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Title: Notes and Queries, Vol. V, Number 117, January 24, 1852 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. V, Number 117, January 24, 1852 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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[Transcriber's note: Original spelling variations have not been
standardized. _Underscores_ have been used to indicate _italic_ fonts.
Some Hebrew or Chaldee words may not be shown in an adequate way in this
version. A list of volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries" has been
added at the end.]


NOTES and QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION

FOR

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

VOL. V.--No. 117. SATURDAY, JANUARY 24. 1852.

Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition, 5_d._



CONTENTS.

                                                                Page


      NOTES:--

      The Pantheon at Paris                                       73

      Churchill the Poet                                          74

      English Medals: William III. and Grandval, by W. D.
      Haggard                                                     75

      Readings in Shakspeare, No. I.                              75

      Folk Lore:--Salting a New-born Infant--Lent
      Crocking--Devonshire Superstition respecting Still-born
      Children                                                    76

      Goldsmith's Pamphlet on the Cock Lane Ghost, by Jas.
      Crossley                                                    77

      Minor Notes:--Traditions of remote Periods through
      few Links--Preservation of Life at Sea--Epigram             77

      QUERIES:--

      Minor Queries--Count Konigsmark--"O Leoline!
      be absolutely just"--Lyte Family--Sir Walter Raleigh's
      Snuff-box--"Poets beware"--Guanahani, or Cat
      Island--Wiggan, or Utiggan, an Oxford Student--Prayers
      for the Fire of London--Donkey--French and
      Italian Degrees--The Shadow of the Tree of
      Life--Sun-dials--Nouns always printed with Capital
      Initials--John of Padua--St. Kenelm--Church                 78

      MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--Hieroglyphics of Vagrants
      and Criminals--Muggleton and Reeve--Rev. T. Adams--The
      Archbishop of Spalatro--Bishop Bridgeman--Rouse,
      the Scottish Psalmist--"Count Cagliostro, or the
      Charlatan, a Tale of the Reign of Louis XVI."--Churchyard
      Well and Bath                                               79

      REPLIES:--

      Collars of SS.                                              81

      On the First, Final, and Suppressed Volume of the only
      Expurgatory Index of Rome, by the Rev. J. Mendham           82

      The First Paper-mill in England, and Paper-mill near
      Stevenage, by A. Grayan                                     83

      The Pendulum Demonstration                                  84

      The Cross and the Crucifix, by Sir J. Emerson Tennent       85

      Yankee Doodle, by C. H. Cooper                              86

      Perpetual Lamp                                              87

      Kibroth Hattavah and Wady Mokatteb: Num. xi. 26.
      critically examined, by Moses Margoliouth                   87

      Replies to Minor Queries:--"Theophania"--Royal
      Library--Reichenbach's Ghosts--Marriage Tithe in
      Wales--Paul Hoste--John of Halifax--Age of Trees--"Mirabilis
      Liber"--Cæsarius, &c.--Tripos--"Please the Pigs"--Basnet
      Family--Serjeants' Rings--"Crowns have their Compass"--Hell
      paved with the Skulls of Priests--Cooper's Miniature of
      Cromwell--King Street Theatre--Groom, Meaning of--Schola
      Cordis, &c.                                                 88

      MISCELLANEOUS:--

      Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                      94

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                94

      Notices to Correspondents                                   94

      Advertisements                                              95



Notes.


THE PANTHEON AT PARIS.

Among the circumstances which have attracted notice in the remarkable
events of the present French revolution, the restoration of the
_Panthéon_ to its primitive ecclesiastical name and destination has been
specially adverted to, and certainly not without reason from its
implied--indeed, its obvious purpose,--that of propitiating the feelings
and courting the adhesion at least of the agricultural population of the
country to the new order of things; for, indifferent as Paris, with
other cities, may be to religious sentiments or practice, the
unsophisticated inhabitants of the provinces still conscientiously
pursue the forms and exercise the duties of their long-established
worship. No surer means of obtaining their suffrages could have been
adopted by the French President than by gaining the favour of the parish
priests, whose influence is necessarily paramount on such occasions over
their flocks.

In the accounts which have appeared in our journals of the Pantheon and
its varied fate, several errors and deficiencies having struck me, I beg
leave briefly to correct and supply both, with your permission, by a
general history of the beautiful edifice.

The church dedicated to St. Geneviève, patroness of Paris, originally
begun by Clovis, and finished by his widow, St. Clotilda, in the sixth
century (see Butler's _Lives of Saints_, January 3rd, and June 3rd), had
fallen into decay, when Louis XV. determined to construct one near it,
upon a large and magnificent scale. Designs presented by the eminent
architect Soufflot were adopted, and on the 6th of September, 1764, the
king, as stated by Galignani and others, laid the first stone. But
scarcely had it emerged from the foundation, when the wide-spreading
impiety of the age made it probable that it would eventually be diverted
to uses wholly at variance with its destined purpose, and so the
following lines foretold so long since as 1777; and never has prediction
been more literally in many respects, and for a considerable time more
completely, fulfilled:--

      "Templum augustum, ingens, reginâ assurgit in urbe,
        Urbe et patronâ virgine digna domus,
      Tarda nimis pietas vanos moliris honores!
        Non sunt hæc, Virgo, factis digna tuis.
      Ante Deo summâ quam templum extruxeris urbe,
        Impietas templis tollet et urbe Deum."

The French translation thus impressively renders the sense:--

      "Il s'élève à Paris un temple auguste, immense,
      Digne de Geneviève et des voeux de la France.
      Tardive piété! dans ce siècle pervers,
      Tu prépares en vain des monumens divers.
      Avant qu'il soit fini ce temple magnifique,
      Les saints et Dieu seront proscrits,
      Par la secte philosophique
      Et des temples et de Paris."

In the original pediment, since altered by the sculptor David (of
Angers), a bas-relief represented a cross in the midst of clouds; and on
the plinth was the following inscription:--

      "D. O. M. SUB INVOC. STÆ. GENOVEFÆ--LUD. XV. DICAVIT,"

which, in 1791, when a decree of the National Assembly appropriated this
monument of religion to the reception of the remains of illustrious
Frenchmen, was changed to--

      "AUX GRANDS HOMMES LA PATRIE RECONNAISSANTE."

On the restoration of the Bourbons, and of the edifice to its first
purpose, the Latin inscription resumed its place, with the addition of
"LUD. XVIII. RESTITUIT," which, however, again gave way to the French
epigraph after the revolution of 1830, still probably to be retained,
while accompanied with a due reference to the sanctified patroness of
the church.

The French inscription was the happy thought of M. Pastoret, one of the
few Academicians that embraced at its origin the principles of the
Revolution, which he followed through its varying phases, until he
attained an advanced age. The first mortuary deposit in the Pantheon was
that of Mirabeau, in August, 1791; and, on the 30th May ensuing, the
anniversary of the death of Voltaire, "L'Assemblée Nationale déclara cet
écrivain le libérateur de la pensée, et digne de recevoir les honneurs
décernées aux grands hommes," &c. On the 27th August following, a
similar distinction was decreed to J. J. Rousseau; but in January, 1822,
the tombs of these apostles of incredulity were removed, until replaced
in 1830. In July, 1793, the monster Marat was inhumed there, "amidst the
deepest lamentations and mournful expressions of regret for the loss
sustained by the country in the death of the most valued of her
citizens," whose corpse, however, on the 8th February, 1795, was torn
from its cerements and flung, with every mark of ignominy, into the
filth of the sewer of Montmartre. In the vicissitudes of popular favour
even Mirabeau's effigy was burned in 1793. Such have been the
alternations and ever-recurring contests in the feelings and principles
of the ascendant parties--

      "Et velut æterno certamine prælia pugnasque
      Edere, turmatim certantia; nec dare pausam,
      Conciliis et discidiis exercita crebris."

      _Lucret._ ii. 117.

The cost of this beautiful edifice may be estimated at about a million
sterling, or, taking into consideration the difference in the value of
money at the periods, one-third of what was expended on our cathedral of
St. Paul. The architect of this and other noble monuments of art, Jean
Germain Soufflot, born in 1704, died in August, 1781, the victim, it is
said, of the jealousy of his rival artists, whose malignant attacks on
his works and fame made too deep an impression on his sensitive
feelings, though supported in this trial of his moral fortitude by his
most intimate friend and director, that genuine philanthropist, the
father and institutor of the _Deaf and dumb_,--the Abbé de l'Epée, in
whose arms he died. No one it has been observed, was more justly
entitled to have the achievement of his genius invoked, as our Wren's
has been, and indicated to the inquirer, as the fit repository of his
mortal remains. He did not, however, live to contemplate the completed
structure. The sculptor David, who has embellished the pediment with
numerous statues, is now a refugee in Brussels, possibly the relative,
but certainly the political inheritor of his great namesake's
ultra-revolutionary sentiments, the eminent painter, I mean, and _âme
damnée_, as he was called, of Robespierre, an exile, too, in Belgium for
many years.

The epitaph above referred to of Sir Christopher Wren, under the choir
of St. Paul, celebrated as it rightly is, for its appropriate
application ("Subtus conditur hujus Ecclesiæ Conditor ... Lector, si
monumentum quæris, circumspice"), does not appear, I may add, to have
been a primary, or original thought, for it was long preceded by one of
somewhat suggestive and similar tenor in the old church of the Jesuits,
now in ruins, at Lisbon (St. Jose). "Hoc mausolæo condita est
Illustrissima D.D. Philippa D. Comes (Countess) de Linhares--Cujus,
si ... pietatem et munificientiam quæris, hoc Templum aspice"--Obiit
MDCIII. This date is long anterior to our great architect's birth
(1631), and above a century prior to his death in 1723, while, again,
the epitaph was not inscribed for several subsequent years.

    J. R. (Cork.)


CHURCHILL THE POET.

Mr. Tooke, in the biographical notice prefixed to the new edition, says
that Churchill was educated at Westminster school, and at the age of
fifteen--

  "Became a candidate for admission [on the foundation], and went in
  head of the election.... At the age of eighteen he stood for a
  fellowship at Merton College ... when being opposed by candidates
  of superior age, he was not chosen.... He quitted Westminster
  school; and there is a story current, that _about this period_ he
  incurred a repulse at Oxford on account of alleged deficiency in
  the classics, which is obviously incorrect, as there is no such
  examination or matriculation in our Universities as could lead to
  his rejection. In point of fact, long before he was nineteen, he
  was admitted of Trinity College, Cambridge. It is equally certain
  that he met with some slight or indignity at Cambridge, from
  whence he returned immediately after his admission, disgusted at
  the treatment he experienced, which he afterwards visited on both
  universities."

There is an obvious confusion here which perhaps I can clear up.

I need not say, to those who know anything of Westminster, and of the
old system of examination at our Universities, that a youth who entered
college, as it is called, head of an election was qualified, at the
time, not merely to have entered the University, but to have taken a
degree, had age and circumstances permitted; and this opinion is
confirmed in Churchill's case, by his standing for a fellowship at
Merton when only in his "second election"--second year on the
foundation--at Westminster. How to reconcile this with the stories
current is the apparent difficulty, and yet a few words will, I think,
make it all clear. There is what is called an "election" every year,
from the senior boys on the foundation at Westminster, to scholarships
at Christchurch, Oxford, and Trinity, Cambridge. As the scholarships at
Oxford are understood to be worth three or four times as much as those
at Cambridge, all are anxious to obtain an Oxford scholarship. The
election is professedly made after examination; but while I knew
anything of the school it was _selection_ according to interest, and it
must have been rare scholarship indeed that obtained the reward against
private interest. Herein, I take it, was the repulse Churchill met with,
not _at_ Oxford, but as a candidate _for_ Oxford. I have little doubt
that with all his merit, proved by the prior election into college, he
was put off with a Trinity scholarship; and it was not, probably, until
he arrived at Cambridge that he clearly understood its exact no-value.
He then saw that it was impossible to maintain himself there for three
years--he had already imprudently married, and therefore resolved to
struggle for himself, and rely on his father's interest to get ordained,
and at the proper age he succeeded in getting ordained.

    C. P.


ENGLISH MEDALS.--WILLIAM III. AND GRANDVAL.

In "N. & Q.", (Vol. iv., p. 497.), S. H. alludes to the case of
Grandval, who was to attempt the life of King William, and likewise to
the plot to assassinate him four years afterwards. In my collection of
medals relating to English history, I have two silver medals struck to
commemorate these events. I beg to send you a description of them for
insertion, if you consider them of sufficient interest.

No. I.--Bust to the right; flowing hair and ample drapery: legend,
"WILHELMINUS III., D. G. MAG. BRIT. FRANC. ET HIB. REX." Reverse, a
monument, or pedestal, on the top of which is the naked body of
Grandval, and a man about to dissect it; on each side is a fire-pot, to
burn the entrails, and pikes, on which the head and four quarters are
stuck; between two pikes, on the right, is a gibbet. An inscription in
Latin is on the pedestal to this effect:

  "Bartholomew de Grandval, a murderer, bribed by the money of
  Louis, convicted of parricide, and suffered the most severe
  punishment for having attempted to assassinate William III., King
  of Great Britain; his head and quarters exposed to be a frightful
  monument of his sacrilege, and of the perfidy of the French."

Exergue: "XIII. Aug'st 1692."

No. II.--Bust to the right; flowing hair: legend, "WILHELMUS III., D. G.
MAG. BRIT. FRANC. ET HIB. REX;" the breast and shoulders covered by half
of a shield, on which is written in Hebrew characters the name
"Jehovah," and round it, in Latin, thus "He whom I shield is safe."
Reverse: Six women, emblematical of Conspiracy, armed with daggers,
snakes, and torches, in dancing attitudes, ready to attempt the king's
life, and are withheld by cords issuing from a cloud, held by an
invisible hand, which encircle their necks and faces. The legend is to
this effect: "An invisible hand withholds them." Exergue: "1696, Boskam
F."

    W. D. HAGGARD.

  Bullion Office, Bank of England.


READINGS IN SHAKSPEARE, NO. I.

      "In the most high and palmy state of Rome,
      A little ere the mightiest Julius fell,
      The graves stood tenantless, and the sheeted dead
      Did squeak and gibber in the Roman streets;
      As stars with trains of fire and dews of blood,
      Disasters in the sun; and the moist star,
      Upon whose influence Neptune's empire stands,
      Was pale almost to dooms-day with eclipse."

      _Hamlet_, Act I. Sc. 1.

Such is the present state of the text; and notwithstanding its evident
corruption, it has been judiciously preferred by modern editors to the
various emendations and additions which, even to the manufacture of a
complete line alleged to be deficient, had been unscrupulously made in
it.

But the slight change I now wish to propose, in the substance of one
word, and in the received sense of another, carries such entire
conviction to my own mind of accordance with the genuine intention of
Shakspeare, that I may perhaps be pardoned if I speak of it with less
hesitation than generally ought to accompany such suggestions,
particularly as I do not arrogate to myself its sole merit, but freely
relinquish to Malone so much of it as is his due.

With Malone however the suggestion, such as it was, appears to have been
but a random guess, abandoned as soon as formed, and avowedly prompted
by very different considerations from those that have actuated me. That
he should have been on the very brink, as it were, of the true reading,
and yet fail to discover it, is only to be accounted for by his
subjection to that besetting sin of the day which denied to Shakspeare
all philological knowledge except what he might derive through his own
language.

In order to give Malone strict justice, I shall transcribe his
suggestion, together with the comment by which Steevens appears to have
stifled it in the birth:--

  "The disagreeable recurrence of the word stars in the second line
  induces me to believe that As stars, in that which precedes, is a
  corruption. Perhaps Shakspeare wrote:--

      _Astres_ with trains of fire--
            ----and dews of blood
      _Disasterous_ dimm'd the sun.

  The word _astre_ is used in an old collection of poems entitled
  _Diana_, addressed to the Earl of Oxenforde, a book of which I
  know not the date, but believe it was printed about 1580. In
  _Othello_ we have _antres_, a word of exactly a similar
  formation."--_Malone._

  "The word _astre_ (which is nowhere else to be found) was
  affectedly taken from the French by John Southern, author of the
  poems cited by Mr. Malone. This wretched plagiarist stands
  indebted both for his verbiage and his imagery to
  Ronsard."--_Steevens._

Hence, according to Malone's own account, the consideration by which
_he_ was led to the suggestion of "astres" was "the disagreeable
recurrence of _stars_ in the second line."

He did not perceive the analogy between _aster_ and _disaster_, which
renders a verbal antithesis of these two words so extremely probable
with Shakspeare!--he did not apparently think of "asters" at all,
although that word is so close to the text that it may be almost said to
be identical with it; and, notwithstanding that "aster" had been so long
familiarised in every English garden as to be literally under his nose,
he must search out "astre" in obscure and contemptible ballads, in order
that Shakspeare might be sanctioned in the use of it.

But it is absolutely incredible that any person to whom _astre_
suggested itself should not also be reminded of _aster_. The conclusion
therefore is almost unavoidable, that Malone and Steevens considered the
latter word as too learned for poor Shakspeare's small acquirements.
They would not trust him, even for a synonyme to star, unless under the
patronage of John Southern!

At least such was the spirit in which too many of the commentators of
that day presumed to treat Shakspeare,--him to whom, if to any mortal,
his own beautiful language is applicable--

      "How noble in reason! how infinite in faculty!
      In apprehension how like a god!"

Let us be thankful we have fallen to better times.

It is only by the occurrence of such difficulties as the present, which,
after remaining so long obscure, are at last only resolvable by
presupposing in Shakspeare a depth of knowledge far exceeding that of
his triflers, that his wonderful and almost mysterious attainments are
beginning to be appreciated.

In the present case he must not only have known that the fundamental
meaning of _aster_ is a spot of light[1], but he must also have taken
into consideration the power of _dis_ in producing an absolute reversal
in the meaning of the word to which it may be prefixed. Thus, _service_
is a benefit, _disservice_ is an injury, while _unservice_ (did such a
word exist) would be a negative mean between the two extremes.
Similarly, if _aster_ signify a spot of light, a name singularly
appropriate to a comet, _disaster_[2] must, by reversal, be a _spot of
darkness_, and "_disasters in the sun_" no other than what we should
call spots or maculæ upon his disk.

  [Footnote 1: Ἀστὴρ, ab ἄω, luceo.]

  [Footnote 2: Ἀνάστερος, obscurus.]

Can there remain a doubt, therefore, that Shakspeare intended the
passage to read as follows, which, requiring neither addition nor
alteration of the text as transmitted to us--saving one slight change of
"as stars" into "asters,"--must be perfectly intelligible to every
reader, especially if accompanied by the simple note of explanation
which I subjoin to it:--

      "In the most high and palmy state of Rome,
      A little ere the mightiest Julius fell,
      The graves stood tenantless, and the sheeted dead
      Did squeak and gibber in the Roman streets
      Asters with trains of fire and dews of blood,
      Disasters in the sun[3], and the moist star
      Upon whose influence Neptune's empire stands,
      Was sick almost to dooms-day with eclipse."

  [Footnote 3: Spots or blotches.]

    A. E. B.

  Leeds.


FOLK LORE.

_Salting a New-born Infant._--In Ezekiel xvi. 4 we read, "In the day
thou wast born thy navel was not cut, neither wast thou washed in water
to supple thee; _thou wast not salted at all_, nor swaddled at all."
Salting seems to be spoken of as a regular part of the process which a
new-born child underwent amongst the Jews in the days of Ezekiel. Can
any one give me information on this point? Can the salt in baptism
alluded to by SELEUCUS (Vol. iv., p. 163.) have any connexion with this
passage?

    ALFRED GATTY.

_Lent Crocking._--The children in this neighbourhood have a custom of
going round to the different houses in the parish, on the Monday before
Shrove Tuesday, generally by twos and threes, and chanting the following
verses, by way of extracting from the inmates sundry contributions of
eggs, flour, butter, halfpence, &c., to furnish out the Tuesday's feast:

      "Lent Crock, give a pancake,
      Or a fritter, for my labour,
      Or a dish of flour, or a piece of bread,
      Or what you please to render.
      I see by the latch,
      There's something to catch;
      I see by the string,
      There's a good dame within.
      Trap, trapping throw,
      Give me my mumps, and I'll be go" [gone].

The above is the most popular version, and the one indigenous to the
place; but there is another set, which was introduced some few years ago
by a late schoolmistress, who was a native of another part of the
county, where her version was customary:

      "Shrove-tide is nigh at hand,
        And we are come a-shroving;
      Pray, Dame, give something,
        An apple, or a dumpling,
      Or a piece of crumple cheese,
        Of your own making;
      Or a piece of pancake.
      Trip, trapping, throw;
      Give me my mumps, and I'll be go."

    PHILIP HEDGELAND.

  Bridestowe, Okehampton.

_Devonshire Superstition respecting Still-born Children._--One of the
Commissioners of Devonport complaining last week that a charge of one
shilling and sixpence should have been made upon the parish authorities
for the grave and interment of a still-born child, said, "When I was a
young man it was thought lucky to have a still-born child put into any
open grave, as it was considered to be a sure passport to heaven for the
next person buried there." Query, Is this prejudice still common?

    R. R.


GOLDSMITH'S PAMPHLET ON THE COCK LANE GHOST.

Mr. Prior (_Life of Goldsmith_, vol. i. p. 387.) gives the copy of a
receipt dated March 5, 1762, for three guineas paid by Newbery to
Goldsmith for a pamphlet respecting the Cock Lane ghost, and suggests
that a pamphlet advertised in the _Public Advertiser_ of February 22,
1762, under the title of--

  "The Mystery Revealed, containing a Series of Transactions and
  Authentic Memorials respecting the Supposed Cock Lane Ghost.
  Printed for W. Bristow in St. Paul's Church Yard;"

but which Mr. Prior had not been able to meet with, might possibly be
the pamphlet purchased by Newbery, as he had occasional connexion with
Bristow, his neighbour.

I have a copy of the pamphlet in question which indeed, as far as I can
find, is the only one published at the time which can at all answer to
the description of the one sold by Newbery. On a careful examination I
am disposed to attribute it to Goldsmith. It contains thirty-four pages,
and gives a full narrative of this extraordinary imposture. The
beginning and conclusion, though evidently written in haste, are not
without marks of Goldsmith's serious and playful manner. The amount paid
seems to agree with Newbery's general scale of remuneration to
Goldsmith, the length of the pamphlet being considered; and the types
employed appear to be similar to those used in some of Newbery's
publications at the same period. On the whole I consider that in a new
edition of Goldsmith's works this pamphlet, which is additionally
interesting, as a record of a famous imposture, ought to find a place.

    JAS. CROSSLY.


Minor Notes.

_Traditions of remote Periods through few Links_ (Vol. iv., p.
484.).--One evening, very soon after his accession, George IV. said that
he had done that morning an extraordinary thing, namely given (to Lord
Moira) _a garter_ which had been but once disposed of since the reign of
Charles II. This, considering that men (except in royal cases) never
obtain the garter when under age, and seldom till they are somewhat
advanced in life, seemed surprising; but his Majesty thus explained it.
Charles II. gave the garter to the Duke of Somerset in 1684; the duke
died at the end of 1748, and (Frederic, Prince of Wales, being alive)
his son, afterwards George III., received, a few days after, the vacant
garter as an _ordinary knight_, and though he subsequently became
sovereign, he always dated his rank in the Order from 1749; and when
George IV. succeeded as sovereign, his own stall, which was in fact that
of George III., was filled by Lord Moira. Thus it is certainly true that
two knights of the garter occupied the whole period between the reigns
of Charles II. and George IV.

I may add on this same topic of tradition, that I had a grand-uncle born
early in the reign of Queen Anne, who was intimate with Pope, Swift, and
Arbuthnot, from 1730 to their respective deaths; he used to tell me
anecdotes of their society, about which I was, I dare say, at the age of
sixteen or seventeen, old enough to propose _Queries_, but not to make
_Notes_, which I much regret.

    C.

_Preservation of Life at Sea._--On the road between Yarmouth and
Gorleston is a small obelisk or monument, with a device of a ship in a
storm, a rocket with a rope attached just passing over it. The
inscription on it may interest some of your readers:

          "In commemoration of the
      12th Feb. 1808, on which DAY,
        directly eastward of this spot,
      the FIRST LIFE was saved from
        SHIPWRECK, by means of a rope
          attach'd to a shot propelled
          by the force of gunpowder
          over the stranded vessel.
          A method now universally
        adopted, and to which at least
      1000 sailors of different nations
          owe their preservation.
                  1842."

    W. SPARROW SIMPSON, B.A.

_Epigram_--written in consequence of Queen Elizabeth having dined on
board Sir Francis Drake's ship, on his return from circumnavigating the
globe:

      "Oh Nature! to old England still
        Continue these mistakes;
      Give us for all our _Kings_ such _Queens_,
        And for our _Dux_ such _Drakes_."

    CLERICUS (D).



Queries.


Minor Queries.

_Count Konigsmark._--Horace Walpole, in his _Reminiscences_, says
distinctly that Count Konigsmark, the admirer of the ill-fated Princess
Sophia Dorothea of Zelle, was the same person as the instigator of Mr.
Thynne's assassination. Sir E. Brydges, in his edition of Collins's
_Peerage_, on the other hand, calls them brothers. Which of these
writers is correct? The fact may not be important otherwise than as
giving us an instance (if Walpole be correct) of the righteous judgment
of heaven in visiting a murderer with such fearful retribution. I cannot
find what became of Konigsmark, after the murder of Mr. Thynne, in
1681-2. It is said in the _Harleian Miscellany_, that he was taken by
one of Monmouth's attendants, who seized him as he was going on
ship-board. The three actual assassins were, we know, executed; but it
is added, "by some foul play, Konigsmark, who had employed them, and
came over to England expressly to see they executed their bloody
commission, was acquitted." What was this foul play, and how came the
greatest villain of the four to escape? I have not the _State Trials_ to
refer to: that work may give some explanation.

Walpole, who was familiar from childhood with the events of the courts
of the first three Georges, is likely to have been accurate as to the
identity of Konigsmark; but his occasional mistakes and
misrepresentations, as we are aware, have been frequently exposed by Mr.
Croker.

    J. H. MARKLAND.

_"O Leoline! be absolutely just._"--

      "O Leoline! be absolutely just,
      Indulge no passion and betray no trust.
      Never let man be bold enough to say
      Thus and no farther shall my passion stray.
      The first step past still leads us on to more,
      And guilt proves fate which was but choice before."

Who is the author of the above?

    H. B. C.

_Lyte Family._--When did the Lyte family first settle at Lytes Carey,
Somersetshire? On what occasion, and by whom, was the _fleur de lis_
added to their crest? And when did a part of the family alter the
spelling of the name from Lyte to Light?

The family is an ancient one, and in the reign of Elizabeth of
considerable literary distinction.

    J. L.

_Sir Walter Raleigh's Snuff-box._--What has become of Sir Walter
Raleigh's snuff-box? It was a favourite box, in constant use by the late
Duke of Sussex, and was knocked down at his sale for 6_l._ It is the box
out of which Raleigh took a pinch of snuff on the scaffold.

    L. H. L. T.

"_Poets beware._"--Where are the following lines to be found:

      "Poets beware; never compare
      Women to aught in earth or in air," &c.

    E. F. L.

_Guanahani, or Cat Island._--Why is this small island, one of the Bahama
group, so called? It is supposed that cats of large size, and quite
wild, used to be shot on this island; but none of the many writers on
the West Indies have touched on Guanahani, or Cat Island.

    W. J. C.

  St. Lucia.

_Wiggan, or Utiggan, an Oxford Student._--To assist in deciphering a MS.
I should be glad to know the name of a senior student of Christ Church,
Oxford, April, 1721, which seems to be Wiggan, Utiggan, or some such
like name.

    W. DN.

_Prayers for the Fire of London._--When were the "Prayers for the Fire
of London" first introduced into the Book of Common Prayer, and when
were they discontinued?

I have never seen them except in the Prayer Book prefixed to the Bibles
"Printed at the Theater, Oxford; and are to be sold by Peter Parker at
the Leg and Star in Cornhil. London MDCLXXXII." The Prayer Book bears
the same colophon.

    W. E.

_Donkey._--An omission in our dictionaries of a curious kind is that of
the word _donkey_, which is not to be found in any that I know of. There
may, however, be doubts as to the antiquity of this term; I have heard
ancient men say that it has been introduced within their recollection.
What is its origin? Whence also the name "moke," commonly applied to
donkeys in and about London? Is the word used in other parts of England?

    C. W. G.

_French and Italian Degrees._--Can you inform a young Englishman (of
good general knowledge, and possessing a thorough knowledge of the
French and Italian languages), who is desirous of obtaining a French or
Italian _degree_ as inexpensively as possible, how to proceed in order
to obtain the same, the expense, &c.?

    SEPTIMUS.

  Buntingford, Hertfordshire.

_The Shadow of the Tree of Life._--Can any of your readers oblige me
with information respecting the author of a little book, the title of
which runs as follows:--

  "Φαρμακα ουρανοθεν: The Shadow of the Tree of Life; or
  a Discourse of the Divine Institution and most Effectual
  Application of Medicinal Remedies, in order to the Preservation
  and Restoration of Health, by J. M. London, 1673."

    S. (An Original Subscriber.)

_Sun-dials._--The following is an inscription on a sun-dial on the wall
of a monastery, now suppressed, near Florence. I copied it on the spot
in 1841.

                      "A. D. S.
      Mia vita è il sol: Dell' uom la vita è Dio,
      Senza esso è l'uom, qual senza sol son' io."

What signification has A. D. S.?

    L. S.

_Nouns always printed with Capital Initials._--P. C. S. S. is desirous
of information respecting the origin and subsequent disuse of the
practice which appears to have prevailed among printers in the last, and
towards the end of the preceding century, of beginning every
noun-substantive with a capital letter. It prevailed also, to a certain
extent, in books published in France and Holland during the same period;
but P. C. S. S. is not aware of any other European language in which it
was adopted.

    P. C. S. S.

_John of Padua._--Who was this person, who in various accounts of Henry
VIII.'s time is styled "Deviser of his majesty's buildings?" Where was
he educated? and what were his works previous to his arrival in England?
He survived his royal master, and enjoyed the favour of the Protector
Somerset, who employed him to build his famous palace in the Strand.

From a warrant dated 1544, printed in Rymer's _Foedera_, it appears that
_Johannes de Padua_ was a "musician" as well as an architect.

    EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

_St. Kenelm._--Can any of your readers inform me where the life or
legend of St. Kenelm, spoken of by Leland, in his _Itinerary_ and
_Collectanea_, may be seen, if it is now in existence. Leland says, in
speaking of the murder of Kenelm, in Clinte in Cowbage, near Winchelcumb
(now Winchcomb), Gloucestershire:--

  "He (Averey parson of Dene) tolde me that it is in _S. Kenelme's
  Lyfe_ that Ascaperius was married to Quendreda, &c. &c."

  "He sayth that it aperithe _by Seint Kenelme's Legend_ that
  Winchelcombe was oppidum muro cinctum."

What does Clinthe or Clent in Cowbage mean in the Anglo-Saxon?

    E. T. B.

  Hereford.

_Church._--What is the derivation of this word? and if from the Greek,
how is it that it prevails only in the Teutonic countries (England,
Scandinavia, the Netherlands, and Germany), while the Latin Ecclesia
prevails in the rest of Europe?

    GEORGE STEPHENS.

  Copenhagen.


Minor Queries Answered.

_Hieroglyphics of Vagrants and Criminals._--In one of the recent deeply
interesting Sanitary Reports of Mr. Rawlinson to the General Board of
Health--reports which frequently contain scraps of antiquarian, among a
mass of more directly utilitarian information--there is passage which
opens up a curious subject, upon which, possibly, some of your readers
may be able to furnish illustrations from their literary stores. I
allude to that portion of his Report on the Parish of Havant
(Southamptonshire), in which he states:--

  "There is a sort of _blackguard's literature_, and the initiated
  understand each other by slang terms, by pantomimic signs, and by
  hieroglyphics. The vagrant's mark may be seen in Havant, on
  corners of streets, on door-posts, and on house-steps. Simple as
  these chalk lines appear, they inform the succeeding vagrants of
  all they require to know; and a few white scratches may say 'be
  importunate,' or 'pass on.' The murderer's signal is even
  exhibited from the gallows; as, a red handkerchief held in the
  hand of the felon about to be executed, is a token that he dies
  without having betrayed any professional secrets."

This is a curious subject; and I think it would prove interesting to
many readers, if any illustration could be afforded of the above strange
and somewhat startling statements.

    J. J. S.

  [Beloe, in his _Anecdotes of Literature_, vol. ii. pp. 146-157.,
  has left us some curious notices of this kind of vulgar
  literature, of English pure and undefiled from the "knowledge box"
  of Thomas Decker. But the most complete _Lexicon Balatronicum et
  Macaronicum_ was published in 1754, enriched with many "a word not
  in Johnson," and which leaves at a respectful distance the
  glossorial labours of Spelman, Ducange, Junius, and even the
  renowned Francis Grose and his _Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar
  Tongue_. It is entitled _The Scoundrel's Dictionary_; or, an
  Explanation of the Cant Words used by Thieves, Housebreakers,
  Street Robbers, and Pickpockets. To which are prefixed some
  Curious Dissertations on the Art of Wheedling; and a Collection of
  Flash Songs, with a proper Glossary, 8vo., London, 1754.]

_Muggleton and Reeve._--I wish to obtain some accurate information as to
John Reeve and Rodowick Muggleton, the founders of the sect called
Muggletonians, which appears to have been in existence up to the end of
the last century. Mr. Macaulay calls Muggleton "a drunken tailor," but
gives no reference. The article "Muggletonians" in the _Encyclopædia
Britannica_ is extremely meagre, both in matter and length. Is there any
authentic portrait of Reeve or Muggleton? Any information on these
points, or indication as to where it may be found, will greatly oblige

    R. S.

  Highgate.

  [Our correspondent will find the information he requires in the
  following works: "The New Witnesses proved Old Hereticks," by
  William Penn, 4to. 1672. "A True Representation of the Absurd and
  Mischievous Principles of the Sect commonly known by the name of
  Muggletonians," 4to. 1694. Muggleton's Works, with his portrait,
  1756. "A Complete Collection of the Works of Reeve and Muggleton,
  together with other Muggletonian Tracts," 3 vols. 4to. 1832. See
  also Leslie's _Snake in the Grass_; Collier's _Historical
  Dictionary_, Supplement; and _Gentleman's Mag._, vol. lxii. pt. i.
  p. 218.]

_Rev. T. Adams._--Can any particulars be noted of the Rev. Thomas Adams,
a preacher at Paul's Cross in 1612, besides those mentioned by the
editor of a _Selection from his Sermons_, published in 1847--the Rev. W.
H. Stowell. His works were printed in 1630 in a thick folio volume, but
some of them had previously appeared in small 4to., one such is in the
British Museum, and another I recollect seeing at a bookseller's. I
should much like to have a list and some account of these 4to. editions.

    S. FY.

  [Thomas Adams, D.D., was minister at Willington, in Bedfordshire,
  and afterwards rector of St. Bennet's, Paul's Wharf. According to
  Newcourt (_Repertorium_, i. 302.), "he was sequestered for his
  loyalty in the late rebellion, and was esteemed an excellent
  preacher; but died before the Restoration." The following Sermons
  by him were all published in 4to.: those distinguished by an
  asterisk are in the British Museum, the others in the Bodleian. 1.
  The Gallant's Burden; a Sermon on Isa. xxi. 11, 12., 1612. 2.
  Heaven and Earth Reconciled: on Dan. xii. 3., preached at Bedford
  at the Visitation of M. Eland, Archdeacon, 1613. *3. The Diuell's
  Banquet, described in Six Sermons, 1614. 4. England's Sickness
  comparatively conferred with Israel's; in Two Sermons on Jer.
  viii. 22., 1615. 5. The Two Sonnes; or the Dissolute conferred
  with the Hypocrite; on Matt. xxi. 28., 1615. 6. The Leaven, or a
  Direction to Heaven, on Matt. xiii. 33. p 97. ibid. *7. The
  Spiritual Navigator bound for the Holy Land, preached at
  Cripplegate on Trinity Sunday, 1615. 8. The Sacrifice of
  Thankfulness, on Ps. cxviii. 27., whereunto are annexed five other
  Sermons never before printed, 1616. 9. Diseases of the Sovle: a
  Discourse Divine, Morall, and Physicall, 1616. *10. The Happiness
  of the Church; being the Summe of Diverse Sermons preached at St.
  Gregorie's, 1618.]

_The Archbishop of Spalatro_ (Vol. iv., pp. 257. 295.).--Who were the
English bishops, at whose consecration Antonius de Dominis assisted in
Lambeth Chapel?

    AGRIPPA.

  [On December 14, 1617, Mark Spalatro assisted as a prelate at the
  consecration of Nicholas Felton, Bishop of Bristol, and George
  Monteigne, Bishop of Lincoln. See a list of the consecrations from
  the Lambeth Registers in Perceval's _Apology for the Doctrine of
  Apostolical Succession_, Appendix, p. 183.]

_Bishop Bridgeman._--Will you direct me to the best means of obtaining
answers to the following questions:--

John Bridgeman, fellow and tutor of Magdalen Coll. Camb., was admitted
_ad eundem_ at Oxford, July 4, 1600; and consecrated Bishop of Chester,
May, 1619. The points of inquiry are--

1. When was the said John Bridgeman entered at Cambridge?

2. When and where was he born?

3. Who and what were his parents?

    C. J. CLAY, B.A. (Trin. Coll. Camb.)

  [Leycester, in his _Cheshire_, says, "Bishop Bridgeman was the son
  of Thomas Bridgeman of Greenway in Devonshire," but other
  authorities make him a native of Exeter. Prince (_Worthies of
  Devon_, p. 99.) says, "He was born in the city of Exeter, not far
  from the palace-gate there, of honest and gentile parentage. His
  father was Edmund Bridgeman, sometime high-sheriff of that city
  and county, A.D. 1578. Who his mother was I do not find." In
  Wood's _Fasti_, vol. i. p. 286. Mr. Bliss has the following note:
  "John Bridgman, natus erat Exoniæ. Vid. Izaak's _Antiq. of
  Exeter_, p. 156. S.T.P. Cant. Coll. Magd. an. 1612. Vid. Prynne's
  _Antipathy_, p. 290., and _Worthies of Devon_, BAKER." Ormerod
  (_Hist. of Cheshire_, i. 79.) says, "He was the compiler of a
  valuable work relating to the ecclesiastical history of the
  diocese, now deposited in the episcopal registry, and usually
  denominated Bishop Bridgeman's _Leger_." For other particulars
  respecting him, consult Walker's _Sufferings of the Clergy_, Part
  II. p. 10.; Ackermann's _Cambridge_, vol. ii. p 160.; Prynne's
  _New Discovery of the Prelate's Tyranny_, pp. 91. 108. 218.; and
  Cole's MSS. vol. xxvii. p. 218.]

_Rouse, the Scottish Psalmist._--Can any of your readers favour me with
some particulars of the life of Rouse, the author of the Scottish
metrical version of the Psalms? His name does not appear in any of the
biographical dictionaries I have had an opportunity of consulting. From
some historical scraps this version had come into the hands of the
Westminster Assembly of Divines--was afterwards transmitted by them to
the General Assembly of the Kirk of Scotland, who appointed
commissioners, &c., for consideration--and was, on 23rd Nov. 1649,
sanctioned by the General Assembly, and any other version discharged
from being used in the Kirk or its families. Notwithstanding some
doggerel interspersed, the version is allowed to be distinguished for a
sweet easy simplicity, and well suited to the devotional purpose
intended. Rouse evidently was considerably endowed with the _vis
poetica_; and it is to be regretted, that he who has rendered such
important service to our national church, should not be known more than
by name; at least, this is the predicament in which I stand, along with
a few friends, whose notice has been incidentally drawn to the subject.

    G. N.

  Glasgow, Jan. 9. 1852.

  [Our correspondent will find an interesting account of Francis
  Rouse and his metrical version in Holland's _Psalmists of
  Britain_, vol. ii. pp. 31-38.]

"_Count Cagliostro, or the Charlatan, a tale of the Reign of Louis
XVI._"--I remember of having read, somewhere about the year 1838-9, a
novel of this name; and having inquired frequently for it since, never
heard of one. Can any of your correspondents tell me who wrote it?

    S. WMSON.

  [This work is in three volumes. We have seen it attributed to T.
  A. James.]

_Churchyard Well and Bath._--Whilst making a short antiquarian excursion
in the county of Norfolk last autumn, I visited the ancient church at
East Dereham. Amongst other features of interest which this fine church
displays, may be enumerated its massive bell tower, _detached_ from the
sacred edifice, on the S.E. of the chancel; and a rude building, to the
west of the building, also detached, on the western front of which is
the following inscription:

                         "This bath
                    was erected in the year
                            1793,
      in part by voluntary subscriptions, for public benefit,
      on the ruins of a tomb which contained the remains of
                        WITHBURGA,
                      youngest daughter of
                            ANNAS,
                     king of the East Angles,
                       who died A.D. 654.
                     The abbot and monks of Ely
                     stole this precious relique
                  and translated it to Ely Cathedral,
            where it was interred near her three royal sisters,
                            A.D. 974."

The sexton informed me that the abbot and monks of Ely made this bath,
or well, to recompense the good people of Dereham for the loss they had
sustained by the removal of the bones. It is yet used as a bath, both by
residents and strangers, the supply of water being very plentiful, and
delightfully clear. The water rises under an arch of the Early English,
or Early Decorated period. I shall be glad of any notes upon this, or
similar baths, in any other churchyards.

    W. SPARROW SIMPSON, B.A.

  [This bath appears to have been formerly used as a baptistery,
  which in the early British churches was erected outside of the
  western entrance, where it continued until the sixth century, if
  not later (Bingham, book viii. c. vii.). Blomefield, in his
  _History of Norfolk_, vol. v. p. 1190. fol. 1775., has the
  following notices of this building: "At the west end of the
  churchyard are the ruins of a very ancient baptistery, over which
  was formerly a small chapel, dedicated to St. Withburga. At the
  east end of the baptistery there is now remaining a curious old
  Gothic arch, from which runs a spring of clear water, formerly
  said to have had many medicinal and healing qualities. The
  fabulous account is, that this spring took its rise in the
  churchyard from the place where St. Withburga was first buried. In
  the year 1752 it was arched over, and converted into a cold bath."
  In the notices of the early churches of Cornwall, Wales, and
  Ireland, frequent mention is made of these baptisteries or holy
  wells, which we do not remember to have seen fully discussed in
  any work, and of which some account would be interesting alike to
  the divine, the topographer, and the antiquary. The learned
  Leland, in his _Itinerary_, iii. 30., in a description of Falmouth
  harbour, says, "there is a praty village or fishar town with a
  pere, cawlid S. Maws [Machutus], and there is a chapelle of hym,
  and his chaire of stone, and his _welle_." Again, speaking of the
  church of St. Germochus in Cornwall, he says, "it is three miles
  from S. Michael's Mont by est south est, and a mile from the se;
  his tomb is yet seene ther. S. Germoke ther buried. S. Germoke's
  chair in the chirch-yard. S. Germoke's _welle_ a little without
  the chirch-yard." (_Itin._ iii. 16.) Some further notices of these
  holy wells will be found in _The Chronicles of the Ancient British
  Church_, pp. 136-140.]



Replies.


COLLARS OF SS.

(Vol. iv., pp. 147. 236. 456.)

I communicate the following names and dates of the death, and in some
instances bare notices of the monumental effigies, of bearers of the
various collars of SS., which may be found in Bloxam's _Monumental
Architecture_, Boutell's _Monumental Brasses_, Cotman's _Sepulchral
Brasses_, Gough's _Sepulchral Monuments_, and Hollis's _Monumental
Effigies_.

I trust that the excellent example set by G. J. R. G., in making known
the existence of two of these collars on a tomb in his own neighbourhood
will be extensively followed by the readers of "N. & Q."

1. An effigy on a tomb in Tanfield church, co. York, commonly ascribed
to Robert of Marmion, who probably died in the time of Henry III. or
Edward I.

2. An effigy on a tomb in Gloucester cathedral, vulgarly called that of
Humphrey Bohun, Earl of Hereford, who died in 1367.

3. The effigy of William Wilcotes, in Northleigh church, co. Oxon, who
died in 1411.

4. and 5. Sir Thomas Peryent and his wife, in Digswell church, co.
Herts. He was esquire-at-arms to Richard II., Henry IV. and V., and
Master of the Horse to Joan of Navarre, 1415.

6. Sir William Calthorpe, in Burnham church, co. Norfolk, 1420.

7. Edwardus de la Hale, in Oakwood chapel, near Shene, in co. Surrey,
died in 1421.

8. Sir Humphrey Stafford, at Bromsgrove, co. Worcester. He was slain by
Cade, at Seven-Oaks, 28 Henry VI., 1450.

9. An effigy of a man, in plated armour, in Bakewell church, co. Derby.

10. An effigy of a woman at Dudley, co. Worcester.

11. An effigy of a man in Selby abbey, co. York.

    LLEWELLYN.

_Collar of SS._ (Vol. iv., p. 147.).--In answer to the request of MR. E.
FOSS, respecting effigies having a collar of SS., I beg to inform you
that in the church of St. Lawrence, Isle of Thanet, is a brass of
Nicholas Manston, Esq., A.D. 1444, who wears the above decoration. Near
St. Lawrence, is the hamlet of Manston, in which is an old farmhouse
called Manston Court, attached to which are the ruins of a chapel.

Query: Who was Nicholas Manston?

    CANTOR.


ON THE FIRST, FINAL, AND SUPPRESSED VOLUME OF THE ONLY EXPURGATORY INDEX
OF ROME.

(Vol. iv., p. 440.; Vol. v., p. 33.)

Receiving the "N. & Q." only in monthly parts, I was, till last week,
unacquainted with the article of your correspondent U. U., from
Baltimore. This ignorance, however, has been attended with the advantage
of the very decisive information on the matter of inquiry by B. B., as
far as the Bodleian Library, Oxford, is concerned. I am relieved by it
from the necessity of describing more particularly the copy of the
first, and Roman, Expurgatory of 1607; for the copy in my possession
_agrees exactly_ in title with that of the Bodleian. Of the genuineness
of the latter, the proof is as demonstrative as anything historical can
be. I have the same assurance of the genuineness of mine. It was in the
possession of the celebrated and intelligent collector, J. G. Michiels,
as his autograph, with the year 1755 attached, testifies. The title, as
given in my _Literary Policy_, has indeed a trifling error in
punctuation, whether my own or the printer's, but from simple oversight,
as in some cases _fas est obrepere somnum_. There was, however, and
could be, no error as to the meaning of Brasichellen., of which
Catalani, besides others, had given me information sufficiently correct
in his _De Magistro S. Pal._

These observations will not, however, satisfy the _want_ of your
transatlantic correspondent so completely as I trust I am enabled, and
shall be much pleased to do; for I have likewise the celebrated
_counterfeit_, of which I have given an ample account in my forecited
volume; and the _difference_ between it and the original is sensibly
evident on a _synoptical comparison_. But other marks, where this is
impracticable, may be adduced; and in the title itself, without
depending upon the _minutiæ_ of punctuation, and without any reference
to the _figures_ in the frontispiece, which are plainly not the same
impression, in both copies, the last line, SVPERIORVM PERMISSV, which,
in the _genuine_ book measures 2-1/2 inches, in the counterfeit measures
2-1/5; therefore, shorter by 3/10. In the _body_ of the work, in the
counterfeit the letter-press occupies more space than the genuine. Taken
at a venture (and a right-hand page is preferred, because the _number_
of the page, and the _catchword_, come in one perpendicular line), I
examined p. 163. The _height_ in the genuine is 5-1/5 inches; in the
counterfeit 5-4/5; the increase, 3/5. The _width_ of the page appears to
be in proportion. In the _preliminary matter_ of the genuine copy the
_De Correctione_ ends with the line, "eos corrigere, atque purgare." The
counterfeit varies. The last unnumbered page, indeed, the terminating
line, of what is prefatory, is, "Palatio Apostolico anno salutis 1607."
The counterfeit here likewise varies.

I have another volume closely identical; of which, because it is far
from common, I will give the title entire. It is well known, but not
easily detected:

                            "INDEX
                          LIBRORUM
                        EXPURGANDORUM,
                            _In quo_
                Quinquaginta Authorum Libri præ
                cæteris desiderati emendantur.
                              Per
                      FRANC. JO. MARIAM
                        BRASICHELLEN,
      Sacri Palatii Apostolici Magistrum in unum Corpus
                          redactus,
                    & publicæ Commoditati
                            æditus
                        EDITIO SECUNDA,
              Multorum desideriô juxta Exemplare
                    Romanum Typis mandata.
                    _SUPERIORUM PERMISSU._
                          Pedeponti
                            vulgo
                        STADT AM HOF
            Sumptibus JOANNIS GLASTL, Bibliopolæ
                          Anno 1745."

Previously it may be as well to observe, that Stadt am Hof is a town
bordering on the imperial city of Ratisbon, at or near _the court_, and
Latinized Pedepons as being at the foot of the bridge over the Danube at
that part. This book is evidently the identical counterfeit before
described, with the _mask cast aside_ by a _new title-page_, and _newly
printed_ prefatory matter, in consequence of a proposal fairly and
literally to _reprint_ the first genuine Roman edition. I will just
mention one proof of the identity of this and the previous copy in the
_body_ of the book. It occurs in the last line of p. 239., where the
word Iunij has a stroke, _by fault of the type_, immediately after the
word, thus Iunij[|]; and this is found in both. This is an accidental
coincidence, not to be classed with the purposed retention of false
spelling.

The Bergomi edition of 1608 is not in my possession; but I am well
acquainted with it by actual inspection. My first sight of it was
afforded by my friend the Rev. Richard Gibbings, who has published a new
edition of it, with an elaborate and very finished preface, in 1837.[4]
I have likewise seen it at Mr. Pickering's, a copy which I presume came
from the dispersed library of the late Rev. H. F. Lyte. _That_ in the
Bodleian I did not feel it necessary to examine. I do, however, possess,
though not the original, a very correct, as appears, _fac-simile_ of
that volume, whether it was intended as a counterfeit or not. The title,
without any addition, agrees _exactly_ with that of the original, as
given by your Oxford correspondent. I conclude it to be not the
original, from a distinct recollection that the engraving on the
title-page there is more rude and broken than in my copy; and, in the
body of the work, some parts do not perfectly agree with Mr. Gibbings's
reprint, not in the contents of the _pages_, in some instances in the
middle portion, and in the frequent substitution of the _m_ and _n_ for
the superscript bar, signifying one or other of those letters. My copy
likewise is bound together in vellum, with the _Notitia Ind. Lib.
Expurg. of Zobelius, Altorfii_, 1745. And, by the bye, I should like to
know whether, and where, there is another copy of that treatise of
eighty pages in England?

  [Footnote 4: Copies may be had at Mr. Petheram's, 94. High
  Holborn, London.]

I am happy in the present opportunity of recommending to the attention
of such students as U. U. in the New World, a work of so much real value
and interest as Mr. Gibbings's edition of the Bergomi edition of the
_Brasichellian Index_; and flatter myself that, by their aid and
example, an end will be put in the mother country to the incorrigible
though simple practice of calling every catalogue of condemned books
_expurgatory_, when the accuracy of the title, as far as Rome is
concerned, hangs upon the single thread of one imperfect and withdrawn
instance; the not easily numbered remainder being exclusively and
expressly _prohibitory_.

The reason for the _suppression_ of the work here examined is, in part
at least, correctly expressed by Papebrochius:

  "Nec _porro processum in opere reliquo_, quod mox apparuit futurum
  seminarium litium infinitarum, quibus sustinendis nec unus, nec
  plures forent pares, quantavis auctoritate subnixi."

    J. MENDHAM.


THE FIRST PAPER-MILL IN ENGLAND, AND PAPER-MILL NEAR STEVENAGE.

(Vol. ii., p. 473.; Vol. iii., p. 187.)

DR. RIMBAULT, in his Note "On the First Paper-Mill in England," after
alluding to the errors of various writers on the subject, adds, "In
_Bartholomeus de Proprietatibus Rerum_, printed by Wynkyn de Worde in
1495, mention is made of a paper-mill near Stevenage, in the county of
Hertford, belonging to John Tate the younger, which was undoubtedly the
'mylne' visited by Henry VII." Now this statement itself needs
correction. The English translation of the work of Bartholomeus (De
Glanvilla) informs us merely of the fact of John Tate the younger having
lately _in England_ made the paper which was used for the printing of
this book. The lines, which occur at the end of the volume, are as
follows:

      "And also of your charyte call to remembraunce
      The soule of William Caxton, first prynter of this boke
      In Laten tonge at Coleyn [Cologne] hysself to avaunce,
      That every well-disposed man may theron loke:
      And JOHN TATE the younger joye mote [may] he broke,
      Which late hathe in Englond doo make this paper thynne,
      That now in our Englysshe this boke is printed inne."

A rare poem, an early specimen of blank verse, entitled _A Tale of Two
Swannes_, written by William Vallans (who was, I believe, a native of
Ware), and printed in 1590, supplies us with the information that the
mill belonging to John Tate was situated at Hertford. One of the notes
in the poem states that, "in the time of Henry VIII., viz. 1507, there
was a paper-mill at Hertford, and belonged to John Tate, whose father
was Mayor of London." The author, however, is here mistaken in his
chronology, as Henry VIII. did not begin to reign till 1509. The extract
from the privy purse expenses of Henry VII., under the date of May 25,
1498, "for rewards geven at the Paper Mylne, 16s 8d," most clearly has
reference to this particular mill, as the entry immediately preceding
shows that the king went to Hertford two days before, viz. on the 23rd
of May.

In answer to HERTFORDIENSIS, who asks for information as to its site, I
quote a passage from Herbert's edition of Ames's _Typographical
Antiquities_, under the description of the work of Bartholomeus, printed
by Wynkyn de Worde. Herbert says, vol. i. p. 201.:--

  "I have been informed that this mill was where Seel, or Seal Mill
  is now, at the end of Hertford town, towards Stevenage; and that
  an adjoining meadow is still called Paper-mill Mead. This Seel
  Mill, so denominated from the adjoining hamlet, was erected in the
  year 1700; and is noted for being the first that made the finest
  flour, known by the name of _Hertfordshire White_. It stands upon
  the river Bean, in the middle of three acres of meadow land,
  called Paper-mill Mead, so denominated in the charter of King
  Charles I. to the town of Hertford for the fishery of a certain
  part of that river. Hence, perhaps, some have thought it was at
  Stevenage, but there is no water for a mill at or even near that
  place."

The French authorities are particularly unhappy on the subject of the
introduction of the art of paper-making in England. According to the
_Dictionnaire de la Conversation_, "la première manufacture, établie à
_Gertford_ en Angleterre, est de 1588;" while the _Encyclopédie des Gens
du Monde_ asserts that "la première patererie de chiffons qu'eu notre
pays fut établie en 1312; celle d'Angleterre en 1388."

    A. GRAYAN.


THE PENDULUM DEMONSTRATION.

(Vol. iv., pp. 129. 177. 235. 277.)

Since my last communication on this subject (Vol. iv., p. 235.) I have
been engaged in examining the theory, and the experiments connected with
it, somewhat more closely; and, in the meanwhile, I abstain from
replying to the last observations of A. E. B. (Vol. iv., p. 277.)

A. E. B. says it was "uncourteous" in me to call the theory which he put
forward _his_ theory. I beg pardon for the offence. I intended by the
expression merely to indicate the particular theory which he advocated.
I believe its author is M. Chesles. The theory in question is:

  "That the variation of the pendulum's plane is due to the excess
  of velocity with which one extremity of the line of oscillation
  may be affected more than the other."

I ventured to pronounce this to be untenable, and begged A. E. B. to
"reduce it to paper." Upon this he remarked:

  "H. C. K. is surely not so unphilosophical as to imagine that a
  theory, to be true, must be palpable to the senses. If the element
  of increase exist at all, however imperceptible in a single
  oscillation, repetition of effect must eventually make it
  observable. But I shall even gratify H. C. K., and inform him,
  that the difference in linear circumference between two such
  parallels in the latitude of London, would be about 50 feet; so
  that the northern end of a 10 feet rod, placed horizontally in the
  meridian, would travel less by that number of feet in twenty-four
  hours, than the southern end. This, so far from being inadequate,
  is greatly _in excess_ of the alleged apparent motion in the place
  of the pendulum's vibration."

I think, if A. E. B. will reconsider this opinion, he will find that, so
far from being "greatly in excess," it is inadequate to account for the
amount of apparent motion of the plane of the pendulum. For the onward
motion of the plane of a 2 sec. pendulum, describing a circle of 10 feet
diameter in twenty-four hours, amounts to ·0087 inch at each beat; 50
feet will be the difference in the distance the two extremities of the
arc of vibration will travel in twenty-four hours; that is, ·0138 inch
in 2 seconds of time: but this is for a difference of 10 feet;
therefore, for 5 feet, the distance from the centre, it is ·0069 inch;
whereas the arc described is ·0087 inch, which is absurd.

However, there is another equally fatal objection to this theory,
founded on experiment; to make which objection good, I will not merely
adduce the result of my own, but that of certain experiments carried out
at Paris, which place the matter beyond a doubt. In the Pantheon, at
Paris, there is a pendulum of the length of 230 feet, by means of which
experiments can be made under the most favourable conditions possible as
regards suspension, exclusion of currents of air, &c. &c. While
witnessing the trials that were being made, a relation of mine requested
that the pendulum might be set to oscillate east and west; and the
result was, that the arc described after an interval of ten minutes, was
the same as that described when the pendulum was oscillating north and
south.

To return to the original theory. I stated formerly that I had no faith
in the experiments which had been published. I now repeat that I believe
all the experiments that have been made, with the view of showing the
rotation of the earth, and the independence of the pendulum of that
rotation, are inconclusive; and for the following reason, _the
impossibility of obtaining perfect suspension_. Even in a still
atmosphere, and with a pendulum formed of the rigid rod and a "bob," the
axis of both of which shall be precisely in a line with the point of
suspension; yet, until suspension can be effected on a mathematical
point, and all torsion and local attraction got rid of, the pendulum
will not continue to swing _in the same plane_ for many consecutive
beats; because the _slightest_ disturbance will cause the "bob" to
describe an ellipse; and, by a well-known law, the major axis of that
ellipse will go on advancing in the direction of the revolution. This
advance is by regular intervals; and my belief, founded on my own
experiments, is, that the astonished spectators at the Polytechnic
Institution, while intently watching, as they believed, the rotation of
the earth made visible, were watching merely a weight suspended by a
cord, which, disturbed from the plane in which it was set to oscillate,
was describing a series of ellipses on the table, very pretty to look
at, but having no more to do with the rotation of the earth than the
benches on which they were sitting.

At the same time, however, that I assert the inefficacy of any
experiments with the pendulum as tending to show the earth's rotation, I
admit that, provided a pendulum could be made to preserve its plane of
oscillation for twenty-four hours, it would oscillate independently of
the rotation of the earth, and actually describe a circle round a fixed
table in that interval. The _mathematical proof_ of this proposition is
of a most abstruse nature; so much so, indeed, that it is understood to
have been relinquished by one of our ablest mathematicians. But that it
is likely to be true, and one not difficult to comprehend, I think I can
show to A. E. B.'s satisfaction in a few lines.

If a pendulum be placed at one of the poles of the earth, it is obvious,
that while it swings in one plane, the revolution of the earth beneath
it will cause it to appear to describe a complete circle in twenty-four
hours. This position is simple enough, but it is true also in any
latitude, excepting near the equator. For there is no doubt, that, as
gravity acts on the pendulum, _only in the line which joins the point of
suspension and the centre of the earth_ (thereby merely drawing the
"bobs" towards that line) it can have no effect on the _plane_ of
oscillation; for the line of gravitation remains unchanged with respect
to the pendulum, during a whole revolution of the earth on its axis.
Take a map of a hemisphere, and on any parallel, say 60° of latitude,
draw three pendulums, extended as in motion, with their centres of
gravity directed toward the earth's centre, one on each extremity of the
parallel of latitude, and one midway between the two; extend the "bobs"
of the first two north and south, and those of the middle one east and
west. Number them 1, 2, and 3, from the westward. It will then be
observed that the _plane of oscillation_ of the three pendulums, thus
placed, is one and the same--that of the _plane of the paper_; and
moreover, that the lower "bob," which is south at No. 1., is west at No.
2., and north at No. 3. By this it will be evident, that the revolution
of the pendulum will be through the whole circle, or 360° in twenty-four
hours, at all points of the earth's surface, excepting near the equator;
_the line joining the "bobs"_ remaining in a parallel plane.

I say, excepting near the equator; for it will be seen on looking
closely at the above illustration (which would be better on a globe)
that the three pendulums are not _strictly_ in the same, or even a
parallel plane; inasmuch as the plane of oscillation must pass through
the point of suspension, _and the centre of the earth_. But still the
pendulum has _a tendency to remain_ in a parallel plane, as nearly as
the figure of the earth will allow,--the chord of the arc of oscillation
remaining in a plane parallel to itself. It will be seen that, as we
approach the equator, the plane of oscillation is forced from its
parallelism more and more, until, _on_ the equator, it has no tendency
to return, as all planes are there the same with reference to the centre
of the earth.

I may add that there is a variation of the above theory, which has found
many advocates, viz. that the pendulum will make the complete revolution
in a period _varying_ from twenty-four hours at the poles, to infinity
at the equator; varying, that is, as the sine of the latitude. This
seems, _à priori_, not so likely as the former, while it equally wants
mathematical proof.

    H. C. K.

  ---- Rectory, Hereford.


THE CROSS AND THE CRUCIFIX.

(Vol. v., p. 39.)

Your space precludes controversy: but the communication in Number 115.
from W. DN. requires an explanation from me; which I give the more
readily as it may perhaps serve to throw further light on a curious
inquiry. A correspondent in a former Number (Vol. iv., p. 422.)
questioned the correctness of an assertion by the Hon. MR. CURZON, that
"the crucifix was not known before the fourth or fifth century, though
the cross was always the emblem of the Christian faith." I ventured to
sustain MR. CURZON'S view (Vol. iv., p. 485.) by referring to
authorities for the fact, that the idea of ignominy associated with that
peculiar form of execution had long prevented the cross from being
adopted as a symbol of Christ's passion; that the actual representation
of the crucifixion itself was still more repulsive, and much later in
its admission into the early churches; that allegory was in consequence
resorted to, in order to evade the literal delineation of the Saviour's
death, which was typified by a lamb bleeding at the foot of a cross; and
that when invention had become exhausted, and inert in the production of
these emblems, the Church, in the seventh century at the
_Quini-sextile_, or _Council in Trullo_, had "ordered that _fiction and
allegory should cease, and the real figure of the Saviour be depicted on
the tree_." (The words in Italics are my own, and were not given as a
quotation.)

W. DN. in Number 115. (Vol. v., p. 39.) does not question the main
conclusion sought to be established, but takes exception to my reference
to the Council in Trullo as irrelevant, and says, "should your readers
turn to the canons of that council, they would be disappointed at
finding nothing about the cross;" whence he infers, that I have been
"led into a singular mistake." But the mistake, I apprehend, is on the
part of W. DN. himself, who evidently has not read the council in
question, else he would have found, so far from its canons containing
"nothing about the cross," one, the 73rd, is devoted exclusively to the
cross, whilst the 82nd is given to the crucifix. The 73rd canon of the
Council in Trullo directs all veneration to be paid to the cross, and
prohibits its being any longer depicted in the tesseræ of the floors
where this "trophy of our victory," as it is called in the canon, was
exposed to desecration from the feet of the congregation. The 82nd
canon, in like manner, has direct reference to the crucifix, and its
style of design. It alludes to the practice which had theretofore
prevailed, of representing Christ as the lamb, pointed to by St. John,
which was to take away the sins of the world (John, i. 29.); but as that
great work has been accomplished, the council declares that the Church
now prefers the grace and _truth_ of him who had fulfilled the law, to
those ancient forms and shadows which had been handed down as types and
symbols only; and it continues:

  "In order, therefore, that what has come to pass should be
  exhibited before the sight of all by the skill of the artist in
  colours, we direct that the representation of Christ the Lamb of
  God, which taketh away the sins of the world, shall henceforth be
  elevated in his human character; and no longer under the old form
  of a lamb."

The words are these:

  "ὡς ἂν οὖν τὸ τέλειον κἂν ταῖς χρωματουργίαις ἐν ταῖς ἁπάντων ὄψεσιν
  ὑπογράφηται, τὸν τοῦ αἴροντος τὴν ἁμαρτίαν τοῦ κόσμου ἀμνοῦ Χριστοῦ
  τοῦ Θεοῦ ἡμῶν, κατὰ τὸν ἀνθρώπινον χαρακτῆρα καὶ ἐν ταῖς εἰκόσιν ἀπὸ
  τοῦ νῦν ἀντὶ τοῦ παλαιοῦ ἀμνοῦ ἀναστηλοῦσθαι ὁρίζομεν."--_Concilium
  Quinisextum_, Can. lxxxii. Concil. Collectio, J. B. MANSI, vol. xi.
  p. 978.: Floren. 1765.

W. DN. has quoted this canon, not from the original Greek of the
council, which I copy above, but from the Latin version given in Labbe,
and which is much less close and literal than that of Carranza; and the
words "_erigi et depingi_," which it employs, are a very incorrect
rendering of the Greek ἀναστηλοῦσθαι, a term peculiarly
appropriate to the elevation of a crucifix.

But that the whole canon has immediate reference to the literal
delineation of the mode and manner of Christ's passion, will be apparent
from the concluding sentences, which expressly set out that the object
of the change which it enjoins is to bring more vividly before our minds
the incarnation, suffering, and _death_ of the Saviour, by the full
contemplation of the depth of _humiliation_ attendant on it:

  "Δι' αὐτοῦ τὸ τῆς ταπεινώσεως ὕψος τοῦ Θεοῦ λόγου κατανοοῦντες, καὶ
  πρὸς μνήμην τῆς ἐν σαρκὶ πολιτείας τοῦ τε πάθος αὐτοῦ καὶ τοῦ
  σωτηρίου θανάτου χειραγωγούμενοι, καὶ τῆς ἐντεῦθεν γενομένης τῷ
  κόσμῳ ἀπολυτρώσεως, κ. τ. λ."--_Ib._  MANSI, v. xi. p. 979.

How this impression of the "_humiliation_" and "_suffering_" of Christ's
_death_ could be conveyed otherwise than by a literal delineation of its
incidents, I cannot well see. And, indeed, of many authorities who have
recorded their opinion on the effect of this canon of the Quini-sextile
council, W. DN. is the only one who expresses a doubt as to its direct
reference to the cross and the crucifix. Both the historians of the
church, and those who have treated of the history of the Arts in the
Middle Ages, are concurrent in their testimony, that it was not till
immediately after the promulgation of the canons of the Council in
Trullo that the use of the crucifix became common in the early churches.
This fact is recorded with some particularity by Gieseler, in his
_Compendium of Ecclesiastical History_, sect. 99. note 51.; and
Emeric-David, the most laborious and successful explorer of historical
art of our time, in describing the effect upon the Fine Arts produced by
the edict of the council, adverts to the 82nd canon more than once, as
directing the delineation of the Saviour _on the cross_:

  "La fin du 7me siècle et le commencement du 8me présentent deux
  événements de la plus haute importance dans l'histoire de la
  peinture. Le premier est la révolution opérée par le décret du
  concile de Constantinople appelé le concile _quinisexte_ ou _in
  Trullo_, et célébré en 692 A.D., qui ordonna de préférer la
  peinture historique aux emblèmes, et notamment d'abandonner
  l'allégorie dans la représentation du crucifiement de Jésus
  Christ.... Ce fut après ce concile que les images de Jésus Christ
  sur la croix commencèrent à se multiplier." (_Histoire de la
  Peinture au Moyen Age_, par T. B. Emeric-David, Paris, 1842, p.
  59.) "Lorsque le concile quinisexte ordonna de préférer la réalité
  aux images, et de montrer le Christ sur la croix, l'esprit
  d'allégorie, malgré ce décret, ne s'anéantit pas entièrement."
  (_Ib._ p. 32.)

    J. EMERSON TENNENT.

  London.


YANKEE DOODLE.

(Vol. iv., p. 344.)

The subjoined song is copied from a _Collection of English Songs_ in
the British Museum (G. 310-163.). The Catalogue gives the conjectural
date of 1775. In the _History of the American Revolution_ (published by
the Society for Diffusion of Useful Knowledge), p. 22., is an anecdote
referring to Lord Percy having, in 1775, caused his band to play "Yankee
Doodle" in _derision_ of the Americans: but I infer, from the Earl of
Carlisle's Lecture on his Travels in America, that it is _now_ used by
the Americans as their _national tune_.

      YANKEE DOODLE; OR, THE NEGROE'S FAREWELL TO
      AMERICA.

      _The Words and Music by T. L._

      1.

      "Now farewell, my Massa, my Missey, adieu!
      More blows or more stripes will me e'er take from you,
      Or will me come hither or thither me go,
      No help make you rich by de sweat of my brow.
            Yankee doodle, yankee doodle dandy, I vow,
            Yankee doodle, yankee doodle, bow wow wow.

      2.

      "Farewell all de yams, and farewell de salt fish,
      De bran and spruce beer, at you all me cry, Pish!
      Me feed upon pudding, roast beef, and strong beer,
      In Englan', old Englan', when me do get dere.
                                Yankee doodle, &c.

      3.

      "Farewell de musketo, farewell de black fly,
      And rattle-snake too, who may sting me to dye;
      Den Negroe go 'ome to his friends in Guinee,
      Before dat old Englan' he 'ave a seen'e.
                                Yankee doodle, &c.

      4.

      "Farewell de cold winter, de frost and de snow,
      Which cover high hills and de valleys so low,
      And dangling and canting, swearing and drinking,
      Taring and feath'ring for ser'ously thinking.
                                Yankee doodle, &c.

      5.

      "Den hey! for old Englan' where Liberty reigns,
      Where Negroe no beaten or loaded with chains;
      And if Negroe return, O! may he be bang'd,
      Chain'd, tortur'd, and drowned,--or let him be hang'd!
                                Yankee doodle," &c.

    C. H. COOPER.


PERPETUAL LAMP.

(Vol. iv., p. 501.)

The reported discovery at the dissolution of monasteries of a lamp that
had burned in a tomb nearly 1200 years, to which your correspondent B.
B. adverts, is, I presume, the discovery referred to by Camden (Gough's
ed. vol. iii. p. 242.), where he says:

  "I have been informed by persons of good credit, that upon the
  dissolution of monasteries in the last age, a lamp was found
  burning in a secret vault of a little chapel, where, according to
  tradition, Constantius was buried. For Lazius writes that the
  ancients had the art of reducing gold to a consistent fluid, by
  which they kept fire burning in vaults for a long time, and even
  for many ages."

The lamp of the alleged tomb of Constantius Chlorus was the subject of a
communication by Mr. Albert Way to the York meeting of the Archæological
Institute in 1846, in which he compared the ignited lamp said to have
been found therein, with the story of a similar sepulchral lamp in a
Roman family tomb, beneath the site of the ancient Castellum Priscum in
the province of Cordova, as communicated to the Institute by Mr.
Wetherell of Seville. It seems well worthy the attention of modern
archæologists to ascertain what foundation in fact exists for the
statements advanced by ancient writers as to the possibility of
preparing a lamp that would burn for centuries in the tomb. Mr. Way
remarks that the curious discovery communicated from Seville is
unfortunately not authenticated by the observation at the time of any
person skilled either in natural history or archæology. Some, however,
may consider the tale of the sepulchre of Chlorus, though rejected by
Drake and others, as not wholly unworthy of consideration; and Mr. Way
suggests the possibility of a substance having been compounded which, on
the admission of purer air to the tomb, became for a short time ignited.
An abstract of his interesting communication is in the _Athenæum_ for
8th August, 1846. The prince whose tomb is said to have been discovered
near the church of St. Helen's on the Walls, in York, was the H.
Valerius Constantius who came to York about a century after the death of
Severus, and was father of Constantine the Great.

Let me now ask where the story may be found of

            "The bright lamp that lay in Kildare's holy fane,
      And burned through long ages of darkness and storm?"

    W. S. G.

  Newcastle-upon-Tyne.


KIBROTH HATTAVAH AND WADY MOKATTEB: NUM. XI. 26. CRITICALLY EXAMINED.

(Vol. iv., p. 481.; Vol. v., p. 31.)

In order that the readers of "N. & Q." may have an opportunity of
judging for themselves of the question between DR. TODD and myself, as
to the identity of Kibroth Hattavah and Wady Mokatteb, it will be
necessary, in the first place, that a more comprehensive view should be
taken of the camp of Israel than DR. TODD'S criticism seems to imply. A
population of six hundred thousand, besides women and children, must
have occupied a larger extent of ground than a single valley; and the
valley which is called _par excellence_ Wady Mokatteb would by no means
suffice for the accommodation of half the multitude, were it not joined
to many other valleys,--both sides, by means of narrow windings.

In the second place, it must be borne in mind that the "Tabernacle was
pitched without the camp, afar off from the camp" (Exod. xxxiii. 7.); a
circumstance which DR. TODD overlooked, which made him hazard the
strange statement that I "did not explain how Eldad and Medad were in
Wady Mokatteb, more than Moses and the rest of the seventy."

In the third place, it must be observable to every intelligent reader,
that there is not the least shadow of warrant for supposing that Eldad
and Medad were two of the seventy elders "gathered" by Moses; on the
contrary, there is unmistakeable evidence against the notion. We are
expressly told by inspired authority, that the seventy elders--not
sixty-eight--were set round about the tabernacle; and there and then did
Jehovah take of the spirit that was upon Moses, "and gave it unto the
seventy elders,"--not to sixty-eight only. Another proof that Eldad and
Medad cannot be considered as two of the seventy elders, but as persons
belonging to the mass of the laity, is derivable from Moses' answer to
Joshua, "Would God that all the Lord's people were prophets" (ver. 29.).
If they were of the seventy, what cause was there for surprise and
consternation? Would Joshua have asked for a prohibition? and would
Moses have given such an answer?

But what is to be done with the statements, "And they were of them that
were written, but went not out unto the tabernacle, and they prophesied
in the camp?" How are these statements to be explained? Very easily, by
a reference to the original Hebrew. The words םיבותכב המהו do
not mean "and they were of them that were written," but "and they were
amongst the writings" or inscriptions, that is Wady Mokatteb, _i.e._ in
that part of the encampment which was pitched there. If the inspired
narrator had meant to convey the idea that Eldad and Medad were two of
the seventy elders, he would have employed the proper word for it, which
םיבותכב is certainly not. The proper word would have been
either םיפוסאהמ, "of them that were gathered," or םינקזהמ,
"of the elders." We have no account of Moses writing down the
names of the seventy, to authorise such a translation. Besides, even if
we had such an account, and the sacred historian wished to intimate as
much in the verse under review, he would assuredly have used the word
םיבותכהמ, and not םיבותכב. It appears that the ב was a difficulty
to the LXX, as well as to the author or authors of the Vulgate, to
Rashi and the translators of the English version. The Greek particle
ἐκ and the Latin _de_ are literal translations of the equivalent
Hebrew particle ןמ or מ, and not of ב. It would appear, moreover, that
DR. TODD himself found the ב insurmountable, and therefore omitted it
in his last Hebrew quotation. Again, in the Pentateuch, wherever the
word םיבותכ occurs, it implies written records, but not written names
of persons.

But do not all the ancient paraphrasts sanction the translation of the
authorised version? What of that, if they happen to be wrong! Such a
consideration will never interfere with my own judgment, founded on a
thorough knowledge of the meaning of the Hebrew word. I have long since
learned that opinions are not necessarily true, because they are old
ones, nor doctrines undeniably infallible, because we may have believed
in them from our cradles. I am positive, however, that had the LXX, the
authors of the Vulgate, Rashi, and the translators of the authorised
version, known the locality of Wady Mokatteb, they would have hesitated
before they put so unnatural a construction on the word. Aye, and DR.
TODD too, if he were in the valley, and traced, with his generally
correct mind, the wanderings of the people of Israel, would have
exclaimed, "Surely this is none other than the Kibroth Hattavah of
Scripture, and rightly named "םיבותכ."

Onkelos, however, in his _Chaldee Paraphrase_--DR. TODD evidently
overlooked that, for he grouped the _Chaldee Paraphrase_ amongst the
mistranslators--renders the words םיבותכב המהו literally and
grammatically by the Chaldee words איביתכב ןונאו, "And they
were amongst the inscriptions."

But do not the words "but they went not out into the tabernacle, and
they prophesied in the camp," "completely overturn my hypothesis?" They
may according to DR. TODD'S criticisms, but not according to the correct
sense of that interesting portion of Scripture. The people in the camp
were evidently under the impression that it was not right for any one
but the seventy to prophesy, nor was it lawful to prophesy any where
else but at the tabernacle, as they were accustomed to hear Moses do;
the fact, therefore, that two men, who were _not_ of the seventy, and
far away from the tabernacle, probably in the very centre of the camp of
Israel, which I conceive Wady Mokatteb to have been, being gifted with a
spirit of prophecy, seemed so astounding and unprecedented in the
history of Israel's wanderings, that the inspired writer is induced to
make a particular note of the few circumstances connected with that
extraordinary event.

The above is a _fair_, _sound_, and _well-digested_ view of the passage
in question. Adding to it the stubborn fact--which _Dr. Todd_
ignores--that where the ancient maps have Kibroth Hattavah, the modern
maps have Wady Mokatteb, the conclusion is inevitable that _Wady
Mokatteb is mentioned in Num. xi. 26_.

    MOSES MARGOLIOUTH.


Replies to Minor Queries.

"_Theophania_" (Vol. i., p. 174.).--An inquiry is made by your
correspondent as to the author of this romance, printed in 4to. in 1655,
to which no answer has yet been returned. In my copy, under "By an
English Person of Quality," in the title-page, is written, in a
contemporary handwriting, "Sr. W. Sales." In the same handwriting is a
MS. key, annexed to the book, to all the names. This is too long to copy
here, but if your correspondent wishes for a transcript I shall be
happy to supply him with one.

    JAS. CROSSLEY.

_Royal Library_ (Vol. iv., p. 446.).--I cannot let GRIFFIN'S observation
on my contradiction of the fable about an intended sale of the library
to Russia pass unanswered, as it might seem as if I acquiesced in his
criticism, and so leave a doubt on the point. He asks, "Must the story
be false because the Princess de Lieven never heard of it? that is, must
a whole story be untrue if a part of it is?" To which I answer, Yes,
when the part refuted is the sole evidence for the rest. The story of
the sale to Russia stood on the _sole_ alleged evidence of the Princess
de Lieven. I had myself good reason to believe that the story was false,
but I delayed contradicting it on general grounds, till I had obtained
the direct testimony of the Princess that she had not only not said or
done what had been imputed to her, but that she had _never before heard
of any such proposition_. Those who know anything of the _English Court_
and _Russian Embassy_ of those days, will acknowledge that this is also
a complete refutation of GRIFFIN'S new, but still more vague, version,
that _perhaps_ it was "the _Russian ambassador, or some distinguished
Russian_," that was engaged in the matter. I believe that I know as much
about it as any one now alive, and though I cannot trust my memory to
state all the details, I can venture to assert that I never heard of any
_Russian_ proposition, and that I am confident that there never was one.

    C.

_Reichenbach's Ghosts_ (Vol. iv., p. 5.).--DR. MAITLAND asked what
"thousands of ghost-stories" Reichenbach thought he had disproved.
Certainly those by which it is said "the spirits of the departed wander
over their graves" (Ashburner's _Reichenbach_, p. 177.). He shows that
superstition to be popular in Germany. The weakness of the Baron's
_tirade_ (a bad style, in which he rarely indulges,) lies in this, that
the best class of ghosts is an entirely different class. So that
enlightenment and freedom, superstition and ignorance, have not yet
wound up their accounts. See Gregory's _Letters to a Candid Enquirer_,
p. 277., where enlightenment and freedom get a slap on the face. He
maintains that even grave-lights (probably) humaniform apparitions; and
that all other ghost-stories, not connected with the place of interment,
equally belong to bi-od or animal magnetism.

    A. N.

_Marriage Tithe in Wales_ (Vol. v., p. 29.).--It is well known to your
readers that the whole of the tithes in England and Wales have recently
been commuted for rent-charges; and the present writer can confidently
affirm that, throughout the commutation, no tithe of marriage goods has
been admitted to be valid, nor does he believe that any such tithe has
been claimed. Tithes in Wales have not differed in any material respect
from those payable in England: an excessive subdivision of ownership
being the only circumstance which is remarkable in regard to them. As
each article of titheable produce is capable of becoming a separate
property, and this property may again become divided amongst an
indefinite number of owners, the complexity occasioned by such minute
interests may be imagined. The bee, for instance, produces three
distinct titheable articles,--honey, wax, and swarms,--and a case
actually occurred in Wales, in which the honey belonged to one class of
owners, and the wax and swarms to another class, one of the classes
owning in undivided eighty-eighth parts. There have also been some
curious cases of modus in Wales, of which the following may be taken as
a specimen:--In a parish on the sea-coast in Pembrokeshire, an estate
was exempt from tithes by a modus of a cup of ale and an egg, rendered
by way of refreshment to the parson, whenever, in consequence of the
state of the tide, he was compelled to pass the house of the landowner
on his way to perform divine service in the parish church.

    H. P.

_Paul Hoste_ (Vol. iv., p. 474.).--I would recommend your correspondent
ÆGROTUS to examine the new edition of P. Paul Hoste's _Treatise on Naval
Tactics, translated with Notes and Illustrations_, by Captain J.
Donaldson Boswall, a 4to. vol. published in 1834, when, I have no doubt,
he will there find the information he is in quest of.

    T. G. S.

  Edinburgh.

_John of Halifax_ (Vol. iii., p. 389.; Vol. v., p. 42.).--Since every
country has its _Holywood_, and _de Sacrobosco_ does not distinguish
Holy_wood_ from Hali_fax_, John of Halifax has been claimed both by
Ireland and Scotland, and, if I remember right, by some foreign
countries. The manuscripts of his works, as well as the earlier printed
editions, call him _Anglus_ or _Anglicus_; and he lived in a time at
which the natives of the three countries were as distinct as Frenchmen,
Spaniards, and Italians. Bale, quoting Leland, calls him Halifax; as
does Tanner: Pits gives his birth to Halifax. He was buried in the
Maturin convent at Paris, where his epitaph existed in the sixteenth
century. Pits implies that it appears from the epitaph that he died in
1256: Mæstlinus expressly affirms that it can be collected from the
epitaph, in the _Ad Lectorem_ of his _Epitome Astronomiæ_. All the
authorities believe him to be English; and Leland thought he traced him
as a student at Oxford. But had the manuscripts called him anything but
English, the other evidence would not have weighed them down; for there
are plenty of Holywoods, and there was, notoriously, a press of foreign
students to Oxford in the thirteenth century. But name and residence in
England may come in aid of the manuscripts.

The statement that he died in 1244 probably arises as follows. In the
epitaph, according to Pits, are the following lines:--

      M. Christi bis C quarto deno quater anno
      De Sacrobosco discrevit tempora Ramus
      Gratia cui nomen dederat divina Johannis,

meaning that in 1244 a bough from the holy wood _discrevit tempora_.
This Pits calls an obscure reference to the time of his death, in the
same sentence in which he places that time in 1256. Very obscure indeed,
if a reference to his death in 1256 be intended. But if _discrevit
tempora_ refer, not to death, but to the matter of his celebrated work
_de anni ratione, seu ... computus Ecclesiasticus_, there is no
obscurity at all. And at the end of a Merton manuscript of this
_computus_, Tanner found the preceding lines inserted; the copyist
taking them to allude, of course, to the date of the book.

    M.

_Age of Trees_ (Vol. iv., p. 401.).--Your correspondent L. inquires
after authentic evidence respecting the age of ancient trees:

  "In the 12th vol. of Loudon's _Gardener's Magazine_, p. 588., the
  Cowthorpe Oak [standing at the extremity of the village of
  Cowthorpe, near Wetherby in Yorkshire], is said to be 'undoubtedly
  the largest tree at present known in the kingdom.'

  "Professor Burnet says, 'the Cowthorpe Oak is sixteen hundred
  years old. We may ask, how is this ascertained? From tradition, or
  calculated on botanical data? If the latter, it is possibly far
  removed from truth. The method of calculating the age of
  dicotyledonous trees, with _hollow trunks_' [and he elsewhere
  says, so large is the hollow of the Cowthorpe Oak, that it is
  reported to have had upwards of seventy persons at one time
  therein assembled], 'is by multiplying the number of rings
  comprised in a given portion of the remaining wood, by the
  proportion which half the entire diameter of the trunk bears to
  the selected portion.... It is evident, however, that this
  calculation proceeds on the assumption of two circumstances, whose
  probable variations may seriously affect the result.

  "'1st. That all the rings are of equal width.

  "'2nd. That each ring is of uniform width on both sides of the
  tree.

  "'It is known that the width of the rings diminishes with the age
  of the tree, until, at the latter part of its life, they are of
  very inconsiderable width, compared with those near the centre of
  the trunk.... Again, it is also known that the width of the rings
  differs according to season, being of course wider in those
  seasons most favourable to the action of the leaves, and the
  general processes of growth; but greatly diminished in seasons
  affected by blight, cold, or other causes of injury to the leaves.
  It also happens that the rings are often of unequal width on
  opposite sides of the trunk.... While, if the tree be so hollow as
  to have no portion of its centre remaining ... will expose the
  calculation to ... error. In reference, therefore, to the
  Cowthorpe Oak, we abandon all scientific pretension.'"

The foregoing is extracted from an account of the Cowthorpe Oak by C.
Empson, Esq., 1842: Ackerman, Strand.

    COKELY.

"_Mirabilis Liber_" (Vol. iv., p. 474.).--I have a copy of this book,
from which a "prophecy" is quoted in "N. & Q." p. 474., but the
translation there given differs from the prophecy, as given in my book.
I have therefore copied it out _at length_, and exactly as given in the
original, with all the faults of barbarous Latin and want of stops.

My book is a small 8vo. without date: the first part in Latin, and the
second in French, in Gothic characters. The colophon runs thus: "On les
vend au roy David en la rue St. Jacques."[5]

  [Footnote 5: [For a notice of the various editions of this work,
  see Brunet, _Manuel du Libraire_, _s. v._ Mirabilis, tome iii. p.
  401.--ED.]]

The "prophet" is _S. Severus_ not _S. Cæsario_.

  "PROPHETIA SANCTI SEVERI ARCHIEPISCOPI.

  "Propter incohabitationem doni tertii reviviscet scisma in
  ecclesiâ Dei tunc erunt duo sponsi unus verus alter adulter.
  Adulter vero videlicet pars diabolica quæ ecclesia appellatur erit
  tanta strages et sanguinis effusio quanta nunquam fuit ex quo
  gigantes fuerunt. Legitimus sponsus fugiet, ecce leo surget et
  aquila nigra veniens ex liguriâ et quasi fulgens eradicabit nido
  suos sexatioribus pennis et tunc incipient tribulationes et prælia
  terrena et marina et clamabitur pax et non invenietur:
  blasphemabitur nomen domini et non erit ratio in terrâ unusquisque
  opprimabitur potentiam suam. Væ tibi civitas gentium et divitiarum
  in principio. Sed gaudebis in fine. Væ tibi civitas philosophorum
  gaudeas. O terra filii Noe edificata quia prefatum habebis gaudium
  et totam dominaberis romandiolam. Væ tibi civitas philosophorum
  subdita erit. Væ tibi lombardiæ gens turres etiam gaudii tui
  dirimentur. Ecce leo magnus et gallicus obviabit aquilæ: et feriet
  caput ejus eritque bellum immensum et mors valida unus eorum
  amittet fugietque in thuciam illic reassumet vires.

  "Et Romandiolam quæ tunc caput italiæ erit in eurola civitate
  coronam accipiet ecce prælia et mortalitatis quæ non fuerunt ab
  origine mundi neque erunt usque in finem quia illic congregabuntur
  ab omni natione.

  "Unus eorum vincet et ibit in elephantem: et ibi ponet sedem
  antiquam et declarabitur quia fiet postea unus pastor in ecclesia
  Dei recipiet utramque ecclesiam cardinalium cum maximâ pace et
  prædictus sponsus de dignitate columbinarum assumetur... Tunc
  temporanee ecclesie et civitatis et dignitati columbinarum in
  romandiola dabuntur et sua operatione fiet concorditer pax et
  unitas prædictorum. Et prædictus rex diu regnabit in regno suo: et
  deponentur omnes tyranni de ecclesia Dei et sub nomine regis
  gubernabuntur omnia: et universitas sanctorum credet in eligendum
  tanquam verum sponsum et pastorem prædictum. Et non erit amplius
  scisma usque ad tempora antichristi. Et fiet passagium per
  prædictum regem et gentes armorum quas secum ducet: et tunc fiet
  quasi conversio generalis ad fidem Christi per leonem magnum et
  regem prædictum quàm qui tunc in romandiola: et semper gaudebunt
  quia erunt amici et perpetui."

    W. S.

  Denton.

_Cæsarius, &c._--No facts have yet occurred to convince me but that all
prophecies are stuff; by no means excepting those which Dr. Gregory
printed in _Blackwood for 1850_, and from which (more strange) he is
unweaned in 1851. Seeing that you have reprinted (Vol. iv., p. 471.) the
prophecy falsely ascribed to that ancient Latin father, Cæsarius
Arelatensis, I beg leave to mention that I published in the _British
Magazine for 1846_ an historical and chronological explanation of that
modern forgery, as well as of the far more ancient predictions ascribed
to Queen Basina. Thomas of Ercildoun was anterior in date to the
pseudo-Cæsarius, and borrowed the idea of _his_ French revolution from
Basina's, if, indeed, that prophecy be authentically from his pen, of
which the proofs are very slender. See it quoted in Walter Scott's
_Poet. Works_, vi. p. 236., ed. 1820.

I wish to be informed in what sense, and for what reason, Walter Scott
in the same page calls the prophecy-man Robert Fleming, "Mass Robert
Fleming."

    A. N.

_Tripos_ (Vol. iv., p. 484.).--The original _tripos_, from which the
Cambridge class lists have derived their names, was _a three-legged
stool_, on which on Ash Wednesday a Bachelor of one or two years'
standing (called therefrom the _Bachelor of the Stool_) used formerly to
take his seat, and play the part of public disputant in the quaint
proceedings which accompanied admission to the degree of B.A. In course
of time the name was transferred from the stool to him that sat on it,
and the disputant was called the _Tripos_; and thence by successive
steps it passed to the _day_ when the three-legged stool became "for the
nonce" a post of honour; then to the _lists_ published on that day,
containing the seniority of commencing B.A.s arranged according to the
pleasure of the Proctors; and ultimately it obtained the enlarged
meaning now universally recognised, according to which it stands for the
examination whether in mathematics, classics, moral or physical science,
as well as the list by which the result of that examination is made
known.

The Latin verses which do, or till very lately did, accompany the
printed lists, and which it was expected were to partake more or less of
a burlesque character, are the only existing relics of the functions of
the _Bachelor of the Stool_ (performed in 1556/7 by Abp. Whitgift), to
whom, as to the _Prævaricator_ at commencements, or the _Terræ Filius_
at Oxford, considerable license of language was allowed; a privilege
which, in spite of the exhortation of the Father (see Bedle Buck's book)
"to be witty but modest withal," was not unfrequently abused.

Those who desire further information on this subject may consult the
appendixes to Dean Peacock's admirable work _On the Statutes of the
University_, pp. ix. x. lxx.

    E. V.

"_Please the Pigs_" (Vol. v., p. 13.).--The editorial reply to my query
about the origin of this expression is very ingenious, and appears at
first sight to be very probable; and, of course, if it can be shown to
rest upon authority, it will be accounted satisfactory. But [and here
let me say, how conscious I am that it savours something of presumption
to be butting my buts against editorial sapience which has been brought
to the aid of my own confessed ignorance; yet, as that "purry furry
creature with a tail yclept a cat" may with impunity cast its feline
glances at a king, I am emboldened to hope that "a pig without a tail"
may enjoy the immunity of projecting just one porcine squint at an
editor. And so to my _but_ right boldly, though perhaps as blunderingly
as pigs are wont] the sound of the word "pyx" has suggested to my mind
another solution which, while it is much less ingenious, appears to me
to be much more probable. May not the saying be a simple corruption,
_all' allegria_, of "please the _pixies_?" This would save the metonymy,
and would also avoid what I conceive to be a more formidable difficulty
attaching to the idea of "please the _Host_"--viz., the fact that,
although I have travelled and resided not a little in Roman Catholic
countries, in France, Italy, Spain, and the Mediterranean Islands, I
never yet have heard any expression which could be supposed to involve
the idea of favour or disfavour from the Host; albeit such expressions
applying to the several persons of the blessed Trinity, and to every
saint in the calendar, are rife in every mouth.

Having no authority, however, for my conjecture, I put it in the form of
a Query, in the hope of provoking an authoritative decision.

    PORCUS.

_Basnet Family_ (Vol. iii., p. 495.; Vol. iv., p. 77.).--My attention
has been directed to the inquiries made touching this family, and I have
looked into my Manuscript Collections for such as related to the name. I
find them distinguished by me into Bassenet and Basnet, though the
latter writer on the subject identifies them as one and the same. The
classification in my books subdivides the notices I possess (as in the
instance of other pedigrees, 3000 surnames, for which I have gathered
illustrations), according to the localities where _they_ fix the name.
These references are numerous in Ireland, and far more in England;
especially in Berkshire, Gloucestershire, Hampshire, Essex,
Leicestershire, Northamptonshire, Nottinghamshire, Oxfordshire,
Shropshire, Staffordshire, and Surrey; as well as in MSS. of rare
access. These various notices would be too numerous, and, to the many,
too uninteresting, to engross your pages, or I would gladly draw them
out. Those who feel interested may receive further information on
communicating their wishes to me by letter.

    JOHN D'ALTON.

  48. Summer Hill, Dublin, New Year's Day, 1852.

_Serjeants' Rings_ (Vol. v., p. 59.).--T. P. asks if the custom of
serjeants-at-law presenting rings on taking the coif prevailed so long
back as 1670-80; and in C. W. Johnson's _Life of Sir Edward Coke_, 1845
(vol. i. p. 217.), he will find as follows:

  "On the rings given by Coke were inscribed, 'Lex est tutissima
  cassis'--the law is the safest helmet--a motto which has been
  thought very well to apply to his future fortunes.

  "This custom of giving rings is of very old standing. Chancellor
  Fortescue, who wrote about 1465, tells us that all Serjeants, at
  their appointment, 'shall give rings of gold to the value of forty
  pounds at the least; and your Chancellor well remembereth that at
  the time he received this state and degree, the rings which he
  then gave stood him in fifty pounds.' (_Laud. Leg._, c. 59.)
  Dugdale also gives an account of the Serjeants' rings in 1556.
  Some rings given in 1669 were objected to as wanting weight."

I do not know where to refer T. P. for any record of the rings; but I
think if the mottoes and names of donors could be obtained, a very
amusing paper might be furnished; the variety would be great, some, as
Coke's, alluding to the importance of law; some, as Serjeant Onslow's
"Festina lente," punning on the name, &c.

    E. N. W.

  Southwark.

  [We should be obliged by our correspondents furnishing any such
  particulars of the mottoes and donors of Serjeants' rings as they
  may meet with in their reading.]

"_Crowns have their Compass_" (Vol. iv., p. 428.).--The author of these
lines was Robert Barker, as is ascertained from a MS. in the Ashmolean
Museum, quoted in Halliwell's _Life of Shakspeare_, p. 207., where they
are entitled, "Certayne verses wrighten by Mr. Robert Barker, his
Majestis printer, under his Majestis picture." This is quite
confirmatory of, and is confirmed by, MARGARET GATTY'S communication.

    R.

  [A. GRAYAN, who refers us to Dibdin's _Ames_, vol. ii. p. 1090.,
  for the foregoing information, adds, that the last line in the MS.
  reads--

      "That knowledge makes _the_ Kinge most like his
      Maker."]

_Hell paved with the Skulls of Priests_ (Vol. iv., p. 484.).--The French
priest referred to in this Query had most probably quoted, at second or
third hand, and with rhetorical embellishment--certainly not from the
original direct--an expression of St. Chrysostom, in his third homily on
the Acts of the Apostles:

  "οὐκ οἶμαι εἶναι πολλοὺς ἐν τοῖς ἱερεῦσι τοὺς σωζομένους, ἀλλὰ πολλῷ
  πλείους τοὺς ἀπολλυμένους."

  "I know not if there be many in the priesthood who are saved, but
  I know that many more perish."

Gibbon has also quoted this passage at second hand (v. 399. note z.),
for he says:

  "Chrysostom declares his free opinion (tom. ix. hom. iii. in Act.
  Apostol. p. 29.) that the number of _bishops_ who might be saved,
  bore a very small proportion to those who would be damned."

It may be safely asserted that the above expression of Chrysostom is the
strongest against the priesthood to be found in any of the Christian
Fathers of authority in the Church.

    T. J. BUCKTON.

  Lichfield.

_Cooper's Miniature of Cromwell_ (Vol. v., p. 17.).--The writer saw a
beautiful miniature of this celebrated man by Cooper in the possession
of Monckton Milnes, Esq., M.P.

    W. A.

_King Street Theatre_ (Vol. v., p. 58.).--For the information of your
correspondent B. N., I beg to suggest the "Bristol Theatre" as the one
referred to on the _silver_ ticket of admission; it having been situated
in King Street in that city long before the days of Garrick, and there
it now stands. And although _silver_ is still the medium of admission to
it, silver _counters_ have ceased to exist in connexion with it. In its
palmy days I doubt not it possessed such luxuries, it having been
considered one of the best schools for actors out of London.

    J. H.

_Groom, Meaning of_ (Vol. v., p. 57.).--_Guma_ in Anglo-Saxon, and the
_Codex Argenteus_, means simply man. Horne Tooke derives bridegroom from
it.

  "Consider groom of the chambers, groom-porter."--_Nares._

Herd grooms, in Spenser's _Pastorals_, and a passage in Massinger:
Gifford, vol. iii. p. 435.

Grome is quoted by Halliwell, as meaning a man. Also _gome_, which he
says lasted till the civil wars.

    C. B.

_Schola Cordis_ (Vol. iv., p. 404.).--MARICONDA asks for Mr. Tegg's
authority for attributing the _Schola Cordis_ to Quarles in his edition
of 1845.

The following extract from a very interesting and characteristic note,
dated November 24, 1845, that I received from Mr. Tegg in reply to my
query of a similar description, will afford the information:--

  "Quarles' works were originally printed for me by Mr. Whittingham
  of Chiswick, who, with my approbation, engaged the Rev. Mr.
  Singer to edit the works. It was from this edition I printed my
  books," [_i.e._ the edition of 1845.]

To show the energy of the publisher, and in justice to all the parties
concerned, I may add, that four days later he wrote me word, that he
"had begun to make inquiry and collate the various editions of Quarles"
with his own; and adds, "I have the great satisfaction of saying that my
editor has not omitted any article, however trivial, that was inserted
in the original editions." He afterwards says that he has "seen
seventeen" editions; and concludes by remarking, "that I consider no
time or money lost when in pursuit of truth."

Will you allow me to suggest that few of your readers would regret to
see some of your pages occupied with a correct bibliographical account
of the various productions of both Quarles and Withers.

    MATERRE.

_Greek Names of Fishes_ (Vol. iv. p. 501.).--The ὀρφὸς may
perhaps be recognised by the zoologist from the following
characteristics given by Aristotle in his history of animals:

  "1. It is of speedy growth (b. v. c. 9.). 2. Keeps close in shore
  (b. viii. c. 13.). 3. Burrows in holes, as the lamprey and conger
  (b. viii. c. 15.). 4. Lives only on animal food like other
  cartilaginous fishes (b. viii. c. 2.)."

It is therefore of Cuvier's series, _chondropterigii_, of which the
sturgeon is _facile princeps_.

The μέμβρας is classed by Aristotle (b. vi. c. 15.) under the
general term ἀφύη, which appears to correspond well with
Cuvier's genus _clupea_ (including the herring, pilchard, sprat,
white-bait, &c), and was taken, Aristotle says, all the year, except
from autumn to spring, which corresponds with the migrations of this
genus; the shad coming in May and departing in July, the anchovy
appearing from May to July, the pilchard in July, the herring in October
and beginning of November, and the sprat in November. The ἀφύη,
he also says, were salted for keeping. The μέμβρας was
obtained in the Phaleric harbour (b. vi. c. 15.), close to the marsh and
street of the same name at Athens.[6] Aristotle also represents the
τρίχιαι as coming from the τρίχιδες, and the latter
from the μεμβράδες; hence it is to be inferred that the
fishermen called this fish at different stages of its growth by
different names, in mistake. The τρίχιδες appear also to have
been as abundant at Athens as sprats are with us, the latter selling
sometimes at sixpence the bushel, and being used for manure, whilst
Aristophanes mentions the price of five farthings (one _obolus_) the
hundred of τρίχιδες (_Knights_, 662.). The ἀφύη was
obtained from the Attic shores of Salamine and Marathon (_Aristot. H.
A._ b. vi. c. 15.), and the supply was stopped or much diminished by war
(_Knights_, 644.). The ὀρφὸς was a more valuable fish than the
μέμβρας, as the refusing the latter and buying the former
furnished the next stallman with the opportunity of insinuating that the
purchaser was forgetful of liberty, equality, &c. (_Wasps_, 494.;
_Knights_, 851.). Theodore Gaza, the Latin translator of Aristotle's
_History of Animals_, renders ὀρφὸς by _cernua_. Amongst his
various banquets, Homer never mentions _fish_, afterwards admitted as a
delicacy of the costliest kind at Grecian and Roman feasts.

  [Footnote 6: Not from a fish called _Phalerica_, as stated in
  Scapula's lexicon.]

    T. J. BUCKTON.

  Lichfield.

_Dutch Commentary on Pope_ (Vol. v., p. 27.).--The passage in Pope has
nothing to do with ducks and drakes.

  "Verbum quo utitur Popius, monstrat, cogitâsse eum de quodam quod
  cadit, non quod jacitur. Sed neque est _lapis_. Cur de Hollandico
  loquitur? quia ut puto, latrinæ in Hollandiâ peditæ sunt aliquando
  super aquam, ibi abundantem, _circuli_ sunt ii, quos omne quod
  cadit in aquam, naturâ facit."

There is the same idea, as Warburton observes, in the _Essay on Man_,
ep. iv. 364.

    C. B.

_Sir William Hankford_ (Vol. v., p. 43.).--I see that MR. FOSS (_Judges
of England_, vol. iv. p. 325.) disbelieves the story of the suicide of
Sir William Hankford, as told by Prince in his _Worthies of Devon_,
because there was then nothing in the political horizon to justify the
"direful apprehension of dangerous approaching evils," assigned by
Prince as the judge's inducement for wishing to die. His death, however
it occurred, happened in 1422.

MR. FOSS'S doubts seem in some measure to be warranted by the fact that
Holinshed places the incident about half a century later, in 1470 or
1471; and he thinks it more probable (_Ibid._ p. 427.) that the suicidal
story may apply to Sir Robert Danby, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas,
because that judge disappeared in the latter year; and the circumstances
of the time were really such as were likely to excite the fears
described as the cause of the catastrophe. Sir Robert Danby, who had
been a judge of the Common Pleas under Henry VI., was made chief justice
of that court by Edward IV. in 1461, the first year of that king's
reign. On the restoration of Henry VI. in 1470, he was continued in his
office, and the sudden return of Edward IV. in the following year might
occasion an apprehension in a weak mind sufficiently strong to lead to
the tragical result. Certain it is that a new chief justice, Sir Thomas
Brian, was then appointed, and nothing more is told of Sir Robert Danby.

The Hankford's Oak at Annery, the remains of which were seen by Prince,
was as likely to have received its name from its having been planted by
Hankford, as from its being the spot where he died.

Perhaps some correspondents may be able to throw more light on the
transaction, and assist in deciding which is the correct version.

    R. S. V. P.

_Abigail_ (Vol. iv., p. 424.; Vol. v., p. 38.).--We are told in No. 115.
that Abigail was a _handmaid_. The Bible, however, tells us, that she
was the _wife_ of Nabal, a rich man, as I pointed out in a letter which
has not been printed. Speaking to David, no doubt, she repeatedly uses
the common phrase in the Bible, "thine handmaid," which would equally
prove that the Virgin Mary was a servant.

    C. B.

_Moravian Hymns_ (Vol. iv., p. 502.; Vol. v., pp. 30. 63.).--With regard
to Moravian hymns, it would be very valuable to know whether the little
book by Rimius, London, 1753, is really honest, which contains such
shocking and inconceivable extracts from them. It is a translation from
a Dutch book by Stinstra.

    C. B.



Miscellaneous.


NOTES ON BOOKS, SALES, CATALOGUES, ETC.

When we consider the popularity attached to the illustrious name of
Humboldt, and the great interest excited by the publication of his
travels, we scarcely think Mr. Bohn is doing himself justice by
including the _Personal Narrative of Travels in the Equinoctial Region
of America during the Years_ 1799-1804, _by Alexander von Humboldt and
Aimé Bonpland_; _written in French by Alexander von Humboldt: translated
and edited by Thomasina Ross_, of which the first volume is now before
us, in his _Scientific Library_. His doing so will have a tendency to
discourage its perusal by many readers who, having no claim to be
considered scientific, will be deterred from opening the pages of a book
which, had they met with it in the _Standard Library_, they would have
read and re-read with all the interest which Humboldt's power of
contemplating nature in all her grandeur and variety, and of recording
the impressions produced by such contemplations, can never fail to
excite. We hope this brief notice may be the means of recommending this
valuable work to the general reader; to the scientific one it has been
so long known, as to render any such recommendation not at all
necessary.

We spoke so favourably of _The Woman's Journey round the World_, when
noticing the translation of it issued by Messrs. Longman in their
_Traveller's Library_, that we have now only to record the appearance of
another translation in the _Illustrated National Library_, which differs
from the former in being given in an unabridged form; and accompanied by
some dozen clever illustrations.


BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES

WANTED TO PURCHASE.

GIBBON'S DECLINE AND FALL. Vol. II. Dublin. Luke White. 1789.

ELSLEY ON THE GOSPEL AND ACTS. London, 1833. Vol. I.

ARISTOPHANES, Bekker. London, 1829. In 2 vols. Vol. II.

SPENSER'S WORKS. Pickering's edition, 1839. Sm. 8vo. Vol. V.

WHARTON'S ANGLIA SACRA. Fol. Vol. II.

LYDGATE'S BOKE OF TROGE. 4to. 1555. (Any fragment.)

COLERIDGE'S TABLE TALK. Vol. I. Murray. 1835.

THE BARBERS (a poem), by W. Hutton. 8vo. 1793. (Original edition, not
the fac-simile.)

THE DOCTRINE AND PRACTICE OF THE CHURCH OF ROME TRULY REPRESENTED, by
Edw. Stillingfleet, Bishop of Worcester, edited by William Cunningham,
Min. Edinburgh.

A CATECHISM TRULY REPRESENTING THE DOCTRINES AND PRACTICES OF THE CHURCH
OF ROME, with an Answer to them, by John Williams, M.A.

THE SALE CATALOGUE OF J. T. BROCKETT'S LIBRARY OF BRITISH AND FOREIGN
HISTORY, &C. 1823.

DODD'S CERTAMEN UTRIUSQUE ECCLESIÆ; OR A LIST OF ALL THE EMINENT
WRITERS, CATHOLICS AND PROTESTANTS, SINCE THE REFORMATION. 1724.

DODD'S APOLOGY FOR THE CHURCH HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 1742. 12mo.

SPECIMENS FOR AMENDMENTS FOR DODD'S CHURCH HISTORY, 1741. 12mo.

JOURNAL OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF DUBLIN. Vol. I. Part I. (Several
Copies are wanting, and it is believed that many are lying in London or
Dublin.)

CH. THILLON (DE HALLE) NOUVELLE COLLECTION DES APOCRYPHES. Leipsic,
1832.

THEOBALD'S SHAKSPEARE RESTORED, ETC. 4to. 1726.

A SERMON preached at Fulham in 1810 by the REV. JOHN OWEN of Paglesham,
on the death of Mrs. Prowse, Wicken Park, Northamptonshire (Hatchard).

FÜSSLEIN, JOH. CONRAD, BEYTRÄGE ZUR ERLÄUTERUNG DER
KIRCHEN-REFORMATIONS-GESCHICHTE DES SCHWEITZERLANDES. 5 Vols. Zurich,
1741.

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Notices to Correspondents.

C. & J. S., _who inquire respecting the phrase_ "At Sixes and Sevens,"
_are referred to our_ 3rd Vol. pp. 118. 425.

J. E. S. _will find the line_:

  "When Greeks joined Greeks then was the tug of war,"

_in Nat. Lee's_ Alexander the Great.

W. S. S. _We are obliged by our correspondent's offer respecting the_
Liber Festivalis, _which we are only deterred from accepting from the
fear that want of room may prevent our using his notes._

_The title of the Rev. J. Robertson's book, referred to in our answer
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HANDBOOK TO THE BRITISH MUSEUM.

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  THE ANTIQUITIES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM. Being a Description of the
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  HALLAM'S VIEW of the STATE of EUROPE during the MIDDLE AGES. Ninth
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Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, January 24. 1852.



[Transcriber's Note: List of volumes and content pages in "Notes and
Queries", Vol. I.-V.]

      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. I.                                   |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.     | Date, Year        | Pages     | PG # xxxxx  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  1 | November  3, 1849 |   1 -  17 | PG #  8603  |
      | Vol. I No.  2 | November 10, 1849 |  18 -  32 | PG # 11265  |
      | Vol. I No.  3 | November 17, 1849 |  33 -  46 | PG # 11577  |
      | Vol. I No.  4 | November 24, 1849 |  49 -  63 | PG # 13513  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  5 | December  1, 1849 |  65 -  80 | PG # 11636  |
      | Vol. I No.  6 | December  8, 1849 |  81 -  95 | PG # 13550  |
      | Vol. I No.  7 | December 15, 1849 |  97 - 112 | PG # 11651  |
      | Vol. I No.  8 | December 22, 1849 | 113 - 128 | PG # 11652  |
      | Vol. I No.  9 | December 29, 1849 | 130 - 144 | PG # 13521  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 10 | January   5, 1850 | 145 - 160 | PG #        |
      | Vol. I No. 11 | January  12, 1850 | 161 - 176 | PG # 11653  |
      | Vol. I No. 12 | January  19, 1850 | 177 - 192 | PG # 11575  |
      | Vol. I No. 13 | January  26, 1850 | 193 - 208 | PG # 11707  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 14 | February  2, 1850 | 209 - 224 | PG # 13558  |
      | Vol. I No. 15 | February  9, 1850 | 225 - 238 | PG # 11929  |
      | Vol. I No. 16 | February 16, 1850 | 241 - 256 | PG # 16193  |
      | Vol. I No. 17 | February 23, 1850 | 257 - 271 | PG # 12018  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 18 | March     2, 1850 | 273 - 288 | PG # 13544  |
      | Vol. I No. 19 | March     9, 1850 | 289 - 309 | PG # 13638  |
      | Vol. I No. 20 | March    16, 1850 | 313 - 328 | PG # 16409  |
      | Vol. I No. 21 | March    23, 1850 | 329 - 343 | PG # 11958  |
      | Vol. I No. 22 | March    30, 1850 | 345 - 359 | PG # 12198  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 23 | April     6, 1850 | 361 - 376 | PG # 12505  |
      | Vol. I No. 24 | April    13, 1850 | 377 - 392 | PG # 13925  |
      | Vol. I No. 25 | April    20, 1850 | 393 - 408 | PG # 13747  |
      | Vol. I No. 26 | April    27, 1850 | 409 - 423 | PG # 13822  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 27 | May       4, 1850 | 425 - 447 | PG # 13712  |
      | Vol. I No. 28 | May      11, 1850 | 449 - 463 | PG # 13684  |
      | Vol. I No. 29 | May      18, 1850 | 465 - 479 | PG # 15197  |
      | Vol. I No. 30 | May      25, 1850 | 481 - 495 | PG # 13713  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. II.                                  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.      | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 31 | June  1, 1850      |   1- 15 | PG # 12589  |
      | Vol. II No. 32 | June  8, 1850      |  17- 32 | PG # 15996  |
      | Vol. II No. 33 | June 15, 1850      |  33- 48 | PG # 26121  |
      | Vol. II No. 34 | June 22, 1850      |  49- 64 | PG # 22127  |
      | Vol. II No. 35 | June 29, 1850      |  65- 79 | PG # 22126  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 36 | July  6, 1850      |  81- 96 | PG # 13361  |
      | Vol. II No. 37 | July 13, 1850      |  97-112 | PG # 13729  |
      | Vol. II No. 38 | July 20, 1850      | 113-128 | PG # 13362  |
      | Vol. II No. 39 | July 27, 1850      | 129-143 | PG # 13736  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 40 | August  3, 1850    | 145-159 | PG # 13389  |
      | Vol. II No. 41 | August 10, 1850    | 161-176 | PG # 13393  |
      | Vol. II No. 42 | August 17, 1850    | 177-191 | PG # 13411  |
      | Vol. II No. 43 | August 24, 1850    | 193-207 | PG # 13406  |
      | Vol. II No. 44 | August 31, 1850    | 209-223 | PG # 13426  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 45 | September  7, 1850 | 225-240 | PG # 13427  |
      | Vol. II No. 46 | September 14, 1850 | 241-256 | PG # 13462  |
      | Vol. II No. 47 | September 21, 1850 | 257-272 | PG # 13936  |
      | Vol. II No. 48 | September 28, 1850 | 273-288 | PG # 13463  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 49 | October  5, 1850   | 289-304 | PG # 13480  |
      | Vol. II No. 50 | October 12, 1850   | 305-320 | PG # 13551  |
      | Vol. II No. 51 | October 19, 1850   | 321-351 | PG # 15232  |
      | Vol. II No. 52 | October 26, 1850   | 353-367 | PG # 22624  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 53 | November  2, 1850  | 369-383 | PG # 13540  |
      | Vol. II No. 54 | November  9, 1850  | 385-399 | PG # 22138  |
      | Vol. II No. 55 | November 16, 1850  | 401-415 | PG # 15216  |
      | Vol. II No. 56 | November 23, 1850  | 417-431 | PG # 15354  |
      | Vol. II No. 57 | November 30, 1850  | 433-454 | PG # 15405  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 58 | December  7, 1850  | 457-470 | PG # 21503  |
      | Vol. II No. 59 | December 14, 1850  | 473-486 | PG # 15427  |
      | Vol. II No. 60 | December 21, 1850  | 489-502 | PG # 24803  |
      | Vol. II No. 61 | December 28, 1850  | 505-524 | PG # 16404  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. III.                                 |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 62 | January  4, 1851  |   1- 15 | PG # 15638  |
      | Vol. III No. 63 | January 11, 1851  |  17- 31 | PG # 15639  |
      | Vol. III No. 64 | January 18, 1851  |  33- 47 | PG # 15640  |
      | Vol. III No. 65 | January 25, 1851  |  49- 78 | PG # 15641  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 66 | February  1, 1851 |  81- 95 | PG # 22339  |
      | Vol. III No. 67 | February  8, 1851 |  97-111 | PG # 22625  |
      | Vol. III No. 68 | February 15, 1851 | 113-127 | PG # 22639  |
      | Vol. III No. 69 | February 22, 1851 | 129-159 | PG # 23027  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 70 | March  1, 1851    | 161-174 | PG # 23204  |
      | Vol. III No. 71 | March  8, 1851    | 177-200 | PG # 23205  |
      | Vol. III No. 72 | March 15, 1851    | 201-215 | PG # 23212  |
      | Vol. III No. 73 | March 22, 1851    | 217-231 | PG # 23225  |
      | Vol. III No. 74 | March 29, 1851    | 233-255 | PG # 23282  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 75 | April  5, 1851    | 257-271 | PG # 23402  |
      | Vol. III No. 76 | April 12, 1851    | 273-294 | PG # 26896  |
      | Vol. III No. 77 | April 19, 1851    | 297-311 | PG # 26897  |
      | Vol. III No. 78 | April 26, 1851    | 313-342 | PG # 26898  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 79 | May  3, 1851      | 345-359 | PG # 26899  |
      | Vol. III No. 80 | May 10, 1851      | 361-382 | PG # 32495  |
      | Vol. III No. 81 | May 17, 1851      | 385-399 | PG # 29318  |
      | Vol. III No. 82 | May 24, 1851      | 401-415 | PG # 28311  |
      | Vol. III No. 83 | May 31, 1851      | 417-440 | PG # 36835  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 84 | June  7, 1851     | 441-472 | PG # 37379  |
      | Vol. III No. 85 | June 14, 1851     | 473-488 | PG # 37403  |
      | Vol. III No. 86 | June 21, 1851     | 489-511 | PG # 37496  |
      | Vol. III No. 87 | June 28, 1851     | 513-528 | PG # 37516  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. IV.                                  |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No.  88 | July  5, 1851      |   1- 15 | PG # 37548 |
      | Vol. IV No.  89 | July 12, 1851      |  17- 31 | PG # 37568 |
      | Vol. IV No.  90 | July 19, 1851      |  33- 47 | PG # 37593 |
      | Vol. IV No.  91 | July 26, 1851      |  49- 79 | PG # 37778 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No.  92 | August  2, 1851    |  81- 94 | PG # 38324 |
      | Vol. IV No.  93 | August  9, 1851    |  97-112 | PG # 38337 |
      | Vol. IV No.  94 | August 16, 1851    | 113-127 | PG # 38350 |
      | Vol. IV No.  95 | August 23, 1851    | 129-144 | PG # 38386 |
      | Vol. IV No.  96 | August 30, 1851    | 145-167 | PG # 38405 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No.  97 | Sept.  6, 1851     | 169-183 | PG # 38433 |
      | Vol. IV No.  98 | Sept. 13, 1851     | 185-200 | PG # 38491 |
      | Vol. IV No.  99 | Sept. 20, 1851     | 201-216 | PG # 38574 |
      | Vol. IV No. 100 | Sept. 27, 1851     | 217-246 | PG # 38656 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 101 | Oct.  4, 1851      | 249-264 | PG # 38701 |
      | Vol. IV No. 102 | Oct. 11, 1851      | 265-287 | PG # 38773 |
      | Vol. IV No. 103 | Oct. 18, 1851      | 289-303 | PG # 38864 |
      | Vol. IV No. 104 | Oct. 25, 1851      | 305-333 | PG # 38926 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 105 | Nov.  1, 1851      | 337-358 | PG # 39076 |
      | Vol. IV No. 106 | Nov.  8, 1851      | 361-374 | PG # 39091 |
      | Vol. IV No. 107 | Nov. 15, 1851      | 377-396 | PG # 39135 |
      | Vol. IV No. 108 | Nov. 22, 1851      | 401-414 | PG # 39197 |
      | Vol. IV No. 109 | Nov. 29, 1851      | 417-430 | PG # 39233 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 110 | Dec.  6, 1851      | 433-460 | PG # 39338 |
      | Vol. IV No. 111 | Dec. 13, 1851      | 465-478 | PG # 39393 |
      | Vol. IV No. 112 | Dec. 20, 1851      | 481-494 | PG # 39438 |
      | Vol. IV No. 113 | Dec. 27, 1851      | 497-510 | PG # 39503 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. V.                                   |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         |  Pages  | PG # xxxxx |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. V  No. 114 | January  3, 1852   |   1-18  | PG # 40171 |
      | Vol. V  No. 115 | January 10, 1852   |  25-45  | PG # 40582 |
      | Vol. V  No. 116 | January 17, 1852   |  49-70  | PG # 40642 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol I. Index. [Nov. 1849-May 1850]             | PG # 13536 |
      | INDEX TO THE SECOND VOLUME. MAY-DEC., 1850     | PG # 13571 |
      | INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. JAN.-JUNE, 1851     | PG # 26770 |
      | INDEX TO THE FOURTH VOLUME. JULY-DEC., 1851    | PG # 40166 |
      +------------------------------------------------+------------+





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