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Title: Notes and Queries, Vol. V, Number 119, February 7, 1852 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. V, Number 119, February 7, 1852 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

[Transcriber's note: Original spelling variations have not been
standardized. Underscores have been used to indicate _italic_ fonts.
A list of volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries" has been added
at the end.]




"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

VOL. V.--NO. 119. SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 7. 1852.

Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition, 5_d._




      Stone-Pillar Worship still existing in Ireland, by Sir
      J. Emerson Tennent                                         121

      The Invasion of Britain                                    123

      Hermits, Ornamental and Experimental                       123

      David Mallet, his Character and Biography, by Dr. E.
      F. Rimbault                                                124

      Minor Notes:--The Hyphen--Old Books and New
      Titles--Eugene Aram--Inscription at Hardwicke
      Hall                                                       124


      Junius Queries                                             125

      What is the Derivation of "Garsecg?"                       126

      Minor Queries:--Commemoration of Benefactors--Pedigree
      of Richard, Earl of Chepstow--Twenty-seven
      Children--Esquires of the Martyred King--Braem's
      "Mémoires touchant le Commerce"--Newspapers--Serjeant
      Trumpeter--Lunhunter--Family of Bullen--Burnomania--Rent
      of Assize--White Livers--Welsh Names Blaen--Jesuits--"The
      right divine of Kings to govern wrong"--Valentines, when
      first introduced                                           126

      MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--The Bed of Ware--Merry
      Andrew--A Baron's Hearse--Saint Bartholomew--Moravian
      Hymns; Tabitha's Dream--Story of Ginevra--Play
      of "Pompey the Great"                                      128


      The Three Estates of the Realm                             129

      Legend of St. Kenelm; in Clent cou Bache, by S. W.
      Singer, &c.                                                131

      Isabel, Queen of the Isle of Man, by W. Sidney Gibson      132

      Long Meg of Westminster, by Dr. E. F. Rimbault             133

      The Introduction of Stops, &c.                             133

      Papers of Perjury                                          134

      Replies to Minor Queries:--Rev. Thomas Adams, D.D.--John
      Wiggan--"Poets beware!"--Traditions of Remote Periods,
      &c.--Heraldical MSS. of Sir Henry St. George Garter--Dr.
      John Ash--Inveni Portum--Goldsmith--Lords Marchers--Foreign
      Ambassadors--Church, whence derived--Cross-legged
      Effigies--Sir Walter Raleigh's Snuffbox--Epigram on
      Erasmus--General Wolfe--Ghost Stories--Epigram on
      Burnet--"Son of the Morning," &c.                          134


      Notes on Books, &c.                                        142

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted                               142

      Notices to Correspondents                                  142

      Advertisements                                             143



In a work recently published by the Earl of Roden, entitled _Progress of
the Reformation in Ireland_, there occurs a curious account of a remnant
of this ancient form of fetichism still existing in Inniskea, an island
off the coast of Mayo, with about 380 inhabitants amongst whom, he says,

  "_A stone_ carefully wrapped up in flannel is brought out at
  certain periods to be adored; and when a storm arises, this god is
  supplicated to send a wreck on their coast."--P. 51.

A correspondent in the same volume writes to Lord Roden that--

  "They all speak the Irish language, and among them is a trace of
  that government by chiefs, which in former times prevailed in
  Ireland: the present chief or king of Inniskea is an intelligent
  peasant called CAIN, whose authority is acknowledged, and the
  settlement of all disputes is referred to his decision. Though
  nominally Roman Catholics, these islanders have no priest resident
  among them; they know nothing of the tenets of that church, and
  their worship consists in occasional meetings at their chief's
  house, with visits to a holy well called _Derivla_. The absence of
  religion is supplied by the open practice of pagan idolatry. In
  the south island a stone idol called in the Irish _Neevougi_, has
  been from time immemorial religiously preserved and worshipped.
  This god resembles in appearance a thick roll of homespun flannel,
  which arises from the custom of dedicating to it a dress of that
  material whenever its aid is sought; this is sewed on by an old
  woman, its priestess. Of the early history of this idol no
  authentic information can be procured, but its power is believed
  to be immense; they pray to it in time of sickness, it is invoked
  when a storm is desired to dash some hapless ship upon their
  coast, and again it is solicited to calm the waves to admit of the
  islanders fishing or visiting the main land."--_Ib._ pp. 53, 54.

This statement, irrespective of graver reflections, is suggestive of
curious inquiry, whether this point of Ireland, on the utmost western
verge of Europe, be not the last spot in Christendom in which a trace
can now be found of stone-pillar worship?--the most ancient of all forms
of idolatry known to the records of the human race; and the most widely
extended, since at one time or another it has prevailed in every nation
of the old world, from the shores of Lapland to the confines of India;
and, I apprehend, vestiges of its former existence are to be traced on
the continent of America.

Before men discovered the use of metals, or the method of cutting rocks,
they worshipped unhewn stones; and if the authenticity of Sanchoniathon
is to be accepted, they consecrated pillars to the _fire_ and the _wind_
before they had learned to hunt, to fish, or to harden bricks in the
sun. (Sanchon. in Cory's _Ancient Fragments_, pp. 7, 8.) From _Chna_,
"the first Phoenician" as he is called by the same remote authority, the
Canaanites acquired the practice of stone-pillar worship, which
prevailed amongst them long before:

  "Jacob took the stone that he had put for his pillow, and set it
  up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it and called the
  name of the place Bethel, saying, this stone which I have set up
  for a pillar shall be _God's house_."--Gen. xxviii. 18. 22.

The Israelites were repeatedly ordered to destroy these stone idols of
the Canaanites, to overthrow their altars, and "break their pillars"
(Deut. vii. 5.; xii. 3.). And when the Jews themselves, in their
aberrations, were tempted to imitate their customs, Moses points a
sarcasm at their delusion:--

  "Where are their gods; their _rock_ in whom they trusted! How
  should one chase a thousand, and two put ten thousand to flight,
  except their _rock_ had sold them?"--_Ib._ xxxii. 30. 37.

From Jacob's consecration of his stone pillar, and the name _Bethel_
which he conferred upon it (which, in Phoenician, signified _the house
of God_), were derived the Bætylia, Βαιτύλια or Βαιτύλοι,
the black stones worshipped in Syria and Asia Minor, in
Egypt, and in Greece before the time of Cecrops, under the names of
Cybele and of Saturn, who is fabled to have swallowed one of them when
he intended to have devoured his son Jupiter. Even in the refined period
of Grecian philosophy, the common people could not divest themselves of
the influence of the ancient belief; and Theophrastus gives it as the
characteristic of the "superstitious man," that he could not resist the
impulse to bow to these mysterious stones, which served to mark the
confluence of the highways. From Asia Minor pillar worship was carried
to Italy and Gaul, and eventually extended to Germany, where the trunks
of trees occasionally became the substitute for stone. From the same
original the Arabs borrowed the Kaaba, the black stone, which is still
revered at Mecca; and the Brahmans a more repulsive form, under which
the worship now exists in Hindostan. Even in early times the reverence
of these stones took a variety of forms as they were applied to mark the
burial-place of saints and persons of distinction, to define contested
boundaries, and to commemorate great events (vide Joshua iv. 5.; xxiv.
26.); and perhaps many of the stones which have now a traditional, and
even historical celebrity in Great Britain, such as the "Lia Fail" of
Tara, the great "Stone of Scoon," on which the Scottish kings were
crowned; the "King's Stone" in Surrey, which served a similar office to
the Saxons; the "Charter Stone" of Inverness; the "Leper's Stone" of
Ayr; the "Blue Stone" of Carrick; the "Black Stone" of Iona, and others,
may have acquired their later respect from their earlier sanctity.

There appear to be few countries in the old world which do not possess
some monuments of this most remote idolatry; but there is none in which
they would seem to be so abundant as on the western extremity of Europe,
in Cornwall, and especially in the islands and promontories from the
Land's End to Caithness and the Orkneys. In the latter the worship of
stone pillars continued to so recent a period, that one is curious to
know when it actually disappeared, and whether there still exist traces
of it in any other locality, similar to that pointed out by the Earl of
Roden at Inniskea.

My own acquaintance with the subject is very imperfect; but, so far as
my recollection serves, the following references may direct attention to
interesting quarters.

Scheffer, who published his _Description of Lapland_ in 1673, states
that the practice of stone-pillar worship then existed there, and that
_Storjunkar_, one of the deities of Scandinavian mythology, was--

  "Represented by a stone. Neither do they use any art in polishing
  it; but take it as they find it upon the banks of lakes and
  rivers. In this shape they worship it as his image, and call it
  _Kied kie jubmal_, that is, _the stone god_."--Scheffer,
  _Lapponia_. Engl. London, 1751.

He adds that they select the unhewn stone, because it is in the form in
which it was shaped by the hand of the Creator himself. The incident
suggests a curious coincidence with the expressions of Isaiah (ch. lvii.
v. 6.):

  "Among the smooth stones of the stream is thy portion; they, they
  are thy lot: even to them hast thou poured a drink-offering; thou
  hast offered a meat-offering. Should I receive comfort in these?"

Joshua, too, selected the twelve stones with which he commemorated the
passage of the Jordan from the midst of the river, where the priests'
feet stood when they bore the ark across.

Martin, in his account of the Western Islands of Scotland in 1703 A.D.,
describes repeatedly the numerous pillar-stones which were then objects
of respect in the several localities. And in one instance he states that
an image which was held in veneration in one of the islands was _swathed
in flannel_,--a practice which would thus seem to have served as a
precedent for the priestess of Inniskea, as detailed by Lord Roden. In
speaking of the island of Eriska, to the north of Barra, Martin says--

  "There is a stone set up, near a mile to the south of St.
  Columbus's church, about eight foot high and two broad. It is
  called by the natives the _bowing stone_; for when the inhabitants
  had the first sight of the church, they set up this stone, and
  then bowed, and said the Lord's Prayer."--_A Description of the
  Western Islands_, p. 88.

But Borlase, who notices this passage in his _Antiquities of Cornwall_,
gives a much more learned derivation of the name. He says:

  "They call them _bowing stones_, as it seems to me, from the
  reverence shown them; for the _Even Maschith_, which the Jews were
  forbade to worship--(Leviticus xxvi. 1. '_neither shall ye set up
  any image of stone_')--signifies really a _bowing stone_, and was
  doubtless so called because worshipped by the
  Canaanites."--Borlase, _Antiquities of Cornwall_, book iii. c. 2.

I fancy the word which Martin rendered a _bowing stone_, is _cromlech_,
or _crom liagh_.

As regards the ancient monuments of stone worship in Cornwall, the most
learned and the most ample information is contained in Borlase's
_Antiquities_ of that county; but there their worship ceased, though not
till several centuries after the introduction of Christianity. Borlase

  "After Christianity took place, many continued to worship these
  stones; coming thither with lighted torches, and praying for
  safety and success: and this custom we can trace through the fifth
  and sixth centuries; and even into the seventh, as will appear
  from the prohibitions of several Councils."--Borlase, _Antiq.
  Corn._, b. iii. c. ii. p. 162.

In all parts of Ireland these stone pillars are to be found in
comparative frequency. Accounts of them will be found in _The Ancient
and Present State of the County Down_, A.D. 1744; in Wakeman's _Handbook
of Irish Antiquities_, and in various similar authorities. A writer in
the _Archæologia_ for A.D. 1800 says that many of the stone crosses
which form so interesting and beautiful a feature in Irish antiquities
were originally pagan pillar-stones, on which the cross was sculptured
subsequent to the introduction of Christianity, in order that--

  "The common people, who were not easily to be diverted from their
  superstitious reverence for these stones, might pay a kind of
  justifiable adoration to them when thus appropriated to the use of
  Christian memorials by the sign of the cross."--_Archæol._ vol.
  xiii. p. 208.

The tenacity of the Irish people to this ancient superstition is
established by the fact of its continuance to the present day in the
sequestered island of Inniskea. And it seems to me that it would be an
object of curious inquiry, if your correspondents could ascertain
whether this be the last remnant of pillar worship now remaining in
Europe; and especially whether any further trace of it is to be found in
any other portion of the British dominions.




(_Not by Julius Cæsar._)

A great many correspondents of the daily press are directing the
attention, I suppose, of the Government to what they call the
"defenceless state of Great Britain." Will you allow me, on account, as
I think, of its rarity, to submit to you the following extract from the
_Macaronéa_, par Octave Delepierre (_Gancia_, Brighton, 1852),
attributed to Porson. The lines were composed on occasion of the
projected French invasion under Napoleon.


      "_Ego nunquam audivi_ such terrible news,
      At this present _tempus_ my _sensus_ confuse;
      I'm drawn for a _miles_,--I must go _cum marte_,
      And, _concinus ense_,--engage Bonaparte.

      "Such _tempora nunquam videbant majores_,
      For then their opponents had different _mores_;
      But we will soon prove to the Corsican vaunter,
      Though Times may be changed,--Britons never _mutantur_.

      "_Mehercle!_ this Consul _non potest_ be quiet,
      His word must be _lex_, and where he says _Fiat_,
      _Quasi Deus_, he thinks we must run at his nod,
      But Britons were ne'er good at running, by ----!

      "_Per mare_, I rather am led to _opine_,
      To meet British _naves_ he would not incline;
      Lest he should _in mare profundum_ be drown'd,
      _Et cum algâ, non laurâ_, his _caput_ be crown'd.

      "But allow that this boaster in Britain could land,
      _Multis cum aliis_ at his command:
      Here are lads who will meet, aye, and properly work 'em,
      And speedily send 'em, _ni fallor, in orcum_.

      "_Nunc_, let us, _amici_, join _corda et manus_,
      And use well the _vires Dî Boni_ afford us;
      Then let nations combine, Britain never can fall,
      She's, _multum in parvo_, a match for them all."

These verses are quoted by M. Delepierre, from Stephen Collet's _Relics
of Literature_, 8vo. 1823.

    S. H.


Keeping a poet is a luxury enjoyed by many, from the Queen down to
Messrs. Moses, Hyam and Co.; but the refinement of keeping an hermit
would appear to be a more _recherché_ and less ordinary appendage of
wealth and taste.

I send you an advertisement _for_, and two actual instances of _going a
hermiting_, from my scrapbook:

  "A young man, who wishes to retire from the world and live as an
  hermit in some convenient spot in England, is willing to engage
  with any nobleman or gentleman who may be desirous of having one.
  Any letter directed to S. Lawrence (post paid) to be left at Mr.
  Otton's, No. 6. Colman's Lane, Plymouth, mentioning what gratuity
  will be given, and all other particulars, will be duly attended
  to."--_Courier_, Jan. 11th, 1810.

Can any one tell me whether this retiring young man was engaged in the
above capacity? I do not think so: for soon after an advertisement
appeared in the papers which I have reasons for thinking was by the same

  "Wants a situation in a pious regular family, in a place where the
  Gospel is preached, a young man of serious mind, who can wait at
  table and milk a cow."

The immortal Dr. Busby asks--

      "When energising objects men pursue,
      What are the prodigies they cannot do?"

Whether it is because _going a hermiting_ does not come under the
Doctor's "energising objects" I know not; but this is clear, that the
two following instances proved unsuccessful:

  "M. Hamilton, once the proprietor of Payne's Hill, near Cobham,
  Surrey, advertised for a person who was willing to become a hermit
  in that beautiful retreat of his. The conditions were, that he was
  to continue in the hermitage seven years, where he should be
  provided with a Bible, optical glasses, a mat for his bed, a
  hassock for his pillow, an hour-glass for his timepiece, water for
  his beverage, food from the house, but never to exchange a
  syllable with the servant. He was to wear a camlet robe, never to
  cut his beard or nails, nor ever to stray beyond the limits of the
  grounds. If he lived there, under all these restrictions, till the
  end of the term, he was to receive seven hundred guineas. But on
  breach of any of them, or if he quitted the place any time
  previous to that term, the whole was to be forfeited. One person
  attempted it, but a three weeks' trial cured him.

  "Mr. Powyss, of Marcham, near Preston, Lancashire, was more
  successful in this singularity: he advertised a reward of 50_l._
  a-year for life, to any man who would undertake to live seven
  years under ground, without seeing anything human: and to let his
  toe and finger nails grow, with his hair and beard, during the
  whole time. Apartments were prepared under ground, very
  commodious, with a cold bath, a chamber organ, as many books as
  the occupier pleased, and provisions served from his own table.
  Whenever the recluse wanted any convenience, he was to ring a
  bell, and it was provided for him. Singular as this residence may
  appear, an occupier offered himself, and actually staid in it,
  observing the required conditions for four years."




When an editor selects a favourite ballad for notes and illustrations,
he may be supposed, naturally, to have a sort of respect, not to say
veneration, for its author. Such is the case with the recent editor of
_Edwin and Emma_ (Dr. Dinsdale), when, in his brief biography of David
Mallet, he glosses over the vices of this man's character in the
quietest and most inoffensive manner possible. If he was a "heartless
villain" I do not see that we ought to screen him; and I think those who
may choose to look into his doings will find him full as "black" as he
is painted.

Southey, in his _Specimens of the Later English Poets_, vol. ii. p.
342., does not mince the matter. His words are these:--

  "A man of more talents than honesty, who was always ready to
  perform any dirty work for interest; to blast the character either
  of the dead or the living, and to destroy life as well as
  reputation. Mallet was 'first assassin' in the tragedy of Admiral
  Byng's murder."

In a copy of Gascoigne's _Works_, sold in Heber's sale, was the
following MS. note by George Steevens:--

  "This volume was bought for 1_l._ 13_s._ at Mr. Mallet's _alias_
  Malloch's, sale, March 14, 1776. He was the only Scotchman who
  died in my memory unlamented by an individual of his own nation."

David Malloch, or Mallet, is said to have been born about the year 1700,
at Crieff, in Perthshire, at which place his father was an innkeeper. A
search has been made in the parochial registers of Crieff, from 1692 to
1730, but his baptism is not registered.

The names of various children of Charles and Donald Malloch's in the
neighbourhood of Crieff occur, including a David, in 1712. This
obviously was not the poet; but it appears that his father "James
Malloch, and Beatrix Clark his wife," were brought before the Kirk
Session of Crieff in October and November, 1704, for profanation of the
Lord's day, "by some strangers drinking and fighting in their house on
the Sabbath immediately following Michaelmas." On the 12th of November,
"they being both rebuked for giving entertainment to such folks on the
sabbath-day, and promising never to do the like, were dismissed."

Some of Mallet's letters are printed in the _Edinburgh Magazine_, a
literary miscellany, for 1793. They contain a number of curious literary
notices, including some particulars of the writer's life not generally

Much interesting matter concerning the literary career and character of
David Mallet may also be found in the recent _Life of David Hume_ by
John Hill Burton, Esq., Advocate.


Minor Notes.

_The Hyphen._--Dr. Dobbin, lecturing some time back on physical
education in Hull, condemned the practice of tight lacing
as extremely injurious to the symmetry and health of the
female sex, and jocularly proposed the formation of an
"Anti-killing-young-women-by-a-lingering-death-Society." This was
gravely reproduced in other parts of this country and on the continent
as sober matter of fact, the Germans giving the hyphenated title thus:

    I. C.

_Old Books New Titles._--Permit me to say that it is in the power of
your London correspondents to do a real service to your country readers,
and at the same time serve the cause of _honest_ bibliopoly, by pointing
out in the pages of "N. & Q." current instances of what I beg leave to
call _the fraudulent advertisement_ of published books under a _new
title_, or one so altered as to produce the impression of _novelty_ in
the mind of a reader like myself. For example, being an admirer of _Sam
Slick's_ works--and who is not?--I purchased, on its first appearance,
his _English in America_; and seeing lately advertised, as a new work,
_Rule and Misrule of the English in America_, by the same author, I
obtained it, and found it the identical work before named, the
_title-page_ alone being altered! I mention another instance. I perceive
an advertisement of the _Letters of Gray the Poet_, published from the
original MSS. in two volumes, by the Rev. J. Mitford. Now, I should like
to know whether this is, as it is called, really a "new work," or merely
a part, or at most a revival, of Mitford's _Letters, &c. of Gray_,
published in 4 vols., 1836.

    J. H.

_Eugene Aram._--Until the year 1834, when considerable reforms took
place in the Court of Exchequer with respect to sheriffs' accounts, a
process called "the Summons of the Pipe" issued into each county,
charging the sheriff with the levy of divers old rents. In that of
Yorkshire I noticed the following entry, which I communicated to Mr.
Scatcherd. I am not aware that it has ever been published. By inserting
it you will relieve me from the necessity of preserving my "note."

  "Of the same Sheriff for the issues of waste building in
  Knaresbrough, in the said county, in the tenure of Daniel Clarke,
  of the yearly value of IIII£i and one undivided moiety or fifth
  part of the whole, to be divided into five equal parts of and in a
  certain farm called Moat House farm, situate at Wickersley in the
  said County, which consists [_here followed particulars_], in the
  occupation of Samuel Chipchase, of the yearly value of XXI£i of
  the lands and tenements of _Daniel Clarke_ aforesaid, shoemaker,
  _outlawed_ at the suit of _Philip Coates_, gentleman, in a plea of
  trespass on the case VIII£i III's and VI'cXXXVIII£i V's arrears."

"Philip Coates," says Mr. Scatcherd (_Gleanings_, p. 26.),
"attorney-at-law, a very respectable man, married Clarke's wife's
sister." It is singular that a murdered man should be outlawed after
death and that he should continue to haunt the Exchequer for near a
century afterwards. It is a complete confirmation of the statement that
Clarke was supposed to have absconded, and that no suspicion of foul
play arose at the time of his disappearance.

    W. G.

_Inscription at Hardwicke Hall._--The following inscription, from a
banqueting-room in Hardwicke Hall, Derbyshire, may be worthy of a place
by the side of those quoted by PROCURATOR (Vol. v., p. 8.):

      "Sanguine, cornu, corde, oculo, pede, cervus et aure
      Nobilis, at claro sanguine nobilior."

    H. T.



_Junius Rumours._--Some months since there was a story whispered in
certain circles, or rather two stories, which, when taken together, went
to show that this great mystery of modern times was on the eve of
solution. The first stated that the _Grenville Papers_, about to be
published by Murray, would prove the identity of Junius with the
correspondent of Woodfall under one of the signatures Atticus or Brutus,
whose letters had been already, and, as it would thereby appear, very
properly, attributed to Junius himself. The second rumour was to the
effect that an eminent bookseller, whose attention had been drawn to the
Junius question by the circumstance of his having recently published an
edition of the letters, &c., on being called in to estimate the value of
certain historical papers for some legal purposes, was startled by
discovering, in the course of his examination of them, who this Atticus
or Brutus was--and, consequently, who Junius himself was. On the
announcement of an article on Junius in the _Quarterly Review_, those
who had heard these stories expected to find in the article in question
the solution of what has been called the "great political enigma of the
eighteenth century." As this hope has not been realised, may I ask,
through the medium of "N. & Q.," whether there is any foundation for the
rumours I have referred to; and, if so, how much of truth there is in
both or either of them. Such information will be acceptable to every one
of your readers who is not satisfied with any of the THIRTY-NINE
theories on the subject which have been already propounded, and who is
therefore like myself still a


_"To Commit" in the Sense used by Junius._--On looking into Walker's
_Dictionary_, a short time since, I found the following remark, which
seems to have escaped every inquirer into the authorship of the letters
of Junius:--

  "_To_ COMMIT.--This word was _first_ used in Junius's letters in a
  sense unknown to our former English writers, namely, _to expose_,
  _to venture_, _to hazard_; this sense is borrowed from the French,
  and has been generally adopted by subsequent writers."

Can any of your readers produce an instance of the use of this word in
the sense here applied to it, _prior_ to the appearance of Junius? Such
a parallel would carry more weight with it than the countless examples
of verbal singularities with which almost every _discoverer_ of Junius
has encumbered his essay.

    D. J.

_Junius' letters to Wilkes._--Would MR. HALLAM kindly inform your
readers whether the _Junius Letters_, to which he refers in "N. & Q."
Vol. iii., p. 241., were inserted in books or not? And in the former
case, whether they were in a separate collection, or mixed with the
other correspondence of Mr. Wilkes?

    I. J. M.


This Anglo-Saxon word is used in the poetry of Beowulf and Cædmon, and
in the prose of Orosius and Bede, &c. The _â_ in _gâr_ is twice accented
in Cædmon; and Mr. Kemble has always accented it in Beowulf. In the
Lauderdale MS. of Orosius it is written _garsæcg_ and _garsecg_; and in
the Cotton MS. _garsegc_ and _garsecg_, without any accent. Grimm,
Kemble, and Ettmüller make the first past of the word to be _gâr_, a
spear, javelin, the Goth., _gairu_; Ohd., _kér_; O. Sax., _gér_; O.
Nor., _geir_: and the latter, _secg_, a soldier, man. Thus _gârsecg_
would be literally "a spear-man," homo jaculo armatus. Mr. Kemble adds,
it is "a name for _the ocean_, which is probably derived from some
ancient myth, and is now quite unintelligible." Ettmüller gives it,
"_Gârsecg, es_, m. Carex jaculorum, vel vir hastatus, _i.e._
oceanus.--Grymn's _Mythol._, p. xxvii."

Dahlmann, in his _Forschungen der Geschichte_, p. 414., divides the word
thus: _Gars-ecg_, and says, _gar_ is very expressive, and denotes "what
is enclosed," and is allied to the Ger. _garten_, a garden, like the
A.-S. _geard_, a garden, region, earth. _Ecg_, Icl. _egg_; Ger. _egge_,
_ecke_, a border, an outward part; that is, _what borders or encircles
the earth, the ocean_. What authority is there for dividing the word
into _gars-ecg_, and for the meaning he gives to _gar_?

Barrington, in his edition of _Orosius_, p. xxiii., gives "M. H. The
Patton MS." among the transcripts. I cannot find any Hatton MS. of
_Orosius_. Can he refer to the transcript of Junius?


Minor Queries.

_Commemoration of Benefactors._--I shall be glad to learn by what
authority an office for the Commemoration of Founders and Benefactors is
used in our college chapels, since this office in not found in our Book
of Common Prayer. And, farther, whether the office is the same in all
places, _mutatis mutandis_. In my own college (Queen's, Cambridge), the
order of service was as follows:--The Lesson, Ecclus. xliv. (read by a
scholar): the sermon: the list of foundresses and benefactors: Te Deum
laudamus: proper Psalms, viz. cxlviii., cxlix., cl.: the following
versicles and responses:

      "_V._ The memory of the righteous shall remain for evermore.
      _R._ And shall not be afraid of any evil report.
      _V._ The Lord be with you.
      _R._ And with thy spirit."

Then followed an appropriate collect, introduced by the words "Let us
pray;" and the office was concluded by the Benediction.


_Pedigree of Richard, Earl of Chepstow._--At a recent meeting of the
Kilkenny Archæological Society, there was exhibited, by permission of
the Marquis of Ormonde, an original charter, under seal, of Richard,
Earl of Chepstow, surnamed Strongbow, whereby he granted certain lands
in his newly acquired territory of Leinster, to Adam de Hereford. The
charter, which is beautifully and clearly written on a small piece of
vellum, commences thus:

   "Comes Ric' fil' com' Ric' Gisleb'ti omnibus amicis suis," &c.

As the usually given pedigrees (see Sir R. Colt Hoare's _Tour in
Ireland_, Introd. p. lxxv.) make Richard Strongbow the son of Gilbert,
the second son, and not Richard, the eldest son, of Gilbert de Tonbrige;
query, Are we to supply "fil'" before "Gisleberti" in the charter, or
are we to suppose that the second "Ric'" is a slip of the pen,--a thing,
however, not likely to occur in a legal deed of so important a nature.



_Twenty-seven Children._--In Colonel James Turner's defence (_English
Causes Célèbres_, vol. i. p. 111.) he says, speaking of his wife, who
was then also on trial for her life:

   "She sat down, being somewhat fat and weary, poor heart! I have
   had twenty-seven children by her; fifteen sons and twelve

Is there any well authenticated instance of woman having had more than
twenty-five children?

    E. D.

_Esquires of the Martyred King._--In the Smith MSS. in the Bodleian
Library, there are copies of certain petitions addressed to King Charles
II., relating to a proposed Order of Esquires of the Martyred King.
These forms of petition appear to have been derived _ex MSS. Asm._ 837.

Where is a full account of these proceedings to be found in print?

    J. SANSOM.

_Braem's "Mémoires touchant le Commerce."_--Having lately seen a MS., of
which I subjoin the title, and not being able to discover any further
account of the writer of it than what is briefly given in the volume
itself, I submit my wish to know something more about the author, and
his, perhaps, still inedited work, to you and to your numerous readers,
both in England and in Holland (where you have an able imitator), in the
hope of gaining some further information about him. The MS. is a
foolscap folio, containing about 340 pages, written in a bold, open
hand, and bears the following title: _Mémoires touchant le Commerce que
les Provinces Unies des Pays-Bas font dans les divers Endroits du
Monde_. At page 306. this part of the MS. ends, and is signed by "Daniel
Braems," who says of himself, that he left the Dutch possessions in the
East Indies in 1686, and made his Report to the States-General of what
he had seen, and delivered in a written copy. Mr. Braems says farther,
that he was "dernièrement Teneur-Général des Livres à Batavie, et a
ramené en qualité de Commandeur la dernière Flotte des Indes en ce
pays;" and that his Report, as regards East India affairs, was made
"touchant la constitution des affaires dans les Indes Orientales, ainsi
qu'elle estoit lorsque la ditte flotte est partie de Batavie," and was
delivered in May 26, 1688. The remaining pages of the MS. are taken up
with a detailed account of the ecclesiastical and civil revenues of
France for 1692, and also the "estat des affaires extraordinaires" for
the years 1689, 1690, 1691, 1692.

    J. M.

_Newspapers._--Can any of your readers obligingly inform me when _The
Suffolk Mercury or St. Edmund's Bury Post_ commenced? The earliest
number I have seen is that of "Monday, Feb. 3, 1717, to be continued
weekly, No. 43. Price Three Half-pence." The next is that of "Monday,
May 2, 1726, Vol. xvi., No. 52." And the latest that of "Monday, October
4, 1731, Vol. xxii., No. 40." When did it cease? Were there any other
papers before 1782 printed in Bury; or including the name of that town
in its title?


_Serjeant Trumpeter._--What are the privileges of persons holding this


_Lunhunter._--What is the etymology of this surname; or rather, what is
a _lun_? We have the analogous names Wolfhunter and Todhunter (_i.e._ a
hunter of foxes). I am not satisfied with the origin assigned to this
designation in my _English Surnames_. Is there any beast of prey, or of
the chase, bearing the provincial name of _lun_?


_Family of Bullen._--Could any of your readers inform me what branch of
the Bullen family it was that emigrated to Ireland in the fifteenth or
sixteenth century, and settled at Kinsale in the county of Cork? Their
genealogical history I find it difficult, almost impossible, to
discover. It is thought that the first of the family who settled in
Ireland was nearly allied to the lovely but unfortunate queen of Henry
VIII.; and the family consequently claim kindred with our famous Queen
Elizabeth, though they seem unable to trace their pedigree so as to
prove it. The present representative of this old family resides at Bally
Thomas, in the neighbourhood of Mallow; but, singular to say, though
proud of his name and race, can give no correct history of his pedigree;
in fact, nothing more than a traditionary account of it. I find, in
turning over the pages of Burke's _Landed Gentry_, the following note
appended to the pedigree of the Glovers of Mount Glover:

  "This Abigail Bullen was daughter of Robert Bullen, of Kinsale,
  descended from the Bullen family, who came and settled in Ireland
  in the reign of Elizabeth, and who are stated to have been not
  remotely related to that queen."

Any information connected with this family I am most anxious to obtain.

    E. A. G.


_Burnomania._--I should be glad if any of your correspondents could
favour me with the name of the author of this work: it is entitled
_Burnomania, or the Celebrity of Robert Burns considered_, Edinburgh,
1811, 12mo., pp. 103. In his advertisement to the reader, the author

  "Who is the author? Is he a poor man? Is he employed by the
  booksellers? Is he a young student? Does he write for fame? For
  gain? Does he wish to irritate, to offend, to indulge in a
  sarcastic humour? To all these questions, the answer is 'No.'"


_Rent of Assize._--Can you or any of your correspondents explain certain
difficulties I find in a schedule of the revenues of the bishopric of
Winton, sent by Thomas Cooper, the Bishop of Winton, 1587, to the Lord
Treasurer: Strype's _Annals_, vol. iii. part 2. p. 263. Oxon, 1824?

In the first place, there appears to be some misprint, as "the whole
charge or value" is put at 3114_l._ 0_s._ 5_d._, and "ordinary reprizes
and allowances deducted" 3389_l._ 0_s._ 11_d._, and then "remain of rent
of assize of the same bishopric" 2773_l._ 10_s._ 6_d._, which appears
afterwards to be a misprint for 2775_l._, &c. What is "rent of assize?"
is it the _assessment_ of the bishopric for dues, rates, &c.? Also what
is the meaning of "ob. q.," which is added after certain items?

Lastly, what is to be understood by the item "For ingrossing the great
pipe," &c.? I should be much obliged by any explanation of these

    H. C. K.

  ---- Rectory, Hereford.

_White Livers._--Can any correspondent give some information as to the
popular superstition of _white livers_, or refer to any author that
alludes to it in any way. In a recent account of poisonings in France,
by a woman Named Helène Jagado, it is stated that though for a long
time she was not suspected to be an actual murderess, yet "the frequency
of deaths in the families by whom she was engaged excited a suspicion
among the peasantry that there was something in her nature fatal to
those who were near her; and they said that _her liver was white_, it
being believed, in that part of France, that persons who are dangerous
have _white livers_." In the midland counties there is a similar saying
among the lower classes, and I have heard it said of an individual who
had married and lost several wives by death, that he had a white liver.
A young woman once told me that she had been advised not to marry a
certain suitor, because he had a white liver, and she would be dead
within a year. "White-livered rascal" is a common term of reproach in
Gloucestershire. What is the origin and explanation of the supposed
_white liver_?



_Welsh Names Blaen._--Can any of your correspondents tell the meaning of
the word _Blaen_, which occurs so frequently in the names of places in
Pembrokeshire, and perhaps other parts of Wales? Thus, there is
_Blaen-awen_, near Monington; _Blaen-argy_, _Blaen-pant_, and
_Blaen-hafren_, to the south of Hantwood; _Blaen-yr-angell_;
_Blaen-y-foss_ and _Blaen-nefern_ near Penrydd; _Blaen-dyffryn_; and a
great many more. It seems generally to be applied to farms.


_Jesuits._--Can you give one any clue to the following line:

      "Haud cum Jesu itis qui itis cum Jesuitis?"

A similar play on words was made a few years ago by an Italian professor
in the university of Pisa. A large number of Jesuits made their
appearance one day in his lecture room, as they believed that he was
about to assail some favourite dogma of theirs. He commenced his lecture
with the following words--

      "Quanti Gesuiti sono all' inferno!"

When remonstrated with, he said that his words were

      "Quanti--Gesu!--iti sono all' inferno!"

    L. H. J. T.

"_The right divine of Kings to govern wrong._"--Can any of your
correspondents inform me the origin of the line "The right divine of
kings to govern wrong?" It is in the _Dunciad_, book iv., placed in
inverted commas. Is it there used as a quotation? and, if so, whence is
it taken, or was Pope the original author of the lines?


  [Our correspondent is clearly not aware that this line has already
  been the subject of much discussion in our columns. (See Vol.
  iii., p. 494.; Vol. iv., pp. 125. 160.) But as the Query has not
  yet been solved, and many curious points may depend upon its
  solution, we avail ourselves of SARPEDON's inquiry to bring the
  matter again under the consideration of our readers.]

_Valentines, when first introduced._--The quantity and variety of
Valentines which now occupy our stationers' windows suggest the Query as
to their first introduction; whether originally so ornamental, and if by
hand; when they first became printed, and what early specimens exist?


Minor Queries Answered.

_The Bed of Ware._--In Shakspeare's comedy of _Twelfth Night_, the
following words are used by Sir Toby, Act III. Sc. 2.:

  "... Although the sheet were big enough for the Bed of Ware in

Query: What is the history of Bed of Ware?


  [Nares, in his _Glossary_, says, "This curious piece of furniture
  is said to be still in being, and visible at the Crown or at the
  Bull in Ware. It is reported to be twelve feet square, and to be
  capable of holding twenty or twenty-four persons." And he refers
  to Chauncy's _Hertfordshire_ for an account of its receiving at
  once twelve men and their wives, who lay at top and bottom in this
  mode of arrangement; first two men, then two women, and so on
  alternately; so that no man was near to any woman but his wife.]

_Merry Andrew._--When did the term _Merry Andrew_ first come into use,
and what was the occasion of it?

    χ. β.

  [Although Strutt, in his _Sports and Pastimes_, has several
  allusions to Merry Andrews, he does not attempt to explain the
  origin of the term. Hearne, in his _Benedictus Abbas_ (tom. i.
  Præf. p. 50. ed. Oxon. 1735, as quoted by Warton in his _English
  Poetry_, vol. iii. p. 74. ed. 1840), speaking of the well-known
  Andrew Borde, gives it as his opinion that this facetious
  physician gave rise to the name of MERRY ANDREW, the fool on the
  mountebank's stage: "'Twas from the Doctor's method of using such
  speeches at markets and fairs, that in aftertimes those that
  imitated the like humorous, jocose language, were styled MERRY
  ANDREWS, a term much in vogue on our stages."]

_A Baron's Hearse._--In reading a curious old book, entitled the
_Statesmen and Favourites of England since the Reformation_, which was
written by David Lloyd, and published in 1665, I was at a loss to know
what a _baron's hearse_ might be, and hope therefore that some of your
readers may be able to give me some information respecting it. It occurs
at page 448., in his observations on the life of Sir Henry Umpton, who,
he says, "had allowed him a _baron's hearse_, because he died
ambassadour leiger."



  [Although a "_baron's hearse_" is not particularly specified in
  the very curious _Note upon Funerals_ prefixed by Mr. J. G.
  Nichols to the _Diary of Henry Machyn_, edited by him for the
  _Camden Society_,--we refer our correspondent to it, as furnishing
  much curious illustration of the time and expense formerly
  bestowed upon these ceremonials. The word "herse," it may be
  remarked, was not then applied in its modern sense, but to a frame
  of timber "covered with black, and armes upon the black, ready to
  receive the corpse when it had arrived within the church," which
  corresponds to what our French neighbours designate the

_Saint Bartholomew._--Can you favour me with a reference to any works in
which any further account is given of this saint, than is contained in
the four passages of the New Testament in which his name is mentioned?

What representations are there of him in picture, tapestry, or window,
in England or on the continent?


  [For further particulars we would refer our correspondent to Mrs.
  Jameson's _Sacred and Legendary Art_ (1st edit.), vol. i. pp. 222.
  et seq.; and Parker's _Calendar of the Anglican Church
  illustrated_, p. 100.]

_Moravian Hymns--Tabitha's Dream_ (Vol. iv., p. 502.).--Are the
following lines from Walsh's _Aristophanes_ original; and was the
translation ever completed? I quote from memory.

      "Audi mæstum, Eliza, questum,
        Nuntium audi horridum;
      It devota domus tota,
        Barathrum orci torridum.

      "Simkin _Frater_ desperatur,
        Ludit, salit, turpiter;
      Ridet Jana sacra fana;
        Tabitha _Runt_ deperditur.

      "Ego, ut ovis, errans quovis
        Scomma nuper omnium,
      Ter beata, quæ vocata
        Manè sum per somnium;

      "Nam procero par Rogero
        Spectrum venit coelitus:
      Dicens, Ego amore implebo
        Te divino penitus."

    J. H. L.

  [These lines are by Christopher Anstey, Esq., and will be found in
  his _New Bath Guide_, letter xiv., where "Miss Prudence B-n-r-d
  informs Lady Betty that she has been elected to Methodism by a
  Vision." This metrical epistle consists of five more verses, to
  which the author has subjoined a Latin translation. See Anstey's
  _Works_, p. 82. 4to. 1808. Only Vol. I. of Walsh's translation of
  _The Comedies of Aristophanes_ has been published.]

_Story of Ginevra._--Mr. Rogers, in his beautiful poem of _Italy_, has a
story which is headed "Ginevra," and which he lays the scene of at
Modena. It narrates that a young bride on the day of her wedding, to
entertain her young friends, proposes that they should amuse themselves
at "hide-and-seek;" and thinking to conceal herself where her companions
could not discover her, bethought herself of an old oaken chest in the
garret of the house. The lid of this chest unfortunately had a clasp
lock, which occasioned her to be completely enshrined; and not being
discovered at the time, she must have perished miserably. Many years
after, upon pulling the house down the chest was forced open, and the
skeleton of the unfortunate lady was, to the consternation of all
present, brought to light.

Mr. Rogers, in a note, says, "I believe this story to be founded on
fact, though I cannot tell when and where it happened;" and adds, "many
old houses _in this country_ lay claim to it."

I should be much obliged to any reader of the "N. & Q." to point out any
old seat in England where the above is stated to have happened; if there
be any memorial or legend concerning it, or any particulars relating to

    [--> F.]

P.S. I have, some years ago, read the counterpart of this story in
_French_, when the bride proposes _jouer au cache-cache_, with exactly
the same melancholy result, but I have not any recollection in what

  [Two versions of the dramatic narrative of "Ginevra, the Lady
  buried alive," are given by Collet in his _Relics of Literature_,
  p. 186., in neither of which is there any notice of the
  hide-and-seek game, or of the chest with the clasp-lock. The
  French account is extracted from the _Causes Célèbres_; and the
  Italian, which differs in some particulars, from a work by
  Dominico Maria Manni.]

_Play of "Pompey the Great."_--Can any of your readers inform me where
the entire translation of this play, from the French of Corneille into
English, is to be found?--the first act only, which was translated by
Waller, being found in some editions of his works. Also, whether I am
right in supposing that this play contains a scene where the dead body
of Pompey is discovered on the seashore, and a passage discussing what
tomb should be erected to his honour, in deprecation of any monument at
all, and ending with: "The eternal substance of his greatness; to that I
leave him."


  [The title of the play is, _Pompey the Great; a Tragedy_, as it
  was acted by the Servants of his Royal Highness the Duke of York.
  Translated out of French by certain Persons of Honour, 4to. 1664.
  It consists of five acts. Waller translated the first; the others
  were translated by the Earl of Dorset, Sir C. Sedley, and Mr.
  Godolphin. It will be found in the British Museum and the



(Vol. iv., p. 278.)

MR. FRASER'S erudite researches are well worth the space which they
occupy. The conclusions to be drawn from them appear quite to support
my positions:

1. _The Three Estates of the Realm are, the Spiritualty, the Nobility,
and the Commonalty_: on this fact there is no dispute. The last is as
certainly the _third_ estate (_tiers état_). But MR. FRASER demurs to my
ranking the Spiritual Estate as the _first_, quoting the Collect in the
Service for the fifth of November, which runs, "the Nobility, Clergy,
and Commonalty." On this point I am not prepared with a decisive
authority; but certainly the language and practice of Parliament is with
me. The Lords Spiritual are always named _before_ the Lords Temporal,
and precedence is allotted to them accordingly; the Archbishops ranking
_above_ the Earls (with the more recent distinctions of Marquess and
Duke), and the Bishops _above_ the Temporal Barons [Qy. What was the
relative rank of the _other_ "prelates" who were formerly in
Parliament?]. To the same effect is the language of the celebrated
preamble to the act 24 Henry VIII. c. 12.:--

  "This realm of England is an empire ... governed by one supreme
  head and King ... unto whom a body politic compact of all sorts
  and degrees of people divided in terms and by names of
  _Spiritualty and Temporalty_, be bounden and owen."

2. _The Convocations of the Clergy_ (which are _two_ synods sitting in
three houses) _are no part of the Parliament_. MR. FRASER thinks "this
point was settled somewhat late in our history;" but it is proved (I
submit) in the very extracts which he produces from ancient statutes.
Since there is no doubt that the Clergy sat _regularly_ in Convocation,
we should not hear of their _occasional_ presence in the House of
Commons had the Convocation been deemed a part of Parliament. It is
certain that Convocation never exercised the powers which belong to a
chamber of Parliament; even their own subsidies to the Crown were
ratified and passed in Parliament before they became _legally_ binding.
[See on the whole of this subject, Burn's _Eccl. Law_ (Phillimore's
ed.), tit. "Convocation," vol. ii. pp. 19-23.] MR. FRASER has certainly
adduced instances in which the assent of the Clergy was given to
_particular_ statutes; he might have added the recital of their
submission to the Crown, in the Act of Supremacy, 26 Henry VIII. c. 1.
He has shown also that clerical proctors were _occasionally_ introduced
into the House of Commons, like the judges (he says) in the House of
Lords. But this is far from making those proctors, or the Convocation
which sent them, a _part_ of the Parliament. Indeed it is shown that
they were _not_ by the petition of the Lower House of Convocation (cited
by MR. FRASER), in which they desire "_to be admitted to sit in
Parliament_ with the House of Commons, according to antient usage." It
is clear that they who so petitioned did not esteem themselves to be, as
a Convocation, already part of the Parliament. The Convocation would
indeed have become the Spiritual Estate in Parliament, if the Clergy had
acceded to the wise and patriotic design of King Edward I. But they,
affecting an _imperium in imperio_, refused to assemble at the King's
writ as a portion of the Parliament of their country, and chose to tax
themselves apart in their Provincial Synods, where they used the forms
of a separate Parliament for the Church.

3. Hence _the Spiritual Estate was, and still is, represented in
Parliament by the Spiritual Lords_. William the Conqueror having
converted their sees into baronies, they were obliged, like other
tenants _in capite_, to obey the royal summons to _Parliament_. When I
called it a mistake to suppose that our Bishops sit in the Upper House
only as Barons, I did not mean that they are not so, in the present
constitution of Parliament, but that such was not the _origin_ of the
prelates being called to share in the legislation of the realm. The
other clergy, however, retained their tenure of frankalmoigne, and stood
aloof alike from the councils and from the burdens of the state.
Attendance in Parliament being chiefly given for the purpose of voting
_taxes_, the Commons, as well as the Clergy, looked upon it as a burden
more than a privilege. But while the Clergy were quickly compelled to
bear their share of the public burdens, their short-sighted policy
deprived them of the voice which is now enjoyed by other degrees of
Englishmen in the affairs of the country. While Convocation was sitting,
the Clergy could make their sentiments known by the Bishops who
represented their Estate in Parliament; and we often find the Lower
House of Convocation petitioning their lordships to make statements of
this kind in their places in Parliament. But in the present suspension
of Convocation and the disuse of diocesan synods, the Clergy have lost
their weight with the Bishops themselves; and that once formidable
Estate of the Realm retains but the shadow of a representation in

MR. FRASER will find this account of the matter fully borne out by the
extract he has given from Bennet's _Narrative_. "The King in full
Parliament charged the _Prelates_, Earls, Barons, and other great men,
and the Knights of the shire, and the Commons," to give him counsel.
Here we have a description of _Parliament_ precisely as it is
constituted at this day, and the "Prelates" are the only members of the
Spiritualty. Then we read "the Prelates _deliberated_ 'with the clergy
by themselves' (_i.e._ in _Convocation_), and the Earls and Barons by
themselves, and the Knights and others of the Commons by themselves; and
then, 'in full Parliament' (as before), each by themselves, and
afterwards all in common answered," _i.e._ the Clergy deliberated in
Convocation, but answered _in Parliament_ by their Prelates.

It is true, as MR. FRASER observes, that the majority of the Upper House
of Parliament binds the Clergy though all the Bishops should be
dissentient, as in Queen Elizabeth's Act of Uniformity. This is the
result of the Spiritual Estate voting in the same chamber with the
Nobility; and to avoid such a result the Commons very early demanded a
chamber to themselves. The Spiritualty is thus yet further reduced under
the power of the Temporalty; for "the authority of Parliament" (as
Elizabeth's Act of Uniformity words it) is and must be supreme, however
defective its representative constitution. It were certainly to be
wished that those liberal reformers who were so shocked at _burgage
tenures_ and rotten boroughs, would extend their compassion to the
disfranchised clergy, some five or six hundred of whom are
"represented," without their consent or opinion asked, by a prelate
appointed by the Crown.

On the whole, the Convocation is "the true Church of England by
representation" (Canon 139) in such matters as belong to the _Church_ as
distinguished from the _State_; but in _Parliament_, which is the State,
the Spiritualty is represented by the Bishops alone.

I am astonished that MR. FRASER should stumble at my remark, that the
Three Estates still assemble in common for the final passing of every
act. I had thought that the ceremony of giving the royal assent in full
Parliament to bills previously deliberated upon in the two Houses apart,
had been sufficiently well known.


P.S.--Since writing the above I have lighted upon the following
authorities, confirming the position that the Spiritual Estate is
represented in Parliament by the Bishops, and also that it is ranked as
the "_First_ Estate of the Realm." Can MR. FRASER adduce _any authority
whatever_ for applying that designation to the Clergy in Convocation?

I. In _An Account of the Ceremonies observed at the Coronation of George
III._ (London, Kearsley, 1791, 4to.), I read that immediately after the

  "The bishops performed their homage, and _then_ the temporal
  lords, first H. R. H. the Duke of York, and H. R. H. the Duke of
  Cumberland, each for himself;"--

the Prelates thus taking precedence even of the blood royal. The same
fact is distinctly stated in the accounts appended of the coronations of
James II., William and Mary (when the Bishops did homage before Prince
George); and I presume that this is the regular order in which the
Estates of the Realm do homage to the Sovereign upon that most solemn

II. When the royal assent is given to any act of grace (which emanates
from the Crown in the first instance), the form is for the clerk of
parliament to acknowledge the royal favour in these words:

  III. "_Les prélats, seigneurs, et commons_, en ce present
  parliament assemblés au nom de tout vous autre subjects remercient
  très humblement votre Majesté, et prient à Dieu vous donner en
  santé bonne vie et longue."

  "Strictly speaking, the 'Three Estates of the Realm' consist of,
  1st, the Lords Spiritual; 2nd, the Lords Temporal; 3rd, the
  Commons. Parliament fully assembled consists of the King, with the
  two estates of the Peerage sitting in one house, and the Commons
  by their representatives standing below the bar."--Dodd's _Manual
  of Dignities, &c._, tit. "Parliament," p. 266.


(Vol. v., p. 79.)

Your correspondent will find the ample story in the _Golden Legend_. It
is related more succinctly by Roger of Wendover, who has been followed
by later chroniclers. In the legend, as related by Roger of Wendover,
the murder of Kenelm is said to have been miraculously notified at Rome
by a white dove alighting on the altar of St. Peter's church, bearing a
scroll in her bill, which she let fall. The scroll contained, among
other things, the following lines:

      "In Clente cou bache
      Kenelm kine-bearn,
      Lith under thorne
      Havedes bereaved."

  "Qui Latine sonat (says the Chronicler) in pastum vaccarum
  Kenelmius regis filius jacet sub spina capite privatus."--_MS.
  Douce_, fo. 66. _b._

And afterwards he says:

      "De hujus quoque sancte martyris quidam sic ait:
      In Clent, sub spina, jacet in _convalle bovina_,
      Vertice privatus, Kenelmus rege creatus."

"Cou ba_c_he" has been erroneously printed "cou ba_t_he;" and travestied
sometimes into _coubage_.

_Clent_ is the name of the place, a wood according to the _Golden
Legend_. _Bach_, or Bache, is a word that had long escaped the
glossarists, with the exception of Dr. Whitaker, who says it is "a
Mereno-Saxon word, signifying _a bottom_, and that it enters into the
composition of several local names in the midland counties."

The passage in _Piers Ploughman_, upon which this is a gloss, occurs at
p. 119. of Whitaker's edition:

      "Ac ther was weye non so wys (that the way thider couthe
      Bote blostred forth as bestes) _over baches_ and bulles."

The word occurs several times in _Layamon_, and on two occasions the
later text reads _slade_; in one passage we have it thus:

      "Of _dalen_ and of _dunen_
      And of _bæcchen_ deopen."

The cognate languages would have led us to a different interpretation of
_Bache_. In Suevo-Gothic, _Backe_ is "an ascent or descent, extremitas
montes, alias crepido vel ora." Wachter has _Backe_; collis, tumulus; of
which _Bühel_, collis clivus, is the diminutive still in use. In Swedish
_Backe_, and in Danish _Bakke_, is a hill or rising ground; and Ray, in
his _Travels_, has "a _baich_, or languet of land." There has probably
been some confusion here, as well as in the two similar words _dune_ and
_dene_, for _hill_ and _valley_.

    S. W. SINGER.

The legend of the sainted King Kenelm is related at great length, and
with very precise references to the various chroniclers in which it is
to be found, in the 1st vol. (pp. 721-4.) of MacCabe's _Catholic History
of England_. The Saxon couplet in which his death was announced at Rome
is very neatly rendered in Butler's _Lives of the Saints_:--

      "In Clent cow pasture under a thorn,
      Of head bereft, lies Kenelm king-born."

    A. M.


(Vol. iv., p. 423.)

The lady about whom FANNY inquires, was the wife of William Lord
Fitz-Warine, who died in 35 Edward III. (1361), as to whom see _Dugd.
Bar._ i. 447. The register of interments and sepulchral inscriptions in
the church of the Grey Friars, London, printed in the fifth volume of
_Collectanea Topogr. et Geneal._ (the entry is at p. 278.), which I
presume to be the authority for the statement in Knight's _London_, does
not afford further information as to this lady, who is reckoned amongst
the four queens said by Weever (following Stowe) to have been interred
in this church. Mr. J. G. Nichols, in his note to the entry referred to,
does not add any information about the lady Isabel.

There was a Sybil, who was daughter of William Montacute, Earl of
Salisbury and King of Man and Derby, one of the most distinguished
characters in the heroic age of Edward III. She married Edmund, the
younger of the two sons of Edmund Earl of Arundel, by Alice, sister and
heir of John, last Earl of Warren and Surrey, who died in 1347 (_Dugd.
Bar._ i. 82.). William Montacute was created Earl of Salisbury 16th
March, 1337, and died in 1343, and was entombed in the church of the
Friars Carmelites, London (_Weever_, 437.). He was connected with the
family of John Earl of Surrey, for it appears from a grant made by the
king in 11 Edward III. to William Earl of Salisbury, that he was
entitled in reversion to certain hereditaments then held by John de
Warren, Earl of Surrey, and Joan his wife (_Collect. Top. et Gen._ vii.
379.). The valiant Montacute, lord of Man, did not die without heirs
male, for his son William was his heir; otherwise we might have supposed
the dominion of the isle to have devolved on his daughter Sybil or
Isabel, who, surviving Edmund her husband, may have married the Lord
Fitz-Warine. Can evidence of such connexion be found? I have not met
with anything to connect his family with the lordship of the Isle of
Man, and am not aware that "Isabel Queen of Man" is mentioned in any
record save the sepulchral register of the Grey Friars. I wish some clue
could be found to a satisfactory answer.

The other branch of the question proposed by FANNY, viz., when did the
Isle of Man cease to be an independent kingdom? can be answered by a
short historical statement. So early as the reign of John, its
sovereigns rendered fealty and homage to the kings of England. Reginald,
styled King of Man, did homage to Henry III., as appears by the extract
given from the _Rot. Pat._ 3 Hen. III., by Selden. During a series of
years previously, the kings of Man, who seem to have held this isle
together with the Hebrides, had done homage to the kings of Norway, and
its bishops went to Drontheim for consecration. Magnus, last sovereign
of Man of the Norwegian dynasty, died in 1265. From that period the
shadowy crown of Man is seen from time to time resting on lords of
different races, and its descent is in many periods involved in great
obscurity. After the death of Magnus, the island was seized by Alexander
III. of Scotland. A daughter and heiress of Reginald sued for it against
John Baliol before Edward I. of England as lord paramount of Man (_Rot.
Parl._ 31 Edw. I.). In 35 Edw. I., we find Anthony Bek, the warlike
Bishop and Count Palatine of Durham, in possession of the isle; but the
king of England then claimed to resume it into his own hands, as of the
ancient right of the crown. Accordingly, from sundry records it appears
that Edw. II. and Edw. III. committed its custody to various persons,
and the latter king at length conferred his right to it upon William
Montacute, Earl of Salisbury, in consideration, probably, of that
valiant Earl having by his arms regained the island from the Scots, who
had resumed possession, and of the circumstance that his grandmother,
the wife of Simon de Montacute, was sister and heiress of one of the
former kings of Man, and related to the lady who had claimed it as her
inheritance on the death of Magnus. The son and heir of the grantee sold
the isle to Scrope, Earl of Wiltshire, about 16 Rich. II. In the time of
Hen. IV., Sir William Scrope forfeited his possessions (_Dugd. Bar._ ii.
250.); and the isle again came to the crown. It was granted to Percy,
Earl of Northumberland, by the service of bearing the Lancaster sword on
the left shoulder of the king on the day of coronation; was forfeited by
Percy; and was thereupon granted by the same king to Sir John Stanley
and his heirs, under which grant the Earls of Derby succeeded during
many years. It was a subject of a grant to the Stanleys by Queen
Elizabeth, and of an act of parliament in the reign of James I., under
which the isle became vested in the Duchess Dowager of Athol, as heir of
the body of James, seventh Earl of Derby, and ultimately became vested
by purchase in the crown. It may be said that during the time of
authentic history, the Isle of Man was not an independent kingdom, until
the regality was granted by the crown, as already mentioned.




(Vol. ii., pp. 131. 172.)

When I wrote my note upon _Long Meg of Westminster_, I was not aware of
the following passage in Fuller's _Worthies_ (Westminster, edit. 1662,
p. 236.):

  "_As long as Megg of Westminster._--This is applyed to persons
  very tall, especially if they have _hop-pole-height_, wanting
  _breadth_ proportionable thereunto. That such a _gyant-woman_ ever
  was in Westminster, cannot be proved by any good witness (I pass
  not for a late lying _pamphlet_), though some in proof thereof
  produce her gravestone on the _south-side_ of the _cloistures_,
  which (I confess) is as long, and large, and entire _marble_ as
  ever I beheld. But be it known, that no _woman_ in that age was
  interred in the _cloistures_, appropriated to the sepultures of
  the _abbot_ and his _monkes_. Besides, I have read in the records
  of that _Abby_ of an infectious year, wherein many monkes dyed of
  the _plague_, and were all buried in one grave; probably in this
  place, under this _marble monument_. If there be any truth in the
  proverb, it rather relateth to a great gun, lying in the tower,
  commonly call'd _Long Megg_; and in troublesome times (perchance
  upon _ill May day_ in the raigne of King _Henry_ the eighth),
  brought to _Westminster_, where for a good time it continued. But
  this _Nut_ (perchance) deserves not the cracking."

Grose, in his _Provincial Glossary_, inserts among the _Local Proverbs_,
"As Long as Megg of Westminster," with the following note:--

  "This is applied to very tall slender persons. Some think it
  alluded to a long gun, called Megg, in troublesome times brought
  from the tower to Westminster, where it long remained. Others
  suppose it to refer to an old fictitious story of a monstrous tall
  virago called Long Megg of Westminster, of whom there is a small
  penny history, well known to school-boys of the lesser sort. In it
  there are many relations of her prowess. Whether there ever was
  such a woman or not, is immaterial; the story is sufficiently
  ancient to have occasioned the saying. Megg is there described as
  having breadth in proportion to her height. Fuller says, that the
  large grave-stone shown on the south side of the cloister in
  Westminster Abbey, said to cover her body, was, as he has read in
  an ancient record, placed over a number of monks who died of the
  plague, and were all buried in one grave; that being the place
  appointed for the sepulture of the abbots and monks, in which no
  woman was permitted to be interred."--Edit. 1811, p. 207.

I shall not enter into the question, as to whether any "tall woman" of
"bad repute" was or was not buried in the cloisters of Westminster, as
it is very likely to turn out, upon a little inquiry, that the
_original_ "long Meg" was a "great gun," and not a creature of flesh and

"Long Meg" is also the name of a large gun preserved in the castle of
Edinburgh; and, what is somewhat extraordinary, the great bombard forged
for the siege of Oudenarde, in 1382, now in the city of Ghent, is called
by the towns-people "Mad Meg."

A series of stones, situated upon an eminence on the east side of the
river Eden, near the village of Little Salkeld, are commonly known as
"Long Meg and her Daughters."

These notices, at any rate, are suggestive, and may be the means of
elucidating something perhaps more worth the knowing.



(Vol. v., p. 1.)

My enquiry into the use of stops in the early days of typography will,
if it prove nothing else, show that the _Tablet of Memory_ is not an
authority to be depended upon on that subject. I have arranged the
authorities which I have consulted in chronological order.

  1480. _Epistola F. Philelphi ad Sextum IV._, printed at Rome.

  1493. Politian's Latin translation of _Herodian_, printed at

In both these books the colon and period are used, but neither the comma
nor semicolon.

  1523. _Dialogi Platonis_, printed at Nuremberg.

Here I find the comma and period, and also the note of interrogation,
but not the colon or semicolon.

  1523. _Ascensius declynsons, with the playne Expositor_, without
  date, place, or printer's name.

This publication is ascribed by Johnson to Wynkyn de Worde, and
therefore printed between 1493 and 1534. I find in it the following
amusing passage relative to the ancient art of punctuation:--

  "_Of the Craft of Poynting._

  "There be fiue maner poynts, and divisions most uside with cunnyng
  men: the which, if they be wel usid, make the sentens very light,
  and esy to understond both to the reder and the herer, and they be
  these: _virgil_, _come_, parenthesis, playne poynt, and
  interrogatif. A _virgil_ is a sclender stryke: lenynge forwarde
  this wyse _,_ betokynynge a lytyl, short rest without any
  perfetnes yet of sentens: as betwene the five poyntis a fore
  rehersid. A _come_ is with tway tittels this wyse _:_ betokynynge
  a longer reste: and the sentens yet either is imperfet: or els, if
  it be perfet: ther cummith more after, longyng to it: the which
  more comynly cannot be perfet by itself without at the lest summat
  of it: that gothe a fore. A _parenthesis_ is with tway crokyd
  virgils: as an olde mone, and a new bely to bely: the whyche be
  set theton afore the begynyng, and thetother after the latyr ende
  of a clause; comyng within an other clause: that may be perfet:
  thof the clause, so comyng betwene: wer awey, and therfore it is
  sowndyde comynly a note lower, than the utter clause. yf the
  sentens cannot be perfet without the ynner clause, then stede of
  the first crokyde virgil a streght virgil wol do very wel; and
  stede of the later must nedis be a come. A _playne poynt_ is with
  won tittel this wyse _._ and it cumeth after the ende of al the
  whole sentens betokynynge a longe reste. An _interrogatif_ is with
  tway tittels, the upper rysing this wyse _?_ and it cumeth after
  the ende of a whole reason: wheryn ther is sum question axside.
  the whiche ende of the reson, triyng as it were for an answere:
  risyth upwarde. we have these rulis in englishe: by cause they be
  as profytable, and necessary to be kepte in every mother tonge, as
  in latyn. Sethyn we (as we wolde to god: every precher wolde do)
  have kept owre rulis both in owre englishe, and latyn: what nede
  we, sethyn owre own be sufficient unogh: to put any other

It is evident that what the writer of this book calls the _virgil_, is
our comma: and his _come_, our colon. There is nothing, however,
allusive to our semicolon.

  1541. Cranmer's _Bible_. Here we find the comma, colon, and
  period, and also the note of interrogation, but not the semicolon.

  1597. Gerard's _Herbal_ contains the comma, colon, semicolon, and

  1604. First part of Shakspeare's _Henry IV._, 4to. Here the comma,
  colon, and period are used, but not the semicolon.

  1631. Baker's _Well-spring of Science_ also uses the comma, colon,
  and period, but not the semicolon.

  1636. Record's _Ground of Arts_. Here all the stops now in use are

  1639. Cockeram's _English Dictionary_ defines the comma, colon,
  and period, but not the semicolon. The latter, however, is _used_
  in the preface.

  1650. Moore's _Arithmetic_ employs all the four common stops.

  1670. Blount's _Glossographia_ defines the four common stops.

Generally speaking, the stops now in use may be found in books from
about 1630. So much concerning punctuation.

    P. T.


(Vol. ii., pp. 182. 316.)

Your correspondent S. R. will find that in Ireland, as well as in
England, the custom prevailed, during the reign of Elizabeth, of
inflicting a punishment for various crimes, by the public exposure of
the delinquents with papers about their heads. The following "sentence"
for adultery, which has been transcribed from the _Book of the
Commissioners of Ecclesiastical Causes_ (deposited amongst the records
of the Court of Exchequer in Ireland, 1570-1574, p. 22.), goes so fully
into detail, that it may supply to S. R. the graphic account which he

  "First, that he (Henry Hunchcliffe) shall not come into, nor kepe,
  nor use the company of Constance Kyng hereafter, and shalbe bounde
  to the same effecte in a bond of recognizance of a 100_l._,
  otherwise to be committed to prison; there to be kept in such sort
  that neyther he to hir, nor she to him, shall have access in
  anywise. Secondlie, that upon Saterdaie next enseweing at ix of
  the clocke in the mornyng, he, the said Eyland, _alias_
  Hunchcliffe, shall come unto the crosse in the highe strete of
  Dublin, having on a white shete from his sholders downe to the
  ground, rounde aboute him, and a paper about his head whereupon
  shalbe written _for adultery leavyng his wife in England alyve and
  marryeng w'th an other here_, and a white wande in his hand, and
  then and there goe up unto the highest staire of the crosse, and
  there sitte duryng all the time of the markette untill yt be
  ended; and furder decreed that Constance Kyng shall not hereafter
  in anywise resort or have accesse unto him, or kepe him company,
  and to performe the same they toke hir othe w'ch she gave upon the
  holie evangelists; and furder, after y't Hunchcliffe hath done his
  penance as above they decreed he shold goe to prison againe, there
  to remayne and abide untill y't shall please the commissioners to
  take furder order in this cause."

The book contains other entries of a similar kind.

    J. F. F.


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Rev. Thomas Adams, D.D._ (Vol. v., p. 80.).--In addition to the sermons
enumerated, I possess two more in small quarto:--1. "Preached at the
triennial visitation of the R. R. father in God, the Lord Bishop of
London, in Christchurch: text, 15 Actes 36: London, 1625." 2. "_The holy
choice._ at the chappell by Guildhall, at the solemnitie of the election
of the Rt. Hon'ble the Lord Maior of London: text, 1 Actes 24. 1625."

    E. D.

_Wiggan, John_ (Vol. v., p. 78.).--John Wiggan, M.D., the editor of
_Aretæus_ (Oxon. fol. 1723), was in 1721 a student of Christ Church.

    M. D.

"_Poets beware!_" (Vol. v., p. 78.).--The words

      "Poets beware! never compare
      Women to aught in earth or in air," &c.

are the first of a song by Thomas Haynes Bayly, written for and arranged
to music by T. A. Rawlings, in _The Musical Bijou_ for 1830, edited by
F. H. Burney, published by Goulding and d'Almaine, 20. Soho Square.

    E. B. R.

_Traditions of Remote Periods, &c._ (Vol. v., p. 77.).--It is a
well-known fact that the proud Duke of Somerset, and Prince George, his
successor as a Knight of the Garter, occupied the space between 1684 and
1820. The anecdote, however, related of George IV. by your intelligent
correspondent C. cannot be correct, because _the blue ribbon was
conferred upon Lord Moira by the Prince Regent in June, 1812_, who
advanced him in 1816 to the Marquisate of Hastings, _and George III. did
not die till 1820_. The story, therefore, must belong to the period of
the Regency, and not to the commencement of the reign of George IV.


  Audley End.

There is some error in the statement of C. George IV. succeeded to the
throne 29th January, 1820, and the vacancy in the Order of the Garter
occasioned by his accession he gave to the Marquess of Buckingham, who
was elected 12th June that year. The Earl of Moira was elected and
invested in 1812, upon the vacancy created by the death of William,
fifth Duke of Devonshire, and was the third knight made during the
Regency. (See Beltz's _Succession of the Knights_, pp. ccxi. and ccxiv.)
Lord Moira never occupied the stall of George IV., which before his
accession was that of Prince of Wales.

At the time of the death of the Duke of Somerset, in 1748, there were
several vacancies; and on the 22d June, 1749, George Prince of
Brunswick, afterwards King George III., was elected in the room of John
Earl Powlett, and John Earl Granville was elected in the room of the
Duke of Somerset. (See _Beltz_, cciii.)


_Heraldical MSS. of Sir Henry St. George Garter_ (Vol. v., p.
59.).--M--N, in "N. & Q." of the 17th ultimo, wishes to know what became
of these valuable MSS. I understand that, just before the auction at
Enmore Castle in 1831, these MSS. passed into the possession of the late
Sir Matthew Tierney, Bart., by private contract, or some arrangement of
the kind. And most likely they now are in the possession of his brother,
Sir Edward Tierney, Bart., who for a long period was the confidential
friend, as well as the land and law agent of the fourth Earl of Egmont:
in any case, he is the only person who can give M--N the information he
requires respecting them: and, if written to on the subject, I have no
doubt will communicate all he knows about him.

    E. A. G.


_Dr. John Ash_ (Vol. v., p. 12.).--I am able to afford your
correspondent F. RUSSELL but little information respecting Dr. John Ash;
but that is authentic, being taken from an entry in his own handwriting
in the Admission Book of Trinity College. It is to the following effect:

  "Ego Joannes Ash, Fil Josephi Ash, gen. (generosi) de Coventria in
  Com. Warwick: natus ibidem annos circiter 16 admissus sum com.
  infer. ordinis (commersalis inferioris ordinis) sub tutamine
  magistri Geering 4'o Die Martii, 1739-40."

There is no other John Ash admitted between 1737 and 1764; therefore it
may be presumed this is the same person.

    T. W.

  Trin. Coll. Oxon.

P.S.--I find by the corrected list of Oxford graduates, just published,
that Dr. Ash took his degrees of B.A. Oct. 21, 1743; M.A. Oct. 17, 1746;
B.M. Dec. 6, 1750; D.M. July 3, 1754.

_Inveni Portum_ (Vol. v., p. 64.).--The words "Inveni portum" remind me
of Byron's answer to a friend, who claimed his congratulations upon
receiving a valuable appointment; "for," said he, "I may now say with
truth, 'Portum inveni.'" "I am very glad to hear it," replied Byron,
"for you have finished many bottles of mine."


_Goldsmith_ (Vol. v., p. 63.).--Thanks to your sensible correspondent
A. E. B.! A _true poet_ always puts the right word in the right place,
and A. E. B.'s good taste assured him of Goldsmith's propriety.

We have it upon record, that Burke asked Goldsmith what he meant by the
word "slow," in the first line of his _Traveller_--

      "Remote, unfriended, melancholy, _slow_."

"Do you mean, Dr. Goldsmith, _tardiness of locomotion_?" "Yes," said
Goldsmith. "No!" said Johnson, "you mean no such thing, Sir. You mean
_vacuity of action_."

A _true_ poet ever puts the _right_ word in the _right_ place. A. E. B.
has put the argument rightly, and it is to be regretted that he has been
_obliged_ to do so. To alter a word of Goldsmith's, is to gild refined


_Lords Marchers_ (Vol. v., p. 30.).--See _Historical Account of the
Principality of Wales_, by Sir J. Dodridge, Kt.--_Discourse against the
Jurisdiction of the King's Bench over Wales_; printed among Hargrave's
_Law Tracts_. The author was Charles Pratt, Esq., afterwards Lord
Chancellor Camden: see Hargr. _Jurisc. Exerc._, vol. ii. p. 301.--Coke,
4 _Inst._ 244.--Coke's _Entries_, 549.--_Harl. MSS._ 141. 1220. contain
copies of _A Treatise of Lordships Marchers in Wales_.

    H. S. M.

_Foreign Ambassadors_ (Vol. iv., p. 442.).--The information solicited in
p. 442. has, in some degree, been subsequently given at page 477.; but,
I believe, much more distinctly in the _Gentleman's Magazine_ for
November and December, 1840, so far, at least, as embracing the French
ambassadors to the English court from the fourteenth to the eighteenth
century. A personal account of each is there given in reply to the
inquiry of Mr. John Holmes of the British Museum, and under the
signature of

    J. R. (Cork.)

_Church, whence derived_ (Vol. v., p. 79.).--_Theophilus Anglicanus_
supplies a sufficient answer to MR. GEORGE STEPHENS' inquiries
respecting the word _church_.

There can be no doubt about its etymology. The only question of
difficulty seems to be, _why_ did the church of Rome adopt the word
ἐκκλησία from the Greeks, and _not_ κυριακὴ? Was it that
they had a word of their own, viz. _Dominica_? or was it, that
_ecclesia_ was already a naturalised word? However this may be, Dr.
Wordsworth bases upon the fact an important argument, tending to show
that the _Britons_ did not receive their christianity in the first
instance from Rome:

  "We may appeal," he says (Part II. chap. ii.), "to the English
  word _church_, which is derived, as has been before said, from the
  Greek κυριακὴ, a term which no Roman ever applied to the
  church (which he called _ecclesia_, and by no other name); and it
  is not credible, that, if the British church had been derived from
  Rome, it should have been designated by a title alike foreign to
  Romans and to Britons themselves."

If this argument be of any value in relation to _Britain_, it (of
course) would not be without its worth to those who ascribe the primary
conversion of the Teutonic countries, which MR. STEPHENS mentions, to
the early British and Irish missionaries.

    J. SANSOM.

_Cross-legged Effigies_ (Vol. iv., p. 382.).--W. H. K. inquires for the
latest known example of a cross-legged effigy. The latest I have met
with is the very beautiful slab at Norton-Brize, Oxfordshire, to Sir
John Daubigné. He appears in plate armour of the earliest kind, and
wears the camail, and is surrounded by an inscription, with the date
1346. It is engraved by Skelton, and there is also an admirable woodcut
of it in Boutell's _Christian Monuments_, part ii. p. 141., a work of
which the continuation is much to be desired. That this monument was not
put down in Sir John Daubigné's lifetime, and the date of his death
filled up afterwards, is evident from the perfect correspondence of the
costume with the date of 1346. But it is probably the last example left
us of the cross-legged position, and even then out of fashion.

    C. R. M.

_Sir Walter Raleigh's Snuffbox_ (Vol. v., p. 78.).--In answer to your
question from your correspondent L. H. L. T., I have to inform you that
Sir Walter Raleigh's snuffbox is in my possession. It was bought when
the Duke of Sussex's collection was sold at Messrs. Christie's, in 1843,
by a gentleman of the name of Lake. Mr. Lake having died, his effects
were sold by Messrs. Christie, either 1849 or 1850, when it was
purchased by me. Should your correspondent wish to see it, he can have
the opportunity by applying as below.


  8. Queen's Row, Pimlico.

_Epigram on Erasmus_ (Vol. iv., p. 437.).--I well remember to have seen
this before, in one of the multiplied editions of his _Colloquies_ which
I cannot directly indicate. M. Ménage could not recollect, he says, the
name of the author[1] of the following singular epigram on the same
celebrated writer's character and name:--

      "Hic jacet Erasmus, qui quondam bonus erat mus:
      Rodere qui solitus, roditur a vermibus."

  [Footnote 1: [The author of the _Critique de Marsollier_ says it
  was Philip Labbe. See Burigni, tom. ii. pp. 428, 429. Jortin's
  _Life of Erasmus_.--ED.]]

This distich, it has been remarked, presents two obvious faults of
prosodial quantity; the first syllable of _bonus_ being made long, and
the first of _vermibus_ short, which the author explained by maintaining
that the one nullified and compensated for the other, thus redeeming

The best epitaph on Erasmus has always appeared to me to be that of
Julius Cæsar Scaliger, expressive of his regret for their long personal
hostility, and then rendering ample justice to his deceased adversary.
It begins thus:--

      "Tunc etiam moreris? ah quid me linquis, Erasme?
      Ante meus quam sit conciliatus amor!"

To which may be aptly applied the sentiment expressed by Corneille
(_Mort de Pompée_, Acte V. Sc. 1.):--

                    "Ah! qu'il est doux de plaindre
      La mort d'un ennemi, quand il n'est plus à craindre."

To the portrait of Erasmus have been subscribed these characteristic
words, "Vidit, pervidit, risit."

    J. R. (Cork.)

_General Wolfe_ (Vol. iv., p. 439.).--To the inquiries of Ȝ. relative
to General Wolfe, I can only answer that the northern English county to
which his ancestor, Captain George Woulfe, made his escape in 1651 from
Ireton's proscription, was understood to be Yorkshire. After his
expatriation and change of religion, the family in Clare lost, in a
great measure, sight of him and of his descendants, until, like
Epaminondas and Nelson, crowned with victory and glory at his death.

I may be here permitted to observe that your correspondent distinguishes
me as J. R. (of Cork); but, whether with the single initials, or the
local addition, the signature is mine, though latterly, to avoid all
mistake, I append my locality.

    J. R. (Cork.)

_Ghost Stories_ (Vol. iv., p. 5.; Vol. v., p. 89.).--Baron Reichenbach
has evidently overrated the importance of his discovery, but his system
may be advantageously applied to the explanation of corpse-candles,
illuminated church-yards, and other articles of Welsh and English
superstition. Aubrey tells us, that "when any Christian is drowned in
the river Dee, there will appear over the water where the corpse is a
light, by which means they do find the body." The Welsh also to this day
believe that the body of a secretly buried person may be discovered by
the lambent blue flame which hovers round the grave at night.

I would also refer DR. MAITLAND to Baxter's _Certainty of the World of
Spirits_, and the chapter on "Spectral Lights" in Mrs. Crowe's
_Night-side of Nature_.


_Epigram on Burnet_ (Vol. v., p. 58.).--Odd enough!--at the moment when
your No. 116. reached me, a volume of the _State Poems_ was before me,
in which I read the very _epigram_ to which your correspondent alludes,
where it thus stands:--


      "If heaven be pleased, when sinners cease to sin,
      If hell be pleased, when souls are damned therein,
      If earth be pleased, when its rid of a knave,
      Then all are pleased, for Coleman's in his grave."

      _State Poems_, vol. iii. 1704.

Qy. Who was Coleman?


  [We are indebted to another correspondent, LOUISA JULIA NORMAN,
  for pointing out the same epigram _on Coleman_ in _The Panorama of
  Wit_ (1809). Coleman, on whom the epigram appears to have been
  originally written, is obviously the Jesuit of that name executed
  in the reign of Charles II.]

"_Son of the Morning_" (Vol. iv., pp. 209. 330. 391.).--As none of your
correspondents have been able to explain the meaning of this passage in
_Childe Harold_, I may now tell you that the phrase is an orientalism
for "traveller," in allusion to their early rising to avoid the heat of
the mid-day sun. Lord Byron invites the traveller to visit the ruins of
Greece, but not to molest them as some former travellers had done; then
he turns upon Lord Elgin, and attacks him for his misdeeds in that way.


_Haberdasher_ (Vol. ii., pp. 167. 253.).--In Todd's edition of Johnson's
_Dictionary_, the word _haberdasher_ is derived from _berdash_, which is
said "to have been a name formerly used in England for a certain kind of
neck-dress, whence the maker or seller of such clothes was called a
_berdasher_; and thence comes _haberdashers_." This etymology is hardly
admissible. Can an early reference be given to the use of the term
_berdash_, as an article of dress? Minsheu, Todd remarks, ingeniously
deduces it from _Habt ihr dass_, German, _Have you this?_ the expression
of a shopkeeper offering his wares to sell. But the derivation of the
term _haberdasher_ furnished by your correspondent (Vol. ii., p. 253.)
is certainly the most satisfactory.

At the end of the sixteenth century (about 1580) the shopkeepers that
went under this designation dealt largely in most of the minor articles
of foreign manufacture; and among the "haberdashery" of that period were
"daggers, swords owches, broaches, aiglets, Spanish girdles, French
cloths, Milan caps, glasses, painted cruizes, dials, tables, cards,
balls, puppets, ink-horns, tooth-picks, fine earthen pots, pins and
points, hawks' bells, salt-cellars, spoons, knives, and tin dishes." A
yet more curious list of goods vended by the "milloners or haberdashers"
who dwelt at the Royal Exchange within two or three years after it had
been built, occurs in Stow's _Annals_ by Howe (p. 869.), where we are
informed that they "sould mouse-trappes, bird-cages, shooing-hornes,
lanthornes, and Jew's trumpes."

The author of that curious tract, _Maroccus Extaticus_, 1595 (which I
reprinted in the Percy Society) speaks of a "felow" loading his sleeve
with "fuel from the _haberdashers_."

The more ancient name of these traders was _milainers_, an appellation
derived from their dealing in merchandize chiefly imported from the city
of Milan. They were also, I believe, called _hurrers_, from dealing in
hats and caps.

It is evident, from the above, that "a retailer of goods, a dealer in
small wares," is the true meaning of the word _haberdasher_.


_Vincent Kidder_ (Vol. iv., p. 502.).--The ancestors of this personage
resided at a house called the "Hole," in the parish of Maresfield. In
the time of Henry VII., and earlier, they held the office of bailiffs of
the Forest of Ashdown, otherwise called Lancaster Great Park. I believe
that most of the existing families of Kidder are branches of this parent
stock. From a branch long settled at Lewes sprang Dr. Kidder, Bishop of
Bath and Wells, who lost his life in the great storm of 1703. I believe
that the Irish branch had previously been settled in London. A third
branch settled in the American colonies in the seventeenth century, and
has produced a highly respectable and wealthy progeny still resident in
the New England states, and elsewhere. I have at hand materials for a
complete pedigree of the Sussex or elder line of the family, down to the
time of its extinction. Perhaps your correspondent will communicate with
me on this subject by a private letter.



_Tripos, What is the Origin of the Term?_ (Vol. iv., p.
484.).--_Tripos_, a long piece of white and brown paper, like that on
which the commonest ballads are printed, containing Latin hexameter
verses, with the author's name, &c. The Cambridge _tripos_, it has been
conjectured, was probably in old time delivered, like the Terræ Filius,
from a _tripod_, a three-legged stool, in humble imitation of the
Delphic oracle. It is mentioned in the statute De tollendis ineptiis in
publicis disputationibus[2], an 1626--ut prævaricatores, _tripodes_,
alii que omnes disputantes veterum academia formam, &c.

  [Footnote 2: The following, from the facetious Fuller, will serve
  to show to what lengths they went formerly in _ineptiis_ (See his
  _Worthies_, edit. 1684):--"When Morton, afterwards Bishop of
  Durham, stood for the degree of D.D. at Cambridge, he advanced
  something which was displeasing to the professor, who exclaimed,
  with some warmth, 'Commosti mihi _stomochum_.' To whom Morton
  replied, 'Gratulor tibi, Reverende Professor, de bono tuo
  _stomacho_, coenabis apud me hâc nocte.' The English word
  _stomach_ formerly signified 'passion, indignation.' Archbishop
  Cranmer appointed one Travers to a fellowship at Trinity College,
  who had been before rejected (says my author) on account of his
  'intolerable stomach.' This would be thought a singular
  discommendation in the present day." To add another story from
  Fuller relating to _Publicis Disputatianibus_:--"When a professor
  of logic pressed an answerer with a hard argument, 'Reverende
  Professor,' said he, 'ingenue confiteor me non posse respondere
  huic argumento.' To whom the Professor, '_Recte
  respondis_.'"--_Holy and Profane State._ Vide _Gradus ad
  Cantabrigiam_, a little book published by W. J. and J. Richardson,


_Monody on the Death of Sir John Moore_ (Vol. i., p. 445.).--If any
person entertains a doubt that the Rev. Charles Wolfe was the author, I
trust that the following statement will have the effect of removing it.
In the October number of the _Dublin University Magazine_, 1851, there
is a short biographical notice of the late much lamented Rev. Samuel
O'Sullivan, which contains the following passage:

  "One of his intimate acquaintances was Charles Wolfe. The
  exquisite lines on the burial of Sir John Moore were suggested by
  O'Sullivan reading to him the description in the _Annual Register_
  of the retreat from Corunna. Immediately after, the two friends
  went out to wander in the fields. During their ramble Wolfe was
  silent and moody. On their return to their College chambers he
  repeated the first and last stanzas of the ode that has made his
  name immortal."

Knowing the source from which this assertion emanates, I have no reason
to suspect the veracity of the writer.

There is an additional proof, which is well worthy of being recorded in
your pages, and of which I have had ocular demonstration. In the _Royal
Irish Academy_ there is an original letter, framed, in the handwriting
of Wolfe, of which I send you an exact _fac-simile_. You will perceive
that it contains a copy of the poem, and that his signature is attached
to it, I need not add any more.



_Many Children at a Birth_ (Vol. iii., pp. 64. 347.).--In _The Natural
History of Wiltshire_: by John Aubrey, F.R.S., edited by John Britton,
Esq., is the following passage:

  "At Wishford Magna is an inscription to Thomas Bonham and Edith
  his wife, who died 1473 and 1469. Mrs. Bonham had _two_ children
  at one birth the first time; _and he being troubled at it_,
  travelled, and was absent seven years. After his returne, she was
  _delivered of seven children at one birth_. In this parish is a
  confident tradition that these seven children were all baptized at
  the font in this church, and that they were brought thither in a
  kind of chardger, which was dedicated to this church, and hung on
  two nailes, which are to be seen there yet, neer the belfree on
  the south side. Some old men are yet living that doe remember the
  chardger. This tradition is entred into the Register-booke there,
  from whence I have taken this narrative," 1659.--See Hoare's
  _Modern Wilts_, p. 49. J. B.

The following is also from the same book:

  "Dr. Wm. Harvey, author of _The Circulation of the Blood_, told me
  that one Mr. Palmer's wife, in Kent, did beare a child every day
  for five daies together."

    C. DE D.

_"O Leoline," &c._ (Vol. v., p. 78.).--If no one sends in better
information, I beg to inform H. B. C. that I have had the lines he
alludes to for many years in MS. as the composition of Aaron Hill. He
was a dramatist, but I observe that the _Cyclopædia_ says only two of
his dramatic pieces are now remembered, _Algira_ and _Zara_, both of
them adaptations from Voltaire. He was born 1684, and died 1750. My
verses differ slightly from the version of H. B. C.

      "Let never man be bold enough to say,
      Thus, and no farther, shall my _footsteps_ stray.
      The first _crime_ past _compels_ us into more,
      And guilt _grows_ fate, that was but choice before."


  [O. P. W. has forwarded a similar reference to Aaron Hill.]

_The Ballad on the Rising of the Vendee_ (Vol. iv., p. 473.).--It is by
Smythe, the member for Canterbury, and was published in his _Historic

    R. D. H.

_House at Welling_ (Vol. iv., p. 502.).--Your correspondent appears to
have made a confusion between _Welling_ in Kent and _Welwyn_ in Herts.
Of this latter place Young, the author of the _Night Thoughts_, was
rector, and the house in which he resided is now standing.

    A. W. H.

_Pharetram de Tutesbit_ (Vol. iv., p. 316.).--Pharetram de Tutesbit must
be a quiver manufactured by a person of the name of Tutesbit. This
indeed is conjecture, as I have not been able to find any allusion to
the word; but it does not appear that there is any place of that name.

_Flectatas sagittas_ may be translated arrows ready dressed, or
_fletched_. A _flecher_ is one who fashions and prepares arrows; hence
the common use of the word as a proper name now-a-days.

    H. G. R.


_Ruffles, when worn_ (Vol. v., p. 12.).--These appendages to our ancient
costume were originally termed _handruffs_. They may be traced in some
of our early monumental effigies. The earliest _written_ notice of them,
that I remember, is in the following extract from an inventory of Henry
VIII.'s apparel quoted by Strutt:

  "One payer of sleves, passed over the arme with gold and silver,
  quilted with black silk, and _ruffled_ at the hand with strawberry
  leaves and flowers of gold, embroidered with black silk."

In the reign of Elizabeth, the _handruffs_ are seen pleated and edged
with rich lace; and in the three succeeding reigns, they were generally
worn of fine lawn or cambric. When the Hanoverian race ascended the
English throne, many changes took place in the national costume; but the
_ruffle_ was retained, and continued during the century.

Some of your readers may recollect the print of Garrick's Macbeth, with
cocked hat of the last London cut, bag-wig, full court dress and

In 1762, the rage for large ruffles was beginning to decline. A writer
in the _London Chronicle_ for that year (p. 167.) says (speaking of the
gentlemen's dress):--

  "Their cuffs cover entirely their wrists, and only the _edge of
  their ruffles_ are to be seen; as if they lived in the slovenly
  days of Lycurgus, when every one was ashamed to show clean linen."

The French Revolution of 1789 very much influenced the English fashions
in costume; the cocked-hat and ruffles were discarded to make room for
the ugly "round hat" and "small cuffs" of the Parisian butchers.

It would be difficult to fix upon the period for the total disuse of any
particular fashion. Fashions of a "hundred years ago" may still be seen
in some of our country churches; and I should not be surprised to find
_ruffles_ among their number.


_Allen of Rossull_ (Vol. v., p. 11.).--There seems some little doubt
about the arms of Allen of Rossull. A MS. at Burton Constable,
Yorkshire, gives the following as the arms of the family:--Allen,
Ross_all_ (not Ross_ull_, though sometimes Rushall, Rossal, &c.):
argent, a chevron engrailed azure, between three griffins' heads erased;
on a chief of the second an anchor, or, between two bezants.

The windows of Ushaw College, Durham, however, frequently present a coat
far different from this, surmounted by a cardinal's hat. The arms there
are Argent, a cross gules for the college of Douay;--impaling for the
founder, William Allen, argent, three conies in pale sejant, sable. The
first seems to have belonged to the family; the last--if assumed by the
cardinal himself--seem singularly indicative of his peculiar propensity
for endeavouring to undermine sound doctrine by his heretical works and

    G. S. A.

_Serjeants' Rings_ (Vol. v., pp. 59. 92. 110.).--The happiest motto
which comes to my recollection is that adopted by the first serjeants
who were called after the decision of the Court of Common Pleas in
January, 1840, overturning the warrant issued by King William IV., which
opened the court to all members of the bar. Five new serjeants were then
called, who gave rings with this motto, in allusion to the restoration
of their rights:--

      "Honor nomenque manebunt."

Is your correspondent E. N. W. right as to Serjeant Onslow's motto? As
all the serjeants called at the same time have the same motto inscribed
on the rings they respectively give, it is not likely, if others were
joined in the same call with him, that a motto should have been adopted
which applied only to one of the number. If indeed he happened to be
called alone, it is possible he may have used it; but I am inclined to
think E. N. W. has confounded the motto _of the family_ with that of the


_Clerical Members of Parliament_ (Vol. v., p. 11.).--John Horne Tooke,
the reformer, who was in priest's orders, having been presented to the
borough of Old Sarum by Lord Camelford, in February, 1801, an act was
passed (41. Geo. III. c. 73.) to exclude the clergy from parliament; but
as it did not vacate the seat of any member then elected, Mr. Tooke
remained in the house till the dissolution in June, 1802. In the course
of the debate, the case of Mr. Edward Rushworth, member for Newport, in
the Isle of Wight, in 1784, was referred to. He was in deacon's orders,
and a petition presented against his return, but was allowed to retain
his seat. He is supposed to have been one of the _two_ ministers of the
Church of England alluded to by Sir James Johnstone in his speech in the
debate on the Test and Corporation Acts, 8th May, 1789, as then being
members of the House.

    W. S. S.

_Cabal_ (Vol. iv., pp. 443. 507.).--The following extract from a curious
book in my possession, entitled _Theophania; or severall Modern
Histories represented by way of Romance_ (see "N. & Q." Vol. i., p.
174.), shows a much earlier use of this word than that of Burnet's. The
date of _Theophania_ is 1655:

  "He was at length taken prisoner, and, as a sure token of an
  entire victory, sent with a strong guard into _Sicily_; where
  _Glaucus_ and _Pausanias_, fearing time might mitigate the queen's
  indignation, caused his process to be presently dispatched; and
  the judges, being all of the same Cabal, without consideration of
  his many glorious achievements, they condemned him to an
  ignominious death."--_Theophania_, p. 147.


_Latin Verse on Franklin_ (Vol. iv., p. 443.; Vol. v., p. 17.).--The
line on Franklin--

      "Eripuit coelo fulmen, sceptrumque tyrannis,"

was written by Turgot, Louis XVI.'s minister and controller-general of
finance. This verse, however, so happily applied to the American
philosopher and statesman's double title to renown, is merely the
modification of one in the _Anti-Lucretius_ of Cardinal Polignac, the
37th of the first book, "Eripuitgue Jovi fulmen, Phoeboque sagittas,"
which again had for its model that of Marcus Manilius, a poet of the
Augustan age. It is the 104th of his _Astronomicon_, where he says of
Epicurus (lib. v.), "Eripuitque Jovi fulmen, viresque Tonanti." This
appears to be the original source of the phrase, so far as I could trace
it. Turgot, though highly appreciated by his sovereign, and promoted to
the prime ministry in consequence, was only suffered to hold the
responsible situation for a short time, from August, 1774, to May, 1776,
when he fell a sacrifice to court intrigues, which the weak king had not
the energy to resist, while emphatically saying, "Il n'y a que Turgot et
moi qui aimions le peuple." This eminent statesman's advocacy of the
freedom of commerce, state economy, and general liberty of the subject,
exposed him not only to courtly but to popular hostility. The French
were certainly ill prepared for such innovations on their policy or
habits, nor, I may add, even now, notwithstanding the constantly
alternating schemes of government, from despotic to constitutional, in
the long interposed period, do they appear fully to appreciate, or
anxious to introduce these desirable improvements.

    J. R. (Cork.)

_Job_ (Vol. v., p. 26.).--The Rev. T. R. BROWNE interprets one of the
Persepolitan inscriptions as representing the coronation and titles of
Job. As no previous commentator had supposed Job to be a Persian prince,
and as (among other unexpected results) it would follow that the poem
bearing his name was a translation into Hebrew by some unknown hand, I
hastened at once to the Bodleian to examine the authorities on which MR.
BROWNE bases his interpretation.

On one glance at the work cited (_Kaempferi Amoenitatum Exoticarum
Fasciculi V._) it was plain enough that Kaempfer had made his
transcription so carelessly, that barely _one letter in a hundred_ was
correct; and, on turning to Niebuhr's copy of the same inscription
(plate xxiv. A.), and to Porter's (vol. i. plate xliv. p. 631.), my
suspicions were amply confirmed. But the most singular part was to come.
Aided by the minute identifications which MR. BROWNE gives of the words
which he translates, _Aiub taij_, I discovered that the reverend
gentleman had mistaken two letters for two words. His whole theory,
therefore, falls to the ground.

As some of your readers may like to know the real interpretation of this
inscription, I give the translation of Rawlinson as amended from
Westergaard's notes, and which is undoubtedly correct:

  "The great God Ormazd, who has given this world, who has given
  that heaven, who has given mankind, who has given life to mankind;
  who has made Xerxes king, both the king of the people, and the
  law-giver of the people. I am Xerxes the king, the great king, the
  king of kings, the king of many-peopled countries, the supporter
  also of this great world, the son of King Darius the Achæmenian,"


_Poniatowski Gems_ (Vol. v., pp. 30. 65.).--I thank M--N for his note,
but it does not at all afford the information I seek. My Query referred
to the _original_ sale in London of the gems. Lord Monson's collection,
to which M--N refers, was, I believe, purchased by his lordship from a
dealer who bought them at the original sale, the date of which I seek.

    A. O. O. D.

_Sleck Stone, Meaning of_ (Vol. iii., p. 241.; Vol. iv., p. 394.).--The
expression _sleck-stone_ has, I think twice, been spoken of in "N. & Q."
as equivalent to whet-stone: this is a mistake. The first word is
possibly misprinted in the work in which it is found, but at all events
the thing intended is a _sleek-stone_ (Old Fr. _Calendrine_) an
implement formerly used by calendrers; often, if not always, made of
glass, and in shape much like a large mushroom: it is used reversed, the
stalk forming the handle. Those which I have seen were about four inches
in diameter, some more and some less. Sleek-stones are now, I believe,
entirely superseded by machinery.

    R. C. H.

_Bishop Bridgeman_ (Vol. v., p. 80.).--The matriculation registers of
the University of Cambridge, could MR. CLAY ascertain the year Bridgeman
entered (and this might be found by searching them), will give his age
at that time, the Christian names of his parents, and their place of
residence. I do not know whether it is the case at Cambridge, but at
Oxford one has to pay half a guinea for an extract from the archives.
Surely these important records should be more accessible to the student
in this respect.


_Bow Bell_ (Vol. v., p. 28.).--In _Eastward Hoe_, by Ben Jonson, John
Marston, and George Chapman, printed 1605, Girtred, the proud daughter
of the citizen Touchstone (Act I. Sc. 1.), taunts her modest sister
Mildred, who is endeavoring to check her arrogant manner, with the
scornful expression "Bow Bell!" evidently intending to reproach her as a
Cockney. She afterwards asks her intended husband, Sir Petronel Flash,
to carry her out of the scent of Newcastle coal and the hearing of Bow

    W. S. S.

_Fees for Inoculation_ (Vol. iv., p. 231.).--For the information of R.
W. B. I beg to send you the following extract from the vestry-book of
this parish:

  "22 Jan. 1772.

  "It is further ordered that such of the poor persons belonging to
  this parish who like to be inoculated for the small-pox may be
  inoculated at the expence of this parish, not exceeding five
  shillings and threepence each person, provided it is done within
  six weeks of the date hereof. And that each person to be
  inoculated shall first produce a certificate under the hands of
  one justice and one churchwarden to the inoculating surgeon, and
  that the parish shall not pay for any one inoculated without such
  certificate of the person belonging to Maidstone."



_Salting of Infants_ (Vol. v., p. 76.).--

  "Thou wast not salted at all."

  "_Et saliendo non salita eras._"

  "Tenera infantium corpora dum adhuc uteri calorem tenent, et primo
  vagitu laboriosæ vitæ testantur exordia, solent ab obstetricibus
  sale contingi, ut sicciora sint et restringantur."--_Hieronymus._

  "Observat et Galenus _De Sanit._, i. 7.: '_Sale modico insperso
  cutem infantis densiorem solidioremque reddi._'"--_Rosenmuller_ ad

    C. B.

_Age of Trees_ (Vol. v., p. 8.).--Living near the Forest of Dean, I wish
to state that it is not known that any trees exist there which can
possibly be of anything approaching to the age of Edward III.; that the
word _forbid_ savours of a reservation of timber for the use of the
mines, if the privileges of the free-miners can really be carried back
to that time. The intelligence in Pepys was derived from Sir John
Winter, the person who bought the whole forest in perpetuity from
Charles I., but was allowed by Charles II. only to make the most of it
he could in his own time. Some trees may have survived the smash which
he made, but they must either have been young, or worthless from age or

    C. B.

_Objective and Subjective_ (Vol. v., p. 11.).--I would beg to refer X.
to the first of the five _Sermons_ by W. H. Mill, D.D., preached before
the University of Cambridge, in Lent, 1844. When he has carefully
perused it, he will be enlightened as to the precise meaning of the
terms _objective_ and _subjective_; being made aware that there is one
great _object_ of faith, though, with some writers, the _subject_, man,
may be made the most prominent. X. will there find that what he styles
"exoteric jargon" has, in the hands of so judicious a writer and so
excellent a divine as Dr. Mill, been "translated into intelligible

    J. H. M.

_Parish Registers_ (Vol. v., p. 36.).--I am sorry not to be able to
agree with MR. CHADWICK in thinking "that no fee is legally payable for
searching the register-books of baptisms and burials, nor even for
making a copy," &c. It is quite certain that even parishioners have no
_right_ to inspect the parish books, except for ordinary parochial
purposes. In the case of Rex _v._ Smallpiece, 2 Chitt. _Rep._ 288., Lord
Tenterden said, "I know of no rule of law which requires the parish
officers to show the books, in order to gratify the curiosity of a
private individual." Therefore the "genealogical or archæological
inquirer" has in general no _right_ to inspect, much less copy the
register-books: consequently he must pay the fees demanded for being
allowed to do so.

    J. G.


_"'Tis Tuppence now," &c._ (Vol. iv., pp. 314. 372.).--The lines quoted
by FANNY I immediately recognised as Thomas Ingoldsby's. On the
appearance of REMIGUS' Query, I looked through the _Ingoldsby Legends_
as the most likely place to find the lines in, but failed, in
consequence of an alteration of the last stanza, which in my edition
(the third, 1842) runs thus:

      "I thought on Naseby, Marston Moor, on Worc'ster's 'crowning
      When on mine ear a sound there fell, it chill'd me with affright,
      As thus in low unearthly tones I heard a voice begin,
      'This here's the cap of Giniral Monk! Sir, please put summut in!'"

      "_Cætera desiderantur_," _Ingoldsby Legends_, 2nd Series, pp. 119,


  Saffron Walden.

_Chatterbox_ (Vol. iv., p. 344.).--I doubt whether your correspondent J.
M. will succeed in limiting the term _chatter-box_ to the female sex.
His rendering _buxom_ by _womanly_ will hardly stand the test of
criticism. In the old matrimonial service, as elsewhere, it originally
signified _obedient_, _compliant_, and was equivalent to the German
_biegsam_. It was applied indifferently to men and women. Thus, in
Chaucer's _Shipmanne's Tale_--

      "They wolden that hir _husbondes_ shulden be
      Hardy and wise and riche, and thereto free,
      And _buxom_ to his wife, and fresh a-bed."

And in the _Clerke's Tale_, speaking of the vassals,

      "And they with humble heart ful _buxomly_,
      Kneeling upon hir knees ful reverently,
      Him thonken all."

The peasantry in Cheshire, instead of chatter-_box_, say

    E. A.

_Churchill the Poet_ (Vol. v., p. 74.).--If Churchill was, as C.R.
states, "already imprudently married," how could he be eligible to a
scholarship in Trinity? I believe, in Churchill's days, a Westminster
scholar was entitled, as of course, to a Fellowship in Trinity. Married
men, as undergraduates, are, I suspect, of recent date in the
universities, even as Fellow Commoners or Pensioners.


_Hieroglyphics of Vagrants and Criminals_ (Vol. v., p. 79.).--Consult
Mayhew's _London Labour and London Poor_ for an elucidation of these


_Paring the Nails_ (Vol. iii., p. 462.).--The following Rabbinical
quotation on the subject of paring the nails, is certainly curious as
bearing on the superstitions connected with the nails:

  "Ungues comburit sanctus; justus sepelit eos; impius vero spargit
  in publicum, ut maleficæ iis abutantur."--_Nidda_, 17. 1.

    W. FRASER.



Murray's _Official Handbook of Church and State, containing the Names,
Duties, and Powers of the principal Civil, Military, Judicial, and
Ecclesiastical Authorities of the United Kingdom and Colonies; with
Lists of the Members of the Legislature, Peers, Baronets, &c._, is, as
to its objects, sufficiently described by its ample title-page. An
examination of its pages will show the great amount of information
illustrative of the rise, nature, and peculiar duties of the numerous
branches of the executive government of this vast empire, which the
editor justly claims the credit of having sought for from various
sources, and now for the first time gathered together. It must soon,
therefore, find its way on to the desks of all men in office--not indeed
as superseding the old Red Books and Official Calendars--but as an
indispensable companion to them.

When speaking of the translation of Huc's _Travels in Tartary, Thibet,
and China_, which we noticed some few weeks since, we gave our readers
the best possible evidence of the value of the work. That Messrs.
Longman have done wisely in including a condensed translation of these
interesting _Recollections of a Journey through Tartary, Thibet, and
China_, from the practised pen of Mrs. Percy Sinnett, in their
_Traveller's Library_, we cannot therefore doubt; and we shall be much
surprised if the book does not prove to be one of the most popular in
the admirable series of which it forms the 14th and 15th Parts.

By way of answering the inquiry of a correspondent, and for the purpose
of forwarding the very admirable and important objects of _The
Chronological Institute_, we have procured a copy of the prospectus
which has been circulated by its projectors, and have inserted it in
full in our advertising columns.



FIELDING'S WORKS. 14 Vols. 1808. Vol XI. [Being 2nd of Amelia].

SHADWELL. Vols. II. and IV. 1720.


BARONETAGE. Vol. I. 1720.

Ditto. Vols. I. and II. 1727.

CHAMBERLAYNE'S PHARONNIDA. (Reprint.) Vols. I. and II. 1820.


ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA. Vol. I. Third edition, published in 1794,
Edinburgh, for A. Bell.


GIBBON'S DECLINE AND FALL. Vol. II. Dublin. Luke White. 1789.


SPENSER'S WORKS. Pickering's edition, 1839. Sm. 8vo. Vol. V.


ARISTOPHANES, Bekker. (5 Vols. edit.) Vol. II. London, 1829.

LYDGATE'S BOKE OF TROYE. 4to. 1555. (Any fragment.)

COLERIDGE'S TABLE TALK. Vol. I. Murray. 1835.

THE BARBERS (a poem), by W. Hutton. 8vo. 1793. (Original edition, not
the fac-simile.)

Edw. Stillingfleet, Bishop of Worcester, edited by William Cunningham,
Min. Edinburgh.

OF ROME, with an Answer to them, by John Williams, M.A.

DODD'S CERTAMEN UTRIUSQUE ECCLESIÆ; or a List of all the Eminent
Writers, Catholics and Protestants, since the Reformation. 1724.

THE SALE CATALOGUE of J.T. Brockett's Library of British and Foreign
History, &c. 1823.



Copies are wanting, and it is believed that many are lying in London or



A SERMON preached at Fulham in 1810 by the Rev. JOHN OWEN of Paglesham,
on the death of Mrs. Prowse, Wicken Park, Northamptonshire (Hatchard).


Appendix, by David Stokes. Oxford, 1668.

  [Star symbol] Letters, stating particulars and lowest price,
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Notices to Correspondents.

A. W. H. _Bishop Jewel's well-known_ Apology _is no doubt the work
referred to._

N. J. B. _We cannot undertake to insert Queries on points of law._

X. G. X., _who inquires how the word "premises" came to be used of a
house and its adjuncts, is referred to our_ 4th Vol. p. 487.

S. K. (North Wilts). _Lord Stair not the executioner of Charles I. See
Answer to Correspondents last week._

R. D. H. _We are not aware of any cheap_ ANNUAL REGISTER, _unless_ The
Household Narrative of Current Events _(published monthly in twopenny
numbers, and in annual volumes at three shillings) may be so considered.
It is a work executed with great ability, and written in the lively
style which our correspondent so desires._

G. P. P. _We cannot trace the queries respecting De Pratelli's and
Prestwich's_ Republica _as having been received by us._

A. A. D. _The book referred to was Whitaker's._

G. W. R. _Manlove's_ Rhymed Chronicle _is published by Shaw and Sons,
Fetter Lane, and noticed by us in our Notes on Books, &c.,_ No. 116.
_The addition of the price to our Notices of New Books would convert
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EVANS' BALLADS _may be had on application to the publisher._

J. B. HARRISON. _The writer of the tract,_ The Holy Table, Name and
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_by Bede and the early chroniclers. St. Augustine's Abbey was originally
consecrated to St. Peter and St. Paul._

REPLIES RECEIVED.--_History of Brittany--Donkey--Theoloneum--Lord
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to their Subscribers on the Saturday._

THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE for FEBRUARY 1852, contains: 1. Alfred and his
place in the History of England. 2. Wanderings of an Antiquary, by
Thomas Wright, F.S.A. Roman Cities on the Welsh Border (with
Engravings). 3. A Paper on Puppets. 4. Letters of Mrs. Piozzi, on her
Anecdotes of Johnson. 5. Ulrich von Hutten, Part VI. 6. Skirmish at
Penrith in 1745. 7. The Life of T. Stothard, R.A. 8. Letter of Lord
Byron, denying the Authorship of The Vampire. 9. Correspondence of
Sylvanus Urban: Whifflers in Norwich and in London (with Engravings).
Baronial Title granted to a Portuguese by Charles II. The ancient Timber
Houses of Coventry. Palimpsest Sepulchral Brass found at Norwich. The
OBITUARY contains Memoirs of 1. The Earl of Suffolk; 2. Sir John Cope,
Bart.; 3. Sir John Gladstone, Bart.; 4. Sir W. B. Cooke, Bart.; 5.
General Sir F. P. Robinson; 6. Lieut. Gen. Sir G. A. Quentin; 7.
Rear-Adm. Daly; 8. Matthias Attwood, Esq.; 9. Charles Hoare, Esq.; 10.
Rev. Dr. Sadleir, Provost of Dublin; 11. Rev. Mr. Canon Tyler; 12. Rev.
Dr. Ellerton; 13. Professor Dunbar of Edinburgh; 14. Mr. Russell of
Birmingham; 15. J. M. W. Turner, R.A.; 16. R. C. Taylor, Esq.; 17. Mr.
Hudson Turner, &c. &c.

  J. B. NICHOLS & SON, 25. Parliament Street.

The very interesting and curious Library of the Hon. Archd. FRASER, of
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  Literary Property, and Works illustrative of the Fine Arts, will
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  MONDAY, February 9th, 1852, and Three following Days, at One
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  Library of the Hon. Archd. FRASER, of Lovat, LL.D., F.R.S., and
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  collection includes, among other rare and interesting volumes,
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  1484, one of the rarest productions from his press, only three
  other copies being known; a very interesting copy of the Works of
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  to his patron, Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset; Le Jardin de
  Plaisance et Fleur de Rethoricque, fine copy in old russia of an
  interesting and rare Collection of Popular French Histories,
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Now ready, Price 25_s._, Second Edition, revised and corrected.
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  CONTENTS: Miscellaneous Poems; Criticism on the style of Lord
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      OF THE
      OF LONDON.

  In the present state of human knowledge, there are few sciences in
  which so great difficulties appear, or so great differences of
  opinion prevail, among the principal authors who have treated of
  it, as in Chronology. It hath been justly styled "one of the eyes"
  of History: yet its vision is indistinct, with regard to many of
  its most important objects. So far as it is a mathematical
  science, it is capable of the utmost exactness; but the historical
  data, on which its calculations must depend, are not yet
  sufficiently ascertained and collected for that purpose. Hence the
  imperfect and unsatisfactory state of this useful science.

  The application of the principle of the division of labour hath
  caused the establishment of various societies, for the special
  cultivation and promotion of distinct branches of science. Among
  these, Geography, "the other eye" of History, hath long enjoyed
  the advantage of a public institution. Astronomy also, which more
  than any other science, except History, is connected with
  Chronology, hath obtained the like distinction; notwithstanding
  the fact that the most important discoveries of modern astronomers
  had been as by a peculiar prerogative, communicated to the Royal
  Society, the noble parent of literary and scientific societies in
  this country. Chronology indeed, if regarded as a branch of
  historical science, finds a home in the institutions which are
  devoted to archæology: but so far as it may be considered
  mathematical, it meets with little or no attention among
  associated antiquaries.

  Although there exist numerous works, in every department of
  Chronological inquiry, and in various languages, yet some few only
  of them are generally known to chronological students. To collect,
  arrange, and describe them is highly desirable: for the world hath
  not, as yet, been presented with the bibliography of this science.
  Hence the imperfections and errors which exist in the greater part
  of modern publications on this subject.

  To promote, therefore, a more comprehensive acquaintance with
  chronological literature, and a more exact study of this science,
  both historically and mathematically, as well as to establish a
  medium of intercommunication among Chronologers and other studious
  and learned persons throughout the world, and by such means to
  enlarge the compass of comparative Chronology, this Institute hath
  been founded; and the friendly co-operation is invited of all
  persons who are interested in this science, whether their
  predilections be in favour of its astronomical, or its antiquarian
  departments: in short, whether they be Bibliographers, Critics,
  Historians, or Philosophers.

  The Chronological Institute was founded at the winter solstice of
  1850, and already numbers among its Members, several Antiquaries,
  Astronomers, Archivists, and Authors. The annual subscription is
  five shillings, without at present any admission fee.

  Ladies and gentlemen, desirous of becoming Ordinary Members, are
  requested to send their names and address, with their literary,
  scientific, or official descriptions, to any one of the officers,
  by whom they will be duly laid before the council: and, if
  approved, their election will be notified to them.

  Eminent foreign scholars, and men of science, known to be
  conversant with Chronology, will be requested to accept diplomas,
  and to render their valuable aid by correspondence with the


  I. That the Chronological Institute of London shall consist of a
  Treasurer, Secretary, and Registrar, and (when deemed expedient)
  of a President; also of a Council, and other Members.

  II. That the Members shall be either Ordinary or Honorary: the
  former contributing to the support, and having a voice in the
  government of the Institute; the latter not having such

  III. That the object of the Institute shall be to promote
  Chronological Science, by literary contributions, by collecting
  and diffusing information, by interchange of correspondence, by
  lectures on Chronology and its various branches and applications,
  and by the publication or encouragement of Chronological works.

  London, 22d December, 1851.


  _Treasurer_--John Lee, Esq., LL.D., F.R.S., &c., Doctors' Commons,
  London, and Hartwell, Bucks.

  _Registrar_--Sir William Betham, Knt., M.R.I.A., &c., Ulster King
  at Arms, Dublin Castle.

  _Secretary_--William Henry Black, Assistant Keeper of the Public
  Records, Rolls House, London.


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      [Transcriber's Note: List of volumes and content pages in "Notes
      and Queries", Vol. I.-V.]

      | Notes and Queries Vol. I.                                   |
      | Vol., No.     | Date, Year        | Pages     | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. I No.  1 | November  3, 1849 |   1 -  17 | PG #  8603  |
      | Vol. I No.  2 | November 10, 1849 |  18 -  32 | PG # 11265  |
      | Vol. I No.  3 | November 17, 1849 |  33 -  46 | PG # 11577  |
      | Vol. I No.  4 | November 24, 1849 |  49 -  63 | PG # 13513  |
      | Vol. I No.  5 | December  1, 1849 |  65 -  80 | PG # 11636  |
      | Vol. I No.  6 | December  8, 1849 |  81 -  95 | PG # 13550  |
      | Vol. I No.  7 | December 15, 1849 |  97 - 112 | PG # 11651  |
      | Vol. I No.  8 | December 22, 1849 | 113 - 128 | PG # 11652  |
      | Vol. I No.  9 | December 29, 1849 | 130 - 144 | PG # 13521  |
      | Vol. I No. 10 | January   5, 1850 | 145 - 160 | PG #        |
      | Vol. I No. 11 | January  12, 1850 | 161 - 176 | PG # 11653  |
      | Vol. I No. 12 | January  19, 1850 | 177 - 192 | PG # 11575  |
      | Vol. I No. 13 | January  26, 1850 | 193 - 208 | PG # 11707  |
      | Vol. I No. 14 | February  2, 1850 | 209 - 224 | PG # 13558  |
      | Vol. I No. 15 | February  9, 1850 | 225 - 238 | PG # 11929  |
      | Vol. I No. 16 | February 16, 1850 | 241 - 256 | PG # 16193  |
      | Vol. I No. 17 | February 23, 1850 | 257 - 271 | PG # 12018  |
      | Vol. I No. 18 | March     2, 1850 | 273 - 288 | PG # 13544  |
      | Vol. I No. 19 | March     9, 1850 | 289 - 309 | PG # 13638  |
      | Vol. I No. 20 | March    16, 1850 | 313 - 328 | PG # 16409  |
      | Vol. I No. 21 | March    23, 1850 | 329 - 343 | PG # 11958  |
      | Vol. I No. 22 | March    30, 1850 | 345 - 359 | PG # 12198  |
      | Vol. I No. 23 | April     6, 1850 | 361 - 376 | PG # 12505  |
      | Vol. I No. 24 | April    13, 1850 | 377 - 392 | PG # 13925  |
      | Vol. I No. 25 | April    20, 1850 | 393 - 408 | PG # 13747  |
      | Vol. I No. 26 | April    27, 1850 | 409 - 423 | PG # 13822  |
      | Vol. I No. 27 | May       4, 1850 | 425 - 447 | PG # 13712  |
      | Vol. I No. 28 | May      11, 1850 | 449 - 463 | PG # 13684  |
      | Vol. I No. 29 | May      18, 1850 | 465 - 479 | PG # 15197  |
      | Vol. I No. 30 | May      25, 1850 | 481 - 495 | PG # 13713  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. II.                                  |
      | Vol., No.      | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. II No. 31 | June  1, 1850      |   1- 15 | PG # 12589  |
      | Vol. II No. 32 | June  8, 1850      |  17- 32 | PG # 15996  |
      | Vol. II No. 33 | June 15, 1850      |  33- 48 | PG # 26121  |
      | Vol. II No. 34 | June 22, 1850      |  49- 64 | PG # 22127  |
      | Vol. II No. 35 | June 29, 1850      |  65- 79 | PG # 22126  |
      | Vol. II No. 36 | July  6, 1850      |  81- 96 | PG # 13361  |
      | Vol. II No. 37 | July 13, 1850      |  97-112 | PG # 13729  |
      | Vol. II No. 38 | July 20, 1850      | 113-128 | PG # 13362  |
      | Vol. II No. 39 | July 27, 1850      | 129-143 | PG # 13736  |
      | Vol. II No. 40 | August  3, 1850    | 145-159 | PG # 13389  |
      | Vol. II No. 41 | August 10, 1850    | 161-176 | PG # 13393  |
      | Vol. II No. 42 | August 17, 1850    | 177-191 | PG # 13411  |
      | Vol. II No. 43 | August 24, 1850    | 193-207 | PG # 13406  |
      | Vol. II No. 44 | August 31, 1850    | 209-223 | PG # 13426  |
      | Vol. II No. 45 | September  7, 1850 | 225-240 | PG # 13427  |
      | Vol. II No. 46 | September 14, 1850 | 241-256 | PG # 13462  |
      | Vol. II No. 47 | September 21, 1850 | 257-272 | PG # 13936  |
      | Vol. II No. 48 | September 28, 1850 | 273-288 | PG # 13463  |
      | Vol. II No. 49 | October  5, 1850   | 289-304 | PG # 13480  |
      | Vol. II No. 50 | October 12, 1850   | 305-320 | PG # 13551  |
      | Vol. II No. 51 | October 19, 1850   | 321-351 | PG # 15232  |
      | Vol. II No. 52 | October 26, 1850   | 353-367 | PG # 22624  |
      | Vol. II No. 53 | November  2, 1850  | 369-383 | PG # 13540  |
      | Vol. II No. 54 | November  9, 1850  | 385-399 | PG # 22138  |
      | Vol. II No. 55 | November 16, 1850  | 401-415 | PG # 15216  |
      | Vol. II No. 56 | November 23, 1850  | 417-431 | PG # 15354  |
      | Vol. II No. 57 | November 30, 1850  | 433-454 | PG # 15405  |
      | Vol. II No. 58 | December  7, 1850  | 457-470 | PG # 21503  |
      | Vol. II No. 59 | December 14, 1850  | 473-486 | PG # 15427  |
      | Vol. II No. 60 | December 21, 1850  | 489-502 | PG # 24803  |
      | Vol. II No. 61 | December 28, 1850  | 505-524 | PG # 16404  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. III.                                 |
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. III No. 62 | January  4, 1851  |   1- 15 | PG # 15638  |
      | Vol. III No. 63 | January 11, 1851  |  17- 31 | PG # 15639  |
      | Vol. III No. 64 | January 18, 1851  |  33- 47 | PG # 15640  |
      | Vol. III No. 65 | January 25, 1851  |  49- 78 | PG # 15641  |
      | Vol. III No. 66 | February  1, 1851 |  81- 95 | PG # 22339  |
      | Vol. III No. 67 | February  8, 1851 |  97-111 | PG # 22625  |
      | Vol. III No. 68 | February 15, 1851 | 113-127 | PG # 22639  |
      | Vol. III No. 69 | February 22, 1851 | 129-159 | PG # 23027  |
      | Vol. III No. 70 | March  1, 1851    | 161-174 | PG # 23204  |
      | Vol. III No. 71 | March  8, 1851    | 177-200 | PG # 23205  |
      | Vol. III No. 72 | March 15, 1851    | 201-215 | PG # 23212  |
      | Vol. III No. 73 | March 22, 1851    | 217-231 | PG # 23225  |
      | Vol. III No. 74 | March 29, 1851    | 233-255 | PG # 23282  |
      | Vol. III No. 75 | April  5, 1851    | 257-271 | PG # 23402  |
      | Vol. III No. 76 | April 12, 1851    | 273-294 | PG # 26896  |
      | Vol. III No. 77 | April 19, 1851    | 297-311 | PG # 26897  |
      | Vol. III No. 78 | April 26, 1851    | 313-342 | PG # 26898  |
      | Vol. III No. 79 | May  3, 1851      | 345-359 | PG # 26899  |
      | Vol. III No. 80 | May 10, 1851      | 361-382 | PG # 32495  |
      | Vol. III No. 81 | May 17, 1851      | 385-399 | PG # 29318  |
      | Vol. III No. 82 | May 24, 1851      | 401-415 | PG # 28311  |
      | Vol. III No. 83 | May 31, 1851      | 417-440 | PG # 36835  |
      | Vol. III No. 84 | June  7, 1851     | 441-472 | PG # 37379  |
      | Vol. III No. 85 | June 14, 1851     | 473-488 | PG # 37403  |
      | Vol. III No. 86 | June 21, 1851     | 489-511 | PG # 37496  |
      | Vol. III No. 87 | June 28, 1851     | 513-528 | PG # 37516  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. IV.                                  |
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx |
      | Vol. IV No.  88 | July  5, 1851      |   1- 15 | PG # 37548 |
      | Vol. IV No.  89 | July 12, 1851      |  17- 31 | PG # 37568 |
      | Vol. IV No.  90 | July 19, 1851      |  33- 47 | PG # 37593 |
      | Vol. IV No.  91 | July 26, 1851      |  49- 79 | PG # 37778 |
      | Vol. IV No.  92 | August  2, 1851    |  81- 94 | PG # 38324 |
      | Vol. IV No.  93 | August  9, 1851    |  97-112 | PG # 38337 |
      | Vol. IV No.  94 | August 16, 1851    | 113-127 | PG # 38350 |
      | Vol. IV No.  95 | August 23, 1851    | 129-144 | PG # 38386 |
      | Vol. IV No.  96 | August 30, 1851    | 145-167 | PG # 38405 |
      | Vol. IV No.  97 | Sept.  6, 1851     | 169-183 | PG # 38433 |
      | Vol. IV No.  98 | Sept. 13, 1851     | 185-200 | PG # 38491 |
      | Vol. IV No.  99 | Sept. 20, 1851     | 201-216 | PG # 38574 |
      | Vol. IV No. 100 | Sept. 27, 1851     | 217-246 | PG # 38656 |
      | Vol. IV No. 101 | Oct.  4, 1851      | 249-264 | PG # 38701 |
      | Vol. IV No. 102 | Oct. 11, 1851      | 265-287 | PG # 38773 |
      | Vol. IV No. 103 | Oct. 18, 1851      | 289-303 | PG # 38864 |
      | Vol. IV No. 104 | Oct. 25, 1851      | 305-333 | PG # 38926 |
      | Vol. IV No. 105 | Nov.  1, 1851      | 337-358 | PG # 39076 |
      | Vol. IV No. 106 | Nov.  8, 1851      | 361-374 | PG # 39091 |
      | Vol. IV No. 107 | Nov. 15, 1851      | 377-396 | PG # 39135 |
      | Vol. IV No. 108 | Nov. 22, 1851      | 401-414 | PG # 39197 |
      | Vol. IV No. 109 | Nov. 29, 1851      | 417-430 | PG # 39233 |
      | Vol. IV No. 110 | Dec.  6, 1851      | 433-460 | PG # 39338 |
      | Vol. IV No. 111 | Dec. 13, 1851      | 465-478 | PG # 39393 |
      | Vol. IV No. 112 | Dec. 20, 1851      | 481-494 | PG # 39438 |
      | Vol. IV No. 113 | Dec. 27, 1851      | 497-510 | PG # 39503 |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. V.                                   |
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         |  Pages  | PG # xxxxx |
      | Vol. V  No. 114 | January  3, 1852   |  1- 18  | PG # 40171 |
      | Vol. V  No. 115 | January 10, 1852   | 25- 45  | PG # 40582 |
      | Vol. V  No. 116 | January 17, 1852   | 49- 70  | PG # 40642 |
      | Vol. V  No. 117 | January 24, 1852   | 73- 94  | PG # 40678 |
      | Vol. V  No. 118 | January 31, 1852   | 97-118  | PG # 40716 |
      | Vol I. Index. [Nov. 1849-May 1850]             | PG # 13536 |
      | INDEX TO THE SECOND VOLUME. MAY-DEC., 1850     | PG # 13571 |
      | INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. JAN.-JUNE, 1851     | PG # 26770 |
      | INDEX TO THE FOURTH VOLUME. JULY-DEC., 1851    | PG # 40166 |

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. V, Number 119, February 7, 1852 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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