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Title: A General History of the Pyrates: - from their first rise and settlement in the island of Providence, - to the present time
Author: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A General History of the Pyrates: - from their first rise and settlement in the island of Providence, - to the present time" ***


Their first RISE and SETTLEMENT in the Island of
_Providence_, to the present Time.

With the remarkable Actions and Adventures of the two Female Pyrates
Mary Read and Anne Bonny;

Contain'd in the following Chapters,

Chap. I. Of Capt. _Avery_.
II. Of Capt. _Martel_.
III. Of Capt. _Teach_.
IV. Of Capt. _Bonnet_.
V. Of Capt. _England_.
VI. Of Capt. _Vane_.
VII. Of Capt. _Rackam_.
VIII. Of Capt. _Davis_.
IX. Of Capt. _Roberts_.
X. Of Capt. _Anstis_.
XI. Of Capt. _Worley_.
XII. Of Capt. _Lowther_.
XIII. Of Capt. _Low_.
XIV. Of Capt. _Evans_.
XV. Of Capt. _Phillips_.
XVI. Of Capt. _Spriggs_.
And their several Crews.

To which is added.
A short ABSTRACT of the Statute and Civil
Law, in Relation to Pyracy.

The second EDITION, with considerable ADDITIONS
By Captain Charles Johnson.

Printed for, and sold by _T. Warner_, at the _Black-Boy_ in
_Pater-Noster-Row_, 1724.


H_AVING taken more than ordinary Pains in collecting the Materials
which compose the following History, we could not be satisfied with our
selves, if any Thing were wanting to it, which might render it entirely
satisfactory to the Publick: It is for this Reason we have subjoined to the
Work, a short Abstract of the Laws now in Force against Pyrates, and made
Choice of some particular Cases, (the most curious we could meet with)
which have been heretofore tried, by which it will appear what Actions
have, and what have not been adjudged Pyracy._

_It is possible this Book may fall into the Hands of some Masters of Ships,
and other honest Mariners, who frequently, by contrary Winds or Tempests,
or other Accidents incident to long Voyages, find themselves reduced to
great Distresses, either through Scarcity of Provisions, or Want of Stores.
I say, it may be a Direction to such as those, what Lengths they may
venture to go, without violating the Law of Nations, in Case they should
meet other Ships at Sea, or be cast on some inhospitable Shore, which
should refuse to trade with them for such Things as are absolutely
necessary for the Preservation of their Lives, or the Safety of the Ship
and Cargoe._

_We have given a few Instances in the Course of this History of the
Inducements Men have to engage themselves headlong in a Life of so much
Peril to themselves, and so destructive to the Navigation of the trading
World; to remedy which Evil there seems to be but two Ways, either to find
Employment for the great Numbers of Seamen turn'd adrift at the Conclusion
of a War, and thereby prevent their running into such Undertakings, or to
guard sufficiently the Coast of _Africa_, the _West-Indies_, and other
Places whereto Pyrates resort._

_I cannot but take Notice in this Place, that during this long Peace, I
have not so much as heard of a _Dutch_ Pyrate: It is not that I take them
to be honester than their Neighbours; but when we account for it, it will,
perhaps, be a Reproach to our selves for our want of Industry: The Reason I
take to be, that after a War, when the _Dutch_ Ships are laid up, they have
a Fishery, where their Seamen find immediate Business, and as comfortable
Bread as they had before. Had ours the same Recourse in their Necessities,
I'm certain we should find the same Effect from it; for a Fishery is a
Trade that cannot be overstock'd; the Sea is wide enough for us all, we
need not quarrel for Elbow-room: Its Stores are infinite, and will ever
reward the Labourer. Besides, our own Coast, for the most Part, supply the
_Dutch_, who employ several hundred Sail constantly in the Trade, and so
sell to us our own Fish. I call it our own, for the Sovereignty of the
_British Seas_, are to this Day acknowledged us by the _Dutch_, and all the
neighbouring Nations; wherefore, if there was a publick Spirit among us, it
would be well worth our while to establish a National Fishery, which would
be the best Means in the World to prevent Pyracy, employ a Number of the
Poor, and ease the Nation of a great Burthen, by lowering the Price of
Provision in general, as well as of several other Commodities._

_I need not bring any Proofs of what I advance, _viz._ that there are
Multitudes of Seamen at this Day unemploy'd; it is but too evident by their
straggling, and begging all over the Kingdom. Nor is it so much their
Inclination to Idleness, as their own hard Fate, in being cast off after
their Work is done, to starve or steal. I have not known a Man of War
commission'd for several Years past, but three times her Compliment of Men
have offer'd themselves in _24_ Hours; the Merchants take their Advantage
of this, lessen their Wages, and those few who are in Business are poorly
paid, and but poorly fed; such Usage breeds Discontents amongst them, and
makes them eager for any Change._

_I shall not repeat what I have said in the History concerning the
Privateers of the _West-Indies_, where I have taken Notice they live upon
Spoil; and as Custom is a second Nature, it is no Wonder that, when an
honest Livlyhood is not easily had, they run into one so like their own; so
that it may be said, that Privateers in Time of War are a Nursery for
Pyrates against a Peace._

_Now we have accounted for their Rise and Beginning, it will be natural to
enquire why they are not taken and destroy'd, before they come to any Head,
seeing that they are seldom less than twelve Men of War stationed in our
American Plantations, even in Time of Peace; a Force sufficient to contend
with a powerful Enemy. This Enquiry, perhaps, will not turn much to the
Honour of those concern'd in that Service; however, I hope I may be
excus'd, if what I hint is with a Design of serving the Publick._

_I say, 'tis strange that a few Pyrates should ravage the Seas for Years,
without ever being light upon, by any of our Ships of War; when in the mean
Time, they (the Pyrates) shall take Fleets of Ships; it looks as if one was
much more diligent in their Affairs, than the other. _Roberts_ and his
Crew, alone, took 400 Sail, before he was destroy'd._

_This Matter, I may probably set right another Time, and only observe for
the present, that the Pyrates at Sea, have the same Sagacity with Robbers
at Land; as the latter understand what Roads are most frequented, and where
it is most likely to meet with Booty, so the former know what Latitude to
lie in, in order to intercept Ships; and as the Pyrates happen to be in
want of Provisions, Stores, or any particular Lading, they cruise
accordingly for such Ships, and are morally certain of meeting with them;
and by the same Reason, if the Men of War cruise in those Latitudes, they
might be as sure of finding the Pyrates, as the Pyrates are to find the
Merchant Ships; and if the Pyrates are not to be met with by the Men of War
in such a Latitude, then surely down the same Latitude may the Merchant
Ships arrive safely to their Port._

_To make this a little plainer to my Country Readers, I must observe that
all our outward bound Ships, sometime after they leave the Land, steer into
the Latitude of the Place they are bound to; if to the _West-India_
Islands, or any Part of the Main of _America_, as _New-York_,
_New-England_, _Virginia_, _&c._ because the Latitude is the only Certainty
in those Voyages to be found, and then they sail due West, till they come
to their Port, without altering their Course. In this West Way lie the
Pyrates, whether it be to _Virginia_, _&c._ or _Nevis_, _St. Christophers_,
_Montserat_, _Jamaica_, _&c._ so that if the Merchant Ships bound thither,
do not fall a Prey to them one Day, they must another: Therefore I say, if
the Men of War take the same Track, the Pyrates must unavoidably fall into
their Mouths, or be frighted away, for where the Game is, there will the
Vermin be; if the latter should be the Case, the trading Ships, as I said
before, will pass unmolested and safe, and the Pyrates be reduced to take
Refuge in some of their lurking Holes about the uninhabited Islands, where
their Fate would be like that of the Fox in his Den, if they should venture
out, they would be hunted and taken, and if they stay within they must

_I must observe another Thing, that the Pyrates generally shift their
Rovings, according to the Season of the Year; in the Summer they cruise
mostly along the Coast of the Continent of _America_, but the Winters
there, being a little too cold for them, they follow the Sun, and go
towards the Islands, at the approach of cold Weather. Every Man who has
used the _West-India_ Trade, knows this to be true; therefore, since we are
so well acquainted with all their Motions, I cannot see why our Men of War
under a proper Regulation, may not go to the Southward, instead of lying up
all the Winter useless: But I shall proceed too far in this Enquiry, I
shall therefore quit it, and say something of the following Sheets, which
the Author may venture to assure the Reader that they have one Thing to
recommend them, which is Truth; those Facts which he himself was not an
Eye-Witness of, he had from the authentick Relations of the Persons
concern'd in taking the Pyrates, as well as from the Mouths of the Pyrates
themselves, after they were taken, and he conceives no Man can produce
better Testimonies to support the Credit of any History._

_It will be observed, that the Account of the Actions of _Roberts_ runs
into a greater Length, than that of any other Pyrate, for which we can
assign two Reasons, first, because he ravaged the Seas longer than the
rest, and of Consequence there must be a greater Scene of Business in his
Life: Secondly, being resolved not to weary the Reader, with tiresome
Repetitions: When we found the Circumstances in _Roberts_'s Live, and other
Pyrates, either as to pyratical Articles, or any Thing else, to be the
same, we thought it best to give them but once, and chose _Roberts_'s Life
for that Purpose, he having made more Noise in the World, than some

_As to the Lives of our two female Pyrates, we must confess they may appear
a little Extravagant, yet they are never the less true for seeming so, but
as they were publickly try'd for their Pyracies, there are living Witnesses
enough to justify what we have laid down concerning them; it is certain, we
have produced some Particulars which were not so publickly known, the
Reason is, we were more inquisitive into the Circumstances of their past
Lives, than other People, who had no other Design, than that of gratifying
their own private Curiosity: If there are some Incidents and Turns in their
Stories, which may give them a little the Air of a _Novel_, they are not
invented or contrived for that Purpose, it is a Kind of Reading this Author
is but little acquainted with, but as he himself was exceedingly diverted
with them, when they were related to him, he thought they might have the
same Effect upon the Reader._

_I presume we need make no Apology for giving the Name of a History to the
following Sheets, though they contain nothing but the Actions of a Parcel
of Robbers. It is Bravery and Stratagem in War which make Actions worthy of
Record; in which Sense the Adventures, here related will be thought
deserving that Name. _Plutarch_ is very circumstantial in relating the
Actions of _Spartacus_, the Slave, and makes the Conquest of him, one of
the greatest Glories of _Marcus Crassus_; and it is probable, if this Slave
had liv'd a little longer, _Plutarch_ would have given us his Life at
large. _Rome_, the Misstress of the World, was no more at first than a
Refuge for Thieves and Outlaws; and if the Progress of our Pyrates had been
equal to their Beginning; had they all united, and settled in some of those
Islands, they might, by this Time, have been honoured with the Name of a
Commonwealth, and no Power in those Parts of the World could have been able
to dispute it with them._

_If we have seem'd to glance, with some Freedom, at the Behaviour of some
Governors of Provinces abroad, it has been with Caution; and, perhaps, we
have, not declar'd as much as we knew: However, we hope those Gentlemen in
the same Station, who have never given Occasion for the like Censure, will
take no Offence, tho' the Word Governor is sometimes made use of._

P. S. _It will be necessary to add a Word or two to this Preface, in order
to inform the Reader, that there are several material Additions made to
this second Impression, which swelling the Book in Bulk, must of
Consequence add a small Matter to its Price._

_The first Impression having been received with so much Success by the
Publick, occasioned a very earnest Demand for a second: In the mean Time,
several Persons who had been taken by the Pyrates, as well as others who
had been concerned in taking of them, have been so kind to communicate
several Facts and Circumstances to us, which had escaped us in the first
Impression. This occasioned some Delay, therefore if we have not brought it
out, as soon as wish'd, it was to render it the more compleat._

_We shall not enter into a Detail of all the new Matter inserted here, but
the Description of the Islands _St. Thome_, _&c._ and that of _Brasil_ are
not to be passed by, without a little Notice. It must be observed, that our
speculative Mathematicians and Geographers, who are, no doubt, Men of the
greatest Learning, seldom travel farther than their Closets for their
Knowledge, _&c._ are therefore unqualified to give us a good Description of
Countries: It is for this Reason that all our Maps and Atlasses are so
monstrously faulty, for these Gentlemen are obliged to take their Accounts
from the Reports of illiterate Men._

_It must be noted also, that when the Masters of Ships make Discoveries
this Way, they are not fond of communicating them; a Man's knowing this or
that Coast, better than others, recommends him in his Business, and makes
him more useful, and he'll no more discover it than a Tradesman will the
Mystery of his Trade._

_The Gentleman who has taken the Pains to make these Observations, is _Mr.
Atkins_, a Surgeon, an ingenious Man in his own Profession, and one who is
not ty'd down by any narrow Considerations from doing a Service to the
Publick, and has been pleased generously to communicate them for the good
of others. I don't doubt, but his Observations will be found curious and
very serviceable to such as Trade to those Parts, besides a Method of Trade
is here laid down with the _Portuguese_, which may prove of great Profit to
some of our Countrymen, if followed according to his Plan._

_It is hoped these Things will satisfy the Publick, that the Author of the
following Sheets considered nothing so much as making the Book
useful;--tho' he has been informed, that some Gentlemen have rais'd an
Objection against the Truth of its Contents, _viz._ that it seems
calculated to entertain and divert.--If the Facts are related with some
Agreeableness and Life, we hope it will not be imputed as a Fault; but as
to its Credit, we can assure them that the Sea-faring Men, that is all that
know the Nature of these Things, have not been able to make the least
Objection to its Credit:--And he will be bold to affirm, that there is not
a Fact or Circumstance in the whole Book, but he is able to prove by
credible Witnesses._

_There have been some other Pyrates, besides those whose History are here
related, such as are hereafter named, and their Adventures are as
extravagant and full of Mischief, as those who are the Subject of this
Book.--The Author has already begun to digest them into Method, and as
soon, as he receives some Materials to make them compleat, (which he
shortly expects from the _West-Indies_). If the Publick gives him
Encouragement he intends to venture upon a second Volume._



T_HE Danger of Commonwealths from an Increase of Pyrates_, 17.
_Pyrates in the Times of_ Marius _and_ Sylla, 18. _Takes_ Julius Cæsar, 19.
_The Barbarity of those Pyrates_, ib. _They spare_ Cæsar, _and why_, ib.
_His Behaviour amongst them_, ib. Cæsar _obtains his Liberty for a Ransom_,
ib. _Attacks and takes the Pyrates_, 20. _Hangs them at_ Troy, ib. _They
increase again to a prodigious Strength_, ib. _Plunder at the Gates of_
Rome, 21. _The mock Homage they paid the_ Romans, ib. Pompey _the Great,
appointed General against them_, 22. _A prodigious Fleet and Army assign'd
him_, ib. _His Conduct and good Fortune_, ib, _The Gallantry of those
Pyracies_, 23. _Receive an Overthrow_, ib. Barbarouse, _a Pyrate, his
Beginning_, ib. _His great Strength_, 24. Selim Eutemi, _King of_ Algiers,
_courts his Friendship_, ib. _Makes himself King, and how_, ib. _The King
of_ Tunis _overthrown by him_, ib. _Leaves the Inheritance to his Brother_,
ib. _The_ West-Indies _commodious for Pyrates, and why_, 24, 25. _The
Explanation of the Word_ Keys, 25. _The Pyrates conceal their Booty on
them_, ib. _The Pyrates Security in those Parts_, 26. _The Rise of Pyrates
since the Peace of_ Utrecht _accounted for_, 26, 27. _An Expedition from_
Jamaica, _to plunder the_ Spaniards, 28. _The_ Spaniards _sue for Justice
to the Government of_ Jamaica, ib. _The Plunderers turn Pyrates_, 29. _The_
Spaniards _make Reprisals_, ib. _The Names of Ships taken by them_, ib.
_The plunder'd Seamen join the Pyrates_, ib. Providence _fixed on as a
Place of Retreat by them_, 30. _That Island described_, ib. _The Lords
Address to her late Majesty for securing_ Providence, ib. _An Order of
Council in this Reign to the same Purpose_, 31. _A List of Men of War
employ'd for the Defence of the Plantations_, 32. _Captain_ Woods Rogers
_made Governor of_ Providence, ib. _The King's Proclamation for suppressing
Pyrates_, 33, 34. _How the Pyrates used the Proclamation_, 34. _Great
Divisions amongst them_, 35. _How made quiet_, ib. _Several of the Pyrates
surrender to the Governor of_ Bermudas, ib. _The Fate of the rest_, ib.
Woods Rogers _his Arrival at_ Providence, ib. Vane'_s Behaviour_, 36. Woods
Rogers _employs the pardon'd Pyrates_, ib. _Their Conduct_, ib. _Some of
them hang'd for new Pyracies_, 37. _Their strange Behaviour at the Place of
Execution_, ib. _Some Proceedings betwixt the_ English _and_ Spaniards, 38.
_The_ Spaniards _surprize the_ Greyhound _Man of War, and how_, ib. _Quit
her_, 39. _The Crew of a_ Spanish Guarda del Costa _hang'd at_ Jamaica,
_and why_, ib. _Sir_ Nicholas Laws _his Letter to the_ Alcaldes _of_
Trinidado, 39, 40. _Mr._ Joseph Laws, _Lieutenant of the_ Happy Snow _his
Letter to the_ Alcaldes _of_ Trinidado, 41. _The_ Alcaldes _Answer to the
Lieutenant's Letter_, 41, 42. _The Lieutenant's Reply to the_ Alcaldes
_Answer_, 42, 43. _The_ Alcaldes _Answer again_, 43. _Some Account of_
Richard Holland, ib. _Prizes taken by him_, 44.

CHAP. I. Of Captain AVERY, and his CREW.

R_Omantick Reports of his Greatness_, 45, 46. _His Birth_, 46. _Is
Mate of a_ Bristol _Man_, 47, _For what Voyage design'd_, ib. _Tampers with
the Seamen_, ib. _Forms a Plot for carrying off the Ship_, 47, 48.
_Executes it, and how_, ib. _The Pyrates take a rich Ship belonging to the_
Great Mogul, 50. _The_ Great Mogul _threaten the_ English _Settlements_,
51. _The Pyrates steer their Course back for_ Madagascar, 52. _Call a
Council. Put all the Treasure on Board of_ Avery'_s Ship_, ib. Avery _and
his Crew treacherously leaves his Confederates; go to the Isle of_
Providence _in the_ West-Indies, 53. _Sell the Ship, go to_ North-America
_in a Sloop_, 54. _They disperse_, Avery _goes to_ New-England, ib. _From
thence to_ Ireland, ib. Avery _afraid to expose his Diamonds to sale. Goes
over to_ England, ib. _Puts his Wealth into Merchants Hands, of_ Bristol,
55. _Changes his Name. Lives at_ Biddiford, ib. _The Merchants send him no
Supplies_, ib. _Importunes them. Goes privately to_ Bristol, _they threaten
to discover him_, ib. _Goes over to_ Ireland, _sollicites them from
thence_, 56. _Is very poor, works his Passage over to_ Plymouth, _walks to_
Biddiford. _Dies a Beggar_, ib. _An Account of_ Avery'_s Confederates_, ib.
_Their Settlement at_ Madagascar, 57. _They meet other Pyrates; an Account
of them_, ib. _The Pyrates arrive to great Power. The Inhabitants
described_, 58. _Their Policy, Government_, &c. _Places describ'd_, 59.
_The Arrival of Captain_ Woods Rogers _at that Part of the Island_, 61.
_Their Design of surprizing his Ship_, 62. _One of these Princes formerly a
Waterman on the_ Thames, 63. _Their Secretaries, Men of no Learning. Could
neither write nor read_, ib.

CHAP. II. Of Captain MARTEL, and his CREW.

W_AY to suppress Pyrates_, 64. _The Increase of Pyrates accounted
for_, 65. _Where_ Martel _learned his Trade_, ib. _The Names of several
Prizes taken, by him_, 65, 66, 67. _His Strength at_ Sancta Cruz, 67. _His
Manner of fortifying himself there_, ib. _Is attack'd by the_ Scarborough
_Man of War_, 68. _His defence by Land and Sea_, ib. _His desperate
Escape_, 69. _His miserable End_, ib.


H_IS Beginning_, 70. _His Confederacy with_ Hornygold, ib. _The
Confederacy broke_, 71. _Takes a large_ Guiney _Man_, ib. _Engages the_
Scarborough _Man of War_, ib. _His Alliance with Major_ Stede Bonnet, ib.
_Deposes his new Ally_, ib. _His Advice to the Major_, ib. _His Progress
and Success_, 72. _Takes Prizes in Sight of_ Charles-Town, 73. _Sends
Ambassadors to the Governor of_ Carolina, _upon an impudent Demand_, ib.
_Runs his Ship aground designedly_, 74. _His Cruelty to some of his own
Companions. Surrenders to the King's Proclamation_, 75. _The Governor of_
North-Carolina'_s exceeding Generosity to him_, ib. _He marries_, ib. _The
Number of his Wives then living_, ib. _His conjugal Virtues_, 75, 76.
_Makes a second Excursion in the Way of pyrating_, 76. _Some State
Legerdemain betwixt him and the Governor_, ib. _His modest Behaviour in the
River_, 77. _His Frolicks on Shore_, ib. _The Merchants apply for a Force
against him, and where_, 78. _A Proclamation with a Reward for taking or
killing of Pyrates_, 79, 80. _Lieutenant_ Maynard _sent in pursuit of him_,
80. Black-beard'_s good Intelligence_, 81. _The Lieutenant engages_
Black-beard, ib. _A most execrable Health drank by_ Black-beard 82. _The
Fight bloody; the Particulars of it_, 82, 83, 84. Black-beard _kill'd_, 84.
_His Sloop taken_, ib. _The Lieutenant's Conduct_, 84, 85. _A Reflection on
the Humours of Seamen_, 85. Black-beard'_s Correspondents discover'd by his
Papers_, ib. Black-beard'_s desperate Resolution before the Fight_, ib.
_The Lieutenant and Governor no very good Friends_, 86. _The Prisoners
hang'd_, ib. Samuel Odel _saved, and why_, ib. _The good Luck of_ Israel
Hands, 87. Black-beard'_s mischievous Frolicks_, ib. _His_ Beard
_described_, ib. _Several Instances if his Wickedness_, 88, 89. _Some
Memorandums taken from his Journal_, 89. _The Names of the Pyrates kill'd
in the Engagement_, 90. _Of those executed_, ib. _The Value of the Prize_,

CHAP. IV. Of Major STEDE BONNET, and his CREW.

B_RED a Gentleman_, 91. _Supposed to be disorder'd in his Senses_,
ib. _His Beginning as a Pyrate_, ib. _Takes Prizes_, 92. _Divisions in his
Crew_, ib. _Meets_ Black-beard, ib. _Is deposed from his Command_, 93. _His
melancholy Reflections_, ib. _Surrenders to the King's Proclamation_, ib.
_His new Project_, ib. _Saves some Pyrates marroon'd_, 94. _Begins the old
Trade again_, 95. _An Account of Prizes taken by him_, 95, 96. _Colonel_
Rhet _goes in Quest of Pyrates_, 97. Yates _the Pyrate surrenders_, 98. _An
Engagement betwixt Colonel_ Rhet _and Major_ Bonnet, 100. _An Account of
the kill'd and wounded_, ib. _The Prisoners carried to_ Charles-Town, ib.
_The Major and the Master Escape_, ib. _Taken again by Colonel_ Rhet, 101.
_A Court of Vice-Admiralty held_, ib. _The Names of those arraign'd_, 102,
103. _The Form of their Indictment_, 104. _Their Defence_, 105. _The Names
of those who received Sentence_, 106. _An excellent Speech made by the Lord
Chief Justice on pronouncing Sentence on the Major_, 107 _to_ 112.

CHAP. V. Of Capt. EDW. ENGLAND, and his CREW.

H_IS Beginning and Character_, 113, 114. _A most barbarous Action of
his Crew_, 114, 115. _The Names of Prizes taken by him_, 115, 116. _The
Misfortunes of his Confederates_, 116, 117. England'_s Progress half round
the Globe_, 117, 118. _A short Description of the Coast of_ Malabar, ib.
_What they did at_ Madagascar, 118. _Takes an_ East-India _Man_, ib. _The
Particulars of the Action in Captain_ Mackra'_s Letter_, 119 _to_ 122.
_Captain_ Mackra _ventures on Board the Pyrate_, 122. _Is in Danger of
being murder'd_; 123. _Preserv'd by a pleasant Incident_, ib. _The Pyrates
Generosity to him_, ib. _Captain_ England _deposed, and why_, 124.
_Maroon'd on the Island_ Mauritius, ib. _Some Account of that Island_, ib.
_The Adventures of the Company continued_, 124 _to_ 126. Angria, _an_
Indian _Pyrate_, 127. _his Strength by Land and Sea_, ib. _The_ East-India
_Company's Wars with him_, 127, 128. _The Pyrates go to the Island of_
Melinda, 129. _Their barbarous Behaviour there_, ib. _Hear of Captain_
Mackra'_s Designs against them_, ib. _Their Reflections thereupon_, 130.
_Sail for_ Cochin, _a_ Dutch _Settlement_, ib. _The Pyrates and the_ Dutch
_very good Friends_, 131. _Mutual Presents made betwixt the Pyrates and the
Governor_, ib. _The Pyrates in a Fright_, 133. _Almost starv'd_, ib. _Take
a Prize of an immense Value_, 134. _Take an_ Ostend East-India _Man_, ib.
_A short Description of_ Madagascar, 135, 136. _A prodigious Dividend made
by the Pyrates_, 136. _A Fellow's Way of increasing his Diamonds_, ib.
_Some of the Pyrates quit, and join the Remains of_ Avery, ib. _The
Proceedings of the Men of War in those Parts_, 137, 138. _Some_ Dutch _Men
petition to be among the Pyrates_, 138. _The Pyrates divided in their
Measures_, 139. _Break up_, ib. _What became of them_, 139, 140.

CHAP. VI. Of Capt. CHARLES VANE, and his CREW.

VANE'_s Behaviour at_ Providence, 141. _The Names of Prizes taken by
him_, 141, 142. _Is deserted by his Consort_ Yates, 143. Yates _surrenders
at_ Charles-Town, ib. _A Stratagem of_ Vane'_s_, 144. Black-beard _and_
Vane _meet_, 145. _They salute after the Pyrates Manner_, ib. Vane _deposed
from his Command, and why_, 146. 15 _Hands degraded, and turned out with
him_, ib. _A Sloop given them_, 147. _They sail in Quest of Adventures, and
take Prizes_, ib. Vane _cast away upon an uninhabited Island_, ib. _Meets
with an old Acquaintance_, 148. Vane _seiz'd with a Qualm of Honour_, ib.
_Ships himself on Board a Vessel, passing for another Man_, ib. _Is
discover'd, with the Manner how_, 149. _Carried to_ Jamaica, _and hang'd_,

CHAP. VII. Of Capt. RACKAM, and his CREW.

RACKAM'_s beginning as a Pyrate_, 150, 151. _An Account of Prizes
taken by him_, 151. _Is attack'd by a_ Spanish _Guard Ship_, ib. _His
Stratagem to escape_, 152. _More Prizes taken by him_, 153. _Is taken, and
how_, 154. _Tried, condemned, and executed at_ Jamaica, ib. _The Names of
his Crew condemn'd with him_, 154. _An extraordinary Case of nine taken
with him_, ib. _Some Account of the Proceedings against them_, 154, 155.


MARY Read_'s Birth_, 157. _Reasons for dressing her in Breeches_,
158. _Waits upon a Lady; goes into the Army_, 159. _Her Behaviour in
several Engagements_, ib. _She falls in Love with her Comrade_, ib. _Her
Sex discovered; the two Troopers married_, 160. _Settles at_ Breda, ib.
_Her Husband dies, she reassumes the Breeches_, ib. _Goes to_ Holland. _To
the_ West-Indies, 161. _Turns Pyrate_. Anne Bonny, _another Pyrate, falls
in Love with her_, 162. _Her Adventures to_ 165.


ANNE Bonny _born a Bastard_, 166. _Her Mother's Intrigues strangely
discover'd_, 167. _Her Father lies with his own Wife, by mistake_, 169.
_She proves with Child; the Husband jealous_, 170. _He separates from his
Wife; lives with_ Anne Bonny_'s Mother_, 171. Anne Bonny _put into Breeches
for a Disguise, how discovered_, ib. _The Father becomes poor. Goes to_
Carolina, 172. _Improves his Fortune_. Anne Bonny _marries against his
Consent. Her fierce Temper_, ib. _Goes to_ Providence _with her Husband_,
ib. _Enticed to Sea in Men's Cloaths, by_ Rackam _the Pyrate_, 173.
_Reproaches_ Rackam _with Cowardice at his Execution_, ib.

CHAP. VIII. Of Capt. HOWEL DAVIS, and his Crew.

T_HE Original of_ Davis, 174. _Is taken by the Pyrate_ England, ib.
England_'s Generosity to him_, 175. _Is cast into Prison at_ Barbadoes,
_and why_, ib. _Goes to_ Providence, ib. _Employ'd in a trading Vessel,
seizes the Ship_, 176. _An Instance of his great Courage and good Conduct_,
177, 178. _Goes to_ Cape de Verd Islands, ib. _Take several Prizes_, ib.
_Take the Fort of St._ Jago _by Storm_, 180. _A Council call'd_, ib. _Sail
for_ Gambia, 181. _Takes_ Gambia _Castle by Stratagem_, 181 _to_ 184.
_Meets_ La Bouche, _a_ French _Pyrate_, 184. _His Adventures with_ Cocklyn
_the Pyrate, at_ Sierraleone, 185. _The Fort attack'd and taken, by three
Confederate Pyrates_, 186. _The Pyrates quarrel and part_, ib. _The
laconick Speech of_ Davis _to them_, ib. _His fierce Engagement with a
large_ Dutch _Ship_, 187. _An Account of several Prizes taken by him_, ib.
_A Description of the Island of St._ Thome, Del Principe, _and_ Annobono,
_from_ 188 _to_ 204. _The_ Dutch _Governor of_ Acra _taken by_ Davis, 205.
Davis _well received by the Governor of_ Princes, ib. _His Stratagem to
come at the Wealth of the Island_, 206. _Is counterplotted and kill'd, by
an Ambuscade_, 207.

CHAP. IX. Of Capt. BAR. ROBERTS, and his CREW.

H_IS Beginning_, 208. _Elected Captain in the Room of_ Davis, 209.
_The Speech of Lord_ Dennis _at the Election_, ib. _Lord_ Sympson _objects
against a Papist_, ib. _The Death of_ Davis _reveng'd_, 210. Roberts _sails
Southward, in Quest of Adventures_, 211. _The Names of the Prizes taken by
them_, ib. Brasil _describ'd, from_ 211 _to_ 221. Roberts _falls into a
Fleet of_ Portuguese, 221. _Boards and takes the richest Ship amongst
them_, 222. _Make the_ Devil_'s Islands_, 223. _An unfortunate Adventure
of_ Roberts, 224. Kennedy_'s Treachery_, 225. Irishmen _excluded by_
Roberts _and his Crew_, 230. _Articles sworn to by them_, ib. _A Copy of
them from_, 230 _to_ 233. _Some Account of the Laws and Customs of the
Pyrates_, 233, 234. _An Instance of_ Roberts _his Cunning_, 234. _He
proceeds again upon Business, and takes Prizes_, 235. _Narrowly escapes
being taken_, 236. _Sails for the Island_ Dominico, ib. _Another Escape_,
237. _Sails for_ Newfoundland, ib. _Plunders, sinks and burns_ 22 _Sail in
the Harbour of_ Trepassi, ib. _Plunders ten Sail of_ French _Men_, 238.
_The mad Behaviour of the Crew_, 238, 239. _A Correspondence hinted at_,
240. _The Pyrates caress'd at the Island of St._ Bartholomew, ib. _In
extream Distress_, 241, 242. _Sail for_ Martinico, 243. _A Stratagem of_
Roberts, ib. _The insolent Device in his Colours_, 244. _And odd Compliment
paid to_ Roberts, ib. _Three Men desert the Pyrates, and are taken by
them_, 245. _Their Tryal_, 245, 246. _Two executed, and one saved_, 247.
_The Brigantine deserts them_, 248. _Great Divisions in the Company_, 248,
249. _A Description of_ Sierraleone _River_, 250. _The Names of_ English
_settled there, and Way of Life_, 251, 252, 253. _The_ Onslow, _belonging
to the_ African _Company taken_, 254. _The Pyrates Contempt of Soldiers_,
ib. _They are for entertaining a Chaplain_, ib. _Their Skirmish with the_
Calabar _Negroes_, 256. _The_ King Solomon, _belonging to the_ African
_Company, taken_, 258. _The Frolicks of the Pyrates_, ib. _Take eleven Sail
in_ Whydah _Road_, 259. _A comical Receipt given by the Pyrates_, 260. _A
cruel Action of_ Roberts, 261. _Sails for_ Anna Bona, 262. _The Progress of
the_ Swallow _Man of War, in Pursuit of_ Roberts, _from_ 262 _to_ 267.
Roberts _his Consort taken_, 267. _The Bravery of_ Skyrme, _a_ Welch
_Pyrate_, 268. _The surly Humour of some of the Prisoners_, 268, 269. _The_
Swallow _comes up with_ Roberts, 270. Roberts _his Dress described_, 271.
_Is kill'd_, 272. _His Character_, ib. _His Ship taken_, 273. _The
Behaviour of the Pyrates, when Prisoners_, 275. _A Conspiracy of theirs
discovered_, 276, 277. _Reflections on the Manner of trying them_, 278,
279, 280. _The Form of the Commission for trying the Pyrates_, 281. _The
Oath taken by the Commissioners_, 282. _The Names of those arraign'd taken
in the Ship_ Ranger, 282, 283, 284. _The Form of the Indictment_, 284, 285.
_The Sum of the Evidence against them_, 285, 286. _Their Defence_, 287,
288. _The Names of the Prisoners of the_ Royal Fortune, 288, 289, 290.
_Proceedings against them_, 291 _to_ 304. Harry Glasby _acquitted_, 304.
_The particular Tryal of Captain_ James Skyrme, 304, 305. _Of_ John Walden,
305 _to_ 308. _Of_ Peter Scudamore, 308 _to_ 311. _Of_ Robert Johnson, 311,
312. _Of_ George Wilson, 312 _to_ 317. _Of_ Benjamin Jeffries, 317, 318.
_Of_ John Mansfield, 318, 319. _Of_ William Davis, 319 _to_ 321. _The Names
of those executed at_ Cape Corso, 321, 322. _The Petition of some
condemn'd_, 323. _The Courts Resolution_, ibid. _The Form of an Indenture
of a pardon'd Pyrate_, 324. _The Names of those pardon'd upon Indenture to
serve seven Years_, 325. _The Pyrates how disposed of_, 326. _The dying
Behaviour of those executed_, 326 _to_ 329.

CHAP. X. Of Capt. ANSTIS, and his CREW.

H_IS Beginning as a Pyrate_, 330. _A most brutish Action supposed to
be committed by his Crew_, 331. _Civil Discords amongst them_, 332. _The
Pyrates Term of_ Round Robin _explain'd_, ib. _They land on an uninhabited
Island_, ib. _A Petition for Pardon agreed on_, ib. _The Form of that
Petition_, 333. _Their Diversions, and Manner of living on the Island_,
334, 335. _Their mock Tryal of one another_, 336 _to_ 338. _They put to Sea
again_, 338. _Their Petition not answer'd_, ib. _The_ Morning Star
_Wreck'd_, ib. Anstis _narrowly escapes being taken_, 339. _A Plot
discover'd_, ib. _The Crew gathers Strength again_, 340. _Surprised by the_
Winchelsea _Man of War at_ Tobago, ib. _Fire one of their Ships_, ib.
Anstis _escapes_, ib. _Is killed by a Conspiracy of his own Men_, 341. _The
Ship surrender'd at_ Curaco, ib. _Several hang'd there_, ib. Fen _hanged
at_ Antegoa, ib. _The good Luck of those who fled to the Woods_, ib.

CHAP. XI. Of Capt. WORLEY, and his CREW.

H_IS mad Beginning_, 342. _His Success_, 343, 344. _Bind themselves
by Oath to take no Quarters_, 344. _A false Alarm at_ James-Town, 345.
Worley _catches a_ Tartar, ib. _The desperate Resolution of the Pyrates_,
346. Worley _hanged_, ib.

CHAP. XII. Of Capt. GEO. LOWTHER, and his CREW.

H_IS Beginning_, 347. _Plots with_ Massey, 349. Massey'_s Conduct_,
350, 351. Lowther'_s Proposal_, 351. _A Copy of Articles drawn up, and
sworn to_, 352. _The Pyrates going by the Ears_, 354. _How Rogues are made
Friends_, ib. Lowther _and_ Massey _part_, 355. _A Digression concerning_
Massey'_s mad Conduct_, 355 _to_ 357. Lowther _and_ Low _meet_, 358. _An
Alliance betwixt them_, ib. _A List of Prizes taken by them_, 359. _An
unlucky Adventure at_ Cape Mayo, 359, 360. Lowther _and_ Low _break the
Alliance, and part_, 361. _The Bravery of Captain_ Gwatkins, ib. _The
Pyrates much reduced_, 362. _Winter in_ North-Carolina, ib. _Put to Sea
again_, ib. _Make for the Island of_ Blanco, 363. _The Island described_,
ib. _Are surprised and taken_, 364. Lowther _escapes_, ib. _The Names of
the Prisoners, and Fate_, ib. Lowther'_s Death_, 365.

CHAP. XIII. Of Capt. LOW and his CREW.

LOW'_s Original_, 366, 367. _The Virtues of his Family, ib. His bold
Beginnings_, 368. _Declares War against the whole World_, ib. _His
Success_, 369, 370. _Like to perish by a Storm_, 371, 372. _Sail for the
Western Island_, 373. _Treats with the Governor of St._ Michael _for
Water_, ib. _Several Instances of their wanton Cruelty_, 374. Low'_s
Consort taken, and how_, 376. _A horrid Massacre committed by_ Low. 376,
377. _Takes a Multitude of Prizes_, 377. _Another barbarous Massacre_, 379.
_More Cruelties_, 379, 380. Low _and his Consort attack'd by the_ Greyhound
_Man of War_, 380, 381. Low _deserts his Consort_, 381. _The Consort
taken_, ib. _Carried to_ Rhode Island, 382. _The Names, Age, and Places of
Birth, of the Prisoners_, 382, 383. _A Compliment paid to Captain_ Solgard,
_by the Corporation of_ New-York, 384. _The Resolution of the Mayor and
Common-Council_, ib. _The Preamble of the Captain's Freedom_, 385. _More
Instances of_ Low'_s Cruelty_, 388, 389. _His Adventures continued to_ 390.

CHAP. XIV. Of Capt. JOHN EVANS and his CREW.

B_EGINS with House-breaking_, 391. _Seizes a Sloop_, 392. _Robs a
House the same Night_, ib. _Put to Sea, and take valuable Prizes_, 393.
Evans _shot dead by his Boatswain_, 394, _His Death reveng'd_, ib. _The
Company breaks up_, 395.


PHILLIPS _his Original_, 396. _How he became a Pyrate_, ib. _His
Return to_ England _accounted for_, ib. _Ships again for_ Newfoundland, ib.
_Deserts his Ship in_ Peter _Harbour_, 397. _He and four others seize a
Vessel_, ib. _Sail out a pyrating_, ib. _Articles sworn to upon a Hatchet_,
ib. _A Copy of the Articles_, 397, 398. _Ill Blood amongst them, and why_,
399. _Are almost starved_, ib, _Take Prizes_, ib. Phillips _proposes to
clean at_ Tobago, _and why_, ib. _Meets an old Acquaintance_, 400.
_Frighten'd from the Island_, ib. _A Conspiracy to run away with the
Prize_, ib. _A Skirmish_, ib. _The Carpenter's Dexterity in cutting off
Legs_, ib. Fern _kill'd by_ Phillips, _and why_, 401. _The Danger of
attempting an Escape among the Pyrates_, ib. _Captain_ Mortimer'_s Bravery,
and hard Fate_, 401, 402. _Captain_ Mortimer'_s Brother escapes, and how_,
402. Cheeseman'_s Steps for overthrowing the Pyrates Government_, 403. _A
Digression concerning_ Newfoundland, _and its Trade_, 403, 404. _The
Pyrates recruited with Men from thence_, 405. Phillips _his Conscience
pricks him_, ib. Dependence Ellery, _a Saint, oblig'd to dance by the
Pyrates_, 406. _A brave Action perform'd by_ Cheesemen, 407. _Carries the
Pyrate Ship into_ Boston, 408. _The dying Declarations of_ John Rose
Archer, _and_ William White, 408, 409.

CHAP. XVI. Of Captain SPRIGGS, and his CREW.

SPRIGGS _his Beginning_, 411. _How he set up for himself_, ib.
_Sweats his Prisoners for Diversion_, 412. _The Pyrates mistake in drinking
Healths_, 413. _Take_ Hawkins _a second time_, 414. _Burn his Ship, and
why_, ib. _An odd Entertainment given him by the Pyrates_, ib. _Captain_
Hawkins _how disposed of_, 414, 415. Spriggs _barbarous Usage of his
Prisoners_, 415, 416. _Takes a Ship loaden with Horses_, 416. _An odd
Frolick of the Pyrates_, ib. _Two particular Relations of Pyracy, from_ 417
_to_ 424.



AS the Pyrates in the _West-Indies_ have been so formidable and
numerous, that they have interrupted the Trade of _Europe_ into those
Parts; and our _English_ Merchants, in particular, have suffered more by
their Depredations, than by the united Force of _France_ and _Spain_, in
the late War: We do not doubt but the World will be curious to know the
Original and Progress of these Desperadoes, who were the Terror of the
trading Part of the World.

But before we enter upon their particular History, it will not be amiss, by
way of Introduction, to shew, by some Examples drawn from History, the
great Mischief and Danger which threaten Kingdoms and Commonwealths, from
the Increase of these sort of Robbers; when either by the Troubles of
particular Times, or the Neglect of Governments, they are not crush'd
before they gather Strength.

It has been the Case heretofore, that when a single Pyrate has been
suffered to range the Seas, as not being worth the Notice of a Government,
he has by Degrees grown so powerful, as to put them to the Expence of a
great deal of Blood and Treasure, before he was suppress'd. We shall not
examine how it came to pass, that our Pyrates in the _West-Indies_ have
continually increased till of late; this is an Enquiry which belongs to the
Legislature, or Representatives of the People in Parliament, and to them we
shall leave it.

Our Business shall be briefly to shew, what from Beginnings, as
inconsiderable as these, other Nations have suffered.

In the Times of _Marius_ and _Sylla_, _Rome_ was in her greatest Strength,
yet she was so torn in Pieces by the Factions of those two great Men, that
every Thing which concerned the publick Good was altogether neglected, when
certain Pyrates broke out from _Cicilia_, a Country of _Asia Minor_,
situate on the Coast of the _Mediterranean_, betwixt _Syria_ on the East,
from whence it is divided by Mount _Tauris_, and _Armenia Minor_ on the
West. This Beginning was mean and inconsiderable, having but two or three
Ships, and a few Men, with which they cruised about the _Greek_ Islands,
taking such Ships as were very ill arm'd or weakly defended; however, by
the taking of many Prizes, they soon increased in Wealth and Power: The
first Action of their's which made a Noise, was the taking of _Julius
Cæsar_, who was as yet a Youth, and who being obliged to fly from the
Cruelties of _Sylla_, who sought his Life, went into _Bithinia_, and
sojourned a while with _Nicomedes_, King of that Country; in his Return
back by Sea, he was met with, and taken, by some of these Pyrates, near the
Island of _Pharmacusa_: These Pyrates had a barbarous Custom of tying their
Prisoners Back to Back and throwing them into the Sea; but, supposing
_Cæsar_ to be some Person of a high Rank, because of his purple Robes, and
the Number of his Attendants, they thought it would be more for their
Profit to preserve him, in hopes of receiving a great Sum for his Ransom;
therefore they told him he should have his Liberty, provided he would pay
them twenty Talents, which they judg'd to be a very high Demand, in our
Money, about three thousand six hundred Pounds Sterling; he smiled, and of
his own Accord promised them fifty Talents; they were both pleased, and
surpriz'd at his Answer, and consented that several of his Attendants
should go by his Direction and raise the Money; and he was left among these
Ruffians with no more than 3 Attendants. He pass'd eight and thirty Days,
and seemed so little concerned or afraid, that often when he went to sleep,
he used to charge them not to make a Noise, threatening, if they disturbed
him, to hang them all; he also play'd at Dice with them, and sometimes
wrote Verses and Dialogues, which he used to repeat, and also cause them to
repeat, and if they did not praise and admire them, he would call them
Beasts and Barbarians, telling them he would crucify them. They took all
these as the Sallies of a juvenile Humour, and were rather diverted, than
displeased at them.

At length his Attendants return'd with his Ransom, which he paid, and was
discharged; he sail'd for the Port of _Miletum_, where, as soon as he was
arriv'd, he used all his Art and Industry in fitting out a Squadron of
Ships, which he equipp'd and arm'd at his own Charges; and sailing in Quest
of the Pyrates, he surpriz'd them as they lay at Anchor among the Islands,
and took those who had taken him before, with some others; the Money he
found upon them he made Prize of, to reimburse his Charges, and he carry'd
the Men to _Pergamus_ or _Troy_, and there secured them in Prison: In the
mean Time, he apply'd himself to _Junius_, then Governor of _Asia_, to whom
it belonged to judge and determine of the Punishment of these Men; but
_Junius_ finding there was no Money to be had, answered _Cæsar_, that he
would think at his Leisure, what was to be done with those Prisoners;
_Cæsar_ took his Leave of him, returned back to _Pergamus_, and commanded
that the Prisoners should be brought out and executed, according to Law in
that Case provided; which is taken Notice of, in a Chapter at the End of
this Book, concerning the Laws in Cases of Pyracy: And thus he gave them
that Punishment in Earnest, which he had often threatned them with in Jest.

_Cæsar_ went strait to Rome, where, being engaged in the Designs of his own
private Ambition, as were almost all the leading Men in Rome, the Pyrates
who were left, had Time to increase to a prodigious Strength; for while the
civil Wars lasted, the Seas were left unguarded, so that _Plutarch_ tells
us, that they erected diverse Arsenals full of all manner of warlike
Stores, made commodious Harbours, set up Watch-Towers and Beacons all along
the Coasts of _Cilicia_; that they had a mighty Fleet, well equipp'd and
furnish'd, with Galliots of Oars, mann'd, not only with Men of desperate
Courage, but also with expert Pilots and Mariners; they had their Ships of
Force, and light Pinnaces for cruising and making Discoveries, in all no
less than a thousand Sail; so gloriously set out, that they were as much to
be envied for their gallant Shew, as fear'd for their Force; having the
Stern and Quarters all gilded with Gold and their Oars plated with Silver,
as well as purple Sails; as if their greatest Delight had been to glory in
their Iniquity. Nor were they content with committing Pyracies and
Insolencies by Sea, they committed as great Depredations by Land, or rather
made Conquests; for they took and sack'd no less than four hundred Cities,
laid several others under Contributions, plundered the Temples of the Gods,
and inriched themselves with the Offerings deposited in them; they often
landed Bodies of Men, who not only plundered the Villages along the Sea
Coast, but ransacked the fine Houses of the Noblemen along the Tiber. A
Body of them once took _Sextillius_ and _Bellinus_, two _Roman_ Prætors, in
their purple Robes, going from Rome to their Governments, and carried them
away with all their Sergeants, Officers and Vergers; they also took the
Daughter of _Antonius_ a consular Person, and one who had obtained the
Honour of a Triumph, as she was going to the Country House of her Father.

But what was most barbarous, was a Custom they had when they took any Ship,
of enquiring of the Person on Board, concerning their Names and Country; if
any of them said he was a _Roman_, they fell down upon their Knees, as if
in a Fright at the Greatness of that Name, and begg'd Pardon for what they
had done, and imploring his Mercy, they used to perform the Offices of
Servants about his Person, and when they found they had deceived him into a
Belief of their being sincere, they hung out the Ladder of the Ship, and
coming with a shew of Courtesy, told him, he had his Liberty, desiring him
to walk out of the Ship, and this in the Middle of the Sea, and when they
observed him in Surprize, as was natural, they used to throw him overboard
with mighty shouts of Laughter; so wanton they were in their Cruelty.

Thus, while _Rome_ was Mistress oft he World, she suffered Insults and
Affronts, almost at her Gates, from these powerful Robbers; but what for a
while made Faction cease, and roused the Genius of that People, never used
to suffer Wrongs from a fair Enemy, was an excessive Scarcity of Provisions
in _Rome_, occasioned by all the Ships loaden with Corn and Provisions from
_Sicily_, _Corsica_, and other Places, being intercepted and taken by these
Pyrates, insomuch that they were almost reduced to a Famine: Upon this,
_Pompey_ the _Great_ was immediately appointed General to manage this War;
five hundered Ships were immediately fitted out, he had fourteen Senators,
Men of Experience in the War, for his Vice-Admirals; and so considerable an
Enemy, were these Ruffians become, that no less than an Army of a hundred
thousand Foot, and five thousand Horse was appointed to invade them by
Land; but it happened very luckily for _Rome_, that _Pompey_ sail'd out
before the Pyrate had Intelligence of a Design against them, so that their
Ships were scattered all over the _Mediterranean_, like Bees gone out from
a Hive, some one Way, some another, to bring Home their Lading; _Pompey_
divided his Fleet into thirteen Squadrons, to whom he appointed their
several Stations, so that great Numbers of the Pyrates fell into their
Hands, Ship by Ship, without any Loss; forty Days he passed in scouring the
_Mediterranean_, some of the Fleet cruizing along the Coast of _Africk_,
some about the Islands, and some upon the Italian Coasts, so that often
those Pyrates who were flying from one Squadron, fell in with another;
however, some of them escaped, and these making directly to _Cilicia_, and
acquainting their Confederates on Shore with what had happened, they
appointed a Rendezvous of all the Ships that had escaped at the Port of
_Coracesium_, in the same Country. _Pompey_ finding the _Mediterranean_
quite clear, appointed a Meeting of all his Fleet at the Haven of
_Brundusium_, and from thence sailing round into the _Adriatick_, he went
directly to attack these Pyrates in their Hives; as soon as he came near
the _Coracesium_ in _Cilicia_, where the Remainder of the Pyrates now lay,
they had the Hardiness to come and give him Battle, but the Genius of old
_Rome_ prevailed, and the Pyrates received an entire Overthrow, being all
either taken or destroyed; but as they made many strong Fortresses upon the
Sea Coast, and built Castles and strong Holds up the Country, about the
Foot of Mount _Taurus_, he was obliged to besiege them with his Army; some
Places he took by Storm, others surrendered to his Mercy, to whom he gave
their Lives, and at length he made an entire Conquest.

But it is probable, that had these Pyrates receiv'd sufficient Notice of
the _Roman_ Preparation against them, so as they might have had Time to
draw their scattered Strength into a Body, to have met _Pompey_ by Sea, the
Advantage appeared greatly on their Side, in Numbers of Shipping, and of
Men; nor did they want Courage, as may be seen by their coming out of the
Port of _Coracesium_, to give the _Romans_ Battle, with a Force much
inferior to their's; I say, had they overthrown _Pompey_, it is likely they
would have made greater Attempts, and _Rome_, which had conquer'd the whole
World, might have been subdued by a Parcel of Pyrates.

This is a Proof how dangerous it is to Governments to be negligent, and not
take an early Care in suppressing these Sea Banditti, before they gather

The Truth of this Maxim may be better exemplified in the History of
_Barbarouse_, a Native in the City of _Mitylene_, in the Island of
_Lesbos_, in the _Egean_ Sea; a Fellow of ordinary Birth, who being bred to
the Sea, first set out from thence upon the pyrating Account with only one
small Vessel, but by the Prizes he took, he gain'd immense Riches, so that
getting a great Number of large Ships, all the bold and dissolute Fellows
of those Islands flock'd to him, and listed in his Service, for the Hopes
of Booty; so that his Strength was increased to a formidable Fleet: With
these he perform'd such bold and adventurous Actions, that he became the
Terror of the Seas. About this Time it happened that _Selim Eutemi_, King
of _Algiers_, having refused to pay the accustomed Tribute to the
_Spaniards_, was apprehensive of an Invasion from thence; wherefore he
treated with _Barbarouse_, upon the Foot of an Ally, to come and assist
him, and deliver him from paying this Tribute; _Barbarouse_ readily came
into it, and sailing to _Algiers_ with a great Fleet, he put part of his
Men on Shore, and having laid a Plot to surprize the City, he effected it
with great Success, and murder'd _Selim_ in a Bath; soon after which, he
was himself crowned King of _Algiers_; after this he made War upon
_Abdilabde_, King of _Tunis_, and overthrew him in Battle; he extended his
Conquests on all Sides; and thus from a Thief became a mighty King: and
tho' he was at last kill'd in Battle, yet he had so well established
himself upon that Throne, that, dying without Issue, he left the
Inheritance of the Kingdom to his Brother, another Pyrate.

                                * * *

I come now to speak of the Pyrates infesting the _West-Indies_, where they
are more numerous than in any other Parts of the World, on several Reasons:

_First_, Because there are so many uninhabited little Islands and Keys,
with Harbours convenient and secure for cleaning their Vessels, and
abounding with what they often want, Provision; I mean Water, Sea-Fowl,
Turtle, Shell, and other Fish; where, if they carry in but strong Liquor,
they indulge a Time, and become ready for new Expeditions before any
Intelligence can reach to hurt them.

It may here perhaps be no unnecessary Digression, to explain upon what they
call Keys in the _West-Indies_: These are small sandy Islands, appearing a
little above the Surf of the Water, with only a few Bushes or Weeds upon
them, but abound (those most at any Distance from the Main) with Turtle,
amphibious Animals, that always chuse the quietest and most unfrequented
Place, for laying their Eggs, which are to a vast Number in the Seasons,
and would seldom be seen, but for this, (except by Pyrates:) Then Vessels
from _Jamaica_ and the other Governments make Voyages, called Turtling, for
supplying the People, a common and approved Food with them. I am apt to
think these _Keys_, especially those nigh Islands, to have been once
contiguous with them, and separated by Earthquakes (frequently there) or
Inundations, because some of them that have been within continual View, as
those nigh _Jamaica_, are observed within our Time, to be entirely wasted
away and lost, and others daily wasting. There are not only of the Use
above taken Notice of to Pyrates; but it is commonly believed were always
in buccaneering pyratical Times, the hiding Places for their Riches, and
often Times a Shelter for themselves, till their Friends on the Main, had
found Means to obtain Indemnity for their Crimes; for you must understand,
when Acts of Grace were more frequent, and the Laws less severe, these Men
continually found Favours and Incouragers at _Jamaica_, and perhaps they
are not all dead yet; I have been told many of them them still living have
been of the same Trade, and left it off only because they can live as well
honestly, and gain now at the hazard of others Necks.

Secondly, another Reason why these Seas are chose by Pyrates, is the great
Commerce thither by _French_, _Spaniards_, _Dutch_, and especially
_English_ Ships: They are sure in the Latitude of these trading Islands, to
meet with Prizes, Booties of Provision, Cloathing, and Naval-Stores, and
sometimes Money; there being great Sums remitted this Way to _England_;
(the Returns of the Affiento, and private Slave-Trade, to the _Spanish
West-Indies_:) And in short, by some one or other, all the Riches of

A third Reason, is the Inconveniency and Difficulty of being pursued by the
Men of War, the many small Inlets, Lagoons and Harbours, on these solitary
Islands and Keys, is a natural Security.

'Tis generally here that the Pyrates begin their Enterprizes, setting out
at first with a very small Force; and by infesting these Seas, and those of
the Continent of _North-America_, in a Year's Time, if they have good luck
on their Sides, they accumulate such Strength, as enables them to make
foreign Expeditions: The first, is usually to _Guiney_, taking the _Azores_
and _Cape de Verd_ Islands in their Way, and then to _Brazil_ and the
_East-Indies_, where if they meet with prosperous Voyages, they set down at
_Madagascar_, or the neighbouring Islands, and enjoy their ill gotten
Wealth, among their elder Brethren, with Impunity. But that I may not give
too much Encouragement to the Profession, I must inform my maritime
Readers, that the far greater Part of these Rovers are cut short in the
Pursuit, by a sudden Precipitation into the other World.

The Rise of these Rovers, since the Peace of _Utrecht_, or at least, the
great Encrease of them, may justly be computed to the _Spanish_ Settlements
in the _West Indies_; the Governors of which, being often some hungry
Courtiers, sent thither to repair or make a Fortune, generally Countenance
all Proceedings that bring in Profit: They grant Commissions to great
Numbers of Vessels of War, on Pretence of preventing an interloping Trade,
with Orders to seize all Ships or Vessels whatsoever, within five Leagues
of their Coasts, which our _English_ Ships cannot well avoid coming, in
their Voyage to _Jamaica_. But if the _Spanish_ Captains chance to exceed
this Commission, and rob and plunder at Discretion, the Sufferers are
allowed to complain, and exhibit a Process in their Court, and after great
Expence of Suit, Delay of Time, and other Inconveniencies, obtain a Decree
in their Favour, but then when the Ship and Cargo comes to be claim'd, with
Costs of Suit, they find, to their Sorrow, that it has been previously
condemn'd, and the Plunder divided among the Crew; the Commander that made
the Capture, who alone is responsible, is found to be a poor raskally
Fellow, not worth a Groat, and, no doubt, is plac'd in that Station for the
like Purposes.

The frequent Losses sustain'd by our Merchants abroad, by these Pyrates,
was Provocation enough to attempt something by way of Reprisal; and a fair
Opportunity offering it self in the Year 1716, the Traders of the
_West-Indies_, took Care not to slip it over, but made the best Use of it
their Circumstances would permit.

It was about two Years before, that the _Spanish_ Galleons, or Plate Fleet,
had been cast away in the Gulf or _Florida_; and several Vessels from the
_Havana_, were at work, with diving Engines, to fish up the Silver that was
on board the Galleons.

The _Spaniards_ had recovered some Millions of Pieces of Eight, and had
carried it all to the _Havana_; but they had at present about 350000 Pieces
of Eight in Silver, then upon the Spot, and were daily taking up more. In
the mean time, two Ships, and three Sloops, fitted out from _Jamaica_,
_Barbadoes_, _&c._ under Captain _Henry Jennings_, sail'd to the Gulf, and
found the _Spaniards_ there upon the Wreck; the Money before spoken of, was
left on Shore, deposited in a Store-House, under the Government of two
Commissaries, and a Guard of about 60 Soldiers.

The Rovers came directly upon the Place, bringing their little Fleet to an
Anchor, and, in a Word, landing 300 Men, they attack'd the Guard, who
immediately ran away; and thus they seized the Treasure, which they carried
off, making the best of their Way to _Jamaica_.

In their Way they unhappily met with a _Spanish_ Ship, bound from _Porto
Bello_ to the _Havana_, with a great many rich Goods, _viz._ Bales of
Cochineal, Casks of Indico, and 60000 Pieces of Eight more, which their
Hands being in, they took, and having rifled the Vessel, let her go.

They went away to _Jamaica_ with their Booty, and were followed in View of
the Port, by the _Spaniards_, who having seen them thither, went back to
the Governor of the _Havana_, with the Account of it, who immediately sent
a Vessel to the Governor of _Jamaica_ to complain of this Robbery, and to
reclaim the Goods.

As it was in full Peace, and contrary to all Justice and Right, that this
Fact was committed, they were soon made sensible that the Government at
_Jamaica_ would not suffer them to go unpunished, much less protect them.
Therefore they saw a Necessity of shifting for themselves; so, to make bad
worse, they went to Sea again, tho' not without disposing of their Cargo to
good Advantage, and furnishing themselves with Ammunition, Provisions,
_&c._ and being thus made desperate, they turn'd Pyrates, robbing not the
_Spaniards_ only, but their own Countrymen, and any Nation they could lay
their Hands on.

It happened about this Time, that the _Spaniards_, with three or four small
Men of War, fell upon our Logwood Cutters, in the Bay of _Campeachy_, and
Bay or _Honduras_; and after they had made Prizes of the following Ships
and Vessels, they gave the Men belonging to them, three Sloops to carry
them home, but these Men being made desperate by their Misfortunes, and
meeting with the Pyrates, they took on with them, and so encreas'd their

_The LIST of Ships and Vessels taken by the_ Spanish _Men of War in
the Year_ 1716.

The _Stafford_, Captain _Knocks_, from _New-England_, bound for _London_.
   _Anne_, ------ _Gernish_, for ditto.
   _Dove_, ------ _Grimstone_, for _New-England_.
A Sloop, ------ _Alden_, for ditto.
A Brigantine, ------ _Mosson_, for ditto.
A Brigantine, ------ _Turfield_, for ditto.
A Brigantine, ------ _Tennis_, for ditto.
A Ship, ------ ------ _Porter_, for ditto.
   _Indian Emperor_, _Wentworth_, for _New-England_.
A Ship, ------ _Rich_, Master.
   Ditto, ------ _Bay_.
   Ditto, ------ _Smith_.
   Ditto, ------ _Stockum_.
   Ditto, ------ _Satlely_.
A Sloop, ------ ------ _Richards_, belonging to _New-England_.
Two Sloops, ------ ------ belonging to _Jamaica_.
One Sloop ------ ------ of _Barbadoes_.
Two Ships ------ ------ from _Scotland_.
Two Ships ------ ------ from _Holland_.

The Rovers being now pretty strong, they consulted together about getting
some Place of Retreat, where they might lodge their Wealth, clean and
repair their Ships, and make themselves a kind of Abode. They were not long
in resolving, but fixed upon the Island of _Providence_, the most
considerable of the _Bahama_ Islands, lying in the Latitude of about 24
Degrees North, and to the Eastward of the _Spanish Florida_.

This Island is about 28 Miles long, and eleven where broadest, and has a
Harbour big enough to hold 500 Sail of Ships; before which lies a small
Island, which makes two Inlets to the Harbour; at either Way there is a
Bar, over which no Ship of 500 Tun can pass. The _Bahama_ Islands were
possess'd by the _English_ till the Year 1700, when the _French_ and
_Spaniards_ from _Petit Guavus_, invaded them, took the Fort and Governor
in the Island of _Providence_, plunder'd and destroy'd the Settlements,
_&c._ carried off half the Blacks, and the rest of the People, who fled to
the Woods, retired afterwards to _Carolina_.

In March 1705-6, the House of Lords did in an Address to her late Majesty,
set forth,

   `That the
   _French_ and _Spaniards_ had twice, during the Time
   of the War, over run and plundered the _Bahama_
   Islands, that there was no Form of Government
   there: That the Harbour of the Isle of _Providence_,
   might be easily put in a Posture of Defence, and
   that it would be of dangerous Consequence, should
   those Islands fall into the Hands of the Enemy;
   wherefore the Lords humbly besought her Majesty
   to use such Methods as she should think
   proper for taking the said Island into her Hands,
   in order to secure the same to the Crown of this
   Kingdom, and to the Security and Advantage
   of the Trade thereof.

But, however it happened, no Means were used in compliance to that Address,
for securing the _Bahama_ Islands, till the _English_ Pyrates had made
_Providence_ their Retreat and general Receptacle; then 'twas found
absolutely necessary, in order to dislodge that troublesome Colony; and
Information being made by the Merchants to the Government, of the Mischief
they did, and were likely to do, his Majesty was pleased to grant the
following Order.

_Whitehall September_ 15, 1716.

   `COmplaint having been made to his Majesty,
   by great Number of Merchants, Masters of
   Ships and others, as well as by several Governors
   of his Majesty's Islands and Plantations in the
   _West-Indies_; that the Pyrates are grown so numerous,
   that they infest not only the Seas near _Jamaica_,
   but even those of the Northern Continent
   of _America_; and that, unless some effectual Means
   be used, the whole Trade from _Great Britain_ to
   those Parts, will not be only obstructed, but in
   imminent Danger of being lost: His Majesty has,
   upon mature Deliberation in Council, been pleased,
   in the first Place, to order a proper Force
   to be employ'd for the suppressing the said Pyrates,
   which Force so to be employed, is as

`A List of his Majesty's Ships and Vessels employed, and to be
employed, at the British Governments and Plantations in the _West-Indies_.

Place where.      Rates,   Ships,      Guns.

                 {  5    Adventure,     40   Now there.
                 {       Diamond,       40 { Sail'd from hence thither
                 {                         { 5th of last Month.
                 {       Ludlow Castle, 40   To carry the Governor.
Jamaica,         {       Swift Sloop,        Now there.
                 {                         { Surveying the Coast of
                 {                         { the West-Indies, and
                 {                         { then to return Home;
                 {                         { but, during her being
                 {  6    Winchelsea,    20 { at Jamaica, is to join
                 {                         { the others, for Security
                 {                         { of the Trade, and
                 {                         { intercepting Pyrates.
Barbadoes,          5    Scarborough,   30 }
Leeward Islands,    6    Seaford,          } Now there.
                         Tryal Sloop,    6 }
                 {  6    Lime,          20 }
Virginia,        {  5    Shoreham,      30   Order'd Home.
                 {                         { Sailed thither from
                 {                         { Home the 7th of last
                 {       Pearl,         40 { Month, and is to cruise
                 {                         { about the Capes.
New-York,           6    Phoenix,       30   Now there.
                 {       Squirrel,      20
New-England,     {       Rose,          20   Order'd Home.

   `Those at _Jamaica_, _Barbadoes_ and the Leeward
   Islands, are to join upon Occasion, for annoying
   the Pyrates, and the Security of the Trade: And
   those at _New-England_, _Virginia_ and _New-York_, are
   to do the like.

Besides these Frigots, two Men of War were ordered to attend Captain
_Rogers_, late Commander of the two _Bristol_ Ships, called the _Duke_ and
_Dutchess_, that took the rich _Acapulca_ Ship, and made a Tour round the
Globe. This Gentleman received a Commission from his Majesty, to be
Governor of the Island of _Providence_, and was vested with Power to make
Use of all possible Methods for reducing the Pyrates; and that nothing
might be wanting, he carried with him, the King's Proclamation of Pardon,
to those who should return to their Duty by a certain Time; the
Proclamation is as follows;

By the KING,

A PROCLAMATION, for suppressing of PYRATES.

      GEORGE R.

W_Hereas we have received Information, that several Persons, Subjects
of _Great Britain_, have since the _24_th Day of _June_, in the Year of our
Lord _1715_, committed divers Pyracies and Robberies upon the High-Seas, in
the _West-Indies_, or adjoyning to our Plantations, which hath and may
Occasion great Damage to the Merchants of _Great Britain_, and others
trading into those Parts; and tho' we have appointed such a Force as we
judge sufficient for suppressing the said Pyrates, yet the more effectually
to put an End to the same, we have thought fit, by and with the Advice of
our Privy Council, to Issue this our Royal Proclamation; and we do hereby
promise, and declare, that in Case any of the said Pyrates, shall on or
before the _5_th of _September_, in the Year of our Lord _1718_, surrender
him or themselves, to one of our Principal Secretaries of State in _Great
Britain_ or _Ireland_, or to any Governor or Deputy Governor of any of our
Plantations beyond the Seas; every such Pyrate and Pyrates so surrendering
him, or themselves, as aforesaid, shall have our gracious Pardon, of and
for such, his or their Pyracy, or Pyracies, by him or them committed before
the fifth of _January_ next ensuing. And we do hereby strictly charge and
command all our Admirals, Captains, and other Officers at Sea, and all our
Governors and Commanders of any Forts, Castles, or other Places in our
Plantations, and all other our Officers Civil and Military, to seize and
take such of the Pyrates, who shall refuse or neglect to surrender
themselves accordingly. And we do hereby further declare, that in Case any
Person or Persons, on, or after, the _6_th Day of _September 1718_, shall
discover or seize, or cause or procure to be discovered or seized, any one
or more of the said Pyrates, so refusing or neglecting to surrender
themselves as aforesaid, so as they may be brought to Justice, and
convicted of the said Offence, such Person or Persons, so making such
Discovery or Seizure, or causing or procuring such Discovery or Seizure to
be made, shall have and receive as a Reward for the same, _viz._ for every
Commander of any private Ship or Vessel, the Sum of _100_ l. for every
Lieutenant, Master, Boatswain, Carpenter, and Gunner, the Sum of _40_ l;
for every inferior Officer, the Sum of _30_ l. and for every private Man,
the Sum of _20_ l. And if any Person or Persons, belonging to and being
Part of the Crew of any such Pyrate Ship or Vessel, shall on or after the
said sixth Day of _September 1718_, seize and deliver, or cause to be
seized or delivered, any Commander or Commanders, of such Pyrate Ship or
Vessel, so as that he or they be brought to Justice, and convicted of the
said Offence, such Person or Persons, as a Reward for the same, shall
receive for every such Commander, the Sum of _200_ l. which said Sums, the
Lord Treasurer, or the Commissioners of our Treasury for the Time being,
are hereby required, and desired to pay accordingly._

Given at our Court, at _Hampton-Court_, the fifth Day of
_September_, 1717, in the fourth Year of our Regin.

God save the KING.

Before Governor _Rogers_ went over, the Proclamation was sent to them,
which they took as _Teague_ took the Covenant, that is, they made Prize of
the Ship and Proclamation too; however, they sent for those who were out a
Cruising, and called a general Council, but there was so much Noise and
Glamour, that nothing could be agreed on; some were for fortifying the
Island, to stand upon their own Terms, and Treating with the Government
upon the Foot of a Commonwealth; others were also for strengthening the
Island for their own Security, but were not strenuous for these
Punctillios, so that they might have a general Pardon, without being
obliged to make any Restitution, and to retire, with all their Effects, to
the neighbouring _British_ Plantations.

But Captain _Jennings_, who was their Commadore, and who always bore a
great Sway among them, being a Man of good Understanding, and good Estate,
before this Whim took him of going a Pyrating, resolved upon surrendering,
without more ado, to the Terms of the Proclamation, which so disconcerted
all their Measures, that the _Congress_ broke up very abruptly without
doing any Thing; and presently _Jennings_, and by his Example, about 150
more, came in to the Governor of _Bermudas_, and had their Certificates,
tho' the greatest Part of them returned again, like the Dog to the Vomit.
The Commanders who were then in the Island, besides Captain _Jennings_
abovementioned, I think were these, _Benjamin Hornigold, Edward Teach, John
Martel, James Fife, Christopher Winter, Nicholas Brown, Paul Williams,
Charles Bellamy, Oliver la Bouche, _Major_ Penner, Ed. England, T. Burgess,
Tho. Cocklyn, R. Sample, Charles Vane_, and two or three others:
_Hornigold, Williams, Burgess _and_ la Bouche_ were afterwards cast away;
_Teach_ and _Penner_ killed, and their Crews taken; _James Fife_ killed by
his own Men; _Martel_'s Crew destroyed, and he forced on an uninhabited
Island; _Cocklyn, Sample_ and _Vane_ hanged; _Winter_ and _Brown_
surrendered to the _Spaniards_ at _Cuba_, and _England_ lives now at

In the Month of _May_ or _June_ 1718, Captain _Rogers_ arrived at his
Government, with two of his Majesty's Ships, and found several of the
abovesaid Pyrates there, who upon the coming of the Men of War, all
surrendered to the Pardon, except _Charles Vane_ and his Crew, which
happened after this Manner.

I have before described the Harbour to have two Inlets, by Means of a small
Island lying at the Mouth of it; at one of which, both the Men of War
entered, and left the other open, so that _Vane_ slip'd his Cable, set Fire
to a large Prize they had there, and resolutely put out, firing at the Man
of War as he went off.

As soon as Captain _Rogers_ had settled himself in his Government, he built
a Fort for his Defence, and garrisoned it with the People he found upon the
Island; the _quondam_ Pyrates, to the Number of 400, he formed into
Companies, appointed Officers of those whom he most confided in, and then
set about to settle a Trade with the _Spaniards_, in the Gulf of _Mexico_;
in one of which Voyages, Captain _Burgess_ abovementioned, died, and
Captain _Hornigold_, another of the famous Pyrates, was cast away upon
Rocks, a great Way from Land, and perished, but five of his Men got into a
Canoe and were saved.

Captain _Rogers_ sent out a Sloop to get Provisions, and gave the Command
to one _John Augur_, one of the Pyrates, who had accepted of the Act of
Grace; in their Voyage they met with two Sloops, and _John_ and his
Comrades not yet forgetting their former Business, made Use of their old
Freedom, and took out of them in Money and Goods, to the Value of about 500
_l._ after this they steered away for _Hispaniola_, not being satisfy'd
whether the Governor would admit them to carry on two Trades at once, and
so thought to have bidden Farewel to the _Bahama_ Islands; but as ill Luck
would have it, they met with a violent Turnado, wherein they lost their
Mast, and were drove back to one of the uninhabited _Bahama_'s, and lost
their Sloop; the Men got all ashore, and lived up and down in the Wood, for
a little Time, till Governor _Rogers_ happening to hear of their
Expedition, and where they had got to, sent out an armed Sloop to the
aforesaid Island; the Master of which, with good Words and fair Promises,
got them on Board, and brought them all to _Providence_, being a eleven
Persons, ten of which were try'd at a Court of Admiralty, convicted, and
hanged by the other's Evidence, in the Sight of all their former Companions
and fellow Thieves. The Criminals would fain have spirited up the pardoned
Pyrates, to rescue them out of the Hands of the Officers of Justice,
telling them from the Gallows, that, _They never thought to have seen the
Time, when ten such Men as they should be ty'd up and hanged like Dogs, and
four hundered of their sworn Friends and Companions quietly standing by to
behold the Spectacle._ One _Hamphrey Morrice_ urged the Matter further than
the rest, taxing them with Pusilanimity and Cowardice, as if it were a
Breach of Honour in them not to rise and save them from the ignominious
Death they were going to suffer. But 'twas all in vain, they were now told,
it was their Business to turn their Minds to another World, and sincerely
to repent of what Wickedness they had done in this. _Yes_, answered one of
them, _I do heartily repent; I repent I had not done more Mischief, and
that we did not cut the Throats of them that took us, and I am extremely
sorry that you an't all hang'd as well as we. So do I_, says another: _And
I_, says a third; and then they were all turned off, without making any
other dying Speeches, except one _Dennis Macarty_, who told the People,
_That some Friends of his had often said he should die in his Shoes, but
that he would make them Lyars_, and so kicked them off. And thus ended the
Lives, with their Adventures, of those miserable Wretches, who may serve as
sad Examples of the little Effect Mercy has upon Men once abandoned to an
evil Course of Life.

Least I be thought severe in my Animadversions upon the _Spanish_
Proceedings in the _West-Indies_, in respect to their Dealings with us; I
shall mention an Instance or two, wherein I'll be as concise as possible,
and then transcribe some original Letters from the Governor of _Jamaica_,
and an Officer of a Man of War, to the _Alcaldees_ of _Trinidado_, on the
Island of _Cuba_, with their Answers, translated into _English_, and then
proceed to the particular Histories of the Pyrates and their Crews, that
have made most Noise in the World in _our own Times_.

About _March_ 1722, one of our Men of War trading upon the Coast, _viz._
the _Greyhound_ Galley, Captain _Walron_, the said Captain invited some of
the Merchants to Dinner, who with their Attendants and Friends came on
Board to the Number of 16 or 18 in all; and having concerted Measures,
about six or eight dined in the Cabin, and the rest were waiting on the
Deck. While the Captain and his Guests were at Dinner, the Boatswain Pipes
for the Ship's Company to dine; accordingly the Men take their Platters,
receive their Provisions, and down they go between Decks, leaving only 4 or
5 Hands besides the _Spaniards_, above, who were immediately dispatched by
them, and the Hatches laid on the rest; those in the Cabin were as ready as
their Companions, for they pulled out their Pistols and shot the Captain,
Surgeon and another dead, and grievously wounded the Lieutenant; but he
getting out of the Window upon a Side-Ladder, thereby saved his Life, and
so they made themselves Masters of the Ship in an Instant: But by
accidental good Fortune, she was recovered before she was carry'd off; for
Captain _Walron_ having mann'd a Sloop with 30 Hands out of his Ship's
Company, had sent her to Windward some Days before, also for Trade, which
the _Spaniards_ knew very well; and just as the Action was over they saw
this Sloop coming down, before the Wind, towards their Ship; upon which the
_Spaniards_ took about 10000 _l._ in Specie, as I am informed, quitted the
Ship, and went off in their Launch unmolested.

About the same Time, a _Guard le Coast_, of _Porto Rico_, commanded by one
_Matthew Luke_, an Italian, took four _English_ Vessels, and murthered all
the Crews: He was taken by the _Lanceston_ Man of War, in _May_ 1722, and
brought to _Jamaica_, were they were all but seven deservedly hanged. It is
likely the Man of War might not have meddled with her, but that she blindly
laid the _Lanceston_ on Board, thinking she had been a Merchant Ship, who
thereupon catched a Tartar. Afterwards in rummaging there was found a
Cartridge of Powder made up with a Piece of an _English_ Journal,
belonging, I believe, to the _Crean_ Snow; and upon Examination, at last,
it was discovered that they had taken this Vessel and murthered the Crew;
and one of the _Spaniards_, when he came to die, confessed that he had
killed twenty _English_ Men with his own Hands.

S. Jago de la Vega, Febr. 20. _A Letter from his Excellency Sir
_Nicolas Laws_, our Governor, to the Alcaldes of _Trinidado_ on _Cuba_,
dated the _26_th of _Jan. 1721-2.


   `THE frequent Depredations, Robberies, and
   other Acts of Hostility, which have been
   committed on the King my Royal Master's Subjects,
   by a Parcel of Banditti, who pretend to
   have Commissions from you, and in Reality are
   sheltered under your Government, is the Occasion
   of my sending the Bearer Captain _Chamberlain_,
   Commander of his Majesty's Snow _Happy_,
   to demand Satisfaction of you for so many notorious
   Robberies which your People have lately
   committed on the King's Subjects of this Island;
   particularly by those Traytors, _Nicolas Brown_
   and _Christopher Winter_, to whom you have given
   Protection. Such Proceedings as these are not
   only a Breach of the Law of Nations, but must
   appear to the World of a very extraordinary
   Nature, when considered that the Subjects of a
   Prince in Amity and Friendship with another,
   should give Countenance and encourage such vile
   Practices. I confess I have had long Patience, and
   declined using any violent Measures to obtain
   Satisfaction, hoping the Cessation of Arms, so
   happily concluded upon between our respective
   Sovereigns, would have put an effectual Stop to
   those Disorders; but on the contrary, I now find
   the Port of _Trinidado_ a Receptacle to Villains
   of all Nations. I do therefore think fit to acquaint
   you, and assure you in the King my Master's
   Name, that if I do meet with any of your
   Rogues for the future upon the Coast of this
   Island, I will order them to be hanged directly
   without Mercy; and I expect and demand of
   you to make ample Restitution to Captain _Chamberlain_
   or all the Negroes which the said _Brown_
   and Winter have lately taken off from the North-Side
   of this Island, and also of such Sloops and
   other Effects as they have been taken and robbed
   of, since the Cessation of Arms, and that you
   will deliver up to the Bearer such _English_ Men
   as are now detained, or otherwise remain at _Trinidado_;
   and also expect you will hereafter forbear
   granting any Commissions, or suffer any such
   notorious Villains to be equipp'd and fitted out
   from your Port: otherwise you may depend upon
   it, those that I can meet with, shall be esteemed
   Pyrates, and treated as such; of which I thought
   proper to give you Notice, and am, _&c._

_A Letter from Mr. _Joseph Laws_, Lieutenant of his Majesty's Ship,
_Happy_ Snow, to the Alcaldes of _Trinidado_._


   `I Am sent by Commadore _Vernon_, Commander
   in Chief of all his Majesty's Ships in the
   _West-Indies_ to demand in the King our Master's
   Name, all the Vessels, with theirs Effects, _&c._
   and also the Negroes taken from _Jamaica_ since the
   Cessation of Arms; likewise all _Englishmen_ now
   detained, or otherwise remaining in your Port of
   _Trinidado_, particularly _Nicholas Brown_ and _Christopher
   Winter_, both of them being Traytors, Pyrates
   and common Enemies to all Nations: And
   the said Commadore hath ordered me to acquaint
   you, that he is surprized that the Subjects of a
   Prince in Amity and Friendship with another,
   should give Countenance to such notorious Villains.
   In Expectation of your immediate Compliance,
   I am, Gentlemen,

Off the River _Trinidado_, _Feb._ 8. 1720.

Your humble Servant, _Joseph Laws_.

_The Answer of the Alcaldes of _Trinidado_, to Mr. _Laws_'s Letter._

      Capt. Laws,

   `IN Answer to yours, this serves to acquaint
   you, that neither in this City, nor Port, are
   there any Negroes or Vessels which have been taken
   at your Island of _Jamaica_, nor on that Coast,
   since the Cessation of Arms; and what Vessels
   have been taken since that Time, have been for
   trading in an unlawful Commerce on this Coast;
   and as for those English Fugitives you mention,
   they are here as other Subjects of our Lord the
   King, being brought voluntarily to our holy Catholick
   Faith, and have received the Water of
   Baptism; but if they should prove Rogues, and
   should not comply with their Duty, in which
   they are bound at present, then they shall be
   chastized according to the Ordinances of our
   King, whom God preserve. And we beg you will
   weigh Anchor as soon as possible, and leave this
   Port and its Coasts, because upon no Account you
   shall be suffered to trade, or any Thing else; for
   we are resolved not to admit thereof. God preserve
   you. We kiss your Hand.

_Trinidado_, _Feb._ 8, 1722.

Signed, _Hieronimo de Fuentes, Benette Alfonso del Manzano_.

_Mr. _Laws_'s Reply to the Alcaldes Letter._


   `YOUR refusing to deliver up the Subjects of
   the King my Master, is somewhat surprizing,
   it being in a Time of Peace, and the detaining
   them consequently against the Law of Nations.
   Notwithstanding your trifling Pretence
   (for which you have no Foundation but to forge an
   Excuse) to prevent my making any Enquiry into
   the Truth of the Facts I have alledged in my
   former, I must tell you my Resolutions are, to
   stay on the Coast till I have made Reprizals; and
   should I meet any Vessels belonging to your Port,
   I shall not treat them as the Subjects of the Crown
   of Spain, but as Pyrates, finding it a Part of your
   Religion in this Place to protect such Villains.

Off the River _Trinidado_, _Feb._ 8. 1720.

Your humble Servant, _Joseph Laws_.

_The Answer of one of the Alcaldes to Mr. _Laws_'s Reply_.

      Captain Laws,

   `YOU may assure your self, I will never be
   wanting in the Duty of my Post. The
   Prisoners that are here are not in Prison, but
   only kept here to be sent to the Governor of the
   _Havana_: If you (as you say) command at Sea, I
   command on Shoar: If you treat the _Spaniards_,
   you should happen to take, as Pyrates, I will do
   the same by every one of your People I can
   take up: I will not be wanting to good Manners,
   if you will do the same. I can likewise act the
   Soldier, if any Occasion should offer that way,
   for I have very good People here for that purpose.
   If you pretend any Thing else, you may execute
   it on this Coast. God preserve you. I kiss your

_Trinidado_, _Feb._ 20. 1720.

Signed, _Bennette Alfonso del Menzano_.

The last Advices we have received from our Plantations in _America_, dated
_June_ 9th, 1724, gives us the following Account, _viz._ That Captain
_Jones_ in the Ship _John_ and _Mary_, on the 5th of the said Month, met
with, near the Capes of _Virginia_, a _Spanish Guard del Coast_, commanded
by one _Don Benito_, said to be commissioned by the Governor of _Cuba_: She
was manned with 60 _Spaniards_, 18 _French_ Men and 18 _English_, and had
an _English_ Captain as well as _Spanish_, one _Richard Holland_, who
formerly belonged to the _Suffolk_ Man of War, which he deserted at
_Naples_, and took Shelter in a Convent. He served on Board the _Spanish_
Fleet under Admiral _Cammock_, in the War in the _Mediterranean_; and after
the Cessation of Arms with Spain, settled with several of his Countrymen
(_Irish_) in the _Spanish_ _West-Indies_. This _Guard del Coast_ made Prize
of Captain _Jones_'s Ship, and kept Possession of her from 5th to the 8th,
during which Time she took also the _Prudent Hannah_ of _Boston_, _Thomas
Mousell_ Master, and the _Dolphin_ of _Topsham_, _Theodore Bare_ Master,
both laden and bound for _Virginia_: The former they sent away together
with three Men and the Mate, under the Command of a _Spanish_ Officer and
Crew, the same Day she was taken; the latter they carried off with them,
putting the Master and all the Crew aboard Captain _Jones_'s Ship. They
plundered Captain _Jones_ of thirty six Men Slaves, some Gold-Dust, all his
Cloaths, four great Guns and small Arms, and about four hundred Gallons of
Rum, besides his Provisions and Stores, computed in all to 1500 _l._

CHAP. I. OF Captain _AVERY_, And his CREW.

NONE of these bold Adventurers were ever so much talked of, for a
while, as _Avery_; he made as great a Noise in the World as _Meriveis_ does
now, and was looked upon to be a Person of as great Consequence; he was
represented in _Europe_, as one that had raised himself to the Dignity of a
King, and was likely to be the Founder of a new Monarchy; having, as it was
said, taken immense Riches, and married the Great _Mogul_'s Daughter, who
was taken in an _Indian_ Ship, which fell into his Hands; and that he had
by her many Children, living in great Royalty and State; that he had built
Forts, erected Magazines, and was Master of a stout Squadron of Ships,
mann'd with able and desperate Fellows of all Nations; that he gave
Commissions out in his own Name to the Captains of his Ships, and to the
Commanders of his Forts, and was acknowledged by them as their Prince. A
Play was writ upon him, called, the _Successful Pyrate_; and, these
Accounts obtained such Belief, that several Schemes were offered to the
Council for fitting out a Squadron to take him; while others were for
offering him and his Companions an Act of Grace, and inviting them to
_England_, with all their Treasure, least his growing Greatness might
hinder the Trade of _Europe_ to the _East-Indies_.

Yet all these were no more than false Rumours, improved by the Credulity of
some, and the Humour of others who love to tell strange Things; for, while
it was said, he was aspiring at a Crown, he wanted a Shilling; and at the
same Time it was given out he was in Possession of such prodigious Wealth
in _Madagascar_, he was starving in _England_.

No doubt, but the Reader will have a Curiosity of knowing what became of
this Man, and what were the true Grounds of so many false Reports
concerning him; there fore, I shall, in as brief a Manner as I can, give
his History.

He was born in the West of _England_ near _Plymouth_ in _Devonshire_, being
bred to the Sea, he served as a Mate of a Merchant-Man, in several trading
Voyages: It happened before the Peace of _Ryfwick_, when there was an
Alliance betwixt _Spain_, _England_, _Holland_, _&c._ against _France_,
that the _French_ in _Martinico_, carried on a smugling Trade with the
_Spaniards_ on the Continent of _Peru_, which by the Laws of _Spain_, is
not allowed to Friends in Time of Peace, for none but native _Spaniards_
are permitted to Traffick in those Parts, or set their Feet on Shore,
unless at any Time they are brought as Prisoners; wherefore they constantly
keep certain Ships cruising along the Coast, whom they call _Guarda del
Costa_, who have the Orders to make Prizes of all ships they can light of
within five Leagues of Land. Now the _French_ growing very bold in Trade,
and the _Spaniards_ being poorly provided with Ships, and those they had
being of no Force, it often fell out, that when they light of the _French_
Smuglers, they were not strong enough to attack them, therefore it was
resolv'd in _Spain_, to hire two or three stout foreign Ships for their
Service, which being known at _Bristol_, some Merchants of that City,
fitted out two Ships of thirty odd Guns, and 120 Hands each, well furnished
with Provision and Ammunition, and all other Stores; and the Hire being
agreed for, by some Agents for _Spain_, they were commanded to sail for
_Corunna_ or the _Groine_, there to receive their Orders, and to take on
Board some _Spanish_ Gentlemen, who were to go Passengers to _New-Spain_.

Of one of these Ships, which I take to be call'd the _Duke_, Capt. _Gibson_
Commander, _Avery_ was first Mate, and being a Fellow of more Cunning than
Courage, he insinuated himself into the good Will of several of the boldest
Fellows on Board the other Ship, as well as that which he was on Board of;
having sounded their Inclinations before he opened himself, and finding
them ripe for his Design, he, at length, proposed to them, to run away with
the Ship, telling them what great Wealth was to be had upon the Coasts of
_India_. It was no sooner said than agreed to, and they resolved to execute
their Plot at Ten a Clock the Night following.

It must be observ'd, the Captain was one of those who are mightily addicted
to Punch, so that he passed most of his Time on Shore, in some little
drinking Ordinary; but this Day he did not go on Shore as usual; however,
this did not spoil the Design, for he took his usual Dose on Board, and so
got to Bed before the Hour appointed for the Business: The Men also who
were not privy to the Design, turn'd into their Hammocks, leaving none upon
Deck but the Conspirators, who, indeed, were the greatest Part of the
Ship's Crew. At the Time agreed on, the _Dutchess_'s Long-Boat appear'd,
which _Avery_ hailing in the usual Manner, was answered by the Men in her,
_Is your drunken Boatswain on Board?_ Which was the Watch-Word agreed
between them, and _Avery_ replying in the Affirmative, the Boat came aboard
with sixteen stout Fellows, and joined the Company.

When our Gentry saw that all was clear, they secured the Hatches, so went
to work; they did not slip the Anchor, but weigh'd it leisurely, and so put
to Sea without any Disorder or Confusion, tho' there were several Ships
then lying in the Bay, and among them a _Dutch_ Frigate of forty Guns, the
Captain of which was offered a great Reward to go out after her; but
_Mynheer_, who perhaps would not have been willing to have been served so
himself could not be prevail'd upon to give such Usage to another, and so
let Mr. _Avery_ pursue his Voyage, whither he had a Mind to.

The Captain, who by this Time, was awaked, either by the Motion of the
Ship, or the Noise of working the Tackles, rung the Bell; _Avery_ and two
others went into the Cabin; the Captain, half asleep, and in a kind of
Fright, ask'd, _What was the Matter?_ _Avery_ answered cooly, _Nothing_;
the Captain replied, _something's the Matter with the Ship, Does she drive?
What Weather is it?_ Thinking nothing less then that it had been a Storm,
and that the Ship was driven from her Anchors: _No, no_, answered _Avery_,
_we're at Sea, with a fair Wind and good Weather. At Sea! _says the
Captain, _How can that be? Come_, says _Avery, don't be in a Fright, but
put on your Cloaths, and I'll let you into a Secret: -- You muse know, that
I am Captain of this Ship now, and this is my Cabin, therefore you must
walk out; I am bound to _Madagascar_, with a Design of making my own
Fortune, and that of all the brave Fellows joined with me._

The Captain having a little recovered his Senses, began to apprehend the
meaning; however, his Fright was as great as before, which _Avery_
perceiving, bad him fear nothing, for, says he, if you have a Mind to make
one of us, we will receive you, and if you'll turn sober, and mind your
Business, perhaps in Time I may make you one of my Lieutenants, if not,
here's a Boat a-long-side, and you shall be set ashore.

The Captain was glad to hear this, and therefore accepted of his Offer, and
the whole Crew being called up, to know who was willing to go on Shore with
the Captain, and who to seek their Fortunes with the rest; there were not
above five or six who were willing to quit this Enterprize; wherefore they
were put into the Boat with the Captain that Minute, and made their Way to
the Shore as well as they could.

They proceeded on their Voyage to _Madagascar_, but I do not find they took
any Ships in their Way; when they arrived at the N. E. Part of that Island,
they found two Sloops at Anchor, who, upon seeing them, slip'd their Cables
and run themselves ashore, the Men all landing, and running into the Woods;
these were two Sloops which the Men had run away with from the
_West-Indies_, and seeing _Avery_, they supposed him to be some Frigate
sent to take them, and therefore not being of Force to engage him, they did
what they could to save themselves.

He guessed where they were, and sent some of his Men on Shore to let them
know they were Friends, and to offer they might join together for their
common Safety; the Sloops Men were well arm'd, and had posted themselves in
a Wood, with Centinels just on the out-side, to observe whether the Ship
landed her Men to pursue them, and they observing only two or three Men to
come towards them without Arms, did not oppose them, but having challenged
them, and they answering they were Friends, they lead them to their Body,
where they delivered their Message; at first, they apprehended it was a
Stratagem to decoy them on Board, but when the Ambassadors offered that the
Captain himself, and as many of the Crew as they should name, would meet
them on Shore without Arms, they believed them to be in Earnest, and they
soon entered into a Confidence with one another; those on Board going on
Shore, and some of those on Shore going on Board.

The Sloops Men were rejoiced at the new Ally, for their Vessels were so
small, that they could not attack a Ship of any Force, so that hitherto
they had not taken any considerable Prize, but now they hop'd to fly at
high Game; and _Avery_ was as well pleased at this Reinforcement, to
strengthen them, for any brave Enterprize, and tho' the Booty must be
lessened to each, by being divided into so many Shares, yet he found out an
Expedient not to suffer by it himself as shall be shewn in its Place.

Having consulted what was to be done, they resolved to sail out together
upon a Cruize, the Galley and two Sloops; they therefore fell to work to
get the Sloops off, which they soon effected, and steered towards the
_Arabian_ Coast; near the River _Indus_, the Man at the Mast-Head spied a
Sail, upon which they gave Chace, and as they came nearer to her, they
perceived her to be a tall Ship, and fancied she might be a _Dutch
East-India_ Man homeward bound; but she proved a better Prize; when they
fired at her to bring too, she hoisted _Mogul_'s Colours, and seemed to
stand upon her Defence; _Avery_ only canonaded at a Distance, and some of
his Men began to suspect that he was not the Hero they took him for:
However, the Sloops made Use of their Time, and coming one on the Bow, and
the other on the Quarter, of the Ship, clapt her on Board, and enter'd her,
upon which she immediately struck her Colours and yielded; she was one of
the _Great Mogul_'s own Ships, and there were in her several of the
greatest Persons of his Court, among whom it was said was one of his
Daughters, who were going on a Pilgrimage to _Mecca_, the _Mahometans_
thinking themselves obliged once in their Lives to visit that Place, and
they were carrying with them rich Offerings to present at the Shrine of
_Mahomet_. It is known that the Eastern People travel with the utmost
Magnificence, so that they had with them all their Slaves and Attendants,
their rich Habits and Jewels, with Vessels of Gold and Silver, and great
Sums of Money to defray the Charges of their Journey by Land; wherefore the
Plunder got by this Prize, is not easily computed.

Having taken all the Treasure on Board their own Ships, and plundered their
Prize of every Thing else they either wanted or liked, they let her go; she
not being able to continue her Voyage, returned back: As soon as the News
came to the _Mogul_, and he knew that they were _English_ who had robbed
them, he threatened loud, and talked of sending a mighty Army with Fire and
Sword, to extirpate the _English_ from all their Settlements on the
_Indian_ Coast. The _East-India_ Company in _England_, were very much
alarmed at it; however, by Degrees, they found Means to pacify him, by
promising to do their Endeavours to take the Robbers, and deliver them into
his Hands; however, the great Noise this Thing made in Europe, as well as
_India_, was the Occasion of all these romantick Stories which were formed
of _Avery_'s Greatness.

In the mean Time our successful Plunderers agreed to make the best of their
Way back to _Madagascar_, intending to make that Place their Magazine or
Repository for all their Treasure, and to build a small Fortification
there, and leave a few Hands always ashore to look after it, and defend it
from any Attempts of the Natives; but _Avery_ put an End to this Project,
and made it altogether unnecessary.

As they were Steering their Course, as has been said, he sends a Boat on
Board of each of the Sloops, desiring the Chief of them to come on Board of
him, in order to hold a Council; they did so, and he told them he had
something to propose to them for the common Good, which was to provide
against Accidents; he bad them consider the Treasure they were possess'd
of, would be sufficient for them all if they could secure it in some Place
on Shore; therefore all they had to fear, was some Misfortune in the
Voyage; he bad them consider the Consequences of being separated by bad
Weather, in which Case, the Sloops, if either of them should fall in with
any Ships of Force, must be either taken or sunk, and the Treasure on Board
her lost to the rest, besides the common Accidents of the Sea; as for his
Part he was so strong, he was able to make his Party good with any Ship
they were like to meet in those Seas; that if he met with any Ship of such
Strength, that he could not take her, he was safe from being taken, being
so well mann'd; besides his Ship was a quick Sailor, and could carry Sail,
when the Sloops could not, wherefore, he proposed to them, to put the
Treasure on Board his Ship, to seal up each Chest with 3 Seals, whereof
each was to keep one, and to appoint a Rendezvous, in Case of Separation.

Upon considering this Proposal, it appeared so seasonable to them, that
they readily came into it, for they argued to themselves, that an Accident
might happen to one of the Sloops and the other escape, wherefore it was
for the common Good. The Thing was done as agreed to, the Treasure put on
Board of _Avery_, and the Chests seal'd; they kept Company that Day and the
next, the Weather being fair, in which Time _Avery_ tampered with his Men,
telling them they now had sufficient, to make them all easy, and what
should hinder them from going to some Country, where they were not known,
and living on Shore all the rest of their Days in Plenty; they understood
what he meant: And in short, they all agreed to bilk their new Allies, the
Sloop's Men, nor do I find that any of them felt any Qualms of Honour
rising in his Stomach, to hinder them from consenting to this Piece of
Treachery. In fine, they took Advantage of the Darkness that Night, steer'd
another Course, and, by Morning, lost Sight of them.

I leave the Reader to judge, what Swearing and Confusion there was among
the Sloop's Men, in the Morning, when they saw that _Avery_ had given them
the Slip; for they knew by the Fairness of the Weather, and the Course they
had agreed to steer, that it must have been done on purpose: But we leave
them at present to follow Mr. _Avery_.

_Avery_, and his Men, having consulted what to do with themselves, came to
a Resolution, to make the best of their Way towards _America_; and none of
them being known in those Parts, they intended to divide the Treasure, to
change their Names, to go ashore, some in one Place, some in other, to
purchase some Settlements, and live at Ease. The first Land they made, was
the Island of _Providence_, then newly settled; here they staid some Time,
and having considered that when they should go to _New-England_, the
Greatness of their Ship, would cause much Enquiry about them; and possibly
some People from _England_, who had heard the Story of a Ship's being run
away with from the _Groine_, might suspect them to be the People; they
therefore took a Resolution of disposing of their Ship at _Providence_:
Upon which, _Avery_ pretending that the Ship being fitted out upon the
privateering Account, and having had no Success, he had received Orders
from the Owners, to dispose of her to the best Advantage, he soon met with
a Purchaser, and immediately bought a sloop.

In this Sloop, he and his Companions embarq'd, they touch'd at several
Parts of _America_, where no Person suspected them; and some of them went
on Shore, and dispersed themselves about the Country, having received such
Dividends as _Avery_ would give them; for he concealed the greatest Part of
the Diamonds from them, which in the first Hurry of plundering the Ship,
they did not much regard, as not knowing their Value.

At length he came to _Boston_, in _New-England_, and seem'd to have a
Desire of settling in those Parts, and some of his Companions went on Shore
there also, but he changed his Resolution, and proposed to the few of his
Companions who were left, to sail for _Ireland_, which they consented to:
He found out that _New-England_ was not a proper Place for him, because a
great deal of his Wealth lay in Diamonds; and should he have produced them
there, he would have certainly been seiz'd on Suspicion of Pyracy.

In their Voyage to Ireland, they avoided St. _George_'s Channel, and
sailing North about, they put into one of the Northern Ports of that
Kingdom; there they disposed of their Sloop, and coming on Shore they
separated themselves, some going to _Cork_, and some to _Dublin_, 18 of
whom obtain'd their Pardons afterwards of K. _William_. When _Avery_ had
remain'd some Time in this Kingdom, he was afraid to offer his Diamonds to
sale, least an Enquiry into his Manner of coming by them should occasion a
Discovery; therefore considering with himself what was best to be done, he
fancied there were some Persons at _Bristol_, whom he might venture to
trust; upon which, he resolved to pass over into _England_; he did so, and
going into _Devonshire_, he sent to one of these Friends to meet him at a
Town called _Biddiford_; when he had communicated himself to his Friends,
and consulted with him about the Means of his Effects, they agreed, that
the safest Method would be, to put them in the Hands of some Merchants, who
being Men of Wealth and Credit in the World, no Enquiry would be made how
they came by them; this Friend telling him he was very intimate with some
who were very fit for the Purpose, and if he would but allow them a good
Commission would do the Business very faithfully. _Avery_ liked the
Proposal, for he found no other Way of managing his Affairs, since he could
not appear in them himself; therefore his Friend going back to _Bristol_,
and opening the Matter to the Merchants, they made _Avery_ a Visit at
_Biddiford_, where, after some Protestations of Honour and Integrity, he
delivered them his Effects, consisting of Diamonds and some Vessels of
Gold; they gave him a little Money for his present Subsistance, and so they

He changed his Name and lived at _Biddiford_, without making any Figure,
and therefore there was no great Notice taken of him; yet let one or two of
his Relations know where he was, who came to see him. In some Time his
little Money was spent, yet he heard nothing from his Merchants; he writ to
them often, and after much Importunity they sent him a small Supply, but
scarce sufficient to pay his Debts: In fine, the Supplies they sent him
from Time to Time, were so small, that they were not sufficient to give him
Bread, nor could he get that little, without a great deal of Trouble and
Importunity, wherefore being weary of his Life, he went privately to
_Bristol_, to speak to the Merchants himself, where instead of Money he met
a most shocking Repulse, for when he desired them to come to an Account
with him, they silenced him by threatening to discover him, so that our
Merchants were as good Pyrates at Land as he was at Sea.

Whether he was frightened by these Menaces, or had seen some Body else he
thought knew him, is not known; but he went immediately over to _Ireland_,
and from thence sollicited his Merchants very hard for a Supply, but to no
Purpose, for he was even reduced to beggary: In this Extremity he was
resolved to return and cast himself upon them, let the Consequence be what
it would. He put himself on Board a trading Vessel, and work'd his Passage
over to _Plymouth_, from whence he travelled on Foot to _Biddiford_, where
he had been but a few Days before he fell sick and died; not being worth as
much as would buy him a Coffin.

Thus have I given all that could be collected of any Certainty concerning
this Man; rejecting the idle Stories which were made of his fantastick
Greatness, by which it appears, that his Actions were more inconsiderable
than those of other Pyrates, since him, though he made more Noise in the

Now we shall turn back and give our Readers some Account of what became of
the two Sloops.

We took Notice of the Rage and Confusion, which must have seized them, upon
their missing of _Avery_; however, they continued their Course, some of
them still flattering themselves that he had only out sailed them in the
Night, and that they should find him at the Place of Rendezvous: But when
they came there, and could hear no Tydings of him, there was an End of
Hope. It was Time to consider what they should do with themselves, their
Stock of Sea Provision was almost spent, and tho' there was Rice and Fish,
and Fowl to be had ashore, yet these would not keep for Sea, without being
properly cured with Salt, which they had no Conveniency of doing;
therefore, since they could not go a Cruizing any more, it was Time to
think of establishing themselves at Land; to which Purpose they took all
Things out of the Sloops, made Tents of the Sails, and encamped themselves,
having a large Quantity of Ammunition, and abundance of small Arms.

Here they met with several of their Countrymen, the Crew of a Privateer
Sloop which was commanded by Captain _Thomas Tew_; and since it will be but
a short Digression, we will give an Account how they came here.

Captain _George Dew_ and Captain _Thomas Tew_, having received Commissions
from the then Governor of _Bermudas_, to sail directly for the River
_Gambia_ in _Africa_; there, with the Advice and Assistance of the Agents
of the Royal _African_ Company, to attempt the taking the _French_ Factory
at _Goorie_, lying upon that Coast. In a few Days after they sailed out,
_Dew_ in a violent Storm, not only sprung his Mast, but lost Sight of his
Consort; _Dew_ therefore returned back to refit, and _Tew_ instead of
proceeding on his Voyage, made for the _Cape of Good Hope_, and doubling
the said Cape, shaped his Course for the Straits of _Babel Mandel_, being
the Entrance into the _Red Sea_. Here he came up with a large Ship, richly
laden, bound from the _Indies_ to _Arabia_, with three hundred Soldiers on
Board, besides Seamen; yet _Tew_ had the Hardiness to board her, and soon
carried her; and, 'tis said, by this Prize, his Men shared near three
thousand Pounds a Piece: They had Intelligence from the Prisoners, of five
other rich Ships to pass that Way, which _Tew_ would have attacked, tho'
they were very strong, if he had not been over-ruled by the Quarter-Master
and others.--This differing in Opinion created some ill Blood amongst them,
so that they resolved to break up pyrating, and no Place was so fit to
receive them as _Madagascar_; hither they steered, resolving to live on
Shore and enjoy what they got.

As for _Tew_ himself, he with a few others in a short Time went off to
_Rhode Island_, from whence he made his Peace.

Thus have we accounted for the Company our Pyrates met with here.

It must be observed that the Natives of _Madagascar_ are a kind of Negroes,
they differ from those of _Guiney_ in their Hair, which is long, and their
Complexion is not so good a Jet; they have innumerable little Princes among
them, who are continually making War upon one another; their Prisoners are
their Slaves, and they either sell them, or put them to death, as they
please: When our Pyrates first settled amongst them, their Alliance was
much courted by these Princes, so they sometimes joined one, sometimes
another, but wheresoever they sided, they were sure to be Victorious; for
the Negroes here had no Fire-Arms, nor did they understand their Use; so
that at length these Pyrates became so terrible to the Negroes, that if two
or or three of them were only seen on one Side, when they were going to
engage, the opposite Side would fly without striking a Blow.

By these Means they not only became feared, but powerful; all the Prisoners
of War, they took to be their Slaves; they married the most beautiful of
the Negroe Women; not one or two, but as many as they liked; so that every
one of them had as great a Seraglio as the Grand Seignior at
_Constantinople_: Their Slaves they employed in planting Rice, in Fishing,
Hunting, _&c._ besides which, they had abundance of others, who lived, as
it were, under their Protection, and to be secure from the Disturbances or
Attacks of their powerful Neighbours; these seemed to pay them a willing
Homage. Now they began to divide from one another, each living with his own
Wives, Slaves and Dependants, like a separate Prince; and as Power and
Plenty naturally beget Contention, they sometimes quarrelled with one
another, and attacked each other at the Head of their several Armies; and
in these civil Wars, many of them were killed; but an Accident happened,
which obliged them to unite again for their common Safety.

It must be observed that these sudden great Men, had used their Power like
Tyrants, for they grew wanton in Cruelty, and nothing was more common, than
upon the slightest Displeasure, to cause one of their Dependants to be tied
to a Tree and shot thro' the Heart, let the Crime be what it would, whether
little or great, this was always the Punishment; wherefore the Negroes
conspired together, to rid themselves of these Destroyers, all in one
Night; and as they now lived separate, the Thing might easily have been
done, had not a Woman, who had been Wife or Concubine to one of them, run
near twenty Miles in three Hours, to discover the Matter to them:
Immediately upon the Alarm they ran together as fast as they could, so that
when the Negroes approached them, they found them all up in Arms; wherefore
they retired without making any Attempt.

This Escape made them very cautious from that Time, and it will be worth
while to describe the Policy of these brutish Fellows, and to shew what
Measures they took to secure themselves.

They found that the Fear of their Power could not secure them against a
Surprize, and the bravest Man may be kill'd when he is asleep, by one much
his inferior in Courage and Strength, therefore, as their first Security,
they did all they could to foment War betwixt the neighbouring Negroes,
remaining Neuter themselves, by which Means, those who were overcome
constantly lied to them for Protection, otherwise they must be either
killed or made Slaves. They strengthened their Party, and tied some to them
by interest; when there was no War, they contrived to spirit up private
Quarrels among them, and upon every little Dispute or Misunderstanding,
push on one Side or other to Revenge; instruct them how to attack or
surprize their Adversaries, and lend them loaded Pistols or Firelocks to
dispatch them with; the Consequence of which was, that the Murderer was
forced to fly to them for the safety of his Life, with his Wives, Children
and Kindred.

Such as these were fast Friends, as their Lives depended upon the safety of
his Protectors; for as we observed before, our Pyrates were grown so
terrible, that none of their Neighbours had Resolution enough to attack
them in an open War.

By such Arts as these, in the Space of a few Years, their Body was greatly
increased, they then began to separate themselves, and remove at a greater
Distance from one another, for the Convenience of more Ground, and were
divided like Jews, into Tribes, each carrying with him his Wives and
Children, (of which, by this Time they had a large Family,) as also their
Quota of Dependants and Followers; and if Power and Command be the Thing
which distinguish a Prince, these Ruffians had all the Marks of Royalty
about them, nay more, they had the very Fears which commonly disturb
Tyrants, as may be seen by the extream Caution they took in fortifying the
Places where they dwelt.

In this Plan of Fortification they imitated one another, their Dwellings
were rather Citadels than Houses; they made Choice of a Place overgrown
with Wood, and scituate near a Water; they raised a Rampart or high Ditch
round it, so strait and high, that it was impossible to climb it, and
especially by those who had not the Use of scaling Ladders: Over this Ditch
there was one Passage into the Wood; the Dwelling, which was a Hut, was
built in that Part of the Wood which the Prince, who inhabited it, thought
fit, but so covered that it could not be seen till you came at it; but the
greatest Cunning lay in the Passage which lead to the Hut, which was so
narrow, that no more than one Person could go a Breast, and contrived in so
intricate a Manner, that it was a perfect Maze or Labyrinth, it being round
and round, with several little cross Ways, so that a Person that was not
well acquainted with the Way, might walk several Hours round and cross
these Ways without being able to find the Hut; moreover all along the Sides
of these narrow Paths, certain large Thorns which grew upon a Tree in that
Country, were struck into the Ground with their Points uppermost, and the
Path it self being made crooked and serpentine, if a Man should attempt to
come near the Hut at Night, he would certainly have struck upon these
Thorns, tho' he had been provided with that Clue which _Ariadne_ gave to
_Theseus_ when he entered the Cave of the _Minataur_.

Thus Tyrant like they lived, fearing and feared by all; and in this
Scituation they were found by Captain _Woods Rogers_, when he went to
_Madagascar_, in the _Delicia_, a Ship of forty Guns, with a Design of
buying Slaves in order to sell to the _Dutch_ at _Batavia_ or
_New-Holland_: He happened to touch upon a Part of the Island, where no
Ship had been seen for seven or eight Years before, where he met with some
of the Pyrates, at which Time, they had been upon the Island above 25
Years, having a large motly Generation of Children and Grand-Children
descended from them, there being about that Time, eleven of them remaining

Upon their first seeing a Ship of this Force and Burthen, they supposed it
to be a Man of War sent to take them; they therefore lurked within their
Fastnesses, but when some from the Ship came on Shore, without any shew of
Hostility, and offering to trade with the Negroes, they ventured to come
out of their Holes, attended like Princes; and since they actually are
Kings _De Facto_, which is a kind of a Right, we ought to speak of them as

Having been so many Years upon this Island, it may be imagined, their
Cloaths had long been worn out, so that their Majesties were extreamly out
at the Elbows; I cannot say they were ragged, since they had no Cloaths,
they had nothing to cover them but the Skins of Beasts without any tanning,
but with all the Hair on, nor a Shoe nor Stocking, so they looked like the
Pictures of _Hercules_ in the Lion's Skin; and being overgrown with Beard,
and Hair upon their Bodies, they appeared the most savage Figures that a
Man's Imagination can frame.

However, they soon got rigg'd, for they sold great Numbers of those poor
People under them, for Cloaths, Knives, Saws, Powder and Ball, and many
other Things, and became so familiar that they went aboard the _Delicia_,
and were observed to be very curious, examining the inside of the Ship, and
very familiar with the Men, inviting them ashore. Their Design in doing
this, as they afterwards confessed, was to try if it was not practicable to
surprize the Ship in the Night, which they judged very easy, in case there
was but a slender Watch kept on Board, they having Boats and Men enough at
Command, but it seems the Captain was aware of them, and kept so strong a
Watch upon Deck, that they found it was in vain to make any Attempt;
wherefore, when some of the Men went ashore, they were for inveigling them,
and drawing them into a Plot, for seizing the Captain and securing the rest
of the Men under Hatches, when they should have the Night-Watch, promising
a Signal to come on Board to join them; proposing, if they succeeded, to go
a Pyrating together, not doubting but with that Ship they should be able to
take any Thing they met on the Sea: But the Captain observing an intimacy
growing betwixt them and some of his Men, thought it could be for no good,
he therefore broke it off in Time, not suffering them so much as to talk
together; and when he sent a Boat on Shore with an Officer to treat with
them about the Sale of Slaves, the Crew remained on Board the Boat, and no
Man was suffered to talk with them, but the Person deputed by him for that

Before he sailed away, and they found that nothing was to be done, they
confessed all the Designs they had formed against him. Thus he left them as
he found them, in a great deal of dirty State and Royalty, but with fewer
Subjects than they had, having, as we observed, sold many of them; and if
Ambition be the darling Passion of Men, no doubt they were happy. One of
these great Princes had formerly been a Waterman upon the _Thames_, where
having committed a Murder, he fled to the _West-Indies_, and was of the
Number of those who run away with the Sloops; the rest had been all
foremast Men, nor was there a Man amongst them, who could either read or
write, and yet their Secretaries of State had no more Learning than
themselves. This is all the Account we can give of these Kings of
_Madagascar_, some of whom it is probable are reigning to this Day.

CHAP. II. OF Captain _MARTEL_, And his CREW.

I Come now to the Pyrates that have rose since the Peace of
_Utrecht_; in War Time there is no room for any, because all those of a
roving advent'rous Disposition find Employment in Privateers, so there is
no Opportunity for Pyrates; like our Mobs in London, when they come to any
Height, our Superiors order out the Train Bands, and when once they are
raised, the others are suppressed of Course; I take the Reason of it to be,
that the Mob go into the tame Army, and immediately from notorious Breakers
of the Peace, become, by being put into order, solemn Preservers of it. And
should our Legislators put some of the Pyrates into Authority, it would not
only lessen their Number, but, I imagine, set them upon the rest, and they
would be the likeliest People to find them out, according to the Proverb,
_set a Thief to catch a Thief._

To bring this about, there needs no other Encouragement, but to give all
the Effects taken aboard a Pyrate Vessel to the Captors; for in Case of
Plunder and Gain, they like it as well from Friends, as Enemies, but are
not fond, as Things are carry'd, _of ruining poor Fellowes_, say the
_Creoleans, with no Advantage to themselves._

The Multitude of Men and Vessels, employ'd this Way, in Time of War, in the
_West-Indies_, is another Reason, for the Number of Pyrates in a Time of
Peace: This cannot be supposed to be a Reflection on any of our _American_
Governments, much less on the King himself, by whose Authority such
Commissions are granted, because of the Reasonableness, and absolute
Necessity, there is for the doing of it; yet the Observation is just, for
so many idle People employing themselves in Privateers, for the sake of
Plunder and Riches, which they always spend as fast as they get, that when
the War is over, and they can have no farther Business in the Way of Life
they have been used to, they too readily engage in Acts of Pyracy, which
being but the same Practice without a Commission, they make very little
Distinction betwixt the Lawfulness of one, and the Unlawfulness of the

I have not enquired so far back, as to know the Original of this Rover, but
I believe he and his Gang, were some Privateer's Men belonging to the
Island of _Jamaica_, in the preceeding War; his Story is but short, for his
Reign was so; an End having been put to his Adventures in good Time, when
he was growing strong and formidable. We find him Commander of a Pyrate
Sloop of eight Guns, and 80 Men, in the Month of _September_, 1716,
cruising off _Jamaica_, _Cuba_, _&c._ about which Time he took the
_Berkley_ Galley, Captain _Saunders_, and plundered him of 1000 _l._ in
Money, and afterwards met with a Sloop call'd the _King Solomon_, from whom
he took some Money, and Provisions, besides Goods, to a good Value.

They proceeded after this to the Port of _Cavena_, at the Island of _Cuba_,
and in their Way took two Sloops, which they plundered, and let go; and off
the Port fell in with a fine Galley, with 20 Guns, call'd the _John_ and
_Martha_, Captain _Wilson_, which they attacked under the pyratical
Black-Flag, and made themselves Masters of her. They put some of the Men
ashore, and others they detain'd, as they had done several Times, to
encrease their Company; but Captain _Martel_, charged Captain _Wilson_, to
advise his Owners, that their Ship would answer his Purpose exactly, by
taking one Deck down, and as for the Cargo, which consisted chiefly of
Logwood and Sugar, he would take Care it should be carry'd to a good

Having fitted up the aforesaid Ship, as they design'd, they mounted her
with 22 Guns, 100 Men, and left 25 Hands in the Sloop, and so proceeded to
Cruize off the _Leeward_ Islands, where they met with but too much Success.
After the taking of a Sloop and a Brigantine, they gave Chase to a stout
Ship, which they came up with, and, at Sight of the Pyrate's Flag, she
struck to the Robbers, being a Ship of 20 Guns, call'd the _Dolphin_, bound
for _Newfoundland_. Captain _Martel_ made the Men Prisoners, and carry'd
the Ship with him.

The middle of _December_ the Pyrates took another Galley in her Voyage home
from _Jamaica_, call'd the _Kent_, Captain _Lawton_, and shifted her
Provisions aboard their own Ship, and let her go, which obliged her to Sail
back to _Jamaica_ for a Supply for her Voyage. After this they met with a
small Ship and a Sloop, belonging to _Barbadoes_, out of both they took
Provisions, and then parted with them, having first taken out some of their
Hands, who were willing to be forced to go along with them. The _Greyhound_
Galley of _London_, Captain _Evans_, from _Guiney_ to _Jamaica_, was the
next that had the Misfortune to fall in their Way, which they did not
detain long, for as soon as they could get out all her Gold Dust,
Elephant's Teeth, and 40 Slaves, they sent her onwards upon her Voyage.
. . . . .

They concluded now, that 'twas high Time to get into Harbour and refit, as
well as to get Refreshments themselves, and wait an Opportunity to dispose
of their Cargo; therefore 'twas resolved to make the best of their Way to
_Santa Crux_, a small Island in the Lattitude of 18, 30, N. ten Mile long,
and two broad, lying South-East of _Porto Rico_, belonging to the _French_
Settlements. Here they thought they might lye privately enough for some
Time, and fit themselves for further Mischief. They met with a Sloop by the
Way, which they took along with them, and in the Beginning of the Year
1716-17, they arrived at their Port, having a Ship of 20 Guns, a Sloop of
eight, and three Prizes, _viz._ another Ship of 20 Guns, a Sloop of four
Guns, and another Sloop last taken; with this little Fleet, they got into a
small Harbour, or Road, the N. W. Part of the Island, and warp'd up two
Creeks, which were made by a little Island lying within the Bay; (I am the
more particular now, because I shall take Leave of the Gentlemen, at this
Place.) They had here bare 16 Foot Water, at the deepest, and but 13 or 14,
at the shallowest, and nothing but Rocks and Sands without, which secured
them from Wind and Sea, and likewise from any considerable Force coming
against them.

When they had all got in, the first Thing they had to do, was to Guard
themselves in the best Manner they could; they made a Battery of four Guns
upon the Island, and another Battery of two Guns on the North Point of the
Road, and warp'd in one of the Sloops with eight Guns, at the Mouth of the
Channel, to hinder any Vessels from coming in; when this was done they went
to Work on their Ship, unrigging, and unloading, in order to Clean, where I
shall leave them a while, till I bring other Company to 'em.

In the Month of _November_, 1716, General _Hamilton_, Commander in chief of
all the _Leeward Carribee Islands_, sent a Sloop Express to Captain _Hume_,
at _Barbadoes_, Commander of his Majesty's Ship, _Scarborough_, of 30 Guns,
and 140 Men, to acquaint him, that two Pyrate Sloops of 12 Guns each,
molested the Colonies, having plundered several Vessels. The _Scarborough_
had bury'd twenty Men, and had near forty Sick, and therefore was but in
ill State to go to Sea: However, Captain _Hume_ left his sick Men behind,
and sailed to the other Islands, for a supply of Men, taking 20 Soldiers
from _Antegoa_; at _Nevis_, he took 10, and 10 at St. _Christophers_, and
then sailed to the Island of _Anguilla_, where he learned, that some Time
before, 2 such Sloops had been at _Spanish-Town_, otherwise called, one of
the _Virgin_ Islands: Accordingly, the next Day, the _Scarborough_ came to
_Spanish-Town_, but could hear no News of the Sloops, only, that they had
been there about _Christmas_, (it being then the 15th of _January_.)

Captain _Hume_, finding no Account could be had of these Pyrates, designed
to go back, the next Day, to _Barbadoes_; but, it happened, that Night,
that a Boat anchor'd there from _Santa Crux_, and informed him, that he saw
a Pyrate Ship of 22 or 24 Guns, with other Vessels, going in to the North
West Part of the Island aforesaid. The _Scarborough_ weigh'd immediately,
and the next Morning came in Sight of the Rovers, and their Prizes, and
stood to them, but the Pilot refused to venture in with the Ship; all the
while the Pyrates fir'd red hot Bullets from the Shore. At length, the Ship
came to an Anchor, along Side the Reef, near the Channel, and cannonaded
for several Hours, both the Vessels and Batteries: About four in the
Afternoon, the Sloop that guarded the Channel, was sunk by the Shot of the
Man of War; then she cannonaded the Pyrate Ship of 22 Guns, that lay behind
the Island. The next Night, _viz._ the 18th, it falling Calm, Captain
_Hume_ weigh'd, fearing he might fall on the Reef, and so stood off and on
for a Day or two, to block them up. On the 20th, in the Evening, they
observed the Man of War to stand off to Sea, and took the Opportunity to
warp out, in order to slip away from the Island; but at Twelve o'Clock they
run a-ground, and then seeing the _Scarborough_ about, standing in again,
as their Case was desperate, so they were put into the utmost Confusion;
they quitted their Ship, and set her on Fire, with 20 Negroes in her, who
were all burnt; 19 of the Pyrates made their Escape in a small Sloop, but
the Captain and the rest, with 20 Negroes, betook to the Woods, where 'twas
probable they might starve, for we never heard what became of 'em
afterwards: Captain _Hume_ released the Prisoners, with the Ship and Sloop
that remained, and then went after the two Pyrate Sloops first mentioned.


E_Dward Teach_ was a _Bristol_ Man born, but had sailed some Time out
of _Jamaica_ in Privateers, in the late _French_ War; yet tho' he had often
distinguished himself for his uncommon Boldness and personal Courage, he
was never raised to any Command, till he went a-pyrating, which I think was
at the latter End of the Year 1716, when Captain _Benjamin Hornigold_ put
him into a Sloop that he had made Prize of, and with whom he continued in
Consortship till a little while before _Hornigold_ surrendered.

In the Spring of the Year 1717, _Teach_ and _Hornigold_ sailed from
_Providence_, for the Main of _America_, and took in their Way a Billop
from the _Havana_, with 120 Barrels of Flower, as also a Sloop from
_Bermuda_, _Thurbar_ Master, from whom they took only some Gallons of Wine,
and then let him go; and a Ship from _Madera_ to _South-Carolina_, out of
which they got Plunder to a considerable Value.

After cleaning on the Coast of _Virginia_, they returned to the
_West-Indies_, and in the Latitude of 24, made Prize of a large _French
Guiney_ Man, bound to _Martinico_, which by _Hornigold_'s Consent, _Teach_
went aboard of as Captain, and took a Cruize in her; _Hornigold_ returned
with his Sloop to _Providence_, where, at the Arrival of Captain _Rogers_,
the Governor, he surrendered to Mercy, pursuant to the King's Proclamation.

Aboard of this _Guiney_ Man _Teach_ mounted no Guns, and named her the
_Queen Ann's Revenge_; and cruising near the Island of St. _Vincent_, took
a large Ship, called the _Great Allen_, _Christopher Taylor_ Commander; the
Pyrates plundered her of what they though fit, put all the Men ashore upon
the Island above mentioned, and then set Fire to the Ship.

A few Days after, _Teach_ fell in with the _Scarborogh_ Man of War, of 30
Guns, who engaged him for some Hours; but she finding the Pyrate well
mann'd, and having tried her strength, gave over the Engagement, and
returned to _Barbadoes_, the Place of her Station; and _Teach_ sailed
towards the _Spanish America_.

In his Way he met with a Pyrate Sloop of ten Guns, commanded by one Major
_Bonnet_, lately a Gentleman of good Reputation and Estate in the Island of
_Barbadoes_, whom he joyned; but in a few Days after, _Teach_, finding that
_Bonnet_ knew nothing of a maritime Life, with the Consent of his own Men,
put in another Captain, one _Richards_, to Command _Bonnet_'s Sloop, and
took the Major on aboard his own Ship, telling him, that _as he had not
been used to the Fatigues and Care of such a Post, it would be better for
him to decline it, and live easy and at his Pleasure, in such a Ship as
his, where he should not be obliged to perform Duty, but follow his own

At _Turniff_ ten Leagues short of the Bay of _Honduras_, the Pyrates took
in fresh Water; and while they were at an Anchor there, they saw a Sloop
coming in, whereupon, _Richards_ in the Sloop called the _Revenge_, slipped
his Cable, and run out to meet her; who upon seeing the black Flag hoisted,
struck his Sail and came to, under the Stern of _Teach_ the Commadore. She
was called the _Adventure_, from _Jamaica_, _David Harriot_ Master. They
took him and his Men aboard the great Ship, and sent a Number of other
Hands with _Israel Hands_, Master of _Teach_'s Ship, to Man the Sloop for
the pyratical Account.

The 9th of April, they weighed from _Turniff_, having lain there about a
Week, and sailed to the Bay, where they found a Ship and four Sloops, three
of the latter belonged to _Jonathan Bernard_, of _Jamaica_, and the other
to Captain _James_; the Ship was of _Boston_, called the _Protestant
Cæsar_, Captain _Wyar_ Commander. _Teach_ hoisted his Black Colours, and
fired a Gun, upon which Captain _Wyar_ and all his Men, left their Ship,
and got ashore in their Boat. _Teach_'s Quarter-Master, and eight of his
Crew, took Possession of _Wyar_'s Ship, and _Richards_ secured all the
Sloops, one of which they burnt out of spight to the Owner; the _Protestant
Cæsar_ they also burnt, after they had plundered her, because she belonged
to _Boston_, where some Men had been hanged for Pyracy; and the three
Sloops belonging to _Bernard_ they let go.

From hence the Rovers sailed to _Turkill_, and then to the _Grand
Caimanes_, a small Island about thirty Leagues to the Westward of
_Jamaica_, where they took a small Turtler, and so to the _Havana_, and
from thence to the _Bahama_ Wrecks, and from the _Bahama_ Wrecks, they
sailed to _Carolina_, taking a Brigantine and two Sloops in their Way,
where they lay off the Bar of _Charles-Town_ for five or six Days. They
took here a Ship as she was coming out, bound for London, commanded by
_Robert Clark_, with some Passengers on Board for _England_; the next Day
they took another Vessel coming out of _Charles-Town_, and also two Pinks
coming into _Charles-Town_; likewise a Brigantine with 14 Negroes aboard;
all which being done in the Face of the Town, struck a great Terror to the
whole Province of _Carolina_, having just before been visited by _Vane_,
another notorious Pyrate, that they abandoned themselves to Dispair, being
in no Condition to resist their Force. They were eight Sail in the Harbour,
ready for the Sea, but none dared to venture out, it being almost
impossible to escape their Hands. The inward bound Vessels were under the
same unhappy Dilemma, so that the Trade of this Place was totally
interrupted: What made these Misfortunes heavier to them, was a long
expensive War, the Colony had had with the Natives, which was but just
ended when these Robbers infested them.

_Teach_ detained all the Ships and Prisoners, and, being in want of
Medicines, resolves to demand a Chest from the Government of the Province;
accordingly _Richards_, the Captain of the _Revenge_ Sloop, with two or
three more Pyrates, were sent up along with Mr. _Marks_, one of the
Prisoners, whom they had taken in _Clark_'s Ship, and very insolently made
their Demands, threatning, that if they did not send immediately the Chest
of Medicines, and let the Pyrate-Ambassadors return, without offering any
Violence to their Persons, they would murder all their Prisoners, send up
their Heads to the Governor, and set the Ships they had taken on Fire.

Whilst Mr. _Marks_ was making Application to the Council, _Richards_, and
the rest of the Pyrates, walk'd the Streets publickly, in the Sight of all
People, who were fired with the utmost Indignation, looking upon them as
Robbers and Murtherers, and particularly the Authors of their Wrongs and
Oppressions, but durst not so much as think of executing their Revenge, for
fear of bringing more Calamities upon themselves, and so they were forced
to let the Villains pass with Impunity. The Government were not long in
deliberating upon the Message, tho' 'twas the greatest Affront that could
have been put upon them; yet for the saving so many Mens Lives, (among
them, Mr. _Samuel Wragg_, one of the Council;) they comply'd with the
Necessity, and sent aboard a Chest, valued at between 3 and 400 _l._ and
the Pyrates went back safe to their Ships.

_Blackbeard_, (for so _Teach_ was generally called, as we shall hereafter
shew) as soon as he had received the Medicines and his Brother Rogues, let
go the Ships and the Prisoners; having first taken out of them in Gold and
Silver, about 1500 _l._ Sterling, besides Provisions and other Matters.

From the Bar of _Charles-Town_, they sailed to _North-Carolina_; Captain
_Teach_ in the Ship, which they called the Man of War, Captain _Richards_
and Captain _Hands_ in the Sloops, which they termed Privateers, and
another Sloop serving them as a Tender. _Teach_ began now to think of
breaking up the Company, and securing the Money and the best of the Effects
for himself, and some others of his Companions he had most Friendship for,
and to cheat the rest: Accordingly, on Pretence of running into _Topsail_
Inlet to clean, he grounded his Ship, and then, as if it had been done
undesignedly, and by Accident; he orders _Hands_'s Sloop to come to his
Assistance, and get him off again, which he endeavouring to do, ran the
Sloop on Shore near the other, and so were both lost. This done, _Teach_
goes into the Tender Sloop, with forty Hands, and leaves the _Revenge_
there; then takes seventeen others and Marroons them upon a small sandy
Island, about a League from the Main, where there was neither Bird, Beast
or Herb for their Subsistance, and where they must have perished if Major
_Bonnet_ had not two Days after taken them off.

_Teach_ goes up to the Governor of _North-Carolina_, with about twenty of
his Men, surrender to his Majesty's Proclamation, and receive Certificates
thereof, from his Excellency; but it did not appear that their submitting
to this Pardon was from any Reformation of Manners, but only to wait a more
favourable Opportunity to play the same Game over again; which he soon
after effected, with greater Security to himself, and with much better
Prospect of Success, having in this Time cultivated a very good
understanding with _Charles Eden_, Esq; the Governor above mentioned.

The first Piece of Service this kind Governor did to _Black-Beard_, was, to
give him a Right to the Vessel which he had taken, when he was a pyrating
in the great Ship called the _Queen Ann's Revenge_; for which purpose, a
Court of Vice-Admiralty was held at _Bath-Town_; and, tho' _Teach_ had
never any Commission in his Life, and the Sloop belonging to the _English_
Merchants, and taken in Time of Peace; yet was she condemned as a Prize
taken from the _Spaniards_, by the said _Teach_. These Proceedings shew
that Governors are but Men.

Before he sailed upon his Adventures, he marry'd a young Creature of about
sixteen Years of Age, the Governor performing the Ceremony. As it is a
Custom to marry here by a Priest, so it is there by a Magistrate; and this,
I have been informed, made _Teach_'s fourteenth Wife, whereof, about a
dozen might be still living. His Behaviour in this State, was something
extraordinary; for, while his Sloop lay in _Okerecock_ Inlet, and he ashore
at a Plantation, where his Wife lived, with whom after he had lain all
Night, it was his Custom to invite five or six of his brutal Companions to
come ashore, and he would force her to prostitute her self to them all, one
after another, before his Face.

In _June_ 1718, he went to Sea, upon another Expedition, and steered his
Course towards _Bermudas_; he met with two or three _English_ Vessels in
his Way, but robbed them only of Provisions, Stores and other Necessaries,
for his present Expence; but near the Island aforementioned, he fell in
with two _French_ Ships, one of them was loaden with Sugar and Cocoa, and
the other light, both bound to _Martinico_; the Ship that had no Lading he
let go, and putting all the Men of the loaded Ship aboard her, he brought
home the other with her Cargo to _North-Carolina_, where the Governor and
the Pyrates shared the Plunder.

When _Teach_ and his Prize arrived, he and four of his Crew went to his
Excellency, and made Affidavit, that they found the _French_ Ship at Sea,
without a Soul on Board her; and then a Court was called, and the Ship
condemned: The Governor had sixty Hogsheads of Sugar for his Dividend, and
one Mr. _Knight_, who was his Secretary, and Collector for the Province,
twenty, and the rest was shared among the other Pyrates.

The Business was not yet done, the Ship remained, and it was possible one
or other might come into the River, that might be acquainted with her, and
so discover the Roguery; but _Teach_ thought of a Contrivance to prevent
this, for, upon a Pretence that she was leaky, and that she might sink, and
so stop up the Mouth of the Inlet or Cove where she lay, he obtained an
Order from the Governor, to bring her out into the River, and set her on
Fire, which was accordingly executed, and she was burnt down to the Water's
Edge, her Bottom sunk, and with it, their Fears of her ever rising in
Judgment against them.

Captain _Teach_, alias _Black-beard_, passed three or four Months in the
River, sometimes lying at Anchor in the Coves, at other Times sailing from
one Inlet to another, trading with such Sloops as he met, for the Plunder
he had taken, and would often give them Presents for Stores and Provisions
took from them; that is, when he happened to be in a giving Humour; at
other Times he made bold with them, and took what he liked, without saying,
_by your Leave_, knowing well, they dared not send him a Bill for the
Payment. He often diverted himself with going ashore among the Planters,
where he revelled Night and Day: By these he was well received, but whether
out of Love or Fear, I cannot say; sometimes he used them courteously
enough, and made them Presents of Rum and Sugar, in Recompence of what he
took from them; but, as for Liberties (which 'tis said) he and his
Companions often took with the Wives and Daughters of the Planters, I
cannot take upon me to say, whether he paid them _ad Valorem_, or no. At
other Times he carried it in a lordly Manner towards them, and would lay
some of them under Contribution; nay, he often proceeded to bully the
Governor, not, that I can discover the least Cause of Quarrel betwixt them,
but it seemed only to be done, to shew he dared do it.

The Sloops trading up and down this River, being so frequently pillaged by
_Black-beard_, consulted with the Traders, and some of the best of the
Planters, what Course to take; they, saw plainly it would be in vain to
make any Application to the Governor of _North-Carolina_, to whom it
properly belonged to find some Redress; so that if they could not be
relieved from some other Quarter, _Black-beard_ would be like to reign with
Impunity, therefore, with as much Secrecy as possible, they sent a
Deputation to _Virginia_, to lay the Affair before the Governor of that
Colony, and to solicit an armed Force from the Men of War lying there, to
take or destroy this Pyrate.

This Governor consulted with the Captains of the two Men of War, _viz._ the
_Pearl_ and _Lime_, who had lain in St. _James_'s River, about ten Months.
It was agreed that the Governor should hire a couple of small Sloops, and
the Men of War, should Man them; this was accordingly done, and the Command
of them given to Mr. _Robert Maynard_, first Lieutenant of the _Pearl_, an
experienced Officer, and a Gentleman of great Bravery and Resolution, as
will appear by his gallant Behaviour in this Expedition. The Sloops were
well mann'd and furnished with Ammunition and small Arms, but had no Guns

About the Time of their going out, the Governor called an Assembly, in
which it was resolved to publish a Proclamation, offering certain Rewards
to any Person or Persons, who, within a Year after that Time, should take
or destroy any Pyrate: The original Proclamation being in our Hands, is as

By his Majesty's Lieutenant Governor, and, Commander in Chief, of
the Colony and Dominion of _Virginia_,


Publishing the Rewards given for apprehending, or killing, Pyrates.

W_Hereas, by an Act of Assembly, made at a Session of Assembly, begun
at the Capital in _Williamsburgh_, the eleventh Day of _November_, in the
fifth Year of his Majesty's Reign, entituled, _An Act to encourage the
apprehending and destroying of Pyrates_: It is, amongst other Things
enacted, that all and every Person, or Persons, who, from and after the
fourteenth Day of _November_, in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven
hundred and eighteen, and before the fourteenth Day of _November_, which
shall be in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and nineteen,
shall take any Pyrate, or Pyrates, on the Sea or Land, or in Case of
Resistance, shall kill any such Pyrate, or Pyrates, between the Degrees of
thirty four, and thirty nine, of Northern Latitude, and within one hundred
Leagues of the Continent of _Virginia_, or within the Provinces of
_Virginia_, or _North-Carolina_, upon the Conviction, or making due Proof
of the killing of all, and every such Pyrate, and Pyrates, before the
Governor and Council, shall be entitled to have, and receive out of the
publick Money, in the Hands of the Treasurer of this Colony, the several
Rewards following; that is to say, for _Edward Teach_, commonly call'd
Captain _Teach_, or _Black-Beard_, one hundred Pounds, for every other
Commander of a Pyrate Ship, Sloop, or Vessel, forty Pounds; for every
Lieutenant, Master, or Quarter-Master, Boatswain, or Carpenter, twenty
Pounds; for every other inferior Officer, sixteen Pounds, and for every
private Man taken on Board such Ship, Sloop, or Vessel, ten Pounds; and,
that for every Pyrate, which shall be taken by any Ship, Sloop or Vessel,
belonging to this Colony, or _North-Carolina_, within the Time aforesaid,
in any Place whatsoever, the like Rewards shall be paid according to the
Quality and Condition of such Pyrates. Wherefore, for the Encouragement of
all such Persons as shall be willing to serve his Majesty, and their
Country, in so just and honourable an Undertaking, as the suppressing a
Sort of People, who may be truly called Enemies to Mankind: I have thought
fit, with the Advice and Consent of his Majesty's Council, to issue this
Proclamation, hereby declaring, the said Rewards shall be punctually and
justly paid, in current Money of _Virginia_, according to the Directions of
the said Act. And, I do order and appoint this Proclamation, to be
published by the Sheriffs, at their respective County-Houses, and by all
Ministers and Readers, in the several Churches and Chappels, throughout
this Colony._

Given at our Council-Chamber at _Williamsburgh_, this 24th Day of
_November_, 1718, in the fifth Year of his Majesty's Reign.



The 17th of _November_, 1718, the Lieutenant sail'd from _Kicquetan_, in
_James_ River in _Virginia_, and, the 21st in the Evening, came to the
Mouth of _Okerecock_ Inlet, where he got Sight of the Pyrate. This
Expedition was made with all imaginable Secrecy, and the Officer manag'd
with all the Prudence that was necessary, stopping all Boats and Vessels he
met with, in the River, from going up, and thereby preventing any
Intelligence from reaching _Black-Beard_, and receiving at the same time an
Account from them all, of the Place where the Pyrate was lurking; but
notwithstanding this Caution, _Black-beard_ had Information of the Design,
from his Excellency of the Province; and his Secretary, Mr. _Knight_, wrote
him a Letter, particularly concerning it, intimating, _That he had sent him
four of his Men, which were all he could meet with, in or about Town, and
so bid him be upon his Guard._ These Men belonged to _Black-beard_, and
were sent from _Bath-Town_ to _Okerecock_ Inlet, where the Sloop lay, which
is about 20 Leagues.

_Black-beard_ had heard several Reports, which happened not to be true, and
so gave the less Credit to this, nor was he convinced till he saw the
Sloops: Whereupon he put his Vessel in a Posture of Defence; he had no more
than twenty five Men on Board, tho' he gave out to all the Vessels he spoke
with, that he had 40. When he had prepared for Battle, he set down and
spent the Night in drinking with the Master of a trading Sloop, who, 'twas
thought, had more Business with _Teach_, than he should have had.

Lieutenant _Maynard_ came to an Anchor, for the Place being shoal, and the
Channel intricate, there was no getting in, where _Teach_ lay, that Night;
but in the Morning he weighed, and sent his Boat a-head of the Sloops to
sound; and coming within Gun-Shot of the Pyrate, received his Fire;
whereupon _Maynard_ hoisted the King's Colours, and stood directly towards
him, with the best Way that his Sails and Oars could made. _Black-beard_
cut his Cable, and endeavoured to make a running Fight, keeping a continual
Fire at his Enemies, with his Guns; Mr. _Maynard_ not having any, kept a
constant Fire with small Arms, while some of his Men laboured at their
Oars. In a little Time _Teach_'s Sloop ran a-ground, and Mr. _Maynard_'s
drawing more Water than that of the Pyrate, he could not come near him; so
he anchored within half Gun-Shot of the Enemy, and, in order to lighten his
Vessel, that he might run him aboard, the Lieutenant ordered all his
Ballast to be thrown over-board, and all the Water to be staved, and then
weigh'd and stood for him; upon which _Black-beard_ hail'd him in this rude
Manner: _Damn you for Villains, who are you? And, from whence came you?_
The Lieutenant made him Answer, _You may see by our Colours we are no
Pyrates._ _Black-beard_ bid him send his Boat on Board, that he might see
who he was; but Mr. _Maynard_ reply'd thus; _I cannot spare my Boat, but I
will come aboard of you as soon as I can, with my Sloop._ Upon this,
_Black-beard_ took a Glass of Liquor, and drank to him with these Words:
_Damnation seize my Soul if I give you Quarters, or take any from you._ In
Answer to which, Mr. _Maynard_ told him, _That he expected no Quarters from
him, nor should he give him any._

By this time _Black-beard_'s Sloop fleeted, as Mr. _Maynard_'s Sloops were
rowing towards him, which being not above a Foot high in the Waste, and
consequently the Men all exposed, as they came near together, (there being
hitherto little or no Execution done, on either Side,) the Pyrate fired a
Broadside, charged with all Manner of small Shot. ----A fatal Stroke to
them! The Sloop the Lieutenant was in, having twenty Men killed and
wounded, and the other Sloop nine. This could not be help'd, for there
being no Wind, they were oblig'd to keep to their Oars, otherwise the
Pyrate would have got away from him, which, it seems, the Lieutenant was
resolute to prevent.

After this unlucky Blow, _Black-beard_'s Sloop fell Broadside to the Shore;
Mr. _Maynard_'s other Sloop, which was called the _Ranger_, fell a-stern,
being, for the present, disabled; so the Lieutenant finding his own Sloop
had Way, and would soon be on Board of _Teach_, he ordered all his Men
down, for fear of another Broadside, which must have been their
Destruction, and the loss of their Expedition. Mr. _Maynard_ was the only
Person that kept the Deck, except the Man at the Helm, whom he directed to
lye down snug, and the Men in the Hold were ordered to get their Pistols
and their Swords ready for close fighting, and to come up at his Command;
in order to which, two Ladders were placed in the Hatch-Way for the more
Expedition. When the Lieutenant's Sloop boarded the other, Captain
_Teach_'s Men threw in several new fashioned sort of Grenadoes, _viz._ Case
Bottles fill'd with Powder, and small Shot, Slugs, and Pieces of Lead or
Iron, with a quick Match in the Mouth of it, which being lighted without
Side, presently runs into the Bottle to the Powder, and as it is instantly
thrown on Board, generally does great Execution, besides putting all the
Crew into a Confusion; but by good Providence, they had not that Effect
here; the Men being in the Hold, and _Black-beard_ seeing few or no Hands
aboard, told his Men, _That they were all knock'd on the Head, except three
or four; and therefore, says he, let's jump on Board, and cut them to

Whereupon, under the Smoak of one of the Bottles just mentioned,
_Black-beard_ enters with fourteen Men, over the Bows of _Maynard_'s Sloop,
and were not seen by him till the Air cleared; however, he just then gave a
Signal to his Men, who all rose in an Instant, and attack'd the Pyrates
with as much Bravery as ever was done upon such an Occasion: _Black-beard_
and the Lieutenant fired the first Pistol at each other, by which the
Pyrate received a Wound, and then engaged with Swords, till the
Lieutenant's unluckily broke, and stepping back to cock a Pistol,
_Black-beard_, with his Cutlash, was striking at that Instant, that one of
_Maynard_'s Men gave him a terrible Wound in the Neck and Throat, by which
the Lieutenant came off with a small Cut over his Fingers.

They were now closely and warmly engaged, the Lieutenant and twelve Men,
against _Black-beard_ and fourteen, till the Sea was tinctur'd with Blood
round the Vessel; _Black-beard_ received a Shot into his Body from the
Pistol that Lieutenant _Maynard_ discharg'd, yet he stood his Ground, and
fought with great Fury, till he received five and twenty Wounds, and five
of them by Shot. At length, as he was cocking another Pistol, having fired
several before, he fell down dead; by which Time eight more out of the
fourteen dropp'd, and all the rest, much wounded, jump'd over-board, and
call'd out for Quarters, which was granted, tho' it was only prolonging
their Lives for a few Days. The Sloop _Ranger_ came up, and attack'd the
Men that remain'd in _Black-beard_'s Sloop, with equal Bravery, till they
likewise cry'd for Quarters.

Here was an End of that couragious Brute, who might have pass'd in the
World for a Heroe, had he been employ'd in a good Cause; his Destruction,
which was of such Consequence to the Plantations, was entirely owing to the
Conduct and Bravery of Lieutenant _Maynard_ and his Men, who might have
destroy'd him with much less Loss, had they had a Vessel with great Guns;
but they were obliged to use small Vessels, because the Holes and Places he
lurk'd in, would not admit of others of greater Draught; and it was no
small Difficulty for this Gentleman to get to him, having grounded his
Vessel, at least, a hundred times, in getting up the River, besides other
Discouragements, enough to have turn'd back any Gentleman without
Dishonour, who was less resolute and bold than this Lieutenant. The
Broadside that did so much Mischief before they boarded, in all Probability
saved the rest from Destruction; for before that _Teach_ had little or no
Hopes of escaping, and therefore had posted a resolute Fellow, a Negroe
whom he had bred up, with a lighted Match, in the Powder-Room, with
Commands to blow up when he should give him Orders, which was as soon as
the Lieutenant and his Men could have entered, that so he might have
destroy'd his Conquerors: and when the Negro found how it went with
_Black-beard_, he could hardly be perswaded from the rash Action, by two
Prisoners that were then in the Hold of the Sloop.

What seems a little odd, is, that some of these Men, who behaved so bravely
against _Black-beard_, went afterwards a pyrating themselves, and one of
them was taken along with _Roberts_; but I do not find that any of them
were provided for, except one that was hanged; but this is a Digression.

The Lieutenant caused _Black-beard_'s Head to be severed from his Body, and
hung up at the Bolt-sprit End, then he sailed to _Bath-Town_, to get Relief
for his wounded Men.

It must be observed, that in rummaging the Pyrate's Sloop, they found
several Letters and written Papers, which discovered the Correspondence
betwixt Governor _Eden_, the Secretary and Collector, and also some Traders
at _New-York_, and _Black-beard_. It is likely he had Regard enough for his
Friends, to have destroyed these Papers before the Action, in order to
hinder them from falling into such Hands, where the Discovery would be of
no Use, either to the Interest or Reputation of these fine Gentlemen, if it
had not been his fixed Resolution to have blown up together, when he found
no possibility of escaping.

When the Lieutenant came to _Bath-Town_, he made bold to seize in the
Governor's Store-House, the sixty Hogsheads of Sugar, and from honest Mr.
_Knight_, twenty; which it seems was their Dividend of the Plunder taken in
the _French_ Ship; the latter did not long survive this shameful Discovery,
for being apprehensive that he might be called to an Account for these
Trifles, fell sick with the Fright, and died in a few Days.

After the wounded Men were pretty well recover'd, the Lieutenant sailed
back to the Men of War in _James River_, in _Virginia_, with
_Black-beard_'s Head still hanging at the Bolt-sprit End, and fiveteen
Prisoners, thirteen of whom were hanged. It appearing upon Tryal, that one
of them, _viz._ _Samuel Odell_, was taken out of the trading Sloop, but the
Night before the Engagement. This poor Fellow was a little unlucky at his
first entering upon his new Trade, there appearing no less than 70 Wounds
upon him after the Action, notwithstanding which, he lived, and was cured
of them all. The other Person that escaped the Gallows, was one _Israel
Hands_, the Master of _Black-beard_'s Sloop, and formerly Captain of the
same, before the _Queen Ann's Revenge_ was lost in _Topsail_ Inlet.

The aforesaid _Hands_ happened not to be in the Fight, but was taken
afterwards ashore at _Bath-Town_, having been sometime before disabled by
_Black-beard_, in one of his savage Humours, after the following
Manner.--One Night drinking in his Cabin with _Hands_, the Pilot, and
another Man; _Black-beard_ without any Provocation privately draws out a
small Pair of Pistols, and cocks them under the Table, which being
perceived by the Man, he withdrew and went upon Deck, leaving _Hands_, the
Pilot, and the Captain together. When the Pistols were ready, he blew out
the Candle, and crossing his Hands, discharged them at his Company;
_Hands_, the Master, was shot thro' the Knee, and lam'd for Life; the other
Pistol did no Execution. --Being asked the meaning of this, he only
answered, by damning them, that _if he did not now and then kill one of
them, they would forget who he was._

_Hands_ being taken, was try'd and condemned, but just as he was about to
be executed, a Ship arrives at _Virginia_ with a Proclamation for
prolonging the Time of his Majesty's Pardon, to such of the Pyrates as
should surrender by a limited Time therein expressed: Notwithstanding the
Sentence, _Hands_ pleaded the Pardon, and was allowed the Benefit of it,
and is alive at this Time in London, begging his Bread.

Now that we have given some Account of _Teach_'s Life and Actions, it will
not be amiss, that we speak of his Beard, since it did not a little
contribute towards making his Name so terrible in those Parts.

_Plutarch_, and other grave Historians have taken Notice, that several
great Men amongst the _Romans_, took their Sir-Names from certain odd Marks
in their Countenances; as _Cicero_, from a Mark or Vetch on his Nose; so
our Heroe, Captain _Teach_, assumed the Cognomen of _Black-beard_, from
that large Quantity of Hair, which, like a frightful Meteor, covered his
whole Face, and frightened _America_ more than any Comet that has appeared
there a long Time.

This Beard was black, which he suffered to grow of an extravagant Length;
as to Breadth, it came up to his Eyes; he was accustomed to twist it with
Ribbons, in small Tails, after the Manner of our Ramilies Wiggs, and turn
them about his Ears: In Time of Action, he wore a Sling over his Shoulders,
with three brace of Pistols, hanging in Holsters like Bandaliers; and stuck
lighted Matches under his Hat, which appearing on each Side of his Face,
his Eyes naturally looking fierce and wild, made him altogether such a
Figure, that Imagination cannot form an Idea of a Fury, from Hell, to look
more frightful.

If he had the look of a Fury, his Humours and Passions were suitable to it;
we shall relate two or three more of his Extravagancies, which we omitted
in the Body of his History, by which it will appear, to what a Pitch of
Wickedness, human Nature may arrive, if it's Passions are not checked.

In the Commonwealth of Pyrates, he who goes the greatest Length of
Wickedness, is looked upon with a kind of Envy amongst them, as a Person of
a more extraordinary Gallantry, and is thereby entitled to be distinguished
by some Post, and if such a one has but Courage, he must certainly be a
great Man. The Hero of whom we are writing, was thoroughly accomplished
this Way, and some of his Frolicks of Wickedness, were so extravagant, as
if he aimed at making his Men believe he was a Devil incarnate; for being
one Day at Sea, and a little flushed with drink:--_Come_, says he, _let us
make a Hell of our own, and try how long we can bear it_; accordingly he,
with two or three others, went down into the Hold, and closing up all the
Hatches, filled several Pots full of Brimstone, and other combustible
Matter, and set it on Fire, and so continued till they were almost
suffocated, when some of the Men cried out for Air; at length he opened the
Hatches, not a little pleased that he held out the longest.

The Night before he was killed, he set up and drank till the Morning, with
some of his own Men, and the Master of a Merchant-Man, and having had
Intelligence of the two Sloops coming to attack him, as has been before
observed; one of his Men asked him, in Case any thing should happen to him
in the Engagement with the Sloops, whether his Wife knew where he had
buried his Money? He answered, _That no Body but himself and the Devil,
knew where it was, and the longest Liver should take all._

Those of his Crew who were taken alive, told a Story which may appear a
little incredible; however, we think it will not be fair to omit it, since
we had it from their own Mouths. That once upon a Cruize, they found out
that they had a Man on Board more than their Crew; such a one was seen
several Days amongst them, sometimes below, and sometimes upon Deck, yet no
Man in the Ship could give an Account who he was, or from whence he came;
but that he disappeared little before they were cast away in their great
Ship, but, it seems, they verily believed it was the Devil.

One would think these Things should induce them to reform their Lives, but
so many Reprobates together, encouraged and spirited one another up in
their Wickedness, to which a continual Course of drinking did not a little
contribute; for in _Black-beard_'s Journal, which was taken, there were
several Memorandums of the following Nature, sound writ with his own
Hand.-- _Such a Day, Rum all out:--Our Company somewhat sober:--A damn'd
Confusion amongst us!--Rogues a plotting;--great Talk of Separation.--So I
look'd sharp for a Prize;--such a Day took one, with a great deal of Liquor
on Board, so kept the Company hot, damned hot, then all Things went well

Thus it was these Wretches passed their Lives, with very little Pleasure or
Satisfaction, in the Possession of what they violently take away from
others, and sure to pay for it at last, by an ignominious Death.

The Names of the Pyrates killed in the Engagement, are as follow.

_Edward Teach_, Commander.

_Phillip Morton_, Gunner.

_Garrat Gibbens_, Boatswain.

_Owen Roberts_, Carpenter.

_Thomas Miller_, Quarter-Master.

_John Husk_,

_Joseph Curtice_,

_Joseph Brooks_, (1)

_Nath. Jackson_.

All the rest, except the two last, were wounded and afterwards
hanged in _Virginia_.

_John Carnes, Joseph Philips,_

_Joseph Brooks, _(2)_ James Robbins,_

_James Blake, John Martin,_

_John Gills, Edward Salter,_

_Thomas Gates, Stephen Daniel,_

_James White, Richard Greensail._

_Richard Stiles, Israel Hands, _pardoned.

_Cæsar, Samuel Odel_, acquited.

                                * * *

There were in the Pyrate Sloops, and ashore in a Tent, near where the
Sloops lay, 25 Hogsheads of Sugar, 11 Teirces, and 145 Bags of Cocoa, a
Barrel of Indigo, and a Bale of Cotton; which, with what was taken from the
Governor and Secretary, and the Sale of the Sloop, came to 2500 _l._
besides the Rewards paid by the Governor of _Virginia_, pursuant to his
Proclamation; all which was divided among the Companies of the two Ships,
_Lime_ and _Pearl_, that lay in _James_ River; the brave Fellows that took
them coming in for no more than their Dividend amongst the rest, and was
paid it within these three Months.

CHAP. IV. OF Major _Stede Bonnet_, And his CREW.

THE Major was a Gentleman of good Reputation in the Island of
_Barbadoes_, was Master of a plentiful Fortune, and had the Advantage of a
liberal Education. He had the least Temptation of any Man to follow such a
Course of Life, from the Condition of his Circumstances. It was very
surprizing to every one, to hear of the Major's Enterprize, in the Island
were he liv'd; and as he was generally esteem'd and honoured, before he
broke out into open Acts of Pyracy, so he was afterwards rather pitty'd
than condemned, by those that were acquainted with him, believing that this
Humour of going a pyrating, proceeded from a Disorder in his Mind, which
had been but too visible in him, some Time before this wicked Undertaking;
and which is said to have been occasioned by some Discomforts he found in a
married State; be that as it will, the Major was but ill qualify'd for the
Business, as not understanding maritime Affairs.

However, he fitted out a Sloop with ten Guns and 70 Men, entirely at his
own Expence, and in the Night-Time sailed from _Barbadoes_. He called his
Sloop the _Revenge_; his first Cruize was off the Capes of _Virginia_,
where he took several Ships, and plundered them of their Provisions,
Cloaths, Money, Ammunition, _&c._ in particular the _Anne_, Captain
_Montgomery_, from _Glascow_; the _Turbet_ from _Barbadoes_, which for
Country sake, after they had taken out the principal Part of the Lading,
the Pyrate Crew set her on Fire; the _Endeavour_, Captain _Scot_, from
_Bristol_, and the _Young_ from _Leith_. From hence they went to
_New-York_, and off the East End of _Long-Island_, took a Sloop bound for
the _West-Indies_, after which they stood in and landed some Men at
_Gardner_'s _Island_, but in a peaceable Manner, and bought Provisions for
the Company's Use, which they paid for, and so went off again without

Some Time after, which was in _August_ 1717, _Bonnet_ came off the Bar of
_South-Carolina_, and took a Sloop and a Brigantine bound in; the Sloop
belonged to _Barbadoes, Joseph Palmer_ Master, laden with Rum, Sugar and
Negroes; and the Brigantine came from _New-England, Thomas Porter_ Master,
whom they plundered, and then dismiss'd; but they sailed away with the
Sloop, and at an Inlet in _North-Carolina_ careened by her, and then set
her on Fire.

After the Sloop had cleaned, they put to Sea, but came to no Resolution
what Course to take; the Crew were divided in their Opinions, some being
for one Thing, and some another, so that nothing but Confusion seem'd to
attend all their Schemes.

The Major was no Sailor as was said before, and therefore had been obliged
to yield to many Things that were imposed on him, during their Undertaking,
for want of a competent Knowledge in maritime Affairs; at length happening
to fall in Company with another Pyrate, one _Edward Teach_, (who for his
remarkable black ugly Beard, was more commonly called _Black-Beard_:) This
Fellow was a good Sailor, but a most cruel hardened Villain, bold and
daring to the last Degree, and would not stick at the perpetrating the most
abominable Wickedness imaginable; for which he was made Chief of that
execrable Gang, that it might be said that his Post was not unduly filled,
_Black-beard_ being truly the Superior in Roguery, of all the Company, as
has been already related.

To him _Bonnet_'s Crew joined in Consortship, and _Bonnet_ himself was laid
aside, notwithstanding the Sloop was his own; he went aboard
_Black-beard_'s Ship, not concerning himself with any of their Affairs,
where he continued till she was lost in _Topsail_ Inlet, and one _Richards_
was appointed Captain in his Room. The Major now saw his Folly, but could
not help himself, which made him Melancholy; he reflected upon his past
Course of Life, and was confounded with Shame, when he thought upon what he
had done: His Behaviour was taken Notice of by the other Pyrates, who liked
him never the better for it; and he often declared to some of them, that he
would gladly leave off that Way of Living, being fully tired of it; but he
should be ashamed to see the Face of any _English_ Man again; therefore if
he could get to _Spain_ or _Portugal_, where he might be undiscovered, he
would spend the Remainder of his Days in either of those Countries,
otherwise he must continue with them as long as he lived.

When _Black-beard_ lost his Ship at _Topsail_ Inlet, and surrendered to the
King's Proclamation, _Bonnet_ reassumed the Command of his own Sloop,
_Revenge_, goes directly away to _Bath-Town_ in _North-Carolina_,
surrenders likewise to the King's Pardon, and receives a Certificate. The
War was now broke out between the _Tripple_ Allies and _Spain_; so Major
_Bonnet_ gets a Clearence for his Sloop at _North-Carlina_, to go to the
Island of St. _Thomas_, with a Design (at least it was pretended so) to get
the Emperor's Commission, to go a Privateering upon the _Spaniards_. When
_Bonnet_ came back to _Topsail_ Inlet, he found that _Teach_ and his Gang
were gone, and that they had taken all the Money, small Arms and Effects of
Value out of the great Ship, and set ashore on a small sandy Island above a
League from the Main, seventeen Men, no doubt with a Design they should
perish, there being no Inhabitant, or Provisions to subsist withal, nor any
Boat or Materials to build or make any kind of Launch or Vessel, to escape
from that desolate Place: They remained there two Nights and one Day,
without Subsistance, or the least Prospect of any, expecting nothing else
but a lingering Death; when to their inexpressable Comfort, they saw
Redemption at Hand; for Major _Bonnet_ happening to get Intelligence of
their being there, by two of the Pyrates who had escaped _Teach_'s Cruelty,
and had got to a poor little Village at the upper End of the Harbour, sent
his Boat to make Discovery of the Truth of the Matter, which the poor
Wretches seeing, made a signal to them, and they were all brought on Board
_Bonnet_'s Sloop.

Major _Bonnet_ told all his Company, that he would take a Commission to go
against the _Spaniards_, and to that End, was going to St. _Thomas_'s
therefore if they would go with him, they should be welcome; whereupon they
all consented, but as the Sloop was preparing to sail, a Bom-Boat, that
brought Apples and Sider to sell to the Sloop's Men, informed them, that
Captain _Teach_ lay at _Ocricock_ Inlet, with only 18 or 20 Hands.
_Bonnet_, who bore him a mortal Hatred for some Insults offered him, went
immediately in pursuit of _Black-beard_, but it happened too late, for he
missed of him there, and after four Days Cruize, hearing no farther News of
him, they steered their Course towards _Virginia_.

In the Month of _July_, these Adventurers came off the Capes, and meeting
with a Pink with a Stock of Provisions on Board, which they happened to be
in Want of, they took out of her ten or twelve Barrels of Pork, and about
400 Weight of Bread; but because they would not have this set down to the
Account of Pyracy, they gave them eight or ten Casks of Rice, and an old
Cable, in lieu thereof.

Two Days afterwards they chased a Sloop of sixty Ton, and took her two
Leagues off of Cape _Henry_; they were so happy here as to get a Supply of
Liquor to their Victuals, for they brought from her two Hogsheads of Rum,
and as many of Molosses, which, it seems, they had need of, tho' they had
not ready Money to purchase them: What Security they intended to give, I
can't tell, but _Bonnet_ sent eight Men to take Care of the Prize Sloop,
who, perhaps, not caring to make Use of those accustom'd Freedoms, took the
first Opportunity to go off with her, and _Bonnet_ (who was pleased to have
himself called Captain _Thomas_,) saw them no more.

After this, the Major threw off all Restraint, and though he had just
before received his Majesty's Mercy, in the Name of _Stede Bonnet_, he
relaps'd in good Earnest into his old Vocation, by the Name of Captain
_Thomas_, and recommenced a down-right Pyrate, by taking and plundering all
the Vessels he met with: He took off Cape _Henry_, two Ships from
_Virginia_, bound to _Glascow_, out of which they had very little besides
an hundred Weight of Tobacco. The next Day they took a small Sloop bound
from _Virginia_ to _Bermudas_, which supply'd them with twenty Barrels of
Pork, some Bacon, and they gave her in return, two Barrels of Rice, and a
Hogshead of Molossus; out of this Sloop two Men enter'd voluntarily. The
next they took was another _Virginia_ Man, bound to _Glascow_, out of which
they had nothing of Value, save only a few Combs, Pins and Needles, and
gave her instead thereof, a Barrel of Pork, and two Barrels of Bread.

From _Virginia_ they sailed to _Philadelphia_, and in the Latitude of 38
North, they took a Scooner, coming from _North-Carolina_, bound to
_Boston_, they had out of her only two Dozen of Calf-Skins, to make Covers
for Guns, and two of their Hands, and detained her some Days. All this was
but small Game, and seem'd as if they design'd only to make Provision for
their Sloop against they arrived at St. _Thomas_'s; for they hitherto had
dealt favourably with all that were so unhappy as so fall into their Hands;
but those that came after, fared not so well, for in the Latitude of 32,
off of _Delaware_ River, near _Philadelphia_, they took two Snows bound to
_Bristol_, out of whom they got some Money, besides Goods, perhaps to the
Value of 150 Pounds; at the same Time they took a Sloop of sixty Tons bound
from _Philadelphia_ to _Barbadoes_, which after taking some Goods out, they
dismissed along with the Snows.

The 29th Day of _July_, Captain _Thomas_ took a Sloop of 50 Tons, six or
seven Leagues off _Delaware_ Bay, bound from _Philadelphia_ to _Barbadoes,
Thomas Read_ Master, loaden with Provisions, which they kept, and put four
or five of their Hands on Board her. The last Day of _July_, they took
another Sloop of 60 Tons, commanded by _Peter Manwaring_, bound from
_Antegoa_ to _Philadelphia_, which they likewise kept with all the Cargo,
consisting chiefly of Rum, Molosses, Sugar, Cotton, Indigo, and about 25
Pound in Money, valued in all to 500 Pound.

The last Day of _July_, our Rovers with the Vessels last taken, left
_Delaware_ Bay, and sailed to Cape _Fear_ River, where they staid too long
for their Safety, for the Pyrate Sloop which they now new named the _Royal
James_, proved very leaky, so that they were obliged to remain here almost
two Months, to refit and repair their Vessel: They took in this River a
small Shallop, which they ripped up to mend the Sloop, and retarded the
further Prosecution of their Voyage, as before mentioned, till the News
came to _Carolina_, of a Pyrate Sloop's being there to carreen with her

Upon this Information, the Council of _South-Carolina_ was alarmed, and
apprehended they should receive another Visit from them speedily; to
prevent which, Colonel _William Rhet_, of the same Province, waited on the
Governor, and generously offered himself to go with two Sloops to attack
this Pyrate; which the Governor readily accepted, and accordingly gave the
Colonel a Commission and full Power, to fit such Vessels as he thought
proper for the Design.

In a few Days two Sloops were equipped and manned: The _Henry_ with 8 Guns
and 70 Men, commanded by Captain _John Masters_, and the _Sea Nymph_, with
8 Guns and 60 Men, commanded by Captain _Fayrer Hall_, both under the
entire Direction and Command of the aforesaid Colonel _Rhet_, who, on the
14th of _September_, went on Board the _Henry_, and, with the other Sloop,
sailed from _Charles-Town_ to _Swillivants_ Island, to put themselves in
order for the Cruize. Just then arrived a small Ship from _Antigoa_, one
_Cock_ Master, with an Account, that in Sight of the Bar he was taken and
plundered by one _Charles Vane_, a Pyrate, in a Brigantine of 12 Guns and
90 Men; and who had also taken two other Vessels bound in there, one a
small Sloop, Captain _Dill_ Master, from _Barbadoes_; the other a
Brigantine, Captain _Thompson_ Master, from _Guiney_, with ninety odd
Negroes, which they took out of the Vessel, and put on Board another Sloop
then under the Command of one _Yeats_, his Consort, with 25 Men. This
prov'd fortunate to the Owners of the _Guiney_ Man, for _Yeats_ having
often attempted to quit this Course of Life, took an Opportunity in the
Night, to leave _Vane_ and to run into _North-Edisto_ River, to the
Southward of _Charles-Town_, and surrendered to his Majesty's Pardon. The
Owners got their Negroes, and _Yeats_ and his Men had Certificates given
them from the Government.

_Vane_ cruised some Time off the Bar, in hopes to catch _Yeats_, and
unfortunately for them, took two Ships coming out, bound to _London_, and
while the Prisoners were aboard, some of the Pyrates gave out, that they
designed to go into one of the Rivers to the Southward. Colonel _Rhet_,
upon hearing this, sailed over the Bar the 15th of _September_, with the
two Sloops before mentioned; and having the Wind Northerly, went after the
Pyrate _Vane_, and scoured the Rivers and Inlets to the Southward; but not
meeting with him, tacked and stood for Cape _Fear_ River, in Prosecution of
his first Design. On the 26th following, in the Evening, the Colonel with
his small Squadron, entered the River, and saw, over a Point of Land, three
Sloops at an Anchor, which were Major _Bonnet_ and his Prizes; but it
happened that in going up the River, the Pilot run the Colonel's Sloops
aground, and it was dark before they were on Float, which hindered their
getting up that Night. The Pyrates soon discovered the Sloops, but not
knowing who they were, or upon what Design they came into that River, they
manned three Canoes, and sent them down to take them, but they quickly
found their Mistake, and returned to the Sloop, with the unwelcome News.
Major _Bonnet_ made Preparations that Night for engaging, and took all the
Men out of the Prizes. He shewed Captain _Manwaring_, one of his Prisoners,
a Letter, he had just wrote, which he declared he would send to the
Governor of _Carolina_; the Letter was to this Effect, _viz. That if the
Sloops, which then appeared, were sent out against him, by the said
Governor, and he should get clear off, that he would burn and destroy all
Ships or Vessels going in or coming out of_ South-Carolina. The next
Morning they got under Sail, and came down the River, designing only a
running Fight. Colonel _Rhet_'s Sloops got likewise under Sail, and stood
for him, getting upon each Quarter of the Pyrate, with Intent to board him;
which he perceiving, edged in towards the Shore, and being warmly engaged,
their Sloop ran a-ground: The _Carolina_ Sloops being in the same shoal
Water, were in the same Circumstances; the _Henry_, in which Colonel _Rhet_
was, grounded within Pistol shot of the Pyrate, and on his Bow; the other
Sloop grounded right a-head of him, and almost out of Gun-Shot, which made
her of little Service to the Colonel, while they lay a-ground.

At this Time the Pyrate had a considerable Advantage; for their Sloop,
after she was a-ground, listed from Colonel _Rhet_'s, by which Means they
were all covered, and the Colonel's Sloop listing the same Way, his Men
were much exposed; notwithstanding which, they kept a brisk Fire the whole
Time they lay thus a-ground, which was near five Hours. The Pyrates made a
Wiff in their bloody Flag, and beckoned several Times with their Hats in
Derision to the Colonel's Men, to come on Board, which they answered with
chearful Huzza's, and said, _that they would speak with them by and by_;
which accordingly happened, for the Colonel's Sloop being first a float, he
got into deeper Water, and after mending the Sloop's Rigging, which was
much shattered in the Engagement, they stood for the Pyrate, to give the
finishing Stroke, and designed to go directly on Board him; which he
prevented, by sending a Flag of Truce, and after some Time capitulating,
they surrendered themselves Prisoners. The Colonel took Possession of the
Sloop, and was extreamly pleased to find that Captain _Thomas_, who
commanded her, was the individual Person of Major _Stede Bonnet_, who had
done them the Honour several Times to visit their own Coast of _Carolina_.

There were killed in this Action, on Board the _Henry_, ten Men, and
fourteen wounded; on Board the _Sea Nymph_, two killed and four wounded.
The Officers and Sailors in both Sloops behaved themselves with the
greatest Bravery; and had not the Sloops so unluckily run a-ground, they
had taken the Pyrate with much less loss of Men; but as he designed to get
by them, and so make a running Fight, the _Carolina_ Sloops were obliged to
keep near him, to prevent his getting away. Of the Pyrates there were seven
killed and five wounded, two of which died soon after of their Wounds.
Colonel _Rhet_ weigh'd the 30th of _September_, from Cape _Fear_ River, and
arrived at _Charles-Town_ the 3d of _October_, to the great Joy of the
whole Province of _Carolina_.

_Bonnet_ and his Crew, two Days after, were put ashore, and there not being
a publick Prison, the Pyrates were kept at the Watch-House, under a Guard
of Militia; but Major _Bonnet_ was committed into the Custody of the
Marshal, at his House; and in a few Days after, _David Hariot_ the Master,
and _Ignatius Pell_ the Boatswain, who were designed for Evidences against
the other Pyrates, were removed from the rest of the Crew, to the said
Marshal's House, and every Night two Centinals set about the said House;
but whether thro' any Corruption, or want of Care in guarding the
Prisoners, I can't say; but on the 24th of _October_, the Major and
_Hariot_ made their Escape, the Boatswain refusing to go along with them.
This made a great Noise in the Province, and People were open in their
Resentments, often reflecting on the Governor, and others in the
Magistracy, as tho' they had been brib'd, for conniving at their Escape.
These Invectives arose from their Fears, that _Bonnet_ would be capable of
raising another Company, and prosecute his Revenge against this Country,
for what he had lately, tho' justly, suffered: But they were in a short
Time made easy in those Respects; for as soon as the Governor had the
Account of _Bonnet_'s Escape, he immediately issued out a Proclamation, and
promised a Reward of 700 Pounds to any that would take him, and sent
several Boats with armed Men, both to the Northward and Southward, in
pursuit of him.

_Bonnet_ stood to the Northward, in a small Vessel, but wanting
Necessaries, and the Weather being bad, he was forced back, and so return'd
with his Canoe, to _Swillivants_ Island, near _Charles-Town_, to fetch
Supplies; but there being some Information sent to the Governor, he sent
for Colonel _Rhet_, and desired him to go in pursuit of _Bonnet_; and
accordingly gave him a Commission for that Purpose: Wherefore the Colonel,
with proper Craft, and some Men, went away that Night for _Swillivant_'s
Island, and, after a very diligent Search, discovered _Bonnet_ and _Hariot_
together; the Colonel's Men fired upon them, and killed _Hariot_ upon the
Spot, and wounded one Negro and an _Indian. Bonnet_ submitted, and
surrender'd himself; and the next Morning, being _November_ the 6th, was
brought by Colonel _Rhet_ to _Charles-Town_, and, by the Governor's
Warrant, was committed into safe Custody, in order for his being brought to
his Tryal.

On the 28th of _October_, 1718, a Court of Vice-Admiralty was held at
_Charles-Town_, in _South-Carolina_, and, by several Adjournments,
continued to _Wednesday_, the 12th of _November_ following, for the Tryal
of the Pyrates taken in a Sloop formerly called _the Revenge_, but
afterwards _the Royal James_, before _Nicholas Trot_, Esq; Judge of the
Vice-Admiralty, and Chief Justice of the said Province of _South-Carolina_,
and other Assistant Judges.

The King's Commission to Judge _Trot_ was read, and a Grand Jury sworn, for
the finding of the several Bills, and a learned Charge given them by the
said Judge, wherein he 1st shewed, _That the Sea was given by God, for the
Use of Men, and is Subject to Dominion and Property, as well as the Land_.

2dly, He particularly remark'd to them, _the Sovereignty of the King of_
England _over the_ British _Seas_.

3dly, He observed, _that as Commerce and Navigation could not be carried on
without Laws; so there have been always particular Laws, for the better
ordering and regulating marine Affairs_; with an historical Account or
those Laws, and Origine.

4thly, He proceeded to shew, _that there have been particular Courts and
Judges appointed; to whose Jurisdiction maritime Causes do belong, and that
in Matters both Civil and Criminal_.

And then 5thly, He particularly shewed them, _the Constitution and
Jurisdiction of that Court of Admiralty Sessions_.

And lastly, _the Crimes cognizable therein_; and particularly enlarged
_upon the Crime of Pyracy_, which was then brought before them.

The Indictments being found, a petit Jury was sworn, and the following
Persons arraigned and tried.

                                * * *

_Stede Bonnet_, alias _Edwards_, alias _Thomas_, late of _Barbadoes_,

_Robert Tucker_, late of the Island of _Jamaica_, Mariner.

_Edward Robinson_, late of _New-Castle_ upon _Tine_, Mariner.

_Neal Paterson_, late of _Aberdeen_, Mariner.

_William Scot_, late of _Aberdeen_, Mariner.

_William Eddy_, alias _Neddy_, late of _Aberdeen_, Mariner.

_Alexander Annand_, late of _Jamaica_, Mariner.

_George Rose_, late of _Glascow_, Mariner.

_George Dunkin_, late of _Glascow_, Mariner.

*_Thomas Nicholas_, late of _London_, Mariner.

_John Ridge_, late of _London_, Mariner.

_Matthew King_, late of _Jamaica_, Mariner.

_Daniel Perry_, late of _Guernsey_, Mariner.

_Henry Virgin_, late of _Bristol_, Mariner.

_James Robbins_, alias _Rattle_, late of _London_, Mariner.

_James Mullet_, alias _Millet_, late of _London_, Mariner.

_Thomas Price_, late of _Bristol_, Mariner.

_James Wilson_, late of _Dublin_, Mariner.

_John Lopez_, late of _Oporto_, Mariner.

_Zachariah Long_, late of the Province of _Holland_, Mariner.

_Job Bayly_, late of _London_, Mariner.

_John-William Smith_, late of _Charles-Town, Carolina_, Mariner.

_Thomas Carman_, late of _Maidstone_ in _Kent_, Mariner.

_John Thomas_, late of _Jamaica_, Mariner.

_William Morrison_, late of _Jamaica_, Mariner.

_Samuel Booth_, late of _Charles-Town_, Mariner.

_William Hewet_, late of _Jamaica_, Mariner.

_John Levit_, late of _North-Carolina_, Mariner.

_William Livers_, alias _Evis_.

_John Brierly_, alias _Timberhead_, late of _Bath-Town_ in _North
Carolina_, Mariner.

_Robert Boyd_, late of _Bath-Town_ aforesaid, Mariner.

*_Rowland Sharp_, of _Bath-Town_, Mariner.

*_Jonathan Clarke_, late of _Charles-Town, South Carolina_, Mariner.

*_Thomas Gerrard_, late of _Antegoa_, Mariner.

                                * * *

And all, except the three last, and _Thomas Nicholas_, were found Guilty,
and received Sentence of Death.

They were most of them try'd upon two Indictments, as follows.

                                * * *

T_HE Jurors for our Sovereign Lord the King, do upon their Oath
present, that_ Stede Bonnet, _late of_ Barbadoes, _Mariner_, Robert Tucker,
&c. &c. _The_ 2_d Day of_ August, _in the fifth Year of the Reign of our
Sovereign Lord_ George, &c. _By Force of Arms upon the High-Sea, in a
certain Place called Cape_ James, &c. _did pyratically, and felloniously
set upon, break,_ _board, and enter, a certain Merchant Sloop, called the_
Frances, Peter Manwaring _Commander, by Force_, &c. _upon the High-Sea, in
a certain Place, called Cape_ James, alias _Cape_ Inlopen, _about two Miles
distant from the Shore, in the Lattitude of_ 39, _or thereabouts; and
within the Jurisdiction of the Court of Vice-Admiralty, of_ South-Carolina,
_being a Sloop of certain Persons_, (_to the Jurors, unknown_) _and then,
and there, pyratically, and felloniously did make an Assault, in, and upon
the said_ Peter Manwaring, _and others his Mariners_, (_whose Names to the
Jurors aforesaid, are unknown,) in the same Sloop, against the Peace of
God, and of our said now Sovereign Lord the King, then, and there being,
pyratically and felloniously, did put the aforesaid_ Peter Manwaring, _and
others, his Mariners, of the same Sloop, in the Sloop aforesaid, then
being, in corporal Fear of their Lives, then and there, in the Sloop
aforesaid, upon the_ High-Sea, _in the Place aforesaid, called Cape_ James,
alias _Cape_ Inlopen, _about two Miles from the Shore, in the Lattitude of_
39, _or thereabouts, as aforesaid, and within the Jurisdiction aforesaid;
pyratically, and felloniously, did steal, take, and carry away the said
Merchant Sloop, called the_ Frances, _and also twenty six Hogsheads_, &c.
&c. &c. _being found in the aforesaid Sloop, in the Custody and Possession
of the said_ Peter Manwaring, _and others, his Mariners of the said Sloop,
and from their Custody and Possession, then and there, upon the High-Sea
aforesaid, called Cape_ James, alias _Cape_ Inlopen, _as aforesaid, and
within the Jurisdiction aforesaid, against the Peace of our now Sovereign
Lord the King, his Crown and Dignity_.

This was the Form of the Indictments they were arraigned upon, and tho'
they might have proved several more Facts upon the major Part of the Crew,
the Court thought fit to prosecute but two; the other was for seizing in a
pyratical and felonious Manner, the Sloop _Fortune, Thomas Read_ Commander;
which Indictment running in the same Form with the above-mentioned, it will
be unnecessary to say more of it.

All the Prisoners arraigned, pleaded Not Guilty, and put themselves upon
their Tryals, except _James Wilson_, and _John Levit_, who pleaded Guilty
to both Indictments, and _Daniel Perry_, to one only. The Major would have
gone through both the Indictments at once, which the Court not admitting,
he pleaded Not Guilty to both Indictments, but being convicted of one, he
retracted his former Plea to the second Indictment, and pleaded Guilty to

The Prisoners made little or no Defence, every one pretending only that
they were taken off a Maroon Shore, and were shipped with Major _Bonnet_ to
go to St. _Thomas_'s; but being out at Sea, and wanting Provisions, they
were obliged to do what they did by others; and so did Major _Bonnet_
himself, pretend that 'twas Force, not Inclination, that occasioned what
had happened. However, the Facts being plainly proved, and that they had
all shared ten or eleven Pounds a Man, excepting the three last, and
_Thomas Nichols_, they were all but they, found Guilty. The Judge made a
very grave Speech to them, setting forth _the Enormity of their Crimes, the
Condition they were now in, and the Nature and Necessity of an unfeigned
Repentance_; and then recommended them to the Ministers of the Province,
for more ample Directions, to fit them for Eternity, _for_ (concluded he)
_the Priest's Lips shall keep Knowledge, and you shall seek the Law at
their Mouths; for they are the Messengers of the Lord_. Mat. II. 57. _And
the Ambassadors of Christ, and unto them is committed the Word_ [or
Doctrine] _of Reconciliation_, 2 Cor. V. 19. 20. And then pronounced
Sentence of Death upon them.

On _Saturday November_ the 8th, 1711. _Robert Tucker, Edward Robinson, Neal
Paterson, William Scot, Job Bayley, John-William Smith, John Thomas,
William Morrison, Samuel Booth, William Hewit, William Eddy_, alias _Neddy,
Alexander Annand, George Ross, George Dunkin, Matthew King, Daniel Perry,
Henry Virgin, James Robbins, James Mullet_, alias _Millet, Thomas Price,
John Lopez_, and _Zachariah Long_, were executed at the _White-Point_ near
_Charles-Town_, pursuant to their Sentence.

As for the Captain, his Escape protracted his Fate, and spun out his Life a
few Days longer, for he was try'd the 10th, and being found Guilty,
received Sentence in like Manner as the former; before which Judge _Trot_,
made a most excellent Speech to him, rather somewhat too long to be taken
into our History, yet I could not tell how to pass by so good and useful a
Piece of Instruction, not knowing whose Hands this Book may happen to fall

_The Lord Chief Justices's_ SPEECH, _upon his pronouncing Sentence on

MAjor _Stede Bonnet_, you stand here convicted upon two Indictments
of Pyracy; one by the Verdict of the Jury, and the other by your own

Altho' you were indicted but for _two_ Facts, yet you know that at your
Tryal it was fully proved even by an unwilling Witness, that you
_pyratically_ took and rifled no less than _thirteen_ Vessels, since you
sail'd from _North-Carolina_.

So that you might have been indicted, and convicted of _eleven_ more Acts
of _Pyracy_, since you took the Benefit of the King's _Act of Grace_, and
pretended to leave that wicked Course of Life.

Not to mention the many _Acts_ of _Pyracy_ you committed before; for which
if your Pardon from _Man_ was never so authentick, yet you must expect to
answer for them before God.

You know that the Crimes you have committed are _evil_ in themselves, and
contrary to the _Light_ and _Law_ of _Nature_, as well as the _Law_ of God,
by which you are commanded that _you shall not steal_, Exod. 20. 15. And
the Apostle St. _Paul_ expresly affirms, That _Thieves shall not inherit
the Kingdom of God_, 1 Cor. 6. 10.

But to _Theft_ you have added a greater Sin, which is _Murder_. How many
you may have _killed_ of those that resisted you in the committing your
former _Pyracies_, I know not: But this we all know, That besides the
Wounded, you kill'd no less than _eighteen_ Persons out of those that were
sent by lawful Authority to suppress you, and put a Stop to those Rapines
that you daily acted.

And however you may fancy that that was killing Men fairly in open _Fight_,
yet this know, that the Power of the _Sword_ not being committed into your
Hands by any lawful Authority, you were not impowered to use any _Force_,
or _fight_ any one; and therefore those Persons that fell in that Action,
in doing their Duty to their King and Country, were _murdered_, and their
_Blood_ now cries out for _Vengeance_ and _Justice_ against you: For it is
the _Voice of Nature_, confirmed by the _Law_ of God, That _whosoever
sheddeth Man's Blood, by Man shall his Blood be shed_. Gen. 9. 6.

And consider that Death is not the only Punishment due to _Murderers_; for
they are threatened to have _their Part in the Lake which burneth with Fire
and Brimstone, which is the second Death_, Rev. 21. 8. See _Chap._ 22. 15.
Words which carry that Terror with them, that considering your
Circumstances and your Guilt, surely the Sound of them must make you
tremble; _For who can dwell with everlasting Burnings?_ Chap. 33. 14.

As the _Testimony_ of your _Conscience_ must convince you of the great and
many Evils you have committed, by which you have highly offended God, and
provoked most justly his Wrath and Indignation against you, so I suppose I
need not tell you that the only Way of obtaining Pardon and Remission of
your Sins from God, is by a true and unfeigned _Repentance_ and _Faith_ in
Christ, by whose meritorious Death and Passion, you can only hope for

You being a Gentleman that have had the Advantage of a _liberal Education_,
and being generally esteemed a Man of _Letters_, I believe it will be
needless for me to explain to you the Nature of _Repentance_ and _Faith_ in
Christ, they being so fully and so often mentioned in the Scriptures, that
you cannot but know them. And therefore, perhaps, for that Reason it might
be thought by some improper for me to have said so much to you, as I have
already upon this Occasion; neither should I have done it, but that
considering the Course of your Life and Actions, I have just Reason to
fear, that the Principles of Religion that had been instilled into you by
your _Education_, have been at least corrupted, if not entirely defaced, by
the _Scepticism_ and _Infidelity_ of this wicked Age; and that what Time
you allowed for Study, was rather applied to the _Polite Literature_, and
the vain _Philosophy_ of the Times, than a serious Search after the _Law_
and _Will_ of God, as revealed unto us in the Holy _Scriptures_: For _had
your Delight been in the Law of the Lord, and that you had meditated
therein Day and Night_, Psal. 1. 2. you would then have found that God's
_Word was a Lamp unto your Feet, and a Light to your Path_, Psal. 119. 105.
and that you would account all other Knowledge but _Loss_, in Comparison of
_the Excellency of the Knowledge of Christ Jesus_, Phil. 3. 8. _who to them
that are called is the Power of God, and the Wisdom of God_, 1 Cor. 1. 24.
_even the hidden Wisdom which God ordained before the World_, Chap. 2. 7.

You would then have esteemed the _Scriptures_ as the _Great Charter_ of
Heaven, and which delivered to us not only the most perfect _Laws_ and
_Rules_ of Life, but also discovered to us the Acts of _Pardon_ from God,
wherein they have offended those righteous Laws: For in them only is to be
found the great _Mystery_ of fallen Man's _Redemption, which the Angels
desire to look into_, 1 Pet. 1. 12.

And they would have taught you that _Sin_ is the debasing of _Human
Nature_, as being a _Derivation_ from that _Purity, Rectitude_, and
_Holiness_, in which God created us, and that _Virtue_ and _Religion_, and
walking by the Laws of God, were altogether preferable to the Ways of _Sin_
and _Satan_; for that the _Ways_ of Virtue are _Ways of Pleasantness, and
all their Paths are Peace_, Prov. 3. 17.

But what you could not learn from God's Word, by reason of your
_carelesly_, or but _superficially_ considering the same, I hope the Course
of his _Providence_, and the present _Afflictions_ that he hath laid upon
you, hath now convinced you of the same: For however in your seeming
Prosperity you might make a _Mock at your Sins_ Prov. 3. 17. yet now that
you see that God's Hand hath reached you, and brought you to publick
Justice, I hope your present unhappy Circumstances hath made you seriously
reflect upon your past Actions and Course of Life; and that you are now
sensible of the Greatness of your Sins, and that you find the Burden of
them is intolerable.

And that therefore being thus _labouring, and heavy laden with Sin_, Mat.
11. 28. you will esteem that as the most valuable _Knowledge_, that can
shew you how you can be reconciled to that Supreme God that you have so
highly offended; and that can reveal to you Him who is not only the
powerful _Advocate with the Father for you_, 1 John 2. 1. but also who hath
paid that Debt that is due for your Sins by his own Death upon the Cross
for you; and thereby made full Satisfaction for the Justice of God. And
this is to be found no where but in God's Word, which discovers to us that
_Lamb of God which takes away the Sins of the World_, John 1. 29. which is
_Christ_ the Son of God: For this know, and be assured, _that there is none
other Name under Heaven given among Men, whereby we must be saved_, Acts 4.
12. but only by the Name of the Lord _Jesus_.

But then consider how he invites all Sinners to come unto him, and, _that
he will give them rest_, Matt. 11. 28. for he assures us, _that he came to
seek and to save that which was lost_, Luke 19. 10, Mat. 18. 11. and hath
promised, _that he that cometh unto him, he will in no wise cast out_, John
6. 37.

So that if now you will sincerely turn to him, tho' late, even at the
_eleventh Hour_, Mat. 20. 6, 9. he will receive you.

But surely I need not tell you, that the _Terms_ of his _Mercy_ is _Faith_
and _Repentance_.

And do not mistake the _Nature_ of Repentance to be only a bare Sorrow for
your Sins, arising from the Consideration of the _Evil_ and _Punishment_
they have now brought upon you; but your Sorrow must arise from the
Consideration of your having offended a gracious and merciful God.

But I shall not pretend to give you any particular Directions as to the
Nature of Repentance: I consider that I speak to a Person, whose Offences
have proceeded not so much from his not _knowing_, as his _slighting_ and
_neglecting_ his _Duty_: Neither is it proper for me to give Advice out of
the Way of my own Profession.

You may have that better delivered to you by those who have made Divinity
their particular Study; and who, by their Knowledge, as well as their
Office, as being the _Ambassadors of Christ_, 2 Cor. 5. 20. are best
qualified to give you Instructions therein.

I only heartily wish, that what, in Compassion to your Soul, I have now
said to you upon this sad and solemn Occasion, by exhorting you in general
to _Faith_ and _Repentance_, may have that due Effect upon you, that
thereby you may become a true _Penitent_.

And therefore having now discharged my Duty to you as a _Christian_, by
giving you the best Counsel I can, with respect to the Salvation of your
Soul, I must now do my Office as a _Judge_.

The _Sentence_ that the Law hath appointed to pass upon you for your
Offences, and which this Court doth therefore award, is,

                                * * *

_That you, the said_ Stede Bonnet, _shall go from hence to the Place from
whence you came, and from thence to the Place of Execution, where you shall
be hanged by the Neck till you are dead_.

_And the God of infinite Mercy be merciful to your Soul_.

CHAP. V. OF Capt. _Edward England_, And his CREW.

E_Dward England_ went Mate of a Sloop that sail'd out of _Jamaica_,
and was taken by Captain _Winter_, a Pyrate, just before their Settlement
at _Providence_; from whence _England_ had the Command of a Sloop in the
same laudable Employment: It is surprizing that Men of good Understanding
should engage in a Course of Life, that so much debases humane Nature, and
sets them upon a Level with the wild Beasts of the Forest, who live and
prey upon their weaker Fellow Creatures: A Crime so enormous! That it
includes almost all others, as Murder, Rapine, Theft, Ingratitude, _&c._
and tho' they make these Vices familiar to them by their daily Practice,
yet these Men are so inconsistent with themselves, that a Reflection made
upon their Honour, their Justice, or their Courage, is look'd upon as an
Offence that ought to be punished with the Life of him that commits it:
_England_ was one of these Men, who seem'd to have such a Share of Reason,
as should have taught him better Things. He had a great deal of good
Nature, and did not want for Courage; he was not avaritious, and always
averse to the ill Usage Prisoners received: He would have been contented
with moderate Plunder, and less mischievous Pranks, could his Companions
have been brought to the same Temper, but he was generally over-rul'd, and
as he was engaged in that abominable Society, he was obliged to be a
Partner in all their vile Actions.

Captain _England_ sail'd to the Coast of _Africa_, after the Island of
_Providence_ was settled by the _English_ Government, and the Pyrates
surrendered to his Majesty's Proclamation; and took several Ships and
Vessels, particularly the _Cadogan_ Snow belonging to _Bristol_, at
_Sierraleone_, one _Skinner_ Master, who was inhumanly murthered by some of
the Crew, that had lately been his own Men, and served in the said Vessel.
It seems some Quarrel had happened between them, so that _Skinner_ thought
fit to remove these Fellows on Board of a Man of War, and at the same Time
refused them their Wages; not long after they found Means to desert that
Service, and shipping themselves aboard a Sloop in the _West-Indies_, was
taken by a Pyrate, and brought to _Providence_, and sailed upon the same
Account along with Captain _England_.

Assoon as _Skinner_ had struck to the Pyrate, he was ordered to come on
Board in his Boat, which he did, and the Person that he first cast his Eye
upon, proved to be his old Boatswain, who star'd him in the Face like his
evil Genius, and accosted him in this Manner.-- _Ah, Captain_ Skinner! _Is
it you? The only Man I wished to see; I am much in your Debt, and now I
shall pay you all in your own Coin_.

The poor Man trembled every Joint, when he found into what Company he had
fallen, and dreaded the Event, as he had Reason enough so to do; for the
Boatswain immediately called to his Consorts, laid hold of the Captain, and
made him fast to the Windless, and there pelted him with Glass Bottles,
which cut him in a sad Manner; after which they whipp'd him about the Deck,
till they were weary, being deaf to all his Prayers and Intreaties, and at
last, because he had been a good Master to his Men, they said, he should
have an easy Death, and so shot him thro' the Head. They took some few
Things out of the Snow, but gave the Vessel and all her Cargo to _Howel
Davis_ the Mate; and the rest of the Crew, as will be hereafter mentioned
in the Chapter of Captain _Davis_.

Captain _England_ took a Ship called the _Pearl_, Captain _Tyzard_
Commander, for which he exchanged his own Sloop, fitted her up for the
pyratical Account, and new christen'd her, the _Royal James_, with which he
took several Ships and Vessels of different Nations at the _Azores_ and
_Cape de Verd Islands_.

In the Spring, 1719, the Rovers returned to _Africa_, and beginning at the
River _Gambia_, sailed all down the Coast; and between that and _Cape
Corso_, took the following Ships and Vessels.

The _Eagle_ Pink, Captain _Rickets_ Commander belonging to _Cork_, taken
the 25th of _March_, having 6 Guns and 17 Men on Board, seven of which
turned Pyrates.

The _Charlotte_, Captain _Oldson_, of _London_, taken _May_ the 26th,
having 8 Guns and 18 Men on Board, 13 of which turned Pyrates.

The _Sarah_, Captain _Stunt_, of _London_, taken the 27th of _May_, having
4 Guns and 18 Men on Board, 3 of which turned Pyrates.

The _Bentworth_, Captain _Gardener_, of _Bristol_, taken the 27th of _May_,
having 12 Guns and 30 Men on Board, 12 of which turned Pyrates.

The _Buck_ Sloop, Captain _Sylvester_, of _Gambia_, taken the 27th of
_May_, having 2 Guns and 2 Men on Board, and both turned Pyrates.

The _Carteret_, Captain _Snow_, of _London_, taken the 28th of _May_,
having 4 Guns and 18 Men on Board, 5 of which turned Pyrates.

The _Mercury_, Captain _Maggott_, of _London_, taken the 29th of _May_,
having 4 Guns and 18 Men on Board, 5 of which turned Pyrates.

The _Coward_ Galley, Captain _Creed_, of _London_, taken the 17th of
_June_, having 2 Guns and 13 Men on Board, 4 of which turned Pyrates.

The _Elizabeth_ and _Katherine_, Captain _Bridge_ of _Barbadoes_, taken
_June_ the 27th, having 6 Guns and 14 Men on Board, 4 of which turned

The _Eagle_ Pink being bound to _Jamaica_, the _Sarah_ to _Virginia_, and
the _Buck_ to _Maryland_, they let them go, but the _Charlotte_, the
_Bentworth_, the _Carteret_, and the _Coward_ Galley, they burnt; and the
_Mercury_, and the _Elizabeth_ and _Katherine_ were fitted up for Pyrate
Ships, the former was new nam'd _Queen Ann_'s _Revenge_, and commanded by
one _Lane_, and the other was call'd the _Flying King_, of which _Robert
Sample_ was appointed Captain. These two left _England_ upon the Coast,
sail'd to the _West-Indies_, where they took some Prizes, clean'd, and
sail'd to _Brasil_ in _November_; they took several _Portuguese_ Ships
there, and did a great deal of Mischief, but in the height of their
Undertakings, a _Portuguese_ Man of War, which was an excellent Sailor,
came a very unwelcome Guest to them, and gave them Chace; the Queen _Ann's
Revenge_ got off, but was lost a little while after upon that Coast; and
the _Flying King_, giving herself over for lost, ran ashore: There were
then 70 Men on Board, 12 of which were kill'd, and the rest taken
Prisoners, of whom the _Portuguese_ hang'd 38, of which 32 were _English_,
three _Dutch_, two _French_, and one of their own Nation.

_England_, in going down the Coast, took the _Peterborough_ Galley of
_Bristol_, Captain _Owen_; and the _Victory_, Captain _Ridout_; the former
they detained, but plundered the latter, and let her go. In _Cape Corso_
Road, they saw two Sail at Anchor, but before they could reach them, they
slipp'd their Cables and got close under _Cape Corso Castle_, these were
the _Whydah_, Captain _Prince_, and the _John_, Captain _Rider_: The
Pyrates upon this made a fire Ship of a Vessel they had lately taken, and
attempted to burn them, as tho' they had been a common Enemy, which if
effected, they could not have been one Farthing the better for it; but the
Castle firing warmly upon them, they withdrew, and sail'd down to _Whydah_
Road, where they found another Pyrate, one Captain _la Bouche_, who getting
thither before _England_ arrived, had forestall'd the Market, and greatly
disappointed their Brethren.

Captain _England_, after this Baulk, went into a Harbour, clean'd his own
Ship, and fitted up the _Peterborough_, which he call'd the _Victory_; they
liv'd there very wantonly for several Weeks, making free with the Negroe
Women, and committing such outragious Acts, that they came to an open
Rupture with the Natives, several of whom they kill'd, and one of their
Towns they set on Fire.

When the Pyrates came out to Sea, they put it to a Vote what Voyage to
take, and the Majority carrying it for the _East-Indies_, they shap'd their
Course accordingly, and arrived at _Madagascar_, the Beginning of the Year
1720. They staid not long there, but after taking in Water and Provisions,
sail'd for the Coast of _Malabar_, which is a fine fruitful Country in the
_East-Indies_, in the Empire of the _Mogul_, but immediately subject to its
own Princes: It reaches from the Coast of _Canara_ to _Cape Camorin_, which
is between 7° 30, and 12° North Lattitude, and in about 75° East Longitude,
counting from the Meridian of _London_. The old Natives are Pagans, but
there are a great Number of _Mahometans_ inhabiting among them, who are
Merchants, and generally rich. On the same Coast, but in a Province to the
Northward lies _Goa, Surat, Bombay_, where the _English, Dutch_, and
_Portuguese_ have Settlements.

Hither our Pyrates came, having made a Tour of half the Globe, as the
Psalmist says of the Devils, _Going about like roaring Lions, seeking whom
they might devour_. They took several Country Ships, that is, _Indian_
Vessels, and one European, a _Dutch_ Ship, which they exchanged for one of
their own, and then came back to _Madagascar_.

They sent several of their Hands on Shore with Tents, Powder, and Shot, to
kill Hogs, Venison, and such other fresh Provision as the Island afforded,
and a Whim came into their Heads to seek out for the Remains of _Avery_'s
Crew, whom they knew to be settled somewhere in the Island.--Accordingly
some of them travell'd several Days Journey, without hearing any
Intelligence of them, and so were forc'd to return with the Loss of their
Labour, for these Men were settled on the other Side of the Island, as has
been taken Notice of under the Chapter of _Avery_.

They stay'd not long here, after they had clean'd their Ships, but sailing
to _Juanna_; they met two _English_, and one _Ostend India_ Men, coming out
of that Harbour, one of which, after a desperate Resistance, they took; the
Particulars of which Action is at length related in the following Letter,
wrote by the Captain from _Bombay_.

A LETTER from Captain _Mackra_, dated at _Bombay, Nov._ 16, 1720.

W_E arrived the_ 25_th of_ July _last, in Company of the_ Greenwich,
_at_ Juanna, (_an Island not far from_ Madagascar) _putting in there to
refresh our Men, we found fourteen Pyrates that came in their Canoes from
the_ Mayotta, _where the Pyrate Ship to which they belong'd_, viz. _the_
Indian Queen, _two hundred and fifty Tons, twenty eight Guns, and ninety
Men, commanded by Capt._ Oliver de la Bouche, _bound from the_ Guinea
_Coast to the_ East-Indies, _had been bulged and lost. They said they left
the Captain and_ 40 _of their Men building a new Vessel to proceed on their
wicked Design. Capt._ Kirby _and I concluding it might be of great Service
to the_ East-India _Company to destroy such a Nest of Rogues, were ready to
sail for that Purpose the_ 17_th of_ August, _about Eight o'Clock in the
Morning, when we discovered two Pyrate Ships standing into the Bay of_
Juanna, _one of thirty four, and the other of thirty Guns. I immediately
went on Board the_ Greenwich, _where they seem'd very diligent in
Preparations for an Engagement, and I left Capt._ Kirby _with mutual
Promises of standing by each other. I then unmoor'd, got under Sail, and
brought two Boats a-head to row me close to the_ Greenwich; _but he being
open to a Valley and a Breeze, made the best of his Way from me; which an_
Ostender _in our Company, of_ 22 _Guns, seeing, did the same, though the
Captain had promised heartily to engage with us, and I believe would have
been as good as his Word, if Capt._ Kirby _had kept his. About half an Hour
after Twelve, I called several times to the_ Greenwich _to bear down to our
Assistance, and fir'd Shot at him, but to no Purpose. For tho' we did not
doubt but he would join us, because when he got about a League from us, he
brought his Ship to, and look'd on, yet both he and the_ Ostender _basely
deserted us, and left us engaged with barbarous and inhuman Enemies, with
their black and bloody Flags hanging over us, without the least Appearance
of escaping being cut to Pieces. But God, in his good Providence,
determin'd otherwise; for notwithstanding their Superiority, we engaged 'em
both about three Hours, during which, the biggest received some Shot
betwixt Wind and Water, which made her keep off a little to stop her Leaks.
The other endeavoured all she could to board us, by rowing with her Oars,
being within half a Ship's Length of us above an Hour; but by good Fortune
we shot all her Oars to Pieces, which prevented them, and by consequence
saved our Lives_.

_About Four o'Clock, most of the Officers and Men posted on the
Quarter-Deck being killed and wounded, the largest Ship making up to us
with all Diligence, being still within a Cable's Length of us, often giving
us a Broadside, and no hopes of Capt._ Kirby_'s coming to our Assistance,
we endeavoured to run ashoar; and tho' we drew four Foot Water more than
the Pyrate, it pleased God that he stuck fast on a higher Ground than we
happily fell in with; so was disappointed a second time from boarding us.
Here we had a more violent Engagement than before. All my Officers, and
most of my Men, behaved with unexpected Courage; and as we had a
considerable Advantage by having a Broadside to his Bow, we did him great
Damage, so that had Capt._ Kirby _come in then, I believe we should have
taken both, for we had one of them sure; but the other Pyrate_ (_who was
still firing at us_) _seeing the_ Greenwich _did not offer to assist us, he
supplied his Consort with three Boats full of fresh Men. About Five in the
Evening the_ Greenwich _stood clear away to Sea, leaving us struggling hard
for Life in the very Jaws of Death; which the other Pyrate, that was
afloat, seeing, got a-warp out, and was hauling under our Stern; by which
time many of my Men being killed and wounded, and no Hopes left us from
being all murdered by enraged barbarous Conquerors, I order'd all that
could, to get into the Long-Boat under the Cover of the Smoak of our Guns;
so that with what some did in Boats, and others by swimming, most of us
that were able got ashoar by Seven o' Clock. When the Pyrates came aboard,
they cut three of our wounded Men to Pieces. I, with a few of my People,
made what haste I could to the_ King's-Town, _twenty five Miles from us,
where I arrived next Day, almost dead with Fatigue and Loss of Blood,
having been sorely wounded in the Head by a Musket Ball_.

_At this Town I heard that the Pyrates had offered ten thousand Dollars to
the Country People to bring me in, which many of them would have accepted,
only they knew the King and all his chief People were in my Interest. Mean
time, I caused a Report to be spread, that I was dead of my Wounds, which
much abated their Fury. About ten Days after, being pretty well recovered,
and hoping the Malice of our Enemies was nigh over, I began to consider the
dismal Condition we were reduced to, being in a Place where we had no Hopes
of getting a Passage home, all of us in a manner naked, not having had Time
to get another Shirt, or a Pair of Shoes_.

_Having obtained Leave to go on Board the Pyrates, and a Promise of Safety,
several of the Chief of them knew me, and some of them had sailed with me,
which I found of great Advantage; because, notwithstanding their Promise,
some of them would have cut me, and all that would not enter with them, to
Pieces, had it not been for the chief Captain_, Edward England, _and some
others I knew. They talked of burning one of their Ships, which we had so
entirely disabled, as to be no farther useful to them, and to fit the_
Cassandra _in her room; but in the End I managed my Tack so well, that they
made me a Present of the said shattered Ship, which was_ Dutch _built,
called the_ Fancy, _about three hundred Tons, and also a hundred and twenty
nine Bales of the Company's Cloth, tho' they would not give me a Rag of my

_They sailed the_ 3_d of_ September; _and with Jury-Masts, and such old
Sails as they left me, I made shift to do the like on the_ 8_th, together
with forty three of my Ship's Crew, including two Passengers and twelve
Soldiers, having but five Tons of Water aboard; and after a Passage of
forty eight Days, I arrived here_ October 26, _almost naked and starv'd,
having been reduced to a Pint of Water a Day, and almost in despair of ever
seeing Land, by Reason of the Calms we met with between the Coast of_
Arabia _and_ Malabar.--_We had in all thirteen Men killed and twenty four
wounded; and we were told, that we had destroyed about ninety or a hundred
of the Pyrates. When they left us, they were about three hundred Whites and
eighty Blacks in both Ships. I am persuaded, had our Consort the_ Greenwich
_done his Duty, we had destroyed both of them, and got two hundred thousand
Pounds for our Owners and selves; whereas to his deserting us, the Loss of
the_ Cassandra _may justly be imputed. I have delivered all the Bales that
were given me into the Company's Warehouse, for which the Governor and
Council have ordered me a Reward. Our Governor, Mr._ Boon, _who is extreme
kind and civil to me, has ordered me home with this Pacquet; but Captain_
Harvey, _who had a prior Promise, being come in with the Fleet, goes in my
room. The Governor hath promis'd me a Country Voyage, to help make me up my
Losses, and would have me stay to go home with him next Year_.

                                * * *

Captain _Mackra_ certainly run a great Hazard, in going aboard the Pyrate,
and began quickly to repent his Credulity; for though they had promised,
that no Injury should be done to his Person, he found their Words were not
to be trusted; and it may be supposed, that nothing but the desperate
Circumstances Captain _Mackra_ imagined himself to be in, could have
prevailed upon him to fling himself and Company into their Hands, perhaps
not knowing how firmly the Natives of that Island were attach'd to the
_English_ Nation; for about 20 Years ago, Captain _Cornwall_, Commadore of
an _English_ Squadron, assisted them against another Island called
_Mohilla_, for which they have ever since communicated all the grateful
Offices in their Power, insomuch that it became a Proverb, _That an_
Englishman, _and a_ Juanna _Man were all one_.

_England_ was inclined to favour Captain _Mackra_; but he was so free to
let him know, that his Interest was declining amongst them; and that the
Pyrates were so provoked at the Resistance he made against them, that he
was afraid he should hardly be able to protect him; he therefore advised
him to sooth up and manage the Temper of Captain _Taylor_, a Fellow of a
most barbarous Nature, who was become a great Favourite amongst them for no
other Reason than because he was a greater Brute than the rest. _Mackra_
did what he could to soften this Beast, and ply'd him with warm Punch;
notwithstanding which, they were in a Tumult whether they should make an
End of him, or no, when an Accident happen'd which turn'd to the Favour of
the poor Captain; a Fellow with a terrible pair of Whiskers, and a wooden
Leg, being stuck round with Pistols, like the Man in the Almanack with
Darts, comes swearing and vapouring upon the Quarter-Deck, and asks, in a
damning Manner, which was Captain _Mackra_: The Captain expected no less
than that this Fellow would be his Executioner;--but when he came near him,
he took him by the Hand, swearing, _Damn him he was glad to see him; and
shew me the Man_, says he, _that offers to hurt Captain_ Mackra, _for I'll
stand by him_; and so with many Oaths told him, _he was an honest Fellow,
and that he had formerly sail'd with him_.

This put an End to the Dispute, and Captain _Taylor_ was so mellow'd with
the Punch, that he consented that the old Pyrate Ship, and so many Bales of
Cloth should be given to Captain _Mackra_, and so he fell asleep. _England_
advised Captain _Mackra_ to get off with all Expedition, least when the
Beast should awake, he might repent his Generosity: Which Advice was
followed by the Captain.

Captain _England_ having sided so much to Captain _Mackra_'s Interest, was
a Means of making him many Enemies among the Crew; they thinking such good
Usage inconsistent with their Polity, because it looked like procuring
Favour at the Aggravation of their Crimes; therefore upon Imagination or
Report, that Captain _Mackra_ was fitting out against them, with the
Company's Force, he was soon _abdicated_ or pulled out of his Government,
and marooned with three more on the Island of _Mauritius_: An Island
indeed, not to be complained of, had they accumulated any Wealth by their
Villanies that would have afforded some future comfortable Prospect, for it
abounds with Fish, Deer, Hogs and other Flesh. Sir _Thomas Herbert_, says,
the Shores with Coral and Ambergrease; but I believe the _Dutch_ had not
deserted it, had there been much of these Commodities to have been found.
It was in 1722, resettled by the _French_, who have a Fort at another
neighbouring Island, called _Don Mascarine_, and are touched at for Water,
Wood, and Refreshments, by _French_ Ships bound to, or for _India_; as St.
_Helena_ and _Cape Bon Esperance_, are by us and the _Dutch_. From this
Place, Captain _England_ and his Companions having made a little Boat of
Staves and old Pieces of Deal left there, went over to _Madagascar_, where
they subsist at present on the Charity of some of their Brethren, who had
made better Provision for themselves, than they had done.

The Pyrates detained some Officers and Men belonging to Captain _Mackra_,
and having repaired the Damages received in their Rigging, they sailed for
_India_. The Day before they made Land, saw two Ships to the Eastward, who
at first Sight, they took to be _English_, and ordered one of the
Prisoners, who had been an Officer with Captain _Mackra_, to tell them the
private Signals between the Company's Ships, the Captain swearing he would
cut him in pound Pieces, if he did not do it immediately; but unable, was
forced to bear their Scurility, till they came up with them, and found they
were two _Moor_ Ships from _Muscat_, with Horses; they brought the Captain
of them, and Merchants, on Board, torturing them, and rifling the Ships, in
order to discover Riches, as believing they came from _Mocha_; but being
baulked in their Expectation, and next Morning seeing Land, and at the same
Time a Fleet in Shore plying to Windward, they were puzzled how to dispose
of them; to let them go, was to discover and ruin the Voyage, and it was
cruel to sink the Men and Horses with the Ships, (as many of them were
inclined to,) therefore, as a Medium, they brought them to an Anchor, threw
all their Sails over-board, and cut one of the Ships Masts half through.

While they lay at an Anchor, and were all the next Day employed in taking
out Water, one of the aforementioned Fleet bore towards them with _English_
Colours, answered with a red Ensign from the Pyrates, but did not speak
with one another. At Night they left the _Muscatt_ Ships, weighed with the
Sea Wind, and stood to the Northward after this Fleet: About four next
Morning, just as they were getting under sail, with the Land Wind, the
Pyrates came amongst them, made no stop, but fired their great and small
Guns very briskly, till they got through; and as Day-Light cleared, were in
a great Consternation in their Minds, having all along taken them for
_Angria_'s Fleet; what to do was the Point, whether run or pursue? They
were sensible of their Inferiority of Strength, having no more than 300 Men
in both Ships, and 40 of them Negroes; besides, the _Victory_ had then four
Pumps at Work, and must inevitably been lost before, had it not been for
some Hand-Pumps, and several pair of Standards brought out of the
_Cassandra_, to relieve and strengthen her; but observing the Indifferency
of the Fleet, chose rather to chase than run; and thought the best Way to
save themselves, was to play at Bullbeggar with the Enemy: So they came up
with the Sea Wind, about Gun-Shot to Leeward, the great Ships of the Fleet
a-head, and some others a-stern; which latter they took for Fire-Vessels:
And these a-head gaining from them by cutting away their Boats, they could
do nothing more than continue their Course all Night, which they did, and
found them next Morning out of Sight, excepting a Ketch and some few
Gallivats, (_small sort of Vessels something like the Feluccas of the_
Mediterranean, _and hoists, like them, triangular Sails_.) They bore down,
which the Ketch perceiving, transported her People on Board a Gallivat, and
set fire to her; the other proved too nimble and made off. The same Day
they chased another Gallivat and took her, being come from _Gogo_, bound
for _Callicut_ with Cotton. Of these Men they enquired concerning the
Fleet, supposing they must have been in it; and altho' they protested they
had not seen a Ship or Boat since they left _Gogo_, and pleaded very
earnestly for Favour; yet they threw all their Cargo over-board, and
squezed their Joints in a Vice, to extort Confession: But they entirely
ignorant of who or what this Fleet should be, were obliged not only to
sustain this Torment, but next Day a fresh easterly Wind having split the
Gallivats Sails, they put her Company into the Boat, with nothing but a
Trysail, no Provisions, and only four Gallons of Water, (half of it Salt,)
and then out of Sight of Land, to shift for themselves.

For the better elucidating of this Story, it may be convenient to inform
the Reader, who _Angria_ is, and what the Fleet were, that had so scurvily
behaved themselves.

_Angria_ is a famous _Indian_ Pyrate, of considerable Strength and
Territories, that gives continual Disturbance to the _European_ (and
especially the _English_) Trade: His chief Hold is _Callaba_, not many
Leagues from _Bombay_, and has one Island in Sight of that Port, whereby he
gains frequent Opportunities of annoying the Company. It would not be so
insuperable a Difficulty to suppress him, if the Shallowness of the Water
did not prevent Ships of War coming nigh: And a better Art he has, of
bribing the _Mogul_'s Ministers for Protection, when he finds an Enemy too

In the Year 1720, the _Bombay_ Fleet consisting of four _Grabbs, (Ships
built in_ India _by the Company, and have three Masts, a Prow like a
Row-Galley, instead of a Boltsprit, about_ 150 _Tons; are officered and
armed like a Man of War, for Defence and Protection of the Trade,)_ the
_London, Chandois_, and two other Ships with Gallivats, who besides their
proper Compliments, carried down 1000 Men to bombard and batter _Gayra_, a
Fort belonging to _Angria_, on the _Malabar_ Coast, which they having
performed ineffectually, were returning to _Bombay_, and, to make amends,
fell in with the Pyrates, to the Purpose has been already related. Captain
_Upton_, Commadore of that Fleet, prudently objecting to Mr. _Brown_, (who
went General,) That the Ships were not to be hazarded, since they sailed
without their Governor _Boon_'s Orders to engage; and besides, that they
did not come out with such a Design. This favourable Opportunity of
destroying the Pyrates, angered the Governor, and he transferred the
Command of the Fleet to Captain _Mackra_, who had Orders immediately to
pursue and engage, where ever he met them.

The Vice-Roy of _Goa_, assisted by the _English_ Company's Fleet from
_Bombay_, did attempt the Reduction of _Callaba_, his principal Place,
landed 8 or 10000 Men the next Year, the _English_ Squadron of Men of War
being then in those Seas; but having viewed the Fortification well, and
expended some of their Army by Sickness and the Fatigues of a Camp,
carefully withdrew again.

I return to the Pyrates, who, after they had sent away the Gallivats
People, resolved to cruise to the Southward; and the next Day, between
_Goa_ and _Carwar_, heard several Guns, which brought them to an Anchor,
and they sent their Boat on the Scent, who returned about two in the
Morning, and brought Word of two Grabs lying at Anchor in the Road. They
weighed and ran towards the Bay, till Day-Light gave the Grabs Sight of
them, and was but just Time enough to get under _India Diva_ Castle, out of
their reach; this displeased the Pyrates the more, in that they wanted
Water; and some were for making a Descent that Night and taking the Island,
but it not being approved of by the Majority, they proceeded to the
Southward, and took next in their Way, a small Ship out of _Onnore_ Road,
with only a _Dutch_ Man and two _Portuguese_ on Board. They sent one of
these on Shore to the Captain, to acquaint him, if he would supply them
with some Water, and fresh Provisions, he should have his Ship again; and
the Master returned for answer, by his Mate _Frank Harmless_, that if they
would deliver him Possession over the Bar, he would comply with their
Request; the Proposal the Mate thought was collusive, and they rather
jump'd into _Harmless_'s Opinion, (who very honestly entered with them,)
and resolved to seek Water at the _Laccadeva_ Islands; so having sent the
other Persons on Shore, with threats, that he should be the last Man they
would give Quarter too, (by Reason of this uncivil Usage;) they put
directly for the Islands, and arrived there in three Days: Where being
informed by a Menchew they took (with the Governor of _Canwars_ Pass,) of
there being no Anchor-Ground among them, and _Melinda_ being the next
convenient Island, they sent their Boats on Shore, to see if there was any
Water, and whether it was inhabited or not; who returned with an Answer to
their Satisfaction, _viz._ that there was abundance of good Water, and many
Houses, but deserted by the Men, who had fled to the neighbouring Islands
on the Approach of Ships, and left only the Women and Children to guard one
another. The Women they forced in a Barbarous Manner to their Lusts, and to
require them, destroyed their Cocoa Trees, and fired several of their
Houses and _Churches_. (I suppose built by the _Portuguese_, who formerly
used there, in their Voyages to _India_.)

While they were at this Island, they lost three or four Anchors, by the
Rockyness of the Ground, Freshness of Winds, and at last were forced thence
by a harder Gale than ordinary, leaving 70 People, Blacks and Whites, and
most of their Water Casks: In ten Days they regained the Island again,
filled their Water, and took the People on Board.

Provisions were very scarce, and they now resolved to visit their good
Friends the _Dutch_, at _Cochin_, who, if you will believe these Rogues,
never fail of supplying Gentlemen of their Profession. After three Days
sail, they arrived off _Tellechery_, and took a small Vessel belonging to
Governor _Adams, John Tawke_ Master, whom they brought on Board very drunk,
and he giving an Account of Captain _Mackra_'s fitting out, put them in a
Tempest of Passion: _A Villain_, say they, _that we have treated so
civilly, as to give him a Ship and other Presents, and now to be armed
against us, he ought to be hanged; and since we cannot show our Resentment
on him, let us hang the Dogs his People, who wish him well, and would do
the same, if clear. If it be in my Power_, says the Quarter-Master, _both
Masters and Officers of Ships shall be carried with us for the future, only
to plague them. --d--n_ England.

Thence they proceeded to _Calicut_, where they endeavoured to take a large
_Moor_ Ship out of the Road, but was prevented by some Guns mounted on
Shore, and discharged at them: Mr. _Lasinby_, who was one of Captain
_Mackra_'s Officers, and detained, was under the Deck at this Time, and
commanded both by the Captain and Quarter Master of the Pyrates, to tend
the Braces on the Booms, in hopes, it was believed, a Shot would take him
before they got clear, asking the Reason why he was not there before? And
when he would have excused himself, threat'ned on the like Neglect to shoot
him; at which the other beginning to expostulate farther, and claim their
Promise of putting him ashore, got an unmerciful beating from the
Quarter-Master. Captain _Taylor_, who was now Successor to _England_, and
whose Priviledge it was to do so, being lame of his Hands, and unable.

The next Day in their Passage down, came up with a _Dutch_ Galliot, bound
for _Calicut_ with Lime Stone, and aboard of her they put Captain _Tawke_,
and sent him away, and several of the People interceeded for _Lasinby_ in
vain, _For_, says _Taylor_ and his Party, _if we let this Dog go, who has
heard our Designs and Resolutions, we overset all our well advised
Projections, and particularly this Supply we are now seeking for, at the
Hands of the_ Dutch.

It was but one Day more before they arrived off _Cochin_, where, by a
Fishing-Canoe, they sent a Letter on Shore; and in the Afternoon, with the
Sea-breeze, ran into the Road and anchored, saluting the Fort with 11 Guns
each Ship, and received the Return, in an equal Number; a good Omen of the
welcome Reception they found; for at Night there came on Board a large
Boat, deeply laden with fresh Provisions and Liquors, and with it a Servant
(of a favourite Inhabitant) called _John Trumpet_: He told them they must
immediately weigh, and run farther to the Southward, where they should be
supplied with all Things they wanted, naval Stores or Provisions.

They had not been long at Anchor again, before they had several Canoes on
Board with both black and white Inhabitants, who continued, without
Interruption, all good Offices, during their Stay; particularly _John
Trumpet_ brought a large Boat of Arrack, than which, nothing could be more
pleasing (about 90 Legers,) as also 60 Bales of Sugar; an Offering, its
presumed, from the Governor and his Daughter, who, in Return, had a fine
Table-Clock sent him, (the Plunder of Captain _Mackra_'s Ship,) and she a
large Gold Watch, Earnests of the Pay they designed to make.

When they had all on Board, they paid Mr. _Trumpet_ to his Satisfaction, it
was computed, 6 or 7000 _l._ gave him three Cheers, 11 Guns each Ship, and
throw'd Ducatoons into his Boat by handfuls, for the Boat-Men to scramble

That Night being little Wind, did not weigh, and _Trumpet_, in the Morning,
waked them to the Sight of more Arrack, Chests of Piece-Goods, and ready
made Clothes, bringing the Fiscal of the Place also with him. At Noon,
while those were on Board, saw a Sail to the Southward, which they weighed,
and chaced after; but she having a good Offing, got to the Northward of
them, and anchored a small Distance from _Cochin_ Fort; the aforementioned
Gentlemen assuring them, that they would not be molested in taking her from
under the Castle, sollicited before hand for the buying her, and advised
them to stand in, which they did boldly, to board her; but when they came
within a Cable's length or two of the Chace, now near Shore, the Fort fired
two small Guns, whose Shot falling nigh their Muzzels, they instantly bore
out of the Road, made an easy Sail to the Southward, and anchored at Night
in their former Birth, where _John Trumpet_, to engage their Stay a little
longer, informed them, that in a few Days a very rich Ship was to pass by,
commanded by the General of _Bombay_'s Brother.

This Governor is an Emblem of foreign Power. What Inconvenience and Injury
must the Master's Subjects sustain under one who can truckle to such
treacherous and base Means, as corresponding and trading with Pyrates to
enrich himself? Certainly such a Man will stickle at no Injustice to repair
or make a Fortune. He has the _Argumentum bacillum_ always in his own
Hands, and can convince, when he pleases, in half the Time of other
Arguments, that Fraud and Oppression is Law. That he imploys Instruments in
such dirty Work, expresses the Guilt and Shame, but no way mitigates the
Crime. _John Trumpet_ was the Tool; but, as the Dog said in the Fable, on
another Occasion, _What is done by the Master's Orders, is the Master's

I cannot but reflect, on this Occasion, what a vile Government _Sancho
Pancho_ had of it; he had not only such _Perquisites_ rescinded, but was
really almost starved; the Victuals taken from him almost every Day, and
only under a Pretence of preserving his Excellency's Health: But
Governments differ.

From _Cochin_ some were for proceeding to _Madagascar_ directly; others
thought it proper to cruize till they got a Store-Ship, and these being the
Majority, they ply'd to the Southward, and after some Days saw a Ship in
Shore, which being to Windward of them, they could not get nigh, till the
Sea Wind, and Night, favouring, they separated, one to the Northward, the
other to the Southward, thinking to enclose her between: But to their
Astonishment, and contrary to Expectation, when Day broke, instead of the
Chace, found themselves very near five Sail of tall Ships, who immediately
making a Signal for the Pyrates to bear down, put them in the utmost
Confusion, particularly _Taylor_'s Ship, because their Consort was at a
Distance from them, (at least three Leagues to the Southward) they stood to
one another, and joined, and then together made the best of their Way from
the Fleet, whom they judged to be commanded by Captain _Mackra_; of whose
Courage having Experience, they were glad to shun any farther Taste of.

In three Hours Chace, none of the Fleet gaining upon them, excepting one
Grab, their dejected Countenances cleared up again, the more, in that a
Calm succeeded for the Remainder of that Day; and in the Night, with the
Land Wind, they ran directly off Shore, and found next Day, to their great
Consolation, that they had lost Sight of all the Fleet.

This Danger escaped, they proposed to spend _Christmas_ (the _Christmas_ of
1720) in Carowzing and Forgetfulness, and kept it for three Days in a
wanton and riotous Way, not only eating, but wasting their fresh Provisions
in so wretched and inconsiderable a Manner, that when they had agreed after
this to proceed to _Mauritius_, they were in that Passage at an Allowance
of a Bottle of Water _per Diem_, and not above two Pounds of Beef, and a
small Quantity of Rice, for ten Men for a Day; so that had it not been for
the leaky Ship, (which once they were about to have quitted, and had done,
but for a Quantity of Arrack and Sugar She had on Board,) they must most of
them have perished.

In this Condition they arrived at the Island of _Mauritius_, about the
Middle of _February_, sheathed and refitted the _Victory_, and on the 5th
of _April_ sailed again, leaving this terrible Inscription on one of the
Walls. _Left this Place the_ 5_th of_ April, _to go to_ Madagascar _for
Limes_, and this, least (like Lawyers and Men of Business) any Visits
should be paid in their Absence: However, they did not sail directly for
_Madagascar_, but the Island _Mascarine_, and luckily as Rogues could wish,
they found at their Arrival on the 8th, a _Portuguese_ Ship at Anchor, of
70 Guns, but most of them thrown overboard, her Masts lost, and so much
disabled by a violent Storm they had met with in the Latitude of 13° South,
that she became a Prize to the Pyrates, with very little or no Resistance,
and a glorious one indeed, having the _Conde de Ericeira_, Viceroy of
_Goa_, who made that fruitless Expedition against _Angria_, the _Indian_,
and several other Passengers on Board; who, as they could not be ignorant
of the Treasure she had in, did assert, that in the single Article of
Diamonds, there was to the Value of between three and four Millions of

The Vice-Roy, who came on Board that Morning, in Expectation of the Ships
being _English_, was made a Prisoner, and obliged to ransome; but in
Consideration of his great Loss, (the Prize being Part his own,) they
agreed after some Demurrings, to accept of 2000 Dollars, and set him and
the other Prisoners ashore, with Promises to leave a Ship that they might
Transport themselves, because the Island was not thought in a Condition to
maintain so great a Number; and tho' they had learned from them, the
Account of an _Ostender_ being to Leeward of the Island, which they took on
that Information, (being formerly the _Greyhound_ Galley of _London_,) and
could conveniently have comply'd with so reasonable a Request; yet they
sent the _Ostender_ with some of their People to _Madagascar_, with News of
their Success, and to prepare Masts for the Prize; and followed themselves
soon after, without regard to the Sufferers, carrying 200 _Mozambique_
Negroes with them in the _Portuguese_ Ship.

_Madagascar_ is an Island larger than _Great-Britain_, most of it within
the Tropick of _Capricorn_, and lays East from the Eastern Side of
_Africa_: It abounds with Provisions of all Sorts, Oxen, Goats, Sheep,
Poultry, Fish, Citrons, Oranges, Tamarinds, Dates, Coco-Nuts, Bananas, Wax,
Honey, Rice; or in short, Cotton, Indigo, or any other Thing they will take
Pains to plant, and have Understanding to manage: They have likewise Ebony,
a hard Wood like Brasil, of which they make their Lances; and Gum of
several Sorts, Benzin, Dragon's Blood, Aloes, _&c_. What is most
incommodious, are the numerous Swarms of Locusts on the Land, and
Crocodiles or Alligators in their Rivers. Hither, in St. _Augustin_'s Bay,
the Ships sometimes touch for Water, when they take the inner Passage for
_India_, and do not design to stop at _Johanna_; and we may observe from
the sixth general Voyage set forth by the _East-India_ Company, in
Confirmation of what is hereafter said in Relation to Currents in general;
that this inner Passage or Channel, has its Northern and Southern Currents
strongest where the Channel is narrowest, and is less, and varies on
different Points of the Compass, as the Sea comes to spread again, in the
Passage cross the Line.

Since the Discovery of this Island by the _Portuguese, A. D._ 1506, the
_Europeans_, and particularly Pyrates, have increased a dark Mulatto Race
there, tho' still few in Comparison with the Natives, who are Negroes, with
curled short Hair, Active, and formerly represented malicious and
revengeful, now tractable and communicable, perhaps owing to the Favours
and Generosity in Cloathing and Liquors, they from Time to Time have
received from these Fellows, who live in all possible Friendship, and can,
any single Man of them, command a Guard of 2 or 300 at a Minute's warning:
This is farther the Native's Interest, to cultivate with them, because the
Island being divided into petty Governments and Commands, the Pyrates,
settled here, who are now a considerable Number, and have little Castles of
their own, can preponderate where-ever they think fit to side.

When _Taylor_ came with the _Portuguese_ Prize here, they found the
_Ostender_ had played their Men a Trick, for they took Advantage of their
Drink, rise upon them, and (as they heard afterwards) carried the Ship to
_Mozambique_, whence the Governor ordered her for _Goa_.

Here the Pyrates came, cleaned the _Cassandra_, and divided their Plunder,
sharing 42 small Diamonds a Man, or in less Proportion according to their
Magnitude. An ignorant, or a merry Fellow, who had only, one in this
Division, as being judged equal, in Value to 42 small, muttered very much
at the Lot, and went and broke it in a Morter, swearing afterwards, he had
a better Share than any of them, for he had beat it, he said, into 43

Those who were not for running the Hazard of their Necks, with 42 Diamonds,
besides other Treasure, in their Pockets, knocked off, and stay'd with
their old Acquaintance at _Madagascar_, on mutual Agreements, the longer
Livers to take all. The Residue having therefore no Occasion for two Ships,
the _Victory_ being leaky, she was burnt, the Men (as many as would) coming
into the _Cassandra_, under the Command of _Taylor_, who we must leave a
Time, projecting either for _Cochin_, to dispose of their Diamonds among
their old Friends the _Dutch_, or else for the _Red_ or _China_ Seas, to
avoid the Men of War, that continually clamoured in their Ears, a Noise of
Danger, and give the _little_ Account we are able, of that Squadron, who
arrived in _India_, early in the Year 1721.

At _Cape Good Hope_, in _June_, the Commadore met with a Letter, which was
left for him by the Governor of _Madras_, to whom it was wrote by the
Governor of _Pandicherry_, a _French_ Factory, on the _Coromondel_ Coast,
signifying, the Pyrates at the Writing of it, were then strong in the
_Indian_ Seas, having 11 Sail and 1500 Men, but that many of them went away
about that Time, for the Coast of _Brazil_ and _Guinea_; others settled and
fortified themselves at _Madagascar, Mauritius, Johanna_ and _Mohilla_: And
that others under _Conden_, in a Ship called the _Dragon_, took a large
_Moor_'s Vessel, coming from _Iudda_ and _Mocho_, with thirteen Lackies of
Rupees on Board, (_i. e._ 1300000 half Crowns,) who having divided the
Plunder, burnt their Ship and Prize, and sat down quietly with their other
Friends at _Madagascar_.

The Account contain'd several other Things which we have before
related.--Commadore _Matthews_, upon receiving this Intelligence, and being
fond of the Service he came out for, hastened to those Islands, as the most
hopeful Places of Success; at St. _Mary_'s would have engaged _England_
with Promises of Favour, if he would communicate what he knew, concerning
the _Cassandra_, and the rest of the Pyrates, and assist in the Pilotage;
but _England_ was wary, and thought this was to _surrender at Discretion_,
so they took up the _Judda_ Ship's Guns that was burnt, and the Men of War
dispersed themselves on several Voyages and Cruises afterwards, as was
thought likeliest to succeed, tho' to no Purpose: Then the Squadron went
down to _Bombay_, were saluted by the Fort, and came home.

The Pyrates, I mean those of the _Cassandra_, now Captain _Taylor_, fitted
the _Portuguese_ Man of War, and resolved upon another Voyage to the
_Indies_, notwithstanding the Riches they had heaped up; but as they were
preparing to sail, they heard of the four Men of War coming after them to
those Seas, therefore they altered their Minds, sail'd for the Main of
_Africa_, and put in at a little Place called _Delagoa_, near the River _de
Spiritu Sancto_, on the Coast of _Monomotapa_, in 26° South Latitude. They
believed this to be a Place of Security, in regard that the Squadron could
not possibly get Intelligence of them, there being no Correspondence over
Land, nor any Trade carried on by Sea, between that and the Cape, where the
Men of War were then supposed to be. The Pyrates came to in the Evening,
and were surprized with a few Shot from the Shore, not knowing of any
Fortification or _European_ Settlement in that Part of the World; so they
anchored at a Distance that Night, and perceiving, in the Morning, a small
Fort of six Guns, they run up to it, and battered it down.

This Fort was built and settled by the _Dutch East-India_ Company, a few
Months before, for what Purpose, I know not, and having left 150 Men upon
the Place, they were then dwindled to a third Part by Sickness and
Casualties, and never after received any Relief or Necessaries; so that
Sixteen of those that were left, upon their humble Petition, were admitted
on Board the Pyrates, and all the rest would have had the same Favour (they
said) had they been any other than _Dutch_. I mention this, as an Instance
of their Ingratitude, who had been so much obliged to their Countrymen for

Here they staid above four Months, carreened both their Ships, and took
their Diversions with Security, till they had expended all their
Provisions, and then put to Sea, leaving considerable Quantities of
Muslins, Chintzes, and such Goods behind, to the half starved _Dutch_ Men,
which enabled them to make good Pennyworths to the next that came, to whom
they bartered for Provisions, at the Rate of three Farthings an _English_

They left _Delagoa_ the latter End of _December_ 1722, but not agreeing
where, or how to proceed, they concluded to part, so those who were for
continuing that sort of Life, went on Board the _Portuguese_ Prize, and
steered for _Madagascar_ to their Friends, with whom I hear they are now
settled; and the rest took the _Cassandra_ and sailed for the _Spanish
West-Indies_. The _Mermaid_ Man of War happening then to be down on the
Main with a Convoy, about 30 Leagues from these Pyrates, would have gone
and attacked them; but on a Consultation of the Masters, whose Safety he
was particularly to regard, they agreed their own Protection was of more
Service than destroying the Pyrate, and so the Commander was unwillingly
withheld. He dispatched a Sloop to _Jamaica_, with the News, which brought
down the _Lanceston_, only a Day, or two, too late, they having just before
he came, surrendered with all their Riches, to the Governor of _Porto

Here they sate down to spend the Fruits of their dishonest Industry,
dividing the Spoil and Plunder of Nations among themselves, without the
least Remorse or Compunction, satisfying their Conscience with this Salvo,
that other People would have done as much, had they the like Opportunities.
I can't say, but that if they had known what was doing in _England_, at the
same Time by the _South-Sea_ Directors, and their Directors, they would
certainly have had this Reflection for their Consolation, _viz. That what
ever Robberies they had committed, they might be pretty sure they were not
the greatest Villains then living in the World_.

It is a difficult Matter to make a Computation of the Mischief that was
done by this Crew, in about five Years Time, which is much more than the
Plunder they gained, for they often sunk or burnt the Vessel they took, as
it suited their Humour or Circumstances, sometimes to prevent giving
Intelligence, sometimes because they did not leave Men to navigate them,
and at other Times out of Wantonness, or because they were displeased at
the Master's Behaviour; for any of these, it was but to give the Word, and
down went Ships and Cargoes to the Bottom of the Sea.

Since their Surrender to the _Spaniards_, I am informed several of them
have left the Place, and dispersed themselves elsewhere; eight of them were
shipp'd about _November_ last, in one of the _South-Sea_ Company's Assiento
Sloops, and passed for Ship-wreck'd Men, came to _Jamaica_, and there
sailed in other Vessels; and I know one of them that came to _England_ this
Spring from that Island. 'Tis said that Captain _Taylor_ has taken a
Commission in the _Spanish_ Service, and commanded the Man of War that
lately attack'd the _English_ Log-Wood Cutters, in the Bay of _Honduras_.

CHAP. VI. OF Captain _Charles Vane_, And his CREW.

C_Harles Vane_ was one of those who stole away the Silver which the
_Spaniards_ had fished up from the Wrecks of the Galleons, in the Gulph of
_Florida_, and was at _Providence_ (as has been before hinted) when
Governor _Rogers_ arrived there with two Men of War.

All the Pyrates who were found at this Colony of Rogues, submitted, and
received Certificates of their Pardon, except Captain _Vane_ and his Crew;
who, as soon as they saw the Men of War enter, slipp'd their Cable, set
Fire to a Prize they had in the Harbour, and sailed out with their
pyratical Colours flying, firing at one of the Men of War as they went off.

Two Days after they went out, they met with a Sloop belonging to
_Barbadoes_, which they made Prize of, and kept the Vessel for their own
Use, putting aboard five and twenty Hands, with one _Yeats_ to command
them. A Day or two afterwards they fell in with a small interloping Trader,
with a Quantity of _Spanish_ Pieces of Eight aboard, bound into
_Providence_, called the _John_ and _Elizabeth_, which they also took along
with them. With these two Sloops _Vane_ went to a small Island and cleaned;
where they shared their Booty, and spent some Time in a riotous Manner of
Living, as is the Custom of Pyrates.

The latter End of _May_ 1718, they sail'd, and being in want of Provisions,
they beat up for the Windward Islands, and met with a _Spanish_ Sloop bound
from _Porto Rico_ to the _Havana_, which they burnt, and stowed the
_Spaniards_ in a Boat, and left them to get to the Island, by the Light of
their Vessel. But steering between St. _Christopher_'s and _Anguilla_, they
fell in with a Brigantine and a Sloop, with the Cargo they wanted; from
whom they got Provisions for Sea-Store.

Sometime after this, standing to the Northward, in the Track the
_Old-England_ Ships take, in their Voyage to the _American_ Colonies, they
took several Ships and Vessels, which they plundered of what they thought
fit, and let them pass.

The latter End of _August, Vane_, with his Consort _Yeats_, came off
_South-Carolina_, and took a Ship belonging to _Ipswich_, one _Coggershall_
Commander, laden with Logwood, which was thought convenient enough for
their own Business, and therefore ordered their Prisoners to work, and
throw all the Lading over-board; but when they had more than half cleared
the Ship, the Whim changed, and then they would not have her; so
_Coggershall_ had his Ship again, and he was suffered to pursue his Voyage
home. In this Cruize the Rover took several other Ships and Vessels,
particularly a Sloop from _Barbadoes, Dill_ Master; a small Ship from
_Antegoa, Cock_ Master; a Sloop belonging to _Curacco, Richards_ Master;
and a large Brigantine, Captain _Thompson_, from _Guiney_, with ninety odd
Negroes aboard. The Pyrates plundered them all and let them go, putting the
Negroes out of the Brigantine aboard of _Yeat_'s Vessel, by which Means
they came back again to the right Owners.

For Captain _Vane_, having always treated his Consort with very little
Respect, assuming a Superiority over _Yeats_ and his small Crew, and
regarding the Vessel but as a Tender to his own; gave them a Disgust, who
thought themselves as good Pyrates, and as great Rogues as the best of
them; so they caball'd together, and resolved to take the first Opportunity
to leave the Company; and accept of his Majesty's Pardon, or set up for
themselves, either of which they thought more honourable than to be
Servants to the former; and the putting aboard so many Negroes, where they
found so few Hands to take Care of them, still aggravated the Matter,
though they thought fit to conceal or stifle their Resentments at that

A Day or two afterwards, the Pyrates lying off at Anchor, _Yeats_ in the
Evening slipp'd his Cable, and put his Vessel under Sail, standing into the
Shore; which, when _Vane_ saw, he was highly provoked, and got his Sloop
under Sail to chase his Consort, who, he plainly perceived, had a Mind to
have no further Affairs with him: _Vane_'s Brigantine sailing best, he
gained Ground of _Yeats_, and would certainly have come up with him, had he
had a little longer Run for it; but just as he got over the Bar, when
_Vane_ came within Gun-shot of him, he fired a Broadside at his old Friend,
(which did him no Damage,) and so took his Leave.

_Yeats_ came into _North Edisto_ River, about ten Leagues Southward of
_Charles-Town_, and sent an Express to the Governor, to know if he and his
Comrades might have the Benefit of his Majesty's Pardon, and they would
surrender themselves to his Mercy, with the Sloops and Negroes; which being
granted, they all came up and received Certificates; and Captain
_Thompson_, from whom the Negroes were taken, had them restored to him, for
the Use of his Owners.

_Vane_ cruised some Time off the Bar, in hopes to catch _Yeats_ at his
coming out again, but therein he was disappointed; however, he
unfortunately for them, took two Ships from _Charles-Town_, bound home to
_England_. It happen'd that just at this Time two Sloops well mann'd and
arm'd, were equipp'd to go after a Pyrate, which the Governor of
_South-Carolina_ was informed, lay then in Cape _Fear_ River, a cleaning:
But Colonel _Rhet_, who commanded the Sloops, meeting with one of the Ships
that _Vane_ had plundered, going back over the Bar, for such Necessaries as
had been taken from her, and she giving the Colonel an Account of her being
taken by the Pyrate _Vane_, and also, that some of her Men, while they were
Prisoners on Board of him, had heard the Pyrates say, they should clean in
one of the Rivers to the Southward; he altered his first Design, and
instead of standing to the Northward, in pursuit of the Pyrate in Cape
_Fear_ River, he turns to the Southward after _Vane_; who had ordered such
Reports to be given out, on purpose to send any Force that should come
after him, upon a wrong Scent; for in Reality he stood away to the
Northward, so that the Pursuit proved to be the contrary Way.

Colonel _Rhet_'s speaking with this Ship, was the most unlucky Thing that
could have happened, because it turned him out of the Road, which in all
Probability, would have brought him into the Company of _Vane_, as well as
of the Pyrate he went after; and so they might have been both destroy'd;
whereas, by the Colonel's going a different Way, he not only lost the
Opportunity of meeting with one, but if the other had not been infatuated,
to lye six Weeks together at Cape _Fear_, he would have missed of him
likewise: However, the Colonel having searched the Rivers and Inlets, as
directed, for several Days, without Success, at length sailed in
Prosecution of his first Design, and met with the Pyrate accordingly, whom
he fought and took, as has been before spoken of, in the History of Major

Captain _Vane_ went into an Inlet to the Northward, where he met with
Captain _Thatch_, or _Teach_, otherwise call'd _Black-beard_, whom he
saluted (when he found who he was) with his great Guns, loaded with Shot,
(as is the Custom among Pyrates when they meet) which are fired wide, or up
into the Air: _Black-beard_ answered the Salute in the same Manner, and
mutual Civilities passed for some Days; when about the Beginning of
_October, Vane_ took Leave, and sailed further to the Northward.

On the 23d of _October_, off of _Long Island_, he took a small Brigantine,
bound from _Jamaica_ to _Salem_ in _New-England, John Shattock_ Master, and
a little Sloop; they rifled the Brigantine, and sent her away. From hence
they resolved on a Cruize between Cape _Meise_ and Cape _Nicholas_, where
they spent some Time, without seeing or speaking with any Vessel, till the
latter End of _November_; then they fell upon a Ship, which 'twas expected
would have struck as soon as their black Colours were hoisted; but instead
of that, she discharged a Broadside upon the Pyrate, and hoisted Colours,
which shewed her to be a _French_ Man of War. _Vane_ desired to have
nothing further to say to her, but trimm'd his Sails, and stood away from
the _French_ Man; but _Monsieur_ having a Mind to be better informed who he
was, set all his Sails, and crowded after him. During this Chace, the
Pyrates were divided in their Resolutions what to do: _Vane_, the Captain,
was for making off as fast as he could, alledging the Man of War was too
strong to cope with; but one _John Rackam_, who was an Officer, that had a
kind of a Check upon the Captain, rose up in Defence of a contrary Opinion,
saying, _That tho' she had more Guns, and a greater Weight of Mettal, they
might board her, and then the best Boys would carry the Day. Rackam_ was
well seconded, and the Majority was for boarding; but _Vane_ urged, _That
it was too rash and desperate an Enterprize, the Man of War appearing to be
twice their Force; and that their Brigantine might be sunk by her before
they could reach on board_. The Mate, one _Robert Deal_, was of _Vane_'s
Opinion, as were about fifteen more, and all the rest joined with _Rackam_,
the Quarter-Master. At length the Captain made use of his Power to
determine this Dispute, which, in these Cases, is absolute and
uncontroulable, by their own Laws, _viz_. in _fighting, chasing_, or _being
chased_; in all other Matters whatsoever, he is governed by a Majority; so
the Brigantine having the Heels, as they term it, of the _French_ Man, she
came clear off.

But the next Day, the Captain's Behaviour was obliged to stand the Test of
a Vote, and a Resolution passed against his Honour and Dignity, branding
him with the Name of Coward, deposing him from the Command, and turning him
out of the Company, with Marks of Infamy; and, with him, went all those who
did not Vote for boarding the _French_ Man of War. They had with them a
small Sloop that had been taken by them some Time before, which they gave
to _Vane_, and the discarded Members; and, that they might be in a
Condition to provide for themselves, by their own honest Endeavours, they
let them have a sufficient Quantity of Provisions and Ammunition along with

_John Rackam_ was voted Captain of the Brigantine, in _Vane_'s Room, and
proceeded towards the _Caribbee Islands_, where we must leave him, till we
have finished our Story of _Charles Vane_.

The Sloop sailed for the Bay of _Honduras_, and _Vane_ and his Crew put her
into as good a Condition as they could by the Way, to follow the old Trade.
They cruised two or three Days off the North-West Part of _Jamaica_, and
took a Sloop and two Pettiagas, and all the Men entered with them; the
Sloop they kept, and _Robert Deal_ went Captain of her.

On the 16th of _December_ the two Sloops came into the Bay, where they
found only one at an Anchor, call'd the _Pearl_, of _Jamaica_, Captain
_Charles Rowling_ Master, who got under Sail at the Sight of them; but the
Pyrate Sloops coming near _Rowling_, and shewing no Colours, he gave them a
Gun or two; whereupon they hoisted the black Flag, and fired three Guns
each, at the _Pearl_; she struck, and the Pyrates took Possession, and
carried her away to a small Island called _Barnacko_, and there they
cleaned, meeting in the Way with a Sloop from _Jamaica_, Captain _Wallden_
Commander, going down to the Bay, which they also made Prize of.

In _February, Vane_ sailed from _Barnacko_, in order for a Cruize; but some
Days after he was out, a violent Turnado overtook him, which separated him
from his Consort, and after two Days Distress, threw his Sloop upon a small
uninhabited Island, near the Bay of _Honduras_, where she was staved to
Pieces, and most of her Men drowned: _Vane_ himself was saved, but reduced
to great Streights, for want of Necessaries, having no Opportunity to get
any Thing from the Wreck. He lived here some Weeks, and was subsisted
chiefly by Fishermen, who frequented the Island with small Craft, from the
Main, to catch Turtles, _&c_.

While _Vane_ was upon this Island, a Ship put in from _Jamaica_ for Water,
the Captain of which, one _Holford_, an old Buccaneer, happened to be
_Vane_'s Acquaintance; he thought this a good Opportunity to get off, and
accordingly applied to his old Friend; but he absolutely refused him,
saying to him, Charles, _I shan't trust you aboard my Ship, unless I carry
you a Prisoner; for I shall have you caballing with my Men, knock me on the
Head, and run away with my Ship a pyrating. Vane_ made all the
Protestations of Honour in the World to him; but, it seems, Captain
_Holford_ was too intimately acquainted with him, to repose any Confidence
at all in his Words or Oaths. He told him, _He might easily find a Way to
get off, if he had a Mind to it: I am now going down the Bay_, says he,
_and shall return hither, in about a Month; and if I find you upon the
Island when I come back, I'll carry you to_ Jamaica, _and hang you. Which
Way can I get away_? Answers _Vane. Are there not Fishermen's Dories upon
the Beach? Can't you take one of them_? Replies _Holford. What_, says
_Vane, would you have me steal a Dory then? Do you make it a Matter of
Conscience_? Said _Holford, to steal a Dory, when you have been a common
Robber and Pyrate, stealing Ships and Cargoes, and plundering all Mankind
that fell in your Way? Stay there, and be d--n'd, if you are so Squeamish_:
And so left him.

After Captain _Holford_'s Departure, another Ship put in to the same Island
in her Way home for Water; none of whose Company knowing _Vane_, he easily
passed upon them for another Man, and so was shipp'd for the Voyage. One
would be apt to think that _Vane_ was now pretty safe, and likely to escape
the Fate which his Crimes had merited; but here a cross Accident happen'd
that ruin'd all: _Holford_, returning from the Bay, was met with by this
Ship; the Captains being very well acquainted together, _Holford_ was
invited to dine aboard of him, which he did; and as he passed along to the
Cabin, he chanced to cast his Eye down the Hold, and there saw _Charles
Vane_ at work; he immediately spoke to the Captain, saying, _Do you know
who you have got aboard here? Why_, says he, _I have shipp'd a Man at such
an Island, who was cast away in a trading Sloop, he seems to be a brisk
Hand. I tell you_, says Captain _Holford, it is_ Vane _the notorious
Pyrate. If it be him_, replies the other, _I won't keep him: Why then_,
says _Holford, I'll send and take him aboard, and surrender him at_
Jamaica. Which being agreed to, Captain _Holford_, as soon as he returned
to his Ship, sent his Boat with his Mate armed, who coming to _Vane_,
shewed him a Pistol, and told him, _He was his Prisoner_; which none
opposing, he was brought aboard, and put in Irons; and when Captain
_Holford_ arrived at _Jamaica_, he delivered his old Acquaintance into the
Hands of Justice; at which Place he was try'd, convicted, and executed, as
was, some Time before, _Vane_'s Consort, _Robert Deal_, brought thither by
one of the Men of War.

CHAP. VII. OF Captain _John Rackam_, And his CREW.

THIS _John Rackam_, as has been mentioned in the last Chapter, was
Quarter-Master to _Vane_'s Company, till they were divided, and _Vane_
turned out for refusing to board and fight the _French_ Man of War; then
_Rackam_ was voted Captain of that Division that remained in the
Brigantine. The 24th of _November_ 1718, was the first Day of his Command,
and his first Cruize was among the _Caribbee Islands_, where he took and
plunder'd several Vessels.

We have already taken Notice, that when Captain _Woodes Rogers_ went to the
Island of _Providence_, with the King's Pardon to such as should surrender,
this Brigantine, which _Rackam_ now commanded, made its Escape, thro'
another Passage, bidding Defiance to Mercy.

To Windward of _Jamaica_, a _Madera_ Man fell into the Pyrates Way, which
they detained two or three Days, till they had made their Market out of
her, and then gave her back to the Master, and permitted one _Hosea
Tisdell_, a Tavern-Keeper at _Jamaica_, who had been pick'd up in one of
their Prizes, to depart in her, she being then bound for that Island.

After this Cruize, they went into a small Island and cleaned, and spent
their _Christmas_ ashore, drinking and carousing as long as they had any
Liquor left, and then went to Sea again for more, where they succeeded but
too well, though they took no extraordinary Prize, for above two Months,
except a Ship laden with Thieves from _Newgate_, bound for the Plantations,
which, in a few Days, was retaken with all her Cargo, by an _English_ Man
of War.

_Rackam_ stood off towards the Island of _Burmudas_, and took a Ship bound
to _England_ from _Carolina_, and a small Pink from _New-England_, and
brought them to the _Bahama_ Islands, where with the Pitch, Tar, and
Stores, they clean'd again, and refitted their own Vessel; but staying too
long in that Neighbourhood, Captain _Rogers_, who was Governor of
_Providence_, hearing of these Ships being taken, sent out a Sloop well
mann'd and arm'd, which retook both the Prizes, and in the mean while the
Pyrate had the good Fortune to escape.

From hence they sailed to the Back of _Cuba_, where _Rackam_ kept a little
kind of a Family, at which Place, they staid a considerable Time, living
ashore with their Dalilahs, till their Money and Provision were expended,
and then they concluded it Time to look out: They repaired to their Vessel,
and was making ready to put Sea, when a _Guarda del Costa_ came in with a
small _English_ Sloop, which she had taken as an Interloper on the Coast.
The _Spanish_ Guardship attack'd the Pyrate, but _Rackam_ being close in
behind a little Island, she could do but little Execution where she lay,
therefore the _Spaniard_ warps into the Channel that Evening, in order to
make sure of her the next Morning. _Rackam_ finding his Case desperate, and
hardly any Possibility of escaping, resolved to attempt the following
Enterprize: The _Spanish_ Prize lying for better Security close into the
Land, between the little Island and the Main; _Rackam_ takes his Crew into
the Boat, with their Pistols and Cutlashes, rounds the little Island, and
falls aboard their Prize silently in the dead of the Night, without being
discovered, telling the _Spaniards_ that were aboard of her, that if they
spoke a Word, or made the least Noise, they were dead Men, and so became
Master of her; when this was done, he slipt her Cable, and drove out to
Sea: The _Spanish_ Man of War, was so intent upon their expected Prize,
that they minded nothing else, and assoon as Day broke, made a furious Fire
upon the empty Sloop, but it was not long before they were rightly apprized
of the Matter, and cursed themselves for Fools, to be bit out of a good
rich Prize, as she prov'd to be, and to have nothing but an old crazy Hull
in the room of her.

_Rackam_ and his Crew had no Occasion to be displeased at the Exchange,
that enabled them to continue some Time longer in a Way of Life that suited
their depraved Tempers: In _August_ 1720, we find him at Sea again,
scouring the Harbours and Inlets of the North and West Parts of _Jamaica_,
where he took several small Craft, which proved no great Booty to the
Rovers, but they had but few Men, and therefore they were obliged to run at
low Game, till they could encrease their Company.

In the Beginning of _September_, they took seven or eight Fishing-Boats in
_Harbour Island_, stole their Nets and other Tackle, and then went off the
_French_ Part of _Hispaniola_, and landed, and took Cattle away, with two
or three _French_ Men they found near the Water-Side, hunting of wild Hogs
in the Evening: The _French_ Men came on Board, whether by Consent or
Compulsion, I can't say. They afterwards plundered two Sloops, and returned
to _Jamaica_, on the North Coast of which Island, near _Porto Maria_ Bay,
they took a Scooner, _Thomas Spenlow_ Master; it was then the 19th of
_October_. The next Day, _Rackam_ seeing a Sloop in _Dry Harbour_ Bay, he
stood in and fired a Gun; the Men all run ashore, and he took the Sloop and
Lading, but when those ashore found them to be Pyrates, they hailed the
Sloop, and let them know they were all willing to come aboard of them.

_Rackam_'s coasting the Island in this Manner, proved fatal to him, for
Intelligence came to the Governor, of his Expedition, by a Canoa which he
had surprized ashore, in _Ocho_ Bay; upon which a Sloop was immediately
fitted out, and sent round the Island in quest of him, commanded by Captain
_Barnet_, with a good Number of Hands. _Rackam_ rounding the Island, and
drawing near the Westermost Point, called Point _Negril_, saw a small
Pettiauger, which at sight of the Sloop, run ashore and landed her Men;
when one of them hailed her, Answer was made, _They were_ English _Men_,
and desired the Pettiauger's Men to come on Board, and drink a Bowl of
Punch, which they were prevailed upon to do; accordingly the Company came
all aboard of the Pyrate, consisting of nine Persons, in an ill Hour; they
were armed with Muskets and Cutlashes, but, what was their real Design by
so doing, I shall not take upon me to say; but they had no sooner laid down
their Arms, and taken up their Pipes, but _Barnet_'s Sloop, which was in
Pursuit of _Rackam_'s, came in Sight.

The Pyrates finding she stood directly towards her, fear'd the Event, and
weighed their Anchor, which they but lately let go, and stood off: Captain
_Barnet_ gave them Chace, and having the Advantage of little Breezes of
Wind, which blew off the Land, came up with her, and, after a very small
Dispute, took her, and brought her into _Port Royal_, in _Jamaica_.

In about a Fortnight after the Prisoners were brought ashore, _viz.
November_ 16, 1720, a Court of Admiralty was held at St. _Jago de la Vega_,
before which the following Persons were convicted, and Sentence of Death
passed upon them, by the President, Sir _Nicholas Laws, viz. John Rackam_
Captain, _George Fetherston_ Master, _Richard Corner_ Quarter-Master, _John
Davis, John Howell, Patrick Carty, Thomas Earl, James Dobbin_ and _Noah
Harwood_. The five first were executed the next Day at _Gallows Point_, at
the Town of _Port Royal_, and the rest, the Day after, at _Kingston_;
_Rackam, Feverston_ and _Corner_, were afterwards taken down and hang'd up
in Chains, one at _Plumb Point_, one at _Bush Key_, and the other at _Gun

But what was very surprizing, was, the Conviction of the nine Men that came
aboard the Sloop the same Day she was taken. They were try'd at an
Adjournment of the Court, on the 24th of _January_, waiting all that Time,
it is supposed, for Evidence, to prove the pyratical Intention of going
aboard the said Sloop; for it seems there was no Act of Pyracy committed by
them, after their coming on Board, as appeared by the Witnesses against
them, who were two _French_ Men taken by _Rackam_, off from the Island of
_Hispaniola_, and deposed in the following Manner.

   `That the Prisoners at the Bar, _viz. John Eaton,
   Edward Warner, Thomas Baker, Thomas Quick, John Cole,
   Benjamin Palmer, Walter Rouse, John Hanson_, and _John
   Howard_, came aboard the Pyrate's Sloop at _Negril
   Point, Rackam_ sending his Canoe ashore for that
   Purpose: That they brought Guns and Cutlashes on Board
   with them: That when Captain
   _Barnet_ chased them, some were drinking, and others
   walking the Deck: That there was a great Gun and a
   small Arm fired by the Pyrate Sloop, at Captain
   _Barnet_'s Sloop, when he chased her; and that when
   Captain _Barnet_'s Sloop fired at _Rackam_'s Sloop, the
   Prisoners at the Bar went down under Deck. That during
   the Time Captain _Barnet_ chased them, some of the
   Prisoners at the Bar (but which of them he could not
   tell) helped to row the Sloop, in order to escape from
   _Barnet_: That they all seemed to be consorted

This was the Substance of all that was evidenced against them, the
Prisoners answered in their Defence,

   `That they had no Witnesses: That they had bought a
   Pettiauger in order to go a Turtleing; and being at
   _Negril Point_, and just got ashore, they saw a Sloop
   with a white Pendant coming towards them, upon which
   they took their Arms, and hid themselves in the Bushes:
   That one of them hail'd the Sloop, who answer'd, _They
   were_ English _Men_, and desired them to come aboard
   and drink a Bowl of Punch; which they at first refused,
   but afterwards with much perswasion, they went on
   Board, in the Sloop's Canoe, and left their own
   Pettiauger at Anchor: That they had been but a short
   Time on Board, when Captain _Barnet_'s Sloop heaved in
   Sight: That _Rackam_ ordered them to help to weigh the
   Sloop's Anchor immediately, which they all refused:
   That _Rackam_ used violent Means to oblige them; and
   that when Captain _Barnet_ came up with them, they all
   readily and willingly submitted.

When the Prisoners were taken from the Bar, and the Persons present being
withdrawn, the Court considered the Prisoners Cases, and the Majority of
the Commissioners being of Opinion, that they were all Guilty of the Pyracy
and Felony they were charged with, which was, _the going over with a
pyratical and felonious Intent to_ John Rackam, &c. _then notorious
Pyrates, and by them known to be so_, they all received Sentence of Death;
which every Body must allow proved somewhat unlucky to the poor Fellows.

On the 17th of _February, John Eaton, Thomas Quick_ and _Thomas Baker_,
were executed at _Gallows Point_, at _Port Royal_, and the next Day _John
Cole, John Howard_ and _Benjamin Palmer_, were executed at _Kingston_;
whether the other three were executed afterwards, or not, I never heard.

Two other Pyrates were try'd that belonged to _Rackam_'s Crew, and being
convicted, were brought up, and asked if either of them had any Thing to
say why Sentence of Death should not pass upon them, in like Manner as had
been done to all the rest; and both of them pleaded their Bellies, being
quick with Child, and pray'd that Execution might be stay'd, whereupon the
Court passed Sentence, as in Cases of Pyracy, but ordered them back, till a
proper Jury should be appointed to enquire into the Matter.

_The_ LIFE _of_ MARY READ,

NOW we are to begin a History full of surprizing Turns and
Adventures; I mean, that of _Mary Read_ and _Anne Bonny_, alias _Bonn_,
which were the true Names of these two Pyrates; the odd Incidents of their
rambling Lives are such, that some may be tempted to think the whole Story
no better than a Novel or Romance; but since it is supported by many
thousand Witnesses, I mean the People of _Jamaica_, who were present at
their Tryals, and heard the Story of their Lives, upon the first discovery
of their Sex; the Truth of it can be no more contested, than that there
were such Men in the World, as _Roberts_ and _Black-beard_, who were

_Mary Read_ was born in _England_, her Mother was married young, to a Man
who used the Sea, who going a Voyage soon after their Marriage, left her
with Child, which Child proved to be a Boy. As to the Husband, whether he
was cast away, or died in the Voyage, _Mary Read_ could not tell; but
however, he never returned more; nevertheless, the Mother, who was young
and airy, met with an Accident, which has often happened to Women who are
young, and do not take a great deal of Care; which was, she soon proved
with Child again, without a Husband to Father it, but how, or by whom, none
but her self could tell, for she carried a pretty good Reputation among her
Neighbours. Finding her Burthen grow, in order to conceal her Shame, she
takes a formal Leave of her Husband's Relations, giving out, that she went
to live with some Friends of her own, in the Country: Accordingly she went
away, and carried with her her young Son, at this Time, not a Year old:
Soon after her Departure her Son died, but Providence in Return, was
pleased to give her a Girl in his Room, of which she was safely delivered,
in her Retreat, and this was our _Mary Read_.

Here the Mother liv'd three or four Years, till what Money she had was
almost gone; then she thought of returning to _London_, and considering
that her Husband's Mother was in some Circumstances, she did not doubt but
to prevail upon her, to provide for the Child, if she could but pass it
upon her for the same, but the changing a Girl into a Boy, seem'd a
difficult Piece of Work, and how to deceive an experienced old Woman, in
such a Point, was altogether as impossible; however, she ventured to dress
it up as a Boy, brought it to Town, and presented it to her Mother in Law,
as her Husband's Son; the old Woman would have taken it, to have bred it
up, but the Mother pretended it would break her Heart, to part with it; so
it was agreed betwixt them, that the Child should live with the Mother, and
the supposed Grandmother should allow a Crown a Week for it's Maintainance.

Thus the Mother gained her Point, she bred up her Daughter as a Boy, and
when she grew up to some Sense, she thought proper to let her into the
Secret of her Birth, to induce her to conceal her Sex. It happen'd that the
Grandmother died, by which Means the Subsistance that came from that
Quarter, ceased, and they were more and more reduced in their
Circumstances; wherefore she was obliged to put her Daughter out, to wait
on a _French_ Lady, as a Foot-boy, being now thirteen Years of Age: Here
she did not live long, for growing bold and strong, and having also a
roving Mind, she entered her self on Board a Man of War, where she served
some Time, then quitted it, went over into _Flanders_, and carried Arms in
a Regiment of Foot, as a _Cadet_; and tho' upon all Actions, she behaved
herself with a great deal of Bravery, yet she could not get a Commission,
they being generally bought and sold; therefore she quitted the Service,
and took on in a Regiment of Horse; she behaved so well in several
Engagements, that she got the Esteem of all her Officers; but her Comrade
who was a _Fleming_, happening to be a handsome young Fellow, she falls in
Love with him, and from that Time, grew a little more negligent in her
Duty, so that, it seems, _Mars_ and _Venus_ could not be served at the same
Time; her Arms and Accoutrements which were always kept in the best Order,
were quite neglected: 'tis true, when her Comrade was ordered out upon a
Party, she used to go without being commanded, and frequently run herself
into Danger, where she had no Business, only to be near him; the rest of
the Troopers little suspecting the secret Cause which moved her to this
Behaviour, fancied her to be mad, and her Comrade himself could not account
for this strange Alteration in her, but Love is ingenious, and as they lay
in the same Tent, and were constantly together, she found a Way of letting
him discover her Sex, without appearing that it was done with Design.

He was much surprized at what he found out, and not a little pleased,
taking it for granted, that he should have a Mistress solely to himself,
which is an unusual Thing in a Camp, since there is scarce one of those
Campaign Ladies, that is ever true to a Troop or Company; so that he
thought of nothing but gratifying his Passions with very little Ceremony;
but he found himself strangely mistaken, for she proved very reserved and
modest, and resisted all his Temptations, and at the same Time was so
obliging and insinuating in her Carriage, that she quite changed his
Purpose, so far from thinking of making her his Mistress, he now courted
her for a Wife.

This was the utmost Wish of her Heart, in short, they exchanged Promises,
and when the Campaign was over, and the Regiment marched into Winter
Quarters, they bought Woman's Apparel for her, with such Money as they
could make up betwixt them, and were publickly married.

The Story of two Troopers marrying each other, made a great Noise, so that
several Officers were drawn by Curiosity to assist at the Ceremony, and
they agreed among themselves that every one of them should make a small
Present to the Bride, towards House-keeping, in Consideration of her having
been their fellow Soldier. Thus being set up, they seemed to have a Desire
of quitting the Service, and settling in the World; the Adventure of their
Love and Marriage had gained them so much Favour, that they easily obtained
their Discharge, and they immediately set up an Eating House or Ordinary,
which was the Sign of the _Three Horse-Shoes_, near the Castle of _Breda_,
where they soon run into a good Trade, a great many Officers eating with
them constantly.

But this Happiness lasted not long, for the Husband soon died, and the
Peace of _Reswick_ being concluded, there was no Resort of Officers to
_Breda_, as usual; so that the Widow having little or no Trade, was forced
to give up House-keeping, and her Substance being by Degrees quite spent,
she again assumes her Man's Apparel, and going into _Holland_, there takes
on in a Regiment of Foot, quarter'd in one of the Frontier Towns: Here she
did not remain long, there was no likelihood of Preferment in Time of
Peace, therefore she took a Resolution of seeking her Fortune another Way;
and withdrawing from the Regiment, ships herself on Board of a Vessel bound
for the _West-Indies_.

It happen'd this Ship was taken by _English_ Pyrates, and _Mary Read_ was
the only _English_ Person on Board, they kept her amongst them, and having
plundered the Ship, let it go again; after following this Trade for some
Time, the King's Proclamation came out, and was publish'd in all Parts of
the _West-Indies_, for pardoning such Pyrates, who should voluntarily
surrender themselves by a certain Day therein mentioned. The Crew of _Mary
Read_ took the Benefit of this Proclamation, and having surrender'd, liv'd
quietly on Shore; but Money beginning to grow short, and hearing that
Captain _Woods Rogers_, Governor of the Island of _Providence_, was fitting
out some Privateers to cruise against the _Spaniards_, she with several
others embark'd for that Island, in order to go upon the privateering
Account, being resolved to make her Fortune one way or other.

These Privateers were no sooner sail'd out, but the Crews of some of them,
who had been pardoned, rose against their Commanders, and turned themselves
to their old Trade: In this Number was _Mary Read_. It is true, she often
declared, that the Life of a Pyrate was what she always abhor'd, and went
into it only upon Compulsion, both this Time, and before, intending to quit
it, whenever a fair Opportunity should offer it self; yet some of the
Evidence against her, upon her Tryal, who were forced Men, and had sailed
with her, deposed upon Oath, that in Times of Action, no Person amongst
them were more resolute, or ready to Board or undertake any Thing that was
hazardous, as she and _Anne Bonny_; and particularly at the Time they were
attack'd and taken, when they came to close Quarters, none kept the Deck
except _Mary Read_ and _Anne Bonny_, and one more; upon which, she, _Mary
Read_, called to those under Deck, to come up and fight like Men, and
finding they did not stir, fired her Arms down the Hold amongst them,
killing one, and wounding others.

This was part of the Evidence against her, which she denied; which, whether
true or no, thus much is certain, that she did not want Bravery, nor indeed
was she less remarkable for her Modesty, according to her Notions of
Virtue: Her Sex was not so much as suspected by any Person on Board, till
_Anne Bonny_, who was not altogether so reserved in point of Chastity, took
a particular liking to her; in short, _Anne Bonny_ took her for a handsome
young Fellow, and for some Reasons best known to herself, first discovered
her Sex to _Mary Read; Mary Read_ knowing what she would be at, and being
very sensible of her own Incapacity that Way, was forced to come to a right
Understanding with her, and so to the great Disappointment of _Anne Bonny_,
she let her know she was a Woman also; but this Intimacy so disturb'd
Captain _Rackam_, who was the Lover and Gallant of _Anne Bonny_, that he
grew furiously jealous, so that he told _Anne Bonny_, he would cut her new
Lover's Throat, therefore, to quiet him, she let him into the Secret also.

Captain _Rackam_, (as he was enjoined,) kept the Thing a Secret from all
the Ship's Company, yet, notwithstanding all her Cunning and Reserve, Love
found her out in this Disguise, and hinder'd her from forgetting her Sex.
In their Cruize they took a great Number of Ships belonging to _Jamaica_,
and other Parts of the _West-Indies_, bound to and from _England_; and when
ever they meet any good Artist, or other Person that might be of any great
Use to their Company, if he was not willing to enter, it was their Custom
to keep him by Force. Among these was a young Fellow of a most engageing
Behaviour, or, at least, he was so in the Eyes of _Mary Read_, who became
so smitten with his Person and Address, that she could neither rest, Night
or Day; but as there is nothing more ingenious than Love, it was no hard
Matter for her, who had before been practiced in these Wiles, to find a Way
to let him discover her Sex: She first insinuated her self into his liking,
by talking against the Life of a Pyrate, which he was altogether averse to,
so they became Mess-Mates and strict Companions: When she found he had a
Friendship for her, as a Man, she suffered the Discovery to be made, by
carelesly shewing her Breasts, which were very White.

The young Fellow, who was made of Flesh and Blood, had his Curiosity and
Desire so rais'd by this Sight, that he never ceased importuning her, till
she confessed what she was. Now begins the Scene of Love; as he had a
Liking and Esteem for her, under her supposed Character, it was now turn'd
into Fondness and Desire; her Passion was no less violent than his, and
perhaps she express'd it, by one of the most generous Actions that ever
Love inspired. It happened this young Fellow had a Quarrel with one of the
Pyrates, and their Ship then lying at an Anchor, near one of the Islands,
they had appointed to go ashore and fight, according to the Custom of the
Pyrates: _Mary Read_, was to the last Degree uneasy and anxious, for the
Fate of her Lover; she would not have had him refuse the Challenge,
because, she could not bear the Thoughts of his being branded with
Cowardise; on the other Side, she dreaded the Event, and apprehended the
Fellow might be too hard for him: When Love once enters into the Breast of
one who has any Sparks of Generosity, it stirs the Heart up to the most
noble Actions; in this Dilemma, she shew'd, that she fear'd more for his
Life than she did for her own; for she took a Resolution of quarreling with
this Fellow her self, and having challenged him ashore, she appointed the
Time two Hours sooner than that when he was to meet her Lover, where she
fought him at Sword and Pistol, and killed him upon the Spot.

It is true, she had fought before, when she had been insulted by some of
those Fellows, but now it was altogether in her Lover's Cause, she stood as
it were betwixt him and Death, as if she could not live without him. If he
had no regard for her before, this Action would have bound him to her for
ever; but there was no Occasion for Ties or Obligations, his Inclination
towards her was sufficient; in fine, they applied their Troth to each
other, which _Mary Read_ said, she look'd upon to be as good a Marriage, in
Conscience, as if it had been done by a Minister in Church; and to this was
owing her great Belly, which she pleaded to save her Life.

She declared she had never committed Adultery or Fornication with any Man,
she commended the Justice of the Court, before which she was tried, for
distinguishing the Nature of their Crimes; her Husband, as she call'd him,
with several others, being acquitted; and being ask'd, who he was? she
would not tell, but, said he was an honest Man, and had no Inclination to
such Practices, and that they had both resolved to leave the Pyrates the
first Opportunity, and apply themselves to some honest Livelyhood.

It is no doubt, but many had Compassion for her, yet the Court could not
avoid finding her Guilty; for among other Things, one of the Evidences
against her, deposed, that being taken by _Rackam_, and detain'd some Time
on Board, he fell accidentally into Discourse with _Mary Read_, whom he
taking for a young Man, ask'd her, what Pleasure she could have in being
concerned in such Enterprizes, where her Life was continually in Danger, by
Fire or Sword; and not only so, but she must be sure of dying an
ignominious Death, if she should be taken alive?--She answer'd, that as to
hanging, she thought it no great Hardship, for, were it not for that, every
cowardly Fellow would turn Pyrate, and so infest the Seas, that Men of
Courage must starve:-- That if it was put to the Choice of the Pyrates,
they would not have the punishment less than Death, the Fear of which, kept
some dastardly Rogues honest; that many of those who are now cheating the
Widows and Orphans, and oppressing their poor Neighbours, who have no Money
to obtain Justice, would then rob at Sea, and the Ocean would be crowded
with Rogues, like the Land, and no Merchant would venture out; so that the
Trade, in a little Time, would not be worth following.

Being found quick with Child, as has been observed, her Execution was
respited, and it is possible she would have found Favour, but she was
seiz'd with a violent Fever, soon after her Tryal, of which she died in


AS we have been more particular in the Lives of these two Women, than
those of other Pyrates, it is incumbent on us, as a faithful Historian, to
begin with their Birth. _Anne Bonny_ was born at a Town near _Cork_, in the
Kingdom of _Ireland_, her Father an Attorney at Law, but _Anne_ was not one
of his legitimate Issue, which seems to cross an old Proverb, which says,
_that Bastards have the best Luck_. Her Father was a Married Man, and his
Wife having been brought to Bed, contracted an Illness in her lying in, and
in order to recover her Health, she was advised to remove for Change of
Air; the Place she chose, was a few Miles distance from her Dwelling, where
her Husband's Mother liv'd. Here she sojourn'd some Time, her Husband
staying at Home, to follow his Affairs. The Servant-Maid, whom she left to
look after the House, and attend the Family, being a handsome young Woman,
was courted by a young Man of the same Town, who was a _Tanner_; this
_Tanner_ used to take his Opportunities, when the Family was out of the
Way, of coming to pursue his Courtship; and being with the Maid one Day as
she was employ'd in the Houshold Business, not having the Fear of God
before his Eyes, he takes his Opportunity, when her Back was turned, of
whipping three Silver Spoons into his Pocket. The Maid soon miss'd the
Spoons, and knowing that no Body had been in the Room, but herself and the
young Man, since she saw them last, she charged him with taking them; he
very stifly denied it, upon which she grew outragious, and threatned to go
to a Constable, in order to carry him before a Justice of Peace: These
Menaces frighten'd him out of his Wits, well knowing he could not stand
Search; wherefore he endeavoured to pacify her, by desiring her to examine
the Drawers and other Places, and perhaps she might find them; in this Time
he slips into another Room, where the Maid usually lay, and puts the Spoons
betwixt the Sheets, and then makes his Escape by a back Door, concluding
she must find them, when she went to Bed, and so next Day he might pretend
he did it only to frighten her, and the Thing might be laugh'd off for a

As soon as she miss'd him, she gave over her Search, concluding he had
carried them off, and went directly to the Constable, in order to have him
apprehended: The young Man was informed, that a Constable had been in
Search of him, but he regarded it but little, not doubting but all would be
well next Day. Three or four Days passed, and still he was told, the
Constable was upon the Hunt for him, this made him lye concealed, he could
not comprehend the Meaning of it, he imagined no less, than that the Maid
had a Mind to convert the Spoons to her own Use, and put the Robbery upon

It happened, at this Time, that the Mistress being perfectly recovered of
her late Indisposition, was return'd Home, in Company with her
Mother-in-Law; the first News she heard, was of the Loss of the Spoons,
with the Manner how; the Maid telling her, at the same Time, that the young
Man was run away. The young Fellow had Intelligence of the Mistress's
Arrival, and considering with himself, that he could never appear again in
his Business, unless this Matter was got over, and she being a good natured
Woman, he took a Resolution of going directly to her, and of telling her
the whole Story, only with this Difference, that he did it for a Jest.

The Mistress could scarce believe it, however, she went directly to the
Maid's Room, and turning down the Bed Cloaths, there, to her great
Surprize, found the three Spoons; upon this she desired the young Man to go
Home and mind his Business, for he should have no Trouble about it.

The Mistress could not imagine the Meaning of this, she never had found the
Maid guilty of any pilfering, and therefore it could not enter her Head,
that she designed to steal the Spoons her self; upon the whole, she
concluded the Maid had not been in her Bed, from the Time the Spoons were
miss'd, she grew immediately jealous upon it, and suspected, that the Maid
supplied her Place with her Husband, during her Absence, and this was the
Reason why the Spoons were no sooner found.

She call'd to Mind several Actions of Kindness, her Husband had shewed the
Maid, Things that pass'd unheeded by, when they happened, but now she had
got that Tormentor, Jealousy, in her Head, amounted to Proofs of their
Intimacy; another Circumstance which strengthen'd the whole, was, that tho'
her Husband knew she was to come Home that Day, and had had no
Communication with her in four Months, which was before her last Lying in,
yet he took an Opportunity of going out of Town that Morning, upon some
slight Pretence: --All these Things put together, confirm'd her in her

As Women seldom forgive Injuries of this Kind, she thought of discharging
her Revenge upon the Maid: In order to this, she leaves the Spoons where
she found them, and orders the Maid to put clean Sheets upon the Bed,
telling her, she intended to lye there herself that Night, because her
Mother in Law was to lye in her Bed, and that she (the Maid) must lye in
another Part of the House; the Maid in making the Bed, was surprized with
the Sight of the Spoons, but there were very good Reasons, why it was not
proper for her to tell where she found them, therefore she takes them up,
puts them in her Trunk, intending to leave them in some Place, where they
might be found by chance.

The Mistress, that every Thing might look to be done without Design, lies
that Night in the Maid's Bed, little dreaming of what an Adventure it would
produce: After she had been a Bed some Time, thinking on what had pass'd,
for Jealousy kept her awake, she heard some Body enter the Room; at first
she apprehended it to be Thieves, and was so fright'ned, she had not
Courage enough to call out; but when she heard these Words, Mary, _are you
awake_? She knew it to be her Husband's Voice; then her Fright was over,
yet she made no Answer, least he should find her out, if she spoke,
therefore she resolved to counterfeit Sleep, and take what followed.

The Husband came to Bed, and that Night play'd the vigorous Lover; but one
Thing spoil'd the Diversion on the Wife's Side, which was, the Reflection
that it was not design'd for her; however she was very passive, and bore it
like a Christian. Early before Day, she stole out of Bed, leaving him
asleep, and went to her Mother in Law, telling her what had passed, not
forgetting how he had used her, as taking her for the Maid; the Husband
also stole out, not thinking it convenient to be catch'd in that Room; in
the mean Time, the Revenge of the Mistress was strongly against the Maid,
and without considering, that to her she ow'd the Diversion of the Night
before, and that one good _Turn_ should deserve another; she sent for a
Constable, and charged her with stealing the Spoons: The Maid's Trunk was
broke open, and the Spoons found, upon which she was carried before a
Justice of Peace, and by him committed to Goal.

The Husband loiter'd about till twelve a Clock at Noon, then comes Home,
pretended he was just come to Town; as soon as he heard what had passed, in
Relation to the Maid, he fell into a great Passion with his Wife; this set
the Thing into a greater Flame, the Mother takes the Wife's Part against
her own Son, insomuch that the Quarrel increasing, the Mother and Wife took
Horse immediately, and went back to the Mother's House, and the Husband and
Wife never bedded together after.

The Maid lay a long Time in the Prison, it being near half a Year to the
Assizes; but before it happened, it was discovered she was with Child; when
she was arraign'd at the Bar, she was discharged for want of Evidence; the
Wife's Conscience touch'd her, and as she did not believe the Maid Guilty
of any Theft, except that of Love, she did not appear against her; soon
after her Acquittal, she was delivered of a Girl.

But what alarm'd the Husband most, was, that it was discovered the Wife was
with Child also, he taking it for granted, he had had no Intimacy with her,
since her last lying in, grew jealous of her, in his Turn, and made this a
Handle to justify himself, for his Usage of her, pretending now he had
suspected her long, but that here was Proof; she was delivered of Twins, a
Boy and a Girl.

The Mother fell ill, sent to her Son to reconcile him to his Wife, but he
would not hearken to it; therefore she made a Will, leaving all she had in
the Hands of certain Trustees, for the Use of the Wife and two Children
lately born, and died a few Days after.

This was an ugly Turn upon him, his greatest Dependence being upon his
Mother; however, his Wife was kinder to him than he deserved, for she made
him a yearly Allowance out of what was left, tho' they continued to live
separate: It lasted near five Years; at this Time having a great Affection
for the Girl he had by his Maid, he had a Mind to take it Home, to live
with him; but as all the Town knew it to be a Girl, the better to disguise
the Matter from them, as well as from his Wife, he had it put into
Breeches, as a Boy, pretending it was a Relation's Child he was to breed up
to be his Clerk.

The Wife heard he had a little Boy at Home he was very fond of, but as she
did not know any Relation of his that had such a Child, she employ'd a
Friend to enquire further into it; this Person by talking with the Child,
found it to be a Girl, discovered that the Servant-Maid was its Mother, and
that the Husband still kept up his Correspondence with her.

Upon this Intelligence, the Wife being unwilling that her Children's Money
should go towards the Maintenance of Bastards, stopped the Allowance: The
Husband enraged, in a kind of Revenge, takes the Maid home, and lives with
her publickly, to the great Scandal of his Neighbours; but he soon found
the bad Effect of it, for by Degrees lost his Practice, so that he saw
plainly he could not live there, therefore he thought of removing, and
turning what Effects he had into ready Money; he goes to _Cork_, and there
with his Maid and Daughter embarques for _Carolina_.

At first he followed the Practice of the Law in that Province, but
afterwards fell into Merchandize, which proved more successful to him, for
he gained by it sufficient to purchase a considerable Plantation: His Maid,
who passed for his Wife, happened to dye, after which his Daughter, our
_Anne Bonny_, now grown up, kept his House.

She was of a fierce and couragious Temper, wherefore, when she lay under
Condemnation, several Stories were reported of her, much to her
Disadvantage, as that she had kill'd an _English_ Servant-Maid once in her
Passion with a Case-Knife, while she look'd after her Father's House; but
upon further Enquiry, I found this Story to be groundless: It was certain
she was so robust, that once, when a young Fellow would have lain with her,
against her Will, she beat him so, that he lay ill of it a considerable

While she lived with her Father, she was look'd upon as one that would be a
good Fortune, wherefore it was thought her Father expected a good Match for
her; but she spoilt all, for without his Consent, she marries a young
Fellow, who belonged to the Sea, and was not worth a Groat; which provoked
her Father to such a Degree, that he turned her out of Doors, upon which
the young Fellow, who married her, finding himself disappointed in his
Expectation, shipped himself and Wife, for the Island of _Providence_,
expecting Employment there.

Here she became acquainted with _Rackam_ the Pyrate, who making Courtship
to her, soon found Means of withdrawing her Affections from her Husband, so
that she consented to elope from him, and go to Sea with _Rackam_ in Men's
Cloaths: She was as good as her Word, and after she had been at Sea some
Time, she proved with Child, and beginning to grow big, _Rackam_ landed her
on the Island of _Cuba_; and recommending her there to some Friends of his,
they took Care of her, till she was brought to Bed: When she was up and
well again, he sent for her to bear him Company.

The King's Proclamation being out, for pardoning of Pyrates, he took the
Benefit of it, and surrendered; afterwards being sent upon the privateering
Account, he returned to his old Trade, as has been already hinted in the
Story of _Mary Read_. In all these Expeditions, _Anne Bonny_ bore him
Company, and when any Business was to be done in their Way, no Body was
more forward or couragious than she, and particularly when they were taken;
she and _Mary Read_, with one more, were all the Persons that durst keep
the Deck, as has been before hinted.

Her Father was known to a great many Gentlemen, Planters of _Jamaica_, who
had dealt with him, and among whom he had a good Reputation; and some of
them, who had been in _Carolina_, remember'd to have seen her in his House;
wherefore they were inclined to shew her Favour, but the Action of leaving
her Husband was an ugly Circumstance against her. The Day that _Rackam_ was
executed, by special Favour, he was admitted to see her; but all the
Comfort she gave him, was, _that she was sorry to see him there, but if he
had fought like a Man, he need not have been hang'd like a Dog_.

She was continued in Prison, to the Time of her lying in, and afterwards
reprieved from Time to Time; but what is become of her since, we cannot
tell; only this we know, that she was not executed.

CHAP. VIII. OF Captain _Howel Davis_, And his CREW.

CAptain _Howel Davis_ was born at _Milford_, in _Monmouthshire_, and
was from a Boy brought up to the Sea. The last Voyage he made from
_England_, was in the _Cadogan_ Snow of _Bristol_, Captain _Skinner_
Commander, bound for the Coast of _Guiney_, of which Snow _Davis_ was chief
Mate: They were no sooner arrived at _Sierraleon_ on the aforesaid Coast,
but they were taken by the Pyrate _England_, who plunder'd them, and
_Skinner_ was barbarously murdered, as has been related before in the Story
of Captain _England_.

After the Death of Captain _Skinner, Davis_ pretended that he was mightily
sollicited by _England_ to engage with him; but that he resolutely
answered, he would sooner be shot to Death than sign the Pyrates Articles.
Upon which, _England_, pleased with his Bravery, sent him and the rest of
the Men again on Board the Snow, appointing him Captain of her, in the Room
of _Skinner_, commanding him to pursue his Voyage. He also gave him a
written Paper sealed up, with Orders to open it when he should come into a
certain Latitude, and at the Peril of his Life follow the Orders therein
set down. This was an Air of Grandeur like what Princes practice to their
Admirals and Generals.--It was punctually complied with by _Davis_, who
read it to the Ship's Company; it contained no less than a generous Deed of
Gift of the Ship and Cargoe, to _Davis_ and the Crew, ordering him to go to
_Brasil_ and dispose of the Lading to the best Advantage, and to make a
fair and equal Dividend with the rest.

_Davis_ proposed to the Crew, whether they were willing to follow their
Directions, but to his great Surprize, found the Majority of them
altogether averse to it, wherefore in a Rage, he bad them be damn'd, and go
where they would. They knew that Part of their Cargoe was consigned to
certain Merchants at _Barbadoes_, wherefore they steered for that Island.
When they arrived, they related to these Merchants the unfortunate Death of
_Skinner_, and the Proposal which had been made to them by _Davis_; upon
which _Davis_ was seized and committed to Prison, where he was kept three
Months; however, as he had been in no Act of Pyracy, he was discharged
without being brought to any Tryal, yet he could not expect any Employment
there; wherefore knowing that the Island of _Providence_ was a kind of
Rendevouz of Pyrates, he was resolved to make one amongst them, if
possible, and to that Purpose, found Means of shipping himself for that
Island; but he was again disappointed, for when he arrived there, the
Pyrates had newly surrendered to Captain _Woods Rogers_, and accepted of
the Act of Grace, which he had just brought from _England_.

However, _Davis_ was not long out of Business, for Captain _Rogers_ having
fitted out two Sloops for Trade, one called the _Buck_, the other the
_Mumvil Trader; Davis_ found an Employment on Board of one of them; the
Lading of these Sloops was of considerable Value, consisting of _European_
Goods, in order to be exchanged with the _French_ and _Spaniards_; and many
of the Hands on Board of them, were the Pyrates lately come in upon the
late Act of Grace. The first Place they touched at, was the Island of
_Martinico_, belonging to the _French_, where _Davis_ having conspired with
some others, rise in the Night, secured the Master and seized the Sloop; as
soon as this was done, they called to the other Sloop, which lay a little
Way from them, among whom they knew there were a great many Hands ripe for
Rebellion, and ordered them to come on Board of them; they did so, and the
greatest Part of them agreed to join with _Davis_; those who were otherwise
inclined, were sent back on Board the _Mumvil_ Sloop, to go where they
pleased, _Davis_ having first taken out of her, every Thing which he
thought might be of Use.

After this, a Counsel of War was called over a large Bowl of Punch, at
which it was proposed to chuse a Commander; the Election was soon over, for
it fell upon _Davis_ by a great Majority of _legal Pollers_, there was no
Scrutiny demanded, for all acquiesced in the Choice: As soon as he was
possess'd of his Command, he drew up Articles, which were signed and sworn
to by himself and the rest, then he made a short Speech, the sum of which,
was, a Declaration of War against the whole World.

After this they consulted about a proper Place where they might clean their
Sloop, a light Pair of Heels being of great Use either to take, or escape
being taken; for this purpose they made Choice of _Coxon_'s _Hole_, at the
East End of the Island of _Cuba_, a Place where they might secure
themselves from Surprize, the Entrance being so narrow, that one Ship might
keep out a hundred.

Here they cleaned with much Difficulty, for they had no Carpenter in their
Company, a Person of great Use upon such Exigencies; from hence they put to
Sea, making to the North-Side of the Island of _Hispaniola_. The first Sail
which fell in their Way, was a _French_ Ship of twelve Guns; it must be
observed, that _Davis_ had but thirty five Hands, yet Provisions began to
grow short with him; wherefore he attacked this Ship, she soon struck, and
he sent twelve of his Hands on Board of her, in order to plunder: This was
no sooner done, but a Sail was spied a great Way to Windward of them; they
enquired of the _French_ Man what she might be, he answered, that he had
spoke with a Ship, the Day before, of 24 Guns and 60 Men, and he took this
to be the same.

_Davis_ then proposed to his Men to attack her, telling them, she would be
a rare Ship for their Use, but they looked upon it to be an extravagant
Attempt, and discovered no Fondness for it, but he assured them he had a
Stratagem in his Head would make all safe; wherefore he gave Chace, and
ordered his Prize to do the same. The Prize being a slow Sailor, _Davis_
first came up with the Enemy, and standing along Side of them, shewed his
pyratical Colours: They, much surpriz'd, called to _Davis_, telling him,
they wondered at his Impudence in venturing to come so near them, and
ordered him to strike; but he answered, that he intended to keep them in
Play, till his Consort came up, who was able to deal with them, and that if
they did not strike to him, they should have but bad Quarters; whereupon he
gave them a Broad-Side, which they returned.

In the mean Time the Prize drew near, who obliged all the Prisoners to come
upon Deck in white Shirts, to make a Shew of Force, as they had been
directed by _Davis_; they also hoisted a dirty Tarpawlin, by Way of black
Flag, they having no other, and fir'd a Gun: The _French_ Men were so
intimidated by this Appearance of Force, that they struck. _Davis_ called
out to the Captain to come on Board of him, with twenty of his Hands; he
did so, and they were all for the greater Security clapt into Irons, the
Captain excepted: Then he sent four of his own Men on Board the first
Prize, and in order still to carry on the Cheat, spoke aloud, that they
should give his Service to the Captain, and desire him to send some Hands
on Board the Prize, to see what they had got; but at the same Time gave
them a written Paper, with Instructions what to do. Here he ordered them to
nail up the Guns in the little Prize, to take out all the small Arms and
Powder, and to go every Man of them on Board the second Prize; when this
was done, he ordered that more of the Prisoners should be removed out of
the great Prize, into the little one, by which he secured himself from any
Attempt which might be feared from their Numbers; for those on Board of him
were fast in Irons, and those in the little Prize had neither Arms nor

Thus the three Ships kept Company for 2 Days, when finding the great Prize
to be a very dull Sailor, he thought she would not be fit for his Purpose,
wherefore he resolved to restore her to the Captain, with all his Hands;
but first, he took Care to take out all her Ammunition, and every Thing
else which he might possibly want. The _French_ Captain was in such a Rage,
at being so outwitted, that when he got on Board his own Ship, he was going
to throw himself over-board, but was prevented by his Men.

Having let go both his Prizes, he steered Northward, in which Course he
took a small _Spanish_ Sloop; after this, he made towards the _Western_
Islands, but met with no Booty thereabouts; then he steered for the _Cape
de Verde_ Islands, they cast Anchor at St. _Nicholas_, hoisting _English_
Colours; the _Portuguese_ inhabiting there, took him for an _English_
Privateer, and _Davis_ going ashore, they both treated him very civilly,
and also traded with him. Here he remained five Weeks, in which Time, he
and half his Crew, for their Pleasure, took a Journey to the chief Town of
the Island, which was 19 Miles up the Country: _Davis_ making a good
Appearance, was caressed by the Governor and the Inhabitants, and no
Diversion was wanting which the _Portuguese_ could shew, or Money could
purchase; after about a Week's Stay, he came back to the Ship, and the rest
of the Crew went to take their Pleasure up to the Town, in their Turn.

At their Return they clean'd their Ship, and put to Sea, but not with their
whole Company; for five of them, like _Hannibal_'s Men, were so charm'd
with the Luxuries of the Place, and the free Conversation of some Women,
that they staid behind; and one of them, whose Name was _Charles Franklin_,
a _Monmouthshire_ Man, married and settled himself, and lives there to this

From hence they sailed to _Bonevista_, and looked into that Harbour, but
finding nothing, they steer'd for the Isle of _May_: When they arrived
here, they met with a great many Ships and Vessels in the Road, all which
they plundered, taking out of them whatever they wanted; and also
strengthen'd themselves with a great many fresh Hands, who most of them
enter'd voluntarily. One of the Ships they took to their own Use, mounted
her with twenty six Guns, and call'd her the _King James_. There being no
fresh Water hereabouts, they made towards St. _Jago_, belonging to the
_Portuguese_, in order to lay in a Store; _Davis_, with a few Hands, going
ashore to find the most commodious Place to water at, the Governor, with
some Attendants, came himself and examined who they were, and whence they
came? And not liking _Davis_'s Account of himself, the Governor was so
plain to tell them, he suspected them to be Pyrates. _Davis_ seemed
mightily affronted, standing much upon his Honour, replying to the
Governor, he scorn'd his Words; however, as soon as his Back was turn'd,
for fear of Accidents, he got on Board again as fast as he could. _Davis_
related what had happened, and his Men seemed to resent the Affront which
had been offered him. _Davis_, upon this, told them, he was confident he
could surprize the Fort in the Night; they agreed with him to attempt it,
and accordingly, when it grew late, they went ashore well arm'd; and the
Guard which was kept, was so negligent, that they got within the Fort
before any Alarm was given: When it was too late there was some little
Resistance made, and three Men killed on _Davis_'s Side. Those in the Fort,
in their Hurry, run into the Governor's House to save themselves, which
they barricadoed so strongly, that _Davis_'s Party could not enter it;
however, they threw in Granadoe-Shells, which not only ruin'd all the
Furniture, but kill'd several Men within.

When it was Day the whole Country was alarm'd, and came to attack the
Pyrates; wherefore it not being their Business to stand a Siege, they made
the best of their Way on Board their Ship again, after having dismounted
the Guns of the Fort. By this Enterprize they did a great Deal of Mischief
to the _Portuguese_, and but very little Good to themselves.

Having put to Sea they muster'd their Hands, and found themselves near
seventy strong; then it was proposed what Course they should steer, and
differing in their Opinions, they divided, and by a Majority it was carried
for _Gambia_ on the Coast of _Guiney_; of this Opinion was _Davis_, he
having been employ'd in that Trade, was acquainted with the Coast: He told
them, that there was a great deal of Money always kept in _Gambia_ Castle,
and that it would be worth their while to make an Attempt upon it. They
ask'd him how it was possible, since it was garrisoned? He desired they
would leave the Management of it to him, and he would undertake to make
them Masters of it. They began now to conceive so high an Opinion of his
Conduct, as well as Courage, that they thought nothing impossible to him,
therefore they agreed to obey him, without enquiring further into his

Having come within Sight of the Place, he ordered all his Men under Deck,
except as many as were absolutely necessary for working the Ship, that
those from the Fort seeing a Ship with so few Hands, might have no
Suspicion of her being any other than a trading Vessel; then he ran close
under the Fort, and there cast Anchor; and having ordered out the Boat, he
commanded six Men in her, in old ordinary Jackets, while he himself, with
the Master and Doctor, dressed themselves like Gentlemen; his Design being,
that the Men should look like common Sailors, and they like Merchants. In
rowing ashore he gave his Men Instructions what to say in Case any
Questions should be asked them.

Being come to the landing Place, he was received by a File of Musqueteers,
and conducted into the Fort, where the Governor accosting them civilly,
ask'd them who they were, and whence they came? They answered they were of
_Liverpool_, bound for the River of _Sinnegal_, to trade for Gum and
Elephants Teeth, but that they were chaced on that Coast by two _French_
Men of War, and narrowly escaped being taken, having a little the Heels of
them; but now they were resolved to make the best of a bad Market, and
would Trade here for Slaves; then the Governor ask'd them, what was the
chief of their Cargo? They answered, Iron and Plate, which were good Things
there; the Governor told them he would Slave them to the full Value of
their Cargoe, and asked them, if they had any _European_ Liquor on Board?
they answered, a little for their own Use; however, a Hamper should be at
his Service. The Governor then very civilly invited them all to stay and
dine with him; _Davis_ told him, that being Commander of the Ship, he must
go on Board to see her well moored, and give some other Orders, but those
two Gentlemen might stay, and that he himself would also return before
Dinner, and bring the Hamper of Liquor with him.

While he was in the Fort, his Eyes were very busy in observing how Things
lay; he took Notice there was a Centry at the Entrance, and a Guard-House
just by it, where the Soldiers upon Duty commonly waited, their Arms
standing in a Corner, in a Heap; he saw also a great many small Arms in the
Governor's Hall; now when he came on Board, he assured his Men of Success,
desiring them not to get drunk, and that as soon as they saw the Flag upon
the Castle struck, they might conclude he was Master, and send twenty Hands
immediately ashore; in the mean Time, there being a Sloop at Anchor near
them, he sent some Hands in a Boat, to secure the Master and all the Men,
and bring them on Board of him, least they observing any Bustle or arming
in his Ship, might send ashore and give Intelligence.

These Precautions being taken, he ordered his Men, who were to go in the
Boat with him, to put two Pair of Pistols each under their Cloaths, he
doing the like himself, and gave them Directions to go into the Guard-Room,
and to enter into Conversation with the Soldiers, and observe when he
should fire a Pistol thro' the Governor's Window, to start up at once and
secure the Arms in the Guard-Room.

When _Davis_ arrived, Dinner not being ready, the Governor proposed that
they should pass their Time in making a Bowl of Punch till Dinner-Time: It
must be observed, that _Davis_'s Coxen waited upon them, who had an
Opportunity of going about all Parts of the House, to see what Strength
they had, he whispered _Davis_, there being no Person then in the Room, but
he, _(Davis)_ the Master, the Doctor, the Coxen and Governor; _Davis_ on a
sudden drew out a Pistol, clapt it to the Governor's Breast, telling him,
he must surrender the Fort and all the Riches in it, or he was a dead Man.
The Governor being no Ways prepared for such an Attack, promised to be very
Passive, and do all they desired, therefore they shut the Door, took down
all the Arms that hung in the Hall, and loaded them. _Davis_ fires his
Pistol thro' the Window, upon which his Men, without, executed their Part
of the Scheme, like Heroes, in an Instant; getting betwixt the Soldiers and
their Arms, all with their Pistols cock'd in their Hands, while one of them
carried the Arms out. When this was done, they locked the Soldiers into the
Guard-Room, and kept Guard without.

In the mean Time one of them struck the Union Flag on the Top of the
Castle, at which Signal those on Board sent on Shore a Reinforcement of
Hands, and they got Possession of the Fort without the least Hurry or
Confusion, or so much as a Man lost of either Side.

_Davis_ harangued the Soldiers, upon which a great many of them took on
with him, those who refused, he sent on Board the little Sloop, and because
he would not be at the Trouble of a Guard for them, he ordered all the
Sails and Cables out of her, which might hinder them from attempting to get

This Day was spent in a kind of Rejoycing, the Castle firing her Guns to
salute the Ship, and the Ship the Castle; but the next Day they minded
their Business, that is, they fell to plundering, but they found Things
fall vastly short of their Expectation; for they discovered, that a great
deal of Money had been lately sent away; however, they met with the Value
of about two thousand Pounds Sterling in Bar Gold, and a great many other
rich Effects: Every Thing they liked, which was portable, they brought
aboard their Ship; some Things which they had no Use for, they were so
generous to make a Present of, to the Master and Crew of the little Sloop,
to whom they also returned his Vessel again, and then they fell to work in
dismounting the Guns, and demolishing the Fortifications.

After they had done as much Mischief as they could, and were weighing
Anchor to be gone, they spy'd a Ship bearing down upon them in full Sail;
they soon got their Anchor's up, and were in a Readiness to receive her.
This Ship prov'd to be a _French_ Pyrate of fourteen Guns and sixty four
Hands, half _French_, half Negroes; the Captain's Name was _La Bouse_; he
expected no less than a rich Prize, which made him so eager in the Chace;
but when he came near enough to see their Guns, and the Number of their
Hands upon Deck, he began to think he should catch a _Tartar_, and supposed
her to be a small _English_ Man of War; however, since there was no
escaping, he resolved to do a bold and desperate Action, which was to board
_Davis_. As he was making towards her, for this Purpose, he fired a Gun,
and hoisted his black Colours; _Davis_ returned the Salute, and hoisted his
black Colours also. The _French_ Man was not a little pleased at this happy
Mistake; they both hoisted out their Boats, and the Captains went to meet
and congratulate one another with a Flag of Truce in their Sterns; a great
many Civilities passed between them, and _La Bouse_ desired _Davis_, that
they might sail down the Coast together, that he _(La Bouse)_ might get a
better Ship: _Davis_ agreed to it, and very courteously promised him the
first Ship he took, fit for his Use, he would give him, as being willing to
encourage a willing Brother.

The first Place they touch'd at, was _Sierraleon_, where at first going in,
they spied a tall Ship at Anchor; _Davis_ being the best Sailor first came
up with her, and wondering that she did not try to make off, suspected her
to be a Ship of Force. As soon as he came along Side of her, she brought a
Spring upon her Cable, and fired a whole Broadside upon _Davis_, at the
same Time hoisted a black Flag; _Davis_ hoisted his black Flag in like
Manner, and fired one Gun to Leeward.

In fine, she proved to be a Pyrate Ship of twenty four Guns, commanded by
one _Cocklyn_, who expecting these two would prove Prizes, let them come
in, least his getting under Sail might frighten them away.

This Satisfaction was great on all Sides, at this Junction of Confederates
and Brethren in Iniquity; two Days they spent in improving their
Acquaintance and Friendship, the third Day _Davis_ and _Cocklyn_, agreed to
go in _La Bouse_'s Brigantine and attack the Fort; they contrived it so, as
to get up thither by high Water; those in the Fort suspected them to be
what they really were, and therefore stood upon their Defence; when the
Brigantine came within Musket-Shot, the Fort fired all their Guns upon her,
the Brigantine did the like upon the Fort, and so held each other in Play
for several Hours, when the two confederate Ships were come up to the
Assistance of the Brigantine; those who defended the Fort, seeing such a
Number of Hands on Board these Ships, had not the Courage to stand it any
longer, but abandoning the Fort, left it to the Mercy of the Pyrates.

They took Possession of it, and continued there near seven Weeks, in which
Time they all cleaned their Ships. We should have observed, that a Galley
came into the Road while they were there, which _Davis_ insisted should be
yielded to _La Bouse_, according to his Word of Honour before given;
_Cocklyn_ did not oppose it, so _La Bouse_ went into her, with his Crew,
and cutting away her half Deck, mounted her with twenty four Guns.

Having called a Counsel of War, they agreed to sail down the Coast
together, and for the greater Grandeur, appointed a Commadore, which was
_Davis_; but they had not kept Company long, when drinking together on
Board of _Davis_, they had like to have fallen together by the Ears, the
strong Liquor stirring up a Spirit of Discord among them, and they
quarrelled, but _Davis_ put an End to it, by this short Speech:--_Heark ye,
you_ Cocklin _and_ La Bouse, _I find by strengthening you, I have put a Rod
into your Hands to whip my self, but I'm still able to deal with you both;
but since we met in Love, let us part in Love, for I find, that three of a
Trade can never agree_.--Upon which the other two went on Board their
respective Ships, and immediately parted, each steering a different Course.

_Davis_ held on his Way down the Coast, and making Cape _Appollonia_, he
met with two _Scotch_ and one _English_ Vessel, which he plundered, and
then let go. About five Days after he fell in with a _Dutch_ Interloper of
thirty Guns and ninety Men, (half being _English_,) off Cape _Three Points_
Bay; _Davis_ coming up along Side of her, the _Dutch_ Man gave the first
Fire, and pouring in a broad-Side upon _Davis_, killed nine of his Men,
_Davis_ returned it, and a very hot Engagement followed, which lasted from
one a Clock at Noon, till nine next Morning, when the _Dutch_ Man struck,
and yielded her self their Prize.

_Davis_ fitted up the _Dutch_ Ship for his own Use, and called her the
_Rover_, aboard of which he mounted thirty two Guns, and twenty seven
Swivels, and proceeded with her and the _King James_, to _Anamaboe_; he
entered the Bay betwixt the Hours of twelve and one at Noon, and found
there three Ships lying at Anchor, who were trading for Negroes, Gold and
Teeth: The Names of these Ships were the _Hink_ Pink, Captain _Hall_
Commander, the _Princess_, Captain _Plumb_, of which _Roberts_, who will
make a considerable Figure in the sequel of this History, was second Mate,
and the _Morrice_ Sloop, Captain _Fin_; he takes these Ships without any
Resistance, and having plundered them, he makes a Present of one of them,
_viz._ the _Morrice_ Sloop, to the _Dutch_ Men, on Board of which alone
were found a hundred and forty Negroes, besides dry Goods, and a
considerable Quantity of Gold-Dust.

It happened there were several Canoes along Side of this last, when _Davis_
came in, who saved themselves and got ashore; these gave Notice at the
Fort, that these Ships were Pyrates, upon which the Fort fired upon them,
but without any Execution, for their Mettle was not of Weight enough to
reach them; _Davis_ therefore, by Way of Defiance, hoisted his black Flag
and returned their Compliment.

The same Day he sail'd with his three Ships, making his Way down the Coast
towards _Princes_, a _Portuguese_ Colony: But, before we proceed any
farther in _Davis_'s Story, we shall give our Reader an Account of the
_Portuguese_ Settlements on this Coast, with other curious Remarks, as they
were communicated to me by an ingenious Gentleman, lately arrived from
those Parts.

_A Description of the Islands of_ St. THOME, DEL PRINCIPE, _and_

AS the _Portuguese_ were the great Improvers of Navigation, and the
first _Europeans_ who traded too and settled on the Coasts of _Africa_,
even round to _India_, and made those Discoveries, which now turn so much
to the Advantage of other Nations, it may not be amiss, previously to a
Description of those Islands, to hint on that wonderful Property of the
Loadstone, that a little before had been found out, and enabled them to
pursue such new and daring Navigations.

The attractive Power of the Loadstone, was universally known with the
Ancients, as may be believed by its being a native Fossil of the
_Grecians_, (_Magnes a Magnesia_) but its directive, or polar Virtue, has
only been known to us within this 350 Years, and said to be found out by
_John Goia_ of _Malphi_, in the Kingdom of _Naples, Prima dedit nautis usum
magnetis Amalphi_; tho' others think, and assure us, it was transported by
_Paulus Venetus_ from _China_ to _Italy_, like the other famous Arts of
modern Use with us, PRINTING and _the Use of_ GUNS.

The other Properties of Improvements of the Magnet, _viz._ Variation, or
its Defluction from an exact N. or S. Line, Variation of that Variation,
and its Inclination, were the Inventions of _Sebastian Cabot_, Mr.
_Gellibrand_, and Mr. _Norman_; the Inclination of the Needle, or that
Property whereby it keeps an Elevation above the Horizon, in all Places but
under the Equator, (where its Parallel) is as surprizing a Phænomenon as
any, and was the Discovery of our Countrymen; and could it be found
regular, I imagine would very much help towards the Discovery of Longitude,
at least would point out better Methods than hitherto known, when Ships
drew nigh Land, which would answer as useful an End.

Before the Verticity and Use of the Compass, the _Portuguese_ Navigations
had extended no farther than Cape _Non_, (it was their _ne plus ultra_,)
and therefore so called; distress of Weather, indeed, had drove some
Coasters to _Porto Santo_, and _Madera_, before any certain Method of
steering was invented; but after the Needle was seen thus inspired,
Navigation every Year improved under the great Incouragements of _Henry,
Alphonsus_, and _John_ II. Kings of _Portugal_, in Part of the 14th and in
the 15th Century.

King _Alphonsus_ was not so much at leasure as his Predecessor, to pursue
these Discoveries, but having seen the Advantages accrued to _Portugal_ by
them, and that the Pope had confirmed the perpetual Donation of all they
should discover between Cape _Bajadore_ and _India_, inclusively, he
resolved not to neglect the proper Assistance, and farmed the Profits that
did or might ensue to one _Bernard Gomez_, a Citizen of _Lisbon_, who was
every Voyage obliged to discover 100 Leagues, still farther on: And about
the Year 1470 made these Islands, the only Places (of all the considerable
and large Colonies they had in _Africa_,) that do now remain to that Crown.

St. _Thome_ is the principal of the three, whose Governour is stiled
Captain General of the Islands, and from whom the other at _Princes_
receives his Commission, tho' nominated by the Court of _Portugal_: It is a
Bishoprick with a great many secular Clergy who appear to have neither
Learning nor Devotion, as may be judged by several of them being Negroes:
One of the Chief of them, invited us to hear Mass, as a Diversion to pass
Time away, where he, and his inferior Brethren acted such affected Gestures
and Strains of Voice, as shewed to their Dishonour, they had no other Aim
than pleasing us; and what I think was still worse, it was not without a
View of Interest; for as these Clergy are the chief Traders, they stoop to
pitiful and scandalous Methods for ingratiating themselves: They and the
Government, on this trading Account, maintain as great Harmony, being ever
jealous of each other, and practising little deceitful Arts to monopolize
what Strangers have to offer for sale, whether Toys or Cloaths, which of
all Sorts are ever Commodious with the _Portuguese_, in all Parts of the
World; an ordinary Suit of Black will sell for seven or eight Pound; a
Turnstile Wig of four Shillings, for a Moidore; a Watch of forty Shillings,
for six Pound, _&c_.

The Town is of mean Building, but large and populous, the Residence of the
greater Part of the Natives, who, thro' the whole Island, are computed at
10000, the Militia at 3000, and are in general, a rascally thievish
Generation, as an old grave Friend of mine can Witness; for he having
carried a Bag of second hand Cloaths on Shore, to truck for Provisions,
seated himself on the Sand for that Purpose, presently gathered a Crowd
round him, to view them; one of which desired to know the Price of a black
Suit, that unluckily lay uppermost, and was the best of them, agreeing to
the Demand, with little Hesitation, provided it would but fit him; he put
them on immediately, in as much hurry as possible, without any _co-licentia
Seignor_; and when my Friend was about to commend the Goodness of the Suit,
and Exactness they set with, not dreaming of the Impudence of running away
from a Crowd, the Rascal took to his Heels, my Friend followed and bawled
very much, and tho' there was 500 People about the Place, it served to no
other End but making him a clear Stage, that the best Pair of Heels might
carry it; so he lost the Suit of Cloaths, and before he could return to his
Bag, others of them had beat off his Servant, and shared the rest.

Most of the Ships from _Guiney_, of their own Nation, and frequently those
of ours, call at one or other of these Islands, to recruit with fresh
Provisions, and take in Water, which on the Coast are not so good, nor so
conveniently to come by: Their own Ships likewise, when they touch here,
are obliged to leave the King his Custom for their Slaves, which is always
in Gold, at so much a Head, without any Deduction at _Brasil_, for the
Mortality that may happen afterwards; this by being a constant Bank to pay
off the civil and military Charges of the Government, prevents the
Inconveniency of Remittances, and keeps both it and _Princes_ Isle rich
enough to pay ready Money for every Thing they want of _Europeans_.

Their Beefs are small and lean, (two hundred Weight or a little more,) but
the Goats, Hogs and Fowls very good, their Sugar course and dirty, and Rum
very ordinary; as these Refreshments lay most with People who are in want
of other Necessaries, they come to us in Way of bartering, very cheap: A
good Hog for an old Cutlash; a fat Fowl for a Span of _Brasil_ Tobacco, (no
other Sort being valued, _&c_.) But with Money you give eight Dollars _per_
Head for Cattle; three Dollars for a Goat; six Dollars for a grown Hog; a
Testune and a Half for a Fowl; a Dollar _per_ Gallon for Rum; two Dollars a
Roove for Sugar; and half a Dollar for a Dozen of Paraquets: Here is Plenty
likewise of Corn and Farine, of Limes, Citrons and Yamms.

The Island is reckoned nigh a Square, each Side 18 Leagues long, hilly, and
lays under the _Æquinoctial_, a wooden Bridge just without the Town, being
said not to deviate the least Part of a Minute, either to the Southward or
Northward; and notwithstanding this warm Scituation, and continual vertical
Suns, the Islanders are very healthy, imputed by those who are disposed to
be merry, in a great Measure to the Want of even so much as one Surgeon or
Physician amongst them.

Isle _Del Principe_, the next in Magnitude, a pleasant and delightful Spot
to the grave, and thoughtfull Disposition of the _Portuguese_, an
Improvement of Country Retirement, in that, this may be a happy and
uninterrupted Retreat from the whole World.

I shall divide what I have to say on this Island, into Observations made on
our Approach to it, on the Seas round it, the Harbour, Produce of the
Island and Seasons, Way of Living among the Inhabitants, some Custom of the
Negroes, with such proper Deductions on each as may illustrate the
Description, and inform the Reader.

We were bound hither from _Whydah_, at the latter Part of the Month _July_,
when the Rains are over, and the Winds hang altogether S. W. (as they do
before the Rains, S. E.) yet with this Wind (when at Sea) we found the Ship
gained unexpectedly so far to the Southward, (_i. e._ Windward,) that we
could with ease have weathered any of the Islands, and this seems next to
impossible should be, if the Currents, which were strong to Leeward, in the
Road of _Whydah_, had extended in like Manner cross the Bite of _Benin_:
No, it must then have been very difficult to have weathered even Cape
_Formosa_: On this Occasion, I shall farther expatiate upon the Currents on
the whole Coast of _Guiney_.

The Southern Coast of _Africa_ runs in a Line of Latitude, the Northern on
an Eastern Line, but both strait, with the fewest Inlets, Gulphs or Bays,
of either of the four Continents; the only large and remarkable one, is
that of _Benin_ and _Calabar_, towards which the Currents of each Coast
tend, and is strongest from the Southward, because more open to a larger
Sea, whose rising it is (tho' little and indiscernable at any Distance from
the Land,) that gives rise to these Currents close in Shore, which are
nothing but Tides altered and disturbed by the Make and Shape of Lands.

For Proof of this, I shall lay down the following Observations as certain
Facts. That in the Rivers of _Gambia_ and _Sierraleon_, in the Straits and
Channels of _Benin_, and in general along the whole Coast, the Flowings are
regular on the Shores, with this Difference; that, in the abovemention'd
Rivers, and in the Channels of _Benin_, where the Shore contract the Waters
into a narrow Compass, the Tides are strong and high, as well as regular;
but on the dead Coast, where it makes an equal Reverberation, slow and low,
(not to above two or three Foot,) increasing as you advance towards
_Benin_; and this is farther evident in that at Cape _Corso, Succonda_ and
_Commenda_, and where the Land rounds and gives any Stop, the Tides flow
regularly to four Foot and upwards; when on an evener Coast, (tho' next
adjoining,) they shall not exceed two or three Foot; and ten Leagues out at
Sea, (where no such Interruption is,) they become scarcely, if at all,

What I would deduce from this, besides a Confirmation of that ingenious
Theory of the Tides, by Captain _Halley_; is first, that the Ships bound to
_Angola, Cabenda_, and other Places on the Southern Coast of _Africa_,
should cross the _Æquinoctial_ from Cape _Palmas_, and run into a Southern
Latitude, without keeping too far to the Westward; and the Reason seems
plain, for if you endeavour to cross it about the Islands, you meet Calms,
southerly Winds and opposite Currents; and if too far to the Westward, the
trade Winds are strong and unfavourable; for it obliges you to stand into
28 or 30° Southern Latitude, till they are variable.

Secondly, On the Northern Side of _Guiney_, if Ships are bound from the
_Gold-Coast_ to _Sierraleon, Gambia_, or elsewhere to Windward, considering
the Weakness of these Currents, and the Favourableness of Land Breezes, and
Southerly in the Rains, Turnadoes, and even of the Trade Wind, when
a-breast of Cape _Palmas_, it is more expeditious to pursue the Passage
this Way, than by a long perambulatory Course of 4 or 500 Leagues to the
Westward, and as many more to the Northward, which must be before a Wind
can be obtained, that could recover the Coast.

Lastly, it is, in a great Measure, owning to this want of Inlets, and the
Rivers being small and unnavigable, that the Seas rebound with so dangerous
a Surff thro' the whole Continent.

Round the Shores of this Island, and at this Season, _(July, August_ and
_September_,) there is a great Resort of Whale-Fish, tame, and sporting
very nigh the Ships as they sail in, always in Pairs, the Female much the
smaller, and often seen to turn on their Backs for Dalliance, the Prologue
to engendring: It has an Enemy, called the Thresher, a large Fish too, that
has its Haunts here at this Season, and encounters the Whale, raising
himself out of the Water a considerable Heighth, and falling again with
great Weight and Force; it is commonly said also, that there is a Sword
Fish in these Battles, who pricks the Whale up to the Surface again, but
without this, I believe, he would suffocate when put to quick Motions,
unless frequently approaching the Air, to ventilate and remove the
impediments to a swifter Circulation: Nor do I think he is battled for
Prey, but to remove him from what is perhaps the Food of both. The Number
of Whales here has put me sometimes on thinking an advantageous Fishery
might be made of it, but I presume they (no more than those of _Brasil)_
are the Sort which yield the profitable Part, called Whale-Bone: All
therefore that the Islanders do, is now and then to go out with two or
three Canoes, and set on one for Diversion.

The Rocks and outer Lines of the Island, are the Haunts of variety of
Sea-Birds, especially Boobies and Noddies; the former are of the Bigness of
a Gull, and a dark Colour, named so from their Simplicity, because they
often sit still and let the Sailors take them up in their Hands; but I
fancy this succeeds more frequently from their Weariness, and the Largeness
of their Wings, which, when they once have rested, cannot have the Scope
necessary to raise and float them on the Air again. The Noddies are smaller
and flat footed also.

What I would remark more of them, is, the admirable Instinct in these
Birds, for the proper Seasons, and the proper Places for Support. In the
aforemention'd Months, when the large Fish were here, numerous Flocks of
Fowl attend for the Spawn and Superfluity of their Nourishment; and in
_January_ few of either; for the same Reason, there are scarce any Sea Fowl
seen on the _African_ Coast; Rocks and Islands being generally their best
Security and Subsistance.

The Harbour of _Princes_ is at the E. S. E. Point of the Island; the
North-Side has gradual Soundings, but here deep Water, having no Ground at
a Mile off with 140 Fathom of Line. The Port (when in) is a smooth narrow
Bay, safe from Winds, (unless a little Swell when Southerly) and draughted
into other smaller and sandy Ones, convenient for raising of Tents,
Watering, and hawling the Seam; the whole protected by a Fort, or rather
Battery, of a dozen Guns on the Larboard-Side. At the Head of the Bay
stands the Town, about a Mile from the anchoring Place, and consists of two
or three regular Streets, of wooden built Houses, where the Governor and
chief Men of the Island reside. Here the Water grows shallow for a
considerable Distance, and the Natives, at every Ebb, (having before
encompassed every convenient Angle with a Rise of Stones, something like
Weirs in _England_) resort for catching of Fish, which, with them, is a
daily Diversion, as well as Subsistance, 500 attending with Sticks and
wicker Baskets; and if they cannot dip them with one Hand, they knock them
down with the other. The Tides rise regularly 6 Foot in the Harbour, and
yet not half that Heighth without the Capes that make the Bay.

Here are constantly two Missionaries, who are sent for six Years to
inculcate the Christian Principles, and more especially attend the
Conversion of the Negroes; the present are _Venetians_, ingenious Men, who
seem to despise the loose Morals and Behaviour of the Seculars, and
complain of them as of the Slaves, _ut Color Mores sunt nigri_. They have a
neat Conventual-House and a Garden appropriated, which, by their own
Industry and Labour, not only thrives with the several Natives of the Soil,
but many Exoticks and Curiosities. A Fruit in particular, larger than a
Chesnut, yellow, containing two Stones, with a Pulp, or clammy Substance
about them, which, when suck'd, exceeds in Sweetness, Sugar or Honey, and
has this Property beyond them, of giving a sweet Taste to every Liquid you
swallow for the whole Evening after. The only Plague infesting the Garden,
is a Vermin called Land-Crabs, in vast Numbers, of a bright red Colour, (in
other Respects like the Sea ones) which burrough in these sandy Soils like
Rabbets, and are as shy.

The Island is a pleasant Intermixture of Hill and Valley; the Hills spread
with Palms, Coco-Nuts, and Cotton-Trees, with Numbers of Monkeys and
Parrots among them; the Valleys with fruitful Plantations of _Yamms,
Kulalu, Papas_, Variety of Sallating, _Ananas_, or Pine-Apples, _Guavas,
Plantanes, Bonanas, Manyocos_, and _Indian_ Corn; with Fowls, _Guinea_
Hens, _Muscovy_ Ducks, Goats, Hogs, Turkies, and wild Beefs, with each a
little Village of Negroes, who, under the Direction of their several
Masters, manage the Cultivation, and exchange or sell them for Money, much
after the same Rates with the People of St. _Thome_.

I shall run a Description of the Vegetables, with their Properties, not
only because they are the Produce of this Island, but most of them of
_Africa_ in general.

The Palm-Trees are numerous on the Shores of _Africa_, and may be reckoned
the first of their natural Curiosities, in that they afford them Meat,
Drink and Cloathing; they grow very straight to 40 and 50 Foot high, and at
the top (only) have 3 or 4 Circles of Branches, that spread and make a
capacious Umbrella. The Trunk is very rough with Knobs, either
Excrescencies, or the Healings of those Branches that were lopped off to
forward the Growth of the Tree, and make it answer better in its Fruit. The
Branches are strongly tied together with a _Cortex_, which may be
unravelled to a considerable Length and Breadth; the inward _Lamella_ of
this _Cortex_, I know are wove like a Cloath at _Benin_, and afterwards
died and worn: Under the Branches, and close to the Body of the Tree, hang
the Nuts, thirty Bunches perhaps on a Tree, and each of thirty Pound
Weight, with prickly Films from between them, not unresembling Hedge-Hogs;
of these Nuts comes a liquid and pleasant scented Oyl, used as Food and
Sauce all over the Coast, but chiefly in the Windward Parts of _Africa_,
where they stamp, boil and skim it off in great Quantities; underneath,
where the Branches fasten, they tap for Wine, called _Cockra_, in this
Manner; the Negroes who are mostly limber active Fellows, encompass
themselves and the Trees with a Hoop of strong With, and run up with a
great deal of Agility; at the Bottom of a Branch of Nuts, he makes an
Excavation of an Inch and a half over, and tying fast his Calabash, leaves
it to destil, which it does to two or three Quarts in a Night's Time, when
done he plugs it up, and chooses another; for if suffered to run too much,
or in the Day Time, the Sap is unwarily exhausted, and the Tree spoiled:
The Liquor thus drawn, is of a wheyish Colour, intoxicating and sours in 24
Hours, but when new drawn, is _pleasantest to thirst and hunger both_: It
is from these Wines they draw their Arack in _India_. On the very Top of
the Palm, grows a Cabbage, called so, I believe, from some resemblance its
Tast is thought to have with ours, and is used like it; the Covering has a
Down that makes the best of Tinder, and the Weavings of other Parts are
drawn out into strong Threads.

_Coco-Nut-Trees_ are branch'd like, but not so tall as, _Palm_ Trees, the
Nut like them, growing under the Branches, and close to the Trunk; the
milky Liquor they contain, (to half a Pint or more,) is often drank to
quench Thirst, but surfeiting, and this may be observed in their Way of
Nourishment, that when the Quantity of Milk is large, the Shell and Meat
are very thin, and harden and thicken in Proportion, as that loses.

_Cotton_ Trees also are the Growth of all Parts of _Africk_, as well as the
Islands, of vast Bigness, yet not so incremental as the Shrubs or Bushes of
five or six Foot high; these bear a Fruit (if it may be so called) about
the Bigness of Pigeons Eggs, which as the Sun swells and ripens, bursts
forth and discovers three Cells loaded with Cotton, and Seeds in the Middle
of them: This in most Parts the Negroes know how to spin, and here at
_Nicongo_ and the Island St. _Jago_, how to weave into Cloths.

_Yamms_ are a common Root, sweeter but not unlike Potato's: _Kulalu_, a
Herb like Spinnage: _Papa_, a Fruit less than the smallest Pumkins; they
are all three for boiling, and to be eat with Meat; the latter are improved
by the _English_ into a Turnip or an Apple Tast, with a due Mixture of
Butter or Limes.

_Guava's_, a Fruit as large as a Pipin, with Seeds and Stones in it, of an
uncouth astringing Tast, tho' never so much be said in Commendation of it,
at the _West-Indies_, it is common for _Cræolians_, (who has tasted both,)
to give it a Preference to Peach or Nectarine, no amazing Thing when Men
whose Tasts are so degenerated, as to prefer a Toad in a Shell, (as _Ward_
calls Turtle,) to Venison, and Negroes to fine _English_ Ladies.

_Plantanes_ and _Bonano's_ are Fruit of oblong Figure, that I think differ
only _secundum Major & Minus_, if any, the latter are preferable, and by
being less, are juicier; they are usually, when stripped of their Coat, eat
at Meals instead of Bread: The Leaf of this Plantane is an admirable
Detergent, and, externally applied, I have seen cure the most obstinate
scorbutick Ulcers.

_Manyoco_. A Root that shoots its Branches about the heighth of a Currant
Bush; from this Root the Islanders make a Farine or Flower, which they sell
at three Ryals a Roove, and drive a considerable Trade for it with the
Ships that call in. The manner of making it, is first to press the Juice
from it, (which is poisonous) done here with Engines, and then the Negroe
Women, upon a rough Stone, rub it into a granulated Flower, reserved in
their Houses, either to boil, as we do our Wheat, and is a hearty Food for
the Slaves; or make it into a Bread, fine, white, and well tasted, for
themselves. One thing worth taking Notice about _Manyoco_ in this Island,
is, that the Woods abound with a wild poisonous and more mortiferous Sort,
which sometimes Men, unskilled in the Preparation of it, feed on to their
Destruction: This the Missionaries assured me they often experimented in
their Hogs, and believed we did in the Mortality of our Sailors.

_Indian Corn_, is likewise as well as the _Farine de Manyoco_ and Rice, the
common Victualling of our Slave Ships, and is afforded here at 1000 Heads
for two Dollars. This Corn grows eight or nine Foot high, on a hard Reed or
Stick, shooting forth at every six Inches Heighth, some long Leaves; it has
always an Ear, or rather Head, at top, of, perhaps, 400 Fold Increase; and
often two, three, or more, Midway.

Here are some Tamarind Trees; another called _Cola_, whose Fruit, or Nut
(about twice the Bigness of a Chestnut, and bitter) is chewed by the
_Portugueze_, to give a sweet Gust to their Water which they drink; but
above all, I was shewn the Bark of one (whose Name I do not know) gravely
affirm'd to have a peculiar Property of enlarging the Virile Member; I am
not fond of such Conceits, nor believe it in the Power of any Vegetables,
but must acknowledge, I have seen Sights of this kind among the Negroes
very extraordinary; yet, that there may be no Wishes among the Ladies for
the Importation of this Bark, I must acquaint them, that they are found to
grow less merry, as they encrease in Bulk. I had like to have forgot their
Cinnamon Trees; there is only one Walk of them, and is the Entrance of the
Governor's Villa; they thrive extreemly well, and the Bark not inferior to
our Cinnamon from _India_; why they and other Spice, in a Soil so proper,
receive no farther Cultivation, is, probably, their Suspicion, that so rich
a Produce, might make some potent Neighbour take a Fancy to the Island.

They have two Winters, or rather Springs, and two Summers: Their Winters,
which are the rainy Seasons, come in _September_ and _February_, or
_March_, and hold two Months, returning that Fatness and generative Power
to the Earth, as makes it yield a double Crop every Year, with little Sweat
or Labour.
_Hic Ver Assiduum atque Alienis Mensibus Æstas --Bis gravidæ
Pecudes, bis Pomis utilis arbos_.

Their first coming is with _Travado_'s, _i. e._ sudden and hard Gusts of
Wind, with Thunder, Lightning and heavy Showers, but short; and the next
new or full Moon at those Times of the Year, infallibly introduces the
Rains, which once begun, fall with little Intermission, and are observed
coldest in _February_. Similar to these are rainy Seasons also over all the
Coast of _Africa_: If there may be allowed any general Way of calculating
their Time, they happen from the Course of the Sun, as it respects the
_Æquinoctial_ only; for if these _Æquinoxes_ prove rainy Seasons all over
the World (as I am apt to think they are) whatever secret Cause operates
with that Station of the Sun to produce them, will more effectually do it
in those vicine Latitudes; and therefore, as the Sun advances, the Rains
are brought on the _Whydah_ and Gold Coast, by _April_, and on the
Windwardmost Part of _Guiney_ by _May_: The other Season of the Sun's
returning to the Southward, make them more uncertain and irregular in
Northern _Africa_; but then to the Southward again, they proceed in like
manner, and are at Cape _Lopez_ in _October_, at _Angola_ in _November_,

The Manner of living among the _Portugueze_ here is, with the utmost
Frugality and Temperance, even to Penury and Starving; a familiar Instance
of Proof is, in the Voracity of their Dogs, who finding such clean
Cupboards at home, are wild in a manner with Hunger, and tare up the Graves
of the Dead for Food, as I have often seen: They themselves are lean with
Covetousness, and that Christian Vertue, which is often the Result of it,
Selfdenyal; and would train up their Cattle in the same way, could they
fetch as much Money, or had not they their Provision more immediately of
Providence. The best of them (excepting the Governor now and then) neither
pay nor receive any Visits of Escapade or Recreation; they meet and sit
down at each others Doors in the Street every Evening, and as few of them,
in so small an Island, can have their Plantations at any greater Distance,
than that they may see it every Day if they will, so the Subject of their
Talk is mostly how Affairs went there, with their Negroes, or their Ground,
and then part with one another innocently, but empty.

The Negroes have yet no hard Duty with them, they are rather Happy in
Slavery; for as their Food is chiefly Vegetables, that could no way else be
expended, there is no Murmurs bred on that account; and as their Business
is Domestick, either in the Services of the House, or in Gardening, Sowing,
or Planting, they have no more than what every Man would prefer for Health
and Pleasure; the hardest of their Work is the Carriage of their Pateroons,
or their Wives, to and from the Plantations; this they do in Hammocks
(call'd at _Whydah, Serpentines_) slung cross a Pole, with a Cloath over,
to screen the Person, so carried, from Sun and Weather, and the Slaves are
at each End; and yet even this, methinks, is better than the specious
Liberty a Man has for himself and his Heirs to work in a Coal Mine.

The Negroes are, most of them, thro' the Care of their Patroons,
Christians, at least nominal, but excepting to some few, they adhere still
to many silly Pagan Customs in their Mournings and Rejoycings, and in some
Measure, powerful Majority has introduced them with the Vulgar of the
_Mulatto_ and _Portugueze_ Race.

If a Person die in that Colour, the Relations and Friends of him meet at
the House, where the Corpse is laid out decently on the Ground and covered
(all except the Face) with a Sheet; they sit round it, crying and howling
dreadfully, not unlike what our Countrymen are said to do in _Ireland_:
This Mourning lasts for eight Days and Nights, but not equally intense, for
as the Friends, who compose the Chorus, go out and in, are weary, and
unequally affected, the Tone lessens daily, and the Intervals of Grief are

In Rejoycings and Festivals they are equally ridiculous; these are commonly
made on some Friend's Escape from Shipwreck, or other Danger: They meet in
a large Room of the House, with a Strum Strum, to which one of the Company,
perhaps, sings wofully; the rest standing round the Room close to the
Petitions, take it in their Turns (one or two at a time) to step round,
called Dancing, the whole clapping their Hands continually, and hooping out
every Minute _Abeo_, which signify no more, than, _how do you_. And this
foolish Mirth will continue three or four Days together at a House, and
perhaps twelve or sixteen Hours at a time.

The _Portugueze_, tho' eminently abstemious and temperate in all other
Things, are unbounded in their Lusts; and perhaps they substitute the
former in room of a Surgeon, as a Counterpoison to the Mischiefs of a
promiscuous Salacity: They have most of them Venereal Taints, and with Age
become meager and hectick: I saw two Instances here of Venereal Ulcers that
had cancerated to the Bowels, Spectacles that would have effectually
perswaded Men (I think) how Salutary the Restriction of Laws are.

_Annobono_ is the last, and of the least Consequence of the three Islands;
there are Plenty of Fruits and Provisions, exchanged to Ships for old
Cloaths and Trifles of any Sort; they have a Governor nominated from St.
_Thome_, and two or three Priests, neither of which are minded, every one
living at Discretion, and fill'd with Ignorance and Lust.

                                * * *

To return to _Davis_, the next Day after he left _Anamaboe_, early in the
Morning, the Man at the Mast-Head espied a Sail. It must be observed, they
keep a good Look-out; for, according to their Articles, he who first espies
a Sail, if she proves a Prize, is entitled to the best Pair of Pistols on
Board, over and above his Dividend, in which they take a singular Pride;
and a Pair of Pistols has sometimes been sold for thirty Pounds, from one
to another.

Immediately they gave Chace, and soon came up with her; the Ship proved to
be a _Hollander_, and being betwixt _Davis_ and the Shore, she made all the
Sail she could, intending to run aground; _Davis_ guessed her Design, and
putting out all his small Sails, came up with her before she could effect
it, and fired a Broad-side, upon which she immediately struck, and called
for Quarter. It was granted, for according to _Davis_'s Articles, it was
agreed, that Quarter should be given whenever it was called for, upon Pain
of Death. This Ship proved a very rich Prize, having the Governor of _Acra_
on Board, with all his Effects, going to _Holland_; there was in Money to
the Value of 15000 _l._ Sterling, besides other valuable Merchandizes, all
which they brought on Board of themselves.

Upon this new Success, they restored Captain _Hall_ and Captain _Plumb_,
before-mentioned, their Ships again, but strengthened their Company with
thirty five Hands, all white Men, taken out of these two and the _Morrice_
Sloop; they also restored the _Dutch_ their Ship, after having plunder'd
her, as is mentioned.

Before they got to the Island of _Princes_, one of their Ships, _viz._ that
call'd the _King James_, sprung a Leak; _Davis_ order'd all Hands out of
her, on Board his own Ship, with every thing else of Use, and left her at
an Anchor at _High Cameroon_. As soon as he came in Sight of the Island, he
hoisted _English_ Colours; the _Portuguese_ observing a large Ship sailing
towards them, sent out a little Sloop to examine what she might be; this
Sloop hailing of _Davis_, he told them he was an _English_ Man of War, in
Quest of Pyrates, and that he had received Intelligence there were some
upon that Coast; upon this they received him as a welcome Guest, and
piloted him into the Harbour. He saluted the Fort, which they answered, and
he came to an Anchor just under their Guns, and hoisted out the Pinnace,
Man of War Fashion, ordering nine Hands and a Coxen in it, to row him

The _Portugueze_, to do him the greater Honour, sent down a File of
Musqueteers to receive him, and conduct him to the Governor. The Governor
not in the least suspecting what he was, received him very civilly,
promising to supply him with whatever the Island afforded; _Davis_ thanked
him, telling him, the King of _England_ would pay for whatever he should
take; so after several Civilities pass'd between him and the Governor, he
returned again on Board.

It happened a _French_ Ship came in there to supply it self with some
Necessaries, which _Davis_ took into his Head to plunder, but to give the
Thing a Colour of Right, he persuaded the _Portugueze_, that she had been
trading with the Pyrates, and that he found several Pyrates Goods on Board,
which he seized for the King's Use: This Story passed so well upon the
Governor, that he commended _Davis_'s Diligence.

A few Days after, _Davis_, with about fourteen more, went privately ashore,
and walk'd up the Country towards a Village, where the Governor and the
other chief Men of the Island kept their Wives, in tending, as we may
suppose, to supply their Husbands Places with them; but being discovered,
the Women fled to a neighbouring Wood, and _Davis_ and the rest retreated
to their Ship, without effecting their Design: The Thing made some Noise,
but as no body knew them, it passed over.

Having cleaned his Ship, and put all Things in Order, his Thoughts now were
turned upon the main Business, _viz._ the Plunder of the Island, and not
knowing where the Treasure lay, a Stratagem came into his Head, to get it
(as he thought) with little Trouble, he consulted his Men upon it, and they
liked the Design: His Scheme was, to make a Present to the Governor, of a
Dozen Negroes, by Way of Return for the Civilities received from him, and
afterwards to invite him, with the chief Men, and some of the Friers, on
Board his Ship, to an Entertainment; the Minute they came on Board, they
were to be secured in Irons, and there kept till they should pay a Ransom
of 40000 _l._ Sterling.

But this Stratagem proved fatal to him, for a _Portugueze_ Negroe swam
ashore in the Night, and discovered the whole Plot to the Governor, and
also let him know, that it was _Davis_ who had made the Attempt upon their
Wives. However, the Governor dissembled, received the Pyrates Invitation
civilly, and promised that he and the rest would go.

The next Day _Davis_ went on Shore himself, as if it were out of greater
Respect to bring the Governor on Board: He was received with the usual
Civility, and he, and other principal Pyrates, who, by the Way, had assumed
the Title of Lords, and as such took upon them to advise or councel their
Captain upon any important Occasion; and likewise held certain Priviledges,
which the common Pyrates were debarr'd from, as walking the Quarter-Deck,
using the great Cabin, going ashore at Pleasure, and treating with foreign
Powers, that is, with the Captains of Ships they made Prize of; I say,
_Davis_ and some of the Lords were desired to walk up to the Governor's
House, to take some Refreshment before they went on Board; they accepted it
without the least Suspicion, but never returned again; for an Ambuscade was
laid, a Signal being given, a whole Volley was fired upon them; they every
Man dropp'd, except one, this one fled back, and escaped into the Boat, and
got on Board the Ship: _Davis_ was shot through the Bowels, yet he rise
again, and made a weak Effort to get away, but his Strength soon forsook
him, and he dropp'd down dead; just as he fell, he perceived he was
followed, and drawing out his Pistols, fired them at his Pursuers; Thus
like a game Cock, giving a dying Blow, that he might not fall unrevenged.

CHAP. IX. OF Captain _Bartho. Roberts_, And his CREW.

B_Artholomew Roberts_ sailed in an honest Employ, from _London_
aboard of the _Princess_, Captain _Plumb_ Commander, of which Ship he was
second Mate: He left _England, November_ 1719, and arrived at _Guiney_
about _February_ following, and being at _Anamaboe_, taking in Slaves for
the _West-Indies_, was taken in the said Ship by Captain _Howel Davis_, as
mentioned in the preceeding Chapter. In the beginning he was very averse to
this sort of Life, and would certainly have escaped from them, had a fair
Opportunity presented it self; yet afterwards he changed his Principles, as
many besides him have done upon another Element, and perhaps for the same
Reason too, _viz._ Preferment,--and what he did not like as a private Man
he could reconcile to his Conscience as a Commander.

_Davis_ being cut off in the manner beforementioned, the Company found
themselves under a Necessity of filling up his Post, for which there
appear'd two or three Candidates among the select Part of them, that were
distinguish'd by the Title of Lords, such were _Sympson, Ashplant, Anstis_,
&c. and on canvassing this Matter, how shatter'd and weak a Condition their
Government must be without a Head, since _Davis_ had been remov'd, in the
manner beforemention'd, my Lord _Dennis_ propos'd, its said, over a Bowl to
this Purpose.

_That it was not of any great Signification who was dignify'd with Title;
for really and in Truth, all good Governments had_ (_like theirs_) _the
supream Power lodged with the Community, who might doubtless depute and
revoke as suited Interest or Humour. We are the Original of this Claim_
(says he) _and should a Captain be so sawcy as to exceed Prescription at
any time_, why down with Him! _it will be a Caution after he is dead to his
Successors, of what fatal Consequence any sort of assuming may be. However,
it is my Advice, that, while we are sober, we pitch upon a Man of Courage,
and skill'd in Navigation, one, who by his Council and Bravery seems best
able to defend this Commonwealth, and ward us from the Dangers and Tempests
of an instable Element, and the fatal Consequences of Anarchy; and such a
one I take_ Roberts _to be. A Fellow! I think, in all Respects, worthy your
Esteem and Favour_.

This Speech was loudly applauded by all but Lord _Sympson_, who had secret
Expectations himself, but on this Disappointment, grew sullen, and left
them, swearing, _he did not care who they chose Captain, so it was not a
Papist, for against them he had conceiv'd an irreconcileable Hatred, for
that his Father had been a Sufferer in_ Monmouth_'s Rebellion_.

_Roberts_ was accordingly elected, tho' he had not been above six Weeks
among them, the Choice was confirm'd both by the Lords and Commoners, and
he accepted of the Honour, saying, _That since he had dipp'd his Hands in
muddy Water, and must be a Pyrate, it was better being a Commander than a
common Man_.

As soon as the Government was settled, by promoting other Officers in the
room of those that were kill'd by the _Portugueze_, the Company resolv'd to
revenge Captain _Davis_'s Death, he being more than ordinarily respected by
the Crew for his Affability and good Nature, as well as his Conduct and
Bravery upon all Occasions; and pursuant to this Resolution, about 30 Men
were landed in order to make an Attack upon the Fort, which must be
ascended to by a steep Hill against the Mouth of the Cannon. These Men were
headed by one _Kennedy_, a bold daring Fellow, but very wicked and
profligate; they march'd directly up under the Fire of their Ship Guns, and
as soon as they were discover'd, the _Portugueze_ quitted their Post and
fled to the Town, and the Pyrates march'd in without Opposition, set Fire
to the Fort, and threw all the Guns off the Hill into the Sea, which after
they had done, they retreated quietly to their Ship.

But this was not look'd upon as a sufficient Satisfaction for the Injury
they received, therefore most of the Company were for burning the Town,
which _Roberts_ said he would yield to, if any Means could be proposed of
doing it without their own Destruction, for the Town had a securer
Scituation than the Fort, a thick Wood coming almost close to it, affording
Cover to the Defendants, who under such an Advantage, he told them, it was
to be fear'd, would fire and stand better to their Arms; besides, that bare
Houses would be but a slender Reward for their Trouble and Loss. This
prudent Advice prevailed; however, they mounted the _French_ Ship, they
seiz'd at this Place, with 12 Guns, and light'ned her, in order to come up
to the Town, the Water being shoal, and battered down several Houses; after
which they all returned on Board, gave back the _French_ Ship to those that
had most Right to her, and sailed out of the Harbour by the light of two
_Portuguese_ Ships, which they were pleased to set on Fire there.

_Roberts_ stood away to the Southward, and met with a _Dutch Guiney_ Man,
which he made Prize of, but after having plundered her, the Skipper had his
Ship again: Two Days after, he took an _English_ Ship, called the
_Experiment_, Captain _Cornet_, at _Cape Lopez_, the Men went all into the
Pyrate Service, and having no Occasion for the Ship, they burnt her, and
then steered for St. _Thome_, but meeting with nothing in their Way, they
sailed for _Annabona_, and there water'd, took in Provisions, and put it to
a Vote of the Company, whether their next Voyage should be, to the
_East-Indies_, or to _Brasil_; the latter being resolved on, they sailed
accordingly, and in 28 Days arrived at _Ferdinando_, an uninhabited Island,
on that Coast: Here they water'd, boot-top'd their Ship, and made ready for
the designed Cruise.

Now that we are upon this Coast, I think it will be the proper Place to
present our Readers with a Description of this Country, and some ingenious
Remarks of a Friend, how beneficial a Trade might be carried on here by our
_West-India_ Merchants, at a little Hazard.


B_RASIL_ (a Name signifying the holy Cross) was discovered for the
King of _Portugal_, by _Alvarez Cabral, Ann. Dom._ 1501. extending almost
from the _Æquinoctial_ to 28° South. The Air is temperate and cool, in
comparison of the _West-Indies_, from stronger Breezes and an opener
Country, which gives less Interruption to the Winds.

The northernmost Part of it stretching about 180 Leagues, (a fine fertile
Country,) was taken from the _Portuguese_ by the _Dutch West-India_
Company, _Anno._ 1637 or thereabouts; but the Conquerors, as is natural
where there is little or no Religion subsisting, made such heavy Exactions
on the _Portuguese_, and extended such Cruelty to the Natives, that
prepared them both easily to unite for a Revolt, facilitated by the _Dutch_
Mismanagement: For the States being at this Time very intent on their
_India_ Settlements, not only recalled Count _Morrice_ their Governor, but
neglected Supplies to their Garrisons; however, tho' the others were
countenanced with a Fleet from _Portugal_, and had the Affection of the
Natives, yet they found Means to withstand and struggle with this superior
Power, from 1643 to 1660, and then was wholly abandoned by them, on
Articles dishonourable to the _Portuguese_, viz.

That the _Dutch_, on Relinquishing, should keep all the Places they had
conquered in _India_ from _Portugal_. That they should pay the States
800000 _l._ and permit them still the Liberty of Trade to _Africa_ and
_Brasil_, on the same Custom and Duties with the King of _Portugal_'s
Subjects. But since that Time, new Stipulations and Treaties have been
made; wherein the _Dutch_, who have been totally excluded the _Brasil_
Trade, have, in lieu thereof, a Composition of 10 _per Cent_. for the
Liberty of trading to _Africa_; and this is always left by every
_Portuguese_ Ship (before she begins her Slaving) with the _Dutch_ General
of the _Gold-Coast_, at _Des Minas_.

There are only three principal Towns of Trade on the _Brasil_ Coast, St.
_Salvadore_, St. _Sebastian_, and _Pernambuca_.

St. _Salvadore_ in the _Bahia los todos Santos_, is an Archbishoprick and
Seat of the Viceroy, the chief Port of Trade for Importation, where most of
the Gold from the Mines is lodged, and whence the Fleets for _Europe_
generally depart. The Seas about it abound with Whale-Fish, which in the
Season they catch in great Numbers; the Flesh is salted up generally to be
the Victualling of their Slave-Ships, and the Train reserved for
Exportation, at 30 and 35 Millrays a Pipe.

_Rio Janeiro (_the Town St. _Sebastian)_ is the Southernmost of the
_Portuguese_, the worst provided of Necessaries, but commodious for a
Settlement, because nigh the Mine, and convenient to supervise the Slaves,
who, as I have been told, do usually allow their Master a Dollar _per
Diem_, and have the Overplus of their Work (if any) to themselves.

The Gold from hence is esteemed the best, (for being of a copperish
Colour,) and they have a Mint to run it into Coin, both here and at
_Bahia_; the Moidors of either having the initial Letters of each Place
upon them.

_Pernambuca_ (tho' mention'd last) is the second in Dignity, a large and
populous Town, and has its rise from the Ruins of _Olinda_, (or the
handsome,) a City of a far pleasanter Situation, six Miles up the River,
but not so commodious for Traffick and Commerce. Just above the Town the
River divides it self into two Branches, not running directly into the Sea,
but to the Southward; and in the Nook of the Island made by that Division,
stands the Governor's House, a square plain Building of Prince _Maurice_'s,
with two Towers, on which are only this Date inscribed, _Anno_ 1641. The
Avenues to it are every way pleasant, thro' Visto's of tall Coco-Nut Trees.

Over each Branch of the River is a Bridge; that leading to the Country is
all of Timber, but the other to the Town (of twenty six or twenty eight
Arches) is half of Stone, made by the _Dutch_, who in their Time had little
Shops and gaming Houses on each Side for Recreation.

The Pavements also of the Town are in some Places of broad Tiles, the
remaining Fragments of their Conquest. The Town has the outer Branch of the
River behind it, and the Harbour before it, jetting into which latter are
close Keys for the weighing and receiving of Customage on Merchandize, and
for the meeting and conferring of Merchants and Traders. The Houses are
strong built, but homely, letticed like those of _Lisbon_, for the
Admission of Air, without Closets, and what is worse, Hearths; which makes
their Cookery consist all in frying and stewing upon Stoves; and that they
do till the Flesh become tender enough to shake it to Pieces, and one Knife
is then thought sufficient to serve a Table of half a Score.

The greatest Inconvenience of _Pernambuca_ is, that there is not one
Publick-House in it; so that Strangers are obliged to hire any ordinary one
they can get, at a Guinea a Month: And others who come to transact Affairs
of Importance, must come recommended, if it were only for the sake of

The Market is stocked well enough, Beef being at five Farthings _per l_. a
Sheep or Goat at nine Shillings, a Turkey four Shillings, and Fowls two
Shillings, the largest I ever saw, and may be procured much Cheaper, by
hiring a Man to fetch them out of the Country. The dearest in its kind is
Water, which being fetch'd in Vessels from _Olinda_, will not be put on
Board in the Road under two Crusado's a Pipe.

The _Portuguese_ here are darker than those of _Europe_, not only from a
warmer Climate, but their many Intermarriages with the Negroes, who are
numerous there, and some of them of good Credit and Circumstances. The
Women (not unlike the Mulatto Generation every where else) are fond of
Strangers; not only the Courtezans, whose Interest may be supposed to wind
up their Affections, but also the marryed Women who think themselves
obliged, when you favour them with the Secrecy of an Appointment; but the
Unhappiness of pursuing Amours, is, that the generallity of both Sexes are
touched with veneral Taints, without so much as one Surgeon among them, or
any Body skilled in Physick, to cure or palliate the progressive Mischief:
The only Person pretending that Way, is an _Irish_ Father, whose Knowledge
is all comprehended in the Virtues of two or three Simples, and those, with
the Salubrity of the Air and Temperance, is what they depend on, for
subduing the worst of Malignity; and it may not be unworthy Notice, that
tho' few are exempted from the Misfortune of a Running, Eruptions, or the
like, yet I could hear of none precipitated into those deplorable
Circumstances we see common in unskillful mercurial Processes.

There are three Monasteries, and about six Churches, none of them Rich or
Magnificent, unless one dedicated to St. _Antonio_, the Patron of their
Kingdom, which shines all over with exquisite Pieces of Paint and Gold.

The Export of _Brasil_ (besides Gold) is chiefly Sugars and Tobacco; the
latter are sent off in Rowls of a Quintal Weight, kept continually
moistened with Mulossus, which, with the Soil it springs from, imparts a
strong and peculiar Scent, more sensible in the Snuff made from it, which
tho' under Prohibition of importing to _Lisbon_, sells here at 2 _s. per
l_. as the Tobacco does at about 6 Millraies a Rowl. The finest of their
Sugars sells at 8 _s. per_ Roove, and a small ill tasted Rum drawn from the
Dregs and Mulossus, at two Testunes a Gallon.

Besides these, they send off great Quantities of Brasil Wood, and Whale
Oyl, some Gums and Parrots, the latter are different from the _African_ in
Colour and Bigness, for as they are blue and larger, these are green and
smaller; and the Females of them ever retain the wild Note, and cannot be
brought to talk.

In lieu of this Produce, the _Portugueze_, once every Year by their Fleet
from _Lisbon_, import all manner of European Commodities; and whoever is
unable or negligent of supplying himself at that Season, buys at a very
advanced Rate, before the Return of another.

To transport Passengers, Slaves, or Merchandize from one Settlement to
another, or in Fishing; they make use of Bark-Logs, by the _Brasilians_
called _Jingadahs_: They are made of four Pieces of Timber (the two
outermost longest) pinned and fastened together, and sharpened at the Ends:
Towards each Extremity a Stool is fixed to sit on for paddling, or holding
by, when the Agitation is more than ordinary; with these odd sort of
Engines, continually washed over by the Water, do these People, with a
little triangular Sail spreeted about the Middle of it, venture out of
Sight of Land, and along the Coasts for many Leagues, in any sort of
Weather; and if they overset with a Squall (which is not uncommon) they
swim and presently turn it up right again.

The Natives are of the darkest Copper Colour, with thin Hair, of a square
strong make, and muscular; but not so well looking as the Wooley
Generation: They acquiesce patiently to the _Portugueze_ Government, who
use them much more humanly and Christian-like than the _Dutch_ did, and by
that Means have extended Quietness and Peace, as well as their Possessions,
three or four hundred Miles into the Country. A Country abounding with fine
Pastures and numerous Herds of Cattle, and yields a vast Increase from
every thing that is sown: Hence they bring down to us Parrots, small
Monkies, Armadillos and Sanguins, and I have been assured, they have, (far
In-land,) a Serpent of a vast Magnitude, called _Siboya_, able, they say,
to swallow a whole Sheep; I have seen my self here the Skin of another
Specie full six Yards long, and therefore think the Story not improbable.

The Harbour of _Pernambuca_ is, perhaps, singular, it is made of a Ledge of
Rocks, half a Cables length from the Main, and but little above the Surface
of the Water, running at that equal Distance and Heighth several Leagues,
towards Cape _Augustine_, a Harbour running between them capable of
receiving Ships of the greatest Burthen: The Northermost End of this Wall
of Rock, is higher than any Part of the contiguous Line, on which a little
Fort is built, commanding the Passage either of Boat or Ship, as they come
over the Bar into the Harbour: On the Starboard Side, (_i. e._ the Main)
after you have entered a little way, stands another Fort (a _Pentagon_)
that would prove of small Account, I imagine, against a few disciplined
Men; and yet in these consists all their Strength and Security, either for
the Harbour or Town: They have begun indeed a Wall, since their removing
from _Olinda_, designed to surround the latter; but the slow Progress they
make in raising it, leaves Room to suspect 'twill be a long time in

The Road without, is used by the _Portugueze_, when they are nigh sailing
for _Europe_, and wait for the Convoy, or are bound to _Bahia_ to them, and
by Strangers only when Necessity compels; the best of it is in ten Fathom
Water, near three Miles W. N. W. from the Town; nigher in, is foul with the
many Anchors lost there by the _Portugueze_ Ships; and farther out (in 14
Fathom) corally and Rocky. _July_ is the worst and Winter Season of this
Coast, the Trade Winds being then very strong and dead, bringing in a
prodigious and unsafe Swell into the Road, intermixed every Day with
Squalls, Rain, and a hazey Horizon, but at other times serener Skies and

In these Southern Latitudes is a Constellation, which from some Resemblance
it bears to a _Jerusalem_ Cross, has the Name of _Crosiers_, the brightest
of this Hemisphere, and are observed by, as the North Star is in Northern
Latitudes; but what I mention this for, is, to introduce the admirable
Phænomenon in these Seas of the Megellanick Clouds, whose Risings and
Sittings are so regular, that I have been assured, the same Nocturnal
Observations are made by them as by the Stars; They are two Clouds, small
and whitish, no larger in Appearance than a Man's Hat, and are seen here in
_July_ in the Latitude of 8° S. about four of the Clock in the Morning; if
their Appearance should be said to be the Reflection of Light, from some
Stellary Bodies above them, yet the Difficulty is not easily answered, how
these, beyond others, become so durable and regular in their Motions.

From these casual Observations on the Country, the Towns, Coast, and Seas
of _Brasil_, it would be an Omission to leave the Subject, without some
Essay on an interloping Slave Trade here, which none of our Countrymen are
adventurous enough to pursue, though it very probably, under a prudent
Manager, would be attended with Safety and very great Profit; and I admire
the more it is not struck at, because Ships from the Southern Coast of
_Africa_, don't lengthen the Voyage to the _West-Indies_ a great deal, by
taking a Part of _Brasil_ in their Way.

The Disadvantages the _Portugueze_ are under for purchasing Slaves, are
these, that they have very few proper Commodities for _Guiney_, and the
Gold, which was their chiefest, by an Edict in _July_ 1722, stands now
prohibited from being carried thither, so that the Ships employed therein
are few, and insufficient for the great Mortality and Call of their Mines;
besides, should they venture at breaking so destructive a Law, as the
abovementioned (as no doubt they do, or they could make little or no
Purchace) yet Gold does not raise its Value like Merchandize in travelling
(especially to _Africa_) and when the Composition with the _Dutch_ is also
paid, they may be said to buy their Negroes at almost double the Price the
_English, Dutch_, or _French_ do, which necessarily raises their Value
extravagantly at _Brasil_; (those who can purchase one, buying a certainer
Annuity than _South-Sea_ Stock.)

Thus far of the Call for Slaves at _Brasil_; I shall now consider and
obviate some Difficulties objected against any Foreigners (suppose
_English_) interposing in such a Trade, and they are some on theirs, and
some on our Side.

On their Side it is prohibited under Pain of Death, a Law less effectual to
the Prevention of it than pecuniary Mulcts would be, because a Penalty so
inadequate and disproportioned, is only _In terrorem_, and makes it
merciful in the Governor, or his Instruments, to take a Composition of
eight or ten Moidors, when any Subject is catched, and is the common Custom
so to do as often as they are found out.

On our Side it is Confiscation of what they can get, which considering,
they have no Men of War to guard the Coast, need be very little, without
supine Neglect and Carelessness.

I am a Man of War, or Privateer, and being in Want of Provisions, or in
Search of Pyrates, put in to _Pernambuca_ for Intelligence, to enable me
for the Pursuit: The Dread of Pyrates keeps every one off, till you have
first sent an Officer, with the proper Compliments to the Governor, who
immediately gives Leave for your buying every Necessary you are in want of,
provided it be with Money, and not an Exchange of Merchandize, which is
against the Laws of the Country.

On this first time of going on Shore, depends the success of the whole
Affair, and requires a cautious and discreet Management in the Person
entrusted: He will be immediately surrounded at landing with the great and
the small Rabble, to enquire who? and whence he comes? and whether bound?
_&c._ and the Men are taught to answer, from _Guiney_, denying any thing of
a Slave on Board, which are under Hatches, and make no Shew; nor need they,
for those who have Money to lay out will conclude on that themselves.

By that time the Compliment is paid to the Governor, the News has spread
all round the Town, and some Merchant addresses you, as a Stranger, to the
Civility of his House, but privately desires to know what Negroes he can
have, and what Price. A Governor may possibly use an Instrument in sifting
this, but the Appearance of the Gentleman, and the Circumstance of being so
soon engaged after leaving the other, will go a great way in forming a
Man's Judgment, and leaves him no room for the Suspicion of such a Snare;
however, to have a due Guard, Intimations will suffice, and bring him, and
Friends enough to carry off the best Part of a Cargo in two Nights time,
from 20 to 30 Moidors a Boy, and from 30 to 40 a Man Slave. The Hazard is
less at _Rio Janeiro_.

There has been another Method attempted, of settling a Correspondence with
some _Portugueze_ Merchant or two, who, as they may be certain within a
Fortnight of any Vessels arriving on their Coast with Slaves, might settle
Signals for the debarquing them at an unfrequented Part of the Coast, but
whether any Exceptions were made to the Price, or that the _Portuguese_
dread Discovery, and the severest Prosecution on so notorious a Breach of
the Law, I cannot tell but it has hither to proved abortive.

However, Stratagems laudable, and attended with Profit, at no other Hazard
(as I can perceive) then loss of Time, are worth attempting; it is what is
every Day practised with the _Spaniards_ from _Jamaica_.

                                * * *

Upon this Coast our Rovers cruiz'd for about nine Weeks, keeping generally
out of Sight of Land, but without seeing a Sail, which discourag'd them so,
that they determined to leave the Station, and steer for the _West-Indies_,
and in order thereto, stood in to make the Land for the taking of their
Departure, and thereby they fell in, unexpectedly, with a Fleet of 42 Sail
of _Portuguese_ Ships, off the Bay of _los todos Santos_, with all their
Lading in for _Lisbon_, several of them of good Force, who lay too waiting
for two Men of War of 70 Guns each, their Convoy. However, _Roberts_
thought it should go hard with him, but he would make up his Market among
them, and thereupon mix'd with the Fleet, and kept his Men hid till proper
Resolutions could be form'd; that done, they came close up to one of the
deepest, and ordered her to send the Master on Board quietly, threat'ning
to give them no Quarters, if any Resistance, or Signal of Distress was
made. The _Portuguese_ being surprized at these Threats, and the sudden
flourish of Cutlashes from the Pyrates, submitted without a Word, and the
Captain came on Board; _Roberts_ saluted him after a friendly manner,
telling him, that they were Gentlemen of Fortune, but that their Business
with him, was only to be informed which was the richest Ship in that Fleet;
and if he directed them right, he should be restored to his Ship without
Molestation, otherwise, he must expect immediate Death.

Whereupon this _Portuguese_ Master pointed to one of 40 Guns, and 150 Men,
a Ship of greater Force than the _Rover_, but this no Ways dismayed them,
_they were_ Portuguese, they said, and so immediately steered away for him.
When they came within Hail, the Master whom they had Prisoner, was ordered
to ask, _how Seignior Capitain did_? And to invite him on Board, _for that
he had a Matter of Consequence to impart to him_, which being done, he
returned for Answer, _That he would wait upon him presently_: But by the
Bustle that immediately followed, the Pyrates perceived, they were
discovered, and that this was only a deceitful Answer to gain Time to put
their Ship in a Posture of Defence; so without further Delay, they poured
in a Broad-Side, boarded and grapled her; the Dispute was short and warm,
wherein many of the _Portuguese_ fell, and two only of the Pyrates. By this
Time the Fleet was alarmed, Signals of Top-gallant Sheets flying, and Guns
fired, to give Notice to the Men of War, who rid still at an Anchor, and
made but scurvy hast out to their Assistance; and if what the Pyrates
themselves related, be true, the Commanders of those Ships were blameable
to the highest Degree, and unworthy the Title, or so much as the Name of
Men: For _Roberts_ finding the Prize to sail heavy, and yet resolving not
to loose her, lay by for the headmost of them _(_which much out sailed the
other) and prepared for Battle, which was ignominiously declined, tho' of
such superior Force; for not daring to venture on the Pyrate alone, he
tarried so long for his Consort as gave them both time leisurely to make

They found this Ship exceeding rich, being laden chiefly with Sugar, Skins,
and Tobacco, and in Gold 40000 Moidors, besides Chains and Trinckets, of
considerable Value; particularly a Cross set with Diamonds, designed for
the King of _Portugal_; which they afterwards presented to the Governor of
_Caiana_, by whom they were obliged.

Elated with this Booty, they had nothing now to think of but some safe
Retreat, where they might give themselves up to all the Pleasures that
Luxury and Wantonness could bestow, and for the present pitch'd upon a
Place called the _Devil_'s _Islands_, in the River of _Surinam_, on the
Coast of _Caiana_, where they arrived, and found the civilest Reception
imaginable, not only from the Governor and Factory, but their Wives, who
exchanged Wares and drove a considerable Trade with them.

They seiz'd in this River a Sloop, and by her gained Intelligence, that a
Brigantine had also sailed in Company with her, from _Rhode-Island_, laden
with Provisions for the Coast. A Welcome Cargo! They growing short in the
Sea Store, and as _Sancho_ says, _No Adventures to be made without
Belly-Timber_. One Evening as they were rumaging (their Mine of Treasure)
the _Portuguese_ Prize, this expected Vessel was descry'd at Mast-Head, and
_Roberts_, imagining no Body could do the Business so well as himself,
takes 40 Men in the Sloop, and goes in pursuit of her; but a fatal Accident
followed this rash, tho' inconsiderable Adventure, for _Roberts_ thinking
of nothing less than bringing in the Brigantine that Afternoon, never
troubled his Head about the Sloop's Provision, nor inquired what there was
on Board to subsist such a Number of Men; but out he sails after his
expected Prize, which he not only lost further Sight of, but after eight
Days contending with contrary Winds and Currents, found themselves thirty
Leagues to Leeward. The Current still opposing their Endeavours, and
perceiving no Hopes of beating up to their Ship, they came to an Anchor,
and inconsiderately sent away the Boat to give the rest of the Company
Notice of their Condition, and to order the Ship to them; but too soon,
even the next Day, their Wants made them sensible of their Infatuation, for
their Water was all expended, and they had taken no thought how they should
be supply'd, till either the Ship came, or the Boat returned, which was not
likely to be under five or six Days. Here like _Tantalus_, they almost
famished in Sight of the fresh Streams and Lakes; being drove to such
Extremity at last, that they were forc'd to tare up the Floor of the Cabin,
and patch up a sort of Tub or Tray with Rope Yarns, to paddle ashore, and
fetch off immediate Supplies of Water to preserve Life.

After some Days, the long-wish'd-for Boat came back, but with the most
unwellcome News in the World, for _Kennedy_, who was Lieutenant, and left
in Absence of _Roberts_, to Command the Privateer and Prize, was gone off
with both. This was Mortification with a Vengeance, and you may imagine,
they did not depart without some hard Speeches from those that were left,
and had suffered by their Treachery: And that there need be no further
mention of this _Kennedy_, I shall leave Captain _Roberts_, for a Page or
two, with the Remains of his Crew, to vent their Wrath in a few Oaths and
Execrations, and follow the other, whom we may reckon from that Time, as
steering his Course towards _Execution Dock_.

_Kennedy_ was now chosen Captain of the revolted Crew, but could not bring
his Company to any determined Resolution; some of them were for pursuing
the old Game, but the greater Part of them seem'd to have Inclinations to
turn from those evil Courses, and get home privately, (for there was no Act
of Pardon in Force,) therefore they agreed to break up, and every Man to
shift for himself, as he should see Occasion. The first Thing they did, was
to part with the great _Portugueze_ Prize, and having the Master of the
Sloop (whose Name I think was _Cane_) aboard, who they said was a very
honest Fellow, (for he had humoured them upon every Occasion,) told them of
the Brigantine that _Roberts_ went after; and when the Pyrates first took
him, he complemented them at an odd Rate, telling them they were welcome to
his Sloop and Cargo, and wish'd that the Vessel had been larger, and the
Loading richer for their Sakes: To this good natured Man they gave the
_Portugueze_ Ship, (which was then above half loaded,) three or four
Negroes, and all his own Men, who returned Thanks to his kind Benefactors,
and departed.

Captain _Kennedy_ in the _Rover_, sailed to _Barbadoes_, near which Island,
they took a very peaceable Ship belonging to _Virginia_; the Commander was
a Quaker, whose Name was _Knot_; he had neither Pistol, Sword, nor Cutlash
on Board; and Mr. _Knot_ appearing so very passive to all they said to him,
some of them thought this a good Opportunity to go off; and accordingly
eight of the Pyrates went aboard, and he carried them safe to _Virginia_;
They made the Quaker a Present of 10 Chests of Sugar, 10 Rolls of _Brasil_
Tobacco, 30 Moidors, and some Gold-Dust, in all to the value of about 250
_l._ They also made Presents to the Sailors, some more, some less, and
lived a jovial Life all the while they were upon their Voyage, Captain
_Knot_ giving them their Way; nor indeed could he help himself, unless he
had taken an Opportunity to surprize them, when they were either drunk or
asleep; for awake they wore Arms aboard the Ship, and put him in a
continual Terror; it not being his Principle (or the Sect's) to fight,
unless with Art and Collusion; he managed these Weapons well till he
arrived at the Capes, and afterwards four of the Pyrates went off in a
Boat, which they had taken with them, for the more easily making their
Escapes, and made up the Bay towards _Maryland_, but were forced back by a
Storm into an obscure Place of the Country, where meeting with good
Entertainment among the Planters, they continued several Days without being
discovered to be Pyrates. In the mean Time Captain _Knot_ leaving four
others on Board his Ship, (who intended to go to _North-Carolina_,) made
what hast he could to discover to Mr. _Spotswood_ the Governor, what sort
of Passengers he had been forced to bring with him, who by good Fortune got
them seized; and Search being made after the others, who were revelling
about the Country, they were also taken, and all try'd, convicted and
hang'd, two _Portuguese_ Jews who were taken on the Coast of _Brasil_, and
whom they brought with them to _Virginia_, being the principal Evidences.
The latter had found Means to lodge Part of their Wealth with the Planters,
who never brought it to Account: But Captain _Knot_ surrendered up every
Thing that belonged to them, that were taken aboard, even what they
presented to him, in lieu of such Things as they had plundered him of in
their Passage, and obliged his Men to do the like.

Some Days after the taking of the _Virginia_ Man last mentioned, in
cruising in the Latitude of _Jamaica, Kennedy_ took a Sloop bound thither
from _Boston_, loaded with Bread and Flower; aboard of this Sloop went all
the Hands who were for breaking the Gang, and left those behind that had a
Mind to pursue further Adventures. Among the former were _Kennedy_, their
Captain, of whose Honour they had such a dispicable Notion, that they were
about to throw him over-board, when they found him in the Sloop, as fearing
he might betray them all, at their return to _England_; he having in his
Childhood been bred a Pick-pocket, and before he became a Pyrate, a
House-breaker; both Professions that these Gentlemen have a very mean
Opinion of. However, Captain _Kennedy_, by taking solemn Oaths of Fidelity
to his Companions, was suffered to proceed with them.

In this Company there was but one that pretended to any skill in
Navigation, (for _Kennedy_ could neither write nor read, he being preferred
to the Command merely for his Courage, which indeed he had often
signaliz'd, particularly in taking the _Portuguese_ Ship,) and he proved to
be a Pretender only; for shaping their Course to _Ireland_, where they
agreed to land, they ran away to the North-West Coast of _Scotland_, and
there were tost about by hard Storms of Wind for several Days, without
knowing where they were, and in great Danger of perishing: At length they
pushed the Vessel into a little Creek, and went all ashore, leaving the
Sloop at an Anchor for the next Comers.

The whole Company refresh'd themselves at a little Village about five Miles
from the Place where they left the Sloop, and passed there for Ship-wreck'd
Sailors, and no doubt might have travelled on without Suspicion; but the
mad and riotous Manner of their Living on the Road, occasion'd their
Journey to be cut short, as we shall observe presently.

_Kennedy_ and another left them here, and travelling to one of the
Sea-Ports, ship'd themselves for _Ireland_, and arrived there in Safety.
Six or seven wisely withdrew from the rest, travelled at their leasure, and
got to their much desired Port of _London_, without being disturbed or
suspected; but the main Gang alarm'd the Country where-ever they came,
drinking and roaring at such a Rate, that the People shut themselves up in
their Houses, in some Places, not daring to venture out among so many mad
Fellows: In other Villages, they treated the whole Town, squandering their
Money away, as if, like _Æsop_, they wanted to lighten their Burthens: This
expensive manner of Living procured two of their drunken Straglers to be
knocked on the Head, they being found murdered in the Road, and their Money
taken from them: All the rest, to the Number of seventeen as they drew nigh
to _Edinburgh_, were arrested and thrown into Goal, upon Suspicion, of they
knew not what; However, the Magistrates were not long at a Loss for proper
Accusations, for two of the Gang offering themselves for Evidences were
accepted of; and the others were brought to a speedy Tryal, whereof nine
were convicted and executed.

_Kennedy_ having spent all his Money, came over from _Ireland_, and kept a
common B--y-House on _Deptford_ Road, and now and then, 'twas thought, made
an Excursion abroad in the Way of his former Profession, till one of his
Houshold W--s gave Information against him for a Robbery, for which he was
committed to _Bridewell_; but because she would not do the Business by
halves, she found out a Mate of a Ship that _Kennedy_ had committed Pyracy
upon, as he foolishly confess'd to her. This Mate, whose Name was _Grant_,
paid _Kennedy_ a Visit in _Bridewell_, and knowing him to be the Man,
procured a Warrant, and had him committed to the _Marshalsea_ Prison.

The Game that _Kennedy_ had now to play was to turn Evidence himself;
accordingly he gave a List of eight or ten of his Comrades; but not being
acquainted with their Habitations, one only was taken, who, tho' condemn'd,
appeared to be a Man of a fair Character, was forc'd into their Service,
and took the first Opportunity to get from them, and therefore receiv'd a
Pardon; but _Walter Kennedy_ being a notorious Offender, was executed the
19th of _July_, 1721, at _Execution Dock_.

The rest of the Pyrates who were left in the Ship _Rover_, staid not long
behind, for they went ashore to one of the _West-India_ Islands; what
became of them afterwards, I can't tell, but the Ship was found at Sea by a
Sloop belonging to St. _Christophers_, and carried into that Island with
only nine Negroes aboard.

Thus we see what a disastrous Fate ever attends the Wicked, and how rarely
they escape the Punishment due to their Crimes, who, abandon'd to such a
profligate Life, rob, spoil, and prey upon Mankind, contrary to the Light
and Law of Nature, as well as the Law of God. It might have been hoped,
that the Examples of these Deaths, would have been as Marks to the
Remainder of this Gang, how to shun the Rocks their Companions had split
on; that they would have surrendered to Mercy, or divided themselves, for
ever from such Pursuits, as in the End they might be sure would subject
them to the same Law and Punishment, which they must be conscious they now
equally deserved; _impending Law_, which never let them sleep well, unless
when drunk. But all the Use that was made of it here, was to commend the
Justice of the Court, that condemn'd _Kennedy, for he was a sad Dog_ (they
said) _and deserved the Fate he met with_.

But to go back to _Roberts_, whom we left on the Coast of _Caiana_, in a
grievous Passion at what _Kennedy_ and the Crew had done; and who was now
projecting new Adventures with his small Company in the Sloop; but finding
hitherto they had been but as a Rope of Sand, they formed a Set of
Articles, to be signed and sworn to, for the better Conservation of their
Society, and doing Justice to one another; excluding all _Irish_ Men from
the Benefit of it, to whom they had an implacable Aversion upon the Account
of _Kennedy_. How indeed _Roberts_ could think that an Oath would be
obligatory, where Defiance had been given to the Laws of God and Man, I
can't tell, but he thought their greatest Security lay in this, _That it
was every one's Interest to observe them if they were minded to keep up so
abominable a Combination_.

The following, is the Substance of the Articles, as taken from the
Pyrates own Informations.


E_Very Man has a Vote in Affairs of Moment; has equal Title to the
fresh Provisions, or strong Liquors, at any Time seized, and use them at
pleasure, unless a Scarcity_ (no uncommon Thing among them) _make it
necessary, for the good of all, to vote a Retrenchment_.


_Every Man to be called fairly in turn, by List, on Board of Prizes,
because, (over and above their proper Share_,) _they were on these
Occasions allowed a Shift of Cloaths: But if they defrauded the Company to
the Value of a Dollar, in Plate, Jewels, or Money_, MAROONING _was their
Punishment_. This was a Barbarous Custom of putting the Offender on Shore,
on some desolate or uninhabited Cape or Island, with a Gun, a few Shot, a
Bottle of Water, and a Bottle of Powder, to subsist with, or starve. _If
the Robbery was only between one another, they contented themselves with
slitting the Ears and Nose of him that was Guilty, and set him on Shore,
not in an uninhabited Place, but somewhere, where he was sure to encounter


_No Person to Game at Cards or Dice for Money_.


_The Lights and Candles to be put out at eight o'Clock at Night: If any of
the Crew, after that Hour, still remained inclined for Drinking, they were
to do it on the open Deck_; which _Roberts_ believed would give a Check to
their Debauches, for he was a sober Man himself, but found at length, that
all his Endeavours to put an End to this Debauch, proved ineffectual.


_To keep their Piece, Pistols, and Cutlash clean, and fit for Service_: In
this they were extravagantly nice, endeavouring to outdo one another, in
the Beauty and Richness of their Arms, giving sometimes at an Auction (at
the Mast,) 30 or 40 _l._ a Pair, for Pistols. These were slung in Time of
Service, with different coloured Ribbands, over their Shoulders, in a Way
peculiar to these Fellows, in which they took great Delight.


_No Boy or Woman to be allowed amongst them. If any Man were sound seducing
anny of the latter Sex, and carried her to Sea, disguised, he was to suffer
Death_; so that when any fell into their Hands, as it chanced in the
_Onslow_, they put a Centinel immediately over her to prevent ill
Consequences from so dangerous an Instrument of Division and Quarrel; but
then here lies the Roguery; they contend who shall be Centinel, which
happens generally to one of the greatest Bullies, who, to secure the Lady's
Virtue, will let none lye with her but himself.


_To Desert the Ship, or their Quarters in Battle, was punished with Death,
or Marooning._


_No striking one another on Board, but every Man's Quarrels to be ended on
Shore, at Sword and Pistol, Thus_; The Quarter-Master of the Ship, when the
Parties will not come to any Reconciliation, accompanies them on Shore with
what Assistance he thinks proper, and turns the Disputants Back to Back, at
so many Paces Distance: At the Word of Command, they turn and fire
immediately, (or else the Piece is knocked out of their Hands:) If both
miss, they come to their Cutlashes, and then he is declared Victor who
draws the first Blood.


_No Man to talk of breaking up their Way of Living, till each had shared a_
1000 _l. If in order to this, any Man should lose a Limb, or become a
Cripple in their Service, he was to have_ 800 _Dollars, out of the publick
Stock, and for lesser Hurts, proportionably._


_The Captain and Quarter-Master to receive two Shares of a Prize; the
Master, Boatswain, and Gunner, one Share and a half, and other Officers,
one and a Quarter._


_The Musicians to have Rest on the Sabbath Day, but the other six Days and
Nights, none without special Favour._

These, we are assured, were some of _Roberts_'s Articles, but as they had
taken Care to throw over-board the Original they had sign'd and sworn to,
there is a great deal of Room to suspect, the remainder contained something
too horrid to be disclosed to any, except such as were willing to be
Sharers in the Iniquity of them; let them be what they will, they were
together the Test of all new Comers, who were initiated by an Oath taken on
a Bible, reserv'd for that Purpose only, and were subscrib'd to in Presence
of the worshipful Mr. _Roberts._ And in Case any Doubt should arise
concerning the Construction of these Laws, and it should remain a Dispute
whether the Party had infring'd them or no, a Jury is appointed to explain
them, and bring in a Verdict upon the Case in Doubt.

Since we are now speaking of the Laws of this Company, I shall go on, and,
in as brief a Manner as I can, relate the principal Customs, and
Government, of this roguish Common-Wealth; which are pretty near the same
with all Pyrates.

For the Punishment of small Offences, which are not provided for by the
Articles, and which are not of Consequence enough to be left to a Jury,
there is a principal Officer among the Pyrates, called the Quarter-Master,
of the Mens own chusing, who claims all Authority this Way, (excepting in
Time of Battle:) If they disobey his Command, are quarrelsome and mutinous
with one another, misuse Prisoners, plunder beyond his Order, and in
particular, if they be negligent of their Arms, which he musters at
Discretion, he punishes at his own Arbitrement, with drubbing or whipping,
which no one else dare do without incurring the Lash from all the Ships
Company: In short, this Officer is Trustee for the whole, is the first on
Board any Prize, separating for the Company's Use, what he pleases, and
returning what he thinks fit to the Owners, excepting Gold and Silver,
which they have voted not returnable.

After a Description of the Quarter-Master, and his Duty, who acts as a sort
of a civil Magistrate on Board a Pyrate Ship; I shall consider their
military Officer, the Captain; what Privileges he exerts in such anarchy
and unrulyness of the Members: Why truly very little, they only permit him
to be Captain, on Condition, that they may be Captain over him; they
separate to his Use the great Cabin, and sometimes vote him small Parcels
of Plate and China, (for it may be noted that _Roberts_ drank his Tea
constantly) but then every Man, as the Humour takes him, will use the Plate
and China, intrude into his Apartment, swear at him, seize a Part of his
Victuals and Drink, if they like it, without his offering to find Fault or
contest it: Yet _Roberts_, by a better Management than usual, became the
chief Director in every Thing of Moment, and it happened thus:--The Rank of
Captain being obtained by the Suffrage of the Majority, it falls on one
superior for Knowledge and Boldness, _Pistol Proof_ (as they call it,) and
can make those fear, who do not love him; _Roberts_ is said to have
exceeded his Fellows in these Respects, and when advanced, enlarged the
Respect that followed it, by making a sort of Privy-Council of half a Dozen
of the greatest Bullies; such as were his Competitors, and had Interest
enough to make his Government easy; yet even those, in the latter Part of
his Reign, he had run counter to in every Project that opposed his own
Opinion; for which, and because he grew reserved, and would not drink and
roar at their Rate, a Cabal was formed to take away his Captainship, which
Death did more effectually.

The Captain's Power is uncontroulable in Chace, or in Battle, drubbing,
cutting, or even shooting any one who dares deny his Command. The same
Privilege he takes over Prisoners, who receive good or ill Usage, mostly as
he approves of their Behaviour, for tho' the meanest would take upon them
to misuse a Master of a Ship, yet he would controul herein, when he see it,
and merrily over a Bottle, give his Prisoners this double Reason for it.
First, That it preserved his Precedence; and secondly, That it took the
Punishment out of the Hands of a much more rash and mad Sett of Fellows
than himself. When he found that Rigour was not expected from his People,
(for he often practised it to appease them,) then he would give Strangers
to understand, that it was pure Inclination that induced him to a good
Treatment of them, and not any Love or Partiality to their Persons; for,
says he, _there is none of you but will hang me, I know, whenever you can
clinch me within your Power._

                                * * *

And now seeing the Disadvantages they were under for pursuing the Account,
_viz._ a small Vessel ill repaired, and without Provisions, or Stores; they
resolved one and all, with the little Supplies they could get, to proceed
for the _West-Indies_, not doubting to find a Remedy for all these Evils,
and to retreive their Loss.

In the Latitude of _Deseada_, one of the Islands, they took two Sloops,
which supply'd them with Provisions and other Necessaries; and a few Days
afterwards, took a Brigantine belonging to _Rhode Island_, and then
proceeded to _Barbadoes_, off of which Island, they fell in with a
_Bristol_ Ship of 10 Guns, in her Voyage out, from whom they took abundance
of Cloaths, some Money, twenty five Bales of Goods, five Barrels of Powder,
a Cable, Hawser, 10 Casks of Oatmeal, six Casks of Beef, and several other
Goods, besides five of their Men; and after they had detained her three
Days, let her go; who being bound for the abovesaid Island, she acquainted
the Governor with what had happened, as soon as she arrived.

Whereupon a _Bristol_ Galley that lay in the Harbour, was ordered to be
fitted out with all imaginable Expedition, of 20 Guns, and 80 Men, there
being then no Man of War upon that Station, and also a Sloop with 10 Guns,
and 40 Men: The Galley was commanded by one Captain _Rogers_, of _Bristol_,
and the Sloop by Captain _Graves_, of that Island, and Captain _Rogers_ by
a Commission from the Governor, was appointed Commadore.

The second Day after _Rogers_ sailed out of the Harbour, he was discovered
by _Roberts_, who knowing nothing of their Design, gave them Chase: The
_Barbadoes_ Ships kept an easy sail till the Pyrates came up with them, and
then _Roberts_ gave them a Gun, expecting they would have immediately
struck to his pyratical Flag, but instead thereof, he was forced to receive
the Fire of a Broadside, with three Huzzas at the same Time; so that an
Engagement ensued, but _Roberts_ being hardly put to it, was obliged to
crowd all the Sail the Sloop would bear, to get off: The Galley sailing
pretty well, kept Company for a long while, keeping a constant Fire, which
gail'd the Pyrate; however, at length by throwing over their Guns, and
other heavy Goods, and thereby light'ning the Vessel, they, with much ado,
got clear; but _Roberts_ could never endure a _Barbadoes_ Man afterwards,
and when any Ships belonging to that Island fell in his Way, he was more
particularly severe to them than others.

Captain _Roberts_ sailed in the Sloop to the Island of _Dominico_, where he
watered, and got Provisions of the Inhabitants, to whom he gave Goods in
Exchange. At this Place he met with 13 _Englishmen_, who had been set
ashore by a _French Guard de la Coste_, belonging to _Martinico_, taken out
of two _New-England_ Ships, that had been seiz'd, as Prize, by the said
_French_ Sloop: The Men willingly entered with the Pyrates, and it proved a
seasonable Recruit.

They staid not long here, tho' they had immediate Occasion for cleaning
their Sloop, but did not think this a proper Place, and herein they judg'd
right; for the touching at this Island, had like to have been their
Destruction, because they having resolved to go away to the _Granada_
Islands, for the aforesaid Purpose, by some Accident it came to be known to
the _French_ Colony, who sending Word to the Governor of _Martinico_, he
equipped and manned two Sloops to go in Quest of them. The Pyrates sailed
directly for the _Granadilloes_, and hall'd into a Lagoon, at _Corvocoo_,
where they cleaned with unusual Dispatch, staying but a little above a
Week, by which Expedition they missed of the _Martinico_ Sloops, only a few
Hours; _Roberts_ sailing over Night, that the _French_ arrived the next
Morning. This was a fortunate Escape, especially considering, that it was
not from any Fears of their being discovered, that they made so much hast
from the Island; but, as they had the Impudence themselves to own, for the
want of Wine and Women.

Thus narrowly escaped, they sailed for _Newfoundland_, and arrived upon the
Banks the latter end of _June_, 1720. They entered the Harbour of
_Trepassi_, with their black Colours flying, Drums beating, and Trumpets
sounding. There were two and twenty Vessels in the Harbour, which the Men
all quitted upon the Sight of the Pyrate, and fled ashore. It is impossible
particularly to recount the Destruction and Havock they made here, burning
and sinking all the shipping, except a _Bristol_ Galley, and destroying the
Fisheries, and Stages of the poor Planters, without Remorse or Compunction;
for nothing is so deplorable as Power in mean and ignorant Hands, it makes
Men wanton and giddy, unconcerned at the Misfortunes they are imposing on
their Fellow Creatures, and keeps them smiling at the Mischiefs, that bring
themselves no Advantage. _They are like mad Men, that cast Fire-Brands,
Arrows, and Death, and say, are not we in Sport?_

_Roberts_ mann'd the _Bristol_ Galley he took in the Harbour, and mounted
16 Guns on Board her, and cruising out upon the Banks, he met with nine or
ten Sail of _French_ Ships, all which he destroyed except one of 26 Guns,
which they seiz'd, and carried off for their own Use. This Ship they
christ'ned _the Fortune_, and leaving the _Bristol_ Galley to the _French_
Men, they sailed away in Company with the Sloop, on another Cruise, and
took several Prizes, _viz._ the _Richard_ of _Biddiford, Jonathan
Whitfield_ Master; the _Willing Mind_ of _Pool_; the _Expectation_ of
_Topsham_; and the _Samuel_, Captain _Cary_, of _London_; out of these
Ships they encreased their Company, by entring all the Men they could well
spare, in their own Service. The _Samuel_ was a rich Ship, and had several
Passengers on Board, who were used very roughly, in order to make them
discover their Money, threatning them every Moment with Death, if they did
not resign every Thing up to them. They tore up the Hatches and entered the
Hold like a parcel of Furies, and with Axes and Cutlashes, cut and broke
open all the Bales, Cases, and Boxes, they could lay their Hands on; and
when any Goods came upon Deck, that they did not like to carry aboard,
instead of tossing them into the Hold again, threw them over-board into the
Sea; all this was done with incessant cursing and swearing, more like
Fiends than Men. They carried with them, Sails, Guns, Powder, Cordage, and
8 or 9000 l. worth of the choicest Goods; and told Captain _Cary, That they
should accept of no Act of Grace; that the K-- and P--t might be damned
with their Acts of G-- for them; neither would they go to_ Hope-Point, _to
be hang'd up a Sun drying, as_ Kidd_'s, and_ Braddish_'s Company were; but
that if they should ever be overpower'd, they would set Fire to the Powder,
with a Pistol, and go all merrily to Hell together._

After they had brought all the Booty aboard, a Consultation was held
whether they should sink or burn the Ship, but whilst they were debating
the Matter, they spyed a Sail, and so left the _Samuel_, to give her Chace;
at Midnight they came up with the same, which proved to be a Snow from
_Bristol_, bound for _Boston_, Captain _Bowles_ Master: They us'd him
barbarously, because of his Country, Captain _Rogers_, who attack'd them
off _Barbadoes_, being of the City of _Bristol._

_July_ the 16th, which was two Days afterwards, they took a _Virginia_ Man
called the _Little York, James Philips_ Master, and the _Love_, of
_Leverpool_, which they plundered and let go; the next Day a Snow from
_Bristol_, call'd the _Phoenix, John Richards_ Master, met with the same
Fate from them; as also a Brigantine, Captain _Thomas_, and a Sloop called
the _Sadbury_; they took all the Men out of the Brigantine, and sunk the

When they left the Banks of _Newfoundland_, they sailed for the
_West-Indies_, and the Provisions growing short, they went for the Latitude
of the Island _Deseada_, to cruise, it being esteemed the likeliest Place
to meet with such Ships as (they used in their Mirth to say) were consigned
to them, with Supplies. And it has been very much suspected that Ships have
loaded with Provisions at the _English_ Colonies, on pretence of Trading on
the Coast of _Africa_, when they have in reality been consigned to them;
and tho' a shew of Violence is offered to them when they meet, yet they are
pretty sure of bringing their Cargo to a good Market.

However, at this Time they missed with their usual Luck, and Provisions and
Necessaries becoming more scarce every Day, they retired towards St.
_Christophers_, where being deny'd all Succour or Assistance from the
Government, they fir'd in Revenge on the Town, and burnt two Ships in the
Road, one of them commanded by Captain _Cox_, of _Bristol_; and then
retreated farther to the Island of St. _Bartholomew_, where they met with
much handsomer Treatment. The Governor not only supplying them with
Refreshments, but he and the Chiefs carressing them in the most friendly
Manner: And the Women, from so good an Example, endeavoured to outvie each
other in Dress, and Behaviour, to attract the good Graces of such generous
Lovers, that paid well for their Favours.

Sated at length with these Pleasures, and having taken on Board a good
supply of fresh Provisions, they voted unanimously for the Coast of
_Guiney_, and in the Latitude of 22 N. in their Voyage thither, met with a
_French_ Ship from _Martinico_, richly laden, and, which was unlucky for
the Master, had a property of being fitter for their Purpose, than the
Banker. _Exchange was no Robbery_ they said, and so after a little mock
Complaisance to _Monsieur_, for the Favour he had done them, they shifted
their Men, and took leave: This was their first _Royal Fortune._

In this Ship _Roberts_ proceeded on his designed Voyage; but before they
reached _Guiney_, he proposed to touch at _Brava_, the Southermost of
_Cape_ _Verd_ Islands and clean. But here again by an intolerable Stupidity
and want of Judgment, they got so far to Leeward of their Port, that
despairing to regain it, or any of the Windward Parts of _Africa_, they
were obliged to go back again with the Trade-Wind, for the _West-Indies_;
which had very near been the Destruction of them all. _Surinam_ was the
Place now designed for, which was at no less than 700 Leagues Distance, and
they had but one Hogshead of Water left to supply 124 Souls for that
Passage; a sad Circumstance that eminently exposes the Folly and Madness
among Pyrates, and he must be an inconsiderate Wretch indeed, who, if he
could separate the Wickedness and Punishment from the Fact, would yet
hazard his Life amidst such Dangers, as their want of Skill and Forecast
made them liable to.

Their Sins, we may presume were never so troublesome to their Memories, as
now, that inevitable Destruction seem'd to threaten them, without the least
Glympse of Comfort or Alleviation to their Misery; for, with what Face
could Wretches who had ravaged and made so many Necessitous, look up for
Relief; they had to that Moment lived in Defiance of the Power that now
alone they must trust for their Preservation, and indeed without the
miraculous Intervention of Providence, there appeared only this miserable
Choice, viz. a present Death by their own Hands, or a ling'ring one by

They continued their Course, and came to an Allowance of one single
Mouthful of Water for 24 Hours; many of them drank their Urine, or Sea
Water, which, instead of allaying, gave them an inextinguishable Thirst,
that killed them: Others pined and wasted a little more Time in Fluxes and
Apyrexies, so that they dropped away daily. Those that sustain'd the Misery
best, were such as almost starved themselves, forbearing all sorts of Food,
unless a Mouthful or two of Bread the whole Day, so that those who survived
were as weak as it was possible for Men to be and alive.

But if the dismal Prospect they set out with, gave them Anxiety, Trouble,
or Pain, what must their Fears and Apprehensions be, when they had not one
Drop of Water left, or any other Liquor to moisten or animate. This was
their Case, when (by the working of Divine Providence, no doubt,) they were
brought into Soundings, and at Night anchored in seven Fathom Water: This
was an inexpressible Joy to them, and, as it were, fed the expiring Lamp of
Life with fresh Spirits; but this could not hold long. When the Morning
came, they saw Land from the Mast-Head, but it was at so great a Distance,
that it afforded but an indifferent Prospect to Men who had drank nothing
for the two last Days; however, they dispatch'd their Boat away, and late
the same Night it return'd, to their no small Comfort, with a load of
Water, informing them, that they had got off the Mouth of _Meriwinga_ River
on the Coast of _Surinam._

One would have thought so miraculous an Escape should have wrought some
Reformation, but alass, they had no sooner quenched their Thirst, but they
had forgot the Miracle, till Scarcity of Provisions awakened their Senses,
and bid them guard against starving; their allowance was very small, and
yet they would profanely say, _That Providence which had gave them Drink,
would, no doubt, bring them Meat also, if they would use but an honest

In pursuance of these honest Endeavours, they were steering for the
Latitude of _Barbadoes_, with what little they had left, to look out for
more, or Starve; and, in their Way, met a Ship that answered their
Necessities, and after that a Brigantine; the former was called the
_Greyhound_, belonging to St. _Christophers_, and bound to _Philadelphia_,
the Mate of which signed the Pyrate's Articles, and was afterwards Captain
of the _Ranger_, Consort to the _Royal Fortune._

Out of the Ship and Brigantine, the Pyrates got a good supply of Provisions
and Liquor, so that they gave over the designed Cruise, and watered at
_Tobago_, and hearing of the two Sloops that had been fitted out and sent
after them at _Corvocoo_, they sailed to the Island of _Martinico_, to make
the Governor some sort of an Equivalent, for the Care and Expedition he had
shewn in that Affair.

It is the Custom at _Martinico_, for the _Dutch_ Interlopers that have a
Mind to Trade with the People of the Island, to hoist their Jacks when they
come before the Town: _Roberts_ knew the Signal, and being an utter Enemy
to them, he bent his Thoughts upon Mischief; and accordingly came in with
his Jack flying, which, as he expected, they mistook for a good Market, and
thought themselves happiest that could soonest dispatch off their Sloops
and Vessels for Trade. When _Roberts_ had got them within his Power, (one
after another,) he told them, he would not have it said that they came off
for nothing, and therefore ordered them to leave their Money behind, for
that they were a Parcel of Rogues, and hoped they would always meet with
such a _Dutch_ Trade as this was; he reserved one Vessel to set the
Passengers on Shore again, and fired the rest, to the Number of twenty.

_Roberts_ was so enraged at the Attempts that had been made for taking of
him, by the Governors of _Barbados_ and _Martinico_, that he ordered a new
Jack to be made, which they ever after hoisted, with his own Figure
pourtray'd, standing upon two Skulls, and under them the Letters _A B H_
and _A M H_, signifying a _Barbadian_'s and a _Martinican_'s Head, as may
be seen in the Plate of Captain _Roberts._

At _Dominico_, the next Island they touched at, they took a _Dutch_
Interloper of 22 Guns and 75 Men, and a Brigantine belonging to
_Rhode-Island_, one _Norton_ Master. The former made some Defence, till
some of his Men being killed, the rest were discouraged and struck their
Colours. With these two Prizes they went down to _Guadalupe_, and brought
out a Sloop, and a _French_ Fly-Boat laden with Sugar; the Sloop they
burnt, and went on to _Moonay_, another Island, thinking to clean, but
finding the Sea ran too high there to undertake it with Safety, they bent
their Course for the North Part of _Hispaniola_, where, at Bennet's Key, in
the Gulf of _Saminah_, they cleaned both the Ship and the Brigantine. For
tho' _Hispaniola_ be settled by the _Spaniards_ and _French_, and is the
Residence of a President from _Spain_, who receives, and finally determines
Appeals from all the other _Spanish West-India_ Islands; yet is its People
by no Means proportioned to its Magnitude, so that there are many Harbours
in it, to which Pyrates may securely resort without Fear of Discovery from
the Inhabitants.

Whilst they were here, two Sloops came in, as they pretended, to pay
_Roberts_ a Visit, the Masters, whose Names were _Porter_ and _Tuckerman_,
addressed the Pyrate, as the Queen of _Sheba_ did _Solomon_, to wit, _That
having heard of his Fame and Atchievements_, they had put in there to learn
his Art and Wisdom in the Business of pyrating, being Vessels on the same
honourable Design with himself; and hoped with the Communication of his
Knowledge, they should also receive his Charity, being in want of
Necessaries for such Adventures. _Roberts_ was won upon by the Peculiarity
and Bluntness of these two Men, and gave them Powder, Arms, and what ever
else they had Occasion for, spent two or three merry Nights with them, and
at parting, said, _he hoped the L-- would Prosper their handy Works._

They passed some Time here, after they had got their Vessel ready, in their
usual Debaucheries; they had taken a considerable Quanty of Rum and Sugar,
so that Liquor was as plenty as Water, and few there were, who denied
themselves the immoderate Use of it; nay, Sobriety brought a Man under a
Suspicion of being in a Plot against the Commonwealth, and in their Sense,
he was looked upon to be a Villain that would not be drunk. This was
evident in the Affair of _Harry Glasby_, chosen Master of the _Royal
Fortune_, who, with two others, laid hold of the Opportunity at the last
Island they were at, to move off without bidding Farewel to his Friends.
_Glasby_ was a reserved sober Man, and therefore gave Occasion to be
suspected, so that he was soon missed after he went away; and a Detachment
being sent in quest of the Deserters, they were all three brought back
again the next Day. This was a capital Offence, and for which they were
ordered to be brought to an immediate Tryal.

Here was the Form of Justice kept up, which is as much as can be said of
several other Courts, that have more lawful Commissions for what they
do.--Here was no feeing of Council, and bribing of Witnesses was a Custom
not known among them; no packing of Juries, no torturing and wresting the
Sense of the Law, for bye Ends and Purposes, no puzzling or perplexing the
Cause with unintelligible canting Terms, and useless Distinctions; nor was
their Sessions burthened with numberless Officers, the Ministers of Rapine
and Extortion, with ill boding Aspects, enough to fright _Astræa_ from the
Court. The Place appointed for their Tryals, was the Steerage of the Ship;
in order to which, a large Bowl of Rum Punch was made, and placed upon the
Table, the Pipes and Tobacco being ready, the judicial Proceedings began;
the Prisoners were brought forth, and Articles of Indictment against them
read; they were arraigned upon a Statute of their own making, and the
Letter of the Law being strong against them, and the Fact plainly proved,
they were about to pronounce Sentence, when one of the Judges mov'd, that
they should first Smoak t'other Pipe; which was accordingly done.

All the Prisoners pleaded for Arrest of Judgment very movingly, but the
Court had such an Abhorrence of their Crime, that they could not be
prevailed upon to shew Mercy, till one of the Judges, whose Name was
_Valentine Ashplant_, stood up, and taking his Pipe out of his Mouth, said,
he had something to offer to the Court in behalf of one of the Prisoners;
and spoke to this Effect.-- _By G--_, Glasby _shall not dye; d--n me if he
shall._ After this learned Speech, he sat down in his Place, and resumed
his Pipe. This Motion was loudly opposed by all the rest of the Judges, in
equivalent Terms; but _Ashplant_, who was resolute in his Opinion, made
another pathetical Speech in the following Manner. _G-- d--n ye Gentlemen,
I am as good a Man as the best of you; d--m my_ S--l _if ever I turned my
Back to any Man in my Life, or ever will, by G_--; Glasby _is an honest
Fellow, notwithstanding this Misfortune, and I love him, D--l d--n me if I
don't: I hope he'll live and repent of what he has done; but d--n me if he
must dye, I will dye along with him._ And thereupon, he pulled out a pair
of Pistols, and presented them to some of the learned Judges upon the
Bench; who, perceiving his Argument so well supported, thought it
reasonable that _Glasby_ should be acquitted; and so they all came over to
his Opinion, and allowed it to be Law.

But all the Mitigation that could be obtained for the other Prisoners, was,
that they should have the Liberty of choosing any four of the whole Company
to be their Executioners. The poor Wretches were ty'd immediately to the
Mast, and there shot dead, pursuant to their villainous Sentence.

When they put to Sea again, the Prizes which had been detained only for
fear of spreading any Rumour concerning them, which had like to have been
so fatal at _Corvocoo_, were thus disposed of: They burnt their own Sloop,
and mann'd _Norton_'s Brigantine, sending the Master away in the _Dutch_
Interloper, not dissatisfied.

With the _Royal Fortune_, and the Brigantine, which they christened the
_Good Fortune_, they pushed towards the Latitude of _Deseada_, to look out
for Provisions, being very short again, and just to their Wish, Captain
_Hingstone_'s ill Fortune brought him in their Way, richly laden for
_Jamaica_; him they carried to _Berbudas_ and plundered; and stretching
back again to the _West-Indies_, they continually met with some Consignment
or other, (chiefly _French,)_ which stored them with Plenty of Provisions,
and recruited their starving Condition; so that stocked with this sort of
Ammunition, they began to think of something worthier their Aim, for these
Robberies that only supplied what was in constant Expenditure, by no Means
answered their Intentions; and accordingly they proceeded again for the
Coast of _Guiney_, where they thought to buy Gold-Dust very cheap. In their
Passage thither, they took Numbers of Ships of all Nations, some of which
they burnt or sunk, as the Carriage or Characters of the Masters displeased

Notwithstanding the successful Adventures of this Crew, yet it was with
great Difficulty they could be kept together, under any kind of Regulation;
for being almost always mad or drunk, their Behaviour produced infinite
Disorders, every Man being in his own Imagination a Captain, a Prince, or a
King. When _Roberts_ saw there was no managing of such a Company of wild
ungovernable Brutes, by gentle means, nor to keep them from drinking to
excess, the Cause of all their Disturbances, he put on a rougher
Deportment, and a more magesterial Carriage towards them, correcting whom
he thought fit; and if any seemed to resent his Usage, he told them, _they
might go ashore and take Satisfaction of him, if they thought fit, at Sword
and Pistol, for he neither valu'd or fear'd any of them._

About 400 Leagues from the Coast of _Africa_, the Brigantine who had
hitherto lived with them, in all amicable Correspondence, thought fit to
take the Opportunity of a dark Night, and leave the Commadore, which leads
me back to the Relation of an Accident that happened at one of the Islands
of the _West-Indies_, where they water'd before they undertook this Voyage,
which had like to have thrown their Government (such as it was) off the
Hinges, and was partly the Occasion of the Separation: The Story is as

Captain _Roberts_ having been insulted by one of the drunken Crew, (whose
Name I have forgot,) he, in the Heat of his Passion killed the Fellow on
the Spot, which was resented by a great many others, put particularly one
_Jones_, a brisk active young Man, who died lately in the _Marshalsea_, and
was his Mess-Mate. This _Jones_ was at that Time ashore a watering the
Ship, but as soon as he came on Board, was told that Captain _Roberts_ had
killed his Comrade; upon which he cursed _Roberts_, and said, he ought to
be served so himself. _Roberts_ hearing _Jones_'s Invective, ran to him
with a Sword, and ran him into the Body; who, notwithstanding his Wound,
seized the Captain, threw him over a Gun, and beat him handsomely. This
Adventure put the whole Company in an Uproar, and some taking Part with the
Captain, and others against him, there had like to have ensued a general
Battle with one another, like my Lord _Thomont_'s Cocks; however, the
Tumult was at length appeas'd by the Mediation of the Quarter-Master; and
as the Majority of the Company were of Opinion that the Dignity of the
Captain, ought to be supported on Board; that it was a Post of Honour, and
therefore the Person whom they thought fit to confer it on, should not be
violated by any single Member; wherefore they sentenced _Jones_ to undergo
two Lashes from every one of the Company, for his Misdemeanour, which was
executed upon him as soon as he was well of his Wound.

This severe Punishment did not at all convince _Jones_ that he was in the
wrong, but rather animated him to some sort of a Revenge; but not being
able to do it upon _Roberts_'s Person, on Board the Ship, he and several of
his Comrades, correspond with _Anstis_, Captain of the Brigantine, and
conspire with him and some of the principal Pyrates on Board that Vessel,
to go off from the Company. What made _Anstis_ a Malecontent, was, the
Inferiority he stood in, with Respect to _Roberts_, who carried himself
with a haughty and magisterial Air, to him and his Crew, he regarding the
Brigantine only as a Tender, and, as such, left them no more than the
Refuse of their Plunder. In short, _Jones_ and his Consort go on Board of
Captain _Anstis_, on Pretence of a Visit, and there consulting with their
Brethren, they find a Majority for leaving of _Roberts_, and so came to a
Resolution to bid a soft Farewel, as they call it, that Night, and to throw
over-board whosoever should stick out; but they proved to be unanimous, and
effected their Design as above-mentioned.

I shall have no more to say of Captain _Anstis_, till the Story of
_Roberts_ is concluded, therefore I return to him, in the pursuit of his
Voyage to _Guiney._ The loss of the Brigantine was a sensible Shock to the
Crew, she being an excellent Sailor, and had 70 Hands aboard; however,
_Roberts_ who was the Occasion of it, put on a Face of Unconcern at this
his ill Conduct and Mismanagement, and resolved not to alter his Purposes
upon that Account.

_Roberts_ fell in to Windward nigh the _Senegal_, a River of great Trade
for Gum, on this Part of the Coast, monopolized by the _French_, who
constantly keep Cruisers, to hinder the interloping Trade: At this Time
they had two small Ships on that Service, one of 10 Guns and 65 Men, and
the other of 16 Guns and 75 Men; who having got a Sight of Mr. _Roberts_,
and supposing him to be one of these prohibited Traders, chased with all
the Sail they could make, to come up with him; but their Hopes which had
brought them very nigh, too late deceived them, for on the hoisting of
_Jolly Roger_, (the Name they give their black Flag,) their _French_ Hearts
failed, and they both surrendred without any, or at least very little
Resistance. With these Prizes they went into _Sierraleon_, and made one of
them their Consort, by the Name of the _Ranger_, and the other a
Store-Ship, to clean by.

_Sierraleon_ River disgorges with a large Mouth, the Starboard-Side of
which, draughts into little Bays, safe and convenient for cleaning and
watering; what still made it preferable to the Pyrates, is, that the
Traders settled here, are naturally their Friends. There are about 30
_English_ Men in all, Men who in some Part of their Lives, have been either
privateering, buccaneering, or pyrating, and still retain and love the
Riots, and Humours, common to that sort of Life. They live very friendly
with the Natives, and have many of them of both Sexes, to be their
_Grometta_'s, or Servants: The Men are faithful, and the Women so obedient,
that they are very ready to prostitute themselves to whomsoever their
Masters shall command them. The Royal _African_ Company has a Fort on a
small Island call'd _Bence_ Island, but 'tis of little Use, besides keeping
their Slaves; the Distance making it incapable of giving any Molestation to
their Starboard Shore. Here lives at this Place an old Fellow, who goes by
the Name of _Crackers_, who was formerly a noted Buccaneer, and while he
followed the Calling, robb'd and plundered many a Man; he keeps the best
House in the Place, has two or three Guns before his Door, with which he
Salutes his Friends, (the Pyrates, when they put in) and lives a jovial
Life with him, all the while they are there.

Here follows a List, of the rest of those lawless Merchants, and their
Servants, who carry on a private Trade with the Interlopers, to the great
Prejudice of the Royal _African_ Company, who with extraordinary Industry
and Expence, have made, and maintain, Settlements without any Consideration
from those, who, without such Settlements and Forts, would soon be under an
Incapacity of pursuing any such private Trade. Wherefore, 'tis to be hop'd,
proper Means will be taken, to root out a pernicious set of People, who
have all their Lives, supported themselves by the Labours of other Men.

Two of these Fellows enter'd with _Robert_'s Crew, and continued with them,
till the Destruction of the Company.

_A List of the White-Men, now living on the high Land of_ Sierraleon,
_and the Craft they occupy._

J_OHN Leadstone_, three Boats and Periagoe.

His Man _Tom_,

His Man _John Brown._

_Alexander Middleton_, one Long-Boat,

His Man _Charles Hawkins._

_John Pierce_, Partners, one Long-Boat.

_William Mead_, Partners, one Long-Boat.

Their Man _John Vernon._

_David Chatmers_, one Long-Boat.

_John Chatmers_, one Long-Boat.

_Richard Richardson_, one Long-Boat.

_Norton_, Partners, two Long-Boats, and two small Boats.

_Richard Warren_, Partners, two Long-Boats, and two small Boats.

_Roberts Glynn_, Partners, two Long-Boats, and two small Boats.

His Man _John Franks._

_William Waits_, and one young Man.

_John Bonnerman._

_John England_, one Long-Boat.

_Robert Samples_, one Long-Boat.

_William Presgrove_, one Sloop, two Long-Boats, a small Boat, and Periagoe.

_Harry_, one Sloop, two Long-Boats, a small Boat, and Periagoe.

_Davis_, one Sloop, two Long-Boats, a small Boat, and Periagoe.

_Mitchel_, one Sloop, two Long-Boats, a small Boat, and Periagoe.

_Richard Lamb_,

With _Roquis Rodrigus_, a _Portuguese._

_George Bishop._

_Peter Brown._

_John Jones_, one Long-Boat,

His _Irish_ young Man.

At _Rio Pungo, Benjamen Gun._

At _Kidham, George Yeats._

At _Gallyneas, Richard Lemmons._

                                * * *

The Harbour is so convenient for Wooding and Watering, that it occasions
many of our trading Ships, especially those of _Bristol_, to call in there,
with large Cargoes of Beer, Syder, and strong Liquors, which they Exchange
with these private Traders, for Slaves and Teeth, purchased by them at the
_Rio Nune_'s, and other Places to the Northward, so that here was what they
call good Living.

Hither _Roberts_ came the End of _June_, 1721, and had Intelligence that
the _Swallow_, and _Weymouth_, two Men of War, of 50 Guns each, had left
that River about a Month before, and designed to return about _Christmas_;
so that the Pyrates could indulge themselves with all the Satisfaction in
the World, in that they knew they were not only secure whilst there, but
that in going down the Coast, after the Men of War, they should always be
able to get such Intelligence of their Rendezvous, as would serve to make
their Expedition safe. So after six Weeks stay, the Ships being cleaned and
fitted, and the Men weary of whoring and drinking, they bethought
themselves of Business, and went to Sea the Beginning of _August_, taking
their Progress down the whole Coast, as low as _Jaquin_, plundering every
Ship they met, of what was valuable in her, and sometimes to be more
mischieviously wicked, would throw what they did not want, overboard,
accumulating Cruelty to Theft.

In this Range, they exchanged their old _French_ Ship, for a fine Frigate
built Ship, call'd the _Onslow_, belonging to the Royal _African_ Company,
Captain _Gee_ Commander, which happened to lye at _Sestos_, to get Water
and Necessaries for the Company. A great many of Captain _Gee_'s Men were
ashore, when _Robert_'s bore down, and so the Ship consequently surpriz'd
into his Hands, tho' had they been all on Board, it was not likely the Case
would have been otherwise, the Sailors, most of them, voluntarily joyning
the Pyrates, and encouraging the same Disposition in the Soldiers, (who
were going Passengers with them to _Cape-Corso-Castle_) whose Ears being
constantly tickled with the Feats and Gallantry of those Fellows, made them
fancy, that _to go_, was only being bound on a Voyage of Knight Errantry
(to relieve the Distress'd, and gather up Fame) and so they likewise
offer'd themselves; but here the Pyrates were at a Stand, they entertain'd
so contemptible a Notion of Landmen, that they put 'em off with Refusals
for some time, till at length, being weary'd with Solicitations, and
pittying a Parcel of stout Fellows, which they said, were going to starve
upon a little Canky and Plantane, they accepted of them, and allow'd them ¼
Share, as it was then term'd out of Charity.

There was a Clergyman on Board the _Onslow_, sent from _England_, to be
Chaplain of _Cape-Corso-Castle_, some of the Pyrates were for keeping him,
alledging merrily, that their Ship wanted a Chaplain; accordingly they
offered him a Share, to take on with them, promising, he should do nothing
for his Money, but make Punch, and say Prayers; yet, however brutish they
might be in other Things, they bore so great a Respect to his Order, that
they resolved not to force him against his Inclinations; and the Parson
having no Relish for this sort of Life, excused himself from accepting the
Honour they designed him; they were satisfied, and generous enough to
deliver him back every Thing he owned to be his: The Parson laid hold of
this favourable Disposition of the Pyrates, and laid Claim to several
Things belonging to others, which were also given up, to his great
Satisfaction; in fine, they kept nothing which belonged to the Church,
except three Prayer-Books, and a Bottle-Screw.

The Pyrates kept the _Onslow_ for their own Use, and gave Captain _Gee_ the
_French_ Ship, and then fell to making such Alterations as might fit her
for a Sea-Rover, pulling down her Bulk-Heads, and making her flush, so that
she became, in all Respects, as compleat a Ship for their Purpose, as any
they could have found; they continued to her the Name of the _Royal
Fortune_, and mounted her with 40 Guns.

She and the _Ranger_ proceeded (as I said before,) to _Jaquin_, and from
thence to _Old Calabar_, where they arrived about _October_, in order to
clean their Ships, a Place the most suitable along the whole Coast, for
there is a Bar with not above 15 Foot Water upon it, and the Channel
intricate, so that had the Men of War been sure of their being harbour'd
here, they might still have bid Defiance to their Strength, for the Depth
of Water at the Bar, as well as the want of a Pilot, was a sufficient
Security to the Rovers, and invincible Impediments to them. Here therefore
they sat easy, and divided the Fruits of their dishonest Instustry, _and
drank and drove Care away._ The Pilot who brought them into this Harbour,
was Captain _L--e_, who for this, and other Services, was extreamly well
paid, according to the Journal of their own Accounts, which do not run in
the ordinary and common way, of _Debtor, contra Creditor_, but much more
concise, lumping it to their Friends, and so carrying the Debt in their
Heads, against the next honest Trader they meet. They took at _Calabar_,
Captain _Loane_, and two or three _Bristol_ Ships, the Particulars of all
which would be an unnecessary Prolixity, therefore I come now to give an
Account of the Usage they received from the Natives of this Place. The
_Calabar_ Negroes did not prove so civil as they expected, for they refused
to have any Commerce or Trade with them, when they understood they were
Pyrates: An Indication that these poor Creatures, in the narrow
Circumstances they were in, and without the Light of the Gospel, or the
Advantage of an Education, have, notwithstanding, such a moral innate
Honesty, as would upbraid and shame the most knowing Christian: But this
did but exasperate these lawless Fellows, and so a Party of 40 Men were
detach'd to force a Correspondence, or drive the Negroes to Extremities;
and they accordingly landed under the Fire of their own Cannon. The Negroes
drew up in a Body of 2000 Men, as if they intended to dispute the Matter
with them, and staid till the Pyrates advanced within Pistol-shot; but
finding the Loss of two or three, made no Impression on the rest, the
Negroes thought fit to retreat, which they did, with some Loss: The Pyrates
set Fire to the Town, and then return'd to their Ships. This terrified the
Natives, and put an entire stop to all the Intercourse between them; so
that they could get no Supplies, which obliged them, as soon as they had
finished the cleaning and triming of their Ships, to lose no Time, but went
for Cape _Lopez_, and watered, and at _Anna-Bona_ took aboard a Stock of
fresh Provisions, and then sailed for the Coast again.

This was their last and fatal Expedition, which we shall be more particular
in, because, it cannot be imagined that they could have had Assurance to
have undertaken it, but upon a Presumption, that the Men of War, (whom they
knew were upon the Coast,) were unable to attack them, or else pursuant to
the Rumour that had indiscretionally obtained at _Sierraleon_, were gone
thither again.

It is impossible at this Time, to think they could know of the weak and
sickly Condition they were in, and therefore founded the Success of this
second Attempt upon the Coast, on the latter Presumption, and this seems to
be confirmed by their falling in with the Coast as low as Cape _Lahou_,
(and even that was higher than they designed,) in the beginning of
_January_, and took the Ship called the _King Solomon_, with 20 Men in
their Boat, and a trading Vessel, both belonging to the Company. The Pyrate
Ship happened to fall about a League to Leeward of the _King Solomon_, at
Cape _Appollonia_, and the Current and Wind opposing their working up with
the Ship, they agreed to send the Long-Boat, with a sufficient Number of
Men to take her: The Pyrates are all Voluntiers on these Occasions, the
Word being always given, _who will go?_ And presently the stanch and firm
Men offer themselves; because, by such Readiness, they recommend their
Courage, and have an Allowance also of a Shift of Cloaths, from Head to
Foot, out of the Prize.

They rowed towards the _King Solomon_ with a great deal of Alacrity, and
being hailed by the Commander of her, answered, _Defiance_; Captain
_Trahern_, before this, observing a great Number of Men in the Boat, began
not to like his Visitors, and prepared to receive them, firing a Musket as
they come under his Stern, which they returned with a Volley, and made
greater Speed to get on Board: Upon this, he applied to his Men, and ask'd
them, whether they would stand by him, to defend the Ship, it being a Shame
they should be taken by half their Number, without any Repulse? But his
Boatswain, _Philips_, took upon him to be the Mouth of the People, and put
an End to the Dispute; he said plainly, he would not, laid down his Arms in
the King's Name, as he was pleased to term it, and called out to the Boat
for Quarters, so that the rest, by his Example, were mislead to the losing
of the Ship.

When they came on Board, they brought her under Sail, by an expeditious
Method, of cutting the Cable; _Walden_, one of the Pyrates, telling the
Master, this _yo hope_ of heaving up the Anchor was a needless trouble,
when they designed to burn the Ship. They brought her under Commadore
_Roberts_'s Stern, and not only rifled her of what Sails, Cordage, _&c._
they wanted for themselves, but wantonly throw'd the Goods of the Company
overboard, like Spend-thrifts, that neither expected or designed any

On the same Day also, they took the _Flushing_, a _Dutch_ Ship, robbed her
of Masts, Yards and Stores, and then cut down her Fore-Mast; but what sat
as heavily as any thing with the _Skipper_, was, their taking some fine
Sausages he had on Board, of his Wife's making, and stringing them in a
ludicrous Manner, round their Necks, till they had sufficiently shew'd
their Contempt of them, and then threw them into the Sea. Others chopp'd
the Heads of his Fowls off, to be dressed for their Supper, and courteously
invited the Landlord, provided he would find Liquor. It was a melancholly
Request to the Man, but it must be comply'd with, and he was obliged, as
they grew drunk, to sit quietly, and hear them sing _French_ and _Spanish_
Songs out of his _Dutch_ Prayer-Books, with other Prophaness, that he (tho'
a _Dutch_ Man) stood amazed at.

In chasing too near in, they alarmed the Coast, and Expresses were sent to
the _English_ and _Dutch_ Factories, giving an Account of it: They were
sensible of this Error immediately, and because they would make the best of
a bad Market, resolved to keep out of sight of Land, and lose the Prizes
they might expect between that and _Whydah_, to make the more sure of that
Port, where commonly is the best Booty; all Nations trading thither,
especially _Portuguese_, who purchase chiefly with Gold, the Idol their
Hearts were bent upon. And notwithstanding this unlikely Course, they met
and took several Ships between _Axim_ and that Place; the circumstantial
Stories of which, and the pannick Terrors they struck into his Majesty's
Subjects, being tedious and unnecessary to relate, I shall pass by, and
come to their Arrival in that Road.

They came to _Whydah_ with a St. _George_'s Ensign, a black Silk Flag
flying at their Mizen-Peek, and a Jack and Pendant of the same: The Flag
had a Death in it, with an Hour-Glass in one Hand, and cross Bones in the
other, a Dart by it, and underneath a Heart dropping three Drops of
Blood.--The Jack had a Man pourtray'd in it, with a flaming Sword in his
Hand, and standing on two Skulls, subscribed _A B H_ and _A M H i. e._ a
_Barbadian_'s and a _Martinican_'s Head, as has been before taken Notice
of. Here they found eleven Sail in the Road, _English, French_ and
_Portuguese_; the _French_ were three stout Ships of 30 Guns, and upwards
of 100 Men each, yet when _Roberts_ came to Fire, they, with the other
Ships, immediately struck their Colours and surrendred to his Mercy. One
Reason, it must be confess'd, of his easy Victory, was, the Commanders and
a good Part of the Men being ashore, according to the Custom of the Place,
to receive the Cargoes, and return the Slaves, they being obliged to watch
the Seasons for it, which otherwise, in so dangerous a Sea as here, would
be impracticable. These all, except the _Porcupine_, ransomed with him for
eight Pound of Gold-Dust, a Ship, not without the trouble of some Letters
passing and repassing from the Shore, before they could settle it; and
notwithstanding the Agreement and Payment, they took away one of the
_French_ Ships, tho' with a Promise to return her, if they found she did
not sail well, taking with them several of her Men for that End.

Some of the Foreigners, who never had Dealing this Way before, desired for
Satisfaction to their Owners, that they might have Receipts for their
Money, which were accordingly given, a Copy of one of them, I have here
subjoined, _viz._

                                * * *

T_HIS is to certify whom it may or doth concern, that we_ GENTLEMEN
OF FORTUNE, _have received eight Pounds of Gold-Dust, for the Ransom of
the_ Hardey, _Captain_ Dittwitt _Commander, so that we Discharge the said

_Witness our Hands, this_ 13_th of_ Jan. 1721-2.

Batt. Roberts, Harry Glasby.

Others were given to the _Portuguese_ Captains, which were in the same
Form, but being sign'd by two waggish Fellows, _viz. Sutton_, and
_Sympson_, they subscribed by the Names of,

_Aaron Whifflingpin_, _Sim. Tugmutton._

But there was something so singularly cruel and barbarous done here to the
_Porcupine_, Captain _Fletcher_, as must not be passed over without special

This Ship lay in the Road, almost slaved, when the Pyrates came in, and the
Commander being on Shore, settling his Accounts, was sent to for the
Ransom, but he excused it, as having no Orders from the Owners; though the
true Reason might be, that he thought it dishonourable to treat with
Robbers; and that the Ship, separate from the Slaves, towards whom he could
mistrust no Cruelty, was not worth the Sum demanded; hereupon, _Roberts_
sends the Boat to transport the Negroes, in order to set her on Fire; but
being in hast, and finding that unshackling them cost much Time and Labour,
they actually set her on Fire, with eighty of those poor Wretches on Board,
chained two and two together, under the miserable Choice of perishing by
Fire or Water: Those who jumped overboard from the Flames, were seized by
Sharks, a voracious Fish, in Plenty in this Road, and, in their Sight, tore
Limb from Limb alive. A Cruelty unparalell'd! And for which had every
Individual been hanged, few I imagine would think that Justice had been

The Pyrates, indeed, were obliged to dispatch their Business here in hast,
because they had intercepted a Letter from General _Phips_ to Mr.
_Baldwin_, the Royal _African_ Company's Agent at _Whydah_, (giving an
Account, that _Roberts_ had been seen to Windward of Cape _Three Points_,)
that he might the better guard against the Damages to the Company's Ships,
if he should arrive at that Road before the _Swallow_ Man of War, which he
assured him, (at the Time of that Letter,) was pursuing them to that Place.
_Roberts_ call'd up his Company, and desired they would hear _Phip_'s
Speech, (for so he was pleased to call the Letter,) and notwithstanding
their vapouring, perswaded them of the Necessity of moving; for, says he,
such brave Fellows cannot be supposed to be frightned at this News, yet
that it were better to avoid dry Blows, which is the best that can be
expected, if overtaken.

This Advice weigh'd with them, and they got under Sail, having stay'd only
from _Thursday_ to _Saturday_ Night, and at Sea voted for the Island of
_Anna Bona_; but the Winds hanging out of the Way, crossed their Purpose,
and brought them to Cape _Lopez_, where I shall leave them for their
approaching Fate, and relate some further Particulars of his Majesty's Ship
the _Swallow, viz._ where it was she had spent her Time, during the
Mischief that was done, and by what Means unable to prevent it; what also
was the Intelligence she received, and the Measures thereon formed, that at
last brought two such Strangers as Mr _Roberts_ and Capt. _Ogle_, to meet
in so remote a Corner of the World.

The _Swallow_ and _Weymouth_ left _Sierraleon, May_ 28, where, I have
already taken Notice, _Roberts_ arrived about a Month after, and doubtless
learn'd the Intent of their Voyage, and cleaning on the Coast; which made
him set down with more Security to his Diversion, and furnish him with such
Intimations, as made his first Range down the Coast in _August_ following,
more prosperous; the _Swallow_ and _Weymouth_ being then at the Port of
_Princes_ a cleaning.

Their Stay at _Princes_ was from _July_ 28 to _Sept._ 20, 1721, where, by a
Fatality, common to the Irregularities of Seamen, (who cannot in such Cases
be kept under due Restraints,) they buried 100 Men in three Weeks time, and
reduced the Remainder of the Ships Companies into so sickly a State, that
it was with Difficulty they brought them to sail; and this Misfortune was
probably the Ruin of _Roberts_, for it prevented the Men of War's going
back to _Sierraleon_, as it was intended, there being a Necessity of
leaving his Majesty's Ship _Weymouth_ (in much the worse Condition of the
two) under the Guns of Cape _Corso_, to impress Men, being unable at this
Time, either to hand the Sails, or weigh her Anchor; and _Roberts_ being
ignorant of the Occasion or Alteration of the first Design, fell into the
Mouth of Danger, when he thought himself the farthest from it; for the Men
of War not endeavouring to attain further to Windward (when they came from
_Princes_) then to secure Cape _Corso_ Road under their Lee, they luckily
hovered in the Track he had took.

The _Swallow_ and _Weymouth_ fell in with the Continent at Cape
_Appollonia, Octo._ 20th, and there received the ungrateful News from one
Captain _Bird_; a Notice that awaken'd and put them on their Guard; but
they were far from expecting any Temerity should ever bring him a second
Time on the Coast, while they were there; therefore the _Swallow_ having
seen the _Weymouth_ into Cape _Corso_ Road _Nov._ 10th, she ply'd to
Windward as far as _Bassam_, rather as an Airing to recover a sickly Ship's
Company, and shew herself to the Trade, which was found every where
undisturb'd, and were, for that Reason, returning to her Consort, when
accidently meeting a _Portuguese_ Ship, she told her, that the Day before
she saw two Ships Chace into _Junk_, an _English_ Vessel, which she
believed must have fallen into their Hands. On this Story, the _Swallow_
clung her Wind, and endeavoured to gain that Place, but receiving soon
after (_Octo._ the 14th) a contrary Report from Captain _Plummer_, an
intelligent Man, in the _Jason_ of _Bristol_, who had come further to
Windward, and neither saw or heard any Thing of this; she turned her Head
down the second Time, anchored at Cape _Appollonia_ the 23d, at Cape _Tres
Puntas_ the 27th, and in _Corso_ Road _January_ the 7th, 1721-2.

They learned that their Consort the _Weymouth_, was, by the Assistance of
some Soldiers from the Castle, gone to Windward, to demand Restitution of
some Goods or Men belonging to the _African_ Company, that were illegally
detained by the _Dutch_ at _Des Minas_; and while they were regretting so
long a Separation, an Express came to General _Phips_, from _Axim_, the
9th, and followed by another from _Dixcove_, (an _English_ Factory,) with
Information that three Ships had chased and taken a Galley nigh _Axim_
Castle, and a trading Boat belonging to the Company: No doubt was made,
concerning what they were, it being taken for granted they were Pyrates,
and supposed to be the same that had the _August_ before infested the
Coast. The natural Result therefore, from these two Advices, was, to hasten
for _Whydah_; for it was conclued the Prizes they had taken, had informed
them how nigh the _Swallow_ was, and withal, how much better in Health than
she had been for some Months past; so that unless they were very mad
indeed, they would (after being discovered) make the best of their Way for
_Whydah_, and secure the Booty there, without which, their Time and
Industry had been entirely lost; most of the Gold lying in that Corner.

The _Swallow_ weighed from _Cape-Corso, January_ the 10th, but was retarded
by waiting some Hours on the _Margaret_, a Company's Ship, at _Accra_,
again on the _Portugal_, and a whole Day at _Apong_, on a Person they used
to stile _Miss Betty_: A Conduct that Mr. _Phips_ blamed, when he heard the
Pyrates were miss'd at _Whydah_, altho' he had given it as his Opinion,
they could not be passed by, and intimated, that to stay a few Hours would
prove no Prejudice.

This, however, hinder'd the _Swallow_'s catching them at _Whydah_, for the
Pyrates came into that Road, with a fresh Gale of Wind, the same Day the
_Swallow_ was at _Apong_, and sail'd the 13th of _January_ from thence,
that she arrived the 17th. She gained Notice of them by a _French_ Shallop
from _Grand Papa_, the 14th at Night, and from _Little Papa_ next Morning
by a _Dutch_ Ship; so that the Man of War was on all Sides, as she thought,
sure of her Purchase, particularly when she made the Ships, and discovered
three of them to get under Sail immediately at Sight of her, making Signals
to one another, as tho' they designed a Defence; but they were found to be
three _French_ Ships; and those at Anchor, _Portuguese_ and _English_, all
honest Traders, who had been ransack'd and ransom'd.

This Disappointment chagreen'd the Ship's Company, who were very intent
upon their Market; which was reported to be an Arm-Chest full of Gold, and
kept with three Keys; tho' in all liklyhood, had they met with them in that
open Road, one or both would have made their Escapes; or if they had
thought sit to have fought, an Emulation in their Defence would probably
have made it desperate.

While they were contemplating on the Matter, a Letter was received from Mr.
_Baldwin_, (Governor here for the Company,) signifying, that the Pyrates
were at _Jaquin_, seven Leagues lower. The _Swallow_ weighed at two next
Morning, _January_ the 16th, and got to _Jaquin_ by Day-Light, but to no
other End, than frightening the Crews of two _Portuguese_ Ships on Shore,
who took her for the Pyrate that had struck such Terror at _Whydah_: She
returned therefore that Night, and having been strengthened with thirty
Voluntiers, _English_ and _French_, the discarded Crews of the _Porcupine_,
and the _French_ Ship they had carried from hence, she put to Sea again
_January_ the 19th, conjecturing, that either _Calabar, Princes_, the River
_Gabone_, Cape _Lopez_, or _Annabona_, must be touched at for Water and
Refreshment, tho' they should resolve to leave the Coast. As to the former
of those Places, I have before observed, it was hazardous to think of, or
rather impracticable; _Princes_ had been a sower Grape to them, but being
the first in the Way, she came before the Harbour the 29th, where learning
no News, without loosing Time, steered for the River _Gabone_, and anchored
at the Mouth of it _February_ the 1st.

This River is navigable by two Channels, and has an Island about five
Leagues up, called _Popaguays_ or _Parrots_, where the _Dutch_ Cruisers,
for this Coast, generally Clean, and where sometimes Pyrates come in to
look for Prey, or to Refit, it being very convenient, by Reason of a soft
Mud about it, that admits a Ship's lying on Shore, with all her Guns and
Stores in, without Damage. Hither Captain _Ogle_ sent his Boat and a
Lieutenant, who spoke with a _Dutch_ Ship, above the Island, from whom he
had this Account, _viz._ That he had been four Days from Cape _Lopez_, and
had left no Ship there. However, they beat up for the Cape, without regard
to this Story, and on the 5th, at Dawning, was surprized with the Noise of
a Gun, which, as the Day brightened, they found was from Cape _Lopez_ Bay,
where they discovered three Ships at Anchor, the largest with the King's
Colours and Pendant flying, which was soon after concluded to be Mr.
_Roberts_ and his Consorts; but the _Swallow_ being to Windward, and
unexpectedly deep in the Bay, was obliged to Steer off, for avoiding a
Sand, called the _French Man_'s _Bank_, which the Pyrates observed for some
Time, and rashly interpreting it to be Fear in her, righted the _French
Ranger_, which was then on the Heel, and ordered her to chase out in all
hast, bending several of their Sails in the Pursuit. The Man of War finding
they had foolishly mistaken her Design, humoured the Deceit, and kept off
to Sea, as if she had been really afraid, and managed her Steerage so,
under the Direction of Lieutenant _Sun_, an experienced Officer, as to let
the _Ranger_ come up with her, when they thought they had got so far as not
to have their Guns heard by her Consort at the Cape. The Pyrates had such
an Opinion of their own Courage, that they could never dream any Body would
use a Stratagem to speak with them, and so was the more easily drawn into
the Snare.

The Pyrates now drew nigh enough to fire their Chase Guns; they hoisted the
black Flag that was worn in _Whydah_ Road, and got their Spritsail Yard
along-ships, with Intent to board; no one having ever asked, all this
while, what Country Ship they took the Chase to be; they would have her to
be a _Portuguese_, (Sugar being then a Commodity among them,) and were
swearing every Minute at the Wind or Sails to expedite so sweet a Chase;
but, alass, all turned sour in an Instant: It was with the utmost
Consternation they saw her suddenly bring to, and hawl up her lower Ports,
now within Pistol-shot, and struck their black Flag upon it directly. After
the first Surprize was over, they kept firing at a Distance, hoisted it
again, and vapoured with their Cutlashes on the Poop; tho' wisely
endeavouring at the same Time to get away. Being now at their Wits end,
boarding was proposed by the Heads of them, and so to make one desperate
Push; but the Motion not being well seconded, and their Main-Top-Mast
coming down by a Shot, after two Hours firing, it was declin'd; they grew
Sick, struck their Colours, and called out for Quarters; having had 10 Men
killed out right, and 20 wounded, without the loss or hurt of one of the
King's Men. She had 32 Guns, mann'd with 16 _French_ Men, 20 Negroes, and
77 _English._ The Colours were thrown over board, that they might not rise
in Judgment, nor be display'd in Tryumph over them.

While the _Swallow_ was sending their Boat to fetch the Prisoners, a Blast
and Smoak was seen to pour out of the great Cabin, and they thought they
were blowing up; but upon enquiry afterwards, found that half a dozen of
the most Desperate, when they saw all Hopes fled, had drawn themselves
round what Powder they had left in the Steerage, and fired a Pistol into
it, but it was too small a Quantity to effect any Thing more, than burning
them in a frightful Manner.

This Ship was commanded by one _Skyrme_, a _Welch_ Man, who, tho' he had
lost his Leg in the Action, would not suffer himself to be dressed, or
carried off the Deck; but, like _Widrington_, fought upon his Stump. The
rest appeared gay and brisk, most of them with white Shirts, Watches, and a
deal of Silk Vests, but the Gold-Dust belonging to them, was most of it
left in the _Little Ranger_ in the Bay, (this Company's proper Ship,) with
the _Royal Fortune._

I cannot but take Notice of two among the Crowd, of those disfigured from
the Blast of Powder just before mentioned, _viz. William Main_ and _Roger
Ball._ An Officer of the Ship seeing a Silver Call hang at the Wast of the
former, said to him, _I presume you are Boatswain of this Ship. Then you
presume wrong_, answered he, _for I am Boatswain of the_ Royal Fortune,
_Captain_ Roberts _Commander. Then Mr._ Boatswain _you will be hanged I
believe_, replies the Officer. _That is as your Honour pleases_, answered
he again, and was for turning away: But the Officer desired to know of him,
how the Powder, which had made them in that Condition, came to take
Fire.--_By G_-- says he, _they are all mad and bewitch'd, for I have lost a
good Hat by it._ (the Hat and he being both blown out of the Cabin Gallery,
into the Sea.) _But what signifies a Hat Friend_, says the Officer.-_Not
much_ answer'd he, the Men being busy in stripping him of his Shoes and
Stockings.--The Officer then enquired of him, whether _Roberts_'s Company
were as likely Fellows as these.-- _There are_ 120 _of them_, (answered he)
_as clever Fellows as ever trod Shoe Leather: Would I were with them!--No
doubt on't_, says the Officer.--_By G-- it is naked Truth_, answered he,
looking down and seeing himself, by this Time, quite striped.

The Officer then approached _Roger Ball_, who was seated in a private
Corner, with a Look as sullen as Winter, and asked him, how he came blown
up in that frightful Manner.--_Why_, says he, John Morris _fired a Pistol
into the Powder, and if he had not done it, I would_, (bearing his Pain
without the least Complaint.) The Officer gave him to understand he was
Surgeon, and if he desired it, he would dress him; but he swore it should
not be done, and that if any Thing was applied to him, he would tear it
off.--Nevertheless the Surgeon had good Nature enough to dress him, tho'
with much trouble: At Night he was in a kind of _Delirium_, and raved on
the Bravery of _Roberts_, saying, he should shortly be released, as soon as
they should meet him, which procured him a lashing down upon the
Forecastle, which he resisting with all his Force, caused him to be used
with the more Violence, so that he was tied down with so much Severity,
that his Flesh being sore and tender with the blowing up, he died next Day
of a Mortification.

They secured the Prisoners with Pinions, and Shackles, but the Ship was so
much disabled in the Engagement, that they had once Thoughts to set her on
Fire; but this would have given them the Trouble of taking the Pyrates
wounded Men on Board themselves, and that they were certain the _Royal
Fortune_ would wait for their Consort's Return, they lay by her two Days,
repaired her Rigging and other Damages, and sent her into _Princes_, with
the _French_ Men, and four of their own Hands.

On the 9th in the Evening, the _Swallow_ gained the Cape again, and saw the
_Royal Fortune_ standing into the Bay with the _Neptune_, Captain _Hill_,
of _London_: A good Presage of the next Day's Success, for they did not
doubt but the Temptation of Liquor, and Plunder, they might find in this
their new Prize, would make the Pyrates very confused; and so it happened.

On the 10th, in the Morning, the Man of War bore away to round the Cape.
_Roberts_'s Crew discerning their Masts over the Land, went down into the
Cabin, to acquaint him of it, he being then at Breakfast with his new
Guest, Captain _Hill_, on a savory Dish of Solomongundy, and some of his
own Beer. He took no Notice of it, and his Men almost as little, some
saying she was a _Portuguese_ Ship, others a _French_ Slave Ship, but the
major Part swore it was the _French Ranger_ returning, and were merrily
debating for some Time, on the Manner of Reception, whether they should
salute, or not; but as the _Swallow_ approached nigher, Things appeared
plainer, and though they were stigmatiz'd with the Name of Cowards, who
shewed any Apprehension of Danger, yet some of them, now undeceived,
declared it to _Roberts_, especially one _Armstrong_, who had deserted from
that Ship, and knew her well: Those _Roberts_ swore at as Cowards, who
meant to dishearten the Men, asking them if it were so, whether they were
afraid to fight, or no? And hardly refrained from Blows. What his own
Apprehensions were, till she hawled up her Ports, and hoisted their proper
Colours, is uncertain; but then being perfectly convinced, he slipped his
Cable, got under Sail, and ordered his Men to Arms, without any shew of
Timidity, dropping a first Rate Oath, _that it was a Bite_, but, at the
same Time, resolved, like a gallant Rogue, to get clear, or die.

There was one _Armstrong_, as I just mention'd, a Deserter from the
_Swallow_, whom they enquired of concerning the Trim and Sailing of that
Ship; he told them she sail'd best upon a Wind, and therefore, if they
designed to leave her, they should go before it.

The Danger was imminent, and Time very short, to consult of Means to
extricate himself; his Resolution in this Streight, was as follows: To pass
close to the _Swallow_, with all their Sails, and receive her Broadside,
before they returned a Shot; if disabled by this, or that they could not
depend on sailing, then to run on Shore at the Point, (which is steep to)
and every one to shift for himself among the Negroes; or failing in these,
to board, and blow up together, for he saw that the greatest Part of his
Men were drunk, passively Couragious, unfit for Service.

_Roberts_ himself made a gallant Figure, at the Time of the Engagement,
being dressed in a rich crimson Damask Wastcoat and Breeches, a red Feather
in his Hat, a Gold Chain round his Neck, with a Diamond Cross hanging to
it, a Sword in his Hand, and two Pair of Pistols hanging at the End of a
Silk Sling, flung over his Shoulders (according to the Fashion of the
Pyrates;) and is said to have given his Orders with Boldness, and Spirit;
coming, according to what he had purposed, close to the Man of War,
received her Fire, and then hoisted his Black Flag, and returned it,
shooting away from her, with all the Sail he could pack; and had he took
_Armstrong_'s Advice, to have gone before the Wind, he had probably
escaped; but keeping his Tacks down, either by the Winds shifting, or ill
Steerage, or both, he was taken a-back with his Sails, and the _Swallow_
came a second Time very nigh to him: He had now perhaps finished the Fight
very desperately, if Death, who took a swift Passage in a Grape-Shot, had
not interposed, and struck him directly on the Throat. He settled himself
on the Tackles of a Gun, which one _Stephenson_, from the Helm, observing,
ran to his Assistance, and not perceiving him wounded, swore at him, and
bid him stand up, and fight like a Man; but when he found his Mistake, and
that his Captain was certainly dead, he gushed into Tears, and wished the
next Shot might be his Lot. They presently threw him over-board, with his
Arms and Ornaments on, according to the repeated Request he made in his

_Roberts_ was a tall black Man, near forty Years of Age, born at
_Newey-bagh_, nigh _Haverford-West_, in _Pembrokshire_, of good natural
Parts, and personal Bravery, tho' he applied them to such wicked Purposes,
as made them of no Commendation, frequently drinking _D--n to him who ever
lived to wear a Halter._ He was forc'd himself at first among this Company
out of the _Prince_, Captain _Plumb_ at _Anamaboe_, about three Years
before, where he served as second Mate, and shed, as he us'd to tell the
_fresh Men_, as many Crocodile Tears then as they did now, but Time and
good Company had wore it off. He could not plead Want of Employment, nor
Incapacity of getting his Bread in an honest way, to favour so vile a
Change, nor was he so much a Coward as to pretend it; but frankly own'd, it
was to get rid of the disagreeable Superiority of some Masters he was
acquainted with, and the Love of Novelty and Change, Maritime
Peregrinations had accustom'd him to. _In an honest Service_, says he,
_there is thin Commons, low Wages, and hard Labour; in this, Plenty and
Satiety, Pleasure and Ease, Liberty and Power; and who would not ballance
Creditor on this Side, when all the Hazard that is run for it, at worst, is
only a sour Look or two at choaking. No_, A merry Life and a short one,
_shall be my Motto._ Thus he preach'd himself into an Approbation of what
he at first abhorr'd; and being daily regal'd with Musick, Drinking, and
the Gaiety and Diversions of his Companions, these deprav'd Propensities
were quickly edg'd and strengthen'd, to the extinguishing of Fear and
Conscience. Yet among all the vile and ignominious Acts he had perpetrated,
he is said to have had an Aversion towards forcing Men into that Service,
and had procured some their Discharge, notwithstanding so many made it
their Plea.

When _Roberts_ was gone, as tho' he had been the Life and Soul of the Gang,
their Spirits sunk; many deserted their Quarters, and all stupidly
neglected any Means for Defence, or Escape; and their Main-mast soon after
being shot by the Board, they had no Way left, but to surrender and call
for Quarters. The _Swallow_ kept aloof, while her Boat passed, and repassed
for the Prisoners; because they understood they were under an Oath to blow
up; and some of the Desperadoes shewed a Willingness that Way, Matches
being lighted, and Scuffles happening between those who would, and those
who opposed it: But I cannot easily account for this Humour, which can be
term'd no more than a false Courage, since any of them had Power to destroy
his own Life, either by Pistol, or Drowning, without involving others in
the same Fate, who are in no Temper of Mind for it: And at best, it had
been only dying, for fear of Death.

She had 40 Guns, and 157 Men, 45 whereof were Negroes; three only were
killed in the Action, without any Loss to the _Swallow._ There was found
upwards of 2000 _l._ in Gold-Dust in her. The Flag could not be got easily
from under the fallen Mast, and was therefore recover'd by the _Swallow_;
it had the Figure of a Skeleton in it, and a Man pourtray'd with a flaming
Sword in his Hand, intimating a Defyance of Death it self.

The _Swallow_ returned back into Cape _Lopez_ Bay, and found the little
_Ranger_, whom the Pyrates had deserted in hast, for the better Defence of
the Ship: She had been plunder'd, according to what I could learn, of 2000
l. in Gold-Dust, (the Shares of those Pyrates who belonged to her;) and
Captain _Hill_, in the _Neptune_, not unjustly suspected, for he would not
wait the Man of War's returning into the Bay again, but sail'd away
immediately, making no Scruple afterwards to own the Seizure of other Goods
out of her, and surrender'd, as a Confirmation of all, 50 Ounces at
_Barbadoes_, for which, see the Article at the End of this Book.

_All Persons who after the_ 29_th of_ Septem. 1690, &c.

To sum up the whole, if it be considered, first, that the sickly State of
the Men of War, when they sail'd from _Princes_, was the Misfortune that
hindered their being as far as _Sierraleon_, and consequently out of the
Track the Pyrates then took. That those Pyrates, directly contrary to their
Design, in the second Expedition, should get above Cape _Corso_, and that
nigh _Axim_, a Chace should offer, that inevitably must discover them, and
be soon communicated to the Men of War. That the satiating their evil and
malicious Tempers at _Whydah_, in burning the _Porcupine_, and running off
with the _French_ Ship, had strengthened the _Swallow_ with 30 Men. That
the _Swallow_ should miss them in that Road, where probably she had not, or
at least so effectually obtained her End. That they should be so far
infatuated at Cape _Lopez_, as to divide their Strength, which when
collected, might have been so formidable. And lastly, that the Conquest
should be without Bloodshed: I say, considering all these Circumstances, it
shews that the Hand of Providence was concerned in their Destruction. As to
their Behaviour after they were taken, it was found that they had great
Inclinations to rebel, if they could have laid hold of any Opportunity. For
they were very uneasy under Restraint, having been lately all Commanders
themselves; nor could they brook their Diet, or Quarters, without cursing
and swearing, and upbraiding each other, with the Folly that had brought
them to it.

So that to secure themselves against any mad desperate Undertaking of
theirs, they strongly barricado'd the Gun-Room, and made another Prison
before it; an Officer, with Pistols and Cutlashes, doing Duty, Night and
Day, and the Prisoners within, manacled and shackled.

They would yet in these Circumstances be impudently merry, saying, when
they viewed their Nakedness, _that they had not left them a halfpenny, to
give old_ Charon, _to ferry them over_ Stix: And at their thin Commons,
they would observe, that they fell away so fast, that they should not have
Weight left to hang them. _Sutton_ used to be very prophane; he happening
to be in the same Irons with another Prisoner, who was more serious than
ordinary, and read and pray'd often, as became his Condition; this Man
_Sutton_ used to swear at, and ask him, _what he proposed by so much Noise
and Devotion? Heaven_, says the other, _I hope. Heaven, you Fool_, says
_Sutton, did you ever hear of any Pyrates going thither? Give me H--ll,
it's a merrier Place; I'll give_ Roberts _a Salute of_ 13 _Guns at
Entrance._ And when he found such ludicrous Expressions had no Effect on
him, he made a formal Complaint, and requested that the Officer would
either remove this Man, or take his Prayer-Book away, as a common

A Combination and Conspiracy was formed, betwixt _Moody, Ashplant, Magnes,
Mare_, and others, to rise, and kill the Officers, and run away with the
Ship. This they had carried on by Means of a Mulatto Boy, who was allow'd
to attend them, and proved very trusty in his Messages, between the
Principals; but the Evening of that Night they were to have made this
Struggle, two of the Prisoners that sat next to _Ashplant_, heard the Boy
whisper them upon the Project, and naming to him the Hour they should be
ready, presently gave Notice of it to the Captain, which put the Ship in an
Alarm, for a little Time; and, on Examination, several of them had made
shift to break off, or lose, their Shackles, (no doubt for such Purpose;)
but it tended only to procure to themselves worse Usage and Confinement.

In the same Passage to Cape _Corso_, the Prize, _Royal Fortune_, was in the
same Danger. She was left at the Island of St. _Thomas_'s, in the
Possession of an Officer, and a few Men, to take in some fresh Provisions,
(which were scarce at Cape _Corso_) with Orders to follow the Ship. There
were only some of the Pyrates Negroes, three or four wounded Prisoners, and
_Scudamore_, their Surgeon; from whom they seemed to be under no
Apprehension, especially from the last, who might have hoped for Favour, on
Account of his Employ; and had stood so much indebted for his Liberty,
eating and drinking constantly with the Officer; yet this Fellow,
regardless of the Favour, and lost to all Sense of Reformation, endeavoured
to bring over the Negroes to his Design of murdering the People, and
running away with the Ship. He easily prevailed with the Negroes to come
into the Design; but when he came to communicate it to his Fellow
Prisoners, and would have drawn them into the same Measures, by telling
them, he understood Navigation, that the Negroes were stout Fellows, and by
a Smattering he had in the _Angolan_ Language, he had found willing to
undertake such an Enterprize; and that it was better venturing to do this,
run down the Coast, and raise a new Company, than to proceed to Cape
_Corso_, and be hanged like a Dog, and Sun dry'd. One of them abhorring the
Cruelty, or fearing the Success, discovered it to the Officer, who made him
immediately a Prisoner, and brought the Ship safe.

When they came to be lodg'd in Cape _Corso-Castle_, their Hopes of this
kind all cut off, and that they were assured they must there soon receive a
final Sentence; the Note was changed among most of them, and from vain
insolent jesting, they became serious and devout, begging for good Books,
and joyning in publick Prayers, and singing of Psalms, twice at least every

As to their Tryals, if we should give them at length, it may appear tedious
to the Reader, for which Reason, I have, for the avoiding Tautology and
Repetition, put as many of them together as were try'd for the same Fact,
reserving the Circumstances which are most material, with Observations on
the dying Behaviour of such of them, as came to my Knowledge.

And first, it may be observed from the List, that a great Part of these
Pyrate Ships Crews, were Men entered on the Coast of _Africa_, not many
Months before they were taken; from whence, it may be concluded, that the
pretended Constraint of _Roberts_, on them, was very often a Complotment
between Parties equally willing: And this _Roberts_ several Times openly
declared, particularly to the _Onslow_'s People, whom he called aft, and
ask'd of them, _who was willing to go, for he would force no Body?_ As was
deposed, by some of his best Hands, after Acquittal; nor is it reasonable
to think, he should reject _Irish_ Voluntiers, only from a Pique against
_Kennedy_, and force others, that might hazard, and, in Time, destroy his
Government: But their Behaviour soon put him out of this Fear, and
convinc'd him, that the Plea of Force was only the best Artifice they had
to shelter themselves under, in Case they should be taken; and that they
were less Rogues than others, only in Point of Time.

It may likewise be taken Notice of, that the Country, wherein they happened
to be tried, is among other Happinesses, exempted from Lawyers, and
Law-Books, so that the Office of Register, of necessity fell on one, not
versed in those Affairs, which might justify the Court in want of Form,
more essentially supply'd with Integrity and Impartiality.

But, perhaps, if there was less Law, there might be more Justice, than in
some other Courts; for, if the civil Law be a Law of universal Reason,
judging of the Rectitude, or Obliquity of Mens Actions, every Man of common
Sense is endued with a Portion of it, at least sufficient to make him
distinguish Right from Wrong, or what the Civilians call, _Malum in se._

Therefore, here, if two Persons were equally Guilty of the same Fact, there
was no convicting one, and bringing the other off, by any Quirk, or turn of
Law; for they form'd their Judgments upon the Constraint, or Willingness,
the Aim, and Intention of the Parties, and all other Circumstances, which
make a material Difference. Besides, in Crimes of this Nature, Men bred up
to the Sea, must be more knowing, and much abler, than others more learned
in the Law; for, before a Man can have a right Idea of a Thing, he must
know the Terms standing for that Thing: The Sea-Terms being a Language by
it self, which no Lawyer can be supposed to understand, he must of
Consequence want that discriminating Faculty, which should direct him to
judge right of the Facts meant by those Terms.

The Court well knew, it was not possible to get the Evidence of every
Sufferer by this Crew, and therefore, first of all, considered how that
Deficiency should be supplied; whether, or no, they could pardon one _Jo.
Dennis_, who had early offered himself, as King's Evidence, and was the
best read in their Lives and Conversations: Here indeed, they were at a
Loss for Law, and concluded in the Negative, because it look'd like
compounding with a Man to swear falsly, losing by it, those great Helps he
could have afforded.

Another great Difficulty in their Proceedings, was, how to understand those
Words in the Act of Parliament, of, _particularly specifying in the Charge,
the Circumstances of Time, Place_, &c. _i. e._ so to understand them, as to
be able to hold a Court; for if they had been indicted on particular
Robberies, the Evidence had happened mostly from the Royal _African_
Company's Ships, on which these Gentlemen of _Cape-Corso-Castle_, were not
qualify'd to sit, their Oath running, _That they have no Interest directly,
or indirectly, in the Ship, or Goods, for the Robbery of which, the Party
stands accused_: And this they thought they had, Commissions being paid
them, on such Goods: And on the other Side, if they were incapacitated, no
Court could be formed, the Commission absolutely requiring three of them by

To reconcile all Things, therefore, the Court resolved, to bottom the whole
of their Proceedings on the _Swallow's_ Depositions, which were clear and
plain, and had the Circumstance of Time when, Place where, Manner how, and
the like, particularly specified according to the Statute in that Case
made, and provided. But this admitted only a general Intimation of Robbery
in the Indictment, therefore _to approve their Clemency_, it looking
Arbitrary on the Lives of Men, to lump them to the Gallows, in such a
summary Way as must have been done, had they solely adhered to the
_Swallow_'s Charge, they resolved to come to particular Tryals.

Secondly, _That the Prisoners might not be ignorant whereon to answer_, and
so have all fair Advantages, to excuse and defend themselves; the Court
farther agreed with Justice and Equanimity, to hear any Evidence that could
be brought, to weaken or corroborate the three Circumstances that compleat
a Pyrate; first, being a Voluntier amongst them at the Beginning; secondly,
being a Voluntier at the taking or robbing of any Ship; or lastly,
voluntarily accepting a Share in the Booty of those that did; for by a
Parity of Reason, where these Actions were of their own disposing, and yet
committed by them, it must be believed their Hearts and Hands joyned
together, in what they acted against his Majesty's Ship the _Swallow._

_The_ TRYALS _of the_ PYRATES,

_Taken by his Majesty's Ship the_ Swallow, _begun at Cape_
Corso-Castle, _on the Coast of_ Africa, March _the_ 28_th_, 1722.

THE Commission impowered any three named therein, to call to their
Assistance, such a Number of qualified Persons as might make the Court
always consist of seven: And accordingly Summons were signed to Lieut. _Jo.
Barnsley_, Lieut. _Ch. Fanshaw_, Capt. _Samuel Hartsease_, and Capt.
_William Menzies, viz._

   BY Virtue of a Power and Authority, to us given, by a
   Commission from the King, under the Seal of Admiralty,
   You are hereby required to attend, and make one of the
   Court, for the trying and adjudging of the Pyrates,
   lately taken on this Coast, by his Majesty's Ship the

Given under our Hands this 28th of _March_, 1722, at Cape

_Mungo Heardman_, _James Phips_, _Henry Dodson_, _Francis Boy_,
_Edward Hide._

The Commissioners being met in the Hall of the Castle, the Commission was
first read, after which, the President, and then the other Members, took
the Oath, prescribed in the Act of Parliament, and having directed the Form
of that for Witnesses, as follows, the Court was opened.

I, A. B. _solemnly promise and swear on the Holy Evangelists, to bear
true and faithful Witness between the King and Prisoner, or Prisoners, in
Relation to the Fact, or Facts, of Pyracy and Robbery, he or they do now
stand accused of._ So help me God.

The Court consisted of Captain _Mungo Heardman_, President. James Phips,
_Esq; General of the Coast_, _Mr._ H. Dodson, _Mer._ _Mr._ F. Boye, _Mer._
_Mr._ Edward Hyde, _Secretary to the Company._ _Lieut._ John Barnsley,
_Lieut._ Ch. Fanshaw.

The following Prisoners, out of the Pyrate Ship _Ranger_, having been
commanded before them, the Charge, or Indictment, was exhibited.

Prisoners taken in the _Ranger_.

Mens Names.           Ships from                    Time when.
* James Skyrm         Greyhound Sloop               Oct. 1720
* Rich. Hardy         Pyrate with Davis             1718
* Wm. Main            Brigantine Capt. Peet         June 1720
* Henry Dennis      }                               1718
* Val. Ashplant     } Pyrates with Capt. Davis      1719
* Rob. Birdson      }                               1719

* Rich. Harris      } Phoenix of Bristol, Capt.   }
* D. Littlejohn     }    Richards                 }  June 1720
* Thomas How          at Newfoundland             }
+ Her. Hunkins        Success Sloop
* Hugh Harris         Willing Mind                }
* W. Mackintosh                                   }
Thomas Wills          Richard of Biddiford        } July 1720
+ John Wilden         Mary and Martha             }
* Ja. Greenham        Little York, Phillips Mr.   }
* John Jaynson        Love of Lancaster           }
+ Chri. Lang          Thomas Brigantine             Sept. 1720
* John Mitchel      } Norman Galley                 Oct. 1720
T. Withstandenot    }

Peter la Fever      } Jeremiah and Ann              Ap. 1720
* Wm. Shurin        }

* Wm. Wats          } Sierraleon }of Mr. Glin     } July 1721
* Wm. Davis         }            }of Seig. Josseé }

+ James Barrow      } Martha Snow Capt Lady
* Joshua Lee        }

Rob. Hartley (1)    } Robinson of Leverpole Capt.   Aug. 1721
+ James Crane       }    Kanning

George Smithson     }                             }
Roger Pye           }                             }
+ Rob. Fletcher     } Stanwich Galley Captain     } Aug. 1721
* Ro. Hartley (2)   }    Tarlton                  }
+ Andrew Rance        A Dutch Ship                }

* Cuthbert Goss     }                             }
* Tho. Giles        } Mercy Galley of Bristol     } Oct. 1721
* Israel Hynde      }    at Callibar              }

William Church        Gertruycht of Holland       }
Philip Haak           Flushingham of ditto        }
William Smith       } Elizabeth Capt. Sharp       }
Adam Comry          }                             }
William Graves      }                             }
* Peter de Vine     } King Solomon Capt. Trehern  }
John Johnson        }    off Cape Appollonia      }
John Stodgill       }                             }
Henry Dawson        } Whydah Sloop at Jaquin      }
William Glass       }                             } Jan. 172½
Josiah Robinson     }                             }
John Arnaught       }                             }
John Davis          }                             }
+ Henry Graves      } Tarlton Capt. Tho. Tarlton, }
Tho. Howard         }                             }
+ John Rimer        }                             }
Thomas Clephen      }                             }
Wm. Guineys           Porcupine Capt. Fletcher    }
+ James Cosins                                    }
Tho. Stretton       }
* William Petty     }
Mic. Lemmon         } Onslow Capt. Gee at Cestos    Jan. 172½
* Wm. Wood          }
* Ed. Watts         }
* John Horn         }
Pierre Ravon          Peter Grossey               }
John Dugan            Rence Frogier               }
James Ardeon          Lewis Arnaut                } From the
Ettrien Gilliot       Rence Thoby                 } French Ship
Ren. Marraud          Meth Roulac                 } in Whydah
John Gittin           John Gumar                  } Road Feb.
Jo. Richardeau        John Paquete                } 1721-2.
John Lavogue          Allan Pigan                 }
John Duplaissey       Pierce Shillot              }

You, _James Skyrm, Michael Lemmon, Robert Hartley_, &c.

Y_E, and every one of you, are in the Name, and by the Authority, of
our dread Sovereign Lord_, George, _King of_ Great Britain, _indicted as

_Forasmuch as in open Contempt of the Laws of your Country, ye have all of
you been wickedly united, and articled together, for the Annoyance and
Disturbance of his Majesty's trading Subjects by Sea. And have in
Conformity to the most evil and mischievous Intentions, been twice down the
Coast of_ Africa, _with two Ships; once in the Beginning of_ August, _and a
second Time, in_ January _last, sinking, burning, or robbing such Ships,
and Vessels, as then happened in your Way._

_Particularly, ye stand charged at the Instance, and Information of
Captain_ Chaloner Ogle, _as Traytors and Pyrates, for the unlawful
Opposition ye made to his Majesty's Ship, the_ Swallow, _under his

_For that on the_ 5_th of_ February _last past, upon Sight of the aforesaid
King's Ship, ye did immediately weigh Anchor from under Cape_ Lopez, _on
the Southern Coast of_ Africa, _in a_ French _built Ship of_ 32 _Guns,
called the_ Ranger, _and did pursue and chase the aforesaid King's Ship,
with such Dispatch and Precipitancy, as declared ye common Robbers and

_That about Ten of the Clock the same Morning, drawing within Gun-shot of
his Majesty's aforesaid Ship the_ Swallow, _ye hoisted a pyratical black
Flag, and fired several chace Guns, to deter, as much as ye were able, his
Majesty's Servants from their Duty._

_That an Hour after this, being very nigh to the aforesaid King's Ship, ye
did audaciously continue in a hostile Defence and Assault, for about two
Hours more, in open Violation of the Laws, and in Defiance to the King's
Colours and Commission._

_And lastly, that in the acting, and compassing of all this, ye were all,
and every one of you, in a wicked Combination, voluntarily to exert, and
actually did, in your several Stations, use your utmost Endeavours to
distress the said King's Ship, and murder his Majesty's good Subjects._

To which they severally pleaded, _Not Guilty._

                                * * *

Then the Court called for the Officers of the _Swallow_, Mr. _Isaac Sun_,
Lieutenant, _Ralph Baldrick_, Boatswain, _Daniel Maclauglin_, Mate,
desiring them to view the Prisoners, whether they knew them? And to give an
Account in what Manner they had attack'd and fought the King's Ship; and
they agreed as follows.

That they had viewed all the Prisoners, as they stood now before the Court,
and were assured they were the same taken out of one, or other, of the
Pyrate Ships, _Royal Fortune_, or _Ranger_; but verily believe them to be
taken out of the _Ranger._

That they did in the King's Ship, at break of Day, on _Monday_, the 5th of
_February_, 1721-2, discover three Ships at Anchor, under Cape _Lopez_, on
the Southern Coast of _Africa_; the Cape bearing then W. S. W. about three
Leagues, and perceiving one of them to have a Pendant flying, and having
heard their Morning-Gun before, they immediately suspected them to be
_Roberts_ the Pyrate, his consort, and a _French_ Ship, they knew had been
lately carried out of _Whydah_ Road.

The King's Ship was obliged to hawl off N. W. and W. N. W. to avoid a Sand,
called, the _French Man's Bank_, the Wind then at S. S. E. and found in
half an Hour's time, one of the three had got under Sail from the Careen,
and was bending her Sails, in a Chace towards them. To encourage this
Rashness and Precipitancy, they kept away before the Wind, (as though
afraid,) but with their Tacks on Board, their Main-Yard braced, and making,
at the same Time, very bad Steerage.

About half an Hour after Ten, in the Morning, the Pyrate Ship came within
Gun-shot, and fired four Chace Guns, hoisted a black Flag at the
Mizen-Peek, and got their Sprit-sail Yard under their Bowsprit, for
boarding. In half an Hour more, approaching still nigher, they Starboarded
their Helm, and gave her a Broadside, the Pyrate bringing to, and returning
the same.

After this, the Deponents say, their Fire grew slack for some Time, because
the Pyrate was shot so far a Head on the Weather-Bow, that few of their
Guns could Point to her; yet in this Interval their black Flag was either
Shot away, or hawled down a little Space, and hoisted again.

At length, by their ill Steerage, and Favour of the Wind, they came near, a
second Time; and about Two in the Afternoon shot away their Main-topmast.

The Colours they fought under, besides a black Flag, were a red _English_
Ensign, a King's Jack, and a _Dutch_ Pendant, which they struck at, or
about, Three in the Afternoon, and called for Quarters; it proving to be a
_French_ built Ship of 32 Guns, called the _Ranger._

_Isaac Sun_, _Ralph Baldrick_, _Daniel Maclauglin._

When the Evidence had been heard, the Prisoners were called upon to answer,
how they came on Board this Pyrate Ship; and their Reason for so audacious
a Resistance, as had been made against the King's Ship.

To this, each, in his Reply, owned himself to be one of those taken out of
the _Ranger_; that he had signed their pyratical Articles, and shared in
their Plunder, some few only accepted, who had been there too short a Time.
But that neither in this signing, or sharing, nor in the Resistance had
been made against his Majesty's Ship, had they been Voluntiers, but had
acted in these several Parts, from a Terror of Death; which a Law amongst
them, was to be the Portion of those who refused. The Court then ask'd, who
made those Laws? How those Guns came to be fired? Or why they had not
deserted their Stations, and mutinied, when so fair a Prospect of
Redemption offered? They replied still, with the same Answers, and could
extenuate their Crimes, with no other Plea, than being forced Men.
Wherefore the Court were of Opinion, that the Indictment, as it charged
them with an unlawful Attack and Resistance of the King's Ship, was
sufficiently proved; but then it being undeniably evident, that many of
these Prisoners had been forced, and some of them of very short standing,
they did, on mature Deliberation, come to this merciful Resolution;

That they would hear further Evidence for, or against, each Person singly,
in Relation to those Parts of the Indictment, which declared them
Voluntiers, or charged them with aiding and assisting, at the burning,
sinking, or robbing of other Ships; for if they acted, or assisted, in any
Robberies or Devastations, it would be a Conviction they were Voluntiers;
here such Evidence, though it might want the Form, still carried the Reason
of the Law with it.

The Charge was exhibited also against the following Pyrates taken
out of the _Royal Fortune._

* Mich. Mare          in the Rover                 5 Years ago
* Chris. Moody        under Davis                  1718.
* Mar. Johnson        a Dutch Ship                 1718.
* James Philips       the RevengePyrate Sloop      1717.
* David Symson      } Pyrates with Davis
* Tho. Sutton       }
* Hag. Jacobson       a Dutch Ship                 1719
* W. Williams 1     }                            }
* Wm. Fernon        } Sadbury Captain Thomas     } June 1720.
* W. Willams 2      }    Thomas Newfoundland     }
* Roger Scot        }                            }

* Tho. Owen         } York of Bristol            }
* Wm. Taylor        }                            } May 1720.
* Joseph Nositer      Expedition of Topsham      }

* John Parker         Willing Mind of Pool       }
* Robert Crow         Happy Return Sloop         }
* George Smith        Mary and Martha            } July 1720.
* Ja. Clements        Success Sloop              }
* John Walden         Blessing of Lymington      }
* Jo. Mansfield       from Martinico
+ James Harris        Richard Pink
* John Philips        a fishing Boat
Harry Glasby        } Samuel Capt. Cary.         } July 1720.
Hugh Menzies        }                            }
* Wm. Magnus
* Joseph Moor         May Flower Sloop             Feb. 1720.
+ John du Frock     }                            }
Wm. Champnies       } Loyd Gally Capt. Hyngston  } May 1721.
George Danson       }                            }
+ Isaac Russel      }                            }

Robert Lilbourn     }                            }
* Robert Johnson    } Jeremiah and Ann, Capt.    } Ap. 1721.
Wm. Darling         }    Turner                  }
+ Wm. Mead          }                            }

Thomas Diggles        Christopher Snow           }
* Ben. Jeffreys       Norman Galley              }
John Francia          a Sloop at St. Nicholas    }
* D. Harding          a Dutch Ship               } Ap. 1721.
* John Coleman        Adventure Sloop            }
* Charles Bunce       a Dutch Galley             }
* R. Armstrong        ditto run from the Swallow }
* Abra. Harper      }
* Peter Lesley      }
* John Jessup 1     }
Thomas Watkins      }
* Philip Bill       } Onslow Capt. Gee at Sestos,  May 1721.
* Jo. Stephenson    }
* James Cromby      }
Thomas Garrat       }
+ George Ogle       }

Roger Gorsuch       } Martha Snow                  Au. 1721.
John Watson         }

William Child       }
* John Griffin      } Mercy Gally at Callabar      Oct. 1721.
* Pet. Scudamore    }

Christ. Granger     }
Nicho. Brattle      }
James White         }
Tho. Davis          } Cornwall Galley at           ditto.
Tho. Sever          }    Callabar
* Rob. Bevins       }
* T. Oughterlaney   }
* David Rice        }
* Rob. Haws  Joceline Capt. Loane  Oct. 1721.
Hugh Riddle         } Diligence Boat               Ja. 1721.
Stephen Thomas      }

* John Lane         }
* Sam. Fletcher     }
* Wm. Philips       } King Solomon                 ditto.
Jacob Johnson       }
* John King         }
Benjamin Par          Robinson Capt. Kanning       ditto.
William May         } Elizabeth Capt. Sharp      }
Ed. Thornden        }                            }
* George Wilson     } Tarlton of Leverpool at    } ditto.
Edward Tarlton      }    Cape la Hou             }
* Robert Hays       }                            }

Thomas Roberts      }
John Richards       } Charlton Capt. Allwright   } Feb. 1721.
John Cane           }

Richard Wood        }                            }
Richard Scot        }                            }
Wm. Davison         } Porcupine Capt. Fletcher   } Feb. 1721.
Sam. Morwell        }    Whydah Road             }
Edward Evans        }                            }
* John Jessup 2       surrender'd up at Princes

You, _Harry Glasby, William Davison, William Champnies, Samuel
Morwell_, &c.

Y_E, and every one of you, are, in the Name, and by the Authority of
our most dread Sovereign Lord_ George, _King of_ Great Britain, _indicted
as follows._

_Forasmuch as in open Contempt and Violation of the Laws of your Country,
to which ye ought to have been subject_, _ye have all of you been wickedly
united and articled together, for the Annoyance and Destruction of his
Majesty's trading Subjects by Sea; and in Conformity to so wicked an
Agreement and Association, ye have been twice lately down this Coast of_
Africa, _once in_ August, _and a second Time in_ January _last, spoiling
and destroying many Goods and Vessels of his Majesty's Subjects, and other
trading Nations._

_Particularly ye stand indicted at the Information and Instance of Captain_
Chaloner Ogle, _as Traytors, Robbers, Pyrates, and common Enemies to

_For that on the_ 10_th of_ February _last, in a Ship ye were possess'd of
called the_ Royal Fortune, _of_ 40 _Guns, ye did maintain a hostile Defence
and Resistance for some Hours, against his Majesty's Ship the_ Swallow,
_nigh Cape_ Lopez _Bay, on the Southern Coast of_ Africa.

_That this Fight and insolent Resistance against the King's Ship, was made,
not only without any Pretence of Authority, more than that of your own
private depraved Wills, but was done also under a black Flag, flagrantly by
that, denoting your selves common Robbers and Traitors, Opposers and
Violators of the Laws._

_And lastly, that in this Resistance, ye were all of you Voluntiers, and
did, as such, contribute your utmost Efforts, for disabling and distressing
the aforesaid King's Ship, and deterring his Majesty's Servants therein,
from their Duty._

To which they severally pleaded, _Not Guilty._

                                * * *

Whereupon the Officers of his Majesty's Ship, the _Swallow_, were called
again, and testified as follows.

That they had seen all the Prisoners now before the Court, and knew them to
be the same which were taken out of one or other of the Pyrate Ships,
_Royal Fortune_ or _Ranger_, and verily believe them to be those taken out
of the _Royal Fortune._

That the Prisoners were possess'd of a Ship of 40 Guns, called the _Royal
Fortune_, and were at an Anchor under Cape _Lopez_, on the Coast of
_Africa_, with two others: When his Majesty's Ship the _Swallow_, (to which
the Deponents belong'd, and were Officers,) stood in for the Place, on
_Saturday_ the 10th of _February_ 1721-2: The largest had a Jack, Ensign
and Pendant flying, (being this _Royal Fortune_,) who on Sight of them, had
their Boats passing and repassing, from the other two, which they supposed
to be with Men: The Wind not favouring the aforesaid King's Ship, she was
obliged to make two Trips to gain nigh enough the Wind, to fetch in with
the Pyrates; and being at length little more than random Shot from them,
they found she slipped her Cable, and got under Sail.

At Eleven, the Pyrate was within Pistol-Shot, a Breast of them, with a
black Flag, and Pendant hoisted at their Main-topmast Head. The Deponents
say, they then struck the _French_ Ensign that had continued hoisted at
their Staff all the Morning till then; and display'd the King's Colours,
giving her, at the same Time, their Broadside, which was immediately

The Pyrate's Mizen-topmast fell, and some of her Rigging was torn, yet she
still out sailed the Man of War, and slid half Gun-Shot from them, while
they continued to fire without Intermission, and the other to return such
Guns as could be brought to bear, till by favour of the Winds, they were
advanced very nigh again; and after exchanging a few more Shot, about half
an Hour past one, his Main-Mast came down, having received a Shot a little
below the Parrel.

At Two she struck her Colours, and called for Quarters, proving to be a
Ship, formerly call'd the _Onslow_, but by them, the _Royal Fortune_; and
the Prisoners from her, assured them, that the smallest Ship of the two,
then remaining in the Road, belong'd to them, by the Name of the _Little
Ranger_, which they had deserted on this Occasion.

_Isaac Sun_, _Ralph Baldrick_, _Daniel Maclaughlin._

The Prisoners were asked by the Court, to the same Purpose the others had
been in the Morning; what Exception they had to make against what had been
sworn? And what they had to say in their Defence? And their Reply were much
the same with the other Prisoners; that they were forc'd Men, had not fired
a Gun in this Resistance against the _Swallow_, and that what little
Assistance they did give on this Occasion, was to the Sails and Rigging, to
comply with the arbitrary Commands of _Roberts_, who had threaten'd, and
they were perswaded would, have Shot them on Refusal.

The Court, to dispense equal Justice, mercifully resolved for these, as
they had done for the other Pyrate Crew; that further Evidence should be
heard against each Man singly, to the two Points, of being a Voluntier at
first, and to their particular Acts of Pyracy and Robbery since: That so
Men, who had been lately received amongst them, and as yet, had not been at
the taking, or plundering, of any Ship, might have the Opportunity, and
Benefit, of clearing their Innocence, and not fall promiscuously with the

_By Order of the Court_, John Atkins, _Register._

_Wm. Magnes, Tho. Oughterlauney, Wm. Main, Wm. Mackintosh, Val. Ashplant,
John Walden, Israel Hind, Marcus Johnson, Wm. Petty, Wm. Fernon, Abraham
Harper, Wm. Wood, Tho. How, John Stephenson, Ch. Bunce_, and _John Griffin_

Against these it was deposed by Captain _Joseph Trahern_, and _George
Fenn_, his Mate, that they were all of them, either at the attacking and
taking of the Ship King _Solomon_, or afterwards at the robbing and
plundering of her, and in this Manner; That on the 6th of _January_ last
their Ship riding at Anchor near Cape _Appollonia_ in _Africa_, discovered
a Boat rowing towards them, against Wind and Stream, from a Ship that lay
about three Miles to Leeward. They judged from the Number of Men in her, as
she nearer advanced, to be a Pyrate, and made some Preparation for
receiving her, believing, on a nigher View, they would think fit to
withdraw from an Attack that must be on their Side with great Disadvantage
in an open Boat, and against double the Number of Men; yet by the Rashness,
and the Pusillanimity of his own People (who laid down their Arms, and
immediately called for Quarter) the Ship was taken, and afterwards robbed
by them.

_President._ Can you charge your Memory with any Particulars in the Seizure
and Robbery?

_Evidence._ We know that _Magnes_, Quarter-Master of the Pyrate Ship,
commanded the Men in this Boat that took us, and assumed the Authority of
ordering her Provisions and Stores out, which being of different Kinds, we
soon found, were seized and sent away under more particular Directions; for
_Main_, as Boatswain of the Pyrate Ship, carried away two Cables, and
several Coils of Rope, as what belonged to his Province, beating some of
our own Men for not being brisk enough at working in the Robbery. _Petty_,
as Sail-maker, saw to the Sails and Canvas; _Harper_, as Cooper to the Cask
and Tools; _Griffin_, to the Carpenter's Stores, and _Oughterlauney_, as
Pilot, having shifted himself with a Suit of my Clothes, a new tye Wig, and
called for a Bottle of Wine, ordered the Ship, very arrogantly, to be
steered under Commadore _Robert_'s Stern, (I suppose to know what Orders
there were concerning her.) So far particularly. In the general, Sir, they
were very outragious and emulous in Mischief.

_President._ Mr. _Castel_, acquaint the Court of what you know in Relation
to this Robbery of the King _Solomon_; after what Manner the Pyrate-Boat
was dispatch'd for this Attempt.

_Tho. Castel._ I was a Prisoner, Sir, with the Pyrates when their Boat was
ordered upon that Service, and found, upon a Resolution of going, Word was
passed through the Company, Who would go? And I saw all that did, did it
voluntarily; no Compulsion, but rather pressing who should be foremost.

The Prisoners yielded to what had been sworn about the Attack and Robbery,
but denied the latter Evidence, saying, _Roberts_ hector'd, and upbraided
them of Cowardice on this very Occasion; and told some, they were very
ready to step on Board of a Prize when within Command of the Ship, but now
there seem'd to be a Tryal of their Valour, backward and fearful.

_President._ So that _Roberts_ forc'd ye upon this Attack.

_Prisoners. Roberts_ commanded us into the Boat, and the Quarter-Master to
rob the Ship; neither of whose Commands we dared to have refused.

_President._ And granting it so, those are still your own Acts, since done
by Orders from Officers of your own Election. Why would Men, honestly
disposed, give their Votes for such a Captain and such a Quarter-Master as
were every Day commanding them on distastful Services?

Here succeeded a Silence among the Prisoners, but at length _Fernon_ very
honestly own'd, that he did not give his Vote to _Magnes_, but to _David
Sympson_ (the old Quarter-Master,) _for in Truth_, says he, _I took_ Magnes
_for too honest a Man, and unfit for the Business._

The Evidence was plain and home, and the Court, without any Hesitation,
brought them in _Guilty._

W_ILLIAM Church, Phil. Haak, James White, Nich. Brattle, Hugh Riddle,
William Thomas, Tho. Roberts, Jo. Richards, Jo. Cane, R. Wood, R. Scot, Wm.
Davison, Sam. Morwell, Edward Evans, Wm. Guineys_, and 18 _French_ Men.

The four first of these Prisoners, it was evident to the Court, served as
Musick on Board the Pyrate, were forced lately from the several Merchant
Ships they belonged to; and that they had, during this Confinement, an
uneasy Life of it, having sometimes their Fiddles, and often their Heads
broke, only for excusing themselves, or saying they were tired, when any
Fellow took it in his Head to demand a Tune.

The other _English_ had been a very few Days on Board the Pyrate, only from
_Whydah_ to Cape _Lopez_, and no Capture or Robbery done by them in that
Time. And the _French_ Men were brought with a Design to reconduct their
own Ship (or the _Little Ranger_ in Exchange) to _Whydah_ Road again, and
were used like Prisoners; neither quarter'd nor suffered to carry Arms. So
that the Court immediately acquiesced in, _Acquitting them._

T_HO. Sutton, David Sympson, Christopher Moody, Phil. Bill, R. Hardy,
Hen. Dennis, David Rice, Wm. Williams, R. Harris, Geo. Smith, Ed. Watts,
Jo. Mitchell_ and _James Barrow._

The Evidence against these Prisoners, were _Geret de Haen_, Master of the
_Flushingham_, taken nigh _Axim_, the Beginning of _January_ last.

_Benj. Kreft_ Master, and _James Groet_ Mate of the _Gertruycht_, taken
nigh _Gabone_ in _December_ last, and Mr. _Castel, Wingfield_ and others,
that had been Prisoners with the Pyrates.

The former deposed, that all these Prisoners (excepting _Hardy_) were on
Board at the Robbery and Plunder of their Ships, behaving in a vile
outragious Manner, putting them in bodily Fears, sometimes for the Ship,
and sometimes for themselves; and in particular, _Kreft_ charged it on
_Sutton_, that he had ordered all their Gunner's Stores out; on which that
Prisoner presently interrupted, and said, he was perjured, _That he had not
taken half._ A Reply, I believe, not designed as any sawcy Way of jesting,
but to give their Behaviour an Appearance of more Humanity than the _Dutch_
would allow.

From Mr. _Castel, Wingfield_ and others, they were proved to be
distinguished Men, Men who were consulted as Chiefs in all Enterprizes;
belonged most of them to the House of Lords, (as they call'd it,) and could
carry an Authority over others. The former said, particularly of _Hardy_,
(Quarter-Master of the _Ranger_,) that when the _Diligence_ Sloop was
taken, (whereto he belonged,) none was busier in the Plunder, and was the
very Man who scuttled and sunk that Vessel.

From some of the Prisoners acquitted, it was farther demanded, whether the
Acceptance or Refusal of any Office was not in their own Option? And it was
declared, that every Officer was chose by a Majority of Votes, and might
refuse, if he pleased, since others gladly embraced what brought with it an
additional Share of Prize. _Guilty_

                                * * *

The Court on the 31st of _March_, remanded the following six before them,
for Sentence, _viz. Dav. Sympson, Wm. Magnes, R. Hardy, Thomas Sutton,
Christopher Moody_, and _Valen. Ashplant._

To whom the President spoke to the following Purpose; _The Crime of Pyracy,
of which all of ye have been justly convicted, is of all other Robberies
the most aggravating and inhumane, in that being removed from the Fears of
Surprize, in remote and distant Parts, ye do in Wantonness of Power often
add Cruelty to Theft._

_Pyrates unmoved at Distress or Poverty, not only spoil and rob, but do it
from Men needy, and who are purchasing their Livlihoods thro' Hazards and
Difficulties, which ought rather to move Compassion; and what is still
worse, do often, by Perswasion or Force, engage the inconsiderate Part of
them, to their own and Families Ruin, removing them from their Wives and
Children, and by that, from the Means that should support them from Misery
and Want._

_To a trading Nation, nothing can be so Destructive as Pyracy, or call for
more exemplary Punishment; besides, the national Reflection it infers: It
cuts off the Returns of Industry, and those plentiful Importations that
alone can make an Island flourishing; and it is your Aggravation, that ye
have been the Chiefs and Rulers in these licentious and lawless Practices._

_However, contrary to the Measures ye have dealt, ye have been heard with
Patience, and tho' little has, or possibly could, have been said in Excuse
or Extenuation of your Crimes, yet Charity makes us hope that a true and
sincere Repentance_ (_which we heartily recommend_) _may entitle ye to
Mercy and Forgiveness, after the Sentence of the Law has taken Place, which
now remains upon me to pronounce._

Y_OU_ Dav. Simpson, William Magnes, R. Hardy, Tho. Sutton,
Christopher Moody, _and_ Val. Ashplant.

_Ye, and each of you, are adjudged and sentenced, to be carried back to the
Place from whence ye came, from thence to the Place of Execution, without
the Gates of this Castle, and there within the Flood-Marks, to be hanged by
the Neck till ye are dead._

_After this, ye, and each of you shall be taken down, and your Bodies
hanged in Chains._

Warrant for Execution.

P_URSUANT to the Sentence given on_ Saturday, _by the Court of
Admiralty, at_ Cape-Corso-Castle, _against_ Dav. Simpson, Wm. Magnes, R.
Hardy, Tho. Sutton, Christopher Moody, _and_ Valentine Ashplant.

_You are hereby directed to carry the aforesaid Malefactors to the Place of
Execution, without the Gates of this Castle, to Morrow Morning at Nine of
the Clock, and there within the Flood-Marks, cause them to be hanged by the
Neck till they are dead, for which, this shall be your Warrant. Given under
my Hand, this_ 2_d Day of_ April 1722.

_To_ Joseph Gordyn, _Provost-Marshal._

Mungo Heardman.

_The Bodies remove in Chains, to the Gibbets already erected on the
adjacent Hillocks._

M. H.

_William Phillips._

IT appeared by the Evidence of Captain _Jo. Trahern_, and _George
Fenn_, Mate of the King _Solomon_, that this Prisoner was Boatswain of the
same Ship, when she was attacked and taken off Cape _Appollonia_, the 6th
of _January_ last, by the Pyrate's Boat.

When the Boat drew nigh, (they say,) it was judged from the Number of Men
in her, that they were Pyrates, and being hailed, answered, _Defiance_; at
which the Commander snatched a Musquet from one of his Men, and fired,
asking them at the same Time, whether they would stand by him, to defend
the Ship? But the Pyrates returning a Volley, and crying out, they would
give no Quarters if any Resistance was made; this Prisoner took upon him to
call out for Quarters, without the Master's Consent, and mislead the rest
to the laying down their Arms, and giving up the Ship, to half the Number
of Men, and in an open Boat. It was further evident he became, after this,
a Voluntier amongst them. First, because he was presently very forward and
brisk, in robbing the Ship _King Solomon_, of her Provisions and Stores.
Secondly, because he endeavoured to have his Captain ill used; and lastly,
because he had confessed to _Fenn_, that he had been obliged to sign their
Articles that Night, (a Pistol being laid on the Table, to signify he must
do it, or be shot,) when the whole appeared to be an Untruth from other
Evidence, who also asserted his being armed in the Action against the

In answer to this, he first observed upon the Unhappiness of being
friendless in this Part of the World, which, elsewhere, by witnessing to
the Honesty of his former Life, would, he believed, in a great Measure,
have invalidated the wrong Evidence had been given of his being a Voluntier
with the Pyrates. He owns indeed, he made no Application to his Captain, to
intercede for a Discharge, but excuses it with saying, he had a dislike to
him, and therefore was sure that such Application would have avail'd him

The Court observed the Pretences of this, and other of the Pyrates, of a
Pistol and their Articles being served up in a Dish together, or of their
being misused and forced from an honest Service, was often a Complotment of
the Parties, to render them less suspected of those they came from, and was
to answer the End of being put in a News-Paper or Affidavit: and the
Pyrates were so generous as not to refuse a Compliment to a Brother that
cost them nothing, and, at the same Time, secured them the best Hands; the
best I call them, because such a Dependance made them act more boldly.

_Harry Glasby_, Master.

THere appearing several Persons in Court, who had been taken by
_Roberts_'s Ship, whereof the Prisoner was Master, their Evidence was
accepted as follows.

_Jo. Trahern_, Commander of the _King Solomon_, deposed, the Prisoner,
indeed, to act as Master of the Pyrate Ship (while he was under Restraint
there) but was observed like no Master, every one obeying at Discretion, of
which he had taken Notice, and complained to him, how hard a Condition it
was, to be a Chief among Brutes; and that he was weary of his Life, and
such other Expressions, (now out of his Memory,) as shew'd in him a great
Disinclination to that Course of Living.

_Jo. Wingfield_, a Prisoner with them at _Calabar_, says the same, as to
the Quality he acted in, but that he was Civil beyond any of them, and
verily believes, that when the Brigantine he served on Board of, as a
Factor for the _African_ Company, was voted to be burnt, this Man was the
Instrument of preventing it, expressing himself with a great deal of
Sorrow, for this and the like malicious Rogueries of the Company he was in;
that to him shewed, he had acted with Reluctancy, as one who could not
avoid what he did. He adds further, that when one _Hamilton_, a Surgeon,
was taken by them, and the Articles about to be imposed on him, he opposed,
and prevented it. And that _Hunter_, another Surgeon, among them, was
cleared at the Prisoner's Instance and Perswasion; from which last, this
Deponent had it assured to him, that _Glasby_ had once been under Sentence
of Death, on Board of them, with two more, for endeavouring an Escape in
the _West-Indies_, and that the other two were really shot for it.

_Elizabeth Trengrove_, who was taken a Passenger in the _African_ Company's
Ship _Onslow_, strengthen'd the Evidence of the last Witness; for having
heard a good Character of this _Glasby_, she enquired of the
Quarter-Master, who was then on Board a robbing, whether or no she could
see him? And he told her, _No_; they never ventured him from the Ship, for
he had once endeavoured his Escape, and they had ever since continued
jealous of him.

_Edward Crisp_, Captain _Trengrove_, and Captain _Sharp_, who had all been
taken in their Turns, acknowledge for themselves and others, who had
unluckily fallen into those Pyrates Hands, that the good Usage they had met
with, was chiefly thro' the Prisoner's Means, who often interposed, for
leaving sufficient Stores and Instruments on Board the Ships they had
robbed, alledging, they were superfluous and unnecessary there.

_James White_, whose Business was Musick, and was on the Poop of the Pyrate
Ship in Time of Action with the _Swallow_, deposed, that during the
Engagement, and Defence she made, he never saw the Prisoner busied about
the Guns, or giving Orders, either to the loading or firing of them; but
that he wholly attended to the setting, or trimming, of the Sails, as
_Roberts_ commanded; and that in the Conclusion, he verily believed him to
be the Man who prevented the Ship's being blown up, by setting trusty
Centinels below, and opposing himself against such hot-headed Fellows as
had procured lighted Matches, and were going down for that Purpose.

_Isaac Sun_, Lieutenant of the Man of War, deposed, that when he came to
take Possession of the Prize, in the King's Boat, he found the Pyrates in a
very distracted and divided Condition; some being for blowing up, and
others (who perhaps supposed themselves least culpable) opposing it: That
in this Confusion he enquired for the Prisoner, of whom he had before heard
a good Character; and thinks he rendered all the Service in his Power, for
preventing it; in particular, he understood by all Hands, that he had
seized, and taken, from one _James Philips_, a lighted Match, at the
Instant he was going down to the Magazine, swearing, that he should send
them all to H--l together. He had heard also, that after _Roberts_ was
killed, the Prisoner ordered the Colours to be struck; and had since shown,
how opposite his Practice and Principles had been, by discovering who were
the greatest Rogues among them.

The Prisoner, in his own Defence, says, when he had the Misfortune of
falling into the Pyrates Hands, he was chief Mate of the _Samuel_, of
_London_, Captain _Cary_; and when he had hid himself, to prevent the
Design of carrying him away, they found him, and beat and threw him
over-board. Seven Days afterwards, upon his objecting against, and refusing
to sign their Articles, he was cut and abus'd again: That tho' after this
he ingratiated himself, by a more humble Carriage, it was only to make Life
easy; the Shares they had given him, having been from Time to Time returned
again to such Prisoners as fell in his Way; till of late, indeed, he had
made a small Reservation, and had desired Captain _Loan_ to take two or
three Moidores from him, to carry to his Wife. He was once taken, he says,
at making his Escape, in the _West-Indies_, and, with two more, sentenced
to be shot for it, by a drunken Jury; the latter actually suffered, and he
was preserved only by one of the chief Pyrates taking a sudden Liking to
him, and bullying the others. A second time he ran away at _Hispaniola_,
carrying a Pocket Compass, for conducting him through the Woods; but that
being a most desolate and wild Part of the Island he fell upon, and he
ignorant how to direct his Course, was obliged, after two or three Days
wandering, to return towards the Ship again, denying with egregious Oaths,
the Design he was charg'd with, for Fear they should shoot him. From this
Time he hopes it will be some Extenuation of his Fault, that most of the
acquitted Prisoners can witness, they entertained Jealousies of him, and
_Roberts_ would not admit him into his Secrets; and withal, that Captain
_Cary_, (and four other Passengers with him) had made Affidavit of his
having been forced from his Employ, which tho' he could not produce, yet he
humbly hoped the Court would think highly probable from the Circumstances

On the whole, the Court was of Opinion Artists had the best Pretension to
the Plea of Force, from the Necessity Pyrates are sometimes under of
engaging such, and that many Parts of his own Defence had been confirmed by
the Evidence, who had asserted he acted with Reluctance, and had expressed
a Concern and Trouble for the little Hopes remained to him, of extricating
himself. That he had used all Prisoners (as they were called) well, at the
hazard of ill Usage to himself. That he had not in any military Capacity
assisted their Robberies. That he had twice endeavoured his Escape, with
the utmost Danger. _Acquitted him._

Captain _James Skyrm._

IT appeared from the Evidence of several Prisoners acquitted, that
this _Skyrm_ commanded the _Ranger_, in that Defence she made against the
King's Ship; that he ordered the Men to their Quarters, and the Guns to be
loaded and fired, having a Sword in his Hand, to enforce those Commands;
and beat such to their Duty whom he espied any way negligent or backward.
That altho' he had lost a Leg in the Action, his Temper was so warm, as to
refuse going off the Deck, till he found all was lost.

In his Defence, he says, he was forced from a Mate's Employ on Board a
Sloop call'd the _Greyhound_, of St. _Christophers, Oct._ 1720. The Pyrate
having drubbed him, and broke his Head, only for offering to go away when
that Sloop was dismissed. Custom and Success had since indeed blunted, and,
in some Measure, worn out the Sense of Shame; but that he had really for
several Months past been sick, and disqualified for any Duty, and though
_Roberts_ had forced him on this Expedition much against his Will, yet the
Evidence must be sensible, the Title of Captain gave him no Pre-eminence,
for he could not be obeyed, though he had often called to them, to leave
off their Fire, when he perceived it to be the King's Ship.

The Sickness he alledged, but more especially the Circumstance of losing
his Leg, were Aggravations of his Fault, shewing him more alert on such
Occasions, than he was now willing to be thought: As to the Name of
Captain, if it were allowed to give him no Precedence out of Battle, yet
here it was proved a Title of Authority; such an Authority as could direct
an Engagement against the King's Colours, and therefore he was in the
highest Degree, _Guilty._

_John Walden._

CAptain _John Trahern_, and _George Fenn_, deposed, the Prisoner to
be one of the Number, who, in an open Boat, pyratically assailed, and took
their Ship, and was remarkably busy at Mischief, having a Pole-Ax in his
Hand, which served him instead of a Key, to all the lock'd Doors and Boxes
he come nigh: Also in particular, he cut the Cable of our Ship, when the
other Pyrates were willing, and busied at heaving up the Anchor, saying,
Captain, what signifies this Trouble of _Yo Hope_ and straining in hot
Weather; there are more Anchors at _London_, and besides, your Ship is to
be burnt.

_William Smith_, (a Prisoner acquitted,) says _Walden_ was known among the
Pyrates mostly, by the Nick-Name of _Miss Nanney_ (ironically its presumed
from the Hardness of his Temper) that he was one of the twenty who
voluntarily came on Board the _Ranger_, in the Chace she made out after the
_Swallow_, and by a Shot from that Ship, lost his Leg; his Behaviour in the
Fight, till then, being bold and daring.

The _President_, called for _Harry Glasby_, and bid him relate a Character
of the Prisoner, and what Custom was among them, in Relation to these
voluntary Expeditions, out of their proper Ship; and this of going on Board
the _Ranger_, in particular.

And he gave in for Evidence, that the Prisoner was looked on as a brisk
Hand, (_i. e._ as he farther explained it, a stanch Pyrate, a great Rogue)
that when the _Swallow_ first appeared in Sight, every one was willing to
believe her a _Portuguese_, because Sugar was very much in Demand, and had
made some Jarring and Dissention between the two Companies, (the
_Fortune_'s People drinking Punch, when the _Ranger_'s could not) that
_Roberts_, on Sight of the _Swallow_, hailed the new _Ranger_, and bid them
right Ship, and get under Sail; there is, says he, Sugar in the Offing,
bring it in, that we may have no more Mumbling; ordering at the same Time
the Word to be pass'd among the Crew, who would go to their Assistance, and
immediately the Boat was full of Men, to transport themselves.

_President._ Then every one that goes on Board of any Prize, does it
voluntarily? Or were there here any other Reasons for it?

_H. Glasby._ Every Man is commonly called by List, and insists, in his
Turn, to go on Board of a Prize, because they then are allowed a Shift of
Cloaths, (the best they can find) over and above the Dividend from the
Robbery, and this they are so far from being compelled to, that it often
becomes the Occasion of Contest and Quarrel amongst them: But in the
present, or such like Cases, where there appears a Prospect of Trouble, the
Lazy and Timerous are often willing to decline this Turn, and yield to
their Betters, who thereby establish a greater Credit.

The Prisoner, and the rest of those Men who went from the _Fortune_ on
Board the _Ranger_, to assist in this Expedition, were Voluntiers, and the
trustiest Men among us.

_President._ Were there no Jealousies of the _Ranger_'s leaving you in this
Chace, or at any other Time, in order to surrender?

_H. Glasby._ Most of the _Ranger_'s Crew were fresh Men, Men who had been
enter'd only since their being on the Coast of _Guiney_, and therefore had
not so liberal a Share in fresh Provisions, or Wine, as the _Fortune_'s
People, who thought they had born the Burthen and Heat of the Day, which
had given Occasion indeed to some Grumblings and Whispers, as tho' they
would take an Opportunity to leave us, but we never supposed (if they did)
it would be with any other Design then setting up for themselves, they
having (many of them) behaved with greater Severity than the old Standers.

The Prisoner appeared undaunted, and rather solicitous, about resting his
Stump, than giving any Answer to the Court, or making any Defence for
himself, till called upon; then he related in a careless, or rather
hopeless Manner, the Circumstances of his first Entrance, being forced, he
said, out of the _Blessing_ of _Lemmington_, at _Newfoundland_, about 12
Months past; this, he is sure, most of the old Pyrates knew, and that he
was for some Time as sick of the Change as any Man; but Custom and ill
Company had altered him, owning very frankly, that he was at the Attack,
and taking of the _King Solomon_, that he did cut her Cable, and that none
were forced on those Occasions.

As to the last Expedition in the _Ranger_, he confesses he went on Board of
her, but that it was by _Robert_'s Order; and in the Chace loaded one Gun,
to bring her to, but when he saw it was a Bite, he declared to his
Comrades, that it was not worth while to resist, forbore firing, and
assisted to reeve the Braces, in order, if they could, to get away, in
which sort of Service he was busied, when a Shot from the Man of War took
off his Leg: And being asked, that supposing the Chace had proved a
_Portuguese_? Why then, says he, I dont know what I might have done,
intimating withal, that every Body then would have been ready enough at
plundering. _Guilty._

_Peter Scudamore._

H_Arry Glasby, Jo. Wingfield_, and _Nicholas Brattle_, depose thus
much, as to his being a Voluntier with the Pyrates, from Capt. _Rolls_, at
_Calabar._ First, That he quarrelled with _Moody_, (one of the Heads of the
Gang) and fought with him, because he opposed his going, asking _Rolls_, in
a leering manner, whether he would not be so kind, as to put him into the
_Gazette_, when he came Home. And, at another Time, when he was going from
the Pyrate Ship, in his Boat, a Turnado arose, _I wish_, says he, _the
Rascal may be drowned, for he is a great Rogue, and has endeavoured to do
me all the ill Offices he could among these Gentlemen_, (_i. e._Pyrates.)

And secondly, That he had signed the Pyrate's Articles with a great deal of
Alacrity, and gloried in having been the first Surgeon that had done so,
(for before this, it was their Custom to change their Surgeons, when they
desired it, after having served a Time, and never obliged them to sign, but
he was resolved to break thro' this, for the good of those who were to
follow,) swearing immediately upon it, he was now, he hoped, as great a
Rogue as any of them.

Captain _Jo. Trahern_, and _George Fenn_, his Mate, deposed, the Prisoner
to have taken out of the _King Solomon_, their Surgeon's capital
Instruments, some Medicines, and a Back-Gammon Table; which latter became
the Means of a Quarrel between one _Wincon_, and he, whose Property they
should be, and were yielded to the Prisoner.

_Jo. Sharp_, Master of the _Elizabeth_, heard the Prisoner ask _Roberts_
leave to force _Comry_, his Surgeon, from him, which was accordingly done,
and with him, carried also some of the Ship's Medicines: But what gave a
fuller Proof of the dishonesty of his Principles, was, the treacherous
Design he had formed of running away with the Prize, in her Passage to Cape
_Corso_, though he had been treated with all Humanity, and very unlike a
Prisoner, on Account of his Employ and better Education, which had rendred
him less to be suspected.

_Mr. Child_, (acquitted) depos'd, that in their Passage from the Island of
St. _Thomas_, in the _Fortune_ Prize, this Prisoner was several Times
tempting him, into Measures of rising with the Negroes, and killing the
_Swallow_'s People, shewing him, how easily the white Men might be
demolished, and a new Company raised at _Angola_, and that Part of the
Coast, _for_, says he, _I understand how to navigate a Ship, and can soon
teach you to steer; and is it not better to do this, than to go back to_
Cape-Corso, _and be hanged and Sun-dryed?_ To which the Deponent replying,
he was not afraid of being hanged, _Scudamore_ bid him be still, and no
Harm should come to him; but before the next Day-Evening, which was the
designed Time of executing this Project, the Deponent discovered it to the
Officer, and assured him, _Scudamore_ had been talking all the preceeding
Night to the Negroes, in _Angolan_ Language.

_Isaac Burnet_ heard the Prisoner ask _James Harris_, a Pyrate, (left with
the wounded in the Prize,) whether he was willing to come into the Project
of running away with the Ship, and endeavour the raising of a new Company,
but turned the Discourse to Horse-Racing, as the Deponent crept nigher; he
acquainted the Officer with what he had heard, who kept the People under
Arms all Night, their Apprehensions of the Negroes not being groundless;
for many of them having lived a long Time in this pyratical Way, were, by
the thin Commons they were now reduced to, as ripe for Mischief as any.

The Prisoner in his Defence said, he was a forced Man from Captain _Rolls_,
in _October_ last, and if he had not shewn such a Concern as became him, at
the Alteration, he must remark the Occasion to be, the Disagreement and
Enmity between them; but that both _Roberts_, and _Val. Ashplant_,
threat'ned him into signing their Articles, and that he did it in Terror.

The _King Solomon_, and _Elizabeth_ Medicine-Chest, he owns he plundered,
by Order of _Hunter_, the then chief Surgeon, who, by the Pyrates Laws,
always directs in this Province, and Mr. _Child_, (tho' acquitted) had by
the same Orders taken out a whole _French_ Medicine-Chest, which he must be
sensible for me, as well as for himself, we neither of us dared to have
denied; it was their being the proper Judges, made so ungrateful an Office
imposed. If after this he was elected chief Surgeon himself, both _Comry_
and _Wilson_ were set up also, and it might have been their Chance to have
carried it, and as much out of their Power to have refused.

As to the Attempt of rising and running away with the Prize, he denies it
altogether as untrue; a few foolish Words, but only by Way of Supposition,
that if the Negroes should take it in their Heads (considering the
Weakness, and ill look-out that was kept;) it would have been an easy
Matter, in his Opinion for them to have done it; but that he encouraged
such a Thing, was false, his talking to them in the _Angolan_ Language, was
only a Way of spending his Time, and trying his Skill to tell twenty, he
being incapable of further Talk. As to his understanding Navigation, he had
frequently acknowledg'd it to the Deponent _Child_, and wonders he should
now so circumstantiate this Skill against him. _Guilty._

_Robert Johnson._

IT appeared to the Court, that the Prisoner was one of the twenty
Men, in that Boat of the Pyrates, which afterwards robb'd the _King
Solomon_, at an Anchor near Cape _Appollonia_: That all Pyrates on this,
and the like Service, were Voluntiers, and he, in particular, had contested
his going on Board a second Time, tho' out of his Turn.

The Prisoner in his Defence, called for _Harry Glasby_, who witnessed to
his being so very drunk, when he first came among their Crew, that they
were forced to hoist him out of one Ship into the other, with a Tackle, and
therefore without his Consent; but had since been a trusty Man, and was
placed to the Helm, in that running Battle they made with the _Swallow._

He insisted for himself likewise, on Captain _Turner_'s Affidavit of his
being forced, on which others (his Ship-mates) had been cleared.

The Court considering the Partiality that might be objected in acquitting
one, and condemning another of the same standing, thought sit to remark it
as a clear Testimony of their Integrity, that their Care and Indulgence to
each Man, in allowing his particular Defence, was to exempt from the Rigour
of the Law, such, who it must be allowed, would have stood too
promiscuously condemned, if they had not been heard upon any other Fact
than that of the _Swallow_; and herein what could better direct them, than
a Character and Behaviour from their own Associates; for tho' a voluntary
Entry with the Pyrates may be doubtful, yet his consequent Actions are not,
and it is not so material how a Man comes among Pyrates, as how he acts
when he is there. _Guilty._

_George Wilson._

J_OHN Sharp_, Master of the _Elizabeth_, in which Ship the Prisoner
was Passenger, and fell a second Time into the Pyrates Hands, deposes, that
he took the said _Wilson_ off from _Sestos_, on this Coast, paying to the
Negroes for his Ransom, the Value of three Pound five Shillings in Goods,
for which he had taken a Note, that he thought he had done a charitable Act
in this, till meeting with one Captain _Canning_, he was ask'd, why he
would release such a Rogue as _Wilson_ was? For that he had been a
Voluntier with the Pyrates, out of _John Tarlton._ And when the Deponent
came to be a Prisoner himself, he found _Thomas_, the Brother of this _John
Tarlton_, a Prisoner with the Pyrates also, who was immediately on
_Wilson_'s Instigation, in a most sad manner misused and beat, and had been
shot, through the Fury and Rage of some of those Fellows, if the Town-side,
(_i. e. Liverpool_) Men, had not hid him in a Stay-Sail, under the
Bowsprit; for _Moody_ and _Harper_, with their Pistols cock'd, searched
every Corner of the Ship to find him, and came to this Deponent's Hammock,
whom they had like fatally to have mistaken for _Tarlton_, but on his
calling out, they found their Error, and left him with this comfortable
Anodyne, That he was the honest Fellow who brought the Doctor. At coming
away, the Prisoner asked about his Note, whether the Pyrates had it or no?
Who not being able readily to tell, he reply'd, it's no Matter Mr. _Sharp_,
I believe I shall hardly ever come to _England_ to pay it.

_Adam Comry_, Surgeon of the _Elizabeth_, says, that altho' the Prisoner
had, on Account of his Indisposition and Want, received many Civilities
from him, before meeting with the Pyrates, he yet understood it was thro'
his and _Scudamore_'s Means, that he had been compelled among them: The
Prisoner was very alert and chearful, he says, at meeting with _Roberts_,
hailed him, told him he was glad to see him, and would come on Board
presently, borrowing of the Deponent a clean Shirt and Drawers, for his
better Appearence and Reception; he signed their Articles willingly, and
used Arguments with him to do the same, saying, they should make their
Voyage in eight Months, to _Brasil_, Share 6 or 700 _l._ a Man, and then
break up. Again, when the Crew came to an Election of a chief Surgeon, and
this Deponent was set up with the others, _Wilson_ told him, he hoped he
should carry it from _Scudamore_, for that a quarter Share (which they had
more than others) would be worth looking after; but the Deponent missed the
Preferment, by the good Will of the _Ranger_'s People, who, in general,
voted for _Scudamore_, to get rid of him, (the chief Surgeon being always
to remain with the Commadore.)

It appeared likewise by the Evidence of Captain _Jo. Trahern, Tho. Castel_,
and others, who had been taken by the Pyrates, and thence had Opportunities
of observing the Prisoners Conduct, that he seem'd thoroughly satisfy'd
with that Way of Life, and was particularly intimate with _Roberts_; they
often scoffing at the Mention of a Man of War, and saying, if they should
meet with any of the Turnip-Man's Ships, they would blow up, and go to
H--ll together. Yet setting aside these silly Freaks, to recommend himself,
his Laziness had got him many Enemies, even _Roberts_ told him, (on the
Complaint of a wounded Man, whom he had refused to dress) that he was a
double Rogue, to be there a second Time, and threat'ned to cut his Ears

The Evidence further assured the Court, from Captain _Thomas Tarlton_, that
the Prisoner was taken out of his Brother's Ship, some Months before, a
first Time, and being forward to oblige his new Company, had presently
ask'd for the Pyrates Boat, to fetch the Medicine Chest away; when the Wind
and Current proving too hard to contend with, they were drove on Shore at
Cape _Montzerado._

The Prisoner called for _William Darling_, and _Samuel Morwel_, (acquitted)
and _Nicholas Butler._

_William Darling_ deposed, the first Time the Prisoner fell into their
Hands, _Roberts_ mistook him for _Jo. Tarlton_ the Master, and being
informed it was the Surgeon who came to represent him, (then indisposed,)
he presently swore he should be his Mess-Mate, to which _Wilson_ reply'd,
he hop'd not, he had a Wife and Child, which the other laughed at; and that
he had been two Days on Board, before he went in that Boat, which was drove
on Shore at Cape _Montzerado._ And at his second coming, in the
_Elizabeth_, he heard _Roberts_ order he should be brought on Board in the
first Boat.

_Samuel Morwel_ says, that he has heard him bewail his Condition, while on
Board the Pyrate, and desired one _Thomas_, to use his Interest with
_Roberts_, for a Discharge, saying, his Employ, and the little Fortune he
had left at Home, would, he hop'd, exempt him the further Trouble of
seeking his Bread at Sea.

_Nicholas Butler_, who had remained with the Pyrates about 48 Hours, when
they took the _French_ Ships at _Whydah_, deposes, that in this Space the
Prisoner addressed him in the _French_ Language, several Times, deploring
the Wretchedness and ill Fortune of being confined in such Company.

The Prisoner desiring Liberty of two or three Questions, ask'd, whether or
no he had not expostulated with _Roberts_, for a Reason of his obliging
Surgeons to sign their Articles, when heretofore they did not; Whether he
had not expressed himself glad of having formerly escaped from them?
Whether he had not said, at taking the Ships in _Whydah_ Road, that he
could like the Sport, were it lawful? And whether if he had not told him,
should the Company discharge any Surgeon, that he would insist on it as his
Turn? The Deponent answered, Yes, to every Question separately; and
farther, that he believes _Scudamore_ had not seen _Wilson_ when he first
came and found him out of the _Elizabeth._

He added, in his own Defence, that being Surgeon with one _John Tarlton_,
of _Leverpool_, he was met a first Time on this Coast of _Guiney_, by
_Roberts_ the Pyrate; who, after a Day or two, told him, to his Sorrow,
that he was to stay there, and ordered him to fetch his Chest, (not
Medicines, as asserted,) which Opportunity he took to make his Escape; for
the Boat's Crew happening to consist of five _French_ and one _English_
Man, all as willing as himself, they agreed to push the Boat on Shore, and
trust themselves with the Negroes of Cape _Montzerado_: Hazardous, not only
in Respect of the dangerous Seas that run there, but the Inhumanity of the
Natives, who sometimes take a liking to humane Carcasses. Here he remained
five Months, till _Thomas Tarlton_, Brother to his Captain chanced to put
in the Road for Trade, to whom he represented his Hardships and starving
Condition; but was, in an unchristian Manner, both refused a Release of
this Captivity, or so much as a small Supply of Biscuit and salt Meat,
because, as he said, he had been among the Pyrates. A little Time after
this, the Master of a _French_ Ship paid a Ransom for him, and took him
off; but, by Reason of a nasty leperous Indisposition he had contracted by
hard and bad living, was, to his great Misfortune set ashore at _Sestos_
again, when Captain _Sharp_ met him, and generously procured his Release in
the Manner himself has related, and for which he stands infinitely
obliged.--That ill Luck threw him a second Time into the Pyrate's Hands, in
this Ship _Elizabeth_, where he met _Thomas Tarlton_, and thoughtlesly used
some Reproaches of him, for his severe Treatment at _Montzerado_; but
protests without Design his Words should have had so bad a Consequence; for
_Roberts_ took upon him, as a Dispenser of Justice, the Correction of Mr.
_Tarlton_, beating him unmercifully; and he hopes it will be belived,
contrary to any Intention of his it should so happen, because as a Stranger
he might be supposed to have no Influence, and believes there were some
other Motives for it.--He cannot remember he expressed himself glad to see
_Roberts_ this second Time, or that he dropped those Expressions about
_Comry_, as are sworn; but if immaturity of Judgment had occasioned him to
slip rash and inadvertent Words, or that he had paid any undue Compliments
to _Roberts_, it was to ingratiate himself, as every Prisoner did, for a
more civil Treatment, and in particular to procure his Discharge, which he
had been promised, and was afraid would have been revoked, if such a Person
as _Comry_ did not remain there to supply his Room; and of this, he said,
all the Gentlemen (meaning the Pyrates) could witness for him.

He urged also his Youth in Excuse for his Rashness.--The first time he had
been with them (only a Month in all,) and that in no military Employ; but
in particular, the Service he had done in discovering the Design the
Pyrates had to rise in their Passage on Board the _Swallow. Guilty._

                                * * *

But Execution respited till the King's Pleasure be known, because the
Commander of the _Swallow_ had declared, the first Notice he received of
this Design of the Pyrates to rise, was from him.

_Benjamin Jefferys_

BY the Depositions of _Glasby_ and _Lillburn_ (acquitted) against
this Prisoner, it appeared, that his Drunkenness was what at first detained
him from going away in his proper Ship, the _Norman_ Galley; and next
Morning, for having been abusive in his Drink, saying to the Pyrates, there
was not a Man amongst them, he received for a Welcome, six Lashes from
every Person in the Ship, which disordered him for some Weeks, but on
Recovery was made Boatswain's Mate; the serving of which, or any Office on
Board a Pyrate, is at their own Option, (tho' elected,) because others are
glad to accept what brings an additional Share in Prize.

The Deponents further say, that at _Sierraleon_ every Man had more
especially the Means of escaping; and that this Prisoner, in particular,
neglected it, and came off from that Place after their Ship was under Sail,
and going out of the River.

The Prisoner, in his Defence, protests, he was at first forc'd; and that
the Office of Boatswain's Mate was imposed on him, and what he would have
been glad to have relinquish'd. That the barbarous Whipping he had received
from the Pyrates at first, was for telling them, that none who could get
their Bread in an honest Way, would be on such an Account. And he had
certainly taken the Opportunity which presented at _Sierraleon_, of ridding
himself from so distastful a Life, if there had not been three or four of
the old Pyrates on Shore at the same Time, who, he imagined, must know of
him, and would doubtless have served him the same, if not worse, than they
since had done _William Williams_; who, for such a Design, being delivered
up by the treacherous Natives, had received two Lashes thro' the whole
Ship's Company.

The Court observed, the Excuses of these Pyrates, about want of Means to
escape, was oftentimes as poor and evasive as their Pleas of being forced
at first; for here, at _Sierraleon_, every Man had his Liberty on Shore,
and it was evident, might have kept it, if he, or they, had so pleased. And
such are further culpable, who having been introduced into the Society, by
such uncivil Methods, as whipping, or beating, neglect less likely Means of
regaining Liberty; it shews strong Inclinations to Dishonesty, and they
stand inexcusably, _Guilty._

_Jo. Mansfield._

IT was proved against this Prisoner, by Captain _Trahern_ and _George
Fenn_, that he was one of those Voluntiers who was at the Attack and
Robbery of the Company's Ship, called the _King Solomon_: That he bully'd
well among them who dar'd not make any Reply, but was very easy with his
Friends, who knew him; for _Moody_, on this Occasion, took a large Glass
from him, and threatned to blow his Brains out, (a favourite Phrase with
these Pyrates) if he muttered at it.

From others acquitted, it likewise appeared, that he was at first a
Voluntier among them, from an Island call'd _Dominico_, in the
_West-Indies_, and had to recommend himself, told them, he was a Deserter
from the _Rose_ Man of War, and before that, had been on the High-Way; he
was always drunk, they said, and so bad at the Time they met with the
_Swallow_, that he knew nothing of the Action, but came up vapouring with
his Cutlash, after the _Fortune_ had struck her Colours, to know who would
go on Board the Prize; and it was some Time before they could perswade him
into the Truth of their Condition.

He could say little in Defence of himself, acknowledg'd this latter Part of
Drunkenness; a Vice, he says, that had too great a Share in insnaring him
into this Course of Life, and had been a greater Motive with him than Gold.

_William Davis._

W_Illiam Allen_ deposed, he knew this Prisoner at _Sierraleon_,
belonging to the _Ann_ Galley; that he had a Quarrel with, and beat the
Mate of that Ship, for which (as he said) being afraid to return to his
Duty, he consorted to the idle Customs and Ways of living among the
Negroes, from whom he received a Wife, and ungratefully sold her, one
Evening, for some Punch to quench his Thirst. After this, having put
himself under the Protection of Mr. _Plunket_, Governor there for the Royal
_African_ Company: The Relations and Friends of the Woman, apply'd to him
for Redress, who immediately surrendered the Prisoner, and told them, he
did not care if they took his Head off; but the Negroes wisely judging it
would not fetch so good a Price, they sold him in his Turn again to
Seignior _Jossee_, a Christian Black, and Native of that Place; who
expected and agreed for two Years Service from him, on Consideration of
what he had disbursed, for the Redemption of the Woman: But long before the
Expiration of this Time, _Roberts_ came into _Sierraleon_ River, where the
Prisoner, (as Seignior _Jossee_ assured the Deponent,) entered a Voluntier
with them.

The Deponent further corroborates this Part of the Evidence; in that he
being obliged to call at Cape _Mount_, in his Passage down hither, met
there with two Deserters from _Roberts_'s Ship, who assured him of the
same; and that the Pyrates did design to turn _Davis_ away the next
Opportunity, as an idle good-for-nothing Fellow.

From _Glasby_ and _Lilburn_, it was evident, that every Pyrate, while they
stay'd at _Sierraleon_, went on Shore at Discretion. That _Roberts_ had
often assured Mr. _Glyn_ and other Traders, at that Place, that he would
force no Body; and in short, there was no Occasion for it; in particular,
the Prisoner's Row-Mate went away, and thinks, he might have done the same,
if he had pleased.

The Prisoner alledged his having been detained against his Will, and says,
that returning with Elephants Teeth for _Sierraleon_, the Pyrate's Boat
pursued and brought him on Board, where he was kept on Account of his
understanding the Pilotage and Navigation of that River.

It was obvious to the Court, not only how frivolous Excuses of Constraint
and Force were among these People, at their first commencing Pyrates, but
also it was plain to them, from these two Deserters, met at Cape _Mount_,
and the discretional Manner they lived in, at _Sierraleon_; thro' how
little Difficulty several of them did, and others might, have escaped
afterwards, if they could but have obtained their own Consents for it.

                                * * *

This is the Substance of the Tryals of _Roberts_'s Crew, which may suffice
for others, that occur in this Book. The foregoing Lists, shews, by a *
before the Names, who were condemn'd; those Names with a + were referred
for Tryal to the _Marshalsea_, and all the rest were acquitted.

The following Pyrates were executed, according to their Sentence,
without the Gates of Cape _Corso-Castle_, within the Flood-Marks, _viz._

Mens Names          Years of Age   Habitations.
William Magnes          35         Minehead.
Richard Hardy           25         Wales.
David Sympson           36         North-Berwick.
Christopher Moody       28
Thomas Sutton           23         Berwick.
Valentine Ashplant      32         Minories.
Peter de Vine           42         Stepney.
William Philips         29         Lower-Shadwell.
Philip Bill             27         St. Thomas's.
William Main            28
William Mackintosh      21         Canterbury.
William Williams        40         nigh Plymouth.
Robert Haws             31         Yarmouth.
William Petty           30         Deptford.
John Jaynson            22         nigh Lancaster.
Marcus Johnson          21         Smyrna.
Robert Crow             44         Isle of Man.
Michael Maer            41         Ghent.
Daniel Harding          26         Croomsbury in Somersetshire.
William Fernon          22         Somersetshire.
Jo. More                19         Meer in Wiltshire.
Abraham Harper          23         Bristol.
Jo. Parker              22         Winfred in Dorsetshire.
Jo. Philips             28         Alloway in Scotland.
James Clement           20         Jersey.
Peter Scvdamore         35         Bristol.
James Skyrm             44         Wales.
John Walden             24         Somersetshire.
Jo. Stephenson          40         Whitby.
Jo. Mansfield           30         Orkneys.
Israel Hynde            30         Bristol.
Peter Lesley            21         Aberdeen.
Charles Bunce           26         Excter
Robert Birtson          30         Other St. Maries Devonshire.
Richard Harris          45         Cornwall.
Joseph Nosuter          26         Sadbury in Devonshire.
William Williams        30         Speechless at Execution.
Agge Jacobson           30         Holland.
Benjamin Jefferys       21         Bristol.
Cuthbert Goss           21         Topsham.
John Jessup             20         Plymouth.
Edward Watts            22         Dunmore.
Thomas Giles            26         Mine-head.
William Wood            27         York.
Thomas Armstrong        34         London, executed on board the Weymouth.
Robert Johnson          32         at Whydah.
George Smith            25         Wales.
William Watts           23         Ireland.
James Philips           35         Antegoa.
John Coleman            24         Wales.
Robert Hays             20         Liverpool.
William Davis           23         Wales.

The Remainder of the Pyrates, whose Names are under mentioned, upon their
humble Petition to the Court, had their Sentence changed from Death, to
seven Years Servitude, conformable to our Sentence of Transportation; the
Petition is as follows.

                                * * *

_To the Honourable the President and Judges of the Court of
Admiralty, for trying of Pyrates, sitting at_ Cape Corso-Castle; _the_
20_th Day of_ April, 1722.

The humble Petition of _Thomas How, Samuel Fletcher_, &c.

      Humbly sheweth,

T_HAT your Petitioners being unhappily, and unwarily drawn into that
wretched and detestable Crime of Pyracy, for which they now stand justly
condemned, they most humbly pray the Clemency of the Court, in the
Mitigation of their Sentence, that they may be permitted to serve the
Royal_ African _Company of_ England, _in this Country for seven Years, in
such a Manner as the Court shall think proper; that by their just
Punishment, being made sensible of the Error of their former Ways, they
will for the future become faithful Subjects, good Servants, and useful in
their Stations, if it please the Almighty to prolong their Lives._

And your Petitioners, as in Duty, _&c._

The Resolution of the Court was,

T_HAT the Petitioners have Leave by this Court of Admiralty, to
interchange Indentures with the Captain General of the_ Gold Coast, _for
the Royal_ African _Company, for seven Years Servitude, at any of the
Royal_ African _Company's Settlements in_ Africa, _in such Manner as he the
said Captain General shall think proper._

_On_ Thursday _the_ 26_th Day of_ April, _the Indentures being all drawn
out, according to the Grant made to the Petitioners, by the Court held on_
Friday _the_ 20_th of this Instant; each Prisoner was sent for up, signed,
sealed and exchanged them in the Presence of_

_Captain_ Mungo Herdman, _President_, James Phipps, _Esq_; _Mr._
Edward Hyde, _Mr._ Charles Fanshaw, _And Mr._ John Atkins, _Register._

_A Copy of the Indenture._

   The Indenture of a Person
   condemned to serve abroad for Pyracy, which, upon the
   humble Petition of the Pyrates therein mentioned, was
   most mercifully granted by his Imperial Majesty's
   Commissioners and Judges appointed to hold a Court of
   Admiralty, for the Tryal of Pyrates at Cape
   _Corso-Castle_, in _Africa_, upon Condition of serving
   seven Years, and other Conditions, are as follows,

T_HIS Indenture made the twenty sixth Day of_ April, Anno Regni Regis
Georgii magnæ Britanniæ, _&c._ Septimo, Domini, Millessimo, Sepcentessimo
viginti duo, _between_ Roger Scot, _late of the City of_ Bristol _Mariner,
of the one Part, and the Royal_ African _Company of_ England, _their
Captain General and Commander in Chief, for the Time being, on the other
Part_, Witnesseth, _that the said_ Roger Scot, _doth hereby covenant, and
agree to, and with, the said Royal_ African _Company, their Captain
General, and Commander in chief for the Time being, to serve him, or his
lawful Successors, in any of the Royal_ African _Company's Settlements on
the Coast of_ Africa, _from the Day of the Date of these Presents, to the
full Term of seven Years, from hence next ensuing, fully to be compleat and
ended; there to serve in such Employment, as the said Captain General, or
his Successors shall employ him; according to the Custom of the Country in
like Kind._

_In Consideration whereof, the said Captain General, and Commander in chief
doth covenant and agree, to, and with, the said_ Roger Scot, _to find and
allow him Meat, Drink, Apparel and Lodging, according to the Custom of the

_In witness whereof, the Parties aforesaid, to these Presents, have
interchangably put their Hands and Seals, the Day and Year first above

_Signed, sealed and delivered, in the Presence of us, at Cape_
Corso-Castle, _in_ Africa, _where no stamp'd Paper was to be had._

Mungo Heardman, _President_, Witness. John Atkins, _Register_,

In like Manner was drawn out and exchanged the Indentures of

T_Homas How_ of _Barnstable_, in the County of _Devon._

_Samuel Fletcher_ of _East-Smithfield, London._

_John Lane_ of _Lombard-Street, London._

_David Littlejohn_ of _Bristol._

_John King_ of _Shadwell_ Parish, _London._

_Henry Dennis_ of _Bidiford._

_Hugh Harris_ of _Corf-Castle, Devonshire._

_William Taylor_ of _Bristol._

_Thomas Owen_ of _Bristol._

_John Mitchel_ of _Shadwell_ Parish, _London._

_Joshua Lee_ of _Leverpool._

_William Shuren_ of _Wapping_ Parish, _London._

_Robert Hartley_ of _Leverpool._

_John Griffin_ of _Blackwall, Middlesex._

_James Cromby_ of _London, Wapping._

_James Greenham_ of _Marshfield, Gloucestershire._

_John Horn_ of St. _James's_ Parish, _London._

_John Jessop_ of _Wisbich, Cambridgshire._

_David Rice_ of _Bristol._

                                * * *

None of which, I hear, are now living, two others, _viz. George Wilson_ and
_Thomas Oughterlaney_, were respited from Execution, till his Majesty's
Pleasure should be known; the former dy'd abroad, and the latter came Home,
and received his Majesty's Pardon; the Account of the whole stands thus,

Acquitted,                            74
Executed,                             52
Respited,                              2
To Servitude,                         20
To the Marshalsea,                    17
Kill'd in the Ranger,                 10
Kill'd in the Fortune,                 3
Dy'd in the Passage to Cape Corso,    15
Dy'd afterwards in the Castle,         4
Negroes in both Ships,                70
                              Total, 276

I am not ignorant how acceptable the Behaviour and dying Words of
Malefactors are to the generallity of our Countrymen, and therefore shall
deliver what occurr'd, worthy of Notice, in the Behaviour of these

The first six that were called to Execution, were _Magnes, Moody, Sympson,
Sutton, Ashplant_, and _Hardy_; all of them old Standers and notorious
Offenders: When they were brought out of the Hold, on the Parade, in order
to break off their Fetters, and fit the Halters; none of them, it was
observed, appeared the least dejected, unless _Sutton_, who spoke faint,
but it was rather imputed to a Flux that had seiz'd him two or three Days
before, than Fear. A Gentleman, who was Surgeon of the Ship, was so
charitable at this Time, to offer himself in the room of an Ordinary, and
represented to them, as well as he was able, the Heinousness of their Sin,
and Necessity which lay on them of Repentance; one particular Part of which
ought to be, acknowledging the Justice they had met with. They seem'd
heedless for the present, some calling for Water to drink, and others
applying to the Soldiers for Caps, but when this Gentleman press'd them for
an Answer, they all exclaim'd against the Severity of the Court, and were
so harden'd, as to curse, and wish the same Justice might overtake all the
Members of it, as had been dealt to them. _They were poor Rogues_, they
said, _and so hang'd, while others, no less guilty in another Way,

When he endeavoured to compose their Minds, exhorting them to dye in
Charity with all the World, and would have diverted them from such vain
Discourse, by asking them their Country, Age, and the like; some of them
answered, `What was that to him, they suffered the Law, and should give no
Account but to God;´ walking to the Gallows without a Tear, in Token of
Sorrow for their past Offences, or shewing as much Concern as a Man would
express at travelling a bad Road; nay, _Sympson_, at seeing a Woman that he
knew, said, `he had lain with that B--h three times, and now she was come
to see him hang'd.´ And _Hardy_, when his Hands were ty'd behind him,
(which happened from their not being acquainted with the Way of bringing
Malefactors to Execution,) observed, `that he had seen many a Man hang'd,
but this Way of the Hands being ty'd behind them, he was a Stranger to, and
never saw before in his Life.´ I mention these two little Instances, to
shew how stupid and thoughtless they were of their End, and that the same
abandoned and reprobate Temper that had carried them thro' their Rogueries,
abided with them to the last.

_Samuel Fletcher_, another of the Pyrates ordered for Execution, but
reprieved, seem'd to have a quicker Sense of his Condition; for when he saw
those he was allotted with gone to Execution, he sent a Message by the
Provost-Marshal to the Court, to be `inform'd of the Meaning of it, and
humbly desir'd to know whether they design'd him Mercy, or not? If they
did, he stood infinitely oblig'd to them, and thought the whole Service of
his Life an incompetent Return for so great a Favour; but that if he was to
suffer, the sooner the better, _he said_, that he might be out of his

There were others of these Pyrates the reverse of this, and tho' destitute
of Ministers, or fit Persons to represent their Sins, and assist them with
spiritual Advice, were yet always imploying their Time to good Purposes,
and behaved with a great deal of seeming Devotion and Penitence; among
these may be reckon'd _Scudamore, Williams, Philips, Stephenson, Jefferys,
Lesly, Harper, Armstrong, Bunce_, and others.

_Scudamore_ too lately discerned the Folly and Wickedness of the
Enterprize, that had chiefly brought him under Sentence of Death, from
which, seeing there was no Hopes of escaping, he petitioned for two or
three Days Reprieve, which was granted; and for that Time apply'd himself
incessantly to Prayer, and reading the Scriptures, seem'd to have a deep
Sense of his Sins, of this in particular, and desired, at the Gallows, they
would have Patience with him, to sing the first Part of the thirty first
Psalm; which he did by himself throughout.

_Armstrong_, having been a Deserter from his Majesty's Service, was
executed on Board the _Weymouth_, (and the only one that was;) there was no
Body to press him to an Acknowledgement of the Crime he died for, nor of
sorrowing in particular for it, which would have been exemplary, and made
suitable Impressions on Seamen; so that his last Hour was spent in
lamenting and bewailing his Sins in general, exhorting the Spectators to an
honest and good Life, in which alone they could find Satisfaction. In the
End, he desir'd they would join with him in singing two or three latter
Verses of the 140th Psalm; and that being concluded, he was, at the firing
of a Gun, tric'd up at the Fore-Yard-Arm.

_Bunce_ was a young Man, not above 26 Years old, but made the most
pathetical Speech of any at the Gallows. He first declaim'd against the
guilded Bates of Power, Liberty, and Wealth, that had ensnar'd him among
the Pyrates, his unexperienc'd Years not being able to withstand the
Temptation; but that the Briskness he had shewn, which so fatally had
procured him Favour amongst them, was not so much a Fault in Principle, as
the Liveliness and Vivacity of his Nature. He was now extreamly afflicted
for the Injuries he had done to all Men, and begg'd their's and God's
Forgiveness, very earnestly exhorting the Spectators to remember their
Creator in their Youth, and guard betimes, that their Minds took not a
wrong Byass, concluding with this apt Similitude, _That he stood there as a
Beacon upon a Rock_, (the Gallows standing on one) _to warn erring
Marriners of Danger._

CHAP. X. OF Captain _ANSTIS_, And his CREW.

T_HOMAS Anstis_ ship'd himself at _Providence_ in the Year 1718,
aboard the _Buck_ Sloop, and was one of six that conspired together to go
off a pyrating with the Vessel; the rest were, _Howel Davis, Roberts_'s
Predecessor, killed at the Island of _Princes; Dennis Topping_, killed at
the taking of the rich _Portuguese_ Ship on the Coast of _Brasil; Walter
Kennedy_, hanged at _Execution-Dock_, and two others, which I forbear to
name, because, I understand they are at this Day employ'd in an honest
Vocation in the City.

What followed concerning _Anstis_'s Pyracies, has been included in the two
preceeding Chapters; I shall only observe that the Combination of these six
Men abovementioned, was the Beginning of that Company, that afterwards
proved so formidable under Captain _Roberts_, from whom _Anstis_ separated
the 18th of _April_ 1721, in the _Good Fortune_ Brigantine, leaving his
Commadore to pursue his Adventures upon the Coast of _Guiney_, whilst he
returned to the _West-Indies_, upon the like Design.

About the Middle of _June_, these Pyrates met with one Captain _Marston_,
between _Hispaniola_ and _Jamaica_, bound on a Voyage to _New-York_; from
whom they took all the wearing Apparel they could find, as also his Liquors
and Provision, and five of his Men, but did not touch his Cargo; two or
three other Vessels were also plundered by them, in this Cruise, out of
whom they stocked themselves with Provision and Men; among the rest, I
think, was the _Irwin_, Captain _Ross_, from _Cork_ in _Ireland_; but this
I won't be positive of, because they denied it themselves. This Ship had
600 Barrels of Beef aboard, besides other Provisions, and was taken off
_Martinico_, wherein Colonel _Doyly_ of _Montserrat_, and his Family were
Passengers. The Colonel was very much abused and wounded, for endeavouring
to save a poor Woman, that was also a Passenger, from the Insults of that
brutish Crew; and the Pyrates prevailing, twenty one of them forced the
poor Creature successively, afterwards broke her Back and flung her into
the Sea. I say, I will not be positive it was _Anstis_'s Crew that acted
this unheard of Violence and Cruelty, tho' the Circumstances of the Place,
the Time, the Force of the Vessel, and the Number of Men, do all concur,
and I can place the Villany no where else; but that such a Fact was done,
there is too much Evidence for it to be doubted of.

When they thought fit to put an End to this Cruize, they went into one of
the Islands to clean, which they effected without any Disturbance, and came
out again, and stretching away towards _Burmudas_, met with a stout Ship,
called the _Morning Star_, bound from _Guiney_ to _Carolina_; they made
Prize of her, and kept her for their own Use. In a Day or two, a Ship from
_Barbadoes_ bound to _New-York_, fell into their Hands, and taking out her
Guns and Tackle, mounted the _Morning Star_ with 32 Pieces of Cannon,
mann'd her with a 100 Men, and appointed one _John Fenn_ Captain; for the
Brigantine being of far less Force, the _Morning Star_ would have fallen to
_Anstis_, as elder Officer, yet he was so in Love with his own Vessel, (she
being an excellent Sailor,) that he made it his Choice to stay in her, and
let _Fenn_, who was, before, his Gunner, Command the great Ship.

Now, that they had two good Ships well mann'd, it may be supposed they were
in a Condition to undertake something bold: But their Government was
disturbed by Malecontents, and a Kingdom divided within it self cannot
stand; they had such a Number of new Men amongst them, that seem'd not so
violently enclined for the Game; that whatever the Captain proposed, it was
certainly carried against him, so that they came to no fix'd Resolution for
the undertaking any Enterprize; therefore there was nothing to be done, but
to break up the Company, which seemed to be the Inclination of the
Majority, but the Manner of doing so, concerned their common Safety; to
which Purpose various Means were proposed, at length it was concluded to
send home a Petition to his Majesty (there being then no Act of Indemnity
in Force) for a Pardon, and wait the Issue; at the same Time one _Jones_,
Boatswain of the _Good Fortune_, proposed a Place of safe Retreat, it being
an uninhabited Island near _Cuba_, which he had been used to in the late
War, when he went a privateering against the _Spaniards._

This being approved of, it was unanimously resolved on, and the
underwritten Petition drawn up and signed by the whole Company in the
Manner of what they call a _Round Robin_, that is, the Names were writ in a
Circle, to avoid all Appearance of Pre-eminence, and least any Person
should be mark'd out by the Government, as a principal Rogue among them.

_To his most sacred Majesty_ George, _by the Grace of God, of_
Great-Britain, France _and_ Ireland, _King, Defender of the Faith_, &c.

The humble PETITION of the Company, now belonging to the Ship
_Morning Star_, and Brigantine _Good Fortune_, lying under the ignominious
Name and Denomination of PYRATES.

      Humbly sheweth,

T_HAT we your Majesty's most loyal Subjects, have, at sundry Times,
been taken by_ Bartholomew Roberts, _the then Captain of the abovesaid
Vessels and Company, together with another Ship, in which we left him; and
have been forced by him and his wicked Accomplices, to enter into, and
serve, in the said Company, as Pyrates, much contrary to our Wills and
Inclinations: And we your loyal Subjects utterly abhoring and detesting
that impious way of Living, did, with an unanimous Consent, and contrary to
the Knowledge of the said_ Roberts, _or his Accomplices, on, or about the_
18_th Day of_ April 1721, _leave, and ran away with the aforesaid Ship_
Morning Star, _and Brigantine_ Good Fortune, _with no other Intent and
Meaning than the Hopes of obtaining your Majesty's most gracious Pardon.
And, that we your Majesty's most loyal Subjects, may with more Safety
return to our native Country, and serve the Nation, unto which we belong,
in our respective Capacities, without Fear of being prosecuted by the
Injured, whose Estates have suffered by the said_ Roberts _and his
Accomplices, during our forcible Detainment, by the said Company: We most
humbly implore your Majesty's most royal Assent, to this our humble

And your Petitioners shall ever pray.

This Petition was sent home by a Merchant Ship bound to _England_, from
_Jamaica_, who promised to speak with the Petitioners, in their Return,
about 20 Leagues to Windward of that Island, and let them know what Success
their Petition met with. When this was done, the Pyrates retires to the
Island before proposed, with the Ship and Brigantine.

This Island (which I have no Name for) lies off the Southwest End of
_Cuba_, uninhabited, and little frequented. On the East End is a Lagune, so
narrow, that a Ship can but just go in, tho' there's from 15 to 22 Foot
Water, for almost a League up: On both Sides of the Lagune grows red
Mangrove Trees, very thick, that the Entrance of it, as well as the Vessels
laying there, is hardly to be seen. In the Middle of the Island are here
and there a small thick Wood of tall Pines, and other Trees scattered about
in different Places.

Here they staid about nine Months, but not having Provision for above two,
they were forced to take what the Island afforded, which was Fish of
several Sorts, particularly Turtle, which latter was the chiefest Food they
lived on, and was found in great Plenty on the Coasts of this Island;
whether there might be any wild Hogs, Beef, or other Cattle, common to
several Islands of the _West-Indies_, or that the Pyrates were too idle to
hunt them, or whether they preferr'd other Provisions to that sort of Diet,
I know not; but I was informed by them, that for the whole Time they eat
not a Bit of any kind of Flesh-Meat, nor Bread; the latter was supply'd by
Rice, of which they had a great Quantity aboard: This was boyl'd and
squeez'd dry, and so eat with the Turtle.

There are three or four Sorts of these Creatures in the _West-Indies_, the
largest of which will weight 150 or 200 Pound Weight or more, but those
that were found upon this Island were of the smallest Kind, weighing 10 or
12 Pounds each, with a fine natural wrought Shell, and beautifully clouded;
the Meat sweet and tender, some Part of it eating like Chicken, some like
Veal, _&c._ so that it was no extraordinary Hardship for them to live upon
this Provision alone, since it affords variety of Meats to the Taste, of it
self. The manner of catching this Fish is very particular; you must
understand, that in the Months of _May, June_ and _July_, they lay their
Eggs in order to hatch their Young, and this three times in a Season, which
is always in the Sand of the Sea-shore, each laying 80 or 90 Eggs at a
time. The Male accompanies the Female, and come ashore in the Night only,
when they must be watch'd, without making any Noise, or having a Light; as
soon as they land, the Men that watch for them, turn them on their Backs,
then haul them above high Water Mark, and leave them till next Morning,
where they are sure to find them, for they can't turn again, nor move from
the Place. It is to be observ'd, that besides their laying time, they come
ashore to feed, but then what's very remarkable in these Creatures, they
always resort to different Places to breed, leaving their usual Haunts for
two or three Months, and 'tis thought they eat nothing in all that Season.

They pass'd their Time here in Dancing, and other Diversions, agreeable to
these sort of Folks; and among the rest, they appointed a Mock Court of
Judicature to try one another for Pyracy, and he that was a Criminal one
Day was made Judge another.-- I had an Account given me of one of these
merry Tryals, and as it appeared diverting, I shall give the Readers a
short Account of it.

The Court and Criminals being both appointed, as also Council to plead, the
Judge got up in a Tree, and had a dirty Taurpaulin hung over his Shoulders;
this was done by Way of Robe, with a Thrum Cap on his Head, and a large
Pair of Spectacles upon his Nose: Thus equipp'd, he settled himself in his
Place, and abundance of Officers attending him below, with Crows,
Handspikes, _&c._ instead of Wands, Tipstaves, and such like.-- The
Criminals were brought out, making a thousand sour Faces; and one who acted
as Attorney-General opened the Charge against them; their Speeches were
very laconick, and their whole Proceedings concise. We shall give it by Way
of Dialogue.

_Attorn. Gen._ An't please your Lordship, and you Gentlemen of the Jury,
here is a Fellow before you that is a sad Dog, a sad sad Dog; and I humbly
hope your Lordship will order him to be hang'd out of the Way
immediately.--He has committed Pyracy upon the High Seas, and we shall
prove, an't please your Lordship, that this Fellow, this sad Dog before
you, has escap'd a thousand Storms, nay, has got safe ashore when the Ship
has been cast away, which was a certain Sign he was not born to be drown'd;
yet not having the Fear of hanging before his Eyes, he went on robbing and
ravishing Man, Woman and Child, plundering Ships Cargoes fore and aft,
burning and sinking Ship, Bark and Boat, as if the Devil had been in him.
But this is not all, my Lord, he has committed worse Villanies than all
these, for we shall prove, that he has been guilty of drinking Small-Beer;
and your Lordship knows, there never was a sober Fellow but what was a
Rogue.--My Lord, I should have spoke much finer than I do now, but that, as
your Lordship knows our Rum is all out, and how should a Man speak good Law
that has not drank a Dram.--However, I hope, your Lordship will order the
Fellow to be hang'd.

_Judge._--Hearkee me, Sirrah,--you lousy, pittiful, ill-look'd Dog; what
have you to say why you should not be tuck'd up immediately, and set a
Sun-drying like a Scare-crow?--Are you guilty, or not guilty?

_Pris._ Not guilty, an't please your Worship.

_Judge._ Not guilty! say so again, Sirrah, and I'll have you hang'd without
any Tryal.

_Pris._ An't please your Worship's Honour, my Lord, I am as honest a poor
Fellow as ever went between Stem and Stern of a Ship, and can hand, reef,
steer, and clap two Ends of a Rope together, as well as e'er a He that ever
cross'd salt Water; but I was taken by one _George Bradley_ [the Name of
him that sat as Judge,] a notorious Pyrate, a sad Rogue as ever was
unhang'd, and he forc'd me, an't please your Honour.

_Judge._ Answer me, Sirrah,--How will you be try'd?

_Pris._ By G-- and my Country.

_Judge._ The Devil you will.--Why then, Gentlemen of the Jury, I think we
have nothing to do but to proceed to Judgment.

_Attor. Gen._ Right, my Lord; for if the Fellow should be suffer'd to
speak, he may clear himself, and that's an Affront to the Court.

_Pris._ Pray, my Lord, I hope your Lordship will consider--

_Judge._ Consider!--How dare you talk of considering? --Sirrah, Sirrah, I
never consider'd in all my Life. --I'll make it Treason to consider.

_Pris._ But, I hope, your Lordship will hear some Reason.

_Judge._ D'ye hear how the Scoundrel prates?--What have we to do with
Reason?--I'd have you to know, Raskal, we don't sit here to hear
Reason;--we go according to Law.--Is our Dinner ready?

_Attor. Gen._ Yes, my Lord.

_Judge._ Then heark'ee, you Raskal at the Bar; hear me, Sirrah, hear
me.--You must suffer, for three Reasons; first, because it is not fit I
should sit here as Judge, and no Body be hang'd.--Secondly, you must be
hang'd, because you have a damn'd hanging Look:--And thirdly, you must be
hang'd, because I am hungry; for know, Sirrah, that 'tis a Custom, that
whenever the Judge's Dinner is ready before the Tryal is over, the Prisoner
is to be hang'd of Course.--There's Law for you, ye Dog.--So take him away

                                * * *

This is the Tryal just as it was related to me; the Design of my setting it
down, is only to shew how these Fellows can jest upon Things, the Fear and
Dread of which, should make them tremble.

The beginning of _August_ 1722, the Pyrates made ready the Brigantine, and
came out to Sea, and beating up to Windward, lay in the Track for their
Correspondant in her Voyage to _Jamaica_, and spoke with her; but finding
nothing was done in _England_ in their Favour, as 'twas expected, they
return'd to their Consorts at the Island with the ill News, and found
themselves under a Necessity, as they fancied, to continue that abominable
Course of Life they had lately practis'd; in order thereto, they sail'd
with the Ship and Brigantine to the Southward, and the next Night, by
intolerable Neglect, they run the _Morning Star_ upon the _Grand Caimanes_,
and wreck'd her; the Brigantine seeing the Fate of her Consort, hall'd off
in Time, and so weather'd the Island. The next Day Captain _Anstis_ put in,
and found that all, or the greatest part of the Crew, were safe ashore,
whereupon she came to an Anchor, in order to fetch them off; and having
brought _Fenn_ the Captain, _Philips_ the Carpenter, and a few others
aboard, two Men of War came down upon them, _viz._ the _Hector_ and
_Adventure_, so that the Brigantine had but just Time to cut their Cable,
and get to Sea, with one of the Men of War after her, keeping within
Gun-shot for several Hours. _Anstis_ and his Crew were now under the
greatest Consternation imaginable, finding the Gale freshen, and the Man of
War gaining Ground upon them, so that, in all Probability, they must have
been Prisoners in two Hours more; but it pleased God to give them a little
longer Time, the Wind dying away, the Pyrates got out their Oars, and row'd
for their Lives, and thereby got clear of their Enemy.

The _Hector_ landed her Men upon the Island, and took 40 of the _Morning
Star_'s Crew, without any Resistance made by them; but on the contrary,
alledging, they were forc'd Men, and that they were glad of this
Opportunity to escape from the Pyrates; the rest hid themselves in the
Woods, and could not be found. _George Bradley_ the Master, and three more,
surrender'd afterwards to a _Burmudas_ Sloop, and were carried to that

The Brigantine, after her Escape, sail'd to a small Island near the Bay of
_Honduras_, to clean and refit, and, in her Way thither, took a _Rhode
Island_ Sloop, Captain _Durfey_, Commander, and two or three other Vessels,
which they destroy'd, but brought all the Hands aboard their own.

While she was cleaning, a Scheme was concerted between Captain _Durfey_,
some other Prisoners, and two or three of the Pyrates, for to seize some of
the Chiefs, and carry off the Brigantine; but the same being discovered
before she was fit for sailing, their Design was prevented: However,
Captain _Durfey_, and four or five more, got ashore with some Arms and
Ammunition; and when the Pyrates Canoe came in for Water, he seiz'd the
Boat with the Men; upon which _Anstis_ ordered another Boat to be mann'd
with 30 Hands and sent ashore, which was accordingly done; but Captain
_Durfey_, and the Company he had by that Time got together, gave them such
a warm Reception, that they were contented to betake themselves to their
Vessel again.

About the beginning of _December_, 1722, _Anstis_ left this Place and
return'd to the Islands, designing to accumulate all the Power and Strength
he could, since there was no looking back. He took in the Cruise a good
Ship, commanded by Captain _Smith_, which he mounted with 24 Guns, and
_Fenn_, a one handed Man, who commanded the _Morning-Star_ when she was
lost, went aboard to command her. They cruis'd together, and took a Vessel
or two, and then went to the _Bahama Islands_, and there met with what they
wanted, _viz._ a Sloop loaded with Provisions, from _Dublin_, called the

It was time now to think of some Place to fit up and clean their Frigate
lately taken, and put her in a Condition to do Business; accordingly they
pitch'd upon the Island of _Tobago_, where they arrived the beginning of
_April_, 1723, with the _Antelope_ Sloop and her Cargo.

They fell to work immediately, got the Guns, Stores, and every Thing else
out upon the Island, and put the Ship upon the Heel; and just then, as ill
Luck would have it, came in the _Winchelsea_ Man of War, by Way of Visit,
which put the Marooners into such a Surprize, that they set Fire to the
Ship and Sloop, and fled ashore to the Woods. _Anstis_, in the Brigantine,
escap'd, by having a light Pair of Heels, but it put his Company into such
a Disorder, that their Government could never be set to rights again; for
some of the New-Comers, and those who had been tir'd with the Trade, put an
End to the Reign, by shooting _Tho. Anstis_ in his Hammock, and afterwards
the Quarter-Master, and two or three others; the rest submitting, they put
into Irons, and surrender'd them up, and the Vessel, at _Curacco_, a
_Dutch_ Settlement, where they were try'd and hang'd; and those concerned
in delivering up the Vessel, acquitted.

But to return to Captain _Fenn_, he was taken stragling with his Gunner and
three more, a Day or two after their Misfortune, by the Man of War's Men,
and carry'd to _Antegoa_, where they were all executed, and _Fenn_ hang'd
in Chains. Those who remain'd, staid some Time in the Island, keeping up
and down in the Woods, with a Hand to look out; at length Providence so
order'd it, that a small Sloop came into the Harbour, which they all got
aboard of, except two or three Negroes, and those they left behind. They
did not think fit to pursue any further Adventures, and therefore
unanimously resolved to steer for _England_, which they accordingly did,
and in _October_ last came into _Bristol_ Channel, sunk the Sloop, and
getting ashore in the Boat, dispersed themselves to their Abodes.

CHAP. XI. OF Captain _WORLEY_, And his CREW.

HIS Reign was but short, but his Beginning somewhat particular,
setting out in a small open Boat, with eight others, from _New-York._ This
was as resolute a Crew as ever went upon this Account: They took with them
a few Biscuits, and a dry'd Tongue or two, a little Cag of Water, half a
dozen old Muskets and Ammunition accordingly. Thus provided, they left
_New-York_ the latter End of _September_ 1718, but it cannot be supposed
that such a Man of War as this, could undertake any considerable Voyage, or
attempt any extraordinary Enterprize; so they stood down the Coast, till
they came to _Delaware_ River, which is about 150 Miles distant, and not
meeting with any Thing in their Way, they turn'd up the same River as high
as _Newcastle_, near which Place they fell upon a Shallop belonging to
_George Grant_, who was bringing Houshold Goods, Plate, _&c._ from
_Oppoquenimi_ to _Philadelphia_; they made Prize of the most valuable Part
of them, and let the Shallop go. This Fact could not come under the Article
of Pyracy, it not being committed _super altum Mare_, upon the High-Sea,
therefore was a simple Robbery only; but they did not stand for a Point of
Law in the Case, but easing the Shallop Man of his Lading, the bold
Adventurers went down the River again.

The Shallop came straight to _Philadelphia_, and brought the ill News
thither, which so alarm'd the Government, as if War had been declared
against them; Expresses were sent to _New-York_, and other Places, and
several Vessels fitted out against this powerful Rover, but to no manner of
Purpose; for after several Days Cruize, they all return'd, without so much
as hearing what became of the Robbers.

_Worley_ and his Crew, in going down the River, met with a Sloop of
_Philadelphia_, belonging to a Mulatto, whom they call'd _Black Robbin_;
they quitted their Boat for this Sloop, taking one of _Black Robin_'s Men
along with them, as they had also done from _George Grant_, besides two
Negroes, which encreased the Company one Third. A Day or two after, they
took another Sloop belonging to _Hull_, homeward bound, which was somewhat
fitter for their Purpose; they found aboard her, Provisions and
Necessaries, which they stood in need of, and enabled them to prosecute
their Design, in a manner more suitable to their Wishes.

Upon the Success of these Rovers, the Governor issued out a Proclamation,
for the apprehending and taking all Pyrates, who had refused or neglected
to surrender themselves, by the Time limited in his Majesty's Proclamation
of Pardon; and thereupon, ordered his Majesty's Ship _Phoenix_, of 20 Guns,
which lay at _Sandy Hook_, to Sea, to cruize upon this Pyrate, and secure
the Trade to that, and the adjoining Colonies.

In all probability, the taking this Sloop sav'd their Bacons, for this
Time, tho' they fell into the Trap presently afterwards; for they finding
themselves in tolerable good Condition, having a Vessel newly cleaned, with
Provisions, _&c._ they stood off to Sea, and so missed the _Phoenix_, who
expected them to be still on the Coast.

About six Weeks afterwards they returned, having taken both a Sloop and a
Brigantine, among the _Bahama_ Islands; the former they sunk, and the other
they let go: The Sloop belonged to _New-York_, and they thought the sinking
of her good Policy, to prevent her returning to tell Tales at Home.

_Worley_ had by this Time encreased his Company to about five and twenty
Men, had six Guns mounted, and small Arms as many as were necessary for
them, and seem'd to be in a good thriving sort of a Way. He made a black
Ensign, with a white Death's Head in the Middle of it, and other Colours
suitable to it. They all signed Articles, and bound themselves under a
solemn Oath, to take no Quarters, but to stand by one another to the last
Man, which was rashly fulfill'd a little afterwards.

For going into an Inlet in _North-Carolina_, to clean, the Governor
received Information of it, and fitted out two Sloops, one of eight Guns,
and the other with six, and about seventy Men between them. _Worley_ had
clean'd his Sloop, and sail'd before the _Carolina_ Sloops reached the
Place, and steered to the Northward; but the Sloops just mentioned,
pursuing the same Course, came in sight of _Worley_, as he was cruising off
the Capes of _Virginia_, and being in the Offin, he stood in as soon as he
saw the Sloops, intending thereby to have cut them off from _James_ River;
for he verily believed they had been bound thither, not imagining, in the
least, they were in Pursuit of him.

The two Sloops standing towards the Capes at the same Time, and _Worley_
hoisting of his black Flag, the Inhabitants of _James_ Town were in the
utmost Consternation, thinking that all three had been Pyrates, and that
their Design had been upon them; so that all the Ships and Vessels that
were in the Road, or in the Rivers up the Bay, had Orders immediately to
hale in to the Shore, for their Security, or else to prepare for their
Defence, if they thought themselves in a Condition to fight. Soon after two
Boats, which were sent out to get Intelligence, came crowding in, and
brought an Account, that one of the Pyrates was in the Bay, being a small
Sloop of six Guns. The Governor expecting the rest would have followed, and
altogether make some Attempt to land, for the sake of Plunder, beat to
Arms, and collected all the Force that could be got together, to oppose
them; he ordered all the Guns out of the Ships, to make a Platform, and, in
short, put the whole Colony in a warlike Posture; but was very much
surprised at last, to see all the supposed Pyrates fighting with one

The Truth of the Matter is, _Worley_ gained the Bay, thinking to make sure
of his two Prizes, by keeping them from coming in; but by the hoisting of
the King's Colours, and firing a Gun, he quickly was sensible of his
Mistake, and too soon perceived that the Tables were turned upon him; that
instead of keeping them out, he found himself, by a superiour Force kept
in. When the Pyrates saw how Things went, they resolutely prepar'd
themselves for a desperate Defence; and tho' three to one odds, _Worley_
and his Crew determined to fight to the last Gasp, and receive no Quarters,
agreeably to what they had before sworn; so that they must either Dye or
Conquer upon the Spot.

The _Carolina_ Men gave the Pyrate a Broadside, and then Boarded him, one
Sloop getting upon his Quarter, and the other on his Bow; _Worley_ and the
Crew, drew up upon the Deck, and fought very obstinately, Hand to Hand, so
that in a few Minutes, abundance of Men lay weltering in their Gore; the
Pyrates proved as good as their Words, not a Man of them cry'd out for
Quarter, nor would accept of such, when offered, but were all killed except
the Captain and another Man, and those very much wounded, whom they
reserved for the Gallows. They were brought ashore in Irons, and the next
Day, which was the 17th of _February_ 1718-19, they were both hanged up,
for fear they should dye, and evade the Punishment as was thought due to
their Crimes.

CHAP. XII. OF Capt. _George Lowther_, And his CREW.

G_Eorge Lowther_ sailed out of the River of _Thames_, in one of the
Royal _African_ Company's Ships, call'd the _Gambia Castle_, of 16 Guns and
30 Men, _Charles Russel_ Commander; of which Ship, the said _Lowther_ was
second Mate. Aboard of the same Ship, was a certain Number of Soldiers,
commanded by one _John Massey_, who were to be carried to one of the
Company's Settlements, on the River of _Gambia_, to Garrison a Fort, which
was sometime ago taken and destroy'd by Captain _Davis_ the Pyrate.

In _May_ 1721, the _Gambia Castle_ came safe to her Port in _Africa_, and
landed Captain _Massey_ and his Men on _James_'s Island, where he was to
Command under the Governor, Colonel _Whitney_, who arrived there at the
same Time, in another Ship: And here, by a fatal Misunderstanding, between
the military Folks and the Trading People, the Fort and Garrison not only
came to be lost again to the Company, but a fine Galley well provided, and
worth 10000 _l._ turned against her Masters.

The Names of Governor and Captain sounded great, but when the Gentlemen
found that the Power that generally goes along with those Titles, was
oversway'd and born down by the Merchants and Factors, (mechanick Fellows
as they thought them) they grew very impatient and disatisfy'd, especially
_Massey_, who was very loud in his Complaints against them, particularly at
the small Allowance of Provisions to him and his Men; for the Garrison and
Governor too, were victualled by the Merchants, which was no small
Grievance and Mortification to them. And as the want of eating was the only
Thing that made the great _Sancho_ quit his Government, so did it here rend
and tare their's to Pieces: For _Massey_ told them, _that he did not come
there to be a_ Guiney _Slave, and that he had promised his Men good
Treatment, and Provisions fitting for Soldiers: That as he had the Care of
so many of his Majesty's Subjects, if they would not provide for them in a
handsome Manner, he should take suitable Measures for the Preservation of
so many of his Countrymen and Companions._

The Governor at this Time was very ill of a Fever, and, for the better
Accomodation in his Sickness, was carried aboard the Ship _Gambia Castle_,
where he continued for about three Weeks, and therefore could have little
to say in this Dispute, tho' he resolved not to stay in a Place, where
there was so little Occasion for him, and where his Power was so confin'd.
The Merchants had certainly Orders from the Company, to issue the
Provisions out to the Garrison, and the same is done along the whole Coast;
but whether they had cut them short of the Allowance that was appointed
them, I can't say, but if they did, then is the Loss of the Ship and
Garrison owing principally to their ill Conduct.

However, an Accident that happened on Board the Ship, did not a little
contribute to this Misfortune, which was a Pique that the Captain of her
took against his second Mate, _George Lowther_, the Man who is the Subject
of this short History; and who losing his Favour, found Means to ingratiate
himself into the good liking of the common Sailors, insomuch that when
Captain _Russel_ ordered him to be punish'd, the Men took up Handspikes,
and threat'ned to knock that Man down, that offered to lay hold of the
Mate. This served but to widen the Differences between him and the Captain,
and more firmly attach'd _Lowther_ to the Ship's Company, the greatest Part
of which, he found ripe for any Mischief in the World.

Captain _Massey_ was no wit the better reconciled to the Place, by a longer
Continuance, nor to the Usage he met with there, and having often
Opportunities of conversing with _Lowther_, with whom he had contracted an
Intimacy in the Voyage; they aggravated one another's Grievances to such a
height, that they resolved upon Measures to curb the Power that controul'd
them, and to provide for themselves after another Manner.

When the Governor recover'd of his Fever, he went ashore to the Island, but
took no Notice of _Massey_'s Behaviour, tho' it was such as might give
Suspicion of what he designed; and _Lowther_, and the common Sailors, who
were in the Secret of Affairs, grew insolent and bold, even refusing to
obey when commanded to their Duty by Captain _Russel_ and the chief Mate.
The Captain seeing how Things were carried, goes ashore early one Morning
to the Governor and Factory, in order to hold a Council, which _Lowther_
apprehending, was in order to prevent his Design, sent a Letter in the same
Boat to _Massey_, intimating it to him, and _that he should repair on
Board, for it was high Time to put their Project in Execution._

As soon as _Massey_ received this Letter, he went to the Soldiers at the
_Barracks_, and said to them, and others, _You that have a Mind to go to_
England, _now is your Time_; and they generally consenting, _Massey_ went
to the Store-Room, burst open the Door, set two Centinels upon it, and
ordered that no Body should come near it; then he went to the Governor's
Apartment, and took his Bed, Baggage, Plate and Furniture, (in Expectation
that the Governor himself, as he had promised _Massey_, would have gone on
Board, which he afterwards refused, by Reason, as he said, he believed they
were going a-pyrating; which at first, whatever _Lowther_ designed,
_Massey_ certainly proposed only the going to _England_;) when this was
done, he sent the Boat off to the chief Mate, with this Message, _That he
should get the Guns ready, for that the King of_ Barro [a Negro Kingdom
near the Royal _African_ Settlement] _would come aboard to Dinner._ But
_Lowther_ understanding best, the meaning of those Orders, he confined the
chief Mate, shotted the Guns, and put the Ship in a Condition for sailing.
In the Afternoon _Massey_ came on Board with the Governor's Son, having
sent off all the Provisions of the Island, and eleven Pipes of Wine,
leaving only two half Pipes behind in the Store-House, and dismounted all
the Guns of the Fort.

In the Afternoon they weigh'd one Anchor, but fearing to be too late to get
out of the River, they slipp'd the other, and so fell down; in doing of
which, they run the Ship a-ground. _Massey_ shew'd himself a Soldier upon
this Accident, for as soon as the Misfortune happen'd, he left the Ship
with about sixteen Hands, and rows directly to the Fort, remounts the Guns,
and keeps Garrison there all the Night, while the Ship was ashore; and
obliged some of the Factory to assist in getting her clear. In the mean
while, _Russel_ came off, but not being suffered to come on Board, he
call'd to _Lowther_, and offered him and the Company, whatever Terms they
would be pleased to accept of, upon Condition of surrendering up the Ship,
which had no Effect upon any of them. In the Morning they got her afloat,
and _Massey_ and his Men came aboard, after having nailed up and dismounted
all the Cannon of the Fort: They put the Governor's Son, and two or three
others ashore, who were not willing to go without the Governor, and sail'd
out of the River, having exchanged several Shot with the _Martha, Otter,
&c._ that lay there, without doing Execution on either Side.

When the Ship came out to Sea, _Lowther_ called up all the Company, and
told them, _it was the greatest Folly imaginable, to think of returning to_
England, _for what they had already done, could not be justifyed upon any
Pretence whatsoever, but would be look'd upon, in the Eye of the Law, a
capital Offence, and that none of them were in a Condition to withstand the
Attacks of such powerful Adversaries, as they would meet with at Home; for
his Part he was determined not to run such a Hazard, and therefore if his
Proposal was not agreed to, he desired to be set a Shore in some Place of
Safety: That they had a good Ship under them, a parcel of brave Follows in
her, that it was not their Business to starve, or be made Slaves; and
therefore, if they were all of his Mind, they should seek their Fortunes
upon the Seas, as other Adventurers had done before them._ They one and all
came into the Measures, knocked down the Cabins, made the Ship flush fore
and aft, prepared black Colours, new named her, _the Delivery_, having
about 50 Hands and 16 Guns, and the following short Articles were drawn up,
signed and sworn to upon the Bible.

The Articles of Captain _George Lowther_, and his Company.

1. _THE Captain is to have two full Shares; the Master is to have one Share
and a half; the Doctor, Mate, Gunner, and Boatswain, one Share and a

2. _He that shall be found Guilty of taking up any unlawful Weapon on Board
the Privateer, or any Prize, by us taken, so as to strike or abuse one
another, in any regard, shall suffer what Punishment the Captain and
Majority of the Company shall think fit._

3. _He that shall be found Guilty of Cowardize, in the Time of Engagement,
shall suffer what Punishment the Captain and Majority shall think fit._

4. _If any Gold, Jewels, Silver_, &c. _be found on Board of any Prize or
Prizes, to the Value of a Piece of Eight, and the Finder do not deliver it
to the Quarter-Master, in the Space of_ 24 _Hours, shall suffer what
Punishment the Captain and Majority shall think fit._

5. _He that is found Guilty of Gaming, or Defrauding another to the Value
of a Shilling, shall suffer what Punishment the Captain and Majority of the
Company shall think fit._

6. _He that shall have the Misfortune to lose a Limb, in Time of
Engagement, shall have the Sum of one hundred and fifty Pounds Sterling,
and remain with the Company as long as he shall think fit._

7. _Good Quarters to be given when call'd for._

8. _He that sees a Sail first, shall have the best Pistol, or Small-Arm, on
Board her._

It was the 13th of _June_, that _Lowther_ left the Settlement, and on the
20th, being then within twenty Leagues of _Barbadoes_, he came up with a
Brigantine, belonging to _Boston_, called the _Charles, James Douglass_
Master, which they plundered in a pyratical Manner, and let the Vessel go;
but least she should meet with any of the Station Ships, and so give
Information of the Robbery, _in Terrorem_, to prevent a Pursuit, _Lowther_
contrived a sort of a Certificate, which he directed the Master to shew to
their Consort, if they should meet with her; and upon Sight of it the
Brigantine would pass unmolested: This Consort, he pretended, was a 40 Gun
Ship, and cruising therabouts.

After this the _Delivery_ proceeded to _Hispaniola_; near the West End of
the Island she met with a _French_ Sloop loaden with Wine and Brandy;
aboard of this Vessel went Captain _Massey_, as a Merchant, and ask'd the
Price of one Thing, and then another, bidding Money for the greatest Part
of the Cargo; but after he had trifled a while, he whisper'd a Secret in
the _French_ Man's Ear, _viz. That they must have it all without Money.
Monsieur_ presently understood his Meaning, and unwillingly agreed to the
Bargain. They took out of her thirty Casks of Brandy, five Hogsheads of
Wine, several Pieces of Chintzes, and other valuable Goods, and about 70
_l. English_, in Money; of which _Lowther_ generously return'd five Pounds
back to the _French_ Master for his Civilities.

But as all Constitutions grow old, and thereby shake and totter, so did our
Commonwealth in about a Month of its Age, feel Commotions and intestine
Disturbances, by the Divisions of its Members, which had near hand
terminated in its Destruction; these civil Discords were owing to the
following Occasion. Captain _Massey_ had been a Soldier almost from his
Infancy, but was but very indifferently acquainted with Maritime Affairs,
and having an enterprizing Soul, nothing would satisfy him, but he must be
doing Business in his own Way, therefore he required _Lowther_ to let him
have thirty Hands to land with, and he would attack the _French_
Settlements, and bring aboard the Devil and all of Plunder.

_Lowther_ did all that he could do, and said all that he could say, to
disswade _Massey_ from so rash and dangerous an Attempt; pointing out to
him the Hazard the Company would run, and the Consequences to them all, if
he should not succeed, and the little Likelihood there was to expect
Success from the Undertaking: But 'twas all one for that, _Massey_ would go
and attack the _French_ Settlements, for any thing _Lowther_ could say
against it; so that he was obliged to propose the Matter to the Company,
among whom _Massey_ found a few Fellows as resolute as himself; however, a
great Majority being against it, the Affair was over-ruled in Opposition to
Captain _Massey_, notwithstanding which, _Massey_ grew fractious,
quarrelled with _Lowther_, and the Men divided into Parties, some siding
with the Land Pyrate, and some with the Sea Rover, and were all ready to
fall together by the Ears, when the Man at the Mast-head cry'd out, A Sail!
A Sail! then they gave over the Dispute, set all their Sails, and steered
after the Chace. In a few Hours they came up with her, she being a small
Ship from _Jamaica_, bound to _England_; they took what they thought fit
out of her, and a Hand or two, and then _Lowther_ was for sinking the Ship,
with several Passengers that were in her, for what Reason I know not, but
_Massey_ so that he interposed, prevented their cruel Fate, and the Ship
safely arrived afterwards in _England._

The next Day they took a small Sloop, an interloping Trader, which they
detain'd with her Cargo. All this while _Massey_ was uneasy, and declar'd
his Resolution to leave them, and _Lowther_ finding him a very troublesome
Man to deal with, consented that he should take the Sloop, last made Prize
of, with what Hands had a Mind to go with him, and shift for himself.
Whereupon _Massey_, with about ten more Malecontents, goes aboard the
Sloop, and comes away in her directly for _Jamaica._

Notwithstanding what had passed, Captain _Massey_ puts a bold Face upon the
Matter, and goes to Sir _Nicholas Laws_, the Governor, informs him of his
leaving _Lowther_ the Pyrate, owns, _That he assisted in going off with the
Ship, at the River_ Gambia; but said, _'twas to save so many of his
Majesty's Subjects from perishing, and that his Design was to return to_
England; _but_ Lowther _conspiring with the greater Part of the Company,
went a pyrating with the Ship; and that he had taken this Opportunity to
leave him, and surrender himself and Vessel to his Excellency._

_Massey_ was very well received by the Governor, and had his Liberty given
him, with a Promise of his Favour, and so forth; and, at his own Request,
he was sent on Board the _Happy_ Sloop, Captain _Laws_, to cruise off
_Hispaniola_, for _Lowther_; but not being so fortunate as to meet with
him, Captain _Massey_ returned back to _Jamaica_ in the Sloop, and getting
a Certificate, and a Supply of Money, from the Governor, he came home
Passenger to _England._

When _Massey_ came to Town, he writes a long Letter to the Deputy Governor
and Directors of the _African_ Company, wherein he imprudently relates the
whole Transactions of his Voyage, the going off with the Ship, and the Acts
of Pyracy he had committed with _Lowther_; but excuses it as Rashness and
Inadvertency in himself, occasioned by his being ill used, contrary to the
Promises that had been made him, and the Expectations he had entertained;
but own'd, that he deserved to dye for what he had done; yet, if they had
Generosity enough to forgive him, as he was still capable to do them
Service, as a Soldier, so he should be very ready to do it; but if they
resolved to prosecute him, he begg'd only this Favour, that he might not be
hang'd like a Dog, but to die like a Soldier, as he had been bred from his
Childhood, that is, that he might be shot.

This was the Substance of the Letter, which, however, did not produce so
favourable an Answer as he hoped for, Word being brought back to him, _That
he should be fairly hang'd._ Whereupon, _Massey_ resolved not to be out of
the Way, when he found what important Occasion there was likely to be for
him, but takes a Lodging in _Aldersgate-Street_, the next Day went to the
Lord Chief Justice's Chambers, and enquired, if my Lord had granted a
Warrant against Captain _John Massey_, for Pyracy: But being told by the
Clerks, that they knew of no such Thing; he informed them, he was the Man,
that my Lord would soon be apply'd to for that Purpose, and the Officer
might come to him at such a Place, where he lodg'd: They took the
Directions in Writing, and, in a few Days, a Warrant being issued, the
Tipstaff went directly, by his own Information, and apprehended him,
without any other Trouble, than walking to his Lodging.

There was then no Person in Town to charge him with any Fact, upon which he
could be committed; nor could the Letter be proved to be of his
Hand-Writing, so that they had been obliged to let him go again, if he had
not helped his Accusers out at Pinch: The Magistrate was reduced to the
putting of this Question to him, _Did you write this Letter?_ He answered,
_He did_: And not only that, but confessed all the Contents of it; upon
which, he was committed to _Newgate_, but was afterwards admitted to a
hundred Pounds Bail, or thereabouts.

On the 5th of _July_ 1723, he was brought to his Tryal, at a Court of
Admiralty held at the _Old-Baily_, when Captain _Russel_, Governor
_Whitney_'s Son, and others, appeared as Evidences, by whom the Indictment
was plainly proved against him; which, if it had not been done, the Captain
was of such an heroick Spirit, that he would have deny'd nothing; for
instead of making a Defence, he only entertained the Court with a long
Narrative of his Expedition, from the first setting out, to his Return to
_England_, mentioning two Acts of Pyracy committed by him, which he was not
charged with, often challenging the Evidences to contradict him, if in any
Thing he related the least Syllable of an Untruth; and instead of denying
the Crimes set forth in the Indictment, he charged himself with various
Circumstances, which fixed the Facts more home upon him. Upon the whole,
the Captain was found Guilty, received Sentence of Death, and was executed
three Weeks after, at _Execution-Dock._

We return now to _Lowther_, whom we left cruising off _Hispaniola_, from
whence he plyed to Windward, and, near _Porto Rico_, chased two Sail, and
spoke with them; they proving to be a small _Bristol_ Ship, commanded by
Captain _Smith_, and a _Spanish_ Pyrate, who had made Prize of the said
Ship. _Lowther_ examined into the _Spaniard_'s Authority for taking an
_English_ Vessel, and threat'ned to put every Man of them to death, for so
doing; so that the _Spaniards_ fancied themselves to be in a very pittiful
Condition, till Matters cleared up, and they found their Masters as great
Rogues as themselves, from whom some Mercy might be expected, in regard to
the near Relation they stood with them, as to their Profession; in short,
_Lowther_ first rifled, and then burnt both the Ships, sending the
_Spaniards_ away in their Launch, and turning all the _English_ Sailors
into Pyrates.

After a few Days Cruise, _Lowther_ took a small Sloop belonging to St.
_Christophers_, which they mann'd and carried along with them to a small
Island, where they cleaned, and stay'd some Time to take their Diversions,
which consisted in unheard of Debaucheries, with drinking, swearing and
rioting, in which there seemed to be a kind of Emulation among them,
resembling rather Devils than Men, striving who should out do one another
in new invented Oaths and Execrations.

They all got aboard about _Christmas_, observing neither Times nor Seasons,
for perpetrating their villainous Actions, and sailed towards the Bay of
_Honduras_; but stopping at the _Grand Caimanes_ for Water, they met with a
small Vessel with 13 Hands, in the same honourable Employment with
themselves; the Captain of this Gang was one _Edward Lowe_, whom we shall
particularly discourse of in a Chapter by it self: _Lowther_ received them
as Friends, and treated them with all imaginable Respect, inviting them, as
they were few in Number, and in no Condition to pursue the Account, (as
they called it) to join their Strength together, which on the Consideration
aforesaid, was accepted of, _Lowther_ still continuing Commander, and
_Lowe_ was made Lieutenant: The Vessel the new Pyrates came out of, they
sunk, and the Confederates proceed on the Voyage as _Lowther_ before

The 10th of _January_, the Pyrates came into the Bay, and fell upon a Ship
of 200 Tun, called the _Greyhound, Benjamin Edwards_ Commander, belonging
to _Boston. Lowther_ hoisted his pyratical Colours, and fired a Gun for the
_Greyhound_ to bring to, which she refusing, the _Happy Delivery_ (the Name
of the Pyrate) edg'd down, and gave her a Broadside, which was returned by
Captain _Edwards_ very bravely, and the Engagement held for an Hour; but
Captain _Edwards_, finding the Pyrate too strong for him, and fearing the
Consequence of too obstinate a Resistance against those lawless Fellows,
ordered his Ensign to be struck. The Pyrates Boat came aboard, and not only
rifled the Ship, but whipp'd, beat, and cut the Men in a cruel Manner,
turned them aboard their own Ship, and then set Fire to their's.

In cruising about the Bay, they met and took several other Vessels without
any Resistance, _viz._ two Brigantines of _Boston_ in _New-England_, one of
which they burnt, and sunk the other; a Sloop belonging to _Connecticut_,
Captain _Airs_, which they also burnt; a Sloop of _Jamaica_, Captain
_Hamilton_, they took for their own Use; a Sloop of _Virginia_ they
unladed, and was so generous as to give her back to the Master that own'd
her. They took a Sloop of 100 Ton, belonging to _Rhode Island_, which they
were pleased to keep, and mount with eight Carriage, and ten Swivel Guns.

With this little Fleet, _viz._ Admiral _Lowther_, in the _Happy Delivery_;
Captain _Low_, in the _Rhode Island_ Sloop; Captain _Harris_, (who was
second Mate in the _Greyhound_ when taken,) in _Hamilton_'s Sloop, and the
little Sloop formerly mentioned, serving as a Tender; I say, with this
Fleet the Pyrates left the Bay, and came to _Port Mayo_ in the Gulph of
_Matique_, and there made Preparations to careen; they carried ashore all
their Sails, and made Tents by the Water-Side, wherein they laid their
Plunder, Stores, _&c._ and fell to work; and at the Time that the Ships
were upon the Heel, and the good Folks employ'd in heaving down, scrubing,
tallowing, and so forth; of a sudden came down a considerable Body of the
Natives, and attack'd the Pyrates unprepared. As they were in no Condition
to defend themselves, they fled to their Sloops, leaving them Masters of
the Field and the Spoil thereof, which was of great Value, and set Fire to
the _Happy Delivery_, their capital Ship.

_Lowther_ made the best Provision he could in the largest Sloop, which he
called the _Ranger_, having ten Guns and eight Swivels, and she sailing
best, the Company went all aboard of her, and left the other at Sea.
Provisions was now very short, which, with the late Loss, put them in a
confounded ill Humour, insomuch that they were every now and then going
together by the Ears, laying the Blame of their ill Conduct sometimes upon
one, then upon another.

The Beginning of _May_ 1722, they got to the _West-Indies_, and near the
Island of _Diseada_, took a Brigantine, one _Payne_ Master, that afforded
them what they stood in need of, which put them in better Temper, and
Business seemed to go on well again. After they had pretty well plundered
the Brigantine, they sent her to the Bottom. They went into the Island and
watered, and then stood to the Northward, intending to visit the Main-Coast
of _America._

In the Latitude of 38, they took a Brigantine called the _Rebecca_ of
_Boston_, Captain _Smith_, bound thither from St. _Christophers._ At the
taking of this Vessel, the Crews divided; for _Low_, whom _Lowther_ joined
at the _Grand Caimanes_, proving always a very unruly Member of the
Commonwealth, always aspiring, and never satisfy'd with the Proceedings of
the Commander; he thought it the safest Way to get rid of him, upon any
Terms; and according to the Vote of the Company, they parted the Bear Skin
between them: _Low_ with 44 Hands went aboard the Brigantine, and _Lowther_
with the same Number stay'd in the Sloop, and separated that very Night,
being the 28th of _May_ 1722.

_Lowther_ proceeding on his Way to the Main-Coast, took three or four
fishing Vessels off _New-York_, which was no great Booty to the Captors.
The 3d of _June_, they met with a small _New-England_ Ship, bound home from
_Barbadoes_, which stood an Attack a small Time, but finding it to no
Purpose, yielded herself a Prey to the Booters: The Pyrates took out of her
fourteen Hogsheads of Rum, six Barrels of Sugar, a large Box of _English_
Goods, several Casks of Loaf Sugar, a considerable Quantity of Pepper, six
Negroes, besides a Sum of Money and Plate, and then let her go on her

The next Adventure was not so fortunate for them, for coming pretty near
the Coast of _South-Carolina_, they met with a Ship just come out, on her
Voyage to _England; Lowther_ gave her a Gun, and hoisted his pyratical
Colours; but this Ship, which was called the _Amy_, happening to have a
brave gallant Man to command her, who was not any ways daunted with that
terrible Ensign, the black Flag, he instead of striking immediately, as
'twas expected, let fly a Broadside at the Pyrate. _Lowther_ (not at all
pleased with the Compliment, tho' he put up with it for the present) was
for taking Leave; but the _Amy_ getting the Pyrate between her and the
Shore, stood after him to clap him aboard; to prevent which, _Lowther_ run
the Sloop a-ground, and landed all the Men with their Arms. Captain
_Gwatkins_, the Captain of the _Amy_, was obliged to stand off, for fear of
running his own Ship ashore; but at the same Time thought fit for the
publick Good, to destroy the Enemy; and thereupon went into the Boat, and
rowed towards the Sloop, in order to set her on Fire; but before he reached
the Vessel, a fatal Shot from _Lowther_'s Company ashore, put an End to
their Design and Captain _Gwatkin_'s Life. After this unfortunate Blow, the
Mate returned aboard with the Boat, and not being enclined to pursue them
any farther, took Charge of the Ship.

_Lowther_ got off the Sloop after the Departure of the _Amy_, and brought
all his Men aboard again, but was in a poor shattered Condition, having
suffered much in the Engagement, and had a great many Men kill'd and
wounded: He made Shift to get into an Inlet somewhere in _North-Carolina_,
where he staid a long while before he was able to put to Sea again.

He and his Crew laid up all the Winter, and shifted as well as they could
among the Woods, divided themselves into small Parties, and hunted
generally in the Day Times, killing of black Cattle, Hogs, _&c._ for their
Subsistance, and in the Night retired to their Tents and Huts, which they
made for Lodging; and sometimes when the Weather grew very cold, they would
stay aboard of their Sloop.

In the Spring of the Year 1723, they made Shift to get to Sea, and steered
their Course for _Newfoundland_, and upon the Banks took a Scooner, call'd
the _Swift, John Hood_ Master; they found a good Quantity of Provisions
aboard her, which they very much wanted at that Time, and after taking
three of their Hands, and plundering her of what they thought fit, they let
her depart. They took several other Vessels upon the Banks, and in the
Harbour, but none of any great Account; and then steering for a warmer
Climate, in _August_ arrived at the _West-Indies._ In their Passage
thither, they met with a Brigantine, called the _John_ and _Elizabeth,
Richard Stanny_ Master, bound for _Boston_, which they plundered, took two
of her Men, and discharged her.

_Lowther_ cruised a pretty while among the Islands without any
extraordinary Success, and was reduced to a very small Allowance of
Provisions, till they had the luck to fall in with a _Martinico_ Man, which
proved a seasonable Relief to them; and after that, a _Guiney_ Man had the
ill Fortune to become a Prey to the _Rovers_; she was called the
_Princess_, Captain _Wicksted_ Commander.

It was now thought necessary to look out for a Place to clean their Sloop
in, and prepare for new Adventures: Accordingly the Island of _Blanco_ was
pitched upon for that Purpose, which lies in the Latitude of 11° 50 m. N.
about 30 Leagues from the Main of the _Spanish America_, between the
Islands of _Margarita_ and _Rocas_, and not far from _Tortuga._ It is a low
even Island, but healthy and dry, uninhabited, and about two Leagues in
Circumference, with Plenty of Lignum Vitæ Trees thereon, growing in Spots,
with shrubby Bushes of other Wood about them. There are, besides Turtle,
great Numbers of Guanoes, which is an amphibious Creature like a Lizard,
but much larger, the Body of it being as big as a Man's Leg; they are very
good to eat, and are much used by the Pyrates that come here: They are of
divers Colours, but such as live upon dry Ground, as here at _Blanco_, are
commonly yellow. On the N. W. End of this Island, there is a small Cove or
sandy Bay, all round the rest of the Island is deep Water, and steep close
to the Island. Here _Lowther_ resorted to, the Beginning of _October_ last,
unrigged his Sloop, sent his Guns, Sails, Rigging, _&c._ ashore, and put
his Vessel upon the Careen. The _Eagle_ Sloop of _Barbadoes_, belonging to
the _South-Sea_ Company, with 35 Hands, commanded by _Walter Moore_, coming
near this Island, in her Voyage to _Comena_, on the _Spanish_ Continent,
saw the said Sloop just careen'd, with her Guns out, and Sails unbent,
which she supposed to be a Pyrate, because it was a Place where Traders did
not commonly use, so took the Advantage of attacking her, as she was then
unprepared; the _Eagle_ having fired a Gun to oblige her to shew her
Colours, the Pyrate hoisted the St. _George_'s Flag at their Topmast-Head,
as it were to bid Defiance to her; but when they found _Moore_ and his Crew
resolved to board them in good earnest, the Pyrates cut their Cable and
hawled their Stern on Shore, which obliged the _Eagle_ to come to an Anchor
a-thwart their Hawse, where she engaged them till they called for Quarter
and struck; at which Time _Lowther_ and twelve of the Crew made their
Escape out of the Cabin Window. The Master of the _Eagle_ got the Pyrate
Sloop off, secured her, and went ashore with 25 Hands, in Pursuit of
_Lowther_ and his Gang; but after five Day's search, they could find but
five of them, which they brought aboard, and then proceeded with the Sloop
and Pyrates to _Comena_ aforesaid, where they soon arrived.

The _Spanish_ Governor being informed of this brave Action, condemned the
Sloop to the Captors, and sent a small Sloop with 23 Hands to scower the
Bushes and other Places of the Island of _Blanco_, for the Pyrates that
remained there, and took four more, with seven small Arms, leaving behind
them Captain _Lowther_, three Men, and a little Boy, which they could not
take; the above four the _Spaniards_ try'd and condemned to Slavery for
Life; three to the Gallies, and the other to the Castle of _Arraria._

The _Eagle_ Sloop brought all their Prisoners afterwards to St.
_Christopher_'s, where the following were try'd by a Court of Vice
Admiralty, there held _March_ the 11th, 1722, _viz. John Churchill, Edward
Mackdonald, Nicholas Lewis, Richard West, Sam. Levercott, Robert White,
John Shaw, Andrew Hunter, Jonathan Delve, Matthew Freebarn, Henry Watson,
Roger Grange, Ralph Candor_, and _Robert Willis_; the three last were
acquitted, the other thirteen were found Guilty, two of which were
recommended to Mercy by the Court, and accordingly pardoned; and the rest
executed at that Island, on the 20th of the same Month.

As for Captain _Lowther_, it is said that he afterwards shot himself upon
that fatal Island, where his Pyracies ended, being found, by some Sloop's
Men, dead, and a Pistol burst by his Side.

CHAP. XIII. OF Captain _Edward Low_, And his CREW.

E_dward Low_ was born in _Westminster_, and had his Education there,
such as it was, for he could neither write or read. Nature seem'd to have
designed him for a Pyrate from his Childhood, for very early he began the
Trade of plundering, and was wont to raise Contributions among all the Boys
of _Westminster_; and if any were bold enough to refuse it, a Battle was
the Consequence; but _Low_ was so hardy, as well as bold, there was no
getting the better of him, so that he robbed the Youths of their Farthings,
with Impunity; when he grew bigger he took to Gaming in a low Way, for it
was commonly among the Footmen in the _Lobby_ of the House of Commons,
where he used to play the whole Game, (as they term it,) that is, cheat all
he could, and those who pretended to dispute it with him, must fight him.

The Virtues of some of his Family were equal to his; one of his Brothers
was a Youth of Genius, when he was but seven Years old, he used to be
carried in a Basket, upon a Porter's Back, into a Crowd, and snatch Hats
and Wigs: According to the exact Chronology of _Newgate_, he was the first
who practised this ingenious Trick. After this, he applied himself to
picking of Pockets; when he increased in Strength, he attempted greater
Things, such as House-breaking, _&c._ But after he had run a short Race, he
had the Misfortune of ending his Days at _Tyburn_, in Company with _Stephen
Bunce_, and the celebrated _Jack Hall_ the Chimney-Sweeper.

But to return to _Ned_, when he came to Man's Estate, at his eldest
Brother's Desire, he went to Sea with him, and so continued for three or
four Years, and then parted; and _Ned_ work'd in a Rigging-House in
_Boston_ in _New-England_, for a while. About six Years ago, he took a Trip
home to _England_, to see his Mother, who is yet Living. His Stay was not
long here; but taking Leave of his Friends and Acquaintance, for the last
Time he should see them; for so he was pleased to say; he returned to
_Boston_, and work'd a Year or two longer at the Rigging Business. But
being too apt to disagree with his Masters, he left them, and shipp'd
himself in a Sloop that was bound to the Bay of _Honduras._

When the Sloop arrived in the Bay, _Ned Low_ was appointed Patron of the
Boat, which was employ'd in cutting of Logwood, and bringing it aboard to
lade the Ship; for that is the Commodity they make the Voyage for: In the
Boat were twelve Men besides _Low_, who all go arm'd, because of the
_Spaniards_, from whom this Logwood is but little better than stole. It
happened that the Boat one Day came aboard just before Dinner was ready,
and _Low_ desired that they might stay and Dine; but the Captain, being in
a Hurry for his Lading, ordered them a Bottle of Rum, and to take t'other
Trip, because no Time should be lost: This provoked the Boat's Crew, but
particularly _Low_, who takes up a loaded Musquet and fires at the Captain,
but missing him, shot another poor Fellow thro' the Head, then put off the
Boat, and with his twelve Companions goes to Sea: The next Day they took a
small Vessel, and go in her, make a black Flag, and declare War against all
the World.

They then proceeded to the Island of the _Grand Caimanes_, intending to
have fitted up their small Vessel, and prepare themselves as well as their
Circumstances would permit, for their honourable Employment; but falling in
Company with _George Lowther_, another Pyrate there, who paying his
Compliments to _Low_, as great Folks do to one another when they meet, and
offering himself as an Ally; _Low_ accepted of the Terms, and so the Treaty
was presently sign'd without Plenipo's or any other Formalities.

We have already given an Account of their joynt Pyracies, under _Lowther_
as chief Commander, till the 28th of _May_, 1722, when they took a
Brigantine of _Boston_, bound thither from St. _Christophers_, at which
Time they parted, and _Edward Low_ went into the Brigantine, with forty
four others, who chose him their Captain: They took with them two Guns,
four Swivels, six Quarter-Casks of Powder, Provisions and some Stores, and
so left _Lowther_ to prosecute his Adventures, with the Men he had left.

Their first Adventure in the Brigantine, was on _Sunday_ the 3d Day of
_June_, when they took a Vessel belonging to _Amboy, John Hance_ Master,
whom he rifled of his Provisions, and let go; the same Day he met with a
Sloop, _James Calquhoon_ Master, off of _Rhode Island_, bound into that
Port, whom he first plundered, and then cut away his Boltsprit, and all his
Rigging, also his Sails from the Yards, and wounded the Master, to prevent
his getting in to give Intelligence, and then stood away to the
South-Eastward, with all the Sail he could make, there being then but
little Wind.

_Low_ judged right in making sail from the Coast, for a longer stay had
proved fatal to him, for notwithstanding the disabled Condition he had
rendered the Sloop in, she made shift to get into _Block Island_, at 12
o'Clock that Night, and immediately dispatched a Whale-Boat to _Rhode
Island_, which got thither by seven the next Morning, with an Account of
the Pyrate, his Force, and what had happened to him: As soon as the
Governor had received this Information, he ordered a Drum to beat up for
Volunteers, and two of the best Sloops then in the Harbour, to be fitted
out: He gave Commissions to one Captain _John Headland_, and Captain _John
Brown_, jun. for ten Days; the former had eight Guns and two Swivels, and
the latter six Guns, well fitted with small Arms, and in both Sloops 140
stout Fellows; all this was performed with so much Expedition, that before
Sun-set, they were under Sail, turning out of the Harbour, at the same Time
the Pyrate was seen from _Block Island_, which gave great Hopes that the
Sloops would be Masters of her the next Day, which however did not happen,
for the Sloops returned into Harbour some Days afterwards, without so much
as seeing their Enemy.

After this Escape, Captain _Low_, went into Port, upon the Coast, for he
had not fresh Water enough to run to the Islands, where he staid a few
Days, getting Provisions and what Necessaries the Crew wanted, and then
sailed for Purchase, (as they call it) steering their Course towards

About the 12th of _July_, the Brigantine sailed into the Harbour of Port
_Rosemary_, and there found thirteen Ships and Vessels, but none of Force,
at Anchor, they spread their black Flag, and ran in among them; _Low_
telling them from the Brigantine, they should have no Quarters if they
resisted; in the mean Time they mann'd and arm'd their Boat, and took
Possession of every one of them, plundered them of what they thought fit,
and converted one to their own Use, _viz._ a Scooner of 80 Tuns, aboard of
which they put 10 Carriage Guns, and 50 Men, and _Low_ himself went
Captain, and nam'd her the _Fancy_, making one _Charles Harris_, (who was
at first forced into their Service out of the _Greyhound_ of _Boston_, by
_Lowther_, of which Ship _Harris_ was second Mate) Captain of the
Brigantine: Out of these Vessels they took several Hands, and encreased the
Company to 80 Men, who all signed the Articles, some willingly, and a few
perhaps by Force, and so sailed away from _Marblehead._

Some Time after this, they met with two Sloops bound for _Boston_, with
Provisions for the Garrison, and the Scooner coming up first, attacked
them, but there happening to be an Officer and some Soldiers on Board, who
gave them a warm Reception, _Low_ chose to stay till he should be joyned by
the Brigantine; in the mean while the Sloops made the best of their Way,
and the Pyrates gave them Chace two Days, and at last lost sight of them in
a Fog.

They now steered for the Leeward Islands, but in their Voyage met with such
a Hurricane of Wind, that the like had not been known; the Sea ran
Mountains high, and seemed to threaten them every Moment with Destruction;
it was no Time now to look out for Plunder, but to save themselves, if
possible, from perishing. All Hands were continually employed Night, and
Day, on Board the Brigantine, and all little enough, for the Waves went
over her, so that they were forced to keep the pump constantly going,
besides baling with Buckets; but finding themselves not able to keep her
free, and seeing the utmost Danger before their Eyes, they turn'd to the
Takle, and hoisted out their Provisions, and other heavy Goods, and threw
them over-board, with six of their Guns, so that by lightening the Vessel,
she might rise to the Top of the Sea with the Waves: They were also going
to cut away their Mast; but considering how dangerous it would be, to be
left in such a Condition, they resolved to delay it to the last, which was
Prudence in them to do; for a Ship without Masts or Sails, lies like a Log
upon the Water, and if attack'd, must fight with Disadvantage, the working
of her being the most artful Part of the Engagement, because she may
sometimes bring all her great Guns on one Side, to bear upon her Enemy,
when the disabled Ship can do little or nothing.

But to proceed; by their throwing over-board the heavy Goods, the Vessel
made considerable less Water, and they could keep it under with the Pump
only, which gave them Hopes and new Life; so that instead of cutting all
away, they took necessary Measures to secure the Mast, by making
Preventor-Shrowds, _&c._ and then wore and lay too upon the other Tack,
till the Storm was over. The Scooner made somewhat better Weather of it, of
the two, but was pretty roughly handled notwithstanding, having split her
Main-sail, sprung her Boltsprit, and cut her Anchors from her Bows. The
Brigantine by running away to Leeward, when she wore upon the Larboard
Tack, had lost Sight of the Scooner; but not knowing whether she might be
safe or not, as soon as the Wind abated, she set her Main-Sail and
Top-Sail, and made short Trips to Windward; and the next Day had the good
Fortune to come in Sight of their Consort, who, upon a Signal, which the
other knew, bore down to her, and the Crew were overjoy'd to meet again,
after such ill Treatment from the Winds and Seas.

After the Storm, _Low_ got safe to a small Island, one of the Weathermost
of the _Caribbees_, and there fitted their Vessels, as well as the Place
could afford; they got Provisions of the Natives, in exchange for Goods of
their own; and as soon as the Brigantine was ready, 'twas judg'd necessary
to take a short Cruize, and leave the Scooner in the Harbour till her
Return. The Brigantine sail'd out accordingly, and had not been out many
Days before they met a Ship at Sea, that had lost all her Masts; on Board
of whom they went, and took from her in Money and Goods, to the Value of
1000 _l._ and so left her in the Condition they found her: This Ship was
bound home from _Barbadoes_, but losing her Masts in the late Storm, was
making for _Antegoa_, to refit, where she afterwards arriv'd.

The Storm just spoken of, was found to have done incredible Damage in those
Parts of the World; but however, it appear'd to have been more violent at
_Jamaica_, both to the Island and Shipping, there was such a prodigious
Swell of the Sea, that several hundred Tuns of Stones and Rocks, were
thrown over the Wall of the Town of _Port Royal_, and the Town it self was
overflowed, and above half destroy'd, there being the next Morning five
Foot Water from one End to the other; the Cannon of Fort _Charles_ were
dismounted, and some washed into the Sea, and four hundred People lost
their Lives; a more melancholly Sight was scarce ever seen when the Water
ebb'd away, all the Streets being covered with Ruins of Houses, Wrecks of
Vessels, and a great Number of dead Bodies, for forty Sail of Ships, in the
Harbour, were cast away.

The Brigantine return'd to the Island, where she had left the Scooner, who
being ready to sail, it was put to the Vote of the Company, what Voyage to
take next; and herein they follow'd the Advice of the Captain, who thought
it not adviseable to go any farther to Leeward, because of the Men of War
who were cruising in their several Stations, which they were not at all
fond of meeting, and therefore it was agreed to go to the _Azores_, or
Western Islands.

The latter End of _July, Low_ took a _French_ Ship of 34 Guns, and carried
her along with him to the _Azores._ He came into St. _Michael_'s Road the
3d of _August_, and took seven Sail that were lying there, _viz._ the
_Nostre Dame, Mere de Dieu_, Captain _Roach_ Commander; the _Dove_, Capt.
_Cox_; the _Rose_ Pink, formerly a Man of War, Capt. _Thompson_; another
_English_ Ship, Capt. _Chandler_; and three other Vessels. He threatened
all with present Death who resisted, which struck such a Terror to them,
that they yielded themselves up a Prey to the Villains, without firing a

The Pyrates being in great Want of Water and fresh Provisions, _Low_ sent
to the Governor of St. _Michael_'s for a Supply, and promised upon that
Condition to release the Ships he had taken, but otherwise to burn them
all; which Demand the Governor thought it not prudent to refuse, but sent
the Provision he required, upon which he released six of the Ships, (after
he had plundered them of what he thought fit,) and the other, _viz._ the
_Rose_ Pink, was made a Pyrate Ship, which _Low_ himself took the Command

The Pyrates took several of the Guns out of the _French_ Ship, and mounted
them aboard the _Rose_, which proved very fit for their Turn, and condemned
the former to the Flames. They took all the Crew out of her, but the Cook,
who, they said, being a greazy Fellow would fry well in the Fire; so the
poor Man was bound to the Main-Mast, and burnt in the Ship, to the no small
Diversion of _Low_ and his _Mirmidons._

_Low_ ordered the Scooner to lye in the Fare between St. _Michael_'s and
St. _Mary_'s, where, about the 20th of _August_, Captain _Carter_ in the
_Wright_ Galley, had the ill Fortune to come in her Way; and because at
first they shewed Inclinations to defend themselves, and what they had, the
Pyrates cut and mangled them in a barbarous Manner; particularly some
_Portuguese_ Passengers, two of which being Friers, they triced up at each
Arm of the Fore-Yard, but let them down again before they were quite dead,
and this they repeated several Times out of Sport.

Another _Portuguese_, who was also Captain _Carter_'s Passenger, putting on
a sorrowful Countenance at what he saw acted, one of this vile Crew
attacked him upon the Deck, saying, _he did not like his Looks_, and
thereupon gave him one Blow a-cross his Belly with his Cutlash, that cut
out his Bowels, and he fell down dead without speaking a Word. At the same
Time another of these Rogues cutting at a Prisoner, missed his Mark, and
Captain _Low_ standing in his Way, very opportunely received the Stroke
upon his under Jaw, which laid the Teeth bare; upon this the Surgeon was
called, who immediately stitched up the Wound, but _Low_ finding fault with
the Operation, the Surgeon being tollerably drunk, as it was customary for
every Body to be, struck _Low_ such a Blow with his Fist, that broke out
all the Stitches, and then bid him sew up his Chops himself and be damned,
so that _Low_ made a very pitiful Figure for some Time after.

When they had plundered Captain _Carter_'s Ship, several of them were for
burning her, as they had done the _French_ Man, but it was otherwise
resolved at last; for after they had cut her Cables, Rigging and Sails to
Pieces, they left her to the Mercy of the Sea.

After these Depredations, they steered for the Island of _Madera_, where
missing other Booty, they took up with a Fishing-Boat, with two old Men and
a Boy in her, one of which they detained on Board, but sent the other
ashore with a Flag of Truce, demanding a Boat of Water of the Governor, on
Pain of taking away the old Man's Life, whom they threatened to hang at the
Yard-Arm, upon their refusal; but the Thing being complied with, the old
Man was honourably (as the Pyrates say) discharged, and all the three much
handsomer cloathed than when they took them. From this Island they sailed
to the _Canaries_, but meeting with no Prey there, they continued their
Course for the _Cape de Verd_ Islands, and at _Bonavista_, took a Ship
called the _Liverpool Merchant_, Captain _Goulding_, from whom they stole a
great Quantity of Provisions and dry Goods, 300 Gallons of Brandy, two Guns
and Carriages, a Mast, Yard and Hawsers, besides six of his Men, and then
would not let them Trade there, nor at St. _Nicholas_, but obliged Captain
_Goulding_ to go with his Ship, to the Isle of _May._

The Pyrate also took among these Islands, a Ship belonging to _Liverpool,
Scot_ Commander; two _Portuguese_ Sloops bound for _Brasil_; a small
_English_ Sloop trading there, _James Pease_ Master, bound to _Sancta
Crux_, and three Sloops from St. _Thomas_ bound to _Curaso_, the Masters
Names were _Lilly, Staples_ and _Simpkins_, all which they plundered, and
then let go about their Business, except one Sloop which they fitted up for
the following Purpose.

_Low_ had heard by one of the above mentioned Ships, that two small Gallies
were expected every Day at the _Western Islands, viz._ the _Greyhound_,
Captain _Glass_, and the _Joliff_, Captain _Aram_; the former of which was
designed to be fitted for the pyratical Trade to _Brasil_, if Things had
happened to their Minds. They mann'd the Sloop, and sent her in Quest of
one or both of these Ships to the _Western Islands_ aforesaid, whilst they
carreen'd their Ship _Rose_, at one of the _Cape de Verds_: But now Fortune
that had hitherto been so propitious to them, left her Minions, and baffled
for the present all their Hopes, for the Sloop missing of their Prey, was
reduced to great Necessities for want of Provisions and Water, so that they
ventured to go ashore at St. _Michael_'s for a Supply, and pass for a
Trader; but they play'd their Parts so aukwardly, that they were suspected
by the Governor to be what they really were, and he was soon put out of
doubt by a Visit some _Portuguese_ made them, who happened unluckily to be
Passengers in Captain _Carter_'s Ship, when _Low_ took her, and knew the
Gentlemen's Faces very well; upon which the whole Crew was conducted into
the Castle, where they were provided for as long as they liv'd.

_Low_, in the mean Time, did not fare quite so ill, but had his intended
Voyage to _Brasil_ spoil'd, by the oversetting of his Ship, when she was
upon the Careen, whereby she was lost, so that he was reduc'd to his old
Scooner, which he called the _Fancy_, aboard of which they all went, to the
Number of 100, as vile Rogues as ever ended their Lives at _Tyburn._ They
proceeded now to the _West-Indies_, but before they had gotten far on their
Voyage, they attack'd a rich _Portuguese_ Ship, call'd the _Nostre Signiora
de Victoria_, bound home from _Bahia_, and after some Resistance, took her.
_Low_ tortur'd several of the Men, to make them declare where the Money,
(which he suppos'd they had on Board) lay, and extorted by that Means, a
Confession that the Captain had, during the Chace, hung out of the Cabin
Window, a Bag with 11,000 Moidores, which, assoon as he was taken, he cut
the Rope off, and let it drop into the Sea.

_Low_, upon hearing what a Prize had escap'd him, rav'd like a Fury, swore
a thousand Oaths, and ordered the Captain's Lips to be cut off, which he
broil'd before his Face, and afterwards murthered him and all the Crew,
being thirty two Persons.

After this bloody Action, they continued their Course, till they came to
the Northward of all the Islands, and there cruiz'd for about a Month, in
which Time they made Prizes of the following Vessels, _viz._ a Snow from
_New-York_ to _Curacoa, Robert Leonard_ Master; a Sloop from the Bay, bound
to _New-York, Craig_ Master; a Snow from _London_ and _Jamaica_, bound to
_New-York_; and the _Stanhope_ Pink, _Andrew Delbridge_ Master, from
_Jamaica_ to _Boston_; which last they burnt, because of _Low_'s
irreconcileable Aversion to _New-England_ Men.

After this Cruize, they went into one of the Islands and clean'd, and then
steered for the Bay of _Honduras_, where they arrived about the Middle of
_March_ 1722-3, and met a Sloop turning out of the said Bay. The Pyrates
had hoisted up _Spanish_ Colours, and continued them till they drew near
the Sloop, then they hall'd them down, hoisted their black Flag, fired a
Broadside, and boarded her. This Sloop was a _Spaniard_ of six Guns, and 70
Men, that came into the Bay that Morning, and meeting there with five
_English_ Sloops, and a Pink, made Prizes of them all, plundered them, and
brought the Masters of the Vessels away Prisoners, for the ransom of the
Logwood; their Names were _Tuthill, Norton, Newbury, Sprafort, Clark_ and
_Parrot._ The _Spaniards_ made no Resistance, so that the _English_ Pyrates
soon became their Masters and fell to rifling; but finding the
above-mentioned People in the Hold, and several _English_ Goods, they
consulted _Low_ the Captain thereupon, and without examining any further,
the Resolution pass'd to kill all the Company; and the Pyrates, without any
Ceremony, fell Pell-Mell to Execution with their Swords, Cutlashes,
Poll-Axes and Pistols, cutting, slashing and shooting the poor _Spaniards_
at a sad Rate. Some of the miserable Creatures jump'd down into the Hold,
but could not avoid the Massacre; they met Death every where, for if they
escaped it from one Hand, they were sure to perish by another; the only
Prospect they had of Life, was to fly from the Rage of those merciless Men,
and to trust to the more merciful Sea; and accordingly a great many leap'd
over-board, and swam for the Shore; but _Low_ perceiving it, ordered the
Canoa to be mann'd, and sent in pursuit of them, by which Means several of
the poor unhappy Men were knock'd in the Head in the Water, as they were
endeavouring to get to Land; however, about 12 of them did reach the Shore,
but in a miserable Condition, being very much wounded, and what became of
them afterwards was not known, except one, who while the Pyrates were at
their Sports and Pastimes ashore, finding himself very weak and fainting
with his Wounds, and not knowing where to go for Help and Relief, in this
Extremity, he came back to them, and begg'd for God sake, in the most
earnest Manner possible, that they would give him Quarters; upon which, one
of the Villains took hold of him, and said, _G-- d--n him, he would give
him good Quarters presently_, and made the poor _Spaniard_ kneel down on
his Knees, then taking his Fusil, put the Muzzle of it into his Mouth, and
fired down his Throat. 'Twas thought the rest did not long survive their
miserable Condition, and could only prolong their Lives, to add to the
Misery of them.

When the murdering Work was over, they rumaged the _Spanish_ Pyrate, and
brought all the Booty aboard their own Vessels: The six Masters
aforementioned, found in the Hold, they restored to their respective
Vessels: They forced away the Carpenter from the Pink, and then set Fire to
the _Spanish_ Sloop, and burnt her; which last Scene concluded the
Destruction of their Enemy, Ship and Crew.

_Low_ set the Masters of the Vessels free, but would not suffer them to
steer for _Jamaica_, where they were then bound, for fear the Men of War
should get Intelligence of them, but forced them all to go to _New-York_,
threat'ning them with Death, when they met them again, if they refused to
comply with their Demands.

In the next Cruize, which was between the Leeward Islands and the Main,
they took two Snows, bound from _Jamaica_ to _Liverpool_, and a Snow from
_Jamaica_ to _London, Bridds_ Master; as also a Ship from _Biddford_ to
_Jamaica, John Pinkham_ Commander; and two Sloops from _Jamaica_ to

On the 27th of _May, Low_ and his Consort _Harris_, came off
_South-Carolina_, and met with three good Ships, _viz._ the _Crown_,
Captain _Lovereigne_, the _King William_, the _Carteret_, and a Brigantine,
who all came out of _Carolina_ together two Days before. The Pyrates were
at the Trouble of chacing them, and Captain _Lovereigne_ being the
sternmost, she fell first a Prey into their Hands; and they spent all the
Day in coming up with the rest.

Within a few Days they took a Ship called the _Amsterdam Merchant_, Captain
_Willard_, from _Jamaica_, but belonging to _New-England_; as _Low_ let
none of that Country depart without some Marks of his Rage, he cut off this
Gentleman's Ears, slit up his Nose, and cut him in several Places of his
Body, and, after plundering his Ship, let him pursue his Voyage.

After this he took a Sloop bound to _Amboy, William Frazier_, Master, with
whom Mr. _Low_ happening to be displeased, he ordered lighted Matches to be
ty'd between the Mens Fingers, which burnt all the Flesh off the Bones;
then cut them in several Parts of their Bodies with Knives and Cutlashes;
afterwards took all their Provisions away, and set some of them ashore in
an uninhabited Part of the Country.

The _Kingston_, Captain _Estwick_, another Ship, one _Burrington_ Master,
two Brigantines from _Carolina_ to _London_; a Sloop from _Virginia_ to
_Bermudas_; a Ship from _Glasgow_ to _Virginia_; a Scooner from _New-York_
to _South-Carolina_; a Pink from _Virginia_ to _Dartmouth_, and a Sloop
from _Philadelphia_ to _Surinam_, fell a Prey to these Villains, upon this
Cruize, besides those above-mentioned.

It happened that at this Time one of his Majesty's Ships was upon a Cruize,
on this Station, and got Intelligence of some of the mischievous Actions of
this Miscreant, by one of the Vessels that had been plundered by him, who
steering as directed, came in Sight of the Pyrates by break of Day, on the
10th of _June_, of all Days in the Year. The Rovers looking out for Prey,
soon saw, and gave Chace to the Man of War, which was called the
_Greyhound_, a Ship of 20 Guns, and 120 Men, rather inferiour in Force to
the two Pyrate Vessels: The _Greyhound_ finding them so eager, was in no
doubt what they should be, and therefore tack'd and stood from them, giving
the Pyrates an Opportunity to chace her for two Hours, till all Things were
in Readiness for an Engagement, and the Pyrates about Gun-shot off; then
the _Greyhound_ tack'd again, and stood towards the two Sloops, one of them
called the _Fancy_, commanded by _Low_ himself, and the other the _Ranger_,
commanded by _Harris_, both which hoisted their pyratical Colours, and
fired each a Gun. When the _Greyhound_ came within Musquet-shot, she halled
up her Main-sail, and clapp'd close upon a Wind, to keep the Pyrates from
running to Leeward, and then engaged: But when the Rogues found who they
had to deal with, they edg'd away under the Man of War's Stern, and the
_Greyhound_ standing after them, they made a running Fight for about two
Hours; but little Wind happening, the Sloops gained from her, by the help
of their Oars; upon which the _Greyhound_ left off firing, and turned all
Hands to her own Oars, and at three in the Afternoon came up with them. The
Pyrates haul'd upon a Wind to receive the Man of War, and the Fight was
immediately renewed, with a brisk Fire on both Sides, till the _Ranger_'s
Main-Yard was shot down, and the _Greyhound_ pressing close upon the
disabled Sloop, _Low_, in the other, thought fit to bear away and leave his
Consort a Sacrifice to his Enemy, who (seing the Cowardice and Treachery of
his Commadore and Leader, having ten or twelve Men killed and wounded, and
that there was no possibility of escaping,) called out for Quarters, and
surrendered themselves to Justice, which proved severe enough to them
a-while afterwards.

The Conduct of _Low_ was surprizing in this Adventure, because his reputed
Courage and Boldness, had, hitherto, so possess'd the Minds of all People,
that he became a Terror, even to his own Men; but his Behaviour throughout
this whole Action, shewed him to be a base cowardly Villain, for had
_Low_'s Sloop fought half so briskly as _Harris_'s had done, (as they were
under a solemn Oath to do,) the Man of War, in my Opinion, could never have
hurted them.

The _Greyhound_ carried in their Prize to _Rhode Island_, to the great Joy
of the whole Province, tho' it had been more compleat, if the great _LOW_
himself had grac'd the Triumph. The Prisoners were strongly secured in a
Goal, till a Court of Vice-Admiralty could be held for their Tryals, which
begun on the 10th of _July_, at _Newport_, and continued three Days. The
Court was made up of the following Gentlemen.

_William Dummer_, Esq; Lieutenant Governor of the _Massachusets_,
President. _Nathaniel Paine_, Esq; _Addington Davonport_, Esq; _Thomas
Fitch_, Esq; _Spencer Phipps_, Esq; _John Lechmere_, Esq; Surveyor-General.
_John Valentine_, Esq; Advocate-General. _Samuel Cranston_, Governor of
_Rhode-Island._ _John Menzies_, Esq; Judge of the Admiralty, _Richard
Ward_, Esq; Register. Mr. _Jahleel Brinton_, Provost-Marshal.

_Robert Auchmuta_, Esq; was assigned, by the Court, Council for the
Prisoners here under mention'd.

Prisoners Names.            Ages.  Places of Birth.
Charles Harris, Captain      25    London.
William Blads                28    Rhode-Island.
Daniel Hide                  23    Virginia.
Thomas Powel, jun.           21    Connecticut N. E.
Stephen Mundon               20    London.
Thomas Huggit                30    London.
William Read                 35    Londonderry, Ireland.
Peter Kneeves                32    Exeter in Devon.
James Brinkly                28    Suffolk in England.
Joseph Sound                 28    City of Westminster.
William Shutfield            40    Lancafter in England.
Edward Eaton                 38    Wrexham in Wales.
John Brown                   29    County of Durham.
Edward Lawson                20    Isle of Man.
Owen Rice                    27    South-Wales.
John Tomkins                 23    Gloucestershire.
John Fitzgerrald             21    Limerick in Ireland.
Abraham Lacy                 21    Devonshire.
Thomas Linister              21    Lancashire.
Francis Leyton               39    New-York.
John Waters, Quart.-Mr.      35    County of Devon.
William Jones                28    London.
Charles Church               21    St. Margaret's, Westm.
Thomas Hazel                 50    -- -- --
John Bright                  25    -- -- -- --

These 25 were found guilty, and executed the 19th of _July_, 1723,
near _Newport_ in _Rhode-Island._

John Brown            17   Liverpoole.
Patrick Cunningham    25   -- -- --

These two were found guilty, but respited for one Year, and
recommended to the King's Favour.

John Wilson            23      New-London County
Henry Barnes           22      Barbadoes.
Thomas Jones           17      Flur in Wales.
Joseph Switzer         24      Boston in New-England.
Thomas Mumper Indian.          Mather's Vineyard N. E.
John Hincher, Doctor   22      Near Edinburgh, Scot.
John Fletcher          17      -- -- --
Thomas Child           15      -- -- --

These eight were found Not Guilty.

The destroying this Pyrate was look'd upon by the Province, to be of such a
signal Service to the Publick, and particular Advantage to the Colony of
_New-York_, that it was thought necessary to make some handsome
Acknowledgement to Captain _Peter Solgard_ for it; and therefore it was
resolved, in an Assembly of the Common-Council, to compliment him with the
Freedom of their Corporation. The Resolution, together with the Preamble of
the Captain's Freedom, being curious in their Kind, I subjoin them for the
Satisfaction of the Reader.

Resolution of the Mayor and Common-Council of the City of _New-York_,
at a Common-Council held at the City Hall of the said City, on _Thursday_
the 25th of _July, Anno. Dom._ 1723.

Present _Robert Walter_, Esq; Mayor.

   _City of_ New-York, _ss._

T_HIS Court having taken into their Consideration the great Service
lately done to this Province in particular, as well as to all other his
Majesty's good Subjects in general, by Captain_ Peter Solgard, _Commander
of his Majesty's Ship the_ Greyhound, _the Station Ship of the Province,
who lately in a Cruize upon this Coast, in due Execution and Discharge of
his Duty, upon Intelligence given him, sought for, pursued and engaged two
Pyrate Sloops, commanded by one_ Low, _(a notorious and inhumane Pyrate,)
one of which Sloops he took, after a resolute Resistance, and very much
shattered the other, who by the Favour of the Night escaped. Twenty six of
which Pyrates so taken, being lately executed at_ Rhode Island, _not only
eased this City and Province of a very great Trouble, but of a very
considerable Expence_, &c. _It is therefore resolved (_Nemine
Contradicente_) that this Corporation do present the said Captain_ Solgard
_with the Freedom of this Corporation, as a Mark of the great Esteem they
have for his Person, as well as for the aforesaid great and good Services;
and that the Seal of the said Freedom be enclosed in a Gold Box; that Mr._
Recorder _and Mr._ Bickley _do draw the Draught of the said Freedom,
signifying therein, the grateful Sense of this Corporation, for so signal a
Service to the Publick, and Benefit and Advantage of Mankind. That
Alderman_ Kip, _and Alderman_ Cruger, _do prepare the said Box; that the
Arms of the Corporation be engraved on one Side thereof, and a
Representation of the Engagement on the other, with this Motto_, (viz.)
[Quesitos Humani Generos Hostes Debellare superbum, 10 Junii, 1723.] _That
the Town-Clerk cause the same Freedom to be handsomly engrossed on
Parchment, and that the whole Corporation do wait upon him, to present the

_By Order of the Common-Council._ William Sharpas, _Clerk._

The Preamble of Captain _Peter Solgard_'s Copy of his Freedom.

_Robert Walter_, Esq; Mayor, and the Aldermen of the City of

      City of _New-York, ss._

T_O all whom these Persents shall come, send Greeting. WHEREAS,
Captain_ Peter Solgard, _Commander of his Majesty's Ship the_ Greyhound,
(_the present Station Ship of this Province_,) _in his Cruize, having
Intelligence of two Pyrate Sloops of considerable Force in Consortship,
under the Command of one_ Low, _a notorious Pyrate, that had for upward of
two Years, committed many Depredations, Murders and Barbarities, upon many
of his Majesty's Subjects and Allies, lately come upon this Coast, hath,
with great Diligence, and utmost Application, pursued, overtaken, and after
a stubborn Resistance, vanquished and overcome both of them, taking one,
and driving the other from our Coast; which Action, as it is glorious in it
self, so it is glorious in the publick Benefits and Advantages that flow
from it_, (_to wit_) _The Safety and Freedom of our own Trade and Commerce,
and of all the neighbouring Provinces on this Continent, such signal
Service done against the Enemies of Mankind, merits the Applause of all
good Men, but more immediately from those of this Province, who are
appointed his particular Care and Charge. WE therefore, the Mayor, Aldermen
and Commonalty of the City of_ New-York, _assembled in Common Council, to
express our grateful Sense and Acknowledgment, to the said Captain_ Peter
Solgard, _for so noble and faithful a Discharge of his Duty, and as a
particular Mark of the great Esteem and just Regard we bear to his kind
Acceptance of the Freedom of the Corporation of this City of_ New-York,
_and that he will please to become a Fellow Citizen with us._ These are
therefore _to certify and declare, that the said Captain_ Peter Solgard _is
hereby admitted, received and allowed a Freeman and Citizen of the said
City of_ New-York, _to have, hold, enjoy and partake of all and singular
Advantages, Benefits, Liberties, Privileges, Franchises, Freedoms and
Immunities whatsoever, granted or belonging to the same City_: In Testimony
_thereof, the said Mayor hath hereunto subscribed his Name, and caused the
Seal of the said City to be affix'd the_ 25_th Day of_ July, _in the ninth
Year of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord_ George, _by the Grace of God, King
of_ Great Britain, France _and_ Ireland, _Defender of the Faith_, &c. Anno.
Dom. 1723.

William Sharpas, _Clerk._

R. Walter _Mayor._

This narrow Escape of _Low_ and his Companions, one would have thought
might have brought them to a little Consideration of their black and horrid
Crimes, and to look upon this Interval as an Opportunity put into their
Hands by Providence, to reconcile themselves to God, by a hearty and
sincere Repentance. But alass they were dead to all Goodness, and had not
so much as one Spark of Virtue to stir them up to be thankful for such an
eminent Deliverance: But instead thereof, vented a Million of Oaths and
Curses upon the Captain of the _Greyhound_, vowing to execute Vengeance
upon all they should meet with afterwards, for the Indignity he put upon

The first Prey that they met with, after their Flight, was a small Sloop
belonging to _Nantucket_, a Whale-Fishing, about 80 Miles from Land; the
Master of which, one _Nathan Skiff_, a brisk young Fellow, the Pyrates
cruelly whipp'd naked about the Deck, making his Torture their Sport; after
which they cut of his Ears, and last of all shot him through the Head, and
then sunk his Vessel; putting the rest of the Hands into their Whale-Boat,
with a Compass, a little Water, and a few Biskets; and it being good
Weather, they providentially got safe to _Nantucket_, beyond all

There was another Whale-Boat belonging to this Sloop last mentioned, which
happened to be at some Distance from her, and perceiving what was doing,
rowed with all speed to another Sloop not far off, to acquaint her with the
Misfortune, that the Men might take Care of themselves; and she happily got
away in Time. Some Days after, _Low_ took a Fishing-Boat off of _Block
Island_, but did not perpetrate so much Cruelty to her, contenting himself
with only cutting off the Master's Head: But after taking two Whale-Boats
near _Rhode Island_, he caused one of the Master's Bodies to be ripp'd up,
and his Intrails to be taken out; and cut off the Ears of the other, and
made him eat them himself with Pepper and Salt; which hard Injunction he
comply'd with, without making a Word. Several other Persons he would have
murthered, but Humanity prevailing in the tender Hearts of his Companions,
they refused to put his savage Orders in Execution. From the Coast of
_New-England, Low_ sailed directly for _Newfoundland_, and, near Cape
_Briton_, took two or three and twenty _French_ Vessels; and one of them of
22 Guns he mann'd with Pyrates, making a sort of a Man of War of her; with
which he scower'd the Harbours and Banks of _Newfoundland_, and took
sixteen or eighteen other Ships and Vessels, all which they plundered, and
some destroyed.

Thus these inhumane Wretches went on, who could not be contented to satisfy
their Avarice only, and travel in the common Road of Wickedness; but, like
their Patron, the Devil, must make Mischief their Sport, Cruelty their
Delight, and damning of Souls their constant Employment. Of all the
pyratical Crews that were ever heard of, none of the _English_ Name came up
to this, in Barbarity; their Mirth and their Anger had much the same
Effect, for both were usually gratified with the Cries and Groans of their
Prisoners; so that they almost as often murthered a Man from the Excess of
good Humour, as out of Passion and Resentment; and the Unfortunate could
never be assured of Safety from them, for Danger lurked in their very
Smiles. An Instance of this had liked to have happened to one Captain
_Graves_, Master of a _Virginia_ Ship last taken; for as soon as he came
aboard of the Pyrate, _Low_ takes a Bowl of Punch in his Hand, and drinks
to him, saying, _Captain_ Graves, _here's half this to you._ But the poor
Gentleman being too sensibly touched at the Misfortune of falling into his
Hands, modestly desired to be excused, for that he could not drink;
whereupon _Low_ draws out a Pistol, cocks it, and with the Bowl in 'tother
Hand, told him, he should either take one or the other: So _Graves_,
without Hesitation, made Choice of the Vehicle that contained the Punch,
and guttled down about a Quart, when he had the least Inclination that ever
he had in his Life to be merry.

The latter End of _July_, (1723,) _Low_ took a large Ship, called the
_Merry Christmas_, and fitted her for a Pyrate, cut several Ports in her,
and mounted her with 34 Guns. _Low_ goes aboard of this Ship, assumes the
Title of Admiral, and hoists a black Flag, with the Figure of Death in red,
at the Main-topmast Head, and takes another Voyage to the _Western
Islands_, where he arrived the Beginning of _September._ The first Vessel
he met with there, was a Brigantine, formerly an _English_ Sloop, commanded
by _Elias Wild_, but lately bought by a _Portuguese_ Nobleman, and altered:
She was manned partly with _English_, and partly _Portuguese_; the latter
_Low_ caused to be hang'd, by Way of Reprisal, for some of his own Men sent
thither in a Sloop from the _Cape de Verd_ Islands, as has been mentioned:
The _English_ Men he thrust into their own Boat, to shift for themselves,
and set Fire to the Vessel.

At St. _Michaels_, they sent in their Boats and cut out of the Road, a new
_London_ built Ship of 14 Guns, commanded by Captain _Thompson_, who was
taken there the Year before, by _Low_, in the _Rose_ Pink. The Boats had
fewer Men than the Ship, and Captain _Thompson_ would have defended
himself, but his Men through Cowardize, or too great an Inclination of
becoming Pyrates themselves, refused to stand by him, and he was obliged to
surrender; and when he came aboard the Pyrate, had his Ears cut off close
to his Head, for only proposing to resist Admiral _Low_'s black Flag; they
gave him one of his own Boats, and burnt his Ship.

The next was a _Portuguese_ Bark that fell into their Hands, whose Men came
off somewhat better than usual, for they only cut them with their
Cutlashes, out of Wantonness, turned them all into their Boat, and set
their Vessel on Fire. When the Boat was going from the Side of the Ship,
one of _Low_'s Men, who, we may suppose, was forced into his Gang, was
drinking with a Silver Tankard at one of the Ports, and took his
Opportunity to drop into the Boat among the _Portuguese_, and lye down in
the Bottom, in order to escape along with them: After he had stowed himself
in the Boat, so as not to be seen, it came into his Head, that the Tankard
might prove of some Use to him, where he was going; so he got up again,
laid hold of the Utensil, and went off, without being discover'd: In which
Attempt had he failed, no doubt his Life, if not the Lives of all the
People in the Boat, would have paid for it: The Name of this Man is
_Richard Hains._

_Low_ took his old Tour to the _Canaries, Cape de Verd_ Islands, and so to
the Coast of _Guiney_; but nothing extraordinary happened till they arrived
near _Sierraleon_ in _Africa_, where they met with a Ship call'd the
_Delight_, Captain _Hunt_ Commander; this Ship they thought fit for their
own Purpose, for she had been a small Man of War, and carried 12 Guns;
however, they mounted 16 on Board her, mann'd her with 60 Men, and
appointed one _Spriggs_, who was then their Quarter-Master, to be Captain
of her, who, two Days after, separated from the Admiral, and went to the
_West-Indies_ a-pyrating, upon his own, and particular Company's, Account,
where for the present we shall leave him.

In _January_ last, _Low_ took a Ship, called the _Squirrel_, Captain
_Stephenson_; but what became of him afterwards, I can't tell; we have had
no News concerning him come to _England_, since this I have now mentioned;
but I have heard that he talk'd of going to _Brazil_; and if so, it is
likely we may too soon hear of some Exploit or other; tho' the best
Information we could receive, would be, that he and all his Crew were at
the Bottom of the Sea.


J_OHN Evans_ was a _Welch_ Man, had been formerly Master of a Sloop
belonging to _Nevis_, but losing his Employ there, he sailed for some Time
out of _Jamaica_ as Mate, till happening in Company of three or four of his
Comrades, and Wages not being so good as formerly, and Births scarce,
because of the great Number of Seamen; they agreed to go abroad in search
of Adventures. They sailed, or rather rowed out of _Port Royal_ in
_Jamaica_, the latter End of _September_ 1722, in a Canoa; and coming on
the North-Side of the Island, went ashore in the Night, broke open a House
or two, and robb'd them of some Money, and every Thing else they could find
that was portable, and brought the Booty on Board the Canoa.

This was very well for the first Time, but this kind of Robbery did not
please so well, they wanted to get out to Sea, but having no Vessel but
their Canoa, they were prevented in their laudable Design; however, they
kept a good look out, and traversed the Island, in Expectation that
Providence would send some unfortunate Vessel as a Sacrifice, and in a few
Days their Wishes were accomplished; for at _Duns Hole_, they found a small
Sloop at an Anchor, belonging to _Bermudas_: They made bold and went
aboard, and _Evans_ informed the Folks that belonged to her, that he was
Captain of the Vessel, which was a Piece of News they knew not before.
After they had put their Affairs in a proper Disposition aboard, they went
ashore to a little Village for Refreshments, and lived jovially the
remaining Part of the Day, at a Tavern, spending three Pistols, and then
departed. The People of the House admired at the merry Guests they had got,
were mightily pleased, and wished for their Company at another Time, which
happened too soon for their Profit; for, in the middle of the Night, they
came ashore all Hands, rifled the House, and carried what they could aboard
their Sloop.

The next Day they weighed in the Sloop, aboard of which they mounted four
Guns, called her the _Scowerer_, and sailed to _Hispaniola_; on the North
Part of which Island they took a _Spanish_ Sloop, which proved an
extraordinary rich Prize, as it fell among so few Persons as this Company
consisted of, for they shared upwards of 150 _l._ a Man.

In Pursuance of the Game, and beating up for the Windward Islands, the
_Scowerer_ met with a Ship from _New-England_, bound to _Jamaica_, 120
Tons, called the _Dove_, Captain _Diamond_ Master, off _Porto Rico_: They
plundered her, and strengthened their own Company, by taking out the Mate,
and two or three other Men; they discharged the Prize, and run into one of
the Islands for fresh Water and Necessaries, and staid there some Time.

The next Prize they made, was the _Lucretia and Catherine_, Captain
_Mills_, of 200 Ton Burthen; they came up with her near the Island
_Disseada, January_ 11th. Upon seizing of this Ship, the Pyrates began to
take upon themselves the Distribution of Justice, examining the Men
concerning their Master's Usage of them, according to the Custom of other
Pyrates; but the Captain over-hearing the Matter, put an End to the
judicial Proceedings, and fell to rumaging the Ship, saying to them, _What
have we to do to turn Reformers, 'tis Money we want?_ And speaking to the
Prisoners, he asked them, _Does your Captain give you Victuals enough?_ And
they answering in the Affirmative: _Why then_, said he, _he ought to give
you Work enough._

After the taking of this Prize, they went to the little Island of _Avis_,
with a Design to clean, and carried the _Lucretia_ along with them, in
order to heave down the _Scowerer_ by her; but meeting there with a Sloop,
the Pyrate gave Chace till the Evening, when she was within Gun-Shot of
her; but fearing to lose Company with the _Lucretia_, who was a heavy
Sailor, they left off, and saw her no more. This Chace brought them to
Leeward of their Port, so that they were obliged to look out for another
Place of Retreat, and the Island of _Ruby_ not being far distant, they
steered for that, and anchored there accordingly; but the next Day a
_Dutch_ Sloop coming as it were, into their Mouths, they could not forbear
dealing, and so making her their Prize, they plundered her of what came,
when shared, to fifty Pounds a Man.

They found this Sloop more for their Purpose than the _Lucretia_, to clean
their own Sloop by, as being much lower in the Wast, and therefore capable
of heaving her Bottom farther out of the Water, so she was discharged, and
the _Dutch_ Man kept in her Room; but not thinking it convenient to lay up
here, for fear a discovery should be made, they turned their Thoughts
another Way, and steered to the Coast of _Jamaica_, where they took a Sugar
Drover, and then run to the _Grand Caimanes_, about 30 Leagues to Leeward
of _Jamaica_, with Intention to clean there; but an unhappy Accident put an
End to their Pyracies, which hitherto had proved very successful to them.

The Boatswain of the Pyrate being a noisy surly Fellow, the Captain had at
several Times Words with him, relating to his Behaviour, who thinking
himself ill treated, not only returned ill Language, but also challenged
the Captain to fight him on the next Shore they came to, with Pistols and
Sword, as is the Custom among these Outlaws. When the Sloop arrived, as
abovementioned, the Captain proposed the Duel; but the cowardly Boatswain
refused to fight, or go ashore, tho' it was his own Challenge. When Captain
_Evans_ saw there was nothing to be done with him, he took his Cane, and
gave him a hearty drubbing; but the Boatswain not being able to bear such
an Indignity, drew out a Pistol and shot _Evans_ thro' the Head, so that he
fell down dead; and the Boatswain immediately jumped over-board, and swam
towards the Shore; but the Boat was quickly mann'd and sent after him,
which took him up and brought him aboard.

The Death of the Captain in that Manner, provoked all the Crew, and they
resolved the Criminal should die by the most exquisite Tortures; but while
they were considering of the Punishment, the Gunner, transported with
Passion, discharged a Pistol, and shot him thro' the Body; but not killing
him outright, the Delinquent in very moving Words, desired a Week for
Repentance only; but another stepping up to him, told him, _that he should
repent and be damned to him_, and without more ado shot him dead.

I should have observed, that when the _Lucretia_ and _Katharine_ was
suffered to go away, the Pyrates detained their Mate, who was now the only
Man aboard, who understood Navigation, and him they desired to take upon
him the Command of the Sloop, in the Room of Captain _Evans_ deceased; but
he desired to be excused that Honour, and at length positively refused it;
so they agreed to break up the Company, and leave the Mate in Possession of
the Vessel: Accordingly they went ashore at the _Caimanes_, carrying with
them about nine thousand Pounds among thirty Persons; and it being fair
Weather, the Mate and a Boy brought the Vessel into _Port Royal_, in

CHAP. XV. OF Captain _John Phillips_, And his CREW.

J_OHN Phillips_ was bred a Carpenter, and sailing to _Newfoundland_
in a West-Country Ship, was taken by _Anstis_ in the _Good Fortune_
Brigantine, the next Day after he had left his Consort and Commadore,
Captain _Roberts. Phillips_ was soon reconciled to the Life of a Pyrate,
and being a brisk Fellow, was appointed Carpenter of the Vessel, for at
first his Ambition reach'd no higher; there he remain'd till they broke up
at _Tabago_, and was one of those who came home in a Sloop that we have
mentioned to be sunk in _Bristol_ Channel.

His Stay was not long in _England_, for whilst he was paying his first
Visits to his Friends in _Devonshire_, he heard of the Misfortune of some
of his Companions, that is, of their being taken and committed to _Bristol_
Goal; and there being good Reason for his apprehending Danger from a Wind
that blew from the same Quarter, he mov'd off immediately to _Topsham_, the
nearest Port, and there shipp'd himself with one Captain _Wadham_, for a
Voyage to _Newfoundland_, and home again; which, by the way, Mr. _Phillips_
never design'd to perform, or to see _England_ any more. When the Ship came
to _Peter_ Harbour in _Newfoundland_ aforesaid, he ran away from her, and
hired himself a Splitter in the Fishery, for the Season: But this was only
till he could have an Opportunity of prosecuting his intended Rogueries; in
order to which, he combined with several others, in the same Employ, to go
off with one of the Vessels that lay in the Harbour, upon the pyratical
Account; accordingly the Time was fix'd, _viz._ the 29th of _August_ 1723,
at Night; but whether Remorse or Fear prevented their coming together, I
know not, but of sixteen Men that were in the Combination, five only kept
the Appointment: Notwithstanding which, _Phillips_ was for pushing forward
with that small Number, assuring his Companions, that they should soon
encrease their Company; and they agreeing, a Vessel was seiz'd on, and out
of the Harbour they sailed.

The first Thing they had now to do, was to chuse Officers, draw up
Articles, and settle their little Commonwealth, to prevent Disputes and
Ranglings afterwards; so _John Phillips_ was made Captain, _John Nutt_,
Master, (or Navigator) of the Vessel; _James Sparks_, Gunner; _Thomas
Fern_, Carpenter; and _Wiliam White_ was the only private Man in the whole
Crew: When this was done, one of them writ out the following Articles
(which we have taken _verbatim_) and all swore to 'em upon a Hatchet for
want of a Bible.

The Articles on Board the _Revenge._


E_Very Man shall obey civil Command; the Captain shall have one full
Share and a half in all Prizes; the Master, Carpenter, Boatswain and Gunner
shall have one Share and quarter._


_If any Man shall offer to run away, or keep any Secret from the Company,
he shall be marroon'd, with one Bottle of Powder, one Bottle of Water, one
small Arm, and Shot._


_If any Man shall steal any Thing in the Company, or game, to the Value of
a Piece of Eight, he shall be marroon'd or shot._


_If at any Time we should meet another Marrooner_ [_that is, _Pyrate,]
_that Man that shall sign his Articles without the Consent of our company,
shall suffer such Punishment as the Captain and Company shall think fit._


_That Man that shall strike another whilst these Articles are in force,
shall receive_ Moses_'s Law_ (_that is_, 40 _Stripes lacking one_) _on the
bare Back._


_That Man that shall snap his Arms, or smoak Tobacco in the Hold, without a
Cap to his Pipe, or carry a Candle lighted without a Lanthorn, shall suffer
the same Punishment as in the former Article._


_That Man that shall not keep his Arms clean, fit for an Engagement, or
neglect his Business, shall be cut off from his Share, and suffer such
other Punishment as the Captain and the Company shall think fit._


_If any Man shall lose a Joint in time of an Engagement, shall have_ 400
_Pieces of Eight; if a Limb_, 800.


_If at any time you meet with a prudent Woman, that Man that offers to
meddle with her, without her Consent, shall suffer present Death._

Thus prepar'd, this bold Crew set out, and before they left the Banks they
made Prize of several small Fishing-Vessels, out of which they got a few
Hands, some _French_ and some _English_, and then sail'd for the
_West-Indies_; in one of these Vessels they took out one _John Rose
Archer_, who having been a Pyrate under the famous _Black-beard_, was
immediately preferr'd over other People's Heads, to be Quarter-Master to
the Company; which sudden Promotion so disgusted some of the older
Standers, especially _Fern_, the Carpenter, that it occasioned some
Mischief to follow, as we shall shew by and by.

The Pyrates came off _Barbadoes_ the beginning of _October_, and cruised
there, and among other Islands, above three Months, without speaking with a
Vessel, so that they were almost starv'd for want of Provisions, being
reduc'd to a Pound of Meat a Day between ten; at length they fell in with a
_Martinico_ Man of 12 Guns and 35 Hands, far superior in Force, and what
they would not have ventur'd on at another Time, but _Hunger will break
down Stone Walls_; they were resolved to shew the _French_ Men their black
Flag; and if that would not do, they must seek out elsewhere; accordingly,
they boldly ran up a-long-side of the Sloop, with their pyratical Colours
flying, and told them, if they did not strike immediately, they would give
them no Quarters; which so intimidated the _Frenchmen_, that they never
fired a Gun. This proved a seasonable Supply; they took her Provisions, and
four of her Men, and let her go. They took presently after, a Sloop
belonging to _New-York_, and a _Virginia_ Man, _Huffam_ Master.

Having now occasion to clean their Vessel, _Phillips_ propos'd _Tobago_,
where the Company he formerly belong'd to, under _Anstis_ and _Fenn_, broke
up; to induce them to it, he told them when he left the Island, there was
left behind six or eight of their Company that were not willing to go to
_England_, with three Negroes: Whereupon they sail'd to the Island, and
after a careful Search, found only one of the Negroes, whose Name was
_Pedro_, who inform'd Captain _Phillips_, that those that were left behind
were taken by a Man of War's Crew, and hang'd at _Antegoa_, among whom was
_Fenn_, their Captain.

They took _Pedro_ on Board, and then fell to Business, careening their
Vessel; and just as they had finished their Work, a Man of War's Boat came
into the Harbour, the Ship being cruising to Leeward of the Island. It was
easily guess'd upon what Errant she was sent, and therefore they lost no
Time, but, as soon as the Boat went away, warp'd out, and ply'd to Windward
for Security, but left the four _French_ Men, they took out of the
_Martinico_ Sloop, behind.

In a few Days they took a Snow with a few Hands, and _Fern_, the Carpenter,
one _William Phillips, Wood_ and _Taylor_, went aboard to take Possession
of her. _Fern_, not forgetting the Affront of having _Archer_ preferr'd
before him, resolv'd to go off with the Prize, and brought the rest into
the same Measures; however _Phillips_, the Captain, keeping a good
Look-out, perceiv'd their Design, and gave them Chace, who coming up with
the Vessel, a Skirmish ensu'd, wherein _Wood_ was kill'd and _Taylor_
wounded in his Leg; upon which the other two surrender'd. There was no
Surgeon aboard, and therefore it was advis'd, upon a learned Consultation,
that _Phillips_'s Leg should be cut off; but who should perform the
Operation was the Dispute; at length the Carpenter was appointed, as the
most proper Man: Upon which, he fetch'd up the biggest Saw, and taking the
Limb under his Arm, fell to Work, and separated it from the Body of the
Patient, in as little Time as he could have cut a Deal Board in two; after
that he heated his Ax red hot in the Fire, and cauteriz'd the Wound, but
not with so much Art as he perform'd the other Part, for he so burnt his
Flesh distant from the Place of Amputation, that it had like to have
mortify'd; however nature perform'd a Cure at last without any other

From _Tobago_ they stood away to the Northward and took a _Portugueze_
bound for _Brazil_, and two or three Sloops from _Jamaica_, in one of
which, _Fern_ the Carpenter, endeavouring to go off, was kill'd by
_Phillips_ the Captain, pursuant to their Articles; another had the same
Fate some Days after for the like Attempt. These Severities made it
dangerous for any to consult or project an Escape; the Terror of which made
several sign their Articles and set down quietly, waiting impatiently for
Redemption, which as yet they saw no great likelyhood of, and should they
have been taken before such Circumstances appear'd in their Actions or
Characters, as afterwards happen'd, to denote their Innocence, they might
have lost their Lives upon a Tryal at a Court of Admiralty; for pretty
strong Evidence is expected in their Favour, to ballance that of being
taken aboard a Vessel which is prov'd to be in actual Pyracy, and they
assisting therein.

Thus was many an honest Man's Case made most desperate by the consummate
Villany of a few hardned Wretches, who fear neither God or Devil, as this
_Phillips_ us'd often blasphemously to express himself.

On the 25th of _March_ they took two Ships from _Virginia_ for _London,
John Phillips_, the Pyrate Captain's Namesake, was Master of one, and
Captain _Robert Mortimer_, the other, a brisk young Fellow, that deserv'd a
better Fate than he met with. _Phillips_ the Pyrate staid on Board of
Captain _Mortimer_'s Ship, while they transported the Crew to the Sloop,
and the Boat returning along side, one of the Pyrates therein calls to
_Phillips_, and tells him, there was a Mutiny aboard their Vessel,
_Mortimer_ had two Men in his Ship, and the Pyrate Captain had two,
therefore thought it a good Opportunity to recover his Ship, and directly
took up a Handspike and struck _Phillips_ over the Head, giving him a
dangerous wound, but not knocking him down, he recovered and wounded
_Mortimer_ with his Sword; and the two Pyrates that were aboard coming in
to Captain _Phillips_'s Assistance, Captain _Mortimer_ was presently cut to
Pieces, while his own two Men stood by and did nothing.

This was the first Voyage that _Mortimer_ had the Command of a Vessel, by
whose Death is a poor disconsolate Widow made miserable, more in regard of
the mutual Love and Fidelity they lived in, than the Loss of what would
have been a handsome and comfortable Provision for themselves and Children,
which, I think, now ought to be made up by the Publick, since 'twas in the
publick Service he fell; for had his Attempt succeeded, in all Probability
he would not only have regained his own Ship, but entirely subdued and
destroy'd the Enemy, there being several, as it afterwards proved, that
would have seconded such an Enterprize when ever they found a Beginning

This Affair ended without any other Consequence than a strict Search after
a Brother of Captain _Mortimer_, who was on Board, in order to have put him
likewise to death; but he had the good Fortune to meet with a Townsman
among the Crew, who hid him for four and twenty Hours in a Stay-Sail, till
the Heat of their Fury was over, and by that Means happily missed of the
Fate designed him.

Out of the other _Virginia_ Man before spoken of, they took one _Edward
Cheeseman_, a Carpenter, to supply the Place of their late Carpenter,
_Fern._ He was a modest sober young Man, very averse to their unlawful
Practice, and a brave gallant Fellow. There was one _John Philmore_ of
_Ipswich_, formerly taken by them, ordered to row _Cheeseman_ aboard of
_Mortimer_'s Ship, which the Pyrates possess'd themselves of, who, seeing
with what Reluctance and Uneasiness _Cheeseman_ was brought away, told him,
he would join with him, in some Measures, to over-throw the pyratical
Government, telling him withal, their present Condition, what Difficulties
_Phillips_ had met with to make up his Company, and how few voluntary
Pyrates there were on Board, and the like. But, however specious this
seemed, _Cheeseman_ out of Prudence rejected his Offers of Assistance, till
he saw some Proofs of his Sincerity, which after a few Days he was
convinced of, and then they often consulted; but as the old Pyrates were
always jealous of the new Comers, and consequently observant of their
Behaviour; this was done with the utmost Caution, chiefly when they were
lying down together, as tho' asleep, and, at other Times, when they were
playing at Cards; both which they feigned often to do for that Purpose.

The Pyrates went on all the while, plundering and robbing several Ships and
Vessels, bending their Course towards _Newfoundland_, where they designed
to raise more Men, and do all the Mischief they could on the Banks, and in
the Harbours.

_Newfoundland_ is an Island on the North Continent of _America_, contained
between the 46 and 53° of N. Latitude, discovered first by St. _Sebastion
Cabot_ A. D. 1497, but never settled till the Year 1610; when Mr. _Guy_ of
_Bristol_ revived the Affair, and obtained a Patent, and himself to be
Governor. The Island is deserted by the Natives and neglected by us, being
desolate and Woody, and the Coast and Harbour only held for the Conveniency
of the Cod Fishery, for which alone they were settled.

The Bays and Harbours about it, are very numerous and convenient, and being
deeply indented, makes it easy for any Intelligence quickly to pass from
one Harbour to another over Land; especially the principal, St. _John_'s
and _Placentia_, when the Appearance of an Enemy makes them apprehend

They are able to cure and export about 100000 Quintals (100 Weight each) of
Fish, annually, which returns to _England_ in Money, or the necessary
Commodities of _Portugal, Spain_ and _Italy._ As it therefore expends
abundance of Rum, Molossus and Sugar, the Product of our _West-India_
Colonies, and employs a Number of Fishermen from home every Season, by
whose Industry and Labour only this Fish is purchased, it may very well be
reckon'd an advantagious Branch of Trade.

But the present Design of this Digression being not to give an exact
Description of the Country or Fishery; but rather how it accidentally
contributes to raise, or support the Pyrates already rais'd, I shall

First, That our West Country Fishing-Ships, _viz._ from _Topsham,
Barnstable_ and _Bristol_, who chiefly attend the Fishing Seasons,
transport over a considerable Number of poor Fellows every Summer, whom
they engage at low Wages, and are by their Terms to pay for Passage back to
_England._ When the _Newfoundland_ Ships left that Country, towards Winter,
in the Year 1720, these Passengers muster'd 1100, who, during the Season of
Business, (the Hardness of their Labour, and Chilness of the Nights,
pinching them very much) are mostly fond of drinking Black Strap, (a strong
Liquor used there, and made from Rum, Molossus, and Chowder Beer;) by this
the Majority of them out-run the Constable, and then are necessitated to
come under hard Articles of Servitude for their Maintenance in the Winter;
no ordinary Charge, indeed, when the Barrenness of the Country is
consider'd, and the Stock of Provision laid in, happen to fall short, in
Proportion to the Computation made of the People remaining there the
Winter, which are generally about 17 or 1800. The Masters residing there
think Advantages taken on their Necessities, no more than a just and lawful
Gain; and either bind such for the next Summer's Service, or sell their
Provisions out to them at extravagant Rates; Bread from 15s. to 50,
immediately at the departing of the Ships, and so of other sorts of Food in
Proportion; wherefore not being able to subsist themselves, or in any
likely Way of clearing the Reckoning to the Masters, they sometimes run
away with Shallops and Boats, and begin on pyratical Exploits, as
_Phillips_ and his Companions, whom we are now treating of, had done.

And secondly (which is more opportunely for them,) they are visited every
Summer, almost, by some Set of Pyrates or other, already rais'd, who call
here for the same Purpose, (if young Beginners) and to lay in a Store of
Water and Provisions, which they find imported, much or little, by all the
Ships that use the Trade.

Towards this Country _Phillips_ was making his Way, and took on the Voyage,
besides those abovementioned, one _Salter_, in a Sloop off the Isle of
_Sables_, which Vessel they made use of themselves, and gave back
_Mortimer_'s Ship to the Mate and Crew. The same Day, _viz._ the 4th of
_April_, took a Scooner, one _Chadwell_, Master, which they scuttled, in
order to sink; but Capt. _Phillips_ understanding that she belong'd to Mr.
_Minors_ at _Newfoundland_, with whose Vessel they first went off a
pyrating, a Qualm of Conscience came athwart his Stomach, and he said to
his Companions, _We have done him Injury enough already_; so order'd the
Vessel immediately to be repair'd, and return'd her to the Master.

That Afternoon they chac'd another Vessel, and at Night came up with her,
the Master of which was a Saint of _New-England_, nam'd _Dependance
Ellery_, who taking _Phillips_ for a Pyrate, he told him was the Reason
that he gave him the Trouble of chacing so long; which being resented by
these Men of Honour, they made poor _Dependance_ dance about the Deck till
he was weary.

Within few Days several other Vessels had the same Misfortune, the Masters
Names were as follow, _Joshua Elwell, Samuel Elwell_, Mr. _Combs_, Mr.
_Lansly, James Babston, Edward Freeman_, Mr. _Start, Obediah Beal, Erick
Erickson_ and _Benjamin Wheeler._

The 14th of _April_ they took a Sloop belonging to Cape _Ann, Andrew
Harradine_ Master; they look'd upon this Vessel more fit for their Purpose,
and so came aboard, keeping only the Master of her Prisoner, and sending
_Harradine_'s Crew away in _Salter_'s Vessel, which they, till this Time,
detain'd. To this _Harradine, Cheeseman_ the Carpenter, broke his Mind, and
brought him into the Confederacy to destroy the Crew, which was put in
Execution four Days afterwards.

_Harradine_ and the rest were for doing the Business in the Night, as
believing they might be more opportunely surpriz'd; for _Nut_, the Master,
being a Fellow of great Strength, and no less Courage, it was thought
dangerous to attack him without Fire-Arms; however, _Cheeseman_ was
resolute to have it perform'd by Day-light, as the least liable to
Confusion; and as to the Master, he offer'd to lay Hands on him first: Upon
this 'twas concluded on, 12 at Noon was the appointed Time; in order for
the Business _Cheeseman_ leaves his working Tools on the Deck, as though he
had been going to use them, and walked aft; but perceiving some Signs of
Timidity in _Harradine_, he comes back, fetches his Brandy Bottle and gives
him and the rest a Dram, then drank to _Burril_, the Boatswain, and the
Master, _To their next merry Meeting_, and up he puts the Bottle; then he
takes a Turn with _Nut_, asking what he thought of the Weather, and such
like. In the mean while _Filemore_ takes up the Axe, and turns it round
upon the Point, as if at Play, then both he and _Harradine_ wink at him,
thereby letting him know they were ready; upon which Signal he seizes _Nut_
by the Collar, with one Hand between his Legs, and toss'd him over the Side
of the Vessel, but, he holding by _Cheeseman_'s Sleeve, said, _Lord have
Mercy upon me! what are you going to do, Carpenter?_ He told him it was an
unnecessary Question, _For_, says he, _Master, you are a dead Man_, so
strikes him over the Arm, _Nut_ looses his Hold, tumbles into the Sea, and
never spoke more.

By this time the Boatswain was dead; for as soon as _Filemore_ saw the
Master laid hold of, he raised up the Axe, and divided his Enemy's Head in
two: The Noise brought the Captain upon Deck, whom _Cheeseman_ saluted with
the Blow of a Mallet, which broke his Jaw-Bone, but did not knock him down;
_Harradine_ came in then with the Carpenter's Adds, but _Sparks_, the
Gunner, interposing between him and Captain _Phillips, Cheeseman_ trips up
his Heels, and flung him into the Arms of _Charles Ivymay_, one of his
Consorts, who that Instant discharg'd him into the Sea; and at the same
Time _Harradine_ compassed his Business with the Captain aforesaid:
_Cheeseman_ lost no Time, but from the Deck jumps into the Hold, and was
about to beat out the Brains of _Archer_, the Quarter-Master, having struck
him two or three Blows with his blunt Weapon the Mallet, when _Harry
Giles_, a young Lad, came down after him, and desir'd his Life might be
spar'd, as an Evidence of their own Innocence; that he having all the Spoil
and Plunder in his Custody, it may appear, that these tragick Proceedings
were not undertaken with any dishonest View of seizing or appropriating the
Effects to themselves; which prudent Advice prevail'd, and he and three
more were made Prisoners, and secured.

The Work being done, they went about Ship, altered the Course from
_Newfoundland_ to _Boston_, and arrived safe the 3d of _May_ following, to
the great Joy of that Province.

On the 12th of _May_, 1724, a special Court of Admiralty was held for the
Tryal of these Pyrates, when _John Filmore, Edward Cheeseman, John Combs,
Henry Giles, Charles Ivymay, John Bootman_, and _Henry Payne_, the seven
that confederated together for the Pyrates Destruction, were honourably
acquitted; as also three _French_ Men, _John Baptis, Peter Taffery_, and
_Isaac Lassen_, and three Negroes, _Pedro, Francisco_, and _Pierro._ And
_John Rose Archer_, the Quarter-Master, _William White, William Taylor_,
and _William Phillips_, were condemned; the two latter were reprieved for a
Year and a Day, in order to be recommended (though I don't know for what)
as Objects of his Majesty's Mercy. The two former were executed on the 2d
of _June_, and dy'd very penitently, making the following Declarations at
the Place of Execution, with the Assistance of two grave Divines that
attended them.

_The dying Declarations of_ John Rose Archer _and_ William White, _on
the Day of their Execution at_ Boston, June 2, 1724, _for the Crimes of

First, separately, of _Archer._

I Greatly bewail my Profanations of the Lord's Day, and my
Disobedience to my Parents.

And my Cursing and Swearing, and my blaspheming the Name of the glorious

Unto which I have added, the Sins of Unchastity. And I have provoked the
Holy One, at length, to leave me unto the Crimes of Pyracy and Robbery;
wherein, at last, I have brought my self under the Guilt of Murder also.

But one Wickedness that has led me as much as any, to all the rest, has
been my brutish Drunkenness. By strong Drink I have been heated and
hardened into the Crimes that are now more bitter than Death unto me.

I could wish that Masters of Vessels would not use their Men with so much
Severity, as many of them do, which exposes to great Temptations.

And then of _White._

I am now, with Sorrow, reaping the Fruits of my Disobedience to my Parents,
who used their Endeavours to have me instructed in my Bible, and my

And the Fruits of my neglecting the publick Worship of God, and prophaning
the holy Sabbath.

And of my blaspheming the Name of God, my Maker.

But my Drunkenness has had a great Hand in bringing my Ruin upon me. I was
drunk when I was enticed aboard the Pyrate.

And now, for all the vile Things I did aboard, I own the Justice of God and
Man, in what is done unto me.

Of both together.

We hope, we truly hate the Sins, whereof we have the Burthen lying so heavy
upon our Consciences.

We warn all People, and particularly young People, against such Sins as
these. We wish, all may take Warning by us.

We beg for Pardon, for the sake of Christ, our Saviour; and our Hope is in
him alone. Oh! _that in his Blood our Scarlet and Crimson Guilt may be all
washed away!_

We are sensible of an hard Heart in us, full of Wickedness. And we look
upon God for his renewing Grace upon us.

We bless God for the Space of Repentance which he has given us; and that he
has not cut us off in the Midst and Heighth of our Wickedness.

We are not without Hope, that God has been savingly at work upon our Souls.

We are made sensible of our absolute Need of the Righteousness of Christ;
that we may stand justified before God in that. We renounce all Dependance
on our own.

We are humbly thankful to the Ministers of Christ, for the great Pains they
have taken for our Good. The Lord Reward their Kindness.

We don't Despair of Mercy; but hope, through Christ, that when we dye, we
shall find Mercy with God, and be received into his Kingdom.

We wish others, and especially the Sea-faring, may get Good by what they
see this Day befalling of us.

_Declared in the Presence of_ J. W. D. M.

CHAP. XVI. OF Captain _SPRIGGS_, And his CREW.

S_Priggs_ sailed with _Low_ for a pretty while, and I believe came
away from _Lowther_, along with him; he was Quarter-Master to the Company,
and consequently had a great Share in all the Barbarities committed by that
execrable Gang, till the Time they parted; which was about _Christmas_
last, when _Low_ took a Ship of 12 Guns on the Coast of _Guiney_, called
the _Delight_, (formerly the _Squirrel_ Man of War,) commanded by Captain
_Hunt. Spriggs_ took Possession of the Ship with eighteen Men, left _Low_
in the Night, and came to the _West-Indies._ This Separation was occasioned
by a Quarrel with _Low_, concerning a Piece of Justice _Spriggs_ would have
executed upon one of the Crew, for killing a Man in cold Blood, as they
call it, one insisting that he should be hang'd, and the other that he
should not.

A Day or two after they parted, _Spriggs_ was chose Captain by the rest,
and a black Ensign was made, which they called _Jolly Roger_, with the same
Device that Captain _Low_ carried, _viz._ a white Skeliton in the Middle of
it, with a Dart in one Hand striking a bleeding Heart, and in the other, an
Hour-Glass; when this was finished and hoisted, they fired all their Guns
to salute their Captain and themselves, and then looked out for Prey.

In their Voyage to the _West-Indies_, these Pyrates took a _Portuguese_
Bark, wherein they got valuable Plunder, but not contented with that alone,
they said they would have a little Game with the Men, and so ordered them a
Sweat, more for the Brutes Diversion, than the poor Men's Healths; which
Operation is performed after this Manner; they stick up lighted Candles
circularly round the Mizon-Mast, between Decks, within which the Patients
one at a Time enter; without the Candles, the Pyrates post themselves, as
many as can stand, forming another Circle, and armed with Pen-Knives,
Tucks, Forks, Compasses, _&c._ and as he runs round and round, the Musick
playing at the same Time, they prick him with those Instuments; this
usually lasts for 10 or 12 Minutes, which is as long as the miserable Man
can support himself. When the Sweating was over, they gave the _Portuguese_
their Boat with a small Quantity of Provisions, and set their Vessel on

Near the Island of St. _Lucia_, they took a Sloop belonging to _Barbadoes_,
which they plundered, and then burnt, forcing some of the Men to sign their
Articles, the others they beat and cut in a barbarous Manner, because they
refused to take on with the Crew, and then sent them away in the Boat, who
all got safe afterwards to _Barbadoes._

The next was a _Martinico_ Man, which they served as bad as they had done
the others, but did not burn their Ship. Some Days afterwards in running
down to Leeward, they took one Captain _Hawkins_, coming from _Jamaica_,
loaden chiefly with Logwood; they took out of her, Stores, Arms,
Ammunition, and several other Things, as they thought fit, and what they
did not want they threw over-board or destroy'd; they cut the Cables to
pieces, knocked down the Cabins, broke all the Windows, and in short took
all the Pains in the World to be Mischievous. They took by Force, out of
her, Mr. _Burridge_ and Mr. _Stephens_, the two Mates, and some other
Hands; and after detaining the Ship from the 22d of _March_, to the 29th,
they let her go. On the 27th they took a _Rhode Island_ Sloop, Captain
_Pike_, and all his Men were obliged to go aboard the Pyrate; but the Mate
being a grave sober Man, and not inclinable to stay, they told him, he
should have his Discharge, and that it should be immediately writ on his
Back; whereupon he was sentenced to receive ten Lashes from every Man in
the Ship, which was rigorously put in Execution.

The next Day Mr. _Burridge_, Captain _Hawkins_'s Mate, sign'd their
Articles, which was so agreeable to them (he being a good Artist and
Sailor) that they gave three Huzza's, fir'd all the Guns in the Ship, and
appointed him Master: The Day was spent in boysterous Mirth, roaring and
drinking of Healths, among which was, by Mistake, that of King _George_ the
II. for you must know, now and then the Gentry are provok'd to sudden Fits
of Loyalty, by the Expectation of an Act of Grace: It seems Captain _Pike_
had heard at _Jamaica_ that the King was dead, so the Pyrates immediately
hoisted their Ensign Half-Mast (the Death Signal) and proclaim'd his Royal
Highness, saying, _They doubted not but there would be a general Pardon in
a twelve Month, which they would embrace and come in upon, but damn 'em if
they should be excepted out of it, they would murder every_ Englishman
_that should fall into their Hands._

The second of _April_, they spy'd a Sail, and gave her Chace till 12
o'Clock at Night, the Pyrates believed her to be a _Spaniard_, when they
came close up to her, they discharged a Broadside, with small and great
Shot, which was follow'd by another, but the Ship making a lamentable Cry
for Quarters, they ceas'd firing, and ordered the Captain to come aboard,
which he did, but how disappointed the Rogues were when they found 'twas
their old Friend Captain _Hawkins_, whom they had sent away three Days
before, worth not one Penny? This was such a Baulk to them, that they
resolved he should suffer for falling in their Way, tho' it was so contrary
to his own Inclinations: About 15 of them surrounded the poor Man with
sharp Cutlashes, and fell upon him, whereby he was soon laid flat on the
Deck; at that Instant _Burridge_ flew amongst the thickest of the Villains,
and begg'd earnestly for his Life, upon whose Request 'twas granted. They
were now most of 'em drunk, as is usual at this Time of Night, so they
unanimously agreed to make a Bonfire of _Hawkins_'s Ship, which was
immediately done, and in half an Hour she was all of a Blaze.

After this, they wanted a little more Diversion, and so Captain _Hawkins_
was sent for down to the Cabin to Supper; what should the Provision be, but
a Dish of Candles, which he was forced to eat, having a naked Sword and a
Pistol held to his Breast all the while; when this was over, they buffeted
him about for some Time, and sent him forward amongst the other Prisoners,
who had been treated with the same Delicacies.

Two Days afterwards, they anchor'd at a little uninhabited Island, call'd
_Rattan_, near the Bay of _Honduras_, and put ashore Captain _Hawkins_, and
several other Men, (one of them his Passenger) who dy'd there of the
Hardships he underwent. They gave them Powder and Ball, and a Musquet, with
which they were to shift as they could, sailing away the next Day for other

Captain _Hawkins_, and his unfortunate Companions, staid 19 Days upon this
Island, supplying themselves with both Fish and Fowl, such as they were, at
which Time came two Men in a Canoe, that had been left upon another marroon
Island near _Benacca_, who carry'd the Company at several Times thither, it
being more convenient in having a good Well of fresh Water, and Plenty of
Fish, _&c._ Twelve Days afterwards they spy'd a Sloop off at Sea, which,
upon their making a great Smoke, stood in, and took them off; she was the
_Merriam_, Captain _Jones_, lately escaped out of the Bay of _Honduras_,
from being taken by the _Spaniards._

At an Island to the Westward, the Pyrates clean'd their Ship, and sail'd
towards the Island of St. _Christophers_, to wait for one Captain _Moor_,
who commanded the _Eagle_ Sloop, when she took _Lowther_'s upon the Careen,
at _Blanco_; _Spriggs_ resolved to put him to Death, whenever he took him,
for falling upon his Friend and Brother, but instead of _Moor_, he found a
_French_ Man of War from _Martinico_ upon the Coast, which _Spriggs_ not
thinking fit to contend with, run away with all the Sail he could make, the
_French_ Man crowded after him, and was very likely to speak with Mr.
_Spriggs_, when unfortunately his Main-Top-Mast came by the Board, which
obliged him to give over the Chace.

_Spriggs_ then stood to the Northward, towards _Burmudas_, or the _Summer
Isles_, and took a Scooner belonging to _Boston_; he took out all the Men
and sunk the Vessel, and had the Impudence to tell the Master, that he
designed to encrease his Company on the Banks of _Newfoundland_, and then
would sail for the Coast of _New-England_ in quest of Captain _Solgard_,
who attack'd and took their Consort _Charles Harris, Spriggs_ being then in
_Low_'s Sloop, who very fairly run for it. The Pyrate ask'd the Master if
he knew Captain _Solgard_, who answering No; he ask'd another the same
Question, and then a third, who said he knew him very well, upon which
_Spriggs_ ordered him to be sweated, which was done in the Manner before

Instead of going to _Newfoundland_ as the Pyrates threat'ned, they came
back to the Islands, and to Windward of St. _Christophers_, on the 4th of
_June_ last, took a Sloop, _Nicholas Trot_ Master, belonging to St.
_Eustatia_, and wanting a little Diversion, they hoisted the Men as high as
the Main and Fore Tops, and let them run down amain, enough to break all
the Bones in their Skins, and after they had pretty well crippled them by
this cruel Usage, and whipp'd them about the Deck, they gave _Trot_ his
Sloop, and let him go, keeping back only 2 of his Men, besides the Plunder
of the Vessel.

Within two or three Days they took a Ship coming from _Rhode-Island_ to St.
_Christophers_, loaden with Provisions and some Horses; the Pyrates mounted
the Horses and rid them about the Deck backwards and forwards a full
Gallop, like Madmen at _New-Market_, cursing, swearing, and hallowing, at
such a Rate, that made the poor Creatures wild, and at length, two or three
of them throwing their Riders, they fell upon the Ship's Crew, and whipp'd,
and cut, and beat them in a barbarous Manner, telling them, it was for
bringing Horses without Boots and Spurs, for want of which they were not
able to ride them.

This is the last Account we have had of Captain _Spriggs_, I shall only add
the two following Relations, and conclude.

A Brigantine belonging to _Bristol_, one _Mr. Rowry_ Master, had been
trading at _Gambia_, in _Africa_, and falling as low as Cape _Mount_, to
finish the slaving of the Vessel, he had, by a Misfortune usual at that
Part of the Coast, his Mate, Surgeon, and two more of his Men,
_Panyarr_'d[*] by the Negroes. The Remainder of his Company, which was not
above 5 or 6 in Number, took this Opportunity, and seiz'd the Vessel in the
Road, making the Master Prisoner.

You will think it prodigious impudent that so small a Number should
undertake to proceed a pyrating, especially when neither of them had
sufficient Skill in Navigation: Yet this they did, leaving those People,
their Ship-Mates abovemention'd, to the Mercy of the barbarous Natives, and
sail'd away down the Coast, making them a black Flag, which they merrily
said, would be as good as 50 Men more, _i. e._ would carry as much Terror;
and that they did not doubt of soon increasing their Crew, to put them in
an enterprizing Capacity; but their vain Projection was soon happily
frustrated, and after this Manner.

The Master whose Life they had preserved, (perhaps only for supplying their
own Unskillfulness in Navigation,) advised them, that since contrary to
their Expectations, they had met with no Ship between _Cape Mount_, and the
_Bite_ of _Calabar_, to proceed to the Island of St. _Thomas_'s, where they
might recruit with Provisions and Water, and sell off the Slaves (about 70
of them) which they perceived would be a useless Lumber, and incommodious
to their Design. They arrived there in _August_ 1721, and one Evening,
while Part of them were on Shore, applying for this Purpose to the
Governor, and the other Part carelesly from the Deck, Mr. _Rowry_ stepp'd
into the Boat belonging to the Vessel, and pushed off, very suddenly: They
heard the Noise it made, and soon were upon Deck again, but having no other
Boat to pursue, nor a Musket, ready to fire, he got safe on Shore, and ran
to the Governor with his Complaint, who immediately imprisoned those
already there, and sent a Launch off to take the rest out of the Ship.

The _Swallow_ arrived at St. _Thomas_'s the Beginning of _October_
following, where, on Mr. _Rowry_'s Remonstrance, Application was made to
the _Portuguese_ Governor of that Island, for a Surrendery of these five
_English_ Prisoners then in the Castle; but he not only peremptorily
excused himself from it, as a Matter out of his Power, without particular
Direction from the Court of _Portugal_; but withal insinuated, that they
had only taken Refuge there from the Hardships and Severity they had met
with from their Master. The manner of Denial, and the avaritious Temper of
the Gentleman, which I had Occasion to be acquainted with, makes it very
suspicious, that he proposed considerable Gains to himself; for if Mr.
_Rowry_ had not made such an Escape to him, the Slaves had been his for
little or nothing, as a Bribe to silence his Suspicions, which any Man,
less acute than he, must have had from the awkward and unskilful Carriage
of such Merchants. But enough of this; perhaps he is not the only Governor
abroad that finds an Interest in countenancing these Fellows.

[Footnote *: Term for stealing of Men used all over the Coast.]

An Account of the Pyracies and Murders committed by _Philip Roche_,

P_Hilip Roche_ was born in _Ireland_, and from his Youth had been
bred up to the Sea; he was a brisk genteel Fellow, of 30 Years of Age at
the Time of his Death; one whose black and savage Nature did no ways answer
the Comliness of his Person, his Life being almost one continued Scene of
Villany, before he was discovered to have committed the horrid Murders we
are now speaking of.

This inhumane Monster had been concerned with others, in insuring Ships to
a great Value, and then destroying them; by which Means, and other
Rogueries, he had got a little Money; and being Mate of a Ship, was
dilligent enough in trading for himself between _Ireland_ and _France_, so
that he was in a Way of getting himself a comfortable Livelihood: But, as
he resolved to be rich, and finding fair Dealing brought in Wealth but
slowly, he contriv'd to put other Things in Execution, and certainly had
murthered several innocent Persons in the Prosecution of his abominable
Schemes; but as I have now forgot the particular Circumstances of those
Relations, I shall confine my self at present to the Fact for which he

_Roche_ getting acquainted with one _Neal_, a Fisherman at _Cork_, whom he
found ready for any villainous Attempt, he imparted his Design to him, who
being pleas'd with the Project, brings one _Pierce Cullen_ and his Brother
into the Confederacy, together with one _Wise_, who at first was very
unwilling to come into their Measures, and, indeed, had the least Hand in
the Perpetration of what follows.

They pitch'd upon a Vessel in the Harbour, belonging to _Peter Tartoue_, a
_French_ Man, to execute their cruel Intentions upon, because it was a
small one, and had not a great Number of Hands on Board, and 'twas easy
afterwards to exchange it for one more fit for Pyracy; and therefore they
apply'd themselves to the Master of her, for a Passage to _Nantz_, whereto
the Ship was bound; and accordingly, the Beginning of _November_ 1721, they
went aboard; and when at Sea, _Philip Roche_ being an experienced Sailor,
the Master of the Vessel readily trusted him with the Care of her, at
times, while he and the Mate went to rest.

The 15th of _November_, at Night, was the Time designed for the Tragedy;
but _Francis Wise_ relented, and appear'd desirous to divert them from
their bloody Purposes. _Roche_ (sometimes called Captain) told him, _That
as_ Cullen _and he had sustained great Losses at Sea, unless every_
Irishman _present would assist in repairing their Losses, by murthering all
the_ French _Rogues, and running away with the Ship, he should suffer the
same Fate with the_ French _Men; but if all would assist, all should have a
Share in the Booty._ Upon this, they all resolved alike, and Captain
_Roche_ ordered three _Frenchmen_ and a Boy up to hand the Topsails, the
Master and Mate being then asleep in their Cabins, The two first that came
down, they beat out their Brains and threw them over-board: The other two
seeing what was done, ran up to the Topmast Head, but _Cullen_ followed
them, and taking the Boy by the Arm, tost him into the Sea; then driving
down the Man, those below knocked him on the Head, and threw him

Those who were asleep, being awakened by the dismal Skrieks and Groans of
dying Men, ran upon Deck in Confusion, to enquire into the Cause of such
unusual Noises; but the same Cruelty was immediately acted towards them,
e'er they could be sensible of the Danger that threat'ned them.

They were now (as _Roche_ himself afterwards confess'd) _all over as wet
with the Blood that had been spilt, as if they had been dipp'd in Water, or
stood in a Shower of Rain, nor did they regard it any more. Roche_ said,
Captain _Tartoue_ used many Words for Mercy, and asked them, if he had not
used them with Civility and Kindness? If they were not of the same
Christian Religion, and owned the same blessed _Jesus_, and the like? But
they, not regarding what he said, took Cords and bound the poor Master and
his Mate Back to Back, and while that was doing, both of them begged with
the utmost Earnestness, and used the most solemn Intreaties, that they
would at least allow them a few Minutes to say their Prayers, and beg Mercy
of God for the various Sins and Offences of their Lives: But it did not
move them, (though all the rest were dead, and no Danger could be
apprehended from them two alone) for the bound Persons were hurry'd up and
thrown into the Sea.

The Massacre being finished, they washed themselves a little from the
Blood, and searched the Chests and Lockers, and all Places about the Ship,
and then set down in the Captain's Cabin, and refreshed themselves with
some Rum they found there, and (as _Roche_ confessed) were never merrier in
their Lives. They invested _Roche_ with the Command of the Ship, and
calling him Captain, talked over their Liquor, what rare Actions they would
perform about Cape _Briton, Sable Isle_, and the Banks of _Newfoundland_,
whither they designed to go as soon as they had recruited their Company,
and got a better Ship, which they proposed speedily to do.

_Roche_ taking upon himself the Command of the Vessel, _Andrew Cullen_ was
to pass for a Merchant or Super-cargo; but when they bethought themselves,
that they were in Danger of being discovered by the Papers of the Ship,
relating to the Cargo, as Bills of Lading, _&c._ therefore they erase and
take out the Name of the _French_ Master, and instead thereof, inserted the
Name of _Roche_, so that it stood in the Ship's Papers, _Peter Roche_
Master; that then having so few Hands on Board, they contrived if they met
any Ships, to give out, that they had lost some Hands by their being washed
overboard in a Storm, and by that Means screen themselves from being
suspected of having committed some such wicked Act, by Reason of the
Fewness of their Hands on Board; and also might prevail with some Ship to
spare them some, on Consideration of their pretended Disaster.

In going to _Cales_ they were in Distress by the Weather, and being near
_Lisbon_, they made Complaint to a Ship, but obtained no Assistance. They
were then obliged to sail back for _England_, and put into the Port of
_Dartmouth_; but then they were in fear least they might be discovered,
therefore to prevent that, they resolve to alter the Ship, and getting
Workmen, they take down the Mizzen-Mast, and build a Spar Deck, and made
Rails, (on pretence that the Sailors had been wash'd overboard) to secure
the Men. Then they took down the Image of St. _Peter_ at the Head of the
Ship, and put up a Lion in its Place, and painted over the Stern of the
Ship with Red, and new nam'd her the _Mary_ Snow. The Ship being thus
alter'd that they thought it could not be known, they fancy'd themselves
pretty secure; but wanting Money to defray the Charge of these Alterations,
_Roche_, as Master of the Vessel, and _Andrew Cullen_, as Merchant, apply
themselves to the Officers of the Customs for Liberty to dispose of some of
the Cargo, in order to pay the Workmen; which they having obtained, they
sold fifty eight Barrels of Beef, and having hired three more Hands, they
set Sail for _Ostend_, and there having sold more Barrels of Beef, they
steer their Course to _Rotterdam_, dispose of the rest of the Cargo, and
took in one Mr. _Annesly_, who freighted the Ship for _England_; but in
their Passage, in a stormy Night, it being very dark, they took up Mr.
_Annesly_ their Passenger, and threw him into the Sea, who swam about the
Ship a pretty while, calling out for Life, and telling them they should
have all his Goods, if they would receive him again into the Vessel: But in
vain were his Cries!

After this, they were obliged to put into several Ports, and by contrary
Winds, came to the Coast of _France_, and hearing there was an Enquiry made
after the Ship, _Roche_ quits her at _Havre de Grace_, and leaves the
Management to _Cullen_ and the rest; who having shipp'd other Men, sail'd
away to _Scotland_, and there quitted the Vessel, which was afterwards
seized and brought into the River of _Thames._

Some Time after this, _Philip Roche_ came to _London_, and making some
Claim for Money, he had made Insurance of, in the Name of _John Eustace_,
the Officer was apprized of the Fraud, and he arrested and flung into the
Compter; from whence directing a Letter to his Wife, she shewed it to a
Friend, who discovered by it, that he was the principal Villain concerned
in the Destruction of _Peter Tartoue_, and the Crew. Upon this, an
Information was given to my Lord _Carteret_, that the Person who went by
the Name of _John Eustace_, was _Philip Roche_, as aforesaid; and being
brought down by his Lordships Warrant, he stifly deny'd it for some Time,
notwithstanding a Letter was found in his Pocket, directed to him by the
Name of _Roche_; but being confronted by a Captain of a Ship, who knew him
well, he confessed it, but prevaricated in several Particulars; whereupon
he was committed to _Newgate_ upon violent Suspicion, and the next Day was
brought down again at his own Request, confessed the whole, desired to be
made an Evidence, and promised to convict three Men worse than himself. Two
were discovered by him, who died miserably in the _Marshalsea_, and _Roche_
himself was afterwards try'd, (no more being taken,) found Guilty of the
Pyracy, and executed.

An ABSTRACT of the Civil Law and Statute Law now in Force, in Relation
to Pyracy.

A _Pyrate is_ Hostis humanis generis, _a common Enemy, with whom
neither Faith nor Oath is to be kept, according to_ Tully. _And by the Laws
of Nature, Princes and States are responsible for their Neglect, if they do
not provide Remedies for restraining these sort of Robberies. Though
Pyrates are called common Enemies, yet they are properly not to be term'd
so. He is only to be honour'd with that Name, says_ Cicero, _who hath a
Commonwealth, a Court, a Treasury, Consent and Concord of Citizens, and
some Way, if Occasion be, of Peace and League: But when they have reduced
themselves into a Government or State, as those of_ Algier, Sally, Tripoly,
Tunis, _and the like, they then are allowed the Solemnities of War, and the
Rights of Legation._

_If Letters of_ Marque _be granted to a Merchant, and he furnishes out a
Ship, with a Captain and Mariners, and they, instead of taking the Goods,
or Ships of that Nation against whom their Commission is awarded, take the
Ship and Goods of a Friend, this is Pyracy; and if the Ship arrive in any
Part of his Majesty's Dominions, it will be seized, and for ever lost to
the Owners; but they are no way liable to make Satisfaction._

_If a Ship is assaulted and taken by the Pyrates, for Redemption of which,
the Master becomes a Slave to the Captors, by the Law_ Marine, _the Ship
and Lading are tacitly obliged for his Redemption, by a general
Contribution; but if it happen through his own Folly, then no Contribution
is to be made._

_If Subjects in Enmity with the Crown of_ England, _are abord an_ English
_Pyrate, in Company with_ English, _and a Robbery is committed, and they
are taken; it is Felony in the_ English, _but not in the Stranger; for it
was no Pyracy in them, but the Depredation of an Enemy, and they will be
tried by a Martial Law._

_If Pyracy is committed by Subjects in Enmity with_ England, _upon the_
British _Seas, it is properly only punishable by the Crown of_ England,
_who have_ istud regimen & Dominem _exclusive of all other Power._

_If Pyracy be committed on the Ocean, and the Pyrates in the Attempt be
overcome, the Captors may, without any Solemnity of Condemnation, hang them
up at the Main-Yard; if they are brought to the next Port, and the Judge
rejects the Tryal, or the Captors cannot wait for the Judge, without Peril
or Loss, Justice may be done upon them by the Captors._

_If Merchandize be delivered to a Master, to carry to one Port, and he
carries it to another, and sells and disposes of it, this is not Felony;
but if, after unlading it at the first Port, he retakes it, it is Pyracy._

_If a Pyrate attack a Ship, and the Master for Redemption, gives his Oath
to pay a Sum of Money, tho' there be nothing taken, yet it is Pyracy by the
Law_ Marine.

_If a Ship is riding at Anchor, and the Mariners all ashore, and a Pyrate
attack her, and rob her, this is Pyracy._

_If a Man commit Pyracy upon the Subjects of any Prince, or Republick_,
(_though in Amity with us,) and brings the Goods into_ England, _and sells
them in a Market_ Overt, _the same shall bind, and the Owners are for ever

_If a Pyrate enters a Port of this Kingdom, and robs a Ship at Anchor
there, it is not Pyracy, because not done_, super altum Mare; _but is
Robbery at common Law, because_ infra Corpus Comitatus. _A Pardon of all
Felonies does not extend to Pyracy, but the same ought to be especially

_By_ 28 H. 8. _Murthers and Robberies committed upon the Sea, or in other
Places, where the Admiral pretends Jurisdiction, shall be enquired into,
try'd, heard, and determined, in such Places and Counties within the Realm,
as shall be limited by the King's Commission, in like Manner as if such
Offences were done at Land. And such Commissions_ (_being under the Great
Seal_) _shall be directed to the Lord Admiral, his Lieutenant or Deputy,
and to three or four such others as the Lord Chancellor shall name._

_The said Commissioners, or three of them, have Power to enquire of such
Offences by twelve lawful Men of the Country, so limited in their
Commission, as if such Offences were done at Land, within the same County;
and every Indictment so found and presented, shall be good in Law; and such
Order, Progress, Judgment, and Execution shall be used, had, done, and made
thereupon, as against Offenders for Murder and Felony done at Land. Also
the Tryal of such Offences_ (_if they be denied_) _shall be had by twelve
Men of the County, limited in the said Commission_, (_as aforesaid_,) _and
no Challenge shall be had for the Hundred: And such as shall be convict of
such Offences, shall suffer Death without Benefit of Clergy, and forfeit
Land and Goods, as in Case of Felonies and Murders done at Land._

_This Act shall not prejudice any Person, or Persons_, (_urged by
Necessity_) _for taking Victuals, Cables, Ropes, Anchors or Sails, out of
another Ship that may spare them, so as they either pay ready Money, or
Money worth for them, or give a Bill for the Payment thereof; if on this
Side the Straits of_ Gibraltar, _within four Months; if beyond, within
twelve Months._

_When any such Commission shall be sent to any Place within the
Jurisdiction of the_ Cinque-Ports, _it shall be directed to the Warden of
the said Ports, or his Deputy with three or four other Persons, as the Lord
Chancellor shall Name; and the Inquisition or Tryal of such Offences,
there, shall be made and had, by the Inhabitants of the said Ports, and
Members of the same._

_By_ 11 _and_ 12 W. 3. c. 7. _If any natural born Subjects or Denizons of_
England, _commit Pyracy, or any Act of Hostility, against his Majesty's
Subjects at Sea, under Colour of a Commission or Authority, from any
foreign Prince or State, or Person whatsoever, such Offenders shall be
adjudged Pyrates._

_If any Commander or Master of a Ship, or Seaman or Mariner, give up his
Ship_, &c. _to Pyrates, or combine to yield up, or run away with any Ship,
or lay violent Hand on his Commander, or endeavour to make a Revolt in the
Ship, he shall be adjudged a Pyrate._

_All Persons who after the_ 29_th of_ September 1720, _shall set forth any
Pyrate (or be aiding and assisting to any such Pyrate_,) _committing Pyracy
on Land or Sea, or shall conceal such Pyrates, or receive any Vessel or
Goods pyratically taken, shall be adjudged accessary to such Pyracy, and
suffer as Principals._

_By_ 4 G. c. 11. Sect. 7. _All Persons who have committed, or shall commit
any Offences, for which they ought to be adjudged Pyrates, by the Act_ 11
_and_ 12 W. 3. c. 7. _may be tried for every such Offence, in such Manner
as by the Act_ 28 H. 8. c. 15. _is directed for the Tryal of Pyrates; and
shall not have the Benefit of Clergy._

Sect. 8. _This Act shall not extend to Persons convicted or attainted in_

Sect. 9. _This Act shall extend to his Majesty's Dominions in_ America,
_and be taken as a publick Act._


Next Week will be published,

NOTES on several Chyrurgical Subjects. By JOHN ATKINS, Surgeon.

N. B. One entire Chapter on the Distempers of _Guiney._ Printed for _T.
Warner_ in _Pater-Noster-Row._

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A General History of the Pyrates: - from their first rise and settlement in the island of Providence, - to the present time" ***

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