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Title: Plain English
Author: Wharton, Marian
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Plain English" ***

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Transcriber's note:

      Text enclosed by underscores is in italics (_italics_).

      Text enclosed by plus signs is in bold face (+bold+).

      Text enclosed by tilde characters is underlined (~underlined~).

      Text enclosed by equal signs is double underlined
      (=double underlined=).

      The Key to Pronunciation, p. 37 (Spelling Lesson 3), contains
      characters with diacritical marks not available in Latin-1
      character encoding. Therefore, they have been transcribed as
      follows:
         [=x]  character 'x' with macron (bar) above the letter
         [.x]  character 'x' with dot above the letter
         [~x]  character 'x' with tilde (curved bar) above the letter



PLAIN ENGLISH

by

MARIAN WHARTON

_For the Education of the Workers
by the Workers_



Published by
The People's College
Fort Scott, Kansas
1917



¶ He who aspires to master the art of expression must first of all
consecrate himself completely to some great cause and the greatest cause
of all is the cause of humanity. He must learn to feel deeply and think
clearly, to express himself eloquently. He must be absolutely true to
the best there is in him, if he has to stand alone.

¶ Such natural powers as he may have should be cultivated by the study
of history, science and literature. He must not only keep close to the
people but remember that he is one of them, and not above the meanest.
He must feel the wrongs of others so keenly that he forgets his own, and
resolve to combat these wrongs with all the power at his command.

¶ The most thrilling, inspiring oratory, the most powerful and
impressive eloquence is the voice of the disinherited, the oppressed,
the suffering and submerged; it is the voice of poverty and misery, of
rags and crusts, of wretchedness and despair; the voice of humanity
crying to the infinite; the voice that resounds throughout the earth and
reaches Heaven; the voice that awakens the conscience of a race and
proclaims the truths that fill the world with life and liberty and love.

                                        --EUGENE V. DEBS.



                    FOREWORD


Every generation has added a little to the store of truth of which the
human race has possessed itself throughout the long sweep of the
centuries. Every truth expressed and preserved by those who lived in the
past, is a contribution which enriches the lives of those who live in
the present. We, as members of the human race, are not separate atoms
independent of the universe, but we are atoms of it. We are the product
of all time, and partake of the truth of all preceding generations, in
which the power to express ideas and preserve them has existed.

One reason why the race has not profited more largely by the discoveries
of previous generations, is the fact that we feel so profoundly the
discovery of a truth of any nature, that we are prone to dogmatize it by
a rule or set of rules.

This usually results in shutting away from us the real principle of
which the rule is but an evidence. A mechanic may learn every detail of
every rule for the construction of a steam engine, but if he lacks the
understanding of the principles which give rise to the rules, they will
avail nothing and his work must fail. If, however, he understands the
principles involved, his work will stand the test, though he has no
knowledge of rules as such.

In teaching the English language, the rules have been stressed, while
the principles have been submerged, so that the teaching of rules has
not resulted in the improvement of the student.

The People's College, realizing this, has, through the author of this
work, revolutionized the teaching of the fundamental principles that
underlie the use of language. The stress is laid upon principles instead
of rules, so that the student, whether he remember a rule or not, will
never forget the application of these principles to the use of the
written and spoken word.

The assertion is ventured that no more practical and effective method
can be devised for the rapid and thorough teaching of these principles.
Moreover, the importance of this new departure in method cannot be
over-estimated, when we consider that only through the use of language
can information be disseminated concerning other branches of learning.
This science, then, lies at the very base of all real education, and a
mastery of it puts the student in possession of the only weapon by means
of which he may master all other sciences.

The author has, with peculiar aptitude, grasped the fundamental
character of the foregoing facts and has adapted the study of language
to the real principles involved. All the dry rules that are the
witnesses of principles in the ordinary text are done away, while the
principles evidenced by those rules come forth to the light in practical
application, with a beauty of expression and a real utility that render
the mastery of the subject an entertaining excursion into the realms of
learning, rather than a dry imprisonment of the faculties in an effort
to memorize misunderstood rules without apparent reason or real use.

It is the principle behind the rule that has power in it. When this is
understood, the method pursued by the author in this course will be
universally applied to all branches of learning, and will end forever
the imprisonment of children for the useless worship of rules.

The author's grasp of this fact and the exemplification of it, contained
in this work are even more far-reaching than the foregoing would
indicate. It really means the application of a new viewpoint to life
itself. It means the questioning of the utility of authority; the
questioning of the utility of institutions; the application, we might
say, of such a test as this: Does any rule, does any authority, does any
principle, conserve the interests of humanity? If not, away with it.
This means rationalism, the use of common sense. It means that at last
the race is beginning to consciously direct its own destiny.

It is with a profound sense of the necessity of education as a part of
the evolutionary process now in the conscious grasp of the race, and
with a conviction of the fundamental importance of the new viewpoint so
ably presented by the author that we dedicate this work "To the
Education of the Workers by the Workers."

                              THE PEOPLE'S COLLEGE.



                    TABLE OF CONTENTS


                    PLAIN ENGLISH

          I.        Language Study                    9
          II.       Nouns and Verbs                  18
          III.      Parts of Speech                  27
          IV.       Nouns                            38
          V.        Verbs                            50
          VI.       Inflection of Verbs              58
          VII.      Time Forms of Verbs              69
          VIII.     Time Forms, Cont'd.              78
          IX.       Participles and Infinitives      88
          X.        Helping Verbs                    97
          XI.       Verbs--Common Errors            106
          XII.      Pronouns                        115
          XIII.     Pronouns, Cont'd.               127
          XIV.      Adjectives                      138
          XV.       Adjectives, Cont'd.             148
          XVI.      Adverbs                         160
          XVII.     Adverbs, Cont'd.                169
          XVIII.    Prepositions                    179
          XIX.      Prepositions, Cont'd.           189
          XX.       Conjunctions                    200
          XXI.      Conjunctions, Cont'd.           212
          XXII.     Adjective Clauses               222
          XXIII.    Independent Constructions       232
          XXIV.     Sentence Building               243
          XXV.      Sentence Analysis               255
          XXVI.     Sentence Building               267
          XXVII.    Sentence Building               278
          XXVIII.   The Use of Capitals             288
          XXIX.     Punctuation                     299
          XXX.      Punctuation, Cont'd.            310


                    SPELLING

          I.        Definition                       17
          II.       Vowels and Consonants            26
          III.      Diacritical Marks                36
          IV.       Digraphs                         49
          V.        Diphthongs                       57
          VI.       Syllabification                  68
          VII.      Syllabification, Cont'd.         77
          VIII.     Accent                           87
          IX.       Compound Words                   96
          X.        Prefixes and Suffixes           105
          XI.       Derivatives                     114
          XII.      Derivatives, Cont'd.            126
          XIII.     Silent E                        137
          XIV.      Words Ending in Y               146
          XV.       Words with ei or ie             159
          XVI.      Homonyms                        168
          XVII.     Derivative Nouns                178
          XVIII.    Verbs with Prepositions         187
          XIX.      Derivative Prepositions         199
          XX.       Derivative Adverbs              211
          XXI.      Derivative Adjectives           221
          XXII.     Words in able and ible          231
          XXIII.    Simplified Spelling             241
          XXIV.     Verbs with Suffixes             254
          XXV.      Cognate Sounds                  265
          XXVI.     Words beginning with dis        277
          XXVII.    The prefixes in, un and mis     287
          XXVIII.   Synonyms                        297
          XXIX.     Antonyms                        308
          XXX.      Common Errors                   320



                    PLAIN ENGLISH

                    Lesson I


                    Open Letter

Dear Comrade:

You are beginning a course of study in the use of Plain English. We do
not know what your previous study may have been, but the object of this
course is to give the basic principles and practice of the use of the
English Language for the benefit of those who have not had the
opportunity of a high school education and possibly have not finished in
the grade school.

For this reason we have avoided, as much as possible, the statement of
rules and formulas to be learned by rote and have made the few rules
which it is necessary to know, grow naturally out of the need for them
in the development of expression in language.

We have taken for granted several things in the preparation of this
course. First, we assume that you have never studied grammar, or if you
have, that you will be glad to review it in simplified form. This course
does not follow the lines laid down by technical grammarians. It has
been worked out on the basis of plain, common sense. Our purpose is not
to make of you a grammarian, versed in the knowledge of rules and
reasons, but to give you the power to express yourself more readily,
fluently and correctly--in other words to speak and write _good_
English.

Second, we assume that you are interested and willing to work and eager
to increase your store of knowledge. Your progress in this branch of
knowledge will depend, to a large extent, upon your own efforts. We have
endeavored to avoid unnecessary and uninteresting rules and make the
course as simple, clear and plain as possible; but that does not mean
you will not have to work in order to master this study. We trust it
will be pleasant and interesting work, bringing you joy as it brings you
a growing sense of power.

Probably no two people will use the same plan of work. Your work, to be
a pleasure, must express your own individuality. However, we want to
make a few suggestions which we know from experience you will find
helpful.

+1st.+ +Be Systematic.+ Find some time each day which you can regularly
spend in study. Do not be discouraged if it is only fifteen minutes each
day. The student who will spend fifteen minutes every day regularly in
intensive study can easily complete this course within the prescribed
time.

+2d.+ +Concentrate.+ By this we mean that when you study, you should do
it to the exclusion of everything else. Keep your mind upon the subject.
You may find this difficult at first. Your mind will wander; but you
will soon acquire the student habit if you persevere.

+3d.+ +Have Faith in Yourself.+ Do not be easily discouraged. You have
the power to master this subject and _you will_. You will find it of
immeasurable value to you to be able to speak and write fluently and
correctly. Those whom you admire for their ready use of good English
were not born with the "gift of gab." They learned how to speak by
studying the rules of grammar, the meaning of words, just as you are
studying them. What they have done, _you will do_.

+4th.+ +Go Slowly and Surely.+ Do not skim through these lessons. Be
sure you understand thoroughly as you go along. Read carefully and
_think_ for yourself. If there is anything you do not understand at any
time, write us and ask about it. These lessons have been carefully
prepared and are for your benefit. Make them yours and call upon us
freely for help. This is your College and its only ideal is service.

+5th.+ +Get a Note-Book.+ Make your note-book your work-shop. Write in
it an outline of each lesson. Fill it with notes, examples, anything
which is of interest on the subject. Note down your own frequent
mistakes in the use of English. Watch the conversation of your friends;
listen to good speakers. Write down the mistakes you notice. Whenever
you hear a word which seems particularly good, or when you see one in
your reading, write it in your note-book and make it part of your
vocabulary. You will find your interest continually growing and also
your ability to express the thoughts you yearn to express.

If we can bring to you an increasing joy in life because of a growing
power of expression; if we can enlarge your ability to serve the world;
if we can, through the study of this wonderful language of ours, open
wider the door of opportunity for you,--our comrade,--The People's
College will have served its purpose and realized its ideal.

                    Yours for Education,

                              THE PEOPLE'S COLLEGE.


                    GOOD ENGLISH--WHAT IS IT?

+1.+ People seem to differ in their idea as to what constitutes "Good
English." Have you never seen a man suddenly called upon to make a
formal speech or introduced into the company of distinguished men and
women? Quite often, he will drop his simple every-day mode of speech and
speak in stilted, unnatural language, using all the "big" words he can
possibly remember. He no doubt fondly imagines he is making an
impression and using "good" English.

The purpose of language is to make one's self understood, and, of
course, this can be done in very simple and crude English. The man who
breaks every rule of grammar, intersperses his remarks with every
variety of slang phrase, may make himself understood, but he is not
using _good_ English.

+2.+ +Good English is that which is good for its purpose and conforms to
the standards of usage.+

We have one purpose when we write a business letter and quite another
when we are writing or speaking of the great issues of life. There is a
place for the simple, direct, plain, unadorned language of every-day
business life--the life of the work-a-day world--and there is a place
also for the beauty and charm of the language of poetry. If we are
talking with the man who works beside us of the work of the day, we will
naturally use plain, simple, forceful words. But, if we are speaking to
our comrades, striving to arouse them out of their lethargy, to stir
them to action as men and women, we will just as naturally use the fine
and noble words which touch the depths of human emotion--the heights of
human endeavor.

+3.+ There are certain rules for the use of English which have grown up
through the years, to which we must conform. These are not arbitrary.
They have not been made by any man or any set of men. In fact, they are
constantly changing, as the common usage of the people forces the
changes. For these rules are only the expression of the common usage,
and as usage changes, the rules change.

But these changes come slowly, so we can set down in a book the rules
which express the established usage of today. The ability to use good
English does not mean the ability to use long, high-sounding words. To
be a master of good English means to be able to use the word that meets
your need and use it correctly.

Do not strive for _effect_, strive for _effective expression_.


                    USE YOUR DICTIONARY

+4.+ Do you know that the average individual cripples through life with
a vocabulary of a few hundred words when he might easily have at his
command as many thousands?

We are misers with our words. Here hid away in this book we call the
dictionary is a wealth of words, a rich mine of expression, and yet in
our every-day conversation we halt and stammer, using meaningless words
and phrases largely made up of current slang.

Never let a word pass by that you do not understand thoroughly. Look it
up at once in your dictionary and master it then and there. Dollars may
be difficult to earn and more difficult to keep, but here is a wealth
easily gained and the more you use it the more you possess it.

You will find your dictionary an exceedingly interesting book when you
get acquainted with it.

Use it constantly; make it your familiar companion.


                    OUR LANGUAGE

+5.+ Did you ever stop to think what the world would be if we had no way
of communicating, one with another? Think of Helen Keller, shut up in
her prison-house of silence. Her only mode of communication with her
fellows is through the sense of touch.

Every form of life that has consciousness has some way of expressing its
feelings. Every animal, by the movements of its body or the tones of its
voice, expresses its emotions of pain, pleasure, rage, hate, joy, hunger
and the many passions that sway its life. The child knows without being
taught how to express its wants. We understand its cry of hunger, its
scream of pain, its laugh of delight. This is the natural language, the
language of feeling. It is the universal language that needs no rules
and no interpreter. Life on every plane knows and understands it.


                    WHEN WE BEGIN TO THINK

+6.+ Our feelings and desires are not the only things we wish to
communicate. The natural language satisfies a child for a time, but as
the child grows he begins to _think_, then he feels the need of a more
effective means of expressing himself. You can express your feelings to
a certain extent by the natural language. You can make one know that you
are glad by the expression of the face, the attitude of the body or the
tone of the voice. But could you make anyone understand _why_ you are
glad, by these signs and gestures?

+7.+ To express thoughts and ideas, man had to devise another sort of
language. So the language of _words_ grew up out of the need to
communicate ideas to other people. As man's ability to think grew, so
his language grew. At first, this language was only a spoken language.
The ideas of one generation were handed down to the next by the spoken
word. Gradually a crude form of writing was invented from which our
written language has developed. This has made it possible to put the
wisdom of the ages into books for the benefit of the world.

+8.+ +Hence, language is the means of expressing thought and feeling.+
It has grown out of our need for expression.

+A word is a symbol of an idea.+ It is a sound or combination of sounds
which we use to represent an idea. The use of words makes it possible
for us to readily convey our thoughts to other people.

Through the medium of words we are able to communicate to others our
thoughts, not only of the external world about us, but also of the
mental world in which we live. We can tell of our loves, our hates, our
dreams and our ideals. Animals find the natural language of looks and
tones and gestures sufficient because they live almost wholly upon the
physical plane. But man lives in a mental world as well as in a physical
one, and must have a spoken and written language by which to express his
thoughts.


                    Exercise 1

Select from the following sentences those which it is possible to
express by a look or tone or gesture, and those which can not be
expressed without words:

   1. I am glad.
   2. I am glad because men are struggling for freedom.
   3. I am hungry.
   4. I am hungry for the chance for an education.
   5. Come.
   6. Come, let us reason together.
   7. I am afraid.
   8. I am afraid that we must wait long for peace.
   9. Go.
  10. Go, search the world over for the truth.
  11. I am disgusted.
  12. I am disgusted with those who will not think for themselves.
  13. I am tired.
  14. I am tired of these petty squabbles among comrades.


                    OUR EXPRESSION

+9.+ Our knowledge of language opens up a new world to us. We
can communicate with those about us; we can open the storehouse of
the knowledge of the past as recorded in books, or as two of our writers
have expressed it:

  Have you ever rightly considered what the mere ability to read
  means--that it is the key which admits to the world of thought and
  fancy and imagination--to the company of saint and sage, of the
  wisest and wittiest at their wisest and wittiest moments--that it
  enables us to see with the keenest eyes, hear with the finest ears
  and listen to the sweetest voices of all time?--_Lowell_.

  Strip man of his books and his papers, and he becomes a mere slave,
  ignorant of his own resources, ignorant of his rights and
  opportunities. The difference between the free citizen of today and
  the savage of yesterday is almost entirely a thing of books. The man
  who dislikes books can never be entirely happy, and he who loves a
  good book can never be wholly miserable.--_Hillis_.

Have you never felt that struggle within and the sense of defeat when
you have tried to make some one feel as you feel, understand as you
understand, see some great truth as you see it, and could not find the
words with which to express your ideas?

+10.+ The mastery of words gives; first, _the ability to understand the
spoken or written thoughts of others_; second, _the ability to
adequately express our own thoughts_; and third, _the ability to think
clearly and to grow in our intellectual life_.

A connected chain of reasoning is impossible without the knowledge of
the words that express the development of the ideas and the varying
shades of meaning. To gain this mastery, you must know the words of our
language and their use. Words are the symbols of ideas and perform
certain functions in expressing our thoughts. This, simply stated, is
all that the study of English Grammar comprises--_the study of English
words and their use in the expression of thought and feeling_.


                    THE THOUGHT AND THE WORD

+11.+ We have found that the invention of words grew out of the ability
to _think_ and the need for expression. But we first _thought_! So, in
order to express yourself clearly you must first _think_ clearly. Any
thought can be simply and clearly expressed. When you read something
difficult of understanding, where the thought is buried under an
avalanche of words, you can be assured the writer was not thinking
clearly. He did not have the perfect mastery of his thought. On the
other hand, one may have a valuable thought in mind and not be able to
express it because he does not have the words at his command. In the one
case, we have words and no idea; in the other, the idea and no words.

This study is intended to enable you to master words, the tools of
expression. In whatever work you are engaged, it was first necessary to
learn to use the tools with which you work. So, you must master the use
of English words, the tools of your expression. You can in that way
learn to express your thoughts clearly and exactly. You will not need to
resort to slang, or to the tiresome repetition of a few words.

The best of everything is none too good for you. It is your right, your
heritage, and the best in the English language will bring you into the
company and comradeship of the men and women who have striven and toiled
for humanity, who will talk to you of dreams and deeds worth while, who
will place in your hands the key to a new world.


                    A COMPLETE THOUGHT

+12.+ When we want to express a thought we use more than one word. Words
are the symbols of ideas, but a thought is the expression of the
relation between ideas. For example, I say _man_, and you get an idea or
an image in your mind of a man, but I have not said anything about any
man. But if I say, _Man works_, then I have expressed a thought. I have
related the idea of a man and the idea of work and have expressed a
complete thought.

So we express our thoughts by _groups of words_. The very smallest group
of words which will express a complete thought must, therefore, contain
two words. If I say _men_, _fire_, _flowers_, and stop, you wonder what
I mean, for I have not expressed a thought. Or, I might say, _work_,
_burns_, _bloom_, and you would still be in the dark as to my meaning;
but, when I say, _Men work_, _Fire burns_, _Flowers bloom_, you
understand, for I have told you my complete thought. I have put two
words together in a way to make sense; I have formed a sentence.

+13.+ If we say, _Go_ or _Wait_, in the form of a command or entreaty,
the single word seems to make complete sense and to form a sentence in
itself. But this is only because _you_, who are to do the going or the
waiting, is clearly implied. The words _go_ or _wait_, by themselves, do
not make sense or form a sentence unless they are uttered in the
commanding or beseeching tone of voice which makes you understand that
_You go_ or _You wait_ is the intended meaning. With the exception of
words used in this way as a command or entreaty, it is always necessary
to use at least two words to express a complete thought.

But will any two words make a sentence--express a complete thought?

+14.+ Which of these combinations of words are sentences and which are
not?

  Busy men.
  Men travel.
  Snow flies.
  Blue sky.
  Red flag.
  Rustling trees.
  Workers strike.
  Bees sting.
  Grass grows.
  Cold winds.
  Green fields.
  Happy children.

_Busy men_ does not express a complete thought. We are wondering _busy
men do what?_ But, _men travel_ is a complete thought. It makes sense
and forms a sentence, and tells us what men _do_. In the words, _busy
men_, we have spoken the name of something but have made no assertion
concerning it. In the two words, _men travel_, we have spoken the name
_men_ and we have told what they _do_.

If we were walking down the street together we might say:

  The street is crowded to-day.
  Does the open road attract you?
  See the jostling crowds.

Or if we were discussing the class struggle, we might say:

  Two classes have always existed.
  To which class do you belong?
  Join your class in the struggle.

In every one of these six groups of words we have a complete thought
expressed. Each of these groups of words we call a sentence.

+15.+ +A sentence is a group of words expressing a complete thought.+


                    Exercise 2

Write in each blank space the word necessary to express a complete
thought.

  Men......        ......fade.

  Leaves......     ......bloom.

  Water......      ......run.

  Fire......       ......write.

  Women......      ......grow.

  Children......   ......speak.


                    SUBJECT AND PREDICATE

+16.+ We have found that every sentence must have at least two words,
one word to name that about which something is said and another word
which does the saying or makes the assertion. In the sentence, _Men
work_, we have these two parts; _men_ which is the part about which
something is said, and _work_ which tells what men do.

+The part about which something is said is called the subject.+

In this sentence, _Men work_, _men_, therefore, is the subject, for it
names that about which something is said.

+17.+ +The part that asserts or says something about the subject is
called the predicate.+

Therefore in this sentence, _Men work_, _work_ is the predicate. In the
following sentences draw a single line under the subject and a double
line under the predicate, thus, _~Birds~ =fly=_.

  Ships sail.
  Soldiers fight.
  Flowers fade.
  Horses neigh.
  Flags wave.
  Snow comes.
  War rages.
  Winds blow.
  Fish swim.

+18.+ We may add other words to the subject or the predicate and so
enlarge their meaning, as for instance we may say:

  The stately ships sail proudly away.
  The war in Europe rages furiously.
  The soldiers in the army fight like men gone mad.

Yet in every one of these sentences you will find the subject and the
predicate,--_Ships sail_, _War rages_, _Soldiers fight_.

Every sentence must have a subject and a predicate, and it is a very
important part of the study of sentences to be able to distinguish
quickly and readily the subject and the predicate. Find that about which
something is said, and that will always be the subject. Find that which
is said about the subject, and that will be the predicate.

+Every sentence must contain a subject and a predicate.+

+The subject of a sentence names that about which something is said.+

+The predicate tells that which is said about the subject.+


                    Exercise 3

In the following sentences add other words to the subject and to the
predicate to enlarge their meaning, then draw a single line under the
subject and a double line under the predicate:

  Ships sail.
  Tides flow.
  Stars shine.
  Rain falls.
  Children play.
  Nature sleeps.
  Waves break.
  War rages.
  Birds sing.


                    Exercise 4

In the following sentences the subject and the predicate have other
words added to enlarge their meaning. Find the subject and predicate and
draw a single line under the subject and a double line under the
predicate, as in the sentence,

  _The ~workers~ of the world =build= palaces for other people._

  1. Our success lies in solidarity.
  2. New occasions teach new duties.
  3. Two classes exist in the world.
  4. Labor creates all wealth.
  5. The workers fight all battles.
  6. Our time calls for earnest deeds.
  7. Knowledge unlocks the door of life.
  8. Ignorance bars the path to progress.
  9. Few people think for themselves.
  10. Hope stirs us to action.



                    SPELLING

                    LESSON 1


+Spelling is the process of naming or writing in proper order the
letters of a word.+ There is nothing that marks us so quickly as lacking
in the qualities that go to make up a good education as our inability to
spell the words most commonly used.

Spelling in English is rather difficult. If each letter represented but
one sound, spelling would be an easy matter. Every word would be spelled
just as it sounds. This is the goal of those who advocate phonetic
spelling. Phonetic spelling simply means spelling according to sound.
But our alphabet does not have a letter for every sound.

There are some forty-two different sounds used in English words and we
have only twenty-six letters in the alphabet. Therefore some letters
must do duty for several sounds. Then we have words which contain
letters which are not sounded at all when the word is pronounced, so,
all in all, spelling is a matter of memorizing.

The best way to become an accurate speller is to read much, to observe
closely the forms of words and to write frequently. Always spell any
word of which you are uncertain aloud several times and write it out
several times. In this way you have aided the memory both through the
eye and through the ear. If you are not sure of the spelling of a word
do not use it until you have looked it up in the dictionary and made
sure.

The words in this lesson are taken out of Lesson 1, Plain English
Course. There are thirty in all, five for each day of the week. (1) Look
up the meaning in the dictionary. (2) Learn the correct spelling. (3)
Learn the correct pronunciation. (4) Use the word in a sentence of your
own construction. (5) Use it during the day in your conversation; strive
to make it a part of your working vocabulary.

  +Monday+

    Mode
    English
    Grammar
    Expression
    Complete

  +Tuesday+

    Language
    Emotion
    Group
    Mastery
    Dictionary

  +Wednesday+

    Thought
    Symbol
    Ability
    Idea
    Knowledge

  +Thursday+

    Subject
    Predicate
    Vocabulary
    Practice
    History

  +Friday+

    Memory
    Sentence
    Write
    Right
    Purpose

  +Saturday+

    Propose
    Growth
    Learn
    Teach
    Pronounce



                    PLAIN ENGLISH

                    LESSON 2


Dear Comrade:

Review Lesson 1 before taking up this lesson. Do not try
to learn by rote the contents of these lessons. Our endeavor is to make
you see the reason for every rule and definition before they are given.
We want you to see unfolding before you the development of language and
through this evolution you can catch a glimpse of the developing life of
man. Language like customs, religion, government, has grown with the
economic advancement of man. As man has evolved on the economic plane,
the material plane, as he has improved his means of providing for
himself food and clothes and shelter, he has developed a language suited
to his needs.

So we can trace the growth of the race as we study the development of
language from the sign language of the primitive savage to the language
of the philosopher of today by which he makes known to us the story of
the stars, and the innermost secrets of our hearts and minds.
Civilization began with the invention of the phonetic alphabet and the
use of writing. So the study of language becomes not a dull and stupid
conning of useless rules and formulas, but an absorbing study of a
living, growing, changing thing that mirrors forth the very life of man.

Think while you study. As you look for the definition of words in your
dictionary and realize how many shades of meaning we can express in
words, remember that this power is a heritage that comes to us from a
long past of incessant struggle.

We of to-day are also writing history in words. By our efforts we are
adding new words to the language and giving old words a richer meaning.
_Brotherhood_, _justice_, for example! The world is coming to understand
these glorious words more fully and giving them a new interpretation.

You will see a new beauty and glory in words after you have finished
this course and you will have a mastery of this wonderful language of
ours.

Watch carefully the use of words in your reading. Especially this week
distinguish the nouns and verbs. Use your dictionary constantly and add
a few words to your vocabulary every day.

Whenever there is a word used in these lessons which you do not
thoroughly understand, look it up at once in your dictionary and master
it then and there. Make a list in your note book of the words you look
up and at the end of the week go over them again and see if you have
them clearly in mind. Watch also the pronunciation of the words. Do not
try to do everything all at once, nor should you be discouraged if your
progress seems slow. We approach the goal one step at a time and each
step takes us nearer and nearer. Just keep steadily at it, Comrade.

                    Yours for Education,

                              THE PEOPLE'S COLLEGE.


                    KINDS OF SENTENCES

+19.+ We have found that we use sentences to express our thoughts. But
we also find that we use these sentences in different ways for different
purposes. Can you notice any difference in the following sentences?

  Two classes have always existed.
  To which class do you belong?
  Join your class in the struggle.

When I say, _Two classes have always existed_, I am making a simple
assertion, stating what I know or believe to be true.

When I say, _To which class do you belong?_ I am asking a question.

When I say, _Join your class in the struggle_, I am giving a command or
making a request.

+20.+ +These three kinds of sentences are called assertive,
interrogative and imperative.+

+An assertive sentence states a fact or an opinion.+

+An interrogative sentence asks a question.+

+An imperative sentence gives a command, makes a request or
expresses a wish.+

+21.+ Any of these three kinds of sentences may be exclamatory; that is,
it may express surprise, excitement, impatience, or some other emotion.
For example:

  Hurrah! Freedom is coming!

This is an assertion expressed as an exclamation.

  Oh! Why should war continue?

Here we have a question in the form of an exclamation.

  Come! Keep your courage up.

In this, we have a command, an imperative sentence, expressed in the
form of an exclamation.

+An exclamatory sentence expresses surprise, excitement or some other
emotion.+

In these three forms of sentences, the assertive, the interrogative and
the imperative, together with the exclamatory, we are able to express
every thought and feeling which demands expression, either for practical
or artistic purposes.

The sentence is the basis of spoken and written language and as we trace
its development we trace the history of the evolution of man and the
growth of his power of expression, as he has developed his powers of
mind.

+22.+ +Every sentence must begin with a capital letter.+

+Every assertive and imperative sentence should end with a period.+

+Every interrogative sentence should end with a question mark.+

The word in an exclamatory sentence which expresses strong emotion is
followed by an exclamation point. The sentence itself if in
interrogative form should be followed by a question mark; if in the
assertive or the imperative form it may be followed either by an
exclamation point or a period.


                    Exercise 1

Mark the assertive sentences among the following with an _a_ in the
blank space. Mark the interrogative sentences with a _q_ for question;
the imperative sentences with a _c_ for command; and the exclamatory
with an _e_ for exclamation.

   1. ...... Books are the true levelers.
   2. ...... Put not your trust in princes.
   3. ...... To err is human; to forgive divine.
   4. ...... What are the rights of a child?
   5. ...... Seize common occasions and make them great.
   6. ...... Not until all are free, is any free.
   7. ...... Freemen! Shall not we demand our own?
   8. ...... Is a world of happiness but a Utopian dream?
   9. ...... He who will not work, shall not eat.
  10. ...... Strike at the polls for freedom!
  11. ...... Do the majority want social justice?
  12. ...... A friend is the hope of the heart.
  13. ...... How beautiful is the vision of peace!
  14. ...... Acquire the thinking habit.
  15. ...... Is it glorious to die for our country?
  16. ...... Lo! Women are waking and claiming their own!
  17. ...... Claim your right to the best.
  18. ...... What is the highest good?
  19. ...... Workers of the world, unite!
  20. ...... To remain ignorant is to remain a slave.


                    WORDS--THEIR USES

+23.+ We have learned from our study that we use sentences to express
our thoughts. These sentences are made up of words; therefore we call
words _parts of speech_. Words are only fractions or parts of speech,
and it is by combining them into sentences that we are able to express
our thoughts.

There are many thousands of words in the English language. It would be
impossible for us to study each word separately. But these words, like
people, are divided into classes, so we can study each class of words.
These thousands of words are divided into classes much as people are, or
rather as people ought to be; for words are divided into classes
according to the work which they do. In the Industrial Commonwealth
there will be no upper or lower class, but men will be divided into
groups according to the work which they do. There will be various
industrial groups, groups of agricultural workers, groups of clerical
workers, etc. So words are divided into classes according to the work
which they do in helping us to express our ideas.

+24.+ +Words are divided into kinds or classes according to their use in
sentences.+

+There are eight of these classes of words, called parts of speech.+


                    THE NAMES OF THINGS

+25.+ What a word _does_ determines what part of speech it is. When
primitive man, long ago, first began to use words, in all probability
the first words which he invented were those used to name familiar
objects about him. He invented a word for _man_, _boy_, _tree_,
_animal_, etc. Gradually, all the things he met in his daily life
received a name. About one half of the words in our language are of this
class, the _names_ of things.

Every word which is used as a name of something is called a _noun_. This
word _noun_ is derived from the Latin word which means _name_, so it is
quite the same thing as saying _name_. Notice the following sentences:

  Boys run.
  Fish swim.
  Horses neigh.
  Soldiers march.
  Flags wave.
  Flowers fade.
  Girls study.
  Winds blow.
  Men work.

All of the words used like _boys_, _girls_, _fish_, _horses_,
_soldiers_, _flag_, _winds_, _flowers_ and _men_, are the names of
objects, therefore all of these words are _nouns_. The subject of a
sentence is always a noun or a word used as a noun. However, we may use
in a sentence many nouns besides the noun which is used as the subject,
the noun about which the statement is made. We will study the use of
these nouns later in our lessons.

_The famous palace of the kings of the Moors, at Granada, in Spain, was
called the Alhambra._ We have six nouns in this sentence, _palace_,
_kings_, _Moors_, _Granada_, _Spain_ and _Alhambra_, but the noun
_palace_ is the noun which is the subject--the noun which is the name of
that about which something is said. _Palace_ is the subject; and _was
called_ is the predicate in this sentence.

+26.+ +A noun is a word used as the name of something.+

Now we want to learn to distinguish every word that is used as a name.
Pick out the nouns as you read your books and papers until you are able
to tell every word which is used as a noun, the name of something.

In the following paragraph, the nouns are printed in italics. Carefully
study these nouns:

The _fire_ in the _grate_, the _lamp_ by the _bedside_, the _water_ in
the _tumbler_, the _fly_ on the _ceiling_ above, the _flower_ in the
_vase_ on the _table_, all _things_ have their _history_ and can reveal
to us _nature's_ invisible _forces_.


                    Exercise 2

Underscore every noun in the following quotation:

  The whole history of the earth has been one of gradual development, of
  progress, of slow and painful climbing through the ages. Not only have
  the hills and the mountains, the rivers and the stars, the trees and
  the cattle, the beasts and the birds, been developing; but man
  himself--his mind and his body--has been developing. Men are marvelous
  little creatures; they have weighed the sun in their balances,
  measured the stars and analyzed the light and beauty of the rainbow;
  they have sounded the depths of the ocean; they have learned how the
  sun and the mountains were born and the rivers were laid in their
  mighty beds; they have learned how the seas became salt, what the
  stars are made of. They have learned so much, and yet when it comes to
  matters of time and space, and law and motion, they still know so
  little. The only man who is conscious of his ignorance is he who has
  learned a great deal.--_McMillan_.


                    WORDS THAT ASSERT

+27.+ After the primitive man had invented names for the things about
him, probably his next step was to invent words of action. He very
naturally wanted to tell what all of these various things _did_. So the
words that tell what things do, the words of action, the words that
assert, came into the language. A child follows much the same
development. As you can readily observe, it first names the objects
about it, then learns the words that tell what these objects do.

So the words that tell what things _do_, become the second class of
words. These words we call _verbs_. The word _verb_, like the word
_noun_, is taken into our language from the Latin. In Latin, the word
_verbum_ means _the word_; and the verb is practically _the_ word in a
sentence, for we cannot have a sentence without a verb. You may string a
number of words together, but if you do not have an asserting word, you
will not have a sentence.

Notice the following sentences:

  Men work.
  Flowers fade.
  Snow flies.
  Winds blow.

In these sentences, the words _work_, _fade_, _flies_ and _blow_, are
the words used to assert or say something of the subject, hence they are
the verbs in these sentences.

+28.+ Sometimes it takes more than one word to express the action or
make the assertion. Notice the following sentences:

  The men are working.
  The boy has been studying.

In the first sentence it takes two words, _are working_, to make the
assertion; in the second, three are required, _has been studying_. These
groups of words are called _verb phrases_.

+29.+ +A verb is a word that asserts.+

+A verb phrase is a group of words used as a single verb.+

The verb is perhaps the most difficult part of speech to master. It is
not hard to find the verb in short sentences, but in longer sentences it
is sometimes difficult.

For example:

  The sun shines.
  The man walks.
  The boys strike.

We very easily see that _shine_, _walk_ and _strike_ are the verbs in
these sentences. But let us add other words, as for example:

  The sun shines brightly.
  The man walks for his health.
  The boys strike the dog.

Now we are very apt to confuse the verb with the words which state _how_
and _why_ the action is performed, or the _object_ towards which the
action is directed. But in these sentences, _shine_ and _walks_ and
_strike_ are still the verbs, just as in the first sentences. The verb
asserts the action; the other words merely give additional information
about _how_ or _why_ or _upon what_ the action is performed.

+30.+ Another thing which makes it difficult for us to distinguish verbs
in English is that the same word may be used both as a noun and as a
verb; but always remember that words are separated into classes
according to the work which they do. When a word is used as a _name_ it
is a _noun_; when it is used as an _asserting_ word it is a _verb_. Note
the following sentences:

  The _play_ made the child tired.
  The children _play_ in the yard.

In the first sentence _play_ is a noun, the subject of the verb _made_.
In the second sentence _play_ is the verb, telling what the children
_do_. Always classify words according to the work which they perform in
the sentence. This will help you very much in finding your verb.

+31.+ Then we have some verbs which do not assert action but express
rather a connection or relation between the subject and some other word
or words. For example:

  The dog belongs to the man.
  The girl is happy.

In these sentences _belongs_ and _is_ are the verbs. _Belongs_ asserts
or shows the relation between _the dog_ and _the man_. _Is_ shows the
relation between _the girl_ and _happy_. If we simply say _girl_ and
_happy_, we do not show any connection between them or make any
statement relating the two, but when we say, _The girl is happy_, we are
asserting something, and the word _is_ makes the assertion.

Or when we say, _The girl was happy_, or _The girl will be_ or _may be
happy_, in each of these cases, it is the verb or verb phrase _was_ or
_will be_ or _may be_, that asserts or shows the relation between the
subject _girl_ and the descriptive word _happy_. You will observe that
the verbs _will be_ and _may be_ are composed of more than one word and
are _verb phrases_.

We will study the verb in succeeding lessons, but let us remember from
this lesson that the word or group of words that makes the assertion in
the sentence is the verb. Remember too that every sentence must contain
a verb.

Get this basic principle firmly fixed in mind that what a word _does_
decides what it _is_--to what part of speech it belongs, and that every
class of words fulfills its own function in sentence building.

+32.+ Remember:--

+Every sentence must have a subject and a predicate.+

+Every sentence must express a complete thought.+

+Every sentence must contain a verb.+

+A noun is the name of something.+

+A verb is a word that asserts.+

+What a word does determines what it is.+

Study carefully the following quotation. The verbs are printed in
_italics_.

  Slowly, painfully, _proceeds_ the struggle of man against the power of
  Mammon. The past _is written_ in tears and blood. The future _is_ dim
  and unknown, but the final outcome of this world-wide struggle _is_
  not in doubt. Freedom _will conquer_ slavery, truth _will prevail_
  over error, justice _will triumph_ over injustice, the light _will
  vanquish_ the darkness; and humanity _will rise_ in the glory of
  universal brotherhood.--_Warren_.


                    Exercise 3

Underscore all verbs and verb phrases in the following quotation:

+The Dream of Labor+: Ours is not the cause of one class, of one sex, of
one tribe, of one city, of one state, of one continent.

It is the wish for a better world where Man shall be Man; where the
beast shall become subdued; where everything shall lead to complete
development; where the good of each shall be bound up in the good of
all; where all shall feel the sorrows of each and shall run to his
rescue.

A glimpse of this ideal takes us into the Land of Promise, where peace
and plenty shall reign supreme; where brothers shall no longer battle
among themselves, but for one another; where the atmosphere shall be
laden with love, the love that saves; where the hate that kills shall be
unknown; where heart and brain shall work together and shall make life
better and more complete; where the fullness of life shall be for all
and where men and women shall be as happy at their work as little
children at their play.

The mere glimpse into that land makes life worth living, makes work
worth doing, makes dreams worth dreaming, gives us hope and faith--the
faith we need in the labor for our cause, the faith which shall help us
win.--_Oscar Leonard_.


                    Exercise 4

We have found that there are a number of words in English which may be
used either as nouns or verbs, depending upon the function they serve in
the sentence. In the following sentences underscore the nouns with a
single line, the verbs with two lines:

  1. They _man_ the boats.
  2. The _man_ has a boat.
  3. The women _pass_ this way.
  4. They held the _pass_ for hours.
  5. Little children _work_ in the mines.
  6. The _work_ of the world is done by machinery today.
  7. The armies will _cross_ the bridge.
  8. He built a _cross_ of rude stones.
  9. The leopard cannot _change_ its spots.
  10. We will force a _change_ in the law.


                    Exercise 5

In the following poem, mark every noun and every verb and verb phrase.
You will find the verb phrases in several places divided by the word
_not_, as in _I do not obey_. _Do obey_ is the verb phrase. We will
learn to what part of speech _not_ belongs a little later.

          I DO NOT OBEY, I THINK.

    "Captain, what do you think," I asked,
      "Of the part your soldiers play?"
    The Captain answered, "I do not think--
      I do not think, I obey."

    "Do you think your conscience was meant to die,
      And your brains to rot away?"
    The Captain answered, "I do not think--
      I do not think, I obey."

    "Do you think you should shoot a patriot down,
      And help a tyrant slay?"
    The Captain answered, "I do not think--
      I do not think, I obey."

    "Then if this is your soldier's code," I cried,
      "You're a mean, unmanly crew;
    And with all your feathers and gilt and braid,
      I am more of a man than you;

    "For whatever my lot on earth may be
      And whether I swim or sink,
    I can say with pride, 'I do not obey--
      I do not obey, I think.'"

                    --_Ernest Crosby_.



                    SPELLING

                    LESSON 2


The twenty-six letters in the English alphabet are divided into vowels
and consonants. A vowel is a letter which represents a sound of the
human voice but slightly interrupted by the vocal organs. The vowels are
_a_, _e_, _i_, _o_ and _u_. All of the remaining letters of the alphabet
are consonants. A consonant is a letter which represents a sound of the
human voice greatly obstructed by the vocal organs. Consonant is from
the Latin _con_, meaning _with_, and _sono_--_I sound_. So it means
literally _I sound with_.

The consonants are produced by union of the breath with the vocal
organs. The consonant sounds are so called because they are always
"sounded with" a vowel; they are used only in combination with vowels in
forming words or syllables.

In English a consonant alone never forms a word or a syllable. Sound the
different consonants _b_, _c_, _d_, _f_, _g_, _h_, _j_, _k_, _l_, _m_,
_n_, _p_, _q_, _r_, _s_, _t_, _v_, _x_ and _z_, by themselves and you
will see how the sound of the breath is obstructed or changed by the use
of the vocal organs--the lips, the tongue, the teeth, etc.--in making
these various sounds.

_W_ and _y_ are sometimes vowels and sometimes consonants. _W_ and _y_
are vowels when they are used with another vowel representing a vowel
sound as in _awe_, _new_, _joy_, _eye_, etc. _Y_ is sometimes used as a
vowel by itself as in _by_, _cry_, etc. _W_ and _y_ are consonants when
they are used at the beginning of a syllable or before a vowel in the
same syllable as in _wine_, _twine_, _yield_ and _year_.

Look up the meaning of the words in this week's lesson. Master the
spelling and use them in sentences of your own construction.

  +Monday+

    Reason
    Evolution
    Justice
    Thorough
    Beauty

  +Tuesday+

    Assertive
    Review
    Surprise
    Basis
    Separate

  +Wednesday+

    Interrogative
    Period
    Capital
    Capitol
    Function

  +Thursday+

    Example
    Contain
    Imperative
    Question
    Speech

  +Friday+

    Method
    Various
    Familiar
    Industry
    Alphabet

  +Saturday+

    Travel
    Sense
    Cents
    Sail
    Sale



                    PLAIN ENGLISH

                    LESSON 3


Dear Comrade:

In this lesson we are taking up a short study of the different parts of
speech. In later lessons we will study each part of speech more
thoroughly but this lesson covers the ground quickly and briefly. It is
sufficient, however, to form a basis for our understanding of the
evolution of language.

You will see, as you study this lesson, how each part of speech has been
added to meet a growing need. There are many, many thousand words in the
English language, but they can all be grouped under these eight parts of
speech, for they all answer in some way to one of these great needs.

The object in studying grammar, as in studying any other science, is not
to fill one's mind with a great many unrelated facts--facts which may or
may not prove useful to one hereafter. The object of all study is to
develop one's power of observation and one's ability to think. Added to
this must be the practical ability to make use of this knowledge. Here
the study of grammar has an advantage over the study of every other
science. It deals with words, something which we use every day.

You do not need any laboratory or expensive apparatus in order to study
grammar. All that you need lies ready to your hand. And in addition to
this the knowledge which you gain is something which is of practical use
to every man and woman no matter what their work, no matter what their
place or position in life may be.

Remember that dogmatism has no place in the study of grammar.
"Grammarians are the guardians, not the authors, of language." We do not
say, "You should say this or that, or you violate a rule of grammar,"
but we say "The common usage among those who use good English is thus
and so." If we do not believe that the common usage is the best usage,
then we follow the democratic method of seeking to change the common
usage into that which we consider the more sensible way. Thus, those who
advocate simplified spelling have not sought to pass a law whereby every
one should be compelled to spell words exactly as they sound, but they
have striven to influence our writers and people in general to use this
more sensible way of spelling words.

So _think_ while you study. Do not try to learn rules and formulas. See
_why_ the rules and formulas exist. Once having seen this you do not
need to learn them--you know them already. The study of any language is
an intellectual discipline of the highest order.

So apply yourself diligently to this most interesting study and you will
see that the result of this application will affect your daily life in
every particular.

                    Yours for Education,

                              THE PEOPLE'S COLLEGE.


                    WORDS ADDED TO NOUNS

+33.+ When man began to invent words to express his ideas of the world
in which he lived, we have found that probably the first need was that
of names for the things about him. So we have nouns. The second need was
of words to tell what these things _do_, and so we have verbs. But
primitive man soon felt the need of other classes of words.

The objects about us are not all alike. For example, we have a word for
man, but when we say _man_ that is not sufficient to describe the many
different kinds of men. There are tall men, short men, white men, black
men, strong men, weak men, busy men, lazy men. There are all sorts of
men in the world, and we need words by which we can describe these
different types and also indicate which man we mean.

+34.+ So we have a class of words which are called adjectives.
_Adjective_ is a word derived from the Latin. It comes from the Latin
word _ad_, meaning _to_, and the Latin word _jecto_, which means _to
throw_; hence an adjective is a word _thrown to_ or _added to_ a noun.

If you will stop to think for a moment, you will see that it is by their
qualities that we know the things about us. Some men are strong, some
are weak, some are tall, some are short. These qualities belong to
different men. And we separate or group them into classes as they
resemble each other or differ from one another in these qualities.
Things are alike which have the same qualities; things are unlike whose
qualities are different. Apples and oranges are alike in the fact that
both are round, both are edible. They are unlike in the fact that one is
red and one is yellow; one may be sour and the other sweet. So we
separate them in our minds because of their different qualities; and we
have a class of words, _adjectives_, which describe these various
qualities.

+35.+ We use adjectives for other purposes also. For example, when we
say _trees_, we are not speaking of any particular trees, but of trees
in general. But we may add certain adjectives which point out particular
trees, as for example: _these_ trees, or _those_ trees, or _eight_ trees
or _nine_ trees. These adjectives limit the trees of which we are
speaking to the particular trees pointed out. They do not express any
particular qualities of the trees like the adjectives _tall_ or
_beautiful_ express, but they limit the use of the word _trees_ in its
application. So we have our definition of the adjective.

+36.+ +An adjective is a word added to a noun to qualify or limit its
meaning.+


                    Exercise 1

Underscore all of the adjectives in the following quotation. Notice also
the nouns and verbs in this quotation.

  Yet fearsome and terrible are all the footsteps of men upon the earth,
  for they either descend or climb.

  They descend from little mounds and high peaks and lofty altitudes,
  through wide roads and narrow paths, down noble marble stairs and
  creaky stairs of wood--and some go down to the cellar, and some to the
  grave, and some down to the pits of shame and infamy, and still some
  to the glory of an unfathomable abyss where there is nothing but the
  staring, white, stony eye-balls of Destiny.

  They descend and they climb, the fearful footsteps of men, and some
  limp, some drag, some speed, some trot, some run--they are quiet,
  slow, noisy, brisk, quick, feverish, mad, and most awful in their
  cadence to the ears of the one who stands still.

  But of all the footsteps of men that either descend or climb, no
  footsteps are so fearsome and terrible as those that go straight on
  the dead level of a prison floor, from a yellow stone wall to a red
  iron gate.--From _The Walker_. _Giovannitti_.


                    WORDS ADDED TO VERBS

+37.+ From our study, you see how our classes of words grew out of man's
need of them in expressing his thoughts. And notice also how the many
thousands of words in our language can all be grouped under these few
classes. We _name_ the things about us; we invent words to tell what
these things _do_; we have another class of words which _describe_ the
things which we have named; and now we come to a fourth class of words
for which we also find great need.

When we come to tell what things _do_, we find that we need words which
will tell us _how_ or _where_ or _when_ these things are done. Notice
the following sentences:

  The men work busily.
  The men work late.
  The men work now.
  The men work here.
  The men work hard.
  The men work well.
  The men work inside.
  The men work more.

We would have a complete sentence and express a complete thought if we
said simply, _The men work_, but each of these words which we have
added, like _busily_, _hard_, _late_, etc., adds something to the
meaning of the verb. These words add something to the action which is
asserted by the verb, for they show _how_ and _when_ and _where_ and
_how much_ the men work.

+38.+ We call this class of words _adverbs_, because they are added to
verbs to make the meaning more definite, very much as adjectives are
added to nouns. Adverb means literally _to the verb_.

An adverb will always answer one of these questions: _how?_ _when?_ _how
long?_ _how often?_ _how much?_ _how far?_ or _how late?_ If you want to
find the adverbs in your sentences just ask one of these questions, and
the word that answers it will be the adverb.

+39.+ An adverb may be used also with an adjective. Notice the following
sentences:

  The book is _very_ long.
  _Too_ many people never think.

Notice here that the adverbs _very_ and _too_ modify the adjectives
_long_ and _many_.

+40.+ Adverbs may also be used with other adverbs. Notice the following
sentences:

  He speaks _very_ distinctly.
  He walks _too_ slowly.

Here the adverbs _very_ and _too_ are used with the adverbs _distinctly_
and _slowly_, and add to their meaning. We will study more fully in
later lessons concerning both the adjective and the adverb, but we can
see by this brief study why adverbs were added as a class of words, a
part of speech, for they are absolutely necessary in order to describe
the action expressed by verbs, and also to add to the meaning of
adjectives and other adverbs. Hence we have our definition of an adverb.

+41.+ +An adverb is a word that modifies the meaning of a verb, an
adjective, or another adverb.+


                    Exercise 2

Underscore all adverbs in the following sentences:

   1. He will not come today.
   2. Here and now is the day of opportunity.
   3. Very slowly, but even then entirely too rapidly, the fire crept
      forward.
   4. The room was very quiet and still.
   5. He was too weary to go farther.
   6. One must learn to feel deeply and think clearly in order to
      express himself eloquently.
   7. Ferrer stood there, so calmly and so bravely facing the firing
      squad.
   8. He was condemned to death because he stood uncompromisingly and
      courageously for the education of the masses.
   9. Ferrer understood thoroughly that the schools of today cleverly
      and effectively adapt their teaching to maintain the present
      system of society.
  10. He said "The school imprisons the children physically,
      intellectually and morally."


                    WORDS USED IN PLACE OF NOUNS

+42.+ Now we come to study another class of words which are also very
necessary in order to express our ideas. Suppose you had just arrived in
a strange town and you wanted to find the way to a friend's house. You
inquire of a stranger, "Can you tell me who lives in the house on the
corner?"

Notice the words _you_ and _me_ and _who_. You could not call the
stranger by name for you do not know his name, and hence you say _you_.
And if you used your own name instead of _me_, he would not recognize
it, and you would both be puzzled to find a substitute for that little
word _who_.

If you knew the stranger and he knew your name, you might say, "Can Mr.
Smith tell Mr. Jones what person lives in the house on the corner." But
this would sound very stilted and unnatural and awkward. So we have
these little words like _you_ and _me_ and _who_, which we use _in place
of nouns_. These words are called pronouns. This word is taken from the
Latin also. In the Latin the word _pro_ means _in place of_. So the word
pronoun means literally in place of a noun.

+43.+ +A pronoun is a word that is used in place of a noun.+

These pronouns are very useful little words. They save us a great deal
of tiresome repetition. Notice the awkwardness of the following:

  The workers will succeed in gaining the workers' freedom if the
  workers learn solidarity.

And yet this would be the way we would have to express this idea
if we did not have pronouns. Instead we say:

  The workers will succeed in gaining their freedom if they learn
  solidarity.

+44.+ We will study the pronoun in detail in later lessons, but we can
readily recognize these words which are used in place of nouns. The most
common pronouns are:

  I
  you
  he
  she
  it
  we
  they
  me
  him
  her
  us
  them
  my
  your
  his
  her
  its
  our
  their
  that
  which
  who
  whose
  whom
  what


                    Exercise 3

Underscore the pronouns in the following story:

  A man in South Africa picked up a small piece of stone. It was dirty
  and Rough.

  "Make me beautiful," said the stone.

  "I shall have to hurt you," said the man.

  "Well, if it hurts me, I will bear it," said the stone.

  So the man took it to a clever craftsman, who put it into a tight
  vise, and cut it with his sharp instrument.

  "Oh!" cried the stone.

  And he ground it till the dust fell all about it.

  "Oh!" cried the stone.

  And he polished it very hard.

  "Oh!" cried the stone.

  And then he set it in a crown and sent it to the Queen. On a sunny day
  she wore her crown, and the stone--it was a diamond--sparkled in long
  rays of crimson and green and yellow and silvery white. And all the
  people greeted their queen. She showed them her crown and they praised
  the beautiful stone.

  The training was hard, but the improvement was glorious.


                    PREPOSITIONS

+45.+ Notice the following sentences:

  I want the book _on_ the box.
  I want the book _under_ the box.
  I want the book _in_ the box.
  I want the book _beside_ the box.
  I want the book _behind_ the box.
  I want the book _beyond_ the box.

Do you notice any word in these sentences which does not belong to any
of the classes of words which we have studied? _I_ is a pronoun, _want_
is a verb, _the_ is an adjective, _book_ is a noun, _the_ is an
adjective, _box_ is a noun; but the words, _on_, _under_, _in_,
_beside_, _behind_ and _beyond_ are not nouns, verbs, adjectives,
adverbs or pronouns.

Yet would it be possible to express the meaning in these sentences
without these words? Read the sentences without them, and you will see
that no one could tell the relation which you wish to express between
the _book_ and the _box_. And you will notice too that each word
expresses a different relation, for it means one thing to say _on the
box_ and another thing to say _in the box_, and so through the list.

+46.+ The words which are used to show this relation are called
_prepositions_. The groups of words introduced by the preposition, like
_on the box_ and _in the box_, and so on, are called prepositional
phrases. The noun which follows a preposition as _box_ follows the
prepositions _in_, _on_, _beside_, _beyond_, etc., is called the
_object_ of the preposition.

_Preposition_ is a word which comes into our language from the Latin. It
is formed from the Latin _pre_, which means _before_, and the Latin verb
which means _to place_, so preposition means literally _to place
before_. It is given this name because it is placed before the noun or
pronoun which is its object. Therefore our definition of a preposition
is as follows:

+47.+ +A preposition is a word that shows the relation of its object to
some other word.+

+48.+ Either a noun or a pronoun may be the object of a preposition.
Notice the following sentences:

  Bring the book to me.
  Lay the book on the table.
  He will speak to you.
  I will speak to the man.

In these sentences the noun _table_ is the object of the preposition
_on_; the pronoun _me_ is the object of the preposition _to_; and in the
last two sentences the pronoun _you_ and the noun _man_ are the objects
of the preposition _to_.

+49.+ There are not many prepositions in the language and they are
easily learned and easily distinguished. Here is a list of the most
common and the most important prepositions. Use each one in a sentence.

  at
  across
  around
  about
  among
  above
  against
  along
  behind
  beside
  between
  below
  beyond
  by
  before
  beneath
  down
  for
  from
  in
  into
  off
  on
  over
  to
  toward
  under
  up
  upon
  with
  within
  without


                    Exercise 4

Underscore the prepositions in the following sentences:

  He went to the door and looked out upon the field.
  Over the river and through the woods, to Grandfather's house we go.
  He saw them in the distance as they were coming toward him.
  They went along the road, across the bridge, and hid among the trees
  at the foot of the hill.
  They came from Minneapolis down the river by boat.
  The war between the classes is a struggle against exploitation.
  The army was intrenched behind the barricades before dawn.
  His claim was within the law but without justice.


                    CONJUNCTIONS

+50.+ We have found that the preposition is a very important connective
word. It connects two words and shows what one of them has to do with
the other, but the preposition is not the only connective word which we
use in English. We have another part of speech which performs an
important function as a connective word. Notice the following sentence:

  Men and women struggle for their rights.

Can you find a word in this sentence which is a connective word besides
the preposition _for_? Did you notice that little word _and_? The noun
_men_ and the noun _women_ are both subjects of the verb _struggle_, and
they are joined by this little connective word _and_. If we did not have
this word we would have to use two sentences to express our thought,
thus:

  Men struggle for their rights.
  Women struggle for their rights.

But with the use of this connective word _and_ we can combine these
two sentences and express it all in one sentence:

  Men _and_ women struggle for their rights.

This word is used in a different manner from the preposition. The
preposition connects two words and makes one modify the other. When we
say, _Get the book on the table_, the phrase _on the table_ designates
the book just as much as if we had said, _Get the green book_. So the
use of the preposition enables us to show the relation between two words
and to make one word describe or modify the other.

+51.+ This little word _and_ in the sentence, _Men and women struggle
for their rights_, is a connective word also, but it connects two words
that are used in the same way, so it is a different sort of connective
word from the preposition. Words used in this way are called
_conjunctions_. Conjunction is a word which is taken from the Latin,
being made up of the Latin word _con_, which means _together_, and the
Latin verb _juncto_, which means _to join_. So conjunction means
literally _to join together_.

+52.+ +A conjunction is a word that connects sentences or parts of
sentences.+

Notice the following sentence:

  The class struggle is waged on the political field and on the
  industrial field.

Here we have the conjunction _and_ connecting the two phrases _on the_
_political field_ and _on the industrial field_. Without the use of this
connective word, we would have to use two sentences to express these two
thoughts:

  The class struggle is waged on the political field.
  The class struggle is waged on the industrial field.

+53.+ So a conjunction may be used to connect phrases as well as words.

Now notice the following sentences:

  He will speak. I will listen.
  He will speak, _and_ I will listen.
  He will speak, _but_ I will listen.
  He will speak, _if_ I will listen.
  He will speak, _therefore_ I will listen.
  He will speak, _because_ I will listen.
  He will speak, _until_ I will listen.

+54.+ These _sentences_ are joined by different conjunctions, and the
conjunction used alters the meaning of the sentence.

The conjunction is a very useful part of speech. Without it we would
have many disconnected sentences requiring tiresome repetition of the
same words. Like prepositions, there are not many conjunctions in
English and they are readily recognized.

+55.+ We will study about these conjunctions at length in later lessons.
If you consult the following list of those most commonly used, you can
easily pick out the conjunctions in your reading:

  and
  as
  as if
  after
  although
  as soon as
  because
  besides
  before
  but
  either
  for
  hence
  in order that
  lest
  neither
  nor
  or
  since
  still
  so
  then
  though
  that
  than
  therefore
  till
  until
  unless
  while
  whether
  yet

The seven classes of words which we have studied make up all of our
sentences. The hundreds of words which we use in forming our sentences
and expressing our thoughts belong to these seven classes. They are
either nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, prepositions or
conjunctions.


                    Exercise 5

Underscore the conjunctions in the following sentences. Notice whether
they connect words or phrases or sentences.

  1. We cannot win unless we are organized.
  2. Books and music are true friends.
  3. Men, women and children work under conditions neither proper nor
     just.
  4. We must educate and organize.
  5. The workers on the farms and in the factories must be united.
  6. Winter has come and the birds are going South.
  7. We have been ignorant, therefore we have been exploited.
  8. We must learn before we can teach.
  9. We do not understand the situation, because we do not know the
     facts.
  10. Do you know whether these statements are true or false?


                    IT CAN BE DONE

    Somebody said that it couldn't be done,
      But he, with a chuckle, replied
    That "maybe it couldn't," but he would be one
      Who wouldn't say so till he tried.
    So he buckled right in, with a trace of a grin
      On his face. If he worried he hid it.
    He started to sing as he tackled the thing
      That couldn't be done--and he did it.

    Somebody scoffed, "Oh, you'll never do that;
      At least no one ever has done it."
    But he took off his coat and he took off his hat,
      And the first thing we knew he'd begun it;
    With the lift of his chin, and a bit of a grin,
      Without any doubting or quiddit,
    He started to sing as he tackled the thing
      That couldn't be done--and he did it.

    There are thousands to tell you it can not be done;
      There are thousands to prophesy failure;
    There are thousands to point out to you, one by one,
      The dangers that wait to assail you.
    But buckle right in, with a lift of your chin,
      Then take off your coat and go to it;
    Just start in to sing as you tackle the thing
      That "can not be done,"--and you'll do it.


                    INTERJECTIONS

+56.+ There is another class of words which we use _with_ sentences, but
which are really not _parts_ of the sentences. They are emotional
expressions which seem to belong more to the natural language than to
the invented language. For example:

  Oh! You hurt me!
  Aha! Now I have you.

_Oh_, used in this way, is very apt to sound like a groan, and _aha_
like a shout of triumph. These words do not really belong in the
construction of the sentence. The sentence would be complete without
them, but they are thrown in to express the emotion which accompanies
the thought. We call expressions such as these _interjections_.
Interjection is from the Latin and means literally _thrown into the
midst of_. It comes from the Latin word _inter_, which means _between_,
and the Latin verb _jecto_, _to throw_, so it literally means _to throw
between_.

Some of these words imitate sounds, as for example:

  Bang! There goes another shot.
  Ding-dong! There goes the first bell.

We do not use interjections very frequently in writing on scientific
subjects that express deep thought, but you will find them often used in
poetry, fiction, oratory or any emotional writing. Therefore we have our
definition of an interjection:

+57.+ +An interjection is an exclamatory word or phrase used to express
feeling or to imitate some sound.+

+58.+ Following is a list of commonly used interjections. Use them in
sentences of your own.

  oh
  hello
  bravo
  ahoy
  aha
  hurrah
  bow wow
  ssh
  alas
  hist
  whirr
  pshaw
  fie
  whoa
  ding-dong
  rub-a-dub


                    Exercise 6

Mark the interjections in the following sentences. Notice those which
express emotion and those which imitate sound.

  1. Oh! Is it possible.
  2. Hurrah! We have good news at last.
  3. Whirr! Whirr! goes the giant machine.
  4. Come! Keep up your courage.
  5. What! I cannot believe it.
  6. Courage! We shall yet win.
  7. Bravo! Let those words ring down the centuries.
  8. Ding-dong! the bells ring out the hour!



                    SPELLING

                    LESSON 3

Since there are forty-two elementary sounds used in the formation of our
words and only twenty-six letters to represent these sounds, some of
these letters must necessarily represent more than one sound.

Of the forty-two elementary sounds, eighteen are vowel sounds, but we
have only five vowels with which to represent these sounds, so each
vowel has several different sounds.

Therefore we must have a key to pronunciation to indicate the various
sounds which are represented by these letters used in forming the words.
When you look up words in your dictionary you will find the vowels
marked by certain signs to indicate the pronunciation. These signs are
called diacritical marks.

The following table gives the diacritical marks for the vowels. Study
this table and learn to pronounce the words you look up. When you have
determined the correct pronunciation of the word, repeat it over to
yourself aloud a number of times until you have accustomed your ear to
the correct pronunciation.

Different dictionaries use different keys to pronunciation. This table
is taken from the dictionary which we are using in connection with this
course--Winston's New Universal Self-Pronouncing Dictionary.

  Key to Pronunciation

  [=a]  as in _late_, _fade_.
  ä     as in _mar_, _father_.
  [.a]  as in _mask_, _dance_.
  a     as in _cat_, _had_.
  aw    as in _awl_, _fall_.
  [=e]  as in _he_, _feet_.
  [~e]  as in _her_, _verge_.
  e     as in _let_, _men_.
  [=i]  as in _line_, _time_.
  i     as in _tin_, _little_.
  [=o]  as in _vote_, _home_.
  ô     as in _orb_, _form_.
  o     as in _lot_, _odd_.
  oi    as in _oil_, _join_.
  [=oo] as in _moon_, _school_.
  oo    as in _cook_, _foot_.
  ou    as in _out_, _house_.
  [=u]  as in _mute_, _unit_.
  u     as in _nut_, _drum_.


The spelling lesson for this week is composed of words containing the
different vowel sounds. Look up in your dictionary and mark all the
_a's_ in Monday's lesson, all the _e's_ in Tuesday's lesson, all the
_i's_ in Wednesday's lesson, all the _o's_ in Thursday's lesson, and all
the _u's_ in Friday's lesson. In Saturday's lesson note the use of _w_
and _y_ as vowels.

  +Monday+

    Pause
    Adjective
    Lazy
    Quality
    Advance

  +Tuesday+

    Resemble
    Descend
    Adverb
    Interjection
    Complete

  +Wednesday+

    Limit
    Define
    Distinct
    Imprison
    Civilize

  +Thursday+

    Form
    Footsteps
    Proof
    Report
    Common

  +Friday+

    Union
    Under
    Unusual
    Summer
    Commune

  +Saturday+

    Comply
    Employ
    Vowel
    News
    Lawful



                    PLAIN ENGLISH

                    LESSON 4


Dear Comrade:

We are studying in this lesson a most interesting part of our language,
the words that are the names of things. If we could trace these names of
things and the order and time of their coming into the language of men
we would have a progressive history of mankind. Way back yonder in the
dim dawn of history, men lived upon fruit and nuts. They had no
knowledge of the use of fire and could not use foods that required
cooking. They communicated with one another by signs. Then they
discovered fire and invented the bow and arrow. They could now use fish
and flesh for food and they commenced to use articulate speech. This
stage has been called the Middle Stage of Savagery. With the invention
of the bow and arrow, began the third stage of savagery which merged
into the first stage of barbarism with the invention of pottery.

There are three stages of barbarism before we come to the beginning of
the era of civilization which begins with the use of the phonetic
alphabet and the production of literary records. All tribes that have
never attained the art of pottery are classed as savages and those who
possess this art but have never attained a phonetic alphabet and the use
of writing are classed as barbarians. Civilization began with the spoken
and written language and it has been well said that all that separates
us from savagery is a wall of books. It is upon the accumulated wisdom
of the past that we build. Without this we would be helpless.

So these various names of things have come to us with developing
evolving life. As the men of the past gained a knowledge of the use of
fire, as they learned to bake the clay and make various utensils; to
heat and forge the iron into weapons; to conquer nature in all her
phases, to feed the race, to clothe the race, to shelter the race more
adequately, our language has grown in volume, strength and beauty.

The study of words and their uses is of great importance to you. Master
the few rules necessary and watch your words daily. We are living in an
age full of wondrous things and yet many of us have almost as limited a
vocabulary as the men of those bygone days, who had never dreamed of the
marvels that are commonplace to us.

As you use your dictionary watch closely the meaning of the words and
choose the words that most aptly express your ideas. Listen to good
English spoken as often as you can. _Read_ good English. Mark the
difference between good and bad English and gradually you will find
yourself using good English naturally and continually.

                    Yours for Education,

                              THE PEOPLE'S COLLEGE.


                    CLASSES OF NOUNS

+59.+ We have learned that the words in a sentence are classified
according to the work which each word does. The words which assert are
called verbs; the words which are the names of things are called nouns.
But now we shall see that these words are again divided into classes
according to the _special_ work which they perform. Just as we may
gather the people of the world into one great class, the working class,
then classify them according to the industry in which they work, thus
some are farmers, some teachers, some factory workers; then each class
may be subdivided according to the special work which they perform, as
truck farmers, high school teachers, machinists, etc.

So we find that nouns are divided into classes according to their
meaning in the sentence.

In the sentence, _Lincoln was a man of the people_, we have two nouns
referring to the same person, _Lincoln_ and _man_, but they are
different kinds of names. The word _man_ is a name that may apply to any
one of a million persons but the name _Lincoln_ applies to one person
only. Some nouns, then, represent a thing as being of a certain kind or
class, without showing which particular one is meant. Other nouns are
names given to designate a particular individual. These are called
_common_ and _proper_ nouns.

+60.+ +A proper noun is a special name meant for only one person, place
or thing.+

All other nouns are common nouns.

+A common noun is a name which belongs to all things of a
class of objects.+

+Every proper noun should begin with a capital letter.+

Indicate the proper nouns in the following list by drawing a line under
the letters that ought to be capitals:

  king
  month
  city
  france
  dog
  virginia
  war
  wilson
  november
  doctor
  colonel
  napoleon
  chicago
  governor
  independence day
  freedom
  ocean
  atlantic ocean
  thanksgiving
  thanksgiving day
  uncle william
  thursday
  week
  general sherman
  karl marx
  union
  labor
  united mine workers
  newspaper
  the daily call

Write the special or _proper_ names of several individuals in each of
the following classes:--as city,--Chicago, New York, etc.

River, king, author, country, state, inventor, martyr, month, book,
college.


                    COLLECTIVE NOUNS

+61.+ Some nouns are the names of groups or collections of things and
are called collective nouns.

Many soldiers taken together form collectively an _army_--a number of
sheep form a _drove_. Many of these group or collective nouns will
readily occur to your mind.

+A collective noun is one that in the singular form, denotes a number of
separate persons or things.+


                    Exercise 1

Opposite each of the following collective nouns, write the name of the
individuals represented by the collection; as an army of _soldiers_; a
swarm of _bees_; a flock of _birds_.

  A gang of......
  A committee of......
  A herd of......
  A drove of......
  A hive of......
  A corps of......
  A suite of......
  A group of......
  A class of......
  A multitude of......

Fill the following blanks with appropriate collective nouns.

  A......of horses.
  A......of sailors.
  A......of wolves.
  A......of savages.
  A......of singers.
  A......of girls.
  A......of ships.
  A......of quail.
  A......of birds.
  A......of workers.


                    ABSTRACT NOUNS

+62.+ When primitive man began to name the objects about him, doubtless
he first named the things which he could see, hear, taste, smell and
touch,--the objects which he could perceive by the five senses. Then
gradually he came to understand that these objects had certain qualities
which he could consider apart from the object itself.

He hunted among the stones to find those which were suitable for making
his arrow-heads. For this purpose he needed the hardest stone which he
could find, so _hardness_ became something which he could think of as
something apart from the object itself.

He saw the men about him and found a name for them. Then he knew that
some men were stronger than others, so _strength_ was a quality which he
could consider apart from the man himself.

These men performed certain actions; they ran, they climbed,--so
_running_ and _climbing_ became actions which he could think of as
something apart from any individual.

He noted too that men lived in certain conditions; for example, some men
were free, some were slaves, so he came to think of _slavery_ and
_freedom_ as conditions which could be thought of as something apart
from the individual.

So we draw away, or separate certain ideas; the _quality_ from the thing
which has it and the _action_ from the thing which does it and the
_condition_ from the thing which is in it. These nouns which are used to
describe these qualities, actions or conditions are called _abstract_
nouns. Abstract is a word derived from the Latin _abs_, _away from_, and
_tractus_, _drawn_, so it literally means _drawn away from_.

The nouns which are names of things which we can see, hear, taste, smell
and touch or perceive by any of the five senses are called _concrete_
nouns.

+63.+ +A concrete noun is the name of an object which may be perceived
by one or more of the five senses.+

+An abstract noun is the name of a quality, a condition or an action.+

+64.+ You remember we found in the study of adjectives that we have a
class of adjectives which are used to describe the qualities of objects,
as for example--_good_, _noble_, _honest_, _true_, _wise_, etc. Since
abstract nouns are the names of qualities, many of our abstract nouns
are formed from adjectives. Study carefully the following list of
adjectives and nouns. Note that the word is an _adjective_ when it is
used with a noun to _describe_ certain qualities. It is a _noun_ when it
is used by itself to _name_ that quality.

  +Adjectives+          +Abstract Nouns+

  1. honest            honesty
  2. pure              purity
  3. true              truth
  4. strong            strength
  5. wise              wisdom
  6. good              goodness
  7. bold              boldness
  8. just              justice
  9. silent            silence
  10. wide              width
  11. patient           patience
  12. stupid            stupidity

+65.+ You will notice that another use of abstract nouns is to name
actions. The verb is the part of speech which expresses action,
therefore many abstract nouns are formed from verbs. Notice the
following list:

  +Verbs+               +Abstract Nouns+

  1. learn             learning
  2. invent            invention
  3. choose            choice
  4. defend            defense
  5. try               trial
  6. judge             judgment
  7. read              reading
  8. please            pleasure
  9. elect             election
  10. move              motion

+66.+ An abstract noun is also the name of a condition. These nouns are
derived from the concrete noun which is the name of the person or thing
which is _in_ the condition.

  +Concrete Nouns+      +Abstract Nouns+

   1. slave             slavery
   2. friend            friendship
   3. thief             theft
   4. man               manhood
   5. child             childhood
   6. leader            leadership
   7. hero              heroism
   8. martyr            martyrdom


                    Exercise 2

Form abstract nouns from the following adjectives, verbs and nouns.

  long
  simple
  rapid
  lovely
  loyal
  fresh
  prove
  sing
  run
  behave
  believe
  reflect
  write
  child
  agent
  infant
  rascal
  clerk
  president
  coward


                    NUMBER FORM

+67.+ So we find that we classify our nouns according to the special
work which they do. Now sometimes we find it necessary to change the
form of the noun to make it express our thought. Thus we say, _book_,
_man_, _boy_, _knife_, when we wish to express the idea of only one of
each object mentioned. But when we wish to express the idea of more than
one of them, we say, _books_, _men_, _boys_, _knives_.

We say, _The boy calls_; _the boys call_. The form of the noun _boy_ is
changed by adding an _s_ to it. The meaning has also changed. _Boy_
denotes one lad; _boys_ denotes two or more lads. Any change in form and
meaning of words is called _inflection_. The change to denote more than
one object is called _number_. The word _boy_, denoting _one_ is in the
_singular number_; the word _boys_, denoting _more than one_ is in the
_plural number_.

+68.+ +Inflection is a change in the form of a word to denote a
different application or use.+

+Number is the form of a noun which shows whether it denotes one or more
than one.+

+The singular number denotes one thing.+

+The plural number denotes more than one thing.+

There are a few rules governing the formation of plurals which we must
know, and these rules are of great assistance in correct spelling.

+69.+ Most nouns form their plural by adding _s_--thus:

  boat
  boats

  day
  days

  book
  books

  boy
  boys

Long ago in early English all plurals were formed by adding _es_, and
you will read in the first translation of the Bible, for instance, such
words as _bird-es_, _cloud-es_. Later the _e_ was dropped and _s_ added
to the singular without an increase of syllables. But when the singular
ends in an _s_ sound, the original syllable _es_ is retained, for two
hissing sounds will not unite.

+70.+ So nouns ending in _s_, _x_, _z_, _sh_ or soft _ch_, form the
plural by adding _es_ to the singular. These words end with a sound so
much like that of _s_ that we cannot pronounce the plural easily without
making another syllable. Thus:

  class
  classes

  tax
  taxes

  topaz
  topazes

  wish
  wishes

  ditch
  ditches

+71.+ In words ending with the _s_ sound but with a final _e_, only _s_
is added to form the plural, but in pronouncing the word we then have
two syllables, thus:

  house
  houses

  place
  places

  size
  sizes

  cage
  cages

  niche
  niches

+72.+ Letters, figures, signs, etc., are made plural by adding an
apostrophe and the letter _s_ ('s), thus:

  Cross your t's and dot your i's.
  Do you know the table of 4's?

While most of our nouns form their plural in this regular way by adding
_s_ or _es_, there are some nouns that form their plural by some other
change in the form of the word.

+73.+ Notice the following list of words and their plurals:

  fly
  flies
  city
  cities
  key
  keys
  day
  days
  story
  stories
  enemy
  enemies
  tray
  trays
  boy
  boys

These nouns all end in _y_, yet they form the plural differently. Some
simply add _s_ and the rest change the _y_ to _i_ and add _es_. Can you
discover the reason?

Wherever the _y_ is preceded by a vowel, as _e_ in _key_, _a_ in _tray_,
_o_ in _boy_, the plural is formed by adding _s_. But when the _y_ is
preceded by a consonant, as _l_ in _fly_, _r_ in _story_, _t_ in _city_,
and _m_ in _enemy_, the _y_ is changed to _i_ and _es_ added in forming
the plural.

+If the singular ends in _y_ after a consonant, change _y_ to _i_
and add _es_ in the plural.+

+74.+ There are thirteen nouns ending in _f_ and three in _fe_ which
form the plural in _ves_. They are:

  beef      beeves
  calf      calves
  elf       elves
  half      halves
  leaf      leaves
  loaf      loaves
  self      selves
  sheaf     sheaves
  shelf     shelves
  staff     staves
  thief     thieves
  wharf     wharves
  wolf      wolves
  knife     knives
  life      lives
  wife      wives

All other nouns in _f_ or _fe_ are regular; adding only _s_, to form the
plural.

+75.+ About forty nouns ending in _o_ after a consonant form the plural
in _es_. The most common ones are:

  buffalo
  cargo
  potato
  tomato
  negro
  veto
  cargo
  echo
  calico
  embargo
  hero
  mulatto
  mosquito
  motto
  tornado
  volcano
  torpedo
  flamingo

Most nouns ending in _o_ form the plural regularly, adding only _s_, as
_pianos_, _banjos_, _cameos_, etc.

+76.+ A few words form their plurals by a change in the word and without
adding _s_ or _es_.

The most common of these words are:

  man      men
  goose    geese
  ox       oxen
  woman    women
  foot     feet
  mouse    mice
  brother  brethren
  tooth    teeth
  child    children
  louse    lice

+77.+ Proper nouns, when made plural, generally follow the same rule as
common nouns. Thus we write:

  All the Smiths, the Joneses, both the Miss Johnsons, one of the Dr.
  Davidsons, and the Mrs. Wilsons, were present.

But to prevent the confusion and misunderstanding which might arise in
changing the form of a proper noun, we do not change its form in writing
the plurals; for example:

  There were eight Henrys, kings of England.
  The two Marys reigned in the kingdom.

It would be confusing to say _eight Henries_, the _two Maries_.

The title is made plural when several are referred to, thus:

  Mr. Hayes        The Messrs. Hayes
  Miss Smith       The Misses Smith

+78.+ The title is made plural when used with several names, thus:

  Messrs. Brown and White.
  Generals Lee and Grant.
  Drs. Long and Larson.

+79.+ In the case of nouns formed of two or more words, when
the compound word is so familiar that the parts are not thought
of separately the _s_ is added to the whole compound word, as
_four-in-hands_; _forget-me-nots_; _court-yards_; _spoonfuls_;
_green-houses_; etc. But when one of the parts is more important than
the others, the _s_ is added to the more important part, thus:

  mothers-in-law
  commanders-in-chief
  hangers-on
  men-of-war
  by-standers
  attorneys-at-law
  passers-by
  step-sons

+80.+ We have many words in our language taken from other languages.
They do not form the plural in these languages as we do, and some of
these words retain their foreign plurals. Some of the most commonly used
of these nouns are the following:

  +Singular+       +Plural+

  alumnus          alumni
  analysis         analyses
  axis             axes
  datum            data
  erratum          errata
  ellipsis         ellipses
  appendix         appendices
  bacterium        bacteria
  basis            bases
  crisis           crises
  parenthesis      parentheses
  radius           radii
  terminus         termini
  hypothesis       hypotheses
  larva            larvae
  madame           mesdames
  memorandum       memoranda
  phenomenon       phenomena
  stratum          strata
  thesis           theses

+81.+ The following nouns are treated as singular: _news_, _pains_
(meaning care), _acoustics_, _mathematics_, _economics_, _ethics_,
_molasses_, _physics_, _politics_, and other nouns ending in _ics_
except _athletics_. With these always use the s-form of the verb. For
example:

  The news _is_ distorted. Not, The news _are_ distorted.
  Economics _is_ an important study. Not, Economics _are_, etc.

+82.+ The following nouns are always plural:

  alms
  annals
  amends
  antipodes
  bellows
  billiards
  clothes
  dregs
  eaves
  fireworks
  hysterics
  measles
  mumps
  matins
  nippers
  nuptials
  oats
  premises
  proceeds
  pincers
  riches
  rickets
  suds
  scissors
  thanks
  tidings
  tongs
  trousers
  vitals
  victuals
  vespers

With all these nouns always use the form of the verb which is used with
the plural subject. Thus:

  Alms are given.
  Riches are easily lost.

+83.+ The following nouns have the same form for both plural and
singular, _corps_, _cannon_, _deer_, _grouse_, _heathen_, _hose_,
_means_, _odds_, _series_, _sheep_, _species_, _swine_, _vermin_,
_wages_. You can tell whether the singular or plural is meant by the
meaning of the sentence. For example:

_The cannon is loaded._ Here we are speaking of _one_ cannon.

_The cannon used in the war are of tremendous size._ Here we know are
meant all the big guns used in the war.

When you say, _The sheep is lost_, we know you mean _one_ sheep, but
when you say, _The sheep are in the pasture_, we know you mean the
entire drove.

+84.+ When preceded by a numeral, the following nouns have the same form
for both singular and plural. Without the numerals, the plural is formed
by the adding of _s_; _brace_, _couple_, _dozen_, _hundred_, _pair_,
_score_, _thousand_, _yoke_. For example:

  Thousands enlisted.
  Three thousand enlisted.
  Dozens came at my call.
  Two dozen came when I called.


                    GENDER

+85.+ All of the changes we have studied so far have been for the
purpose of indicating number; but among the nouns that name living
beings, many change to show to which sex the object named belongs. These
nouns change in form to distinguish between the masculine and the
feminine. This is called _gender_.

  +Gender is the distinction in words that denotes sex.+

  +The nouns that denote females are called feminine nouns.+

  +The nouns that denote males are called masculine nouns.+

+86.+ The feminine form is generally made by the addition of _ess_
to the masculine form. Thus:

  prince     princess
  master     mistress
  host       hostess
  count      countess
  tiger      tigress
  lion       lioness
  actor      actress
  god        goddess

+87.+ Names of things without sex are, of course, of neither gender, and
are called _neuter nouns_. Neuter means literally _neither_. Such nouns
as _mountain_, _iron_, _river_, _chair_, are neuter.

Sometimes the feminine is an entirely different word from the masculine.
Thus:

  king      queen
  lord      lady
  man       woman
  youth     maiden
  sir       madam
  stag      hind

+88.+ Many nouns that denote living beings apply alike to male and
female, and are said to be of _common gender_. As woman enters more and
more into the business world and pursues the same occupations as man,
the change in form to denote the feminine is used less frequently, and
what we have called the masculine form is used for both sexes, thus:

_Poet_, _waiter_, _doctor_, _editor_--these nouns are used for both men
and women.


                    POSSESSIVE FORM

+89.+ There is just one more change made in the form of a noun, and that
is when we wish to show who or what owns or possesses a thing. Thus we
write:

  John's book.
  The boy's hat.

And since this form of the noun denotes possession, it is called the
_possessive form_. Some grammarians call this the possessive case.

The possessive form of nouns is made by adding an apostrophe and _s_,
('s); thus, _day's_, _lady's_, _girl's_, _clerk's_.

To plural nouns ending in _s_ add only an apostrophe; thus, _days'_,
_ladies'_, _girls'_, _clerks'_.

When plural nouns do not end in _s_, their possessive forms are made by
adding the apostrophe and _s_, the same as singular nouns, thus:

  They make _men's_ and _women's_ shoes.

+90.+ In words which end with a sound that resembles that of _s_, the
apostrophe with _s_ forms an additional syllable. Thus:

  James's (pronounced James-ez.)
  Mr. Lynch's (pronounced Lynch-ez.)

The only exception to the rule occurs when the addition of another _s_
would make too many hissing sounds, then we add the apostrophe alone.
Thus:

  For goodness' sake.
  In Jesus' name.

+91.+ In forming the possessive of compound nouns, the possessive sign
is always placed at the end, thus:

  My son-in-law's sister.
  The man-of-war's cannon.

+92.+ When we wish to show that a thing belongs to two or more persons
who are joint owners of it, we add the possessive sign to the last word
only, thus:

  Carson, Price and Scott's store.
  Mason and Hamlin's pianos.

If it is a separate ownership that we wish to denote, we place the
possessive sign after each name, thus:

  Bring me John's and Mary's books.
  Lee's and Grant's armies met in battle.

Remember that the noun has just _three_ changes in form, one for the
plural number, one to denote gender and one for the possessive form.
Watch carefully your own language and that of your friends and note if
these changes are correctly made.


                    Exercise 3

Write the plural form of each of the following:

  ax
  beef
  chief
  hero
  knife
  T
  hoof
  man-of-war
  axis
  basis
  cherry
  leaf
  son-in-law
  Mr. Smith
  thief
  Doctor Wood
  alley
  buffalo
  chimney
  staff
  Frenchman
  Miss Brown
  ox
  spoonful
  alto
  calf
  cargo
  two
  3
  tooth
  foot
  turkey


                    Exercise 4

Underscore the nouns in the following:

How many abstract nouns?

How many concrete?

How many singular?

How many plural?


              FIVE AND FIFTY

         _Charlotte Perkins Gilman_

    If fifty men did all the work
      And gave the price to five;
    And let those five make all the rules--
    You'd say the fifty men were fools,
      Unfit to be alive.

    And if you heard complaining cries
      From fifty brawny men,
    Blaming the five for graft and greed,
    Injustice, cruelty indeed--
      What would you call them then?

    Not by their own superior force
      Do five on fifty live,
    But by election and assent--
    And privilege of government--
      Powers that the fifty give.

    If fifty men are really fools--
      And five have all the brains--
    The five must rule as now we find;
    But if the fifty have the mind--
      Why don't they take the reins?


                    Exercise 5

Select all the nouns in the following. Write their singular, plural and
possessive forms. Decide whether they are abstract or concrete, common
or proper or collective, masculine, feminine or neuter.

  Brother!

  Whoever you are, wherever you are on all the earth, I greet you.

  I extend to you my right hand.

  I make you a pledge.

  Here is my pledge to you:--

  I refuse to kill your father. I refuse to slay your mother's son. I
  refuse to plunge a bayonet into the breast of your sister's brother. I
  refuse to slaughter your sweetheart's lover. I refuse to murder your
  wife's husband. I refuse to butcher your little child's father. I
  refuse to wet the earth with blood and blind kind eyes with tears. I
  refuse to assassinate you and then hide my stained fists in the folds
  of _any_ flag.

  Will you thus pledge me and pledge all the members of our working
  class?--_Kirkpatrick._



                    SPELLING

                    LESSON 4


Some of our consonants also have more than one sound. We have also
certain combinations of consonants which represent one sound. This
combination of two letters to represent one sound is called a digraph,
as _gh_, in _cough_, _ch_ in _church_. A digraph may either be a
combination of two consonants or of two vowels or of a vowel and a
consonant. The following table contains the consonants which have more
than one sound:

  c--k as in _cat_
  c--s as in _vice_
  g--j as in _ginger_
  g--_hard_ as in _go_
  s--sh as in _sure_
  s--zh as in _usual_
  s--_soft_ as in _also_
  s--z as in _does_
  x--_soft_ as in _extra_
  x--gz as in _exist_

The following table gives the digraphs most commonly used:

  ng--as in _ring_, _tongue_
  ch--as in _church_ and _much_
  ch--k as in _chasm_
  ch--sh as in _chagrin_
  th--as in _then_, _those_
  th--as in _thin_ and _worth_
  ce--sh as in _ocean_
  ci--sh as in _special_
  dg--j as in _edge_
  gh--f as in _rough_
  ph--f as in _sylph_
  qu--kw as in _quart_
  qu--k as in _conquer_
  sh--as in _shall_
  si--sh as in _tension_
  si--zh as in _vision_
  ti--sh as in _motion_


The use of these digraphs gives us a number of additional sounds. Notice
the use of the consonants which have more than one sound and also the
digraphs in the spelling lesson for the week. Mark the consonants and
digraphs.

  +Monday+

    Commence
    Certain
    General
    Gradual
    Sugar

  +Tuesday+

    Soldier
    Season
    Pleasure
    Exact
    Exercise

  +Wednesday+

    Singular
    Chemistry
    Chapter
    Machine
    Changing

  +Thursday+

    Theory
    Thither
    Ocean
    Racial
    Budget

  +Friday+

    Philosophy
    Enough
    Quorum
    Bouquet
    Phonetic

  +Saturday+

    Permission
    Asia
    Attention
    Marshall
    Martial



                    PLAIN ENGLISH

                    LESSON 5


Dear Comrade:

We want to say just a word about the lesson assignment. This has been
arranged on a schedule of days merely to assist you in systematizing
your time and making the most of the leisure at your disposal. It is not
intended that you should slavishly follow it. We thoroughly believe in
individuality and all that contributes toward its development. But we
are also confident that many foolish things are done in the name of
liberty. Whenever we set ourselves to the performance of any task we
necessarily limit our activities in some other direction. Power comes by
concentration of force. Whenever we combine with others for the
accomplishment of any purpose, it becomes necessary to have some plan of
action and we give and take for the end which we have in view. The
musician because he follows the law of harmony in music has not given up
his liberty. He has only found a new freedom which enables him to make
glorious music where only discord reigned before. System in our work
does not mean loss of liberty or of individuality but only finding a
channel through which individuality can flow into the great ocean of
real freedom.

So use this suggestive lesson assignment to meet your own need and find
expression for your real individuality in full freedom.

This is the first of several lessons concerning verbs. The verb is
perhaps the most difficult part of speech to thoroughly master, so do
not be discouraged if there are some parts of this lesson you do not
understand. Succeeding lessons will clear up these difficult points.
Keep your eyes open as you read every day, and be careful of your
spelling and pronunciation.

Some of us mis-spell the common words which we see and use every day. In
a student's letter we recently noted that, with our letter before him in
which the word was printed in large type and correctly spelled, he
spelled College, _Colledge_.

Do not be satisfied with half-way things or less than that which is
worthy of you. Demand the best for yourself. Read aloud this little
verse from the Good Grey Poet, Walt Whitman:

  "O, the joy of a manly self-hood;
  To be servile to none, to defer to none, not to any tyrant known or
      unknown,
  To walk with erect carriage, a step springy and elastic,
  To look with calm gaze or with a flashing eye,
  To speak with a full and sonorous voice out of a broad chest,
  To confront with your personality all the other personalities of the
    earth."

                    Yours for Education,

                              THE PEOPLE'S COLLEGE.


                    THE WORD THAT ASSERTS

+93.+ You remember when we studied sentences we found that we could not
have a sentence without a verb or a word that asserts. The life of a
sentence is the verb, for without the verb we cannot assert, question or
command. It was on account of this importance that the Romans called the
verb, _verbum_, which meant the word. Verbs, like nouns, are divided
into classes.

+94.+ In some of our sentences the verb alone is enough to make a
complete assertion, but in other sentences we use verbs that need to be
followed by one or more words to complete the assertion. Notice the
following sentences:

  The boy ran.
  The boy found the ball.
  The earth revolves.
  The earth is round.

Do you notice any difference in the verbs used in these sentences?
Notice that the verbs _ran_ and _revolves_ make the complete assertion
about their subjects. Notice the verbs _found_ and _is_. These are not
complete without the addition of the words _ball_ and _round_. If we say
_The boy found_, _The earth is_, you at once ask, _The boy found WHAT?_
_The earth is WHAT?_ The sense is incomplete without the addition of
these words _ball_ and _round_. A part of the thought is unexpressed;
but when we say _The boy found the ball_, _The earth is round_, the
sense is complete.

So we have two classes of verbs, _COMPLETE AND INCOMPLETE VERBS_.

+95.+ +An incomplete verb is one that requires the addition of one or
more words to complete its meaning.+

+The word or words added to an incomplete verb to complete its meaning
are called the complement.+

+A complete verb is one that requires no complement to complete its
meaning.+

+96.+ You can readily tell when a verb is complete and when it is
incomplete by asking the question _What?_ If you put the question _what_
after the verb, and it makes a sensible question the verb is
_incomplete_. For example:

  Farmers raise--_what?_
  The employer discharged--_what?_
  We were--_what?_
  The earth is--_what?_

If the question _what?_ does not make sense after the verb, then the
verb is _complete_. For example:

  The sun shines.
  Water flows.
  Men work.

The question _what_ after these verbs would not make sense, as:

  The sun shines--_what?_
  Men work--_what?_
  Water flows--_what?_

So these verbs are _complete_ verbs.

+97.+ The same verb, however, may be complete or incomplete, according
to the way in which it is used. For example:

  The corn grows.
  The farmer grows corn.

In the sentence, _Corn grows_, _grows_ is a complete verb. You could not
say _The corn grows--what?_ for it does not grow anything. It merely
grows, and the verb _grows_ in this sense is a complete verb. But in the
sentence, _The farmer grows corn_, you are using the verb _grows_ in a
slightly different sense. It is an _incomplete verb_, for you do not
mean, _The farmer grows_, but you mean that _the farmer grows CORN_.


                    Exercise 1

In the following sentences, underscore the complete verbs with one line,
the incomplete with two lines. Ask the question _what?_ after each verb
to determine whether it is complete or incomplete.

  He returned today.
  He returned the book.
  The rose smells sweet.
  He smelled the rose.
  The trees shake in the wind.
  The wind shakes the trees.
  The ship plows through the waves.
  The farmer plows the field.
  The birds sing sweetly.
  They sang the Marseillaise.
  He worries over the matter.
  The matters worry him.
  The table feels rough.
  He feels the rough surface.
  It tastes bitter.
  He tasted the bitter dregs.


                    Exercise 2

Use the following verbs in sentences as both complete and incomplete
verbs, as for example, _The snow melts._ _The sun melts the snow._

  melts
  write
  stopped
  answer
  rings
  fall
  see
  strike


                    INCOMPLETE VERBS

+98.+ Do you notice any difference in the two verbs in the following
sentences:

  The boy found the ball.
  The earth is round.

In the sentence, _The boy found the ball_, the word _ball_ tells _what_
the boy _found_. The verb _found_ expresses action; it tells what the
boy _does_. _Boy_ is the subject of the action--the one who performs the
action. The word _ball_ is the _object_ of the action. It shows the
receiver of the action. In the sentence, _The earth is round_, _is_ does
not express action. The earth is not doing anything, it simply _is_. The
verb _is_ expresses a state or condition and is incomplete, for you do
not know what state or condition is expressed until we add the other
word or words which describe the state or condition.

Notice the following sentences:

  The earth is round.
  The earth is our home.
  The earth is a sphere.
  The earth is large.

The words _round_, _sphere_, _home_ and _large_, describe the earth
which is the subject of the verb _is_.

+99.+ So we have two classes of incomplete verbs, the verbs that express
action and the verbs that express state or condition. The verbs which
express action are called _transitive_ verbs. Transitive is a word
derived from the Latin, and means literally _passing over_.

+100.+ So a transitive verb describes an action which _passes over_
from the subject to the object. As for example in the sentence, _The
player struck the ball_, _struck_ is a transitive verb--a verb of
action--describing the action of the subject, _player_, which passes
over to the object, _ball_. Therefore we have our definition of a
transitive verb:

+A transitive verb is one that has a complement showing who or what
receives the action expressed by the verb.+

+The complement or word that denotes the receiver of the action
expressed by a transitive verb is called the object.+

When you look up the meaning of verbs in your dictionary, you will find
some verbs marked _v.i._, and some verbs marked _v.t._ _V.t._ is the
abbreviation for _verb transitive_. Whenever you find a verb marked
_v.t._, you know that it is a transitive verb, a verb of action, one
which requires an object to complete its meaning. _V.i._ is the
abbreviation for _verb intransitive_. Some grammarians use the term
_intransitive_ to include both _complete_ and _copulative_ verbs. We
have used the terms complete and incomplete because they are much
simpler and clearer in describing the two general classes of verbs, but
you will remember that when you find verbs marked _v.i._ in the
dictionary that these include _complete_ and _copulative_ verbs.

+101.+ Now notice these sentences:

  The earth is round.
  The earth is a sphere.

In these sentences the verb _is_ does not express action, but _connects_
or _couples_ the complements _round_ and _sphere_ with the subject
_earth_. Verbs used in this way are called _copulative_ verbs, from the
word _copula_, which means to _complete_ or to _connect_. The words
_round_ and _sphere_ are not the objects of the verb, for they do not
describe the receiver of any action. They are the words which describe
the state or condition expressed in the verb _is_, and are called the
attribute complement of the verb.

You note that this complement may be either an adjective or a noun. In
the sentence, _The earth is round_, the adjective, _round_, is used as
the complement; in the sentence, _The earth is a sphere_, the noun,
_sphere_, is used as the complement. So we have our definition of
copulative verbs.

+102.+ +Verbs that express state or condition are called copulative
verbs.+

+The word or words that complete the meaning of an incomplete verb
expressing state or condition, are called the complement, or attribute
complement.+

There are only a few of these copulative verbs. All forms of the verb,
_be_; like _am_, _is_, _are_, _was_ and _were_, and the verb phrases
like _must be_, _can be_, _will be_, _shall be_, _have been_, _had
been_, etc.; and the verbs _seem_, _appear_, _become_, _look_, _feel_,
_taste_, _sound_ and _smell_, are the principal copulative verbs.


                    Exercise 3

Study carefully the following sentences. Note whether the complement of
the copulative verb is an adjective or a noun. Draw one line under each
_adjective_ used as a complement and two lines under each _noun_ used as
a complement.

  The day is beautiful.
  I am weary and tired.
  The men were soldiers.
  The tasks seem endless.
  All men must be free.
  The workers have been slaves.
  The burden becomes heavier every day.
  The children feel happy and care-free.
  Evolution is the development of life.
  Grammar is the study of words and their use.
  Knowledge is freedom.
  The music sounds sweet on the midnight air.
  He looks well today.
  The dregs taste bitter.
  The incense smells sweet.


                    Exercise 4

Complete the following sentences by adding an object or a complement.


  1. Perseverance in your study will bring.......
  2. The great need of the working class is.......
  3. We shall never acknowledge.......
  4. By the sweat of no other's brow shalt thou eat.......
  5. The Revolutionary fathers founded.......
  6. The workers demand.......
  7. Labor's only road to freedom is.......
  8. Life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness are.......
  9. If you struggle, you will gain.......
  10. An incomplete verb requires.......
  11. The complement of a transitive verb is called.......
  12. The complement of a copulative verb may be either......or.......


+103. There are two classes of verbs, complete and incomplete.+

+A complete verb is one that requires no complement.+

+An incomplete verb is one that requires a complement to complete its
meaning.+

+Incomplete verbs are of two kinds: 1. Those that express action; 2.
Those that express state or condition.+

+Incomplete verbs that express action are called transitive verbs.+

+Incomplete verbs that express state or condition are called copulative
verbs.+

+The complement or the word that denotes the receiver of the action
expressed in a transitive verb is called the object.+

+The word or words that complete the meaning of a copulative verb are
called the complement, or attribute complement.+

+The same verb may be complete or incomplete, according to the way in
which it is used.+


                    Exercise 5

In the following sentences draw a single line under the complete verbs
and a double line under the incomplete verbs. Then determine whether the
incomplete verbs are transitive or copulative verbs, and draw a line
through the object or the complement.

  1. Some plants are poisonous.
  2. A rolling stone gathers no moss.
  3. Perseverance brings success.
  4. Delays are dangerous.
  5. A man's actions show his character.
  6. He looks well and feels stronger.
  7. The snows come and the flowers fade.
  8. Labor creates all wealth.
  9. Labor must be free.
  10. The boy writes well.
  11. The man wrote a letter.
  12. The skies are clear.
  13. The hail destroyed the wheat.
  14. No man is ever too old to learn.
  15. Competition makes enemies.
  16. Co-operation makes friends.
  17. Competition breeds hatred.
  18. Co-operation breeds good will.
  19. Competition ensures war.
  20. Co-operation ensures peace.


                    Exercise 6

In the following quotation all of the verbs are printed in _italics_.
Determine whether they are complete or incomplete verbs. If incomplete,
determine whether they are transitive or copulative verbs. Draw a line
under the object of every transitive verb and two lines under the
complement of every copulative verb. Remember that sometimes we have
several words combined into a verb phrase and used as a single verb.
Watch for the verb phrases in the following, as for example: _must be_,
in the sentence, _Labor must be free_.


  The history of man _is_ simply the history of slavery. Slavery
  _includes_ all other crimes. It _degrades_ labor and _corrupts_
  leisure. With the idea that labor _is_ the basis of progress _goes_
  the truth that labor _must be_ free. The laborer _must be_ a free man.

  There _is_ something wrong in a government where honesty _wears_ a rag
  and rascality _dons_ a robe; where the loving _eat_ a crust while the
  infamous _sit_ at banquets.

  _Talk_ about equal opportunity! Capitalism _ties_ a balloon to the
  shoulders of the rich child; it _ties_ a ball and chain to the feet of
  the poor child; and _tells_ them that they _have_ an equal
  opportunity!

  Once the master _hunted_ for the slaves, now the slave _hunts_ for a
  master.


                    Exercise 7

Mark the verbs in the following poem. Often in poetry words are omitted
which in strict grammatical construction should be expressed. As for
example in the fourth line of this poem _which are_, is omitted before
the word _bought_. In prose this would read, _The pews which are bought
by the profits_, etc. So the word _bought_ is a part of the verb phrase,
_are bought_. In the last line of the third stanza there is another
omission before the word _planning_. The meaning is, _while they are
planning slaughter_. _Planning_ is a part of the verb phrase _are
planning_. And in the last line _is_ is omitted before the word
_beloved_. _Is beloved_ is the verb phrase. Determine whether the verbs
in this poem are complete, transitive or copulative, and mark the
objects and the complements of the transitive and the copulative verbs.


              WHO IS A CHRISTIAN?

             _Ella Wheeler Wilcox_

    "Who is a Christian in this Christian land
    Of many churches and of lofty spires?
    Not he who sits in soft, upholstered pews
    Bought by the profits of unholy greed,
    And looks devotion while he thinks of gain.

    Not he who sends petitions from the lips
    That lie to-morrow in the street and mart.
    Not he who fattens on another's toil,
    And flings his unearned riches to the poor
    Or aids the heathen with a lessened wage,
    And builds cathedrals with an increased rent.

    Christ, with Thy great, sweet, simple creed of love,
    How must Thou weary of earth's "Christian" clans,
    Who preach salvation through Thy saving blood
    While planning slaughter of their fellow men.

    Who is a Christian? It is one whose life
    Is built on love, on kindness and on faith;
    Who holds his brother as his other self;
    Who toils for justice, equity and peace,
    And hides no aim or purpose in his heart
    That will not chord with universal good.
    Though he be a pagan, heretic or Jew
    That man is Christian and beloved of Christ."



                    SPELLING

                    LESSON 5


We often have two vowels used in the same syllable as a single sound, as
_ou_ in _round_, _oi_ in _oil_, etc.

+A diphthong is a union of two vowels to represent a single
sound different from that of either alone.+

Sometimes we have two vowels used together in a combination which is
really not a diphthong for they do not unite in a different sound. Only
one of the vowels is used and the other is silent as _ai_ in _rain_,
_oa_ in _soap_, etc.

The most common diphthongs are:

  ou as in _sound_.
  ow as in _owl_.
  oi as in _oil_.
  oy as in _boy_.

In the spelling lesson for this week mark the words in which the
combination of vowels forms a diphthong. In some of the words the
combination of vowels does not form a diphthong for only one of the
vowels is sounded. Draw a line through the silent letter.

  +Monday+

    Straight
    Aisle
    Search
    Breadth
    Defeat

  +Tuesday+

    Exploit
    Ceiling
    Height
    People
    Feudal

  +Wednesday+

    Brought
    Shoulder
    Group
    Compound
    Trouble

  +Thursday+

    Royal
    Coarse
    Course
    Broad
    Flower

  +Friday+

    Laughter
    Haunted
    Plaid
    Invoice
    Chair

  +Saturday+

    Guide
    Build
    Grieve
    Sieve
    Renown



                    PLAIN ENGLISH

                    LESSON 6


Dear Comrade:

We have this week another lesson in verbs. Do not be discouraged if you
do not understand it all at once. Little by little, it will grow clearer
and you will master this important word.

The verb may seem involved to you, but a little application will soon
make it clear. It is the most important word in the language to master.
It almost seems as though the verb were a living, thinking thing. It
changes outward form to accommodate itself to its subject in the number
form and person form change. If it is entertaining a subject in the
singular it adopts one dress; if it is entertaining a plural subject,
more than one, the verb wears a different dress.

So also if the subject is the first person, the person speaking, or the
second person, the person spoken to, or the third person, the person
spoken of, the verb accommodates itself to the subject. The verb is the
most agreeable thing for it changes its form to agree with its subject!
So watch your verb and see that it agrees.

Refer constantly to your list of irregular verbs given in this lesson
for we so often make mistakes in the use of these verb forms.

Then, too, the verb kindly changes its form to accommodate itself to the
time of the action--action in the present, in the past, in the
future--action completed before the present time--before some time
past--or before some future time--and action progressing and not yet
completed in the present, in the past or in the future. Then it can also
change to show whether its subject is acting or being acted upon. Isn't
the verb a wonderfully accommodating member of the co-operative
commonwealth of words?

And can you not see hidden under all this, a marvelous development in
the intellectual needs of men from the day of the savage's signs and
grunts to the day when we can express such shades of meaning? This tool
of expression, language, has had a wonderful evolution side by side with
the evolution of the other tools by which man expresses his creative
genius; from the forked stick with which man scratched the soil to the
great machine-driven plow of today; from the simple threshing flail to
the monster threshing machine of modern times.

There is nothing so wonderful as man's ability to express himself. Add a
little to your knowledge every day and the sum total will soon surprise
you.

                    Yours for Education,

                              THE PEOPLE'S COLLEGE.


                    INFLECTION--CHANGES IN FORM

+104.+ You remember that nouns have certain changes in form to indicate
changes in use. Verbs also have several changes in form to correspond
with changes in their use or meaning. Notice the following sentences:

  I think.
  I thought.
  I work.
  I worked.

What is the difference in the meaning of _I think_ and _I thought_? of
_I work_ and _I worked_? When we say, _I think_, or _I work_, we mean
that the action is now, to-day, in the present; but when we say, _I
thought_, or _I worked_, we mean that _now_ is not the time of the
action, but that the action was performed sometime in the past. So we
have a change in the verb form to denote _time_. The simple form of the
verb, like _think_ or _work_, is used to denote _present time_. When we
wish to express _past time_ we do it by changing the form of the verb.
Now note the following:

                    } call
  I, We, You, They, } send
                    } fall
  The men           } bring
                    } hide

                    } calls
  He, She, It,      } sends
                    } falls
  The man           } brings
                    } hides

Now let us write this in another way.

                 +Present Time+

             _Singular_             _Plural_

  1st person--I call.               We call.
  2nd person--You call.             You call.

              He      }
  3rd person  She     } calls.      They, or  } call.
              It      }             The men   }
              The man }

+105.+ You notice in this table we use the expressions _first person_,
_second person_, and _third person_. _I_ and _we_ indicate the person or
persons speaking and are called the first person. _You_ indicates the
person or persons spoken to and is called the second person. _He_,
_she_, _it_, _they_, and the person or persons or things spoken of, are
called the third person.

We use the word _you_ when speaking to one or more than one now-a-days.
It used to be that when speaking to a single person, people said _thou_,
and in speaking to two or more they said _you_. But we today have
dropped the old form _thou_, and use _you_ for both singular and plural.

+106.+ Now note, in the above table, that there is only one form change
in the verb, and this is in the _third person singular_. We say _I
call_, _You call_, _We call_, _They_, or _The men call_, but we say
_He_, or _the man calls_, in speaking of one person or thing. So we
change the form of the verb with any subject which denotes the third
person and the singular number. This form is made by adding _s_ to the
simple form of the verb, therefore we may call it the _s-form_ because
it always ends in _s_.

Remember that this _s-form_ is used to express present time with a third
person, singular subject. _BE CAREFUL NOT TO USE THIS FORM WITH ANY
PLURAL SUBJECT._ There is no other change in the verb form in expressing
the present time in any verb, except in the verb _be_.

+107.+ This little verb _be_ is one of the most troublesome verbs in our
language, and since it is used in forming verb phrases, it will be well
to commit the following table to memory. Watch closely your use of this
bothersome little word. Note that it has a change in form for the _first
person singular_, as well as for the third person singular. All other
verbs have just the one change, the _s-form_ for the third person
singular. The verb _be_ has a form also to use with the first person
singular, the pronoun _I_.

  +Present Time+        +Past Time+

  _Singular_            _Singular_

  1. I am.            1. I was.
  2. You are.         2. You were.
  3. He is.           3. He was.

  _Plural_              _Plural_

  1. We are.          1. We were.
  2. You are.         2. You were.
  3. They are.        3. They were.

+108.+ +The present time form is the form which expresses present time.
It is expressed by the simple form of the verb with the exception of the
third person singular, which is expressed by the _s-form_.+


                    PAST TIME

+109.+ To express _past time_ we change the form of the verb. Notice the
following:

  I         } called        We         } called
  She       } sent          You        } sent
  He        } fell          They       } fell
  It        } brought       The men    } brought
  The man   } hid                      } hid

Notice that these various forms of the verb which express past time are
all made by changes from the simple form, which expresses present time.
You will also notice that these five verbs used in the above table all
form their past time form in different ways. For example, _call_ adds
_ed_; _send_ changes the final letter from _d_ to _t_; _fall_ changes
the vowel in the middle of the word from _a_ to _e_; _bring_ changes
both the vowel and the final letter from _bring_ to _brought_; _hide_
drops the final letter _e_.

+110.+ +Verbs whose past time forms are made by adding _d_ or _ed_
to the simple form are called regular verbs.+

+Verbs whose past time forms are made in some other way than by adding
_d_ or _ed_ are called irregular verbs.+

+111.+ There are about two hundred of these irregular verbs which form
their past time in the following ways:

1. By change in the vowel letter, as _fall_, _fell_; _write_, _wrote_;
_see_, _saw_; _sing_, _sang_; _come_, _came_.

2. By dropping the final vowel; as _hide_, _hid_; _slide_, _slid_;
_bite_, _bit_.

3. By dropping a vowel from the middle of the word; as _bleed_, _bled_;
_feed_, _fed_; _lead_, _led_.

4. By changing the final letter or letters; as _send_, _sent_; _lose_,
_lost_; _spend_, _spent_.

5. By changing the vowel and final letters; as _bring_, _brought_;
_seek_, _sought_; _catch_, _caught_.

6. By changing the vowel sound and adding _t_ or _d_; as _sleep_,
_slept_; _feel_, _felt_; _flee_, _fled_.

There are some irregular forms which we must learn and be exceedingly
careful in their use. Study the list in this lesson.


                     Exercise 1

Write the _present_ and _past_ time forms of the following verbs as the
verb _think_ is written in the table given below.

  think
  ride
  have
  give
  write
  ask
  make
  try
  speak
  run
  see
  do

  +Present Time+         +Past Time+

  _Singular_             _Singular_

  1. I think          1. I thought
  2. You think        2. You thought
  3. He thinks        3. He thought

  _Plural_              _Plural_

  1. We think         1. We thought
  2. You think        2. You thought
  3. They think       3. They thought

+112.+ Be very careful not to use the _s-form_ except for the third
person singular. Be especially careful in the use of different forms of
the verb _be_. It is in the use of this verb that we so frequently make
mistakes. Watch your own language and the conversation of your friends
and note these mistakes and correct them in your own mind. These common
blunders in the use of English mark us as careless or uneducated by
everyone who hears us speak. We have fallen into bad habits oftentimes
and make these mistakes when we know better, and only constant
watchfulness for a time can overcome the habit. After a time we learn to
speak correctly without effort, and then these mistakes made by others
offend the ear like a false note in music.


                    Exercise 2

Cross out the wrong form in the following:

  They _was_--_were_ not here.
  The clouds _has_--_have_ gathered.
  People _is_--_are_ indifferent.
  The train _was_--_were_ on time.
  The men _was_--_were_ armed.
  Our school building _is_--_are_ inadequate.
  The workers _earn_--_earns_ their wages.
  The voters _elect_--_elects_ the President.
  They _do_--_does_ as they please.
  We _was_--_were_ there on time.


                    DOING DOUBLE WORK

+113.+ We have found now three forms of the verb, the _simple form_, the
_s-form_, and the _past time form_, and, in addition, the _I-form_, or
the first person form of the verb _be_. There are no other real verb
forms, but there are two other changes made in the form of the verb when
it ceases to be used as the predicate, the asserting word of the
sentence, and becomes, in part, another part of speech.

Notice in the following sentences:

  Making shoes is his work.
  He enjoys making shoes.

In each of these sentences the word _making_, from the verb _make_, is
used as a noun. In the first, _Making shoes is his work_, _making_ is
used as the subject of the sentence. In the second, _He enjoys making
shoes_, _making_ is used as the object of the verb _enjoys_. But
_making_ is not like the ordinary noun, for it has an object
_making_--_what?_--_making shoes_. _Shoes_ is the object of the action
expressed in _making_. A noun never takes an object; so while the word
_making_ is used as a noun, it is also partly a verb. It is a form of
the verb used as a noun, but keeping in part its verb nature, partaking
of the nature of two parts of speech at the same time.

Hence these forms of the verb are called _participles_. Participle means
_partaker_.

The participle may also be used as an adjective. Notice the following:

  The _crying_ child came toward us.
  The _rescuing_ party arrived.

In these sentences _crying_ and _rescuing_ are formed from the verbs
_cry_ and _rescue_, and are used as adjectives to describe the noun
_child_ and the noun _party_. So a participle is a mixed part of speech.
It is partially a verb, but is not a true verb. A true verb is always
used as the predicate, the asserting word in the sentence and _always_
has a subject. The participle _never_ has a subject; it may have an
object, but not a subject.

+114.+ There are two forms of the participle. The active form or the
present form as it is sometimes called, ends in _ing_, as, _waiting_,
_walking_, _saying_. It expresses action, existence, or possession as
going on at the time mentioned in the sentence.

+115.+ The other form of the participle is the passive form or the past
form of the participle. This ends in _ed_ in the regular verbs, and has
various forms in the irregular verbs. It is formed in regular verbs by
adding _d_ or _ed_ to the simple form, hence has the same form as the
past time form, as for example, present time form, _call_--past time
form, _called_--past participle, _called_. You will find the past
participle forms of irregular verbs in the list of irregular verbs given
in this lesson, as for example--present time form, _go_--past time form,
_went_--past participle, _gone_.

+116.+ You will find as we study the verb phrases in later lessons that
these participles are used in forming verb phrases. As for example:

  He is coming.
  They are trying.
  He has gone.

+A participle is a word derived from a verb, partaking of the nature of
a verb and also of an adjective or a noun.+


                    LET US SUM UP

+117.+ +Verbs have five form changes.+

  Simple  S-Form  Past Time  Present Part.  Past Part.

  call    calls    called      calling        called

  go      goes     went        going          gone


                    Exercise 3

Write in columns like the above the five forms of the following verbs:

  do
  try
  give
  hope
  live
  rob
  have
  think
  sing
  get
  wave
  lose
  come
  make


                    Exercise 4

Study carefully the following quotation. You will find in it all five of
the form changes of the verb--_the present time form_, _the s-form_,
_the past time form_, _the present participle_ and _the past
participle_. In the verb phrases _had been filled_, _has survived_, _has
gone_, _has proved_ and _be dismayed_, you will find the past participle
used in forming the verb phrase. We will study these verb phrases in
later lessons.

In the verb phrases, _was stumbling_, _was groping_, _is conquering_,
_are carrying_, the present participle is used in forming the verb
phrases. _Could reconcile_ is also a verb phrase. We will study these
verb phrases also in later lessons.

The present participles, _struggling_, _persevering_ and _regaining_ are
used as adjectives. Study them carefully and find the words which they
describe. The present participles _imagining_, _learning_ and
_suffering_ are used as nouns. Note their use.

The past participles _rebuffed_, _self-reproached_, _discouraged_ and
_promised_ are used as adjectives. Find the words which they modify.
There are several _present time forms_, several _past time forms_, and
several _s-forms_. Find them and study carefully their usage.


                    OUT OF THE DARK

                    _By Helen Keller_

  _America's famous blind girl, who has come to see more than most
  people with normal eyes._

  Step by step my investigation of blindness _led_ me into the
  industrial world. And what a world it _is_. I _faced_ unflinchingly a
  world of facts--a world of misery and degradation, of blindness,
  crookedness, and sin, a world _struggling_ against the elements,
  against the unknown, against itself. How _could_ I _reconcile_ this
  world of fact with the bright world of my _imagining_? My darkness
  _had been filled_ with the light of intelligence, and, _behold_, the
  outer day-lit world _was stumbling_, _was groping_ in social
  blindness. At first, I _was_ most unhappy, but deeper study _restored_
  my confidence. By _learning_ the _suffering_ and burdens of men, I
  _became_ aware as never before of the life-power which _has survived_
  the forces of darkness--the power which, though never completely
  victorious, _is_ continuously _conquering_. The very fact that we
  _are_ still carrying on the contest against the hosts of annihilation
  _proves_ that on the whole the battle _has gone_ for humanity. The
  world's great heart _has proved_ equal to the prodigious undertaking
  which God _set_ it. _Rebuffed_, but always _persevering_;
  _self-reproached_, but ever _regaining_ faith; undaunted, tenacious,
  the heart of man _labors_ towards immeasurably distant goals.
  _Discouraged_ not by difficulties without, or the anguish of ages
  within, the heart _listens_ to a secret voice that _whispers_: "_Be_
  not _dismayed_; in the future _lies_ the _Promised_ Land."


List of Irregular Verbs

Here is a list of the principal irregular verbs--the present and past
time forms and the past participle are called the principal parts of a
verb.

(Those marked with an _r_ have also the regular form.)

  +Present T.+    +Past T.+         +Past Part.+

  abide           abode              abode
  arise           arose              arisen
  awake           awoke, _r_         awaked
  be or am        was                been
  bear            bore               borne
  beat            beat               beaten
  begin           began              begun
  bend            bent, _r_          bent, _r_
  bereave         bereft, _r_        bereft, _r_
  beseech         besought           besought
  bet             bet                bet
  bid             bid or bade        bid (den)
  bind            bound              bound
  bite            bit                bit (ten)
  bleed           bled               bled
  blow            blew               blown
  break           broke              broken
  breed           bred               bred
  bring           brought            brought
  build           built, _r_         built, _r_
  burn            burnt, _r_         burnt, _r_
  burst           burst              burst
  buy             bought             bought
  cast            cast               cast
  catch           caught             caught
  chide           chid               chid (den)
  choose          chose              chosen
  cling           clung              clung
  clothe          clad, _r_          clad, _r_
  come            came               come
  cost            cost               cost
  creep           crept              crept
  cut             cut                cut
  deal            dealt, _r_         dealt, _r_
  dig             dug, _r_           dug, _r_
  do              did                done
  draw            drew               drawn
  dream           dreamt, _r_        dreamt, _r_
  drink           drank              drunk
  drive           drove              driven
  dwell           dwelt, _r_         dwelt, _r_
  eat             ate                eaten
  fall            fell               fallen
  feed            fed                fed
  feel            felt               felt
  fight           fought             fought
  find            found              found
  flee            fled               fled
  fling           flung              flung
  fly             flew               flown
  forget          forgot             forgotten
  forgive         forgave            forgiven
  forsake         forsook            forsaken
  get             got                got (ten)
  give            gave               given
  go              went               gone
  grind           ground             ground
  grow            grew               grown
  hang            hung, _r_          hung, _r_
  have            had                had
  hear            heard              heard
  hew             hewed              hewn, _r_
  hide            hid                hidden
  hit             hit                hit
  hold            held               held
  hurt            hurt               hurt
  keep            kept               kept
  kneel           knelt, _r_         knelt, _r_
  knit            knit, _r_          knit, _r_
  know            knew               known
  lay             laid               laid
  lead            led                led
  leave           left               left
  lend            lent               lent
  let             let                let
  lie             lay                lain
  light           lit, _r_           lit, _r_
  lose            lost               lost
  make            made               made
  mean            meant              meant
  meet            met                met
  mistake         mistook            mistaken
  mow             mowed              mown, _r_
  pay             paid               paid
  plead           pled, _r_          pled, _r_
  put             put                put
  quit            quit, _r_          quit, _r_
  read            read               read
  rend            rent               rent
  rid             rid                rid
  ride            rode               ridden
  ring            rang               rung
  rise            rose               risen
  run             ran                run
  saw             sawed              sawn, _r_
  say             said               said
  see             saw                seen
  seek            sought             sought
  sell            sold               sold
  send            sent               sent
  set             set                set
  shake           shook              shaken
  shape           shaped             shapen, _r_
  shave           shaved             shaven, _r_
  shear           sheared            shorn, _r_
  shed            shed               shed
  shine           shone, _r_         shone, _r_
  shoe            shod               shod
  shoot           shot               shot
  show            showed             shown, _r_
  shrink          shrank             shrunk (en)
  shut            shut               shut
  sing            sang               sung
  sink            sank               sunk
  sit             sat                sat
  slay            slew               slain
  sleep           slept              slept
  slide           slid               slid (en)
  sling           slung              slung
  slink           slunk              slunk
  slit            slit               slit
  smite           smote              smitten
  sow             sowed              sown, _r_
  speak           spoke              spoken
  speed           sped               sped
  spend           spent              spent
  spill           spilt, _r_         spilt, _r_
  spin            spun               spun
  spit            spit               spit
  split           split              split
  spoil           spoilt, _r_        spoilt, _r_
  spread          spread             spread
  spring          sprang             sprung
  stand           stood              stood
  stave           stove, _r_         stove, _r_
  steal           stole              stolen
  stick           stuck              stuck
  sting           stung              stung
  stink           stunk              stunk
  strike          struck             struck
  strike          struck             stricken
  stride          strode             stridden
  string          strung             strung
  strive          strove             striven
  strew           strewed            strewn, _r_
  swear           sworn              sworn
  sweat           sweat, _r_         sweat, _r_
  sweep           swept              swept
  swell           swelled            swollen, _r_
  swim            swam               swum
  swing           swung              swung
  take            took               taken
  teach           taught             taught
  tear            tore               torn
  tell            told               told
  think           thought            thought
  throw           threw              thrown
  thrust          thrust             thrust
  tread           trod               trod (den)
  wake            woke, _r_          woke, _r_
  wear            wore               worn
  weave           wove               woven
  wed             wed, _r_           wed, _r_
  weep            wept               wept
  wet             wet, _r_           wet, _r_
  whet            whet, _r_          whet, _r_
  win             won                won
  wind            wound              wound
  work            wrought, _r_       wrought, _r_
  wring           wrung              wrung
  write           wrote              written



                    SPELLING

                    LESSON 6


Every vowel or every vowel combination pronounced as one vowel sound
indicates a syllable (excepting final _e_ in such words as _fate_,
_late_, _rode_, etc.) Take the word _combination_, for example. In this
word we have four syllables, thus: _Com-bi-na-tion_.

+A syllable is that part of a word which can be uttered distinctly by a
single effort of the voice.+ Remember that each syllable must contain a
vowel or a vowel combination like _oi_ or _ou_, which is pronounced as
one vowel. Sometimes the vowel alone makes the syllable as in _a-lone_,
_e-qual_, etc. The final _e_ in words like _late_, and _fate_ is not
sounded. It is silent, we say.

All words ending in silent _e_ have the long vowel sound, with a very
few exceptions. Words without the final _e_ have the short vowel sound
as for example: _fate_, _fat_; _mate_, _mat_; _hide_, _hid_; _rode_,
_rod_.

In dividing words into syllables the consonant is written with the
preceding vowel when that vowel is short. If the vowel is long the
consonant is written with the next syllable, as for example, de-fine and
def-i-ni-tion. In de-fine the _e_ is long therefore _f_, the consonant
following, is written with the next syllable, _fine_. In def-i-ni-tion
the _e_ has the short sound, therefore the _f_ is written with the _e_
in the syllable, _def_.

When there are two consonants following the vowel, divide between the
consonants, as for example, _in-ven-tion_, _foun-da-tion_, etc. Never
divide a digraph, that is, two consonants which are sounded together as
one sound, as for example, _moth-er_, _catch-er_, _te-leg-ra-pher_, etc.

In writing words containing double consonants like _dd_, _ll_, _ss_,
divide the word into syllables between the double consonants, as for
example, _per-mit-ted_, _ad-mis-sion_, _sad-dest_, etc.

  +Monday+

    Important
    Accommodate
    Person
    Correspond
    Action

  +Tuesday+

    Difference
    Notice
    Indicate
    Remember
    Irregular

  +Wednesday+

    Mistake
    Conversation
    Correctly
    President
    Ordinary

  +Thursday+

    Participle
    Passive
    Various
    Phrase
    Quotation

  +Friday+

    Imagine
    Confidence
    Humanity
    Faith
    Future

  +Saturday+

    Whisper
    Thought
    Ability
    Knowledge
    Genius



                    PLAIN ENGLISH

                    LESSON 7


Dear Comrade:

I wonder if you have ever thought as to how our language grew.

We get the words in our language from many sources. The English language
today is a development of the early Anglo-Saxon. England was called
originally Angle-land which was gradually shortened into England. So we
have in our language what are called pure English or Anglo-Saxon words.
These words form the bulk of our every day vocabulary, being simple,
strong, forceful words. Then we have in our English many foreign words
which we have adopted from other languages. There are many Latin and
Greek words; these we use in our more elegant speech or writing.

There is an interesting bit written by Sir Walter Scott in his novel of
early England, "Ivanhoe," which illustrates the manner in which words
have come into our language and also the difference in speech which
marks the working class and the exploiting class. As those who do the
work of the world rid themselves of the parasites who have appropriated
the produce of their labor, through the ages, they will demand that
which belongs to them--the best--the best in language as in everything
else.

  "'... I advise thee to call off Fangs and leave the herd to their
  destiny, which, whether they meet with bands of traveling soldiers, or
  of outlaws, or of wandering pilgrims, can be little else than to be
  converted into Normans before morning, to thy no small ease and
  comfort.'

  "'The swine turned into Normans to my comfort!' quoth Gurth. 'Expound
  that to me, Wamba, for my brain is too dull and my mind too vexed to
  read riddles.'

  "'Why, how call you these grunting brutes running about on their four
  legs?' demanded Wamba.

  "'Swine, fool, swine,' said the herd; 'every fool knows that.'

  "'And swine is good Saxon,' said the jester; 'but how call you the sow
  when she is flayed, and drawn, and quartered, and hung by the heels
  like a traitor?'

  "'Pork,' answered the swineherd.

  "'I am glad every fool knows that too,' said Wamba; 'and pork, I
  think, is good Norman-French, and so when the brute lives and is in
  charge of a Saxon slave, she goes by her Saxon name; but becomes a
  Norman and is called pork when she is carried to the castle-hall to
  feast among the nobles. What dost thou think of that, friend Gurth,
  ha?' ..."

So you see even in words the distinction is made between those who
produce and those who possess.

But the day is at hand when those who work shall also enjoy. We have
fought for religious and political freedom. Today we are waging the
battle for industrial freedom. It is _your_ struggle. Study--prepare
yourself to do battle for your rights.

                    Yours for Freedom,

                              THE PEOPLE'S COLLEGE.


                    FUTURE TIME

+118.+ We have learned how to express present time and past time, by
changes in the form of the verb. But we very often desire to make a
statement in which we do not express either present or past time, thus
we may say:

  We shall enjoy our rights some day.
  He will join us in the struggle.

We do not mean to say that we do enjoy our rights now, in the present,
or that we did in the past, but that we _shall_ enjoy our rights some
time in the future. In the second sentence, _will join_ expresses the
same idea of future time. To indicate future time, we do not make a
change in the verb form, but we use _shall_ and _will_ with the simple
form of the verb.

+119.+ +We denote future time by use of a verb phrase made by placing
_shall_ or _will_ before the simple form of the verb.+

+120.+ The rule of some grammarians is to use _shall_ always in the
first person, the person speaking, to denote future time, and _will_
with the second person, the person spoken to, and with the third person,
the person spoken of, to denote future time. But common usage does not
always follow the rules of the grammarians, and, in the course of time,
affects and changes these rules. So our common usage of today uses
_will_ in the first person to express future time, as well as _shall_.

This rule of grammarians marks a nicety of speech and conveys a
distinction of meaning which it really seems worth while to retain. The
idea of the grammarians is that when we use _will_ with the first person
and _shall_ with the second or third person, we express a _promise_ or
_determination_. Thus if I say, _I shall go_, I simply mean that my
going will be in the future. But if I say, _I will go_, I either mean
that I am promising to go or that I am expressing my determination to
go. So also if we use _shall_ in the second and third persons. If we
say, _You will go_ or _He will go_, we are simply stating that the going
will be in the future, but if we say, _You shall go_, or _He shall go_,
we mean that we promise or are determined that you or he shall go.

To be technically correct this distinction should be observed. _Shall_
in the first person, and _will_ in the second and third express simple
futurity. _Will_ in the first person and _shall_ in the second and third
express promise or determination. But in every day conversation this
distinction is not observed, and many of our best writers do not follow
this rule.


                    Exercise 1

Mark the future time forms in the following sentences:

  1. I shall speak of liberty.
  2. I will never give up.
  3. I shall write to him.
  4. He shall not starve.
  5. We shall expect you.
  6. They shall suffer for this.
  7. I shall go to New York.
  8. He will call for me.
  9. The hungry shall be fed.
  10. You will soon see the reason.
  11. You shall never want for a friend.
  12. They shall some day see the truth.
  13. We will not fight against our class.
  14. We will stand together.


                    PERFECT TIME

+121.+ Past, present and future, being the three divisions of time, one
would naturally expect that when we had found how to express these three
forms, we would be through, but if you stop to think, you will find that
there are other verb phrases of which we have need.

When we wish to speak of action as completed at the present time, we do
not say:

  I study my lessons every day, _but_, I have studied my lessons every
    day.
  _Not_, You work for him every day, _but_, You have worked for him
    every day.
  _Not_, He sees her frequently, _but_, He has seen her frequently.

Can you not readily see the difference in the meaning expressed in _I
work every day_, and _I have worked every day_? In the first sentence
you express a general truth, _I work every day_, a truth which has been
true in the past, is true in the present, and the implication is that it
will continue to be true in the future. But when you say, _I have worked
every day_, you are saying nothing as to the future, but you are
describing an action which is completed at the present time. This is
called the _present complete_ or _present perfect_ time.

+122.+ Perfect means complete, and present perfect describes an action
perfected or completed at the present time. So it is possible for us to
express a necessary shade of meaning by the present perfect time form.

+123.+ +The present perfect time form describes an action completed at
the present time, and is formed by using the present time form of
_have_ and the _past_ participle of the verb.+

       +Present Perfect Time+

       _Singular_         _Plural_

  1st. I have seen.        We have seen.
  2d.  You have seen.      You have seen.
  3d.  He has seen.        They have seen.

+124.+ Review in the last lesson how to form the past participle.
Remember that it is one of the principal parts of the verb. In regular
verbs the past participle is the same form as the past time form. In
irregular verbs the past participle is quite often different from the
past time form, as for example: _go_, _went_, _gone_; _do_, _did_,
_done_, etc.

Watch closely your irregular verbs and see that you always use the past
_participle_ with _have_ or _had_; never use the past _time_ form with
_have_ or _had_.


                    PAST PERFECT

+125.+ When you desire to express an action complete at some definite
past time, you do not say:

  We finished when they came, _but_, We had finished when they came.
  _Not_, They went when we arrived, _but_, They had gone when we
    arrived.
  _Not_, I worked six months when he began, _but_, I had worked six
    months when he began.

Can you see a difference in the meaning expressed in these sentences: _I
worked six months when he began_; and _I had worked six months when he
began_? This last sentence describes an action completed or perfected
before some definite past time.

+126.+ +Past perfect time denotes an action perfected or completed at
some definite past time. It is formed by using _had_ and the past
participle of the verb.+

Remember always, with irregular verbs, to use the _past participle_.
Never use the _past time form_ with _had_.

       +Past Perfect Time+

       _Singular_         _Plural_

  1st. I had seen.        We had seen.
  2d.  You had seen.      You had seen.
  3d.  He had seen.       They had seen.


                    Exercise 2

Correct the following sentences in which the past time form is used
instead of the past participle. Look up the word in the list of
irregular verbs and use the past participle instead of the past time
form.

  1. I have saw it often.
  2. He had shook his fist.
  3. She has sang for us.
  4. The boat has sank here.
  5. He has spoke the truth.
  6. They had stole the books.
  7. He has swore to the truth.
  8. He had took the wrong road.
  9. She has tore her dress.
  10. He had threw the ball away.
  11. The girl had wore the dress.
  12. He had wrote the letters.
  13. He had drank too much.
  14. He had rode the horse.
  15. The sun has rose.
  16. He has bore his part.
  17. They have began already.
  18. The wind has blew all night.
  19. It had broke when it fell.
  20. He has chose the right.
  21. You have did your duty.
  22. He has ate his breakfast.
  23. A heavy rain has fell.
  24. They had gave it to me.
  25. He has became rich.
  26. It has grew rapidly.
  27. He has knew it always.
  28. He has mistook her for another.


                    FUTURE PERFECT TIME

+127.+ We find also that we need a verb phrase to express time _before_
some other future time, to describe an action that will be finished,
perfected, or completed, before some other future action. Thus,

  I shall have gone before you arrive.
  You will have earned your money before you get it.
  I shall have worked thirty days when pay-day comes.

Can you not see a difference in saying, _I shall work thirty days when
pay-day comes_, and _I shall have worked thirty days when pay-day
comes_? The first sentence expresses simple future time, or what you
will do when pay-day comes; the second describes an action which will be
completed or perfected _before_ pay-day comes. So there is quite a
difference in the meaning of the future and the future perfect time.

+128.+ +The future perfect time form expresses or describes an action
that will be perfected or completed before some other future time. It is
formed by using _shall have_ or _will have_ with the past
participle.+

Be careful to use the past participle. Never use the past time form with
_shall have_ or _will have_.

       +Future Perfect Time+

       _Singular_             _Plural_

  1st. I shall have seen.     We shall have seen.
  2d.  You will have seen.    You will have seen.
  3d.  He will have seen.     They will have seen.


                    LET US SUM UP

+129.+ We have three time forms, _present_, _past_, _future_.

  +Present+      +Past+       +Future+

  I see          I saw        I shall see.

Each of these three time forms has a _perfect_ form; that is, a time
form which expresses an action as completed or perfected at the present
time, or before some definite past or future time.

    +Present+         +Past+            +Future+
  +Perfect Time+    +Perfect Time+    +Perfect Time+

  I have seen      I had seen       I shall have seen

+130.+ It is wonderful how a knowledge of words and their uses enables
us to express so many shades of meaning. It is like our development in
observing colors. You know the savage always admires vivid reds and
greens and blues. He does not yet see the beautiful shades and
gradations of color. We enjoy the delicate pinks and blues and all the
varying shades between the primal seven colors of the spectrum. And as
we develop our artistic ability we see and enjoy all the beauties of
color.

In music too, we observe the same development. The barbarian enjoys
loud, crashing, discordant sounds which he calls music, but which to the
educated ear are only harsh noises. The trained musician catches the
delicate overtones and undertones and finds deepest ecstasy in sounds
which the uneducated ear does not even catch. So as we study words and
their uses, we find ourselves able to express shades of meaning, to
paint our word pictures, not in gaudy, glaring chromo-tints, but in the
wondrous blending of color that reveals the true artist.

Now get these modes of expressing time firmly fixed in your mind.

+131.+ +Let us get all we have learned about verbs into a summary and
have it clearly in mind.+


                    VERBS--SUMMARY

                    +Two Classes+

  _Complete_--Taking _no_ complement.

  _Incomplete_--{ Verbs of action requiring object.
                { Copulative verbs requiring complement.

                    +Inflection--Changes of Form+

  _Simple Form_  _S-Form_   _Past Time_ _Present Part._ _Past Part._
    see           sees       saw         seeing         seen


                    TIME FORMS

                    Present

            _Singular_        _Plural_

            1. I see.         We see.
            2. You see.       You see.
            3. He sees.       They see.


                    Past

            _Singular_        _Plural_

            1. I saw.         We saw.
            2. You saw.       You saw.
            3. He saw.        They saw.


                    Future

            _Singular_        _Plural_

            1. I shall see.       We shall see.
            2. You will see.      You will see.
            3. He will see.       They will see.


                    Present Perfect

            _Singular_       _Plural_

            1. I have seen.      We have seen.
            2. You have seen.    You have seen.
            3. He has seen.      They have seen.


                    Past Perfect

            _Singular_       _Plural_

            1. I had seen.       We had seen.
            2. You had seen.     You had seen.
            3. He had seen.      They had seen.


                    Future Perfect

            _Singular_        _Plural_

            1. I shall have seen.    We shall have seen.
            2. You will have seen.   You will have seen.
            3. He will have seen.    They will have seen.


                    Exercise 3

Read carefully the following quotation. All of the verbs and verb
phrases are written in _italics_. Study these carefully and decide
whether they indicate present, past, future, present perfect, past
perfect or future perfect time. The verb phrases--_is seizing_, _is
put_, _is praised_, _is defended_, _can see_, _must have_, _are owned_,
and _are conducted_, do not belong to any of these six forms. They are
verb phrases used in ways which we shall study later. All of the other
verbs or verb phrases belong to one of the six time forms which we have
studied. Classify them.


               The Working Class Must Strike the Blow

  You _remember_ Victor Hugo's story of the devil-fish; how the monster
  _put_ forth one tentacle after another and _coiled_ it around his
  victim; how the hero _recalled_ that there _was_ but one vulnerable
  spot in his brute enemy; how at the strategic moment he _struck_ a
  blow at that spot, and the terrible demon of the deep _shuddered_,
  _released_ his grasp and _fell_ dead.

  Capitalism _is_ a monster which _is seizing_ the body politic. One
  tentacle _is put_ forth to grasp the major part of the earnings of the
  working class; another _has seized_ the working-woman; another
  _reaches_ forth to the child; another _has fastened_ upon government
  and _has made_ that the instrument of the powerful classes; still
  another _has turned_ the pen of the journalist into a weapon by which
  the injustice of Capitalism _is praised_ and _is defended_; and still
  another _has seized_ the pulpit, _has silenced_ those who _profess_ to
  speak for God and man, or _has turned_ their phrases into open apology
  and defense for the crimes of Capitalism!

  But there _is_ one vulnerable spot in Capitalism. If the working class
  of the world _can see_ that spot and _will strike_, they _shall be_
  free.

  The fundamental wrong, the basic injustice of the Capitalist System,
  _is_ that the resources of land and machinery, to which all the people
  _must have_ access, in order to live and labor, _are owned_ by the few
  and _are conducted_ by the few for their private profit.

  This _is_ the social tragedy, the monstrous wrong of our time.--_J.
  Stitt Wilson_.


                    Exercise 4

Select two verbs out of the following poem and write their six time
forms, in the same manner as the time forms of the verb _see_ are given
in section 131.


                    A MAGIC WORD

    There's a little word below, with letters three,
    Which, if you only grasp its potency,
        Will send you higher
        Toward the goal where you aspire,
    Which, without its precious aid, you'll never see--
                          _NOW!_

    Success attends the man who views it right.
    Its back and forward meanings differ quite;
        For this is how it reads
        To the man of ready deeds,
    Who spells it backwards from achievement's height--
                          _WON!_


                    TENSE

The grammatical term for the time form of the verb is _TENSE_, which is
derived from a Latin word meaning _time_. The present time-form of the
verb is called the _present tense_; the past time-form, the _past
tense_; the future time-form, the _future tense_; the present perfect
time-form, the _present perfect tense_, etc.


                    Exercise 5

Write each of the following four sentences in the six time-forms, or
tenses,--present, past, future, present perfect, past perfect and future
perfect, as follows:

  _Present_--Labor _creates_ all wealth.
  _Past_--Labor _created_ all wealth.
  _Future_--Labor _will create_ all wealth.
  _Present Perfect_--Labor _has created_ all wealth.
  _Past Perfect_--Labor _had created_ all wealth.
  _Future Perfect_--Labor _will have created_ all wealth.

  1. Hope stirs us to action.
  2. Human progress is our business.
  3. The majority demand justice.
  4. The workers fight all the battles.



                    SPELLING

                    LESSON 7


The division of words into syllables is quite important as an aid to
pronunciation. It is also a very important matter to understand in our
written speech for it is often necessary to divide a word at the end of
a line. If the word is not properly divided, it is much more difficult
to read and understand. The hyphen is used to divide words into
syllables when carrying a portion to the next line.

When you must divide a word at the end of a line divide it only between
syllables. Never divide a word of one syllable, no matter how long it
may be. If you cannot get all of it on the line, write it all on the
next line. Do not divide a short word of two syllables if you can avoid
it and never divide such a word when it leaves only one letter on the
line or only one letter to be carried over to the next line, as for
example: _luck-y_, _a-loud_, etc.

When two or more vowels are used together to make one sound they should
never be separated by the hyphen, as for example, joy-ous, anx-ious,
trail, dis-course, de-feat, boor-ish.

When two or more vowels placed together are not used to form one sound
then these vowels may be divided, as for example, _tri-al_,
_co-or-di-nate_, _he-ro-ic_.

Look up the words in this week's lesson in the dictionary carefully and
divide into syllables. Notice specially the division of words into
syllables where the word contains a diphthong and where it contains two
vowels written together which are not diphthongs. Notice also the words
which have a single vowel as the first or last syllable.

  +Monday+

    Museum
    Creatures
    Peaceable
    Accruing
    Already

  +Tuesday+

    Persuade
    Trivial
    Plague
    Alert
    Inquiry

  +Wednesday+

    Piteous
    Patriot
    Poetry
    Evil
    Business

  +Thursday+

    Obey
    Breathe
    Society
    Ether
    Sociable

  +Friday+

    Idealism
    Pledge
    Ache
    Acre
    Pronunciation

  +Saturday+

    Idle
    Idol
    Mutual
    Wealthy
    Neighbors



                    PLAIN ENGLISH

                    LESSON 8


Dear Comrade:

You have often read the words _organic_ and _inorganic_ but did you ever
stop to think of the meaning of these words? We say a body is organic--a
rock is inorganic; one grows from within, the other is built from
without. A tree is organic; it grows. A house is inorganic; it is built.
The house was never a baby house, growing from a tiny house to a large
one. But the tree was once a baby tree, a sapling, and grew branch by
branch to its present height. So we have two classes of things--those
which grow and those which are made.

Language belongs to the class of things which grows. It is organic. We
have even used the same terms in speaking about language that we use in
talking of a tree. We use the words ROOT, STEM and BRANCH to describe
its growth.

Language, too, has its different terms of life like a tree, its youth,
its maturity, its old age, its death.

So we have dead languages like Latin and Greek--languages which are no
longer living,--no longer serving mankind. But these dead languages have
left living children, languages that have descended from them.

The Italian language for example is the child, the descendant of the
classical Latin. We have many words in our English language from these
dead languages. About five-sevenths of the words in our English are from
these classical languages. The remaining two-sevenths are from the
Anglo-Saxon. We use the Anglo-Saxon words more frequently, however, in
our every day speech.

And it is interesting to note that our best poetry--that which stirs our
blood and touches our hearts--is written in the strong forceful
Anglo-Saxon words.

These words we are studying have been through some interesting
experiences as they have passed from race to race down to us and the
history of life is mirrored in their changes. How much more interesting
they seem when we know something of their sources, just as we are more
interested in a man when we know something of his boyhood and youth and
the experiences through which he has passed.

You may think that the study of verbs is rather difficult and involved,
but it is more simple in English than in any other language. There are
fewer changes in the verb form in order to express time and person. Do
not rely on the memorizing of the rules. Rules never made one a fluent
speaker. Write sentences in which the correct form is used. Read aloud
from the best authors until the sound of the words is familiar and they
come readily to the tongue. We have used for the exercises in these
lessons excerpts from the best authors.

Study these exercises carefully and note the use of the different verbs
especially, this week. Verbs, like all else, are yours to command.
Command them.

                    Yours for Education,

                              THE PEOPLE'S COLLEGE.


                    PROGRESSIVE VERB PHRASES

+132.+ We have learned how to form the three principal time forms,
_present_, _past_ and _future_ and the perfect or completed form of each
of the three, _present perfect_, _past perfect_ and _future perfect_.
And still we have such a wonderful language that we can express other
shades of meaning in _time_.

+133.+ There is still another phase of action which we must have a verb
phrase to express. Suppose you want to describe something you are now
doing and are continuing to do, something not yet completed. To say, _I
do it now_, is not satisfactory. Instead we say, _I am doing it now_.

You have by the verb phrase, _am doing_, described a progressive action,
an action _going on_ in the present. You may also want to describe what
you were doing yesterday, an action that continued or _progressed_ in
the past. You would not say, _I built the house yesterday_ but, _I was
building the house yesterday_. Again you may want to describe an action
which will be _progressing_ or going on in the future. You do not say,
_I shall build the house next week_ but, _I shall be building the house
next week_.

So we have progressive verb phrases.

+134.+ +The present progressive describes an action as continuing or
progressing in the present.+

+It is formed by using the present time form of the verb _be_ and the
present participle.+

You remember that the present participle is formed by adding _ing_
to the simple form of the verb.

       Present Progressive

       _Singular_            _Plural_

  1st. I am seeing.          We are seeing.
  2d.  You are seeing.       You are seeing.
  3d.  He is seeing.         They are seeing.

+135.+ +The past progressive time form describes an action which was
continuing or progressing in the past. It is formed by using the past
time form of the verb _be_ and the present participle.+

       Past Progressive

       _Singular_            _Plural_

  1st. I was seeing.         We were seeing.
  2d.  You were seeing.      You were seeing.
  3d.  He was seeing.        They were seeing.

+136.+ +The future progressive describes an action which will be
progressing or going on in the future. It is formed by using the future
time form of the verb _be_ and the present participle.+

       Future Progressive

       _Singular_             _Plural_

  1st. I shall be seeing.     We shall be seeing.
  2d.  You will be seeing.    You will be seeing.
  3d.  He will be seeing.     They will be seeing.

+137.+ The perfect time forms also have a progressive form. There is a
difference of meaning in the _present perfect_ and its progressive form.
You say for instance, _I have tried all my life to be free_. You mean
you have tried until the present time and the inference is that now you
have ceased to try. But, if you say, _I have been trying all my life to
be free_, we understand that you have tried and are _still_ trying.

+138.+ +So we have the present perfect progressive which describes an
action which progressed in the past and continued up to the present
time. It is formed by using the present perfect form of the verb _be_
and the present participle.+

       Present Perfect Progressive

       _Singular_              _Plural_

  1st. I have been seeing.     We have been seeing.
  2d.  You have been seeing.   You have been seeing.
  3d.  He has been seeing.     They have been seeing.

+139.+ +The past perfect progressive describes an action which was
continuing or progressing at some past time. It is formed by using the
past perfect time form of the verb _be_ and the present participle.+

        Past Perfect Progressive

        _Singular_            _Plural_

  1st. I had been seeing.     We had been seeing.
  2d.  You had been seeing.   You had been seeing.
  3d.  He had been seeing.    They had been seeing.

+140.+ +The future perfect progressive describes an action which will be
progressing at some future time. It is formed by using the future
perfect time form of the verb _be_ and the present participle.+

       Future Perfect Progressive

       _Singular_                  _Plural_

  1st. I shall have been seeing.   We shall have been seeing.
  2d.  You will have been seeing.  You will have been seeing.
  3d.  He will have been seeing.   They will have been seeing.


                    Exercise 1

In the following sentences mark all the progressive forms, and note
whether they are present, past, future, present perfect, past perfect or
future perfect.

  1. The old order is passing.
  2. Men will be struggling for freedom so long as slavery exists.
  3. The class struggle has been growing more intense as wealth has
     accumulated.
  4. The workers are realizing their power.
  5. He had been talking for an hour when we arrived.
  6. Next Monday I shall have been working for one year.
  7. The workers will be paying interest on war debts for generations
     to come unless they repudiate.
  8. While Marx was writing his books, he lived in abject poverty.
  9. The Industrial Relations Commission has been investigating
     industrial conditions.
  10. Ferrer was martyred because the Modern Schools were educating the
      people.
  11. The nations of Europe had been preparing for war for many years.


                    ACTIVE AND PASSIVE

+141.+ Notice carefully the following sentences; select the subjects in
these sentences which show _who_ or _what_ performed the action; select
the subjects that show _who_ or _what_ receives the action. Do you
notice any difference in the meaning of these sentences? Do you notice
any difference in their form?

  The engine struck the man.
  The man was struck by the engine.

  The system enslaves men.
  Men are enslaved by the system.

  Leaders often betray the people.
  The people are often betrayed by leaders.

Let us look carefully at the first two sentences. You remember when we
studied transitive verbs we found that every transitive verb had an
_object_ which was the receiver of the action expressed in the verb. Now
you notice in this first sentence, _The engine struck the man_, we have
the transitive verb _struck_. _Engine_ is the subject of the verb and
_man_ is the object of the verb, the receiver of the action expressed by
the verb _struck_.

Now in the sentence, _The man was struck by the engine_, we have the
same thought expressed but in a different manner. The word _man_, which
was the object of the verb _struck_ in the first sentence, has now
become the subject of the sentence, and we have changed our verb form
from _struck_ to _was struck_. In the first sentence of the subject,
_engine_ was the _actor_. In the second sentence, _The man was struck by
the engine_, the subject of the sentence, _man_, is the _receiver_ of
the action expressed in the verb.

+142.+ So we have thus changed the verb form from _struck_ to _was
struck_ to indicate that the subject of the verb is the receiver of the
action. _Struck_ is called the active form of the verb because the
subject of the verb is the actor. _Was struck_ is called the passive
form of the verb because the subject receives the action. Passive means
_receiving_. In the passive form the subject is the receiver of the
action expressed in the verb.

+143.+ You remember that complete verbs have no object or complement,
therefore it would follow that they cannot be put in the passive form
for there is no object to become the receiver of the action. Take the
complete verb, _sleep_, for example. We do not _sleep_ anything, hence
_sleep_ has no passive form for there is no object which can be used as
the subject, the receiver of the action.

+Only transitive verbs can be put into the passive form.+ Remember that
a transitive verb in the passive form is one that represents its subject
as receiving the action.

The present, past, future and all the perfect time forms of transitive
verbs can be changed from active to passive. The progressive time forms
can be changed into the passive, but it makes an awkward construction
and should be avoided as much as possible. Occasionally, however, we
find it worth our while to use these forms, as for example:

  The book is being written by the man.

This is the passive form of the present progressive, _The man is writing
a book_.

  The book was being written by the man.

This is the passive form of the past progressive, _The man was writing
the book_.

+144.+ The future progressive passive is awkward, and the present and
past progressive forms are the only forms we find used in the passive.
The best writers use them sparingly for we can usually say the same
thing by using the active form of the verb and have a sentence which
sounds much better.


                    Exercise 2

All the verbs in the following sentences are _transitive_ verbs in the
_active_ form. Rewrite each sentence, putting the verb into the
_passive_ form and making the _object_ of the _active_ verb the
_subject_ of the _passive_ verb; as, for example, the first sentence
should be rewritten as follows:

  _War on Russia was declared by Germany on August 1, 1914._

  1. Germany declared war on Russia, August 1, 1914.
  2. Who will sign the Emancipation Proclamation of the Proletariat?
  3. Marx and Engels wrote the Communist Manifesto.
  4. Spain murdered Francisco Ferrer, October 13, 1909.
  5. We celebrate the first of May as International Labor Day.
  6. The people of Paris stormed the Bastille, July 14, 1789.
  7. Wat Tyler was leading the English workers in rebellion against
     the King when the Mayor of London stabbed him in 1381.
  8. The Inquisition burned Bruno at the stake for heresy in 1600.
  9. The Paris Commune followed the German siege of Paris in 1871.


                    SUMMARY

+145.+ Now let us take the verb _see_ and name all the time forms which
we can describe with the changes in the verb forms which we have learned
to make and also with the verb phrases which we can construct with the
help of the verbs, _be_, _have_, _shall_ and _will_.

First, we want to express the present, what is happening now, and we
want to put it in both the active and passive forms, so we say:

           +PRESENT TIME+

  +Active+                 +Passive+

  _Singular_               _Singular_

  I see.                   I am seen.
  You see.                 You are seen.
  He sees.                 He is seen.

  _Plural_                 _Plural_

  We see.                  We are seen.
  You see.                 You are seen.
  They see.                They are seen.

Note that the only change in the verb form in the present ACTIVE is the
_s-form_ for the third person singular. In the present passive the only
change is the special form of the verb _be_ for the first and third
persons, singular.

When we want to tell what occurred yesterday or some time in the past,
stated in the active and passive form, we say:

            +PAST TIME+

  +Active+                 +Passive+

  _Singular_               _Singular_

  I saw.                   I was seen.
  You saw.                 You were seen.
  He saw.                  He was seen.

  _Plural_                 _Plural_

  We saw.                  We were seen.
  You saw.                 You were seen.
  They saw.                They were seen.

We have one other division of time which we must express--the future.
Primitive man doubtless lived principally in the present, but with the
development of memory and the means of recording events by a written
language, he was able to make the deeds and achievements of the past a
vital part of his life. But not until the faculty of thinking developed
was the mind able to project itself into the future and make tomorrow
the hope of today. Future time expresses hope, desire, growth.

               +FUTURE TIME+

  +Active+                 +Passive+

  _Singular_               _Singular_

  I shall see.             I shall be seen.
  You will see.            You will be seen.
  He will see.             He will be seen.

  _Plural_                 _Plural_

  We shall see.            We shall be seen.
  You will see.            You will be seen.
  They will see.           They will be seen.

Then you remember we had to devise a way of describing an action
perfected or completed at the present or at some time in the past or at
some time in the future--so we have present perfect, past perfect and
future perfect.

            +PRESENT PERFECT+

  +Active+                 +Passive+

  _Singular_               _Singular_

  I have seen.             I have been seen.
  You have seen.           You have been seen.
  He has seen.             He has been seen.

  _Plural_                 _Plural_

  We have seen.            We have been seen.
  You have seen.           You have been seen.
  They have seen.          They have been seen.

             +PAST PERFECT+

  +Active+                 +Passive+

  _Singular_               _Singular_

  I had seen.              I had been seen.
  You had seen.            You had been seen.
  He had seen.             He had been seen.

  _Plural_                 _Plural_

  We had seen.             We had been seen.
  You had seen.            You had been seen.
  They had seen.           They had been seen.

            +FUTURE PERFECT+

  +Active+                +Passive+

  _Singular_              _Singular_

  I shall have seen.       I shall have been seen.
  You will have seen.      You will have been seen.
  He will have seen.       He will have been seen.

  _Plural_                _Plural_

  We shall have seen.      We shall have been seen.
  You will have seen.      You will have been seen.
  They will have seen.     They will have been seen.

+146.+ But these are not all the phases of time which we can express. We
have progressive, continuous action. So each of these six time forms has
a progressive form.

          +PRESENT PROGRESSIVE+

  +Active+                 +Passive+

  _Singular_               _Singular_

  I am seeing.             I am being seen.
  You are seeing.          You are being seen.
  He is seeing.            He is being seen.

  _Plural_                 _Plural_

  We are seeing.           We are being seen.
  You are seeing.          You are being seen.
  They are seeing.         They are being seen.

             +PAST PROGRESSIVE+

  +Active+                 +Passive+

  _Singular_               _Singular_

  I was seeing.            I was being seen.
  You were seeing.         You were being seen.
  He was seeing.           He was being seen.

  _Plural_                 _Plural_

  We were seeing.          We were being seen.
  You were seeing.         You were being seen.
  They were seeing.        They were being seen.

Only the Present and Past Progressive forms have a passive form. The
rest of the Progressive forms are expressed in the active forms only.

           +FUTURE PROGRESSIVE+

  _Singular_               _Plural_

  I shall be seeing.       We shall be seeing.
  You will be seeing.      You will be seeing.
  He will be seeing.       They will be seeing.

     +PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE+

  _Singular_               _Plural_

  I have been seeing.      We have been seeing.
  You have been seeing.    You have been seeing.
  He has been seeing.      They have been seeing.

      +PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE+

  _Singular_               _Plural_

  I had been seeing.       We had been seeing.
  You had been seeing.     You had been seeing.
  He had been seeing.      They had been seeing.


      +FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE+

  _Singular_                   _Plural_

  I shall have been seeing.    We shall have been seeing.
  You will have been seeing.   You will have been seeing.
  He will have been seeing.    They will have been seeing.


                    Exercise 3

Write the four following sentences in their active and passive forms, as
the sentence, _War sweeps the earth_, is written.

  1. Education gives power.
  2. Knowledge frees men.
  3. Labor unions help the workers.
  4. The people seek justice.

  +Present+     _Active_    War sweeps the earth.
                _Passive_   The earth is swept by war.

  +Past+        _Active_    War swept the earth.
                _Passive_   The earth was swept by war.

  +Future+      _Active_    War shall sweep the earth.
                _Passive_   The earth shall be swept by war.

  +Pres. Per.+  _Active_    War has swept the earth.
                _Passive_   The earth has been swept by war.

  +Past Per.+   _Active_    War had swept the earth.
                _Passive_   The earth had been swept by war.

  +Fut. Per.+   _Active_    War shall have swept the earth.
                _Passive_   The earth shall have been swept by war.


                    Exercise 4

Underscore all the verbs and verb phrases in the following quotation.
Write all the time forms of the transitive verb, _lose_, as the time
forms of the verb _see_ are written in the foregoing table.

  When we study the animal world and try to explain to ourselves that
  struggle for existence which is maintained by each living being
  against adverse circumstances and against its enemies, we realize that
  the more the principles of solidarity and equality are developed in an
  animal society, and have become habitual to it, the more chance it has
  of surviving and coming triumphantly out of the struggle against
  hardships and foes. The more thoroughly each member of the society
  feels his solidarity with each other member of the society, the more
  completely are developed in all of them those two qualities which are
  the main factors of all progress; courage, on the one hand, and, on
  the other, free individual initiative. And, on the contrary, the more
  any animal society, or little group of animals, loses this feeling of
  solidarity--which may chance as the result of exceptional scarcity or
  else of exceptional plenty--the more the two other factors of
  progress, courage and individual initiative, diminish; in the end they
  disappear, and the society falls into decay and sinks before its foes.
  Without mutual confidence no struggle is possible; there is no
  courage, no initiative, no solidarity--and no victory!--_Kropotkin_.



                    SPELLING

                    LESSON 8


In pronouncing words of more than one syllable we always lay a little
greater stress upon one syllable of the word; that is, that syllable
receives the emphasis of the voice so as to make it more prominent than
the other syllables. This is called accent, and the syllable which
receives the special stress is called the accented syllable.

+Accent is the stress of the voice upon one syllable of the word.+

You will notice when you look up the pronunciation of words in your
dictionary that a little mark called the accent mark is placed after the
accented syllable, as for example: di-vide'.

Many words differ in meaning according to which syllable receives the
accent. Our spelling lesson for this week contains a number of these
words.

These words, when accented on the first syllable, are nouns; when
accented on the second syllable, they are verbs.

  +Monday+

    Con' tract    Con tract'
    Pro' test     Pro test'
    Rec' ord      Re cord'
    Im' port      Im port'
    De' tail      De tail'

  +Tuesday+

    Con' vert     Con vert'
    Con' flict    Con flict'
    Prog' ress    Pro gress'
    Im' press     Im press'
    Ref' use      Re fuse'

  +Wednesday+

    Con' test    Con test'
    Con' duct    Con duct'
    Proj' ect    Pro ject'
    Des' ert     De sert'
    Ex' tract    Ex tract'

  +Thursday+

    Con' trast    Con trast'
    Con' sort     Con sort'
    Reb' el       Re bel'
    Con' script   Con script'
    Pres' ent     Pre sent'

  +Friday+

    Com' pound   Com pound'
    Re' tail     Re tail'
    Com' press   Com press'
    Im' print    Im print'
    Com' bine    Com bine'

  +Saturday+

    Con' fine    Con fine'
    Sus' pect    Sus pect'
    Com' mune    Com mune'
    Ex' port     Ex port'
    In' crease   In crease'



                    PLAIN ENGLISH

                    LESSON 9


Dear Comrade:

You have been studying several weeks now in this Plain English Course
and we trust you are enjoying the unfolding of the powers of expression.
We have been necessarily studying rules to some extent but you have seen
how these grew out of the need for expression. We have been breaking the
sentence up into its different parts. First we had the names of things
and now we are studying the words used to tell what these things _do_
and _are_--namely verbs. And as our life has grown complex and our
powers of thinking diversified covering the whole range of time, past,
present and future, we have had to invent many forms of the verb to
express it all.

Now do not try to commit these facts concerning the verb to memory. You
are not studying English in order to know rules. You are studying
English that you may be able to say and write the things you _think_. So
first of all, _think_, _think_! That is your inalienable right! Do not
accept anything just by blind belief. Think it out for yourself. Study
until you see the '_why_' of it all. "Independent thinking has given us
the present, and we will forever continue to make tomorrow better than
today. The right to think is inalienable, or a man is a machine. Thought
is life or a human soul is a thing."

And do not lack the courage of your own thoughts. _You_ do not need to
cringe or apologize to any man. "Our life is not an apology but a life."
Dare to think and dare to express and live your thought.

Did you ever read Emerson's definition of genius? "To believe your own
thought, to believe that what is true for you in your private heart is
true for all men,--that is genius." Then he says, "We dismiss without
notice our own thoughts, because they are ours. Tomorrow a stranger will
say with masterly good sense, precisely what we have thought and felt
all along and we shall be forced to take with shame our own opinion from
another."

Have you not experienced this? How often we hear some one express a
truth and we say to ourselves, "That is just what I have long believed
but I have never dared say so." We have been so taught all our lives to
depend on some outside power and discredit the power within ourselves,
that we pay no attention to the thoughts that are ours for who are we
that we should dare to think and perchance disagree with those who have
assumed authority over us! But that is precisely what we should dare to
do--to think and to do our own thinking always. Who dares place anything
before a man!

So _think_ as you study these lessons and use these rules and formulas
simply as means to an end, as tools to aid you in expressing these
thoughts.

                    Yours for Education,

                              THE PEOPLE'S COLLEGE.


                    PARTICIPLES

+147.+ We have found that the verb has five forms, made by internal
changes in the verb itself,--the present time form, the s-form, the past
time form, the present participle and the past participle.

We have also found that we can express various time forms by verb
phrases formed by using the helping verbs, _shall_, _will_, _have_ and
_be_ with one of the verb forms. All of these forms are used as the
asserting word in the sentence. So long as the verb or verb phrase forms
the predicate--the word or words that assert something of the
subject--it still remains a verb. But we have found that the participle
forms of the verb may be used as other parts of speech while still
retaining some of the qualities of the verb.

+148.+ You remember a sentence which we used when we studied
participles, _Making shoes is his work_. Here we have the present
participle _making_, with its object _shoes_, used as the subject of the
verb _is_. Now a noun never takes an object, so _making_ in this
sentence is partly a verb, partly a noun, and is called a participle,
which means _partaker_.

We have studied and used two forms of participles, the present and the
past participle. The present participle always ends in _ing_ and
expresses action or existence in the present, or at the time mentioned
in the sentence. For example, _being_, _bringing_, _working_, _seeing_,
_loving_, _hating_, etc.

The past participle we found to be one of the principal parts of the
verb. It expresses action or existence which is past or completed, at
the time mentioned in the sentence. It is formed by adding _d_ or _ed_
to the regular verbs and by a change in the form in irregular verbs. For
example, regular verbs: _learned_ from _learn_, _defeated_ from
_defeat_, _watched_ from _watch_. Irregular verbs: _taught_ from
_teach_, _seen_ from _see_, _won_ from _win_.

+We have found that these participles may be used either as nouns or as
adjectives.+ As for example:

  The _crying_ of the child annoyed the people.
  The _crying_ child ran to its mother.
  The _coming_ of the new day will bring peace.
  We await the _coming_ day of peace.


                    PARTICIPLE PHRASES

+149.+ The present and the past participles are each single words; but
we may also have participle phrases; that is, two or more words used as
a participle, as for example:

  His _having joined_ the strikers caused him to lose his job.
  The man, _having been discharged_, left the mill.

In these sentences we have the participle phrases, _having joined_ and
_having been discharged_. _Having joined_ is a participle phrase used as
a noun, the subject of the verb _caused_. _Having been discharged_ is a
participle phrase used as an adjective to modify the noun _man_. Notice
that _having joined_ is an active participle describing the action
performed by the man who is referred to by the pronoun _his_. _Having
been discharged_ is a passive participle expressing an action of which
the subject of the sentence, _man_, is the receiver.

These are both perfect participles, expressing actions which are
complete at the present time.

+150.+ We have also progressive participles expressing action which is
continuing or progressing. These progressive participles are also used
in both the active and the passive forms. The progressive active
participle is formed by using _having been_ with the present participle,
as _having been working_. The progressive passive participle is formed
by using _being_ with the past participle, as for example, _being
watched_, _being driven_, _being gone_, etc. So we have six participles,
three active and three passive.

Note the following table:

           +Active+

  _Present._       Sending.

  _Perfect._       Having sent.

  _Progressive._   Having been sending.


           +Passive+

  _Past._          Sent.

  _Perfect._       Having been sent.

  _Progressive._    Being sent.

+These participle phrases may be used either as nouns or as
adjectives.+


                    Exercise 1

In the following sentences mark the participles and the participle
phrases. Underscore those used as _nouns_ with a single line; those used
as _adjectives_ with two lines.

  1. He denies having been hired by the employer.
  2. Our friends, having arrived, joined us at dinner.
  3. The rain, falling incessantly, kept us from going.
  4. Having often seen him passing, I judged he lived near.
  5. The man, being discouraged and ill, was unable to do his work well.
  6. Happiness shared is happiness doubled.
  7. Having finished his work, he rests at last.
  8. The army, beaten but not vanquished, waited for the morrow.
  9. The men, having been unemployed for months, were desperate.
  10. Being prepared will not save us from war.
  11. "Rest is not quitting this busy career;
      Rest is the fitting of self to its sphere.
      It's loving and serving the highest and best;
      It's onward, not swerving; and that is true rest."


                    Exercise 2

Write the six participle forms of the verbs _see_ and _teach_, and use
in sentences of your own construction.


                    INFINITIVES

+151.+ We have found that the various forms of the participles may be
used as other parts of speech. They partake of the nature of a verb and
either of a noun or an adjective. Notice the following sentences:

  Traveling is pleasant.
  Eating is necessary.

Can you think of any other way in which you could express the same
thought? Do you not sometimes say,

  To travel is pleasant.
  To eat is necessary.

We have expressed practically the same thought in these two sentences,
which is expressed in the sentences above, where we used the participle.
_To travel_ and _to eat_ are used as nouns, subjects of the verb _is_
just as _traveling_ and _eating_ are used as nouns, the subjects of the
verb _is_.

Here we have another form of the verb used as a noun. When we use the
verb in this way, we are not speaking of the _traveling_ or _eating_ as
belonging to or being done by any particular person, nor do we indicate
whether one person or more than one is concerned in the action. It might
be anyone doing the traveling or eating, and it might be one person or a
thousand. We are making a general statement of everybody in the world,
so we call this form the _infinitive_.

+152.+ Infinite means _unlimited_, without limit as to persons or
number. Almost every verb in the language may be used in this way, and
since _to_ is generally used before the infinitive, _to_ is often called
the sign of the infinitive. For example:

  _To be_, or not _to be_, that is the question.
  _To have_ and _to hold_ is the problem.
  He likes _to travel_.

You note in all of these infinitives _to_ is used with the simple form
of the verb.

+153.+ _To_ is generally omitted after verbs like _help_, _hear_, _bid_,
_feel_, _let_, _make_, _see_ and _have_, or words of similar meaning.
For example:

  Help me (to) find it.
  He bade me (to) stay.
  Feel it (to) shake.
  Make him (to) come.
  Hear me (to) sing.
  Let us (to) go.
  See him (to) run.
  Have him (to) copy this.

+154.+ _To_ is also omitted after _need_ and _dare_ when _not_ is used.

  They need to work.
  They need not work.

  They dared to come.
  They dared not come.

+155.+ _To_ is sometimes omitted after prepositions:

  He will do anything for his class, except (to) fight for it.
  He would do nothing but (to) go away.

+156.+ We have a number of different forms of the infinitive, both
active and passive. Note the following table:

          +Active+

  _Present._        To love.
  _Perfect._        To have loved.
  _Present Prog._   To be loving.
  _Perfect Prog._   To have been loving.

          +Passive+

  _Present._        To be loved.
  _Perfect._        To have been loved.

+157.+ Notice that only the _present_ and _perfect_ infinitives have the
_passive_ form. The progressive infinitives cannot be used in the
passive. Remember also that only _incomplete_ verbs, those which require
an object to receive the action, can have a passive form.

The verb _loved_, which we have used in the above table, has a passive
form because it is an incomplete verb, for there must be that which is
the object of our love.

+158.+ The complete verbs,--verbs which require no object,--cannot have
a passive form for there is no object to become the receiver of the
action. Take for example the verb _dwell_. This is a complete verb which
can have no passive form. You cannot dwell anything, therefore you
cannot say _to be dwelt_ or _to have been dwelt_.

+So complete verbs have only the four active forms+, as follows:

          +Active+

  _Present._        To dwell.
  _Perfect._        To have dwelt.
  _Present Prog._   To be dwelling.
  _Perfect Prog._   To have been dwelling.

+159.+ Infinitives, like participles, may be used either as nouns or
adjectives. When used as nouns, they are used in the various ways in
which nouns are used. The infinitive may be the _subject_ of a sentence,
thus:

  _To hesitate_ now will be fatal.
  _To be defeated_ is no crime.

+160.+ The infinitive may be the _object_ or _complement_ of the verb.
For example:

  He wanted _to see_ you.
  His desire is _to learn_.

+161.+ The infinitive may be used as the object of a _preposition_; as,

  He is about _to go_.
  They will do anything for the cause except _to live_ for it.

+162.+ The infinitive may be used as an adjective to modify a noun. For
example:

  He showed me the way _to go_.
  We must have food _to eat_ and clothes _to wear_.
  The question _to be decided_ is before us.
  Claim your right _to live_.

+163.+ The infinitive may also be used as an adverb to modify the
meaning of a verb, adjective or adverb, thus:

  He was forced _to go_.
  They are slow _to learn_.
  The fruit was not ripe enough _to eat_.

Note that the infinitives in these sentences may all be changed into
adverb phrases. As for example in the first sentence, He was forced _to
go_, the infinitive _to go_, which modifies the verb _forced_, may be
changed to the adverb phrase, _into going_, thus, _He was forced into
going_. In the second sentence, _They are slow to learn_, the infinitive
_to learn_ may be changed into the adverb phrase _in learning_, thus,
_They are slow in learning_. In the last sentence, _The fruit is not
ripe enough to eat_, the infinitive _to eat_, which modifies the adverb
_enough_, may be changed into the adverb phrase, _for eating_, as for
example, _The fruit was not ripe enough for eating_.

+164.+ The infinitive is quite a useful form of the verb, and we will
find that we use it very frequently in expressing our ideas. While it is
not the asserting word in the sentence, it retains the nature of a verb
and may have both an object and an adverb modifier. As for example, in
the sentence:

  I wish _to learn_ my lesson quickly.

_To learn_ is the infinitive, used as a noun, the object of the verb
_wish_. The infinitive also has an object, to learn--_what?_ _My lesson_
is the object of the infinitive _to learn_. We also have an adverb
modifier in the adverb _quickly_, which tells _how_ I wish to learn my
lesson. So the infinitive retains its verb nature, in that it may have
an object and it may be modified by an adverb.


                    Exercise 3

Notice carefully the use of the infinitives in the following sentences.
Underscore all infinitives.

  1. To remain ignorant is to remain a slave.
  2. Teach us to think and give us courage to act.
  3. Children love to be praised, but hate to be censured.
  4. To obey is the creed taught the working class by the masters.
  5. To be exploited has always been the fate of the workers.
  6. Ferrer wrote on his prison wall, "To love a woman passionately, to
     have an ideal which I can serve, to have the desire to fight
     until I win--what more can I wish or ask?"
  7. The people wish the man to be punished for the crime.
  8. Primitive man found plenty of wood to burn.
  9. We have learned to use coal and oil.
  10. The lecture to have been given this evening has been postponed.
  11. They are eager to hear the news.
  12. He has failed to come.
  13. We felt the house shake on its foundation.
  14. Have him find the book for me.
  15. To be defeated is no crime; never to have dared is the real crime.
  16. The rich will do anything for the poor except to get off their
      backs.
  17. To have slept while others fought is your shame.
  18. Claim your right to do, to dream and to dare.


                    Exercise 4

Write sentences containing the six infinitive forms of the verb _obey_.


                    DON'TS FOR INFINITIVES

+165.+ +Don't split your infinitives.+ Keep the _to_ and the infinitive
together as much as possible. Don't say, _They intended to never come
back_. Say rather, _They intended never to come back_. Sometimes,
however, the meaning can be more aptly expressed by placing the adverb
modifier between the _to_ and the infinitive, as for example:

  To almost succeed is not enough.
  It will be found to far exceed our expectations.

In these sentences the adverbs _almost_ and _far_ express our meaning
more closely if they are placed between the _to_ and the infinitive.
Ordinarily, however, do not split your infinitives, but place the adverb
modifier either before or after the infinitive.

+166.+ +Don't use _to_ by itself without the rest of the infinitive.+
Don't say, _Do as I tell you to_. Say instead, _Do as I tell you to do_;
or, _Do as I tell you_. Don't say, _He deceived us once and he is likely
to again_. Say rather, _He deceived us once and he is likely to deceive
us again_, or _to do so again_.

+167.+ +Don't use _and_ for _to_. Don't say, _Try and go if you can_.
Say instead, _Try to go if you can_.

Correct the following sentences:

  We ought to bravely fight for our rights.
  I will do all my employer tells me to.
  We shall try and get our lessons.
  I ought to at least help my comrades but I am afraid to.


                    Exercise 5

Study carefully the infinitives in the following quotation. Notice which
are active and which are passive infinitives.

  The twenty thousand men prematurely slain on a field of battle, mean,
  to the women of their race, twenty thousand human creatures _to be
  borne_ within them for months, _to be given_ birth to in anguish, _to
  be fed_ from their breasts and _to be reared_ with toil, if the
  members of the tribe and the strength of the nation are _to be
  maintained_. In nations continually at war, incessant and unbroken
  child-bearing is by war imposed on all women if the state is _to
  survive_; and whenever war occurs, if numbers are _to be maintained_,
  there must be an increased child-bearing and rearing. This throws upon
  woman, as woman, a war tax, compared with which all that the male
  expends in military preparations is comparatively light.

  It is especially in the domain of war that we, the bearers of men's
  bodies, who supply its most valuable munition, who, not amid the
  clamor and ardor of battle, but singly, and alone, with a
  three-in-the-morning courage, shed our blood and face death that the
  battle-field might have its food, a food more precious to us than our
  heart's blood; it is we, especially, who, in the domain of war, have
  our word _to say_, a word no man can say for us. It is our intention
  _to enter_ into the domain of war and _to labor_ there till in the
  course of generations we have extinguished it.--_Olive Schreiner_.


                    Exercise 6

Mark the participles and infinitives.

    Gold! Gold! Gold! Gold!
    Bright and yellow, hard and cold,
    Molten, graven, hammer'd and roll'd;
    Heavy to get, and light to hold;
    Hoarded, barter'd, bought, and sold,
    Stolen, borrow'd, squander'd, doled:
    Spurn'd by the young, but hugg'd by the old
    To the very verge of the churchyard mould;
    Price of many a crime untold:
    Gold! Gold! Gold! Gold!
    Good or bad a thousand-fold!
    How widely its agencies vary--
    To save--to ruin--to curse--to bless--
    As even its minted coins express,
    Now stamp'd with the image of Good Queen Bess,
    And now of a bloody Mary.--_Thos. Hood_.



                    SPELLING

                    LESSON 9


In our English lessons, we have been studying the division of words into
parts of speech. We have been studying them as we use them in expressing
our thoughts but we may study them in other ways also. We may study them
as words alone.

Studied in this way we find that we have simple, compound and derivative
words. For example, _man_, _man-slaughter_, _manly_. _Man_ is a simple
word. _Man-slaughter_ is a compound word formed of two simple words.
_Manly_ is a derivative word derived from _man_.

When a compound word is first formed, it is usually written with a
hyphen; but after the word has been used awhile the hyphen is often
dropped and the two parts are written together as a simple word.

+A simple word is a single word which cannot be divided into other words
without changing its meaning.+

+A compound word is composed of two or more simple words into which it
may be divided, each retaining its own meaning.+

+A derivative word is one which is derived from a simple word by the
addition of another syllable.+

In next week's lesson we will take up the study of these derivatives.

Divide the compound words in this week's lesson into the simple words of
which they are composed.

  +Monday+

    Birthday
    Coal-tar
    Craftsman
    Foreman
    Gunpowder

  +Tuesday+

    Handkerchief
    Headquarters
    Lawsuit
    Lockout
    Bookkeeper

  +Wednesday+

    Motorman
    Newspaper
    Pasteboard
    Postage-stamp
    Postmaster

  +Thursday+

    Salesman
    Second-hand
    Shirtwaist
    Sidewalk
    Staircase

  +Friday+

    Trademark
    Time-table
    Typewriter
    Tableware
    Sewing-machine

  +Saturday+

    Undergarment
    Underhand
    Water-mark
    Woodwork
    Workshop



                    PLAIN ENGLISH

                    LESSON 10


Dear Comrade:

We have been studying this course in Plain English for some weeks now
and I trust that you have been enjoying as well as benefiting by the
study of our wonderful and expressive language. Did you ever stop to
think what a wonderful step it was in evolution when man first began to
use the spoken word? And yet it was a still more wonderful step in
advance when he began to use the written word for our highest evolution,
and development would have been impossible without the help of written
speech. An illiterate man may be a good workman and prosperous so far as
the material things of life and his immediate contact with his fellow
men are concerned, but we have only to think for a moment of what this
world would be if we had no written language, to understand what a
mighty power it has been in evolution.

Suppose we had no way by which we could communicate with our friends at
a distance. Suppose there were no written words by which we could set
down the countless dealings between man and man. What a hopeless tangle
this social life of ours would soon become! Suppose also that we had no
knowledge of the past, no knowledge of the discoveries and inventions of
past generations except that which could be handed down to us through
oral speech. All our knowledge of history, of the deeds and development
of the past, all the observations by which science has uncovered to us
the mysteries of nature would be largely lost to us. It was the
invention of writing alone which made possible man's growth from
barbarism to civilization, and it is more true than we oftentimes
realize, that it is "only a wall of books that separates the civilized
man of to-day from the savage of yesterday." And yet I wonder if we have
ever stopped to think how this art of writing developed. Knowledge of
the alphabet and of the letters by which we form our words and hence are
able to express our ideas, has become such a common-place thing to us
that we have forgotten what a wonder it is and how it has slowly grown
and developed through the centuries. Yet there are races to-day that
have no written language such as we know and to whom our written
language seems truly a miracle.

The story is told of an Indian who was sent from one colony to another
with four loaves of bread accompanied by a letter stating their number.
The Indian ate one of the loaves and of course, was found out. The next
time when he was sent upon a similar errand he repeated the theft but he
took the precaution to hide the letter under a stone while he was eating
the bread so that it might not see him!

But it is only the things that we do not understand which we invest with
mystery and as we study the story of the alphabet in this series of
letters we find that it has been a natural development accomplished by
the growing powers of man. In succeeding letters we will trace this most
interesting story of the alphabet.

                    Yours for Education,

                              THE PEOPLE'S COLLEGE.


                    HELPING VERBS

+168.+ We have found that whenever a verb is used by itself in making an
assertion it denotes either present or past time. When we use a verb
phrase, it expresses some other time than the past or present. These
verb phrases are formed by using _shall_, _will_, _have_, _had_, and the
various forms of the verb _be_ with some form of the principal verb.
These verbs which help to form verb phrases are called _helping_, or
_auxiliary verbs_. Auxiliary means helping.

We have used _have_ and _had_ with the past participle to form the
present perfect and past perfect time forms. We have used _shall_ and
_will_ with different forms of the verb to denote future time, and we
have used different forms of the verb _be_ in making the various other
time forms. So _shall_, _will_, _have_, _had_ and the various forms of
the verb _be_ are _helping verbs_, which we use to help us in making
verb phrases.

+169.+ But these are not all of the helping verbs. There are other
helping verbs which we use in forming verb phrases to express different
ideas. These are such verbs as _should_ and _would_, _may_ and _might_,
_can_ and _could_, _must_ and _ought_, _do_ and _did_.


                    Exercise 1

Fill the blank spaces in the following sentences with the appropriate
forms of the helping verbs, _shall_, _will_, _have_, _had_ and _be_.

  1. When......the workers organize?
  2. Education......help us win.
  3. The world......had enough of war.
  4. We......deceived by the masters.
  5. The workers......organized into craft unions.
  6. They......never ceased the struggle.
  7. The state......founded on exploitation.
  8. Mutual aid......been an important factor in evolution.
  9. The truth......taught to the people.
  10. The victory......gained by the proletariat.
  11. The nations of Europe......preparing for war for years.
  12. The International......recognized war for defense.
  13. We......not made the class distinctions, but we......recognize
      them as long as they exist.
  14. The evolution of animals and the evolution of
      plants......proceeded according to the same general laws.
  15. We......never win while the majority remains ignorant.
  16. The strikers......betrayed by their leaders.


                    SHOULD AND WOULD

+170.+ _Should_ and _would_ are the past-time forms of _shall_ and
_will_. We use them to express action or existence dependent upon some
condition, thus:

  I should go if I were well enough.
  He should join us if you asked him.

In these sentences _should_ and _would_ express action which is possible
now or will be in the future, provided some other action takes place.

The same distinction which we found made in the use _shall_ and _will_
has been made with _should_ and _would_; that is, that _should_ used
with the first person, expresses action dependent upon condition; but
_would_, used with the first person, implies exercise of the will. This
rule is not closely followed, though it expresses a nice distinction in
the use of _should_ and _would_. In ordinary usage we use either
_should_ or _would_ with the first person without any distinction of
meaning, as for example:

  I should struggle on even if it meant death.
  I would stand for my principles though I stood entirely alone.

We do not use _should_ however, with the second and third persons to
express an action or existence dependent upon some condition. _Should_
used with the second and third person implies obligation. _Would_ is
used with the second or third person to express an action dependent upon
some condition, as for example:

  He would not go, even if you insisted.
  They would come if you invited them.
  You would believe him if you could hear him.
  You would be surprised if I should tell you the reason.

+171.+ _Should_ and _would_ in all of the sentences which we have quoted
are used to express action or existence dependent upon some condition
which is expressed in that part of the sentence introduced by such
conjunctions as _if_ and _though_.

The parts of the sentence introduced by these conjunctions express the
condition upon which the other action is dependent. When we use _should_
in sentences without this condition, it means practically the same as
_ought_, and implies an obligation. We use _should_ with the first and
second and third persons when we use it with this meaning, as for
example:

  I should have gone yesterday.
  You should be with us in this fight.
  They should never fear defeat.

+172.+ _Ought_ could be used in all these sentences and express
practically the same meaning. _Should_ used in this way implies
obligation.


                    Exercise 2

Study carefully the following sentences. Write in the blank space
preceding each sentence the number of the paragraph in the lesson which
governs the use of the helping verb in that sentence.

  1. ...... The workers should organize if they desire to control
  production.
  2. ...... The proletariat would destroy this system if they
  understood their power.
  3. ...... Every worker would join his fellows if he could but realize
  the class struggle.
  4. ...... We would all enjoy plenty if we produced for use instead of
  for profit.
  5. ...... The ruling class would not give up their privileges even
  though they knew that their cupidity endangers society.
  6. ...... The injury of one should be the injury of all.
  7. ...... The workers' International should stand for the
  international solidarity of the workers.
  8. ...... You should never fear the ridicule of little minds.
  9. ...... You would never fear ridicule if you were conscious of your
  own power.
  10. ...... No man should fear to think for himself.
  11. ...... No man would fear to think for himself if the world were
  truly free.
  12. ...... Compromise now would mean defeat.


                    MAY AND MIGHT

+173.+ _May_ used as a helping verb means present permission in regard
to an action or possession, as:

  You may come with us.
  He may have the money.

+174.+ It may also mean a possible action or possession. _You may come
with us_, for example, might mean that some time in the future it is
possible that you will come with us. _He may have the money_, might mean
either _He is given permission to have the money_, or _It is possible
that he has it_.

_May_, used with many verb forms, means _it is possible_. For example:
_He may be hungry_, _He may have starved_. _He may have been starving_;
that is, it is possible that _he is hungry_; that _he has starved_; that
_he was starving_.

+175.+ _Might_ is the past form of _may_ and expresses past permission
to do or to be and also possibility in the past. For example: _The
officer said he might go_. That is, he gave him permission to go. _You
might have helped your comrades_; that is, _you had the power to have
helped_.

_Might_ is also used to express permission or the power to do in the
present and future, on condition. For example:

  He might find work if he were trained.
  The workers might destroy this insane system if they would.


                    Exercise 3

Study carefully the following sentences. Write in the blank space
preceding each sentence the number of the paragraph in the lesson which
governs the use of the helping verbs _may_ or _might_ in that sentence.

  1. ...... The solidarity of the workers might have averted this war.
  2. ...... "Of all sad words of tongue or pen,
            The saddest are these--'it might have been.'"
  3. ...... You might join us.
  4. ...... The people struggle that they may live.
  5. ...... Try; you might succeed.
  6. ...... The day may come when this day's deeds shall be remembered.
  7. ...... Victory might be ours if we dared to face the issue.
  8. ...... "Men may come and men may go;
             But I go on forever."
  9. ...... It seemed possible that we might win.
  10. ...... May we ever be loyal and true!
  11. ...... It appeared for a time that we might be involved in war.
  12. ...... Let come what may, we will not yield.


                    CAN AND COULD

+176.+ _Can_ is the present-time form and _could_ the past-time form,
and both imply ability or power to do or to be. _You can go_ means _You
are able to go_,--_You have the power to go_. _You may go_ means _You
have permission to go_. _Can_ is often used when we should use _may_,
when we mean to give permission. Habit plays a great part in our life
and knowledge of the right way does not always suffice. It is only
continued effort that will establish correct habits of speech. Good
English would be easy of accomplishment if "to do were as easy as to
know what it were good to do."

We are too often like the mother in the story. "Can I have a piece of
pie?" asked the child. "May I?" the mother corrected. Then the child
asked, "May I have a piece of pie?" and the mother answered, "Yes, you
can." Knowledge said, _may_; habit said _can_, and the ready tongue
obeyed the force of habit.

Say the correct word over and over aloud until it sounds right to your
ear and flows readily to your tongue.

+177.+ _Could_ is sometimes used in the present sense to denote power to
do, conditioned upon willingness, as:

  He could if he would.


                    Exercise 4

Study carefully the following sentences. Write in the blank space
preceding each sentence the number of the paragraph in the lesson which
governs the use of the helping verbs _can_ or _could_ in that sentence.

  1. ...... I can say love when others say hate;
            I can say every man when others say one man;
            What can I do? I can give myself to life,
            When other men refuse themselves to life.
  2. ...... No one can be free till all are free.
  3. ...... They could win their freedom if they would prepare
            themselves to be free.
  4. ...... What can I do, being alone?
  5. ...... If all men could catch the vision of freedom, wars would
            cease.
  6. ...... Could you find a better way to spend your time than in
            study?
  7. ...... Men would rise in revolt if they could know the facts.


                    MUST AND OUGHT

+178.+ _Must_ and _ought_ imply obligation. _Must_ conveys the idea of
being obliged to do an action from necessity or compulsion, as,

  You must have known it.
  He must go.

_Ought_ was originally the past time form of _owe_, hence means _to be
indebted to_, _to owe_. It conveys the idea of a moral obligation, as,

  You ought to help the cause.
  You ought to understand.

+179+. _Ought_ is always used with the infinitive, and the same form is
used to express both the present and the past time. The difference in
time is expressed by a change in the infinitive instead of a change in
the form of the helping verb. With _may_ and _might_ and _can_ and
_could_, present and past time are expressed by a change in the form of
the helping verb. With the helping verb _ought_, the difference in time
is expressed in the infinitive. For example:

  He ought to pay us our wages.

This means, _He owes it to us to pay us our wages now_.

  He ought to have paid us our wages.

This means, _He owed it to us to pay us our wages some time in the
past_.

+180.+ The present infinitive is used with the helping verb _ought_ to
express present time and the perfect infinitive is used with _ought_ to
express past time.


                    Exercise 5

Study carefully the following sentences. Write in the blank space
preceding each sentence the number of the paragraph in the lesson which
governs the use of the helping verb _must_ or _ought_ in that sentence.

  1. ...... Service must be the key note of the future.
  2. ...... Competition must give place to co-operation.
  3. ...... Ought we to fear, who know the truth?
  4. ...... Government ought to be the administration of things.
  5. ...... No man ought to have the power of life and death over any
            other human being.
  6. ...... It may cost much but humanity must be set free at any cost.
  7. ...... What ought to be the attitude of the workers toward war?
  8. ...... "For man must work and woman must weep,
            For there is little to do and many to keep."
  9. ...... The day must come when we can live the dream.


                    DO AND DID

+181.+ _Do_ and _did_ are used as helping verbs to give emphasis--to
form emphatic verb phrases. _Do_ is the present time form and _did_ the
past time form, as for example:

  I do wish you would come.
  I did hope he would win.

+182.+ When we use the negative _not_ we use the helping verbs _do_ and
_did_ to form our verb phrases. For example, we do not say:

  I obey not.
  I walked not.
  He comes not.
  They arrived not.

But in expressing the present and past time forms with the negative
_not_, we say instead:

  I do not obey.
  I did not walk.
  He does not come.
  They did not arrive.

+183.+ We also use _do_ and _did_ with the present and past time forms
of the verb in writing interrogative sentences. For example, we do not
say:

  Comes he with them?
  Studied you yesterday?
  Found they the book?
  Think you it is true?

But we say instead:

  Does he come with them?
  Did you study yesterday?
  Did they find the book?
  Do you think it is true?


                    Exercise 6

Write in the blank space before each sentence the number of the
paragraph which governs the use of the helping verb _do_ or _did_ in
that sentence.

  1. ...... Slaves do not think; they obey.
  2. ...... Men do not obey; they think.
  3. ...... Do you know that two per cent of the people own sixty per
            cent of the wealth?
  4. ...... The children of the masses do not have the opportunity to
            attend school.
  5. ...... Did not every nation claim a war for defense?
  6. ...... "We did not dare to breathe a prayer,
            Or give our anguish scope."
  7. ...... We do desire the freedom of the people.
  8. ...... We did hope that war might be averted.

+Let us sum up the auxiliary or helping verbs.+

+184.+ Helping verbs are used to express:

  +The different time forms+--_shall_, _will_, _have_, _had_, _be_.
  +Power to do or to be+--_can_, _could_, _might_.
  +Permission+--_may_ and _might_.
  +Possibility+--_may_ and _might_.
  +Obligation+--_must_, _ought_ and _should_.
  +Necessity+--_must_.
  +Condition+--_would_.

Mark the helping verbs in the following exercise:


                    Exercise 7

  The earth shall rise on new foundations.
  We have been naught, we shall be all.
  No more tradition's chains shall bind us.
  Oh! Liberty! Can man resign thee?
  Can dungeon's bolts and bars confine thee?
  Capital could never have existed if labor had not first existed.
  What can I do? I can talk out when others are silent. I can say man
  when others say money.
  Do you hear the children weeping, O my brothers?
  Political freedom can exist only where there is industrial freedom.
  Political democracy can exist only where there is industrial
  democracy.
  Who would be free, themselves must strike the blow.
  If there is anything that cannot bear free thought, let it crack.
  No doctrine, however established, should be protected from discussion.
  Society can overlook murder, adultery or swindling; it never forgives
  the preaching of a new gospel.
  The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the
  blood of patriots and tyrants.
  Every man is a consumer and ought to be a producer.
  No picture of life can have any variety which does not admit the
  odious facts.
  I know not what course others may take, but as for me, give me liberty
  or give me death.


                    Exercise 8

Note the use of the helping verbs in the following quotation. Could you
use _might_ or _must_ or _ought_ anywhere and strengthen the emphasis?

  "I have looked at this claim by the light of history and my own
  confidence, and it seems to me, so looked at, to be a most just claim,
  and that resistance to it means nothing short of a denial of the whole
  of civilization.

  This then is the claim:

  It is right and necessary that all men should have work to do which
  shall be worth doing and be of itself pleasant to do; and which should
  be done under such conditions as would make it neither over-wearisome
  nor over-anxious.

  Turn that claim about as I may, think of it as long as I can, I cannot
  find that it is an exorbitant claim; yet if society would or could
  admit it, the face of the earth would be changed; discontent and
  strife and dishonesty would be ended. To feel that we were doing work
  useful to others and pleasant to ourselves, and that such work and its
  due reward could not fail us! What serious harm could happen to us
  then? And the price to be paid for so making the world happy, must be
  revolution."--_William Morris_.



                    SPELLING

                    LESSON 10


Simple words are sometimes spoken of as root words. _Root_ means that
from which something grows. We know our language is a living, growing
thing and these root words are the roots where the growth begins. One
way in which this growth is accomplished and new words added to our
language is by placing syllables before or after the root word--the
simple word--as, for example: _unmanly_.

In this we have a syllable placed before and a syllable placed after the
root word _man_. The syllable placed before the root word is called the
prefix from the Latin _pre_ meaning _before_ and the Latin word to
place. Therefore, prefix means literally _to place before_.

+A prefix consists of one or more syllables placed before a word
to qualify its meaning.+

The syllable placed after the root word, or simple word, is called the
suffix, from the Latin _sub_ meaning after and the Latin word to place.
_Subfix_ the word should be literally, but for the sake of the
sound--the euphony, the good sound--we say _suffix_.

+A suffix consists of one or more syllables placed after a word to
qualify its meaning.+

+The words made by adding prefixes and suffixes are called derivative
words.+

You remember we used a suffix in forming participles. The present
participle is formed by adding the suffix _ing_ to the simple form of
the verb. The past participle is formed by adding the suffix _ed_ to the
simple form of the verb.

The words in the spelling lesson for this week are derivative words
formed by adding a prefix or suffix, or both, to the simple word. Draw a
line through the prefix and the suffix and leave the simple or root
word.

  +Monday+

    Wonderful
    Prosperous
    Disloyalty
    Uncovered
    Government

  +Tuesday+

    Memorize
    Unreality
    Co-operation
    Dependent
    Truly

  +Wednesday+

    Beautify
    Countless
    Uncomfortable
    Dishonesty
    Producer

  +Thursday+

    Existence
    Untruthfulness
    Discontentment
    Victory
    Removable

  +Friday+

    Impurity
    Unwillingness
    Indebted
    Overwearisome
    Enjoyable

  +Saturday+

    Obligation
    Hopeless
    Endanger
    Precaution
    Denial



                    PLAIN ENGLISH

                    LESSON 11


Dear Comrade:

As we begin the study of the story of the alphabet and the evolution of
written speech, we discover that primitive man imagined the art of
writing to have had divine origin, to have been handed down from the
powers above.

It is natural for us to personify and envelop in mystery the things that
we do not understand. So these primitive people have attributed the
discovery of the art of writing to the gods and have looked upon the
parchment containing the written word which they cannot understand, as
possessing magical power; but as we come to learn the origin and causes
of things, they are divested of their mystery and become no longer gods
and enslavers of men. We understand the laws that govern their action
and they become our servants. Take lightning for example. Primitive
people personified the lightning or called it the thunder bolts of Jove
or attributed it to an act of divine providence. We have learned the
laws that govern the action of electricity and so this mighty giant is
no longer a god to whom we bow in submission, and who slays us at his
whim. He has become our most faithful servant who travels along the
wires at our behest and obeys our every bidding. So in the early stages,
the art of writing belonged only to the favored few and was made the
means of enslavement of the common people instead of the means of
liberation.

Knowledge has always been power and the ruling classes of the world,
desiring power over the people, have striven to keep knowledge within
their own circle; so the art of writing was known only to the few. The
few books in circulation were laboriously written by hand and
circulated, largely among the clergy, who used it as priests have ever
used their power--from medicine man to Pope,--for the enslavement of the
people and the protection of the privileges of a few. This is aptly
illustrated in the law which was known as "the benefit of clergy" which
was not entirely repealed until the year 1827. Under this statute,
exemption from trial for criminal offenses was given to the clergy and
also to any man who could read. If a person were sentenced to death for
some criminal offense, the bishop of that community might claim him as a
clerk and if, when given a Latin book, he could read a verse or two, the
court would declare "he reads like a clerk" and the offender was only
burned in the hand and then set free.

The invention of the printing press in the fifteenth century which made
possible the diffusion of knowledge among the people, was the beginning
of the emancipation of the workers of the world. But while we realize,
perhaps, what this art of writing means to us and by the knowledge of
its growth and development no longer ascribe it to divine origin or
consider it a blessing designed by a supreme being for a favored few,
still most of us know very little of the interesting evolution which
made possible the alphabet which is the basis of our written and spoken
language of to-day. When we realize how through all these long centuries
man has been struggling, striving, evolving, developing, reaching out
toward fuller, freer and richer life, it gives us courage in our
struggle and makes us see ourselves, not as individuals alone, but as
links in a mighty chain clasping hands with that primitive man of the
past, from whom we have inherited the power we now possess, and reaching
forth also to clasp the hands of those who shall come and handing on to
them the things for which we have struggled and added to the inheritance
of the past.

Next week we will have the story of man's first beginning in the art of
writing.

                    Yours for Education,

                              THE PEOPLE'S COLLEGE.


                    THE VERB "BE"

+185.+ The verb is perhaps the most difficult part of speech to master
because it has more form changes than any other part of speech.

In this lesson we are going to emphasize the most important things to
remember in the study of the verb and also call attention to the most
common mistakes.

+186.+ First, master that little verb be in all its forms. The only way
to do this is to commit to memory these forms. Say them over and over
until any other form does not sound right.

  +Present+           +Past+          +Future+

  _Singular_          _Singular_        _Singular_

  1. I am.            I was.            I shall be.
  2. You are.         You were.         You will be.
  3. He is.           He was.           He will be.

  _Plural_            _Plural_           _Plural_

  1. We are.          We were.          We shall be.
  2. You are.         You were.         You will be.
  3. They are.        They were.        They will be.

  _Pres. Perf._       _Past Perf._      _Fut. Perf._

  Have been.          Had been.         Shall have been.

+187.+ Do not use _aint_ for _is not_ or _am not_. Do not say, _He aint
here_, or _I aint going_. Say, _He isn't here_; _I am not going_.


                    A FREQUENT MISTAKE

+188.+ Perhaps one of the most frequent mistakes is the confusion in the
use of the past time form and the past participle. Remember that the
past time form is never used except in expressing past time; never use
it in forming a verb phrase. Take the verb _do_, for example--say, _He
did the work_, never, _He done the work_; but we should say, _He has
done the work_, never, _He has did the work_. _Say_ and _seen_ are
confused in the same manner. Watch this carefully.


                    Exercise 1

Underline the correct word in the following:

  1. Who did--done it?
  2. He sung--sang well.
  3. He sunk--sank before we could reach him.
  4. She written--wrote him a letter.
  5. He taken--took the book.
  6. They swum--swam the river.
  7. I saw--seen him do it.
  8. They drank--drunk too much.
  9. He soon began--begun to fail.
  10. The lad ran--run home.
  11. They come--came yesterday.


                    WITH HELPING VERBS

+189.+ Never use the past time form with the helping verbs _has_, _had_,
_was_ and _were_. Always use the past participle. Watch this carefully.
For example, never say, _He has went_. _Went_ is the past time form.
Say, _He has gone_.


                    Exercise 2

Underscore the correct word in the following sentences:

  1. He had tore--torn the book.
  2. Have you ever sang--sung this tune?
  3. They have showed--shown us how to win.
  4. She has went--gone away.
  5. The trees were shook--shaken by the wind.
  6. He was chose--chosen for leader.
  7. He has rose--risen from the ranks.
  8. It was wrote--written by him.
  9. He has took--taken the prize.
  10. He was gave--given the money.
  11. I have forgot--forgotten the rule.
  12. The river was froze--frozen over.
  13. The machine was broke--broken.
  14. It was wore--worn out.
  15. The meal was ate--eaten in silence.


                    PAST TIME FORMS

+190.+ Watch your speech to see if you use an incorrect verb form for
the past time form. Study the table of irregular verbs and refer to it
frequently. We often make the mistake of forming the past time form by
adding _ed_ when properly it is formed irregularly. For example: we
often say _drawed_ for _drew_, _throwed_ for _threw_, etc.


                    Exercise 3

Draw a line under the correct form in the following:

  1. He grew--growed rapidly.
  2. He knew--knowed better.
  3. He catched--caught the ball.
  4. He drew--drawed the water.
  5. They threw--throwed him over.
  6. I drinked--drank the water.
  7. I climbed--clumb the tree.
  8. I seed--saw him do it.
  9. She teached--taught school.


                    VERBS OF SIMILAR FORM

+191.+ Do not use one verb for another of similar form but different
meaning. The following are the most common of these:

+Lay+ (incomplete verb, requires an object) meaning to place or to put;
as, _to lay the book down_. Principal parts: _Present_, lay; _Past_,
laid; _Past participle_, laid.

+Lie+ (complete verb, takes no object) meaning to recline, to rest; as,
_to lie in bed_. Principal parts: _Present_, lie; _Past_, lay; _Past
participle_, lain.

+Set+ (incomplete verb, requires an object) meaning to place or to put;
as, _to set the table_. Principal parts: _Present_, set; _Past_, set;
_Past participle_, set.

+Sit+ (complete verb, takes no object) meaning to rest, as, _to sit in a
chair_. Principal parts: _Present_, sit; _Past_, sat; _Past participle_,
sat.

+Raise+ (incomplete verb, requires an object) meaning to cause to rise,
to lift up. Principal parts: _Present_, raise; _Past_, raised; _Past
participle_, raised.

+Rise+ (complete verb, takes no object) meaning to get up, to ascend.
Principal parts: _Present_, rise; _Past_, rose; _Past participle_,
risen.

+192.+ +NOTE--These three verbs need an object to complete their
meaning:+

  _Present_      _Past_       _Past Participle_

  set            set           set
  lay            laid          laid
  raise          raised        raised

+193.+ +NOTE--These three verbs need no object:+

  _Present_      _Past_      _Past Participle_

   sit            sat          sat
   lie            lay          lain
   rise           rose         risen


                    Exercise 4

Fill in the following blanks with the correct form of the verbs _sit_,
_set_, _lay_, _lie_, _raise_ and _rise_:

  1. I......it on the table and there it.......
  2. They......the battle ship, Maine.
  3. Where did you......it?
  4. A mile of pipe has been.......
  5. The miners......a large strike fund.
  6. She......down to sleep.
  7. The body......in state three days.
  8. The farmers of the U. S.......an enormous wheat crop.
  9. The city......on the right bank.
  10. We have......the corner stone.
  11. When wages are......, prices are......too.
  12. He......in bed all morning.
  13. ......down Fido.
  14. The sun......at six this morning.
  15. She has been......there all day.
  16. The ship......to during the storm.
  17. They have been......new tracks.
  18. The hen is......on the eggs.
  19. Somebody said, "Early to bed and early to......,
      Makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise."
  20. He......motionless for an hour.
  21. He......out the trees in rows.
  22. He will......in his position.
  23. The court will......in May.
  24. Where did he......?
  25. She......the table while he......there.
  26. He......the clock for six o'clock.
  27. The water has......two feet since the rain.
  28. He......the book down and......on it.
  29. The hen has been......a week.
  30. ......it on the table.
  31. He......in the shade and watched her......the plants.


                    COMMON ERRORS

+194.+ Remember that in the present time form the third person singular
takes the s-form, but the s-form is never used _except_ with the _third
person singular_. We often make the mistake of using the _s-form_ with a
_plural_ subject. Notice carefully the following sentences, and correct
the errors. All of the sentences are wrong.

  1. The days is getting shorter.
  2. The men has struck.
  3. The trains was late.
  4. These papers is written for you.
  5. You was disappointed, wasn't you?
  6. There is several coming.
  7. The nights was dark and cloudy.
  8. The clouds has gathered.
  9. They was anxious to come.

+195.+ +When two subjects are connected by _and_, the s-form of the
verb must not be used+, unless both subjects refer to one person; as:

  The president and the secretary (two persons) were late.
  The president and secretary (one person) was elected.

+196.+ +But when the two subjects are connected by _or_ or _nor_
then use the s-form of the verb+; as:

  Neither Germany nor Russia admits a war of offense.
  Either the House or the Senate rejects the bill.

+197.+ +Never use the infinitive sign _to_ by itself+; as:

  I have not written and do not expect _to_.
  He has not gone nor does he intend _to_.

+198.+ +Never use don't for doesn't.+ The use of _don't_ for _doesn't_
is a very common mistake. _Don't_ is a contraction of _do not_ and
_doesn't_ of _does not_. When you are in doubt as to which to use, think
or speak the two words in full and see if the verb agrees with the
subject. _Do not_ is used with a plural subject, and _does not_ with a
singular subject. For example: _He don't believe me_. This sentence in
full would be, _He do not believe me_, which is incorrect. _He does not_
(_doesn't_) _believe me_ is correct. Or, _They doesn't believe me_. This
sentence in full would read, _They does not believe me_, which is
incorrect. _They do not_ (_don't_) _believe me_ is correct.

+199.+ +Do not use _has got_, or _have got_ for _must_.+ For
example, do not say, _We have got to go_. Say, _We must go_. Not, _He
has got to do what I say_; but, _He must do as I say_.

+200.+ +Do not say _had ought_.+ For example: _You had ought to know
better_. Omit the _had_; it is unnecessary and incorrect. Say, _You
ought to know better_.

+201.+ +Do not say _says I_ or _thinks I_.+

  Says I, "Will you go?"
  Says he, "That's what will happen."
  Thinks I to myself, "I'll show you."

These are incorrect. Say instead:

  I said, "Will you go?"
  He said, "That's what will happen."
  I thought, "I'll show you."


                    Exercise 5

Mark all the verbs in the following quotations and note carefully their
use.

  1. Speak properly and in as few words as you can but always plainly;
     for the end of speech is not ostentation but to be
     understood.--_Penn_.

  2. "Freedom's battle, once begun,
     Bequeathed from bleeding sire to son,
     Though baffled oft, is ever won."

Note the use of _may_ and _can_ in this quotation:

  3. Knowledge cannot be stolen from us. It cannot be bought or sold. We
     may be poor, and the sheriff may come and sell our furniture, or
     drive away our cow, or take our pet lamb and leave us homeless and
     penniless; but he cannot lay the law's hand upon the jewelry of our
     minds.--_E. Burritt_.

Note the use of _shall_ and _will_ and _would_ and _should_ in the
following. Richard Grant White says: "I do not know in English
literature another passage in which the distinction between _shall_ and
_will_ and _would_ and _should_ is at once so elegantly, so variously,
so precisely, and so compactly illustrated."

  4. "How long I shall love him I can no more tell,
     Than, had I a fever, when I should be well.
     My passion shall kill me before I will show it,
     And yet I would give all the world he did know it;
     But oh how I sigh, when I think, should he woo me,
     I cannot refuse what I know would undo me."

  5. I want it said of me by those who know me best that I always
     plucked a thistle and planted a flower where I thought a flower
     would grow.--_Abraham Lincoln_.


                    Exercise 6

Note the nouns as well as the verbs in the following quotation. Note
also the use of infinitives and participles. Mark every verb and use it
in a sentence of your own.


                    +Faith and Truth+

  You say "Believe;" I say "Trust."

      Between those two words is a great gulf fixed.

  The idea that there can be a moral obligation to believe external
      facts is unworthy of a freeman, but to trust is as much the true
      nature of man as it is that of a babe to draw in its mother's
      milk.

  You say "Creed;" I say "Faith."

  A creed at best is but a sorry caricature of a faith.

  Faith is the proper atmosphere of man, trust is his native buoyancy,
      and his only obligation is to follow the highest law of his being.

  You have one supreme duty above all creeds and conventions--namely,
      to think honestly, and say what you think.

  Have you doubts about your creed? say so; only thus has the true faith
      ever advanced.

  It is not God, but the devil, who whispers: "Think at your peril!"

  Do you see flaws in the ancient structure of respectability and law
      and order? Say so; only thus has the condition of man ever
      improved.

  Have courage to be the heretic and traitor that you are by nature, and
      do not worry about the consequences.

  Be a creator, as you were born to be, and spurn beyond all infamies
      the wretched role of a repeater and apologist.

  The world lives and grows by heresy and treason.

  It dies by conformity to error and loyalty to wrong.

                                       _Ernest Crosby_.


                    Exercise 7

In the following paragraph, the predicates are printed in italics, and
the participles and infinitives in italic capitals. Study carefully.

  If it _were taught_ to every child, and in every school and college,
  that it _is_ morally wrong for anyone _TO LIVE_ upon the _COMBINED_
  labor of his fellowmen without _CONTRIBUTING_ an approximately equal
  amount of useful labor, whether physical or mental, in return, all
  kinds of _GAMBLING_, as well as many other kinds of useless
  occupations, _would be seen_ _TO BE_ of the same nature as direct
  dishonesty or fraud, and, therefore _would_ soon _come_ _TO BE
  CONSIDERED_ disgraceful as well as immoral.

                                       _Alfred Russel Wallace_.


                    Exercise 8

Underscore all the verbs in the following and note the participles, the
infinitives and the various time forms; also the helping verbs:

  What, speaking in quite unofficial language, is the net purport of
  war? To my knowledge, for example, there dwell and toil, in the
  British village of Dumrudge, usually some five hundred souls. From
  these, by certain 'natural enemies' of the French, there are selected,
  say thirty able-bodied men; Dumrudge, at her own expense, has suckled
  and nursed them; she has, not without difficulty and sorrow, fed them
  up to manhood and trained them in the crafts, so that one can weave,
  another build and another hammer. Nevertheless, amidst much weeping
  and swearing, they are selected; all dressed in red and shipped away,
  at the public charges, some two thousand miles, or, say only to the
  south of Spain, and fed there till wanted. And now to that same spot
  in the south of Spain are thirty similar French artisans, in like
  manner, wending their ways; till at length the thirty stand facing the
  thirty, each with his gun in his hand. Straightway, the word 'Fire' is
  given, and they blow the souls out of one another; and in the place of
  the sixty brisk, useful craftsmen, the world has sixty dead carcasses,
  which it must bury and anew shed tears for.

  Had these men any quarrel? Busy as the devil is, not the smallest!
  They lived far enough apart; were the entirest strangers; nay, in so
  wide a universe, there was even, unconsciously, by commerce, some
  mutual helpfulness between them.

  How then?

  Simpleton! Their governors had fallen out; and instead of shooting one
  another, had these poor blockheads shoot.--_Carlyle_.



                    SPELLING

                    LESSON 11


There are but few rules which can be learned to aid in the spelling of
English words. The spelling of words must be largely mastered by
concentration and effort of the memory. It will help you to memorize the
correct spelling if you will write each word a number of times. This
gives you a visual image of the word. Then spell it aloud a number of
times. This will give you an auditory image.

Words which you find difficult to master, write in a list by themselves
and review frequently. There are a few rules, however, which are helpful
to know. There is one rule of spelling we want to learn this week
concerning words formed by adding a suffix.

+A word of one syllable which ends in a single consonant before which
stands a single vowel, doubles the final consonant when a suffix
beginning with a vowel is added.+

For example: _mat_, _matted_, _matting_; _sun_, _sunned_, _sunning_.

_Mat_ ends in _t_, a single consonant which is preceded by the single
vowel _a_,--so you double the _t_ when you add the suffix _ed_ or _ing_,
which begin with a vowel.

Notice these: _Blend_, _blended_, _blending_; _Help_, _helped_,
_helping_.

These words do not end in a single consonant, so you do not double the
consonant.

Notice also: _Lean_, _leaned_, _leaning_; _Rain_, _rained_, _raining_.

These words end in a single consonant, but before the consonant is a
double vowel, _ea_ in _lean_ and _ai_ in _rain_. So we do not double the
final consonant.

This same rule holds true of any suffix, beginning with a vowel, as _er_
and _est_, for example: _sad_, _sadder_, _saddest_. _Slim_, _slimmer_,
_slimmest_.

Learn to spell the following words. Add the suffixes _ed_ and _ing_ to
the words for Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday. Add _er_ and _est_ to the
words for Thursday, Friday and Saturday.

  +Monday+

    Chat
    Cheat
    Grin
    Groan
    Suit

  +Tuesday+

    Sap
    Soap
    Bet
    Beat
    Rot

  +Wednesday+

    Talk
    Teach
    Gain
    Stir
    Plan

  +Thursday+

    Thin
    Dear
    Flat
    Cheap
    Straight

  +Friday+

    Clean
    Brief
    Fair
    Shrill
    Wet

  +Saturday+

    Strong
    Great
    Mad
    Fleet
    Fat



                    PLAIN ENGLISH

                    LESSON 12


Dear Comrade:

In this lesson we are beginning the study of still another part of
speech. You will notice that in words, at least, we give credit and
place in society only because of _work performed_. In the society of
men, people are given place and position too often because of outward
dress and form or because of some special privilege. They are not given
their place in society because of the work which they do or because they
perform any useful function. In fact, in our topsy-turvy world, those
who perform no work at all, but are simply parasites upon society, have
claimed for themselves the best of everything and the highest positions.

Surely some time we shall see a society as successfully organized as our
society of words, when men will be received, not because of that which
they possess, but because of that which they do and are. Man has really
laid the foundation for an ideal commonwealth in his organization of
words into a spoken and written language.

When we think back across the centuries and think of the primitive man
as he dwelt in trees to protect himself from the wild animals, we wonder
what sort of speech he used then. Possibly it was only a little more
articulate than the speech of some animals.

But man had within him the instinct to question, and this has been the
root of all his progress. We can imagine these primitive men witnessing
the wonder of fire, as the terrible unknown god of the lightning set
fire to the forest in which they lived; but after the fear had subsided,
some adventurous, inquiring forefather of ours ventured near the ashes,
and began to investigate concerning this fearful and wonderful thing.

So gradually they discovered the use of fire, and with it a wonderful
new future opened before the primitive man. With these great
discoveries, he needed a better form of communication with his comrades,
so articulate speech developed. But when we go back into the beginning
of written speech, it is difficult for us to trace it to its beginning.

The first evidence we find was of man as a sign maker. On the walls of
caves in France and Belgium and here in America, we have found rude
sketches which the scientists tell us date back to the Ice Age and the
Old Stone Age. Here the primitive man has drawn for us crude pictures
describing different phases of his life, the animals about him, the hunt
and the chase, and in these pictures we find the very beginning of our
alphabet of to-day.

How much more wonderful it makes our spoken and written language to know
that man has developed it himself. It has not been handed down by some
god or powers above; but the spirit of rebellion against the things that
be; the great desire to know more and to find out the reason _why_ of
all the things around us,--these have been the forces that have led the
race from the animal-like beings that lived in trees to the race of
today that understands in a large measure the laws that govern life.

It is only as we, through this spirit of rebellion, this same divine
discontent with the things that are, seek to do our own thinking that we
can add our share to the heritage of the race. Let us have the same
courage that must have inspired the heart of that primitive man who
dared to venture and inquire concerning the fearful things of nature
round about him. Let us think for ourselves. Ask always the question
"why" and demand the reason for all things. Thus we shall free ourselves
and help to free the race.

                    Yours for Education,

                              THE PEOPLE'S COLLEGE.


                    IN PLACE OF A NOUN

+202.+ You remember in our study of the parts of speech we found that we
have one part of speech that can be used in place of a noun. This is a
very helpful part of speech for it saves us a great deal of tiresome
repetition. Notice the following sentences:

  John Smith is a machinist.
  John Smith works at the machine.
  The machine is John Smith's master.

This is awkward and the repetition is tiresome. So we say instead:

  John Smith is a machinist.
  He works at the machine.
  It is his master.

You readily understand who and what we mean by _he_ and _it_ and _his_,
and we will all agree that the latter is a much better way of making the
statements. These words like _he_ and _his_ and _it_, which we use in
place of the noun, we call _pronouns_. _Pro_ means literally in the
Latin, _for_ or _in place of_; so when we say pronoun we are practically
saying, in place of a noun.

+A pronoun is a word that is used in place of a noun.+

+203.+ The word for which a pronoun stands or the noun in whose place it
is used is called its antecedent. _Ante_ means _before_ and _cedent_
comes from the Latin word meaning _go_, hence antecedent means
literally, _going before_.

Notice this sentence: _The manager spoke to the men before he left and
told them to stop at the office_. _Manager_ is the antecedent of the
pronoun _he_, and _men_ is the antecedent of the pronoun _them_.

+The word for which a pronoun stands is called its antecedent.+


                    KINDS OF PRONOUNS

+204.+ The Latin language has had a great deal of influence upon
English. Many of our words are taken from the Latin. You remember that
all of the names of our parts of speech are derived from Latin words. We
also feel the influence of the Latin language in the way in which we
number our personal pronouns. The Romans naturally thought that one
would think of one's self first, and so the pronouns referring to one's
self, or the person speaking, are called the _first_ person pronouns.
They are, _I_, _my_, _mine_, _me_ and _we_, _our_, _ours_, and _us_.

Then they naturally thought that one would think second of the person
spoken to, so the pronouns referring to the person spoken to are called
the _second_ person pronouns. Formerly _thou_ was used in speaking to
one person. In German and many other languages this form is still used,
but in English we do not today use the singular form _thou_ with its
variations, _thy_, _thine_, and _thee_, except in poetry or poetic
prose. In every-day speech we use _you_ and its forms, _your_ and
_yours_, for both the singular and the plural.

Then the Romans considered last the person or thing of whom they were
speaking; so pronouns referring to the person or thing spoken of are
called the _third_ person pronouns. These are _he_, _she_, and _it_,
with their other forms, _his_, _him_, _her_, _hers_, _its_, in the
singular, and _they_, _their_, _theirs_ and _them_ in the plural.

+A personal pronoun is one that denotes the speaker, the person spoken
to, or the person or thing spoken of.+


                    COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS

+205.+ All of these forms of pronouns which we have named are simple
forms; but we have several personal pronouns which have a compound form;
that is, a form made by the addition of _self_ or _selves_ to the simple
forms.

These are called compound personal pronouns. They are, in the singular,
_myself_, _thyself_, _yourself_, _himself_, _herself_, _itself_, and in
the plural, _ourselves_, _yourselves_ and _themselves_.

The compound personal pronouns have two uses, reflexive and emphatic.


                    Reflexive

+206.+ A compound personal pronoun has a reflexive use when the actor
becomes the object of its own action or in other words when the subject
and the object refer to the same thing; as in this sentence, _He has
hurt himself_, _himself_ is the object of the incomplete verb _has
hurt_, but it refers to the subject _he_. Reflexive is from the Latin
_re_ meaning _back_ and from the Latin verb meaning _throw_, so
reflexive means literally _thrown_ back. These pronouns throw their
meaning back to the subject.


                    Emphatic

+207.+ A compound personal pronoun has also an emphatic use when it
directs especial attention to the noun or pronoun to which it refers.
For example in the sentence, _He did the work himself_, or, _He,
himself, did the work_, _himself_ gives emphasis or intensifies the
meaning of the pronoun _he_.

Remember a compound personal pronoun is correctly used only in these two
ways, reflexive and emphatic. For example, the following sentences are
incorrect:

  This is for yourself and your comrade.
  Ourselves will find out the reason.

The correct form would be:

  This is for you and your comrade.
  We, ourselves, will find out the reason.

+208.+ You can readily distinguish between the reflexive and the
emphatic use. In the reflexive, the compound personal pronoun is always
the _object_ of a verb or preposition, and the subject of the sentence
is its antecedent. The subject and the object always refer to the same
thing.

In the emphatic use, the compound personal pronoun is neither the
subject nor the object, but is thrown into the sentence simply to render
it emphatic, and to call special attention to its antecedent.


                    Exercise 1

Supply the compound personal pronoun in the following blanks and tell
whether the use is reflexive or emphatic.

  1. He discovered the truth.......
  2. The workers have robbed......by their ignorance.
  3. You must educate.......
  4. You must do the work.......
  5. He must defend.......
  6. Capitalism overreaches.......
  7. The people will rule.......
  8. We will settle the question.......


Write six sentences in which the compound personal pronouns are
correctly used.


                    SINGULAR AND PLURAL

+209.+ Personal pronouns, like nouns, have number form. Nouns simply add
_s_ to the singular form to denote the plural, but in personal pronouns
we have different words which we use to express one or more than one
person or thing. In the first, second, and third person forms, personal
pronouns also have different forms for the object form, the possessive
and the subject form. The following table gives the singular and plural
of the subject form,--that is the form which is used as the subject of
the sentence.

                      +Subject Form+

                      _Singular_        _Plural_

  _First person._      I                We
  _Second person._     You              You
  _Third person._      He, she, it.     They

                      +Compound Personal Pronouns+

                 _Singular_                     _Plural_

  _First._       Myself                         Ourselves
  _Second._      Yourself                       Yourselves
  _Third._       Himself, herself, itself.      Themselves

+210.+ Remember that the first person refers to the person speaking, the
second to the person spoken to, and the third person to the person or
things spoken of. When we speak of things, we never use the first or
second person, unless we are speaking of them in a personified form. So
in the third person singular, we have the pronoun _it_ which refers to
one thing. In the plural, we have no special pronoun referring to
things, but the pronoun _they_ is used to refer both to persons and
things.


                    Exercise 2

Which of the following pronouns refer to the person speaking, which to
the person spoken to, and which to the person or thing spoken of? Which
are singular, which plural?

  I will defend my principles.
  Give them to me for they are mine.
  Do you believe him to be your friend?
  We saw their mistake at once.
  They acknowledged it was their fault.
  Success will be your portion if you persevere.
  He struggles for his rights; she does not understand her rights.
  It forces us to struggle for our education.
  Woman craves her freedom.
  Workers of the world, unite; you have a world to gain and nothing to
  lose but your chains.

Form sentences of your own containing all these pronouns.


                    POSSESSIVE FORM

+211.+ You will note in these sentences above that we have used the
pronoun _my_ and _your_ and _his_ and _her_ as _my principles_, _your
friend_, _his rights_, _her freedom_. This is the possessive form of
these personal pronouns, the form that denotes ownership or possession.
You remember that nouns had a possessive form, a form to denote
possession or ownership, as, _The man's book._ _The boy's school._ _The
worker's college._ So pronouns also have a possessive form which we use
to show that an object belongs to such and such a person or thing. If I
want to tell you that I own or possess a home, I say, _I own my home_.
Each personal pronoun has its possessive form, thus:

                     +Singular+

                     _Subject Form_         _Possessive_

  _First person._     I                     My, mine
  _Second person._    You                   Your, yours
  _Third person._     He, she, it           His, her, hers, its

                     +Plural+

                     _Subject Form_         _Possessive_

  _First person._     We                    Our, ours
  _Second person._    You                   Your, yours
  _Third person._     They                  Their, theirs


                    POSSESSIVE FORM

+212.+ You will notice that the possessive forms, _my_, _our_, _her_,
_your_, _its_, _his_ and _their_, are always used with the name of the
object possessed. As for example; _my work_, _our library_, _her
delight_, _your task_, _its purpose_, _his home_, _their mistake_.

+213.+ The possessive forms, _mine_, _thine_, _hers_, _ours_, _yours_
and _theirs_, are always used by themselves and are used either as
subject, object or complement. As for example:

  That letter is mine.
  The work is hers.
  Thine is the glory.
  Is that yours?
  Theirs not to reason why; theirs but to do and die.

The possessive form _his_ may be used either in connection with the name
of the object possessed or by itself. For example:

  This is _his_ home.
  This home is _his_.


                    OBJECT FORM

+214.+ Pronouns have one form which nouns do not have. We use the same
form for the noun no matter whether it is the subject or the object. For
example:

  The man saw me.
  I saw the man.

In the first sentence _man_ is the subject of the verb _saw_, and in the
second sentence _man_ is the object of the verb _saw_. The same word is
used; but you will notice that in the first sentence _me_ is the object
of the verb _saw_, and in the second _I_ is the subject; yet both refer
to the same person, the first person, the person speaking.

So we have a different form of the pronoun for the object, for example:
_I saw him._ _He saw me._ _She watched us._ _We watched her._ _You found
them._ _Him_, _me_, _us_, _her_, and _them_ in these sentences are used
as the objects of the verbs, _see_, _watch_ and _found_, and are called
the object forms of the pronouns. _You_ and _it_ have the same form for
both the subject and object; as, _You did it._ _It frightens you._ _Her_
is used as both the possessive form and the object form, as, _Her work
tires her._

+215.+ The following table gives the subject and the object forms of the
personal pronouns, and these should never be confused in their usage. We
must not use the object form as the subject of the verb, nor the subject
form as the object of the verb.

                    +Singular+

                    _Subject_      _Object_

        _First._     I              Me
        _Second._    You            You
        _Third._     He, she, it    Him, her, it


                    +Plural+

                    _Subject_      _Object_

        _First._     We             Us
        _Second._    You            You
        _Third._     They           Them


                    GENDER

+216.+ You notice in all of these tables that there are three forms
given for the third person singular, _he_, _she_, and _it_. These are
the only forms in which pronouns express gender. In all other forms the
gender can be determined only by the gender of the antecedent.

+He, representing a male, is masculine.+

+She, representing a female, is the feminine.+

+It represents a sexless thing, and hence is said to be of the neuter
gender.+


                    THE LITTLE VERB _BE_

+217.+ You remember when we studied verbs, we had the incomplete verb
that took an object; the complete verb that needed no object, since it
was complete in itself; and one other kind of a verb. Do you remember
this third kind of verb? This third kind is the copulative verb, and the
copulative verb which we use most frequently is the one in the use of
which we make the most mistakes.

It is that troublesome, bothersome, little verb _be_, which is so
difficult to master. You remember it is an incomplete verb, but instead
of taking an object, it takes a complement or completing word. So when
you see a pronoun with any form of this verb _be_, you must use the
_subject_ form and not the _object_ form. This copulative verb _be_ is
simply a connecting word, not a verb that asserts action or takes an
object.

+218.+ Here is where we make so many mistakes. We say, _It was me_, _It
was them_, _It was him_, _It wasn't her_; instead of, _It was I_, _It
was they_, _It was he_, _It wasn't she_. We have used the incorrect form
in this particular so often that the correct form has a strange sound to
our ears.

The only way to remedy this is to repeat over and over aloud the correct
form until it has a familiar sound. Don't think this is putting words,
as you should do in everything. We of the working class have built the
world in its beauty. Why should we live in shacks, dress in shoddy, talk
in slang? There is no reason except that we endure it. When the united
working class demands its own, it will receive it. Demand yours and
arouse the stupid from their sleep as rapidly as you can.

Repeat the following sentences aloud ten times every day this week and
see if the correct form does not come to your lips more readily. We can
learn the rule, but only continued practice and watchfulness can break
us of our old habits.

  It is I who seek my own.
  It shall be they who are defeated.
  It was I who was ignorant.
  It is they who cause all wars.
  It is he who must be aroused.
  It is we who strive for freedom.
  It shall be I who shall win.
  It was she who was enslaved.
  It shall be we who shall demand equality.
  It shall be they who shall conquer.


                    Agreement

+219.+ Pronouns are very agreeable members of the co-operative
commonwealth of words. They strive to agree with their antecedents.
Sometimes we do not allow the pronoun to agree, and then our sentence is
incorrect.

+A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in number, gender and person.+

For example, if you are referring to one man, you must use a masculine
pronoun, singular, third person form, as _I saw the man but he did not
see me_. _Man_ is the antecedent. It is singular, masculine, third
person and so we use the pronoun _he_.

_The girl came, but she could not stay._ In this sentence _girl_ is the
antecedent; it is singular, feminine, third person, and so we use the
pronoun _she_.

_The boys did not come when the teacher called them._ In this sentence
_boys_ is the antecedent; it is plural, masculine, third person, and so
we use the pronoun _them_.

+220.+ +Sometimes there are two words used as the antecedent, joined by
_and_.+ We use a singular pronoun in referring to them if they denote the
same person or thing; as:

  The secretary and treasurer (one person) resigned _his_ position.
  My comrade and friend (one person) gave me _his_ help.

+221.+ +But two nouns joined by _and_, that mean different persons or
things, must be represented by a plural pronoun, thus+:

  Marx and Engels (two persons) wrote _their_ call to liberty, the
  Communist-Manifesto.
  Men and women will struggle for _their_ freedom.
  Childhood and youth should have _their_ rightful joys.

+222.+ +Use the singular pronoun when the nouns are kept separate by the
use of _each_, _every_, _many a_, or _no_.+

  Each man and boy must do _his_ part. (Not _their_ part.)
  Every soldier and every officer must do _his_ duty.
  Many a city and many a village gave _its_ best to the army.
  No comrade and no Socialist will give _his_ consent to war.

+223.+ +If you have two singular nouns as antecedents, joined by _or_,
or _nor_, use the singular pronoun+, thus:

  Either Germany or France must abandon _its_ position.
  Neither Wilson nor Bryan kept _his_ promise to the people.

+224.+ +When you use a collective noun and are speaking of the
collection as a whole, use a singular pronoun+, as:

  The committee will make _its_ report.
  The audience was hearty in _its_ appreciation.
  The jury has returned _its_ verdict.

+225.+ +But if you are referring to the individuals of the collection
separately, use a plural pronoun+; as:

  The committee adjourned for _their_ dinner.
  The audience kept _their_ seats until the close.
  The jury argued until _their_ nerves were on edge.


                    PERSONIFICATION

+226.+ We sometimes speak of things as if they were persons, and so use
either masculine or feminine pronouns in referring to them. Such objects
are said to be personified. Thus, we say:

  The sun his ceaseless course doth run.
  The moon sheds her silvery ray.
  Nature dons her robes of green.

Here we speak of the sun as though it were a man or possessing the
qualities of a man and use the pronoun _his_. Then we speak of the moon
and nature as though they were women and use the pronoun in the feminine
form.


                    REMEMBER

+227.+ +A pronoun must agree with its antecedent.+

+Use the subject form of the pronoun if the pronoun is the subject of
the sentence.+

+Use the object form when the pronoun is the object of a verb or a
preposition.+

+Use the compound personal pronouns only in their reflexive or emphatic
use.+

+With all forms of the verb _be_, use the subject form of the
pronouns.+


                    SUMMARY

                             SUBJECT    POSSESSIVE      OBJECT
  First person  (_Singular_     I       my (mine)       me
                (_Plural_       we      our (ours)      us

  Second person (_Singular_
                (_Plural_       you     your (yours)    you

  Third person  (_Sing. Masc._  he      his             him
                (_Sing. Fem._   she     her (hers)      her
                (_Sing. Neut._  it      its             it
                (_Plural_       they    their (theirs)  them


                    Exercise 3

Read carefully the following beautiful dream of Olive Schreiner's. Mark
all of the personal pronouns and note carefully their use and by
referring to the table above decide just what form each pronoun is.
Watch carefully too for the antecedents of the pronouns and note the
agreement of the pronoun with its antecedent.


                    "I THOUGHT I STOOD"

                              I.

  I thought I stood in Heaven before God's throne, and God asked me what
  I had come for. I said I had come to arraign my brother, Man.

  God said, "What has he done?"

  I said, "He has taken my sister, Woman, and has stricken her and
  wounded her and thrust her out into the streets; she lies there
  prostrate. His hands are red with blood. I am here to arraign him;
  that the kingdom be taken from him, because he is not worthy, and
  given unto me. My hands are pure."

  I showed them.

  God said, "Thy hands are pure. Lift up thy robe."

  I raised it; my feet were red, blood-red, as if I had trodden in wine.

  God said, "How is this?"

  I said, "Dear Lord, the streets on earth are full of mire. If I should
  walk straight on in them my outer robe might be bespotted, you see how
  white it is! Therefore I pick my way."

  God said, "_On what?_"

  I was silent, and let my robe fall. I wrapped my mantle about my
  head. I went out softly. I was afraid that the angels would see me.


                              II.

  Once more I stood at the gate of Heaven, I and another. We held fast
  by one another; We were very tired. We looked up at the great gates;
  angels opened them, and we went in. The mud was on our garments. We
  walked across the marble floor, and up to the great throne. Then the
  angels divided us. Her, they set upon the top step, but me, upon the
  bottom; for, they said, "Last time this woman came here she left red
  foot-marks on the floor; we had to wash them out with our tears. Let
  her not go up."

  Then she with whom I came, looked back and stretched out her hands to
  me; and I went and stood beside her. And the angels, they, the shining
  ones who never sinned and never suffered, walked by us, to and fro, up
  and down; I think we should have felt a little lonely there if it had
  not been for one another, the angels were so bright.

  God asked me what I had come for; and I drew my sister forward a
  little that He might see her.

  God said, "How is it you are here together today?"

  I said, "She was upon the ground in the street, and they passed over
  her; I lay down by her, and she put her arms around my neck, and so I
  lifted her, and we two rose together."

  God said, "Whom are you now come to accuse before Me?"

  I said, "We are come to accuse no man."

  And God bent and said, "My children--what is it that you seek?"

  And she beside me drew my hand that I should speak for both.

  I said, "We have come to ask that Thou shouldst speak to Man, our
  brother, and give us a message for him that he might understand, and
  that he might----"

  God said, "Go, take the message down to him!"

  I said, "But what _is_ the message?"

  God said, "Upon your hearts it is written; take it down to him."

  And we turned to go; the angels went with us to the door. They looked
  at us.

  And one said, "Ah! but their dresses are beautiful!"

  And the other said, "I thought it was mire when they came in, but see,
  it is all golden!"

  But another said, "Hush, it is the light from their faces!"

  And we went down to him.

                                        --_Olive Schreiner_.


         The Cry of the People

    Tremble before your chattels,
      Lords of the scheme of things!
    Fighters of all earth's battles,
      Ours is the might of kings!
    Guided by seers and sages,
      The world's heart-beat for a drum,
    Snapping the chains of ages,
      Out of the night we come!

    Lend us no ear that pities!
      Offer no almoner's hand!
    Alms for the builders of cities!
      When will you understand?
    Down with your pride of birth
      And your golden gods of trade!
    A man is worth to his mother, Earth,
      All that a man has made!

    We are the workers and makers!
      We are no longer dumb!
    Tremble, O Shirkers and Takers!
      Sweeping the earth--we come!
    Ranked in the world-wide dawn,
      Marching into the day!
    The night is gone and the sword is drawn
      And the scabbard is thrown away!

                                        --_Neihardt_.


                    SPELLING

                    LESSON 12


Last week we learned the rule governing the spelling of derivatives of
_one_ syllable ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel
when we add a suffix beginning with a vowel.

The same rule applies to words of two or more syllables, accented on the
last syllable.

For example:

  _Compel_, compelled, compelling.
  _Prefer_, preferred, preferring.

+Words accented on the last syllable, when they end in a single
consonant preceded by a single vowel, double the final consonant when
you add a suffix beginning with a vowel.+

When these words take a suffix that begins with a _consonant_, they do
_not_ double the final consonant; as, _preferment_.

Words accented on any syllable but the last, do _not_ double the final
consonant; as, _offer_, _offered_, _offering_.

Words that have two vowels before a single final consonant do not double
the final consonant; as, _reveal_, _revealed_, _revealing_.

Words that end in a double consonant or any two consonants, keep the two
consonants, no matter what suffix they take; as, _indent_, _indented_;
_skill_, _skilled_, _skillful_.

The only exception to this rule is when the addition of the suffix
throws the accent back to a preceding syllable. When this is the case,
the final consonant is not doubled. For example: _refer_, _referred_,
_ref'erence_; _confer_, _conferring_, _con'ference_.

Look up the following words in the dictionary, watch for the accent,
mark and add the suffixes, _ed_, _ing_, _ence_ or _ance_, if possible.

  +Monday+

    Repel
    Alter
    Prefer
    Debar
    Answer

  +Tuesday+

    Inter
    Offer
    Demur
    Wonder
    Succeed

  +Wednesday+

    Detain
    Combat
    Compel
    Occur
    Cancel

  +Thursday+

    Permit
    Travel
    Repeal
    Control
    Profit

  +Friday+

    Forbid
    Neglect
    Expel
    Render
    Infer

  +Saturday+

    Benefit
    Retain
    Submit
    Reveal
    Limit



                    PLAIN ENGLISH

                    LESSON 13


Dear Comrade:

Did you ever tie a knot in your handkerchief to help you remember to get
something you felt almost sure you would forget? Well, tying a knot in a
cord was one of the first ways devised by our ancestors of long ago to
aid them to remember. They also used this plan to send word to those at
a distance or to keep track of things for succeeding generations. A
relic of this old device of our forefathers is also found in the rosary
on which the Roman Catholic counts his beads as an aid to memory.

There are some primitive tribes to-day who still use knotted strings as
an aid to memory. These consist of a main cord, and fastened at given
distances are finer cords of different colors. Each cord is knotted in
different ways to mean different things and each color, too, has its own
meaning. A red string stands for soldiers, a yellow for gold, and a
green for corn, and so on, while a single knot may mean ten, two single
knots twenty, a double knot 100, two double knots 200. In this way, they
keep a record of things, transmit orders and use them for various
purposes.

Only a generation ago the tax gatherers in the Island of Hawaii kept
account of the assessable property on lines of cordage knotted in this
manner, and these cords in some cases were three thousand feet long. The
method of keeping track of things by means of a notched stick is easily
within the memory of many people living today. For in England in the
early part of the last century, accounts of debts to the government were
kept by means of tally sticks, which were merely notched sticks.

Such methods as these were the only ways primitive man had of keeping
track of things before he had discovered the art of written speech. And
even after written speech was known and used, these old methods
persisted.

Gradually, step by step, man has come along the path of progress.
Adventurous spirits, not satisfied with the old way of doing things,
sought new ways. The conservatives of their day thought them dangerous
people, no doubt, and feared that they would destroy the very
foundations of society. And this they oft-times did, but only that there
might rise a more perfect form of society. It is the seeking,
questioning mind that demands the reason for all things, that seeks ever
better ways of doing things. They have always throughout the ages
refused to bow to the authority of the past but have dared to live their
own lives. To them we owe the progress of the world and we are the
inheritors of their spirit.

Let us prove our kinship by daring to live our own lives and think our
own thoughts.

                    Yours for Freedom,

                              THE PEOPLE'S COLLEGE.


                    INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS

+228+. You recall that in our first lesson we studied concerning the
four different kinds of sentences which we use in expressing our
thoughts, the _assertive_, the _interrogative_, the _imperative_ and the
_exclamatory_. The interrogative sentence is the form which we use in
asking a question, _interrogative_ being derived from the Latin _inter_,
meaning _between_, and _rogare_, _to ask_, meaning literally _to ask
between_. The interrogative sentence differs from the assertive sentence
in the arrangement of the words; for in order to ask questions, we
usually place the predicate, or part of it at least, before the subject,
thus:

  _Can_ you _use_ good English?
  _Did_ you _spell_ the word correctly?
  _Has_ he _studied_ grammar?

In these sentences, you note that the helping verbs, _can_, _did_ and
_has_, are placed first instead of the subject. It is by this
arrangement that we put the sentence in the interrogative form.

+229.+ Frequently, however, in asking questions we wish to ask
concerning a person or thing whose name we do not know. So we need a
word to refer to the unknown object. See how these uses of words grow
out of our need! We have three interrogative pronouns, _who_ and _which_
and _what_, that we use to meet this need. Notice the use of these three
pronouns in the following sentences:

  _Who_ wrote the Communist Manifesto?
  _Which_ of the two men is the better known?
  _What_ are the closing words of this famous document?

In these sentences, _who_ and _which_ and _what_ are the interrogative
pronouns, used to ask questions concerning the unknown persons or
objects.

+230.+ +Who refers only to human beings or to personified objects.+

+Which refers either to human beings, animals or things.+

+What refers only to things.+

_Which_ and _what_ have the same form for both the subject and the
object. _Who_ has a different form for all three forms, the subject
form, the possessive form, and the object form. It uses the same form,
however, both in singular and plural.

  _Subject form_  _Possessive form_   _Object form_

        Who            Whose               Whom

+231.+ We often make mistakes in the use of the different forms of the
pronoun _who_. We often use the subject form for the object form, using
_who_ where we should have used _whom_. For example:

  Who did you see?

The correct form is:

  Whom did you see?

The pronoun _whom_ is the object of the verb _see_, hence the object
form should be used. However, the use of the subject form _who_ instead
of _whom_ is coming into such general use today that some grammarians
accept it as a permissible usage. The will of the people influences
language, as it does all other human institutions, and gradually creates
new rules.

Write three sentences, using _who_, _which_ and _what_ as interrogative
pronouns.

+An interrogative pronoun is a pronoun used to ask a question.+


                    RELATIVE PRONOUNS

+232.+ There is one other class of pronouns which plays a great part in
our speech and is a wonderful help to us. For example, suppose I want to
tell you several things about this book. I say: _I am reading this book.
It interests me greatly._ Now it would be a great advantage to me if I
could put these two sentences together, and we have for this use a
pronoun which makes it possible for us to combine these sentences, and
so I say:

  The book which I am reading interests me greatly.

Thus I am able to unite two short sentences into a long sentence, which
conveys my meaning better than the two short sentences and gives a
smoother bit of reading. We have four pronouns which we use in this way,
_who_, _which_, _that_ and _what_ and they are called relative pronouns
because they refer or relate to some noun in the sentence and they also
serve to connect two statements.

+233.+ +A relative pronoun is a pronoun that relates to an antecedent
and at the same time connects two statements.+

A relative pronoun always relates to its antecedent and at the same time
connects the statement that it introduces with the one that contains the
antecedent to which it relates, as in the sentence above, _The book
which I am reading, interests me greatly._ _Which_ is the relative
pronoun; first, because it relates to the antecedent, _book_; and
second, because it connects the statement, _I am reading_, with the rest
of the sentence. Notice these sentences also:

  The man who thinks will not enlist in the army.
  We will destroy the system that enslaves us.

_Who_ and _that_ are the relative pronouns in these two sentences and
their antecedents are _man_ and _system_, and they connect the
statements, _who thinks_ and _that enslaves us_, with the rest of the
sentence.

+234.+ +Who is used to relate to persons.+

+Which is used to relate only to animals and things.+

+That may relate to either persons, animals or things.+

+What relates to things.+

Note that _which_, as an interrogative, may refer to persons as well as
to animals and things; but as a relative, _which_ never refers to
persons.

+235+. Note that we use the same pronouns _who_, _which_ and _what_ as
both relative and interrogative pronouns. You will not be confused in
this matter if you will remember that they are called interrogative
pronouns only when they are used to ask questions. When they are used as
interrogative pronouns they never have an antecedent. _Who_ and _which_
and _what_ are always relative pronouns when used in an assertive
sentence and referring to an antecedent.

_That_ and _what_ have the same form for both the subject and object
forms. They have no possessive form. _Who_ has a different form for the
subject form and the possessive form and the object form. _Which_ has
the same form for subject and object forms, and a different form for the
possessive form. Note the following:

  _Subject form_    _Possessive form_   _Object form_

       who             whose              whom
       which           whose              which

  I know the man _who_ called him.
  I know the man _whose_ voice I hear.
  I know the man _whom_ they called.

In these three sentences we have the pronoun _who_ used in its three
forms, subject, possessive and object form. We should be very careful
not to confuse the subject and the object forms of the pronoun _who_.

  This is the book _which_ tells the truth.
  This is the book _whose_ author is in prison.
  This is the book _which_ I wanted.

In these three sentences we have the pronoun _which_ used in its three
forms, _subject_ form, _possessive_ form and _object_ form. In the first
sentence the pronoun is the subject of the verb _tells_; in the second
sentence, it is used in the possessive form with the noun _author_; in
the third sentence, it is used as the object of the verb _wanted_.

+236.+ _What_ differs from the other relative pronouns in that its
antecedent is never expressed, for it is implied in the word itself.
_What_ is always equivalent to _that which_, or _the thing which_. For
example, the sentence, _Do not tell what I have told you_, is equivalent
to saying, _Do not tell that which I have told you_, or _the thing which
I have told you_.

+237+. Never use _what_ in a sentence as a _relative_ pronoun unless you
can replace it and make good sense by using _that which_, or _the thing
which_ in place of _what_.

For example, do not say, _I know that what he would say_. This is
incorrect. You should say, _I know that which he would say_, or _I know
what he would say_, using _what_ in place of _that which_. Here is a
sentence that occurred in an English examination recently, which
illustrates most aptly this point. _A subject is that what something is
said about._ Here _what_ is used incorrectly. _A subject is that about
which something is said_, would have been the correct form.

Watch for this in your speech for it is a most common error and to the
educated ear is harsh and marks the speaker as uneducated. All of these
mistakes which we make so commonly will require a considerable amount of
effort to overcome, but the result is worth the effort, for even those
about us who will not take the pains or give the required time and
effort to acquiring an education for themselves, will give greater heed
to the speech of those who do speak correctly, and will readily
acknowledge the leadership of those who have given the time and effort
to self-development.

+238.+ The antecedent of _who_ is sometimes omitted and understood; for
example, _Who follows the cause must endure hardship_, _He_, is
understood and omitted. _He who follows the cause must endure hardship._

+239.+ The relative pronoun itself is often omitted. For example:

  These are the men (whom) you must help.
  The words (that) you use and the deeds (that) you do, are your judges.

+240.+ The relative pronouns have compound forms also, such as
_whoever_, _whosoever_, _whichever_, _whichsoever_, _whatever_ and
_whatsoever_, which are used in the same manner as the simple forms.


                    COMMON ERRORS

+241.+ Here are a number of common errors which only constant practice
and watchfulness can overcome. Study these over and watch your
conversation closely. Force yourself to speak correctly for a time, and
soon correct speech will become a habit.

+1.+ +Do not use both a noun and a pronoun as the subject of a
sentence+; as, _John, he waited for me._ _Mary, she refused to go._
Leave out the pronouns _he_ and _she_ in these sentences. They are
unnecessary and incorrect.

+2.+ +Never use+ _hern_, _ourn_, _hisn_ or _yourn_ for _hers_, _ours_,
_his_ and _yours_; as, _The book is hisn._ _Ourn stopped on the first._
_Did you get yourn?_ Say: _This book is his._ _Ours stopped on the
first._ _Did you get yours?_

+3.+ +Never say+ _hisself_ for _himself_. There is no such word as
_hisself_. Do not say, _He hurt hisself_. Say, _He hurt himself_.

+4.+ +Do not say+ _them_ for _those_; as, _Did you bring them songs?_
_Them things are not right._ Say, _Did you bring those songs?_ _Those
things are not right._

+5.+ +Do not use an apostrophe in writing the possessive forms of
pronouns+, as _her's_, _our's_, _it's_. Leave out the apostrophe and
write _hers_, _ours_, _its_.

+6.+ +Do not use _who_ to relate to animals or things+; as, _The dog
who bit me was killed_. Say, _The dog that bit me was killed_.

+7.+ +Do not use _myself_ as the subject+. It can be used only as an
emphatic or reflexive pronoun. It is correct to say, _I found the book
myself_, and _I hurt myself_. But do not say, _They asked my friend and
myself_, or _Myself and my wife will go_. Say, _They asked my friend and
me_. _My wife and I will go._

+8.+ +Avoid the use of pronouns when the reference to the antecedent is
not clear.+ Better repeat the nouns or re-write the sentence. For
example:

  He said to his friend that if he did not feel better soon he thought
  he had better go home.

Now you can interpret this in at least four different ways. No one but
the speaker can ever know to whom the pronouns _he_ refer, whether to
the speaker or to his friend. Or in the sentence,

  A tried to see B in the crowd, but could not because he was so short.

Who was short, _A_ or _B_? _John's father died before he was born._ Did
John's father die before John was born or did John's father die before
John's father, himself, was born? Be careful in the use of pronouns in
this way.

+9.+ +Remember that _I_, _we_, _he_, _she_, _they_ and _who_ are
always used as subject forms and also as the complement of all forms of
the verb _be_.+

+10.+ +Remember that _me_, _him_, _her_, _them_, _us_ and _whom_ are
always object forms+. Never say, _They charged he and I too much_. Say,
_They charged him and me too much_. In an attempt to speak correctly and
follow the niceties of English, this mistake is so often made. Always
use the object form as the object of a verb or preposition.

+11.+ +When a participle is used as a _noun_, and a pronoun is used
with it, the pronoun should always be in the _possessive_ form+. We
make this mistake so frequently. For example, we say: _Us going there
was a mistake_. We should have used the possessive form, _Our going
there was a mistake_. _I have never known of him being absent from
work._ We should say: _I have never known of his being absent from
work_. _Did he tell you about me joining with them?_ This should be,
_Did he tell you about my joining with them?_ _You talking to him set
him to thinking._ This should be, _Your talking to him set him to
thinking_. Watch this and wherever you have used a participle as a
_noun_, use the pronoun in the _possessive_ form, as you would with any
other noun.

+12.+ +Watch carefully that the number of the pronoun always agrees with
the number of its antecedent.+ If you are speaking of one person or
thing use a singular pronoun. If you are speaking of more than one
person or thing in your antecedent, use the plural pronoun. For example:
_Each man must do his own work._ _The soldiers fully understood their
danger._

+13.+ +When a singular noun, in the common gender (this means that it
may name either a male or female being), is the antecedent of the
pronoun, it is customary for us to use the masculine pronoun.+ For
example:

  Every student should send in _his_ examination paper promptly.

  Every member of the class may select _his_ own subject.

Do not use the pronoun _their_ when the antecedent is a singular noun.


                    SUMMARY

          Pronoun--In Place of a Noun

  CLASSES

  _Personal_       {Simple--         {1st Person, _speaking_.
                   {Compound--       {2nd Person, _spoken to_.
                                     {3rd Person, _spoken of_.

  _Interrogative_  {To ask questions.
                   {_Who_, _which_ and _what_.

  _Relative_       {To refer to another word and connect two statements.
                   {_Who_, _which_, _that_ and _what_.


                    Exercise 1

Complete the following sentences by using the correct form of _I_, _me_,
or _myself_, in the blank spaces:

  1. My partner and......joined the union.
  2. They asked Henry and......to go.
  3. May my friend and......call?
  4. I will attend to that.......
  5. Let my comrade and......go with you.
  6. Are you sure it was......?
  7. I blame......for joining with them.
  8. They accused......of bothering them.
  9. I am nearly beside......with grief.
  10. The manager dismissed the men......among the rest.


                    Exercise 2

Complete the following sentences by using the correct form of _we_, _us_
or _ourselves_ in the blank spaces:

  1. They are better off than.......
  2. The French as well as......claim a war of defense.
  3. Can you blame......who have always stood by you?
  4. We will do that for.......
  5. Between......comrades there should be no differences.
  6. They gave......men work.
  7. Do not trouble;......will attend to this.......
  8. They sent a special notice to our friends and.......


                    Exercise 3

Complete the following sentences by using the correct form of _thou_,
_thee_, _thy_ or _thyself_ in the blank spaces:

  1. To......be true, and it follows as the night the day......
     canst not then be false to any man.
  2. Paul,......art beside......; much learning hath made ......mad.
  3. ......shalt love......neighbor as.......
  4. Trust....... Every heart vibrates to that iron string.


                    Exercise 4

Complete the following sentences by using the correct form of _he_,
_him_, or _himself_ in the blank spaces:

  1. ......and John are to blame.
  2. I think it was.......
  3. My friend and......called on you.
  4. He blamed......for the accident.
  5. You are no better than.......
  6. I shall call for you and.......
  7. You and......must come on time.
  8. He found the place.......
  9. There should be no quarrel between you and......who loves you.
  10. If you were......would you go?


                    Exercise 5

Complete the following sentences by using the correct form of _she_,
_her_, or _herself_ in the blank spaces:

  1. They asked Mary and......to go.
  2. Mary and......went.
  3. May......and I go with you?
  4. Let......and Harry go.
  5. Is that Mary? Yes, it is.......
  6. There are many points of difference between......and me.
  7. You are more beautiful than.......
  8. She brought it to me.......
  9. If......and I join you, will you go?
  10. They must not quarrel over......and me.


                    Exercise 6

Complete the following sentences using the correct form of _they_,
_them_, or _themselves_ in the blank spaces:

  1. They gave......up.
  2. ......and I will finish the work.
  3. I found......where......hath thrown......down to rest.
  4. I am sure it was......for I saw......plainly.
  5. The workers enslave......by their lack of solidarity.
  6. ......must learn the lesson.......


                    Exercise 7

Cross out the wrong word in the following sentences:

  1. Everybody do--does as he pleases--they please.
  2. No one should waste his--their opportunities.
  3. The jury rendered its--their verdict.
  4. If anyone wishes war, let him--them do the fighting.
  5. The audience displayed its--their approval by its--their applause.
  6. The audience remained quietly in its--their seats.
  7. The jury adjourned for its--their dinner.
  8. Nobody willingly gives up his--their rights.
  9. Each one may express his--their opinion.
  10. Every man received his--their wages.


                    Exercise 8

Complete the following sentences by using the correct form of the
pronouns _who_, _whose_, or _whom_:

  1. ......do you think I am?
  2. I am the man......you taught yesterday.
  3. With......are you going?
  4. The contract was let to a man......we are sure cannot fulfill it.
  5. The contractor......wishes to bid will come tomorrow.
  6. On......are you depending?
  7. The friends......counsel I took, stood by me.
  8. He is a man......I am sure will succeed.
  9. We tried to talk to those......we thought would understand us.
  10. For......did you work?


                    Exercise 9

Insert _who_, _whose_, _whom_, _which_, _that_ or _what_ in the blanks
in the following sentences:

  1.  Man is the only animal......uses a written speech.
  2.  Can you save......you earn?
  3.  Ricardo's law was that the workers always receive a
      wage......permits them to produce and reproduce.
  4.  Have you read the book "War, What For"......Kirkpatrick wrote.
  5.  Newspapers......distort the news......they print to serve the
      ruling class are dangerous foes to the workers.
  6.  The massacre at Ludlow was an event......aroused the working
      class.
  7.  They......live by the labor of others are drones in society and
      should be given the fate......they deserve.
  8.  The big machine gun......will destroy slavery is the printing
      press.
  9.  The man......leadership we should follow is he......preaches
      social equality.
  10. We know......we need and we will demand......is our right.


                    Exercise 10

In the following quotations note the use of the pronouns and mark
whether they are _personal_, _relative_ or _interrogative_, whether they
are used in the _subject_ form, _possessive_ form or _object_ form:

  1. "Camerado, I give you my hand,
      I give you my love more precious than money,
      I give you myself before preaching or law;
      Will you give me yourself, will you come travel with me,
      Shall we stick by each other as long as we live?"

  2. "I think I could turn and live with animals they are so placid and
        self-contained,
     I stand and look at them long and long, they do not sweat and whine
        about their condition,
     They do not lie awake in the dark and weep for their sins,
     They do not make me sick discussing their duty to God;
     Not one is dis-satisfied, not one is demented with the mania of
        owning things.
     Not one kneels to another nor to his kind, that lived thousands of
        years ago,
     Not one is respectable or unhappy over the whole earth."
                                        --_Whitman_.


                    Exercise 11

Note the omission of the antecedent in the first sentence, also the use
of the relative _what_ in the last sentence of the first paragraph:

  "Whoso would be a man, must be nonconformist. He who would gather
  immortal palms must not be hindered by the name of goodness, but must
  explore if it be goodness. Nothing is at last sacred but the integrity
  of our own mind. Absolve you to yourself, and you shall have the
  suffrage of the world. I remember an answer which, when quite young, I
  was prompted to make to a valued adviser who was wont to importune me
  with the dear old doctrines of the church. On my saying, "What have I
  to do with the sacredness of traditions, if I live wholly from
  within?" my friend suggested--"But these impulses may be from below,
  not from above." I replied, "They do not seem to me to be such; but if
  I am the devil's child, I will live then from the devil." No law can
  be sacred to me but that of my nature. Good and bad are but names very
  readily transferable to that or this; the only right is what is after
  my constitution; the only wrong what is against it.

  A foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds, adored by
  little statesmen and philosophers and divines. With consistency a
  great soul has simply nothing to do. He may as well concern himself
  with his shadow on the wall. Out upon your guarded lips! Sew them up
  with pack threads, do. Else, if you would be a man, speak what you
  think today in words as hard as cannon balls, and tomorrow speak what
  tomorrow thinks in hard words again, though you contradict everything
  you said today. Ah, then, exclaim the aged ladies, you shall be sure
  to be misunderstood. Misunderstood! It is a right fool's word. Is it
  so bad then to be misunderstood? Pythagoras was misunderstood, and
  Socrates, and Jesus, and Luther, and Copernicus, and Galileo, and
  Newton, and every pure and wise spirit that ever took flesh. To be
  great is to be misunderstood."--_Emerson_.



                    SPELLING

                    LESSON 13


There are a few more rules governing the spelling of derivative words.
Words ending in silent _e_ keep the _e_ before the suffix beginning with
a consonant. Notice the following words:

  excite     excitement
  like       likeness
  force      forceful
  shame      shameless
  lone       lonesome
  live       lively

Words ending in silent _e_ drop the _e_ before the suffix beginning with
a vowel, as:

  excite     excitable
  live       living
  grieve     grievous
  force      forcible

Some words ending in silent _e_ retain the _e_ before the suffix
beginning with a vowel, to prevent a change in the pronunciation or to
preserve the identity of the word. Notice the following words:

  peace     peaceable
  courage   courageous
  singe     singeing
  change    changeable
  shoe      shoeing
  notice    noticeable

These are words ending in the soft sound of _c_ and _g_, where the _e_
is retained to preserve the correct pronunciation of the _c_ and _g_,
and with some few words like _toe_, _dye_, etc., where the dropping of
the _e_ would lose the identity of the word.

The _e_ is dropped in a few words before the suffix beginning with a
consonant, as in _wholly_, _nursling_, _judgment_, _wisdom_, _lodgment_.

Add the suffixes _ment_ and _ing_ to the words in Monday's lesson; the
suffix _able_ to the words for Tuesday and Wednesday; the suffixes
_some_ and _ous_ to the words for Thursday; the suffixes _ly_ or _ness_
to the words for Friday and Saturday.

  +Monday+

    Excite
    Advise
    Chastise
    Disfranchise
    Enslave

  +Tuesday+

    Manage
    Receive
    Blame
    Exchange
    Imagine

  +Wednesday+

    Admire
    Service
    Desire
    Peace
    Pronounce

  +Thursday+

    Whole
    Meddle
    Courage
    Advantage
    Outrage

  +Friday+

    Accurate
    Positive
    False
    Definite
    Distinct

  +Saturday+

    Agreeable
    Careful
    Awful
    Sure
    Secure



                    PLAIN ENGLISH

                    LESSON 14


Dear Comrade:

You remember our definition of a word; a word is the sign of an idea. In
our lessons we have been studying the different kinds of words which we
use in the expression of our complete thoughts. Probably the first step
in the development of language was to name the objects about us. Then
the next logical step would be to invent words which would tell what
these objects did. So we have our nouns, which are the names of things;
our verbs, which tell what these things do; and in these we have the
foundation for spoken and written speech. We soon found, however, that
the constant repetition of a name was tiresome and annoying, so we
invented words which we could use in place of these nouns; and we have
pronouns.

All of the things about us possess certain qualities and our next great
need was for words to describe these qualities; so we have adjectives.
Each adjective is a sign of an idea. It adds its part to the expression
of our complete thought. So we find that each part of speech comes
logically in its place to fill a certain need. Without any one of them,
we would be crippled in our power of expression. Each different word is
the sign of an idea and the combination of these ideas as represented by
the various signs gives us the complete expression of our thought.

So primitive man in the development of written speech had signs to
express the various things about him. Naturally his first sign was a
picture, as nearly as he could draw it, of the object itself. If he
wanted to tell you about a tree he drew a picture of the tree; the
picture of a man represented a man, and so on. You will notice among
children that this is the first development in their endeavor to express
their thoughts in writing. They draw pictures. The average small child
cannot understand why you read those strange marks on the page. They
want you to read the pictures. To their mind that is the only way to
communicate ideas.

These early forefathers of ours grew to be very adept at this picture
writing. We have examples of this among the Indians of our own country.
There is a picture on the face of a big rock on the shores of Lake
Superior which records an expedition across the lake led by a noted
Indian chief. Canoes are shown in the picture with the crew denoted by a
series of upright strokes and there is a picture of the chief on
horseback. You or I would have great difficulty in reading this picture
writing, but an Indian could read it right off just as we would read a
written page. Aids to memory such as knotted strings and tally sticks
were the first step toward written speech. This picture writing was the
second step toward the development of written speech.

We owe a great deal to the work which these primitive ancestors of ours
accomplished. It took them years and years to develop through these
different stages and our rapid development of the last few centuries has
only been made possible because of this slow and patient building of the
foundation. An understanding of this helps us to appreciate the place we
occupy in this great struggle of the ages. The power of written speech
opens up to us such tremendous possibilities. Let us make the most of
them, that we too may hand on worth while things to those who follow us.

                    Yours for Education,

                              THE PEOPLE'S COLLEGE.


                    CLASSES OF ADJECTIVES

+242.+ Adjectives, like nouns and pronouns, are divided into classes.
Adjectives are divided into two main classes, _qualifying_ and
_limiting_.

+243.+ An adjective which qualifies a noun is one which names some
quality which is possessed by the word which it modifies. When we say,
_Trees grow_, we are making a general statement; that is, we are saying
something that is true of any kind of trees. We have not described any
particular tree. But when we say, _The tall trees grow_, _The old trees
grow_, _The young trees grow_, the words _tall_, _old_ and _young_
describe certain qualities of the trees, which separate them into
classes. So these adjectives are _qualifying adjectives_.

An adjective qualifies a noun when it attributes some quality to the
noun, as, _The brave man_, _The sweet apple_, _The pretty girl_, _The
large house_, etc.

+244.+ But if we say, _this tree_, _that tree_, _some trees_, _many
trees_, _three trees_, or _four trees_, we are not giving any quality of
the tree, but are pointing out a particular tree or trees and limiting
the word to the ones pointed out. So such adjectives as _the_, _this_,
_that_, _some_, _many_, _three_ and _four_ are limiting adjectives. An
adjective limits a noun when it restricts or limits its meaning as to
quantity or number.

+245.+ So adjectives are divided into two classes, _qualifying_
adjectives and _limiting_ adjectives.

+Words that limit or qualify other words are called _modifiers_
because they modify or affect the meaning of the words to which they
are added.+ So adjectives are modifiers of the nouns and pronouns to
which they are added because they modify or qualify or limit the meaning
of the noun or pronoun.

The limiting adjectives answer the questions _which_ and _how many_. The
qualifying adjectives answer the questions _which_ and _what kind_.

+246.+ +A qualifying adjective is an adjective which describes the noun
it modifies by attributing to it some quality.+

+A limiting adjective is an adjective which merely shows which one or
how many, without describing the noun it modifies.+


                    HOW TO DISCOVER AN ADJECTIVE

+247.+ Sometimes the noun may have several adjectives qualifying or
modifying it; as,

  The beautiful, old elm tree shades the lawn.

_The_, _beautiful_, _old_ and _elm_, all modify _tree_, telling
something of the qualities or pointing out which tree we are speaking
of. You can discover an adjective in a sentence by asking the questions,
_which_, _what kind_, or _how many_; and the words that answer these
questions will be the adjectives in the sentence. For example in this
sentence:

  Those three immense factories employ thousands of men.

_Factories_ is the noun, subject of the sentence. _Which_ factory is
indicated by the adjective _those_. _How many_ factories is indicated by
the adjective _three_. _What kind_ of factories is indicated by the
adjective _immense_. So we have three adjectives answering the three
questions, _which_, _what kind_ and _how many_.


                    Exercise 1

In the following sentences the adjectives are printed in _italics_.
Study them carefully and determine which are qualifying and which are
limiting adjectives. Note that the possessive nouns and possessive
pronouns are _not_ adjectives. _Its_ in the phrases _its cruel fangs_
and _its savage claws_, is a possessive pronoun, third person singular.
In the last sentence _beggar's_, _miser's_, and _Ingersoll's_, are nouns
in the possessive form.

  _This terrible_ war in Europe is slaughtering _the_ working-class.
  _Gaunt_ famine follows war.
  A _docile_, _meek_, _humble_, working-class makes war _possible_.
  _The shrieking_ shell snarls like a _living_ thing; like _some wild_
  beast in _ferocious_ glee it thrusts its _cruel_ fangs in earth and
  rock and rends _living_ flesh with its _savage_ claws.
  Its _fetid_ breath of _poison_ powder scorches in _the autumn_ winds.
  _Shattered_ bones, _torn_ flesh and _flowing_ blood were mingled on
  _the_ battlefield with _broken_ swords and _split_ rifles.
  _The best modern_ rifles will force _a_ bullet through _five human_
  bodies at _a_ range of _twelve hundred_ feet.
  _The pitiful_ dead, _slain_ in war, sleep under _the solemn_ pines,
  _the sad_ hemlock, _the tearful_ willow and _the embracing_ vines.
  A world without _the_ beggar's _outstretched_ palm, _the_ miser's
  _heartless_ _stony_ stare, _the piteous_ wail of want, _the livid_
  lips of lies, _the cruel_ eyes of scorn, was Ingersoll's vision of
  _the_ future.


                    QUALIFYING ADJECTIVES

+248.+ Qualifying adjectives are also called _descriptive_ adjectives
because they describe the noun. They answer the questions _which_ and
_what kind_.

You remember we found in the beginning of our study of English, that
words were grouped into classes according to the work which they do in
the sentence, not according to the form of the word itself. For
instance, we have already found that some words, without changing their
form, may be used either as a noun or as a verb. Take the word _oil_,
for instance. I may say, _I oil the engine_. Here I have used the word
_oil_ as a verb telling what I do. But I may say, _The oil is gone_.
Here I have used the word _oil_ as a noun, subject of the sentence. The
part of speech to which a word belongs in the English language, always
depends upon the work which it does in the sentence.

+1.+ So we have nouns which are used as descriptive adjectives, for
example the word _oil_, which we have found we can use either as a noun
or a verb, may also be used as an adjective. For example; I may say,
_the oil tank_. Here I have used the word _oil_ as a descriptive
adjective modifying the word _tank_. So also we may say, _the oak tree_,
_the stone curb_, _the earth wall_. In these expressions _oak_, _stone_
and _earth_ are nouns used as descriptive adjectives.

+2.+ We have descriptive adjectives derived from proper nouns, as
French, English, American. These are called proper adjectives; and since
all proper nouns must begin with a capital letter, these proper
adjectives, also, should always begin with a capital letter.

+3.+ We have also descriptive adjectives derived from verbs as _active_,
_talkative_, _movable_, _desirable_, derived by the addition of suffixes
to the verbs _act_, _talk_, _move_ and _desire_.


                    LIMITING ADJECTIVES

+249.+ Limiting adjectives are also divided into classes, the
_numerals_, the _demonstratives_ and the _articles_.


                    Numeral Adjectives

+250.+ Numeral adjectives are those which limit nouns as to number or
order. They are such adjectives as _one_, _two_, _three_, _four_, etc.,
and _first_, _second_ and _third_, etc., as for example:

  _Three_ men applied for work.
  The train ran at the rate of _forty_ miles an hour.
  There have always been _two_ classes in the world.
  The _first_ martyr to anti-militarism was Jaures.
  The _eighteenth_ day of March is the anniversary of the Paris Commune.

In these sentences the adjectives _three_, _forty_, _two_, _first_ and
_eighteenth_ are all numeral adjectives. They limit the nouns which they
modify as to number or order.

+Adjectives that limit nouns as to number or order are called numeral
adjectives. Numeral adjectives answer the question how many or in what
order.+


                    Demonstratives

+251.+ We have also a class of adjectives which are used to point out
some particular person or thing. These are called _demonstrative_
adjectives. Demonstrate means literally _to point out_. So these
adjectives point out from a number of things, one particular thing to
our attention. These demonstrative adjectives are _this_, _that_,
_those_, _these_, _yonder_, _former_, _latter_ and _same_.

_These_ and _those_ are the plural forms of _this_ and _that_. _This_
and _these_ are used to point out things near at hand. _That_ and
_those_ are used to point out things more distant, as _This is my book_.
_These are my papers_, meaning _this book_ or _these papers_, close to
me. By, _That is my pencil_ and _Those are my letters_, I mean _that
pencil_, and _those letters_, which are farther away from me.

_Former_ and _latter_ are used to show which of two things already
mentioned is referred to, and to point out things in point of time, not
of place. For example, we may say:

  We no longer observe the _former_ customs, but rather prefer the
  _latter_.
  He did not like his _former_ job but this _latter_ job pleases him.

You understand from this that we have been discussing and describing two
kinds of work, and that the first in point of time was unpleasant and
the second pleasant.

The demonstrative adjective _same_ refers to something of which we have
just spoken, as for example, _He has gone to work, I must do the same
thing_. These demonstrative adjectives answer the question which, so
when you wish to discover a demonstrative in a sentence, ask the
question _which_, and the answer will be the demonstrative adjective.


                    Exercise 2

  1. _This_ study is very interesting.
  2. _These_ comrades will stand by us.
  3. _That_ solution will never deceive the people.
  4. _Those_ books have opened our eyes.
  5. _Yonder_ battle appals the world.
  6. _Former_ investigations have had no results.
  7. _This latter_ decision has reversed the _former_.
  8. The class struggle has persisted through the centuries; we are
     engaged in the _same_ struggle.

Make sentences of your own containing these demonstrative adjectives.


                    ARTICLES

+252.+ We have three adjectives which are used so commonly that we have
put them in a class by themselves. These three little words are _a_,
_an_ and _the_, and we call them articles. The word _article_ literally
means a little joint or limb, and these three little words are so
closely connected with the nouns with which they are used that they seem
to be a part or joint or limb of the noun itself, and so we have called
them articles.

_A_ and _an_ are called the _indefinite_ articles because they point out
an object in a very indefinite manner. _The_ is called the _definite_
article for it points out in a more definite way.

We use _a_ before words beginning with a consonant sound, as _a man_, _a
tree_, _a book_; and we use _an_ before words beginning with a vowel
sound, as _an apple_, _an editor_, _an orange_, _an heir_. In _heir_ the
_h_ is silent, and we say _an_ because the word begins with a vowel
sound. _A_ is used before words beginning with _u_ because long _u_ is
equivalent in sound to a consonant, for the blending of the sounds of
which long _u_ is composed produces the initial sound of _y_, which is a
consonant sound. For example, we say, _a university_, _a useful work_,
etc., and not _an university_. Before words beginning with short _u_,
use _an_, as, _an upstart_, etc.

In deciding whether to use _a_ or _an_, watch the initial _sound_ of the
word, not the initial _letter_. If it is a vowel sound use _an_, if a
consonant sound, use _a_.


                    Exercise 3

Underscore the correct article in the following sentences:

  1. Bring me an--a apple.
  2. He is a--an able orator.
  3. A--an heir was born to the German King.
  4. He built a--an house for his family.
  5. He is an--a honest man.
  6. He is a--an undertaker.
  7. I had to take a--an upper berth.
  8. He joined a--an union.
  9. It is a--an unique book.
  10. He is a--an unruly member of society.
  11. He told a--an untruth.
  12. He wears a--an uniform.
  13. It is a--an honor to be chosen.

+253.+ When a singular noun is modified by several adjectives, only one
of the articles _an_ or _a_ must be used if the noun denotes but _one_
object; but if the noun denotes more than one object the article must be
repeated before each noun. For example, I say, _A red, white and blue
flag_. You know I mean but one flag, containing the three colors, red,
white and blue. But if I say, _A red, a white and a blue flag_, you know
I mean three flags, one red, one white, and one blue.

Note the use of the article in the following sentences:

  He wears a black and white suit.
  He wears a black and a white suit.
  He sold a red and white cow.
  He sold a red and a white cow.
  He bought a gas and coal stove.
  He bought a gas and a coal stove.

The first sentences in each of the above series refers to only one
object. The second sentences all refer to two objects.

+254.+ There are some rules concerning the article _the_ that it is well
to know because we do not always say what we wish to say, if we do not
observe these rules or customs of speech. For example, I say, _The
editor and publisher of this book is unknown_. I have used the article
_the_ but once, and I mean that the editor and publisher is one person.
But I may say, _The editor and the publisher of this book are well
known_. In this sentence I have used the article _the_ twice, _the_
editor and _the_ publisher, and I mean that the editor and the publisher
are two different persons.

So when two or more nouns following each other denote the same person or
thing, the article is not repeated, but when the nouns denote different
persons or things, the article must be repeated before each noun. Be
sure to use the proper form of the verb.

Note the following sentences and underscore the proper verb to complete
the meaning:

  The secretary and treasurer were--was here.
  The secretary and the treasurer were--was elected.
  The singer and artist were--was with me.
  The singer and the artist were--was on the program.

Sometimes we have two things so closely associated in use that they may
be considered as forming a single idea, so that we may use the article
before the first one only. For example:

  The pen and ink is gone.
  He bought a horse and buggy.
  The bread and butter is on the plate.


                    INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES

+255.+ You remember we found in the study of pronouns that we have
interrogative pronouns which we use in asking questions when we do not
know the name of the object concerning which we are asking. We also have
adjectives which we use in asking questions when we do not know the
number or quality of the object concerning which we are asking. For
example:

  _Which_ book did you enjoy most?
  _What_ work are you doing now?
  _What_ machine did you order?

_Which_ and _what_ are the interrogative adjectives in these sentences.

+Interrogative adjectives are adjectives used in asking questions.+


                    INDEFINITES

+256.+ We have one more class of adjectives called indefinites.

+An indefinite adjective is one that does not denote any particular
person or thing.+

All such adjectives as _each_, _every_, _either_, _neither_, _some_,
_any_, _many_, _much_, _few_, _all_, _both_, _no_, _none_, _several_ and
_certain_ are indefinite adjectives. We use them when we are not
speaking of any particular person or thing, but are speaking in a broad,
general sense and in an indefinite manner.

+257.+ The interrogative adjectives are sometimes used in this
indefinite way. They are sometimes used to modify nouns when a direct
question is not asked, and they are then used, not as interrogative
adjectives, but as indefinite adjectives. For example:

  He did not know which party to join.
  I have not learned what time he will go.

In these sentences _which_ and _what_ are not used to ask questions, but
are used to describe an unknown object.


                    Exercise 4

All the words in italics are adjectives. Decide to which class each
adjective belongs.

Note in this exercise the compound words used as adjectives, as:
_earth-born_, _self-made_, _new-lit_, _blood-rusted_. Look up the
meaning of these adjectives and see if you can use other adjectives in
their places and keep the same meaning. Note the use of _fellest_.

  Slavery, _the earth-born_ Cyclops, _fellest_ of _the giant_ brood,
  Sons of _brutish_ Force and Darkness, who have drenched _the_ earth
    with blood,
  _Famished_ in his _self-made_ desert, _blinded_ by our _purer_ day,
  Gropes in yet _unblasted_ regions for his _miserable_ prey;--
  Shall we guide his _gory_ fingers where our _helpless_ children play?
  They have rights who dare maintain them; we are traitors to our sires,
  _Smothering_ in their _holy_ ashes Freedom's _new-lit_ altar-fires;
  Shall we make their creed our jailer? Shall we, in our haste to slay,
  From the tombs of _the old_ prophets steal _the funeral_ lamps away
  To light up _the_ martyr-fagots round _the_ prophets of to-day?

  _New_ occasions teach _new_ duties; Time makes _ancient_ good,
    _uncouth_;
  They must upward still, and onward, who would keep _abreast_ of
    Truth;
  Lo, before us gleam her camp-fires! We ourselves must Pilgrims be,
  Launch our Mayflower, and steer boldly through _the desperate winter_
    sea,
  Nor attempt _the_ Future's portal with _the_ Past's _blood-rusted_
    key.
                                        --_Lowell_.


                    Exercise 5

The following is from Oscar Wilde's story of _The Young King_. Oscar
Wilde was a master of English, and if you have the opportunity, read all
of this beautiful story and watch his use of adjectives. Mark the
adjectives in this excerpt and use them in sentences of your own.

  And as the young King slept he dreamed a dream, and this was his
  dream. He thought that he was standing in a long, low attic, amidst
  the whirr and clatter of many looms. The meager daylight peered in
  through the grated windows and showed him the gaunt figures of the
  weavers, bending over their cases. Pale, sickly-looking children were
  crouched on the huge crossbeams. As the shuttles dashed through the
  warp they lifted up the heavy battens, and when the shuttles stopped
  they let the battens fall and pressed the threads together. Their
  faces were pinched with famine, and their thin hands shook and
  trembled. Some haggard women were seated at a table, sewing. A
  horrible odor filled the place. The air was foul and heavy, and the
  walls dripped and streamed with damp.

  The young King went over to one of the weavers and stood by him and
  watched him.

  And the weaver looked at him angrily and said, "Why art thou watching
  me? Art thou a spy set on us by our master?"

  "Who is thy master?" asked the young King.

  "Our master!" cried the weaver, bitterly. "He is a man like myself.
  Indeed, there is but this difference between us--that he wears fine
  clothes while I go in rags, and that while I am weak from hunger he
  suffers not a little from overfeeding."

  "The land is free," said the young King, "and thou art no man's
  slave."

  "In war," answered the weaver, "the strong make slaves of the weak,
  and in peace the rich make slaves of the poor. We must work to live,
  and they give us such mean wages that we die. We toil for them all day
  long, and they heap up gold in their coffers, and our children fade
  away before their time, and the faces of those we love become hard and
  evil. We tread out the grapes, another drinks the wine. We sow the
  corn, and our own board is empty. We have chains, though no eye
  beholds them; and are slaves, though men call us free."

  "Is it so with all?" he asked.

  "It is so with all," answered the weaver, "with the young as well as
  with the old, with the women as well as with the men, with the little
  children as well as with those who are stricken in years. The
  merchants grind us down, and we must needs do their bidding. The
  priest rides by and tells his beads, and no man has care of us.
  Through our sunless lanes creeps Poverty with her hungry eyes, and Sin
  with his sodden face follows close behind her. Misery wakes us in the
  morning, and Shame sits with us at night. But what are these things to
  thee? Thou art not one of us. Thy face is too happy." And he turned
  away scowling, and threw the shuttle across the loom, and the
  young King saw that it was threaded with a thread of gold.

  And a great terror seized upon him, and he said to the weaver, "What
  robe is this that thou art weaving?"

  "It is the robe for the coronation of the young King," he answered;
  "What is that to thee?"

  And the young King gave a loud cry and woke and lo! he was in his own
  chamber, and through the window he saw the great honey-colored moon
  hanging in the dusky air.



                    SPELLING

                    LESSON 14


You remember in the formation of plurals, we learned that words ending
in _y_ change _y_ to _i_ when _es_ is added; as, _lady, ladies_; _baby,
babies_; _dry, dries_, etc.

There are several rules concerning words ending in _y_, knowledge of
which will aid us greatly in spelling.

+1.+ +Words ending in _ie_ change the _ie_ to _y_ before _ing_
to prevent a confusing number of vowels.+ For example, _die, dying_;
_lie, lying_; _tie, tying_.

+2.+ +Words of more than one syllable ending in _y_ preceded by a
consonant, change _y_ into _i_ before all suffixes except those
beginning with _i_.+ For example:

  happy,       happily,      happiness;
  witty,       wittier,      wittiest;
  satisfy,     satisfied,    satisfying;
  envy,        enviable,     envying.

This exception is made for suffixes beginning with _i_, the most common
of which is _ing_, to avoid having a confusing number of _i's_.

+3.+ +Most words ending in _y_ preceded by a vowel retain the _y_
before a suffix.+ For example:

  destroy,     destroyer,     destroying;
  buy,         buyer,         buying;
  essay,       essayed,       essayist.

The following words are exception to this rule:

  laid,
  paid,
  said,
  daily,
  staid.

Make as many words as you can out of the words given in this week's
spelling lesson by adding one or more of the following suffixes: _er_,
_est_, _ed_, _es_, _ing_, _ly_, _ness_, _ful_, _ment_, _al_.

  +Monday+

    Beauty
    Portray
    Deny
    Rare
    Multiply

  +Tuesday+

    Mercy
    Bury
    Obey
    Lovely
    Envy

  +Wednesday+

    Tie
    Defy
    Study
    Decry
    Crazy

  +Thursday+

    Merry
    Silly
    Lusty
    Imply
    Day

  +Friday+

    Dismay
    Duty
    Employ
    Satisfy
    Pretty

  +Saturday+

    Pay
    Joy
    Journey
    Qualify
    Sorry



                    PLAIN ENGLISH

                    LESSON 15


Dear Comrade:

In this week's lesson we are finishing the study of adjectives, which
adds another part of speech to those which we have studied. We can see
in the study of each additional part of speech how each part has its
place in the expression of our ideas. We could not express ourselves
fully if we lacked any of these parts of speech. Each one is not an
arbitrary addition to our language but has come to us out of the need
for it. We see that there are no arbitrary rules but in language, as in
all things else, growing needs have developed more efficient tools. With
these have grown up certain rules of action so we can have a common
usage and system in our use of these tools. It has taken years of effort
to accomplish this. The changes have been slow and gradual, and this
language which we are studying is the finished product.

This slow development in the use of language, even in our own lives,
makes us realize how many thousands of years it must have taken our
primitive ancestors to reach a point where they could use the phonetic
alphabet. We have found that at first they used simple aids to memory,
as knotted strings and tally sticks. Then they began to draw pictures of
things about them and so were able to communicate with one another by
means of these pictures. When a man was going away from his cave and
wanted to leave word for those who might come, telling them where he had
gone and how soon he would return, he drew a picture of a man over the
entrance with the arm extended in the direction in which he had gone.
Then he drew another picture of a man in a sleeping position and also
one of a man with both hands extended in the gesture which indicated
many. These two pictures showed that he would be away over many nights.
In some such rude manner as this, they were able to communicate with one
another.

But man soon began to _think_, and he needed to express ideas concerning
things of which he could not draw pictures. He could draw a picture of
the sun, but how could he indicate light? How could he indicate the
different professions in which men engaged, such as the farmer and
priest, etc.?

He was forced to invent symbols or signs to express these ideas, so his
writing was no longer a picture of some object, but he added to it
symbols of abstract ideas. A circle which stood for the sun written with
the crescent which stood for the moon, indicated light. The bee became a
symbol of industry. An ostrich feather was a symbol of justice, because
these feathers were supposed to be of equal length. A picture of a woman
stood simply for a woman, but a picture of two women stood for strife,
and three women stood for intrigue. These old ancestors of ours became
wise quite early concerning some things. The symbol for a priest in the
early Egyptian picture writing was a jackal. Perhaps not because he
"devoured widows' houses," but because the jackal was a very watchful
animal. The symbol for mother was a vulture because that bird was
believed to nourish its young with its own blood.

It naturally required a good memory and a clear grasp of association to
be able to read this sort of writing. It required many centuries for
this slow development of written speech.

The development of language has been a marvelous growth and a wonderful
heritage has come to us. Let us never be satisfied until we have a
mastery of our language and find a way to express the ideas that surge
within us. A mastery of these lessons will help us.

                    Yours for Education,

                              THE PEOPLE'S COLLEGE.


                    ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS

+258.+ From our study of the adjective, we know that it is a word used
with a noun to qualify or limit its meaning. But a great many times we
find these adjectives used without the noun which they modify. As, for
example, I may say, _This is mine_, and the adjective _this_ is used
alone without the noun which it modifies, and you are able to tell only
by what I have been saying or by some action of mine to what I am
referring when I say _this_.

When adjectives are used in this manner, they are used like pronouns--in
place of a noun. So sometimes we find an adjective used with a noun, and
sometimes used as a pronoun, in place of a noun; and since we name our
parts of speech by the work which they do in the sentence, an adjective
used in this way is not an adjective, but a pronoun or word used in
place of a noun.

So these words are pronouns when they stand alone to represent
things--when they are used in place of a noun. They are adjectives when
they are used _with_ a noun to limit or qualify the noun. For example, I
may say, _This tree is an elm, but that tree is an oak_. _This_ and
_that_ in this sentence are adjectives used to modify the noun _tree_.
But I may say, _This is an oak and that is an elm_, and in this sentence
_this_ and _that_ are used without a noun, they are used as pronouns.

+259.+ Our being able to name every part of speech is not nearly so
important as our being able to understand the functions of the different
parts of speech and being able to use them correctly. But still it is
well for us to be able to take a sentence and point out its different
parts and tell what each part is and the function which it serves in the
sentence. So sometimes in doing this we may find it difficult to tell
whether certain words are adjectives or pronouns. We can distinguish
between adjectives and pronouns by this rule:

When you cannot supply the noun which the adjective modifies, from the
_same_ sentence, then the word which takes the place of the noun is a
pronoun, but if you can supply the omitted noun from the same sentence,
then the word is used as an adjective. Thus, we do not say that the noun
is understood unless it has already been used in the same sentence and
is omitted to avoid repetition. We make each sentence a law unto itself
and classify each word in the sentence according to what it does in its
own sentence.

So if a noun does not occur in the same sentence with the word about
which we are in doubt as to whether it is a pronoun or adjective, it is
a pronoun or word used in place of a noun. For example, in the sentence,
_This book is good but that is better_; _book_ is understood after the
word _that_ and left out to avoid tiresome repetition of the word
_book_. Therefore _that_ is an adjective in this sentence. But if I say,
_This is good, but that is better_; there is no noun understood, for
there is no noun in the sentence which we can supply with _this_ and
_that_. Therefore in this sentence _this_ and _that_ are pronouns, used
in place of the noun. And since _this_ and _that_, when used as
adjectives, are called demonstrative adjectives; therefore when _this_
and _that_, _these_ and _those_, and similar words, are used as pronouns
they are called demonstrative pronouns.

+260.+ Be careful not to confuse the possessive pronouns with
adjectives. Possessive pronouns modify the nouns with which they are
used, but they are not adjectives, they are possessive pronouns. _My_,
_his_, _her_, _its_, _our_, _your_ and _their_ are all possessive
pronouns, not adjectives. Also be careful not to confuse nouns in the
possessive form with adjectives.


                    ADJECTIVES AS NOUNS

+261.+ Sometimes you will find words, which we are accustomed to look
upon as adjectives, used alone in the sentence without a noun which they
modify. For example, we say, _The strong enslave the weak_. Here we have
used the adjectives _strong_ and _weak_ without any accompanying noun.
In sentences like this, these adjectives, being used as nouns, are
classed as nouns. Remember, in your analysis of a sentence, that you
name every word according to the work which it does in that sentence, so
while these adjectives are doing the work of nouns, we will consider
them as nouns.

These words are not used in the same manner in which demonstrative
adjectives are used as pronouns. There is no noun omitted which might be
inserted, but these adjectives are used rather to name a class. As, for
example; when we say, _The strong_, _The weak_, we mean all those who
are strong and all those who are weak, considered as a class. You will
find adjectives used in this way quite often in your reading, and you
will find that you use this construction very often in your ordinary
speech. As, for example:

  The rich look down upon the poor.
  The wise instruct the ignorant.

Many examples will occur to you. Remember these adjectives are nouns
when they do the work of nouns.


                    ADJECTIVES WITH PRONOUNS

+262.+ Since pronouns are used in place of nouns, they may have
modifiers, also, just as nouns do. So you will often find adjectives
used to modify pronouns. As, for example; _He, tired, weak and ill, was
unable to hold his position_. Here, _tired_, _weak_ and _ill_ are
adjectives modifying the pronoun _he_.

+263.+ We often find a participle used as an adjective with a pronoun.
As, for example:

  She, having finished her work, went home.
  They, having completed the organization, left the city.
  He, having been defeated, became discouraged.

In these sentences, the participles, _having finished_, _having
completed_, and _having been defeated_, are used as adjectives to modify
the pronouns _she_, _they_ and _he_.


                    COMPARISON

+264.+ We have found that adjectives are a very important part of our
speech for without them we could not describe the various objects about
us and make known to others our ideas concerning their various
qualities. But with the addition of these helpful words we can describe
very fully the qualities of the things with which we come into contact.
We soon find, however, that there are varying degrees of these
qualities. Some objects possess them in slight degree, some more fully
and some in the highest degree. So we must have some way of expressing
these varying degrees in the use of our adjectives.

This brings us to the study of comparison of adjectives. Suppose I say:

  That orange is sweet, the one yonder is sweeter, but this one is
  sweetest.

I have used the adjective _sweet_ expressing a quality possessed by
oranges in three different forms, _sweet_, _sweeter_ and _sweetest_.
This is the change in the form of adjectives to show different degrees
of quality. This change is called comparison, because we use it when we
compare one thing with another in respect to some quality which they
possess, but possess in different degrees.

The form of the adjective which expresses a simple quality, as _sweet_,
is called the positive degree. That which expresses a quality in a
greater degree, as _sweeter_, is called the comparative degree. That
which expresses a quality in the greatest degree, as _sweetest_, is
called the superlative degree.

+265.+ +Comparison is the change of form of an adjective to denote
different degrees of quality.+

+There are three degrees of comparison, positive, comparative and
superlative.+

+The positive degree of an adjective denotes simple quality.+

+The comparative degree denotes a higher degree of a quality.+

+The superlative degree denotes the highest degree of a quality.+

+266.+ Most adjectives of one syllable and many adjectives of two
syllables regularly add _er_ to the positive to form the comparative
degree, and _est_ to the positive to form the superlative degree, as:

  _Positive_    _Comparative_   _Superlative_

  sweet          sweeter         sweetest
  cold           colder          coldest
  soft           softer          softest
  brave          braver          bravest
  clear          clearer         clearest

+267.+ Adjectives ending in _y_ change _y_ to _i_ and add _er_ and _est_
to form the comparative and superlative degree, as:

   _Positive_    _Comparative_   _Superlative_

  busy           busier          busiest
  lazy           lazier          laziest
  sly            slier           sliest
  witty          wittier         wittiest

+268.+ Many adjectives cannot be compared by this change in the word
itself, since the addition of _er_ and _est_ would make awkward or
ill-sounding words. Hence we must employ another method to form the
comparison of this sort of words. To say, _beautiful_, _beautifuller_,
_beautifullest_, is awkward and does not sound well. So we say
_beautiful_, _more beautiful_, _most beautiful_.

Many adjectives form the comparative and superlative degree by using
_more_ and _most_ with the simple form of the adjective, as:

  _Positive_     _Comparative_       _Superlative_

  beautiful      more beautiful      most beautiful
  thankful       more thankful       most thankful
  sensitive      more sensitive      most sensitive
  wonderful      more wonderful      most wonderful

+269.+ Adjectives of two syllables, to which _er_ and _est_ are added to
form the comparison, are chiefly those ending in _y_ or _le_, such as:

  _Positive_    _Comparative_   _Superlative_

  happy          happier         happiest
  noble          nobler          noblest
  steady         steadier        steadiest
  feeble         feebler         feeblest
  able           abler           ablest
  witty          wittier         wittiest

+270.+ Some adjectives, few in number, but which we use very often, are
irregular in their comparison. The most important of these are as
follows: (It would be well to memorize these.)

  _Positive_      _Comparative_     _Superlative_

  good             better            best
  well               "                 "
  bad              worse             worst
  ill                "                 "
  much             more              most
  many               "                 "
  little           less              least
  late             later             latest
                   latter            last
  far              farther           farthest
  (up) adv.        upper             uppermost
  (in) adv.        inner             innermost


                    DESCENDING COMPARISON

+271.+ The change in form of adjectives in the positive, comparative and
superlative shows that one object has more of a quality than others with
which it is compared. But we also wish at times to express the fact that
one object has less of the quality than is possessed by others with
which it is compared; so we have what we may call the descending
comparison, by means of phrases formed by using _less_ and _least_
instead of _more_ and _most_. Using _less_ with the positive degree
means a degree less than the positive, while using _least_ expresses the
lowest degree. For example:

                    Descending Comparison

  _Positive_        _Comparative_          _Superlative_

  beautiful         less beautiful         least beautiful
  intelligent       less intelligent       least intelligent
  sensitive         less sensitive         least sensitive
  thankful          less thankful          least thankful


                    PARTICIPLES AS ADJECTIVES

+272.+ You remember, when we studied the participle, that we found it
was called a participle because it partook of the nature of two or more
parts of speech. For example; in the sentence, _The singing of the birds
greeted us_; _singing_ is a participle derived from the verb _sing_, and
is used as a noun, the subject of the verb _greeted_.

But participles are used not only as nouns; they may also be used as
adjectives. For example; we may say, _The singing birds greeted us_.
Here the participle _singing_ describes the birds, telling what kind of
birds greeted us, and is used as an adjective modifying the noun
_birds_.

You will recall that we found there were two forms of the participle,
the present participle and the past participle. The present participle
is formed by adding _ing_ to the root form of the verb; and the past
participle in regular verbs is formed by adding _d_ or _ed_ to the root
form, and in irregular verbs by a change in the verb form itself. These
two simple forms of participles are often used as adjectives.

+273.+ The present participle is almost always active; that is, it
refers to the actor. As, for example; _Vessels, carrying soldiers, are
constantly arriving_. Here the present participle _carrying_ describes
the noun _vessels_, and yet retains its function as a verb and has an
object, _soldiers_. So it partakes of two parts of speech, the verb and
the adjective.

+274.+ The past participle, when used alone, is almost always passive,
for it refers not to the actor, but to what is acted upon, thus:

  The army, beaten but not conquered, prepared for a siege.

In this sentence _beaten_ is the past participle of the irregular verb
_beat_, and _conquered_ is the past participle of the regular verb
_conquer_, and both modify the noun _army_, but refer to it, not as the
actor, but as the receiver of the action. Hence, the past participle is
also the _passive_ participle.

Note in the following sentences the use of the present and past
participle as adjectives:

  A _refreshing_ breeze came from the hills.
  They escaped from the _burning_ building.
  _Toiling_, _rejoicing_, _sorrowing_, onward through life he goes.
  The man, _defeated_ in his purpose, gave up in despair.
  The child, _driven_ in its youth to work, is robbed of the joy of
  childhood.
  The army, _forced_ to retreat, destroyed all in its path.
  The children, _neglected_ by society, grow up without their rightful
  opportunities.


                    Exercise 1

The adjectives and participles used as adjectives in the following
sentences are printed in _italics_. Determine which adjectives are
capable of comparison, and whether they are compared by adding _er_ or
_est_, or by the use of _more_ and _most_.

  In _a_ community _regulated_ by laws of demand and supply, but
  _protected_ from _open_ violence, _the_ persons who become _rich_ are,
  generally _speaking_, _industrious_, _resolute_, _proud_, _covetous_,
  _prompt_, _methodical_, _sensible_, _unimaginative_, _insensitive_ and
  _ignorant_. _The_ persons who remain _poor_ are _the_ entirely
  _foolish_, _the_ entirely _wise_, _the idle_, _the reckless_, _the
  humble_, _the thoughtful_, _the dull_, _the imaginative_, _the
  sensitive_, _the well-informed_, _the improvident_, _the_ irregularly
  and impulsively _wicked_, _the clumsy_ knave, _the open_ thief, and
  _the_ entirely _merciful_, _just_ and _godly_ persons.--_Ruskin_.


                    PARTICIPLE PHRASES

+275.+ If you will refer now to Lesson 9 you will find that we studied
in that lesson concerning participle phrases; that is, several words
used as a participle. We found that these participle phrases may also be
used as nouns; as, for example:

  His having joined the union caused him to lose his position.

_Having joined_ is here a participle phrase used as a noun, subject of
the verb _caused_. Participle phrases may also be used as adjectives.

You remember that we had four participle phrases, as follows:

  +Present perfect+, _active_, having called.
  +Present perfect+, _passive_, having been called.
  +Progressive+, _active_, having been calling.
  +Progressive+, _passive_, being called.

These participle phrases are used as adjectives to describe and modify
nouns, thus:

  The soldier, _having joined_ his comrades, fought in the trenches.
  The nurse, _having been watching_ for days, was nearly exhausted.

The passive phrases also are used as adjectives, thus:

  The woman, _having been hired_ by the manager, went to work.
  The man, _being attacked_, fought bravely.

Here the participle phrases _having been hired_ and _being attacked_ are
used as adjectives to modify the nouns _woman_ and _man_.

Use the participles and participle phrases of the verbs _see_ and _obey_
in sentences of your own.


                    USES OF ADJECTIVES

+276.+ In our use of adjectives, we find it convenient to use them in
several different ways. The most common use is closely connected with
the noun as a modifying word, seeming in a sense almost a part of the
noun; as in the sentence, _These brave men have bequeathed to us
splendid victories_. In this sentence _these_ and _brave_ are easily
discovered to be adjectives, being used in such close connection with
the noun.

But sometimes we find the adjectives a little farther away from the noun
which it describes, and then it becomes a little more difficult to find.
You will recall, in our study of the copulative verb _be_, that we found
it was simply a connecting word, connecting that which followed the verb
with its subject. So we often find an adjective used in the predicate
with a copulative verb showing what is asserted of the subject. When an
adjective is used in this way, it modifies the subject just as much as
if it were directly connected by being placed immediately before the
noun. For example:

  The lesson was long and difficult.

_Long_ and _difficult_ are used in the predicate after the copulative
verb _was_, but are used to modify the subject _lesson_ just as much as
though we said instead, _It was a long and difficult lesson_. So watch
carefully for adjectives used with the copulative verb _be_ in all its
forms, _am_, _is_, _are_, _was_, _were_; and the phrases, _has been_,
_will be_, _must be_, etc.

+277.+ You may find adjectives also used following the noun. As, for
example: _The man, cool and resolute, awaited the attack_. _Cool_ and
_resolute_ are adjectives modifying the noun _man_, but they follow the
noun, instead of being placed before it.


                    COMMON ERRORS

+278.+ There are a number of common errors which we make in comparison,
which we should be careful to avoid.

1. A number of adjectives cannot be compared for they in themselves
express the highest degree of quality, so they have no shades of meaning
and will not admit of comparison. For example: _full_, _empty_, _level_,
_round_, _square_. If a thing is full or empty or level or round or
square, it cannot be more full, or more empty, or more level, or more
round, or more square. So do not compare adjectives that already express
the highest degree of a quality. Also such words as _supreme_,
_eternal_, and _infallible_, cannot be compared for they also express
the highest degree of quality.

2. Do not use _more_ with the comparative form made by using _er_, or
_most_ with the superlative form, made by using _est_. For example: do
not say, _They cannot be more happier than they are_. Say, _They cannot
be happier_; or _They cannot be more happy_. Use either form but never
both. Do not say, _That is the most wisest plan_. Say either, _That is
the wisest plan_; or _That is the most wise plan_, but never use both
forms. Never use _most_ with a superlative form.

3. Do not use the superlative form in comparing _two_ objects. The
superlative form is used only when more than two are compared. For
example; do not say, _He is the smallest of the two_. Say, _He is the
smaller of the two_. _Which is the largest end?_ is incorrect. _Which is
the larger end?_ is correct. _Which is the oldest, John or Henry?_ is
also incorrect. This should be, _Which is the older, John or Henry?_ Use
the _comparative_ form always when comparing _two_ objects.

4. In stating a comparison, avoid comparing a thing with itself. For
example; _New York is larger than any city in the United States_. In
this sentence, when you say _any_ city in the United States, you are
including New York; so you are really comparing New York with itself,
and you are saying that New York is larger than itself. You should have
said, _New York is larger than any other city in the United States_; or,
_New York is the largest city in the United States_. When you compare an
object with all others of its kind be sure that the word _other_ follows
the comparative word _than_.

5. When an adjective denoting _one_ or _more than one_ modifies a noun,
the adjective and the noun must agree in number. For example; _The house
is 30 foot square_. _Thirty_ denotes more than one, so a plural noun
should be used, and this sentence should be, _The house is 30 feet
square_. _We are traveling at the rate of 40 mile an hour._ This should
be, _We are traveling at the rate of 40 miles an hour_.

6. Only two adjectives, _this_ and _that_ change their form when
modifying a plural noun. _These_ and _those_ are the plural forms of
_this_ and _that_. So remember always to use _this_ and _that_ with
singular nouns and _these_ and _those_ with plural nouns. For example;
do not say, _These kind of people will never join us_. You should say,
_This kind of people will never join us_. Or, _Those sort of flowers
grows easily_. You should say, _That sort of flowers grows easily_.

7. Place your adjectives where there can be no doubt as to what you
intend them to modify. Put the adjective _with_ the noun which it
modifies. For example; do not say, _a fresh bunch of flowers_, _a new
pair of shoes_, _a salt barrel of pork_, _an old box of clothes_, _a
cold cup of water_, _a new load of hay_. Put the adjective with the noun
which it modifies, and say, _a bunch of fresh flowers_, _a pair of new
shoes_, _a barrel of salt pork_, _a box of old clothes_, _a cup of cold
water_, _a load of new hay_.

8. Adjectives are usually placed before the nouns they qualify, but
sometimes, especially in poetry or in the use of participles, they
follow the nouns. They should not, however, be placed too far away from
the noun which they modify or be unnecessarily separated from the noun.
Where there are two or more adjectives used to qualify the same noun,
place nearest the noun the adjective most closely connected with the
object described and place farthest from the noun the adjective least
closely connected with the noun. If they are all of the same rank, place
them where they will sound best, usually according to their length,
naming the shortest adjective first.

Correct the following sentences by arranging the adjectives in the
proper order:

  The summer sky was a blue, soft, beautiful sky.
  He bought a brown, fine, big horse.
  A gold, beautiful, expensive watch was given her.
  The new, beautiful apartment building is on the corner.
  He advertised for a young, intelligent, wide awake man.

9. Never use _them_ as an adjective. _Them_ is a pronoun. One of the
worst mistakes which we can make is to use such phrases as _them
things_, _them men_, _them books_. Say, _those things_, _those men_,
_those books_.

10. Do not use _less_ for the comparative form of _few_. The comparative
form of _few_ is _fewer_. _Less_ refers only to quantity, _fewer_ to
number. For example:

  He raised _less_ grain this year than last, because he has _fewer_
  horses now than he had then.
  He uses _fewer_ words because he has _less_ to say.
  There are but _few_ people here today; there were still _fewer_ (not
  less) yesterday.


                    Exercise 2

Correct the adjectives in this exercise:

  1. Hand me the little knife.
  2. He claims to be more infallible than anyone else.
  3. Mary is the oldest of the two.
  4. He was the bestest boy in school.
  5. The barn is forty foot long.
  6. Yonder is a happy crowd of children.
  7. Which is the largest end?
  8. I found the bestest book.
  9. This is the most principal rule.
  10. Give me a cold cup of water.
  11. These kind of books will not do.
  12. Give me them books.
  13. Who is the tallest, you or John?


                    Exercise 3

Mark all the adjectives in this poem. Note especially the participles
used as adjectives.

                    THE COLLECTION

    I passed the plate in church.
    There was a little silver, but the crisp bank-notes heaped
            themselves up high before me;
    And ever as the pile grew, the plate became warmer and warmer, until
        it fairly burned my fingers, and a smell of scorching flesh rose
        from it, and I perceived that some of the notes were beginning
        to smolder and curl, half-browned, at the edges.
    And then I saw through the smoke into the very substance of the
        money, and I beheld what it really was:
    I saw the stolen earnings of the poor, the wide margin of wages
        pared down to starvation;
    I saw the underpaid factory girl eking out her living on the street,
        and the over-worked child, and the suicide of the discharged
        miner;
    I saw the poisonous gases from great manufactories, spreading
        disease and death;
    I saw despair and drudgery filling the dram-shop;
    I saw rents screwed out of brother men for permission to live on
        God's land;
    I saw men shut out from the bosom of the earth and begging for the
        poor privilege to work, in vain, and becoming tramps and paupers
        and drunkards and lunatics, and crowding into almshouses, insane
        asylums and prisons;
    I saw ignorance and vice and crime growing rank in stifling, filthy
        slums;
    I saw shoddy cloth and adulterated food and lying goods of all
        kinds, cheapening men and women, and vulgarizing the world;
    I saw hideousness extending itself from coal-mine and foundry over
        forest and river and field;
    I saw money grabbed from fellow grabbers and swindled from fellow
        swindlers, and underneath the workman forever spinning it out of
        his vitals;
    I saw the laboring world, thin and pale and bent and care-worn and
        driven, pouring out this tribute from its toil and sweat into
        the laps of the richly dressed men and women in the pews, who
        only glanced at them to shrink from them with disgust;
    I saw all this, and the plate burned my fingers so that I had to
        hold it first in one hand and then in the other; and I was glad
        when the parson in his white robes took the smoking pile from me
        on the chancel steps and, turning about, lifted it up and laid
        it on the altar.
    It was an old-time altar, indeed, for it bore a burnt offering of
        flesh and blood--a sweet savor unto the Moloch whom these people
        worship with their daily round of human sacrifices.
    The shambles are in the temple as of yore, and the tables of the
        money-changers waiting to be overturned.

                                        --_Ernest Crosby_.



                    SPELLING

                    LESSON 15


There is a class of words having the sound of long _e_, represented by
the diphthong _ie_, and another class having the same sound represented
by _ei_. It is a matter of perplexity at times to determine whether one
of these words should be spelled with _ie_ or _ei_. Here is a little
rhyme which you will find a valuable aid to the memory in spelling these
words:

  When the letter _c_ you spy,
  Put the _e_ before the _i_.

For example, in such words as _deceit_, _receive_ and _ceiling_, the
spelling is _ei_. On the other hand, when the diphthong is not preceded
by the letter _c_, the spelling is _ie_, as in _grief_, _field_,
_siege_, etc.

There are a few exceptions to this rule, such as _either_, _neither_,
_leisure_, _seize_ and _weird_. Most words, however, conform to the
rule--when preceded by _c_, _ei_ should be used; when preceded by any
other letter, _ie_.

Observe that this rule applies only when there is a diphthong having the
sound of long _e_. When the two letters do not have the sound of long
_e_, as in _ancient_, the rule does not apply.

  +Monday+

    Deceive
    Belief
    Conceive
    Brief
    Ceiling

  +Tuesday+

    Field
    Receive
    Piece
    Chief
    Leisure

  +Wednesday+

    Receipt
    Wield
    Weird
    Thief
    Perceive

  +Thursday+

    Deceit
    Yield
    Grief
    Seize
    Conceit

  +Friday+

    Relieve
    Neither
    Liege
    Shield
    Niece

  +Saturday+

    Relief
    Achievement
    Reprieve
    Lien
    Siege



                    PLAIN ENGLISH

                    LESSON 16


Dear Comrade:

We have been tracing the development of written speech in order that we
might have a clearer understanding of our own language. We have found
how our earliest ancestors communicated with each other by signs and an
articulate speech that was probably a little better than that of some
animals of today. They gradually developed this articulate speech and
then began to have need for some form of written speech. That which
distinguishes man from the animals primarily is his power to remember
and to associate one idea with another. From this comes his ability to
reason concerning the connection of these ideas. Without this power of
associative memory we would not be able to reason. If you could not
recall the things that happened yesterday and had not the power of
imagination concerning the things that may happen tomorrow, your
reasoning concerning today would not be above that of the animals.

So man soon found it necessary to have some way of recalling accurately,
in a manner that he could depend upon, the things that happened
yesterday and the day before and still farther back in time. So that his
first step was the invention of simple aids to memory such as the
knotted strings and tally sticks. Then he began to draw pictures of the
objects about him which he could perceive by the five senses, the things
which he could see and hear and touch and taste and smell.

But man, the Thinker, began to develop and he began to have ideas about
things which he could not see and hear and touch and taste and smell. He
began to think of abstract ideas such as light and darkness, love and
hate, and if he was to have written speech he must have symbols which
would express these ideas. So we have found that he used pictures of the
things he perceived with his five senses to symbolize some of his
abstract ideas, as for example; a picture of the sun and moon to
represent light; the bee to symbolize industry; the ostrich feather to
represent justice. But as his ideas began to develop you can readily see
that in the course of time there were not enough symbols to go around
and this sort of written speech became very confusing and very difficult
to read.

Necessity is truly the mother of invention, and so this need of man
forced him to invent something entirely new--something which had been
undreamed of before. He began now to use pictures which were different
in sense but the names of which had the same sound. You can find an
example of this same thing on the Children's Puzzle Page in the rebus
which is given for the children to solve. As for example: A picture of
an eye, a saw, a boy, a swallow, a goose and a berry, and this would
stand for the sentence, I saw a boy swallow a gooseberry.

Perhaps you have used the same idea in some guessing game where a mill,
a walk and a key stands for Milwaukee. And so we have a new form of
picture writing. Notice in this that an entirely new idea has entered
in, for the picture may not stand for the whole word but may stand for
one syllable of the word as in the example given above. The mill stands
for one syllable, walk for another and key for another. This was a great
step for it meant the division of the word into various sounds
represented by the syllables.

What a new insight it gives us into life when we realize that not only
our bodies but the environment in which we live, the machines with which
we work and even the language which we use has been a product of man's
own effort. Man has developed these things for himself through a
constant and steady evolution. It makes us feel that we are part of one
stupendous whole; we belong to the class which has done the work of the
world and accomplished these mighty things. The same blood flows in us;
the same power belongs to us. Truly, with this idea, we can stand erect
and look the whole world in the face and demand the opportunity to live
our own lives to the full.

                    Yours for Freedom,

                              THE PEOPLE'S COLLEGE.


                    WORDS ADDED TO VERBS

+279.+ We have just finished the study of adjectives and we have found
that adjectives are words added to nouns to qualify or to limit their
meaning. Without this class of words it would be impossible for us to
express all of our ideas, for we would be at a loss to describe the
objects about us. Adjectives enable us to name the qualities or tell the
number of the objects with which we come in contact.

The verb, we have found, expresses the action of these objects; in other
words, the verb tells what things do. So with adjectives and verbs we
can describe the objects named by the nouns and tell what they do. For
example, I may say, _Men work_. Here I have used simply a noun and a
verb; then I may add various adjectives to this and say, _Strong,
industrious, ambitious men work_. By the use of these adjectives, I have
told you about the kind of men who work; but I have said nothing about
the action expressed in the verb _work_. I may want to tell you _how_
they work and _when_ they work; _where_ they work and _how much_; in
other words, describe fully the action expressed in the verb _work_, so
I say:

  The men work busily.
  The men work late.
  The men work well.
  The men work inside.
  The men work hard.
  The men work here.
  The men work now.
  The men work more.

Words like _busily_, _hard_, _late_, _here_, _well_, _now_, _inside_,
and _more_, show _how_, _when_, _where_ and _how much_ the men work.

We could leave off these words and still have a sentence, since the
other words make sense without them, but these words describe the action
expressed in the verb.

Words used in this way are called adverbs because they are added to
verbs to make our meaning more definite, very much as adjectives are
added to nouns.

+280.+ The word adverb means, literally, _to the verb_, and one would
suppose from this name that the adverb was strictly a verb modifier, but
an adverb is used to modify other words as well. An adverb may be used
to modify an adjective; for example, we might say: _The man was very
busy_. _This lesson is too long._ Here _very_ and _too_ are added to the
adjectives _busy_ and _long_ to qualify their meaning.

+281.+ You remember in the comparison of adjectives, we used the words
_more_ and _most_ to make the comparative and superlative degrees. Here
_more_ and _most_ are adverbs used with the adjectives to qualify their
meaning. Adverbs used in this way will always answer the question, _how
much_, _how long_, etc. In the sentence, _The man is very busy_, _very_
is used to answer the question _how_ busy. And in the sentence, _The
lesson is too long_, the adverb _too_ answers the question _how_ long.

An adverb is also added to another adverb sometimes to answer the
question _how_. For example; we say, _The man works very hard_. Here the
adverb _hard_ tells _how_ the man works and _very_ modifies the adverb
_hard_, and answers the question _how hard_. So we have our definition
of an adverb:

+282.+ +An adverb is a word that modifies the meaning of a verb, an
adjective or another adverb.+

Remember that adjectives are used only with nouns or pronouns, but the
adverb may be used with a verb or an adjective or another adverb. You
remember that we had in our first lesson, as the definition of a word,
that, _a word is a sign of an idea_. The idea is a part of a complete
thought. See how all of these various words represent ideas, and each
does its part to help us express our thoughts.


                    HOW TO TELL ADVERBS

+283.+ We need not have much difficulty in always being able to tell
which words in a sentence are adverbs, for they will always answer one
of the following questions: _How?_ _When?_ _Where?_ _Why?_ _How long?_
_How often?_ _How much?_ _How far?_ or _How little?_ etc. Just ask one
of these questions and the word that answers it is the adverb in your
sentence. Take the following sentence:

  He _always_ came _down too rapidly_.

The word _always_ answers the question _when_. So _always_ is an adverb,
describing the time of the action expressed in the verb _came_--He
_always_ came. _Down_ answers the question _where_. So _down_ is the
adverb describing the _place_ of the action. _Rapidly_ answers the
question _how_, and is the adverb describing the _manner_ of the action.
_Too_ also answers the question _how_, and modifies the adverb
_rapidly_.


                    Exercise 1

Underscore the adverbs in the following sentences and tell which
word they modify:

  1. He writes correctly.
  2. She answered quickly.
  3. A very wonderful future awaits us.
  4. You should not speak so hastily.
  5. You can speak freely here.
  6. He could never wait patiently.
  7. We very often make mistakes.
  8. She very seldom goes there.
  9. He usually walks very rapidly.
  10. I have read the lesson quite carefully.
  11. We would willingly and cheerfully give our all for the cause.
  12. He frequently comes here but I do not expect him today.
  13. If we work diligently and faithfully we will soon learn to speak
      correctly and fluently.
  14. I am almost sure I can go there tomorrow.
  15. It was more beautifully painted than the other.
  16. We eagerly await the news from the front.
  17. He always gladly obeyed his father.
  18. She spoke quite simply and met with a very enthusiastic reception.
  19. The difficulty can be easily and readily adjusted.


                    Exercise 2

Use the following adverbs in sentences to modify verbs:

  slowly
  here
  now
  gently
  loudly
  never
  soon
  carefully
  nobly
  down
  seldom
  easily

Use the following adverbs in sentences to modify adjectives:

  quite
  very
  more
  too
  most
  less
  nearly
  so

Use the following adverbs in sentences to modify adverbs:

  too
  very
  quite
  less
  more
  most
  least
  so


                    CLASSES OF ADVERBS

+284.+ There are a good many adverbs in our language, yet they may be
divided, according to their meaning, into six principal classes:

+1. Adverbs of time.+ These answer the question _when_, and are such
adverbs as _now_, _then_, _soon_, _never_, _always_, etc.

+2. Adverbs of place.+ These answer the question _where_, and are such
adverbs as _here_, _there_, _yonder_, _down_, _above_, _below_, etc.

+3. Adverbs of manner.+ These answer the question _how_, and are such
adverbs as _well_, _ill_, _thus_, _so_, _slowly_, _hastily_, etc.

+4. Adverbs of degree.+ These answer the questions _how much_, _how
little_, _how far_, etc., and are such adverbs as _much_, _very_,
_almost_, _scarcely_, _hardly_, _more_, _quite_, _little_, etc.

+5. Adverbs of cause.+ These answer the question _why_, and are such
adverbs as _therefore_, _accordingly_, _hence_, etc.

+6. Adverbs of number.+ These are such adverbs as _first_, _second_,
_third_, etc.


                    Exercise 3

In the following sentences there are adverbs of each class used. Find
the adverbs of the different classes.

  1. We shall always be found in the forefront of the struggle.
  2. It is much more effective to train the young.
  3. He came first and remained through the entire program.
  4. It is pleasant to know that we have done well.
  5. Our comrades are fighting yonder in the trenches.
  6. Therefore we shall never acknowledge defeat.
  7. Come down and discuss the matter with us.
  8. We would soon be able to agree if we understood the facts.
  9. Study your lessons slowly and carefully.
  10. He was scarcely able to tell his story.
  11. Accordingly I am sending you full particulars of the plan.
  12. He came third in the ranks.


                    INTERROGATIVE ADVERBS

+285.+ The adverbs _how_, _when_, _where_, _why_, _whither_, _whence_,
etc., are used in asking questions, and when they are used in this way
they are called interrogative adverbs. For example:

  _How_ did it happen?
  _Where_ are you going?
  _Whence_ came he?
  _When_ did he come?
  _Why_ did you do it?
  _Whither_ are you going?

These adverbs, _how_, _when_, _where_, _why_, _whence_ and _whither_,
are used in these sentences to modify the verbs and ask the questions
concerning the _time_ or _place_ or _manner_ of action expressed in the
verb.

_How_ may also be used as an interrogative adverb modifying an adjective
or another adverb. For example:

  How late did he stay?
  How large is the house?

In the first sentence, the adverb _how_ modifies the adverb _late_, and
introduces the question. In the second sentence _how_ modifies the
adjective _large_ and introduces the question.


                    Exercise 4

Write sentences containing the interrogative adverbs _how_, _when_,
_where_ and _why_, to modify verbs and ask simple questions.

Write sentences using the interrogative adverb _how_ to modify an
adjective and an adverb and to introduce a question.


                    ADVERBS OF MODE

+286.+ There are some adverbs which scarcely fall into any of the above
classes and cannot be said to answer any of these questions. They are
such adverbs as _indeed_, _certainly_, _fairly_, _truly_, _surely_,
_perhaps_ and _possibly_. These adverbs really modify the entire
sentence, in a way, and are used to show how the statement is
made,--whether in a positive or negative way or in a doubtful way. For
example:

  _Surely_ you will not leave me.
  _Truly_ I cannot understand the matter as you do.
  _Perhaps_ he knows no better.
  _Indeed_, I cannot go with you.

Here, these adverbs, _truly_, _surely_, _perhaps_ and _indeed_, show the
manner in which the entire statement is made; so they have been put in a
class by themselves and called +adverbs of mode+. _Mode_ means literally
_manner_, but these are not adverbs that express manner of action, like
_slowly_ or _wisely_ or _well_ or _ill_. They express rather the manner
in which the entire statement is made, and so really modify the whole
sentence.


                    PHRASE ADVERBS

+287.+ We have certain little phrases which we have used so often that
they have come to be used and regarded as single adverbs. They are such
phrases as _of course_, _of late_, _for good_, _of old_, _at all_, _at
length_, _by and by_, _over and over_, _again and again_, _through and
through_, _hand in hand_, _ere long_, _in vain_, _to and fro_, _up and
down_, _as usual_, _by far_, _at last_, _at least_, _in general_, _in
short_, etc. These words which we find used so often in these phrases we
may count as single adverbs.


                    ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

+288.+ Sometimes the same word may be used either as an adjective or as
an adverb, and you may have some difficulty in telling whether it is an
adjective or an adverb. Some of these words are: _better_, _little_,
_late_, _far_, _hard_, _further_, _first_, _last_, _long_, _short_,
_much_, _more_ and _high_. For example:

  The _late_ news verifies our statement.
  The man came _late_ to his work.

In the first sentence, the word _late_ is used as an adjective modifying
the noun _news_. In the second sentence, the word _late_ is used as an
adverb to modify the verb _came_.

+289.+ You can always distinguish between adjectives and adverbs by
this rule: Adjectives modify _only nouns_ and _pronouns_, and the one
essential characteristic of the adverb, as a limiting word, is that it
is _always_ joined to some other part of speech than a noun. An adverb
may modify a verb, adjective or other adverb, but never a noun or
pronoun.

You recall the rule which we have made the very foundation of our study:
namely, that every word is classified in the sentence according to the
_work_ which it does in that sentence. So a word is an adjective when it
limits or modifies or qualifies a noun or pronoun; a word is an adverb
when it qualifies any part of speech other than a noun or pronoun,
either a verb or an adjective or an adverb, or even an entire sentence,
as is the case with adverbs of mode.

+290.+ Many adverbs are regularly made from nouns and adjectives by
prefixes and suffixes. Adverbs are made from adjectives chiefly by
adding the suffix _ly_, or by changing _ble_ to _bly_. For example:
_honestly_, _rarely_, _dearly_, _ably_, _nobly_, _feebly_. But all words
that end in _ly_ are not adverbs. Some adjectives end in _ly_ also, as,
_kingly_, _courtly_, etc. The only way we can determine to which class a
word belongs is by its use in the sentence.


                    Exercise 5

In the following sentences, tell whether the words printed in italics
are used as adjectives or as adverbs: also note the words ending in
_ly_. Some are adverbs and some adjectives.

  1. The boy was very _little_.
  2. It was a _little_ early to arrive.
  3. It was a _hard_ lesson.
  4. She works _hard_ every day.
  5. I read the _first_ book.
  6. I read the book _first_ then gave it to him.
  7. He went to a _high_ mountain.
  8. The eagle flew _high_ in the air.
  9. We saw clearly the lovely picture.
  10. He is a wonderfully jolly man.
  11. His courtly manner failed when he saw his homely bride.
  12. He speaks slowly and clearly.
  13. They are very cleanly in their habits.


                    NOUNS AS ADVERBS

+291.+ Words that are ordinarily used as nouns, are sometimes used as
adverbs. These are the nouns that denote time, distance, measure of
value or direction. They are added to verbs and adjectives to denote the
definite time at which a thing took place, or to denote the extent of
time or distance and the measure of value, of weight, number or age.
They are sometimes used to indicate direction. For example:

  They were gone a _year_.
  He talked an _hour_.
  They will return next _week_.
  They went _south_ for the winter.
  They traveled 100 _miles_.
  The wheat is a _foot_ high.
  The man weighed 200 _pounds_.

In these sentences, the nouns, _year_, _miles_, _hour_, _foot_, _week_,
_pounds_ and _south_ are used as adverbs. Remember every word is
classified according to the work which it does in the sentence.


                    Exercise 6

Mark the adverbs in the following poem and determine what words they
modify:

          THE BRIDGE OF SIGHS

    One more Unfortunate
        Weary of breath,
    Rashly importunate,
        Gone to her death!

    Take her up tenderly,
        Lift her with care;
    Fashion'd so slenderly,
        Young, and so fair!

    Look at her garments
    Clinging like cerements;
        Whilst the wave constantly
    Drips from her clothing;
        Take her up instantly,
    Loving, not loathing.

    Touch her not scornfully;
    Think of her mournfully,
        Gently and humanly;
    Not of the stains of her--
    All that remains of her
        Now is pure womanly.

    Make no deep scrutiny
    Into her mutiny
        Rash and undutiful;
    Past all dishonor,
    Death has left on her
        Only the beautiful.

       * * * * * * *

    Alas! for the rarity
    Of Christian charity
        Under the sun!
    O! it was pitiful!
    Near a whole city full,
        Home, she had none.

       * * * * * * *


    The bleak wind of March
        Made her tremble and shiver;
    But not the dark arch,
        Or the black flowing river:
    Mad from life's history
    Glad to death's mystery
        Swift to be hurled--
    Anywhere, anywhere
        Out of the world!

    In she plunged boldly,
    No matter how coldly
        The rough river ran;
    Over the brink of it,--
    Picture it, think of it,
        Dissolute Man!
    Lave in it, drink of it,
        Then, if you can!

    Take her up tenderly,
        Lift her with care;
    Fashion'd so slenderly,
    Young and so fair!

    Ere her limbs frigidly
    Stiffen too rigidly,
        Decently, kindly,
    Smooth and compose them;
    And her eyes, close them,
        Staring so blindly!

    Dreadfully staring
        Thro' muddy impurity,
    As when with the daring
    Last look of despairing
        Fix'd on futurity.

    Perishing gloomily,
    Spurr'd by contumely,
    Cold inhumanity,
    Burning insanity,
        Into her rest.
    Cross her hands humbly
    As if praying dumbly,
        Over her breast!

    Owning her weakness,
        Her evil behavior,
    And leaving, with meekness,
        Her sins to her Saviour!

                    --_Thomas Hood_.



                    SPELLING

                    LESSON 16


The English language is truly a melting pot, into which have been thrown
words from almost every language under the sun. This makes our spelling
very confusing many times. Because of this also, we have in our
language, words which have the same sound but different meaning, having
come into the language from different sources. These words are called
_homonyms_.

+Homonyms are words having the same sound but different meaning.+ For
example:

  Plane, plain;
  write, right.

Synonyms are words which have the same meaning. For example:

  Allow, permit;
  lazy, idle.

Our spelling lesson for this week contains a list of most of the
commonly used homonyms. Look up the meaning in the dictionary and use
them correctly in sentences. You will note that in some instances there
are three different words which have the same sound, but different
meanings.

Notice especially _principal_ and _principle_. Perhaps there are no two
words which we use frequently which are so confused in their spelling.
_Principle_ is a noun. _Principal_ is an adjective. You can remember the
correct spelling by remembering that _adjective_ begins with _a_.
_Principal_, the adjective, is spelled with an _a_, _pal_.

Notice also the distinction between _two_, _to_ and _too_. Look these up
carefully, for mistakes are very often made in the use of these three
words. Also notice the words _no_ and _know_ and _here_ and _hear_.

  +Monday+

    Buy--by
    Fair--fare
    Meat--meet
    Our--hour
    Pain--pane

  +Tuesday+

    Deer--dear
    Hear--here
    New--knew
    No--know
    Peace--piece

  +Wednesday+

    Two--to--too
    Pair--pare--pear
    Birth--berth
    Ore--oar
    Ought--aught

  +Thursday+

    Seen--scene
    Miner--minor
    Aloud--allowed
    Stare--stair
    Would--wood

  +Friday+

    Bear--bare
    Ascent--assent
    Sight--site--cite
    Rain--reign--rein
    Rote--wrote

  +Saturday+

    Great--grate
    Foul--fowl
    Least--leased
    Principle--principal
    Sale--sail



                    PLAIN ENGLISH

                    LESSON 17


Dear Comrade:

We are finishing in this lesson the study of a very important part of
speech. Adverbs are a necessary part of our vocabulary, and most of us
need a greater supply than we at present possess. We usually have a few
adverbs and adjectives in our vocabulary which are continually
overworked. Add a few new ones to your vocabulary this week.

Do not slight the exercises in these lessons. The study of the lesson is
only the beginning of the theoretical knowledge. You do not really know
a thing until you put it into practice. You may take a correspondence
course on how to run an automobile but you can not really know how to
run a machine until you have had the practical experience. There is only
one way to become expert in the use of words and that is to use them.
Every day try to talk to some one who thinks and reads. While talking
watch their language and your own. When a word is used that you do not
fully understand, look it up at your very first opportunity and if you
like the word use it a number of times until it has become your word.

We have been following in these letters, which are our weekly talks
together, the development of the alphabet. It is really a wonderful
story. It brings to us most vividly the struggle of the men of the past.
Last week we found how they began to use symbols to express syllables,
parts of a word. We found that this was a great step in advance. Do you
not see that this was not an eye picture but an ear picture? The symbol
did not stand for the picture of the object it named but each symbol
stood for the sound which composed part of the word.

After a while it dawned upon some one that all the words which man used
were expressed by just a few sounds. We do not know just when this
happened but we do know that it was a wonderful step in advance.
Cumbersome pictures and symbols could be done away with now. The same
idea could be expressed by a few signs which represented the few sounds
which were used over and over again in all words. Let us not fail to
realize what a great step in advance this was. These symbols represented
sounds. The appeal was through the _ear gate_ of man, not through the
_eye gate_.

Thus came about the birth of the alphabet, one of the greatest and most
momentous triumphs of the human mind. Because of this discovery, we can
now form thousands of combinations expressing all our ideas with only
twenty-three or twenty-four symbols,--letters that represent sounds.
Since we have at our command all of this rich fund of words, let us not
be content to possess only a few for ourselves. Add a word daily to your
vocabulary and you will soon be surprised at the ease and fluency of
your spoken and written speech; and with this fluency in speech will
come added power in every part of your life.

                    Yours for Education,

                              THE PEOPLE'S COLLEGE.


                    COMPARISON OF ADVERBS

+292.+ You will recall that we found that adjectives change in form to
show different degrees of quality. A few adverbs are compared the same
as adjectives. Some form the comparative and superlative degree in the
regular way, just as adjectives, by adding _er_ and _est_; for example:

  _Positive_       _Comparative_       _Superlative_

  soon             sooner              soonest
  late             later               latest
  often            oftener             oftenest
  early            earlier             earliest
  fast             faster              fastest

+293.+ Most adverbs form their comparative and superlative by the use of
_more_ and _most_ or _less_ and _least_, just as adjectives do; for
example:

  _Positive_       _Comparative_       _Superlative_

  clearly          more clearly        most clearly
  nobly            more nobly          most nobly
  ably             more ably           most ably
  truly            more truly          most truly

Or, in the descending comparison:

  clearly           less clearly       least clearly
  nobly             less nobly         least nobly
  ably              less ably          least ably
  truly             less truly         least truly

+294.+ The following adverbs are compared irregularly. It would be well
to memorize this list:

  _Positive_       _Comparative_       _Superlative_

  ill               worse               worst
  well              better              best
  badly             worse               worst
  far               further (farther)   furthest (farthest)
  little            less                least
  much              more                most

Some adverbs are incapable of comparison, as _here_, _there_, _now_,
_today_, _hence_, _therefore_, etc.


                    Exercise 1

In the following sentences mark which adverbs are used in the positive,
which in the comparative and which in the superlative degree:

  1. He came too late to get his letter.
  2. I can understand clearly since you have explained the matter to me.
  3. He speaks most truly concerning a matter of which he is well
     informed.
  4. If he comes quickly he will arrive in time.
  5. I will be able to speak more effectively when I have studied the
     subject.
  6. Those who argue most ably are those who are in complete possession
     of the facts.
  7. He needs to take a course such as this very badly.
  8. I am too weary to go farther today.
  9. This is the least expensive of them all.
  10. If he arrives later in the day I will not be able to see him.
  11. I can understand him more clearly than I can his friend.
  12. You must work more rapidly under the Taylor system of efficiency.
  13. Those who are least trained lose their positions first.
  14. Those who are best fitted for the positions do not always receive
      them.


                    POSITION OF ADVERBS

+295.+ When we use an adverb with an adjective or other adverb, we
usually place the adverb before the adjective or adverb which it
modifies. For example:

  She is _very_ studious.
  Results come _rather_ slowly.
  It is _quite_ evident.
  He speaks _too_ rapidly.

When we use an adverb with the simple form of the verb, (that is, either
the present or past time form or any time form in which we do not need
to use a phrase), if the verb is a complete verb, we place the adverb
after the verb. For example:

  The boat arrived _safely_.
  The man came _quickly_.
  The boy ran _fast_.
  The teacher spoke _hastily_.

But when the verb is an incomplete verb used in the simple form, the
adverb usually precedes it in order not to come between the verb and its
object. As, for example:

  He _willingly_ gave his consent to the proposition.
  She _gladly_ wrote the letter which we requested.
  A soldier _always_ obeys the command of a superior officer.

When the object of the incomplete verb is short, then the adverb is
sometimes placed after the object. As, for example:

  I study my lessons _carefully_.
  He wrote a letter _hastily_.

The object is more closely connected with the verb and so is placed
nearer the verb. However, when the object is modified by a phrase the
adverb is sometimes placed immediately after the verb, as:

  I studied _carefully_ the lessons given for this month.
  He wrote _hastily_ a short letter to his son.

When we use an adverb with a verb phrase, we usually place the adverb
after the first word in the verb phrase. For example:

  The boy has _always_ worked.
  The workers will _then_ understand.
  He will _surely_ have arrived by that time.

When the verb is in the passive form the adverb immediately precedes the
principal verb, as for example:

  The work can be _quickly_ finished.
  The obstacles can be _readily_ overcome.
  The lesson must be _carefully_ prepared.
  The workers must be _thoroughly_ organized.

When an adverb of time and an adverb of manner or place are used to
modify the same verb, the adverb of time is placed first and the adverb
of manner or place second, as for example:

  I _often_ stop _there_.
  He _usually_ walks _very rapidly_.
  They _soon_ learn to work _rapidly_.

If the sentence contains adverbs of time, of place, and of manner; the
adverb of time should come first; of place, second; and of manner,
third; as:

  He _usually_ comes _here quickly_.


                    Exercise 2

Improve the location of the adverbs in the following sentences and
observe how the change of place of the adverb may alter the meaning of
the sentence:

  1. I _only_ saw the President once.
  2. Such prices are _only_ paid in times of great scarcity.
  3. No man has _ever_ so much wealth that he does not want more.
  4. It seems that the workers can be _never_ aroused.
  5. I want to _briefly_ state the reason for my action.
  6. I shall be glad to help you _always_.
  7. I _only_ mention a few of the facts.
  8. He _nearly_ walked to town.
  9. We are told that the Japanese _chiefly_ live upon rice.
  10. They expected them to sign a treaty _daily_.
  11. Having _nearly_ lost all his money he feared _again_ to venture.


                    ADVERBS AND INFINITIVES

+296.+ You remember when we studied the infinitive in Lesson 9, we found
that it was not good usage to split the infinitive; that is, to put the
modifying word between _to_ and the verb. For example: _We ought to
bravely stand for our rights_. The correct form of this is: _We ought to
stand bravely for our rights_.

But we have found, also, that common usage breaks down the old rules and
makes new rules and laws for itself, and so we frequently find the
adverb placed between the infinitive and its sign.

Sometimes it seems difficult to express our meaning accurately in any
other way; for example, when we say: _To almost succeed is not enough_,
we do not make the statement as forceful or as nearly expressive of our
real idea, if we try to put the adverb _almost_ in any other position.
This is also true in such phrases as _to far exceed_, _to more than
counterbalance_, _to fully appreciate_, and various other examples which
you will readily find in your reading. The purpose of written and spoken
language is to express our ideas adequately and accurately.

So we place our words in sentences to fulfill this purpose and not
according to any stereotyped rule of grammarians. Ordinarily, though, it
would be best not to place the adverb between the infinitive verb and
its sign _to_. Do not split the infinitive unless by so doing you
express your idea more accurately.


                    COMMON ERRORS

+297.+ The position in the sentence of such adverbs as, _only_, _also_
and _merely_, depends upon the meaning to be conveyed. The place where
these adverbs occur in the sentences, may completely alter the meaning
of the sentence. For example:

_Only the address can be written on this side._ We mean that nothing but
the address can be written on this side.

_The address can only be written on this side._ We mean that the address
cannot be printed, but must be written.

_The address can be written only on this side._ We mean that it cannot
be written on any other side, but on this side only.

So you see that the place in which the adverb appears in the sentence
depends upon the meaning to be conveyed and the adverb should be placed
in the sentence so as to convey the meaning intended.

+Never use an adjective for an adverb.+ One common error is using an
adjective for an adverb. Remember that adjectives modify nouns only.
Whenever you use a word to modify a verb, adjective or another adverb,
use an adverb. For example, _He speaks slow and plain_. This is
incorrect. The sentence should be, _He speaks slowly and plainly_. Watch
this carefully. It is a very common error.

+Another very common error is that of using an adverb instead of an
adjective with the copulative verb.+ Never use an adverb in place of an
adjective to complete a copulative verb. When a verb asserts an action
on the part of the subject, the qualifying word that follows the verb is
an adverb. For example, you would say:

  The sea was calm.

Here we use an _adjective_ in the predicate, for we are describing the
appearance of the sea, no action is expressed. But if we say: _He spoke
calmly_, we use the adverb _calmly_, for the verb _spoke_ expresses an
action on the part of the subject, and the adverb _calmly_ describes
that action, it tells how he spoke. So we say: _The water looks clear_,
but, _We see clearly_. _She appears truthful._ _They answered
truthfully._ _She looked sweet._ _She smiled sweetly._

With all forms of the verb _be_, as _am_, _is_, _are_, _was_, _were_,
_have been_, _has been_, _will be_, etc., use an adjective in the
predicate; as, _He is glad_. _I am happy._ _They were eager._ _They will
be sad._ Use an adjective in the predicate with verbs like _look_,
_smell_, _taste_, _feel_, _appear_ and _seem_. For example: _He looks
bad._ _It smells good._ _The candy tastes sweet_. _The man feels fine
today._ _She appears anxious._ _He seems weary._

+Never use two negative words in the same sentence.+ The second negative
destroys the first and we really make an affirmative statement. The two
negatives neutralize each other and spoil the meaning of the sentence.
For example, never say:

  I don't want no education.
  He didn't have no money.
  Don't say nothing to nobody.
  She never goes nowhere.
  He won't say nothing to you.
  He does not know nothing about it.
  He never stops for nothing.
  The stingy man gives nothing to nobody.

In all of these sentences we have used more than one negative; _not_ and
_no_, or _not_ and _nothing_, or _never_ and _no_, or _never_ and
_nothing_. Never use these double negatives. The correct forms of these
sentences are:

  I don't want any education.
  He didn't have any money.
  Don't say anything to any one.
  She never goes anywhere.
  He won't say anything to you.
  He knows nothing about it.
  He never stops for anything.
  The stingy man gives nothing to any one.

+Where to place the negative adverb, not.+ In English we do not use the
negative adverb _not_ with the common verb form, but when we use _not_
in a sentence, we use the auxiliary _do_. For example, we do not say:

  I like it not.
  They think not so.
  He loves me not.
  We strive not to succeed.

Only in poetry do we use such expressions as these. In ordinary English,
we say:

  I do not like it.
  They do not think so.
  He does not love me.
  We do not strive to succeed.

+We often use _here_ and _there_ incorrectly after the words _this_
and _that_.+ For example, we say:

  This here lesson is shorter than that there one was.

This should be: _This lesson is shorter than that one_.

  Bring me that there book.
  This here man will not listen.

These sentences should read:

  Bring me that book.
  This man will not listen.

Never use _here_ and _there_ in this manner.

+Another common mistake is using _most_ for _almost_.+

For example, we say:

  We are most there.
  I see her most every day.

These sentences should read:

  We are almost there.
  I see her almost every day.

_Most_ is the superlative degree of _much_, and should be used only in
that meaning.

+We often use the adjective _real_ in place of _very_ or _quite_,
to modify an adverb or an adjective.+

For example, we say:

  I was real glad to know it.
  She looked real nice.
  You must come real soon.

Say instead:

  I am very glad to know it.
  She looked very nice.
  You must come quite soon.

_Really_ is the adverb form of the adjective _real_. You might have
said:

  I am really glad to know it.

But never use _real_ when you mean _very_ or _quite_ or _really_.

+We use the adjective _some_ many times when we should use the adverb
_somewhat_.+ For example, we say:

  I am some anxious to hear from him.
  I was some tired after my trip.

What we intended to say was:

  I am somewhat anxious to hear from him.
  I was somewhat tired after my trip.

+Do not use _what for_ when you mean _why_.+ Do not say:

  What did you do that for?

Or worse still,

  What for did you do that?

Say:

  Why did you do that?

+Do not use _worse_ in place of _more_.+ Do not say:

  I want to go worse than I ever did.

Say:

  I want to go _more_ than I ever did.

+Observe the distinction between the words _further_ and _farther_.+
Farther always refers to distance, or extent. For example:

  He could go no farther that day.
  We will go farther into the matter some other time.

Further means more. For example:

  He would say nothing further in regard to the subject.

+Never use _good_ as an adverb+. _Good_ is always an adjective. _Well_
is the adverb form. _Good_ and _well_ are compared in the same way,
_good_, _better_, _best_, and _well_, _better_, _best_. So _better_ and
_best_ can be used either as adjectives or adverbs; but _good_ is always
an adjective. Do not say, _He talks good_. Say, _He talks well_. Note
that _ill_ is both an adjective and an adverb and that _illy_ is always
incorrect.


                    Exercise 3

Correct the adverbs in the following sentences. All but two of these
sentences are wrong.

  1. Come quick, I need you.
  2. The boy feels badly.
  3. Give me that there pencil.
  4. I am some hungry.
  5. The people learn slow.
  6. He never stopped for nothing.
  7. What did you say that for?
  8. This here machine won't run.
  9. I make a mistake most every time.
  10. Watch careful every word.
  11. The man works good.
  12. The tone sounds harsh.
  13. I don't want no dinner.
  14. I hope it comes real soon.
  15. I want to learn worse than ever.
  16. She looked lovely.
  17. She smiled sweet.
  18. He sees good for one so old.
  19. She answered correct.
  20. He won't say nothing about it.
  21. I will be real glad to see you.
  22. That tastes sweetly.
  23. The man acted too hasty.
  24. We had most reached home.
  25. They ride too rapid.


                    DO NOT USE TOO MANY ADVERBS

+298.+ Like adjectives it is better to use adverbs sparingly. This is
especially true of the adverbs used to intensify our meaning. Do not use
the adverbs, _very_, _awfully_, etc., with every other word. It makes
our speech sound like that of a gushing school girl, to whom everything
is _very, awfully sweet_. More than that, it does not leave us any words
to use when we really want to be intense in speech. Save these words
until the right occasion comes to use them.


                    Exercise 4

Adverbs should always be placed where there can be no doubt as to what
they are intended to modify. A mistake in placing the adverb in the
sentence often alters the meaning of the sentence. Choose the right word
in each of the following sentences:

  1. He looked glad--gladly when I told him the news.
  2. Slaves have always been treated harsh--harshly.
  3. I prefer my eggs boiled soft--softly.
  4. The lecturer was tolerable--tolerably well informed.
  5. Speak slower--more slowly so I can understand you.
  6. The evening bells sound sweet--sweetly.
  7. The house appears comfortable--comfortably and
     pleasant--pleasantly.
  8. If you will come quick--quickly you can hear the music.
  9. I was exceeding--exceedingly glad to hear from you.
  10. The bashful young man appeared very awkward--awkwardly.
  11. The young lady looked beautiful--beautifully and she sang
      beautiful--beautifully.
  12. I looked quick--quickly in the direction of the sound.
  13. The sun is shining bright--brightly today and the grass looks
      green--greenly.



                    SPELLING

                    LESSON 17


In our study of adjectives we have found that we use them to express
some quality possessed by a noun or pronoun which they modify. You will
recall when we studied nouns, we had one class of nouns, called abstract
nouns, which were the names of qualities. So we find that from these
adjectives expressing quality we form nouns which we use as the name of
that quality.

For example from the adjective _happy_, we form the noun _happiness_,
which is the name of the quality described by the adjective _happy_, by
the addition of the suffix _ness_. We use this suffix _ness_ quite often
in forming these derivative nouns from adjectives but there are other
suffixes also which we use; as for example, the suffix _ty_ as in
_security_, formed from the adjective _secure_, changing the _e_ to _i_
and adding the suffix _ty_. When the word ends in _t_ we sometimes add
only _y_ as in _honesty_, derived from the adjective _honest_.

You remember that an abstract noun may express not only quality but also
action, considered apart from the actor; so abstract nouns may be made
from verbs. For example:

_Running_, from the verb _run_; _settlement_, from the verb _settle_.

In our lesson for this week the list for Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday
contains adjectives of quality from which abstract nouns expressing
quality can be made, by the addition of the proper suffix, either
_ness_, _y_, _ty_ or _tion_. The list for Thursday, Friday and Saturday
consists of verbs from which abstract nouns can be made by the addition
of the suffixes _ment_ and _ing_.

Make from each adjective and verb in this week's lesson an abstract noun
by the addition of the proper suffix. Be able to distinguish between the
use of the qualifying adjective and the noun expressing quality.

  +Monday+

    Stately
    Forgetful
    Real
    Concise
    Noble

  +Tuesday+

    Slender
    Empty
    Equal
    Righteous
    Deliberate

  +Wednesday+

    Submissive
    Dreadful
    Eager
    Sincere
    Resolute

  +Thursday+
    Enlist
    Defile
    Adorn
    Nourish
    Commence

  +Friday+

    Content
    Adjust
    Induce
    Indict
    Adjourn

  +Saturday+

    Discourage
    Refine
    Acquire
    Enrich
    Infringe



                    PLAIN ENGLISH

                    LESSON 18


Dear Comrade:

Last week we finished the study of adverbs and we found that they were a
very important part of our vocabulary, and that most of us needed a
greater supply than we at present possess. This is true of both adverbs
and adjectives. While we do not use as many adverbs as adjectives in our
ordinary speech, nevertheless, adverbs are a very important factor in
expression. A great many adjectives can be readily turned into adverbs.
They are adjectives when they are used to describe a noun, but by the
addition of a suffix, they become adverbs used to describe the action
expressed by the verb. So in adding to our stock of adjectives we also
add adverbs to our vocabulary as well.

Watch your speech this week and make a list of the adverbs which you use
most commonly, then go to your dictionary and see if you cannot find
synonyms for these adverbs. Try using these synonyms for awhile and give
the adverbs which you have been using for so long, a well earned rest.
Remember that our vocabulary, and the power to use it, is like our
muscles, it can only grow and develop by exercise.

The best exercise which you can possibly find for this purpose is
conversation. We spend much more time in talking than in reading or in
writing. Conversation is an inexpensive pleasure and it does not even
require leisure always, for we can talk as we work; yet our conversation
can become a great source of inspiration and of influence as well as a
pleasant pastime. But do not spend your time in vapid and unprofitable
conversation. Surely there is some one in the list of your acquaintances
who would like to talk of things worth while. Hunt up this some one and
spend some portion of your day in profitable conversation.

Remember also that a limited vocabulary means also a limited mental
development. Did you ever stop to think that when we think clearly we
think in words? Our thinking capacity is limited, unless we have the
words to follow our ideas out to their logical conclusions.

This matter of vocabulary is a matter, too, that is exceedingly
practical. It means success or failure to us in the work which we would
like to do in the world. A command of words means added power and
efficiency; it means the power to control, or at least affect, our
environment; it means the power over men and things; it means the
difference between being people of ability and influence and being
obscure, inefficient members of society.

So feel when you are spending your time in increasing your vocabulary
that you are not only adding to your enjoyment of life but that you are
doing yourself the best practical turn; you are increasing your
efficiency in putting yourself in a position where you can make your
influence felt upon the people and circumstances about you. This effort
upon your part will bear practical fruit in your every day life.

                    Yours for Education,

                              THE PEOPLE'S COLLEGE.


                    A GROUP OF WORDS

+299.+ We have studied about the independent parts of speech, that is,
the nouns and pronouns and verbs. These are independent because with
them we can form sentences without the help of other words. And these
are the only three parts of speech which are so independent--with which
we can form complete sentences. Then we have studied also the words that
modify,--that is, the words that are used with nouns and pronouns and
verbs to describe and explain more fully the ideas which they express.
So we have studied adjectives, which modify nouns and pronouns; and
adverbs, which modify verbs or adjectives or other adverbs.

+300.+ The adjectives and adverbs which we have studied thus far are
single words; but we find that we may use little groups of words in
about the same way, to express the same idea which we have expressed in
the single adjective or adverb. For example, we may say:

  Strong men, _or_, men of strength.
  City men, _or_, men from the city.
  Jobless men, _or_, men without jobs.
  Moneyed men, _or_, men with money.

These groups of words like, _of strength_, _from the city_, _without
jobs_, and _with money_, express the same ideas that are expressed in
the single adjectives, _strong_, _city_, _jobless_ and _moneyed_.

You recall that we defined any group of words used as a single word as a
_phrase_; so these groups of words are phrases which are used as
adjectives. The phrase, _of strength_, modifies the noun _men_, just as
the adjective _strong_ modifies the noun _men_. So we may call these
phrases which modify nouns, or which may be used to modify pronouns
also, _adjective phrases_, for they are groups of words used as
adjectives.


                    Exercise 1

Change the adjectives which are printed in italics in the following
sentences into phrases:

  1. _Strong_ men know no fear.
  2. She bought a _Turkish_ rug.
  3. He followed the _river_ bed.
  4. _Fashionable_ women are parasites.
  5. He left on his _homeward_ journey.
  6. _Sensible_ men readily understand their economic slavery.
  7. _Intelligent_ people will not always submit to robbery.
  8. _Senseless_ arguments cannot convince us of the truth.


                    USED AS ADVERBS

+301.+ These phrases may be used in the place of single adverbs also.
You remember an adverb is a word that modifies a verb or an adjective or
another adverb. Let us see if we can not use a phrase or a group of
words in the place of a single adverb. For example:

  The man works rapidly, or, The man works with rapidity.
  The man works now, or, The man works at this time.
  The man works here, or, The man works at this place.

In these sentences _rapidly_, _now_ and _here_ are single adverbs
modifying the verb _work_. The phrases, _with rapidity_, _at this time_,
and _at this place_, express practically the same ideas, conveyed by the
single adverbs, _rapidly_, _now_ and _here_. These phrases modify the
verb in exactly the same manner as the single adverbs. Therefore we call
these groups of words used as single adverbs, _adverb phrases_.

We also use adverbs to modify adjectives. Let us see if we can use
adverb phrases in the same way:

  Rockefeller is _excessively_ rich; or, Rockefeller is rich _to
  excess_.
  He is _bodily_ perfect, but _mentally_ weak; or, He is perfect _in
  body_ but weak _in mind_.

In the sentences above, the adverb _excessively_ modifies the adjective
_rich_; the same meaning is expressed in the adverb phrase, _to excess_.
In the sentence, _He is bodily perfect, but mentally weak_, the adverb
_bodily_ modifies the adjective _perfect_ and the adverb _mentally_
modifies the adjective _weak_. In the last sentence, the same meaning is
expressed by the adverb phrases, _in body_ and _in mind_. These phrases
modify the adjectives _perfect_ and _weak_, just as do the single
adverbs _bodily_ and _mentally_.

+302.+ We can use a phrase in the place of almost any adverb or
adjective. It very often happens, however, that there is no adjective or
adverb which we can use to exactly express our meaning and we are forced
to use a phrase. For example:

  He bought the large house _by the river_.
  The man _on the train_ is going _to the city_.
  He came _from the country_.

It is impossible to find single words that express the meaning of these
phrases, _by the river_, _on the train_, _to the city_, and _from the
country_. You could not say the _river house_; that is not what you
mean. You mean the large house _by the river_, yet the phrase _by the
river_ modifies and describes the house quite as much as the adjective
_large_. It is an adjective phrase used to modify the noun _house_, yet
it would be impossible to express its meaning in a single word.


                    Exercise 2

Which phrases in the following sentences are used as adjectives and
which phrases are used as adverbs?

Change these phrases to adjectives or adverbs, if you can think of any
that express the same meaning.

  1. Men lived _in caves_ long ago.
  2. Man's discovery _of fire_ was the beginning _of industry_.
  3. _After this discovery_, men lived _in groups_.
  4. The work _of the world_ is done _by machinery_.
  5. The workers _of Europe_ were betrayed.
  6. They are fighting _for their country_.
  7. The struggle _for markets_ is the cause _of war_.
  8. The history _of the world_ records the struggle _of the workers_.
  9. The idea _of democracy_ is equal opportunity _for all_.
  10. The invention _of the printing press_ placed knowledge _within the
      reach_ _of the masses_.
  11. If you will study _with diligence_ you can learn _with ease_.
  12. This knowledge will be _of great value_ _to you_.
  13. Diplomacy means that the plans _of nations_ are made _in secret_.
  14. The men _in the factory_ are all paid _by the month_.
  15. They are afraid to take a trip _through Europe_ _at this time_.


                    Exercise 3

Use a phrase instead of the adjective or adverb in the following
sentences:

  1. The men in the trenches are fighting _bravely_.
  2. An _uneducated_ man is _easily_ exploited.
  3. Our _educational_ system is inadequate.
  4. The _skilled_ workers must be organized.
  5. _Careless_ men endanger the lives of others.
  6. The plans have been _carefully_ laid.
  7. _Ambitious_ men often trample on the rights of others.
  8. Shall our education be controlled by _wealthy_ men?
  9. We want to live _courageously_.
  10. We want to face the future _fearlessly_.
  11. We want to possess _peacefully_ the fruits of our labor.
  12. By constant practice we can learn to speak _effectively_.
  13. This book will be a _valuable_ addition to your library.
  14. The number of _unemployed_ men _constantly_ increases.
  15. The men mastered each step _thoroughly_ as they proceeded.
  16. In order to express one's self _eloquently_ it is necessary to
      think _clearly_.
  17. We must consecrate ourselves _completely_ to the cause of
      humanity.
  18. A _kind_ act is its own reward.
  19. _Experienced_ workers can _more easily_ secure positions.
  20. He spoke _thoughtlessly_ but the people listened _eagerly_.
  21. The soldier was rewarded for his _heroic_ deed.
  22. He is an _honorable_ man and I am not surprised at this _brave_
      act.
  23. A _prudent_ man should be chosen to fill that _important_ office.


                    PREPOSITIONS

+303.+ Have you noticed that all of these phrases, which we have been
studying and using as adjectives and adverbs, begin with a little word
like _of_, _with_, _from_, _in_, _at_ or _by_, which connects the phrase
with the word it modifies? We could scarcely express our meaning without
these little words. They are connecting words and fill an important
function. These words usually come first in the phrase. For this reason,
they are called _prepositions_, which means _to place before_.

Let us see what a useful place these little words fill in our language.
Suppose we were watching the play of some boys outside our windows and
were reporting their hiding place. We might say:

  The boys are hiding _in_ the bushes.
  The boys are hiding _among_ the bushes.
  The boys are hiding _under_ the bushes.
  The boys are hiding _behind_ the bushes.
  The boys are hiding _beyond_ the bushes.

These sentences are all alike except the prepositions _in_, _among_,
_under_, _behind_ and _beyond_. If you read the sentences and leave out
these prepositions entirely, you will see that nobody could possibly
tell what connection the _bushes_ had with the rest of the sentence. The
prepositions are necessary to express the relation of the word _bushes_
to the rest of the sentence.

But this is not all. You can readily see that the use of a different
preposition changes the meaning of the sentence. It means quite a
different thing to say, _The boys are hiding in the bushes_, and to say,
_The boys are hiding beyond the bushes_. So the preposition has a great
deal to do with the true expression of our ideas.

The noun _bushes_ is used as the object of the preposition, and the
preposition shows the relation of its object to the word which it
modifies. You remember that nouns have the same form whether they are
used as subject or as object, but if you are using a pronoun after a
preposition, always use the object form of the pronoun. For example:

  I bought the book from _him_.
  I took the message to _them_.
  I found the place for _her_.

In these sentences the pronouns, _him_, _them_, and _her_ are used as
objects of the prepositions _from_, _to_ and _for_. So we have used the
object forms of these pronouns.

+304+. The noun or pronoun that follows the preposition, and is used
with it to make a phrase, is the object of the preposition. The
preposition is used to show the relation that exists between its object
and the word the object modifies. In the sentence above, _The boys are
hiding in the bushes_, the preposition _in_ shows the relationship
between the verb phrase, _are hiding_ and the object of the preposition,
_bushes_.

The noun or pronoun which is the object of a preposition may also have
its modifiers. In the sentences used about the noun _bush_, which is the
object of the prepositions used, is modified by the adjective _the_.
Other modifiers might also be added, as for example:

  The boys are hiding in the tall, thick bushes.

The entire phrase, _in the tall, thick bushes_, is made up of the
preposition _in_, its object _bushes_ and the modifiers of bushes,
_the_, _tall_ and _thick_.

+305+. The preposition, with its object and the modifiers of the object,
forms a phrase which we call a _prepositional phrase_. These
prepositional phrases may be used either as adjectives or as adverbs, so
we have our definitions:

+A preposition is a word that shows the relation of its object to some
other word.+

+A phrase is a group of words used as a single word.+

+A prepositional phrase is a phrase composed of a preposition and its
object and modifiers.+

+An adjective phrase is a prepositional phrase used as an adjective.+

+An adverb phrase is a prepositional phrase used as an adverb.+

+306.+ Here is a list of the most common and most important
prepositions. Use each one in a sentence:

  above
  about
  across
  after
  against
  along
  around
  among
  at
  before
  behind
  below
  beneath
  beside
  between
  beyond
  by
  down
  for
  from
  in
  into
  of
  off
  on
  over
  to
  toward
  through
  up
  upon
  under
  with
  within
  without


                    ADVERBS AND PREPOSITIONS

+307.+ Many of the words that are used as prepositions are used also as
adverbs. It may be a little confusing to tell whether the word is an
adverb or a preposition, but if you will remember this simple rule you
will have no trouble:

+A preposition is always followed by either a noun or a pronoun as its
object, while an adverb never has an object.+

So when you find a word, that can be used either as a preposition or an
adverb, used alone in a sentence without an object, it is an adverb; but
if it is followed by an object, then it is a preposition. This brings
again to our minds the fundamental rule which we have laid down, that
every word is classified according to the work which it does in a
sentence. The work of a preposition is to show the relation between its
object and the word which that object modifies. So whenever a word is
used in this way it is a preposition. For example: _He went about his
business_.

Here, _about_ is a preposition and _business_ is its object. But in the
sentence, _He is able to be about_, _about_ is used as an adverb. It has
no object.

_He sailed before the mast._ Here, _before_ is a preposition introducing
the phrase _before the mast_, which modifies the verb _sailed_. But in
the sentence, _I told you that before_, _before_ is an adverb modifying
the verb _told_.

By applying this rule you can always readily determine whether the word
in question is an adverb or a preposition.


                    Exercise 4

Tell whether the words printed in italics in the following sentences,
are prepositions or adverbs and the reason why:

  1. He came _across_ the street.
  2. He is _without_ work.
  3. Come _in_.
  4. He lives _near_.
  5. He brought it _for_ me.
  6. I cannot get _across_.
  7. We will go _outside_.
  8. This is _between_ you and me.
  9. He can go _without_.
  10. Stay _in_ the house.
  11. Do not come _near_ me.
  12. They all went _aboard_ at six o'clock.
  13. He enlisted _in_ the navy and sailed _before_ the mast.
  14. I do not know what lies _beyond_.
  15. I will soon be _through_.
  16. The aeroplane flew _above_ the city for hours.


                    PHRASE PREPOSITIONS

+308.+ Sometimes we have a preposition made up of several words which we
have used so commonly together that they are used as a single word and
we call the entire phrase a preposition. As, for example: _According
to_--_on account of_--_by means of_, etc.

  1. He answered _according to_ the rule.
  2. I could not go _on account of_ illness.
  3. He won the election _by means of_ fraud.
  4. The strike was won _by help of_ all the comrades.
  5. You can learn to spell only _by dint of_ memory.
  6. We speak incorrectly _by force of_ habit.
  7. He went to New York _by way of_ Chicago.
  8. Ferrer died _for the sake of_ his ideals.
  9. _In consideration of_ this payment, we will send you the set of
     books.
  10. Germany issued her ultimatum _in defiance of_ the world.
  11. _In view of_ all the facts, we are convinced of his innocence.
  12. He will gladly suffer _in place of_ his comrade.
  13. _In conformity with_ the information contained in your letter,
      I will join you on the 10th.


                    Exercise 5

Mark the prepositions in the following quotation. In the first three
paragraphs the prepositional phrases are printed in italics. Determine
whether they are used as adjective phrases or as adverb phrases.
Underscore the prepositional phrases in the remainder of the quotation
and determine which word is used as the object of the preposition.


          THE SUNLIGHT LAY ACROSS MY BED

_In the dark_ one night I lay _upon my bed_. And _in the dark_ I dreamed
a dream. I dreamed God took my soul _to Hell_.

And we came where hell opened _into a plain_, and a great house stood
there. Marble pillars upheld the roof, and white marble steps led up _to
it_. The wind _of heaven_ blew _through it_. Only _at the back_ hung a
thick curtain. Fair men and women there feasted _at long tables_. They
danced, and I saw the robes _of women_ flutter _in the air_ and heard
the laugh _of strong men_. They feasted _with wine_; they drew it _from
large jars_ which stood somewhat _in the background_, and I saw the wine
sparkle as they drew it.

And I said _to God_, "I should like to go up and drink." And God said,
"Wait." And I saw men coming _into the banquet house_; they came in
_from the back_ and lifted the corner _of the curtain_ _at the sides_
and crept in quickly; and they let the curtain fall _behind them_; they
bore great jars they could hardly carry. And the men and women crowded
_round them_, and the newcomers opened their jars and gave them _of the
wine_ to drink; and I saw that the women drank even more greedily than
the men. And when others had well drunken they set the jars _among the
old ones_ _beside the wall_, and took their places _at the table_. And I
saw that some _of the jars_ were very old and mildewed and dusty, but
others had still drops _of new must_ _on them_ and shone _from the
furnace_.

And I said to God, "What is that?" For amid the sounds of the singing,
and over the dancing of feet, and over the laughing across the winecups,
I heard a cry.

And God said, "Stand away off."

And He took me where I saw both sides of the curtain. Behind the house
was a wine-press where the wine was made. I saw the grapes crushed, and
I heard them cry. I said, "Do not they on the other side hear it?"

God said, "The curtain is thick; they are feasting."

And I said, "But the men who came in last. They saw?"

God said, "They let the curtain fall behind them--and they forgot!"

I said, "How came they by their jars of wine?"

God said, "In the treading of the press these are they who came to the
top; they have climbed out over the edge and filled their jars from
below; and have gone into the house."

And I said, "And if they had fallen as they climbed--?"

God said, "They had been wine."

I stood away off watching in the sunshine, and I shivered.

And after a while I looked, and I saw the curtain that hung behind the
house moving.

I said to God, "Is it a wind?"

God said, "A wind."

And it seemed to me that against the curtain I saw pressed the forms of
men and women. And after a while, the feasters saw it move, and they
whispered one to another. Then some rose and gathered the most worn-out
cups, and into them they put what was left at the bottom of other
vessels. Mothers whispered to their children, "Do not drink all, save a
little drop when you have drunk." And when they had collected all the
dregs they slipped the cups out under the bottom of the curtain without
lifting it. After a while the curtain left off moving.

I said to God, "How is it so quiet?"

He said, "They have gone away to drink it."

I said, "They drink it--their own!"

God said, "It comes from this side of the curtain, and they are very
thirsty."

And still the feast went on.

Men and women sat at the tables quaffing great bowls. Some rose, and
threw their arms about each other and danced and sang. They pledged each
other in the wine, and kissed each other's blood-red lips.

Men drank till they could drink no longer, and laid their heads upon the
table, sleeping heavily. Women who could dance no more leaned back on
the benches with their heads against their lovers' shoulders. Little
children, sick with wine, lay down upon the edge of their mothers'
robes.

I said, "I cannot see more, I am afraid of Hell. When I see men dancing
I hear the time beaten in with sobs; and their wine is living! Oh, I
cannot bear Hell!"

God said, "Where will you go?"

I said, "To the earth from which I came; it was better there."

And God laughed at me; and I wondered why He laughed.

                                        --_Olive Schreiner_.



                    SPELLING

                    LESSON 18


There are a number of words that are ordinarily followed by a
preposition with its phrase. We make a great many mistakes in the use of
the proper preposition with these words. Our spelling lesson this week
covers a number of these words with examples illustrating the
appropriate preposition to be used with each word. Learn to spell these
words, look up their meaning in the dictionary and use each word with
its proper preposition in sentences of your own construction.

  +MONDAY+

  +Abhorrence+, of; We have an abhorrence _of_ war.
  +Abhorrent+, to; War is abhorrent _to_ us.
  +Acquaint+, with; I will acquaint you _with_ the facts in the case.
      You will then be acquainted _with_ the facts.
  +Acquit+, of; The man was acquitted _of_ the charge.
  +Adequate+, to; Our resources are not adequate _to_ the demand.

  +TUESDAY+

  +Angry+, with, at; We are angry _with_ persons and angry _at_ things.
  +Astonished+, at or by; (Never with) I am astonished _at_ you, or
      _by_ you, not _with_ you.
  +Confer+; We confer _with_ people, _upon_ or _about_ matters.
  +Contrary+; A thing is contrary _to_ our ideas, (not _from_ or
      _than_).
  +Controversy+; with, between, or about, (not over). I had a
      controversy _with_ you. There is a controversy _between_ the two
      _about_ the result.

  +WEDNESDAY+

  +Convicted+, of (not for). He was convicted _of_ the crime.
  +Copy+; We copy _after_ people, _from_ things, and _out_ of books.
  +Deprive+, of, (not from). We are deprived _of_ an education.
  +Desire+, of and for; We may speak of the desire _of_ a man, meaning
      man's desire; but we should always say "He has a desire _for_
      position, _for_ wealth," etc.
  +Die+, of, for and from; A person dies _of_, not _from_, a disease. He
      dies _from_ the effects of an injury. One person may die _with_
      another, but never _with_ a disease, for the disease does not die.

  +THURSDAY+

  +Differ+, from, among, about, concerning, with; Persons or things
      differ _from_ each other; that is, they are dissimilar in
      appearance. Two persons may differ _with_ each other; that is,
      contend or disagree. Several persons differ _among_ themselves
      _about_ or _concerning_ some matter.
  +Dissent+, from (not to). There was a general dissent _from_ that
      idea.
  +Guilty+, of (not for). He is guilty _of_ the crime.
  +Incentive+, to (not for). It is a great incentive _to_ action.
  +Receive+, from, (not of). Received _from_ John Smith, thirty dollars,
      etc.

  +FRIDAY+

  +Infer+, from, (not by). I infer this _from_ your remarks, not _by_
      your remarks.
  +Introduce+; A man is introduced _to_ a woman, a speaker _to_ an
      audience; _into_ society or _into_ new surroundings. We introduce
      a bill _in_ Congress or a resolution _in_ a committee.
  +Involved+, in (not with). We are involved _in_ difficulties.
  +Listen+; We listen +for+ the expected news; we listen +to+ our
      friends, not _at_.
  +Married+; One person is married +to+ another, not +with+ another.

  +SATURDAY+

  +Matter+, with, (not of). What is the matter _with_ this?
  +Opposition+, to (not against). There is opposition _to_ the motion.
  +Part+, to part _from_, means to leave. I will part _from_ my friends.
      To part _with_ means to give up. A fool soon parts _with_ his
      money.
  +Remedy+, for; We have a remedy _for_ the disease.
  +Preventive+, against; We have a preventive _against_ disease.

       *       *       *       *       *

    It is easy to sit in the sunshine
        And talk to the man in the shade;
    It is easy to float in a well-trimmed boat,
        And point out the places to wade.

    But once we pass into the shadows
        We murmur and fret and frown;
    At our length from the bank, we shout for a plank,
        Or throw up our hands and go down.

    It is easy to sit in a carriage
        And counsel the man on foot;
    But get down and walk and you'll change your talk,
        _As_ you feel the peg in your boot.

    It is easy to tell the toiler
        _How_ best he can carry his pack;
    But not one can rate a burden's weight
        _Until_ it has been on his back.

    The up-curled mouth of pleasure
        Can preach of sorrow's worth;
    But give it a sip, and a wryer lip,
        Was never made on earth.

                    --_Ella Wheeler Wilcox_.



                    PLAIN ENGLISH

                    LESSON 19


Dear Comrade:

In this lesson we are completing our study of the preposition. The
preposition is one of the last parts of speech which we take up for
study and it is also one of the last parts of speech to be added to our
vocabulary. The child does not use the preposition when it first begins
to talk. It uses the names of things; words of action; words that
describe objects and actions. It does not begin to use prepositions
until it begins to relate ideas.

The relation of ideas means that we are thinking; combining ideas into
thoughts. Then we begin to need prepositions, which are words of
relation, connecting words, expressing the relationship between ideas.
The measure of the fullness and richness of our lives is the measure of
our understanding of the world about us, of the relationship existing
between the different phases of that world and of our relationship to it
all.

So words do not mean much to us until we can relate them to our own
lives and our own experiences. When you look up a word in the
dictionary, do not study the word alone; study also the thing for which
it stands. A person with a good memory might acquire a vocabulary by
sheer feat of memory; but what good would it do unless each word could
be related to practical experience? It is only in this way that words
become _alive_ to us. We must have an idea, a concept and knowledge of
the thing for which the word stands.

So let us use our dictionary in this way. Do not be satisfied when you
have looked up a word simply to know how to spell and pronounce the word
and understand somewhat of its meaning. Do not be satisfied until it has
become a live word to you. Have a clear image and understanding of just
what each word stands for. Use the words in sentences of your own. Use
them in your conversation. Make them a part of your every-day life.

Do not pass over any of the words in the lesson without understanding
their meaning. Study the poem _Abou Ben Adhem_ in this week's lesson.
After you have read it over a number of times, close the book and
rewrite the poem in prose in your own language. Then compare your
version with the poem. Note where you have used different expressions
and decide which is the better, the words used in the poem or your own
words. Rewrite it several times until you have a well-written version of
this poem.

Exercises such as this will increase your vocabulary and quickly develop
the power of expression. No power can come in any department of life
without effort having been expended in its acquisition. Our great
writers have been careful students. Robert Louis Stevenson says that he
has often spent a half a day searching for the particular word which he
needed to express precisely the idea in mind. Stevenson is a master of
the English and this power came to him by this sort of studious and
earnest work.

                    Yours for Education,

                              THE PEOPLE'S COLLEGE.


                    AN IMPORTANT WORD

+309.+ Things are not always to be judged by their size. Sometimes the
most important things are very small and unimportant in appearance. A
great machine is before you. You see its giant wheels, its huge levers.
These may seem to be the most important parts of the machine, but here
and there throughout this great machine are little screws and bolts.
These bind the giant parts together. Without these connecting links, the
great wheels and levers and revolving belts could not work together. Let
a little bolt slip out of its place in the mechanism, and the great
wheels stop, the throbbing machinery comes to a standstill. No work is
possible until this little bolt has been replaced.

So in our sentence building, the _preposition_ is the bolt that joins
words together. The importance of the preposition in a language
increases just in proportion as the nation learns to think more exactly
and express itself more accurately.

We found in our last lesson that by changing a preposition we can change
the entire meaning of the sentence. A man's life may depend upon the use
of a certain preposition. You may swear his life away by bearing
testimony to the fact whether you saw him _within_ the house, or
_without_ the house; or _before_ dark, or _after_ dark.

+310.+ The preposition is an important word in the sentence. We can use
it to serve our purpose in various ways. We have found, for instance,
that we can use it:

_First_, to change an adjective into an adjective phrase. As, for
example:

  The _fearless_ man demands his rights.
  The man _without fear_ demands his rights.

_Second_, to change an adverb into an adverb phrase. As, for example:

  We want to possess _peacefully_ the fruits of our labor.
  We want to possess _in peace_ the fruits of our labor.

_Third_, to express a meaning which we can express in no other way; as,
for example, _They are fighting for their country_. There is no single
word which we can use to express the meaning which we express in the
phrase, _for their country_.

+311.+ So the preposition has given us a new means of expression, _the
prepositional phrase_. We can, by its help, use a phrase in place of an
adjective to modify a noun or a pronoun, and in place of an adverb to
modify a verb or an adjective. And we can also use the prepositional
phrase to express relationship which we cannot express by a single
adjective or adverb.

If I want to tell you that I see a bird in yonder tree, such an
expression would be impossible without that little preposition _in_. By
the use of various prepositions, I can express to you the relationship
between the bird and the tree. I can tell you whether it is _under_ the
tree, or _in_ the tree, or _over_ the tree, or flying _around_ the tree,
or _near_ the tree. By the use of the various prepositions, I can
express accurately the relationship that exists between the _bird_ and
the _tree_.


                    Exercise 1

Look up the list of prepositions in Section 306, on page 184. Use the
following pairs of words in sentences and use as many different
prepositions as you can to express the different relationships which may
be expressed between these words. For example, take the two words, _man_
and _house_. You may say:

  The man went _around_ the house.
  The man went _about_ the house.
  The man went _over_ the house.
  The man went _under_ the house.
  The man went _without_ the house.
  The man went _into_ the house.
  The man went _by_ the house.
  The man went _beyond_ the house.
  The man went _to_ the house.

  enemy       city
  soldiers    cannon
  man         machine
  woman       factory
  children    school
  government  people


                    A GOVERNING WORD

+312.+ The preposition shows the relation between two words. In this way
it enables us to use a noun or a pronoun as a modifying word. For
example, in the sentence given above, _I see the bird in the tree_, the
preposition _in_ shows the relationship between _bird_ and _tree_, and
makes of _tree_ a modifying word. It expresses a different meaning than
if we used the word _tree_ as an adjective. For we do not mean that we
see a tree bird, but a bird in a tree. So with the help of the
preposition _in_, we have used _tree_ as a modifying word.

But the preposition _in_ also governs the form of the word that follows
it. Since nouns have the same form whether they are used as subject or
object, this does not mean any change in the form of the nouns. But
pronouns have different forms for the subject and object, so when we use
a pronoun with a preposition, we must use the object form. There are
seven object forms of the personal pronouns, and after a preposition,
always use one of these object forms.

  He gave it to _me_.
  Give it to _him_.
  Give it to _her_.
  Add this to _it_.
  Bring it to _us_.
  I will give it to _you_.
  He gave it to _them_.

+313.+ Be careful to always use the object form of the pronoun following
a preposition. Observe this also in the use of the relative and
interrogative pronoun "who." The object form is "whom." For example:

  To whom will you go?
  This is the man to whom I wrote.
  For whom are you looking?
  Where is the woman for whom you would make such a sacrifice?


                    Where to Put the Preposition

+314.+ The preposition generally precedes its object. This is the reason
it was given its name, _preposition_, meaning _to place before_.
Sometimes, however, the preposition is separated from its object. This
is often true when it is used with an interrogative or relative pronoun.
With these pronouns, the preposition is often thrown to the end of the
sentence. For example:

  This is the book about which I was speaking; _or_, This is the book
  which I was speaking about.
  To whom shall I give this letter; _or_, Who shall I give this
  letter to?

The sentence, _To whom shall I give this letter_, is grammatically
correct; but in ordinary usage we use the form, _Who shall I give this
letter to?_

While the rule calls for the object form of the relative pronoun after a
preposition--so that the use of _to whom_ is grammatically correct--in
common usage we use the subject form of the pronoun when it is used so
far away from the preposition which governs it. So we find this use
common. For example, instead of saying, _For whom is this letter?_ we
say, _Who is this letter for?_

+315.+ In poetry also, we often find the object coming before the
preposition. For example:

    "The interlacing boughs between
    Shadows dark and sunlight sheen,
    Alternate, come and go."

_Boughs_ is here the object of the preposition _between_, but in this
poetic expression the object is placed before the preposition. Note also
in the following:

    "The unseen mermaid's pearly song,
    Comes bubbling up the weeds _among_."

    "Forever panting and forever young,
    All breathing human passion far _beyond_."

+316.+ After an interrogative adjective, the preposition is also often
thrown to the end of the sentence. As, for example:

  What men are the people talking _about_?
  Which person did you write _to_?

With these few exceptions, however, the preposition usually precedes its
object, as:

  We were astonished _at_ the news.
  He arose _from_ his sleep.


                    POSSESSIVE PHRASES

+317.+ Review Lesson 4, in which we studied the possessive use of nouns.
You will recall that we make the possessive form of the nouns by the use
of the apostrophe and _s_. But instead of using the possessive forms of
the name of inanimate things; that is, things without life, we generally
denote possession by the use of a phrase. Thus we would say, _The arm of
the chair_, instead of, _The chair's arm_; or, _The roof of the house_,
instead of, _The house's roof_.

+318.+ We also use a possessive phrase when the use of a possessive form
would give an awkward construction. As, for example: _Jesus' sayings_.
So many hissing sounds are not pleasant to the ear and so, we say
instead, _The sayings of Jesus_.

+319.+ We use a phrase also where both nouns are in the plural form. In
many words, there is no difference in the sound between a single noun in
the possessive form and a plural noun in the possessive form. We can
readily tell the meaning when it is written, because the place of the
apostrophe indicates the meaning, but when it is spoken the sound is
exactly the same. As, for example:

  The lady's hats.
  The ladies' hats.

Written out in this way, you know that in the first instance I am
speaking of the hats belonging to one lady, but in the second instance
of the hats belonging to two or more ladies. But when it is spoken, you
can not tell whether I mean one lady or a number of ladies. So we use a
phrase and say, _The hats of the lady_; or, _The hats of the ladies_.
Then the meaning is entirely clear.

+320.+ Sometimes we want to use two possessives together, and in this
case it is better to change one of them into a phrase; for example,
_This is my comrade's father's book_. This is an awkward construction.
Say instead, _This is the book belonging to my comrade's father_.

+321.+ Do not overlook the fact, however, that the phrase beginning with
_of_ does not always mean possession. Consider the following examples
and see if there is not a difference in meaning:

  The history of Wilson is interesting.
  Wilson's history is interesting.

In the first instance, I mean the history of Wilson's life is
interesting; in the second instance I mean the history belongs to or
written by Wilson is interesting. So there is quite a difference in the
meaning. The phrase _of Wilson_ used in the first example does not
indicate possession.

Note the difference in meaning between the following sentences:

  The picture of Millet is good.
  Millet's picture is good.

  The statue of Rodin stands in the park.
  Rodin's statue stands in the park.

Would you say:

  The invention of gunpowder, or gunpowder's invention?
  The destruction of Louvain, or Louvain's destruction?
  The siege of Antwerp, or Antwerp's siege?
  The boat's keel, or the keel of the boat?


                    COMMON ERRORS

+322.+ Prepositions are usually very small and seemingly unimportant
words, yet we make a great many mistakes in their use. It is these
little mistakes that are most difficult to avoid.

Notice carefully in your own speech this week, and in the conversation
which you overhear, the use of the prepositions. Notice especially the
following cautions:

+1. Do not use prepositions needlessly.+ We often throw a preposition in
at the close of a sentence which we have already used in the sentence,
and which we should not use again. The little preposition _at_ is most
frequently used in this way. See how many times this week you hear
people use such phrases as:

  At which store do you trade at?
  At what corner did you stop at?

The last _at_ is entirely unnecessary. It has already been used once and
that is enough. We also use _at_ and _to_ at the close of sentences
beginning with an interrogative adverb, where they are not necessary.
For example, we say:

  Where did you go to?
  Where did you stop at?
  Where am I at?

The correct form of these sentences is:

  Where did you go?
  Where did you stop?
  Where am I?

Do not use _at_ and _to_ in this way, they are entirely superfluous and
give a most disagreeable sound to the sentence. Do not close a sentence
with a preposition in this way.

+2. Do not omit the preposition where it properly belongs.+ For example,
we often say:

  The idea is no use to me.

We should say, _The idea is of no use to me_.

  I was home yesterday.

We should say, _I was at home_ yesterday.

+3. Do not use the preposition _of_ with a verb that requires an
object.+ The noun cannot be the object of both the verb and the
preposition. As, for example:

  He does not remember _of_ seeing you.
  Do you approve _of_ his action?

_Remember_ and _approve_ are both incomplete verbs requiring an object,
and the nouns _seeing_ and _action_ are the objects of the incomplete
verbs _remember_ and _approve_. The preposition _of_ is entirely
superfluous. The sentences should read:

  He does not remember seeing you.
  Do you approve his action?

Other verbs with which we commonly use the preposition _of_ in this way
are the verbs _accept_ and _recollect_. As, for example:

  Will you accept _of_ this kindness?
  Will you try to recollect _of_ it?

These sentences should read:

  Will you accept this kindness?
  Will you try to recollect it?


                    The Correct Preposition

+323.+ We make a great many mistakes also in the choice of
prepositions. For example, the preposition _between_ refers to two
objects and should never be used when you are speaking of more than two,
thus:

  We settled the quarrel _between_ the two men.

This is correct, but it is incorrect to say:

  We settled the quarrel _between_ the members of the Union.

We cannot settle a quarrel between a _dozen_ people. When there are more
than two, use the word _among_. We can perhaps attempt to settle a
quarrel _among_ a dozen people. _Between_ refers to two objects, _among_
refers to more than two. For example:

  Divide the work _between_ the two men.
  Divide the work _among_ twenty men.

+324.+ Do not confuse the use of _in_ and _into_. When entrance is
denoted use _into_. As, for example:

  He came into the room.
  He got into the auto.

Often the use of _in_ will give an entirely different meaning to the
sentence. For example:

  He ran _in_ the water.
  He ran _into_ the water.
  The man acted as our guide _in_ the city.
  The man acted as our guide _into_ the city.
  The horse ran _in_ the pasture.
  The horse ran _into_ the pasture.

+325.+ Do not use _below_ and _under_ to mean _less_ or _fewer_ in
regard to an amount or number. _Below_ and _under_ have reference to
place only. It is correct to say:

  He went _under_ the bridge.
  He came out _below_ the falls.

But it is incorrect to say:

  The price is _below_ cost.
  There were _under_ fifty present.

Say instead:

  The price is _less_ than cost.
  There were _fewer_ than fifty present.

+326.+ Do not misuse _over_ and _above_. These prepositions have
reference only to _place_. They are incorrectly used to mean _more than_
or _greater than_.

It is correct to say:

  The boat anchored above the landing.
  He flew over the city.

It is incorrect to say:

  He bought above a hundred acres.
  He lives over a mile from here.

These sentences should be:

  He bought more than a hundred acres.
  He lives more than a mile from here.


                    THE PREPOSITION WITH VERBS

+327.+ In our first lesson on prepositions, we had a list of verbs and
the correct preposition to use with these verbs. There are a few words
which we use very commonly in which the meaning is slightly different
according to the preposition which we use in connection with the verb.
Foreigners especially who are learning the English language have great
difficulty with the prepositions. Here are a few of these common words:

+Adapt.+ With _adapt_ we can use either the preposition _to_ or _for_.
For example; we adapt ourselves _to_ circumstances, that is, we
accommodate or conform ourselves; but a thing can be adapted _for_ a
certain purpose.

+Agree.+ We can use the prepositions _with_ and _to_ with the verb
_agree_, but with different meanings. For example, we say, We agree
_with_ you about a certain matter; and, We agree _to_ the proposal which
you make.

+Ask.+ We ask a favor _of_ a person. We ask a friend _for_ a favor. We
ask _about_ some one or thing that we wish to hear about.

+Charge.+ There are several prepositions we can use with the verb
_charge_. Your grocer charges you _for_ the things that you buy. If you
run an account you are charged _with_ a certain amount. These things are
charged _to_ you; but in war the enemy charges _upon_ you.

+Compare.+ One thing is compared _with_ another in quality, but it is
compared _to_ another when we are using the comparison for an
illustration.

+Complain.+ We make complaint _to_ the manager _of_ the things we do not
like.

+Comply.+ We comply _with_ the request of another, but he does a thing
_in_ compliance _with_ that request. Do not use the preposition _to_
with compliance.

+Correspond.+ With correspond, we use either the preposition _with_ or
_to_. For example, I may correspond _with_ you, meaning that I
communicate with you by letter, but one thing corresponds _to_ another,
meaning that it is like the other.

+Disgust.+ We are disgusted _with_ our friends sometimes _at_ the things
which they do. We are disgusted _with_ people and _at_ things.

+Reconcile.+ With reconcile, we use either the preposition _with_ or
_to_. For example, I may become reconciled _with_ you; that is, I am
restored to friendship or favor after an estrangement. But we reconcile
one thing _to_ another; that is, we harmonize one thing with another.

+Taste.+ We have a taste _for_ music, art or literature, but we enjoy
the taste _of_ good things to eat. When taste refers to one of the five
senses, use the preposition _of_, but when you use it to mean
intellectual relish or enjoyment, use the preposition _for_.


                    Exercise 2

Mark all of the prepositional phrases in the following poem:

          THE ANGEL OF DISCONTENT

    When the world was formed and the morning stars
        Upon their paths were sent,
    The loftiest-browed of the angels was made
        The Angel of Discontent.

    And he dwelt with man in the caves of the hills,
        Where the crested serpents sting,
    And the tiger tears and the she-wolf howls,
        And he told of better things.

    And he led them forth to the towered town,
        And forth to the fields of corn,
    And told of the ampler work ahead,
        For which his race was born.

    And he whispers to men of those hills he sees
        In the blush of the misty west;
    And they look to the heights of his lifted eye--
        And they hate the name of rest.

    In the light of that eye does the slave behold
        A hope that is high and brave;
    And the madness of war comes into his blood--
        For he knows himself a slave.

    The serfs of wrong by the light of that eye
        March with victorious songs;
    For the strength of the right comes into their hearts
        When they behold their wrongs.

    'Tis by the light of that lifted eye
        That error's mists are rent;
    A guide to the table-lands of Truth
        Is the Angel of Discontent.

    And still he looks with his lifted eye,
        And his glance is far away,
    On a light that shines on the glimmering hills
        Of a diviner day.

                    --_Sam Walter Foss_.


                    Exercise 3

Mark all of the prepositions in the following poem. Write out the entire
phrases and mark the word which is the object of the preposition. For
example, in the phrase in the second line; _from a rich dream_, _dream_
is the object of the preposition _from_; and _a_ and _rich_ modify the
noun _dream_.

    Abou Ben Adhem (may his tribe increase)
    Awoke one night from a rich dream of peace,
    And saw, within the moonlight of his room,
    Making it rich, and like a lily in bloom,
    An angel, writing in a book of gold.
    Exceeding peace had made Ben Adhem bold,
    And to the Presence in the room he said,
    "What writest thou?" The Vision raised its head,
    And, with a look made of all sweet accord,
    Answered, "The names of those who love the Lord."
    "And is mine one?" said Abou. "Nay, not so,"
    Replied the Angel. Abou spoke, more low,
    But cheerily still; and said, "I pray thee, then,
    Write me as one that loves his fellow-men."
    The angel wrote and vanished. The next night
    It came again, with a great wakening light,
    And showed the names whom love of God had blessed,
    And lo! Ben Adhem's name led all the rest.

                    --_Leigh Hunt_.



                    SPELLING

                    LESSON 19


There are a few prepositions which might really be called derivative
prepositions.

1. A few prepositions are formed from verbs. These are really participle
prepositions, for they are the present participles of the verbs but have
come to be used like prepositions. These are such as _concerning_,
_excepting_, _regarding_, _respecting_, _during_, _according_, etc.
Nearly all of these participle prepositions can be expressed by a
preposition phrase, as for example, we can either say; I wrote
_regarding_ these facts, or I wrote you _in regard to_ these facts. I
mentioned them all _excepting_ the last, or, I mentioned them all _with
the exception of_ the last. I have gone _according_ to the directions,
or, I have gone _in accord with_ the directions.

2. Derivative prepositions are also formed by prefixing _a_ to other
parts of speech, as _along_, _around_, _abroad_, etc. Strictly speaking
these might be called compound prepositions for the prefix _a_ is really
from the preposition _on_.

3. We have also compound prepositions formed:

By uniting two prepositions, as _into_, _within_, _throughout_, etc.

By uniting a preposition and some other part of speech, usually a noun
or an adjective, as _beside_, _below_ and _beyond_.

We also have a number of compound verbs which are made by prefixing a
preposition to a verb. Some of these compound words have quite a
different meaning from the meaning conveyed by the two words used
separately; as for example, the compound verb _withstand_, derived from
the preposition _with_ and the verb _stand_, has almost the opposite
meaning from _stand with_.

Our spelling lesson this week includes a number of these compound verbs
formed by the use of the verb and a preposition. Look up the meaning in
the dictionary. Use them in sentences in the compound form; then the two
words separately as a verb and a preposition and note the difference in
the meaning.

  +Monday+

    Upset
    Withdraw
    Outrun
    Overlook
    Understand

  +Tuesday+

    Oversee
    Undergo
    Outnumber
    Withhold
    Overcome

  +Wednesday+

    Overflow
    Undertake
    Overreach
    Overthrow
    Outshine

  +Thursday+

    Overhear
    Withstand
    Overgrow
    Overhaul
    Overrun

  +Friday+

    Concerning
    Regarding
    Respecting
    According
    Excepting

  +Saturday+

    Against
    Throughout
    Around
    Between
    Beneath



                    PLAIN ENGLISH

                    LESSON 20


Dear Comrade:

We are taking up in this lesson the study of the last important part of
speech. We have spent some little time on the study of these parts of
speech, but it has been time well spent. We cannot use good English and
construct sentences that express our thoughts without an adequate
knowledge of the words we use in sentence building. As soon as we finish
the study of the parts of speech, we will spend several weeks in
sentence building. This will give us a review of these lessons in which
we have studied separate words.

The English language is one of the most interesting of all to study. It
is the most truly international of all languages, for the English
language contains words from almost every language in the world. Did you
ever stop to think that we could have internationalism in language as
well as in other things? We can be as narrowly patriotic concerning
words as concerning anything else.

Nations have been prone to consider all those who do not speak their
language as barbarians. Germany, perhaps, possesses as strong a
nationalistic spirit as any country, and in Germany this spirit has
found expression in a society formed for the purpose of keeping all
foreign words out of the German language. They have published handbooks
of native words for almost every department of modern life. They insist
that the people use these words, instead of foreign importations. The
German State takes great pride in the German language and considers it
the most perfect of any spoken today. The rulers of Germany believe that
it is a part of their duty to the world to see that all other nations
speak the German language. In conquered Poland, only German is permitted
to be taught in the schools or to be spoken as the language of commerce.
The patriots in language seem to believe that there is some connection
between purity of language and purity of race.

In English, however, we have the beginnings of an international speech.
Our civilization is derived from various sources. Here in America we are
truly the melting-pot of the nations, and this is mirrored forth in our
language which is, in a way, a melting-pot also, in which have been
thrown words from every tongue. Those for whom nationalism is an
important thing will probably cling to the idea of a pure unmixed
language, but to those of us to whom Internationalism is not an empty
word, but a living ideal, an international language becomes also part of
the ideal.

There is a wealth of wonderful literature open to us once we have gained
a command of the English language. Pay especial attention to the
quotations given in each lesson. These are quotations from the very best
literature. If there are any of them that arouse your interest and you
would like to read more from the same author, write us and we shall be
glad to furnish you full information concerning further reading.

                    Yours for Education,

                              THE PEOPLE'S COLLEGE.


                    CONJUNCTIONS

+328.+ You remember that in Lesson 3, where we studied the parts of
speech, we found that we had another connective word besides the
preposition,--the conjunction.

A preposition connects two words and shows what one of them has to do
with the other. The conjunction plays a different part as a connective,
for it connects not only words but also phrases and clauses. Note the
following sentences:

  Shall we be men _or_ machines?
  We must struggle for ourselves _and_ for our children.
  We pray for peace _but_ furnish ammunition for war.

The use of the conjunction saves a great deal of tiresome repetition,
for, by its use, where two subjects have the same predicate or two
predicates have the same subject, we can combine it all into one
sentence.

You will readily realize how important this part of speech is to us. If
we did not have conjunctions our speech would be cumbersome and we would
have to use a great many short sentences and a great deal of repetition.
If we wanted to make the same statement concerning a number of things,
without conjunctions, we would have each time to repeat the entire
statement. Try to write a description of a scene and avoid the use of
conjunctions and you will see what an important part these connective
words play in our power of expression.

Without the use of the conjunction, you would necessarily use a great
many short expressions and repeat the same words again and again, and
your description would be a jerky, tiresome, unsatisfactory piece of
writing.


                    Exercise 1

Rewrite the following sentences, writing in separate sentences the
clauses that are united by the conjunctions:


  1. The birds are singing _and_ spring is here.
  2. We talk of peace, _but_ war still rages.
  3. The unemployed cannot find work _and_ they are dying of hunger.
  4. We believed in war for defense _and_ every nation is now fighting
     for defense.
  5. We believe in education _and_ we are struggling for universal
     education.
  6. The old order is fast passing _and_ the new order is rapidly
     appearing.
  7. Profit is the keynote of the present, _but_ service shall be the
     keynote of the future.
  8. All children should be in school, _but_ thousands must earn their
     bread.

Note that these sentences are made up of two or more simple sentences
combined; and each of these simple sentences is called a clause, and
each clause must contain a subject and a predicate.


                    Exercise 2

Rewrite the following simple sentences, using conjunctions to avoid a
repetition of the same subject and predicate. Rewrite these into a
paragraph, making as well written a paragraph as you possibly can:

  One hundred years ago the workers fought for universal education.
  As a result we have our public schools of today.
  Our public schools have been our chief bulwark against oppression.
  Our public schools are our chief bulwark against oppression.
  Our public schools are our greatest safeguard for the protection of
  such liberty as we enjoy.
  Our public school system embodies a socialistic ideal.
  Our public school system is the most democratic of our institutions.
  There has been a subtle subversion of the ideal.
  The public school system has been made to serve the master class.
  We have spent millions to make the ideal a reality.
  Have we realized the ideal?
  Is there universal education?
  Is there education for every child beneath the flag?
  The grounds of our public schools have cost millions.
  The buildings have cost millions.
  The courses of study are many.
  They are varied.
  They are elaborate.
  But the workers of the world do not enjoy this feast.
  The children of the workers do not enjoy this feast.


                    CLASSES OF CONJUNCTIONS

+329.+ Conjunctions are divided into classes, as are other parts of
speech, according to the work which they do. Notice the following
sentences and notice how the use of a different conjunction changes the
meaning of the sentence.

  We are united _and_ we shall win.
   _When_ we are united, we shall win.

In the first sentence the conjunction _and_ connects the two clauses,
_we are united_ and _we shall win_. They are both independent clauses,
neither is dependent upon the other, and both are of equal importance.
But by the use of the conjunction _when_, instead of the conjunction
_and_, we have changed the meaning of the sentence. There is quite a
difference in saying, _We are united and we shall win_, and _When we are
united we shall win_.

By connecting these two statements with the conjunction _when_, we have
made of the clause, _we are united_, a dependent clause, it modifies the
verb phrase _shall win_. It tells _when_ we shall win, just as much as
if we had used an _adverb_ to modify the verb phrase, and had said, _We
shall win tomorrow_, instead of, _We shall win when we are united_.

So in these two sentences we have two different kinds of conjunctions,
the conjunction _and_, which connects clauses of equal rank or order,
and the conjunction _when_, which connects a dependent clause to the
principal clause.

+330.+ So the conjunctions like _and_ are called co-ordinate
conjunctions. _Co-ordinate_ means literally of equal rank or order.
Conjunctions like _when_ are called sub-ordinate conjunctions.
_Sub-ordinate_ means of inferior rank or order.

So we have our definitions:

+331.+ +A conjunction is a word that connects words or phrases or
clauses.+

+A co-ordinate conjunction is one that joins words, phrases or clauses
having the same rank.+

+A subordinate conjunction is one that connects a dependent clause to
the principal clause.+


                    CO-ORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS

+332.+ +Co-ordinate conjunctions connect words, phrases or clauses of
equal rank.+ The most commonly used co-ordinate conjunctions are; _and_,
_but_, _or_, _nor_.

+333.+ But there are a number of words which we often use as adverbs,
which may also be used as co-ordinate conjunctions. These words are not
always conjunctions, for they are sometimes used as adverbs. When they
are used as conjunctions they retain something of their adverbial
meaning; but still they are conjunctions, for they are used to show the
connection between two clauses of equal rank. Thus:

  I am not in favor of the motion, _nevertheless_ I shall vote for it.
  The deputies voted for the war appropriation, _notwithstanding_ they
  had carried on an extensive anti-war propaganda.
  I did not believe in the change, _however_ I did not oppose it.

+334.+ The co-ordinate conjunctions which we use with this adverbial
meaning also, are; _therefore_, _hence_, _still_, _besides_,
_consequently_, _yet_, _likewise_, _moreover_, _else_, _than_, _also_,
_accordingly_, _nevertheless_, _notwithstanding_, _otherwise_,
_however_, _so_ and _furthermore_.

These conjunctions always refer to what has been said before and serve
to introduce and connect new statements.

+335.+ We often use these conjunctions, and also, _and_, _but_, _or_,
and _nor_, at the beginning of a separate sentence or paragraph to
connect it in meaning with that which has gone before. You will often
see the use of these conjunctions as the first word of a new paragraph,
thus relating this paragraph to that which has preceded it.

+336.+ +Co-ordinate conjunctions connect words of equal rank.+


                    NOUNS

Co-ordinate conjunctions may connect two or more _nouns_ used as the
subject of a verb. As:

  _Death_ and _disaster_ follow in the wake of war.

In this sentence, _death_ is just as much the subject of the verb
_follow_ as is the word _disaster_, but no more so. You can omit either
of these words and the other will make a subject for the sentence. They
are both of equal importance, both of the same rank in the sentence, and
neither depends upon the other. These two words taken together form the
subject of the sentence. This is called the _compound subject_, for it
consists of two simple subjects.

Co-ordinate conjunctions may connect two or more nouns used as the
_object_ of a verb.

  He studies history and science.

In this sentence the words _history_ and _science_ are both used as
objects of the verb _studies_.

Co-ordinate conjunctions may connect two or more nouns used as the
object of a _preposition_.

  He called for the letters and the papers.

In this sentence _letters_ and _papers_ are both objects of the
preposition _for_, connected by the co-ordinate conjunction _and_.


                    Exercise 3

Note in the following sentences the nouns which are connected by
conjunctions and decide whether they are used as the subject of the
sentences or the object of verbs or of prepositions. Draw a line under
compound subjects.

  1. John and Henry are going home.
  2. Music and painting are fine arts.
  3. The grounds and buildings of our public schools have cost millions.
  4. The time calls for brave men and women.
  5. We struggle for truth and freedom.
  6. Will you study English or arithmetic?
  7. Education and organization are necessary for success.
  8. We must learn the truth about production and distribution.
  9. We demand justice and liberty.
  10. The great struggle is between the working class and the ruling
      class.


                    PRONOUNS

+337.+ +Co-ordinate conjunctions may also connect pronouns.+

These are used in the same way as nouns,--either as subject or object.
Nouns have the same form whether used as subject or object. Pronouns,
however, have different forms when used as the object. Here is where we
often make mistakes in the use of pronouns. When the pronouns are
connected by co-ordinate conjunctions they are of the same rank and are
used in the same construction;--if they are used as subjects both must
be used in the subject form;--if they are used as objects, both must be
used in the object form. For example, it is incorrect to say, _He told
the story to her and I_. Here _her_ is properly used in the object form,
for it is the object of the preposition _to_; the pronoun _I_ connected
with _her_ by the use of the conjunction _and_ is also the object of the
preposition _to_, and the object form should be used. You would not say,
_He told the story to I_. The sentence should read, _He told the story
to her and me_.

Co-ordinate conjunctions may connect two pronouns used as the _subject_
of a sentence, as for example:

  _She_ and _I_ arrived today.

Co-ordinate conjunctions may connect two pronouns used as the _object_
of the verb, as for example:

  Did you call _her_ or _me_?

Co-ordinate conjunctions may connect two pronouns used as the object of
the _preposition_, as:

  He gave that to _you_ and _me_.


                    Exercise 4

Study closely the following sentences and correct those in which the
wrong form of the pronoun is used.

  1. He and I are old friends.
  2. Did you ask him or me?
  3. They promised him and I that they would come.
  4. Find the place for she and me.
  5. Me and him will get it for you and she.
  6. She and I will go with you.
  7. You and I must decide matters for ourselves.
  8. You will find him and her to be loyal comrades.


                    VERBS

+338.+ +Co-ordinate conjunctions are also used to connect verbs.+ Verbs
connected in this way have the same subject; and with the use of the
conjunction to connect the verbs, we save repeating the subject.

  He _reads_ and _studies_ constantly.

In this sentence _reads_ and _studies_ are words of the same kind and of
the same rank; either could be omitted and the other would make a
predicate for the sentence. They are of equal importance in the sentence
and are connected by the conjunction _and_. They have a single subject,
the pronoun _he_.

This is called a compound predicate.

In the sentence, _He reads constantly_, we have a simple predicate, the
single verb _reads_; but in the sentence, _He reads and studies
constantly_, we have a compound predicate, compound of the two verbs
_reads_ and _studies_. A sentence may have both a compound subject and a
compound predicate. As, for example:

  John and James read and study constantly.

In this sentence _John_ and _James_ is the compound subject of both the
verbs, _read_ and _study_. So we have a compound subject and a compound
predicate.


                    Exercise 5

Notice the verbs in the following sentences connected by co-ordinate
conjunctions. Draw lines under each compound predicate.

  1. The days come _and_ go in a ceaseless round.
  2. The brave man dreams _and_ dares to live the dream.
  3. The coward dreams _but_ dares not live the dream.
  4. We produce splendidly _but_ distribute miserably.
  5. The bought press twists _and_ distorts the facts.
  6. Only a traitor aids _or_ supports the enemy.
  7. We agitate _and_ educate for the cause of liberty.


                    ADJECTIVES

+339.+ +Co-ordinate conjunctions are used to connect adjectives.+

In this way we use a number of adjectives to modify the same word
without tiresome repetition. When several adjectives are used to modify
the same word, the conjunction is used only between the last two
adjectives. As, for example:

A _simple_, _clear_ and _concise_ course has been prepared.


                    Exercise 6

In the following sentences, underscore the adjectives which are
connected by co-ordinate conjunctions.

  1. The plains of France are covered with the dead and dying soldiers.
  2. Education should be both universal and free.
  3. They are faithful and loyal comrades.
  4. This was only our just and legal right.
  5. Old and hoary was the man who sat on the stool by the fireless and
     godless altar.
  6. The service of humanity is a sweet and noble task.
  7. We must be brave and true.
  8. He lived a noble and courageous life.
  9. All was old and cold and mournful.
  10. Most powerful and eloquent is the voice of the disinherited.


                    ADVERBS

+340.+ +Co-ordinate conjunctions are also used to connect adverbs.+ This
gives us the power to describe the action expressed in verbs without the
tiresome repetition of the verb. For example:

  He spoke _fluently_ and _eloquently_.


                    Exercise 7

In the following sentences underscore the adverbs which are connected
by co-ordinate conjunctions:

  1. Man selfishly and greedily prevents his fellow men from the
     enjoyment of nature's bounties.
  2. She is wonderfully and gloriously brave.
  3. He speaks eloquently and impressively, but very slowly.
  4. Nature has provided lavishly and bountifully for her children.
  5. Advice spoken truly and wisely is always in season.
  6. We must resist injustice bravely and courageously.
  7. He feels keenly and deeply the wrongs of his class.
  8. He writes easily and rapidly.
  9. The words, calmly and coolly spoken, were instantly opposed.
  10. He reached that conclusion naturally and inevitably.
  11. He was gently but unwaveringly firm.
  12. The revolution comes slowly but surely.


                    PHRASES

+341.+ +Co-ordinate conjunctions are used, not only to connect words,
but also to connect phrases.+


                    Verb Phrases

+342.+ Verb phrases may be connected by conjunctions. For example:

  The People's College _is owned_ and _controlled_ by the working class.
  We _have made_ and _are making_ a fierce struggle for a free press.


In this last sentence the two verb phrases, _have made_ and _are making_
are connected by the co-ordinate conjunction _and_. Often in using verb
phrases, we use phrases in which the same helping verb occurs in both
phrases. When this is the case the helping verb is quite often omitted
in the second phrase and only the participle is connected by the
conjunction. As, for example:

  The People's College is owned and controlled by the working class.

In this sentence the helping verb _is_ belongs in both the phrases but
is omitted in the second phrase in order to make a smoother sounding
sentence. In the second phrase, only the past participle _controlled_ is
used. It is understood that we mean,

  The People's College _is owned_ and _is controlled_ by the working
      class.


                    Exercise 8

Note the use of the conjunction in the following sentences to connect
the verb phrases. Supply the helping verb where it is omitted.

  1. Our system of education is rooted and grounded in outgrown dogmas.
  2. We have written but have received no answer.
  3. Will you come or stay?
  4. Man must struggle or remain in slavery.
  5. The workers are organizing and demanding their rights.
  6. We must arouse and educate our comrades.
  7. We have sought but have not found.


                    Prepositional Phrases

+343.+ +Co-ordinate conjunctions are used to connect prepositional
phrases.+

These phrases may be used as adjective phrases. For example:

  The books _in the book case_ and _on the table_ belong to me.

These phrases may be used as adverb phrases. For example:

  He works _with speed_ and _with ease_.


                    Exercise 9

Note in the following sentences, the prepositional phrases which
are connected by co-ordinate conjunctions. Mark which are used as
adjective and which as adverb phrases.

  1. Education is the road out of ignorance and into the light.
  2. The army charged over the plain and up the hill.
  3. The first men lived in groups and in clans.
  4. Democracy means government of the people and by the people.
  5. Shall we take the path toward progress or toward barbarism.
  6. They are not fighting for their country but for their king.
  7. Human rights are not protected by the law nor by the courts.
  8. The problem of the working class and of society is the problem of
     equitable distribution.
  9. They are deceived by their leaders and by their press.
  10. You can pay either by the week or by the month.
  11. Our government is not the rule of the majority but of the
      minority.


                    Infinitives and Participles

+344.+ +Co-ordinate conjunctions are also used to connect infinitives
and participles.+


                    Exercise 10

In the following sentences mark the infinitives and participles
connected by co-ordinate conjunctions.

  1. Those words will inspire us to dream and to dare.
  2. We shall learn to produce and to distribute.
  3. To be or not to be, that is the question.
  4. Puffing and panting, the great engine pulled up to the station.
  5. A cringing and trembling coward fears to demand his own.
  6. The warped and twisted facts in the daily press deceive the masses.
  7. Singing and dancing should be enjoyed by all children.
  8. The exploiting and robbing of the people is made a virtue in ruling
     class ethics.


                    CLAUSES

+345.+ +Co-ordinate conjunctions are also used to connect clauses of
equal rank.+ For example:

  _The floods came and the winds blew._

Each of these clauses is a complete sentence in itself, but they are
combined into one compound sentence by the use of the co-ordinate
conjunction, _and_. Clauses united in this way may have a compound
subject and a compound predicate, but two complete clauses must be
united by a co-ordinate conjunction in order to form a compound
sentence. For example:

The rain and snow fell, _and_ the wind blew a mighty gale.

Here the first clause in the compound sentence, _the rain and snow
fell_, contains a compound subject, _rain and snow_.

The boys are running and shouting, _and_ the girls are gathering
flowers.

Here the first clause has a compound predicate, _are running_ and
_shouting_. The second _and_ connects the two clauses forming the
compound sentence.


                    CORRELATIVES

+346.+ Certain co-ordinate conjunctions are used in pairs, such as
_both, and_; _either, or_; _neither, nor_; _whether, or_. These pairs
are called correlatives. The first word in the pair, as, _both_,
_either_, _neither_, or _whether_, is used as an assistant conjunction
helping the other to do the connecting. These are used in such sentences
as:

  I have _both_ seen _and_ heard him.
  They will join us _either_ in April _or_ in May.
  Labor has received _neither_ liberty _nor_ justice.
  _Whether_ to go forward _or_ to retreat was the problem.

Note that _nor_ is always the proper correlative to use with _neither_
and also with the negatives _not_ and _never_ when they apply to what
follows as well as to what precedes. For example:

  There are thousands in this country who can _neither_ read _nor_
  write.
  _Neither_ you _nor_ I can foretell the future.
  He will _not_ write _nor_ should you.
  Capital punishment is _nothing_ more _nor_ less than legalized murder.
  We shall _never_ lower our colors _nor_ retreat.

_Or_ is always used with the correlative _either_. For example:

  We will _either_ come _or_ write you.
  _Either_ he was mistaken _or_ he deliberately lied.


                    Exercise 11

Note the use of the co-ordinate conjunctions _and_, _but_, _or_ and
_nor_, in the following quotation. Mark especially the use of _and_ as
an introductory conjunction, introducing a new sentence, but connecting
it with that which has gone before.

  In my judgment slavery is the child of ignorance. Liberty is born of
  intelligence. Only a few years ago there was a great awakening in the
  human mind. Men began to inquire, "By what right does a crowned robber
  make me work for him?" The man who asked this question was called a
  traitor.

  They said then, and they say now, that it is dangerous for the mind of
  man to be free. I deny it. Out on the intellectual sea there is room
  for every sail. In the intellectual air, there is space enough for
  every wing. And the man who does not do his own thinking is a slave,
  and does not do his duty to his fellow men. For one, I expect to do my
  own thinking. And I will take my oath this minute that I will express
  what thoughts I have, honestly and sincerely. I am the slave of no man
  and of no organization. I stand under the blue sky and the stars,
  under the infinite flag of nature, the peer of every human being.

  All I claim, all I plead is simple liberty of thought. That is all. I
  do not pretend to tell what is true nor all the truth. I do not claim
  that I have floated level with the heights of thought, nor that I have
  descended to the depths of things; I simply claim that what ideas I
  have, I have a right to express, and any man that denies it to me is
  an intellectual thief and robber.

  Every creed that we have today has upon it the mark of the whip or the
  chain or the fagot. I do not want it. Free labor will give us wealth,
  and has given us wealth, and why? Because a free brain goes into
  partnership with a free hand. That is why. And when a man works for
  his wife and children, the problem of liberty is, how to do the most
  work in the shortest space of time; but the problem of slavery is, how
  to do the least work in the longest space of time. Slavery is poverty;
  liberty is wealth.

  It is the same in thought. Free thought will give us truth; and the
  man who is not in favor of free thought occupies the same relation to
  those he can govern that the slaveholder occupied to his slaves,
  exactly. Free thought will give us wealth. There has not been a
  generation of free thought yet. It will be time to write a creed when
  there have been a few generations of free-brained men and splendid
  women in this world. I don't know what the future may bring forth; I
  don't know what inventions are in the brain of the future; I don't
  know what garments may be woven, with the years to come; but I do
  know, coming from the infinite sea of the future, there will never
  touch this "bank and shoal of time" a greater blessing nor a grander
  glory, than liberty for man, woman and child.

  Oh, liberty! Float not forever in the far horizon! Remain not forever
  in the dream of the enthusiast and the poet and the philanthropist.
  But come and take up thine abode with the children of men
  forever.--_Ingersoll_.



                    SPELLING

                    LESSON 20


We found that we often formed adjectives by adding suffixes to other
words. We also form many adverbs by the addition of suffixes to other
words. Derivative adverbs are formed in the following ways:

1. By adding suffixes to adjectives, chiefly the suffix _ly_, as for
example; _chiefly_, _truly_, _really_, _lately_, etc.

2. By changing _ble_ to _bly_, as in _ably_, _nobly_, etc.

3. By adding the suffix _ward_, as in _forward_, _upward_, _skyward_,
_downward_, _homeward_, etc.

4. We have some adverbs formed by adding the prefix _a_ to adjectives
and nouns, as _ahead_, _afoot_, _afresh_, also by adding the prefix
_be_, as in _besides_, _beyond_.

We often misspell a number of adverbs by adding _s_ where it does not
rightfully belong; as, _anywheres_, _everywheres_, _backwards_,
_forwards_, _towards_, _upwards_, _downwards_, _afterwards_,
_homewards_, etc. All of these words should be written without the _s_.

We also have a number of compound adverbs which are made by the union of
two other parts of speech, such as _sometime_, _henceforth_, _forever_,
_overheard_, _outside_, etc.

In the lesson for Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday, adjectives are given
having opposite meanings. Make the proper adverbs from these adjectives
by the addition of the suffix _ly_.

Thursday's and Friday's lessons are made up of both adjectives and
adverbs that end in _ly_. Look up in your dictionary and be sure you
know which are adjectives and which are adverbs.

Saturday's lesson is made up of compound adverbs.

  +Monday+

    Haughty--Humble
    Wise--Ignorant
    Careful--Careless
    Firm--Wavering

  +Tuesday+

    Honest--Deceitful
    Fearful--Fearless
    Punctual--Tardy
    Identical--Different

  +Wednesday+

    Thoughtful--Thoughtless
    Rich--Poor
    Attentive--Inattentive
    Industrious--Lazy

  +Thursday+

    Quickly
    Lovely
    Clearly
    Cleanly

  +Friday+

    Homely
    Truly
    Courtly
    Nearly

  +Saturday+

    Otherwise
    Herewith
    Sometime
    Always



                    PLAIN ENGLISH

                    LESSON 21


Dear Comrade:

In this lesson we are completing the study of conjunctions. We have
studied the conjunction last among the parts of speech and in the order
of the development of language, the conjunction naturally comes last.
The need of connective words does not come in any language until the
language is quite well developed. You will notice that the connective
words, such as prepositions and conjunctions are the last words the
child begins to use. The child first begins to use the names of the
things with which it comes in contact, then it learns the words that
express what these things do. But it is not until the child begins to
reason that it begins to use connective words. These become necessary
when we have reached a stage of development where we can consider the
relationship existing between things.

The use of conjunctions, however, can be greatly overdone. The long and
involved sentences are more difficult to understand. If you will note
the authors which you enjoy the most, it will probably be those who use
short and crisp sentences. We have some authors who by the use of
conjunctions can string one sentence out over several pages. You wonder
how they manage to exist so long without stopping for breath. It is very
easy for us to fall into this error when we are thinking rapidly and our
thoughts all seem to be closely connected. But no mind can grasp many
ideas at one time. Break your sentences up and express your ideas
concisely and clearly. Use conjunctions rather sparingly, especially
these subordinate conjunctions. Do not have too many subordinate clauses
in one sentence.

Notice in your reading for this week those who use the short, crisp
sentences and those who use the longer and more involved sentences.
Notice which are understood more readily and which are more enjoyable to
read. Take some of the paragraphs from those who write long and involved
sentences and break them up into short sentences and see if these
shorter sentences do not make the meaning simpler and clearer. This will
be excellent practice also in gaining the power of expression.

Especially in the class struggle do we need those who can write clearly
and simply of the great problems of the day. As the work of the world is
conducted today, the workers have too little time for reading. They are
apt, after a hard day's work, to be too tired to follow an author
through long, winding, involved passages.

In the spoken word, this is also true. You will find your hearers much
more in sympathy with you if you will use short sentences. Break your
thought up so they can readily grasp your meaning and follow you to your
conclusion.

Conjunctions are very important to save us from tiresome repetitions and
short, jerky sentences, but we must avoid using them too frequently.

                    Yours for Education,

                              THE PEOPLE'S COLLEGE.


                    SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS

+347.+ We have found that co-ordinate conjunctions connect words,
phrases and also clauses that are entirely independent; that is, they do
not depend in the slightest degree upon any other word, phrase or
clause. Subordinate conjunctions connect inferior clauses to the main
clauses of the sentence. These inferior clauses are dependent clauses.
Subordinate conjunctions never connect words or phrases; but only
dependent clauses, to the rest of the sentence. Note the following
sentences:

  He came _quickly_.
  He came _on time_.
  He came _when he was called_.

In the first sentence the word _quickly_ is an adverb modifying the verb
_came_ and answers the question _when_. It tells _when_ he came. In the
second sentence, the phrase _on time_ is an adverb phrase modifying the
verb _came_, and answers the question _when_. It tells _when_ he came.
In the third sentence, the clause _when he was called_, also answers the
question _when_, and tells _when_ he came. Therefore, it is a clause
used as an adverb. It is different from the phrase _on time_, for the
phrase _on time_ does not contain a subject and a predicate.

+348.+ The difference between the phrase and the clause is that the
phrase does not contain either a subject or a predicate, while the
clause _always_ contains both a subject and a predicate. So in the
clause, _when he was called_, _he_ is the subject and _was called_ is
the predicate, and _when_ is the subordinate conjunction, which connects
this adverb clause to the verb _came_, which it modifies. The clause _he
came_, and the clause _when he was called_, are not of equal rank and
importance, because the clause, _when he was called_, simply modifies
the verb contained in the clause _he came_, by describing the _time_ of
the action expressed in the verb _came_. So the clause, _when he was
called_, is a subordinate or dependent clause, and the conjunctions
which connect this class of clauses to the main clause are called
subordinate conjunctions.

+349.+ +A subordinate conjunction is one that connects a dependent
clause to the principal clause.+


                    CLASSES OF SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS

+350.+ Most subordinate conjunctions are used to make adverb clauses.
These clauses will answer some one of the questions answered by adverbs.
They will tell _how_, _when_, _where_ or _why_ the action expressed in
the verb in the principal clause occurred. There are six classes of
these subordinate conjunctions which are used to introduce adverb
clauses. They introduce:

+351.+ +Adverb clause of time.+ These clauses will answer the question
_when_ and are introduced by such subordinate conjunctions as, _before_,
_since_, _as_, _while_, _until_, _when_, _after_ and _as soon as_.
Notice in the following sentences the difference made in the meaning of
the sentences by the use of the different conjunctions:

  We waited _until_ you came.
  We waited _after_ you came.
  We waited _as_ you came.
  We waited _before_ you came.
  We waited _since_ you came.
  We left _while_ you were gone.
  We left _when_ you were gone.
  We left _as soon as_ you were gone.

+352.+ +Adverb clause of place.+ These answer the question _where_, and
are introduced by the conjunctions, _where_, _whence_, _whither_.

  I will go _where_ you go.
  The wind blows _whither_ it listeth.
  He went _whence_ he came.

+353.+ +Adverb clauses expressing cause or reason.+ These will answer
the question _why_. They are introduced by such subordinate conjunctions
as, _because_, _for_, _since_, _as_, _whereas_, _inasmuch as_, etc.

Note the difference in the meaning of the following sentences expressed
by the use of different conjunctions:

  I will come _because_ you expect me.
  I will come _since_ you expect me.
  I will come _as_ you expect me.
  I will come _for_ you expect me.
  I will come _inasmuch as_ you expect me.

+354.+ +Adverb clauses of manner.+ These clauses will answer the
question _how_, and are introduced by such subordinate conjunctions as,
_as_, _as if_, _as though_, etc.

  Study _as though_ you were in earnest.
  Come _as if_ you had been called.
  Do _as_ I say, not _as_ I do.

In these clauses of _manner_, introduced by _as if_, and _as though_,
_were_ is used in the present form with either singular or plural
subjects. For example:

  He writes as if he _were_ informed of the facts.
  They talk as though they _were_ confident of success.
  You act as though I _were_ your slave.

+355.+ +Adverb clauses of comparison.+ These clauses are introduced by
the subordinate conjunctions _than_ and _as_. The verbs are often
omitted in these dependent clauses introduced by _than_ and _as_. For
example: _He is taller than I_. The complete sentence would be: _He is
taller than I am_. _He is not so tall as I._ Here the sentence would be:
_He is not so tall as I am_.

When the pronoun occurs in these dependent clauses, be sure to use the
proper form of the pronoun. It may be the subject or the object of the
verb which is not expressed. For example; it is incorrect to say: _I am
not so tall as him_. The correct form is: _I am not so tall as he_. The
complete sentence would be: _I am not so tall as he is_, and the pronoun
should be in the subject form, for it is the subject of the verb _is_,
which is understood and omitted.

The use of the _subject_ or of the _object_ form may make a difference
in the meaning of your sentence. For example, you say: _I admire them as
much as he_. You mean that you admire them as much as he admires them.
But if you say, _I admire them as much as him_, you mean that you admire
them as much as you admire him. Quite a different meaning!

Be careful in the use of your pronouns in this way, for you can express
quite a different meaning. For example, if you say, _I care more for you
than he_, you mean, I care more for you than he cares for you. But if
you say, _I care more for you than him_, you mean, I care more for you
than I care for him. A mistake like this might mean a great deal to you
some time, if the one to whom you had been speaking had been studying a
course in Plain English!

+356.+ +Adverb clauses of condition.+ These clauses are introduced by
such conjunctions as, _if_, _provided_, _supposing_, _unless_, _except_,
_otherwise_, _though_, _notwithstanding_, _albeit_, and _whether_. For
example:

  I will come _if_ you need me.
  I will come _provided_ you need me.
  I will go _notwithstanding_ you need me.
  I will not go _unless_ I am called.
  He will not go _except_ he is called.
  He will not go _though_ he is called.
  He came, _otherwise_ I would go.
  He will go _whether_ you go or stay.

When subordinate clauses beginning with _if_, _though_ or _unless_ are
joined to clauses containing _might_, _could_, _would_ or _should_, the
verb _were_ is sometimes used with a singular subject, in such sentences
as:

  If this _were_ true, I should know it.
  Unless I _were_ positive, I would not say so.
  Though our leader _were_ lost, yet we would not despair.
  If he _were_ here, he would explain it himself.
  If I _were_ with you, I might make you understand.

Sometimes in sentences like these, _if_ is omitted in the clause, and
the verb placed first. For example:

  _Were_ he here, he would deny these slanders.
  _Were_ he truly class-conscious, he would oppose this war.
  _Were_ this fact known, the people would never submit.

These clauses express something which is uncertain, or which is to be
decided in the future; a supposition contrary to a fact or a wish.
Occasionally you will find the verb _be_ used instead of _is_, in
clauses of this kind introduced by _if_, _though_, _unless_, _except_,
_lest_, etc. For example:

  If it _be_ true, I will hear it.
  Though he _be_ guilty, we will not desert him.

In subordinate clauses connected by _if_, _unless_, etc., with a
principal clause which expresses future time, the present form of the
verb is used in the subordinate clause. For example:

  If they are willing, we will join them.
  Unless he comes, I shall not leave.
  If it rains, we will not go.

+357.+ +Adverb clauses expressing purpose.+ These are introduced by such
subordinate conjunctions as, _that_, _in order that_ and _lest_. For
example:

  Take good care _that_ you understand this lesson.
  I will go today _in order that_ I may meet him.
  Watch these carefully _lest_ they be stolen.
  Read the labor press _that_ you may know the truth.

Notice that _that_, when used in this way, as a pure conjunction, means
_in order that_. For example, the sentence above might read:

  Read the labor press _in order that_ you may know the truth.

+358.+ +Adverb clauses expressing result.+ These are introduced by the
subordinate conjunction _that_, as for example:

  They were so late _that_ I could not go.


                    SUMMARY

+359.+ We have then adverb clauses introduced by subordinate
conjunctions expressing:

  1. +Time.+ Answer the question _when_.
  2. +Place.+ Answer the question _where_.
  3. +Cause or reason.+ Answer the question _why_.
  4. +Manner.+ Answer the question _how_.
  5. +Comparison.+ Used to compare.
  6. +Condition.+ Answer the question _on what condition_.
  7. +Purpose.+ Answer the question _for what purpose_.
  8. +Result.+ Answer the question _to what result_.


                    Exercise 1

In the following sentences, mark the conjunctions and tell to what class
they belong; ask the question _when_, _where_, _why_, _how_, _on what
condition_, _for what purpose_, _to what result_. Underscore the
subordinate clauses. The subjects of the subordinate clauses are printed
in italics.

  1.  Speech was developed that _we_ might be able to communicate with
      one another.
  2.  The International failed in the crisis because _it_ had no
      definite war program.
  3.  We will fail if _we_ have no definite program.
  4.  If _labor_ were united, we could destroy wage slavery.
  5.  When the _people_ understand, they will no longer submit.
  6.  Labor cannot win until _it_ learns solidarity.
  7.  After the terrible _war_ is over, the workers in all countries may
      come closer together.
  8.  We are convinced of the folly of nationalism since the _war_ has
      been declared.
  9.  If _we_ knew the facts we could not be misled.
  10. Inform yourself before _you_ seek to teach others.
  11. We must unite in order that _we_ may possess power.
  12. It is more than the _heart_ can bear.
  13. May you have courage to dare ere _you_ have ceased to dream.
  14. If _we_ remain ignorant, we shall remain enslaved.
  15. We sometimes fear to trust our own thought because _it_ is our
      own.
  16. Though _we_ should lose the strike we will not despair.
  17. The battle waged so fiercely that _thousands_ were slain.


                    PHRASE CONJUNCTIONS

+360.+ There are certain phrases which have come to be used together as
conjunctions so commonly that we may consider them as conjunctions. They
are:

_As if_, _as though_, _but also_, _but likewise_, _so that_, _except
that_, _inasmuch as_, _notwithstanding that_, _in order that_, _as well
as_, _as far as_, _so far as_, _as little as_, _provided that_, _seeing
that_, etc.


                    Exercise 2

Write sentences using these phrase conjunctions to introduce clauses.


                    NOUN CLAUSES

+361.+ We have found that there are two kinds of clauses, principal
clauses and subordinate clauses.

+A principal clause is one that does not depend on any word.+

+A subordinate clause is one that depends upon some word or words in the
principal clause.+

We have found, also, that these principal clauses are always connected
by co-ordinate conjunctions, for they are of equal rank and importance;
neither is dependent upon the other.

Subordinate clauses are always connected with the principal clause by a
subordinate conjunction. The subordinate clauses which we have been
studying have all been adverb clauses which are used to describe the
action expressed in the verb contained in the principal clauses.

The subordinate clause in a sentence may also be used as a noun. When
the subordinate clause is used as a noun it is called a noun clause.

+362.+ +A noun clause is a clause used as a noun.+

A noun clause may be used in any way in which a noun is used, except as
a possessive. It may be used as a subject, an object, a predicate
complement, or in apposition with a noun. These noun clauses may be
introduced by either relative pronouns, interrogative pronouns or by
conjunctions. For example:

  I know _who_ he is.
  He asked, "_what_ do you want?"
  I know _where_ it is.

In the first sentence, _who he is_, is a noun clause used as the object
of the verb _know_. It tells _what_ I know, and is the object of the
verb _know_,--just as if I had said; _I know the facts_. In this
sentence the noun, _facts_, is the object of the verb _know_.

In the second sentence, _He asked, "what do you want?_" the noun clause
_what do you want_ is the object of the verb _asked_, and is introduced
by the interrogative pronoun _what_.

We will study in a subsequent lesson the use of noun clauses introduced
by relative pronouns. In this lesson we are studying the conjunctions.

In the last sentence, _I know where it is_, the noun clause _where it
is_, is the object of the verb _know_, and is introduced by the
conjunction _where_.

+363.+ Noun clauses are introduced by the subordinate conjunctions,
_where_, _when_, _whence_, _whither_, _whether_, _how_, _why_, and also
by the subordinate conjunction _that_. For example:

  I know _where_ I can find it.
  I inquired _when_ he would arrive.
  We do not know _whence_ it cometh nor whither it goeth.
  Ask _whether_ the train has gone.
  I don't know _how_ I can find you.
  I cannot understand _why_ he does so.
  I believe _that_ he is honest.

In all of these examples the noun clauses are used as the objects of the
verb. Noun clauses may also be used as objects of prepositions. As, for
example:

  You do not listen to _what is said_.
  He talked to me about _what had happened_.
  He told me to come to _where he was_.

+364.+ Noun clauses may also be used as the subject of a sentence. As
for example:

  _That he is innocent_ is admitted by all.
  _That he was guilty_ has been proven.
  _Why he should do this_ is very strange.
  _How we are to live_ is the great problem.

In all of these sentences, the noun clause is used as the subject of the
verb. You will note that most frequently the noun clause used as subject
of the verb is introduced by the subordinate conjunction _that_. But
quite often we write these sentences in a somewhat different way. For
example:

  It is admitted by all _that he is innocent_.
  It has been proven _that he was guilty_.

You will notice in these sentences we have expressed practically the
same thought as in the sentences where the noun clause was used as the
subject of the verb.

But now we have this little pronoun _it_ used as the subject, instead of
the clause, which is the real subject of the sentence. _It_ is simply
used as the introductory word in the sentence. The noun clause is in
reality the subject of the sentence.

+365.+ Noun clauses may also be used as the predicate complement with a
copulative verb. For example:

  The general opinion is _that he is innocent_.
  The problem is _how we may accomplish this quickly_.
  The question was _why any one should believe such statements_.

In all of these sentences the noun clause is used as the complement of
the incomplete verbs _is_ and _was_, to complete the meaning, just as we
use a noun as the predicate complement of a copulative verb in such
sentences as, _Socialism is a science._ _War is murder._

+366.+ A noun clause may also be used in apposition to a noun to explain
its meaning. Apposition means to place alongside of. Note in the
following sentences:

  The fact, _that such a law had been passed_, alters the situation.
  His motion, _that the matter should be laid on the table_, was
  adopted.

In the first sentence, the clause, _that such a law had been passed_, is
placed beside the noun _fact_ and explains _what_ that fact is. The
clause, _that the matter should be laid on the table_, is in apposition
to and explains the noun _motion_.

These noun clauses are used in apposition.


                    Exercise 3

Complete the following sentences by inserting the appropriate
conjunctions and pronouns in the blank spaces:

  1. Can you tell......Germany has a million fighting men?
  2. Would you be pleased......the United States should intervene in
     Mexico?
  3. The Mexican revolution will continue......the people possess the
     land.
  4. No one may vote in the convention......he has credentials.
  5. ......Debs was in Woodstock jail, he became in Socialist.
  6. ......the treaty was signed, hostilities ceased.
  7. We shall win......we have the courage.
  8. ......we have lost this battle we shall not cease to struggle.
  9. All are enslaved......one is enslaved.
  10. Humanity will be free......labor is free.
  11. Let us do our duty......we understand it.
  12. Man will never reach his best......he walks side by side with
      woman.
  13. We must struggle......we would be free.
  14. ......we shout for peace, we support war.
  15. All our sympathies should be with the man......toils,......we
      know......labor is the foundation of all.
  16. ......all have the right to think and to express their thoughts
      every brain will give to all the best......it has.
  17. ......man develops he places greater value upon his own rights.
  18. ......man values his own rights he begins to value the rights of
      others.
  19. ......all men give to all others the rights......they claim for
      themselves this world will be civilized.


                    Exercise 4

Note all the co-ordinate and subordinate conjunctions in the following
verses from "The Ballad of Reading Gaol." Underscore the subordinate
clauses. Are they adverb or noun clauses? Do the co-ordinate
conjunctions connect words, phrases or clauses?

    I know not _whether_ Laws be right,
        Or _whether_ Laws be wrong;
    All that we know who lie in gaol
        Is _that_ the wall is strong;
    _And that_ each day is like a year,
        A year whose days are long.

    _But_ this I know, _that_ every Law
        That men have made for Man,
    _Since_ first Man took his brother's life,
        _And_ the sad world began,
    But straws the wheat _and_ saves the chaff
        With a most evil fan.

    This too I know--_and_ wise it were
        _If_ each could know the same--
    _That_ every prison that men build
         Is built with bricks of shame,
    _And_ bound with bars _lest_ Christ should see
         _How_ men their brothers maim.

    With bars they blur the gracious moon,
        _And_ blind the goodly sun:
    _And_ they do well to hide their Hell,
        _For_ in it things are done
    That son of God _nor_ son of Man
        Ever should look upon!

    In Reading gaol by Reading town
        There is a pit of shame,
    _And_ in it lies a wretched man
        Eaten by teeth of flame,
    In a burning winding sheet he lies,
        _And_ his grave has got no name.

    _And_ there, _till_ Christ call forth the dead,
         In silence let him lie:
    No need to waste the foolish tear,
        _Or_ heave the windy sigh:
    The man had killed the thing he loved,
        _And so_ he had to die.

    _And_ all men kill the thing they love,
        By all let this be heard,
    Some do it with a bitter look,
        Some with a flattering word,
    The coward does it with a kiss,
        The brave man with a sword.

                    --_Oscar Wilde_.



                    SPELLING

                    LESSON 21


In Lesson No. 17 we studied concerning abstract nouns derived from
qualifying adjectives. We found that we formed these nouns expressing
quality from adjectives that describe quality by the addition of
suffixes.

Adjectives may likewise be formed from nouns and also from verbs by the
addition of suffixes. There are a number of suffixes which may be used
to form adjectives in this way; as, _al_, _ous_, _ic_, _ful_, _less_,
_able_, _ible_, _ary_ and _ory_. Notice the following words: nation,
_national_; peril, _perilous_; reason, _reasonable_; sense, _sensible_;
custom, _customary_; advise, _advisory_; hero, _heroic_; care,
_careful_, _careless_.

To some words, more than one suffix may be added and an adjective of
different meaning formed; for example, use, _useless_, _useful_; care,
_careless_, _careful_.

Make as many adjectives as you can from the nouns and verbs given in the
spelling lesson for this week by the addition of one or more of the
following suffixes:

_Al_, _less_, _ous_, _ic_, _ful_, _able_, _ible_, _ary_, _ory_, and
_ly_.

  +Monday+

    Accident
    Danger
    Origin
    Commend
    Element

  +Tuesday+

    Critic
    Libel
    Attain
    Revolution
    Contradict

  +Wednesday+

    Cynic
    Injury
    Respect
    Station
    Migrate

  +Thursday+

    Event
    Parent
    Order
    Virtue
    Marvel

  +Friday+

    Second
    Fashion
    Consider
    Murder
    Incident

  +Saturday+

    Constitution
    Industry
    Vibrate
    Tribute
    Compliment



                    PLAIN ENGLISH

                    LESSON 22


Dear Comrade:

We have practically finished the study of the different parts of speech.
We are now in possession of a knowledge of the tools which we need to
use in expressing ourselves. We are ready to make practical application
of this knowledge in writing and speaking. We will find that with our
increasing ability to express ourselves there comes also the power to
think clearly. The analysis of language has meant a growing power to
_think_ on the part of the people.

We sometimes imagine that simplicity of language was a part of primitive
life, but this is not true. Simplicity of language is the product of
high civilization. Primitive life was marked, not by simplicity of
language, but by the scarcity of language. They made one word stand for
an entire sentence, and if they wished to express a little different
meaning, an entirely different word had to be used, as for example, in
the primitive language: _I said to her_, would be one word, and _I said
to him_, would be another, entirely different, word.

But as the power of thought began to develop, we began to analyze our
meaning and we found that this thought was identical except the _him_
and the _her_. So as we analyzed our thought our expression of it became
more simple. In most languages, the different meaning of the verb, for
example, is expressed by an arbitrary change in the verb form. This is
called the inflection of the verb. In English we would use several words
to express the same thing. For example, the Latin word _Fuissem_
requires four English words to express the same meaning; _I should have
been_, we say in English. So instead of having to learn a great number
of different changes in the verb form, we, by the use of auxiliary
verbs, _have_, _shall_, _do_, _be_, etc., are able to express all these
shades of thought much more simply and clearly.

Most other languages also have changes for gender. Every noun has a
gender of its own and sometimes this form gives the wrong gender to
living beings and attributes sex to sexless objects and the only way to
know the gender of the noun is simply by memory. Then the adjectives,
possessive pronouns and the articles _a_ and _the_ have gender also and
have to be changed to suit the gender of the noun; this involves a great
effort of memory. So while the English may seem somewhat involved to
you, it is, after all, much simpler than other languages. It has been
freed from many superfluous endings and unnecessary complications.

Take a little time each day to read something out of the best
literature. The quotations given in each of these lessons are from our
very best writers. A study of these will be a wonderful help and
inspiration to you and bring you in touch with some of the great
thinkers of the revolution. They are our comrades and are putting into
words the thoughts and hopes and dreams of our lives.

                    Yours for the Revolution,

                                  THE PEOPLE'S COLLEGE.


                    ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

+367.+ In our study of subordinate clauses, we have studied subordinate
clauses used as adverbs and as nouns. We have found that adverb clauses
can be used in the same way as adverbs, to describe the time, place,
manner, cause, condition or purpose of the action expressed in the verb.
We have found, also, that a noun clause may be used in any way in which
a noun can be used, as the subject of the sentence, the object of a verb
or preposition or as the predicate complement. But these are not the
only uses to which the subordinate clause may be put. Note the following
sentences:

  _Wealthy_ men desire to control the education of the people.
  Men _of wealth_ desire to control the education of the people.
  Men _who are wealthy_ desire to control the education of the people.

Do you see any difference in the words which are used to modify the noun
_men_? In the first sentence, _wealthy_ is an adjective, modifying the
noun _men_. In the second sentence, _of wealth_ is a prepositional
phrase, used as an adjective modifying the noun _men_. In the last
sentence, _who are wealthy_ is a clause used in exactly the same way
that the adjective _wealthy_ and the adjective phrase _of wealth_ are
used, to modify the noun _men_.

We have expressed practically the same meaning in these three ways: by a
word; by a phrase; by a clause.

+368.+ +A word used to describe and modify a noun is an adjective.+

+A phrase used to describe and modify a noun is an adjective phrase.+

+A clause used to describe and modify a noun is an adjective clause.+

Note the difference between a phrase and a clause.

+369.+ A prepositional phrase, used as an adjective, consists of the
preposition and the noun which is its object, together with its
modifiers. A phrase never has either a subject or a predicate. _Who are
wealthy_, is a clause because it does contain a subject and a predicate.
The pronoun _who_ is the subject in the clause, and the predicate is the
copulative verb _are_ with the predicate complement, the adjective
_wealthy_.


                    Exercise 1

In the following sentences change the adjective into a phrase and also
into a clause, if possible. For example:

  A _fearless_ man always defends his rights.
  A man _without fear_ always defends his rights.
  A man _who is fearless_ always defends his rights.

  1. The _unemployed_ men are becoming desperate.
  2. The _uneducated_ masses are demanding equal opportunity.
  3. The discovery of gold was an _important_ discovery.
  4. _Unorganized_ labor is helpless.
  5. The revolution needs _intelligent_ rebels.
  6. A few _wealthy_ men are striving to control education.
  7. This will be a _progressive_ movement.
  8. _Labor-saving_ inventions throw men out of employment.
  9. _Scientific_ men prophesy a great advance for the mass.


                    THE INTRODUCING WORD

+370.+ You will notice that these adjective clauses are introduced by
the relative pronouns _who_, _which_ and _that_. These relative pronouns
fulfil something of the office of a conjunction, because they are
serving as connecting elements; they join these subordinate clauses to
the words which they modify. But you will note, also, that these
relative pronouns not only serve as connecting elements, but they also
play a part in the subordinate clause, as either the subject or object.
For example:

  The man who has no education is handicapped in the struggle.
  Are these the books that you ordered?

In the first sentence, _who has an education_ is an adjective clause
modifying the noun _man_, introduced by the relative pronoun _who_,
which is also the subject of the verb _has_.

In the second sentence, _that you ordered_ is an adjective clause,
modifying the noun _books_, introduced by the relative pronoun _that_,
which is also the object of the verb _ordered_.

+371.+ There is no need to be confused in this matter of clauses. If the
clause is used as a noun, either as the subject or the object or in any
other way in which a noun can be used, it is a noun clause. If it is
used as an adverb and will answer any of the questions _why_, _when_,
_where_, or _how_, etc., it is an adverb clause. If it is used as an
adjective,--if it modifies a noun or pronoun,--it is an adjective
clause.

You will note that the only way in which a noun is used that does not
have its corresponding clause is as a possessive. We do not have
possessive clauses. The clause used as an adjective always modifies a
noun or pronoun.

+372.+ +An adjective clause is a clause used as an adjective and hence
always modifies a noun or pronoun.+

An adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns, _who_,
_which_ or _that_. The use of this clause is a great help to us in the
expression of our ideas, for it enables us to combine several sentences
containing related thoughts into one sentence so we have it all
presented to the mind at once.


                    Exercise 2

In the following sentences, note which are the noun clauses and which
are the adjective clauses and which are the adverb clauses. The verb in
the subordinate clause is in italics.

  1. Life is what we _make_ it.
  2. We acquire the strength that we _overcome_.
  3. While he _slept_ the enemy came.
  4. All that he _does_ is to distribute what others _produce_.
  5. When faith _is lost_, when honor _dies_, the man is dead.
  6. Thrice is he armed who _hath_ his quarrel just; he is naked though
     he _be locked_ up in steel whose conscience with injustice is
     _corrupted_.
  7. When strength and justice _are_ true yoke fellows, where can we
     find a mightier pair than they?
  8. You will gain a good reputation if you _endeavor_ to be what you
     _desire_ to appear.
  9. Live as though life _were_ earnest and life will be so.
  10. He that _loveth_ makes his own the grandeur that he _loves_.
  11. Who _does_ the best his circumstance _allows_ does well; angels
      could do no more.
  12. He is not worthy of the honeycomb that _shuns_ the hive because
      the bees _have_ stings.
  13. We always may be what we _might have been_.
  14. Rich gifts wax poor when givers _prove_ unkind.
  15. Let me make the songs of the people and I care not who _makes_ the
      laws.
  16. Attention is the stuff that memory _is made_ of.
  17. A great writer has said that grace _is_ beauty in action; I say
      that justice _is_ truth in action.
  18. If we do not _plant_ knowledge when young it will give us no shade
      when we _are_ old.
  19. You can no more exercise your reason if you _live_ in constant
      dread of laughter than you _can enjoy_ your life if you _live_ in
      constant dread and terror of death.


                    WHICH RELATIVE PRONOUN TO USE

+373.+ We are sometimes confused as to which relative pronoun to use in
introducing an adjective clause. We hesitate as to whether we should use
_that_ or _who_ or _which_. Remember that _who_ always refers to
_persons_, _which_ refers to _animals_ or _things_, and _that_ may refer
to either _persons_, _animals_ or _things_.

So when referring to a _person_, we may use either _who_ or _that_, and
when referring to _animals_ or _things_, we may use either _which_ or
_that_. As, for example, we may say, either, _The man who was here
yesterday came back today_, or _The man that was here yesterday came
back today_. Either is correct, for _who_ and _that_ both refer to
persons.

+374.+ We may make a little distinction in the use of _who_ and _that_
when referring to _persons_, however. A clause introduced by _that_ is
usually a restrictive clause. It limits or restricts the meaning of the
noun which it modifies. When you say, _The man that was here yesterday_,
you mean _that_ man and no other, limiting your meaning to that
particular man. On the other hand, when you say, _The man who was here
yesterday_, there is no restriction or limitation expressed in the use
of the clause, but it is merely a descriptive clause, adding a new fact
to our knowledge concerning that particular man.

The same is true when we are speaking of _things_ using either _that_ or
_which_. The clause introduced by _which_ is presumably a descriptive
clause. We do, however, often use _who_ or _which_ when the sense of the
clause is restrictive, but we should never use _that_ to introduce an
adjective clause, unless the sense is restrictive. When in your
sentences you can use, instead of the relative pronoun _who_ or _which_,
the conjunction _and_, you can know that the use of the pronoun _who_ or
_which_ is correct. As, for example:

  I have read the book, _which_ I found very interesting.

You could say instead:

  I have read the book _and_ I found it very interesting.

This would express the same meaning. But if you say: _I have read the
book that I found very interesting_, you mean that you limit your idea
to this particular book.

+375.+ We do not always observe these niceties in our spoken and written
speech, but it is interesting to know the shades of thought and meaning
which you can express by the proper use of the language. The man who
runs an engine and learns to know and love his machine almost as though
it were a human being, can easily recognize the slightest change in the
action of his machine. His ear catches the least difference in the sound
of the running of the machine, a difference which we, who do not know
and love the machine, would never notice.

So it is in language. Once we have sensed its beauty and its wondrous
power of expression, we notice all these slight differences and shades
of meaning which may be expressed by the use of words. In just the same
manner the musician catches the undertones and overtones of the music,
which we, who possess an uneducated ear, cannot know; and the artist
also has a wondrous range of color, while we, who are not sensitive to
color, know only a few of the primal colors.


                    ADJECTIVE CLAUSES WITH CONJUNCTIONS

+376.+ The adjective clauses which we have been studying so far have
been introduced by relative pronouns. Adjective clauses may also be
introduced by conjunctions, such as, _where_, _when_, _whence_, or
_why_. As, for example:

  Antwerp is the place where a terrible battle was fought.
  No man knows the hour when opportunity will be his.
  Each group has a different reason why this world-war was precipitated.

Note in these sentences the clauses, _where a terrible battle was
fought_, _when opportunity will be his_, _why this world-war was
precipitated_, are all adjective clauses modifying the nouns _place_,
_hour_ and _reason_, and are introduced by the conjunctions _where_,
_when_, and _why_. These are adjective clauses because they modify, by
either limiting or describing, the nouns with which they are used. You
will note that we could omit the nouns in the first two of these
sentences and these clauses would become noun clauses, for they would be
used in the place of a noun. As, for example:

  Antwerp is where a terrible battle was fought.
  No man knows when opportunity will be his.

+377.+ We determine whether a clause is an adjective or an adverb or a
noun clause just as we determine whether a word is an adjective, adverb
or noun, by the work which it does in a sentence. Noun clauses are used
in the place of a noun; adverb clauses modify verbs, adjectives, and
adverbs; adjective clauses modify nouns and pronouns.


                    THE LITTLE WORD "AS"

+378.+ Adjective clauses may also be introduced by _as_. _As_ is a very
convenient word and may be used in several different ways; sometimes as
an adverb, sometimes as a conjunction; and it may also be used as a
relative pronoun after _such_, _same_ and _many_. For example:

  Such books _as_ you should read are listed here.
  No such person _as_ he ever came here.
  We are facing the same crisis _as_ our comrades faced.
  This is the same _as_ you gave before.
  He has made as many mistakes _as_ you have.

In these sentences _as_ is really used as a relative pronoun, connecting
these adjective clauses to the words which they modify. _As_ may also be
used as an adverb. _I am as tall as you are._

Here the first _as_ modifies _tall_ and is used as an adverb; the second
_as_ is a conjunction connecting the subordinate clause _you are_, with
the principal clause. Note that in making comparisons, _as_ is always
used when the comparison is equal, _so_ when it is unequal, thus:

  I am _as_ tall as you are.
  She is not _so_ tall as you are.

We have found that _as_ is also used as a conjunction to introduce an
adverb clause. For example:

  She is as beautiful _as_ she is good.

The clause, _as she is good_, is an adverb clause, modifying the
adjective _beautiful_. In the sentence, _Do as I say_, _as I say_ is an
adverb clause of manner, modifying the verb _do_.


                    CONNECTIVE WORDS

+379.+ Let us not be confused in this matter of connectives. There are
just four classes of connective words:

  1. +Copulative verbs.+
  2. +Relative pronouns.+
  3. +Prepositions.+
  4. +Conjunctions.+

+380.+ The copulative verb is not a pure connective, for it serves
another purpose in the sentence. For example, in the sentence, _The book
is interesting_, the copulative verb _is_ connects the adjective
_interesting_ with the noun _book_, which it modifies; but it also is
the asserting word in the sentence. So it fulfils a double function. It
is an asserting word and also a connective word.

+381.+ The relative pronoun also is not a pure connective, for it serves
two purposes in the sentence. It not only connects the clause which it
introduces, with the word which it modifies, but it also serves as
either the subject or object in the clause. For example: _The man who
was here has gone_. The clause, _who was here_, is introduced by the
relative pronoun _who_, which connects that clause with the noun _man_,
which the clause modifies. _Who_ also serves as the subject of the verb
_was_.

In the sentence, _The men whom we seek have gone_, the clause, _whom we
seek_, is introduced by the relative pronoun _whom_, which connects the
clause with the word _men_, which it modifies. _Whom_ also serves as the
object of the verb in the clause, the verb _seek_.

+382.+ A preposition is not a pure connective, since it serves a double
function. It shows the relation of its object to the rest of the
sentence and also governs the form of its object. As, for example, in
the sentence: _The man before me is not the culprit_, the preposition
_before_ connects its object _me_ with the noun _man_, which the
prepositional phrase modifies, showing the relation between them; and it
governs the form of its object, for the pronoun following a preposition
must be used in the _object_ form.

+383.+ Even co-ordinate conjunctions can scarcely be considered pure
connectives unless it be the co-ordinate conjunction _and_. Co-ordinate
conjunctions such as _but_, _yet_, _still_, _however_, etc., not only
connect words, phrases and clauses of equal rank, but in addition to
connecting the words and expressions they also indicate that they are
opposite in thought.

+384.+ Co-ordinate conjunctions like _therefore_, _hence_, _then_, etc.,
connect words, phrases and clauses of equal rank, and also introduce a
_reason_ or _cause_. Co-ordinate conjunctions like _or_, _either_,
_nor_, _neither_, _whether_, etc., connect words, phrases and clauses of
equal rank, and also express the choice of an alternative. Thus these
co-ordinate conjunctions can scarcely be considered as pure connectives.

+385.+ Subordinate conjunctions are most frequently used to introduce
adverb clauses and have an adverbial meaning. They express, as do
adverbs, _place_, _time_, _manner_, _cause_, _reason_, _purpose_,
_condition_ or _result_. Some authorities indicate this double function
by calling such words as these conjunctive adverbs, because, even when
they are used as conjunctions, they retain some of their adverbial
force.

But according to our rule that every word in the sentence is classified
according to the function which it performs in that sentence, all words
that perform the function of a conjunction are called conjunctions,
although we understand that these conjunctions which introduce dependent
clauses do still retain some of their adverbial meaning.


                    Exercise 3

In the following sentences the connectives are in italics. Determine
whether they are copulative verbs, relative pronouns, prepositions,
co-ordinate conjunctions or subordinate conjunctions.

  1. They _are_ slaves _who_ dare not be _in_ the right _with_ two
     _or_ three.
  2. _In_ the twentieth century war _will be_ dead, dogmas _will be_
     dead, _but_ man will live.
  3. The abuse _of_ free speech dies _in_ a day, _but_ its denial slays
     the life _of_ the people _and_ entombs the race.
  4. Liberty _for_ the few _is_ not liberty.
  5. Liberty _for_ me _and_ slavery _for_ you means slavery _for_ both.
  6. The greatest thing _in_ the world _is for_ a man to know _that_ he
     _is_ his own.
  7. Nothing can work me damage _except_ myself.
  8. He _that_ loveth maketh his own the grandeur _which_ he loves.
  9. My life _is_ not an apology, _but_ a life.
  10. I cannot consent to pay _for_ a privilege _where_ I have intrinsic
      right.
  11. It _is_ difficult to free fools _from_ the chains _which_ they
      revere.
  12. Desire nothing _for_ yourself _which_ you do not desire _for
      others_.
  13. All our liberties _are_ due _to_ men _who_, _when_ their
      conscience compelled them, have broken the laws _of_ the land.
  14. "It takes great strength to live _where_ you belong,
      _When_ other people think _that_ you _are_ wrong."
  15. _If_ the truth shall make you free, ye _shall be_ free indeed.
  16. He _is_ true _to_ God _who is_ true _to_ man.


                    Exercise 4

In the following sentences underscore all the connectives--copulative
verbs, prepositions, relative pronouns, co-ordinate and subordinate
conjunctions.

"There was a bird's egg once, picked up by chance upon the ground, and
those who found it bore it home and placed it under a barn-yard fowl.
And in time the chick bred out, and those who had found it chained it by
the leg to a log lest it should stray and be lost. And by and by they
gathered round it, and speculated as to what the bird might be.

One said, "It is surely a waterfowl, a duck, or it may be a goose; if we
took it to the water it would swim and gabble." But another said, "It
has no webs to its feet; it is a barn-yard fowl; if you should let it
loose it will scratch and cackle with the others on the dungheap." But a
third speculated, "Look now at its curved beak; no doubt it is a parrot,
and can crack nuts."

But a fourth said, "No, but look at its wings; perhaps it is a bird of
great flight." But several cried, "Nonsense! No one has ever seen it
fly! Why should it fly? Can you suppose that a thing can do a thing
which no one has ever seen it do?" And the bird, with its leg chained
close to the log, preened its wings.

So they say about it, speculating and discussing it: and one said this,
and another that.

And all the while, as they talked, the bird sat motionless, "Suppose we
let the creature loose to see what it will do?"--and the bird shivered.
But the others cried, "It is too valuable; it might get lost. If it were
to try to fly it might fall down and break its neck." And the bird, with
its foot chained to the log, sat looking upward into the clear sky; the
sky, in which it had never been--for the bird--the bird, knew what it
would do--because it was an eaglet!"

                                        --_Olive Schreiner_.


                    Exercise 5

These stirring lines are taken from Arturo Giovannitti's "Arrows in the
Gale" and are a part of the poem "The Sermon on the Common." Note the
use of the conjunctions. Mark all of the clauses.

  Ye are the power of the earth, the foundations of society, the
  thinkers and the doers of all things good and all things fair and
  useful, the makers and dispensers of all the bounties and the joys and
  the happiness of the world, and if ye fold your mighty arms, all the
  life of the world stands still and death hovers on the darkened abodes
  of man.

  Ye are the light of the world. There was darkness in all the ages when
  the torch of your will did not blaze forth, and the past and the
  future are full of the radiance that cometh from your eyes.

  Ye are eternal, even as your father, labor, is eternal, and no power
  of time and dissolution can prevail against you.

  Ages have come and gone, kingdoms and powers and dynasties have risen
  and fallen, old glories and ancient wisdoms have been turned into
  dust, heroes and sages have been forgotten and many a mighty and
  fearsome god has been hurled into the lightless chasms of oblivion.

  But ye, Plebs, Populace, People, Rabble, Mob, Proletariat, live and
  abide forever.

  Therefore I say unto you, banish fear from your hearts, dispel the
  mists of ignorance from your minds, arm your yearning with your
  strength, your vision with your will, and open your eyes and behold.

  Do not moan, do not submit, do not kneel, do not pray, do not wait.

  Think, dare, do, rebel, fight--ARISE!

  It is not true that ye are condemned to serve and to suffer in shame
  forever.

  It is not true that injustice, iniquity, hunger, misery, abjection,
  depravity, hatred, theft, murder and fratricide are eternal.

  There is no destiny that the will of man cannot break.

  There are no chains of iron that other iron cannot destroy.

  There is nothing that the power of your arms, lighted by the power of
  your mind, cannot transform and reconstruct and remake.

  Arise, then, ye men of the plow and the hammer, the helm and the
  lever, and send forth to the four winds of the earth your new
  proclamation of freedom which shall be the last and shall abide
  forevermore.

  Through you, through your united, almighty strength, order shall
  become equity, law shall become liberty, duty shall become love and
  religion shall become truth.

  Through you, the man-beast shall die and the man be born.

  Through you, the dark and bloody chronicles of the brute shall cease
  and the story of man shall begin.

  Through you, by the power of your brain and hand,

  All the predictions of the prophets,

  All the wisdom of the sages,

  All the dreams of the poets,

  All the hopes of the heroes,

  All the visions of the martyrs,

  All the prayers of the saints,

  All the crushed, tortured, strangled, maimed and murdered ideals of
  the ages, and all the glorious destinies of mankind shall become a
  triumphant and everlasting reality in the name of labor and bread and
  love, the great threefold truth forever.

  And lo and behold, my brothers, this shall be called the revolution.



                    SPELLING

                    LESSON 22


In our study of the spelling of English words we have found that there
are not many rules that apply. In fact, the only way to learn to spell
correctly is by sheer dint of memory.

In last week's lesson we found that a number of adjectives can be formed
from nouns or verbs by the addition of _able_ or _ible_, but we find it
difficult to determine whether to add _able_ or _ible_. The sound is
practically the same and we are confused as to whether we should use _a_
or _i_. There is no rule which applies in this case and there is nothing
to do but to master the spelling of these words by memory. These are
words which we use a great deal and which are very helpful members of
our working vocabulary.

Our list of words in this week's lesson contain some of the most common
words which we use ending in _ible_ or _able_. The words for Monday,
Tuesday, and Wednesday all end in _able_; the words for Thursday,
Friday, and Saturday will end in _ible_. Notice them carefully and get
fixed firmly in mind the correct spelling. Notice also that most of
these adjectives can be changed into adverbs by changing _ble_ to _bly_.
So when you have added these adjectives to your vocabulary, you have
also added the adverbs as well.

  +Monday+

    Probable
    Capable
    Usable
    Considerable
    Respectable

  +Tuesday+

    Durable
    Salable
    Advisable
    Available
    Equitable

  +Wednesday+

    Tolerable
    Profitable
    Remarkable
    Valuable
    Comfortable

  +Thursday+

    Possible
    Horrible
    Plausible
    Intelligible
    Terrible

  +Friday+

    Credible
    Visible
    Infallible
    Responsible
    Sensible

  +Saturday+

    Forcible
    Permissible
    Feasible
    Corruptible
    Eligible



                    PLAIN ENGLISH

                    LESSON 23


Dear Comrade:

In this lesson we are taking up the study of interjections.
Interjections are the language of emotion. This was probably the
earliest form of speech. You notice that children use these exclamations
often, and the sounds which are imitations of the noises about them.
This language belongs also to the savage, whose peculiar and expressive
grunts contain whole areas of condensed thought. As we progress from
feeling to thinking, the use of the interjection diminishes.

You will not find interjections used in a book on mathematics or
physical science or history. To attempt to read one of these books may
make you use interjections and express your emotion in violent language,
but you will not find interjections in these books. These books of
science are books that express thought and not feeling. But if you turn
to fiction and to oratory you will find the interjection used freely,
for these are the books which treat of the human emotions and feelings.
Especially in poetry will you find the interjection used, for poetry is
the language of feeling and the interjection is an important part of the
poet's stock in trade.

In conversation, these exclamatory words are very useful. They fill the
gaps in our conversation and they help to put the listener and the
speaker in touch with one another. They are usually accompanied by a
gesture, which adds force to the word. The tone of the voice in which
they are expressed also means a great deal. You can say, Oh! in half a
dozen different ways; you may express surprise, wonder, joy, sorrow,
pain, or disgust. A great many different and widely separated feelings
can be expressed simply by the tone in which you use the exclamatory
words. Some one has said that these words grease the wheels of talk.
They serve to help the timid, to give time to the unready and to keep up
a pleasant semblance of familiarity.

When we use them in the stress of emotion to express deep feeling, their
use is perfectly justified. But one author has called these words "the
miserable refuge of the speechless." We use them many times because we
have no words with which to express ourselves. This use is unjustified.
Be careful that you do not use them in this way. It has been said that
the degree of a man's civilization can be pretty fairly judged by the
expletives which he uses. Do not sprinkle your conversation with
interjections and even stronger words because you are at a loss for
other words.

There is a rich mine of words at your disposal. Do not be satisfied with
bits of glass that have no value, when the rich diamonds of real
expression can be yours for just a little digging. Save your emotional
language for the time when you really need it to express deep emotion.

                    Yours for Education,

                              THE PEOPLE'S COLLEGE.


                    INTERJECTIONS

+386.+ We have been studying the parts of speech,--the elements of which
sentences are composed. But we have another class of words which we call
parts of speech because they are spoken and written as words, but which
are really not parts of speech in the same sense as the words which we
have been discussing. These are words which we call interjections.

Interjection means, literally, thrown between, from _jecto_, to throw,
and _inter_, between. So interjections do not enter into the
construction of sentences but are only thrown in between. Every word
that is really a part of the sentence is either a noun, a pronoun, a
verb, an adjective, an adverb, a preposition or a conjunction.

There are words, however, that we use with sentences which do not enter
into the construction. For example, you say:

  Oh! I am wounded.
  Aha! I have conquered.
  Alas! He came too late.

+387.+ Words which we use in these sentences, like, _oh_, _aha_, _alas_,
are used to express the emotion which you feel in making the statement.
Your _Oh!_ in a sentence like: _Oh! I am wounded_, would probably sound
very much like a groan. But your _Aha!_ in the, _Aha! I have conquered_,
will sound like a shout of victory, and your _Alas!_ in the sentence,
_Alas! He came too late_, will express grief or regret over the fact
that he came too late.

These words do not assert anything and very much of the meaning which we
give them must come from the tone in which they are uttered. Every one,
upon hearing them, knows at once whether they express grief or delight.

+388.+ +An interjection is an exclamatory word or phrase used to express
feeling or to imitate some sound.+

+389.+ Interjections may be divided into four classes:

1. +Words which we use instead of an assertion to express feeling of
various kinds+, as:

  (a) Surprise or wonder; as, _Oh_, _Aha_, _What_.
  (b) Pleasure, joy, or exaltation; as, _Hurrah_, _Ha, Ha_.
  (c) Pain, sadness or sorrow; as, _Alas_, _Alack_.
  (d) Contempt or disgust; as _Fie_, _Fudge_, _Ugh_, _Pshaw_.

2. +Words used instead of a question+; as, _Eh?_ _Hey?_

3. +Words used instead of a command+; as:

  (a)  To call attention; as, _Hello_, _Ahoy_, _Whoa_.
  (b)  To express silence; as, _Shh_, _Hush_, _Hist_.
  (c)  To direct or drive out, etc., as, _Whoa_, _Gee_, _Haw_, _Scat_.

4. +Words used to imitate sounds made by animals, machines, etc.+, as,
_Bow-wow_, _Ding-dong_, _Bang_, _Rub-a-dub_.

When we wish to imitate noises or sounds made by animals, machines,
etc., in writing, we spell out the words as nearly as we can, just as we
write _ding-dong_ to represent the sound of the bell or _tick-tock_ to
indicate the ticking of a clock.

Note that a number of our verbs and nouns have been formed from
imitating the sound which these nouns or verbs describe or express, as
for instance, _crash_, _roar_, _buzz_, _hush_, _groan_, _bang_, _puff_,
etc.


                    Exercise 1

Mark the interjections in the following sentences. Which express
surprise? Which joy? Which sorrow? Which disgust?

  1. Alas! We shall never meet again.
  2. Bravo! You have done well.
  3. Pshaw! Is that the best you can do?
  4. Ship ahoy! All hands on deck.
  5. Hello! When did you come?
  6. Hurrah! We have won the victory.
  7. Alas, alack! Those days will never come again.
  8. Hist! You must be as still as mice.


                    Exercise 2

Write sentences using an interjection to express: 1. Joy. 2. Surprise.
3. Pain. 4. Sorrow. 5. Disgust. 6. To ask a question. 7. To call
attention. 8. To silence. 9. To direct. 10. To imitate the sound made by
an animal. 11. By a machine.


                    EXCLAMATORY WORDS

+390.+ Interjections express only emotion or feeling. They do not
express ideas. However, we have a number of words which are used
somewhat as interjections are used, which we may class as exclamatory
words, but they express more than interjections, for they express ideas
as well as emotions; but, like interjections, they are used
independently and have no part in the construction of the sentence.

+391.+ Many ordinary words and phrases are used in this way as
exclamations. When they are so used they have no place in the
construction of the sentence; that is, they do not depend upon the
sentence in which they are used, in any way. A noun used in this way is
not used as the subject or the object, but simply as an exclamation.

For example; the noun _nonsense_ may be used as an interjection, as in
the sentence; _Nonsense! I do not believe a word of it_. In this
sentence, _nonsense_ is a noun used as an interjection and plays no part
in the sentence, either as subject or object, but is an independent
construction. There are a number of words used in this way:

1. Nouns and pronouns, as _fire_, _mercy_, _shame_, _nonsense_, _the
idea_, _what_.

2. Verbs like, _help_, _look_, _see_, _listen_, _hark_, _behold_,
_begone_.

3. Adjectives like, _good_, _well_, _brave_, _welcome_, _strange_.

4. Adverbs like, _out_, _indeed_, _how_, _why_, _back_, _forward_.

5. Prepositions like, _on_, _up_, _down_.

6. Phrases like, _Oh dear_, _dear me_, _good bye_.

Words and phrases such as these, used as exclamations, are not true
interjections, for they express a little more than feeling. They express
an idea which, in our haste, we do not completely express. The other
words necessary to the expression of the idea are omitted because of the
stress of emotion. For example:

  Silence! I will hear no more.

In this sentence it is understood that we mean, _Let us have silence, I
will hear no more_. But in the stress of our emotion, we have omitted
the words, _Let us have_.

If we say, _Good! that will do splendidly_, you know that we mean, _That
is good_, we have simply omitted _That is_, which is necessary to
complete the sentence. Sometimes when we are greatly excited we abandon
our sentence construction altogether and use only the most important
words. For example:

  A sail! a sail!

This is not a sentence, for it does not contain a verb, yet we know that
what was meant was, _I see a sail, I see a sail_.


                    Exercise 3

Write sentences using the words given in the foregoing list as
exclamatory words, and add as many more to the list as you can think of.


                    YES AND NO

+392.+ The words _yes_ and _no_, which we use in reply to questions were
originally adverbs, but we no longer use them as adverbs. We no longer
combine them with other words as modifying or limiting words, but use
them independently. They are in themselves complete answers. Thus, if
you ask me the question, _Will you come?_ I may say _Yes_, meaning, _I
will come_; or, _No_, meaning, _I will not come_.

The responsives _yes_ and _no_ thus stand for whole sentences, so they
are really independent words. We may use them in connection with other
sentences. For example; I may say, _Yes, I will come_, or _No, I will
not come_. Used in this way, they still retain an independent
construction in the sentence. We call them responsives because they are
used in response to questions.


                    OTHER INDEPENDENT EXPRESSIONS

+393.+ Other words may be used in an independent construction in
sentences, without depending upon the sentence in which they are used or
without having the sentences depend upon them, such as:

1. +A word used in address.+ For example:

  Mr. President, I move that a committee be now appointed.
  Fellow Workers, I rise to address you.

In these sentences, _Mr. President_ and _Fellow Workers_ are nouns used
independently; that is, they are neither the subject of the sentence nor
used as object or predicate complement. They are independent of all
other words in the sentence.

The most common use of words used independently in direct address occurs
with imperative sentences. For example:

  _Comrades_, rouse yourselves.
  _Men_, strike for freedom.

2. +Exclamatory expressions.+ These are nouns used in the manner in
which we have already discussed, as in the sentence:

  _Nonsense!_ I do not believe a word of it.
  Alas! poor _Yorick_! I knew him well.

3. +Words and phrases used parenthetically+, as for example:

  _By the way_, I met a friend of yours today.
  We cannot, _however_, join you at once.
  He called, _it seems_, while we were gone.

In these sentences such words as, _however_, and such phrases as, _by
the way_, and, _it seems_, are used independently,--in parenthesis, as
it were; that is, they are just thrown into the sentences in such a way
that they do not modify or depend upon any other word in the sentence.
When we analyze our sentences, these independent words are not
considered as elements of the sentences in which they are used. It is
sufficient to say that they are independent words.

4. +Conjunctions used as introductory words.+ We have noted the use of
conjunctions like the co-ordinates _and_, _but_, etc., and the
subordinates _because_, _in order that_, _so_, _for_, _wherefore_,
_how_, _whether_, etc., which are used to introduce sentences and
connect them in thought with sentences and paragraphs which have gone
before.


                    INTRODUCTORY WORDS

+394.+ +We have a number of words which we use to introduce our
sentences.+ They are such words as, _so_, _well_ and _why_. These are
ordinarily adverbs, but when they are used merely to introduce a
sentence they retain little of their adverbial force. For example:

  _So_, that is your only excuse.
  _Well_, I cannot understand why you should accept it.
  _Why_, that is no reason at all.

In these sentences, _so_, _well_ and _why_ do not modify any of the
words in the sentences, but are used merely to introduce the sentences.
They serve in a measure to connect them with something which has gone
before.

+395.+ +The adverb _there_ is also used as an introductory word.+ When
it is used in this manner, it loses its adverbial force. _There_, as
ordinarily used, is an adverb of place, but it is often used to
introduce a sentence. For example: _There is some mistake about it_. In
this sentence _there_ is not used as an adverb, but it is used simply as
an introductory word. It is used to introduce a sentence in which the
verb comes before the real subject. _Mistake_ is the real subject of the
verb is, and _there_ is used simply as the introductory word.

+396.+ +The indefinite pronoun _it_ is also used as an introductory
word+, to introduce a sentence in much the same manner as _there_. The
real subject of the verb occurs later in the sentence. For example:

  It is best to know the truth.

This could be written, _To know the truth is best_, and the entire
meaning of the sentence would be conveyed.

+397.+ +Adverbs of mode.+ You remember in our study of adverbs, we had
certain adverbs which were called adverbs of mode. These are used to
modify the entire sentence. They express the feeling in which the entire
sentence is uttered. Adverbs of mode may be regarded also as independent
words. They are such words as, _indeed_, _surely_, _certainly_,
_perhaps_, etc. For example:

  _Indeed_, I cannot tell you now.
  _Surely_, I will comply with your request.
  _Perhaps_ it may be true.
  I _certainly_ hope to do so before long.


                    Exercise 4

Note in the following sentences the words which are pure interjections,
and those which are other parts of speech used as exclamatory words.
Mark those which are used in direct address, those which are used
parenthetically, and those which are used as mere introductory words.

  1. Oh, it seems impossible to believe it.
  2. Surely, you will accept my word.
  3. Nonsense, there is not the least truth in the story.
  4. It will be impossible for us to join.
  5. Therefore we urge you to join in this campaign.
  6. There is only one solution to the problem.
  7. It is difficult to discover the true facts.
  8. Well, I have done my best to persuade you.
  9. Mr. Chairman, I rise to a point of order.
  10. Comrades, come and stand for your rights.
  11. Yes, I have studied that philosophy.
  12. Enough! we have been enslaved too long.
  13. Hark! we hear the tramp of the army of labor.
  14. Alas! that any should refuse to join in this battle.
  15. You have not, it seems, understood the issue.
  16. Indeed, solidarity is our only hope.
  17. Br-r-r-r-r-r-r, thus whirl the machines that grind our children's
      lives.
  18. Hush! Over the crash of the cannon sounds the wail of Europe's
      women and children.


                    EXPLANATORY WORDS

+398.+ We sometimes use words which do not belong in the construction of
a sentence to explain other words in the sentence. For example:

  We, _the undersigned_, subscribe as follows:
  Helen Keller, _the most wonderful woman of this age_, champions the
  cause of the working class.

In the first sentence, the words, _the undersigned_, are added to the
pronoun _we_ to explain who _we_ means. In the second sentence, the
words, _the most wonderful woman of this age_, are added to explain who
Helen Keller is. Words added to other words in this way are called
explanatory words. They are placed in apposition to the noun which they
explain. Apposition means _by the side of_, or _in position near_. You
remember that in clauses we found that a clause may be placed in
apposition with a noun to explain the meaning of that noun. For example:

  There is an old saying, _in union there is strength_.

These words in apposition may themselves be modified or limited by other
words or phrases or clauses. For example:

  Helen Keller, the most wonderful woman of this age, champions the
  cause of the working class.

In this sentence, _woman_ is the noun placed in apposition to the
particular name, Helen Keller, and the noun _woman_ is modified by the
adjectives _the_, and _wonderful_, and by the phrase _of this age_.

Sometimes a second explanatory word is placed in apposition to the first
one. This is quite often the case in legal documents or resolutions,
where the language is quite formal. For example:

  We, the undersigned, _members of Local No. 38_, do hereby move, etc.
  I, John Smith, _Notary Public_, in and for the county of Clay, etc.

These words, _undersigned_ and _members_, are both placed in apposition
to the pronoun _We_, explaining to whom that pronoun refers.


                    Exercise 5

In the following sentences note the explanatory words and their
modifiers:

  1. Wendell Phillips, the great abolitionist, was a man of genius.
  2. Buckle, the historian, writes from the view point of the
     materialistic conception of history.
  3. Giovannitti, the poet, wrote "Arrows in the Gale."
  4. Helen Keller, champion of the working class, wrote the introduction
     to this book.
  5. We, the workers of the world, will some day claim our own.
  6. He was found guilty of treason, a crime punishable by death.
  7. Ferrer, the martyr of the twentieth century, was put to death by
     the Spanish government.
  8. Jaures, the great French socialist, was the first martyr to peace.
  9. But ye, Plebs, Populace, People, Rabble, Mob, Proletariat, live and
     abide forever.
  10. Ye are eternal, even as your father, labor, is eternal.
  11. This document, the Constitution of the United States, hinders the
      progress of the people.
  12. The memory of Guttenberg, the inventor of the printing press,
      should be reverenced by every class-conscious worker.
  13. Wallace, the scientist and author, was co-discoverer with Darwin
      of the theory of evolution.
  14. Karl Marx, the thinker, applied this theory to social forces.
  15. Do you understand the three basic principles of Socialism--the
      class struggle, economic determinism and surplus value?


                    Exercise 6

Read the following list of words and note the ideas which they suggest
to you, then make sentences containing these words, _modified by a word
or group of words in apposition_, which explain more fully these words.

  Law, martyr, society, education, inventor, commander, freedom, Eugene
  V. Debs, Karl Marx, Kaiser Wilhelm, The Balkan, Lawrence, Colorado,
  Calumet.


                    ABSOLUTE CONSTRUCTION

+399.+ We have found that every word in a sentence bears some relation
to every other word, except these words which we have been studying,
which we use independently. These explanatory words which we have just
been studying are not used independently, but do in a sense modify the
noun with which they are placed in apposition. Sometimes we place a noun
or a pronoun and its modifiers alongside the whole sentence and it does
not really modify any part of the sentence, but modifies the whole
sentence in a way, for it expresses an attendant thought or an
accompanying circumstance. For example:

  The workers being unorganized, the strike was easily defeated.
  The strikers having won, work was resumed on their terms.

_The workers being unorganised_ and _the strikers having won_ are not
clauses for they do not contain a verb. _Being unorganized_ and _having
won_ are participles. Neither do they modify any word in the sentence.
They are not placed in apposition with any other word. While they do
express a thought in connection with the sentence, in construction they
seem to be cut loose from the rest of the sentence; that is, they are
not closely connected with the sentence, hence they are called absolute
constructions. _Ab_ means from, and _solute_, loose; so this means,
literally, loose from the rest of the sentence.

We speak of these as absolute constructions, instead of independent,
because the thought expressed is connected with the main thought of the
sentence and is really a part of it. Notice that the noun used in the
absolute construction is not the _subject_ of the sentence.

Take the sentence, _The workers being unorganized, the strike was_
_easily defeated_, the noun _strike_ is the subject of the sentence, and
the noun _workers_ is used in the absolute construction with the
participle, _being unorganized_.

These absolute constructions can ordinarily be rewritten into adverb
clauses. For example, this sentence might read: _The strike was easily
defeated because the workers were unorganized_. Do not make the mistake
of rewriting your sentences and using the noun in the absolute
construction as the subject of the sentence. For example:

  The workers, being unorganized, were easily defeated.

This is not the meaning of this sentence. The meaning of the sentence is
that the _strike_ was easily defeated _because_ the workers were
unorganized. But the adverb clause, _because the workers were
unorganized_, instead of being written as an adverb clause, has been
written in the absolute construction, _the workers being unorganized_.

While it is nearly always possible to change these absolute
constructions into adverb clauses the sentences are sometimes weakened
by the change. These absolute constructions often enable us to make a
statement in a stronger manner than we could make it with a clause or in
any other way.


                    Exercise 7

In the following sentences, note the groups of words which are used in
absolute construction. Rewrite these sentences and if possible change
these words used in absolute construction into equivalent adverb phrases
or clauses. Note how some of the sentences are weakened when you make
this change.

  1. _Nationalism having been taught to generation after generation_,
     the workers obeyed the call of the master class to slaughter their
     fellow workers.
  2. _The hour having arrived_, Ferrer was blindfolded and led forth to
     die.
  3. _The mass being without education_, capitalism gains an easy
     victory.
  4. _The class struggle being a fact_, why should we hesitate to join
     our class?
  5. _These facts being true_, such a conclusion is inevitable.
  6. _Darwin having stated the theory of evolution_, Marx applied its
     principles to social science.
  7. _Chattel slavery having been destroyed_, wage-slavery became the
     corner stone of capitalism.
  8. _The price having been paid_, we claim our own.
  9. _The battle ended_, the army left the trenches.


                    Exercise 8

Mark the interjections in the following quotations. Note the independent
constructions. Mark the words used as explanatory words in apposition.

  In the mind's eye, I see a wonderful building, something like the
  Coliseum of ancient Rome. The galleries are black with people; tier
  upon tier rise like waves the multitude of spectators who have come to
  see a great contest. A great contest, indeed! A contest in which all
  the world and all the centuries are interested. It is the contest--the
  fight to death--between Truth and Error.

  The door opens, and a slight, small, shy and insignificant looking
  thing steps into the arena. It is Truth. The vast audience bursts into
  hilarious and derisive laughter. What! Is this Truth? This shuddering
  thing in tattered clothes, and almost naked? And the house shakes
  again with mocking and hisses.

  The door opens again, and Error enters--clad in cloth of gold,
  imposing in appearance, tall of stature, glittering with gems, sleek
  and huge and ponderous, causing the building to tremble with the thud
  of its steps. The audience is for a moment dazzled into silence, then
  it breaks into applause, long and deafening. "Welcome!" "Welcome!" is
  the greeting from the multitude. "Welcome!" shout ten thousand
  throats.

  The two contestants face each other. Error, in full armor--backed by
  the sympathies of the audience, greeted by the clamorous cheering of
  the spectators; and Truth, scorned, scoffed at, and hated. "The issue
  is a foregone conclusion," murmurs the vast audience. "Error will
  trample Truth under its feet."

  The battle begins. The two clinch, separate, and clinch again. Truth
  holds its own. The spectators are alarmed. Anxiety appears in their
  faces. Their voices grow faint. Is it possible? Look! See! There!
  Error recedes! It fears the gaze of Truth! It shuns its beauteous
  eyes! Hear it shriek and scream as it feels Truth's squeeze upon its
  wrists. Error is trying to break away from Truth's grip. It is making
  for the door. It is gone!

  The spectators are mute. Every tongue is smitten with the palsy. The
  people bite their lips until they bleed. They cannot explain what they
  have seen. "Oh! who would have believed it?" "Is it possible?"--they
  exclaim. But they cannot doubt what their eyes have seen--that puny
  and insignificant looking thing called Truth has put ancient and
  entrenched Error, backed by the throne, the altar, the army, the
  press, the people and the gods--to rout.

  The pursuit of truth! Is it not worth living for? To seek the truth,
  to love the truth, to live the truth? Can any religion offer
  more?--_Mangasarian_.



                    SPELLING

                    LESSON 23


Many words contain letters for which there are no corresponding sounds
in the spoken words. Thus, in the spoken word _though_ there are only
two sounds, the _th_ and the _o_; _u_ and _g_ and _h_ are silent. There
are a great many words in the English language which contain these
silent letters. There has been a movement inaugurated for the purpose of
simplifying the spelling of these words, omitting these silent letters.
Some writers have adopted this method of simplified spelling, and so in
some magazines and books which you read you will find these silent
letters dropped; for example, you will find _though_ spelled _tho_,
_through_ spelled _thru_.

This method of simplified spelling has not been universally adopted and
we have not followed it in these lessons because we feared that it would
be confusing. Probably in most of your reading you will find the old
method of spelling followed and all of these silent letters included. No
doubt, as time goes on, we shall adopt this simplified method of
spelling and drop all of these silent and useless letters.

In our spelling lesson for this week we have a number of words
containing silent letters.


                    +MONDAY+

In a number of words you will find _ea_ pronounced as short _e_. The
board of simplified spelling has suggested that we drop the _a_, which
is a silent letter, from these words. If we adopted their suggestion,
words like _head_ would be spelled _hed_. Note the spelling of the
following words in which _ea_ is pronounced as short _e_ and the _a_ is
silent.

Spread, stead, threat, meant, pleasant, stealth.


                    +TUESDAY+

We have a number of words ending in _ough_ in which the _gh_ is silent.

1. In some of these words the _ou_ is pronounced like _ow_. We have
already changed the spelling of a few of these words, for example, we no
longer use _plough_, but write it _plow_.

2. In other words ending with _ough_ the _ugh_ is silent and the words
end with a long _o_ sound, as in _though_. Many writers have dropped the
silent letters ugh and spell this simply _tho_.

3. A few other words ending with _ough_ end with a _u_ sound and those
who adopt the simplified spelling have dropped the _ough_ and used
simply _u_, as in _through_; many writers spell it simply _thru_.
Observe the spelling of the following words and mark the silent letters:

Bough, through, thorough, furlough, borough, though.


                    +WEDNESDAY+

We have a number of words ending in _mn_ in which the _n_ is silent.
Note the spelling of the following words:

Autumn, solemn, column, kiln, hymn, condemn.


                    +THURSDAY+

We have a number of words containing a silent _b_. Notice the spelling
of the following words:

Doubt, debt, dumb, limb, thumb, lamb.


                    +FRIDAY+

A number of words end with silent _ue_ after _g_. Some writers omit the
ue and probably after a while we will drop this silent _ue_, but you
will find it used now in most of your reading. These are such words as:

Catalogue, demagogue, decalogue, tongue, league, harangue.


                    +SATURDAY+

We have a number of words ending with _gh_ in which the _gh_ has the
sound of _f_, as in the following words:

Trough, rough, enough, laugh, tough, cough.



                    PLAIN ENGLISH

                    LESSON 24


Dear Comrade:

We have finished our study of the different parts of speech and are
going to enter upon the work of sentence building. In the next few
lessons we will gather up all that we have been studying in these
lessons so far. This is a good time to give this work a thorough review.
Perhaps there have been a number of things in the lessons which you have
not thoroughly understood, or perhaps there have been some rules for
which you have not seen the reason. Now as we begin to construct our
sentences, all of this will fit into its place. We shall find the reason
for many of the things which may not have seemed thoroughly clear to us.

There _is_ a science in language as in everything else, and language,
after all, is governed by the will of the people. This has seemed so
self-evident to those who make a special study of the language and its
development that they have given this power a special name. They speak
of the "Genius of the Language" as though there was some spirit guiding
and directing the developing power of language.

There is a spirit guiding and directing the developing power of
language. That spirit is the creative genius of the people. It is the
same spirit that would guide and direct all phases of life into full and
free expression, if it were permitted to act. There being no private
profit connected with the control of the language, the creative genius
of the people has had fuller sway.

The educator sitting in his study cannot make arbitrary rules to change
or conserve the use of words. The people themselves are the final
arbiter in language. It is the current usage among the masses which puts
the final stamp upon any word. Think what this same creative genius
might do if it were set free in social life, in industrial life. It
would work out those principles which were best fitted to the advance of
the people themselves. But those who would profit by the enslavement of
the people have put stumbling blocks,--laws, conventions, morals,
customs,--in the way of the people.

Their creative genius does not have full sway or free sweep, but let us
rejoice that in language, at least, we are free. And let us, as we
realize the power of the people manifest in this phase of life,
determine that the same power shall be set free to work out its will in
all life. Some day the revolution will come. The people will be free to
rule themselves, to express their will, not in the realms of words
alone, but in their social and economic life; and as we become free
within, dare to think for ourselves and to demand our own, we each
become a torch of the revolution, a center of rebellion--one of those
who make straight the path for the future.

                    Yours for the Revolution,

                                  THE PEOPLE'S COLLEGE.


                    SENTENCE BUILDING

+400.+ Every expression of a complete thought is a sentence. A sentence
is the unit in language. Words are the material out of which we build
our sentences, so we have been studying the various parts of speech that
are used in sentence building. Now we are ready to use these parts of
speech in the building of sentences. We have found that there are eight
parts of speech, though the interjection, which is termed the eighth
part of speech, is not in reality a part of the sentence; but is a
complete, independent construction. So in your sentences all of the many
hundreds of words which we use can be grouped into seven divisions;
_nouns_, _pronouns_, _adjectives_, _verbs_, _adverbs_, _prepositions_
and _conjunctions_.

+401.+ You remember in our first lesson we found that there were just
three kinds of sentences. The _assertive_, the _interrogative_ and the
_imperative_; or in other words, sentences which state a _fact_, ask a
_question_ or give a _command_. We also found that these three kinds of
sentences could all be expressed in _exclamatory_ form.


                    THREE KINDS OF SENTENCES

  +Assertive.+ Makes a statement.
  +Interrogative.+ Asks a question.
  +Imperative.+ Gives a command.

  +Assertive sentence;+ _I remember the day._
  +Interrogative sentence;+ _Do you not remember the day?_
  +Imperative sentence;+ _Remember the day._


  In Exclamatory Form

  +Assertive;+ _Nonsense! I remember the day._
  +Interrogative;+ _What! Do you not remember the day?_
  +Imperative;+ _Oh come! Remember the day._


                    ANALYSIS--SIMPLE SENTENCES

+402.+ Now that we have finished the study of the various parts of
speech, we are ready for sentence building and for sentence analysis.
Sentence analysis is the breaking up of the sentence into its different
parts in order to find out how and why it is thus put together. To
analyze anything is to break it up or separate it into its different
parts. We speak of analyzing a sentence when we pick out the subject and
the predicate and their modifiers, because we thus unloosen them or
separate them from one another.

These parts of the sentence are called the elements of the sentence. The
elements of a sentence consist of the words, phrases and clauses used in
forming the sentence.

+403.+ Let us begin from the simplest beginning and build up our
sentences, using the various parts of speech as we have studied them.
Let us take the simplest form of sentence which we can consider. For
example:

  Men work.

There are only three parts of speech which can be used to make a simple
sentence in this manner, and these are, either the noun and the verb, or
the pronoun and the verb. We might say instead of _Men work_, _They
work_, and have a complete sentence.

In the sentence _Men work_, _men_ is the subject and _work_ is the
predicate. The subject and the predicate are the two principal elements
in a sentence. No sentence can be formed without these two parts and
these two parts can express a thought without the help of other
elements. Now we may begin to enlarge the subject by adding modifiers.

You remember we have found that a noun may be modified by an adjective.
So we add the adjective _busy_, and we have:

  Busy men work.

Our simple subject is still the noun _men_, but the complete subject is
the noun with its modifier, _busy men_. We may add other adjectives and
say:

  The busy, industrious men with families work.

Here we have our simple subject _men_ modified by the adjectives, _the_,
_busy_ and _industrious_, and also by the adjective phrase, _with
families_. So the complete subject of the sentence now is, _the busy,
industrious men with families_.

Our predicate is still the single verb _work_. Let us now enlarge the
predicate. We have found that adverbs are used to modify verbs, and so
we may say:

  The busy, industrious men with families work hard.
  The busy, industrious men with families work hard in the factory.

Our simple predicate, _work_ is now enlarged. It is modified by the
adverb, _hard_ and the adverb phrase, _in the factory_. So our complete
predicate is now, _work hard in the factory_.

+404.+ These sentences with the simple subject and the simple predicate
and their modifying words and phrases form simple sentences.

+A simple sentence is one which expresses a single statement, question
or command.+

+405.+ A simple sentence, therefore, will contain but one subject and
one predicate. The subject may be a compound subject and the predicate
may be a compound predicate, but still the sentence expresses a single
thought. For example: _The boys sing_. This is a simple statement with a
simple subject and a simple predicate. Then we may say: _The boys sing
and play_. We still have a single statement, but a compound predicate,
_sing and play_.

Now we may make a compound subject, and say, _The boys and girls sing
and play_, but we have still a single statement, for both predicates are
asserted of both subjects. So, _The boys and girls sing and play_, is a
simple sentence.

If we say, _The boys sing and the girls play_, we have a compound
sentence, composed of two simple sentences, _The boys sing_, _The girls
play_.

If we say, _The boys sing while the girls play_, we have a complex
sentence formed of the simple sentence, _The boys sing_, and the
dependent clause, _while the girls play_.

+406.+ Now let us sum up our definitions:

+Every sentence must contain two parts, a subject and a predicate.+

+The subject of a sentence is that part about which something is said.+

+The predicate is that part which asserts something of the subject.+

+The simple subject of a sentence is a noun, or the word used in place
of a noun, without modifiers.+

+The simple predicate is the verb or verb phrase without its modifiers.+

+The complete subject of a sentence is the simple subject with all of
its modifiers.+

+The complete predicate of a sentence is the simple predicate with all
of its modifiers.+

+A simple sentence is one which expresses a single statement, question
or command.+

+A complex sentence is one containing an independent clause and one or
more dependent clauses.+

+A compound sentence is one containing two or more independent clauses.+

+A clause is a part of a sentence containing a subject and a predicate.+


                    Exercise 1

In the following sentences the simple subject and the simple predicate
are printed in _italics_. Find all of the modifiers of the subject and
all of the modifiers of the predicate, and draw a single line under the
complete subject and two lines under the complete predicate.

  1. Beautiful _pictures hang_ on the wall.
  2. Those elm _trees grow_ rapidly every year.
  3. A terrible _storm broke_ unexpectedly at sea.
  4. The clear, crystal _water runs_ swiftly to the sea.
  5. The beautiful _flowers fade_ quickly in the heat.
  6. The happy, boisterous _children play_ at school every day.
  7. The sturdy _oak_ in the forest _stands_ bravely through every
     storm.
  8. Their arching _tops_ almost _speak_ to us.
  9. A _cry_ of joy _rings_ through the land.
  10. The _leaves_ of the trees _flutter_ in the wind.
  11. Great _clouds_ of smoke _float_ in the air.


                    Exercise 2

Note carefully the following simple sentences. Each of these groups of
two words will suggest ideas and pictures to you. Lengthen each sentence
by adding modifiers to the simple subject and to the simple predicate so
as to make a fuller and more definite statement. For example: _Ships
sail_. This is a simple subject and simple predicate. We add adjectives
and an adjective phrase and adverbs and an adverb phrase as modifiers
and we have, as follows:

  The stately _ships_ in the bay _sail_ proudly away to foreign shores.

  Snow melts.
  Winds blow.
  House stands.
  Boys run.
  Soldiers fight.
  Tides flow.
  Children play.
  Ships sail.
  Guns boom.
  Women endure.


                    ANOTHER ELEMENT

+407.+ You will note that all of these verbs which we have used in these
sentences have been complete verbs as _hang_, _grow_, _runs_, _fade_,
etc. A complete verb, you will remember, is a verb that does not need an
object or a complement. It is complete within itself. It may be modified
by an adverb or an adverb phrase, but when you leave off these modifiers
you still have complete sense.

In any of the sentences above you may cross out the adverb or the adverb
phrase which modifies the verb and you will still have complete
sentences. For example:

  Great clouds of smoke float in the air.

Here, the adverb phrase, _in the air_, may be omitted and still we have
complete sense, thus:

  Great clouds of smoke float.

+408.+ The incomplete verbs, however, require either an object or
complement to complete their meaning.

Incomplete verbs are of two kinds; those that express _action_ and those
that express _state_ or _condition_.

An incomplete verb that expresses action requires an object which is the
receiver of the action expressed in the verb, so we have another element
which enters into the simple sentence, when we use an incomplete verb.
For example:

  The busy man makes shoes.

In order to complete the sentence, we must use an object with the
incomplete verb _makes_. To say, _The busy man makes_, is not enough. We
must have an object which is the receiver of the action expressed in the
verb, _makes_. Verbs of action often have two objects. One object names
the _thing_ that _receives_ the action and the other names the _thing_
indirectly _affected_ by the action. For example:

  The tailor made him a coat.

+409.+ _Coat_ is the _direct_ object of the verb _made_. But we have
another object in the pronoun _him_. We do not mean that the tailor made
_him_, but that the tailor made him a _coat_. _Coat_ is the direct
object and _him_ is the indirect object. The indirect object is always
placed before the direct object. The indirect object may be used as the
object of the preposition _to_ or _for_. As for example, this sentence
might be rewritten to read, _The tailor made a coat for him_. In this
sentence, _him_ is not the indirect object of the verb, but is the
object of the preposition _for_.

+410.+ The direct object of the verb always answers the question _what?_
As for example, the tailor made _what?_--_a coat_. The indirect object
of the verb names the person or thing _to_ or _for_ which the act is
done,--_the tailor made a coat for whom?_--for _him_.

The direct and indirect object become a part of the complete predicate
of the sentence. There may be other modifiers also, as adverbs or adverb
phrases, and all of these taken together form the complete predicate in
the sentences where you have used an incomplete verb. As for example:

  The tailor gladly made him a coat for the occasion.

The complete predicate is, _gladly made him a coat for the occasion_,
formed of the verb _made_, the direct object, _coat_, the indirect
object _him_, the adverb modifier, _gladly_, and the phrase modifier,
_for the occasion_.


                    Exercise 3

In the following sentences, underscore the direct object with one line
and the indirect object with two lines. The verb is in italics.

  1. He _gave_ her a book.
  2. He _wrote_ me a long letter.
  3. Her father _bought_ her a watch.
  4. The nurse _gave_ the patient his medicine.
  5. The mother _gave_ her daughter a present.
  6. _Give_ me time to think.
  7. The clerk _sold_ her a dress.
  8. The teacher _read_ the children a story.
  9. The company _furnishes_ the men food and shelter.
  10. The man _showed_ us his wounds.


                    Exercise 4

In the following sentences underscore the complete subject and the
complete predicate. Notice especially the direct and the indirect
objects of the incomplete verbs. The simple subjects and the direct
objects are in italics.

  1. A great many _miles_ separate _us_ from our friends.
  2. The merry _shouts_ of the children fill the _air_ with music.
  3. A gentle _breeze_ brings us the _perfume_ of the flowers.
  4. A careless _druggist_ gave the unfortunate man the wrong
     _medicine_.
  5. His admiring _friends_ gave him a beautiful _ring_.
  6. _Soldiers_ obey _orders_ from their superiors.
  7. This terrible _war_ claims _thousands_ of victims.
  8. The _power_ of hunger drives the _unemployed_ to rebellion.
  9. The _workers_ of the world produce _enough_ for all.
  10. The retiring _secretary_ showed us a _letter_ from the president.
  11. The old sea _captain_ told them an interesting _story_ of life at
      sea.
  12. _Labor_ produces all _wealth_.


                    COPULATIVE VERBS

+411.+ We have another class of incomplete verbs which require a
complement to complete their meaning. These are the copulative verbs.
The number of copulative verbs is small. They are: all forms of the verb
_be_; also, _like_, _appear_, _look_, _feel_, _sound_, _smell_,
_become_, _seem_, etc. These verbs require a noun or an adjective or a
phrase as a complement, to complete their meaning. They are really
connective words serving to connect the noun or adjective or phrase used
in the predicate with the noun which they modify. The noun or adjective
or phrase used to complete the meaning of the copulative verb is called
a predicate complement. For example:

  The man is a hero.

Here we have a noun, _hero_, used as a predicate complement after the
copulative verb, _is_, to describe the noun _man_.

  The man is class-conscious.

In this sentence, we have an adjective, _class-conscious_, in the
predicate to modify the subject, _man_. It is connected with the subject
by the copulative verb _is_.

  The man is in earnest.

Here we have a phrase, _in earnest_, used in the predicate to modify the
noun _man_, and connected with the subject by the copulative verb _is_.

+412.+ So in the predicate with the copulative verbs--incomplete verbs
which express state or condition--we may use a noun or an adjective or a
phrase. A noun used as the predicate complement may have modifiers. It
may be modified by one or more adjectives or adjective phrases. These
adjectives in turn may be modified by adverbs. The complete predicate,
then, is the copulative verb with its predicate complement and all its
modifiers. For example:

  Grant was the most famous general of the Civil war.

In this sentence, _Grant_ is the complete subject, _was the most famous
general of the Civil war_ is the complete predicate. _Was_ is the
copulative verb; _general_ is the noun used as the predicate complement;
_the_ and _famous_ are adjectives modifying _general_; _most_ is an
adverb modifying the adjective _famous_, and, _of the Civil war_ is an
adjective phrase modifying _general_, so our complete predicate is, _was
the most famous general of the Civil war_.

When an adjective is used in the predicate complement it, too, may have
modifiers and more than one adjective may be used. For example:

  The man is very brave and loyal to his class.

Here we have two adjectives used in the predicate complement, _brave_
and _loyal_. _Brave_ is modified by the adverb _very_, and _loyal_ is
modified by the adverb phrase, _to his class_. The complete predicate
is, _is very brave and loyal to his class_.

When we use a phrase as a predicate complement, it, too, may have
modifiers and more than one phrase may be used. For example:

  The man is in the fight and deeply in earnest.

In this sentence, two phrases are used in the predicate complement, _in
the fight_ and _in earnest_. The second phrase, _in earnest_ is modified
by the adverb _deeply_. The complete predicate is, _is in the fight and
deeply in earnest_.


                    Exercise 5

Fill the blanks in the following sentences with a noun and its modifiers
used as predicate complement. Name all of the parts of speech which you
have used in the predicate complement as we have done in the sentences
analyzed above:

  The men are _loyal members of the Union_.
  Slavery is.......
  Liberty will be.......
  War is.......
  The machine is.......
  The children were.......

Fill the blanks in the following sentences with one or more adjectives
and their modifiers used in the predicate complement.

  The work is _hard and destructive to the children_.
  The history will be.......
  Labor has been.......
  Peace will be.......
  Poverty is.......

Fill the blanks in the following sentences with a phrase used in the
predicate complement.

  His service was _for his class_.
  Socialism is.......
  The workers are.......
  The message shall be.......
  The government is.......
  The opportunity is.......


                    VERB PHRASES

+413.+ Note that in most of the sentences which we have used, we have
used the simple form of the verb, the form that is used to express
_past_ and _present_ time. In expressing other time forms we use verb
phrases. Note the summary given in section 145, which gives the
different time forms of the verb.

+414.+ Sometimes in using the verb phrase you will find that other words
may separate the words forming the phrase. When you analyze your
sentence this will not confuse you. You will easily be able to pick out
the verb phrase. For example:

  I shall very soon find out the trouble.

Here the adverbs, _very_ and _soon_, separate _find_ from its auxiliary
_shall_. The verb phrase is, _shall find_. The negative _not_ very often
separates the words forming a verb phrase. For example:

  I will not go.

In this sentence, _will go_ is the verb phrase.

When we use the auxiliary verb _do_ to express emphasis, and also the
negative _not_, _not_ comes between the auxiliary verb _do_, and the
principal verb. For example:

  I do not obey, I think.

In this sentence, _do obey_ is the verb phrase.

In interrogative sentences, the verb phrase is inverted and a part of
the verb phrase is placed first and the subject after. For example:

  Will you go with us?

_You_ is the subject of this interrogative sentence and _will go_ is the
verb phrase; but in order to ask the question, the order is inverted and
part of the verb phrase placed first. In using interrogative adverbs in
asking a question, the same inverted order is used. For example:

  When will this work be commenced?

In this sentence, _work_ is the subject of the sentence and _will be
commenced_ is the verb phrase. If you should write this in assertive
form, it would be:

  This work will be commenced when?

By paying close attention we can easily distinguish the verb phrases
even when they are used in the inverted form or when they are separated
by other parts of speech.


                    LET US SUM UP

+415.+ The elements of a sentence are the words, phrases or clauses of
which it is composed.

+A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement, question or
command.+

+A simple sentence contains only words and phrases.+ It does not contain
dependent clauses. The elements of a simple sentence are:

                         {The simple subject--the noun, or the
  The complete subject   {  word used in place of the noun--and
                         {  all its modifiers.

  The complete predicate {The simple predicate--the verb, and
                         {  all its modifiers.


                    Exercise 6

In the following sentences, the simple subjects and the simple
predicates of the principal clauses are printed in italics. Locate all
the modifiers of the subjects and predicates, and determine the part of
speech of each word in the sentence.

Sentences Nos. 1, 5, 6, 14, 15, 16, 18, 30, 31, 32 and 37 are simple
sentences.

Sentences Nos. 2, 4, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 22, 26, 28, 33, 34 and 36 are
complex.

Sentences Nos. 3, 10, 12, 21, 23, 24, 25, 29 and 35 are compound.

No. 8 is incomplete, having neither subject nor predicate.

No. 9 is incomplete, there being no predicate in the principal clause.

No. 20 is a simple sentence, with a complex sentence in parenthesis.

No. 27 consists of two dependent clauses.

In the complex sentences, draw a line under the dependent clauses.

  "Br--r--r--r--r--r--r--r--r--."

  1. What _are_ the _machines saying_, a hundred of them in one long
     room?
  2. _They must be talking_ to themselves, for I see no one else for
     them to talk to.
  3. But yes, there _is_ a boy's red _head_ bending over one of them,
     and beyond _I see_ a pale face fringed with brown curly locks.
  4. There _are_ only five _boys_ in all, on the floor, half-hidden by
     the clattering machines, for one bright lad can manage twenty-five
     of them.
  5. Each _machine makes_ one cheap, stout sock in five minutes,
     without seam, complete from toe to ankle, cutting the thread at the
     end and beginning another of its own accord.
  6. The _boys have_ nothing to do but to clean and burnish and oil the
     steel rods and replace the spools of yarn.
  7. But how rapidly and nervously _they do_ it--the slower hands
     straining to accomplish as much as the fastest!
  8. Working at high tension for ten hours a day in the close, greasy
     air and endless whirr----
  9. _Boys_ who ought to be out playing ball in the fields or taking a
     swim in the river this fine summer afternoon.
  10. And in these good times, the _machines go_ all night, and other
      _shifts_ of boys _are kept_ from their beds to watch them.
  11. The young _girls_ in the mending and finishing rooms downstairs
      _are_ not so strong as the boys.
  12. _They have_ an unaccountable way of fainting and collapsing in
      the noise and smell, and then _they are_ of no use for the rest of
      the day.
  13. The kind _stockholders have had_ to provide a room for collapsed
      girls and to employ a doctor, who finds it expedient not to
      understand this strange new disease.
  14. Perhaps their _children will be_ more stalwart in the next
      generation.
  15. Yet this _factory is_ one of the triumphs of our civilization.
  16. With only twenty boys at a time at the machines in all the rooms,
      _it produces_ five thousand dozen pairs of socks in twenty-four
      hours for the toilers of the land.
  17. _It would take_ an army of fifty thousand hand-knitters to do what
      these small boys perform.

  "Br--r--r--r--r--r--r--r--r--."

  18. What _are_ the _machines saying_?
  19. _They are saying_, "We are hungry."
  20. "_We have eaten_ up the men and women. (There is no longer a
      market for men and women, they come too high)--
  21. _We have eaten_ up the men and women, and now _we are devouring_
      the boys and girls.
  22. How good _they taste_ as we suck the blood from their rounded
      cheeks and forms, and cast them aside sallow and thin and
      careworn, and then call for more.
  23. Br--r--r--r--r--r--r--r! how good _they taste_; but _they give_
      us so few boys and girls to eat nowadays, although there are so
      many outside begging to come in--.
  24. Only one _boy_ to twenty of us, and _we are_ nearly _famished_!
  25. _We eat_ those they give us and _those_ outside _will starve_, and
      soon _we shall be left_ almost alone in the world with the
      stockholders.
  26. Br--r--r--r--r--r--r--r! What shall we do then for our food?" the
      _machines chatter_ on.
  27. "When we are piling up millions of socks a day for the toilers
      and then there are no toilers left to buy them and wear them.
  28. Then perhaps we shall have to turn upon the kind stockholders and
      feast on them (how fat and tender and toothsome they will be!)
      until at last we alone remain, clattering and chattering in a
      desolate land," _growled the machines_.
  29. While the _boys went_ on anxiously, hurriedly rubbing and
      polishing, and the _girls_ downstairs _went_ on collapsing.
  30. "Br--r--r--r--r--r--r--r!" _growled_ the _machines_.
  31. The _devil has_ somehow _got_ into the machines.
  32. _They came_ like the good gnomes and fairies of old, to be our
      willing slaves and make our lives easy.
  33. Now that, by their help, one man can do the work of a score, why
      _have we_ not plenty for all, with only enough work to keep us
      happy?
  34. _Who could have foreseen_ all the ills of our factory workers and
      of those who are displaced and cast aside by factory work?
  35. The good wood and iron _elves came_ to bless us all, but _some_ of
      us _have succeeded_ in bewitching them to our own ends and turning
      them against the rest of mankind.
  36. _We must break_ the sinister charm and _win_ over the docile,
      tireless machines until they refuse to shut out a single human
      being from their benefits.
  37. _We must cast_ the devil out of the machines.

                                        --_Ernest Crosby_.



                    SPELLING

                    LESSON 24


Among the common suffixes in English are the suffixes _or_ and _er_.
These suffixes mean _one who_ or _that which_. For example, _builder_,
one who builds; _actor_, one who acts; _heater_, that which heats. But
we are confused many times to know whether to add the suffix _or_ or
_er_ to form these derivative words. There is no exact rule which can be
given, but the following rule usually applies with but few exceptions:

To the shorter and commoner words in the language add the suffix _er_.
For example, _writer_, _boxer_, _singer_, etc. To the longer and less
common words, usually those derived from the Latin or the Greek, add the
suffix _or_. For example, _legislator_, _conqueror_, etc.

There are a number of words in the English like _honor_, in which the
last syllable used to be spelled _our_ instead of _or_. You will
probably run across such words as these in your reading. This mode of
spelling these words, however, is being rapidly dropped and the ending
_or_ is being used instead of _our_. There are also a number of words in
our language like _center_, which used to be spelled with _re_ instead
of _er_. The _re_ ending is not used any more, although you may run
across it occasionally in your reading. The proper ending for all such
words as these is _er_. There are a few words, however, like _timbre_ (a
musical term) and _acre_, which are still properly spelled with the _re_
ending.

The spelling lessons for Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday,
contain words from which derivatives can be formed by adding _er_ or
_or_. Look these words up in the dictionary and be sure that you have
added the proper suffix. The list for Friday consists of words which you
may find in your reading spelled with the _our_ ending. The list for
Saturday contains words which you may find spelled with the _re_ ending
instead of the _er_.

  +Monday+

    Create
    Produce
    Profess
    Debate
    Govern

  +Tuesday+

    Edit
    Consume
    Consign
    Legislate
    Design

  +Wednesday+

    Solicit
    Pay
    Success
    Observe
    Invent

  +Thursday+

    Vote
    Debt
    Organize
    Sail
    Strike

  +Friday+

    Labor
    Neighbor
    Rumor
    Valor
    Candor

  +Saturday+

    Theater
    Scepter
    Fiber
    Somber
    Meager



                    PLAIN ENGLISH

                    LESSON 25


Dear Comrade:

In logic, we have two ways of reasoning, from the general to the
particular and from the particular to the general. In other words, we
may take a certain number of facts and reason to a conclusion; or we may
go the other way about and start with our conclusion and reason back to
the facts which produce the conclusion. Scientists use the former
method. They gather together all the facts which they possibly can and
from these facts they reach their conclusions.

This was what Karl Marx did for the social problems of his day. He
analyzed these problems. He gathered together all of the facts which he
could obtain concerning conditions of his day and from these facts he
reached certain conclusions. He foretold the rise of capitalism and
outlined present day conditions so perfectly that had he lived long ago
among superstitious people, they would probably have called him a
prophet.

This mastery of analysis, of marshaling our facts and from them reaching
conclusions, is a wonderful power to possess, and this is exactly what
we are doing in our English work. We are analyzing our sentences,
finding the elements of which they are composed, and then building the
sentence; and since neither the thought nor the sentence can be really
studied except in connection with each other, this analysis of sentences
gives us an understanding of the thought. The effort to analyze a
difficult sentence leads to a fuller appreciation of the meaning of the
sentence. This, in turn, cultivates accuracy in our own thought and in
its expression.

So do not slight the analysis of the sentence or this work in sentence
building. You will find it will help you to a quicker understanding of
that which you are reading and it will also give you a logical habit of
mind. You will be able to think more accurately and express yourself
more clearly. After a little practice in analysis you will find that in
your reading you will be able to grasp the author's meaning quickly. You
will see at a glance, without thinking about it consciously, the subject
and the predicate and the modifiers in the sentence. Then you will not
confuse the meaning. You will not have to go back and reread the passage
to find out just what the author was talking about; and when you come to
write and speak yourself, you will have formed the habit of logical
expression. In this way you will be able to put your thought in such a
manner that your listener can make no mistake as to just what you mean.

Now, no habit comes without practice. You cannot do a thing
unconsciously until you have done it consciously a great many times. So
practice this analysis of sentences over and over. It really is an
interesting game in itself, and the results which it will bring to you
are tremendously worth while.

Nothing is too much trouble which will give us the power to think for
ourselves and to put that thought into words.

                    Yours for Freedom,

                              THE PEOPLE'S COLLEGE.


                    THE SUBJECT OF A SIMPLE SENTENCE

+416.+ We have found that the two parts of a simple sentence are the
complete subject and the complete predicate. The noun is most often used
as the subject of a sentence. It may have a number of modifiers, but
when we strip away these modifiers we can usually find a noun which is
the subject of the sentence. Occasionally the subject is a pronoun or a
participle or adjective used as a noun but most frequently the subject
is a noun. As for example:

  A wild piercing _cry_ rang out.
  Hopeless, helpless _children_ work in the cotton mills.
  The golden _age_ of peace will come.
  Little child _lives_ are coined into money.
  Defenseless, helpless _children_ suffer most under capitalism.
  Every neglected _child_ smites my conscience in the name of humanity.
  The thrilling, far-sounding _battle-cry_ shall resound.

Note that in all of these sentences the word in italics is a noun, which
is the simple subject of the sentence. All of the other words which
comprise the complete subject are the modifiers of this noun, or
modifiers of its modifiers.

But in our study of words, we have found that there are a number of
other words which can be used in place of a noun and these may all be
used as the subject of a sentence.

+417.+ +A pronoun may be used as the subject of a sentence+, for the
pronoun is a word used in place of the noun; and a pronoun used as the
subject of a sentence may have modifiers just as a noun. It may be
modified by adjectives or adjective phrases, as for example:

  _We_ are confident of success.
  _He_, worried and out of employment, committed suicide.
  _She_, heartsick and weary, waited for an answer.
  _She_, with her happy, watchful ways, blessed the household.
  _They_, victorious and triumphant, entered the city.
  How can _I_, without money or friends, succeed?

    "Out of the night that covers me,
    Black as the pit from pole to pole,
    _I_ thank whatever Gods there be
    For my unconquerable soul."

In all of these sentences the pronoun is the simple subject of the
sentence, and the pronoun with all of its modifiers is the complete
subject of the sentence.

+418.+ +The participle may be used as a noun, the subject of the
sentence.+ For example:

  _Traveling_ is pleasant.

Here the present participle _traveling_ is used as a noun, subject of
the sentence.

Participle phrases may also be used as nouns, as for example:

  _Being prepared_ will not save us from war.
  His _having signed_ the note was the cause of the trouble.

In these sentences, _being prepared_ and _having signed_ are participle
phrases used as nouns, the subjects of the verbs _will save_ and _was_.
Note the use of the participle used as the subject in the following
sentences:

  _Painting_ is an art.
  _Making_ shoes is his work.
  _Being discovered_ seems to be the real crime.
  His _having joined_ his comrades was a brave act.
  Your _remaining_ here will be dangerous.

Note that when the participle is used as a noun, the possessive form
of the pronoun is always used with it, as in the sentence above:

  _Your_ remaining here will be dangerous.

Notice that in some of these sentences the participle has an object; as,
making _shoes_, his having joined his _comrades_. The participle still
retains some of its verb nature in that it may take an object. The
entire phrases, _His having joined his comrades_, and, _Making shoes_,
are the subjects of the sentences.

+419.+ +The infinitive may also be used as a noun, the subject of the
sentence.+ Note in the following sentences the use of the infinitive as
the subject of the sentence:

  _To err_ is human; _to forgive_ is divine.
  _To be_ or not _to be_ is the question.
  _To toil_ all day is wearisome.
  _To aim_ is one thing; _to hit_ the mark is another.
  _To remain_ ignorant is to remain a slave.

+420.+ +An adjective can also be used as the subject.+ You remember in
our study of adjectives we found that an adjective may be used as a
noun, as for example:

  The _strong_ enslave the weak.

Here the adjective _strong_ is used as a noun, subject of the sentence.
Note in the following sentences, the use of the adjectives as subjects:

  The _wise_ instruct the ignorant.
  The _dead_ were left upon the battlefields.
  The _rich_ look down upon the poor.
  The _mighty_ of the earth have forced this war upon us.
  The _poor_ are enslaved by their ignorance.
  The _wounded_ were carried to the hospitals.


                    PLACE OF THE SUBJECT IN A SENTENCE

The subject usually comes first in the sentence. If it has any
modifiers, they alone precede the subject, as for example:

  A wonderful, inspiring _lecture_ was given.
  The weary _army_ slept in the trenches.

But occasionally we find the subject after the verb.

+421.+ +By simple inversion.+

We will often find this use in poetry or in poetic prose, as for
example:

  Never have _I_ heard one word to the contrary.

In this sentence _I_ is the subject of the sentence, _have heard_ is the
verb, and _never_ is an adverb modifying the verb phrase, _have heard_.
But in order to place emphasis upon the word _never_, which is the
emphatic word in the sentence, _never_ is placed first, and the verb
phrase inverted so that the subject _I_ comes in between the two words
which form the verb phrase. The sentence expressed in its usual order
would be:

  I have never heard one word to the contrary.

You will note that this statement does not carry the same emphasis upon
the word _never_ as the inverted statement.

+422.+ +In interrogative sentences, the subject comes after the helping
verb or after the interrogative used to introduce the sentence.+ As for
example:

  Have _you_ heard the news?
  When will _we_ hear from you?
  How have the _people_ been managing?
  What will the _children_ do then?
  Will the _students_ come later?
  Can the _work_ be accomplished quickly?
  Must our _youth_ end so quickly?

+423.+ +The real subject comes after the verb when we use the
introductory word it.+ As for example:

  It will not be safe _to go_.

_To go_ is really the subject of the sentence. _To go will not be safe._

_It_ is sometimes the real subject of a sentence, as in the sentence;
_It is a wonderful story_.

Here _it_ is the subject of the sentence and _a wonderful story_ is the
predicate complement. But in the sentence:

  It is wonderful to hear him tell the story.

_To hear him tell the story_ is the real subject of the sentence. The
first sentence, _It is a wonderful story_, could not be rewritten, but
the second sentence could be rewritten, as follows:

  To hear him tell the story is wonderful.

+424.+ +The introductory word there reverses the order of the sentence+,
just as the introductory word _it_. The real subject is used later in
the sentence. As for example:

  There were a great many people present.

This could be rewritten, omitting the introductory word _there_. We
could say:

  A great many people were present.

The noun _people_ is the subject of the sentence.


                    Exercise 1

In the following sentences, underscore the complete subject with one
line, and the simple subject with two lines, and decide whether the
simple subject is a noun, pronoun, participle, infinitive or an
adjective used as a noun:


  1. A great man is universal and elemental.
  2. To love justice was his creed.
  3. A more inspiring and noble declaration of faith was never born of
     human heart.
  4. The reading of good books should begin in childhood.
  5. Dreaming of great things will not bring us to the goal.
  6. The weary seek for rest.
  7. To believe in yourself is the first essential.
  8. He, speaking and writing constantly for the cause, has given his
     life to the movement.
  9. To remain ignorant is to remain a slave.
  10. A foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds.
  11. A great soul has simply nothing to do with consistency.
  12. To be great is to be misunderstood.
  13. Traveling is a fool's paradise.
  14. It is not enough to be sincere.
  15. We, seeking the truth, have found our own.
  16. There are thousands of comrades with us.


                    THE COMPLETE PREDICATE

+425.+ Look first in the predicate for your verb. It will always be the
principal part of your predicate. It may be a verb or a verb phrase, but
the first thing in analyzing the complete predicate of the sentence is
to find the verb. The verb or verb phrase without any of its modifiers
constitutes the simple predicate. If the verb is a complete verb, its
only modifiers will be adverbs or adverb phrases. For example:

  A splendid statue of Lincoln stands yonder in the park.

In this sentence, _stands yonder in the park_ is the complete predicate.
_Stands_ is a complete verb. It requires no object, but it is modified
by the adverb _yonder_ and by the adverb phrase _in the park_.


                    INCOMPLETE VERBS

+426.+ If the verb in the predicate is an incomplete verb of action,
then the object of the verb is also part of the predicate. The complete
predicate containing an incomplete verb of action may contain five
parts; a verb, a direct object, an indirect object, an adverb and an
adverb phrase. As for example:

  The tailor gladly made him a coat at that time.

In this sentence, the complete predicate is _gladly made him a coat at
that time_. _Made_ is the verb. It is an incomplete verb of action, and
_coat_ is its direct object. _Him_ is the indirect object. _Made_ is
also modified by the adverb _gladly_, and the adverb phrase, _at that
time_.

All of these are not always used, of course, in every predicate; but
these are the elements which may occur in the predicate with an
incomplete verb.


                    THE OBJECT OF THE VERB

+427.+ Words used as objects of a verb are practically the same as those
which may be used for its subject.

+We may have a noun used as the object of the verb.+ For example:

  Hail destroyed the _crops_.
  The banks rob the _farmers_.
  We must educate the _children_.
  Labor produces all _wealth_.

In these sentences, _crops_, _farmers_, _children_ and _wealth_ are
nouns used as the object of the verb.

+A pronoun may also be used as the object of a verb.+ For example:

  Will you not teach _me_?
  Send _them_ to her.
  They have invited _us_.
  The comrades will remember _him_.

In the above sentences, _me_, _them_, _us_ and _him_ are the objects of
the verbs, _will teach_, _send_, _have invited_ and _will remember_.

Remember that in pronouns we have a different form for the object form,
as, _me_, _her_, _him_, _us_ and _them_.

+428.+ +An infinitive may also be used as the object of a verb+, thus:

  I like _to study_.
  He asked _to go_.
  I want _to learn_ all that I can.

In this last sentence, the infinitive, _to learn_, is the direct object
of the verb _want_. The object of the infinitive, _to learn_, is _all
that I can_. All of this taken together with the verb _want_, forms the
complete predicate, _want to learn all that I can_.

+429.+ +The participle may also be used as the object of a verb+, thus:

  We heard the _thundering_ of the cannon.
  We enjoyed the _dancing_.
  Do you hear the _singing_ of the birds?

In these sentences, the participles _thundering_, _dancing_, and
_singing_ are the objects of the verbs _heard_, _enjoyed_ and _do hear_.

+430.+ +An adjective used as a noun may also be used as the object of a
verb+, thus:

  I saw the _rich_ and the _poor_ struggling together.
  The struggle for existence crushes the _weak_.
  Seek the _good_ and the _true_.

In these sentences the adjectives _rich_, _poor_, _weak_, _good_ and
_true_, are used as nouns and are the objects of the verbs _saw_,
_crushes_ and _seek_.


                    VERBS OF STATE OR CONDITION

We have found that with the incomplete verbs of state or condition, or
copulative verbs, the predicate complement may be either a noun, as,
_The man is a hero_; or an adjective, as, _The man is class-conscious_;
or a phrase, as, _The man is in earnest_.

The predicate complement may also be:

+431.+ +A pronoun+; as,

  Who is she?
  That was he.
  This is I.

In these sentences the subjects of the verbs are _she_, _that_ and
_this_, and the pronouns _who_, _he_ and _I_ are used as predicate
complements.

+432.+ +Infinitives may also be used as the predicate complement+, thus:

  To remain ignorant is _to remain_ a slave.

_To remain ignorant_, is the subject of the copulative verb _is_, and
the infinitive, _to remain_, with its complement, _a slave_, is the
predicate complement.

+433.+ +A participle used as a noun may also be used as the predicate
complement+, thus:

  Society is the mingling of many elements.

_Mingling_, in this sentence is a participle of the verb _mingle_, but
is used as a noun, the predicate complement of the verb _is_. _Society_
is the subject of the verb.

Where the present participle is used to form a verb phrase, the
participle is part of the verb phrase, thus:

  We are mingling in society.

Here, _are mingling_, is the present progressive verb phrase, and the
participle _mingling_ is not used as a noun or adjective, but is part of
the verb phrase _are mingling_.

If you will observe the different parts of speech carefully, you will
not be easily confused as to whether the participle is a noun or a part
of the verb phrase.


                    Exercise 2

In the following sentences the incomplete verbs, including infinitives
and participles, are in italics. Mark the words, phrases or clauses
which are used as objects or complements, to complete the meaning of
these verbs.

  There _is_ no such thing in America as an independent press, unless it
  _is_ in the country towns.

  You _have_ and I _know_ it. There _is_ not one of you who _dares to
  write_ his honest opinions. If you did, you _know_ beforehand that it
  would never appear in print.

  I _am paid_ $150.00 a week for _keeping_ my honest opinions out of the
  paper with which I am connected. Others of you _are paid_ similar
  salaries for similar things. Any one of you who _would be_ so foolish
  as _to write_ his honest opinions _would be_ out on the streets
  looking for another job.

  The business of the New York journalist _is to destroy_ the truth, to
  lie outright, to pervert, to villify, to fawn at the feet of Mammon,
  and _to sell_ his race and his country for his daily bread.

  You _know_ this and I _know_ it. So what folly _is_ this _to be
  toasting_ an "Independent Press."

  We _are_ the tools and vassals of rich men behind the scenes. We _are_
  the jumping-jacks; they _pull_ the strings and we dance. Our talents,
  our possibilities and our lives _are_ all the property of other men.
  We _are_ intellectual prostitutes.--_John Swinton_.


                    MODIFIERS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE

+434.+ Remember that a simple sentence is one that contains a single
statement, question or command. It is a clause, for it contains a
subject and a predicate; but it contains only the one subject and the
one predicate. A sentence containing two principal clauses, or a
principal clause and a subordinate clause, would contain two complete
statements, questions or commands, therefore it would not be a simple
sentence, but compound or complex.

Remember, however, that the simple sentences may contain two or more
subjects with the same predicate, or two or more predicates with the
same subject, or both a compound subject and a compound predicate.

+435.+ The modifiers in a simple sentence are always words or phrases.
The modifiers of the subject are either adjectives or adjective phrases.
The modifiers of the predicate are either adverbs or adverb phrases. If
an adjective or an adverb clause is used as a modifier, then the
sentence is no longer a simple sentence, but becomes a _complex_
sentence, for it now contains a dependent clause.


                    ORDER OF ELEMENTS

+436.+ The usual order of the principal elements in the sentence is the
subject, the predicate and the object or complement, thus:

  _Subject_    _Predicate_
    _Men_        _work_

  _Subject_    _Predicate_    _Object_
    _Men_        _build_      _houses_

  _Subject_    _Predicate_    _Complement_
    _Books_      _are_        _helpful_

This is called the natural or logical order. Logical means according to
sense or reason.

Adjectives usually stand before the nouns they modify, thus:

  _Good_ books are helpful.

Adverbs may be placed either before or after the verbs they modify,
thus:

  The men _then_ came _quickly_ to the rescue.

The adverb _then_ precedes the verb _came_, which it modifies; and the
adverb _quickly_ is placed after the verb.

Adverbs which modify adjectives or other adverbs are placed before the
words which they modify, thus:

  The _more_ industrious students learn _quite_ rapidly.

In this sentence, the adverb _more_ is placed before the adjective
_industrious_, which it modifies; and the adverb _quite_ is placed
before the adverb _rapidly_, which it modifies.

Adjective and adverb phrases usually follow the words which they modify,
thus:

  The men _in the car_ came quickly _to the rescue_.
  The manager _of the mine_ remained _with the men_.

In this last sentence, the adjective phrase, _of the mine_, is placed
after the noun _manager_, which it modifies, and the adverb phrase,
_with the men_, is placed after the verb _remained_, which it modifies.

+437.+ These sentences illustrate the logical order in which the
elements of the sentence usually come. But this logical order is not
strictly adhered to. Many times, in order to place the emphasis upon
certain words, we reverse this order and place the emphasized words
first, as:

  _Without your help_, we cannot win.

The logical order of this sentence is:

  We cannot win without your help.

But we want to place the emphasis upon _your help_, so we change the
order of the words and place the phrase, _without your help_, first.

+438.+ This inversion of the order helps us to express our thought with
more emphasis. Our language is so flexible that we can express the same
thought in different ways by simply changing the order of the elements
in the sentence. Notice in the following sentences, the inversion of the
usual order, and see what difference this makes in the expression of the
thought.

  Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown.
  A more terrible scene you cannot imagine.
  With the shrieking of shot and shell the battle raged.
  Louder and louder thundered the tempest.
  Silently and sadly the men returned to their homes.

To transpose these inverted sentences--that is to place the elements in
their logical order, gives us an insight into the thought expressed in
the sentence. It is worth a great deal to us to be able in our reading
to see the live elements in the sentence at a glance, and in this way we
can grasp at once the thought of the sentence. So you will find that
this analyzing of the sentences is very helpful to us in our reading.

+439.+ When we have learned to analyze a sentence quickly we will not be
lost in the maze of words. A paragraph is often like a string of pearls.
The author has a single thread of thought running through the different
sentences which compose the paragraph and if we have trained ourselves
well in sentence analysis, we will never lose this thread. It will be
like a life line to which we cling while the breakers of thought and
emotion roar about us.


                    Exercise 3

In the following poem, study carefully the inverted order of the
sentences. Rewrite them, placing the elements in their logical order. As
for example:

  To the poor man you've been true from of old.

The elements of the sentence are inverted in this quotation. Rewritten
in their logical order this would read:

  You've been true to the poor man from of old.

You will note that this inversion is quite common in poetry.


          HUNGER AND COLD

    Sisters, two, all praise to you,
    With your faces pinched and blue;
    To the poor man you've been true,
        From of old;
    You can speak the keenest word,
    You are sure of being heard,
    From the point you're never stirred,
        Hunger and Cold!

    Let sleek statesmen temporize;
    Palsied are their shifts and lies
    When they meet your bloodshot eyes,
        Grim and bold;
    Policy you set at naught,
    In their traps you'll not be caught,
    You're too honest to be bought,
        Hunger and Cold!

    Let them guard both hall and bower;
    Through the window you will glower,
    Patient till your reckoning hour
        Shall be tolled;
    Cheeks are pale, but hands are red,
    Guiltless blood may chance be shed,
    But ye must and will be fed,
        Hunger and Cold!

    God has plans man must not spoil,
    Some were made to starve and toil,
    Some to share the wine and oil,
        We are told;
    Devil's theories are these,
    Stifling hope and love and peace,
    Framed your hideous lusts to please,
        Hunger and Cold!

    Scatter ashes on thy head,
    Tears of burning sorrow shed,
    Earth! and be by Pity led
        To love's fold;
    Ere they block the very door
    With lean corpses of the poor,
    And will hush for naught but gore,
        Hunger and Cold!

                    --_Lowell_.



                    SPELLING

                    LESSON 25


You remember in our lesson in the study of consonants we found there
were a number of consonants in English which had more than one sound;
for example, _c_, _s_, _g_, _x_, etc.

A number of other consonants have sounds which are similar; that is,
they are made with the organs of articulation in the same position, only
one is a soft, and the other a hard sound; for example, _p_ and _b_, _t_
and _d_, _f_ and _v_, etc. These sounds are called cognate sounds.
Cognate means literally _of the same nature_, and so these sounds are of
the same nature, only in one the obstruction of the vocal organs is more
complete than in the other.

Our language contains a number of words in which there is a difference
in the pronunciation of the final consonant when the word is used as a
noun and as a verb. The final consonants in these words are the cognate
sounds, _f_, _v_; _t_, _d_; _th_ soft or _th_ hard, _s_ soft, or _s_
hard. When the consonant sound is a soft sound, the word is a noun; and
when the consonant sound is a hard sound the word is a verb. For
example; _use_ and _use_; _breath_ and _breathe_; _life_ and _live_,
etc.

The spelling lessons for Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday contain words
ending in cognate sounds, in which the words ending with a soft sound
are nouns and the words ending in the hard sounds are verbs. Add others
to this list as they occur to you.

We have a number of words in the English beginning with _ex_. In some of
these words, the _ex_ has the sound of _eks_, and in some of the words
the _ex_ has the sound of _egs_. It is not easy at times to know which
sound to use.

In regard to the use of _ex_, follow this rule: When a word beginning
with _ex_ is followed by an accented syllable beginning with a vowel,
the _ex_ is pronounced _egs_; in all other words _ex_ is pronounced
_eks_; for example, in _executor_, the _ex_ is followed by an accented
syllable beginning with a vowel, therefore, _ex_ is pronounced _egs_. In
_execute_, the _ex_ is followed by an unaccented syllable beginning with
a vowel, and therefore _ex_ is pronounced _eks_. In _explain_, _ex_ is
followed by a syllable beginning with a consonant, and it is therefore
pronounced _eks_.

Note that in words like _exhibit_, _exhort_, etc., the _ex_ is followed
by a vowel sound, the _h_ being silent, and it is therefore, pronounced
_egs_, for it is followed by an accented syllable beginning with a vowel
sound.

The spelling list for Thursday, Friday and Saturday contains words
beginning with _ex_. Watch carefully the pronunciation.

  +Monday+

    Excuse     Excuse
    Abuse      Abuse
    Grease     Grease
    Sacrifice  Sacrifice
    Device     Devise

  +Tuesday+

    Intent     Intend
    Advice     Advise
    Relief     Relieve
    Cloth      Clothe
    Reproof    Reprove

  +Wednesday+

    Ascent     Ascend
    Strife     Strive
    Mouth      Mouth
    Grief      Grieve
    Bath       Bathe

  +Thursday+

    Exile
    Except
    Exhibit
    Expert
    Exempt

  +Friday+

    Example
    Excellent
    Exhaust
    Exit
    Expropriate

  +Saturday+

    Exercise
    Exist
    Experiment
    Exaggerate
    Explanation



                    PLAIN ENGLISH

                    LESSON 26


Dear Comrade:

There are really two things which will come to us out of the study of
grammar. One of these, which we discussed in our letter last week, is
the power of logical thinking. The second is the ability to express our
thoughts correctly; that is, according to accepted usage. So you can
consider your spoken and written speech from two viewpoints. First, you
can look to see if you have used the words correctly. We have noted
these common errors especially in our study of the various parts of
speech. There are certain errors we often make, as for example, using a
plural noun with a singular verb, or using the past time form of the
verb for the past participle.

We have noted a great many of these errors in our speech. We might make
ourselves understood and express ourselves fairly accurately and still
make these mistakes, but it is wise for us to try to eliminate them from
our speech for several reasons. To those who understand the use of
correct English, these mistakes mark us as ignorant and uneducated. No
matter how important and absolutely accurate the thought we are
expressing, if we make these grammatical errors, they very naturally
discount our thought also. They feel that if we cannot speak correctly,
in all probability we cannot think accurately, either.

Then, too, these words in our speech distract the attention of our
hearers from the things which we are saying. It is like the mannerism of
an actor. If he has any peculiar manner of walking or of talking and
persists in carrying that into whatever character he is interpreting, we
always see the actor himself, instead of the character which he is
portraying. His mannerisms get in the way and interfere with our grasp
of the idea.

So in music. You may be absorbed in a wonderful selection which some one
is playing and if suddenly he strikes a wrong note, the discord
distracts your attention and perhaps you never get back into the spirit
of the music again.

So we must watch these common errors in our speech, but we must not let
our study of English be simply that alone. The greatest benefit which we
are deriving from this study is the analytic method of thought and the
logical habit of mind, which the effort to express ourselves clearly and
accurately and in well-chosen words will give us. Put as much time as
you can possibly spare into this analysis of sentences. Take your
favorite writer and analyze his sentences and find out what is his
particular charm for you. If there is any sentence which gives you a
little trouble and you cannot analyze it properly, copy it in your next
examination paper and state where the difficulty lies. Rewrite the
passages which please you most and then compare your version with the
author's and see if you really grasped his meaning. In this way you will
add quickly to your enjoyment of the writing of others and to your power
of expressing yourself.

                    Yours for Freedom,

                              THE PEOPLE'S COLLEGE.


                    THE SIMPLE SENTENCE

+440.+ We have been analyzing the simple sentence, which contains only
words and phrases. We have found that there may enter into the simple
sentence, the following elements:

  1. The simple subject.
  2. The simple predicate.
  3. The modifiers of the subject.
  4. The object of the verb.
  5. The predicate complement.
  6. The modifiers of the predicate.

This is not the order in which the elements will appear in the sentence,
but this is the order of their importance. We first look for the simple
subject and the simple predicate; then we can determine which words are
the modifiers of the subject; then we find the object or predicate
complement of the verb and the modifiers of the verb; and thus we have
all of the elements which go into the construction of the simple
sentence.

We may also have two nouns used as the subject or two verbs used in the
predicate, connected by a co-ordinate conjunction, thus:

  Marx and Engels lived and worked together.

Here we have two proper nouns used as the subject, _Marx_ and _Engels_.
We have also two verbs used as the predicate, _lived_ and _worked_. We
call this a compound subject and compound predicate.

So in one simple sentence, that is a sentence which makes a single
assertion, we may have every part of speech. For example:

  The most intelligent men and women think for themselves.

In this sentence, we have a _noun_, _verb_, _pronoun_, _adjective_,
_adverb_, _conjunction_ and _preposition_--every part of speech except
the _interjection_, which is an independent element and does not enter
into the construction of the sentence.


                    Exercise 1

Write simple sentences of your own containing:

  1. A compound subject.
  2. A compound predicate.
  3. A noun as subject modified by one or more adjectives.
  4. A noun as subject modified by a phrase.
  5. An incomplete verb with a direct and an indirect object.
  6. An incomplete verb with a predicate complement.
  7. A predicate modified by one or more adverbs.
  8. A predicate modified by an adverb phrase.


                    COMPLEX SENTENCES

+441.+ The simple sentence is the unit of speech. It is a combination of
words which makes a single statement, question or command. But many
times a constant repetition of these short sentences would become
tiresome, and our written and spoken speech would not flow as smoothly
and rapidly as we desire. So we have evolved a way in which we may
combine these sentences into longer statements. Let us take the two
_simple_ sentences:


  We are united.
  We shall succeed.

We may combine these into a single sentence by using the co-ordinate
conjunction _and_. Then our sentence reads:

  We are united and we shall succeed.

This is a _compound_ sentence, formed by uniting two simple sentences.
Both of the clauses are independent and are of equal rank. Neither
depends upon the other. They are united by the co-ordinate conjunction
_and_. We can combine these sentences in a different way. For example,
we may say:

  If we are united, we shall succeed.

Now we have a subordinate clause, _if we are united_, which is used to
modify the verb of the main clause, _succeed_. We have used the
subordinate conjunction _if_, and so we have a _complex_ sentence formed
by uniting the principal clause and a dependent clause.

+442.+ The next step in sentence building, after the simple sentence, is
the complex sentence. A complex sentence is a combination of two or more
simple sentences, which are so united that one sentence remains the main
sentence--the backbone, as it were--and the other sentence becomes
subordinate or dependent upon it.

+443.+ +A complex sentence is one containing a principal clause and one
or more subordinate clauses.+

+A principal clause is one which makes a complete statement without the
help of any other clause or clauses.+

+A subordinate or dependent clause is one which makes a statement
dependent upon or modifying some word or words in the principal clause.+


                    KINDS OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES

+444.+ Dependent clauses are of three kinds. They may be used either as
_nouns_, _adjectives_ or _adverbs_, and so are called _noun clauses_,
_adjective clauses_ or _adverb clauses_.


                    NOUN CLAUSES

+445.+ +Noun clauses are those which are used in place of a noun.+ They
may be used in any way in which a noun may be used, except as a
possessive.

1. +The noun clause may be used as the subject of the sentence.+ For
example:

  _That he is innocent_ is admitted by all.

The clause, _that he is innocent_ is used as a _noun_, the subject of
the sentence.

2. +The noun clause may be used as the object of a verb+, thus:

  I admit _that I cannot understand your argument_.

The clause, _that I cannot understand your argument_, is in this
sentence the object of the verb _admit_.

3. +The noun clause may be used as the predicate complement+, thus:

  The fact is _that this policy will never win_.

The clause, _that this policy will never win_, is here used in the
predicate with the copulative verb _is_.

4. +The noun clause may also be used in apposition, explaining the noun
with which it is used+, thus:

  The motion, _that the question should be reconsidered_, was carried.

_That the question should be reconsidered_, is here a noun clause, used
in apposition with the noun _motion_, and explains the meaning of the
noun.

5. +The noun clause may also be used as the object of a preposition+,
thus:

  I now refer to _what he claims_.

The noun clause, _what he claims_, is here the object of the
preposition, _to_.


                    Exercise 2

In the following sentences the noun clauses are printed in italics.
Determine whether they are used as the subject, or object of the verb,
as predicate complement, in apposition, or as the object of a
preposition.

  1. The fact is _that I was not listening_.
  2. _Whatever King Midas looked upon_ turned to gold.
  3. He acknowledged _what we had suspected_.
  4. We will never know _what the real situation was_.
  5. The fact _that the wage is insufficient_ can be easily proved.
  6. He replied to _what had been asked_.
  7. The claim was _that he had made a speech inciting to riot_.
  8. The law _that labor unions are in restraint of trade_ was upheld.
  9. _That we cannot win by compromise_ is readily apparent.
  10. Labor demands _that it shall have its full product_.
  11. _Whoever controls education_ controls the future.
  12. He came to _where the militia was in camp_.


                    Exercise 3

Write sentences containing noun clauses used:

  1. As the subject of a verb.
  2. As the object of a verb.
  3. As a predicate complement.
  4. In apposition.
  5. As the object of a preposition.


                    ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

+446.+ A dependent clause in a complex sentence may also be an adjective
clause.

+An adjective clause is a clause used as an adjective+, and, hence,
always modifies a noun or some word used as a noun, such as a pronoun or
a participle. In Lesson 22, we studied adjective clauses and found that
they could be introduced by the relative pronouns, _who_, _which_,
_that_ and _as_, and also by conjunctions such as, _when_, _where_,
_whither_, _whence_, etc. An adjective clause may modify any noun or any
word used as a noun in the sentence.

1. +An adjective clause may modify the subject+, thus:

  Men _who have become class-conscious_ do not make good soldiers.

In this sentence the clause, _who have become class-conscious_, modifies
the noun _men_, and is introduced by the relative pronoun _who_.

2. +An adjective clause may modify the noun which is the object of the
verb+, as:

  The men supported the party _which fought for their rights_.

Here the clause, _which fought for their rights_, is an adjective clause
introduced by the pronoun _which_, and it modifies the noun _party_,
which is the object of the verb _supported_.

3. +An adjective clause may also be used to modify the noun which is
used in the predicate complement+, as:

  That was the book _which I enjoyed_.

In this sentence the clause, _which I enjoyed_, is an adjective clause
modifying the noun _book_, which is used as the predicate complement
with the copulative verb _was_.

4. +An adjective clause may also be used to modify the noun which is
used as the object of a preposition+, as:

  He arrived on the train _which was late_.

Here the adjective clause, _which was late_, modifies the noun _train_,
which is the object of the preposition _on_.

Sometimes it is a little difficult to discover these adjective clauses,
for frequently the connecting word is omitted, as for example:

  I could not find the man _I wanted_.

In this sentence, the pronoun _whom_ is omitted; the complete sentence
would read:

  I could not find the man _whom I wanted_.

_Whom I wanted_ is an adjective clause modifying the noun _man_.


                    Exercise 4

In the following sentences the relative pronouns and the conjunctions
introducing adjective clauses are omitted. Rewrite the sentences using
the proper relative pronouns and conjunctions. The adjective clauses are
in italics.

  1. The people _you are seeking_ are not here.
  2. I have read the book _you brought_.
  3. The articles _you mentioned_ are not listed.
  4. I will go to the place _you say_.
  5. This is a book _you should read_.
  6. Those are ideals _the people will readily grasp_.
  7. We make Gods of the things _we fear_.
  8. I listened to every word _he said_.
  9. I should love the cause _you love_.
  10. The things _the people demand_ are just and right.


                    Exercise 5

In the following sentences the adjective clauses are all printed in
italics. Determine whether they modify the subject or the object, the
predicate complement or the object of the preposition.

  1. In that moment _when he saw the light_ he joined our cause.
  2. Other men are lenses _through which we read our own minds_.
  3. This is perhaps the reason _why we are unable to agree_.
  4. He _that loveth_ maketh his own the grandeur _that he loves_.
  5. The other terror _that scares us from self-trust_ is our
     consistency.
  6. There is a popular fable of a sot _who was picked up dead drunk in
     the street, carried to the Duke's house, washed and dressed and
     laid in the Duke's bed, and, on his waking, treated with all
     ceremony like a duke and assured that he had been insane_.
  7. He _who would gather immortal palms_ must not be hindered by the
     name of goodness, but must explore if it be goodness.
  8. Superstition, _who is the mother of fear and faith_, still rules
     many people.
  9. We are looking for the time _when the useful shall be the
     honorable_.
  10. He _who enslaves another_ cannot be free.
  11. He _who attacks the right_ assaults himself.
  12. The force _that is in every atom and every star, in everything
      that grows and thinks, that hopes and suffers_, is the only
      possible God.
  13. He _who adds to the sum of human misery_ is a blasphemer.
  14. The grandest ambition _that can enter the soul_ is the desire to
      know the truth.


                    ADVERB CLAUSES

+447.+ The third kind of clause which we may use in a complex sentence
is the adverb clause.

+An adverb clause is a clause which takes the place of an adverb.+ It
may modify a _verb_, an _adjective_, or an _adverb_. We studied adverb
clauses in lesson 21 and we found eight classes of adverb clauses,
expressing _time_, _place_, _cause_ or _reason_, _manner_, _comparison_,
_condition_, _purpose_ and _result_. For example:

  1. +Adverb clause of time:+
  No man is truly free _until all are free_.

  2. +Adverb clause of place:+
  We must live _where we can find work_.

  3. +Adverb clause expressing cause or reason:+
  We lost the strike _because the men were not class-conscious_.

  4. +Adverb clause of manner:+
  We must work _as if the result depended entirely upon us_.

  5. +Adverb clause of comparison:+
  The working class must become more class-conscious _than it is
  today_.

  6. +Adverb clause of condition:+
  We will continue to be exploited _if we do not demand our rights_.

  7. +Adverb clause expressing purpose:+
  We must read the labor press _in order that we may know the truth
  concerning conditions_.

  8. +Adverb clause expressing result:+
  The battle raged so furiously _that thousands were slain_.


                    ANALYZING COMPLEX SENTENCES

+448.+ To analyze a complex sentence; that is, to break it up into its
different parts--treat the sentence first as a whole, then find the
simple subject and the simple predicate. If a noun clause is the
subject, treat it first as a noun. Treat adjective clauses as adjectives
modifying certain words and the adverb clauses as adverbs modifying
certain words.

In other words, analyze the sentence first as a simple sentence with
dependent clauses considered as modifying words; then analyze each
dependent clause as though it were a simple sentence. Make an outline
like the following and use it in your analysis of the sentence. Let us
take this sentence and analyze it:

  Conscious solidarity in the ranks would give the working class of the
  world, now, in our day, the freedom which they seek.

  +Simple subject+, _solidarity_.

  +Simple predicate+, _would give_.

  Modifiers of the subject:

    Adjective, _conscious_.
    Adjective phrase, _in the ranks_.
    Adjective clause, (_none_).

  +Complete subject+, _Conscious solidarity in the ranks_.

  Modifiers of the predicate:

    Adverb, _now_.
    Adverb phrase, _in our day_.
    Adverb clause, (_none_).

  +Direct object+, _freedom_.

  Modifiers of direct object:

    Adjective, _the_.
    Adjective phrase, (_none_).
    Adjective clause, _which they seek_,

  +Indirect object+, _class_.

  Modifiers of indirect object:

    Adjectives, _the_, _working_.
    Adjective phrase, _of the world_.
    Adjective clause, (_none_).

  +Complete predicate+, _would give the working class of the world,
    now, in our day, the freedom which they seek_.

Analyze the dependent clause, _which they seek_, just as a principal
clause is analyzed. _They_ is the simple subject, _seek_ is the simple
predicate, _which_ is the direct object. The complete predicate is _seek
which_.

+449.+ Notice that the first two sentences given in the exercise below
are imperative sentences,--the subject, the pronoun _you_, being omitted
so that the entire sentence is the complete predicate. As for example:
_Take the place which belongs to you_. The omitted subject is the
pronoun _you_. _Take the place which belongs to you_ is the complete
predicate, made up of the simple predicate _take_; its object, the noun
_place_; the adjective _the_, and the adjective clause, _which belongs
to you_, both of which modify the noun _place_.


                    Exercise 6

Using the outline given above, analyze the following complex sentences.

  1. Take the place which belongs to you.
  2. Let us believe that brave deeds will never die.
  3. The orator knows that the greatest ideas should be expressed in
     the simplest words.
  4. Gratitude is the fairest flower that sheds its perfume in the
     human heart.
  5. Children should be taught that it is their duty to think for
     themselves.
  6. We will be slaves as long as we are ignorant.
  7. We must teach our fellow men that honor comes from within.
  8. Cause and effect cannot be severed for the effect already blooms
     in the cause.
  9. Men measure their esteem of each other by what each has.
  10. Our esteem should be measured by what each is.
  11. What I must do is all that concerns me.
  12. The great man is he who, in the midst of the crowd, keeps the
      independence of solitude.
  13. The only right is what is after my constitution.
  14. Whoso would be a man must be a non-conformist.
  15. They who build on ideas build for eternity.


                    Exercise 7

We have studied all the parts of speech, and now our work is to combine
these parts for the expression of thought. It will be good practice and
very helpful to us to mark these different parts of speech in our
reading. This helps us to grow familiar with their use. It also helps us
to add words to our vocabulary and to learn how to use them correctly.
In the following quotation, mark underneath each word, the name of every
part of speech. Use _n._ for noun, _v._ for verb, _pro._ for pronoun,
_adv._ for adverb, _adj._ for adjective, _p._ for preposition and _c._
for conjunction. Write _v. p._ under the verb phrases. For example:

  +The    workers  of   the     world   do     not     have,
  _adj._  _n._     _p._ _adj._  _n._    _v.p._ _adv._  _v.p._

  under this    system, very   many     opportunities
  _p._  _adj._  _n._    _adv._ _adj._   _n._

  for   rest   and  pleasure  for   themselves.+
  _p._  _n._  _c._  _n._      _p._  _pro._


Mark in this manner every part of speech in the following quotation:

  The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class
  struggles.

  Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guildmaster
  and journeyman,--in a word, oppressor and oppressed,--stood in
  constant opposition to one another, carried on an uninterrupted, now
  hidden, now open fight, a fight that each time ended, either in a
  revolutionary re-constitution of society at large, or in the common
  ruin of the contending classes.

  In the earlier epochs of history, we find almost everywhere a
  complicated arrangement of society into various orders, a manifold
  gradation of social rank. In ancient Rome we have patricians, knights,
  plebeians, slaves; in the middle ages, feudal lords, vassals,
  guild-masters, journeymen, apprentices, serfs; in almost all of these
  classes, again, subordinate gradations.

  The modern bourgeois society, that has sprouted from the ruins of
  feudal society, has not done away with class antagonisms. It has but
  established new classes, new conditions of oppression, new forms of
  struggle in place of the old ones.

                                        --_Communist Manifesto_.


                    Exercise 8

In the following quotation, mark all of the clauses and determine
whether they are dependent or independent clauses. If they are dependent
clauses, determine whether they are noun, adjective or adverb clauses.
Mark all the sentences and tell whether they are simple or complex.

I see in the near future a crisis approaching that unnerves me, and
causes me to tremble for the safety of my country. As a result of war,
corporations have been enthroned, and an era of corruption in high
places will follow. The money power of the country will endeavor to
prolong its reign by working upon the prejudices of the people, until
all the wealth is aggregated in a few hands, and the republic is
destroyed. I feel at this moment more anxiety for the safety of our
country than ever before, even in the midst of war. God grant that my
forebodings may be groundless. Monarchy itself is sometimes hinted at as
a refuge from the power of the people. In my present position I could
scarcely be justified were I to omit to raise a warning voice against
the approach of a returning despotism.... It is assumed that labor is
available only in connection with capital; that nobody labors unless
somebody else, owning capital, somehow, by the use of it, induces him to
labor. Labor is prior to and independent of capital. Capital is only the
fruit of labor, and could not have existed if labor had not first
existed. Labor is the superior of capital, and deserves much the higher
consideration. I bid the laboring people beware of surrendering the
power which they possess, and which, if surrendered, will surely be used
to shut the door of advancement for such as they, and fix new
disabilities and burdens upon them until all of liberty shall be lost.

       *       *       *       *       *

In the early days of our race the Almighty said to the first of mankind,
"In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread," and since then, if we
except the light and air of Heaven, no good thing has been or can be
enjoyed by us without first having cost labor. And inasmuch as most good
things have been produced by labor, it follows that all such things
belong of right to those whose labor has produced them. But it has so
happened, in all ages of the world, that some have labored and others
have without labor enjoyed a large portion of the fruits. This is wrong,
and should not continue. To secure to each laborer the whole product of
his labor, as nearly as possible, is a worthy object of any government.

       *       *       *       *       *

It seems strange that any man should dare to ask a just God's assistance
in wringing bread from the sweat of other men's faces.

       *       *       *       *       *

This country, with its institutions, belongs to the people who inhabit
it.

                                        --_Lincoln_.


                    Exercise 9

In the following poem find all of the assertive, interrogative and
imperative sentences. Mark all of the simple sentences and all of the
complex sentences. Mark all of the dependent clauses and determine
whether each is used as a noun, adjective or adverb clause. The verbs
and the verb phrases are in italics.

    _Shall_ you _complain_ who _feed_ the world,
    Who _clothe_ the world,
    Who _house_ the world?
    _Shall_ you _complain_ who _are_ the world,
    Of what the world _may do_?
    As from this hour you _are_ the power,
    The world _must follow_ you.

    The world's life _hangs_ on your right hand,
    Your strong right hand,
    Your skilled right hand;
    You _hold_ the whole world in your hand;
    _See_ to it what you _do_!
    For dark or light or wrong or right,
    The world _is made_ by you.

    Then _rise_ as you never _rose_ before,
    Nor _hoped_ before,
    Nor _dared_ before;
    And _show_ as never _was shown_ before
    The power that _lies_ in you.
    _Stand_ all as one; _see_ justice done;
    _Believe_ and _dare_ and _do_.

                    --_Charlotte Perkins Gilman_.



                    SPELLING

                    LESSON 26


In our last lesson we had examples of words in which the _s_ had the
soft sound, and also of words in which the _s_ had the sound of _z_. In
some English words, it is difficult to determine which sound to use.
There are a number of words in English beginning with _dis_. In a few of
the words, the _s_ has the sound of _z_, and in other words it has the
sound of _s_. There are only a few words which are pronounced with the
_diz_ sound. _Discern_, _dismal_ and _dissolve_ are always pronounced
with the _diz_ sound. _Disease_ and _disaster_ are pronounced both ways.
Some dictionaries give the _diz_ sound and some give the _dis_ sound.

The spelling lesson for Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday contains a number
of words beginning with _dis_. Be sure of the pronunciation. Run through
the words in the dictionary beginning with the _dis_ sound and mark
those in which the _dis_ has the sound of _diz_.

We have also a number of words in the English language which end in
_ise_ or _ize_, and we are often confused to know which ending to use.
There is a rule, which has very few exceptions, which covers the use of
_ise_ and _ize_. Words should be spelled with the _ize_ ending when the
_ize_ can be cut off, and the word that is left can be used alone. For
example; _author_, _authorize_. In this word you can cut off the _ize_
and the word _author_ can be used alone. But in the word _exercise_, if
you cut off the _ise_, the remaining portion cannot be used alone.

_Recognize_ and _criticise_ are exceptions to this rule. When used as a
suffix added to a noun or adjective to form a verb, _ize_ is the proper
ending; as _theory_, _theorize_, _civil_, _civilize_, etc. Final _e_ or
_y_ is dropped before _ize_, as in the words _memorize_, _sterilize_,
etc.

The spelling lesson for Thursday, Friday and Saturday contains a number
of common words ending with _ize_ or _ise_. Study carefully this list
and add as many words to it as you can.

  +Monday+

    Disappear
    Distress
    Discern
    Disburse
    Discipline

  +Tuesday+

    Discount
    Discredit
    Distribute
    Dismal
    Disseminate

  +Wednesday+

    Disguise
    Distance
    Dissolve
    Discontent
    Disposition

  +Thursday+

    Franchise
    Civilize
    Surprise
    Organize
    Compromise

  +Friday+

    Monopolize
    Revise
    Legalize
    Enterprise
    Capitalize

  +Saturday+

    Memorize
    Advertise
    Theorize
    Comprise
    Systematize



                    PLAIN ENGLISH

                    LESSON 27


Dear Comrade:

Ingersoll said: "Words are the garments of thought and the robes of
ideas." This is a beautiful and poetic way of expressing the
relationship between words and thoughts. Words are really the body which
we give to our thoughts. Until they are clothed in words, our thoughts
are only ghosts of ideas. Other people cannot see or come into contact
with them, and they can have but little influence upon the world.

Without thought, no language is possible. It is equally true that
without language, no growth of thought is possible. It is futile to try
to determine which is first, language or thought. The two are entirely
necessary to each other and make possible social and individual
development.

Every time that you add a word to your vocabulary, you have added to
your mental equipment. You have also added greatly to your power of
enjoyment. Through these words you will come into a new relationship to
your fellow men. Each new word enlarges the circle of your acquaintance.
A knowledge of language brings us into a circle of wonderful friends.
When we have learned to read we need never more be lonely. Some one has
written in a book somewhere just the thing we are hungry for at this
moment.

In the pages of a book we can meet and talk with the great souls who
have written in these pages their life's experience. No matter what mood
you are in, you can find a book to suit that mood. No matter what your
need, there is a book which meets that need. Form the habit of reading
and you will find it a wonderful source of pleasure and of profit.

Nor do we need to be barred because of our lack of educational
advantages in our youth. Buckle, the author of the greatest history that
has ever been written, left school at the age of fourteen, and it is
said that at that age, except a smattering of mathematics, he knew only
how to read; but when he died at the age of forty, this man, who did not
know his letters when he was eight years old, could read and write seven
languages and was familiar with ten or twelve more. He had written a
wonderful book and had become a teacher of teachers. Engraven upon his
marble altar tomb is the following couplet:

  "The written word remains long after the writer.
  The writer is resting under the earth, but his words endure."

Good books are so cheap nowadays that they are within the reach of every
one of us. Let us not be content to live in the narrow world of work and
worry. Let us forget the struggle occasionally in the reading of books,
and let us prepare ourselves, by reading and studying, for the battle
for the emancipation of the workers of the world.

                    Yours for Education,

                              THE PEOPLE'S COLLEGE.


                    KINDS OF SENTENCES

+450.+ +A simple sentence is a sentence which makes a single assertion,
question or command.+

The simple sentence contains only words and phrases.

+451.+ +A complex sentence is one which contains a principal statement
and one or more modifying statements.+

The statements made in addition to the principal statement are made in
dependent clauses. The complex sentence has only one main clause and one
or more dependent clauses.

+452.+ +A compound sentence is one which contains two or more
independent clauses.+

These compound sentences may contain any number of dependent clauses but
they must always have at least two independent or principal clauses.
These principal clauses are always connected by co-ordinate
conjunctions, for the principal clauses in a compound sentence are
always of equal rank or order.


                    Exercise 1

Review the lesson on co-ordinate conjunctions and notice which
conjunctions are used to unite principal clauses into single sentences.
Use these co-ordinate conjunctions to unite the following pairs of
simple sentences into compound sentences. For example:

  The sun rises _and_ the day dawns.
  The men work _but_ the boys play.

The sun rises.              The day dawns.

He studies diligently.      He learns rapidly.

He came early.              He could not stay.

The weather is cold.        The plants are not growing.

The men work.               The boys play.

The day is cold.            The wind is blowing.

Take the above sentences and use subordinate instead of co-ordinate
conjunctions, and make complex sentences instead of compound out of each
pair of simple sentences. For example:

  _When_ the sun rises, the day dawns.
  The men work _while_ the boys play.


                    KINDS OF COMPOUND SENTENCES

+453.+ +Compound sentences may be made up of two simple sentences.+

Rewrite the following compound sentences, making of each sentence two
simple sentences:

  The birds are singing and spring is here.
  He believes in war but his brother is against it.
  We must arouse ourselves or we shall be involved.
  He will not study nor will he allow any one else to study.

+454.+ +A compound sentence may be made up of a simple sentence and a
complex sentence, joined by a co-ordinate conjunction.+ For example:

  John goes to school, but Mary stays at home in order that she may help
  her mother.

This compound sentence is made up of the simple sentence, _John goes to
school_, and the complex sentence, _Mary stays at home in order that she
may help her mother_.

+455.+ +Both parts of the compound sentence may be complex; that is,
both principal clauses in a compound sentence may contain dependent
clauses.+ For example:

  John goes to school where his brother goes, but Mary stays at home in
  order that she may help her mother.

This compound sentence is made up of two complex sentences. The
sentence, _John goes to school where his brother goes_, is complex
because it contains the dependent clause, _where his brother goes_; the
sentence, _Mary stays at home in order that she may help her mother_, is
complex because it contains the dependent clause, _in order that she may
help her mother_.


                    Exercise 2

Read carefully the following sentences, determine which are simple
sentences, which are complex and which are compound.

  1. When the state is corrupt, then the laws are most multiplied.
  2. To teach the alphabet is to inaugurate revolution.
  3. Freedom degenerates unless it has to struggle in its own defense.
  4. The destroyers have always been honored.
  5. Liberty of thought is a mockery if liberty of speech is denied.
  6. Where slavery is, there liberty cannot be; and where liberty is,
     there slavery cannot be.
  7. All our greatness was born of liberty and we cannot strangle the
     mother without destroying her children.
  8. In the twentieth century, war will be dead, but man will live.
  9. The abuse of free speech dies in a day, but the denial entombs the
     hope of the race.


                    SENTENCE ANALYSIS

+456.+ There is no more important part of the study of English than the
analysis of sentences. The very best result that can come to one from
the study of grammar is the logical habit of mind. The effort to analyze
a difficult passage gives us a fuller appreciation of its meaning. This
cultivates in us accuracy, both of thought and of expression. So, spend
as much time as you can on the analysis of sentences.

The subject and the predicate are the very body of the sentence, upon
which all the rest of the sentence is hung. The other parts of the
sentence are but the drapery and the garments which clothe the body of
the sentence. Hence, the most important thing in sentence analysis is to
be able to discover the _subject_ and _predicate_.

In the expression of a thought, there are always two important
essentials, that about which something is said,--which constitutes the
subject,--and that which is said about the subject, which constitutes
the predicate.

There may be a number of modifying words, phrases or subordinate
clauses, but there is always a main clause which contains a simple
subject and a simple predicate. Find these first, and you can then fit
the modifying words and phrases and clauses into their proper places.

+457.+ Let us take for study and analysis the following paragraph from
Jack London:

  Man's efficiency for food-getting and shelter-getting has not
  diminished since the day of the cave-man. It has increased a
  thousand-fold. Wonderful artifices and marvelous inventions have been
  made. Why then do millions of modern men live more miserably than the
  cave-man lived?

Let us take the first sentence out of this paragraph and analyze it.
_Man's efficiency for food-getting and shelter-getting has not
diminished since the day of the cave-man._ What is the main word in this
sentence--the word about which the entire statement is made? Clearly it
is the word _efficiency_. _Efficiency_ is the noun which is the subject
of the sentence.

Then you might ask _what sort of_ efficiency and _whose_ efficiency?
What sort of efficiency is explained by the adjective phrase, _for
food-getting and shelter-getting_. Whose efficiency is explained by the
possessive noun, _man's_. Therefore, the complete subject is, _Man's
efficiency for food-getting and shelter-getting_.

Now we are ready to consider the predicate. What has efficiency done? It
_has not diminished_. _Has diminished_ is the verb phrase, which is the
simple predicate of this sentence. It is modified by the adverb _not_,
so we have _Man's efficiency has not diminished_. Then we might ask,
_when_ has it not diminished? And this is answered by the phrase, _since
the day of the cave-man_. So we have our complete predicate, _Has not
diminished since the day of the cave-man_.

In this way we can analyze or break up into its different parts, every
sentence. First find the subject, then ask what that subject does, and
the answer will be the predicate or verb. Do not confuse the verb with
the words which state _how_ or _why_ the action is performed, and do not
confuse the verb with the _object_ of the action. The verb simply
asserts the action. The other words will add the additional information
as to how or why or when or upon whom the action was performed.

Let us finish the analysis of the sentences in the paragraph quoted from
Jack London. In the second sentence, _It has increased a thousand-fold_,
the personal pronoun _it_, which refers to the noun _efficiency_, is the
subject of the sentence; and when you ask what _it_ has _done_, you find
that the question is answered by the verb, _has increased_. Therefore,
_has increased_ is the verb in the sentence. The noun, _thousand-fold_
is used as an adverb telling how much it has increased. It is an
adverb-noun, which you will find explained in Section 291.

In the next sentence, _Wonderful artifices and marvelous inventions have
been made_, we find two _nouns_ about which a statement is made.
_Artifices_ have been made and _inventions_ have been made; so
_artifices_ and _inventions_ are both the _subjects_ of the sentence.
Therefore, we have a compound subject with a single verb, _have been
made_. _Artifices_ is modified by the adjective _wonderful_, and
_inventions_ is modified by the adjective _marvelous_, so we have
_wonderful artifices and marvelous inventions_, as the complete subject,
and _have been made_, as the complete predicate.

In the last sentence, _Why then do millions of modern men live more
miserably than the cave-man lived?_, we find a sentence which is a
trifle more difficult of analysis. It is written in the interrogative
form. If you find it difficult to determine the subject and the verb or
verb phrase in an interrogative sentence, rewrite the sentence in the
assertive form, and you will find it easier to analyze.

When we rewrite this sentence we have, _Millions of modern men do live
more miserably than the cave-man lived_. Now it is evident that the noun
_millions_ is the subject of the sentence. We see quickly that _men_
cannot be the subject because it is the object of the preposition _of_,
in the phrase, _of modern men_. So we decide that the noun _millions_ is
the simple subject.

When we ask the question what millions _do_, our question is answered by
the verb phrase, _do live_. So _do live_ is the simple predicate, and
the skeleton of our sentence, the simple subject and the simple
predicate, is _millions do live_. The subject _millions_ is modified by
the adjective phrase _of modern men_.

Then we ask, _how_ do men live? And we find our question answered by
_they live miserably_. But we are told _how_ miserably they live by the
adverb _more_ and the adverb clause, _than the cave-man lived_, both
modifying the adverb _miserably_. So we have our complete predicate, _do
live more miserably than the cave-man lived_.

This interrogative sentence is introduced by the interrogative adverb
_why_.

Do not drop this subject until you are able to determine readily the
_subject_ and _predicate_ in every sentence and properly place all
modifying words. There is nothing that will so increase your power of
understanding what you read, and your ability to write clearly, as this
facility in analyzing sentences.


                    Exercise 3

The following is Elbert Hubbard's description of the child-laborers of
the Southern cotton-mills. Read it carefully. Notice that the sentences
are all short sentences, and the cumulative effect of these short
sentences is a picture of the condition of these child-workers which one
can never forget. The subjects and predicates are in italics. When you
have finished your study of this question, rewrite it from memory and
then compare your version with the original version.

  _I thought_ that _I would lift_ one of the little toilers. _I wanted_
  to ascertain his weight. Straightway through his thirty-five pounds of
  skin and bone there _ran_ a _tremor_ of fear. _He struggled_ forward
  to tie a broken thread. _I attracted_ his attention by a touch. _I
  offered_ him a silver dime. _He looked_ at me dumbly from a face _that
  might have belonged_ to a man of sixty. _It was_ so furrowed, tightly
  drawn and full of pain. _He did_ not _reach_ for the money. _He did_
  not _know_ what _it was_. There _were dozens_ of such children in this
  particular mill. A _physician who was_ with me _said_ that _they
  would_ probably all _be_ dead in two years. Their _places would be_
  easily _filled_, however, for there _were_ plenty _more_. _Pneumonia
  carries_ off most of them. Their _systems are_ ripe for disease and
  when _it comes_ there _is_ no _rebound_. _Medicine_ simply _does_ not
  _act_. _Nature is whipped, beaten, discouraged._ _The child sinks_
  into a stupor and _dies_.


                    Exercise 4

In the following sentences, mark the simple sentences, the complex
sentences and the compound sentences, and analyze these sentences
according to the rules given for analyzing simple sentences, complex
sentences and compound sentences:

  1. Force is no remedy.
  2. Law grinds the poor, and the rich men rule the law.
  3. Force and fraud are in war the two cardinal virtues.
  4. Freedom is a new religion, a religion of our time.
  5. Desire nothing for yourself which you do not desire for others.
  6. An ambassador is a man who goes abroad to lie for the good of his
     country.
  7. A journalist is a man who stays at home to pursue the same
     vocation.
  8. Without free speech no search for truth is possible.
  9. Liberty for the few is not liberty.
  10. Liberty for me and slavery for you mean slavery for both.
  11. No revolution ever rises above the intellectual level of those who
      make it.
  12. Men submit everywhere to oppression when they have only to lift
      their heads to throw off the yoke.
  13. Many politicians of our time are in the habit of saying that no
      people ought to be free till they are fit to use freedom. The
      maxim is worthy of the fool in the old story who resolved not to
      go into the water till he had learned to swim. If men are to wait
      for liberty till they become wise and good in slavery they may
      indeed wait forever.


                    SUMMARY

+458.+ The following is a summary of that which we have learned in
sentence building:

                {         { Assertive
                {    Use  { Interrogative
  Sentences are {         { Imperative
  classified    {         { Exclamatory
  according to  {
                {         { Simple
                {    Form { Complex
                {         { Compound

  Elements       { +Words+, the eight parts of speech.
    of           { +Phrases+, adjective, adverb and verb phrases.
  The Sentence.  { +Clauses+, adjective, adverb and noun clauses.


+459.+
                    ESSENTIALS OF A SIMPLE SENTENCE

  +Subject+   +Predicate+

  Subject    Complete Verb
  Subject    Copulative Verb    Predicate Complement
  Subject    Transitive Verb    Direct Object
  Subject    Transitive Verb    Direct Object    Indirect Object

+460.+
                    THE SUBJECT

                        { _Noun_--The _man_ came.
                        { _Pronoun_--_He_ came.
  +The simple subject+  { _Adjective_--The _poor_ came.
  may be                { _Infinitive_--_To find_ work is difficult.
                        { _Participle_--_Walking_ is good exercise.
                        { _Clause_--_What I learn_ cannot be lost.

  +Complete subject+--Simple subject and modifiers.

                    Modifiers of the Subject

                { Word--_Wealthy_ men rule.
  +Adjective+   { Phrase--Men _of wealth_ rule.
                { Clause--Men _who are wealthy_ rule.

  +Possessive+--The _man's_ energy was great.

                { Word--The poet, _Lowell_, was the author.
  +Appositive+  { Clause--The fact, _that you came_, pleases me.

                { The soldiers, _wounded and dying_, were
  +Participle+  {     left on the field

  +Infinitive+--A plan _to end the war_ was discussed.

+461.+
                    THE PREDICATE

  +The simple+  { _Verb_--The man _came_.
  +predicate+   { _Verb phrase_--The man _has been coming_ daily.

                 { +Predicate Complement+--The man was a _hero_.
  A COMPLETE     { +Direct Object+--The man brought the _book_.
  PREDICATE      { +The Indirect Object+--The man brought _me_ the book.
  _equals a verb {
  or verb phrase {             {_Word_--The man works _rapidly_.
  and_           { +Adverb+    { _Phrase_--The man works _in the factory_.
                 { +Modifiers+ { _Clause_--The man works _whenever he
                 {                          can_.

                    { _Words_--The man works hard.
  SIMPLE SENTENCES  { _Phrases_--The man _on your right_ works _in the
  CONTAIN ONLY      {          factory._

                      { _Words_,              The man works steadily
  +Complex sentences+ { _Phrases_             in the factory _whenever
  +contain+           { and                   there is work_.
                      { _Dependent clauses._

+Compound sentences contain+ two or more principal clauses, as:

  _The sun rises_ and _the day dawns_.

+462.+ Take the simple subjects and simple predicates in Exercise 5, and
build up sentences; first, by adding a word, then a phrase and then a
clause to modify the subject; then add a word and a phrase and a clause
to modify the predicate.

So long as you have only words and phrases you have simple sentences.
When you add a dependent clause you have a complex sentence. When you
unite two independent clauses in one sentence, then you have a compound
sentence, and the connecting word will always be a co-ordinate
conjunction. These will be readily distinguished for there are only a
few co-ordinate conjunctions.

Go back to the lesson on co-ordinate conjunctions and find out what
these are, and whenever you find two clauses connected by these
co-ordinate conjunctions you know that you have a compound sentence.
Remember that each clause must contain a subject and predicate of its
own. When you have two words connected by these co-ordinate conjunctions
you do not have a clause. Each clause must contain a subject and a
predicate of its own.

+463.+ Here is an example of a sentence built up from a simple subject
and a simple predicate:


                    SIMPLE SUBJECT ENLARGED

+Simple Subject and Predicate+--_Soldiers obey._

_Adjectives_ added--_The enlisted_ soldiers obey.

_Phrase_ added--The enlisted soldiers _in the trenches_ obey.

_Clause_ added--The enlisted soldiers in the trenches, _who are
doomed to die_, obey.


                SIMPLE PREDICATE ENLARGED

+Simple Subject and Predicate+--_Soldiers obey._

_Object_ added--Soldiers obey _orders_.

_Adverb_ added--Soldiers obey orders _quickly_.

_Phrase_ added--Soldiers obey orders quickly and _without
question_.

_Clause_ added--Soldiers obey orders quickly and without question
_because they are taught to do so_.

Combining our enlarged subject and predicate we have the sentence:

  The enlisted soldiers in the trenches, who are doomed to die, obey
  orders quickly and without question because they are taught to do so.

This is a complex sentence because it contains dependent clauses. We
might add another independent clause and make of this a compound
sentence. For example:

  The enlisted soldiers in the trenches, who are doomed to die, obey
  orders quickly and without question because they are taught to do so,
  and _this is patriotism_.


                    Exercise 5

Enlarge the following simple subjects and simple predicates:


  Men write.
  Boys play.
  People study.
  The law rules.


                    Exercise 6

  In the following poem underscore all of the dependent clauses.
  Determine whether they are noun, adjective or adverb clauses. Do you
  find any simple or compound sentences in this poem?

    MEN! whose
    boast it is that ye
    Come of fathers brave and free,
    If there breathe on earth a slave,
    Are you truly free and brave?
    If ye do not feel the chain,
    When it works a brother's pain,
    Are ye not base slaves indeed,
    Slaves unworthy to be freed?

    Women! who shall one day bear
    Sons to breathe New England air,
    If ye hear without a blush,
    Deeds to make the roused blood rush
    Like red lava through your veins,
    For your sisters now in chains,--
    Answer! are you fit to be
    Mothers of the brave and free?

    Is true Freedom but to break
    Fetters for our own dear sake,
    And, with leathern hearts, forget
    That we owe mankind a debt?
    No! true freedom is to share
    All the chains our brothers wear,
    And, with heart and hand, to be
    Earnest to make others free!

    They are slaves who fear to speak
    For the fallen and the weak;
    They are slaves who will not choose
    Hatred, scoffing, and abuse,
    Rather than in silence shrink
    From the truth they needs must think;
    They are slaves who dare not be
    In the right with two or three.

                    --_Lowell_.



                    SPELLING

                    LESSON 27


We have studied concerning the formation of derivatives by the addition
of suffixes. Derivatives are also formed by the addition of prefixes.
You remember that a prefix is a syllable which is placed before a simple
word to form the derivative. Among the most common of these prefixes are
_in_, _un_ and _mis_. The prefix _in_ used with an adjective or adverb
means _not_; for example, _insane_ means _not_ sane; _incorrect_ means
_not_ correct, etc.

The prefix _in_ used with a noun means _lack of_; for example,
_inexperience_ means _lack of_ experience; _inability_ means _lack of_
ability, etc.

In words beginning with _m_ or _p_, _in_, meaning _not_ or _lack of_, is
changed to _im_. This is done for the sake of euphony. The _n_ does not
unite readily with the sound of _m_ or _p_. So we do not say _inmodest_
and _inpartial_, but _immodest_ and _impartial_.

The prefix _un_, used with participles, means _not_; for example,
_unprepared_ means _not_ prepared; _unguarded_ means _not_ guarded, etc.

The prefix _un_ used with verbs, means to take off or to reverse; for
example, _uncover_ means to take off the cover; _untwist_ means to
reverse the process of the twisting.

The prefix _un_ used with adjectives means _not_; for example,
_uncertain_ means _not_ certain; _uncommon_ means _not_ common.

The prefix _mis_ used with nouns or verbs, means _wrong_. For example,
_mistreatment_ means _wrong_ treatment; _to misspell_ means to spell
_wrong_.

Add the prefix _in_ to the nouns given in Monday's list; add the prefix
_in_ to the adjectives given in Tuesday's list; add the prefix _im_ to
the adjectives and nouns in Wednesday's lesson; add the prefix _un_ to
the participles and adjectives in Thursday's lesson; add the prefix _un_
to the verbs in Friday's lesson, and add the prefix _mis_ to the nouns
and verbs in Saturday's lesson.

  +Monday+

    Tolerance
    Frequency
    Competence
    Efficiency
    Coherence

  +Tuesday+

    Convenient
    Expedient
    Famous
    Adequate
    Solvent

  +Wednesday+

    Pertinent
    Morality
    Patience
    Moderate
    Pious

  +Thursday+

    Balanced
    Biased
    Gracious
    Stable
    Solicited

  +Friday+

    Burden
    Veil
    Fasten
    Screw
    Furl

  +Saturday+

    Construe
    Apprehension
    Inform
    Guide
    Judge



                    PLAIN ENGLISH

                    LESSON 28


Dear Comrade:

We are beginning with this lesson the study of the use of capitals and
of punctuation. The use of capitals as well as punctuation has nothing
to do with our spoken words, but both are very important in our written
language.

There is nothing that will mark us as uneducated more quickly than bad
spelling, faulty punctuation and the incorrect use of capitals.

The rules for the use of capitals may seem somewhat arbitrary. After an
understanding of them, however, you will discover that they are not
arbitrary, but are based upon a single principle. The word which is of
the most importance, or which should receive the most emphasis is the
word which is capitalized, as for example, the principal words in a
title, the first words in a sentence, proper names, etc.

Study these rules carefully, note the use of the capitals in your
reading and watch your written language carefully for a time. Soon the
proper use of capitals will seem easy and most natural. In the meantime
do not fail to keep up your study of words. Add at least one word to
your vocabulary every day.

Did you ever consider how we think in pictures? Nearly every word that
we use calls up a certain image or picture in our minds. The content of
words has grown and developed as our ability to think has developed.

Take, for example, words like head or hand. Head originally referred to
a portion of the body of a living thing; then it was used to refer to
some part of an inanimate object which might resemble or call up a
picture of an animal's head, for example, the head of a pin. Again, it
was used to refer to some part of an inanimate thing which was
associated with the head of a human being, as the head of the bed. Then,
by the power of association, since the head was considered the most
conspicuous and important part of the body, that which was most
conspicuous and important was called the head, as the head of the army,
the head of the nation.

Then, since the head was the seat of the brain and of the mental
faculties, the head was often used instead of the brain or mental
faculties. We speak of a clear head or a cool head. Thus we have a
number of idiomatic expressions. We may speak of the head of the river;
or the subject matter was divided under four heads; or again, the matter
came to a head; he is head and ears in debt; we cannot make head against
the opposition, etc.

This transfer of our ideas from the physical to the mental and spiritual
marks vividly the growth of the language and the development of thought.
Trace the words like hands, arm, foot, eye, tongue, in their use, first
as physical then as mental or spiritual.

This will be the most interesting pastime and will enlarge the content
of the words which you use.

                    Yours for Education,

                              THE PEOPLE'S COLLEGE.


                    CAPITAL LETTERS

+464.+ In our written speech we often display our lack of education by
our use of capital letters and punctuation. We may understand the use of
words and be able to speak fairly well, but if we do not understand the
proper use of capitals and of punctuation marks, our written language
readily betrays our ignorance.

+465.+ There are a number of rules for the use of capitals which we must
observe. Some of the writers in our magazines defy these rules of
capitalization, in an effort to seem different from other people,
perhaps. These rules for the use of capital letters, like all other
rules, are not arbitrary rules laid down by any body of men, but are
simply a statement of accepted usage among people. We should not feel
that we should say this or that or we are violating a rule of grammar.
We should feel rather that the majority of the people who speak and
write good English do thus, and so, for this reason, I shall do it also.

This is simply obeying the standard of majority rule. If there is any
good and sufficient reason why we feel this should not be a rule, we may
be justified in breaking it and making a new rule. Many people feel that
our spelling should be simplified and so they insist upon spelling
certain words in a more simple way. They feel that they have good and
sufficient reason for insisting upon this change and gradually if these
reasons appeal to the majority as being good and sufficient reasons,
then this simplified mode of spelling will become the accepted usage.

But there seems no good reason why any writer should scatter capital
letters with a lavish hand throughout his writing. One feels as though a
writer in so doing is expressing his desire to be different, in a very
superficial manner. Let us be unique and individual in our thought. If
this forces us to a different mode of living or of expression from the
rest of the world, then we are justified in being different from the
rest. We have thought and reason behind our action. This is far
different from the attitude of one who poses as a radical and whose only
protest is in the superficial external things. So let us learn and
observe these rules for the use of capital letters.


                    RULES FOR THE USE OF CAPITAL LETTERS

+466.+ +Use a capital for the first word of every sentence.+

When you begin a new sentence always begin that sentence with a capital
letter. Each sentence is a statement of a complete thought and is
independent of every other sentence. The use of the capital letter
indicates this independence and calls attention to the fact that you are
beginning a new thought.

+467.+ +Begin every line of poetry with a capital letter.+ Sometimes in
poetry, the line is too long to be printed on a single line and must be
carried over into another line; in this case, the first word of the
second line does _not_ begin with a capital letter.

+468.+ +Use a capital for every proper noun.+ This includes names of
persons, countries, states, towns, cities, streets and geographical
names, as the names of seas, lakes, mountains, rivers, etc.

+469.+ +The words North, South, East and West are capitalized when they
are used to refer to geographical divisions.+ When these words simply
refer to the points of the compass, they should not begin with a
capital.

+470.+ +The pronoun _I_ and the interjection _O_ should always be
capitals.+ Never write the pronoun _I_ with a small _i_.

+471.+ +Every proper adjective should begin with a capital letter.+
Proper adjectives are adjectives derived from proper nouns. For example:
the _Marxian_ philosophy, the _Darwinian_ theory, _Indian_ money,
_Japanese_ labor, etc.

+472.+ +Always begin the names of the months and the days of the week
with capital letters.+ For example: _January_, _February_, _August_,
_Monday_, _Tuesday_, _Friday_, etc.

+473.+ +Use a capital letter for every name or title of the Deity.+ For
example: _God_, _Jehovah_, _Christ_, _Jesus_, etc. It is also customary
to capitalize all personal pronouns referring to God or Christ.

+474.+ +Begin with a capital letter names of all religious sects and
political parties, also all adjectives derived from them.+ As for
example: _Christian Church_, _Methodism_, _Republican Party_,
_Mohammedan_, _Socialist_, etc.

+475.+ +Begin the names of all things spoken of as persons with a
capital.+ In poetry or poetic prose we often speak of _war_, _fame_,
_death_, _hope_, _fancy_, _liberty_, etc., as persons. Whenever these
words are used in this way they should begin with a capital letter.

+476.+ +Use capital letters to begin important words in the title of a
book or the subject of a composition.+ In titles the nouns, pronouns,
adjectives, verbs and adverbs should begin with a capital, while the
prepositions and conjunctions should begin with small letters. The
articles, _the_, _a_ and _an_ are not capitalized unless they are the
initial word in the title.

+477.+ +Use a capital to begin every direct quotation.+ The first word
of an indirect quotation should begin with a small letter. A direct
quotation is one which uses the exact words of the speaker. For example:
_He said_, "_I will come_." This is a direct quotation, but _He said
that he would come_, is an indirect quotation.

+478.+ +Use a capital to begin an important statement or to ask a
question.+ For example: _Resolved; That the United States should
democratize war. The question is, Shall the people determine the
question of war?_

+479.+ +Use capitals for the chief items of any enumeration of
particulars.+ For example;

  The bill is as follows:
    For Composition                 $20.00
    For Press Work                   10.00
    Paper                            25.00

+480.+ +Begin the words indicating titles of offices and honor with a
capital.+ For example, _President Wilson_, _Doctor Smith_, _Professor
Locke_. When you use a title of this kind as a general term, that is,
not indicating any particular person, do not use a capital. As for
example: _The society has had several presidents._ But if you use the
title to take the place of the person's name, for example: _The
President read the message to Congress_, always use a capital.

+481.+ +Use capitals for the titles at the beginning of a letter or in
written composition and in direct address.+ For example: _My dear
Father_, _My dear Mother_, _My dear Comrade_, _Dear Aunt Emma_, _Dear
Friend_, _Dear Fellow Workers_, etc. Also in conversation.

  Are you coming with me, Mother?
  What did the Doctor say, Comrade Smith?

When these words are not used in direct address, however, they should
not be capitalized. For example, at the close of a letter you would
write:

  Your sincere friend.
  Your loving brother.

Or in conversation:

  I asked my mother to go with me.
  My brother wrote me concerning the matter.

+482.+ +Begin the names of important buildings and localities with a
capital.+ For example:

  Public Library, High School, The East Side, The Union Square, Central
  Market, etc.

These words used in a general sense, however, should not begin with a
capital letter. For example:

Our public libraries, our high schools, jails, prisons, post offices,
etc.

+483.+ +The words state and territory, when they refer to particular
divisions of the country, should be capitalized.+ For example:

The State of New York, The Territory of Alaska, The French Government,
etc.

_State_ and _government_ are also capitalized when they are used in
place of proper names. For example:

  The State is based on exploitation.
  The Government has issued an edict of war.

We do not use a capital in such expressions as:

  Church and state, state affairs; they occupy a large territory, etc.

+484.+ +In directing letters or other matter for the mail, capitalize
all words except prepositions, conjunctions or articles.+ These should
be capitalized only when they begin a line.


                    Exercise 1

Draw a line under each word in the following that should be begun with a
capital:

  john joffre, lake michigan, day, thursday, friday, spring, august,
  december, germany, country, france, man, jones, smith, doctor, doctor
  george, professor moore, girl, mary, susan, methodist, mohammedan,
  church, party, republican party, socialist, company, national electric
  light company, river, mississippi river, the red river, essex county,
  state of illinois, iowa, railway, new york, new york central railway,
  the french revolution, novel, the sea wolf, poem, arrows in the gale,
  american.


                    Exercise 2

Notice carefully the following quotations and sentences and capitalize
every word that should begin with a capital letter.

  1. iron, the twin brother of fire, the first born out of the matrix
     of the earth, a witness everlasting to the glory of thy labor, am
     i, o man.
  2. therefore i say unto you, banish fear from your hearts.
  3. but ye, plebs, populists, people, rebels, mob, proletariat, live
     and abide forever.
  4. and they came here from all parts of the earth, the syrians and
     the armenians, the thracians and the tartars, the jews, the greeks
     and the romans, the gauls and the angles and the huns and the
     hibernians, even from the deserts of the sands to the deserts of
     ice they came to listen unto his words.
  5. marx and engels wrote the communist manifesto.
  6. its closing words are; working men of all countries unite.
  7. italy was the last of the great powers of europe to become
     involved in the war.
  8. john randolph submitted an amendment to the constitution providing
     that the judges of the supreme court of the united states shall be
     removed by the president on the joint address of both houses of
     congress.
  9. eugene v. debs spent six months in woodstock jail for exercising
     his right of free speech.
  10. col. the abbreviation for colorado, is easily confused with cal.
      the abbreviation for california.
  11. the people's college is a college maintained by the working
      class.
  12. william jennings bryan won his first nomination for president of
      the united states by a very dramatic speech delivered in the
      national democratic convention.
  13. marion craig wentworth, a socialist playwright, has written a play
      called "war brides."
  14. the play closes with these words; a message to the emperor: i
      refuse to bear my child until you promise there shall be no more
      war.
  15. olive schreiner's "woman and labor" is full of fascinating
      thought.


                    Exercise 3

Notice carefully the use of capitals in the following quotations, and
determine the reason for the use of every capital:

  As the nobles of England wrung their independence from King John, and
  as the tradesmen of France broke through the ring of privilege
  enclosing the Three Estates; so today the millions who serve society
  in arduous labor on the highways, and aloft on the scaffoldings, and
  by the sides of the whirring machines, are demanding that they, too,
  and their children, shall enjoy all of the blessings that justify and
  make beautiful this life.--_Frank Walsh_.

    "The toad beneath the harrow knows
      Exactly where the tooth-point goes.
    The butterfly beside the road
      Doth preach contentment to that toad."

  "When I came here, it was said that the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company
  voted every man and woman in their employ without any regard to their
  being naturalized or not; and even their mules, it used to be
  remarked, were registered if they were fortunate enough to possess
  names." _From a letter written by Mr. L. M. Bowers, Chairman of The
  Board of Directors of the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company, to the
  Secretary of Mr. John D. Rockefeller, Jr., under date of May 13,
  1913._

    Master, I've done Thy bidding, wrought in Thy many lands.
    Not by my sins wilt Thou judge me, but by the work of my hands.
    Master, I've done Thy bidding, and the light is low in the west,
    And the long, long shift is over ... Master, I've earned it--Rest.

                                        --_Robert Service_.

    It's O! to be a slave
      Along with the barbarous Turk,
    Where woman has never a soul to save,
      If this is Christian work!

                    --_Thos. Hood_.

  While there is a lower class, I am in it.
  While there is a criminal element, I am of it.
  While there is a soul in jail, I am not free.

                    --_Eugene V. Debs_.

  When Adam delved and Eve span,
  Who was then the gentleman?

    The vilest deeds, like poison weeds,
      Bloom well in prison-air;
    It is only what is good in man
      That wastes and withers there:
    Pale Anguish keeps the heavy gate,
      And the Warder is Despair.

                    --_Oscar Wilde_.


                    ABBREVIATIONS AND CONTRACTIONS

+485.+ There are a number of words which we abbreviate or contract, in
our every-day use. A contraction is a shortened form of the word used to
save time or space and is made by omitting a letter or letters. The
apostrophe is used to indicate the omission in a contracted word. As,
for example:

  B'ld'g, B'l'v'd, M'f'g.

When the word is contracted in this way and the apostrophe is used,
these contractions are not followed by the period but are used just as
the completely written word would be used. There is no accepted list of
these contractions. We devise them according to our need at the moment.

An abbreviation, however, is an authorized contraction of the word. It
is the shortening of a term which is habitually used to save time and
space. The apostrophe is not used and the abbreviation should be
followed by a period. As for example:

  Bldg.  Blvd.  Mfg.

These abbreviations and contractions are very helpful to us in saving
time and space but should not be used too frequently. Too many
contractions or abbreviations make writing ridiculous. Take time to
write out the majority of words. Only use abbreviations or contractions
for certain accepted words. Avoid an excessive use of abbreviations.


                    COMMONLY USED ABBREVIATIONS

+486.+ We quite often abbreviate the names of the months, especially
those which have long names. Short names like _March_, _April_, _May_,
_June_ and _July_, should never be abbreviated. For the other months we
use in correspondence the abbreviations, _Jan._, _Feb._, _Aug._,
_Sept._, _Oct._, _Nov._, _Dec._ Days of the week are also sometimes
abbreviated as follows: _Sun._, _Mon._, _Tues._, _Wed._, _Thur._,
_Fri._, _Sat._ Do not use these abbreviations too often. Spell out the
names of the months and of the days of the week except in lists of dates
or something that calls for abbreviations to save time or space.

_Mr._, _Mrs._, _Messrs._, _Jr._, _Sr._, are never spelled out, but are
always written in the abbreviated form. You will often find _Doctor_ and
_Professor_ abbreviated to _Dr._, _Prof._ This is permissible but it is
always good form to write them out in full.

+487.+ We have abbreviated forms for a number of names; as for example:
_Geo._, _Chas._, _Thos._, _Wm._, etc. But it is always much better to
write these names out in full: _George_, _Charles_, _Thomas_, _William_,
etc.

Remember that nicknames are not abbreviations and do not require a
period after them. _Jim_, _Charley_, _Tom_, and _Bill_ are not
abbreviations but nicknames.

In correspondence or in any circumstance that demands the saving of time
or space, we abbreviate the names of states and territories, as follows:

  Alabama, Ala.
  Arizona, Ariz.
  Arkansas, Ark.
  California, Cal.
  Colorado, Colo.
  Connecticut, Conn.
  Delaware, Del.
  District of Columbia, D. C.
  Florida, Fla.
  Georgia, Ga.
  Idaho, Ida.
  Illinois, Ill.
  Indiana, Ind.
  Iowa, Ia.
  Kansas, Kan.
  Kentucky, Ky.
  Louisiana, La.
  Maine, Me.
  Maryland, Md.
  Massachusetts, Mass.
  Michigan, Mich.
  Minnesota, Minn.
  Mississippi, Miss.
  Missouri, Mo.
  Montana, Mont.
  Nebraska, Neb.
  Nevada, Nev.
  New Hampshire, N. H.
  New Jersey, N. J.
  New Mexico, N. M.
  New York, N. Y.
  North Carolina, N. C.
  North Dakota, N. D.
  Ohio, O.
  Oklahoma, Okla.
  Oregon, Ore.
  Pennsylvania, Pa. or Penna.
  Rhode Island, R. I.
  South Carolina, S. C.
  South Dakota, S. D.
  Tennessee, Tenn.
  Texas, Tex.
  Vermont, Vt.
  Virginia, Va.
  Washington, Wash.
  West Virginia, W. Va.
  Wisconsin, Wis.
  Wyoming, Wyo.

+488.+ Use _a. m._ and _p. m._ after dates in lists of dates or
schedules of trains or for any similar purpose, but in the text of a
letter or manuscript it is better to write them out in full. As for
example, do not say:

  I will arrive tomorrow a. m., or, You may call about eight p. m.

Say rather:

  I will arrive tomorrow morning. You may call at eight o'clock this
  evening.

The letters _a. m._ are the abbreviation for ante meridiem, Latin for
before noon; and _p. m._ for post meridiem, meaning afternoon.

+489.+ Two consecutive years may be written 1914-15, but use 1915 rather
than '15. In the heading of letters it is better to write the date out
in full, as, _May 28, 1915_, instead of 5-28-15.

In the back of your dictionary you will find a complete list of accepted
abbreviations used in writing and printing. The list that follows
contains abbreviations most commonly used, especially in business
correspondence:

  @ for at
  acct. for account
  agt. for agent
  amt. for amount
  ans. for answer
  asst. for assistant
  atty. for attorney
  av. for average
  bal. for balance
  bbl. for barrel
  bdl. for bundle
  bro. for brother
  bros. for brothers
  blk. for black
  bls. for bales
  bu. or bush. for bushels
  Co. for company
  chgd. for charged
  C. O. D. for "cash on delivery"
  cr. creditor
  cts. cents
  cwt. for hundred weight
  cu. for cubic
  do. for the same
  dr. for debtor
  doz. for dozen
  ea. for "each"
  et al. for "and others"
  e. g. for example
  etc. for "and so forth"
  ft. for foot or feet
  frt. freight
  f. o. b. "free on board"
  gal. gallon
  guar. for guaranty
  hdkfs. for handkerchiefs
  h. p. horse power
  in. for inches
  ins. for insurance
  inst. for this month
  i. e. for "that is"
  Jr. for junior
  lb. for pound
  memo. for memorandum
  Mon. for Monday
  mo. for month
  mos. for months
  mdse. for merchandise
  mfg. for manufacturing
  Mss. for manuscript
  no. for number
  N. B. for take notice
  O. K. for "all correct"
  oz. for ounce
  % for per cent
  pp. pages
  pr. for pair
  pt. for pint
  pk. for peck
  prox. for next month
  qt. for quart
  recd. for received
  sec. for second
  Sec. for secretary
  Sr. for senior
  Supt. for superintendent
  ult. for last month
  via by way of
  viz. namely
  vol. for volume
  wt. for weight
  yd. for yard
  yds. for yards
  yr. for year


                    Exercise 4

Write the proper abbreviations for the following words:

  Building
  Charles
  Boulevard
  Tuesday
  Arkansas
  Mississippi
  Foot
  Virginia
  Georgia
  Senior
  By way of
  Per cent
  Charged
  Avenue
  October
  Delaware
  Professor
  Thursday
  Colorado
  Kansas
  Handkerchiefs
  January
  Secretary
  Superintendent
  Received
  That is
  Free on board
  Monday
  Oklahoma
  July
  Thomas
  California
  Company
  Account
  Friday
  Merchandise
  Number
  All correct
  Cash on delivery
  And so forth
  Colonel
  Maine
  August
  William
  Missouri
  Brothers
  Amount
  Wyoming



                    SPELLING

                    LESSON 28


There is no way to learn to spell except by constant application. Watch
in your reading the spelling of all words. Whenever you wish to add a
certain word to your vocabulary, master immediately the spelling as well
as the meaning of that word. Keep your dictionary handy; use it
constantly in the study of your lessons. Do not guess at the spelling of
the word. You are not likely to forget quickly the spelling of any word
which you have taken the trouble to look up.

Read your examinations over carefully before sending them in, watching
closely for any error in spelling and in punctuation. When your papers
are graded and returned you, make a list of all the words which are
misspelled and master then and there the spelling of these words. Do not
be guilty of the same error twice. Remember that correct spelling is a
mark of intelligence and scholarship and that nothing will so detract
from the influence of your written work as incorrect spelling.

While there is always a certain word which more aptly expresses our
meaning than any other, we can usually find two or more words which
express practically the same meaning.

+Words which have nearly the same meaning are called synonyms.+

It is always an interesting exercise and will add greatly to your
vocabulary to select a certain paragraph and go through it replacing
certain words with other words which have practically the same meaning.
It is this mastery of synonyms which gives the great writers and orators
their power. They do not use the same word over and over again until our
ears have grown weary of it. With their wonderful mastery of language
they are never at a loss for words in which to re-clothe their meaning.

For the first three days of this week's work in spelling we have words
and their synonyms. For the words given in the lessons for the last
three days, look up in your dictionary a suitable synonym.

  +Monday+

    Abundant
    Plenty

    Precarious
    Uncertain

    Behavior
    Conduct

  +Tuesday+

    Abuse
    Invective

    Hateful
    Odious

    Praise
    Applause

  +Wednesday+

    Sufficient
    Enough

    Refuge
    Asylum

    Achieve
    Attain

  +Thursday+

    Insolent
    Revenge
    Curb
    Repudiate
    Censure
    Regret

  +Friday+

    Prosperity
    Subterfuge
    Event
    Observe
    Portion
    Destroy

  +Saturday+

    Talkative
    Indolent
    Profit
    Volunteer
    Cordial
    Enormous

There are a number of nouns very similar in form, yet different in
meaning, which we very often use incorrectly.

Cross out in these sentences the incorrect word. Look them up in the
dictionary and be sure of the exact meaning:

  Roger's _essay_--_assay_ won him praise.
  The _assay_--_essay_ indicated the quantity of gold in the metal.
  The _completion_--_completeness_ of the course entitled me to a
  Diploma.
  The _completion_--_completeness_ of the arrangements fills us with
  hope of success.
  _Confidants_--_confidence_ often betray us.
  The business world is built upon _confidants_--_confidence_.
  The _conscience_--_consciousness_ of a religious person is very
  sensitive.
  The class struggle develops class _conscience_--_consciousness_.
  The strikers listened to unwise _counsel_--_council_.
  The _council_--_counsel_ refused the franchise.
  You knew he was a _cultured_--_cultivated_ man, the moment you met
  him.
  It is a highly _cultured_--_cultivated_ plant.
  I asked her for the _recipe_--_receipt_ for making cake.
  He gave her a _receipt_--_recipe_ for the money.
  _Emigration_---_immigration_ has reduced the population of Servia.
  _Emigration_--_immigration_ is flooding the United States with cheap
  labor.
  Edison's _discovery_--_invention_ of the storage battery was a
  momentous event.
  The _discovery_--_invention_ of gold in Alaska attracted the attention
  of the world.
  The state placed a _limitation_--_limit_ upon the sale of liquor
  within certain _limits_--_limitations_.



                    PLAIN ENGLISH

                    LESSON 29


Dear Comrade:

The spirit of self-help is the root of all genuine growth in any man or
woman. It is the things which we do for ourselves in any line of work
that count the most for us. The things which come to us without any
effort on our part do not stay with us very long nor do us much good
while we have them.

Sometimes we feel discouraged because we have not had the opportunity to
attend school as much as we would like. There is no gainsaying but that
this is a tremendous handicap and yet, after all, it is not an
insurmountable obstacle. It is much better to have the appetite without
the food than to have the food without the appetite. There is always a
chance of securing the food if we want it bad enough and will struggle
hard enough. So in the matter of an education. Many a man who has never
seen the inside of a college is better educated than those who have been
through college.

These men have really wanted knowledge, have sought it early and late,
and have found knowledge; and because they were in the work-a-day world,
in constant contact with their fellow-men, they were able to relate the
knowledge which they gained out of books to the world in which they
lived and this is true education. This is, also, what many college-bred
people lack. A student is half made as soon as he seeks knowledge for
its own sake. If you are striving to learn, not to make grades or to
pass examinations or to secure a degree, but simply for the sake of
knowing things, then indeed you are on the way to become really
educated.

Stimulate within yourself a desire for knowledge, observe the things
about you, add to your store of information daily; read a good book each
day, even if you have time to read only a page or two, and you will be
surprised at the result in your life.

Take, for example, our spelling. Why should we continually misspell the
words which we use every day and which we see every day on a printed
page. If we are wide-awake and have our eyes open, we can soon learn to
spell correctly all these common words, at least. Make a list this week
of fifty things with which you come in contact in your daily work, then
look these words up in your dictionary and see how many of them you have
misspelled. There is no reason why we should not be learning constantly
and the more we observe, the more acute becomes our power of
observation.

Let us determine more than ever to feel that we are part of the great
world movement, that we belong in the ranks of those who have caught the
vision of what the world might be, and that we belong to that glorious
army of those who are fighting for the dream; so we may take courage; so
we may find joy in the struggle, bitter as it may be, and so we may do
our part in the fight.

                    Yours for Education,

                              THE PEOPLE'S COLLEGE.


                    PUNCTUATION

+490.+ Marks of punctuation are very important in our written language.
They take the place of the gesture and pause and inflection and
intonation of the voice, by which we make our meaning clear in vocal
speech. So the marks of punctuation do not become mere mechanical
devices. They are marks full of meaning and necessary to express our
thought.

Punctuation is a word derived from the Latin word _punctum_ which means
_a point_. We have other words from the same derivation, as puncture,
etc.

+Punctuation is the art of pointing off our written language so as to
make its meaning clear.+

Some very amusing errors have occurred because of the misplacing or the
omission of punctuation marks. It is said, that a toast was one time
given at a public dinner; "Woman! without her, man would be a savage."
The next day it appeared in print; "Woman, without her man, would be a
savage." You can readily see that the punctuation in this instance made
a very great difference in the meaning of the sentence.

+491.+ In conversation, the tone of the voice which we use, has a great
effect upon our meaning, for example I might say, _The International
failed_, in such a tone of voice, that it would express despair and
chagrin, and indicate that the International was a thing of the past; or
I might say, _The International failed_, with such an inflection, that
you would understand that even the suggestion was to be treated with
contempt, that the International was still powerful and its triumph
inevitable. And in writing, the only way we have of expressing these
shades of meaning is by means of punctuation marks.

So these marks of punctuation are not thrown upon a page haphazardly, or
put there simply for decoration; they have a meaning and a very great
meaning. Those who use short, crisp sentences have less need for
punctuation marks than those who use longer and more involved sentences.
When we have learned to express ourselves directly and simply, we will
naturally use fewer marks of punctuation.

+492.+ You will find that, in writing in connection with business, there
is much less need of punctuation than in literary and philosophical
writings. Business writing is usually direct and simple in style. Its
purpose is to state facts. The literary and philosophical writing,
however, expresses more involved ideas and emotions, and in these, the
punctuation is exceedingly important.

+493.+ One of the great purposes served by punctuation is to indicate a
pause or break in the thought. A very good rule to go by in punctuating
is to repeat the sentence aloud, and whenever you pause for breath or
because of a break in the thought, it is a pretty safe indication that
in that place, you should have a punctuation mark.

+494.+ The following are the chief marks of punctuation:

  1. The Comma               ,
  2. The Semi-colon          ;
  3. The Colon               :
  4. The Period              .
  5. The Interrogation Point ?
  6. The Exclamation Point   !
  7. The Dash               --
  8. The Parenthesis        ()
  9. The Bracket            []
  10. The Quotation Marks   ""
  11. The Apostrophe         '
  12. The Hyphen             -


                    THE COMMA

+495.+ The comma is the mark used to indicate a slight break in the
thought.

There are a number of rules given for the use of commas. These rules,
like the rules for the use of capitals, you cannot commit to memory;
but, after repeated practice in your own writing and paying attention to
your reading, you will gradually develop an instinctive sense of the use
of the comma. Select some book which you are reading and go through it,
noticing especially the use of the commas. See if you can determine the
reason which prompted the author to place his commas where he did.
Notice, also, what effect the placing or the omission of the comma would
have upon the meaning of the sentence.

+496.+ +The Comma indicates the slightest degree of separation between
the parts of a sentence.+

+RULE 1.+

+497.+ +Words, phrases and clauses, forming a series and used in the
same construction, should be separated from each other by commas when
the conjunctions are omitted.+


                    WORDS WHICH FORM A SERIES

+498.+ The words which form a series, separated by a comma may
be either nouns, adjectives, adverbs or verbs. The comma is only used
where the conjunction is omitted. Note carefully the following
sentences:

  Love, laughter and happiness are the right of every child.
  He visited every city, town and village.
  The working class has been meek, humble, docile and gullible.
  All the crushed, tortured, strangled, maimed and murdered ideals of
  the ages shall become an everlasting reality.
  He struggled patiently, faithfully and fearlessly for the cause.
  If labor thinks, dares, rebels, fights, it will be victorious.


                    PHRASES WHICH FORM SERIES

+499.+ Phrases which are used in the same construction and form a series
are separated by commas where the conjunction is omitted. For example:

  Day after day, year after year, century after century, the class
  struggle has proceeded.
  The struggle in the mines, in the fields, in the factories and in the
  shops, will go on until labor receives the product of its toil.


                    CLAUSES USED IN A SERIES

+500.+ Sometimes clauses are used without the co-ordinate conjunction
and a comma is used to indicate the omission. For example:

  Do not moan, do not submit, do not kneel, do not pray, do not wait.
  Speak as you mean, do as you profess, perform what you promise.


+RULE 2.+

+501.+ +Explanatory and introductory expressions, words in direct
address, parenthetical words and phrases, are separated from the rest of
the sentence by commas.+

Note carefully the following examples:

  Jaures, the great French Socialist, was the first martyr to peace.
  War having been declared, the troops were mobilized.
  No, I cannot believe you.
  Mr. Chairman, I desire to speak to the convention.
  We can, of course, give you the information you desire.


+RULE 3.+

+502.+ +Words, phrases or clauses written in the sentence out of their
natural order should be separated from the rest of the sentence by
commas.+

These words, phrases and clauses are often written at the beginning of
the sentences or at the end of the sentences, or in some place out of
their natural order, for the sake of emphasis, instead of with the words
they modify.

Notice in the following sentences how these words, phrases and clauses
are separated from the rest of the sentence by commas. Rewrite these
sentences, placing these words, phrases and clauses in their natural
order and omit the commas.

  Longingly and anxiously, he waited.
  With this exception, the figures are correct.
  The music, sweet and dreamy, floated upon the air.
  The waves came rolling in, white with foam.
  To deceive the men, he resorted to shameful tricks.
  Before anyone else could speak, he was on his feet.


+RULE 4.+

+503.+ +Co-ordinate clauses, when closely related in meaning are
separated by commas. The comma should precede the co-ordinate
conjunction.+ For example:

  I have not intended to detain you, but the matter required
  explanation.


+RULE 5.+

+504.+ +The omission of the verb in a sentence or a clause should be
indicated by a comma.+ Sometimes in writing for effect or to give
emphasis we omit the verb in the sentence; at other times we omit the
verb when the same verb occurs in a series of brief sentences, and its
continued use would mean a tiresome repetition. For example:

  Reading maketh a full man; conference, a ready man; writing, an
  exact man.

Here the verb is omitted in the last two clauses and the omission is
indicated by the use of the comma.


+RULE 6.+

+505.+ +Short, direct quotations should be preceded by a comma.+ For
example:

  Their slogan is, "An injury to one is the concern of all."
  Ferrer's last words were, "Long live the modern school."


+RULE 7.+

+506.+ +Separate the figures in large numbers into groups of three
figures each by the use of commas.+ For example:

  The population of the United States has now reached 100,000,000.
  According to the census of 1900, there are 29,073,233 people engaged
  in gainful occupations in the United States.


                    Exercise 1

Supply commas in the following sentences in the proper places:

  1. Food clothes and shelter are the fundamental needs of life.
  2. We believe in education free from theocracy aristocracy or
     plutocracy.
  3. Man is the master of nature of law of life.
  4. We shall struggle rebel arise and claim all being for our own.
  5. Sickness and suffering sorrow and despair crime and war are the
     fruits of poverty.
  6. You should seek after knowledge steadily faithfully and
     perseveringly.
  7. The most inspiring powerful and impressive oratory is the voice of
     the disinherited.
  8. Through your united almighty strength order shall become equity law
     shall become liberty duty shall become love and religion shall
     become truth.
  9. First let us consider the main question.
  10. Mr. President I rise to a point of order.
  11. We the workers of the world must unite.
  12. The class struggle being a fact why should we hesitate to join our
      class?
  13. You have not it seems understood the issue.
  14. Of all our needs education is the greatest.
  15. Regularly and monotonously the machine whirs to and fro.
  16. Before any one can take special training he must have a good
      knowledge of English.
  17. We plead for education universal and free.
  18. The first ingredient in conversation is truth the next good sense
      the third good humor and the fourth wit.
  19. The slogan of the People's College is The education of the workers
      by the workers.
  20. According to the last census the enrollment of the schools of the
      United States is 18521002.
  21. There are 4611000 in the first grade and 155000 in the last year
      of high school.


                    THE SEMI-COLON

+507.+ The semi-colon indicates a break more complete than that of the
comma. The period indicates a complete break in the thought. So the
comma indicates a slight break, the semi-colon a greater break in the
thought, and the period, the completion of the thought.


                    RULES FOR THE USE OF THE SEMI-COLON

+508.+ The semi-colon is often used instead of the comma where a longer
pause is desired or we wish to indicate a greater break in the thought.
For example:

    "The wind is chill;
    But let it whistle as it will,
    We'll keep our Christmas merry still."

+509.+ As a rule we separate by semi-colons those parts of the sentences
that are already punctuated by commas. For example:

  After considerable delay, he came back to look for his friends; but,
  though he looked diligently, he could not find them.

+510.+ The semi-colon is used to separate closely connected simple
sentences when the conjunction is omitted. The continual repetition of
the conjunction would become very tiresome and detract from the
forcefulness of our sentences. So instead of continually repeating the
conjunction we separate these simple sentences by semi-colons. For
example:

  Through the industrial revolution, the face of the earth is making
  over even as to its physical forms; political boundaries are wiped out
  and moved about as if they were indeed only lines on a paper map;
  population is hurriedly gathered into cities from the ends of the
  earth; habits of living are altered with startling abruptness; the
  search for the truths of nature is infinitely stimulated; and the
  application of these truths to life is made not only practicable, but
  commercially necessary.

+511.+ The semi-colon should be used after each item in a series of
specific statements. For example:

  We quote you the following prices: Grade No. 1, $1.00; Grade No. 2,
  $2.90; poorer grades not in demand.


                    RULES FOR THE USE OF THE COLON

+512.+ The colon is not used as much as it formerly was. The comma and
the semi-colon and the period are now used in most of the places where
older writers used the colon.

One authority in English says that, "in strict logic the colon is to the
sentence in which it is used what the mark of equality is in
mathematics."

+513.+ The colon is used before a formal list of items. For example:

  Economics has three important divisions: production, distribution,
  consumption.

+514.+ The colon is used after a salutation at the beginning of a
letter. For example: _Dear Sir:_ _Gentlemen:_ _Comrades:_

In such cases the dash is also frequently used with the colon. For
example: _My dear Sir:--_ _Gentlemen:--_ _Comrades:--_

+515.+ The colon is more often used instead of the semi-colon after such
expressions as, _thus:_ _as follows:_ _the following:_ _for example:_
etc.

The colon is also used to separate a series of sentences which are
explanatory of the main clause. For example:

  The People's College has two great aims: the first is to bring
  education within the reach of every worker; the second is to teach
  from the viewpoint of the working class.
  We were advised to proceed thus: first, to be systematic in our work;
  second, to concentrate; third, to go slowly and surely; and last of
  all, to think for ourselves.


                    RULES FOR THE USE OF THE PERIOD

+516.+ +The period is a mark of punctuation that denotes the completion
of a sentence.+

+517.+ The period is used at the close of all assertive and imperative
sentences. For example:

  There is talk of peace but preparation for war.
  Claim your own at any hazard.

+518.+ The period is used after all initials and all abbreviations, as
for example: E. V. Debs; T. P. O'Connor; Mr., Dr., Co., Mass., N. Y., C.
O. D., F. O. B., U. S. A., etc.

+519.+ The period is used to separate whole numbers and decimal numbers.
For example: 3.1416 9.342.

A period is used for the decimal point between dollars and cents;
as: $4.50, $2.25, $16.54, $35926.72.

It is also used to separate the various denominations of sterling money,
as: £14. 15s. 6d.

+520.+ The period is used after letters used as numerals or after
figures used to number paragraphs, notes, remarks, questions or any list
of particulars. For example:

The letters which are used to denote sub-heads in the enumeration of
rules as _a. b. c._, etc., also the numerals and letters marking
sections or sub-sections in chapters, as _Chapter 8._ _Paragraph 1._
_Rule 1._ _Page 4._ _Volume 2._ _Paragraph 3._ _P. 16._

+521.+ The period is also used after headings and titles, after dates
and signatures to letters and other documents; also at the close of the
address at the beginning of a letter, and of the name at the close of
the letter; also after the last item in the direction of an envelope or
package.


                    Exercise 2

In the following quotations place the commas, semi-colons, colons and
periods in their proper places, and be able to give a reason for what
you do:

  The man who stabs his brother to death is a criminal and is hanged the
  general who under a flag slays a regiment is a hero and is decorated
  with a cross

  The most thrilling oratory the most powerful and impressive eloquence
  is the voice of the disinherited the oppressed the suffering and the
  submerged it is the voice of poverty and misery of wretchedness and
  despair it is the voice of humanity crying to the infinite it is the
  voice that resounds throughout the earth and reaches heaven it is the
  voice that wakens the conscience of the race and proclaims the truths
  that fill the world with life liberty and love

  The number of lives lost in the great wars of the world have been as
  follows Napoleonic wars 1900000 our Civil War 656000 Franco-German War
  290000 Boer War 90898 Russo-Japanese 555900 and in the present
  world-war untold millions

  Walt Whitman who represents individualism at its best writes "I sing
  the song of myself" To this the Socialist replies "Inasmuch as my
  redemption is bound up in that of my class I sing the song of my
  class"

  We believe with John Ruskin "whether there be one God or three no God
  or ten thousand children should be fed and their bodies should be kept
  clean"

  My dear Mr Smith Your letter of the 15th has been received

  Through the dreams of all the ages rings the voice of labor beginning
  as a murmur growing in volume and grandeur as it rolls round the world
  And this is the burden of its message By the sweat of no other's brow
  shalt thou eat bread

  The sun of the new world is rising it is rising out of the solidarity
  of the working class Its rays of light are bursting through the dark
  horizon which ignorance and deceit have so long riveted upon us It is
  lighting up the faces of a new order of men and women supermen and
  women men and women not discouraged by defeat god-like men and women
  who have found the secret springs of life and are already drinking
  deep and glorious draughts men and women who are standing erect and
  whose joined hands encircle the world men and women who see the
  world's wretchedness and the world's poverty and are ready to throw
  away their lives with a song on their lips that such things shall not
  be


                    Exercise 3

Note the punctuation in the following poem and determine for yourself,
in accordance with the rules we have studied, why the commas,
semi-colons, colons and periods are used as they are:

                    JOHN BROWN

            States are not great
            Except as man may make them;
    Men are not great except they do and dare.
            But States, like men,
            Have destinies that take them--
    That bear them on, not knowing why or where.

            The _why_ repels
            The philosophic searcher--
    The _why_ and _where_ all questionings defy,
            Until we find,
            Far back in youthful nurture,
    Prophetic facts that constitute the _why_.

            All merit comes
            From braving the unequal;
    All glory comes from daring to begin.
            Fame loves the State
            That, reckless of the sequel,
    Fights long and well, whether it lose or win.

       *       *       *       *       *

            And there is one
            Whose faith, whose fight, whose failing,
    Fame shall placard upon the walls of time.
            He dared begin--
            Despite the unavailing,
    He dared begin, when failure was a crime.

            When over Africa
            Some future cycle
    Shall sweep the lake-gemmed uplands with its surge;
            When, as with trumpet
            Of Archangel Michael,
    Culture shall bid a colored race emerge;

       *       *       *       *       *

            From boulevards
            O'erlooking both Nyanzas,
    The statured bronze shall glitter in the sun,
            With rugged lettering:
            "JOHN BROWN OF KANSAS:
              HE DARED BEGIN;
                HE LOST,
            BUT, LOSING, WON."

                                        --_Eugene Ware_.



                    SPELLING

                    LESSON 29


Last week we studied words which had the same, or nearly the same,
meaning. There is always a slight distinction in the meaning of words,
but some of them are so nearly the same that it makes very little
difference which word we use. Some writers, however, are very careful
and spend a great deal of time in the selection of just the right word
to express their meaning.

Robert Louis Stevenson once said a good writer would wait half a day in
order to secure the best word to convey a certain idea.

A very amusing story is told of Thomas Carlyle, who was very careful to
use words expressing just the shade of meaning which he desired to
express. He had a habit of writing in a note book these words as they
occurred to him, so he would have them for ready reference and use. One
day he had searched all day for a certain word which eluded him.
Suddenly in the middle of the night he wakened with the word flashing in
his mind. He wanted to write it down immediately lest he should forget
it in the morning, but it was cold and he dreaded getting up in the cold
to secure his note book so he nudged Jeanie, his wife, and said:
"Jeanie, Jeanie, get up! I have thought of a good word, and I want you
to write it down." Now it was equally cold for Jeanie, so Jeanie nudged
Thomas and said: "Thomas, Thomas, get up yourself. I have thought of a
bad one!"

Nevertheless, it is a good idea when these good words occur to you to
write them down. Possibly to save trouble, you had better write them for
yourself!

But in addition to words which have the same meaning, or almost the same
meaning, there are also words which express just the opposite meaning,
and it is well for us to be master of these words also.

+These words which express opposite meaning are called antonyms.+ Words
and their antonyms are given in this week's spelling lesson in the words
for the first three days' study. For the last three days, words only are
given. Look these words up in your dictionary and determine upon the
most suitable antonyms.

  +Monday+

    Legal
    Illegal

    Artificial
    Natural

    Assert
    Deny

  +Tuesday+

    Civilized
    Barbarous

    Courage
    Cowardice

    Active
    Passive

  +Wednesday+

    Initial
    Final

    Temporary
    Permanent

    History
    Legend

  +Thursday+

    Addition
    Cleverness
    Assured
    Genuine
    Acquit
    Increase

  +Friday+

    Affection
    Composure
    Enlarge
    Anxious
    Prompt
    Discord

  +Saturday+

    Succeed
    Describe
    Winning
    Wasteful
    Superficial
    Grieve

Write the proper word in the following blanks:

  PATIENTS or PATIENCE

  The Doctor has many.......
  We have no......with stupidity.

  NEGLIGENCE or NEGLECT

  The accident was due to the......of the employer.
  He has been guilty of......of his family for he was injured by the
  criminal......of the Railroad Company.

  OBSERVANCE or OBSERVATION

  The troops were concealed from.......
  Trade Unions never fail in the......of Labor Day.
  A man's own......will guide him in the......of all good customs.

  RELATIVES or RELATIONS

  Taft and Roosevelt did not always have pleasant......with each other.
  He has gone to visit his.......
  We do not always have pleasant......with our.......

  SECTS or SEX

  There are many religious.......
  Woman is refused the ballot because of her.......

  STATUE or STATUTE

  The law was placed upon the......books.
  The world will sometime erect a......to the man of the people.

Do not fear to be thought a "high-brow" if you use these words in your
every day speech. The very people who may laugh are in their hearts
admiring you, and are, in all probability, envious. The man who has
accused another of being a "high-brow" has by that very act, admitted
his own inferiority.

Demand the best for yourself in words, as in everything else.



                    PLAIN ENGLISH

                    LESSON 30


Dear Comrade:

With this lesson we are finishing this course in Plain English. We have
covered a great deal of ground and have studied the essentials of
grammar. We have tried, as far as possible, to avoid the stupid conning
of rules or learning by rote. We have attempted at least to make the
reason and necessity for every rule apparent before the rule was stated.

We have also tried to weave into the lessons something of the romance of
language, for language is a romance; in its growth is written the epic
of the race. Our words portray the struggle of man from savage to sage.
So, feeble as our efforts in this regard may have been, we trust that
you have enjoyed and profited by this course and have caught a new
vision of life. Most of us are forced so inexorably into the bitter
struggle for existence that we have little time or opportunity to catch
much of the beauty of life. That is the curse of a society that dooms
its citizens to weary, toil-burdened lives, robbed of the joy and beauty
of living.

Yet, if we know how to read we can always have access to books and
through them we can escape the sordidness and ugliness of the life in
which we are compelled to live and spend at least a little time each day
in the company of great souls who speak to us from the printed page. The
quotations in these lessons have been taken from these great writers.

Will you not pursue the acquaintanceship and become real friends with
these men and women? Above all things they will bring you into the
atmosphere of liberty and of freedom. For throughout all the pain of the
struggle of the past and of the present, there has been the fight of man
for freedom. We have gained the mastery over nature. Wild animals, which
were a constant menace to savage man, have been destroyed. We have been
freed from fear and superstition by the discovery of the laws of nature.
With the invention of the machine, man has increased his ability to
provide the essentials of life,--food, clothing and shelter--a
thousandfold. The past has seen revolution after revolution in the
struggle for mastery.

We now stand on the threshold of another great revolution when man shall
master the machines which he has invented and shall cease serving them
and make them serve him. His increased facilities for food-getting and
shelter-getting shall be made to serve all mankind. We have a part to
play in that great revolution.

Whatever you may have gained from the study of this course; what
increased facility of understanding or of expression may have come to
you; may it be not only for the service of yourself but also for the
service of the revolution that shall bring the worker into his own.

                    Yours for Education,

                              THE PEOPLE'S COLLEGE.


                    THE ETERNAL WHY

+522.+ There is no more important mark of punctuation than the
Interrogation Point. Asking questions is the foundation and beginning of
all wisdom. Progress is based upon the eternal _Why_. If men had always
been satisfied with the knowledge of their age and had not continually
asked questions which they set themselves to answer, we would still be
living in caves or dwelling in trees.

The natural child, that is, the child whose will has not been broken, is
an animated Interrogation Point. He is full of questions. He wants to
know _why_ this and _why_ that. This is a most natural trait and one
that should not be destroyed. It may sadly interfere sometimes with the
things that we wish to do, to stop and answer the child's questions as
to why cats have tails or who made the world and what did he stand on
while he was doing it; but it is decidedly important that some one
should answer these questions which the child asks, in a manner to
satisfy its present craving for knowledge. The fact that this trait has
been quenched in so many children by the impatient grown-ups explains
their stupidity in later years. Encourage every child to ask questions.
Encourage it also to be persistent until it finds somewhere the answer
to its questions.

Cultivate also this trait yourself. Do not accept a thing simply because
some one says it is so. Insist upon knowing for yourself. This is the
secret of progress, that we should think for ourselves, investigate for
ourselves and not fear to face the facts of life or to express our own
ideas. The wise man does not accept a thing because it is old nor does
he reject it because it is new. He inquires, demands, reasons and
satisfies himself as to the merit of the question. So the Interrogation
Point in the written language of man has a tremendous meaning. It stands
for the open and inquiring mind; for the courage that dares question all
things and seek the truth.


                    THE INTERROGATION POINT

+523.+ An Interrogation Point should be placed after every direct
question.

A direct question is one that can be answered. An indirect question is
one that cannot be answered. If I say, _Why do you not study?_, I am
asking a direct question to which you can give an answer; but if I say,
_I wonder why you do not study_, I have asked an indirect question which
does not require a direct answer.

  Why do you not go? (_Direct_)
  He asked why you did not go. (_Indirect_)

+524.+ When an interrogative clause is repeated in the body of another
sentence, use the interrogation point after the clause, and begin the
clause with a capital letter. For example:

  The question, _Shall we be involved in war?_, should be settled by
  the people.


                    THE EXCLAMATION POINT

+525.+ The exclamation point should be placed after words, phrases or
sentences that express strong emotion. For example:

  Oh! When shall peace reign again?
  Alas! I am undone!
  To the firing line! the battle rages!

+526.+ Ordinarily the exclamation point is placed immediately after the
interjection or word used as an interjection, but frequently when the
strong emotion continues throughout the expression, the exclamation
point is placed at the close of the sentence instead of after the
interjection, even though the interjection comes first in the sentence.
For example:

  On, Comrades, on!
  Charge, Chester, charge!


                    THE DASH

+527.+ The dash is a much abused punctuation mark. A great many writers
who are not familiar with the rules of punctuation use a dash whenever
they feel the need of some sort of a punctuation mark. Their rule seems
to be, "whenever you pause make a dash." Punctuation marks indicate
pauses but a dash should not be used upon every occasion. The dash
should not be used as a substitute for the comma, semi-colon, colon,
etc. In reality, the dash should be used only when these marks cannot be
correctly used.

+528.+ The chief use of the dash is to indicate a sudden break in the
thought or a sudden change in the construction of the sentence. For
example:

  In the next place--but I cannot discuss the matter further under the
  circumstances.

+529.+ The dash is frequently used to set a parenthetical expression off
from the rest of the sentence when it has not as close connection with
the sentence as would be indicated by commas. As for example:


  The contention may be true--although I do not believe it--that this
  sort of training is necessary.

+530.+ The dash is also used in place of commas to denote a longer or
more expressive pause. For example:

  The man sank--then rose--then sank again.

+531.+ The dash is often used after an enumeration of several items as a
summing up. For example:

  Production, distribution, consumption--all are a part of economics.

+532.+ A dash is often used when a word or phrase is repeated for
emphasis. For example:

  Is there universal education--education for every child beneath the
  flag? It is not for the masses of the children--not for the children
  of the masses.

+533.+ If the parenthetical statements within dashes require punctuation
marks, this mark should be placed before the second dash. For example:

  War for defense--and was there ever a war that was not for
  defense?--was permitted by the International.
  This sight--what a wonderful sight it was!--greeted our eyes with the
  dawn.

+534.+ The dash is also used to indicate the omission of a word,
especially such words as _as_, _namely_, _viz._, etc. For example:

  Society is divided into two classes--the exploited and the exploiting
  classes.

+535.+ After a quotation, use the dash before the name of the author.
For example:

  Life only avails, not the having lived.--_Emerson_.

+536.+ The dash is used to mark the omission of letters or figures. For
example:

  It happened in the city of M--.
  It was in the year 18--.


                    PARENTHESIS

+537.+ In our study of the comma and the dash we have found that
parenthetical statements are set off from the rest of the sentence
sometimes by a comma and sometimes by a dash. When the connection with
the rest of the sentence is close, and yet the words are thrown in in a
parenthetical way, commas are used to separate the parenthetical
statement from the rest of the sentence.

+538.+ When the connection is not quite so close, the dash is used
instead of the comma to indicate the fact that this statement is thrown
in by way of explanation or additional statement. But when we use
explanatory words or parenthetical statements that have little or no
connection with the rest of the sentence, these phrases or clauses are
separated from the rest of the sentences by the parenthesis.

+539.+ +GENERAL RULE:--Marks of parenthesis are used to set off
expressions that have no vital connection with the rest of the
sentence.+ For example:

  Ignorance (and why should we hesitate to acknowledge it?) keeps us
  enslaved.
  Education (and this is a point that needs continual emphasis) is the
  foundation of all progress.


                    THE PUNCTUATION OF THE PARENTHESIS

+540.+ If the parenthetical statement asks a question or voices an
exclamation, it should be followed by the interrogation point or the
exclamation point, within the parenthesis. For example:

  We are all of us (who can deny it?) partial to our own failings.
  The lecturer (and what a marvelous orator he is!) held the audience
  spellbound for hours.


                    OTHER USES OF THE PARENTHESIS

+541.+ An Interrogation Point is oftentimes placed within a parenthesis
in the body of a sentence to express doubt or uncertainty as to the
accuracy of our statement. For example:

  In 1858 (?) this great movement was started.
  John (?) Smith was the next witness.

+542.+ The parenthesis is used to include numerals or letters in the
enumeration of particulars. For example:

  Economics deals with (1) production, (2) distribution,
  (3) consumption.
  There are three sub-heads; (a) grammar, (b) rhetoric, (c) composition.

+543.+ Marks of parenthesis are used to inclose an amount or number
written in figures when it is also written in words, as:

  We will need forty (40) machines in addition to those we now have.
  Enclosed find Forty Dollars ($40.00) to apply on account.


                    THE BRACKET

+544.+ The bracket [] indicates that the word or words included in the
bracket are not in the original discourse.

+545.+ The bracket is generally used by editors in supplying missing
words, dates and the like, and for corrections, additions and
explanations. For example:

  This rule usually applies though there are some exceptions. [See Note
  3, Rule 1, Page 67].

+546.+ All interpretations, notes, corrections and explanations, which
introduce words or phrases not used by the author himself, should be
enclosed in brackets.

+547.+ Brackets are also used for a parenthesis within a parenthesis. If
we wish to introduce a parenthetical statement within a parenthetical
statement this should be enclosed in a bracket. For example:

  He admits that this fact (the same fact which the previous witness
  [Mr. James E. Smith] had denied) was only partially true.


                    QUOTATION MARKS

+548.+ Quotation marks are used to show that the words enclosed by them
are the exact words of the writer or speaker.

+549.+ A direct quotation is always enclosed in quotation marks. For
example:

  He remarked, "I believe it to be true."

But an indirect quotation is not enclosed in quotation marks. For
example:

  He remarked that he believed it was true.

+550.+ When the name of an author is given at the close of a quotation
it is not necessary to use the quotation marks. For example:

  All courage comes from braving the unequal.--_Eugene F. Ware_.

When the name of the author precedes the quotation, the marks are used,
as in the following:

  It was Eugene F. Ware who said, "Men are not great except they do and
  dare."

+551.+ When we are referring to titles of books, magazines or
newspapers, or words and phrases used in illustration, we enclose them
in quotation marks, unless they are written in italics. For example:

  "Whitman's Leaves of Grass" or _Whitman's Leaves of Grass_. "The New
  York Call" or _The New York Call_. The word "book" is a noun, or, The
  word _book_ is a noun.


                    THE QUOTATION WITHIN A QUOTATION

+552.+ When a quotation is contained within another, the included
quotation should be enclosed by single quotation marks and the entire
quotation enclosed by the usual marks. For example:

  He began by saying, "The last words of Ferrer, 'Long live the modern
  school' might serve as the text for this lecture."
  The speaker replied, "It was Karl Marx who said, 'Government always
  belongs to those who control the wealth of the country.'"

You will note in this sentence that the quotation within the quotation
occurs at the end of the sentence so there are three apostrophes used
after it, the single apostrophe to indicate the included quotation and
the double apostrophe which follows the entire quotation.


                    PUNCTUATION WITH QUOTATION MARKS

+553.+ Marks of punctuation are (except the interrogation point and the
exclamation point which are explained later) placed inside the quotation
marks. For example:

  A wise man said, "Know thyself."

Notice that the period is placed after the word _thyself_ and is
followed by the quotation marks.

  "We can easily rout the enemy," declared the speaker.

Notice that the comma is placed after _enemy_, and before the quotation
marks.

+554.+ The Interrogation Point and the Exclamation Point are placed
within the quotation marks if they refer _only_ to the words quoted, but
if they belong to the entire sentence they should be placed outside the
quotation marks. For example:

  He said, "Will you come now?"
  Did he say, "Will you come now"?
  He said, "What a beautiful night!"
  How wonderfully inspiring is Walt Whitman's poem, "The Song of the
  Open Road"!

+555.+ Sometimes parenthetical or explanatory words are inserted within
a quotation. These words should be set off by commas, and both parts of
the quotation enclosed in quotation marks. For example:

  "I am aware," he said, "that you do not agree with me."
  "But why," the speaker was asked, "should you make such a statement?"
  "I do not believe," he replied, "that you have understood me."


                    THE APOSTROPHE

+556.+ The apostrophe is used to indicate the omission of letters or
syllables, as: _He doesn't_, instead of _does not_; _We're_, instead of
_we are_; _I'm_, instead of _I am_; _ it's_, instead of _it is_;
_ne'er_, instead of _never_; _they'll_, instead of _they will_, etc.

+557.+ The apostrophe is also used to denote possession. In the single
form of the nouns it precedes the _s_. In the plural form of nouns
ending in _s_ it follows the _s_. For example:

  Boy's, man's, girl's, king's, friend's, etc.
  Boys', men's, girls', kings', friends', etc.

Note that the apostrophe is not used with the possessive pronouns
_ours_, _yours_, _its_, _theirs_, _hers_.

+558.+ The apostrophe is used to indicate the plural of letters, figures
or signs. For example:

  Dot your _i's_ and cross your _t's_.
  He seems unable to learn the table of 8's and 9's.
  Do not make your _n's_ and _u's_ so much alike.

+559.+ The apostrophe is used to mark the omission of the century in
dates, as: '87 instead of 1887, '15 instead of 1915.


                    THE HYPHEN

+560.+ The hyphen is used between the parts of a compound word or at the
end of a line to indicate that a word is divided. We have so many
compound words in our language which we have used so often that we have
almost forgotten that they were compound words so it is not always easy
to decide whether the hyphen belongs in a word or not. As, for example;
we find such words as _schoolhouse_, _bookkeeper_, _railway_ and many
others which are, in reality, compound words and in the beginning were
written with the hyphen. We have used them so frequently and their use
as compound words has become so commonplace, that we no longer use the
hyphen in writing them. Yet frequently you will find them written with
the hyphen by some careful writer.

+561.+ As a general rule the parts of all words which are made by
uniting two or more words into one should be joined by hyphens, as:

  Men-of-war, knee-deep, half-hearted, full-grown, mother-in-law, etc.

+562.+ The numerals expressing a compound number should be united by a
hyphen, as; _forty-two_, _twenty-seven_, _thirty-nine_, etc.

+563.+ When the word _self_ is used with an adverb, a noun or an
adjective, it is always connected by the hyphen, as; _self-confidence_,
_self-confident_, _self-confidently_, _self-command_, _self-assertive_,
_self-asserting_, etc.

+564.+ When the word _fold_ is added to a number of more than one
syllable, the hyphen is always used, as; _thirty-fold_, _forty-fold_,
_fifty-fold_, etc. If the numeral has but one syllable, do not use the
hyphen, as; _twofold_, _threefold_, _fourfold_, etc.

+565.+ When fractions are written in words instead of figures always use
the hyphen, as; _one-half_, _one-fourth_, _three-sevenths_,
_nine-twelfths_, etc.

+566.+ The words _half_ and _quarter_, when used with any word, should
be connected by a hyphen, as; _half-dollar_, _quarter-pound_,
_half-skilled_, _half-barbaric_, _half-civilized_, _half-dead_,
_half-spent_, etc.

+567.+ Sometimes we coin a phrase for temporary use in which the words
are connected by the hyphen. For example:

  It was a never-to-be-forgotten day.
  He wore a sort of I-told-you-so air.
  They were fresh-from-the-pen copies.


                    ADDITIONAL MARKS OF PUNCTUATION

There are a few other marks of punctuation which we do not often use in
writing but which we find on the printed page. It is well for us to know
the meaning of these marks.

+568.+ The caret (^) is used to mark the omission of a letter or word or
a number of words. The omitted part is generally written above, and the
caret shows where it should be inserted. For example:

                               s
  I cannot give you this permis ion.
                               ^
             received
  I have just a letter from him.
             ^

  Please write your matriculation number on all examination
      and all letters
  papers sent in to the College.
        ^

The above examples illustrate the use of the caret with the omission of
a letter, a word or phrase.

+569.+ If a letter or manuscript is not too long, it should always be
rewritten and the omissions properly inserted. Occasionally, however, we
are in a hurry and our time is too limited to rewrite an entire letter
because of the omission of a single letter or word so we can insert it
by the use of the caret. If, however, there are many mistakes, the
letter or paper should be rewritten, for the too frequent use of the
caret indicates carelessness in writing and does not produce a favorable
impression upon the recipient of your letter or manuscript.


                    MARKS OF ELLIPSIS

+570.+ Sometimes a long dash (--------) or succession of asterisks (* *
* * * *) or of points (. . . . . .) is used to indicate the omission of
a portion of a sentence or a discourse. In printed matter usually the
asterisks are used to indicate an omission. In typewritten matter
usually a succession of points is used to indicate an omission. In
writing, these are difficult to make and the omission of the portion of
material is usually indicated by a succession of short dashes (-- -- --
--).


                    MARKS OF REFERENCE

+571.+ On the printed page you will often find the asterisk (*), or the
dagger, ([Symbol: dagger]), the section (§), or parallel lines (||),
used to call your attention to some note or remark written at the close
of the paragraph or on the margin, at the bottom of the page or the end
of the chapter. It is advisable to hunt these up as soon as you come to
the mark which indicates their presence, for they usually contain some
matter which explains or adds to the meaning of the sentence which you
have just finished reading.


                    Exercise 1

In the following exercise, note the various marks of punctuation and
determine why each one is used:


                    THE MARSEILLAISE

    Ye sons of toil, awake to glory!
      Hark, hark, what myriads bid you rise;
    Your children, wives and grandsires hoary--
      Behold their tears and hear their cries!
    Shall hateful tyrants, mischief breeding,
      With hireling hosts, a ruffian band,--
      Affright and desolate the land,
    While peace and liberty lie bleeding?

    CHORUS

      To arms! to arms! ye brave!
        Th' avenging sword unsheathe!
      March on, march on, all hearts resolved
        On Victory or Death.

    With luxury and pride surrounded,
      The vile, insatiate despots dare,
    Their thirst for gold and power unbounded,
      To mete and vend the light and air;
    Like beasts of burden would they load us,
      Like gods would bid their slaves adore,
    But Man is Man, and who is more?
      Then shall they longer lash and goad us? (CHORUS)

    O Liberty! can man resign thee,
      Once having felt thy generous flame?
    Can dungeons' bolts and bars confine thee,
      Or whip thy noble spirit tame?
    Too long the world has wept bewailing,
      That Falsehood's dagger tyrants wield;
      But Freedom is our sword and shield,
    And all their arts are unavailing! (CHORUS)

                                        --_Rouget de Lisle_.


                    THUS SPAKE ZARATHUSTRA

  I teach ye the Over-man. The man is something who shall be overcome.
  What have ye done to overcome him?

  All being before this made something beyond itself: and you will be
  the ebb of this great flood, and rather go back to the beast than
  overcome the man?

  What is the ape to the man? A mockery or a painful shame. And even so
  shall man be to the Over-man: a mockery or a painful shame.

  Man is a cord, tied between Beast and Over-man--a cord above an abyss.

  A perilous arriving, a perilous traveling, a perilous looking
  backward, a perilous trembling and standing still.

  What is great in man is that he is a bridge, and no goal; what can be
  loved in man is that he is a going-over and a going-under.

  I love them that know how to live, be it even as those going under,
  for such are those going across.

  I love them that are great in scorn, because these are they that are
  great in reverence, and arrows of longing toward the other
  shore!--_Nietzsche_.



                    SPELLING

                    LESSON 30

There are a great many words in English which are frequently
mispronounced; the accent is placed upon the wrong syllable; for
example, _thea'ter_ instead of _the'ater_; the wrong sound is given to
the vowel, for example, _hearth_ is pronounced _hurth_. Sometimes, too,
an extra letter is added in the pronunciation; for example, _once_ is
often pronounced as though it were spelled _wunst_.

The following is a list of common words that are frequently
mispronounced, and there are many others which you may add to this list
as they occur to you. Look up the correct pronunciation in the
dictionary and pronounce them many times aloud.

In the second column in this list is given the incorrect pronunciation,
which we often hear.

  Acoustics    a-cow-stics
  Aeroplane    air-e-o-plane
  Apron        a-pron
  Athlete      ath-a-lete
  Autopsy      au-top'-sy
  Awkward      awk-ard
  Column       col-yum
  Coupon       coo-pon
  Deficit      de-fic'it
  Diphtheria   dip-ther-y
  Economic     ee'co-nom-ic
  Errand       ur-rant
  Faucet       fos-set
  Figure       fig-ger
  Film         fill-um
  Finance      fi'nance
  Guardian     guar-deen'
  Height       heighth
  Hostile      hos-tile'
  Hundred      hund'erd
  Idea         i-dee'
  Inaugurate   in-aug-er-ate
  Inquiry      in'qui-ry
  Inventory    in-ven'-to-ry
  Length       lenth
  Magazine     mag'-a'zinn
  Mischievous  mis-chie'-vi-ous
  Municipal    mu-ni-cip'-al
  Opponent     op'-ponent
  Overalls     over-hauls
  Rheumatism   rheumatiz
  Stomach      stum-ick
  Twice        twict
  Vaudeville   vaw'de-ville

There are a number of words in English which sound very much alike and
which we are apt to confuse. For example, I heard a man recently say in
a speech that the party to which he belonged had taken slow poison and
now needed an anecdote. It is presumed that he meant that it needed an
antidote. Some one else remarked that a certain individual had not been
expelled but simply expended. He undoubtedly meant that the individual
had been suspended.

This confusion in the use of words detracts from the influence which our
statements would otherwise have. There are a number of words which are
so nearly alike that it is very easy to be confused in the use of them.
In our spelling lesson for this week we have a number of the most common
of these easily confounded words. Add to the list as many others as you
can.

  +Monday+

    Lightening, _to make light_
    Lightning, _an electric flash_
    Prophesy, _to foretell_
    Prophecy, _a prediction_
    Accept, _to take_
    Except, _to leave out_

  +Tuesday+

    Advice, _counsel_
    Advise, _to give counsel_
    Attendants, _servants_
    Attendance, _those present_
    Stationary, _fixed_
    Stationery, _pens_, _paper_, _etc._

  +Wednesday+

    Formerly, _in the past_
    Formally, _in a formal way_
    Addition, _process of adding_
    Edition, _publication_
    Celery, _a vegetable_
    Salary, _wages_

  +Thursday+

    Series, _a succession_
    Serious, _solemn_
    Precedent, _an example_
    President, _chief or head_
    Partition, _a division_
    Petition, _a request_

  +Friday+

    Ingenious, _skillful_
    Ingenuous, _honest_
    Jester, _one who jests_
    Gesture, _action_
    Lose, _to suffer loss_
    Loose, _to untie_

  +Saturday+

    Presence, _nearness_
    Presents, _gifts_
    Veracity, _truthfulness_
    Voracity, _greediness_
    Disease, _illness_
    Decease, _death_


                    THE END AND THE BEGINNING

As we look back over the study of these thirty lessons we find that we
have covered quite a little ground. We have covered the entire field of
English grammar including punctuation. But our study of English must not
conclude with the study of this course. This is simply the foundation
which we have laid for future work. You know when students graduate from
high school or college the graduation is called the Commencement. That
is a peculiarly fitting term, for the gaining of knowledge ought truly
to be the commencement of life for us.

Some one has said that the pursuit of knowledge might be compared to a
man's marriage to a charming, wealthy woman. He pursued and married her
because of her wealth but after marriage found her so charming that he
grew to love her for herself. So we ofttimes pursue wisdom for practical
reasons because we expect it to serve us in the matter of making a
living; because we expect it to make us more efficient workers; to
increase our efficiency to such an extent that we may command a higher
salary, enter a better profession and be more certain of a job.

All this is well; but we often find that after we have pursued wisdom
for these reasons, practical as they are, we have fallen in love with
her for her own sake. We begin to take pleasure in her society; we begin
to want to know things for the sake of knowing them, for the pleasure
that it brings us, quite divorced from any idea of monetary gain.

So while we have urged upon you the study of English because of the
great practical benefit that it will be to you, we trust that you have
also grown to love the study for its own sake.

Make this but the beginning of your work in the study of English.



                    INDEX
              (by Section No.)

  Abbreviations, 486-489

  Absolute Construction, 399

  Adjectives
    Defined, 36
    Classification of, 242-245
    Qualifying, 246
    Limiting, 246
    Descriptive, 248
    Numeral, 249-250
    Demonstrative, 251
    How to discover, 247
    Interrogative, 255
    Indefinite, 256-257
    Used as pronouns, 258-259
    Used as nouns, 261
    Comparison of, 264-271
    Participles used as, 272-274
    Participle phrases used as, 275

  Adverbs
    Defined, 41, 282
    Use of, 279-281
    How to tell, 283
    Classes of, 284
    Interrogative, 285
    Of mode, 286, 397
    Phrase Adverbs, 287
    To Distinguish from Adj, 288-289
    Derivation of, 290
    Nouns used as, 291
    Comparison of, 292-294
    Position of, 295
    With Infinitive, 296
    Common errors in use of, 297-298

  Articles
    A and An, use of, 252-253
    The, use of, 254

  Capital Letters
    Need of, 464
    Uses of, 22, 60, 465
    Rules for, 466-484

  Clauses
    Defined, 406
    Noun, 361-366, 371, 445
    Adjective, 367-372, 446
      With Conjunctions, 376
      Introduced by as, 378
    Adverb, 447
    Dependent, kinds of, 444-447

  Conjunctions
    Defined, 52, 331
    Uses of, 328
    Classes of, 329-330
    Co-ordinate, 332-334
      Uses of, 336-345
    Correlatives, 346
    Subordinate, defined, 349
      Use of, 347
      Classes of, 350-359
    Phrase Conjunctions, 360

  Connective Words
    Classes of, 379
    Uses of, 380-385

  Contractions, 485

  Dictionary, Use of, 4

  Exclamatory Words, 390-391

  Explanatory Words, 398

  Good English, defined, 2

  Grammar, English, defined, 10

  Independent Expressions, 393

  Infinitives
    Use of, 151-167
    To, omitted, 153-155
    Forms of, 156
    Passive, 156-157

  Interjections
    Defined, 57, 388
    Classes of, 389

  Introductory Words, 394-396

  Language
    Defined, 8
    Natural, 5
    Spoken, 6
    Written, 7

  Nouns
    Defined, 26
    Classification of, 59
    Proper, defined, 60
    Common, defined, 60
    Collective, defined, 61
    Abstract, 62-66
    Concrete, 63
    Number, defined, 68
    Number, Singular, 68
    Number, Plural, 68
    Formation of Plural, 69-84
    Formation of Possessive, 89-90, 92
    Compound, 91
    Gender, defined, 85
      Formation of Feminine, 86
      Neuter, 87
      Common, 88

  Object
    Direct, 100, 408-410, 427-430
    Indirect, 408-410

  Participle
    Defined, 116
    Active form, 114
    Present form, 114, 148
    Passive form, 115, 148
    Past form, 115
    Past irregular forms, 124
    Used as nouns, 148
    Used as adjective, 272-274
    Phrase, 149-150
    Phrase used as adjective, 275

  Parts of Speech, 24

  Phrases
    Verb, 29, 413
    Adverbs, 287
    Prepositional, 300-305, 317-321
    Prepositions, 308
    Conjunctions, 360

  Predicate
    Defined, 17
    Complete, 406, 425
    Simple, 406
    Simple Enlarged, 463
    Complement, 411-412
    Modifiers of, 461

  Prepositions
    Defined, 47, 305
    Use of, 309-312
    Object of, 304, 313
    List of, 306
    How to Distinguish from Adverbs, 307
    Phrase prepositions, 308
    Place of, 314-316
    Common errors in use of, 322
    With verbs, 327
    Choice of, 323-326

  Prepositional Phrases, 300-305
    Use of, 317-321

  Pronouns
    Defined, 43, 202
    Antecedent of, 203
    Personal, 204
    Compound personal, 205-208
    Number forms of, 209
    Object forms of, 214-215
    Possessive forms of, 211-213
    Gender forms of, 216
    With verb "be", 217-218
    Agreement of, 219-225
    Personification, 226
    Interrogative, 228-231
    Relative, 232-236
      What, 234, 236-240
      Who, 234, 235, 240
      Which, 234-236, 240
      That, 234-236
      Omitted, 239

  Punctuation
    Need of, 490-493
    Marks of, 494
    The Comma, 495-496
      Rules for use of, 497-506
    The Semi-colon, 407-511
    The Colon, 512-515
    The Period, 22, 516-521
    The Interrogation Point, 22, 523-524
    The Exclamation Point, 22, 525-526
    The Dash, 527-536
    The Parenthesis, 537-543
    The Bracket, 544-547
    The Quotation Marks, 548-555
    The Apostrophe, 556-559
    The Hyphen, 560-567
    The Caret, 568
    Marks of Ellipsis, 570
    Marks of Reference, 571

  Responsives, 392

  Sentence
    Defined, 15
    Essentials of, 18
    Use of, 19
    Assertive, 20
    Interrogative, 20
    Imperative, 20
    Exclamatory, 21
    Elements, order of, 436-438
    Analysis of, 456-457
    Simple, defined, 404-406
      Modifiers of, 434-435
      Essentials of, 459
      Analysis of, 402-405
    Complex, 406, 443, 451
      Analysis of, 448
    Compound, defined, 406, 452
      Kinds of, 453-455
    Building of, 400
    Classification of, 401
    Summary of, 458
    Subject of, 416-420

  Subject
    Defined, 16
    Complete, 406
    Simple, 406
    Simple, enlarged, 462
    Place of, 421-424

  Thought, Complete, 12-14

  Verb
    Defined, 29
    Complete, 95, 103, 131, 158
    Incomplete, 95, 103, 131, 426
    Classified, 99, 103
    Complement of, 95, 102
    Transitive, defined, 100, 103
      Object of, 100, 141
    Copulative, 102-103, 431-433
    Time forms
      Present, 104, 108, 111
      Past, 104, 109, 111
      Future, 118-120
      Pres. Perf., 121-123, 145
      Past Perf., 126
      Future Perf., 128
    Regular, 110
    Irregular, 110
    Progressive Form, 133
      Present, 134, 146
      Past, 135, 146
      Future, 136, 146
      Pres. Perf., 138, 146
      Past Perf., 139, 146
      Fut. Perf., 140, 146
    Active, 142
    Passive, 141-146
    Helping, 168-184
    Be, 186
    Lay, lie, set, sit, raise, rise, 191-193
    S-form, 106, 194-196
    Phrase, 29, 413-414

  Words
    Defined, 8
    Mastery of, 10
    Use of, 23



       *       *       *       *       *



Transcriber's note:

  1. Punctuation errors such as incorrect or missing end-of-sentence
  punctuation, period for comma in mid-sentence, and missing end
  quotation marks have been corrected without comment. Inconsistency
  in the author's spelling of certain words, such as today/to-day have
  been retained.

  2. The list of foreign words broken across pp. 44-45 (section 80.) and
  the list of abbreviations broken across pp. 295-296 (section 489.)
  were rearranged to preserve alphabetical order.

  3. The numbering in Exercise 4 on p. 110 (section 193.) was corrected.

  4. Added ditto marks (") to the table on p. 153 (section 270).

  5. Commas were added to the separate the abbreviations on p. 305
  (section 518).

  6. The following typographical errors were corrected:

  Page
   10  "your vocabularly" changed to "your vocabulary"
   23  "verb-phrase" changed to "verb phrase"
   38  "as limited a vocabularly" changed to "as limited a vocabulary"
   41  "the name of person" changed to "the name of the person"
   44  "Mr. Hays" changed to "Mr. Hayes"
   82  "the Bastile" changed to "the Bastille"
  143  "publiher" changed to "publisher"
  157  "than he had them" changed to "than he had then"
  180  "the noun _man_" changed to "the noun _men_" (two instances)
  182  "a little work" changed to "a little word"
  187  "_of_ the desire of" changed to "of the desire _of_"
  191  "expresed" changed to "expressed"
  207  "He feels keenly and deeply and wrongs of his class." changed
       to "He feels keenly and deeply the wrongs of his class."
  222  "our expression of it become more simple." changed to "our
       expression of it became more simple."
  238  "in apposition to the pronoun I" changed to "in apposition to the
       pronoun We".
  252  "_I_ see a pale face" changed to "_I see_ a pale face"
  265  "With your faces pinches and blue" changed to "with your faces
       pinched and blue"
  271  "the _party which fought for their rights_" changed to "the
       party _which fought for their rights_"
  277  "Find _e_ or _y_" changed to "Final _e_ or _y_"
  287  "The prefix _in_ used with adjectives" changed to "The prefix
       _un_ used with adjectives"
  312  "The dash if often used" changed to "The dash is often used"





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