpse of A., for
he is the very Dombey." It seems, however, that the "glimpse of A." was
impracticable, so it was resolved to send, for selection by himself,
glimpses of other letters of the alphabet--actual heads as well as
fanciful ones--and the sheetful of sketches forwarded for this purpose
contains no less than twenty-nine typical Dombey portraits, comprising
full-length and half-length presentments, as well as studies of heads in
various poses, but with the same hard characteristic expression.[26]
Against four of them "Phiz" has placed little arrows, to indicate that
(in his opinion) they best accorded with the author's conception. The
Dombey actually etched was not, after all, an absolute transcript of
these tentative ideas, but seems to be a combination of several; and it
is curious to note that, in the various representations of the proud
city merchant as seen in the plates, "Phiz" did not keep religiously to
the same type. That Dickens considered the artist's presentment as
satisfactory is proved by his remark to Forster, "I think Mr. Dombey
admirable," this doubtless referring to the illustration entitled "Mr.
Dombey and the World." In a fragment of a letter preserved by Mr. J. F.
Dexter may be read a few instructions to the artist with reference to
the delineation of Mr. Dombey and his second wife: "It is a part of his
character that he should be just the same as of yore. And in the second
subject, I should like Edith Granger to possess the reader with a more
serious notion of her having a serious part to play in the story. I
really hardly know, however, what [part] beyond an expression of utter
indifference towards Mr. Dombey...."

    Footnote 26: In Mr. Andrew Lang's opinion, these sketches for
    Mr. Dombey look like "a collection of criminal butlers."

In the letter to Forster already quoted, the novelist sent (for
transmission to the artist) a few hints for the earlier designs: "Great
pains will be necessary with Miss Tox. The Toodle family should not be
too much caricatured, because of Polly. I should like Browne to think of
Susan Nipper, who will not be wanted in the first number. After the
second number, they will all be nine or ten years older, but this will
not involve much change in the characters, except in the children and
Miss Nipper." After the completion of the first two plates, Dickens
seems to have been in better heart about his illustrator, for, again
writing to Forster from Lausanne, he said: "Browne seems to be getting
on well. He will have a good subject in Paul's christening. Mr. Chick is
like D., if you'll mention that when you think of it." Then, a little
later: "Browne is certainly interesting himself and taking pains." He
seems, however, to have been greatly disappointed with the designs in
the second number, viz., "The Christening Party" (which he anticipated
would be a success) and "Polly Rescues the Charitable Grinder,"
declaring them to be so "dreadfully bad" (in the sense of not keeping
strictly to the text) that they made him "curl his legs up." This
failure on the part of the artist caused him to feel unusually anxious
in regard to a special illustration on which he had set much store,
intended for the number he then had in hand. Communicating with Forster
anent this, he said: "The best subject for Browne will be at Mrs.
Pipchin's; and if he liked to do a quiet odd thing, Paul, Mrs. Pipchin,
and the Cat, by the fire, would be very good for the story. I earnestly
hope he will think it worth a little extra care." On first seeing the
etching of this subject, he was sorely displeased, and could not refrain
from thus expressing himself to Forster: "I am really _distressed_ by
the illustration of Mrs. Pipchin and Paul. It is so frightfully and
wildly wide of the mark. Good Heaven! in the commonest and most literal
construction of the text it is all wrong. She is described as an old
lady, and Paul's 'miniature arm-chair' is mentioned more than once. He
ought to be sitting in a little arm-chair down in the corner of the
fireplace, staring up at her. I can't say what pain and vexation it is
to be so utterly misrepresented. I would cheerfully have given a hundred
pounds to have kept this illustration out of the book. He never could
have got that idea of Mrs. Pipchin if he had attended to the text.
Indeed, I think he does better without the text; for then the notion is
made easy to him in short description, and he can't help taking it in."
It is certainly strange that the sketch for this subject was not
submitted to Dickens for approval before it was etched. We are told by
Forster that the author felt the disappointment more keenly because "the
conception of the grim old boarding-house keeper had taken back his
thoughts to the miseries of his own child-life, and made her, as her
prototype in verity was, a part of the terrible reality." In justice to
the artist, it must be conceded that the etching of this subject seems
to be an excellent rendering of the description of the scene as conveyed
in the letterpress.

"Phiz" sometimes complained that Dickens did not send him more than a
few printed lines as a guide to the subject to be illustrated, and,
being kept in ignorance as to the context, he found it difficult to
delineate the characters as well as the novelist might wish.
Occasionally, as we have seen, he received quite a lengthy note when at
work upon the designs, these communications sometimes being partly
literal extracts from the text and partly condensation, such as the

"Paul (a year older) has left Mrs. Pipchin's and gone to Doctor
Blimber's establishment at Brighton. The Doctor only takes ten young
gentlemen. Doctor Blimber's establishment is a good hot-house for the
young mind, with a forcing apparatus always at work. Mental green peas
are produced there at Christmas, and intellectual asparagus all the year
round. Every description of Greek and Latin vegetable is got off the
driest twigs of boys under the frostiest circumstances. Mrs. Blimber is
fond of the boys not being like boys, and of their wearing collars and
neckerchiefs. They have all blown before their time. The eldest boy in
the school--young Toots by name, with a swollen nose and an exceedingly
large head--left off blowing suddenly one day, and people _do_ say that
the Doctor rather overdid it with him, and that when he began to have
whiskers he left off having brains. All the young gentlemen have great
weights on their minds. They are haunted by verbs, noun-substantives,
roots, and syntactic passages. Some abandoned hope half through the
Latin Grammar, and others curse Virgil in the bitterness of their souls.
Classical Literature in general is an immense collection of words to
them. It's all words and grammar, and don't mean anything else.

"Subject--These young gentlemen out walking, very dismally and formally
(observe it's a very expensive school), with the lettering, _Doctor
Blimber's young gentlemen as they appeared when enjoying themselves_. I
think Doctor Blimber, a little removed from the rest, should bring up
the rear, or lead the van, with Paul, who is much the youngest of the
party. I extract the description of the Doctor. [Here follows a
quotation from the eleventh chapter.]

"Paul as last described, but a twelvemonth older. No collar or
neckerchief for him, of course. I would make the next youngest boy about
three or four years older than he."

A remarkable oversight on the part of "Phiz" with reference to this
plate is immediately observable, for while Dickens explicitly states the
number of Dr. Blimber's pupils as ten, the artist has introduced no less
than seventeen young gentlemen. Concerning the illustration, "Major
Bagstock is Delighted to have that Opportunity," there is extant an
interesting letter (dated March 10, 1847) from Dickens to "Phiz"
(printed for the first time in Mr. D. C. Thomson's Memoir of H. K.
Browne), in which the novelist is very explicit respecting his

     "MY DEAR BROWNE-- ... The occasion of my coming home makes
     me very late with my number, which I have only begun this
     morning; otherwise you should have been fed sooner....The
     first subject I am now going to give is very important to
     the book. _I should like to see your sketch of it if

     "I should premise that I want to make the Major, who is the
     incarnation of selfishness and small revenge, a kind of
     comic Mephistophilean power in the book; and the No. begins
     with the departure of Mr. Dombey and the Major on that trip
     for change of air and scene which is prepared for in the
     last Number. They go to Leamington, where you and I were
     once. In the Library the Major introduces Mr. Dombey to a
     certain lady, whom, as I wish to foreshadow dimly, said
     Dombey may come to marry in due season. She is about thirty,
     not a day more--handsome, though haughty-looking--good
     figure, well dressed, showy, and desirable. Quite a lady in
     appearance, with something of a proud indifference about
     her, suggestive of a spark of the Devil within. Was married
     young. Husband dead. Goes about with an old mother, who
     rouges, and who lives upon the reputation of a diamond
     necklace and her family. Wants a husband. Flies at none but
     high game, and couldn't marry anybody not rich. Mother
     affects cordiality and heart, and is the essence of sordid
     calculation. Mother usually shoved about in a Bath chair by
     a page who has rather outgrown and outshoved his strength,
     and who butts at it behind like a ram, while his mistress
     steers herself languidly by a handle in front. Nothing the
     matter with her to prevent her walking, only was once when
     a Beauty sketched reclining in a Barouche, and having
     outlived the Beauty and the Barouche too, still holds to the
     attitude as becoming her uncommonly. Mother is in this
     machine in the sketch. Daughter has a parasol.

     "The Major presents them to Mr. Dombey, gloating within
     himself over what may come of it, and over the discomfiture
     of Miss Tox. Mr. Dombey (in deep mourning) bows solemnly.
     Daughter bends. The native in attendance bearing a
     camp-stool and the Major's greatcoat. Native evidently
     afraid of the Major and his thick cane. If you like it
     better, the scene may be in the street or in a green lane.
     But a great deal will come of it; and I want the Major to
     express that as much as possible in his apoplectic
     Mephistophilean observation of the scene, and in his share
     of it."

     The design was promptly executed and submitted to Dickens,
     who, in a letter to the artist dated five days later,
     expressed his approval thereof: "The sketch is admirable,"
     he wrote,--"the women _quite perfect_. I cannot tell you how
     much I like the younger one. There are one or two points,
     however, which I must ask you to alter. They are capital in
     themselves, and I speak solely for the story.

     "First--I grieve to write it--that native--who is so
     prodigiously good as he is--must be in European costume. He
     may wear earrings and look outlandish and be dark brown. In
     this fashion must be of Moses, Mosesy. I don't mean Old
     Testament Moses, but him of the Minories.

     "Secondly, if you _can_ make the Major older, and with a
     larger face--do.

     "That's all. Never mind the pump-room now, unless you have
     found the sketch, as we may have that another time. I shall
     'propoge' to you a trip to Leamington together. We might go
     one day and return the next.... Don't mind sending me the
     second sketch. It is so late."[27]

    Footnote 27: This letter was by chance preserved from a
    bonfire made by Browne of his old letters and unfinished
    drawings previous to a change of residence.

In Mr. J. F. Dexter's collection there is a pencil-sketch by "Phiz" for
this subject (evidently an earlier conception than that submitted to
Dickens), in which the incident is depicted as occurring at the seaside
(probably Brighton), while, curiously enough, the figure of Mr. Dombey
is omitted. Another interesting drawing, also owned by Mr. Dexter, is a
tentative sketch (in blue ink) for "The Dombey Family," under which the
artist has written the following query: "Whether 'twere better to have
him [Mr. Dombey] standing thus, stiff as a poker, with a kind of side
glance at his daughter--or sitting, as in the other?" In the etching we
see that Mr. Dombey is represented as seated, while Florence is
transferred to the other side of the picture.

Through the kind courtesy of Her Grace the Duchess of St. Albans, I have
been enabled to examine the original "working" drawings for "Dombey and
Son," all of these, with one exception (viz. "Polly Rescues the
Charitable Grinder," which has mysteriously disappeared), being in the
possession of her Grace. The majority of the designs were not reversed
when copied upon the steels, and this accounts for some of the
incongruities already referred to. In certain cases the drawings are
sketched with blue ink and the effects lightly washed in; others are in
pencil, or pencil and brushwork combined.



_Facsimile_ of an Original Drawing by


This Drawing, which was designed for the series of extra plates for
"Barnaby Rudge," has never been engraved. The published portrait of
Dolly is a reproduction of a subsequent Drawing.

_Lent by Mr. J. F. Dexter._


In comparing the drawings with the plates, certain unimportant
variations are discoverable; for example, in the drawing of "Paul's
Exercises," the candlestick is placed on the table, and more to the
right, instead of being raised on a pile of books; in "Major Bagstock is
Delighted to have that Opportunity," the figure of the "Native" is
differently posed, besides being almost erased, in consequence, perhaps,
of Dickens's criticism; in "Coming Home from Church," the ringers hold
two bells in either hand. On one of the drawings Dickens has placed his
initials, while in the corner of another, "Secret Intelligence," the
artist has written the words, "Better, eh?" whence we may infer that a
previous sketch had been submitted. It seems likely that "Phiz"
made two or three trial sketches for every etching in the book, as there
are still in existence other tentative designs for some of the subjects
above referred to.

Writing to the editor of the _Daily News_ (December 30, 1882), Dr. Edgar
A. Browne, the artist's son, says: "Dickens's delight in the ['Dombey']
illustrations as a whole was, as a matter of fact, very great, and was
expressed (doubtless with some characteristic exaggeration) so forcibly,
that my father gave him the original designs, which were acknowledged in
the following letter:--

     "'DEVONSHIRE TERRACE, _Thirteenth June_, 1848.

     "'MY DEAR BROWNE,--A thousand thanks for the Dombey
     sketches, which I shall preserve and transmit as heirlooms.

     "'This afternoon, on Thursday, I shall be near the
     whereabout of the boy in the flannel gown, and will pay him
     an affectionate visit. But I warn you now and beforehand
     (and this is final, you'll observe) that you are not agoing
     to back out of the pigmental finishing said boy; for if ever
     I had a boy of my own that boy is


     "and, as the demon says at the Surrey,

     "HA! HA! HA!!

     "at which you will imagine me going down a sulphurous trap,
     with the boy in my grasp--and you will please not to imagine
     him merely in my grasp, but to hand him over.

     "'For which this is your warrant and requirement.

     "(Signed) CHARLES DICKENS.

     "'Witness--WILLIAM + TOPPING,

     "His groom.'"

The allusion to "the boy in the flannel gown" has reference to a
portrait of Little Paul, painted by "Phiz" as a present to Dickens.
Miss Hogarth informs me, however, that she has no recollection of this
picture, nor of the "Dombey" sketches.

"Phiz," as usual, designed the pictorial wrapper for the monthly parts,
concerning which Dickens wrote: "I think the cover very good; perhaps
with a little too much in it, but that is an ungrateful objection." The
criticism was justified, however, for the design, though ingeniously
conceived, certainly errs on the side of over-elaboration.

The success attending the sale of the extra plates for "Master
Humphrey's Clock" encouraged a repetition of this form of independent
publication, and a similar series of portraits were produced of the
principal characters in "Dombey and Son." Four capital plates,
consisting of portraits of Little Paul, Florence, Edith, and Alice, were
designed by Browne, and engraved on steel (in stipple and line) by
Edwards and Knight, under the superintendence of the artist and Robert
Young, whose joint venture it was. The engravings were published with
Dickens's sanction concurrently with the story; the original impressions
are now very scarce, but the plates still exist in good condition, and
have recently been reprinted. Dickens was much pleased with these
delightful portraits, and in a hitherto unpublished letter to the artist
(dated January 5, 1847) he thus referred to the drawings: "I think Paul
_very good indeed_--a beautiful little composition altogether. The face
of Florence strikes me as being too old, particularly about the mouth.
Edith, not so handsome as in the little drawings, and something too long
and flat in the face. The better Alice of the two, decidedly that which
is opposite Edith." There are extant as many as six pencil-sketches for
the portrait of Alice, presenting slight variations in pose and
expression, and Mr. Dexter owns an interesting study (in pencil and red
chalk) of Florence Dombey, which has never been engraved.

Almost simultaneously with the production of the above portraits, "Phiz"
designed and etched eight additional plates containing full-length
presentments of Mr. Dombey and Carker, Mrs. Skewton, Old Sol and Captain
Cuttle, Miss Tox, Mrs. Pipchin, Major Bagstock, Miss Nipper, and Polly
Toodle. This undertaking was entirely a speculation of the artist, the
plates being also issued in sets by Chapman & Hall. Dr. Browne informs
me that the original drawings were unexpectedly discovered by him,
rolled up and dirty, and were afterwards included in the Memorial
Exhibition of his father's works at the Liverpool Art Club in 1883.

The first cheap edition of "Dombey and Son," 1858, includes a
frontispiece by "Phiz," representing the flight of Carker. The artist
also contributed to each of the two volumes of the Library Edition
(1858-59) specially-designed vignettes, engraved on steel, the subjects
being Mr. Dombey and the second Mrs. Dombey, and Paul with Florence at
the seaside.



     "DAVID COPPERFIELD"--The Designs prepared in
     Duplicate--"Phiz's" Portrait of Mr. Micawber--Peggotty's
     Hut--Trifling Errors in the Plates--Original
     Drawings--Designs for "I Make myself Known to my
     Aunt"--Variations in the Etchings--Frontispiece for the
     First Cheap Edition--Vignettes for the Library
     Edition--"BLEAK HOUSE"--Plates partly Duplicated--Some
     Curious Inaccuracies--Skimpole successfully
     Portrayed--"Phiz" takes Mental Notes--Original
     Drawings--Alterations in the Plates--The "Bleak House"
     Illustrations Criticised--Frontispiece for the First Cheap
     Edition--Vignettes for the Library Edition--"LITTLE
     DORRIT"--Illustrations Unsigned--"Machine-ruled Designs"--A
     Letter from Dickens respecting one of the Plates--Original
     Drawings--Pictorial Wrapper--"A TALE OF TWO CITIES"--A
     Letter from "Phiz" to his Son--Dickens Forestalled--An
     Unpublished Design--Last of Dickens's Stories Illustrated by
     "Phiz"--The Artist's Conjectures as to the Cause of the
     Severance--His Tender Regard for the Novelist--His
     Antecedents--Apprenticeship at Finden's--Exhibits at the
     Royal Academy--Inability to Draw from "the Life"--Some
     Letters to Dickens--"The Pic Nic Papers"--An Early
     Reminiscence of Dickens--"Phiz's" Remuneration--From
     Prosperity to Adversity--Serious Illness--A Broken-down Old
     Man--Paralysis--A Pathetic Grievance--Applies for a
     Government Pension--Recognition by the Royal
     Academy--Decline of Imagination and Power of
     Invention--Death of the Artist--Mr. J. G. Fennell's
     Tribute--"Phiz's" Shyness--An Extraordinary
     Commission--Water-colour _Replicas_ of the Dickens
     Illustrations--Vignettes for the Library Edition of
     "Sketches by Boz" and "Oliver Twist"--"Phiz's"
     Fellow-Apprentice, Coadjutor, and Friend--Etching the
     Plates--Mezzotint Effects--Furnival's Inn--A Note from
     "Phiz" to his Colleague--Mr. Robert Young's Autobiographical

[Sidenote: =David Copperfield, 1849-50.=]

In "David Copperfield," the most fascinating of Dickens's novels, it
cannot be said that "Phiz" quite rose to the occasion. Although some of
these plates he never excelled, the majority are marked by a certain
hardness and stiffness of treatment, and are conspicuously deficient in
that vigour and deftness of touch which characterise his previous

As in the case of "Dombey and Son," the whole of the designs were etched
in duplicate, the _replicas_ differing but slightly from the originals.
About half of the series were executed singly on octavo steels, instead
of in couples on the usual quarto plates. In one of the designs, viz.,
"The River," the artist has again resorted to the ruling-machine for
attaining the desired effect, but the result is poor and meagre. He has
succeeded admirably in his presentment of Micawber, respecting which
Dickens wrote to Forster: "Browne has sketched an uncommonly
characteristic and capital Mr. Micawber for the next number." The most
pleasing of all these etchings, however, are those in which the boy-hero
figures, such as those depicting him with the "friendly waiter" at the
bar of the public-house, and as, with battered hat and ragged raiment,
he "makes himself known to his aunt."

It has been asserted that "Phiz" at this period sometimes grew careless,
and that Dickens did not exercise that particular surveillance over the
artist's work which he customarily bestowed upon it in the early days.
For example, the novelist thus describes Peggotty's odd residence, an
old boat drawn up on land and fashioned into a house: "There was a
delightful door cut in the side, and it was roofed in, and there were
little windows in it." He never refers to it as an _inverted_ boat,
although it is so delineated by "Phiz,"--indeed, the inference is that
the vessel stood upon its keel, for elsewhere it is mentioned as being
left "high and dry," as though it were a boat that had been washed
ashore. If such was the novelist's conception, it seems strange and
unaccountable that he should have accepted without a protest the
artist's misrepresentation of Peggotty's home. Curiously enough, there
might have been seen within recent years, on the open Denes at Yarmouth,
an inverted boat similarly converted into a cosy residence, the
existence of which apparently gives actuality to "Phiz's" drawing.

In some of the etchings may be discovered a few trivial errors; for
instance, in the plate entitled "Somebody Turns Up," Mrs. Heep is
left-handed, an oversight which (as in previous cases) is doubtless the
result of the etching being in reverse of the original design, although
"Phiz" was generally careful to remember this when preparing his
sketches. Strange to relate, in the scene depicting divine service at
Blunderstone Church, he has omitted the officiating clergy! In "My First
Fall in Life," the horses (especially the leaders) are undoubtedly
disproportionate, and the same criticism applies to the figures in the
illustration depicting the unexpected arrival of David and his friend at
Peggotty's fireside. In the etching of "The River," the scene should
have been reversed, and from this point of view (the river-side at
Millbank) the dome of St. Paul's is not visible, although it is shown in
the picture. Another curious mistake is apparent in the interesting
plate entitled "Our Housekeeping;" here David is seen struggling with a
_loin_ of mutton, whereas in the text the joint is distinctly described
as a _boiled leg_ of mutton. It is amusing to note the appropriate
character of the pictures adorning the walls of some of "Phiz's"
interiors. In the etching of "The Friendly Waiter and I" he has thus
introduced the scene illustrating the familiar fable of the Fox and the
Stork; in "Changes at Home" we have the Return of the Prodigal Son and
the Finding of Moses in the bulrushes; and in the plate delineating
Steerforth and Miss Mowcher will be noticed over the fireplace a scene
from Gulliver's adventures in Brobdingnag, an allusion to the diminutive
proportions of the remarkable dwarf who was "so volatile."

Her Grace the Duchess of St. Albans possesses the complete series of
"working" drawings for "David Copperfield." Like the "Dombey" designs,
these highly-finished drawings are executed chiefly in pencil and the
effects washed in with indian-ink, while a few are in pencil only. Of
that well-known design, "I Make myself Known to my Aunt," there exist no
less than three tentative sketches; the first (on which the artist has
written "Or--so--so?") represents Miss Trotwood sitting "flat down on
the garden-path,"--a pose which, although accurate enough according to
the text, was rightly deemed inartistic, whereupon the artist prepared
another design, and submitted it to Dickens. In the second picture
(where "Phiz" has queried, "Or--so?"), the lady stands erect, but the
pathetic appearance of David is lost, and the composition of the
background proves less fortunate. In the etching "Phiz" combined the two
designs,--that is, he used the first drawing, but substituted the
standing figure of Miss Trotwood for the seated one. On the margin of
the second design the artist (in a humorous mood) has limned an
unmerciful caricature of the whole incident. The third tentative drawing
for this subject, believed to be the first sketch, was sold at Sotheby's
in 1887 for £6, 15s.; it is now in the collection of Mr. Thomas Wright,
of Paris.

With the sketch for "The Friendly Waiter and I" the novelist was
delighted. "Phiz" originally represented David as wearing a long jacket,
but this not being quite in accordance with Dickens's idea, he wrote
asking the artist to "put Davy in a little jacket instead of this coat,
without altering him in any other respect," which was accordingly done.

In the drawing for the plate entitled "My Magnificent Order at the
Public-house," the form of the two large spirit-vessels behind David are
more jug-shaped than in the etching. The "little white hat," by-the-way,
as here worn by David, is just such head-gear as Dickens himself
disported when a boy. In the drawing of David on the box-seat of the
coach, "My First Fall in Life," the western towers of Canterbury
Cathedral are indicated in the distance, but these are omitted in the
etching. In the scene, "Mr. Micawber Delivers some Valedictory Remarks,"
certain faint lines are observable near the principal figure, indicating
that he was originally delineated in a different attitude. The effective
sketch of "The Wanderer" portrays more of the woman's figure than is
visible in the plate. In the design entitled "Our Housekeeping," the
frame of a mirror or picture is introduced on the wall behind David, but
this was afterwards considered superfluous; and in the drawing of "The
Emigrants," Mr. Micawber grasps a telescope, which does not appear in
the plate. The drawing of "Mr. Peggotty's Dream Comes True" varies
considerably from the etching, for not only is David seen wearing a hat
(which in the etching is placed upon the table), but the artist has
included a fourth figure, that of Rosa Dartle, who, seated in the chair,
leans her head upon her arms above the table. The introduction of Miss
Dartle is, of course, incorrect, as she had left the room before Mr.
Peggotty entered; but the error was detected, and the necessary
alteration effected in the published design.

"Phiz's" pictorial wrapper for the monthly parts is replete with detail,
around the title in the centre being displayed various figures
apparently exemplifying the Seven Ages of Man, with Dame Fortune
crowning the whole.

The first cheap edition of "David Copperfield," 1858, contained a
frontispiece by "Phiz," engraved on wood by Swain, representing Little
Em'ly and David as children on Yarmouth Sands; to the Library Edition
(1858-59) the artist contributed two vignettes (engraved on steel), the
subject in the first volume being Little Em'ly and David by the sea, and
for the second, another version of the etching entitled "Mr. Peggotty's
Dream Comes True."

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =Bleak House, 1852-53.=]

In the forty illustrations for "Bleak House" the artist introduced a
greater variety of subjects, and resorted more frequently to the use of
the ruling-machine, no less than ten being so treated with considerable
success. "Phiz" etched one complete set of the plates and duplicates of
the machine-ruled designs, which were repeated probably because they
could not so readily withstand the wear-and-tear of the printing.

A very few of the "Bleak House" illustrations are signed. In some of
them the details do not entirely accord with the letterpress, a
noteworthy instance of this inaccuracy being found in the etching
entitled "Miss Jellaby," who is represented as dipping her forefinger in
the egg-cup, whereas we are told that it was her "inky middle finger." A
more important oversight in the same picture is the introduction of the
infant Jellaby in the bed, who was not in the room at all, as a careful
reading of the text readily discloses. In two instances, Turveydrop
_père_ is depicted without the false whiskers he customarily wore, and
in the illustration of "The Smallweed Family," the son is incorrectly
omitted. It is perhaps worth noting an odd mistake on the part of the
artist--in the etching entitled "Consecrated Ground" he has represented
the iron gates in a manner to lead one to suppose they could not be
opened; it is unfortunate, too, that, in this pathetic scene (in which,
by the way, the _chiaroscuro_ is curiously forced) he partly destroys
its sentiment by inappropriately introducing on the left the comical
shadow of a man in the act of drinking from a tankard. With reference to
one of the characters in "Bleak House" Dickens wrote to Forster: "Browne
has done Skimpole, and helped to make him singularly unlike the great
original." The "great original" was, of course, Leigh Hunt, a fact which
the novelist himself did not so successfully disguise, and subsequently
paid the penalty for his indiscretion.

"Phiz" invariably depended upon his imagination or memory for his scenes
and characters; as the artist himself expressed it, he would merely go
"to have a look at a thing," and then be able to prepare his picture
without further aid. For instance, before designing the weird
illustration of "The Lonely Figure" in "Bleak House," he visited a
lime-pit, in order to see what the big crushing-wheels were like that he
desired to introduce, and made a mental note of them without leaving the
seat of his trap.

Besides the original "working" drawings for "Dombey and Son" and "David
Copperfield," Her Grace the Duchess of St. Albans also possesses those
for "Bleak House." They vary considerably in treatment, some being
carefully rendered, while those reproduced with the mezzotint shading
are very broadly and vigorously executed by means of a soft lead-pencil,
the lights heightened with chinese-white. In comparing the drawings with
the etchings, slight variations may here and there be noted; for
example, in the design for "Mr. Guppy's Entertainment," Mr. Jobling was
first seen wearing his hat, but this was partly obliterated and the
contour of the head afterwards drawn in; in "Visitors at the Shooting
Gallery," the figure of Mr. George is slightly different in pose, while
the sword rests on his shoulder; in "Mr. Smallweed Breaks the Pipe of
Peace," Miss Smallweed stands a short distance from her father's chair,
holding his "long clay;" in the charming design representing "Lady
Dedlock in the Wood," we see Ada coming up _behind_ her ladyship, the
figure of Charley (differently posed) being transferred to the other
side of the picture. A more remarkable alteration, however, occurs in
the design "Mr. Chadband 'Improving' a Tough Subject." Chadband's
attitude is entirely changed from that in the etching, and Jo is placed
on the other side of the drawing, with his back to Guster, while a cat
reposes upon an ottoman near Mrs. Snagsby. In the drawing of "Attorney
and Client," the face of Mr. Vholes is of a type differing from the
published version, and his arms rest upon the desk; also, there is no
waste-paper basket, and the deed-box is nearer the table. Mr. J. F.
Dexter has another sketch for this illustration (presumably an earlier
one), in which Richard Carstone stands with his back to the table, with
his right hand pressed despondingly against his forehead. The original
drawings for the sombre scenes, although more effective than the etched
reproductions, are remarkably crude in treatment--a criticism which
applies more especially to those depicting, "The Lonely Figure" and "The
Night." The etchings of these subjects are technically superior to the
drawings, their quality, however, being principally owing to the results
obtained by means of the ruling-machine. The late Mr. James Payn once
expressed the belief that it was "Phiz's" selection of subjects such as
these which made him so acceptable an illustrator to Dickens.

In 1882, a writer in _The Academy_, who considered the illustrations in
"Bleak House" as being practically perfect, said of them: "Not only is
the comic side, the even fussily comic, such as 'The Young Man of the
Name of Guppy,' understood and rendered well, but the dignified beauty
of the old country-house architecture, or the architecture of the
chambers of our Inns-of-court, is conveyed in brief touches; and there
is apparent everywhere that element of terrible suggestiveness which
made not only the art of Hablôt Browne, but the art of Charles Dickens
himself, in this story of 'Bleak House,' recall the imaginative purpose
of the art of Méryon. What can be more impressive in connection with the
story--nay, even independently of the story--than the illustration of
Mr. Tulkinghorn's chambers in gloom; than the illustration of the
staircase of Dedlock's own house, with the placard of the reward for the
discovery of the murderer; than that of Tom All Alone's; the dark, foul
darkness of the burial-ground under scanty lamplight, and the special
spot where lay the man who 'wos wery good to me--he wos!'? And then
again, 'The Ghost's Walk,' and once more the burial-ground, with the
woman's body--Lady Dedlock's--now close against its gate. Of course it
would be possible to find fault with these things, but they have nothing
of the vice of tameness--they deliver their message effectually. It is
not their business to be faultless; it is their business to impress."

The design for the monthly wrapper is emblematical of the Court of
Chancery, the artist availing himself of this opportunity of indulging
in humorous pencillings reflecting upon the integrity of lawyers. "Phiz"
contributed the frontispiece to the first cheap edition, 1858,
representing Mr. Jarndyce and his friends in Bell Yard. He also designed
the usual vignettes for the two volumes in the Library Edition
(1858-59), which were engraved on steel; in the first is delineated Lady
Dedlock and Jo, and in the second we behold Lady Dedlock and Esther
Summerson in the wood, the latter composition much resembling the
original etching of the same incident.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =Little Dorrit, 1855-57.=]

Among the illustrations in "Little Dorrit" there are some as feeble in
execution as there are others remarkable for exceptionally vigorous
treatment; and it is worthy of note that, whereas in "Bleak House" the
artist began partly to relinquish the custom of appending his familiar
_nom de guerre_ to the plates, in "Little Dorrit" not a single design
bears his signature.

An examination of the "Dorrit" etchings discloses the fact that no less
than eight are toned by means of the ruling-machine, the result being
even more satisfactory than usual. The first of these "ruled" plates
represents the interior of a French prison, and the effect of deep
gloom, enhanced by a few bright rays of light darting through the barred
window, is remarkable for its Rembrandt-like _chiaroscuro_. Pleasantly
contrasting with this sombre subject there is the plate depicting "The
Ferry," a delightfully rural view, with trees and winding river, and
that entitled "Floating Away," where the moon, rising behind the trees,
imparts a romantic aspect to the scene. The old house in the last
illustration but one, "Damocles," indicates "Phiz's" power in expressing
the picturesqueness of ancient architecture, and his appreciation of the
effect of light as it falls upon quaintly-carved door and window. The
plate entitled "Mr. Flintwinch has a Mild Attack of Irritability" is
probably one of the most forcible etchings ever executed by "Phiz," and
it is difficult to conceive that the same master-hand was responsible
for the apparently inexperienced work to be found in an earlier
illustration, "Little Mother," the execution of which is as timid and
lifeless as the other is bold and expressive.

"Phiz" etched one complete set of the plates, and duplicated the tinted
subjects, the variations from the originals being slight and
unimportant. Of the forty illustrations, thirty-four are on octavo
plates containing single subjects, and three are quarto plates having
two subjects on each.




_Facsimile_ of an Original Drawing by


Designed for the series of extra plates for "Barnaby Rudge." This
Drawing differs from the published Engraving.

_Lent by Her Grace the Duchess of St. Albans._


A part of "Little Dorrit" was composed in France, and on July 2, 1856,
Dickens informed the artist that he was returning to Boulogne the next
day, and desired him to make the illustration of "The Pensioner
Entertainment" "as characteristic as ever you please, my little dear,
but quiet." This plate proved a decided success. When, early in 1857,
the novelist was again in London, "Phiz" forwarded for his inspection a
sketch for the etching entitled "An Unexpected After-dinner Speech,"
which, however, did not quite realise Dickens's idea; whereupon the
artist received a letter (printed for the first time in Mr.
Thomson's Memoir) suggesting certain improvements, afterwards duly
carried out. "In the dinner scene," he wrote, "it is highly important
that Mr. Dorrit should not be too comic. He is too comic now. He is
described in the text as 'shedding tears,' and what he imperatively
wants is an expression doing less violence in the reader's mind to what
is going to happen to him, and much more in accordance with that serious
end which is so close before him. Pray do not neglect this change."

Dickens seems to have been much pleased with the artist's original
drawings of "Flora's Tour of Inspection" and "Mr. Merdle a Borrower,"
which he characterised as "very good subjects--both." Of the latter he
said: "I can't distinctly make out the detail, but I take Sparkles to be
getting the tortoise-shell knife from the box. Am I right?"

Only a few of the drawings for "Little Dorrit" have been available for
my inspection. Two of these, viz., "Mr. Merdle a Borrower" and "Under
the Microscope" (now in Mr. J. F. Dexter's collection), are executed in
pencil and wash, the second design not being reversed in the etching. As
usual, the pictorial wrapper for the monthly parts was designed by
"Phiz." The central picture represents Little Dorrit emerging from the
gates of the Marshalsea; above is placed the despondent figure of
Britannia in a bath-chair, attended by figures emblematical of the
Circumlocution Office, while at the base of the design is seen a mixed
assemblage of people, including some of the more prominent characters in
the story.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =A Tale of Two Cities, 1859.=]

Although "A Tale of Two Cities" was written specially for the pages of
_All the Year Round_, it appeared concurrently in the familiar monthly
numbers, with illustrations by "Phiz." The artist, in writing to his son
Walter, said: "A rather curious thing happened with this book. Watts
Phillips, the dramatist, hit upon the very same identical plot: they had
evidently both of them been to the same source in Paris for their story.
Watts's play ['The Dead Heart'] came out with great success, with
stunning climax, at about the time of Dickens's sixth number. The public
saw that they were identically the same story, so Dickens shut up at the
ninth number, instead of going on to the eighteenth as usual." Whether
this explanation is correct or not, the fact remains that "A Tale of Two
Cities" was brought to a conclusion in the eighth number (not the ninth,
as stated by "Phiz"), being therefore less than half the usual length of
Dickens's serials.

As in the case of "Little Dorrit," the artist's signature does not
appear in any of the sixteen etchings contributed by "Phiz" to this
novel. It has been pointed out that the French personages in the
pictures are not characteristic of the period, there being but little
attempt at archaeological accuracy in the costumes. Only one set of the
illustrations was prepared, none being etched in duplicate; they were
executed on eight quarto steels, each bearing two designs. Of the
original drawings for "A Tale of Two Cities" I have seen only one (now
in Mr. J. F. Dexter's collection), and this was never etched. The sketch
in question, which is vigorously executed with pencil and brush, depicts
the incident of the stoppage at the Fountain, and constitutes an
excellent subject for illustration.

The artist's design for the monthly wrapper is composed of distinct
scenes separated by dividing lines. At the top of the page is St. Paul's
Cathedral as viewed from the Thames, and at the base the Cathedral of
Nôtre Dame is represented, while around are displayed some of the
prominent characters in the story.

"A Tale of Two Cities" is the last of the novels containing
illustrations by "Phiz," for, with the completion of the final plate in
that story, there came a severance of that fortuitous collaboration
between novelist and artist which had been maintained during a period of
twenty-three years. As there is no evidence of any actual rupture
between them, it is fair to surmise that a legitimate desire on the part
of Dickens for a new illustrator constituted the actual reason for that
severance. "Phiz" naturally felt aggrieved at "Dickens's strangely
silent manner of breaking the connection," and could only surmise the
reason; for, in an undated letter to Mr. Robert Young, written
presumably a short time before the publication of the succeeding story,
he said: "Marcus [Stone] is no doubt to do Dickens. _I_ have been a
'good boy,' I believe. The plates in hand are all in good time, so that
I do not know what's 'up,' any more than you. Dickens probably thinks a
new hand would give his old puppets a fresh look, or perhaps he does not
like my illustrating Trollope neck-and-neck with him--though, by Jingo,
he need fear no rivalry _there_! Confound all authors and publishers,
say I. There is no pleasing one or t'other. I wish I had never had
anything to do with the lot."

The amicable relationship that had subsisted between the author and his
principal illustrator was not strained by this event. As a matter of
fact, the artist ever entertained a tender regard and admiration for the
famous romancer with whom he had so long been associated, and we may
readily believe what a writer in the _Frankfurt Zeitung_ tells us when
he says: "Just after the death of Charles Dickens, 'Phiz' was
considerably affected by the mere mention of the name of that
illustrious novelist, which seemed to stir up in his breast feelings of
regret at losing such a friend."

       *       *       *       *       *

Hablôt Knight Browne, as designer of the plates for ten of the fourteen
principal novels by "Immortal Boz," is justly termed "the illustrator of
Dickens." His name and fame are similarly identified with the works of
Lever and Ainsworth, while, in addition to this, his familiar signature
("Fizz, Whizz, or something of that sort," as Tom Hood used to say, when
endeavouring to recall the artist's sign-manual) may be found appended
to innumerable etchings and woodcuts. He was born at Kennington, London,
in July 1815, being the ninth son of William Loder Browne, who is
somewhat indefinitely described as "a merchant." The artist's
forefathers were of French descent, the original name (according to
tradition) being Le Brun, a member of which family emigrated to England
after the Massacre of St Bartholomew in 1572. His ancestors lived in
London in the early part of the last century and adopted the essentially
English cognomen of Browne. With regard to the artist's baptismal names,
it is interesting to learn that the first (Hablôt) was the patronymic of
a Colonel (or Captain) who was engaged to marry a sister of "Phiz," but
was killed in a charge of Napoleon's Garde Impériale at Waterloo, while
the second (Knight) was received from Admiral Sir John Knight, an old
friend of the family; thus, in respect of names, was the artist
associated with both Army and Navy.

"Phiz" inherited a strong artistic faculty, and, when a boy, was
encouraged to cultivate his wonderful talent for drawing by his
brother-in-law, Mr. Elhanan Bicknell, the well-known Art patron, who
took so keen an interest in his welfare that he offered to defray all
expenses of a thorough art education. It was through Mr. Bicknell's
generosity that the youth was apprenticed to Finden, the engraver, who,
it appears, more than once complained that his _protégé_ persisted in
covering with comic figures the entire margins of the plates entrusted
to him, thus indicating the humorous bent of his mind. In after years he
took occasional lessons in painting, but he never distinguished himself
as a painter, although he occasionally exhibited at the Royal Academy
and other public galleries. The only regular training he ever had was at
Finden's; but the work he was required to perform there proved much too
irksome and monotonous for one who, like "Phiz," possessed ideas so
eminently original and fanciful. As in the case of his two famous
contemporaries, Cruikshank and Leech, "Phiz" could never accustom
himself to draw from the living model, which accounts, of course, for
his conventional treatment of the human figure; his representations of
moving crowds, as well as other scenes of life and character, being
drawn either from recollection or by the aid of a few slightly-pencilled

It is unfortunate for my present purpose that nearly all the
correspondence which passed between author and artist should have been
destroyed. I am enabled, however, to print one or two brief notes
indicating their friendly and familiar relationship. In 1841, "Phiz"
supplied some etchings to "The Pic Nic Papers," a collection of essays
edited by Dickens and produced for the benefit of Mrs. Macrone, the
widow of the well-known publisher, who had been left in impoverished
circumstances. In reply to an inquiry on the part of the novelist
respecting the illustrations, the artist wrote:--

     "MY DEAR DICKENS,--I have just got one boot on, intending to
     come round to you, but you have done me out of a capital
     excuse to myself for idling away this fine morning. I quite
     forgot to answer your note, and Mr. Macrone's book has not
     been very vividly present to my memory for some time past,
     for both of which offences I beg innumerable pardons. I
     think by the beginning of next [week] or the middle
     (_certain_) I shall have done the plates, but on the scraps
     of copy that I have I can see but _one good_ subject, so if
     you know of another, pray send it me. I should like
     'Malcolm' again, if you can spare him.--Yours very truly,

     "Very short of paper.


The following terse epistle is undated, which is characteristic of
"Phiz's" letters:--

     "MY DEAR DICKENS,--I am sorry I cannot have a touch at
     battledore with you to-day, being already booked for this
     evening, but I will give you a call to-morrow after church,
     and take my chance of finding you at home.--Yours very


On March 15, 1847, when forwarding to the artist some written
instructions respecting a "Dombey" illustration, the novelist made an
interesting allusion to an early incident in his own life. "I wish you
_had_ been at poor Hall's[28] funeral, and I am sure they would have
been glad.... He lies in Highgate Cemetery, which is beautiful....Is it
not a curious coincidence, remembering our connection afterwards, that I
bought the magazine [_The Monthly Magazine_, Dec. 1833] in which the
first thing I ever wrote was published ["A Dinner at Poplar Walk"] from
poor Hall's hands? I have been thinking all day of that, and of that
time when the Queen went into the City, and we drank claret (it was in
their [Chapman & Hall's] earlier days) in the counting-house. You

    Footnote 28: Partner in the firm of Chapman & Hall.

"Phiz" received fifteen guineas each for his early plates, but sometimes
agreed to accept smaller fees; he estimated that it took him ten days to
prepare and etch four designs. Being a bad business man, he never raised
his prices, the consequence being that his income was not what it should
have been for one who so long held a unique position as an illustrator
of popular books. During the first ten or twelve years of his
professional life he was comparatively prosperous, but when etching as a
means of illustrating went out of favour, and he became somewhat
indifferent concerning this method of work, his income suffered
considerably. The artist did not actually experience financial
difficulties, however, until he was seized with a serious illness in
1867, said to have been partly caused by his having slept in a draught
at a seaside house. After five months of great suffering he again
essayed to use his pencil, but it soon became obvious to his friends
that his health was completely shattered, and that, in less than six
months, he had become a broken-down old man. The worst trouble of all
was a partial paralysis of the right arm and leg, which he persisted in
calling "rheumatism," and in consequence of which his hand lost its
cunning. Then it was that the demand for his work practically ceased. "I
don't know where to turn or what to do," he wrote in 1879. "I have at
last come to a full stop, and don't see my way just yet to get on again.
My occupation seems gone, extinct; I suppose I am thought to be used up,
and I have been long enough before the public. I have not had a single
thing to do this year, nor for some months previous in the past year."

In 1878, at the suggestion of his friend Mr. Luke Fildes, R.A., "Phiz"
applied to Government for a pension. The petition was prepared by Mr.
Robert Young, but the result was unfavourable. Happily he received
unexpected assistance from another quarter, in the shape of a
well-deserved annuity from the Royal Academy, awarded in recognition of
his distinguished services to Art. Ever hopeful of being restored to
health, he began on his recovery to again use his pencil, but the
crippled condition of his right hand, together with the rapid decline of
his fanciful imagination and power of invention, made it impossible for
him to produce anything worthy of his past reputation. At length his
affliction became so pronounced that all hope of recovery was abandoned,
and on the 8th of July 1882 the famous "Phiz" breathed his last, in his
sixty-seventh year. He spent the end of his busy life in the quiet
seclusion of Hove, and his last resting-place is on the summit of a hill
on the northern side of the extra-mural cemetery at Brighton.

"Phiz's" many excellent qualities far outweighed any defects in his
character. A life-long friend of the artist, Mr. John Greville Fennell,
writes thus to me: "No man knew more of Hablôt Browne than I did, for
though he was very reticent to most, he never, I believe, concealed
anything from me. We used to wander together in the country for two or
three weeks or more at a time, and a man more full of fun, when he had
thrown off the 'harness,' I have not known in my large acquaintance."
His naturally modest disposition eventually developed into a remarkable
shyness, and this, when coupled with a dislike of publicity, was often
misconstrued as pride. Even Dickens had considerable difficulty in
persuading him to meet a few friends and spend a pleasant evening. When
he did accept such invitations, he invariably tried to seclude himself
in a corner of the room or behind a curtain. In former years he was
occasionally prevailed upon to attend certain dinners given by Dickens
to celebrate the completion of his stories; and the novelist sometimes
succeeded in inducing him to accept invitations to join him for a brief
holiday by the sea, as we learn from a communication addressed to
Forster, and dated from Bonchurch during the "Copperfield" days, in
which Dickens said: "Browne is coming down when he has done his month's
work." Eventually, all desire for social intercourse ceased, "Phiz"
preferring to lead the life of a recluse in his country home.

A short time prior to his severe illness in 1867, Hablôt Browne received
an extraordinary commission from Mr. F. W. Cosens, one of his most
liberal patrons, who solicited the artist to make coloured _replicas_ of
the entire series of his published designs for the works of the great
novelist. In a letter to me on this subject in 1882, Mr. Cosens said: "I
remember to have had only two or three interviews with him, and, as a
stranger, found him shy and nervous. I desired to secure any sketches he
might have of the illustrations to Dickens, but understood him to say he
had none, as he drew them on the blocks [plates]. He evidently did not
like the drudgery of reproduction, and named such terms as he thought
would deter me; but finding the honorarium was of great importance to
him, the bargain was struck. The work extended over some years, and the
later productions evince haste and inferiority. The work can hardly be
called water-colour drawing, as it is simply sketching, slightly
heightened by colour-washing." Strange to say, "Phiz" did not possess
copies of Dickens's novels, so he borrowed Mr. Cosen's set, and from
these he executed the tinted _replicas_. At the sale of Mr. Cosen's
library at Sotheby's in 1890, this interesting collection, numbering 405
drawings, was disposed of for the aggregate sum of £671.

It should be mentioned in conclusion, that, besides the vignettes
already described as having been prepared by "Phiz" for the Library
Edition (1858-59), he also designed for that edition the following
subjects, which were executed in water-colours and, like the rest,
engraved on steel:--Mr. Trott and the "Boots," illustrating "The Great
Winglebury Duel" in "Sketches by Boz;" Mr. Bumble and Oliver, for
"Oliver Twist;" Scrooge and Marley, for the series of Christmas Books;
and a Vineyard Scene, which appropriately decorates the title-page of
"Pictures from Italy."

       *       *       *       *       *

Although, as already stated, Hablôt Browne was quite capable of
biting-in his own designs upon the steel plates, he had not sufficient
time to devote to this part of his work. From the "Pickwick" days onward
the artist was fortunate in securing the services of his
fellow-apprentice in Finden's studio, Mr. Robert Young, who was
afterwards his partner in many artistic ventures, and always his most
intimate friend and admirer. When at Finden's, Mr. Young acquired the
art of biting-in, a process which, although to some extent a mechanical
one, requires a considerable amount of artistic knowledge and
manipulative skill, for there is nothing to guide the etcher as to the
required effect, except in some cases a rough indication on paper. It
was Mr. Young's duty, after each plate was bitten-in, to go over it with
a graver and join any lines which in the etching had become broken or
rotten. For biting-in and finishing the two subjects on one plate he
received from Chapman & Hall (with whom he had a separate account) the
sum of three guineas. Browne's ruling-machine for producing the
mezzotint effects was kept in his colleague's room at Furnival's Inn,
where, more than half-a-century ago, he and the artist took chambers for
business purposes and to be near the publishers. These quarters, which
were situated in the south-west corner of the Inn, have been lately
demolished, together with the chambers at No. 15, rendered famous by the
fact that the earlier portion of "Pickwick" was there written.

Mr. Young acted as Browne's assistant in the manner described during the
greater part of the years of "Phiz's" popularity, and his co-operation
extended not only to the Dickens illustrations, but to the
thousand-and-one designs that embellished the works of other writers.
The following brief note (quoted from Mr. Thomson's Memoir) is a
specimen of the many communications which constantly passed between the
artist and his coadjutor:--

     [_Circa 1845._]

     "MY DEAR 'CO,'--Pray help me in an emergency. Put a bottle
     of aquafortis in your pockets, wax and all other useful
     adjuncts, and come to me to-morrow about one or two o'clock,
     and bite in an etching for me, ferociously and
     expeditiously. Can you?--will you?--oblige, Yours sincerely,

     "H. K. BROWNE."

       *       *       *       *       *

Mr. Robert Young, who is now in his eighty-second year, has recently
favoured me with a few facts concerning himself, which are not devoid of
interest in the present record. Writing from Norham-upon-Tweed, he says:
"I was born in Dalkeith in 1816, educated in France, and, on leaving
school, was apprenticed to Finden, the engraver, where my friendship
with 'Phiz' commenced, which closed with his death. Some years ago I was
presented with a clerkship in the Admiralty, and retired on a pension in
1878, which enables me to pass my last days in this humdrum village. I
am, as you see, very old, have many infirmities, and cannot always
remember past events."




From an Unpublished Photograph by

_Lent by the Artist's Daughter, Mrs. Edward Franks._


     First Acquaintance with Dickens--Declines Offer of
     Knighthood--Favourite Subjects for Pictures--"MASTER
     HUMPHREY'S CLOCK"--A Letter from Dickens respecting the
     Illustrations--Cattermole's Designs Copied on Wood by "Phiz"
     and Samuel Williams--Some Dickens Correspondence--Minute
     Directions to the Artist--Design for Frontispiece--Useful
     Hints and Suggestions--The "Maypole" Inn--"Grip," the
     Raven--Subjects for "Barnaby Rudge"--An Unpublished Letter
     from Cattermole to Dickens--Closing Chapters of the
     Story--The Novelist Approves of the
     Illustrations--Frontispiece for the First Cheap Edition of
     "The Old Curiosity Shop"--Water-colour Drawings of "Little
     Nell's Home" and "Little Nell's Grave"--Dickens's Gratitude
     to Cattermole--Death of the Artist--His Vivacity and

Born at Dickleburgh, Norfolk, in the year 1800, George Cattermole was a
dozen years the senior of Charles Dickens. His acquaintance with the
novelist began in 1838, and when, in the following year, he married Miss
Elderton, a distant connection of the author of "Pickwick," the
friendship subsisting between the two men ripened into sincere
affection. George Cattermole had been elected a member of the Society of
Painters in Water-Colours as early as 1833, which indicates that his
reputation was already well established, and in 1839 he had achieved
such distinction in Art that he received the offer of knighthood,--an
honour he modestly declined. The subjects he loved to portray were
scenes from mediæval history, fiction, or ballad literature, and he
revelled in depicting incidents of bygone times, with their manners and
customs, their architecture and costumes, in the representation of which
he has been considered the chief exponent. It was this antiquarian
feeling, as well as his powerful imagination and vivid fancy, which
excited the admiration of John Ruskin, whose favourable criticisms of
the artist's early productions proved of infinite service.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =Master Humphrey's Clock, 1840-41.=]

George Cattermole had already enjoyed considerable experience as an
illustrator of books, and had made drawings of buildings and scenery
described in Scott's novels, when, in 1840, Dickens invited him to
collaborate with D. Maclise, R.A., and Hablôt K. Browne ("Phiz") in
designing the woodcuts for "Master Humphrey's Clock." The earliest
intimation received by the artist respecting the projected publication
was contained in the following letter, dated January 13, 1840:--

     "MY DEAR CATTERMOLE,--I am going to propound a mightily
     grave matter to you. My new periodical work appears--or I
     should rather say the first number does--on Saturday, the
     28th of March.... The title is 'Master Humphrey's Clock.'
     Now, among other improvements, I have turned my attention to
     the illustrations, meaning to have woodcuts dropped into the
     text, and no separate plates. I want to know whether you
     would object to make me a little sketch for a woodcut--in
     indian-ink would be quite sufficient--about the size of the
     enclosed scrap; the subject, an old quaint room with antique
     Elizabethan furniture, and in the chimney-corner an
     extraordinary old clock--the clock belonging to Master
     Humphrey, in fact, and no figures. This I should drop into
     the text at the head of my opening page.

     "I want to know, besides--as Chapman & Hall are my partners
     in the matter, there need be no delicacy about my asking or
     your answering the question--what would be your charge for
     such a thing, and whether (if the work answers our
     expectations) you would like to repeat the joke at
     intervals, and if so, on what terms? I should tell you that
     I intend to ask Maclise to join me likewise, and that the
     copying, the drawing on wood, and the cutting will be done
     in first-rate style.... I want to talk the matter over with
     you, and wish you would fix your own time and
     place....--Faithfully yours


We gather from this letter that Cattermole was then unaccustomed to
drawing upon the wood block, and therefore executed his designs upon
paper, to be afterwards copied upon wood by a practical hand. In the
next communication, dated a few days later, it will be seen that the
artist agreed to Dickens's proposals (preferring, however, to select his
own subjects), and that "Phiz's" pencil was made available for copying
purposes; the drawing here referred to being that of the "old quaint
room" which forms the heading of the first chapter of "Master Humphrey's
Clock." The novelist wrote:--

"I think the drawing most famous, and so do the publishers, to whom I
sent it to-day. If Browne should suggest anything for the future which
may enable him to do you justice in copying (on which point he is very
anxious), I will communicate with you. It has occurred to me that
perhaps you will like to see his copy on the block before it is cut, and
I have therefore told Chapman & Hall to forward it to you.

"In future, I will take care that you have the number to choose your
subject from. I ought to have done so, perhaps, in this case; but I was
very anxious that you should do the room...."

The artistic skill of the eminent draughtsman and engraver, Samuel
Williams, was at first similarly requisitioned for copying purposes, as
proved by the signature appended to the illustration of Little Nell's
room in the initial chapter of "The Old Curiosity Shop," the original
drawing of which was undoubtedly supplied by Cattermole, who, before
very long, was enabled to dispense with these professional services.

Judging from the amount of correspondence still extant, Dickens was
constantly in communication with Cattermole respecting the illustrations
for "Master Humphrey's Clock." In a letter dated March 9, 1840, he

"I have been induced, on looking over the works of the 'Clock,' to make
a slight alteration in their disposal, by virtue of which the story
about 'John Podgers' will stand over for some little time, and that
short tale will occupy its place which you have already by you, and
which treats of the assassination of a young gentleman under
circumstances of peculiar aggravation.[29] I shall be greatly obliged to
you if you will turn your attention to this last morsel as the feature
of No. 3, and still more if you can stretch a point with regard to time
(which is of the last importance just now), and make a subject out of
it, rather than find one in it. I would neither have made this
alteration nor have troubled you about it, but for weighty and cogent
reasons which I feel very strongly, and into the composition of which
caprice or fastidiousness has no part....

    Footnote 29: "Mr. Pickwick's Tale," in the first chapter.

"I cannot tell you how admirably I think Master Humphrey's room comes
out, or what glowing accounts I hear of the second design you have
done.[30] I had not the faintest anticipation of anything so good,
taking into account the material and the despatch."

    Footnote 30: See headpiece to "First Night of the Giant

The text of "Master Humphrey's Clock" afforded the artist many congenial
themes for his pencil. The story of Little Nell evidently fascinated
him, and the various subjects selected for illustration were lovingly
dealt with. An interval of several months elapsed before the following
instructions were received by him respecting future designs:--

"I sent the MS. of the enclosed proof, marked 2, up to Chapman & Hall
from Devonshire, mentioning a subject of an old gateway,[31] which I had
put in expressly with a view to your illustrious pencil. By a mistake,
however, it went to Browne instead.

    Footnote 31: See illustration in "The Old Curiosity Shop,"
    chap, xxvii.



_Facsimile_ of the Original Sketch for "The Old Curiosity Shop" by


_Lent by Mrs. Edward Franks._


"The subject to which I wish to call your attention is in an unwritten
number to follow this one, but it is a mere echo of what you will find
at the conclusion of this proof marked 2. I want the cart, gaily
decorated, going through the street of the old town with the wax brigand
displayed to fierce advantage, and the child seated in it also
dispersing bills. As many flags and inscriptions about Jarley's Wax
Work fluttering from the cart as you please. You know the wax brigands,
and how they contemplate small oval miniatures? That's the figure I
want. I send you the scrap of MS. which contains the subject.

"Will you, when you have done this, send it with all speed to Chapman &
Hall, as we are mortally pressed for time...."

For some reason, the drawing of Mrs. Jarley's cart was not executed by
Cattermole; perhaps he was otherwise occupied at the moment, so that the
work fell to Browne, whose initials are appended. Concerning the
frontispiece the novelist offered some valuable suggestions, of which
the artist readily availed himself:--

"Will you turn your attention to a frontispiece for our first volume, to
come upon the left-hand side of the book as you open it, and to face a
plain printed title? My idea is, some scene from 'The Curiosity Shop,'
in a pretty border, or scroll-work, or architectural device; it matters
not what, so that it be pretty. The scene even might be a fanciful
thing, partaking of the character of the story, but not reproducing any
particular passage in it, if you thought that better for the effect.

"I ask you to think of this, because, although the volume is not
published until the end of September, there is no time to lose. We wish
to have it engraved with great care and worked very skilfully; and this
cannot be done unless we get it on the stocks soon. They will give you
every opportunity of correction, alteration, revision, and all other
-ations and -isions connected with the fine arts."

In this design will be found Cattermole's only representations of Mr.
Pickwick and the two Wellers. In the following letter (dated December 21
[1840]), some hints were given as to the treatment of one of the most
charming illustrations in the series, viz., the picturesque
parsonage-house which was the temporary home of Little Nell and her
Grandfather. The lanthorn here referred to is not only omitted from the
drawing, but we fail to find it mentioned in the text:--

"Kit, the single gentleman, and Mr. Garland go down to the place where
the child is, and arrive there at night. There has been a fall of snow.
Kit, leaving them behind, runs to the old house, and, with a lanthorn in
one hand and the bird in its cage in the other, stops for a moment at a
little distance with a natural hesitation before he goes up to make his
presence known. In a window--supposed to be that of the child's little
room--a light is burning, and in that room the child (unknown, of
course, to her visitors, who are full of hope) lies dead.

"If you have any difficulty about Kit, never mind about putting him

The next letter contained useful suggestions for the delineation of the
most pathetic scenes in "The Old Curiosity Shop."

(1.) The child lying dead in the little sleeping-room, which is behind
the open screen. It is winter-time, so there are no flowers; but upon
her breast and pillow, and about her bed, there may be strips of holly
and berries, and such free green things. Window overgrown with ivy. The
little boy who had that talk with her about angels may be by the
bedside, if you like it so; but I think it will be quieter and more
peaceful if she is quite alone. I want it to express the most beautiful
repose and tranquillity, and to have something of a happy look, if death

(2.) The child has been buried inside the church, and the old man, who
cannot be made to understand that she is dead, repairs to the grave and
sits there all day long, waiting for her arrival, to begin another
journey. His staff and knapsack, her little bonnet and basket, &c., lie
beside him. 'She'll come to-morrow,' he says when it gets dark, and goes
sorrowfully home. I think an hour-glass running out would help the
notion; perhaps her little things upon his knee or in his hand.

"I am breaking my heart over this story, and cannot bear to finish it."




_Facsimile_ of the Original Drawings for "The Old Curiosity Shop" by


_Lent by Mr. S. J. Davey and Mrs. Edward Franks._



In the first of these two delightful drawings the artist rightly omitted
the figure of the boy, and in order to emphasise the sense of
repose in that humble death-chamber, he introduced a bird, which is seen
perched upon the window-ledge, while the hour-glass (suggested for the
second picture) seemed to him more appropriate here. Cattermole made two
or three sketches of No. 1 before he quite satisfied the author, who had
asked him to carry out certain alterations, these resulting in such a
marked improvement that Dickens wrote: "I cannot tell you how much
obliged I am to you for altering the child, or how much I hope that my
wish in that respect didn't go greatly against the grain."[32] "Will you
do me," he asks, in the same letter, "a little tailpiece for the
'Curiosity' story?--only one figure if you like--giving some notion of
the etherealised spirit of the child; something like those little
figures in the frontispiece." This little allegory formed the closing

    Footnote 32: Macready, upon whom the death of Little Nell had
    a painful effect, was much impressed by this illustration, as
    an entry in his diary testifies: "Found at home ... an onward
    number of 'Master Humphrey's Clock.' I saw one print in it of
    the dear dead child that gave a dead chill through my blood.
    I dread to read it, but must get it over."

"Barnaby Rudge" immediately followed "The Old Curiosity Shop," under the
collective title of "Master Humphrey's Clock." For the first chapter of
this stirring romance Cattermole provided a charming illustration,
depicting the old "Maypole" Inn, which, however, was not intended to
portray the "delicious old inn" opposite Chigwell churchyard, referred
to by Dickens in a letter to Forster at this time, it being an entirely
fanciful design. When the novelist saw the drawing on wood of this
subject he was delighted. "Words cannot say how good it is," he wrote to
the artist. "I can't bear the thought of its being cut, and should like
to frame and glaze it in _statu quo_ for ever and ever." On January 28,
1841, he queried:--

"I want to know whether you feel ravens in general and would fancy
Barnaby's raven in particular? Barnaby being an idiot, my notion is to
have him always in company with a pet raven, who is immeasurably more
knowing than himself. To this end I have been studying my bird, and
think I could make a very queer character of him. Should you like the
subject when this raven makes his first appearance?"

Two days later, he again pressed the question:--

"I must know what you think about the raven, my buck; I otherwise am in
this fix. I have given Browne no subject for this number, and time is
flying. If you would like to have the raven's first appearance, and
don't object to having both subjects, so be it. I shall be delighted. If
otherwise, I must feed that hero forthwith."

But Cattermole apparently declined the privilege of introducing to the
world a presentment of the immortal "Grip,"--an honour which therefore
fell to "Phiz's" pencil. On January 30, 1841, Dickens despatched to the
artist some printed slips describing Gabriel Varden's house, "which I
think [he said] will make a good subject, and one you will like. If you
put the ''prentice' in it, show nothing more than his paper cap, because
he will be an important character in the story, and you will need to
know more about him, as he is minutely described. I may as well say that
he is very short. Should you wish to put the locksmith in, you will find
him described in No. 2 of 'Barnaby' (which I told Chapman & Hall to send
you). Browne has done him in one little thing, but so very slightly that
you will not require to see his sketch, I think."

On February 9th the artist received the following request:--

"Will you, for No. 49, do the locksmith's house, which was described in
No. 48? I mean the outside. If you can, without hurting the effect, shut
up the shop as though it were night, so much the better. Should you want
a figure, an ancient watchman in or on his box, very sleepy, will be
just the thing for me.

"I have written to Chapman and requested him to send you a block of a
long shape, so that the house may come upright, as it were."

From this note, and a subsequent one in which Dickens commands the
artist to put "a penny pistol to Chapman's head and demand the blocks of
him," we learn that Cattermole had by this time accustomed himself to
copying his designs upon wood, and could dispense with that kind of
assistance. His drawing of the dilapidated but picturesque old country
inn, "The Boot," whither the rioters resorted, is, I believe, a direct
transcript from an old print representing the place as it appeared at
the time referred to, 1780; the woodcut is in reverse of the print.[33]
Here are two letters (dated July 28th and August 6th, 1841,
respectively) that fairly bristle with details of scenes, in chapters
liv. and lvi., which the artist was desired to depict:--

    Footnote 33: A modern public-house still stands upon the
    site, in Cromer Street, Gray's Inn Road. It retains the
    original sign.

"Can you do for me by Saturday evening--I know the time is short, but I
think the subject will suit you, and I am greatly pressed--a party of
rioters (with Hugh and Simon Tappertit conspicuous among them) in old
John Willet's bar, turning the liquor taps to their own advantage,
smashing bottles, cutting down the grove of lemons, sitting astride on
casks, drinking out of the best punch-bowls, eating the great cheese,
smoking sacred pipes, &c., &c.; John Willet fallen backward in his
chair, regarding them with a stupid horror, and quite alone among them,
with none of the Maypole customers at his back?

"It's in your way, and you'll do it a hundred times better than I can
suggest it to you, I know."

       *       *       *       *       *

"Here's a subject for the next number.... The rioters went, sir, from
John Willet's bar (where you saw them to such good purpose) straight to
the Warren, which house they plundered, sacked, burned, pulled down as
much of it as they could, and greatly damaged and destroyed. They are
supposed to have left it about half-an-hour. It is night, and the ruins
are here and there flaming and smoking. I want--if you understand--to
show one of the turrets laid open--the turret where the alarm-bell is,
mentioned in No. 1; and among the ruins (at some height if possible) Mr.
Haredale just clutching our friend, the mysterious file, who is passing
over them like a spirit; Solomon Daisy, if you can introduce him,
looking on from the ground below.

"Please to observe that the M. F. wears a large cloak and slouched hat.
This is important, because Browne will have him in the same number, and
he has not changed his dress meanwhile. Mr. Haredale is supposed to have
come down here on horseback pell-mell; to be excited to the last degree.
I think it will make a queer picturesque thing in your hands....
_P.S._--When you have done the subject, I wish you'd write me one line
and tell me how, that I may be sure we agree."

In sending to Dickens for approval a sketch of the ruined home of Mr.
Haredale, the artist enclosed the following letter, now printed for the
first time:--

     "MY DEAR DICKENS,--I cannot hope you will make much out of
     the accompanying sketch.[34] I suppose the spectator to be
     placed upon the roof of one of the wings of the Warren
     House, and towards him are rushing ... [Rudge] and Mr.
     Haredale as they issue from a small door in the tower,
     whereunto is attached (as part and parcel of the same) the
     bell-turret. A small closet through which they pass to the
     roof has been dismantled, or rather thrown down and carried
     by the fire and the other spoilers; on the grass below is
     rooted Solomon Daisy in an ecstasy of wonder, &c., &c.;
     beyond are clouds of smoke a-passing over and amongst many
     tall trees, and all about are heard the tenants, frightened
     rooks, flying and cawing like mad.--In haste, my dear


     CLAPHAM, _Aug. 12_ [1841].

    Footnote 34: See Plate. Both sketch and letter are in the
    collection of Mr. Augustin Daly, of New York, to whom I am
    indebted for the opportunity of reproducing them.





_Facsimiles_ of Original Sketches for "Barnaby Rudge" by


_Lent by Mr. S. J. Davey._



It will be observed that the incident depicted in this illustration
takes place in utter darkness, while the published woodcut represents a
daylight scene. This remark also applies to the subject of the next
letter (dated August 19, 1841), which was treated by the artist in
a similar manner; the effect of torchlight being entirely absent from
the picture necessarily deprives it of much dramatic character:--

"When Hugh and a small body of the rioters cut off from the Warren
beckoned to their pals, they forced into a very remarkable postchaise
Dolly Varden and Emma Haredale, and bore them away with all possible
rapidity; one of their company driving, and the rest running beside the
chaise, climbing up behind, sitting on the top, lighting the way with
their torches, &c., &c. If you can express the women inside without
showing them--as by a fluttering veil, a delicate arm, or so forth,
appearing at the half-closed window--so much the better. Mr. Tappertit
stands on the steps, which are partly down, and, hanging on to the
window with one hand and extending the other with great majesty,
addresses a few words of encouragement to the driver and attendants.
Hugh sits upon the bar in front; the driver sitting postilion-wise, and
turns round to look through the window behind him at the little doves
within. The gentlemen behind are also anxious to catch a glimpse of the
ladies. One of those who are running at the side may be gently rebuked
for his curiosity by the cudgel of Hugh. So they cut away, sir, as fast
as they can.

"_P.S._--John Willet's bar is noble."

There were yet a few more illustrations required for the closing
chapters of "Barnaby Rudge," concerning which the artist received very
precise instructions from the author. For example, on September 14,
1841, Dickens forwarded to his illustrator the following "business
letter, written in a scramble just before post-time," the directions
having reference to incidents in chapters lxxiii., lxxxi., and

"_Firstly_, Will you design, upon a block of wood, Lord George Gordon,
alone and very solitary, in his prison, and after your own fancy; the
time, evening; the season, summer?

"_Secondly_, Will you ditto upon a ditto, a sword-duel between Mr.
Haredale and Mr. Chester, in a grove of trees? No one close by. Mr.
Haredale has just pierced his adversary, who has fallen, dying, on the
grass. He (that is, Chester) tries to staunch the wound in his breast
with his handkerchief; has his snuff-box on the earth beside him, and
looks at Mr. Haredale (who stands with his sword in his hand looking
down on him) with most supercilious hatred, but polite to the last. Mr.
Haredale is more sorry than triumphant.

"_Thirdly_, Will you conceive and execute, after your own fashion, a
frontispiece for 'Barnaby'?

"_Fourthly_, Will you also devise a subject representing 'Master
Humphrey's Clock' as stopped; his chair by the fireside empty; his
crutch against the wall; his slippers on the cold hearth; his hat upon
the chair-back; the MSS. of 'Barnaby' and 'The Curiosity Shop' heaped
upon the table; and the flowers you introduced in the first subject of
all withered and dead? Master Humphrey being supposed to be no more.

"I have a fifthly, sixthly, seventhly, and eighthly; for I sorely want
you, as I approach the close of the tale; but I won't frighten you, so
we'll take breath.

"_P.S._--I have been waiting until I got to subjects of this nature,
thinking you would like them best."

Owing to an illness from which Cattermole was then suffering, the
frontispiece here referred to was designed by Hablôt Browne. A few days
later, the author bethought him of an incident earlier in the story
(chapter lxix.), which required an illustration, and anent this he
despatched the following note:--

     "Will you, before you go on with the other subjects I gave
     you, do one of Hugh, bareheaded, bound, tied on a horse, and
     escorted by horse-soldiers to jail? If you can add an
     indication of old Fleet Market, and bodies of foot-soldiers
     firing at people who have taken refuge on the tops of
     stalls, bulk-heads, etc., it will be all the better."



_Facsimile_ of the Original Sketch for "Barnaby Rudge" by


_Lent by Mr. Augustin Daly._


This letter is the last (of those which have been preserved) having
reference to George Cattermole's artistic association with "Master
Humphrey's Clock." Of the one hundred and ninety-four illustrations
contained in this work, thirty-nine were designed by him, these
comprising fourteen for "The Old Curiosity Shop," fifteen for "Barnaby
Rudge," and ten for the "Clock" chapters; his signature, "G.C.,"
appended thereto has occasionally been mistaken for the initials of
George Cruikshank, to whom some of these designs have been incorrectly
attributed. There can be no doubt that George Cattermole's drawings
greatly enhanced the popularity of the work, for nothing could be
happier than his facile treatment of such subjects as the "Maypole" Inn,
the interior of the Old Curiosity Shop, and Quilp's Wharf; while
especially effective are his representations of the old church in the
village where Little Nell died. This picturesque little structure really
exists at Tong, in Shropshire, and, with its splendid carving and
magnificent monuments, presents the same attractive appearance which
inspired both Dickens and his illustrator. The novelist was so much
charmed with Cattermole's designs in "The Old Curiosity Shop" that he
could not refrain from expressing to the artist his warm appreciation of
them. "I have so deeply felt," he wrote, "your hearty and most
invaluable co-operation in the beautiful illustrations you have made for
the last story, that I look at them with a pleasure I cannot describe to
you in words, and that it is impossible for me to say how sensible I am
of your earnest and friendly aid. Believe me that this is the very first
time that any designs for what I have written have touched and moved me,
and caused me to feel that they expressed the idea I had in my mind. I
am most sincerely and affectionately grateful to you, and am full of
pleasure and delight."

In concluding this account of George Cattermole's illustrations for the
writings of Dickens, it only remains to add that he prepared a special
design as the frontispiece for the first cheap edition of "The Old
Curiosity Shop" (1848), an admirable drawing on wood, excellently
engraved by Thomas Williams, depicting "Little Nell in the Church."

On the completion of "Master Humphrey's Clock," the author commissioned
Cattermole to make two water-colour drawings of scenes in "The Old
Curiosity Shop," one representing "Little Nell's Home," while the other
(now in the Forster Collection at South Kensington) portrays "Little
Nell's Grave" in the old church, this being an enlarged version of the
woodcut. These drawings are excellent examples of Cattermole's work, and
were highly valued by the novelist, who, in a letter to the artist
(dated December 20, 1842), expressed his sincere approval of them. "It
is impossible," he said, "for me to tell you how greatly I am charmed
with those beautiful pictures, in which the whole feeling, and thought,
and expression of the little story is rendered, to the gratification of
my inmost heart; and on which you have lavished those amazing resources
of yours with power at which I fairly wondered when I sat down yesterday
before them. I took them to Mac [Maclise] straightway in a cab, and it
would have done you good if you could have seen and heard him. You can't
think how moved he was by the old man in the church, or how pleased I
was to have chosen it before he saw the drawings. You are such a queer
fellow, and hold yourself so much aloof, that I am afraid to say half I
would say touching my grateful admiration; so you shall imagine the

After two years of failing health and much acute suffering, George
Cattermole closed an anxious and laborious life on the 24th of July,
1868, the end being undoubtedly hastened by the almost simultaneous
deaths, in 1862, of a much-loved son and daughter. Dickens, who
sincerely lamented the loss of this cherished friend, actively
interested himself on behalf of his widow and young children (who were
left in a very distressed condition) by starting a fund for their

It needs but an examination of the correspondence that passed between
Charles Dickens and George Cattermole (in which, during later years, the
novelist playfully addressed his friend as "My dear Kittenmoles") to
prove how deep was their mutual affection. The artist's natural vivacity
and good-fellowship caused him to be a great favourite, and those of his
family who survive recall with delight the "red-letter" days when
Dickens, Thackeray, Landseer, and other kindred spirits foregathered at
the Cattermole residence in Clapham Rise, on which occasions the genial
company retired after dinner to brew punch in the studio--a picturesque
apartment adorned with armour and tapestry and carved furniture,
indicative of the artist's tastes, and strongly reminiscent of his most
characteristic pictures.




It was nothing less than an inspiration when, in 1843, Dickens conceived
the idea of "A Christmas Carol," the composition of which induced in him
such mental excitement, that when it was completed he "broke out like a
madman." Its extraordinary popularity encouraged him to prepare a
similar story for publication at the end of the following year, this
being succeeded by three others, all of them appearing during the
festive season, in a binding of crimson cloth embellished with gold
designs.[35] Not the least interesting feature of these handsome little
volumes is the illustrations, mainly owing to the fact that they were
designed by the leading black-and-white artists of the day, including
three Royal Academicians and one Associate of the Royal Academy. Of this
talented company only one member survives,--Sir John Tenniel, whose
pencil is still actively employed in the pages of _Punch_. The following
table denotes the number of designs supplied by each artist to the
Christmas Books.

    Footnote 35: The first issue of the "Carol" was bound in
    cloth of a brownish colour, the subsequent issues appearing
    in crimson.


¦           ¦           ¦       ¦        ¦          ¦         ¦      ¦
¦           ¦A Christmas¦  The  ¦  The   ¦The Battle¦ The     ¦      ¦
¦ Artist    ¦  Carol,   ¦ Chimes¦ Cricket¦ of Life  ¦Haunted  ¦Total ¦
¦           ¦  1843.    ¦ 1845  ¦ on the ¦   1846   ¦Man, 1848¦      ¦
¦           ¦           ¦       ¦ Hearth ¦          ¦         ¦      ¦
¦           ¦           ¦       ¦  1846  ¦          ¦         ¦      ¦
¦           ¦           ¦       ¦        ¦          ¦         ¦      ¦
¦ Leech     ¦    8      ¦   5   ¦   7    ¦    3     ¦    5    ¦  28  ¦
¦           ¦           ¦       ¦        ¦          ¦         ¦      ¦
¦ Doyle     ¦   ...     ¦   4   ¦   3    ¦    3     ¦   ...   ¦  10  ¦
¦           ¦           ¦       ¦        ¦          ¦         ¦      ¦
¦ Stanfield ¦   ...     ¦   2   ¦   1    ¦    3     ¦    3    ¦   9  ¦
¦           ¦           ¦       ¦        ¦          ¦         ¦      ¦
¦ Maclise   ¦   ...     ¦   2   ¦   2    ¦    4     ¦   ...   ¦   8  ¦
¦           ¦           ¦       ¦        ¦          ¦         ¦      ¦
¦ Tenniel   ¦   ...     ¦  ...  ¦  ...   ¦   ...    ¦    6    ¦   6  ¦
¦           ¦           ¦       ¦        ¦          ¦         ¦      ¦
¦ Stone     ¦   ...     ¦  ...  ¦  ...   ¦   ...    ¦    3    ¦   3  ¦
¦           ¦           ¦       ¦        ¦          ¦         ¦      ¦
¦ Landseer  ¦   ...     ¦  ...  ¦   1    ¦   ...    ¦   ...   ¦   1  ¦
¦           ¦___________¦_______¦________¦__________¦_________¦______¦
¦           ¦     8     ¦  13   ¦  14    ¦    13    ¦   17    ¦  65  ¦

The engravers were the Dalziel Brothers (14 subjects), T. Williams (11),
W. J. Linton (10), Martin and Corbould (8), Smith and Cheltnam (5),
Groves (3), Thompson (3), F. P. Becker (2), Gray (2), Swain (2), Green
(1). Four designs were etched on steel by John Leech, thus making up the
full complement of illustrations.


     Leech's Early Attempts at Drawing--Medical Studies--First
     Published Work--Desires to Illustrate "Pickwick"--Becomes
     Acquainted with Dickens--"A CHRISTMAS CAROL"--Sale of the
     Original Drawings--"THE CHIMES"--Leech Misinterprets his
     Author--"THE CRICKET ON THE HEARTH"--An Altered Design--The
     Artist's Humour Exemplified--"THE BATTLE OF LIFE"--Sale of
     Original Drawings--Unpublished Letters by Leech--A Grave
     Error--"THE HAUNTED MAN"--Leech's Method of Work--Artistic
     Value of his Sketches--Ruskin's Criticism--Leech as an
     Actor--A Serious Accident--Dickens as Nurse--Ill-health--A
     Fatal Seizure--Sir John Millais' Portrait of Leech.

John Leech, the leading spirit of _Punch_ for more than twenty years,
was born in London in 1817, his father (an Irishman of culture) being a
vintner, and at one time the proprietor of the London Coffee-House on
Ludgate Hill, then the most important of the large City hotels. As the
elder Leech showed some skill as a draughtsman, we may reasonably assume
that from him the son inherited a talent for drawing, by means of which
he was destined, before many years had passed, to astonish the world by
his humour and originality. When a mere lad, he exhibited such aptitude
and dexterity with the pencil, that Flaxman, the famous sculptor,
pronounced these precocious efforts to be wonderful, and exclaimed:
"That boy must be an artist; he will be nothing else or less."
Notwithstanding this recommendation, young Leech (after a course of
schooling at the Charterhouse, where he had William Makepeace Thackeray
as a fellow-pupil) was entered by his father at St. Bartholomew's
Hospital, with a view to his adopting the medical profession; but his
_penchant_ for drawing and sketching proved irresistible, and he gained
more repute among the students by means of his life-like (but
good-natured) caricatures, than for any ability he may have displayed in
hospital work. On leaving St. Bartholomew's, he was placed under an
eccentric practitioner named Whittle (whom Albert Smith has
immortalised as Mr. Rawkins), and subsequently under Dr. John Cockle,
afterwards Physician to the Royal Free Hospital.



From the Water-colour Drawing by



Leech, however, gradually relinquished his medical studies, and resolved
to live by his pencil. He was only eighteen years of age when he
published his first venture, "Etchings and Sketchings, by A. Penn,
Esq.," comprising a collection of slightly caricatured sketches of
various odd characters to be met with on the streets of London. Shortly
after this maiden effort there appeared upon the scene the initial
number of the celebrated "Pickwick Papers," and when, in the second
number, the sad death was announced of Robert Seymour, the illustrator,
Leech immediately conceived the idea of seeking election as his
successor. "Boz" at this time was absolutely unknown to him except by
that strange pseudonym, so the ambitious young artist communicated his
desire to the publishers, Chapman & Hall, to whom he sent as a specimen
of his powers a clever drawing, delicately tinted in colour, of that
familiar scene in "Pickwick" where Tom Smart sits up in bed and
converses with the animated chair.[36] Thackeray (it will be remembered)
also aspired to the position coveted by Leech, but neither possessed the
necessary qualifications.

    Footnote 36: Concerning this design, of which a _facsimile_
    is given in the Victoria edition of "The Pickwick Papers,"
    1887, a correspondent received the following interesting
    communication from a representative of Dickens's publishing

       "_May 2nd, 1888._

       "DEAR SIR,--The history of the drawing by Leech of 'Tom
       Smart and the Arm-chair' is, that at the time there was a
       difficulty about the artist for illustrating 'Pickwick,' Mr.
       Leech sent it in as a specimen of his ability to illustrate
       the work. This was in the year 1836, and it was in the
       possession of my predecessor, Mr. Edward Chapman, until
       twenty-five years ago, when it came into my
       possession.--Faithfully yours,

       "FRED CHAPMAN."

In those early years Leech designed numerous illustrations for _Bells
Life in London_, and concocted schemes of drollery with his literary
friends which resulted in the publication of such humorous productions
as the "Comic Latin Grammar," "Comic English Grammar," &c. In August,
1841, he contributed his first drawing to _Punch_ (the fourth number),
this being the forerunner of many hundreds of pictures, chiefly of "life
and character," bearing the familiar sign-manual of a leech wriggling
in a bottle. The artist's connection with _Punch_ gave him a great
opportunity, for he was thus enabled to come before the public, week
after week, with an endless succession of scenes in high life and low
life, now of the hunting-field and now of the river,--always with
something that could not fail to delight the eye and to excite
good-natured laughter. His deftness and versatility naturally brought
many commissions from publishers anxious to secure the aid of his
prolific pencil, so that besides his weekly contribution to _Punch_ he
was occupied in preparing designs for other works, notably _Douglas
Jerrold's Shilling Magazine_, _Hood's Comic Annual_, and "The Ingoldsby

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =A Christmas Carol, 1843.=]

The year 1843 was memorable to John Leech, for then he first became
acquainted with the author of "Pickwick." By whom the introduction was
brought about is not quite clear; perhaps the credit of it may be
awarded to Douglas Jerrold or Thomas Hood. In the above-mentioned year
Leech's services were obtained for the illustration of "A Christmas
Carol," for which he prepared eight designs; four of these were etched
on steel, the impressions being afterwards coloured by hand, while the
remaining four were drawn on wood, and beautifully engraved by W. J.
Linton. The popularity of the "Carol" (the pioneer of all Dickens's
Christmas Books, and, indeed, of Christmas literature generally) proved
enormous, and much of its success was undoubtedly due to the attractive
designs of John Leech, who entered so thoroughly into the spirit of this
charming little allegory. In 1893 the original drawings, with the
exception of that entitled "Scrooge's Third Visitor," were sold at
Sotheby's for 155 guineas, and afterwards catalogued by a London
bookseller at £240--a considerable advance on the price paid to the
artist and engraver, which was just under £50. This interesting series
of drawings (two of them tinted in colours) had hitherto remained in the
possession of a daughter of the artist.



_Facsimile_ of the Original Sketch for "The Chimes" by


The figure of Richard was altered in the published design.

  _By Permission of the Art Museum Committee of the
  Corporation of Nottingham._
       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =The Chimes, 1845.=]

To "The Chimes" Leech contributed five illustrations, the original
drawings for which realised 66 guineas at Sotheby's in 1893. Some of
these slight pencillings now form part of the Leech Collection at
Nottingham Castle, including the first sketch for the illustration
referred to by Dickens (in a letter to his wife) as being, together with
a sketch by Doyle for the same story, so unlike his ideas that he
invited both artists to breakfast with him one morning, and, "with that
winning manner which you know of, got them, with the highest
good-humour, to do both afresh." The design in question appears in the
"Third Quarter," in which two scenes are represented, the upper one
depicting Margaret in her garret, while in the lower compartment appears
Richard, with "matted hair and unshorn beard," as he enters Trotty
Veck's cottage. The artist misunderstood his author, and delineated,
instead of Richard as described in the text, an extremely ragged and
dissipated-looking character, with a battered hat upon his head. When
the novelist saw it, the drawing had already been engraved, but the
woodcut was promptly suppressed; there still exists, however, an
impression of the cancelled engraving, which is bound up with what is
evidently a unique copy of "The Chimes" (now the property of Mr. J. F.
Dexter), where blank spaces are left for some of the woodcuts; this
particular copy is probably the publishers' "make up," and had
accidentally left their hands.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =The Cricket on the Hearth, 1846.=]

"The Cricket on the Hearth" is embellished with seven designs by Leech.
The original sketch for one of these illustrations, representing John
and Dot seated by the fire, indicates that it was Leech's intention at
first to introduce Tilly Slowboy nursing the baby; but it was apparently
considered that her presence in the picture destroyed the domestic
harmony of the scene, so the figure was omitted, and a separate woodcut
made of the subject for a subsequent chapter. It is interesting to
compare Leech's illustration of Caleb Plummer and his blind daughter at
work with a similar design by Doyle in the same chapter, the vigorous
character of the former happily contrasting with the more restrained
treatment of the latter. In the final woodcut of "The Dance," Leech's
sense of humour (not always devoid of exaggeration) has free play, for
here not only do we see the human characters in the story indulging in
the pleasant exercise, but observe that, in one corner, the carrier's
pets, Boxer and the cat, are similarly disporting themselves, while even
the artist's signature (in the opposite corner) of a leech in a bottle
is placed upon a couple of lively legs, and is kicking away with an
_abandon_ worthy of the occasion.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =The Battle of Life, 1846.=]

In Dickens's fourth Christmas Book, "The Battle of Life," John Leech is
represented by three illustrations, all of which are designed in the
manner characteristic of these little volumes, in having one scene
superimposed upon another. The original sketches for two of these
woodcuts, viz., "The Parting Breakfast" and "The Night of the Return,"
are in the South Kensington Museum,[37] while the third drawing has
found its way to America, whither so many Dickens relics have departed.
When, in June 1893, some highly-finished _replicas_ of these designs
were disposed of at Sotheby's, they realised the extraordinary sums of
£35, 10s., £17, 10s., and £20, 10s. respectively. In the Forster
Collection at South Kensington there are two very interesting letters,
addressed by Leech to the biographer of Dickens, having special
connection with these illustrations. The first (dated November 16, 1846)
refers to the breakfast scene, and from it we gather that there was a
very limited time for preparing the designs:--

    Footnote 37: _Facsimiles_ of these have already appeared in
    my Memoir of John Leech. A duplicate sketch (more completely
    carried out) of "The Parting Breakfast" will be found in the
    Print Room of the British Museum, but there is, I believe,
    some doubt as to its authenticity. The late Mr. G. A. Sala
    pointed out that the engraving of this subject contains an
    astonishingly good likeness of that admired comedian, Robert
    Keeley, as the old servant Britain.



_Facsimile_ of the Original Drawing for "The Cricket on the Hearth" by


The figure of Tilly Slowboy was omitted in the published Drawing, a
separate Illustration being made of that portion of the Design.

_Lent by Mr. W. H. Lever._


     "MY DEAR FORSTER,--I really cannot say off-hand how many
     illustrations I can make within the week; indeed, I am so
     embarrassed by the conditions under which I am to make my
     share of the drawings that I hardly know what to do at all.
     _Conscientiously_, I could not make Clemency Newcome
     particularly beautiful. If you will read a little beyond the
     words 'plump and cheerful,' you will find the following:
     'But the extraordinary homeliness of her gait and manner
     would have superseded any face in the world. To say that she
     had two left legs and somebody else's arms, and that all
     four limbs seemed to be out of joint, and to start from
     perfectly wrong places,' &c, &c. Again, she is described as
     having 'a prodigious pair of self-willed shoes,' and a gown
     of 'the most hideous pattern procurable for money.' The
     impression made upon me by such a description as I have
     quoted certainly is that the character so described is both
     awkward and comic. Of course I may be wrong in my conception
     of what Dickens intended, but _I_ imagine the lady in
     question a sort of clean 'Slowboy.' The blessed public (if
     they consider the matter at all) will hold me responsible
     for what appears with my name; they will know nothing about
     my being obliged to conform to Maclise's ideas. I cannot
     tell you how loath I should be to cause any delay or
     difficulty in the production of the book, or what pain it
     would give me to cause either Dickens or yourself any
     annoyance. I confess I am a little out of heart.--Believe me
     ever yours faithfully,

     "JOHN LEECH."

     "JOHN FORSTER, Esq."

Maclise, who also provided illustrations to "The Battle of Life," was
anxious that his own type of character for Clemency Newcome should be
reproduced in the designs by Leech; hence that artist's protest. Writing
again two days later on the subject, Leech said:--

     "MY DEAR FORSTER,--Perhaps I was wrong in using the word
     'conditions' in my note to you--I should have said
     'circumstances,' and by being 'embarrassed' by them I meant
     that I found it very harassing to do work (that I am for
     several reasons anxious to do well) under the constant
     feeling that I have too little time to do it in; and also I
     meant to convey to you that the necessity (which I certainly
     supposed to exist) of preserving a sort of resemblance to
     the characters as conceived by Mr. Maclise made it a rather
     nervous undertaking to me. It seems I expressed myself
     clumsily, as the tone of my note appeared to you anything
     but what I intended it to be. Any suggestion from you I
     should always consider most valuable. I send you one
     drawing, completed this morning at four o'clock, and I
     assure you I would spare neither time nor any personal
     comfort to show my personal regard for both yourself and

     "I should not like to promise more than two other drawings,
     if Saturday is positively the last day. I might be able to
     do more, but I should not like to promise, and fail. Pray
     overlook any glaring defects in the block I send, and
     believe me yours faithfully,


     "JOHN FORSTER, Esq., &c. &c.

     "_P.S._ I should like, if there is no objection, that Linton
     should engrave for me."



_Facsimile_ of the Original Drawing for "The Cricket on the Hearth" by


_Lent by Mr. W. H. Lever._


It was natural that, remembering the excellent reproductions of his
wood-drawings in the "Carol" and "The Chimes," Leech should express a
wish that Linton[38] might also engrave those in "The Battle of Life;"
but the signatures appended to the cuts show that, doubtless for
some sufficient reason, the artist's wish was not respected.

    Footnote 38: As I write, the decease of that admirable artist
    and engraver is reported from New Haven, U.S.A. W. J. Linton
    was born in London in 1812, and had therefore attained a
    venerable age, spending the latter portion of his life in
    America. During an extremely active career he produced, among
    other literary works, a valuable and comprehensive history of
    the art of which he was undoubtedly the most capable
    exponent. Mr. Linton, who may justly be termed the father of
    modern wood-engraving, carried on the tradition of Bewick,
    and was a thorough champion of the "white-line school." As a
    zealous Chartist he took an active and prominent part in
    politics, and, in addition to this, he was a voluminous
    writer both in poetry and prose, his works including "The
    English Republic," "Claribel, and other Poems," "A Life of
    Whittier," &c.

In his third design for "The Battle of Life" Leech committed an
extraordinary blunder, the result (it must be confessed) of carelessly
studying his author. In this illustration, where the festivities to
welcome the bridegroom at the top of the page contrast with the flight
of the bride represented below, Leech gravely erred in supposing that
Michael Warden had taken part in the elopement, and has introduced his
figure with that of Marion. This curious mistake, which might have been
avoided had the drawing been submitted to Dickens, was not discovered
until too late for remedy, and it is highly characteristic of the
novelist, of the true regard he felt for the artist, that he preferred
to pass it silently. The most remarkable thing of all is (as Forster has
pointed out), nobody seems to have noticed the unfortunate oversight,
although it must be obvious to every attentive reader that it makes
great havoc of one of the most delicate episodes in the story. The
feelings of the author, on realising the seriousness of this terrible
misconception on the part of the artist, may be readily imagined.
Writing to his biographer, he said: "When I first saw it, it was with a
horror and agony not to be expressed. Of course I need not tell _you_,
my dear fellow, Warden has no business in the elopement scene. _He_ was
never there! In the first hot sweat of this surprise and novelty, I was
going to implore the printing of that sheet to be stopped, and the
figure taken out of the block. But when I thought of the pain this might
give to our kind-hearted Leech, and that what is such a monstrous
enormity to me, as never having entered my brain, may not so present
itself to others, I became more composed; though the fact is wonderful
to me. No doubt a great number of copies will be printed by the time
this reaches you, and therefore I shall take it for granted that it
stands as it is. Leech otherwise is very good, and the illustrations
altogether are by far the best that have been done for any of my
Christmas Books...."

The Haunted Man, 1848.

"The Haunted Man and the Ghost's Bargain"--the last of the Christmas
stories--contains five designs by Leech, and one of the original
sketches is here reproduced, through the courtesy of the Museum
authorities at Nottingham Castle. They are not among Leech's happiest
efforts, and do not compare favourably with the vignettes in "A
Christmas Carol."


_Facsimile_ of the Original Drawing for "The Haunted Man" by


_By Permission of the Art Museum Committee of the
Corporation of Nottingham._


Like Cruikshank, "Phiz," and other contemporary book-illustrators, John
Leech never worked from models, relying chiefly upon his retentive
memory; he seldom made sketches of any kind, but merely jotted down such
useful memoranda of bits of scenery and character, details of particular
costume, &c, as could be recorded in a little note-book which he
invariably carried about with him. When developing an idea for a
drawing, he would first make a slight outline of the subject upon paper
of the size required, then trace it down upon the wood-block, and
finally complete the picture with care and deliberation. The only
lessons in etching he ever had he received from George Cruikshank; but
it was as a draughtsman on wood that he excelled, his etchings (of which
those in the "Carol" are among the best) not being technically equal to
those of either Cruikshank or "Phiz," nor do they exhibit that sense of
freedom and spontaneity visible in his published drawings. The late
George du Maurier, his friend and colleague on _Punch_, tells us that
Leech "drew straight on the wood block, with a lead-pencil; his delicate
grey lines had to be translated into the uncompromising coarse black
lines of printer's ink--a ruinous process; and what his work lost in
this way is only to be estimated by those who know." In giving an
account of Leech's work, Professor Ruskin points out a fact not
generally known, viz., that from an artistic standpoint his first
sketches for the woodcuts are much more valuable than the finished
drawings, even before those drawings sustained any loss in engraving.
"The first few lines in which he sets down his purpose are invariably,
of all drawing that I know," says the eminent critic, "the most
wonderful in their accurate and prosperous haste." Dickens remained
a constant admirer of Leech's genius, and when, in 1848, there appeared
a collection of lithographs, where the artist humorously depicted "The
Rising Generation," the novelist indited for _The Examiner_ a glowing
eulogium upon the work of his friend, in the course of which he declared
that he was "the very first Englishman who had made beauty a part of his
art." It was from Dickens that Leech occasionally accepted happy
thoughts for _Punch_, and it will be remembered that he frequently
availed himself (as did Sir John Tenniel subsequently) of "Phiz's"
designs for Dickens, whenever he thought they could be appropriately
converted into political cartoons.

John Leech occasionally associated himself with the amateur theatrical
performances organised by Dickens, but it must be admitted that, owing
to his naturally modest and retiring disposition, he did not achieve
great distinction as an actor. In 1849, while on a visit to the novelist
at Bonchurch, he was stunned by a huge wave when bathing, and was put to
bed with "twenty of his namesakes on his temples." Congestion of the
brain ensued, and Dickens, who proved one of the most attentive of
nurses during this anxious time, proposed to Mrs. Leech to try
magnetism. "Accordingly," he wrote to Forster, "in the middle of the
night I fell to, and after a very fatiguing bout of it, put him to sleep
for an hour and thirty-five minutes. A change came on in the sleep, and
he is decidedly better. I talked to the astonished Mrs. Leech across
him, when he was asleep, as if he had been a truss of hay."

Incessant brain-work induced in John Leech a peculiar irritability, and
he was so much affected by street noises, even such as would escape
ordinary attention, that he was compelled at length to resort to the
device of double windows. Eventually this abnormal sensitiveness told so
seriously upon his health that he was ordered to Homburg for change of
scene; but, on returning to his London home in the autumn of 1864, he
was still strangely susceptible to noise of all kinds. In addition to
this, the artist suffered acutely from _angina pectoris_, and on
October 29, 1864, he was seized with an attack of that terrible disease,
which, alas! proved fatal. Dickens was sadly overcome by the death of
this kindly man, and attributed, thereto his inability to make progress
with "Our Mutual Friend," upon which he was then engaged. Around the
artist's grave there assembled, on a bright autumn day, many who were
distinguished in Art and Literature, in honour of him they sincerely
mourned, grieving for the loss of a spirit, so gentle and graceful, that
had just passed away.

       *       *       *       *       *

The portrait of John Leech reproduced for this work is from a beautiful
water-colour drawing by his friend, the late Sir John E. Millais,
P.R.A., representing the artist in the prime of life. This interesting
and valuable presentment of the great pictorial humorist was purchased
in 1892 by the Trustees of the National Portrait Gallery, and during the
previous year a reproduction of it was given, at my suggestion, as the
frontispiece to the biography of John Leech by Mr. W. P. Frith, R.A.
Another intimate friend of Leech, Mr. Holman Hunt, informs me that he
considers this drawing by Millais as undoubtedly the best portrait of
the artist.

[Illustration: R. Doyle]

[Illustration: D. Maclise]



  From a Photograph by

_Lent by Mrs. Henry Doyle._


  From the Painting by
  E. M. WARD. R.A., 1846


     Inherits a Talent for Drawing--Not Permitted to Study from
     Models--No Regular Training in Art--A Skilful
     Amateur--Precocious Sense of Humour--Fanciful Designs--Doyle
     Joins the _Punch_ Staff--Instructed in Drawing on Wood--His
     Sign-manual--Retirement from _Punch_--Not Acquainted with
     Dickens--His Illustrations for "THE CHIMES"--Elves and
     Goblins--An Oversight by the Artist--"THE CRICKET ON THE
     HEARTH" and "THE BATTLE OF LIFE"--Doyle's Original Sketches
     for the Christmas Books Dispersed.

With the single exception of John Leech, Richard Doyle contributed the
greatest number of illustrations to the Christmas Books, three of these
little volumes containing, in the aggregate, ten designs by him. He was
born in London in 1824, his father, John Doyle, being the famous
caricaturist, "H.B.," whose political cartoons created much sensation in
their day. At an early age Richard Doyle proved that he inherited a
talent for drawing, and was encouraged in this direction by his father,
who (strange to say) would not allow him to study from the living model,
preferring that the boy should be taught "to observe with watchful eye
the leading features of the object before him, and then some little time
after to reproduce them from memory as nearly as he could." He had no
regular training in art, except such as he was privileged to enjoy in
his father's studio, the result being that (as Mr. M. H. Spielmann
reminds us in his "History of _Punch_") he never attained a higher
position than that of an extremely skilful amateur, "whose shortcomings
were concealed in his charming illustrations and imaginative designs,
but were startlingly revealed in his larger work and in his
figure-drawing.... He was saved by his charm and sweetness, his
inexhaustible fun and humour, his delightful though superficial
realisation of character, and his keen sense of the grotesque."

Richard Doyle's precocious sense of humour is exemplified in his
illustrations for the Comic Histories, executed by him when fifteen
years of age, but which were posthumously published. An extraordinary
power of fanciful draughtsmanship distinguishes the majority of his
designs, so that his pencil was in frequent request for works which
demanded the display of this special faculty, such as Leigh Hunt's "Jar
of Honey," Ruskin's "King of the Golden River," "Pictures from the Elf
World," Planché's "Old Fairy Tales," &c. In 1843, when the artist was
only nineteen, he was installed as a member of the regular pictorial
staff of _Punch_, and received instruction in drawing on wood from
Joseph Swain, the engraver for that journal. Richard Doyle was
familiarly known to his intimate friends as "Dicky Doyle," which
probably suggested his sign-manual of a little dicky-bird perched upon
his initials, R.D.,--a signature that may be found appended to a very
considerable number of cuts designed for _Punch_ during a period of
seven years--that is, until his retirement therefrom in 1850.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =The Chimes, 1845.=]

Although Doyle furnished illustrations to three of Dickens's Christmas
Books, there is no evidence that he was ever personally acquainted with
the novelist. No reference is made to the artist by Forster, nor does it
appear that any correspondence passed between him and Dickens, the
necessary instructions being apparently transmitted through the
publishers. The earliest Christmas story with which we find him
associated is "The Chimes," to which he supplied four illustrations,
viz., "The Dinner on the Steps," "Trotty at Home," "Trotty Veck among
the Bells," and "Margaret and her Child." His designs embellish the
initial pages of each chapter, and are treated in a decorative and
fanciful manner. In the first of these it will be noticed that the upper
portion consists of a representation of the tower of St. Dunstan's
Church in Fleet Street,--a subject repeated by Clarkson Stanfield, R.A.,
in a subsequent illustration. In the other woodcuts the artist exhibits
his acknowledged skill in delineating elves and goblins, that depicting
Trotty among the Spirits of the Bells affording a delightful example of
his wonderful power in portraying goblin-like creatures, with their
weird expressions and varied postures. _Apropos_ of this engraving, a
curious oversight has been discovered by the Rev. H. R. Haweis, for
Doyle has introduced only three bells, thus seeming to have forgotten
that four are required to ring a quarter! The subject of the remaining
design, where Margaret, with her babe, kneels at the river's brink, is
replete with pathos, the impression of desolation and despair being
admirably rendered by means of a few simple lines.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =The Cricket on the Hearth, 1846.=]

The next Christmas story, "The Cricket on the Hearth," contains three
illustrations by Doyle, one for each chapter, as before. The first
really comprises two distinct subjects, separated by a quaintly-designed
initial letter; in the upper drawing is seen John Peerybingle's cart on
its journey, preceded by Boxer, while below we are presented with an
ideal scene of domestic happiness, where John and Dot are seated before
the fire in their humble home. The first page of "Chirp the Second"
contains a capital picture of Caleb Plummer and his blind daughter
Bertha, busily at work among the toys; in the last design, illustrating
the opening lines of "Chirp the Third," the honest carrier is observed
reclining his head upon his hand in silent grief, while comforting
spirits hover around him.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =The Battle of Life, 1846.=]

Dickens's fourth Christmas Book, "The Battle of Life," includes three
designs by Doyle, which are also introduced as embellishments of the
initial pages of the different chapters. They are much bolder in
treatment, however, than the artist's earlier drawings, and do not
possess the artistic charm appertaining to his illustrations in "The
Cricket on the Hearth." The most successful are the vignette subjects at
the top of each page, which are charming little studies.

It is unfortunate that no original sketches for these illustrations are
available for reproduction. A member of the artist's family declares
that they were dispersed, principally as gifts to friends, and that
their present destination is unknown.

On December 10, 1883, Richard Doyle was struck down by apoplexy as he
was quitting the Athenæum Club, and died on the following day. Thus
passed away not only one of the most graceful limners of Fairyland that
England has produced, but one who will long be remembered for his many
noble qualities of heart and mind.





From a Photograph

_Lent by Mr. Field Stanfield._


From a Photograph

_Lent by Mrs. Kate Perugini._


     Apprenticed to a Heraldic Painter--Goes to Sea--Meets
     Douglas Jerrold--Scene-painting--Exhibits at the Royal
     Academy--Becomes Acquainted with Dickens--A Memorable Trip
     to Cornwall--The Logan Stone--Illustrations for "The
     Chimes"--A Labour of Love--A Present and a Letter from
     Dickens--Illustration for "The Cricket on the Hearth"--A
     Quaint Epistle, signed "Henry Bluff"--Illustrations for "The
     Battle of Life"--Dickens's Opinion of Stanfield's
     Designs--Illustration for "The Haunted Man"--Another Gift
     from Dickens to the Artist--A Drawing of the "Britannia"
     Steam-ship--Private Theatricals--A Remarkable
     Act-Drop--Declining Health--Death of the Artist--Dickens's
     Eulogium--"The Most Lovable of Men."

First a sailor, then an artist and a Royal Academician, William Clarkson
Stanfield acquired the reputation of being the greatest marine-painter
of his time. Born in 1793, he was brought up to the sea, and at sea
(curiously enough) was thrown into the companionship of Douglas Jerrold,
who, like himself, was ordained to make his mark in a very different

When about twelve years old Clarkson Stanfield was apprenticed to a
heraldic painter in Edinburgh, but an intense longing for the career of
a sailor resulted in his entering the merchant service in 1808. Four
years later he was pressed into the Royal Navy, and while on board the
King's ship _Namur_ in 1814 (where he first met Jerrold, then a
midshipman), his talent for drawing was discovered, whereupon he was
sent ashore at Sheerness to assist in the painting and decoration of the
Admiral's ball-room, his work giving so much satisfaction that he was
promised his discharge from the Navy--a promise, however, that was not
fulfilled. After another interval of three or four years he finally left
the sea, having been temporarily disabled by a fall, and procured an
engagement as scene-painter at the East London Theatre, for he had
already essayed this branch of Art on board ship. So eminently
satisfactory were his pictorial achievements in East London that he
obtained a similar position at the Edinburgh Theatre, and thence, in
1822, in conjunction with his friends David Roberts and Nasmyth, he was
employed in a like capacity at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. From that
time his success in Art was assured.

Stanfield had already exhibited in the Royal Academy, and year by year
his work in this and other Institutions continued to excite interest and
admiration, by reason of the simple truthfulness of all his
representations. Usually, but not invariably, he preferred to depict
scenes in which his nautical experience could be made available, and his
natural gifts permitted him to combine with the genuine sailor-like
feeling displayed in the treatment of his subjects a poetical sentiment
which considerably enhanced the charm of his productions. In 1832
Stanfield was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy, and three years
later he attained full honours. It will thus be seen that he had gained
a very dignified position in the world of Art before even the name of
Charles Dickens became known to the reading public,--as a matter of
fact, the future novelist was at that date writing the earliest of those
wonderful sketches which appeared under the _nom de guerre_ of "Boz."

Clarkson Stanfield, who was Charles Dickens's senior by about nineteen
years, made the acquaintance of the novelist late in the "Thirties,"
when began those affectionate relations subsisting between the two
distinguished men. "I love you so truly," observed Dickens to the
artist, in a letter dated August 24, 1844, "and have such pride and joy
of heart in your friendship, that I don't know how to begin writing to
you." Two years previously Stanfield joined Dickens and his friends
Forster and Maclise in their famous trip to Cornwall,--three memorable
weeks, overflowing with enjoyment and fun; the artists made sketches of
the most romantic of the halting-places, one of these being a drawing of
the Logan Stone by Stanfield (now in the Forster Collection at South
Kensington), where are seen the figures of himself and his three

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =The Chimes, 1845.=]

In 1844 Dickens conceived the idea of a second Christmas Book, "The
Chimes," and what more natural than that he should desire to enlist the
services, as illustrator, of so skilled a draughtsman as Clarkson
Stanfield? It was decided to depart from the plan adopted in regard to
the "Carol," by engaging more than one artist, thus imparting an
agreeable variety to the designs. Stanfield, eager to gratify his
friend, did not require much persuasion to co-operate in the pictorial
embellishment of the little volume, for which he provided two choice
drawings, viz., "The Old Church,"--a faithful representation of the "old
London belfry" of St. Dunstan's in Fleet Street,--and "Will Fern's
Cottage,"--a pretty bit of landscape scenery, such as the artist knew so
well how to depict. With these Dickens was charmed, and in a letter to
his wife he said: "Stanfield's readiness, delight, wonder at my being
pleased with what he has done is delicious."

Stanfield, it appears, would not accept payment for these drawings,
preferring that they should be considered as tokens of friendship.
Dickens, however, could not pass over so generous an act without some
acknowledgment, and this took the form of a silver claret-jug, which was
presented (as the inscription records) "In Memory of 'The Chimes.'"
Accompanying the gift was the following letter, dated October 2, 1845,
where allusion is made to the succeeding Christmas Story:--

     "MY DEAR STANNY,--I send you the claret-jug. But for a
     mistake, you would have received the little remembrance
     almost immediately after my return from abroad.

     " ... I need not say how much I should value another little
     sketch from your extraordinary hand in this year's small
     volume, to which Mac again does the frontispiece. But I
     cannot hear of it, and will not have it (though the
     gratification of such aid to me is really beyond all
     expression), unless you will so far consent to make it a
     matter of business as to receive, without asking any
     questions, a cheque in return from the publishers. Do not
     misunderstand me--though I am not afraid there is much
     danger of your doing so, for between us misunderstanding is,
     I hope, not easy. I know perfectly well that no terms would
     induce you to go out of your way, in such a regard, for
     perhaps anybody else. I cannot, nor do I desire to, vanquish
     the friendly obligation which help from you imposes on me.
     But I am not the sole proprietor of these little books; and
     it would be monstrous in you if you were to dream of putting
     a scratch into a second one without some shadowy reference
     to the other partners, ten thousand times more monstrous in
     me if any consideration on earth could induce me to permit
     it, which nothing will or shall.

     "So, see what it comes to. If you will do me a favour on my
     terms, it will be more acceptable to me, my dear Stanfield,
     than I can possibly tell you. If you will not be so
     generous, you deprive me of the satisfaction of receiving it
     at your hands, and shut me out from that possibility
     altogether. What a stony-hearted ruffian you must be in such
     a case!--Ever affectionately yours,


       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =The Cricket on the Hearth, 1846.=]

The "small volume" here alluded to was "The Cricket on the Hearth," for
which Stanfield prepared one illustration, viz., "The Carrier's Cart."

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =The Battle of Life, 1846.=]



_Facsimile_ of the Original Sketches for "The Battle of Life" by


_Lent by Mr. Field Stanfield._


To the fourth Christmas Book, "The Battle of Life," Stanfield
contributed three beautiful little designs, representing respectively
"War," "Peace," and "The 'Nutmeg Grater' Inn." Happily, I am enabled to
present _facsimiles_ of the original sketches (very slight in treatment)
of the first two subjects, through the courtesy of the artist's son, Mr.
Field Stanfield. The story was written at Lausanne, and, during
Dickens's absence in Switzerland, Forster succeeded in enlisting
Stanfield as one of the illustrators as a glad surprise for the
author, who, on being informed of the fact, wrote to his biographer:
"Your Christmas Book illustration-news makes me jump for joy." Forster
intimates that these "three morsels of English landscape," delineated by
Stanfield, had a singular charm for Dickens at the time, who referred to
the illustrations altogether as by far the best that had been done for
any of the Christmas Books. "It is a delight," he remarked concerning
Stanfield's designs, "to look at these little landscapes of the dear old
boy. How gentle and elegant, and yet how manly and vigorous they are! I
have a perfect joy in them."

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =The Haunted Man, 1848.=]

The last of the Christmas Books, viz., "The Haunted Man," contains three
illustrations by this artist, viz., "The Lighthouse," "The Exterior of
the Old College," and "The Christmas Party in the Great Dinner Hall." In
the first subject, which is decidedly the most successful, Stanfield
found a most congenial theme, for here his knowledge of sailors and of
the dangers of the sea proved serviceable. With regard to his designs
for these little annuals, it appears that the artist could not be
prevailed upon to accept payment for them, Dickens's protests
notwithstanding. He consequently became the recipient of another gift--a
pair of handsome silver salvers, bearing the simple inscription,
"Clarkson Stanfield from Charles Dickens," in recognition of his
friendly collaboration, and these are now in the possession of one of
the artist's sons.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =American Notes, 1850.=]

There is another illustration by Stanfield to which some allusion must
be made. This is an admirable water-colour drawing of the _Britannia_,
the steamship that conveyed Dickens to America in 1842. The drawing was
made with a view to reproduction as the frontispiece for the first cheap
edition of "American Notes," and the following hitherto unpublished
letter (dated May 11, 1850) to Edward Chapman (of Chapman & Hall), is
of interest in this connection:--

     "DEAR SIR,--Mr. Stanfield will draw the packet-ship for the
     frontispiece to the 'American Notes.' He says lithograph is
     better than wood for that kind of subject; please let me
     know immediately whether it will suit us to lithograph
     it.--Faithfully yours,


The suggestion was found impracticable, so it was decided that the
drawing should be made on wood. The block was therefore forwarded to the
artist, who complained to Dickens of its imperfect surface, whereupon
the novelist despatched to Edward Chapman this brief missive, dated May

     "DEAR SIR,--Mr. Stanfield wonders you didn't send him a
     paving-stone to draw upon, as send a block in this
     unprepared state. I send you his drawing to do the best you
     can with. It costs nothing, and I wish it to be kept very
     clean and returned to me.--Faithfully yours,


It may be inferred from this letter that the drawing was copied upon the
wood-block by the engraver himself, whose name (T. Bolton) is appended
to the frontispiece. The original picture was purchased at the sale of
Dickens's effects in 1870 for the sum of £110, 5s., by the late Earl of
Darnley, for many years the novelist's friend and neighbour.

Clarkson Stanfield, whose intimacy with the Dickens family was very
close, used to take part in their Christmas sports and gambols, and in
connection with the private theatricals at Tavistock House his services
as scene-painter were invaluable. _Apropos_ of this, the novelist once
wrote to Frank Stone, A.R.A.: "Stanfield bent on desperate effects, and
all day long with his coat off, up to his eyes in distemper colours."
Again: "If Stanfield don't astonish 'em [the audience], I'm a Dutchman.
O Heaven, if you could hear the ideas he proposes to me, making even
_my_ hair stand on end!" For Wilkie Collins's drama, "The Lighthouse,"
produced at Tavistock House, the artist painted a very remarkable
act-drop representing the Eddystone Lighthouse, concerning which it may
be observed that, although it occupied the great painter only one or two
mornings, it realised at the novelist's death nearly a thousand guineas!

Dickens, when writing to Stanfield, frequently adopted nautical
expressions, in allusion to the artist's experiences as a seaman. He
sometimes addressed him as "Old Tarpaulin," "Old Salt," "Messmet," &c.,
and as an example of this I here reprint a letter, written on an
occasion when Stanfield innocently demanded of Dickens to be informed of
the amount due for a pair of candlesticks that the novelist had sent

     "MY DEAR STANNY,--In reference to the damage for the
     candlesticks, I beg to quote (from 'The Cricket on the
     Hearth,' by the highly popular and deservedly so Dick) this

     "'I'll damage you if you inquire.'

     "Ever yours,

      "My block-reeving,
       Main-brace splicing,
       Son of a sea-cook,

     "H.M.S. _Timber_."[39]

    Footnote 39: From "The Letters of Charles Dickens." Mr. Field
    Stanfield informs me that it is quite certain the
    candlesticks were not a gift from Dickens to his father. It
    would seem most probable that there may have been some
    accident during theatrical preparations, for which the artist
    considered himself responsible, and that Dickens undertook to
    repair the misfortune himself.

During the last ten years of his life Stanfield's health became less
strong, and he was obliged in some measure to retire from the congenial
circle of his artistic and literary associates, continuing, however, to
take great delight in his art. Stanfield breathed his last on May 18,
1867. His death proved a great blow to Dickens, who, in a note of
sympathy to Mr. George Stanfield, observed: "No one of your father's
friends can ever have loved him more dearly than I always did, or can
have better known the worth of his noble character." To the famous
painter, for whom he ever entertained a strong affection, the novelist
had dedicated "Little Dorrit," and, as a tribute to his memory, wrote
(in _All the Year Round_) a sympathetic eulogium upon his departed
friend of thirty years, where, after alluding to the artist as "the
National historian of the Sea," he says: "He was a charitable,
religious, gentle, truly good man. A genuine man, incapable of pretence
or of concealment. He was the soul of frankness, generosity, and
simplicity. The most genial, the most affectionate, the most loving, and
the most lovable of men."


     His Precocious Talent--Studies Anatomy--Enters the Royal
     Academy Schools--Gains a "Travelling Studentship"--Elected a
     Royal Academician--Declines the Presidency--Introduced to
     Dickens--A Lifelong Friendship--"MASTER HUMPHREY'S
     CLOCK"--Maclise Essays an Illustration--"THE CHIMES"--A
     Reading by Dickens and a Sketch by Maclise--His Original
     Drawings--"THE CRICKET ON THE HEARTH"--An Unpublished Letter
     from Maclise--"THE BATTLE OF LIFE"--Dickens's Appreciation
     of Maclise's Illustrations--The Artist's Correspondence with
     Forster Respecting his Designs--His Anxiety Concerning the
     Engraving--An Indignant Letter--"Little Dirty
     Scratches"--Maclise Dispenses with the Living
     Model--Dickens's Relations with the Artist--A Memorable
     Trip--Picture of the Waterfall at St. Nighton's Cave--A
     Portrait of Dickens--An Interesting Pencil-Drawing--Death of
     "Grip"--The Raven Immortalised by Maclise--A Letter of
     Sympathy--The Artist's Declining Health--His Death a Severe
     Shock to Dickens--The Novelist's Tribute to his Memory.

Among a host of intimate friends, none was more beloved by Dickens than
the warm-hearted Irish artist, Daniel Maclise, whose fine genius and
handsome person charmed all who knew him. Maclise was the son of a
Scotch soldier quartered at Cork, and was born in that city on January
25, 1811, being thus the novelist's senior by about a year. As a child
he exhibited great facility in executing caricatures, and was soon
enabled to support himself by the sale of his sketches. It was at first
intended that he should adopt the surgical profession, with which object
he studied anatomy under Dr. Woodroffe, but, like John Leech, he did not
take kindly to the science of healing, preferring (as did Leech) the
more congenial pursuit of Art. Accordingly, in 1827, Maclise entered the
Royal Academy Schools, where he made such rapid progress, that two years
later his work was admitted to the Exhibition of the Royal Academy.
Although, in 1831, the fortunate young painter received the gold medal
entitling him to the "Travelling Studentship," he elected to remain in
England, having already visited Paris and studied at the Louvre and the
Luxembourg. Achieving success after success as a painter of Shakesperian
scenes, portraits, &c., he became an Associate of the Royal Academy in
1836, and attained full honours in 1840. In 1866 he was offered the
Presidency, but, as did Sir Edwin Landseer during the previous year, he
declined that distinction.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =Master Humphrey's Clock, 1840-41=.]

It was in the year of his election as Associate that Maclise was
introduced by Forster to Charles Dickens, and we learn that the tastes
and pursuits of the three friends were so congenial that thenceforth
they were inseparable,--this affectionate intercourse being maintained
without interruption for nearly thirty years. When, in 1840, Dickens
contemplated the publication of "Master Humphrey's Clock," it was his
intention to endeavour to secure the valuable co-operation of Maclise as
an illustrator of that work, in conjunction with George Cattermole.
Forster states that there seems to have been a desire on Maclise's part
to try his hand at an illustration, but he did not remember that it bore
other fruit than "a very pleasant day at Jack Straw's Castle, where
Dickens read one of the later numbers to us." That Maclise's wish was
actually realised, however, is proved by the fact that in the
fifty-fifth chapter of "The Old Curiosity Shop" there is a design by him
representing Little Nell and the Sexton. Why this should have been his
only contribution to the pages of "Master Humphrey's Clock" has never
been explained, but it is not improbable that the artist was too busily
occupied with his paintings just at this time, and therefore unable to
devote serious attention to black-and-white work.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =The Chimes, 1845.=]





_Facsimiles_ of the Original Drawings for "The Chimes" by




Maclise had been much engaged in book-illustration (sometimes signing
himself "Alfred Croquis") when, in 1844, it was proposed that he should
provide designs for Dickens's second Christmas Book, "The Chimes." This
little story was written in Italy, and, during Dickens's absence,
the necessary arrangements respecting the illustrations were made by
Forster. It may be incidentally mentioned that, eager to try the effect
of the story, the novelist journeyed to England for the express purpose
of reading it aloud to his friends at Forster's residence in Lincoln's
Inn Fields, the memorable incident being depicted by Maclise in an
amusing pencil-sketch, afterwards reproduced for Forster's biography.
Maclise became responsible for the frontispiece and decorative
title-page of "The Chimes," both of these fanciful designs gracefully
portraying elves and fairies, spirits of the bells, and allegorical
figures typifying Love, Life, and Death. The original drawings, now in
South Kensington Museum, were delicately executed in pencil, and
engraved on steel by F. P. Becker. With reference to these
illustrations, the artist wrote:--

     "MY DEAR FORSTER,--I wonder if it would be possible to make
     the paper of the book an inch bigger, that is, to increase
     the width of margin around the letterpress, without much
     additional expense. I wish you to put the question. I do not
     think my design too large, but it would marvellously
     increase the elegance of the look of the book. I must say
     the 'Carol' book is the very climax of vulgarity in its
     _mise en planches_.--_Au revoir._.

     "D. M."[40]

    Footnote 40: This and the succeeding letters from Maclise to
    Forster are now printed for the first time.

It was, of course, considered inadvisable to depart from precedent by
acting upon the above suggestion. Dickens was highly pleased with the
artist's designs, and, writing to his wife on December 2, 1844, he said:
"Mac's frontispiece is charming."

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =The Cricket on the Hearth, 1846.=]

To the third Christmas Book, "The Cricket on the Hearth," Maclise also
contributed the frontispiece and decorative title-page, which were
engraved on wood instead of steel. These designs are replete with quaint
fancy, the frontispiece being especially worthy of attention,
comprising, as it does, no less than ten miniature _tableaux_, the
chief of these representing a homely scene, where the Carrier and his
wife are seated by the fireside, their babe being rocked in its cradle
by the fairies, while above the steaming kettle is perched that good
spirit, the Cricket. The following undated letter is interesting on
account of its connection with this Christmas story:--

        "MY DEAR FORSTER,-- ... I write to ask if you have a moment to see
    B[radbury] and E[vans] about these blocks for my little designs. I
    wrote to D[ickens] Saturday, and there came to me such a small pair
    that I instantly sent them back. Then on Saturday evening two more
    came; _one of them will do_--but as you understand the matter, and
    last year even got the book enlarged a little,[41] I want you to say
    that I _must have a block_ for the _frontispiece_ the exact size of
    the leaf on which the frontispiece of the 'Chimes' is. I have made a
    little sketch to be placed on the wood, and some of the little
    shapes come as close to the edge of the page as this line I
    make--[Symbol: long vertical line]. I want the wood as high and as
    wide as that page--but oh! my I--on, if it could but be--the _page_
    I mean, not the _wood_,--a little--_so_ much larger, ah! I should be
    happy for life. Tell B. and E. this and ask D. to insist on it.
    Mind, I am not exceeding the present paper of the 'Chimes,' but for
    the look of the book it would be very important--and they have sent
    me a block much smaller than that page, whereas I cannot afford
    one-hundredth part of a pin's point. I know 'tis vain to write to
    them--so trouble you, and I want the blocks--in an hour!!!--Ever
    most faithfully,

     "D. M."

    Footnote 41: There was practically no enlargement.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =The Battle of Life, 1846.=]

The artist prepared for "The Battle of Life" not only the customary
frontispiece and title-page, but two additional designs for the later
portion of the story. Dickens, who was in Paris at the time, was
delighted when he heard of this, and in a letter to a friend observed:
"Forster writes me that Mac has come out with tremendous vigour in the
Christmas Book, and took off his coat at it with a burst of such
alarming energy that he has done four subjects!" Of these, the principal
is the frontispiece, representing the Dance round the Appletree, but the
most successful design is that depicting "The Sisters,"--a graceful
composition, and the last drawing produced by the artist for Dickens.

Remembering the novelist's keen appreciation of Maclise's illustrations
in the preceding Christmas Books, it seems somewhat strange that the
artist should have thus emphatically expressed himself to Forster in the
following letter, evidently indited in a moment of pique:--

     "MY DEAR F.,--It is clear to me that Dickens does not care
     one damn whether I make a little sketch for the book or not.
     However, if _you_ think that the appearance of the volume
     should be as like the former ones as possible, I will with
     even pleasure gulp down my jealousy and draw on the wood
     that apple-tree, &c, for a frontispiece. In which case you
     must _shut up that_ same subject to Doyle--as I saw in his
     sketch last night. But I do this at your bidding, and not at
     all for D., and on the whole would much prefer not engaging
     in the matter at all.--Yours truly,

     "D. M."

Apparently some little misunderstanding had hurt the susceptibilities of
the artist, but, happily, it was speedily removed, for he presently
wrote in a more conciliatory spirit:--

     "MY DEAR FORSTER,--I have received the blocks and will make
     the design of the apple-tree and the girls dancing--so keep
     that subject sacred to me. B[radbury] and E[vans] have sent
     the block as large as the last, but as I do not approve the
     look of the design without margin, I intend to keep this one
     within bounds. They have sent me a smaller one for
     title-page. Now I propose, and I know it will improve the
     appearance of the little book, not to cram in another design
     there with the title--a printed title in type has always
     still been necessary--but if you like I will make another
     design for the body of the book. That one, perhaps, the
     lover of Marion's interview with her--and Clemency. I hope
     very much you will see no good objection to this
     proposition--or will _you_ propose a second subject?--Ever
     yours truly

     "D. M."

Again, a few days later:--

     "MY DEAR FORSTER,-- ... I write to say that you will find me
     at the Athenæum to-morrow at five o'clock. Do not be later.
     I hope _then_ to bring with me the drawing on the block for
     the frontispiece--the girls dancing; for the other, I will
     do what you like, the girls and the Doctor, Marion reading,
     &c, or the lover of Marion's interview with her, and
     Clemency outside the door, &c. We will agree
     to-morrow.--Very truly yours,

     "D. MACLISE.

     "I hope there may be time enough then not to hurry it."

The following letter probably refers to the allegorical design on the
title-page, depicting the triumph of Virtue over Vice, in which the
figures (with one exception) are nude: although, from an allusion to
"that tree," it might be suggested that it was the frontispiece:--

     "MY DEAR FORSTER,--I suppose the stern moralist, Thackeray,
     would have described the last design I made lecherous,
     libidinous, lustful, lewd, and loose; but I meant it to be
     pure and 'mi-ld as the moo-n-beams.'

     "... I only write to tell you, if you can exercise any
     control over its fate, that it may be placed in the hands of
     as good a wood-man as possible, and that he be recommended
     to spare _that_ tree-e-.

     "I fear that my character is gone abroad, and that I am a
     dog with a bad name....--Ever yours,


Both the frontispiece and title-page were excellently rendered on wood
by John Thompson, one of the foremost engravers of the day. Maclise,
however, had hoped the work would have been entrusted to others, for he
observed to Forster: "I am annoyed that neither Williams nor Dalziel are
to do that little design. Some one called here and took it away on
Monday, and he said that there was not time (the old excuse) to do it
justice." Judging from the following trenchant remarks, the artist was
anything but gratified by the engraved reproductions of these drawings
when they appeared in print:--

     "MY DEAR F.,--I can never hope to get you to understand how
     I am mortified and humiliated by the effect of these
     damnable cuts. It really is too much to be called upon to
     submit to, to be shown up in these little dirty scratches
     and to have one's name blazoned as if one was proud of them.
     I wish to Heaven you would have my name cut out from the
     corners, that at least I might have the benefit of the doubt
     as to which of the blots is mine. I would give anything that
     I had kept to my original notion and had nothing to do with
     the thing.... I wish you had left me that last one; I would
     have tried to beguile myself with a belief that it might be
     improved. My curses light upon the miserable dog that
     produced it--I don't mean myself.--Ever yours,

     "D. MACLISE.

     "And what is the good of employing Thom[p]son--if the demon
     printers are to ruin them with their diabolic press?"

Maclise, like other draughtsmen on wood, doubtless often experienced a
sense of disappointment when their delicately-pencilled drawings were
hurriedly engraved and submitted to the arbitrary treatment of printer's
ink. In this way those subtle touches upon which the artist prided
himself were lost for ever, so that the designs appear coarse and crude.
Such was obviously the case with regard to the illustrations now under
consideration, notwithstanding the fact that they bear the signatures of
thoroughly experienced engravers. It is a fact worth recording here that
Maclise did not draw from life the figures in his designs for the
Christmas Books. Indeed, it was a matter of astonishment to his brother
artists that, even when working upon his more important canvases, he
very rarely resorted to the use of the living model, his singular
facility in composition leading him, perhaps, too often to dispense with
the study of the human form; yet his works, although possessing a
mannered look, are distinctively marked by characteristics of individual
as well as general nature.

As already intimated, the friendship subsisting between Dickens and
Maclise was of a kind the most sincere, and it was naturally coupled
with a true admiration which each entertained for the genius of the
other. Dickens never tired of praising the talent of the artist, whom he
thought "a tremendous creature, who might do anything," and recalled
with delight those halcyon days when Maclise accompanied Clarkson
Stanfield, Forster, and himself on that memorable Cornish trip in 1842,
one result of which was a charming painting (now in the Forster
Collection at South Kensington) of the Waterfall at St. Nighton's Keive,
near Tintagel, into which the artist introduced as the principal feature
a young girl carrying a pitcher, the model for whom was Dickens's
sister-in-law, Miss Georgina Hogarth. It should be remembered that one
of the finest of the early portraits of Dickens himself was painted by
Maclise in 1839, at the instigation of Chapman & Hall, with a view to an
engraving for "Nicholas Nickleby," the reproduction duly appearing as
the frontispiece. The original picture was presented to Dickens by his
publishers, and at the sale of the novelist's effects in 1870 this very
interesting canvas was purchased for £693 by the Rev. Sir E. R. Jodrell,
by whom it was bequeathed to the National Gallery, where it may now be
seen. Maclise is responsible also for another excellent portrait of the
novelist at the same youthful period--a slight pencil-drawing (executed
in 1843) representing him with his wife and her sister.

The premature death of Dickens's raven, immortalised in "Barnaby Rudge,"
was formally notified to Maclise by the novelist in the form of a letter
narrating the details of that domestic calamity. The artist forwarded
the missive to Forster, together with a sketch purporting to represent
"Grip's" apotheosis, while to Dickens himself he dispatched (March 13,
1841) the following letter, which does not appear in the published
collection, and is one of a very few letters extant that were addressed
by him to the novelist:[42]--

    Footnote 42: Replying to Mr. W. J. O'Driscoll's application
    for the loan of any of the artist's correspondence, with a
    view to publishing them in his Memoir of Maclise, Dickens
    stated that a few years previously he destroyed an immense
    correspondence, expressly because he considered it had been
    held with him and not with the public. Thus we have been
    deprived of valuable records which would have thrown
    additional light upon the friendly intercourse subsisting
    between the novelist and many of his distinguished

     "MY DEAR DICKENS,--I received the mournful intelligence of
     our friend's decease last night at eleven, and the shock was
     great indeed. I have just dispatched the announcement to
     poor Forster, who will, I am sure, sympathise with us in our
     bereavement. I know not what to think of the probable cause
     of his death,--I reject the idea of the Butcher Boy, for the
     orders he must have in his (the Raven's) life-time received
     on account of the Raven himself must have been considerable.
     I rather cling to the notion of _felo de se_--but this will
     no doubt come out upon the post-mortem. How blest we are to
     have such an intelligent coroner as Mr. Wakley. I think he
     was just of those melancholic habits which are the
     noticeable signs of your intended suicide, his solitary
     life, those gloomy tones,--when he did speak, which was
     always to the purpose. Witness his last dying speech,
     'Hallo! old girl,' which breathes of cheerfulness and
     triumphant recognition,--his solemn suit of raven black,
     which never grew rusty. Altogether his character was the
     very prototype of a Byron hero--and even of a Scott--a
     Master of Ravenswood. He ought to be glad he had no family.
     I suppose he seems to have intended it, however, for his
     solicitude to deposit in those Banks in the garden his
     savings was always very touching. I suppose his obsequies
     will take place immediately.

     "It is beautiful, the idea of his return, even after death,
     to the scene of his early youth and all his associations,
     and lie with kindred dusts amid his own ancestral graves
     after having made such a noise in the world, having clearly
     booked his place in that immortality-coach driven by
     Dickens. Yes, he committed suicide; he felt he had done it
     and done with life. The hundreds of years! what were they to
     him? There was nothing more to live for--and he committed
     the rash act.--Sympathisingly yours,

     "DAN. MACLISE."

It is evident from the following epistle, addressed to Forster at the
time when "Dombey and Son" was appearing in monthly numbers, that
Maclise, while acknowledging his intense admiration of the novelist's
powers, could not bring himself to appreciate certain of his youthful

     "MY DEAR FORSTER,--I think it very great--the old
     nautical-instrument-seller novel, and most promising. I'm
     never up to his young girls--he is so very fond of the age
     of 'Nell,' when they are most insipid. I hope he is not
     going to make another 'Slowboy'--but I am only trying to say
     something, and to find fault when there is none to find. _He
     is absolutely alone._--Ever yours,

     "D. M."

In 1870 Maclise's health began seriously to fail him; he appeared
languid and depressed, and in April of that year he succumbed to an
attack of acute pneumonia, predeceasing the novelist by only a few

Dickens experienced a severe shock on hearing of the death of this
steadfast and genuine friend, and when, three days later, he returned
thanks for "Literature" at the Royal Academy dinner (his final
appearance in public), he offered a most affectionate, graceful, and
eloquent tribute to the memory of him who had just passed away. "For
many years," he said, "I was one of the two most intimate friends and
most constant companions of the late Mr. Maclise. Of his genius in his
chosen art I will venture to say nothing here, but of his prodigious
fertility of mind and wonderful wealth of intellect, I may confidently
assert that they would have made him, if he had been so minded, at least
as great a writer as he was a painter. The gentlest and most modest of
men, the freshest as to his generous appreciation of young aspirants,
and the frankest and largest-hearted as to his peers, incapable of a
sordid or ignoble thought, gallantly sustaining the true dignity of his
vocation, without one grain of self-ambition, wholesomely natural at the
last as at the first, 'in wit a man, simplicity a child,' no artist, of
whatsoever denomination, I make bold to say, ever went to his rest
leaving a golden memory more pure from dross, or having devoted himself
with a truer chivalry to the art-goddess whom he worshipped." These were
the last public words of Charles Dickens, and they were uttered when the
speaker was far from well, and when, indeed, he was himself nearing the
brink of the Great Unknown.


     Cartoons for _Punch_--Book Illustrations--A Self-Taught
     Artist--Becomes Acquainted with Dickens--Designs for "The
     Haunted Man"--A Wonderful Memory of Observation--An
     Interview with Dickens--Knighthood.

Sir John Tenniel, the _doyen_ of the _Punch_ staff, is undoubtedly best
known as the designer and draughtsman of the cartoon published weekly in
that journal. This famous pictorial satirist succeeded Richard Doyle on
_Punch_ in 1850, and since 1861 (with the exception of a few brief
intervals) he has supplied the subject of the principal engraving with
unfailing regularity. Confining himself almost entirely to
black-and-white drawing, Sir John has produced, during a long and active
career, a large number of book-illustrations, such as those embellishing
certain editions of "Æsop's Fables," "The Ingoldsby Legends," "Lalla
Rookh," and "The Arabian Nights," while those charming designs in the
late "Lewis Carroll's" "Alice in Wonderland," with its sequel, "Through
the Looking-Glass," will be readily remembered. In _Once a Week_ may
also be found many of his illustrations.

Sir John Tenniel was born in London in 1820. Although for a time he
attended the Royal Academy Schools, he is practically a self-taught
artist, and exhibited his first picture when sixteen years of age. After
this initial success he continued to paint and exhibit pictures both in
oil and water-colours, but soon realised that he could exercise his
facile pencil with greater advantage, his designs possessing a
refinement and good taste, coupled with a sense of
humour--characteristics suggesting the thought that to him may be
attributed the establishment of the connection between "High" Art and
what may be termed "Grotesque" Art.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =The Haunted Man, 1848.=]

Prior to joining the _Punch_ staff--that is to say, in 1847--Sir (then
Mr.) John Tenniel became acquainted with Charles Dickens, who invited
the young artist to contribute (in conjunction with Clarkson Stanfield,
R.A., John Leech, and Frank Stone, A.R.A.) some designs to "The Haunted
Man," published in 1848. Accordingly, in this Christmas Book we find him
represented by six illustrations, consisting of the frontispiece,
engraved title-page, and four other designs, the latter appearing at the
opening of the chapters. The frontispiece is a remarkable achievement in
respect to the decorative border surrounding the central picture,--a
beautifully-fanciful treatment of elf-like and other figures, typifying
Good and Evil, the drawing being admirably engraved on wood by Martin
and Corbould. In the second chapter the artist has represented the
Tetterby family, which it is interesting to compare with a similar group
of the Tetterbys by John Leech in the same chapter. Sir John Tenniel's
final drawing is a successful attempt to portray, in the form of
allegory, Night receding before Dawn.

Except in painting, Sir John Tenniel never resorts to the use of the
living model for his figures, but depends entirely upon a wonderful
memory of observation. _Apropos_ of his collaboration with the novelist,
he has favoured me with the following note:--

     "My 'artistic association' with Charles Dickens began and
     ended simply with my poor little contributions towards the
     illustration of 'The Haunted Man.' There was no written
     correspondence between us that I can remember, and I believe
     I had but one interview with Dickens on the subject, when he
     gave me certain hints as to treatment, &c. &c. &c. Only
     that, and nothing more!

     "As to what became of the original sketches I have not the
     remotest idea; probably I gave them away--or, more probably
     still, they were one day consigned to the waste-paper
     basket. At all events, and after an interval of about
     forty-five years, it is perhaps scarcely surprising that I
     should have long since forgotten all about them."

It should be mentioned that, as in the case of Leech, many of Sir John
Tenniel's _Punch_ cartoons are adapted from illustrations in the works
of Dickens, these happily suggesting the political situation of the
moment. This subject is fully treated in my paper on "Dickens and
_Punch_" in the _English Illustrated Magazine_, August 1891.

Sir John is one of the oldest members of the Royal Institute of Painters
in Water-Colours. In June 1893 the distinction of knighthood was
conferred upon the veteran artist, his name having been included in the
list of Royal birthday honours, at the recommendation of Mr. Gladstone,
whose face and figure he has so frequently delineated; thus for the
first time were the claims of black-and-white draughtsmen deservedly
recognised. Sir John Tenniel's busy pencil continues to be effectively
employed in the pages of _Punch_; but he remains, alas! the sole
survivor of the band of clever artists whose designs adorn the Christmas
Books of Charles Dickens.


     Early Career--Intimacy with Dickens--Illustrations for "THE
     HAUNTED MAN"--Selects his Own Subjects--A Letter from
     Dickens--His Approbation of the Drawing of "Milly and the
     Old Man"--Hints from the Novelist to the Artist--Amateur
     Theatricals--Frank Stone's Portrait of Lieutenant Sydney
     Dickens--His Election as Associate of the Royal Academy--His
     Portraits of 'Tilda Price, Kate Nickleby, and Madeline
     Bray--His Frontispiece for the First Cheap Edition of
     "Martin Chuzzlewit"--Sudden Death.

Frank Stone, A.R.A., father of Mr. Marcus Stone, R.A., was privileged to
join the ranks of Dickens Illustrators. This distinguished artist, born
in 1800, was the son of a Manchester cotton-spinner, which business he
also followed until twenty-four years of age, when he abandoned
mercantile pursuits in favour of Art. During the early portion of his
professional career, which was begun in London under very modest and
unassuming conditions, he made pencil-drawings for Heath's "Book of
Beauty," and presently became successful as a painter in water-colours.
His engaging personality and innate abilities caused him to be welcomed
in both literary and artistic circles, and in this way he secured the
warm friendship of Dickens, Thackeray, and other celebrities of the day.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =The Haunted Man, 1848.=]

Frank Stone's intimacy with Charles Dickens was especially close. In
1845 the artist, with his family, went to reside in Tavistock House,
Tavistock Square, remaining there until 1851, when it became the home of
Dickens. In the interval the novelist's fourth Christmas Book, "The
Haunted Man," was published, for which Frank Stone prepared three
designs, representing respectively "Milly and the Old Man," "Milly and
the Student," and "Milly and the Children." As indicated by the
following letter (dated November 21, 1848), the novelist dispatched
proofs of the letterpress to the artist, in order that he might select
his own subjects:--

     "MY DEAR STONE,--I send herewith the second part of the
     book, which I hope may interest you. If you should prefer to
     have it read to you by the Inimitable rather than to read
     it, I shall be at home this evening (loin of mutton at
     half-past five), and happy to do it. The proofs are full of
     printer's errors, but, with the few corrections I have
     scrawled upon it, you will be able to make out what they

     "I send you on the opposite side a list of the subjects
     already in hand from the second part. If you should see no
     other in it that you like (I think it important that you
     should keep Milly, as you have begun with her), I will in a
     day or two describe you an unwritten subject for the third
     part of the book."

     "_Subjects in hand for the Second Part._

     "1. Illuminated page. Tenniel. Representing Redlaw going
     upstairs, and the Tetterby family below.

     "2. The Tetterby Supper. Leech.

     "3. The boy in Redlaw's room, munching his food and staring
     at the fire."

       *       *       *       *       *

     A preliminary sketch (in pencil and indian-ink) for the
     first subject was immediately submitted to the novelist for
     approval, and elicited the following reply:--

     "We are unanimous.

     "The drawing of Milly on the chair is CHARMING. I cannot
     tell you how much the little composition and expression
     please me. Do that, by all means.



_Facsimile_ of the Original Drawing for "The Haunted Man" by


_Lent by Mr. Marcus Stone. R.A._


     "I fear she must have a little cap on. There is something
     coming in the last part about her having had a dead child,
     which makes it yet more desirable than the existing text
     does that she should have that little matronly sign
     about her. Unless the artist is obdurate indeed, and then
     he'll do as he likes.

     "I am delighted to hear that you have your eye on her in the
     students' room. You will really, pictorially, make the
     little woman whom I love...."

     The original sketch of Milly on the chair has fortunately
     been preserved, and has been kindly lent for reproduction by
     Mr. Marcus Stone, R.A. The drawing of the old man in the
     published engraving is hardly so satisfactory as the
     delineation of him in the sketch. The second illustration,
     "Milly and the Student," was duly executed; it is a very
     graceful design, the pose of the male figure being
     excellently rendered. Respecting the third illustration, the
     novelist communicated to the artist the following facts, to
     assist him in realising the principal theme:--

     "There is a subject I have written to-day for the third
     part, that I think and hope will just suit you.
     Scene--Tetterby's. Time--morning. The power of bringing back
     people's memories of sorrow, wrong, and trouble has been
     given by the ghost to Milly, though she don't know it
     herself. As she comes along the street, Mr. and Mrs.
     Tetterby recover themselves and are mutually affectionate
     again, and embrace, closing _rather_ a good scene of quarrel
     and discontent. The moment they do so, Johnny (who has seen
     her in the distance and announced her before, from which
     moment they begin to recover) cries 'Here she is!'and she
     comes in, surrounded by the little Tetterbys, the very
     spirit of morning, gladness, innocence, hope, love,
     domesticity, &c. &c. &c. &c.

     "I would limit the illustration to her and the children,
     which will make a fitness between it and your other
     illustrations, and give them all a character of their own.
     The exact words of the passage I enclose on another slip of
     paper. Note: There are six boy Tetterbys present (young
     'Dolphus is not there), including Johnny; and in Johnny's
     arms is Mulock, the baby, who is a girl.... Don't wait to
     send me the drawing of this. I know how pretty she will be
     with the children in your hands, and should be a stupendous
     jackass if I had any distrust of it...."

     (_Slip of paper enclosed._)

     "'Hurrah! here's Mrs. Williams!' cried Johnny.

     "So she was, and all the Tetterby children with her; and as
     she came in, they kissed her and kissed one another, and
     kissed the baby, and kissed their father and mother, and
     then ran back and flocked and danced about her, trooping on
     with her in triumph.

     "(After which she is going to say, 'What, are _you_ all glad
     to see me too! Oh, how happy it makes me to find every one
     so glad to see me this bright morning!')"

       *       *       *       *       *

The amateur theatricals brought author and artist constantly together,
Frank Stone being an actor of some ability. The immortal Mrs. Gamp, in
describing the members of that famous company of players, alludes to
Frank Stone as "a fine-looking portly gentleman, with a face like an
amiable full moon." He became the recipient of many nicknames, that of
"Pump" (or "Pumpion") being one by which Dickens sometimes addressed
him, and it was both pleasantly intended and jocularly received. In 1849
the artist painted the portrait of the novelist's fifth son, Lieutenant
Sydney Dickens, who was buried at sea in 1872, his death being due to a
sharp attack of bronchitis when on his way home.

Frank Stone exhibited at the Society of Painters in Water-Colours from
1833 to 1846, and was elected a member of that Society in 1842. He first
exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1838, his election as an Associate
taking place in 1851. The artist, on receiving a commission from Dickens
for a picture, painted a presentment of "'Tilda Price," the _fiancée_ of
the genial John Browdie in "Nicholas Nickleby," the picture realising
the sum of £42 at the sale of the novelist's effects in 1870. This and
two other paintings by Stone (portraits of Kate Nickleby and Madeline
Bray) were engraved on steel by Finden, and published ("with the
approbation of Charles Dickens") by Chapman & Hall in 1848; the plates
were intended for insertion in the first cheap edition of "Nicholas
Nickleby." Besides his illustrations for "The Haunted Man," he also
designed the frontispiece for the first cheap edition of "Martin
Chuzzlewit" (1849), which depicts Mark Tapley on the sick-bed; this
drawing was engraved on wood by T. Bolton.

The sudden death of Frank Stone in 1859 caused Dickens heartfelt sorrow.
"You will be grieved," he wrote to Forster on November 19, "to hear of
poor Stone. On Sunday he was not well. On Monday went to Dr. Todd, who
told him he had aneurism of the heart. On Tuesday went to Dr. Walsh, who
told him he hadn't. On Wednesday I met him in a cab in the Square here
[Tavistock Square], and he got out to talk to me. I walked about with
him a little while at a snail's pace, cheering him up; but when I came
home, I told them that I thought him much changed, and in danger.
Yesterday at two o'clock he died of spasm of the heart. I am going up to
Highgate to look for a grave for him."


     First Acquaintance with Dickens--Designs an Illustration for
     "THE CRICKET ON THE HEARTH"--Elected a Royal
     Academician--Receives the Honour of Knighthood--Declines the
     Presidency of the Royal Academy--Severe Illness and Death.

Charles Dickens first became acquainted with Sir Edwin Henry Landseer
during the "Nickleby" period, and ever entertained the highest
admiration and personal regard for this famous artist, to whom Thackeray
once referred as "a sort of aristocrat among painters." Sir Edwin was an
artist by hereditary right and family instinct, being the eldest son of
the well-known engraver, John Landseer, A.R.A. He was born in London in
1802, and at the age of thirteen exhibited two pictures at the Royal
Academy, thus proving that he possessed most exceptional powers as a
draughtsman even at this early period.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =The Cricket on the Hearth, 1846.=]

It is perhaps not generally remembered that Sir Edwin Landseer has a
just claim to be numbered among the Illustrators of Dickens. Though he
made but a single design, it is indubitably a masterpiece, and suffices
to indicate the admirable skill acquired by this great painter in
depicting what may be considered his favourite subject--the dog. The
charming little woodcut of "Boxer"--the irrepressible companion of John
Peerybingle, in "The Cricket on the Hearth"--defies criticism.



From a Photograph by


_Lent by the Artist._


From the Painting by


The dog's head was added by Sir Edwin himself.



In 1825, Sir Edwin (then Mr.) Landseer was elected an Associate of the
Royal Academy, and five years later he attained the full honours, from
which date might be chronicled a long and regular catalogue of pictures
exhibited by him, year by year, either at the British Institution
or on the walls of the Royal Academy. In 1850 he received the honour of
Knighthood, and, at the death of Sir Charles Eastlake in 1865, was
offered the Presidency of the Royal Academy,--a distinction which he
could not be induced to accept. In 1871 a severe illness paralysed his
powerful pencil; from this illness the artist never recovered, and two
years later the mournful intelligence of his death was announced, his
mortal remains being interred in St. Paul's Cathedral. In private life
Sir Edwin was one of the most kind and courteous of men and warmest of
friends,--qualities of mind and heart which endeared him to all with
whom he came in contact.


     A Self-taught Artist--Exhibits at the British Institution
     and the Royal Academy--Marriage with John Linnell's
     Daughter--Visits Italy--His Sketches of Italian
     Scenery--Elected an Associate, and afterwards a Member, of
     the Society of Painters in Water-Colours--An Etcher and
     Draughtsman on Wood--His Designs for "PICTURES FROM
     ITALY"--A Letter from Dickens--The Artist's Method of
     Work--The Villa D'Este--His Drawings Difficult to
     Reproduce--Elaborate Instructions to Engravers--Literature a
     Favourite Amusement--Fondness for Reading Aloud--Admires the
     Novels of Dickens--Illness and Death.

During Charles Dickens's very brief connection with the _Daily News_, at
the time of its foundation in 1846, he contributed to its columns a
series of "Travelling Sketches," descriptive of his experiences in
Italy, and of his impressions concerning the scenery, institutions, and
social aspects of the people in that beautiful country. Shortly after
the publication of the concluding paper, these "Sketches" were re-issued
in book form, under the title of "Pictures from Italy," with vignette
illustrations on wood by Samuel Palmer.



From a Photograph by


_Lent by Mr. F. W. W. Topham._


From a Photograph

_Lent by Mr. A. H. Palmer._



Samuel Palmer, who was born in Newington, London, in 1805, was to a
great extent a self-taught artist, his first successes dating from his
fourteenth year, when he was represented by two pictures at the British
Institution and three at the Royal Academy, his work from that time
being frequently seen at one or the other gallery. In 1837 (that is,
while "Pickwick" was in course of publication) he married the eldest
daughter of John Linnell, the famous portrait and landscape painter,
leaving England soon afterwards with his young wife for Italy. Here they
stayed two years--years of such persistent and enthusiastic study that
the sketches and elaborate drawings of some of the finest Italian
scenery which the artist brought back, very numerous though they
were, are no measure of the influence which the sojourn in the land of
his favourite poet, Virgil, had upon his after-life and upon his
artistic labours.

Samuel Palmer is chiefly remembered by his charming water-colour
drawings, but it seems that in his early years he preferred painting in
oils, whence he afterwards gradually drifted into the use of the former
medium, his election as Associate of the Society of Painters in
Water-Colours in 1843[43] determining his future career. He was a most
successful etcher, his plates being admired by the _connoisseur_ for the
beauty of _technique_ therein displayed. Concerning his efforts with the
needle, Mr. P. G. Hamerton says that Samuel Palmer was one of the most
accomplished etchers who ever lived, and that "there is more feeling,
and insight, and knowledge in one twig drawn by his hand than in the
life's production of many a well-known artist."[44] It must be admitted,
however, that the occasional drawings executed by him for the
wood-engraver do not indicate equal ability as a draughtsman on wood. In
early days he actually attempted, in emulation of his intimate friend
Edward Calvert, to engrave upon wood some of his own designs, this fact
testifying to the extraordinary influence exercised by William Blake
over the contemporary work of such young artists as Palmer, Calvert, and
the rest of the "Ancients," as they jocosely dubbed themselves.

    Footnote 43: Palmer was elected a Member of this Society in

    Footnote 44: "Etching and Etchers," 3rd edition, 1880.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =Pictures from Italy, 1846.=]

The first drawings executed upon the wood-block by Palmer and intended
as book-illustrations were apparently the designs for "Pictures from
Italy;" these are four in number, representing the Street of the Tombs,
Pompeii; the Villa D'Este at Tivoli, from the Cypress Avenue; the
Colosseum of Rome; and a Vineyard Scene. One of the artist's
memorandum-books contains an entry recording the receipt from the
publishers of twenty guineas for these drawings. Samuel Palmer and
Charles Dickens were never on terms of intimacy; however the
acquaintance originated has never transpired, nor does the artist's son,
Mr. A. H. Palmer, remember his father ever referring to the subject. It
is probable that the novelist's attention had been directed to Palmer's
excellent rendering of Italian scenery, which had attracted considerable
notice among artists, and that, having met him, he found a degree of
warm enthusiasm for that scenery which was so unusual, that he felt
convinced that the illustrating of the "Pictures" could not be placed in
better hands. Palmer accepted the commission, but, like all his drawings
that were destined to be engraved on wood, it somewhat perplexed him,
for reasons presently to be explained. A correspondence of a formal
business character ensued, and of the few letters still extant I am
enabled to print the following, which endorses the belief that an
interview had taken place between author and artist.

     _Wednesday, Thirteenth May, 1846_.

     "DEAR SIR,--I beg to assure you that I would on no account
     dream of allowing the book to go to press without the
     insertion of your name in the title-page. I placed it there
     myself, two days ago.

     "I have not seen the designs, but I have no doubt whatever
     (remembering your sketches) that they are very good.

     "Dear sir, faithfully yours,


     "SAMUEL PALMER, Esq."

Two of the woodcuts, viz., those printed on the first and last pages of
the little book, were designed to allow the text to be dropped in.
Sketches (or rather finished drawings) were made on paper before the
subjects were copied by the artist upon the wood-blocks, which drawings,
by the way, are much inferior to the artist's water-colours of the same
or similar subjects. It seems evident, from the word "On" being
tentatively introduced at the top of the original sketch of the Villa
D'Este, that this illustration was at first intended to be placed at
the beginning of the chapter entitled "Going through France," instead of
appearing (as it eventually did) in conjunction with the opening lines
of the preliminary chapter,--"The Reader's Passport." It was apparently
Palmer's proposal to insert on the block a decorative letter "S," but
Dickens, in a letter to the artist, says, "I am afraid I cannot
comfortably manage an S. What do you say to the word 'On'? Could you
possibly do that?"

With regard to the treatment of these illustrations, there is no doubt
that they are faithful representations of Nature, adapted from sketches
made on the spot. As a matter of fact, it was directly contrary to the
artist's habit and principles to transcribe a sketch detail for detail.
Although the character of his drawing was somewhat involved, rendering
more difficult the work of the engraver, the woodcuts (which bear no
signature) are most carefully executed. Notwithstanding this, Mr. A. H.
Palmer assures me that these designs, and the rendering of them by the
wood-engraver, were not of a kind to which the artist could look back
with much satisfaction.

Mr. A. H. Palmer still retains in his possession a drawing on wood by
his father of the Villa D'Este, the second illustration in "Pictures
from Italy," which was apparently discarded because the artist had
omitted to reverse his design, and therefore could not be properly
adapted to the particular page for which it was prepared. Those who are
familiar with the freedom and vigour of Samuel Palmer's work from Nature
will realise at a glance that he was not at his ease upon wood. In the
margin of this drawing the artist pencilled the following instructions
to the engraver, who had not entirely succeeded in producing the more
subtle effects:--

"I wish the thin cypress to be very much as it _appears upon the
block_--not lighter. Now that the trees have been darkened, it will be
necessary to leave the lines of the building _quite_ as thick as they
are drawn, letting them gradually gain more strength as they come
downwards towards the steps. The degree of sharpness with which the
drawing terminates toward the letterpress is just what I wish."

From this and the following notes, minutely written upon the two
retouched proofs of the engraving of this subject, we discover how very
much too sanguine the artist was as to the result of the translation of
his work, the voluminous directions clearly indicating his solicitude
respecting the treatment of microscopic details in his design, the
alleged importance of which would be quite beyond the comprehension of
an ordinary engraver. Palmer subsequently learnt by experience that his
drawing on wood was practically untranslatable as he preferred to offer
it for engraving.

_MS. Notes on the First Proof._

"(1.) In both proofs the top of the cypress is very indistinct, which
greatly injures the design.

"(2.) From A to B the illuminated side of the cypress has lost its tint
in both impressions, which is ruinous to the effect, as the eye can no
longer follow it as a simple object distinct from the building from the
top to the bottom of the design. The top of the building, too, in both
impressions, is nearly invisible, as if the inking had failed. It is
very important that this should be rectified, so as not to appear in the
printing of the work, as otherwise it will spoil the whole work. I have
worked upon building and cypress a little in pencil to show how they
ought to have come even in a faint impression.

"(3.) Opposite this mark the light on the cypress stems has been carried
down a little lower, and two or three fine threads of light have been
introduced into the shadowed side (which are intended to be scarcely
perceptible) to remove a blottiness in the dark.

"(4.) The touches on the steps, the statue, and the whole of the lower
part of the trees and ground, though not very numerous, are very
important to the finish of the foreground.



_Facsimile_ of an Original Design for "Pictures from Italy" by SAMUEL

_Lent by Mr. A. H. Palmer._


"(5.) The darkest lines in the great vase have been thinned in the
_slightest degree_.

"(6.) Close to C the thickness of a black line on the edge of the
cypress has been split.

"(7.) From E down to F a minute speck of light has here and there been
inserted on the outline of the cypress foliage to split some blots of
dark which will be seen on the untouched proofs, and which were rather

"(8.) The light flashing on the steps ought to make thinner without
removing the outline of the arm of the statue. The foot resting upon the
pedestal should be indicated. The action of the other leg thrown back is
shown in the retouching by the removal of the black line.

"(9.) The getting the upper part of the slender cypress of as full a
tint as I have given it here seems to me so important that if it can be
done in no other way, I think a piece should be inserted into the block
to effect it. In the drawing on the block it was like this, which I have
retouched with pencil."

_Second Proof._

"(1.) Opposite are a few touches on the slender cypress--two very thin
lines of light on the stem. Specks of light on the foliage.

"(2.) There is a thick black line on the block, thus [Symbol:
left-bowing arc] which I have here crossed with specks of white;
although it is in the body of the tree, it kills the fine work on the

"(3.) The thickness of outline on the light side of this vase unfinishes
the foreground. I have altered it.

"(4.) The thick outline on this leaf unfinishes everything about it."

       *       *       *       *       *

Thus we discover how fastidious to a degree was the artist in his desire
that every subtle touch of his poetic pencil should be reproduced--a
result which, as he quickly perceived, it was impossible to achieve.

Samuel Palmer took a still keener delight in Literature than he did in
Art. An insatiable but punctilious reader, the novels of Dickens and
Scott were among the very few works of fiction which he read aloud to
members of his own household. Mr. A. H. Palmer informs me that he has
known his father to be so engrossed by reading aloud one of Dickens's
finer and more exciting passages, that the announcement and entry of a
visitor served to stop the reading only for a few moments; the crisis
past, he laid down the book and apologised. Literature, indeed,
constituted the chief pleasure of his simple life--a life that, at one
period at least, would have been almost insupportable without the
consolation afforded by books. Early in May, 1881, he became, alas! too
ill to work, and on the twenty-fourth of that month he passed peacefully
away, leaving behind him a reputation which is blameless.


     Illustrations for "A CHILD'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND"--Begins
     Life as a Writing-Engraver--Designs for Books--Exhibits at
     the Royal Academy--Elected an Associate of the New Society
     of Painters--Retires from the Society--Elected a Member of
     the Old Society of Painters in Water-Colours--First Visit to
     Spain--Fatal Illness--Some Pictures Inspired by Dickens's
     Stories--Histrionic Ability--The Artist as a Juggler.

[Sidenote: =A Child's History of England, 1852-53-54.=]

During the years 1851-52-53, there appeared in the pages of _Household
Words_ one of Charles Dickens's less familiar writings, "A Child's
History of England." On its completion as a serial, the little work was
issued in three 16mo volumes, each containing a frontispiece by F. W.
Topham. These illustrations were engraved on wood, each consisting of a
circular design, printed in black, and surrounded by an ornamental
border of a light mauve colour, the latter enclosing familiar scenes
from English History, viz., Alfred in the Neatherd's Cot; Canute
reproving his Courtiers; Edwy and Elgiva; Eleanor and Fair Rosamond. The
decorative border with its four _tableaux_ remained unchanged, but the
subject of the central illustration varied, that in the first volume
depicting a girl reading to two children; in the second, Alfred the
Great receiving instruction in reading from his mother, Queen Osburgha;
while in the third there is a more modern representation of a similar

Francis William Topham, who was born at Leeds in 1808, enjoyed the
privilege of being numbered among the personal friends of Charles
Dickens. He entered professional life as a writing-engraver, and his
first design was for a label required by a well-known firm of pin
manufacturers. From this modest beginning he advanced to more artistic
work, and was soon busily engaged in engraving plates for pocket-books,
&c. During the several years he was thus occupied he engraved many
original designs for book-illustrations, and in 1832 began to exhibit
pictures; his works after this date being frequently seen at the Royal
Academy and other London galleries. In 1842 he was elected an Associate
of the New Society of Painters in Water-Colours, of which body he became
a full member in the following year. He, with several other members,
left the New Society after a comparatively short time, and was
immediately elected into the Old Society of Painters in
Water-Colours--the present Royal Water-Colour Society--to the
Exhibitions of which the majority of his more important productions were
contributed. It was in Spain, whither he first went in 1852-53, that he
found subjects most congenial to his tastes, and there, in that land of
sunny skies, he was seized with a fatal illness in 1877, expiring at
Cordova on March 31st of that year.

Topham was a great admirer of the works of Charles Dickens, and selected
from them the subjects of some of his most successful pictures. One of
these--a water-colour drawing executed in 1851--illustrates a scene in
"Barnaby Rudge," where children flock round the half-witted hero as he
and his mother pass through her native village; the drawing was
presented by the artist to Dickens, and realised at the sale of the
novelist's effects the sum of £115, 10s. This picture was followed by
another from "The Old Curiosity Shop," representing Little Nell and her
Grandfather in the tent, making bouquets for the racecourse, which was
also a gift to Dickens, being subsequently disposed of at the
above-mentioned sale for £288, 15s. It is also recorded that the artist,
in 1856, produced a drawing portraying "Little Nell in the Churchyard,"
which some five years after the novelist's death found a purchaser for
£325, 10s.

F. W. Topham proved a welcome addition to Dickens's company of
distinguished amateur actors, and concerning his histrionic ability the
artist's son, Mr. Frank W. W. Topham (himself an eminent painter), thus
writes: "My father had, from quite a young man, a great love of acting,
at which he was considered unusually good. One of my earliest
recollections of a play was one acted at the St. James's Theatre, in
which my father, Sir John Tenniel, the late Francis Holl, A.R.A. (the
engraver), and others took part, for the benefit of the Artists'
Benevolent Fund. I do not know if my father owed his introduction to
Dickens to his acting, but have an impression that he did,--certainly it
was the cause of their after intimacy."

_Apropos_ of their "splendid strolling," and the fun incidental thereto,
Dickens observed to his wife, in a letter dated from Clifton, November
13, 1851: "I forgot to say that Topham has suddenly come out as a
juggler, and swallows candles, and does wonderful things with the poker
very well indeed, but with a bashfulness and embarrassment
extraordinarily ludicrous."


     The Artist's Boyish Admiration of Dickens's Stories--His
     Delineation of Jo, the Crossing-Sweeper--A Present and a
     Letter from Dickens--First Success as a Painter--Death of
     his Father--Desires to Become an Illustrator of
     Books--Befriended by Dickens--Initial Attempt at Drawing
     upon Wood--Frontispiece for the First Cheap Edition of
     "Little Dorrit"--The Artist's _Début_ as a Black-and-White
     Draughtsman--His Designs for "OUR MUTUAL FRIEND"--The
     Pictorial Wrapper--Suggestions from Dickens--Portrait of
     Silas Wegg--Preliminary Sketches for the
     Illustrations--Valuable Hints for the Artist--Realism in his
     Designs--The Prototype of Mr. Venus--Photography upon
     Wood--Defective Engraving--Sale of the Original
     Sketches--Illustrations for Cheap Editions--Relinquishes
     Black-and-White Drawing--Elected a Royal
     Academician--Popularity of his Pictures--Intimacy with
     Dickens--Private Theatricals.

It will be remembered that "A Tale of Two Cities," the last of Dickens's
novels containing Hablôt Browne's designs, was succeeded by "Our Mutual
Friend," the initial number of which appeared on May 1, 1864. In this
story Dickens repeated an early experience in having woodcut
illustrations instead of the customary etchings, availing himself of the
services of an artist whose style and method of work differed very
considerably from those of "Phiz." The new recruit was Mr. Marcus Stone,
who now holds high rank among Royal Academicians.



From a Photograph specially taken for this Work by



As the son of the novelist's cherished friend, Frank Stone, A.R.A., who
partly illustrated "The Haunted Man," Mr. Marcus Stone was brought by
force of circumstances into early communication with the author of
"Pickwick." Born in 1840, he soon indicated by his _penchant_ for Art
that he inherited his father's talent, becoming in course of time a
painter even more distinguished; for Frank Stone did not live to attain
full honours of the Royal Academy. Mr. Marcus Stone proudly confesses
that, even as a mere lad, Charles Dickens's romances proved most
fascinating to him, and he recalls an interesting incident as
evidence of this influence. When, in 1852-53, the dramatic story of
"Bleak House" appeared in serial form, he eagerly read each number as it
came out, and was much attracted by the novelist's rendering of Jo, the
crossing-sweeper, being quick to perceive the artistic capabilities of
the scenes in which that pathetic character is introduced. In the
eleventh chapter a specially touching reference is made to the poor
outcast--that memorable occasion when he softly sweeps the step of the
gateway leading to the loathsome graveyard in which was buried the man
who had been "wery good" to him. Dickens's vivid description of the
weird picture at once induced Marcus Stone (then twelve years of age) to
try his hand at depicting it with his pencil. While so engaged the
novelist entered the room, and, looking over his shoulder, he
immediately recognised the subject of the sketch, whereupon he
encouragingly observed, "Well, now, that is very good. You will have to
give that to me." Accordingly, on completion, the little drawing was
sent to Tavistock House.[45] About a year afterwards the young artist
received a copy of "A Child's History of England," containing the
author's autograph, and accompanied by the following note, dated
December 19, 1853:--

     "MY DEAR MARCUS,--You made an excellent sketch from a book
     of mine which I have received (and preserved) with great
     pleasure. Will you accept from me _this_ little book? I
     believe it to be true, though it may be sometimes not as
     genteel as history has a habit of being.--Faithfully yours,


    Footnote 45: Curiously enough, "Phiz" had already selected
    the same subject as an illustration for the succeeding
    number, an early proof of which was forwarded by Dickens to
    Mr. Marcus Stone, in order to direct his attention to the

Even at the early age of three or four, Mr. Marcus Stone evinced a
desire to become an artist,--a wish that was never discountenanced. In
his seventeenth year he ostensibly began his career as a painter, but
his father, who was then an invalid, could not for that reason
efficiently direct the course of his son's studies. Indeed, Mr. Marcus
Stone never had any systematic training in the details of his
profession, and what he learnt during his boyhood was, for the most
part, casually "picked up" in his father's studio. At this time he
painted a picture called "Rest," representing a knight in armour lying
under a tree, and this, the first of his productions accepted by the
Royal Academy, excited much favourable comment, the work being
especially remarkable on account of the juvenility of the artist, who,
as he himself intimates, was really ten years before his time.

In November 1859, shortly after his initial success in the world of Art,
Mr. Marcus Stone mourned the death of his father, an event rendering it
imperative that, in entering upon a career which not unfrequently fails
to yield a golden harvest, he should have a powerful helping hand. Among
those of his father's friends who recognised this necessity was Charles
Dickens, who, with characteristic promptitude and energy, exerted his
influence on behalf of the young man. Besides other kind actions, the
novelist introduced him to Thomas Longman, the publisher, to whom he
wrote: "I am very anxious to present to you, with the earnest hope that
you will hold him in your remembrance, young Mr. Marcus Stone, son of
poor Frank Stone, who died suddenly but a little week ago. You know, I
daresay, what a start this young man made in the last Exhibition, and
what a favourable notice his picture attracted.[46] He wishes to make an
additional opening for himself in the illustration of books. He is an
admirable draughtsman, has a most dexterous hand, a charming sense of
grace and beauty, and a capital power of observation. These qualities in
him I know well to my own knowledge. He is in all things modest,
punctual, and right; and I would answer for him, if it were needful,
with my head. If you will put anything in his way, you will do it a
second time, I am certain."

    Footnote 46: This picture was entitled "Silent Pleading" and
    represents a tramp with a child in his arms, who are
    discovered asleep in a shed by the squire and the village




_Facsimile_ of Original Sketches for "Our Mutual Friend" by


_Lent by the Artist._


[Sidenote: =Little Dorrit, 1861.=]

The opportunity soon arrived when the novelist's interest in the
son of "poor Frank Stone" assumed a very practical form, for at
this juncture it occurred to him to test the artistic capabilities of
Marcus Stone, probably without any intention of permanently ousting
"Phiz." The young _protégé_, however, possessed no knowledge of etching,
and, indeed, had gained but little experience in any other form of
illustration. Fortunately, the art of drawing upon wood (then much in
vogue, but now practically obsolete) needed very little training in the
hands of one skilled in the use of the pencil, so that Dickens was
induced to favour Marcus Stone by agreeing to the adoption of the
readiest means of producing his designs for the engraver. It is not
generally known that the artist's first attempt at drawing on wood was
the frontispiece for the first cheap edition of "Little Dorrit" (1861),
which, although showing marked ability, is by no means equal to his
subsequent efforts. Marcus Stone was fortunate in making his _début_ as
a black-and-white draughtsman at the time when a remarkable array of
talent presented itself in the pages of the _Cornhill Magazine_, just
then launched by Thackeray, the illustrations for which were supplied by
Millais, Fred. Walker, Sandys, and Leighton--a new school of designers,
whose admirable pencillings could not fail to inspire the younger
members of the craft.

[Sidenote: =Our Mutual Friend, 1864-65.=]

Mr. Marcus Stone, who was scarcely twenty-one years of age when he first
essayed the art of book-illustration, rightly considers that one of the
most important events of his life was the receipt of the commission to
illustrate "Our Mutual Friend," and, doubtless, he fully realised at the
time how valuable was the _prestige_ arising from such collaboration
with so popular a writer as Charles Dickens. This story, like those
which preceded it, was issued in monthly parts, the first instalment
appearing in May 1864. At the beginning the novelist was about four
numbers in advance, but he lost his advantage as the tale progressed,
until at length he found himself in a position necessitating the
preparation of each number month by month, as required by the
exigencies of publication. Before the initial number could be
circulated, a pictorial wrapper was requisitioned, for which Mr. Stone
designed a series of _tableaux_ embodying somewhat allegorically the
leading characters and incidents, and displaying prominently in the
centre the title of the story, the word "Our" being dropped in over one
of the subjects. A preparatory sketch was submitted to Dickens, who,
while thoroughly approving thereof, made certain proposals tending to
its improvement. Writing to the artist (February 23, 1864) he said:

"I think the design for the cover _excellent_, and do not doubt its
coming out to perfection. The slight alteration I am going to suggest
originates in a business consideration not to be overlooked. The word
'Our' in the title must be out in the open like 'Mutual Friend,' making
the title three distinct large lines--'Our' as big as 'Mutual Friend.'
This would give you too much design at the bottom. I would therefore
take out the dustman, and put the Wegg and Boffin composition (which is
capital) in its place. I don't want Mr. Inspector or the murder reward
bill, because these points are sufficiently indicated in the river at
the top. Therefore you can have an indication of the dustman in Mr.
Inspector's place. Note, that the dustman's face should be droll, and
not horrible. Twemlow's elbow will still go out of the frame as it does
now, and the same with Lizzie's skirts on the opposite side. With these
changes, work away!..."



_Facsimiles_ of the Original Studies by


These Studies were prepared for the First Cheap Edition of "A Tale of
Two Cities."

_Lent by the Artist._


Before executing this drawing for the wrapper, the artist had received
from Dickens a few general hints as to the points to be illustrated,
beyond which he had little to guide him. "Give a vague idea," said the
novelist, "the more vague the better." Mr. Stone desired to introduce
Silas Wegg into his composition, but the description of the mercenary
old ballad-monger was so indefinite that he was compelled to ask Dickens
if he had absolutely decided in his own mind whether Silas's wooden leg
was the right or the left one. Judging by his reply, the novelist had
evidently overlooked this detail, for he said, "It's all right--please
yourself;" whereupon the doubtful point was settled by the artist,
who placed the timber limb on Wegg's left side. Mr. Stone recalls an
interesting circumstance in the fact that Dickens laid special stress
upon a certain incident which he desired should be hinted at by the
artist in his design for the monthly cover. "One of the strongest
features of the story," observed the novelist, "will be the death of
Eugene Wrayburn after the assault by the schoolmaster. I think," he
added, "it will be one of the best things I have ever done." Dickens,
however, changed his mind, for Wrayburn does not die.

It is a recognised fact among illustrators of works of fiction that
authors are usually devoid of what Mr. Stone aptly designates a sense of
"pictorialism,"--that is to say, the subjects selected by them for
illustration invariably prove to be unsuitable. Charles Dickens
(according to Mr. Stone's experience) was a noteworthy exception to the
rule, although he usually afforded the artist free scope in this matter,
sending him the revised proof-sheets of each number, that he might make
his own choice of the incidents to be depicted; and it is worthy of
remark that in no instance did the novelist question the propriety of
his selection. A preliminary sketch for each illustration was forwarded
to Dickens, who returned it to the artist with suggestions, and with the
title inscribed by him in the margin. The finished drawings upon the
wood were never seen by the novelist, as they were dispatched by Mr.
Stone to the engravers immediately on completion.

Mr. Marcus Stone affirms that he was much hampered by Dickens with
respect to these designs, for the novelist, hitherto accustomed to the
diminutive scale of the figures in Hablôt Browne's etchings, was
somewhat imperative in his demand for a similar treatment of the
illustrations for "Our Mutual Friend." The author, it seems, was usually
in an appreciative mood whenever a sketch was submitted for approval,
now and then favouring his illustrator with information that often
proved indispensable. With reference to the drawing entitled "The Boffin
Progress," he wrote: "Mrs. Boffin, as I judge of her from the sketch,
'very good indeed.' I want Boffin's oddity, without being at all
blinked, to be an oddity of a very honest kind, that people would like."
Concerning a second sketch for another proposed illustration, he
observed: "The doll's dressmaker is immensely better than she was. I
think that she should now come extremely well. A weird sharpness not
without beauty is the thing I want." Towards the close of the first
volume Dickens wrote to the artist from Paris the following letter
respecting subsequent designs:--"The sooner I can know about the
subjects you take for illustration the better, as I can then fill the
list of illustrations to the second volume for the printer, and enable
him to make up his last sheet. Necessarily that list is now left blank,
as I cannot give him the titles of the subjects, not knowing them
myself.... I think the frontispiece to the second volume should be the
dustyard with the three mounds, and Mr. Boffin digging up the Dutch
bottle, and Venus restraining Wegg's ardour to get at him.[47] Or Mr.
Boffin might be coming down with the bottle, and Venus might be dragging
Wegg out of the way as described."

    Footnote 47: This subject was chosen.

The story, when concluded, was issued in two volumes, each containing
twenty illustrations, engraved by Dalziel Brothers and W. T. Green in
almost equal proportions. Mr. Marcus Stone regards these early efforts
in black-and-white art as very immature, and believes he could have
achieved greater results if he had been less handicapped by certain
harassing restrictions. That these clever designs possess the charm of
unconventionality is undeniable, while in addition to this they are
marked by an originality of treatment which may be attributed to the
fact that each drawing is the fruit of many careful studies of figures
and accessories, these imparting an air of reality to the scenes
depicted. Notable instances of this may be observed in the first
frontispiece, entitled "The Bird of Prey," in which is represented a
characteristic portion of the river-bank below London Bridge (probably
Rotherhithe), and in the last engraving "Not to be Shaken Off," the
snow-covered lock-gates in this illustration having been drawn from
a sketch of the gates still existing on the Regent's Canal, Hampstead



_Facsimile_ of the Original Drawing by


This Study was prepared for the Library Edition of "American Notes."

_Lent by the Artist._


Mr. Stone enjoys the distinction of having introduced to Dickens's
notice the original of that remarkable personage, Mr. Venus. Early in
1864, the artist was engaged upon a painting representing a "loafing"
deserter being marched off under arrest, while some busy workmen
temporarily suspend their labours in order to watch the military
procession as it wends its way along a public thoroughfare.[48] The
artist desired to introduce into the composition a begging dog, but, not
succeeding to his own satisfaction, he consulted a brother-artist (well
known for his clever delineation of animals), who said, "Why don't you
go to Willis? He will soon find you a dog, and 'set him up' for you."
Willis was a taxidermist, who lived on the north side of St. Andrew's
Street, near Seven Dials, and to him Mr. Stone at once stated his
requirements, with the result that in the course of a few days the
stuffer of skins went to Mr. Stone's studio accompanied by a dog such as
the artist had described. The animal being deemed suitable, its fate was
sealed, and there is a touch of pathos in the recollection that the
little creature made such friendly overtures to the artist during the
interview that he felt very much averse to authorising its destruction.
However, sad to relate, he hardened his heart, and the poor beast was
"set up" accordingly. On the evening of the day when Mr. Stone first
called upon Willis, and observed the strange environment resulting from
the man's occupation, he was invited by Dickens to go with him to the
play, and between the acts the novelist enquired if he knew of any
peculiar avocation, as he wished to make it a feature of his new
story,--"it must be something very striking and unusual," he explained.
The artist immediately recalled Willis as he appeared when "surrounded
by the trophies of his art," and informed Dickens that he could
introduce him to the very thing. Delighted with the suggestion, the
novelist appointed "two o'clock sharp" on the following day, for a
visit to Willis. It happened that the man was absent when they called,
but Dickens, with his unusually keen power of observation, was enabled
during a very brief space to take mental notes of every detail that
presented itself, and his readers were soon enjoying his vivid portrayal
of that picturesque representative of a curious profession, Mr. Venus.
The novelist was so elated by the discovery that he could not refrain
from confiding the secret to Forster: "While I was considering what it
should be," he wrote, "Marcus, who has done an excellent cover, came to
tell me of an extraordinary trade he had found out, through one of his
painting requirements. I immediately went with him to St. Giles's to
look at the place, and found--what you will see."

    Footnote 48: This picture, called "Working and Shirking," was
    exhibited at the Royal Academy during the same year.

Mr. Stone visited Willis's shop two or three times for the purpose of
sketching, in order that he might effectively introduce the more salient
features into his drawing. The illustration gives an approximate
representation of that dingy interior, with its "bones warious; bottled
preparations warious; dogs, ducks, glass eyes, warious;" but, in
delineating the proprietor, the artist did not attempt to give a true
presentment of Willis, whom, by the way, Dickens never saw, and who
never suspected that it was his own establishment which figures in the

In all the illustrations there is that happy delineation of character
which indicates how admirably the artist understood his author. Perhaps
the most successful designs are those where Rogue Riderhood appears,
particularly that in which we behold the thankless ruffian at the moment
of his recovery from "that little turn-up with Death;" while among other
drawings deserving attention special mention must be made of those
containing the quaint and pathetic figure of Jenny Wren, and of that
entitled "The Boofer Lady," the latter denoting Mr. Stone's ability,
even at this early date, in depicting a pretty woman,--an art in which
he has since displayed such consummate skill.



_Facsimile_ of the Original Drawing for the Library Edition of "Great
Expectations" by


In the engraved version of this Design, Pip is seen wearing a "bowler"

_Lent by the Artist._


Mr. Marcus Stone claims the credit of bringing into repute the now
universal custom of duplicating drawings upon wood-blocks by means of
photography, his illustrations for Anthony Trollope's story, "He Knew He
was Right," being the first thus treated. The adoption of this plan
secures the preservation of the original designs, and therefore renders
them available for comparison with the engraved reproductions. Mr.
Stone, nevertheless, is by no means satisfied with the engraver's
treatment of his work, nor is this surprising when we critically examine
such deplorable examples of wood-engraving as instanced in the
illustrations entitled "The Garden on the Roof" and "Eugene's Bedside."
In one of the designs, that representing "The Boffin Progress," it will
be noticed that the wheels on the "off-" side of the Boffin chaise are
omitted, an oversight (explains Mr. Stone) for which the engraver is
really responsible.

The original sketches for "Our Mutual Friend" were disposed of by the
artist, many years ago, to the late Mr. F. W. Cosens, who desired to add
them to his collection of Dickensiana. At the sale in 1890 of that
gentleman's effects at Sotheby's, the series of forty drawings (some of
which were executed in pen-and-ink and others in pencil) sold for £66,
the purchaser acting for a well-known firm of American publishers. The
drawings were subsequently bound up in a copy of the first edition of
the story, and the treasured volume now reposes in the library of a New
York collector.

[Sidenote: =Illustrations for Cheap Editions.=]

Mr. Stone is naturally best known as a Dickens illustrator through his
designs for "Our Mutual Friend." In addition to these, however, he has
essayed some illustrations (engraved on wood by Dalziel Brothers) for
cheap issues of the works of the great novelist, of which the following
is a complete list:--

  LITTLE DORRIT--_First Cheap Edition_, 1861. Frontispiece.
  GREAT EXPECTATIONS--_Library Edition_, 1862.  Eight Illustrations.
  PICTURES FROM ITALY--_Library Edition_, 1862. Four Illustrations.
  AMERICAN NOTES--_Library Edition_, 1862. Four Illustrations.
  A CHILD'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND--_Library Edition_, 1862. Eight
  A TALE OF TWO CITIES--_First Cheap Edition_, 1864.  Frontispiece.

From this record it will be seen that (with the exception, perhaps, of
the frontispiece for "A Tale of Two Cities") all the above-mentioned
designs were executed prior to those for "Our Mutual Friend." It was
hardly to be anticipated that Mr. Stone's pencil would rival the work of
his more experienced contemporaries, yet it will be seen that these
illustrations are characterised by the very essential quality of always
telling their story. Mr. Stone much regrets that he never had the
opportunity of doing himself justice in black-and-white Art. Needless to
say, he revels in subjects appertaining to a bygone age, as they afford
considerable scope for pictorial treatment, and one of the novels he
would have most enjoyed to illustrate is "Barnaby Rudge," because of the
picturesque period in which the story is laid. In response to my enquiry
why he did not undertake the illustration of Dickens's next and final
romance, "The Mystery of Edwin Drood," Mr. Stone explains: "I had
entirely given up black-and-white work when 'Edwin Drood' was written,
and was making an ample income by my pictures. I was not in the field at
all." Indeed, black-and-white drawing possessed little to attract the
young artist, who, preferring the more alluring charm of colour, had
already begun to acquire a reputation as a painter. In 1877 he was
elected an Associate of the Royal Academy, and ten years later was
advanced to the full rank of Academician. During the last twenty years
his most popular pictures have been his groups of interesting lovers and
pathetic maidens; for, after exhibiting in eighteen Academy Exhibitions
various presentments of human passion, he at last decided to limit
himself to the one which makes the widest appeal to all sorts and
conditions of men and women, such as those subtle domestic dramas in
which love plays the leading _rôle_.

Mr. Marcus Stone's intimacy with Charles Dickens originated while his
father, Frank Stone, and the novelist were living not more than a couple
of houses apart; but it should be understood that the elder artist and
the author of "Pickwick" were friends many years before they were
neighbours. From the days of his childhood until the famous writer
breathed his last, Mr. Stone spent a portion of every year of his life
at Dickens's abode. "I saw him," he observes, "under the most natural
and simple conditions, and my affection and regard for him were intense.
Dickens was one of the shyest and most sensitive of men, as I have
reason to know, for I saw him constantly at his own home, often for
weeks together. He used to treat me as though I were his son. Nothing
was more delightful than the way in which he shared our pleasures and
pursuits. His influence was like sunshine in my life whilst his own
lasted." Mr. Stone occasionally took part in private theatricals at
Tavistock House, where the novelist had installed "The Smallest Theatre
in the World," and the artist has pleasant recollections of his own
share in the various plays, such as Planché's fairy extravaganza,
"Fortunio," in which he impersonated the Captain of the Guard, and
Wilkie Collins's "The Frozen Deep," where, as an Officer in the British
Navy, he had but three words to say.


     An Illustrator Required for "THE MYSTERY OF EDWIN
     DROOD"--Charles Alston Collins Offers his Services--His
     Design for the Wrapper--He Prepares Sketches for the First
     Number--Ill-Health--The Project abandoned--Death of Mr.
     Collins creates a Dilemma--"The Fellow for 'Edwin Drood'"
     Discovered--Luke Fildes, R.A.--His Drawing of "Houseless and
     Hungry"--Specimens of his Black-and-White Drawings Submitted
     to Dickens--A Complimentary Letter from the Novelist--Mr.
     Fildes Elected to Illustrate "Edwin Drood"--First Meeting of
     Author and Artist--A Pen-Portrait of Dickens--A Memorable
     Interview--Pictorial Exactness--Working under
     Difficulties--Studies from the Life--Successful Realisation
     of Types--The Opium-Smokers' Den--Cloisterham--The Artist's
     Method of Executing his Designs--The Engraved
     Reproductions--The _Finale_ of the Story Hinted at--Mr.
     Fildes Invited to Gad's Hill--Suggestion for the Last
     Drawing--Death of Dickens--"The Empty Chair"--A Visit to
     John Forster--A Curious Coincidence--Pleasing Reminiscences
     of Dickens--Mementoes of the Novelist--Unpublished Drawings
     for "Edwin Drood."



From a Photograph specially taken for this Work by



When Mr. Marcus Stone, R.A., had completed his designs for "Our Mutual
Friend," he determined to relinquish black-and-white drawing and to
concentrate his energy upon painting; but for this, it is probable that
his skilled pencil would have been requisitioned for Charles Dickens's
last story, "The Mystery of Edwin Drood." That the re-engagement of
Hablôt Browne as illustrator of that unfinished romance was not
contemplated may be attributed chiefly to the fact that, in 1867, the
clever artist whose name and fame will ever be associated with the
writings of Dickens was unhappily struck with severe paralysis, and
consequently his hand had lost its cunning. The assistance of either of
these draughtsmen being, therefore, out of the question, the novelist
was compelled to seek a new illustrator, and at this crisis his
son-in-law, Charles Alston Collins (brother of Wilkie Collins),
intimated that he would like to undertake the necessary designs for
"Edwin Drood," or rather to test his powers in that direction. Although
he occupied himself, in a desultory fashion, with both Literature
and Art, Charles Collins had been bred a painter, and achieved a notable
position among the young artists of the Pre-Raphaelite School. He
favoured the pen, however, rather than the pencil, his fugitive pieces
being distinguished for the most part by humour of a charming quality.
Dickens had great faith in his artistic talent, and accordingly (on
September 14, 1869) sent his publishers the following note: "Charles
Collins wishes to try his hand at illustrating my new book. I want him
to try the cover first. Please send down to him at Gad's Hill any of our
old green covers you may have by you." The pictorial wrapper was
satisfactorily completed, whereupon Charles Collins began to prepare
sketches for the first number, an undertaking which he looked upon
rather as an experiment. Ill-health, alas! proved a serious obstacle,
and, after making a futile endeavour to realise his conceptions, he was
compelled to abandon the project altogether. It has been suggested that,
as the leading incidents portrayed by him on the cover were intended to
prefigure the course of the narrative, Charles Collins must have
obtained a clue to the "mystery" involved in the story. As a matter of
fact, there is no evidence that he had the faintest notion of the
meaning of the enigmatical little _tableaux_ of which his design
consists; on the contrary, it is asserted that he merely received the
novelist's verbal directions without obtaining any hint as to their real
significance. Charles Alston Collins died in 1873 in his forty-fifth
year, having "borne much suffering, through many trying years, with
uncomplaining patience." He was a son-in-law of Charles Dickens, whose
younger daughter, Kate, he married in 1860, the occasion being
signalised by much rejoicing on the part of the novelist's friends and
neighbours at Gad's Hill.

       *       *       *       *       *

The speedy relinquishment by Charles Collins of the illustrating of
"Edwin Drood" caused something of a dilemma. Dickens being again without
an illustrator, he appealed for advice to his friends Mr. (afterwards
Sir John) Millais, R.A., and Mr. W. P. Frith, R.A., who promised to aid
him in searching for a suitable artist. Shortly afterwards there was
published in the initial number of _The Graphic_ an engraving entitled
"Houseless and Hungry," depicting a crowd of vagrants of both sexes
awaiting admission to the workhouse,--a picture at once so powerfully
conceived and so pathetic in sentiment that it immediately attracted the
attention of Sir John Millais, who immediately hastened in a cab to
Dickens's rooms at Hyde Park Place, bearing in his hand a copy of the
new journal. Striding into the study, and waving _The Graphic_ above his
head, the famous painter exclaimed, "I've got him!"

"Got whom?" inquired the novelist.

"The fellow for 'Edwin Drood,'" replied Millais, as he threw the paper
down on the table.

No sooner had Dickens examined the picture than he became similarly
enthusiastic in his praise, and wrote forthwith to his publishers,
requesting them to communicate with the artist, Mr. Samuel Luke Fildes,
now a popular Royal Academician, but who was then comparatively unknown
in the world of Art. At the period referred to, Mr. Fildes was a young
man of five-and-twenty, who had but just begun to make his mark as a
draughtsman in black-and-white. After some desultory study of drawing
and painting at Chester and Warrington, he came to London in 1862 for
the purpose of seeing the Great Exhibition, and was so impressed that he
determined to make his future home in the Metropolis. In the following
year he gained a scholarship at the South Kensington Schools, and
afterwards became a student of the Royal Academy. _The Cornhill, Once a
Week_, and other magazines then in the ascendant, owed much of their
popularity to the beautiful designs by Millais, Leighton, and similarly
distinguished artists, and these remarkable productions inclined Mr.
Fildes to adopt book-illustration as a stepping-stone towards painting.
Good-fortune attended his efforts, and in June 1869, by which time he
had achieved a position as a black-and-white draughtsman, he received an
intimation from Mr. W. L. Thomas that he had conceived the idea of
publishing a new illustrated paper, eventually called _The Graphic_,
and suggested that he should draw something effective, the subject to be
the artist's own choice, for publication therein.




_Facsimile_ of an Original Sketch for "The Mystery of Edwin Drood" by


_Lent by the Artist._


"I went home," says Mr. Fildes, "and, at ten o'clock on a terribly hot
night, I sat with a piece of paper and sketched out the idea for 'The
Casuals.' Some few years before, when I first came to London, I was very
fond of wandering about, and remember beholding somewhere near the
Portland Road, one snowy winter's night, the applicants for admission to
a casual ward." Recollecting the incident, Mr. Fildes endeavoured to
reproduce this scene as a subject likely to prove acceptable to the
manager of _The Graphic_, and it was that very picture which, as already
related, led to the artist's introduction to the famous novelist.

Messrs. Chapman & Hall, who had been authorised to write to Mr. Fildes
respecting the illustration of "Edwin Drood," desired him to submit
specimens of his black-and-white work, and at the same time expressed a
hope that, as they had no recollection of having seen representations of
beautiful women in any of his drawings, he would enclose a few examples
of his ability in that direction, for the very important reason that in
Charles Dickens's new story would appear two attractive heroines. Mr.
Fildes immediately dispatched a parcel containing various illustrations
designed by him for the magazines, and promised to execute, for the
novelist's inspection, two or three drawings of scenes from one of his
stories. A few days later the artist became the recipient of a very
complimentary letter, in which Dickens said: "I beg to thank you for the
highly meritorious and interesting specimens of your art that you have
had the kindness to send me. I return them herewith, after having
examined them with the greatest pleasure. I am naturally curious to see
your drawing from 'David Copperfield,' in order that I may compare it
with my own idea. In the meanwhile, I can honestly assure you that I
entertain the greatest admiration for your remarkable powers."

In accordance with his own proposal, Mr. Fildes prepared two or three
designs from "Copperfield," one of which fulfilled the requisite
condition that it should contain a representation of a pretty girl, the
subject selected being the scene depicting Peggotty embracing Little
Em'ly after the announcement of her betrothal to Ham. Dickens considered
these drawings so eminently satisfactory that he desired the artist to
call upon him at his temporary residence, No. 5 Hyde Park Place, for the
purpose of consulting him regarding the illustrations for "Edwin Drood."
The eventful day at length arrived when author and artist met for the
first time, and the auspicious occasion is thus pleasantly recalled in
the following note from Mr. Fildes (written for "Charles Dickens by Pen
and Pencil"), in response to my inquiry respecting his earliest
impressions of the novelist's personality:--

"I can tell you so little of Dickens that is 'terse, graphic, or vivid.'
It's so long ago! He passed by me so like a vision. At least it seems so
to me now. When I first saw him, I felt a little oppressed--I don't know
why--he loomed so large, and was so great in my imagination. He rose
from his writing-table to greet me. He was dressed in dark clothes; I
cannot quite recall the cut of coat, but it was loose and unbuttoned,--a
black silk neckerchief was loosely tied, with hanging ends, round his
throat. His general appearance, with the 'cut' of his head, gave me the
idea--perhaps reminded me somehow--of one who was, or had been,
connected with the sea. But I thought so much of the Man, and had so
affectionate a respect, that it never occurred to me then nor since to
take an inventory of his features or the details of his clothes. I could
possibly be contradicted on nearly every point were I to attempt it.
What I do remember--and it is as clear to me as yesterday--is the
indescribable sweetness and kindness of manner--a frank affectionate way
that drew me towards him the moment I saw him. I don't know what it was,
or how--perhaps his smile, the clasp of his hand, the drawing me down to
sit beside him--but I felt like one does with one's own father, that you
'get on with' when a boy. That impression never left me."




_Facsimile_ of Original Sketches by


This figure appears in the Illustration entitled 'At the Piano.' _Vide_
"The Mystery of Edwin Drood."

_Lent by the Artist._


When, at this memorable interview, Dickens had expressed his
requirements, Mr. Fildes (as he himself informs me) explained to the
novelist that, while fully appreciating the honour of being selected as
illustrator of "Edwin Drood," he would be compelled most reluctantly to
forego the privilege if it were really a _sine qua non_ that the designs
should be of a humorous character, following the lead of the versatile
"Phiz." He conceived it advisable to make it clearly understood, there
and then, that comic drawing was not his _metier_, and ventured to
remind the novelist that his stories, in view of the fact that they
possessed an intensely serious side as well as a jocular one, lent
themselves admirably to a graver style of Art. After pondering for a
moment, Dickens observed that he was "a little tired" of being regarded
by his illustrators mainly as a humorist,--a remark, however, which he
qualified in a manner that did not at all suggest dissatisfaction with
those artists, but implied, rather, that he was not averse to the more
solemn incidents in his writings being considered by his pictorial
interpreters; his agreement with Mr. Fildes in this respect might well
have arisen from what he knew would be the leading characteristic of his
last romance (certainly not humorous), which would give scope only to
the "serious" artist. The interview resulted in the appointment of Mr.
Fildes as illustrator of the forthcoming story, and in a letter to James
T. Fields (of Boston, U.S.A.) the novelist said: "At the very earnest
representations of Millais (and after having seen a great number of his
drawings), I am going to engage with a new man; retaining, of course, C.
C.'s [Charles Collins's] cover." So content was Dickens with his choice
of this artist, that he could not refrain from expressing his
satisfaction to his friends.

[Sidenote: =The Mystery of Edwin Drood, 1870.=]

As the date fixed for the publication of the first number of "Edwin
Drood" was rapidly approaching, it became necessary that Mr. Fildes
should immediately begin to prepare his designs. Receiving the
proof-sheets of each number, he studied them so diligently and carefully
that he allowed no incident or personal trait to escape him. Indeed,
Dickens himself (as Mrs. Meynell tells us in _The Century_ of February
1884) was astonished at the way in which his mind found itself mirrored
in that of his coadjutor, both as regards the pictorial exactness of
inanimate things and the appreciation of individual human character. The
artist, however, was at first considerably perplexed in being kept in
total ignorance of the plot, as Dickens volunteered no information
respecting either the characters or the various parts they played, and
although Mr. Fildes was much puzzled, before the plot began to develop,
in discovering who was the hero and who the villain of the story, he
hesitated to interrogate the novelist, because he surmised that there
was a particular motive for his reticence. "He did, at my solicitation,"
observes Mr. Fildes, "occasionally tell me something--at first
charily--for he said it was essential to carefully preserve the
'mystery' from general knowledge to sustain the interest of the book,
and later he appeared to have complete confidence in my discretion."

Dickens, it seems, was seldom in advance with his manuscript, and each
number was barely completed in time for the printers, thus necessitating
excessive promptitude on the part of the engravers as well as the
designer. The subjects of the earlier illustrations were selected by the
author, who marked on the proofs the particular incidents to be
depicted. In thus trotting after the novelist, the artist experienced a
sense of restraint, and felt unable to do himself justice. At length,
when Dickens proposed that one of the incidents to be delineated should
be that in which John Jasper steals up a winding staircase in absolute
darkness with murder on his face, Mr. Fildes courteously protested by
pointing out the artistic disadvantages of illustrating such a scene,
adding that it was already so graphically recounted that further
elucidation became superfluous. _Apropos_ of this, Mr. M. H. Spielmann
remarks: "It is curious to observe how Dickens's dramatic sense obtruded
itself when arranging for the drawings. He would always wish that scene
or _tableau_ to be illustrated on which he had lavished the whole force
and art of his descriptive powers--naturally the one that least
required or justified illustration." By this time the novelist realised
the advisability of leaving the responsibility of selection in the hands
of the artist, who thenceforth was relieved of the limitations and
restrictions hitherto imposed upon him.




_Facsimile_ of Original Sketches by


The figure on the right was introduced in the Illustration entitled "On
Dangerous Ground."

_Vide_ "The Mystery of Edwin Drood."

_Lent by the Artist._


The requisite consultations between Dickens and his illustrator were
invariably held at Hyde Park Place. Whenever practicable, Mr. Fildes
made sketches from the life of suitable types for the characters in the
story, and was fortunate in securing living models for the principal
personages. Over the type of Jasper there was much discussion, the
artist making several attempts before he obtained an exact portrait of
the choirmaster; and so successful and sympathetic were this and other
delineations of character, that Dickens was delighted with them,
declaring them to be like veritable photographs of the people
themselves. The backgrounds, too, were drawn from actual scenes, as, for
example, the opium-smokers' den which figures in the first and last
illustrations; this was discovered by the artist somewhere in the East
End of London; the exact spot he cannot recall, nor does he believe that
Dickens had any particular den in his mind, but merely described from
memory the general impression of something of the kind he had observed
many years before. The architectural details introduced in the
illustration, "Durdles Cautions Mr. Sapsea against Boasting," were drawn
from a careful sketch made within the precincts of Rochester Cathedral,
although in the published design there is substituted a gateway
different from that existing at this spot, in order to assist, no doubt,
in promoting the novelist's obvious intention of disguising the identity
of "Cloisterham." In the engraving entitled "Good-bye, Rosebud,
darling!" it is very easy to recognise the quaint courtyard of Eastgate
House in Rochester High Street. In the river scene we obtain a glimpse
of Putney Church and of the picturesque wooden bridge which, until a few
years ago, spanned the Thames at that point;[49] while in a third
illustration, "Under the Trees," the artist availed himself of a sketch
(made some time previously) of the cloisters at Chester Cathedral.

    Footnote 49: By a curious coincidence, this scene is almost
    identical with that depicted by Seymour on the wrapper for
    the monthly parts of "Pickwick."

Concerning another of these designs, viz., "Mr. Grewgious Experiences a
New Sensation," it may be mentioned that not only was this cosy interior
actually drawn from a room in Staple Inn, but that the original of the
capacious arm-chair in which Rosa is seated still remains in the
artist's possession, it being almost the sole survivor of the furnishing
items which formed part of his bachelor establishment.

It is interesting to learn that Dickens, who placed such great
confidence in his illustrator, did not consider it essential that
preliminary sketches should be submitted to him. Mr. Fildes's original
studies for his designs were vigorously executed with chalk upon tinted
paper, the high-lights being emphasized with chinese-white; the finished
drawings were made upon paper and then photographed upon boxwood blocks.
The engraving was at first entrusted to Dalziel Brothers, one of the
best-known firms of wood-engravers of that day, but after the first two
engravings were completed, Mr. Fildes intimated to the novelist a wish
that the work of reproduction might be transferred to a former colleague
of his, Charles Roberts, whereupon Dickens thus wrote to the late
Frederick Chapman, of Chapman & Hall: "Mr. Fildes has been with me this
morning, and, without complaining of Dalziel, or expressing himself
otherwise than as being obliged to him for his care in No. 1, represents
that there is a brother-student of his, a wood-engraver, perfectly
acquainted with his style and well understanding his meaning, who would
render him better. I have replied to him that there can be no doubt that
he has a claim beyond dispute to our employing whomsoever he knows will
present him in the best aspect. Therefore, we must make the change; the
rather because the fellow-student in question has engraved Mr. Fildes's
most successful drawings hitherto."




_Facsimile_ of the Original Sketch for "The Mystery of Edwin Drood" by


_Lent by the Artist._


An examination of the illustrations discloses the fact that ten out of
the full complement of twelve bear the signature of C. Roberts. In some
instances, however, the result is disappointing, for the delicate
tone-values which mark the original drawings are not apparent in the
reproductions. This defect is chiefly due to the technical difficulties
caused by the thick photographic film covering the surface of the
wood-blocks, which curled up under the point of the graver; unengraved
portions of the picture were thus lost, and the engraver, although
carefully copying the missing portions, seldom succeeded in reproducing
the characteristic touch of the artist. Mr. Fildes, perhaps, is
hypercritical, for those who had not compared the engraved _replicas_
with the original designs were delighted with these decidedly effective
illustrations, while Mr. W. P. Frith, R.A., quick to recognise the
unusual ability displayed in them, wrote to the novelist complimenting
him on securing so facile and graceful an interpreter of his text,--a
comment with which Dickens was much gratified. As events proved, Mr.
Fildes was as receptive as Dickens was impressive, and "vividly as
Dickens saw the creatures of his brain, he saw them no otherwise than as
they lived by this quick and sympathetic pencil."

For reasons already explained, Dickens never wholly confided to his
illustrator his intentions respecting the plot of the story. A part of
the "mystery," however, was (in a sense) surprised out of him by the
keenness and care with which the artist took up a suggestion. Mr. Fildes
informs me that it happened in this way: "I noticed in the proof of the
forthcoming number a description of Jasper's costume so markedly
different from what I had been accustomed to conceive him as likely to
wear, that I went at once to Dickens to ask him if he had any special
reason for so describing him. It was a matter of a neck-scarf. Whereupon
Dickens, after some little cogitating, said he had a reason, and that he
wished the scarf to be retained, and, after some hesitation, told me
why. He seemed to be rather troubled at my noticing the incident, and
observed that he feared he was 'paying out' the 'mystery' too soon,
unconsciously doing so; for, he said, he trusted to the 'mystery' being
maintained until the end of the book. He seemed to me to think it was
essential to do so, and especially enforced me to secrecy respecting
anything I knew or might divine. This description of my interview with
the novelist on the occasion in question gives, of course, only the
sense of what transpired, and I do not pretend to quote exactly any of
his words, or any phrase he may have used." The scarf was, in fact, the
instrument of murder, employed by Jasper as the means of strangling the
young breath of Edwin Drood on the night of the great gale.

Mr. Luke Fildes having made so shrewd a guess respecting the important
part to be played by Jasper in the story, Dickens thought fit to confide
in him some details concerning the final scene. Principally, perhaps,
with this object in view, he invited the artist to spend a few days with
him at Gad's Hill, in order that he might become familiar with the
neighbourhood in which many of the scenes in "Edwin Drood" are laid. The
novelist promised him that, if he were a good pedestrian, he would
introduce him to some of the most charming scenes in Kent, and they
would visit together the picturesque Hall at Cobham with its famous
gallery of paintings, Cobham Park and village, and other interesting
places in that locality. In the course of conversation during this
interview, Dickens (who evidently anticipated much enjoyment from the
little holiday) recalled that, when a boy, he had seen in Rochester a
gaol or "lock-up," and significantly added that Mr. Fildes should make a
note of one of the prison cells, which would do admirably to put Jasper
in for the _last illustration_--thus pretty clearly foreshadowing the
conclusion of the story. "I want you to make as good a drawing," said
Dickens, "as Cruikshank's 'Fagin in the Condemned Cell,'"--a suggestion
which Mr. Fildes did not approve, as any attempt on his part to treat
the subject in the Cruikshankian manner might be resented as an obvious
plagiarism, although a comparison of the two designs would have proved




_Facsimile_ of the Original Sketch by


This figure appears in the Illustration entitled "Mr. Grewgious has his
Suspicions." _Vide_ "The Mystery of Edwin Drood."

_Lent by the Artist._


It was decreed, alas! that Mr. Fildes's visit to Charles Dickens's
"little Kentish freehold" would never be realised while the great writer
lived. On the morning of the appointed day, Dickens intended making
his usual weekly call at the office of _All the Year Round_, and was to
have been accompanied on his return by Mr. Fildes. That very day,
however, the artist (whose luggage was packed ready for departure) took
up the newspaper, and was startled to read the melancholy intelligence
that Dickens was no more. This terribly sudden death changed everything;
but in order to fulfil the novelist's express desire, the artist was
invited (after the funeral) to stay with the Dickens family. "It was
then," remarks Mr. Fildes, "while in the house of mourning, I conceived
the idea of "The Empty Chair," and at once got my colours from London,
and made the water-colour drawing a very faithful record of his

    Footnote 50: An engraved reproduction of this picture
    appeared in _The Graphic_ Christmas number, 1870.

The death of Dickens had an extraordinary effect on Mr. Fildes, for it
seemed as though the cup of happiness had been dashed from his lips.
Following the example of Mr. Marcus Stone, he decided to abandon
black-and-white illustration and direct his entire attention to
painting, with what success all the world knows. In 1879 he was elected
an Associate of the Royal Academy, and attained full honours eight years
later. The first picture that brought him into notice was "Applicants
for Admission to a Casual Ward" (exhibited at the Royal Academy in
1874), this being elaborated from _The Graphic_ drawing, "Houseless and
Hungry," which, as already described, led to his acquaintance with the
author of "Pickwick." While occupied with this important canvas, Mr.
Fildes was desired by Forster to call upon him, and, on entering the
study, he was interrogated respecting his welfare; for Forster
apparently opined that the demise of the novelist, and the consequent
termination of his illustration-work for "Edwin Drood," might have
caused the young artist some embarrassment. After listening intently to
Mr. Fildes's description of the subject he was then painting, Forster
suddenly exclaimed, "How very strange! You are exactly depicting a scene
witnessed by Dickens himself many years ago. I have just copied his
letter referring to it, which has never been out of my possession;" and
from an accumulation of papers on his desk (for he was then preparing
his biography of the novelist) he abstracted the missive in which the
novelist alluded to the unfortunate outcasts as "dumb, wet, silent
horrors--sphinxes set up against that dead wall, and none likely to be
at the pains of solving them until the general overthrow." Mr. Fildes
was so struck by this coincidence, that he sought and obtained
permission to quote Dickens's forcible sentence under the title of his
picture when printed in the Academy Catalogue.

Mr. Luke Fildes has many pleasant recollections of Charles Dickens to
impart. "He was extremely kind to me," observes the artist, "and, when
living in Hyde Park Place, asked me to many of his entertainments. He
was almost fatherly, seeming to throw a protecting air over me, and
always elaborately introducing me to his guests." The artist still
cherishes, as valued mementoes, a little memorandum porcelain slate
bound in leather, a quill pen with the blue ink dried upon it, and a
square sheet of blue paper, which were given to him by Miss Hogarth, who
found them on the novelist's desk just as he had left them.

When Dickens died, only three numbers of "The Mystery of Edwin Drood"
had been published. The illustrations for the ensuing portion of the
story, as completed up to the time of his brief but fatal illness, had
yet to be executed, and it is interesting to know that the titles for
these were composed by the artist. With a view to future numbers, Mr.
Fildes had made several drawings in Rochester, including the choir of
the Cathedral and the exterior of Eastgate House (_i.e._ "The Nuns'
House"), which were never utilised; he also painted a view of Rochester
Castle and Cathedral as seen from the Medway, this being reproduced as a
vignette for the engraved title-page. The artist invariably signed his
drawings "S. L. Fildes;" but in the vignette here referred to the
signature incorrectly appears as "J. L. Fildes."




_Facsimile_ of the Original Sketch by


This figure appears in the Illustration entitled "Up the River." _Vide_
"The Mystery of Edwin Drood."

_Lent by the Artist._


It will readily be conceded that Mr. Fildes's illustrations for
Dickens's final romance are remarkable for a serious and sound
draughtsmanship, while the life-like delineation of the various
characters, as well as the pictorial exactitude of backgrounds and
accessories, invite careful study and examination. Without unduly
disparaging the excellent etchings by Cruikshank and "Phiz," it must be
admitted that there is a vitality appertaining to Mr. Fildes's designs
which imparts to them a reality not always discoverable in the
illustrations produced by those admirable artists.




     C. R. LESLIE, R.A.--Design for "Pickwick"--Washington
     Irving's Tribute to the Artist--Portrait of "Dickens as
     Captain Bobadil"--T. WEBSTER, R.A.--His Picture of
     "Dotheboys Hall"--A. BOYD HOUGHTON--Illustrations for "Hard
     Times" and "Our Mutual Friend"--G. J. PINWELL--Illustrations
     for "The Uncommercial Traveller"--Interesting Portrait of
     the Novelist--F. WALKER, A.R.A.--Illustrations for
     "Reprinted Pieces" and "Hard Times"--Illustrators of the
     Household Edition--C. GREEN, F. BARNARD, J. MAHONEY, E. G.
     and J. M^CL. RALSTON--Charles Green's Illustrations for "The
     Old Curiosity Shop," "Great Expectations," and the Christmas
     Books--F. BARNARD, the _Premier_ Illustrator of Dickens--The
     Novels Illustrated by him--His Favourite Model--Tragic Death
     of the Artist--An American Household Edition--New Designs by
     FROST, and T. NAST--Illustrations by J. M^CLENAN--F. O. C.
     DARLEY--His Reputation as a Draughtsman--His Designs for an
     American Household Edition Engraved on Steel--Independent
     Illustrations--Death of the Artist--Sir JOHN GILBERT'S
     Designs for "Holiday Romance"--G. G. WHITE--S.
     EYTINGE--Prolific Contributor to Books and Periodicals--His
     Picture of "Mr. Pickwick's Reception"--Designs for the
     Diamond Edition, &c.--Character Sketches--Dickens's
     Admiration of the Artist's Conceptions--Gives a Sitting for
     his Portrait--A Unique Print--Eytinge Visits Gad's
     Hill--Illustrations by H. BILLINGS for "A Child's Dream of a
     Star"--The "Christmas Carol" Designs by GAUGENGIGL and
     CHOMINSKI--"The Cricket on the Hearth" Designs by MAROLD and
     MITTIS, and L. ROSSI--Some Dickens Illustrations by J. NASH,
     T. W. WILSON, J. E. CHRISTIE, and G. BROWNE--Designs by E.
     J. WHEELER for "Tales from Pickwick"--Illustrations by PHIL
     Frontispieces for the Temple Library Edition.

[Sidenote: =C. R. Leslie, R.A.=]

Besides the illustrators of the original issues of Charles Dickens's
novels there are other distinguished artists concerning whose designs
for the cheaper editions some mention should be made in the present
work. Besides Clarkson Stanfield, R.A., who has already been referred to
as supplying the frontispiece to the first cheap issue of "American
Notes," Dickens was under a similar obligation to two other Royal
Academicians, Leslie and Webster, for frontispieces to the first cheap
edition of "Pickwick" (1847) and "Nicholas Nickleby" (1848)
respectively. Charles Robert Leslie, of whom Thackeray once said that no
artist possessed so much as he "the precious quality of making us laugh
kindly," found a suitable subject in the twelfth chapter of "The
Pickwick Papers," his illustration representing Mrs. Bardell fainting
in the arms of Mr. Pickwick,--an incident that had already been depicted
by "Phiz." The original picture by Leslie--which was a commission from
Dickens--is a cabinet-painting in grisaille or monochrome; it realised
£137, 11s. at the sale of the novelist's effects in 1870, and is now the
property of Mr. William Wright, of Paris. It seems probable that Dickens
owed his introduction to this artist through the friendly intervention
of Washington Irving, who, in May 1841, thus wrote to the novelist: "Do
you know Leslie the painter, the one who has recently painted a picture
of Queen Victoria? If you do not, I wish you would get acquainted with
him. You would like one another. He is full of talent and right feeling.
He was one of my choice and intimate companions during my literary
sojourn in London. While I was making my early studies with my pen, he
was working with his pencil. We sympathised in tastes and in feelings,
and used to explore London together, and visit the neighbouring
villages, occasionally extending our researches into different parts of
the country. He is one of the purest and best of men, with a fine eye
for nature and character, and a true Addisonian humour." In 1846 Leslie
produced his well-known picture of Dickens as Captain Bobabil, in Ben
Jonson's play, "Every Man in his Humour," which was exhibited in the
Royal Academy the same year; shortly afterwards the painting was
reproduced in lithography by T. H. Maguire, impressions of which
(especially those that were coloured) are now very scarce.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =T. Webster, R.A.=]

The first cheap edition of "Nicholas Nickleby" was embellished by means
of a frontispiece engraved on wood by T. Williams from the picture by T.
Webster, R.A., which (like Leslie's) was painted for the novelist. This
exquisite painting (measuring only ten inches by seven inches) depicts
the familiar scene at Dotheboys Hall, where Mrs. Squeers administers the
much-dreaded brimstone and treacle; at the Dickens sale the interesting
little picture realised the substantial sum of £535, 10s. It is said
that the artist was so thorough and so persistent in illustrating the
humours of boys' schools that he earned the _sobriquet_ of "Dotheboys

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =A. B. Houghton and G. J. Pinwell=]

[Sidenote: =F. Walker, A.R.A.=]

The first cheap editions of later works were graced with frontispieces
from the pencils of two artists better known as draughtsmen than as
painters. These were A. Boyd Houghton, who designed the frontispiece for
"Hard Times" (1865) and "Our Mutual Friend" (1867), and G. J. Pinwell,
who furnished an illustration for "The Uncommercial Traveller"
(1865)--all of which were engraved on wood by the Dalziel Brothers. In
1868 Pinwell likewise contributed four excellent woodcut illustrations
to the Library Edition of the same work,[51] and it is interesting to
note that in one of these, "Leaving the Morgue," he has introduced a
full-length presentment of the novelist.[52] Associated with the Library
Edition we find the name of Fred. Walker, A.R.A., whose position as a
designer in black-and-white stands high in the first rank of English
masters. This clever artist prepared four illustrations respectively for
"Reprinted Pieces" and "Hard Times" (1868), and for refinement of
execution they have probably never been excelled. Fred. Walker, the
painter of those world-famous pictures known as "The Harbour of Refuge,"
"The Bathers," "The Lost Path," &c., died prematurely of consumption in
1875, at the age of thirty-five, a loss which all artists and art-lovers
have never ceased to deplore. The Library Edition of the "Christmas
Stories" is illustrated by F. A. Fraser, H. French, E. G. Dalziel, J.
Mahoney, Townley Green, and Charles Green, fourteen woodcuts in all.

    Footnote 51: The later volumes of the Library Edition were
    issued at intervals during 1862-1868.

    Footnote 52: The Library Edition of "The Uncommercial
    Traveller" also contains four illustrations signed "W.M.,"
    which are much inferior to Pinwell's designs.

After Dickens's death, that is, during 1871-79, Chapman & Hall issued a
Household Edition of his novels, ensuring their further popularity by
inserting entirely fresh illustrations. The artists selected for this
undertaking were Charles Green, Fred. Barnard, J. Mahoney, E. G.
Dalziel, F. A. Fraser, Gordon Thomson, H. French, A. B. Frost, and J.
M^{c}L. Ralston, nearly all of whom had already been represented in the
Library Edition. In commenting upon these designs, it may be remarked
that, of his numerous illustrators, Dickens has never been more
sympathetically interpreted than by Charles Green and Fred. Barnard.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =Charles Green.=]

The thirty-two illustrations contributed by Charles Green to the
Household Edition of "The Old Curiosity Shop" contrast most favourably
with those by "Phiz" in the original issue; these drawings, which, for
the most part, were made upon paper by means of the brush-point, are
entirely free from the gross exaggeration and caricature which impart
such grotesqueness to the majority of the figure subjects by Hablôt
Browne for this story. Mr. Green's design for the wrapper enclosing each
part of the Crown Edition of the novelist's works (subsequently
published by Chapman & Hall) is cleverly conceived, for here he has
introduced all the leading personages, happily grouped around the
principal figure, Mr. Pickwick, who occupies an elevated position upon a
pile of books representing the novels of Dickens. A few years ago
Messrs. A. & F. Pears commissioned Mr. Green to design a number of
illustrations for a series of their Annuals, the artist's services being
specially retained for the following reprints of Dickens's Christmas
Books: "A Christmas Carol" (1892), twenty-seven drawings; "The Battle of
Life" (1893), twenty-nine drawings; "The Chimes" (1894), thirty
drawings; and "The Haunted Man" (1895), thirty drawings. His latest
productions as a Dickens illustrator consist of a series of ten new
designs, reproduced by photogravure for the Gadshill Edition of "Great
Expectations," recently published by Chapman & Hall. Undoubtedly Mr.
Green's most important work in connection with Dickens is to be found in
his water-colour drawings of scenes from the novels, of which a complete
list is given in the chapter entitled "Dickens in Art."[53]

    Footnote 53: During the printing of this work, the death was
    announced of Mr. Charles Green, R.I., who succumbed to a
    painful illness of long standing.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =Fred. Barnard.=]

Fred. Barnard has come to be considered, _par excellence_, the
illustrator of the famous novelist; indeed, he has been not inaptly
termed "the Charles Dickens among black-and-white artists." Like Dickens
himself, he was essentially a humorist, and his designs, although never
lacking in infectious humour, had always something in them which raised
them above the commonplace. To his skilful and vigorous pencil the
Household Edition is indebted for the majority of the illustrations
appearing therein, as the following list testifies: "Sketches by Boz,"
"Nicholas Nickleby," "Martin Chuzzlewit," "Barnaby Rudge," "Master
Humphrey's Clock" (incidental chapters), "David Copperfield," "Dombey
and Son," "Bleak House," "Christmas Books," "A Tale of Two Cities,"
"Hunted Down," "Holiday Romance," and "George Silverman's
Explanation,"--making a grand total of nearly four hundred and fifty
drawings. There is no doubt that Fred. Barnard "knew his Dickens" as
well as any man, and he produced (independently of the foregoing
designs) a number of pictures and drawings of characters and scenes from
the novels, to which special reference is made in the next chapter.

Mr. M. H. Spielmann informs me that, for the purposes of his Dickensian
subjects, the model who sat to Barnard was the late well-known French.
The tragic death (in his fiftieth year) of this popular artist in
September 1896 is not yet forgotten. He had accustomed himself to the
pernicious habit of smoking in bed, and falling asleep (under the
influence of a powerful drug) while his pipe was yet alight, the bedding
caught fire, with the result that he was suffocated by the smoke, his
body being much burned.

[Sidenote: =American "Household Edition."=]

The Household Edition was simultaneously published in London and New
York, Harper & Brothers having arranged with Chapman & Hall to be
supplied with _clichés_ of the illustrations. For some reason, however,
the English engravings do not appear in several of the volumes thus
issued in America, there being substituted for them a similar number of
entirely new designs by the following American artists: C. S. Reinhart
("Nicholas Nickleby," "The Uncommercial Traveller," and "Hard Times"),
Thomas Worth ("The Old Curiosity Shop"), W. L. Sheppard "Dombey and
Son"), E. A. Abbey, R.A. ("Christmas Stories"), A. B. Frost "Sketches by
Boz"), and Thomas Nast ("Pickwick" and "American Notes").

Mr. Nast has also illustrated various Dickens subjects for American
magazines, and independent works such as "Gabriel Grub" (from
"Pickwick"), issued by M^cLoughin as a Christmas book. Mr. Frost is
likewise responsible for twelve illustrations engraved on wood for an
edition of "Pickwick" published a few years ago by Ward, Lock & Co., of
London and New York; and there is a design by him in _Scribner's
Magazine_, December 1897, entitled "That Slide," and depicting the
familiar scene described in the thirtieth chapter of "Pickwick." In 1859
Harper & Brothers printed "A Tale of Two Cities" as a serial in
_Harper's Weekly_, with thirty-four woodcut illustrations by a New York
artist, J. M^cLenan, and in the following year the same firm similarly
produced "Great Expectations," with twenty-seven illustrations by that
artist, the first chapter appearing in November 1860. Both stories were
subsequently issued in volume form by T. B. Peterson & Brothers, of

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =F. O. C. Darley.=]

Perhaps the best of Dickens's American illustrators was Felix Octavius
Carr Darley, a most eminent and successful "character" draughtsman,
whose productions are both original and clever. When, in 1860, an octavo
edition (also designated the Household Edition) was prepared by W. A.
Townsend & Co. of New York, it was proposed that the services of Darley
and Mr. (afterwards Sir) John Gilbert should be secured as illustrators
for the new venture, this resulting in the American artist executing
nearly the whole of the vignette designs, all of which assumed the form
of frontispieces. He had already prepared more than five hundred
illustrations for an edition of Cooper's novels, so it is probable that
the excellence of those drawings led to his engagement in a like
capacity for this Household Edition of Dickens. His designs, which were
beautifully engraved on steel, are very refined both as regards
conception and execution, and are especially interesting as indicating
an intelligent appreciation, on the part of a Transatlantic artist, of
the novelist's characterisation, the extravagant and grotesque being
instinctively avoided. Darley, although born in Philadelphia in 1822,
was the son of an English actor; his natural gift for drawing was
properly encouraged, and he developed into one of the most efficient
book-illustrators of his time; in addition to this he achieved a
distinct reputation through the production of large prints, such as "The
Village Blacksmith," "The Unwilling Labourer," "The Wedding Procession,"
"Washington's Entry into New York," and other popular subjects. The
Dickens series of designs have recently been reprinted by Houghton,
Mifflin & Co. (Boston and New York) for their Standard Library Edition.
Darley also prepared six drawings for a little work entitled "Children
from Dickens's Novels," and subsequently painted a series of eight
familiar scenes from Dickens, which were reproduced as photo-etchings
and issued in sets; these afterwards appeared in an Imperial Edition of
the novelist's works by Estes & Lauriat, Boston, U.S.A. Darley
continued to occupy himself with his art up to the end of his life, but
withdrew in his latter years from the cities to his home at Clayton,
Delaware, where he died, March 27, 1888.[54]

    Footnote 54: For many of these particulars I am indebted to
    Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co.'s Standard Library Edition of
    Dickens's Works.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =Sir John Gilbert, R.A.=]

The small number of frontispieces furnished by Sir John Gilbert to W. A.
Townsend & Co.'s Household Edition are reprinted, with those of Darley,
in Houghton, Mifflin & Co.'s Standard Library Edition. It is perhaps not
generally known that, in 1868, four woodcut illustrations were specially
designed by Sir John for one of Dickens's minor productions, "Holiday
Romance,"--a short story written expressly for _Our Young Folks_, a
magazine published by Ticknor & Fields, of Boston, U.S.A. In the
original announcement we read that the artist had "consented to waive
his decision not to draw again on wood, in order to give additional
interest to Mr. Dickens's 'Romance,'" by which it may be inferred that
these are among the last examples of Sir John's skill in that direction.
For the initials in "Holiday Romance," a Transatlantic artist, G. G.
White, was responsible. Sir John Gilbert, R.A., P.R.W.S., also produced
a series of "Pickwick" illustrations, now exceedingly rare, particulars
of which will be found in the next chapter. This accomplished painter
and prolific designer died so recently as October 5, 1897, in his
eightieth year, and of him it has been truly observed that in his most
distinctive line--viz., illustration--we can look in vain for his equal.
It is recorded that he must have contributed no fewer than thirty
thousand subjects to the pages of _The Illustrated London News_ alone,
besides supplying innumerable designs to _The London Journal_ and other
publications. It is therefore no exaggeration to say that Sir John
Gilbert stands out pre-eminently the great popular illustrator of the
Victorian era.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: =Sol. Eytinge.=]

Among the American illustrators of the writings of Dickens, an important
place must be conceded to Sol. Eytinge, who was born in New York in
1833. He began to draw at a very early age, and for forty years was a
most industrious illustrator of books, papers, and magazines. For a long
time he was connected with Harper & Brothers, but subsequently became
the chief artist of _Every Saturday_, published by Fields, Osgood & Co.,
to which he contributed many Dickensian subjects, notably a large
picture entitled "Mr. Pickwick's Reception," representing Sam Weller
introducing to Pickwick the leading characters in the various novels. To
the Diamond Edition of Dickens's works, launched by Ticknor & Fields in
1867, Eytinge made several full-page drawings, each of the principal
stories containing sixteen illustrations, all of which were engraved on
wood. He also made some drawings for a volume of "The Readings of Mr.
Charles Dickens," and subsequently prepared a series of character
sketches, which were etched for the "Dickens Dictionary [of
Characters]," published by Houghton, Mifflin & Co. in their Standard
Library Edition. Concerning Sol. Eytinge's illustrations Dickens said:
"They are remarkable alike for a delicate perception of beauty, a lively
eye for character, a most agreeable absence of exaggeration, and a
general modesty and propriety which I greatly like." On the whole these
pictures are well done, although it must be admitted that the artist has
not always succeeded in satisfactorily interpreting his author. When the
novelist last visited America (1867-68), his portrait was painted by
Eytinge, probably from sittings, and it is now in the possession of Mr.
W. E. Benjamin of New York. A lithographic reproduction of this
painting, by the artist himself, was published by Ticknor & Fields of
Boston and New York in 1868, copies of which are now seldom met with. I
am enabled, through the kindness of Mr. Stuart M. Samuel, to include in
this volume a _replica_ of a particularly interesting impression of this
rare print, on which Dickens has written the concluding words of "A
Christmas Carol:" "And so, as Tiny Tim observed, God Bless Us, Every
One." In the summer of 1869 Eytinge visited the novelist at Gad's Hill,
in company with Lowell and Fields, on which occasion they together
explored the slums of East London, including the opium-dens so
faithfully described in "Edwin Drood." The artist has now been dead for
some years; during the latter part of his career he lived in retirement,
on account of ill-health.

I have not attempted to enumerate all the illustrators who have executed
drawings for the innumerable editions of the works of Charles Dickens,
produced by various publishing houses both at home and abroad, as their
name is Legion. There are, however, two or three artists, not already
mentioned, to whom a slight reference may fittingly be made. In 1871,
Fields, Osgood & Co. reprinted Dickens's beautiful and pathetic sketch
entitled "A Child's Dream of a Star," with ten full-page drawings by an
American artist, Hammatt Billings, which were engraved on wood by W. J.
Linton. The imprint of another Transatlantic publisher, S. E. Cassino,
appears on the title-page of a choice edition of "A Christmas Carol,"
1887, quarto size, containing twenty-four photogravure reproductions of
new designs by J. M. Gaugengigl and T. V. Chominski, which forms an
attractive item for the collector of fine books. This work was also on
sale in England by G. Routledge & Sons, who, in 1894, brought out a
diminutive edition of "The Cricket on the Hearth," very tastefully
printed by Guillaume of Paris, and containing several little woodcuts
designed by Marold and Mittis. The same story was included in the
reprints of Dickens's Christmas Books published by A. & F. Pears, having
twenty-five clever illustrations by Lucius Rossi, carried out in a style
somewhat similar to those by Charles Green. Particular interest attaches
to certain volumes published by Cassell & Co., entitled "Gleanings from
Popular Authors" (1882, &c.), as they contain several illustrations of
Dickens scenes by Joseph Nash, Fred. Barnard, T. Walter Wilson, J. E.
Christie, and Gordon Browne, the son of the famous "Phiz." To a booklet
entitled "Tales from Pickwick" (G. Routledge & Sons, 1888), Mr. E. J.
Wheeler contributed seven original and well-executed designs.

Messrs. Chapman & Hall's recently-published Gadshill Edition of "Hunted
Down" and "George Silverman's Explanation" contains three designs by Mr.
Maurice Greiffenhagen, who, like Mr. Phil May, now figures as an
illustrator of Dickens for the first time. Mr. Greiffenhagen is also
preparing six original drawings for "American Notes" and "Pictures from
Italy," which will be reproduced by photogravure for the same Edition,
while another well-known artist, Mr. Harry Furniss, has been
commissioned to provide four illustrations of a like character for "The
Uncommercial Traveller."

As I write, another edition of "David Copperfield" is announced for
early publication by Mr. George Allen, the special feature of which will
be the thirty-six designs by a new Dickens illustrator, Mr. Phil May,
whose admirable draughtsmanship is familiar to us; there will also be
issued a limited number of sets of the illustrations,--full-size
_facsimiles_ of the drawings, signed by the artist and accompanied by
descriptive text. Messrs. J. M. Dent & Co. are preparing an edition of
Dickens's Works for their Temple Library, an interesting feature of
which will be a series of coloured frontispieces, from original drawings
by Miss L. M. Fisher, Mr. F. C. Tilney, and W. C. Cooke.




     Independent Publications--Unauthorised Designs--List of
     Additional Illustrations--Dickens's Calendars, Relief
     Scraps, &c.--"ALFRED CROWQUILL"--His Etchings in _Bentley's
     Miscellany_--An Admirable Vocalist--His Illustrations for
     "Pickwick Abroad"--KENNY MEADOWS--"The Nestor of _Punch's_
     Staff"--His Drawings in the _Illustrated London News_--His
     Work Criticised--A Civil-List Pension--A Delightful
     _Raconteur_--T. ONWHYN--His Signatures of "Sam Weller,
     Junr.," and "Peter Palette"--Illustrates Cockton's
     Novels--Plates for "Pickwick" Recently Discovered--"JACOB
     PARALLEL"--A Punning Advertisement--His Designs for "Charley
     Chalk"--F. W. PAILTHORPE--The only Survivor of the "Old
     School"--A Friend of George Cruikshank--Coloured Plates--C.
     D. GIBSON--His Drawing of the Pickwick Club--His
     Individuality of Style.

Since the publication of "The Pickwick Papers" there have appeared, from
time to time, a number of designs illustrating the novels of Charles
Dickens which were issued independently of the particular stories that
inspired them, and generally without letterpress. Artists and publishers
alike thus availed themselves of the enormous popularity achieved by
Dickens's writings, confident in the belief that financial success would
attend their efforts. Among those responsible for the designing of what
are usually termed "Extra Illustrations" were many well-known
draughtsmen of the day, including Hablôt K. Browne ("Phiz"), Sir John
Gilbert, R.A., Onwhyn, Kenny Meadows, Alfred Forrester ("Crowquill"),
and, more recently, Fred. Barnard and F. W. Pailthorpe. It must,
however, be admitted that, with regard to certain productions by artists
less skilled in the use of the pencil or etching-needle, such attempts
to interpret Dickens's conceptions conspicuously fail.

In particular instances the publication of supplementary plates was
approved by Dickens, but, for the most part, these independent
illustrations were really unauthorised, the booksellers merely trading
on the popularity of the novels (especially the earlier ones), which
afforded unlimited scope for pictorial treatment. That there must have
been a fairly constant demand for them is proved by their number and
variety, nearly every form of reproductive art being made available for
these designs, including steel-engraving, etching, wood-engraving,
lithography, chromo-lithography, photogravure, &c. Some of the scarcer
sets realise high prices, and are naturally much in request. In the
following list, which, I believe, is practically complete, I have
included a few Dickens illustrations that were published in periodicals,
in some cases with letterpress; although these cannot strictly be
regarded as "Extra Illustrations," they are not without interest to the
collector of such ephemeral productions. The names of the artists are
alphabetically arranged.


     BARNABY RUDGE.--Four engravings on steel by Finden, from
     drawings by Absolon and Corbeaux. Crown 8vo, green wrapper,
     price one shilling. To accompany the first Cheap Edition,
     1849. London: Chapman & Hall, 186 Strand, N.D.

     These designs were portraits of the principal characters,
     viz., Dolly Varden and Barnaby Rudge, by J. Absolon; Emma
     Haredale and Miss Miggs, by F. Corbeaux--the latter plate
     forming the frontispiece.


     CHARACTER SKETCHES FROM DICKENS.--Six lithographs, portraits
     of Mrs. Gamp, Alfred Jingle, Bill Sikes and his Dog, Little
     Dorrit, Sidney Carton, Pickwick. Elephant folio. London:
     Cassell, Petter & Galpin, N.D. [1879]. Afterwards issued as
     photogravures (20 in. by 14-1/2 in.), price one guinea.
     Reproductions on a reduced scale, etched by C. W. Walker,
     were published by Estes & Lauriat, New York, N.D.

     photogravures. Portraits of the two Wellers, Caleb Plummer
     and his Blind Daughter, Rogue Riderhood, Mr. Peggotty,
     Little Nell and her Grandfather, Mr. Pecksniff. Same
     publishers, 1884.

     photogravures. Bob Cratchit and Tiny Tim, Uriah Heep, Dick
     Swiveller and the Marchioness, Betsy Trotwood, Captain
     Cuttle, Mr. Micawber. Same publishers, 1885.

     The entire series of eighteen plates were republished in Mr.
     Thomas Archer's "Charles Dickens: Gossip about his Life,
     Works, and Characters," issued by the same firm. Sixteen of
     these Character Sketches were subsequently reproduced in a
     cheap form, and presented to the readers of _Cassell's
     Family Magazine_ upon the occasion of its enlargement in
     December 1896.



From a Photograph by



From a Photograph by


_Lent by Mrs. F. Barnard._



     Two series of "Character Sketches," reproduced by
     photogravure, were included in "Gebbie's Select
     Portfolios of Literature and Art," Gebbie & Husson Co.
     (Limited), Philadelphia, 1888-89. Eighteen of these were
     executed from the above designs by F. Barnard, five from
     drawings by other artists, and one from a photograph, the
     six additional subjects being portraits of characters not
     comprised in Barnard's gallery, viz., Henry Irving as
     Jingle, Mr. Toole as the Artful Dodger, Lotta as the
     Marchioness, Jo the Crossing-Sweeper, Newman Noggs, Mr.
     Squeers and Mr. Snawley, Montagu Tigg introduces himself to
     Martin Chuzzlewit and Tom Pinch.

     The India-Proof Edition was issued in portfolios, green and
     buff, with embossed design in gold and colour.

     _Lika Joko_, an Illustrated Weekly Conducted by Harry
     Furniss, from November 17, 1894, to February 23, 1895.


     STUDIES FROM CHARLES DICKENS. Two series of portraits of the
     principal characters, twenty-two in each series. Published
     in _Momus_, an illustrated comic weekly periodical,
     Manchester, from September 25, 1879, to February 2, 1882. A
     selection from these portraits were reprinted in _C. H.
     Ross's Variety Paper_, February 1888.


     BARNABY RUDGE.--Etching of Barnaby, with a view of the
     "Boot" Inn. (The only impression I have seen is in Mr. J. F.
     Dexter's Collection.)

H. K. BROWNE ("Phiz").

     PICKWICK.--"Illustrations to the Cheap Edition of the Works
     of Mr. Charles Dickens." Six Illustrations to The Posthumous
     Papers of the Pickwick Club, Engraved [on wood] from the
     Original Drawings by "Phiz." Green wrapper, small 8vo, price
     one shilling, N.D. [1847]. London: Darton & Clark, Holborn
     Hill; Joseph Cundall, 12 Old Bond Street; John Menzies,
     Edinburgh; Cumming & Ferguson, Dublin; James Macleod,
     Glasgow. And sold by all Booksellers in Town and Country.
     The word "misletoe" is mis-spelt in the title on one of the
     woodcuts. (_See p. 72._)

     THE OLD CURIOSITY SHOP.--"Four Plates, engraved [in stipple]
     under the superintendence of Hablôt K. Browne and Robert
     Young, to illustrate the first Cheap Edition of 'The Old
     Curiosity Shop.'" Price one shilling. Green wrapper. The
     subjects are: Little Nell and her Grandfather, the
     Marchioness, Barbara, and The Death of Little Nell.
     "Published with the Approbation of Mr. Charles Dickens."
     London: Chapman & Hall, 1848. Also proofs on india-paper,
     one shilling each portrait. A few sets coloured, now very
     scarce. (_See p. 85._)

     BARNABY RUDGE.--"Four Plates, engraved [in stipple] under
     the superintendence of Hablôt K. Browne and Robert Young, to
     illustrate the Cheap Edition of 'Barnaby Rudge.'" Portraits
     of Emma Haredale, Dolly Varden, Barnaby and Hugh, Mrs.
     Varden and Miggs. "Published with the Approbation of Mr.
     Charles Dickens." London: Chapman & Hall, 186 Strand, 1849.
     Issued in green wrapper, price one shilling. A few sets
     coloured, now very scarce. These and the preceding designs
     were re-engraved by E. Roffe in 1889. (_See p. 85._)

     "LITTLE NELL" and "DOLLY VARDEN." Engraved on steel by Edwin
     Roffe, from hitherto unpublished drawings by Hablôt K.
     Browne. On india-paper, the impression limited to 100
     proofs, with _remarques_ printed in black, and 100 with
     _remarques_ in brown, after which the _remarques_ were
     cancelled. These plates were accompanied by explanatory
     text, and issued in a leatherette case, price 10s. 6d.
     Published by Frank T. Sabin, 3 Garrick Street, W.C., and
     John F. Dexter, 16 Minford Gardens, West Kensington, 1889.

     DOMBEY AND SON.--"The Four Portraits of Edith, Florence,
     Alice, and Little Paul. Engraved [on steel] under the
     superintendence of R. Young and H. K. Browne. From Designs
     by Hablôt K. Browne. And Published with the Sanction of Mr.
     Charles Dickens." London: Chapman & Hall, 186 Strand, 1848.
     In green wrapper, price one shilling. These engravings were
     also published as proofs on india-paper, 4to, price one
     shilling each portrait. Some sets coloured.

     DOMBEY AND SON.--"Full-length Portraits of Dombey and
     Carker, Miss Tox, Mrs. Skewton, Mrs. Pipchin, Old Sol and
     Captain Cuttle, Major Bagstock, Miss Nipper, and Polly. In
     Eight Plates, Designed and Etched by Hablôt K. Browne, and
     published with the Sanction of Mr. Charles Dickens." London:
     Chapman & Hall, 186 Strand, 1848. In green wrapper, price
     two shillings. Some sets coloured. The series of twenty
     plates, viz., "The Old Curiosity Shop," "Barnaby Rudge," and
     "Dombey and Son," were recently reprinted on india-paper,
     and issued by F. T. Sabin in a portfolio, price £2, 10s.
     (_See pp. 100-101._)


     MASTER HUMPHREY'S CLOCK.--No. 1. Portraits of Master
     Humphrey, Little Nell, and the Old Man, with remarks on each
     character, and an address, stating that "The following
     sketches are the commencement of a series illustrating the
     principal characters in 'Master Humphrey's Clock,' to appear
     at monthly intervals, in parts similar to the present."
     Etchings by "Brush." London, printed for the proprietor by
     W. T. Davey, 16 Great Sutton Street, Clerkenwell; published
     by W. Britain, 11 Paternoster Row, 1840. Price one shilling.


     CHARACTERS FROM DICKENS.--Full-length studies of the
     principal characters. Published in _Jack and Jill_, 1886.


     etched by Christopher Coveny, with letterpress descriptions.
     Sydney: Printed for Thos. H. Fielding by John Sands, 374
     George Street, 1883. 4to.

     The subjects of eleven of these plates are taken from
     "Pickwick." A duplicate plate (No. 7), representing Mr.
     Pickwick and his friends on the ice, is also included, the
     subject being re-etched and the design altered because the
     first plate too much resembled "Phiz's" rendering of this

"ALFRED CROWQUILL" (Alfred Henry Forrester).

     (etchings on stone) by Standidge & Co., from drawings by
     "Alfred Crowquill," comprising nearly two hundred subjects.
     Issued in ten parts (or sheets), buff illustrated wrappers,
     from May 1 to November 9, 1837. Price of each part, one
     shilling plain, two shillings coloured. Published complete
     in lavender-tinted wrapper, demy 8vo, and in cloth. London:
     Ackermann & Co., 96 Strand [1837]. The plates in Part I.
     only are signed. Reproductions have also been issued, etched
     on copper by F. W. Pailthorpe and published by F. T. Sabin,
     1880. Price, coloured, £2, 15s., uncoloured, £1, 18s. Within
     the last few years sets of the "Crowquill" plates have been
     catalogued at twenty guineas. (_See also_ "Thomas Onwhyn.")


     SCENES FROM DICKENS.--Eight photo-etchings, from original
     paintings--the last productions of this American artist.
     Issued in a portfolio, and afterwards printed in the
     Imperial Edition of the novelist's works by Estes & Lauriat,
     Boston, U.S.A.


     SCENES FROM THE PICKWICK PAPERS.--Designed and drawn on
     stone by Augustus Dulcken. Four plates, oblong folio,
     illustrated wrapper. Under each plate is a descriptive
     quotation. London: Bickers & Bush, 1 Leicester Square, N.D.
     [1861]. Proofs, 10s. 6d. Very scarce. The subjects of the
     designs are: (1) Death of the Chancery Prisoner; (2) Meeting
     of the Ebenezer Temperance Association; (3) The Leg of
     Mutton "Swarry;" (4) The Old Man's Tale about a Queer
     Client. On the wrapper are depicted portraits of Pickwick,
     Sam Weller, and Alfred Jingle; and scenes representing the
     Shooting Party at Wardle's, and Mrs. Weller entertaining


     DICKENS CHARACTERS.--Photographic reproductions of drawings
     by J. W. Ehninger. Cabinet size, price one shilling each
     portrait. Published by W. A. Mansell & Co., 316, 317 (now
     405), Oxford Street, London, 1876. The series included the
     following: Mr. Pickwick, Sam Weller, The Fat Boy, Rev.
     Stiggins, Mrs. Gamp, Mr. Pecksniff, Little Nell and her
     Grandfather, Dolly Varden, Florence and Paul Dombey, Edith
     Dombey (two versions), Little Em'ly, and Little Dorrit.


     THE PEOPLE OF DICKENS.--Six large photogravures from
     original drawings. Issued in a portfolio, proofs, 20s.
     London: John Lane; New York: R. H. Russell, 1897. These
     drawings were originally made for an American publication
     called _The Ladies' Home Journal_, and were reprinted in
     _Black and White_ at intervals during 1896-97.


     PICKWICK.--"Appleyard's Edition. Price 2d. Plates to
     illustrate the Cheap Edition of the Works of Mr. Charles
     Dickens. From original designs by John Gilbert, Esq.
     Engraved [on wood] by Messrs. Greenaway & Wright." Eight
     monthly parts, post 8vo, each containing four plates
     engraved on wood. Buff illustrated wrappers. Part 4 was
     issued with Part 5 in one wrapper, and the same condition
     was observed regarding Parts 7 and 8, the price of these
     double numbers being fourpence. Some of the designs are
     printed on the front of the wrappers, and on the inside of
     the back of the last wrapper appears a list of the
     thirty-two plates, with pagination. A limited number were
     printed on india-paper. London: E. Appleyard, 86 Farringdon
     Street, N.D. [1847]. These excellent plates are extremely

     NICHOLAS NICKLEBY.--"Appleyard's Edition. Price 2d. Plates
     to illustrate the Cheap Edition of the Works of Mr. Charles
     Dickens." Thirty-two designs, engraved on wood by Greenaway
     & Wright, and published in parts. Post 8vo. The first
     instalment (with portrait of Squeers on a buff illustrated
     wrapper) contains four designs, which were all that Gilbert
     produced, the remainder (unsigned) being by inferior
     artists, the majority engraved by C. M. Gorway. Published
     complete in a yellow illustrated wrapper by E. Appleyard, 86
     Farringdon Street, London. Price 1s. 6d.



From a Photograph by


_Lent by the Artist._


From a Photograph

_Lent by Mr. Townley Green, R.I._



     "THE CRICKET ON THE HEARTH."--Six woodcut Portraits of the
     Principal Characters. Unsigned. _The Pictorial Times_, Dec.
     27, 1845.


     "PICKWICKIAN ILLUSTRATIONS."-Twenty etched designs, demy
     8vo. Ornamental paper wrapper, having title printed in gold
     on a black label. Price 5s. London: T. McLean, Haymarket,
     1837. All the plates bear the title, "Pickwickian
     Illustrations" as a headline, and, with the exception of the
     last four, are numbered; the last four bear the publisher's
     imprint. A set of these scarce etchings was recently
     catalogued at twenty guineas.

"KYD" (J. Clayton Clarke).

     THE CHARACTERS OF CHARLES DICKENS.--A series of original
     water-colour drawings, signed with monogram, J.C.C. A
     collection of these, 241 in number, realised ten guineas at
     the Cosens sale in 1890. Mr. Thomas Wilson possesses 331
     drawings by "Kyd," which probably include those formerly
     owned by the late Mr. F. W. Cosens.

     A series of twenty-four of these drawings were reproduced by
     chromo-lithography, small 4to, illustrated boards, and
     published by Raphael Tuck & Sons, London, Paris, and New
     York, N.D.

     THE CHARACTERS OF DICKENS.--Studies of a few of the leading
     personages in the novels. _The Fleet Street Magazine_, 1887.


     "LITTLE NELL" and "MRS. QUILP."--Engraved by Finden from
     drawings by W. Maddox and H. Warren respectively, for the
     first Cheap Edition of "The Old Curiosity Shop," 1848.
     London: Chapman & Hall. Kenny Meadows designed a portrait of
     "Barbara" for the same work.


     DICKENS CHARACTERS.--"Gallery of Comicalities."--"London
     Particulars." This series of portraits (some of which are
     signed with the artist's initials) include Fagin, the Artful
     Dodger, Charley Bates, Sam Weller, Oliver Twist, Mr. Bumble.
     Each portrait is accompanied by a poem of forty lines.
     Published in _Bell's Life in London_, 1838.

     HEADS FROM "NICHOLAS NICKLEBY."--Portraits of twenty-four of
     the principal characters, "from drawings by Miss La Creevy."
     Six parts, demy 8vo, price 6d. each. London: Robert Tyas,
     Cheapside, N.D. [1839]. The separate parts were enclosed in
     a buff illustrated wrapper, having at each corner a portrait
     of a member of the Nickleby family, and in the centre a
     representation of Miss La Creevy, seated before a portrait
     of "Boz" (after S. Laurence). Included among the
     advertisements in the first number is an announcement of
     this production, with an engraving depicting Miss La Creevy
     at work. The illustrations are here said to be "etched by A.
     Drypoint," but they are really woodcuts. The following
     explanatory statement, which forms part of the announcement,
     is not without interest: "These 'Heads' will comprise
     Portraits of the most interesting individuals that appear in
     'The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby,' selected at
     the period when their very actions define their true
     character, and exhibit the inward mind by its outward
     manifestations. Each Portrait will be a literal transcript
     from the accurate and vividly minute descriptions of this
     able and graphic author, and will present to the eye an
     equally faithful version of the maiden simplicity of Kate
     Nickleby--the depravity of Sir Mulberry Hawk--the imbecility
     of his dupe--the heartless villainy of the calculating
     Ralph--the generosity of the noble-minded Nicholas--the
     broken spirit of poor Smike--and the brutality of Squeers.
     These and many others furnish subjects for the display of
     the Artist's genius, and will form an interesting and most
     desirable addition to the work." The "Heads" were also
     issued in a collected form, in a green wrapper and in cloth,
     and were republished in "The Scrap Book of Literary
     Varieties," the names of the characters being changed into
     brief descriptive titles, such as "Miniature Painter"
     instead of "Miss La Creevy." Cloth, 8vo. London: Edward
     Lacy, 74 St. Paul's Churchyard, N.D.

     "BARBARA."--Engraved by Finden, and published with two
     plates by W. Maddox and H. Warren to illustrate the first
     Cheap Edition of "The Old Curiosity Shop," 1848. Price 7d.
     London: Chapman & Hall.

THOMAS ONWHYN ("Sam Weller," "Peter Palette").

     ILLUSTRATIONS TO THE PICKWICK CLUB.--Thirty-two plates by
     "Samuel Weller." "The local scenery sketched on the spot"
     The majority are signed "Samuel Weller, delt.;" a few bear
     the artist's initials, "T.O.," while others have no
     signature appended. Issued in eight monthly parts, green
     wrappers, demy 8vo, one shilling each, and published
     complete in one volume, boards, price 9s. London: E.
     Grattan, 51 Paternoster Row, 1837. According to the
     announcement on the cover of Part I., there were to have
     been ten parts, and india-proof impressions, 4to, price 2s.
     Some of the unsigned plates are much inferior to those
     bearing Onwhyn's signature. A set of these "Pickwick"
     plates, in the original parts, have been catalogued at
     fifteen guineas. Lithographic _replicas_ were issued in
     small 8vo by J. Newman, 48 Watling Street, 1848, for
     insertion in the first Cheap Edition of "Pickwick." Twelve
     of these plates (etched by J. Yeager) were included in a
     "new edition" of "Pickwick" published by Carey, Lea, &
     Blanchard, Philadelphia, 1838, and reprinted in 1850. (_See
     also_ "Alfred Crowquill.")

     steel, 1847. Published in green wrapper by A. Jackson, 224
     Great Portland Street, in 1894. Prices, per set,
     india-proofs 30s.; coloured by Pailthorpe, 25s.; plain, 18s.

     Peter Palette, Esq." Forty etchings, comprising ten
     portraits and thirty scenes. Issued in nine parts, demy 8vo,
     price one shilling each, green and buff wrappers, having a
     design representing an easel with a palette affixed.
     Published at intervals from June 30, 1838, to October 31,
     1839, and subsequently as a volume. London: E. Grattan,
     Paternoster Row, 1839. The publisher, when launching these
     designs, seemed unable to determine the exact number of
     parts in which they should appear. On the wrappers of Parts
     1 to 5 it is stated that they would be completed in eight
     parts; on the wrappers of Parts 6 and 7, in ten parts; and
     on that of Part 8, in nine parts. Parts 1 to 5 contain four
     plates each, 6 to 8 contain five plates each, and 9 contains
     five plates, thus making the full complement of forty
     designs. The work was afterwards republished by Grattan &
     Gilbert, 51 Paternoster Row, and again reprinted (_circa_
     1847)--thirty-two plates only, which were styled
     "proofs"--in small 4to, on buff paper. About the same time a
     similar number of these designs were issued as lithographs,
     in eight parts, small 4to. Newman, N.D.

     In 1897, Mr. George Allen, of 156 Charing Cross Road, issued
     india-proof impressions from the thirty-two original steel
     plates for "Pickwick," and from thirty-eight for "Nickleby,"
     the edition being strictly limited to 250 sets for each
     work. Price £5, 5s. per set. Cloth portfolio, 12 by 9
     inches, with title-page and list of subjects. The plates
     have been well preserved.


     PICKWICK PICTURES.--Six character sketches, printed in
     colours, with letterpress. Crown 8vo. Illustrated wrapper.
     London: Ernest Nister, 24 St. Bride Street, E.C. New York:
     E. P. Dutton & Co., 31 West Twenty-Third Street, N.D.


     PICKWICK.--Twenty-four etchings, from original drawings, of
     scenes not previously illustrated. Impl. 8vo. Illustrated
     wrapper. London: Robson & Kerslake, 1882. Price two guineas
     the set, proofs on india-paper (before letters), three

     PICKWICK.--Three vignette titles, etched in 1892 for an
     extended version of the Victoria Edition. An original tinted
     drawing (unpublished) of "Gabriel Grub and the Goblin" is
     included in Mr. Thomas Wilson's Collection.

     OLIVER TWIST.--Twenty-one etchings. London: Robson &
     Kerslake, 23 Coventry Street, Haymarket, 1886. Only fifty
     sets printed, a few of which were coloured by the artist,
     also proofs on india-paper, in portfolio.

     GREAT EXPECTATIONS.--Twenty-one etchings. London: Robson &
     Kerslake, 23 Coventry Street, Haymarket, 1885. Only fifty
     sets printed, a few of which were coloured by the artist;
     also proofs on india-paper, in portfolio.

     Mr. Pailthorpe has designed and etched frontispieces (some
     coloured) for reprints of the following: "The Strange
     Gentleman" and "The Village Coquettes," 1880 (C. Hindley);
     "Is She His Wife?" "Mr. Nightingale's Diary," and "The
     Lamplighter," 1887 (Robson & Kerslake). The first set of
     impressions of the frontispiece for "The Village Coquettes"
     was coloured, after which the plate disappeared, so that no
     plain impressions could be issued. The only uncoloured
     print, taken before the completion of the etching, is
     included in Mr. Thomas Wilson's Collection. This plate was
     the artist's second attempt at designing.

     Mr. Pailthorpe has etched a portrait of Samuel Weller
     writing his love-letter, for "The Origin of Sam Weller"
     (Jarvis & Son), 1883; the frontispiece and vignette-title
     for "A New Piljian's Projiss, written by Mrs. Gamp, edited
     by Charles Dickens," 1890 (unpublished); etched borders
     containing characters and scenes from Dickens, for Mr.
     William Wright, of Paris. The artist also designed six new
     plates for the "Memoirs of Grimaldi," which, however, were
     only edited by Dickens.


     from the Clock Case."--Twelve etchings on steel,
     illustrating "The Old Curiosity Shop" and "Barnaby Rudge."
     Two parts, Impl. 8vo, green illustrated wrappers, price two
     shillings each. London: G. Berger, Holywell Street, Strand,
     N.D [1840-41]. A series of illustrations of the principal
     scenes and portraits of the characters, ten for the first
     story and two for the second. The design on the wrapper
     represents Master Humphrey standing on a chair winding up
     the clock, against which rests a framed portrait of "Boz."


     BARNABY RUDGE'S PORTRAIT GALLERY.--During the serial issue
     of "Barnaby Rudge," Mr. W. Britain, 11 Paternoster Row,
     advertised on one of the weekly wrappers (August 28, 1841) a
     series of twenty "splendid engravings" by this artist, price
     twopence, but I have never seen them.


     CLUB."--Ten etchings, with letterpress, demy 8vo, green
     illustrated wrappers, price 2s. 6d. London: Sherwood,
     Gilbert & Piper, 1838. The design on the wrapper depicts
     Dickens standing on Mr. Pickwick's head, holding aloft an
     enormous quill pen, the pseudonym "Boz" appearing on his
     coat-sleeves." The above title is printed on the wrapper,
     but on the title-page it runs thus: "Sketches of
     Expeditions, from the Pickwick Club." The Preface reads as
     follows: "Originally the Pickwick Club appeared with four
     Illustrations: but since Death chilled the life-depicting
     hand of poor Seymour, two Embellishments have disappeared,
     while eight pages of letterpress have been added. These
     papers, thus arranged, bursting as they do with incident,
     and intoxicated as they are with wit, must have come before
     the public without Illustrations for many of their most
     striking scenes. Reader, were it not so, these Sketches had
     never seen the light of your eyes. The artist's hope is (may
     you find it not a vain one) that these humble efforts may
     afford some of the pleasure he enjoyed when imagining
     them.--11 Buckingham St., Portland Place, London. January
     1st, 1838." A copy of this scarce work realised £18 at
     Sotheby's in 1895.

     etchings, issued during the publication of this work,
     1840-41. Eighteen parts, each containing four plates, some
     with _remarques_. Impl. 8vo, green wrappers, price one
     shilling each part. Afterwards issued in two volumes.
     London: Robert Tyas, Paternoster Row, 1842. Only seventy
     plates are mentioned on the title-page and in the index. On
     some of the wrappers is a vignette of a clock, and on others
     we find a representation of Master Humphrey sitting on a
     chair. These plates are exceedingly scarce in the original
     parts as issued, sets having been catalogued at twenty-five
     guineas. Copies of some of the Sibson designs were etched by
     J. Yeager for contemporary publication in a Philadelphia
     edition of "Barnaby Rudge," together with similar _replicas_
     of a few of "Phiz's" woodcuts which appeared in the
     authorised English edition.


     NICHOLAS NICKLEBY.--"Three Portraits of Kate Nickleby,
     'Tilda Price, and Madeline Bray, from original paintings by
     Frank Stone, engraved [on steel] by Edward Finden, and
     published with the approbation of Mr. Charles Dickens." For
     the first Cheap Edition of "Nicholas Nickleby." Crown 8vo,
     green wrappers, price one shilling. Proofs on india-paper,
     4to, one shilling each portrait. London: Chapman & Hall,
     186 Strand, 1848. The engraved titles are as follow: "Kate
     Nickleby sitting for her Portrait," "'Tilda Price dressing
     for the Tea Party," and "Madeline Bray pausing in her Work."
     (_See pp. 178-9_).


     Character Illustrations of the Pickwick Papers." Portfolio,
     illustrated boards. New York. J. W. Bouton, 1152 and 706
     Broadway, 1888.

     Character Illustrations of 'The Old Curiosity Shop.'"
     Portfolio, illustrated boards. Same publisher and date.
     These inferior drawings are crudely coloured by hand, the
     name of each Character being written in the margin.


     NICHOLAS NICKLEBY.--"The Baron von Grogzwig." Lithograph,
     Impl. 8vo. "Sketches by Weld Taylor, No. 1." London: J.
     Mitchell, 33 Old Bond Street, N.D. In 1838 Weld Taylor
     reproduced by lithography the beautiful portrait of "Boz" by
     S. Laurence.


     MARTIN CHUZZLEWIT.--Four woodcuts, 8vo, green illustrated
     wrapper, price sixpence. London: Hexall & Wall, 113 Strand.


     DICKENS ILLUSTRATIONS.--"Twenty-four Original Sketches from
     the Writings of Charles Dickens." 4to. No publisher's
     imprint, N.D.

T. C. W.

     lithographs, illustrating the first portion of the story.
     Impl. 8vo. No publisher's imprint, N.D. Issued without a
     wrapper. Only two of these plates are signed (T. C. W.), and
     under each appears a descriptive quotation.

W. C. W.

     PICKWICK.--Twelve woodcut portraits of "Pickwick"
     characters, first published in "Sam Weller's Jest Book,"
     issued in penny numbers, and afterwards in Nos. 48, 51, 52
     of a weekly paper called _The Casket_ (Dec. 2, 23, 30, 1837)
     in twopenny numbers. London: Berger & Co., Holywell Street,
     and Piggott & Co., Fleet Street, 1837.


containing four designs. Price 2d. each part. Small 8vo. Green
illustrated wrapper, depicting portraits of fourteen Pickwickian
characters. London: W. Strange, Paternoster Row, N.D. [1847]. These
woodcuts were intended for binding in the first Cheap Edition. On the
wrapper of Part I. it is announced that the work would be completed in
eight parts, and that four engravings would be issued monthly; but it is
believed that the fourth part was the final one.

In 1838, a number of woodcut portraits of Dickens Characters were
published in _The Penny Satirist_ and in _Cleave's Penny Gazette of
Variety_ (_Late the London Satirist_), afterwards called _Cleave's
Gazette of Varieties_. These woodcuts consist of a series of twelve
"Portraits of Oliver Twist" and twelve "Characters from 'Nicholas
Nickleby,'" with descriptive quotations, &c., and were enlarged copies
of the figures in the original etchings by Cruikshank and "Phiz." They
were afterwards re-issued on a broad sheet, with the title, "Cleave's
Twelfth-Night Characters," and sold by J. Cleave, 1 Shoe Lane, Fleet

In 1841, Cleave issued a work called "Parley's Penny Library," in which
were introduced selections (in the form of dialogues) from "The Old
Curiosity Shop" and "Barnaby Rudge," then in course of publication. They
were illustrated by means of wood-engravings, the majority of those in
"Barnaby Rudge" being enlarged copies from "Phiz's" original designs.
These woodcuts (twelve in number) were also reprinted, with the title,
"Cleave's Gallery of Comicalities--Recollections of Barnaby Rudge."

On the wrapper of the fourth weekly number of "Master Humphrey's Clock"
(April 25, 1840) appears the following announcement: "Cheap
illustrations of Boz. Now publishing, on a broad-sheet, nearly as large
as _The Times_, price 2d. 'The Twist and Nickleby Scrap Sheet,' with
twenty-four engraved portraits. Also, price 2d., 'Sam Weller's Scrap
Sheet,' containing forty portraits of all the Pickwick characters. The
above sheets are enriched with poetic effusions by A. Snodgrass, Esq.,
M.P.C., and will be found worthy the attention of all who desire 'to
laugh and grow fat;' they are alike fit for the scrap-book of the
mansion or the walls of the cottage." These scarce sheets were issued by
Cleave, having doubtless first been published in his _Gazette_.

Certain dramatised versions of Dickens's stories, by E. Stirling and
others (published by John Duncombe & Co., 10 Middle Row, Holborn),
contain frontispieces etched by Findlay, which are worthy of the
Collector's attention. Besides these, innumerable Dickens illustrations
have appeared from time to time, embracing every form of reproductive
art. Calendars, relief scraps, booklets, &c, &c, both in colour and in
black-and-white, are brought out by enterprising firms year by year, and
merely to catalogue them would now be practically impossible.


"ALFRED CROWQUILL."--The actual name of the artist who favoured this
pseudonym was Alfred Henry Forrester. Born in 1804, he began his career
as a draughtsman when eighteen years of age, distinguishing himself
rather by his correctness than by serious forms of illustration. At the
death of Seymour in 1836, he competed with "Phiz," Thackeray, Leech, and
others for the vacant post as illustrator of "Pickwick," but without
success. For a time he belonged to the staff of _Bentley's Miscellany_,
and many of his etchings appeared in that journal during 1840-43. He was
able to use his pen and pencil with equal facility and ability; in
addition to this he was an admirable vocalist, and we are told that most
of the Christmas pantomimes of his day were indebted to him for clever
designs, devices, and effects. Forrester was also a member of the
_Punch_ staff, where, owing to his happy and genial disposition, he was
highly popular. Besides his "Pickwick Pictures," there are other designs
by him possessing a Dickensian interest, viz., the illustrations which
he supplied to a curious production entitled "Pickwick Abroad; or, The
Tour in France," which was launched by G. W. M. Reynolds in 1839.
"Alfred Crowquill" died in 1872, aged sixty-eight.

KENNY MEADOWS.--This clever draughtsman (who abandoned the use of his
first Christian name, Joseph), was the son of a retired naval officer,
and was born at Cardigan in 1790. He has been described as "the Nestor
of _Punch's_ staff," and not only did he contribute many humorous
designs to the pages of the Fleet Street journal during the 'forties,
but he frequently prepared elaborate drawings for the _Illustrated
London News_, in the early volumes of which may be found his most
successful delineations. His representations of fairy subjects, although
marked by mannerisms, were in great request. His work is hardly
remembered in this generation, but to speak of Kenny Meadows "is to
recall the typical art of the illustrator and (such as it was) of the
comic draughtsman of the first half of the century."

During his last years Kenny Meadows's services as an illustrator of
books were rewarded by a pension from the Civil List of £80 per annum.
He was a boon companion, a delightful _raconteur_ when at the club, and
a jovial, roystering Bohemian when he left it. This generous and
kind-hearted man died in 1874, when he had almost completed his
eighty-fifth year.

It is worth recording that a highly-finished drawing, in pen and ink and
sepia, of Ralph Nickleby, designed by Kenny Meadows as an illustration
for his series of "Heads from 'Nicholas Nickleby,'" realised £7, 10s. at
Sotheby's in 1893, the drawing being about twice the size of the

T. ONWHYN.--This artist, best known perhaps by his Extra Illustrations
to "Pickwick" and "Nicholas Nickleby," was the son of a bookseller in
Catherine Street, Strand. He signed his Dickens etchings with a
pseudonym, adopting in the one instance that of "Sam Weller, Junr.," and
in the other that of "Peter Palette." Onwhyn also prepared several
plates for "Valentine Vox" and other novels by Cockton. He occasionally
contributed to _Punch_, but was more accustomed to the etching-needle
than the pencil, his drawing on wood being hard and unsympathetic. This
popular book-illustrator died in 1886, having then relinquished drawing
for a period of sixteen years.

The twelve plates etched by Onwhyn in 1847 to illustrate the first Cheap
Edition of "Pickwick" were intended for independent publication, to
compete with the series of extra engravings by Gilbert; but before there
was time to complete the necessary arrangements the set of etchings
produced by him in 1837 were re-issued. This took the artist by
surprise, and he therefore abandoned the idea of circulating the new
designs. The plates were put aside, and their existence forgotten until
1893, when they were unearthed by the Onwhyn family, and subsequently
purchased by Mr. Albert Jackson, of Great Portland Street, who published
them in 1894.

"JACOB PARALLEL."--The etched illustrations by this artist for "Master
Humphrey's Clock" are decidedly crude, contemporary criticisms
notwithstanding. Their publication was announced in a somewhat original
manner on the wrappers of Dickens's work, when the latter was launched
in weekly numbers. One of these advertisements begins thus: "A clock is
of no use without hands! Then, buy 'Hands to Master Humphrey's Clock.'"
Concerning these curious illustrations a contemporary critic punningly
observed: "These 'Hands' are, upon the _face_ of them, a very _striking_
matter, and no clock ought to be _wound up_ without them.... They give
the finish that was wanted to the 'Clock,' and the public will, we have
no doubt, keep them going."

In 1840, a book was published in parts (by G. Berger, Holywell Street),
entitled "Charley Chalk; or, The Career of an Artist," with
illustrations by "Parallel." These designs were declared to be "superior
to many in 'Nickleby,'" while the volume itself was described by
reviewers as "another 'Pickwick,'" and as "the only work fit to stand by
the side of 'Boz.'"

F. W. PAILTHORPE.--This essentially humorous artist and etcher, who is
still living, may be correctly designated the only survivor of the "old
school" of book-illustrators, as represented by Cruikshank and "Phiz."
Mr. Pailthorpe was a personal friend of the former, to whom he sometimes
alludes as "dear old George Cruikshank," and doubtless this association
with the famous designer considerably influenced the style and manner of
Mr. Pailthorpe's work. Indeed, this seems obvious to any one who
compares the many Dickens plates drawn and etched by him with similar
designs by the illustrator of "Sketches by Boz" and "Oliver Twist." A
noteworthy feature of Mr. Pailthorpe's illustrations for Dickens's works
is that a limited number of impressions have been coloured by his own
hand, and the designs so treated are, in that respect, reminiscent of
John Leech's plates for "A Christmas Carol."

Mr. Pailthorpe, by reason of his unique position as the sole
representative of the "old school" of book-illustrators, has received
commissions from publishers to copy the etched designs by other artists,
in cases where the original plates have been lost or are otherwise
inaccessible. He has thus reproduced "Crowquill's" "Pickwick"
illustrations, the two cancelled designs by Buss for the same work, two
of Onwhyn's illustrations for "Nickleby," and, quite recently, the two
etchings by Cruikshank for the Mudfog Papers; these _replicas_ have just
appeared in the Gadshill Edition now being issued by Chapman & Hall.

CHARLES DANA GIBSON.--This young American artist, who has frequently
contributed to a New York journal called _Life_, recently essayed to
illustrate Dickens by means of a series of cleverly-executed drawings
representing some of the principal characters and incidents. The most
satisfactory is his picture of the Pickwick Club, the portrait of Mr.
Pickwick himself being capitally depicted. There is a distinct
individuality of style in Mr. Gibson's work, rendered for the most part
in pen-and-ink, and marked by a simplicity of treatment which is
eminently attractive and effective. Although great ability in
draughtsmanship distinguishes all his drawings, it may be contended that
he is not invariably fortunate in realising the novelist's conceptions.
Mr. Gibson's drawings of Dickens subjects have been excellently
reproduced on both sides of the Atlantic.




     Paintings of Scenes and Characters in Dickens's
     Novels--Portraits of Dolly Varden and Kate Nickleby Painted
     for the Novelist by Mr. W. P. Frith, R.A.--A Humorous
     Advertisement--Sale of the Two Pictures--Mr. Frith's
     Recollections--Mr. James Hamilton Presents to Dickens his
     Sketch of "What are the Wild Waves Saying?"--The Artist
     Rewarded for his Generosity--Water-Colour Drawings by
     Charles Green--How they Originated--An Interesting Series.

The novels of Charles Dickens are an interminable storehouse of subjects
for pictures, so it is not surprising that they have always exercised a
fascination over painters. The following is a list merely of those
pictures that have come under my notice,--a collection which, doubtless,
could be much amplified by reference to the catalogues of the Royal
Academy and other important Art galleries.

     W. A. ATKINSON.--"Little Nell and the two Gravediggers"
     ("The Old Curiosity Shop"). Royal Academy, 1856.

     FRED. BARNARD.--"Sidney Carton" ("A Tale of Two Cities").
     Exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1882.

     "Horatio Sparkins" ("Sketches by Boz"). Institute of
     Painters in Water-Colours, 1885.

     W. H. BARTLETT.--"'The sea, Floy, what is it always
     Saying?'" ("Dombey and Son").

     EDGAR BUNDY, R.I.--"Barnaby Rudge at the Country Justice's."
     Institute of Painters in Oil-Colours, 1896.

     R. W. BUSS.--"Peerybingle, Dot, and Tilly Slowboy" ("The
     Cricket on the Hearth").

     "Joe Willet taking leave of Dolly Varden" ("Barnaby Rudge").

     "Trotty Veck and his Dinner" ("The Chimes"). (_See p. 55._)

     G. CATTERMOLE.--"Little Nell's Home" ("The Old Curiosity
     Shop"), 1842.

     "Little Nell's Grave" (companion picture), 1842. (_See p.

     HORACE H. CAUTY.--"Bebelle looking out for the Corporal"
     ("Somebody's Luggage"). Society of British Artists, 1880.

     HERBERT DICKSEE. "The Grandfather at the Grave of Little
     Nell." Royal Academy, 1887.

     W. MAW EGLEY.--"The Marchioness Playing Cribbage in Dick
     Swiveller's Sick-Room" ("The Old Curiosity Shop"). Royal
     Academy, 1898.

     F. EDWIN ELWELL.--"Charles Dickens and Little Nell." A
     bronze group, purchased by the Fairmount Park Art
     Association for the Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, U.S.A. The
     figure of Little Nell was exhibited at the Art Club,
     Philadelphia, and awarded the Gold Medal, while the entire
     group obtained a prize at the Columbian Exhibition. When
     exhibited in England, this work of Art met with warm
     approval, and the sculptor offered it to the London County
     Council, but the emphatic wish of Dickens (as expressed in
     his Will) prohibited their acceptance of this interesting

     W. P. FRITH, R.A.--"Dolly Varden," 1843. Also _replicas_ and
     other portraits, including one representing her with Emma
     Haredale. (_See pp. 246-7._)

     "Kate Nickleby at Madame Mantalini's." Royal Academy, 1843.

     "The Jailer's Little Daughter Feeding 'the Birds in the
     Cage.'" ("Little Dorrit").

     "Little Dorrit Visits Arthur Clennam at the Marshalsea."

     The first portrait of Dolly Varden was engraved by C. E.
     Wagstaffe in 1843; the third (now in South Kensington
     Museum) was reproduced in mezzotint by S. W. Reynolds; the
     fourth, "Dolly Varden and Emma Haredale," was engraved by S.
     W. Reynolds and G. S. Shury in 1845. The second portrait of
     Dolly, which was painted for Dickens, has never been
     engraved; there are in existence, however, a few impressions
     of a chromo-lithographic reproduction (now very scarce) of
     Mr. Frith's original sketch for the picture, the publication
     of which was unauthorised. The portrait of Kate Nickleby was
     engraved by W. Holl, A.R.A., and published in 1848
     exclusively for the members of the National Art Union for

     The "Dorrit" pictures were painted in 1859, and engraved on
     steel by Lumb Stocks, R.A., as vignettes for the Library
     Edition, then in course of publication.

     W. GALE.--"Mr. F.'s Aunt" ("Little Dorrit"). Royal Academy,

     When Wilkie Collins saw this clever picture at the Academy,
     he was so much impressed that he wrote at once concerning it
     to Dickens, who replied (May 22, 1857): "I am very much
     excited by what you tell me of Mr. F.'s Aunt. I already look
     upon her as mine. Will you bring her with you?" The painting
     was purchased by Dickens through Collins, and realised at
     the sale of the novelist's effects the sum of sixty guineas.

     FLORENCE GRAHAM.--"Little Nell seated in the Old Curiosity
     Shop." Engraved in mezzotint by Edward Slocombe, and
     published by Buck & Reid, 179 New Bond Street, 1888.

_Large Drawings in Water-Colours._

     CHARLES GREEN, R.I.--"Gabriel Varden Preparing to go on
     Parade" ("Barnaby Rudge").

     "Tom Pinch and Ruth" ("Martin Chuzzlewit").

     "Nell and her Grandfather at the Races" ("The Old Curiosity

     "Captain Cuttle and Florence Dombey."

     "Little Dorrit's Visit to her Sister at the Theatre."

     "Mr. Turveydrop's Dancing Academy" ("Bleak House").

     "Mr. Mantalini and the Brokers" ("Nicholas Nickleby").

     "The Pickwick Club."

_Small Drawings in Water-Colours._

     "Barnaby Rudge with the Rioters."

     "Simon Tappertit addressing the Rioters at the 'Boot'
     Tavern" ("Barnaby Rudge").

     "Dolly Varden's Visit to Miss Haredale" ("Barnaby Rudge").

     "Dick Swiveller and the Marchioness" ("The Old Curiosity

     "Dick Swiveller and Fred. Trent in the Old Curiosity Shop."

     "Sam Weller's Valentine."

     JAMES HAMILTON.--"What are the Wild Waves Saying?" ("Dombey
     and Son").

     EDGAR HANLEY.--"Dolly Varden." Royal Academy, 1883.

     E. HUNTER.--"Little Charlotte's Writing-Lesson" ("Bleak
     House"). Royal Academy, 1858.

     C. R. LESLIE, R.A.--"Mr. Pickwick and Mrs. Bardell." Painted
     for Dickens and engraved for the first Cheap Edition of the
     "Pickwick Papers." (_See p. 220._)

     ELEANOR E. MANLY.--"'It's Cobbs! It's Cobbs!' cries Master
     Harry. 'We are going to be married, Cobbs, at Gretna Green.
     We have run away on purpose'" ("Boots at the Holly Tree
     Inn"). Royal Institute of Painters in Water-Colours, 1893.

     MRS. M^CIAN.--"Little Nell Reading Inscription on the
     Tombstone." Presented to Dickens by the artist.

     FRED. MORGAN.--"Little Nell and her Grandfather." Royal
     Academy, 1883.

     R. H. NIBBS.--"Peggotty's Hut" ("David Copperfield"). Royal
     Academy, 1852.

     CHARLES W. NICHOLLS.--"What are the Wild Waves Saying?"
     ("Dombey and Son"). Engraved by G. H. Every, and published
     by A. Lucas, 37 Duke Street, Piccadilly, 1881.

     KATE PERUGINI.--"Brother and Sister.--'Oh, Floy!' cried her
     brother, 'how I love you! how I love you, Floy!' 'And I you,
     dear.' 'Oh, I am sure of that, Floy'" ("Dombey and Son").
     Royal Academy, 1893.

     "Little Nell." Institute of Painters in Water-Colours, 1885.

     MARY S. PICKETT.--"Little Nell in the Old Church." Royal
     Academy, 1898.

     A. J. RAEMAKER.--"What are the Wild Waves Saying?"

     J. HALFORD ROSS.--"Our Mutual Friend." Eight Original
     Drawings in Water-Colour, illustrating incidents in the

     H. R. STEER, R.I.--"The Ball at Dr. Blimber's Establishment"
     ("Dombey and Son").

     "Little Nell and her Pet Bird." Royal Institute of Painters
     in Water-Colours, 1888.

     "Nicholas Nickleby Interposes on Smike's Behalf." Royal
     Institute of Painters in Water-Colours, 1897.

     LAWSON STEWART.--"'A Quiet Happy Place--A Place to Live and
     Learn to Die In.'" The Graveyard in "The Old Curiosity
     Shop." Institute of Painters in Water-Colours, 1885.

     FRANK STONE, A.R.A.--"'Tilda Price," "Madeline Bray," and
     "Kate Nickleby." These three pictures were painted for
     Dickens. (_See pp. 178-9._)

     F. W. TOPHAM.--"Barnaby Rudge and his Mother." Presented to
     Dickens by the artist. (_See p. 190._)

     "Little Nell and her Grandfather in the Tent, making
     Bouquets for the Racecourse." Presented to Dickens by the
     artist. (_See p. 190._)

     H. WALLIS.--"The Devotion of Sydney Carton" ("A Tale of Two

     T. WEBSTER, R.A.--"Dotheboy's Hall: The Brimstone and
     Treacle Scene." Painted for Dickens, and engraved for the
     first Cheap Edition of "Nicholas Nickleby." (_See p. 220._)

In the above list the most interesting picture, in many respects, is Mr.
Frith's "Dolly Varden." The artist was quite a young man, just rising
into fame, when (in 1843) he made great success with several charming
presentments of the locksmith's bewitching daughter, and on seeing one
of these (described by Dickens as "Dolly with the bracelet"), the
novelist so much admired it that he commissioned Mr. Frith to paint
another portrait of her, together with a companion picture of Kate
Nickleby. Writing shortly afterwards to the artist, whose acquaintance
Dickens then made, he said, in reference to an engraving of the subject
by C. E. Wagstaffe: "I saw an unfinished proof of Dolly at Mitchell's
some two or three months ago: I thought it was proceeding excellently
well then. It will give me great pleasure to see her when completed."
The two pictures, when finished, were hung in the dining-room of the
novelist's house. At the expiration of a few years, the portrait of Kate
Nickleby was sent to Ireland (by Mr. Frith's desire) for the purpose of
being engraved, and was delayed there so long that Dickens began to feel
impatient. Accordingly, one morning he forwarded to the artist the
following document, indited by himself:--

"ADVERTISEMENT.--To K--e N--y.--The Young Lady in Black, K.N.--If you
will return to your disconsolate friends in Devonshire Terrace your
absence in Ireland will be forgotten and forgiven, and you will be
received with open arms. Think of your dear sister Dolly, and how
altered her appearance and character are without you. She is not the
same girl. Think, too, of the author of your being, and what he must
feel, when he sees your place empty every day!

"_October Tenth, 1848._"

For each of these remarkable canvases Mr. Frith received the by no means
extravagant sum of twenty pounds, that being the price demanded by him.
At the sale of Dickens's effects, however, the portrait of Dolly Varden
realised a thousand guineas, while that of Kate Nickleby found a
purchaser, on the same eventful occasion, for two hundred guineas--a
tribute alike to author and artist. Mr. Frith has favoured me with some
interesting information respecting his presentments of Dolly Varden:--

"The picture of 'Dolly Varden' which I painted for Dickens was never
engraved. Before I began it I made a study of the figure, but only the
half-length, down to below the waist. This study was bought by Sir R.
Rawlinson, who allowed (without asking my permission) a most villainous
chromo-lithograph to be made from it, and one day to my horror I saw it
in a shop-window. For anything I know to the contrary, many of these
things may have been sold.[55] The original completed picture never left
Dickens's possession from the time it was finished till he died, nor was
it ever exhibited. The portrait of Dolly (the 'laughing' Dolly) now in
the South Kensington Museum, was bequeathed by Forster, who had it from
Frank Stone, for whom I painted it. I painted two copies of the
'laughing' Dolly, but I don't know what became of them. I also painted
two pictures in which Dolly figures in company with Emma Haredale--in
one she is feeling in her pocket for a letter addressed to Miss
Haredale, and in the other she is disdainfully treating Miss Haredale's
hints about Joe Willet--she throws up her head and 'hopes she can do
better than that, indeed!' I have just remembered another--a small
half-length--in which she is looking at herself in a mirror and giving
her curls a 'killing twist.' I have no idea where these pictures are. I
may add that when Dickens came to see (on completion) my portraits of
Dolly Varden and Kate Nickleby, which I painted expressly for him, he
told me they were 'exactly what he meant.' This, of course, delighted
me. They led to a friendship which lasted till his death." It will be
remembered that in 1859 the novelist gave sittings for his portrait by
Mr. Frith, which was painted as a commission from Forster, by whom it
was bequeathed to the Nation. This portrait, now at South Kensington,
occupies the most important place between the earlier portraits of
Dickens by Samuel Laurence, Maclise, and R. J. Lane, and the later
presentments of him by photography.

    Footnote 55: That Mr. Frith did not always entertain such an
    absolute objection to this reproduction is testified by the
    following memorandum written by him on a copy of the print
    now in the collection of Mr. W. R. Hughes:--"This is a very
    good chromo-lithograph from the first study for the picture
    painted by me for the late Charles Dickens. (Signed) W. P.
    FRITH, December 23, 1884."

It is not generally known that Mr. Frith once had the privilege of
illustrating a Dickens novel, _àpropos_ of which the artist writes: "I
told Dickens one day when he was sitting for his likeness that I should
like to be allowed to illustrate one of his books. He seemed pleased,
and proposed 'Little Dorrit.' I forget to whom I sold the pictures, and
where they are now I know not." The two paintings were beautifully
engraved on steel by Lumb Stocks, R.A., as vignettes for the Library
Edition, 1858-59.

The sketch by an American artist, Mr. James Hamilton, of "What are the
Wild Waves Saying?" has a little history attached to it. While Dickens
was in Philadelphia, during his last visit to America, he expressed a
wish to purchase a painting of this subject,--one of the artist's most
successful productions,--but, much to the novelist's regret, it had
already been sold. The original sketch was still available, however, and
with this Dickens was so greatly pleased that he immediately offered to
buy it; whereupon the artist insisted on presenting it to the famous
author of "Dombey and Son." Soon afterwards, Mr. Hamilton was agreeably
surprised to receive a set of Dickens's novels, containing a pleasant
inscription in the novelist's autograph.

The titles of Mr. Charles Green's admirable series of Dickens pictures
were supplied to me by the artist himself, who favoured me with a
complete list shortly before his death. In reference to these remarkable
drawings I have received the following communication from Mr. William
Lockwood, of Apsley Hall, Nottingham, for whom they were painted on
commission: "The first work of Mr. Green's that really attracted my
attention was his famous water-colour Race drawing, entitled, I believe,
'Here they come!' I saw that at a friend's house, and was so struck with
admiration of Mr. Green's delicate sense of humour, subtle rendering of
character, and fine drawing, that I at once told my friend of my great
appreciation of Charles Dickens, and saw that, in my opinion, Mr.
Charles Green would make the very best illustrator of his day of that
great man's work. I then sought an introduction to Mr. Green, which
resulted not only in my beautiful series of drawings, but in a warm
friendship with the artist. In the execution of these pictures Mr. Green
found most congenial work, and I think fully justified my judgment of
his special power. When the series was exhibited at our local museum, it
attracted universal admiration and the delighted appreciation of all
classes." Mr. Lockwood has generously lent these pictures to many London
galleries, including the English Humorists' Exhibition, held at the
Royal Institute of Painters in Water-Colours in 1889.


  Abbey, E. A., R.A., 222.
  Absolon, J., 228.
  Ainsworth, H., 21, 23, 24, 54, 65, 113.
  _All the Year Round_, 111, 160, 215.
  "American Notes," designs for, 157-158, 202, 219, 221, 222, 226.
  "Artist and the Author, The," 22.
  _Athenæum, The_, 33, 43, 44, 60, 76.
  Atkinson, W. A., 243.

  Barnard, Fred, 221, =222=, 226, 227;
    character sketches, 228-229;
    pictures, 243.
  Bartlett, W. H., 243.
  "Battle of Life, The," designs for, 142-145, 151, 156-157, 164-168,
  Baxter, W. G., 229.
  Becker, F. P., 137, 163.
  Bell, Mackenzie, 33.
  _Bell's Life in London_, 3, 30, 139, 233.
  Benjamin, W. E., 225.
  Bentley, Richard, 9, 61.
  _Bentley's Miscellany_, 9-10, 11, 17, 19, 21, 25-26, 61, 240;
    designs by G. Cruikshank, 25, 242.
  Bicknell, E., 114.
  Billings, H., 225.
  Bolton, T., 158.
  Bonchurch, 118, 147.
  Bracewell, C. H., 229.
  Browne, Dr. E. A., 99, 101.
  Browne, Gordon, 226.
  Browne, Hablôt K. ("Phiz"), 25, 52, 54, =59-120=, 122, 123, 124,
    132, 146, 147, 192, 193, 195, 197, 204, 209, 217, 221, 226, 227,
    =229-230=, 239, 240, 242;
    biographical sketch, 113-118;
    remuneration, 116;
    illness, 116;
    applies for pension, 117;
    death, 117;
    personal characteristics, 117-118;
    water-colour _replicas_ of Dickens illustrations, 118;
    "extra illustrations," 229-230.
  Browne, Hablôt K.," Life and Labours of," 96, 111, 119-120.
  Browne, W. G. R., 111.
  Brune, Morton, 61.
  "Brush," 230-231.
  Bryan, Alfred, 231.
  Bull and Mouth Street, St. Martin's le Grand, 48.
  Bundy, E., 243.
  Burnett, H., 47.
  Buss, Frances Mary, 49, 57.
  Buss, Rev. A. J., 51, 56, 57.
  Buss, Robert W., =47-57=, 58, 60, 62, 63, 64;
    remuneration for the "Pickwick" designs, 51;
    his pictures, 55-56, 243;
    his illustrations, 56;
    death, 57.

  Calvert, E., 183.
  Cambridge, 59.
  Camden Street, Camden Town, 57.
  Cancelled designs--by G. Cruikshank, 16-17, 22;
    by R. W. Buss, 50-51, 242;
    by J. Leech, 141.
  Canonbury Tower, 30.
  Canterbury Cathedral, 105.
  _Casket, The_, 239.
  Caswell, E., 74.
  Cattermole, G., 80, 82, 83, =121-135=, 162;
    pictures, 134, 243;
    illness and death, 134.
  Cauty, H. H., 243.
  _Century, The_, 210.
  Chapman, E., 32, 37, 38, 42, 44, 45, 47, 61, 83, 128, 139, 158.
  Chapman, F., 139, 212.
  Character Studies--by F. Barnard, 228-229;
    by W. G. Baxter, 229;
    by A. Bryan, 231;
    by J. W. Ehninger, 232;
    by C. D. Gibson, 232, 239, 242;
    by "Kyd," 233;
    by "Stylus," 238 (and _see_ 243-248.)
  "Charles Dickens by Pen and Pencil," 208.
  "Charles Dickens: Gossip about his Life, Works, and Characters," 228.
  "Charley Chalk: or the Career of an Artist," 242.
  Charterhouse, The, 138.
  Cheap editions, illustrators of, 219-226.
  Cheltnam (engraver), 137.
  "Children from Dickens's Novels," designs by F. O. C. Darley, 223.
  "Child's Dream of a Star, A," designs by H. Billings, 225.
  "Child's History of England, A," designs for, 189, 193, 202, 221.
  Chominski, T. V., 225.
  "Chimes, The," designs for, 141, 144, 150-151, 155-156, 162-163, 221;
    picture by Buss, 55, 243.
  Christie, J. E., 226.
  Christmas Books, designs for, 119, 222.
  "Christmas Carol, A," designs for, 140, 144, 146, 221, 225, 242.
  Christmas Stories, designs for, 221, 222.
  Clarke, J. Clayton. _See_ "Kyd."
  Clint, G., A.R.A., 48.
  Colborn, Henry, 25.
  Collins, C. Alston, 204, 205, 209.
  Collins, Wilkie, 159, 203, 204, 244.
  Cooke, W. C., 226.
  Corbeaux, F., 228.
  Corbould (engraver), 137, 173.
  Cornwall, Logan Stone in, 154; St. Nighton's Keive in, 168.
  Cosens, F. W., 13, 77, 86, 118, 201, 233.
  Coveny, C, 231.
  "Cricket on the Hearth, The," designs for, 141-142, 151, 156, 163-164,
    180, 225, 233;
    picture by R. W. Buss, 55, 243.
  "Crowquill, Alfred," _see_ "A. H. Forrester."
  Cruikshank, George, =1-28=, 33, 47, 54, 55, 60, 68, 91, 114, 133, 146,
    214, 217, 239, 242;
    portraits of, 5-6;
    Fairy Tales, 26-27;
    described by Mrs. Gamp, 27-28;
    as an actor, 28;
    remuneration, 28;
    death, 28;
    bust by Adams, 28.

  _Daily News_, 99, 182.
  Daly, Augustin, 37, 38.
  Dalziel Brothers, 137, 167, 198, 201, 212.
  Dalziel, E. G., 221.
  Darley, F. O. C, =223-224=, 231;
    pictures by, 223.
  Devonshire Terrace, Regent's Park, 246.
  Dexter, J. F., 85, 86, 89, 93, 98, 100, 108, 111, 112, 141, 229.
  "Dickens and _Punch_," 174.
  Dickens, Charles, portraits of, 5-6, 56, 74, 168, 220, 221, 225, 236,
    237, 238, 247.
  Dickens, Frederick, 44, 45.
  Dickens, Kate, 205 (and _see_ "Kate Perugini").
  Dickens, Lieut. Sydney, 178.
  Dickens, Mrs. Charles, 44, 45, 191.
  Dickleburgh, 121.
  Dicksee, H., 244.
  Dobson, Austin, 15.
  Dolly Varden, notes on portraits by W. P. Frith, R.A., 246-247.
  Doyle, J. ("H. B."), 149.
  Doyle, R., 137, 141, 142, =149-152=, 165, 172.
  Drury Lane, Theatre Royal, 154.
  Duchess of St. Albans, The, 85, 98, 104, 107.
  Duke Street, Grosvenor Square, 56.
  Dulcken, A., 231-232.
  Du Maurier, G., 146.

  Eastlake, Sir C., 181.
  East London Theatre, 153.
  Eddystone Lighthouse, C. Stanfield's act-drop, 159.
  Edinburgh, 153; theatre, 154.
  Edwards (engraver), 85, 100.
  Egley, W. M., 244.
  Ehninger, J. W., 232.
  Elderton, Miss, 121.
  Elwell, F. E., 244.
  "Empty Chair, The" 215.
  "English Graphic Satire," 57.
  "Etchings and Sketchings," by John Leech, 39.
  Etty, William, R.A., 63.
  Everitt, Graham, 26.
  Eytinge, Sol., =224-225=.

  "Fagin in the Condemned Cell," 15-16, 21-22, 23, 214.
  "Fairy Library, The," 27.
  Fennell, J. G., 62, 117.
  Field Lane, 21.
  Fields, J. T., 209, 225.
  Fildes, Luke, R.A., 117, =204-217=;
    recollections of Dickens, 208, 216;
    his drawing of "The Empty Chair," 215.
  Finden, E. & W., 60, 62, 63, 64, 74, 114, 119, 120, 179, 228, 233.
  Findlay (engraver), 10, 240.
  Fisher, Miss L. M., 226.
  Flaxman, 138.
  Fleet Market, 132.
  Forrester, A. H. ("Alfred Crowquill"), 59, 227, =231=, =240=.
  Forster, John, 18, 19, 22, 24, 51, 92, 93, 94, 107, 118, 127, 134,
    143, 144, 145, 147, 150, 154, 156, 157, 162, 163, 164, 165, 168,
    169, 170, 200, 215, 247.
  "Fortunio," 203.
  Fraser, F. A., 221.
  "Frauds on the Fairies," 26.
  French, 222.
  French, H., 221.
  Frith, W. P., R.A., 148, 205, 213;
    pictures, 244.
  Frost, A. B., 221, 222, 223.
  "Frozen Deep, The," 203.
  Furniss, H., 226.
  Furnival's Inn, 36, 39, 45, 59, 91, 119.

  "Gabriel Grub," ("Pickwick"), designs by T. Nast, 223.
  Gad's Hill, 205, 214, 225.
  Gale, W., 244.
  Gaugengigl, J. M., 225.
  "George Silverman's Explanation," designs by F. Barnard, 222;
    by M. Greiffenhagen, 226.
  Gibson, C. D., =232=, =242=.
  Gilbert, Sir John., R.A., 223, =224=, 227, 232-233, 241.
  "Gleanings from Popular Authors," Dickens illustrations by J. Nash,
    F. Barnard, T. W. Wilson, J. E. Christie, and G. Browne, 226.
  Gorway, C. M., 233.
  Graham, Florence, 244.
  _Graphic, The_, 206, 207, 215.
  Gray, C., 61, 80, 137.
  "Great Expectations," designs for, 201, 221, 222, 223, 236.
  Greenaway (engraver), 232.
  Green, Charles, =221-222=, 225;
    pictures, 245, 248.
  Green, Townley, 221.
  Green, W. T., 85, 137, 198.
  Greiffenhagen, M., 226.
  Groves (engraver), 137.

  Hablôt, Colonel, 114.
  Hall, Mr. (Chapman & Hall), 44, 49, 116.
  Hamerton, P. G., 2, 183.
  Hamilton, Colonel, 6.
  Hamilton, J., 245, 248.
  Hampstead Road, 199.
  Hanley, E., 245.
  "Hard Times," designs for, 220, 221, 222.
  Harley, J. P., 73.
  Harrison, F., 80, 82.
  "Haunted Man, The," designs for, 146, 157, 173, 175-178, 221.
  Haweis, Rev. H. R., 151.
  Heath, W., 233.
  "Heiress, The," 32, 38.
  Highgate Cemetery, 116, 179.
  "History of _Punch_," 149.
  Hodder, G., 15.
  Hogarth, Miss G., 100, 168, 216.
  "Holiday Romance," designs by F. Barnard, 222;
    by Sir J. Gilbert and G. G. White, 224.
  "Holly Tree Inn, The," picture by Eleanor E. Manly, 245.
  Hood, Tom, 113, 140.
  "Hook and Eye" Club, The, 6.
  Hook, Theodore, 32.
  Houghton, A. Boyd, =220=.
  _Household Words_, 23, 26, 189.
  Hove, 117.
  Hughes, W. R., 247.
  "Hunted Down," designs by F. Barnard, 222;
    by M. Greiffenhagen, 226.
  Hunter, E., 245.
  Hunt, Holman, 148.
  Hunt, Leigh, 32, 107, 150.
  Hyde Park Place, 206, 208, 211, 216.

  _Illustrated London News_, 224, 240.
  Irving, Washington, 220.
  Islington, 31, 35, 38.
  "Is She His Wife?" design by F. W. Pailthorpe, 236.
  Italy, 162, 182.

  "Jack Ketch," 33.
  Jackson, John, 4, 36, 41, 48, 54, 56.
  Jackson, Mason, 60.
  "Jacob Parallel," =236=, =241-242=.
  "Jack Straw's Castle," Hampstead, 162.
  Jerrold, Blanchard, 24.
  Jerrold, Douglas, 140, 153.
  Jodrell, Rev. Sir E. R., 168.

  Kate Nickleby, notes on the portraits by W. P. Frith, R.A., 246-247.
  Keeley, Robert, 142.
  Kennington, 113.
  Kensal Green, 28.
  "Ketch Papers, The," 33.
  Knight (engraver), 85, 100.
  Knight, Admiral Sir John, 114.
  Knight, Charles, 56.
  "Kyd" (pseudonym of J. Clayton Clarke), 233.

  "Lamplighter, The," 25; design by F. W. Pailthorpe, 236.
  "Lamplighter's Story, The," 25-26.
  Landells, E., 46, 80.
  Landseer, Sir E., R.A., 135, 137, 162, =180-181=.
  Lane, R. J., A.R.A., 247.
  Lang, A., 92.
  Laurence, S., 238, 247.
  Leamington, 96.
  Lee, 59.
  Leech, John, 59, 60, 114, =138-148=, 161, 173, 176, 240;
    extraordinary blunder in "The Battle of Life" by, 145;
    "The Rising Generation," 147;
    as an actor, 147;
    accident to, 147;
    death, 148;
    portrait by Sir J. E. Millais, P.R.A., 148.
  Leighton, Lord, P.R.A., 195, 206.
  Leslie, C. R., R.A., =219-220=, 245.
    Browne (H. K.) to W. G. R. Browne, 111-112;
      to Morton Brune, 61;
      to Dickens, 83, 84, 115;
      to R. Young, 113, 120.
    Cattermole (G.) to Dickens, 130.
    Chapman (E.) to Dickens, 43.
    Chapman (F.) to _Anon._, 139.
    Cosens (F. W.) to author, 118.
    Cruikshank (G.) to Dickens, 14;
      to _The Times_, 19-22.
    Dickens (C.) to _Anon._, _re_ "Pickwick," 36-37;
      to _The Athenæum_, 43-44;
      to H. K. Browne, 88-89, 93, 94, 96-97, 99, 100, 111, 115-116;
      to G. Cattermole, 122-134;
      to Chapman & Hall, 205;
      to E. Chapman, 83-84, 158;
      to F. Chapman, 212;
      to G. Cruikshank, 16-17;
      to C. Dickens the younger, 44-45;
      to Mrs. C. Dickens, 191;
      to J. T. Fields, 209;
      to L. Fildes, R.A., 207;
      to J. Forster, 24, 92, 94, 103, 145, 147, 157, 179, 200;
      to T. Longman, 194;
      to S. Palmer, 184;
      to R. Seymour, 39-40;
      to C. Stanfield, R.A., 154, 155-156, 159;
      to F. Stone, A.R.A., 158-159, 176-178;
      to M. Stone, R.A., 193, 196, 197-198;
      to Wilkie Collins, 244.
    Fennell (J. G.) to author, 62.
    Leech (J.) to J. Forster, 143-144.
    Lockwood (W.) to author, 248.
    Maclise (D., R.A.) to C. Dickens, 169-170;
      to J. Forster, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 170.
      Young (R.) to author, 64.
  "Letters of Charles Dickens, The," 159.
  Lever, Charles, 65, 113.
  "Library of Fiction, The," 3, 33, 45-46, 54-55, 61-62.
  "Lighthouse, The," 159.
  Lincoln's Inn Fields, 163.
  Linnell, J., 182.
  Linton, W. J., 137, 140, 144 (and see note 144), 225.
  "Little Talk about Spring and the Sweeps, A," designs by Buss and
    Cruikshank, 54-55.
  Liverpool Road, Islington, 35.
  Lockwood, W., 248.

  Mackenzie, Dr. S., 17-18, 19.
  Maclise, D., R.A., 74, 122, 134, 137, 143, 144, 154, =161-171=, 247;
    amusing sketch by, 163;
    portrait of Dickens by, 168;
    letter _re_ "Grip," 169-170;
    death, 170;
    Dickens's tribute, 170-171.
  Macready, W., 127.
  Macrone, J., 3, 4, 25, 115.
  Maddox, W., 233.
  Maguire, T. H., 220.
  Mahoney, J., 221.
  Manly, Eleanor E., 245.
  Marold, 225.
  Marshalsea, The, 111.
  Martin (engraver), 137, 173.
  "Maxims and Hints for an Angler," 31, 38.
  Mayhew, Horace, 15, 32.
  M^cIan, Mrs., 245.
  M^cLean, 32.
  M^cLenan, J., 223.
  Meadows, Kenny, 227, =233-234=, =240-241=.
  "Memoirs of Grimaldi," designs by G. Cruikshank, 24;
    by F. W. Pailthorpe, 236.
  Meynell, Mrs., 210.
  Millais, Sir J. E., P.R.A., 148, 195, 205, 206.
  Minories, The, 97.
  Mittis, 225.
  _Monthly Magazine, The,_ 3, 116.
  Morgan, F., 245.
  _Morning Chronicle, The_, 3, 4, 33.
  "Mr. Nightingale's Diary," design by F. W. Pailthorpe, 236.
  Mudfog Papers, The, designs by G. Cruikshank, 25, 242.

  Nash, J., 226.
  Nasmyth, 154.
  Nast, T., 222, 223.
  "Nemo" (pseudonym of H. K. Browne), 65.
  Newman Street, 62.
  "New Piljian's Projiss, A," 27;
    designs by F. W. Pailthorpe, 236.
  Nibbs, R. H., 245.
  Nicholls, C. W., 245.
  Nickleby, Kate, Notes on the Portraits by W. P. Frith, R.A., 246-247.

  Onwhyn, T., 227, =234-235=, =241=.
  "Origin of Sam Weller, The," design by F. W. Pailthorpe, 236.
  _Our Young Folks_, 224.

  Paget, H. M., 235.
  Pailthorpe, F. W., 6, 73, 227, 231, =235-236=, =242=.
  Palmer, A. H., 184, 185, 188.
  Palmer, Samuel, =182-188=;
    his water-colour drawings, 183, 184;
    etchings, 183.
  "Parallel, Jacob," =236=, =241-242=.
  Payn, James, 108.
  Peggotty's Boat, 103.
  Perugini, Kate, 245 (and _see_ "Kate Dickens").
  "Peter Palette" (pseudonym of Thomas Onwhyn), 227, =234-235=.
  Phillips, Watts, 111.
  "Phiz," 65 (and _see_ "Hablôt K. Browne").
  Pickett, Mary S., 245.
  Pickwick, Mr., prototype of, 38-39;
   Sketches by H. K. Browne, 72;
   by C. D. Gibson, 242.
  "Pickwick Papers, The, An Account of the Origin of," 42.
  "Pickwick, Tales from," designs by E. J. Wheeler, 226.
  "Pic Nic Papers, The," 25, 115.
  Pictures of Dickens subjects, 243-248.
  "Pictures from Italy," 182;
    designs by H. K. Browne, 119;
    by S. Palmer, =183-187=;
    by M. Stone, R.A., 202;
    by G. Thomson (Household Edition), 221;
    by M. Greiffenhagen, 226.
  Pinwell, G. J., =220=.
  Planché, 150, 203.
    Cruikshank (G.) 5-6, 28;
    Dickens (C.), 5-6, 56, 74, 168, 220, 221, 225, 236, 237, 238, 247;
    Dickens (Lieut. Sydney), 178;
    Leech (J.), 148;
    Seymour (R.) 37.
  _Punch_, 75, 136, 138, 139, 140, 147, 150, 172, 173, 174, 240, 241.
  "_Punch's_ Valentines," 75.
  Putney Bridge, 211; church, 42, 211.

  "Quiz" (pseudonym of Dickens), 74.

  Raemaker, A. J., 246.
  Ralston, J. M^cL., 221.
  "Readings of Mr. Charles Dickens, The," designs by S. Eytinge, 224.
  Regent's Canal, 199.
  Reinhart, C. S., 222.
  "Reprinted Pieces," designs by F. Walker, A.R.A., 221;
    by E. G. Dalziel (Household Edition), 221.
  Richardson, E., 236.
  "Rising Generation, The," by John Leech, 147.
  Roberts, C., 212.
  Roberts, D., R.A., 154.
  Rochester, 214;
    Castle, 216;
    Cathedral, 211, 216;
    Eastgate House, 211, 216;
    High Street, 211.
  Roe (engraver), 59.
  Roffe, E., 230.
  Ross, J. Halford, 246.
  Rotherhithe, 198.
  Ruskin, Prof. John, 1, 16, 82, 121, 146, 150.

  Sala, G. A., 4, 28, 67, 142.
  "Sam Weller" (pseudonym of Thomas Onwhyn), 227, =234-235=;
   "The origin of," 236.
  "Sam Weller's Jest Book," 239.
  Sands (engraver), 63.
  Sandys, F., 195.
  Scenes (various) from Dickens, depicted by C. Coveny, 231;
    by F. O. C. Darley, 231;
    by N. P. Whitlock, 238;
    by C. D. Gibson, 232, 242;
    miscellaneous, 240;
    pictures, 243-248.
  "Scrap Book of Literary Varieties, The," 234.
  Seymour, Mrs., 42, 44;
    her "Pickwick" pamphlet, 42-45.
  Seymour, R., =29-46=, 47, 51, 54, 60, 64, 66, 211, 240;
    death of, 35, 36-37, 139;
    tribute to, 35;
    final drawing, 36;
    remuneration, 40;
    portrait of, 46.
  Seymour, R., jun., 43.
  Shaw, William, prototype of Squeers, 75-76.
  Sheppard, W. L., 222.
  Shury, G. S., 244.
  Sibson, T., =237=.
  "Sketches of Young Couples," designs by H. K. Browne, 74.
  "Sketches of Young Gentlemen," designs by H. K. Browne, 74.
  "Sketches of Young Ladies," designs by H. K. Browne, 74.
  Smith (engraver), 137.
  Smith, Orrin, 61.
  "Somebody's Luggage," picture by H. H. Cauty, 243.
  Spielmann, M. H., 60, 77, 149, 210, 222.
  "Squib Annual, The," 43.
  St. Andrew's Street, Seven Dials, 199.
  St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 138.
  St. Dunstan's Church, Fleet Street, 150, 155.
  St. James's Theatre, 73, 191.
  St. James's, Westminster, 20, 21.
  St. Martin's Lane, 63.
  St. Nighton's Keive, near Tintagel, 168.
  St. Paul's Cathedral, 28, 181.
  Stanfield, C., R.A., 137, 150, =153-160=, 168, 173, 219;
    presents from Dickens, 155, 157, 159;
    drawing of S.S. _Britannia_, 158;
    Eddystone Lighthouse, act drop, 159;
    nicknames, 159;
    death, 160;
    Dickens's tribute, 160.
  Stanfield, F., 156, 159.
  Stanfield, G., 160.
  Staple Inn, 212.
  Steer, H. R., 246.
  Stewart, Lawson, 246.
  Stone, F., A.R.A., 137, 158, 173, =175-179=, 192, 194, 195, 203,
    =237-238=, 247;
    as an actor, 178;
    Mrs. Gamp's description of, 178;
    nicknames, 178;
    his portrait of Lieut. Sydney Dickens, 178;
    death, 179;
    pictures, 246.
  Stone, Marcus, R.A., 113, 175, 177, =192-203=, 204, 215;
    his first design for Dickens, 195;
    his drawings for "Our Mutual Friend," =195-201=;
    the prototype of Mr. Venus, 199-200;
    private theatricals, 203.
  "Strange Gentleman, The," =73=;
    designs by H. K. Browne, 73;
    by F. W. Pailthorpe, 236.
  "Stroller's Tale, The" ("Pickwick"), 36, 39-40.
  "Stylus," 238.
  "Sunday Under Three Heads," =61-62=.
  Swain, Joseph, 106, 137, 150.

  Talfourd, Sergeant, 84.
  Tavistock House, 158, 159, 175, 203;
    Square, 179.
  Taylor, Weld, 238.
  Tenniel, Sir John, 136, 137, 147, =172-174=, 176, 191.
  Thackeray, W. M., 12-13, 15, 28, 59, 62, 135, 138, 139, 166, 175, 180,
    195, 219, 240.
  Theatrical entertainments, 27, 158-159, 178, 190, 191, 203.
  Thomas, W. L., 206.
  Thomson, D. C, 96, 111, 119.
  Thomson, Gordon, 221.
  Thompson, J., 137, 166.
  Tilney, F. C., 226.
  "Timothy Sparks" (Dickens's pseudonym), 61.
  Topham, F. W., =189-191=;
    pictures of scenes in "Master Humphrey's Clock," 190, 246;
    love of acting, 190-191;
    ability as a juggler, 191.
  Topham, F. W. W., 190.
  "Travelling  Sketches" ("Pictures from Italy"), 182.
  Trollope, Anthony, 113, 201.
  "Tuggses at Ramsgate, The," 33, 54;
    designs by Seymour and Cruikshank, 46.

  "Uncommercial Traveller, The," designs for, 220, 221, 222, 226.

  Varden, Dolly, notes on portraits by W. P. Frith, R.A., 246-247.
  Vasey (engraver), 80.
  "Village Coquettes, The," design by F. W. Pailthorpe, 236.

  Walker, C. W., 228.
  Walker, F., A.R.A., 195, =221=;
    pictures by, 221.
  Wall, C. H., 238.
  Wallis, H., 246.
  Warren, H., 233.
  Weatherhead (engraver), 64.
  Webster, T., R.A., 219, =220=, 246.
  Wedmore, F., 6, 7.
  "Weller, Sam" (pseudonym of Thomas Onwhyn), 227, =234-235=;
    "The Origin of," 236.
  Wheeler, E. J., 226.
  White, G. G., 224.
  Whitehead, C., 33, 45.
  "Whole Hogs," 23.
  Williams, S., 80, 123.
  Williams, T., 133, 137, 167, 220.
  Willis (prototype of Mr. Venus), 199-200.
  Wilson, Thomas, 233, 236.
  Wilson, T. Walter, 226.
  Worth, T., 222.
  Wright (engraver), 232.
  Wright, W., 4, 105, 220, 236.
  W., T. C., 238.
  W., W. C., 239.

  Yarmouth Denes, 103, 106.
  Yates, Edmund, 60.
  Yeager, J., 235, 237.
  Young, Robert, 63, 64, 85, 87, 100, 113, 117, =119-120=, 229.


  "Barnaby Rudge," =81-86=, =127-133=, 169, 202.
    Designs by Hablôt K. Browne, 85-86, 230;
      by George Cattermole, 127-133;
      by Frederick Barnard, 222;
      by Absolon and Corbeaux, 228;
      by C. B. Bracewell, 229;
      by E. Richardson, 236;
      by T. Sibson, 237;
      Anon., 239.
    Pictures by E. Bundy, 243;
      by R. W. Buss, 55, 243;
      by W. F. Frith, R.A. 244, 246-247;
      by C. Green, 245;
      by E. Hanley, 245;
      by F. W. Topham, 190, 246
    (and _see_ "Master Humphrey's Clock").

  "Bleak House," =106-109=, 193.
    Designs by H. K. Browne, 106-109;
      by F. Barnard, 222.
    Pictures by C. Green, 245;
      by E. Hunter, 245.

  "David Copperfield," =102-106=, 207, 208.
    Designs by H. K. Browne, 102-106;
      by F. Barnard, 222;
      by Phil May, 226.
    Picture by R. H. Nibbs, 245.

  "Dombey and Son," =90-101=, 170.
    Unpublished designs by R. W. Buss, 55;
      designs by H. K. Browne, 90-101, 230;
      by F. Barnard, 222;
      by W. L. Sheppard, 222.
    Pictures by H. K. Browne, 99;
      by W. H. Bartlett, 243;
      by C. Green, 245;
      by J. Hamilton, 245, 248;
      by C. W. Nicholls, 245;
      by K. Perugini, 245;
      by A. J. Raemaker (sculpture), 246;
      by H. R. Steer, 246.

  "Little Dorrit," =109-111=, 160.
    Designs by H. K. Browne, 109-111;
      by M. Stone, R.A. 195, 201;
      by J. Mahoney (Household edition), 221;
      by W. P. Frith, R.A., 244, 247.
    Pictures by W. P. Frith, R.A., 244;
      by W. Gale, 244;
      by C. Green, 245.

  "Martin Chuzzlewit," =86-90=.
    Designs by H. K. Browne, 86-90;
      by F. Stone, A.R.A., 179;
      by F. Barnard, 222;
      by C. H. Wall, 238.
    Picture by C. Green, 245.

  "Master Humphrey's Clock," =79-86=, 239-240.
    Designs by H. K. Browne, 79-86;
      by G. Cattermole, 122-134, 162;
      by D. Maclise, R.A., 162;
      by F. Barnard, 222;
      by "Brush," 230-231;
      by "Jacob Parallel," 236, 241-242;
      by T. Sibson, 237;
      by T. C. W., 238
    (and _see_ "The Old Curiosity Shop" and "Barnaby Rudge").

  "Mystery of Edwin Drood, The," 202, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208,
    =209-216=, 225.
    C. A. Collins's design for wrapper, 205;
      designs by L. Fildes, R.A., 208-217.

  "Nicholas Nickleby," =74-78=, 168, 180.
    Designs by H. K. Browne, 76-78;
      by F. Stone, A.R.A., 178-179, 237-238;
      by T. Webster, R.A., 220;
      by F. Barnard, 222;
      by C. S. Reinhart, 222;
      by Sir John Gilbert, R.A., 232;
      by K. Meadows, 233-234, 241;
      by T. Onwhyn, 235, 242;
      by W. Taylor, 238;
      Anon., 239.
    Pictures by W. P. Frith, R.A., 244, 246-247;
      by C. Green, 245;
      by H. R. Steer, 246;
      by F. Stone, A.R.A., 178-179, 246;
      by T. Webster, R.A., 220, 246.

  "Old Curiosity Shop, The," =80-81=, =123-127=;
    Designs by H. K. Browne, 80-81, 85, 221, 229-230;
      by G. Cattermole, 123-127, 133;
      by D. Maclise, R.A., 162;
      by C. Green, 221;
      by T. Worth, 222;
      by W. Maddox and H. Warren, 233;
      by K. Meadows, 234;
      by "Stylus," 238;
      Anon., 239;
    Water-colour drawings by H. K. Browne, 86.
    Pictures by G. Cattermole, 134, 243;
      by W. A. Atkinson, 243;
      by H. Dicksee, 244;
      by W. M. Egley, 244;
      by F. E. Elwell (sculpture), 244;
      by F. Graham, 244;
      by C. Green, 245;
      by Mrs. M^cIan, 245;
      by F. Morgan, 245;
      by M. S. Pickett, 245;
      by K. Perugini, 245;
      by H. R. Steer, 246;
      by L. Stewart, 246;
      by F. W. Topham, 190, 246
    (and _see_ "Master Humphrey's Clock").

  "Oliver Twist," =9-24=, 60.
    Designs by G. Cruikshank, 9-24;
      sale of original drawings, 13;
      water-colour _replicas_, 13;
    _Edition de luxe_, 13;
    The Cancelled Plate, 16-17, 22;
    Cruikshank's Account of the Origin of the Story, 17-24.
    Designs by H. K. Browne, 119;
      by J. Mahoney (Household edition), 221;
      by F. W. Pailthorpe, 236;
      Anon., 239.

  "Our Mutual Friend," 148, 192, =195-201=, 204.
    Designs by A. B. Houghton, 220;
      by J. Mahoney (Household edition), 221.
    Pictures by J. H. Ross, 246.

  "Pickwick Papers, The," 29, =32-45=, 47, 48, =49-54=, =58-61=, 139,
    182, 211, 213, 240.
    Designs by R. Seymour, 36-37, 41, 50, 64;
      by R. W. Buss, 50-54, 62, 64, 242;
      by J. Leech, 60, 139;
      by H. K. Browne, 62-73, 229;
      by C. R. Leslie, R.A., 219, 220;
      by T. Nast, 222;
      by A. B. Frost, 223;
      by E. J. Wheeler, 226;
      by C. Coveny, 231;
      by "Crowquill," 231, 242;
      by A. Dulcken, 231-232;
      by Sir John Gilbert, R.A., 232, 241;
      by W. Heath, 233;
      by T. Onwhyn, 234-235;
      by H. M. Paget, 235;
      by F. W. Pailthorpe, 235-236;
      by T. Sibson, 237;
      by "Stylus," 238;
      by W. C. W., 239;
      Anon., 239.
    Pictures by C. Green, 245;
      by C. R. Leslie, R.A., 200, 245.

  "Sketches by Boz," =3-9=, 23, 24, 32, 46, 60, 73.
    Designs by G. Cruikshank, 3-9, 54;
      by H. K. Browne, 118-119;
      by F. Barnard, 222;
      by A. B. Frost, 222.
    Picture by F. Barnard, 243.

  "Tale of Two Cities, A," =111-113=, 192.
    Designs by H. K. Browne, 112-113;
      by M. Stone, R.A., 202;
      by F. Barnard, 222;
      by J. M^cLenan, 223.
    Pictures by F. Barnard, 243;
      by H. Wallis, 246.


  Edinburgh & London

       *       *       *       *       *


    Missing punctuation has been added and obvious punctuation
    errors have been corrected without note.

    Archaic words and alternate spellings have been retained with
    the exception of those noted below.

    Page 13: "Syke's" changed to "Sykes's" for spelling
    consistentcy (Sykes's[3] farewell to his dog;).

    Page 67: "especally" changed to "especially" (the original
    designs, especially if he saw an opportunity for improving

    Page 73: "than" changed to "that" (It was under such
    distressing conditions that in 1873-74 he executed a

    Page 81 and 88: "apropos" changed to "àpropos" for
    consistentcy ("Phiz" was often àpropos) and (sly touches of
    humour peculiarly àpropos of the principal theme.)

    Page 136: "encourged" changed to "encouraged" (Its
    extraordinary popularity encouraged him to prepare a similar

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