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Title: Notes and Queries, Vol. V, Number 120, February 14, 1852 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. V, Number 120, February 14, 1852 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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[Transcriber's note: Original spelling variations have not been
standardized. Ϲ (Greek Capital Lunate Sigma Symbol) rather than Σ has
been used in some words to reproduce the characters exactly; Hebrew
characters have been represented as printed. Underscores have been
used to indicate _italic_ fonts. A list of volumes and pages in
"Notes and Queries" has been added at the end.]



NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION

FOR

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--Captain Cuttle.

VOL. V.--No. 120. SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 14. 1852.

Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition, 5_d._



CONTENTS.

                                                                Page


      NOTES:--

      The Old Countess of Desmond                                145

      The Imperial Eagle of France                               147

      Folk Lore:--Valentine's Day--Nottingham Hornblowing--Bee
      Superstitions; Blessing Apple-trees;
      "A Neck! a Neck!"--Hooping Cough                           148

      Note on the Coins of Vabalathus                            148

      The Agnomen of "Brother Jonathan," of Masonic

      Minor Notes:--Hippopotamus, Behemoth--Curious
      Inscription--Coins of Edward III. struck at Antwerp
      in 1337                                                    149

      QUERIES:--

      Is the Walrus found in the Baltic?                         150

      English Free Towns, by J. H. Parker                        150

      Minor Queries:--Bishop Hall's Resolutions--Mother
      Huff and Mother Damnable--Sir Samuel Garth--German's
      Lips--Richard Leveridge--Thomas Durfey--Audley
      Family--Ink--Mistletoe excluded from
      Churches--Blind taught to read--Hyrne, Meaning of--The
      fairest Attendant of the Scottish Queen--"Soud,
      soud, soud, soud!"--Key Experiments--Shield
      of Hercules--"Sum Liber, et non sum," &c.                  150

      MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--Whipping a Husband;
      Hudibras--Aldus--"The last links are broken"--Under
      Weigh or Way--The Pope's Eye--"History
      is Philosophy"                                             152

      REPLIES:--

      Coverdale's Bible, by George Offor                         153

      "As Stars with Trains of Fire," &c.,
      by Samuel Hickson                                          154

      Dials, Dial Mottoes, &c.                                   155

      Can Bishops vacate their Sees?                             156

      Character of a True Churchman                              156

      Wearing Gloves in Presence of Royalty                      157

      Gospel Oaks                                                157

      The Pendulum Demonstration                                 158

      Expurgated Quaker Bible, by Archdeacon Cotton              158

      Junius Rumours                                             159

      Wady Mokatteb not mentioned in Num. xi. 26.,
      by Rev. Dr. Todd                                           159

      Replies to Minor Queries:--Rotten Row--"Preached from a
      Pulpit rather than a Tub"--Olivarius--Slavery in Scotland
      --Cibber's Lives of the Poets--Theoloneum--John of
      Padua--Stoke--Eliza Fenning--Ghost Stories--Autographs of
      Weever and Fuller--Lines on the Bible--Hell-rake--Family
      Likenesses--Grimsdyke--Portraits of Wolfe, &c.             160

      MISCELLANEOUS:--

      Notes on Books, &c.                                        166

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted                               166

      Notices to Correspondents                                  167

      Advertisements                                             167



Notes.


THE OLD COUNTESS OF DESMOND.

(_Continued from_ Vol. iv., p. 426.)

I feel much obliged to J. H. M., who writes from Bath, and has directed
my attention to Horace Walpole's "minute inquiry" respecting the "Old
Countess of Desmond," as also to "Pennant's Tours," all which I have had
opportunity of examining since I wrote to you last. The references do
not incline me to alter one word of the opinion I have ventured as to
the identity of this lady; on the contrary, with the utmost respect for
his name and services to the cause of antiquarian research, I propose to
show that Horace Walpole (whose interest in the question was, by his own
confession, but incidental, and ancillary to his historic inquiries into
the case of Richard III., and who had no direct data to go on) knew
nothing of the matter, and was quite mistaken as to the individual.

Before I proceed on this daring undertaking, I beg to say, that an
inspection of Pennant's print, called "The Old Countess of Desmond,"
_satisfies_ me that it is _not_ taken from a duplicate picture of that
in possession of the Knight of Kerry: though there certainly is a
resemblance in the faces of the two portraits, yet the differences are
many and decisive. Pennant says that there are "four other pictures in
Great Britain in the same dress, and without any difference of feature,"
besides that at Dupplin Castle, from which his print was copied; but
that of the Knight of Kerry must be reckoned as a sixth portrait, taken
at a _much more advanced period_ of life: in it the wrinkles and
features denote _extreme_ old age. The head-dresses are markedly
different, that of Pennant being a _cloth_ hood lying back from the face
in folds; in the Knight of Kerry's, the head-dress is more like a beaver
bonnet standing forward from the head, and throwing the face somewhat
into shade. In Pennant's, the cloak is plainly fastened by leathern
strap, somewhat after the manner of a laced shoe; in the other, the
fastening is a single button: but the difference most marked is this,
that the persons originally sitting for these pictures, looked opposite
ways, and, of course, presented different sides to the painter. So that,
in Pennant's plate, the _right side-face_ is forward; and in the other,
the left: therefore, these pictures are markedly and manifestly neither
the same, nor copies either of the other.

It does not concern us, in order to maintain the authority of our
_Irish_ picture, to follow up the question at issue between Pennant and
Walpole but I may here observe, that either must be wrong in an
important matter of fact. Walpole, in a note to his "Fugitive Pieces"
(Lord Orford's _Works_, vol. i. p. 210-17.), writes thus: "_Having by
permission of the Lord Chamberlain obtained a copy of the picture at
Windsor Castle, called The Countess of Desmond, I discovered that it is
not her portrait; on the back is written in an old hand, 'The Mother of
Rembrandt.'_" He then proceeds to prove the identity of this picture
with one given to King Charles I. by Sir Robert Car, "My Lord Ankrom"
(after Duke of Roxburg), and set down in the Windsor Catalogue as
"_Portrait of an old woman, with a great scarf on her head, by
Rembrandt_." Pennant's note differs from this in an essential
particular; he mentions this picture at Windsor Castle thus: "_This was
a present from Sir Robert Car, Earl of Roxburg, as is signified on the
back; above it is written with a pen,_ 'REMBRANDT' (not a word of his
_mother_), _which must be a mistake, for Rembrandt was not fourteen
years of age in 1614_, at a time when _it is certain (?) that the
Countess was not living, and ... it does not appear that he ever visited
England_."

The discrepancy of these two accounts is obvious--if it "_be written in
an old hand, 'The Mother of Rembrandt,'_" on the back of the picture, it
seems strange that Pennant should _omit_ the first three words; if they
be not so written, it seems equally strange that Walpole should venture
to _add_ them. I presume the picture at Windsor is still extant; and
probably some reader of "N. & Q." having access to it, will be so good
as to settle the question of accuracy and veracity between two
gentlemen, of whom one must be guilty of _suppressio veri_, or the other
of _suggestio falsi_.

Horace Walpole, or his editor, must have corrected his "Fugitive Pieces"
since the "Strawberry Hill edition," to which J. H. M. refers, was
printed; for in the edition I have consulted, instead of saying "I can
make no sense of the word _noie_," the meaning is correctly given in a
foot-note to the inscription; and the passage given by J. H. M. is
altogether omitted from the text.

I must now proceed in my bold attempt to show that Horace Walpole knew
nothing of a matter, into which he made a "minute inquiry." This may
seem presumptuous in a tyro towards one of the old masters of
antiquarian lore and research; but I plead in apology the great advance
of the science since Horace Walpole's days, and the greater plenty of
materials for forming or correcting a judgement. It has been well said,
that a single chapter of Mr. Charles Knight's _Old England_ would full
furnish and set up an antiquarian of the last century; and this is true,
such and so many are the advantages for obtaining information, which we
modern antiquaries possess over those who are gone before us; and
lastly, to quote old Fuller's quaintness, I would say that "a dwarf on a
giant's shoulders can see farther than he who carries him:" thus do I
explain and excuse my attempt to impugn the conclusion of Horace
Walpole.

Walpole's first conjectures applied to a Countess of Desmond, whose tomb
is at Sligo in Ireland, and who was widow to that _Gerald_, the
sixteenth earl, _ingens rebellibus exemplar_, who was outlawed, and
killed in the wood of _Glanagynty_, in the county of Kerry, A.D. 1583.
Walpole applied to an Irish correspondent for copies of the inscriptions
on her tomb; but we need not follow or discuss the supposition of her
identity with "the old Countess" further, for he himself abandons it,
and writes to his Irish correspondent thus:--"_The inscriptions you have
sent me have not cleared away the difficulties relating to the Countess
of Desmond; on the contrary, they make me doubt whether the lady
interred at Sligo was the person reported to have lived to such an
immense age._"

Well might he doubt it, for in no one particular could they be
identified: _e.g._ the lady buried at Sligo made her will in 1636, and
survived to 1656,--a date long beyond the latest assigned for the demise
of "the old Countess." Sir Walter Raleigh expressly says, "the old
Countess had _held her jointure from all the Earls of Desmond since the
time of Edward IV._," a description which could not apply to the widow
of a person who did not die until 1583, in the reign of Elizabeth. There
are many other _impossibilities_ in the case, discussed by Walpole, into
which it is unnecessary to follow him.

Walpole then reverts to the issue of Thomas, the sixth Earl of Desmond,
who was compelled to surrender his earldom, A.D. 1418, for making an
"inferior marriage;" and conjectures that "the old Countess" might have
been the wife of a grandson of his born 1452, or thereabouts, who would
be, as Walpole states, "a titular earl:" but this absurd supposition is
met by the fact of our "old Countess" enjoying a jointure from all the
earls _de facto_ in another line; a provision which the widow of an
adverse claimant to the earldom could hardly have made good.

Walpole's last conjecture, following the suggestion of Smith's _History
of Cork_, fixes on the widow of Thomas (_the twelfth earl_, according to
the careful pedigree of Sir William Betham, though Smith erroneously
calls him the thirteenth earl), and asserts the identity of the "old
Countess" with a _second_ wife, called "Catherine Fitzgerald of Dromana"
(the Dacres branch of the Geraldines): for this assertion Smith, in a
footnote, quotes "the Russel MSS.," and Walpole calls this "the most
positive evidence we have." Of the MSS. referred to, I can find no
further trace, and this "positive evidence" is weakened by the silence
of Lodge's _Peerage_ as to any second marriage of the earl in question,
while, on the contrary, he gives many probabilities against it. Thomas
(moyle, or bald), twelfth earl, succeeded to his nephew, James, the
eleventh earl, in 1529, being then in extreme age, and died in five
years after; he was the second brother of James, ninth earl, murdered in
1587--whose widow I affirm the old Countess to have been. Let us not
lose sight of the fact, that the "old Countess," by general consent, was
married in the reign of Edward IV., who died 1483. And I would ask, what
probability is there that a younger brother would be already married to
a _second wife_, in the lifetime of his elder brother, who is described
as murdered "while flourishing in wealth and power at the age of
twenty-nine years?" The supposition carries improbability on the face of
it; none of the genealogies mention this second marriage at all; and Dr.
Smith, whose county histories I have had particular occasion to examine,
was, though a diligent collector of _reports_, no antiquarian authority
to rely on. Above all, it is to be remembered, that Sir Walter Raleigh
calls her "_The old Countess of Desmond of_ INCHEQUIN:" this is in
itself proof, all but positive, that the lady was an _O'Bryen_, for none
other could have "part or lot" in the hereditary designation of that
family: hence I have no hesitation in adhering to the conclusion, which,
with slight correction of dates, I have adopted from accurate
authorities, that "MARGARET O'BRIEN, WIFE OF JAMES, NINTH EARL OF
DESMOND, WHO WAS MURDERED IN 1587, WAS THE GENUINE AND ONLY 'OLD
COUNTESS.'" Upon the only point on which I venture to correct my
authority, namely, as to the date of the earl's death, I find, on
reference to an older authority than any to which we have hitherto
referred, that my emendation is confirmed. In the Annals of the Four
Masters, compiled from more ancient documents still, in the year 1636, I
find, under the date 1487, the following: "The Earl of Desmond, James
Fitzgerald, was treacherously killed by his own people at Rathgeola
(Rathkeale, co. Limerick), at the instigation of his brother John."

    A. B. R.

  Belmont.


THE IMPERIAL EAGLE OF FRANCE.

On reading the _Times_ of the 7th ult. at our city library, in which the
following translation of a paragraph in the French journal, _Le
Constitutionnel_, appeared, application was made to me for an
explanation of that part where the Emperor Napoleon is represented as
stating, among other advantages of preferring an eagle to a cock as the
national emblem or ensign, which, during the ancient dynasty of France,
the latter had been--

  "_that it owes its origin to a pun._ I will not have the cock,
  said the Emperor; it lives on the dunghill, and allows itself to
  have its throat twisted by the fox. I will take the eagle, which
  bears the thunderbolt, and which can gaze on the sun. The French
  eagles shall make themselves respected, like the Roman eagles. The
  cock, besides, has the disadvantage of owing its origin to a pun,"
  &c.

Premising that the French journalist's object is to authorise the
present ruler of France's similar adoption and restoration of the noble
bird on the French standard by the example of his uncle, I briefly
stated the circumstance to which Napoleon, on this occasion, referred;
and as not unsuited, I should think, to your miscellany, I beg leave to
repeat it here.

In 1545, during the sitting of the Council of Trent, Peter Danes, one of
the most eminent ecclesiastics of France, who had been professor of
Greek, and filled several other consonant stations, appeared at the
memorable council as one of the French representatives. While there, his
colleague, Nicholas Pseaume, Bishop of Verdun, in a vehement oration,
denounced the relaxed discipline of the Italians, when Sebastian Vancius
de Arimino (so named in the "Canones et Decreta" of the Council), Bishop
of Orvietto (Urbevetanus), sneeringly exclaimed "Gallus cantat,"
dwelling on the double sense of the word Gallus--a Frenchman or a cock,
and intending to express "the cock crows;" to which Danes promptly and
pointedly responded, "Utinam et Galli cantum Petrus resipisceret," which
excited, as it deserved, the general applause of the assembly, thus
turning the insult into a triumph. The apt allusion will be made clear
by a reference to the words of the Gospels: St. Matthew, xxvi. 75.; St.
Mark, xiv. 68. 72.; St. Luke, xxii. 61-2.; and St. John, xviii. 27.,
where the ἀλεκτοροφωνία of the original is the "cantus galli"
of the Vulgate, and where Petrus represents the pope, who is aroused to
_resipiscere_ by the example of his predecessor St. Peter.

This incident in the memorable assembly is adverted to in the French
contemporary letters and memoirs, but more particularly in the
subsequent publication of a learned member of Danes's family, _La Vie,
Eloges et Opuscules de Pierre Danes, par P. Hilaire Danes_, Paris, 1731,
4to., with the the portrait of the Tridentine deputy, who became Bishop
of Lavaur, in Languedoc (now département du Saone), and preceptor to
Francis, the short-lived husband of Mary Stuart, before that prince's
ascent to the throne. So high altogether was he held in public
estimation, that he was supposed well entitled to the laudatory anagram
formed of his name (Petrus Danesius), "De superis natus."

In the Council of Trent there only appeared two Englishmen, Cardinal
Pole and Francis Gadwell[1], Bishop of St. Asaph, with three Irish
prelates, (1) Thomas Herliky, Bishop of Ross, called Thomas Overlaithe
in the records of the Council; (2) Eugenius O'Harte, there named
Ohairte, a Dominican friar, Bishop of Ardagh; and (3) Donagh MacCongal,
Bishop of Raphoe: Sir James Ware adds a fourth, Robert Waucup, or
Vincentius, of whom, however, I find no mention in the official
catalogue of the assisting prelates. Deprived of sight, according to
Ware, from his childhood, he yet made such proficiency in learning,
that, after attaining the high degree of Doctor of Sorbonne in France,
he was appointed Archbishop of Armagh, or Primate of Ireland; but of
this arch-see he never took possession, it being held by a _reformed_
occupant, Dr. George Dowdall, appointed by Henry VIII. in 1543.

  [Footnote 1: [Query, Thomas Goldwell.]]

    J. R. (Cork.)


FOLK LORE.

_Valentine's Day_ (Vol. v., p. 55.).--Your correspondent J. S. A. will
find the following notice of a similar custom to the one he alludes to
in Mr. L. Jewitt's paper on the Customs of the County of Derby, in the
last number of the _Journal of the British Archæological Association_:

  "Of the latter (divinations) there is a curious instance at
  Ashborne, where a young woman who wishes to divine who her future
  husband is to be, goes into the church-yard at midnight, and as
  the clock strikes twelve, commences running round the church,
  repeating without intermission--

      'I sow hemp-seed, hemp-seed I sow,
      He that loves me best
      Come after me and mow.'

  Having thus performed the circuit of the church twelve times
  without stopping, the figure of her lover is supposed to appear
  and follow her."

    J.

_Nottingham Hornblowing._--About the beginning of December the boys in
and around Nottingham amuse themselves, to the annoyance of the more
peaceable inhabitants, by parading the streets and blowing horns. I have
noticed this for several years, and therefore do not think it is any
whim or caprice which causes them to act thus; on the contrary, I think
it must be the relic of some ancient custom. If any of your
correspondents could elucidate this, it would particularly oblige

    STOMACHOSUS.

_Bee Superstitions--Blessing Apple-trees--"A Neck! a Neck!"_--The
superstition concerning the bees is common among the smaller farmers in
the rural districts of Devon. I once knew an apprentice boy _sent back_
from the funeral _cortège_ by the nurse, to tell the bees of it, as it
had been forgotten. They usually put some wine and honey for them before
the hives on that day. A man whose ideas have been confused frequently
says his "head has been among the bees" (buzzing).

The custom is still very prevalent in Devonshire of "hollowing to the
apple-trees" on Old Christmas Eve. Toasted bread and sugar is soaked in
new cider made hot for the farmer's family, and the boys take some out
to pour on the oldest tree, and sing--

      "Here's to thee,
      Old apple-tree,
      From every bough
      Give apples enough,
      Hat fulls, cap fulls
      Bushel, bushel boss fulls.
            Hurrah, hurrah!"

The village boys go round also for the purpose, and get some halfpence
given them for their "hollering," as they call it. I believe this to be
derived from a Pagan custom of offering to Ceres.

The farmer's men have also a custom, on cutting the last sheaf of wheat
on the farm, of shouting out "A neck! a neck!" as they select a handful
of the finest ears of corn, which they bind up, and plait the straw of
it, often very prettily, which they present to the master, who hangs it
up in the farm kitchen till the following harvest. I do not know whence
this custom arises.

    WILLIAM COLLYNS, M.R.C.S.

  Kenton.

_Hooping Cough._--In Cornwall, a slice of bread and butter or cake
belonging to a married couple whose Christian names are John and Joan,
if eaten by the sufferer under this disorder, is considered an
efficacious remedy, though of course not always readily found.

    W. S. S.


NOTE ON THE COINS OF VABALATHUS.

(Vol. iv., pp. 255. 427. 491.)

Since the publication of my last note on the coins of Vabalathus, I have
obtained the _Lettres Numismatiques_ du Baron Marchant, 1850. The
original edition being very rare, and I believe only three hundred of
this one having been printed, I have thought it might be as well to
record some additional information from it in your pages. Marchant
reads, "Vabalathus Verenda Concessione Romanorum Imperatore Medis datus
Rex." It is needless to remark on this, further than on the more ancient
interpretations. He points out that the Greek letters, or rather
numerals, show the coins to have been struck in a country where Greek,
if not the popular language, was that of the government, along with
Latin. This country was necessarily an Oriental one, and I think this
observation would rather lead to the inference that the word VCRIMDR,
occupying the place usually filled by Cæsar, Augustus, ϹΕΒΑϹΩϹ,
&c., might be an Oriental title, though expressed in Latin letters.
Millin, to whom he had communicated his view, thought correctly "que ça
sentait un peu le père Harduin," and it was only published in the
posthumous edition of his works. De Gauley has published coins struck by
the Arabs in Africa, which have Latin legends, in some of which the
Arabic titles are given in Latin letters. The Emir Musa Ben Nasir
appears thus, MυSE. F. NASIR. AMIRA. The coins of Vabalathus
offer a more ancient example of the same. I have given what appears to
me the clue, and I hope it will be followed out by Orientalists. M. de
Longperier, in his annotations to the 28th letter, shows that the
name Ἀθηνᾶς is derived from Ἀθηνόδωρος, and appears to
think ΑΘΗΝΟΥ or ΑΘΗΝΥ the genitive of ΑΘΗΝΑϹ. The difficulty, he says,
is, that names in ᾶς have, in the Alexandrian dialect, the genitive
ᾶτος. He does not appear to have noticed the reading as
ΥΙοϹ (or ΟΥ as Ο ΥΙοϹ?), which appears to me to remove the difficulty,
but also to obviate the necessity of the name  Ἀθηνᾶς at all. He
remarks on the similarity of name between Αθηνας, Αθηνατος,
and Odenathus.

  "If," he says, "we examine comparatively Vabalath (ΟΥΑΒΑΛΑΘ)
  and Odenath, or rather Odanath, as in Zosimus, we see
  an analogous formation; Ou-baalat, Ou-tanat, the feminine of Baal
  or Bel, and of Tan, Dan, or Zan, preceded by the same syllable.
  Baalat is a Scripture form (Jos. xix. 44.; 1 Kings ix. 48.; Paral.
  ii. viii. 6.). De Gauley has found the name of Tanat in a
  Phoenician inscription, and Lenormant remarks that this feminine
  form of Zan, or Jupiter, corresponds to Athéné. Thus Ou-tanat is
  the equivalent of Athenas, consequently of Athenodorus."

Vabalathus is thus, if these etymological considerations be correct, the
son of Odenathus. Longperier proposes to read ΕΡΩΤΑϹ for ϹΡΩΙΑϹ,
and to consider this the equivalent of Herodes, mentioned by
Trebellius Pollio. With all deference to M. de Longperier,
I venture to oppose the following objections. First, Some coins read
ϹΡΙΑϹ, which would read ΕΡΤΑϹ on his principle. Since, in
the coins of Zenobia, Vabalathus, and those bearing the name of
Athenodorus, whether struck by Vabalathus or not, is not material at
present, we find the names at full length, not omitting the vowels, it
is natural to suppose that the same would here take place, if the word
really were the name of Herodes. To explain, if we found
ΖΗΝΟΒΙΑ and ΖΝΟΒΙΑ, ΑΘΗΝΟΔΩΡΟϹ and ΑΘΝΔΡΟϹ, or similar contractions,
we might consider ΕΡΩΤΑϹ and ΕΡΤΑϹ identical. Secondly, On my
specimens of this coin I find the ι in this word distinctly formed,
and the Τ in the next word ΑΥΤ _as_ distinct. All authors have read this
letter ι, although varying in the rest. Thirdly, On the obverse
of these specimens the  Ε is larger and more open than the Ϲ,
as may be seen in the conclusion  ...ΝΟϹ . ϹΕΒ, where it is preceded
by two sigmas, and is easy to compare with them. We should naturally
expect to find it having the same form on the reverse, if the
reading ΕΡΩΤΑϹ were correct. But it is of the same size as the
other letters, on my specimens at least. I need not say that
there is no trace of the central stroke.

    W. H. S.

  Edinburgh.


THE AGNOMEN OF "BROTHER JONATHAN," OF MASONIC ORIGIN.

George Washington, commander-in-chief of the American army in the
revolution, was a mason, as were all the other generals, with the
solitary exception of Arnold the traitor, who attempted to deliver West
Point, a most important position, into the hands of the enemy. It was
this treasonable act on the part of Arnold which caused the gallant
Andre's death, and ultimately placed a monument over his remains in
Westminster Abbey. On one occasion, when the American army had met with
some serious reverses, General Washington called his _brother officers_
together, to consult in what manner their effects could be the best
counteracted. Differing as they did in opinion, the commander-in-chief
postponed any action on the subject, by remarking, "Let us consult
brother Jonathan," referring to Jonathan Trumbull, who was a well-known
mason, and particularly distinguished "for his sound judgment, strict
morals, and having the tongue of good report."

George Washington was initiated a mason in Fredericksburg, Virginia,
Lodge No. 4, on the 4th of November, 1752, was passed a fellow craft on
the 3rd of March, 1753, and raised to the sublime degree of a master
mason on the 4th day of August, 1753. The hundredth anniversary of this
distinguished mason's initiation is to be celebrated in America
throughout the length and breadth of the land.

    W. W.

  La Valetta, Malta.


Minor Notes.

_Hippopotamus, Behemoth._--The young animal which has drawn so much
attention hitherto, will increase in attractiveness as he acquires his
voice, for which the zoologist may now _arectis auribus_ await the
development. It has appeared singular to many who knew the Greek name of
this animal to signify _river-horse_, that he should be so unlike a
horse. Nevertheless, the Greeks who knew him only at a distance, as we
did formerly, named him from his voice and ears after an animal which he
so little resembles in other respects. The Egyptian words from which the
Behemoth of Job (chap. xl. v. 10.) are derived, more fitly designate him
as _water-ox_, _B-ehe-moūt_ = literatim, _the aquatic ox_.

    T. W. B.

  Lichfield.

_Curious Inscription_ (Vol. iv., pp. 88. 182.).--My ecclesiological
note-book supplies two additional examples of the curious kind of
inscription communicated by your correspondents J. O. B. and MR. E. S.
TAYLOR (by the way, the one mentioned by J. O. B. was found also at St.
Olave's, Hart Street; see Weever, _Fun. Mon._). These both occur at
Winchester Cathedral: the first near a door in the north aisle, at the
south-west angle:--

      [<--] ILL          PREC
              AC            ATOR
           H            VI      [-->]
                  AMBVLA

The other on the south side:

      CESSIT COMMVNI PROPRIVM JAM PERGITE
                 QVA FAS. 1632.

                    [-->]
       ACR       S        ILL     CH
      S   A       IT         A      ORO
       ERV       F        IST      F
                    [<--]

    W. SPARROW SIMPSON, B.A.

  [This curious inscription, with a translation, is given by Milner,
  in his _History of Winchester_, vol. ii. p. 90.]

_Coins of Edward III. struck at Antwerp in 1337._--Ruding, in his
_Annals of the Coinage of Great Britain_ (3rd ed. p. 212.), describing
the coins of Edward III. (who often resided on the Continent, and whose
sister Eleanor was married to Raimond III., Duke of Guelder), says:

  "In November A.D. 1337, according to Grafton, the king was made
  vicar-general and lieutenant to the emperor, _with power to coin
  money of gold and silver_. He kept his winter at the castle of
  Louvain, and caused great sums of money, both of gold and silver,
  to be coined at Antwerp."

And in the note:

  "Chronicle [of Grafton?] _sub anno_. Froissart also mentions this
  fact. The silver coins were probably struck with English dies, and
  consequently _are not now to be distinguished_."

Now, you will oblige me by informing your English readers, that though
these may have been struck with English dies, they can readily be
distinguished from other English coins by the legends. They are
represented on Pl. viii., Nos. 19. and 20., in my _Munten der voormalige
Hertogdommen Braband en Limburg, van de vroeyste Tijden tot aan de
Pacificatie van Gend_. The type is wholly English, and agrees with the
coins of Edward III., as I have remarked in the text. The _Moneta
nostra_ indicates a joint coin (_i.e._ common to the emperor and to the
king); as Coin No. 3. Pl. xxxiii. was probably a joint coin of Edward
III. and Philip VI., King of France.

    P. O. VAN DER CHŸS.

  Leiden.



Queries.


IS THE WALRUS FOUND IN THE BALTIC?

Is the Walrus, or Sea-Horse, ever found in the Baltic, or in the ocean
near Norway or Lapland?

Mr. J. R. Forster, in his Notes on the _Geography of Europe by King
Alfred_, appended to the edition of _Orosius_ by Daines Barrington,
says, at p. 243.:

  "In the country of the Beormas he (Ohthere) found the
  _horse-whales_ or the _Walrus_, animals which he distinguishes
  carefully from the whales and the seals, of whose teeth he brought
  a present to King Alfred, and which are found _nowhere but in the
  White Sea, near Archangel_, and the other seas to the north of
  Siberia. In all the ocean near Norway and Lapland, no walruses are
  ever seen, _but still less in the Baltic_."

I wish to know if the walrus is found in the Baltic, and where it most
abounds, with a reference to voyages or written works of authority where
it is mentioned. Personal testimony would be valuable.

    THROW.


ENGLISH FREE TOWNS.

A great many of your readers are doubtless aware that there are in
France a number of towns commonly known by the name of _Villes
Anglaises_, or the English towns, and also called _Bastides_. Many of
these were certainly founded by Edward I., and important privileges were
granted to these _Free Towns_ from motives of sound policy. These towns
are all built on a regular plan, the principal streets wide, open, and
straight, and crossing each other at right angles, with a large
market-place, usually in the centre of the town. I have seen several of
these towns, which preserve their original ground plan to the present
time. I could mention other peculiarities about them; but it is not
necessary for my purpose, which is to inquire whether we have any towns
in England corresponding with them, of the same regular plan and
arrangement. The only one I have been able to hear of is the ruined town
of Winchelsea, which corresponds closely with them, and was also founded
by Edward I. If any of your readers can inform me of any other town in
England of the same plan, I shall be greatly obligated to them.

    J. H. PARKER.

  Oxford.


Minor Queries.

_Bishop Hall's Resolutions._--A small edition of Bishop Hall's
_Resolutions and Decisions of Cases of Conscience_, printed in 1650, and
consequently in the author's lifetime, has, as its frontispiece, a "vera
effigies" of the venerable writer. On a fly-leaf there is, in the
handwriting of the former possessor,--a man of much literary
information,--this note: "The following portrait of Bishop Hall is rare
and valuable." I should esteem it a favour if some one of your
correspondents would inform me how far this is a correct estimate of the
print.

    S. S. S.

_Mother Huff and Mother Damnable._--Can any of your correspondents
favour me with an account of Mother Huff? She is mentioned in Bishop
Gibson's edition of the _Britannia_, in a list of wild plants found in
Middlesex. In Park's _Hampstead_, p. 245., is the following extract from
Baker's comedy of _Hampstead Heath_, 4to. 1706, Act II. Sc. 1.:

  "_Arabella._ Well, this Hampstead's a charming place: to dance all
  night at the Wells, and be treated at Mother Huff's," &c.

The place designated as "Mother Huff's" was, I think, the same as that
known as "Mother Damnable's." The latter personage is mentioned in
Caulfield's _Remarkable Characters_. Who was Mother Damnable? Can any of
your correspondents furnish any additions to Caulfield's account of
Mother Damnable?

    S. WISWOULD.

_Sir Samuel Garth._--Can any of your numerous correspondents inform me
when and where Sir Samuel Garth the poet was born, or favour me with a
copy of the inscription on his tomb in Harrow Church? Some say he was
born in Yorkshire; others that he was born at Bolam, in Durham.

    S. WISWOULD.

_German's Lips._--In Fulke's _Defence of the English Translations of the
Bible_ (Parker Society, 1843, p. 267.) he speaks thus:

  "Beza's words agree to us, as well as German's lips, that were
  nine miles asunder."

Can you inform me who German was, and where his lips were situated?

    H. T.

  [In our first Vol. p. 157. will be found a similar Query, founded
  on passages in Calfhill and Latimer, in which the same allusion
  occurs, but which has not as yet received any satisfactory reply.]

_Richard Leveridge._--Some years ago, I saw an oil-painting of this
celebrated singer at an auction-room in Leicester Street. Can any of
your readers give me a clue to its discovery?

    EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

_Thomas Durfey._--Is there any other engraved portrait of this
"distinguished" wit, besides the one prefixed to his _pills_?

    EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

_Audley Family._--Can any of your correspondents inform me whether there
are any male representatives still existing of the family of _Audley_
(or _Awdeley_) of _Gransden_, in Huntingdonshire; or, if not, when it
became extinct?

Thomas Audley, created Lord Audley of Walden, Lord High Chancellor, and
K. G. by Henry VIII., had an only daughter and heiress, married to the
Duke of Norfolk. He had also two brothers, Robert and Henry. _Robert_
was of _Berechurch_, in Essex; and, on the chancellor's death without
male issue, inherited from him large landed property. His line
flourished for several generations, and ended in Henry Audley--a weak
and vicious spendthrift, who ruined himself, and died (without issue) in
the Fleet Prison, in 1714, having married a daughter of Philip, Viscount
Strangford. _Henry_, the chancellor's youngest brother, had the manor of
_Great Gransden_, in Huntingdonshire, by a grant from Henry VIII., where
his descendants were fixed for several generations. In the _Visitation
of Hunts_, made in 1613, under the authority of William Camden
(Clarencieux), there is a pedigree of the Audleys of Gransden, which
comes down to Robert Audley, married to Elizabeth, daughter of John
Marbury, who had two sons then living, _Robert_ and _Francis_, of the
respective ages of three and two (in 1613): a daughter, _Elizabeth_, was
born in 1614, and married William Sneyd, Esq., of Keele, co. Stafford;
she had issue, and died 1686, aged seventy-two.

Gransden must have passed from the possession of that family not long
after this visitation; for, in Charles II.'s time, it belonged to Sir
Julius Cæsar: and in the catalogue of lords and gentlemen who compounded
for their estates (1655), the only Audleys of Hunts who were mentioned,
are, _Wheatehill Audley, of Woodhurst_; and _Molineux Audley, of St.
Ives_ (both in Hunts). The parish registers of Gransden throw no light
on the fate of the family. The church contains no memorials, and local
tradition is silent.

Can any of your correspondents supply any information? My object is to
ascertain whether the above-mentioned _Elizabeth_, married to Wm. Sneyd,
did, or did not, become the representative of the family, by the death,
without issue, of her brothers.

    W. S.

  Denton.

_Ink._--Can any of your correspondents enlighten me as to the nature of
the ink used in the ancient MSS.; its delightful blackness, even in
examples of great antiquity, is most refreshing to the eye.

    W. SPARROW SIMPSON, B.A.

_Mistletoe excluded from Churches._--Is mistletoe excluded now from any
church in the mistletoe-producing counties at Christmas? And was it ever
admitted in Roman Catholic times?

    T. GOLDSEER.

_Blind taught to read._--Burnet, in the postscript of his _Letter from
Milan_, dated Oct. 1, 1685 (ed. Rotterdam, 1687, p. 114.), speaking of
Mistress _Walkier_, who had been accidentally blinded in infancy,
states, that her father "ordered letters to be carved in wood;" and that
"she, by feeling the characters, formed such an idea of them, that she
writes with a crayon so distinctly, that her writing can be well read."
What is the earliest known instance of the blind being taught to read or
write by the instrumentality of raised letters?

    J. SANSOM.

_Hyrne, Meaning of._--During my recent investigations into our local
history, I met with three places in this town with this word
affixed--such as North _Hirne_, now called North Street; also Cold
_Hyrne_, now called All Saints' Street, in South Lynn; and a place
called Clink's _Heven_, in North Lynn.

I have also met with another village, "Guy_hirn_," in Cambridgeshire, of
which most of your readers are aware; and my present object is to learn
the meaning of this word?

    JOHN NURSE CHADWICK.

  King's Lynn.

_The fairest Attendant of the Scottish Queen._--Mary (of Guise), Dowager
Queen of Scots, passed through England, on returning from a visit to
France, in November 1551: she was lodged at the Bishop's Palace in
London, and on her departure "divers lords and ladies brought her on her
way; and when she came without Bishopsgate, _the fairest lady that she
had with her of her country was stolen away from her_; and so she went
forth on her journey." This passage is from _The Chronicle of the Grey
Friars of London_, now printing for the Camden Society. Can any one tell
me whether "the fairest lady's" elopement has been elsewhere recorded?

    JOHN GOUGH NICHOLS.

"_Soud, soud, soud, soud!_"--In the _Taming of the Shrew_, Act IV. Sc.
1., Petruchio, on arriving at his house, says to his bride:

      "Sit down, Kate, and welcome. Soud, soud, soud soud!"

The word _soud_ puzzles the commentators.

Johnson takes it for _soot_ or _sooth_, sweet. Mason supposes it to
denote the humming of a tune, or an ejaculation, for which it is not
necessary to find out a meaning. Malone conjectures it to be a word
coined to express the noise made by a person heated and fatigued.

This seems a proper subject for a Query.

    T. C.

_Key Experiments._--Can some one of your correspondents afford me an
explanation of the principles controlling the following experiment: Two
persons, taking a large key, hold it balanced by the handle upon the
forefinger of their opposite hands; the key should be tied in a thin
book, with the handle projecting so far that the finger may easily pass
between the book and the handle; the book serves to balance the key by
its weight, and exhibits more plainly any movement of the key; both
persons then wish the key to turn to the right or left, and, after a few
moments, the key will take the desired direction. The earnest and united
wish of the operators appears to be the motive power. The divination by
"the Bible and key," given in your Vol. i., p. 413., and Vol. ii., p.
5., is evidently based on the same principles; and the mention of that
superstition will be an apology for my making your pages the medium of
the present inquiry, which is perhaps scarcely fitted for a publication
designed for literary purposes.

    J. P. Jun.

_Shield of Hercules._--In which of the English periodicals can I have
met with a drawing of the Shield of Hercules, as described by Hesiod?

    BATAVUS.

  Amsterdam.

_"Sum Liber, et non sum," &c._--

      "Sum Liber, et non sum liber, quia servio Servo.
        Sum Servus Servo, Servus et ille Deo."

The above lines are written in the fly-leaf of a copy of the _Iliad_,
Greek and Latin, which formerly belonged to Sir Isaac Newton, and bears
his autograph. Can any of your correspondents inform me whence they are
taken? or may they be considered as the original composition of Newton?
The autograph is "Isaac Newton. Trin. Coll. Cant. 1661."

    G. E. T.


Minor Queries Answered.

_Whipping a Husband--Hudibras._--In the first canto of _Hudibras_, part
ii. l. 885., are these lines:

      "Did not a certain lady whip
      Of late her husband's own lordship?
      And though a grandee of the house
      Claw'd him with fundamental blows;
      Ty'd him uncover'd to a bed-post,
      And firk'd his hide, as if sh' had rid post.
      And after in the Sessions Court,
      Where whipping's judg'd, had honor for't?"

My copy of the poem, with Hogarth's plates, has no note on this passage.
To whom does it refer? A _Bury Guide_, published in 1833, states that it
occurred in that town in 1650 to a nobleman who had discovered an
inclination to desert the Hanoverian cause.

    BURIENSIS.

  [Zachary Grey has given a long note on this passage, and states
  that it was William Lord M-n-n, residing at Bury St. Edmunds,
  whose lady, possessing the true disciplinarian spirit, tied his
  lordship to a bed-post by the help of her maids, and punished him
  for showing favours to the unsanctified Cavaliers; for which
  salutary discipline she had thanks given her in open court.]

_Aldus._--What was the inscription on his printing-house, requesting his
friends to dispatch their business with him as soon as possible, and
then go about their business?

    A. D. F.R.S.

  [Over the door of his _sanctum_ Aldus placed the following
  inscription:

  "Whoever you are, ALDUS earnestly entreats you to dispatch your
  business as soon as possible, and then depart; unless you come
  hither, like another Hercules, to lend him some friendly
  assistance; for here will be work sufficient to employ you, and as
  many as enter this place."

  This inscription was afterwards adopted, for a similar purpose, by
  the learned Oporinus, a printer of Basil.]

"_The last links are broken._"--Who is the author of "The last links are
broken?" If they are by Moore, in what part of his works are they to be
found?

    M. C.

  [This ballad was written by Miss Fanny Steers.]

_Under Weigh or Way._--Does a ship on sailing get under "weigh," or
under "way?"

    E. S. T. T.

  [Webster and Falconer are in favour of _way_. The latter says,
  "The _way_ of a ship is the course or progress which she makes on
  the water under sail. Thus, when she begins her motion, she is
  said to be under way; and when that motion increases, she is said
  to have fresh way through the water; whereas, _to weigh_ (_lever
  l'ancre_, _appareiller_) is to heave up the anchor of a ship from
  the ground, in order to prepare her for sailing."]

_The Pope's Eye._--Why is it that the piece of fat in the middle of a
leg of mutton is called the "Pope's eye?"

    J. D. G.

  [Boyer, in his _French Dictionary_, explains it: "Le morceau gras
  d'une éclanche ou d'un gigot de mouton." Others have derived it
  from _popa_, which seems originally to have denoted that part of
  the _fat_ of the victim separated from the thigh in sacrificing;
  and in process of time, the priest who sacrificed.]

_"History is Philosophy," &c._--What is the exact source of the often
repeated passage,

  "History is philosophy teaching by examples?"

I am aware that it is commonly attributed to Bolingbroke, but a
distinguished literary friend tells me that he cannot find it in
Bolingbroke's writings, and suspects that, as is the case with some
other well-known sayings, its paternity is unknown.

    T.

  [In the _Encyclopædia Metropolitana_, vol. ix., p. 13., this
  passage is attributed to Dionysius of Halicarnassus.]



Replies.


COVERDALE'S BIBLE.

(Vol. v., pp. 59., 109.)

Learned disputes about the translation of Biblical words might occupy
the pages of "N. & Q." to the discomfort of some of its readers. In fact
its numbers might be all swallowed up in the important inquiry after
those original texts which our eminent translators used when they
supplied England with the water of life, by furnishing the country with
a faithful translation of the Holy Oracles. To the martyr Tyndale, and
the venerable servant of Christ, Coverdale, this nation and the world
are indebted to an extent that no honour to their memory can ever repay.
Tyndale, fearless, learned, and devoted, was sacrificed in the prime of
life; while Coverdale, more cautious, went on to old age constantly
energetic in promoting the Reformation.

Words and sentences can be produced in which Coverdale claims
superiority over Tyndale. While Tyndale's is more suited to this day of
fearless enquiry and meridian light, Coverdale's may be preferred as a
gentler clearing away of the morning clouds which obscured the horizon
after Wickliffe had introduced the day spring from on high.

It has become too much the fashion in our day to exalt Tyndale at the
expense of Coverdale. This is ungenerous and unjust: they were both of
them great and shining lights in the hemisphere of the Reformation.
Tyndale's learning and decision of character gave him great advantages
as a translator from languages then but little known; while Coverdale's
cautious, pains-taking perseverance enabled him to render most essential
service to the sacred cause of Divine Truth. Our inquiry commenced with
the question, why the words "translated out of Douche and Latyn into
Englyshe" appeared upon the title-page to _some_ copies of Coverdale's
Bible, 1535. I must remind my excellent friend, the Rev. HENRY WALTER,
that while the copy in the British Museum, and that at Holkham, has
those words, a finer and unsophisticated copy in the library of Earl
Jersey of the _same_ edition has no such words; and that the four
editions subsequently published by Coverdale all omit the words "Douche
and Latyn," and insert in their place, "faythfully translated in
English." My decided impression is, that the insertion of those words on
the first title-page was not with Coverdale's knowledge, and that, lest
they should mislead the reader, they were omitted when the title was
reprinted; and a dedication and prologue were added when the copies
arrived in England, the dedication and preface being from a very
different fount of type to that used in printing the text.

It must also be recollected that Coverdale altered his prologue to the
reader in the copies dedicated to Edward VI. Instead of "To helpe me
herein I have had sondrye translacyons, not onely in Latyn but also _of
the Douche interpreters_," the last four words are omitted, and he has
inserted, "in other languages." Coverdale, with indefatigable zeal, made
use of every translation in his power. Tyndale's _Pentateuch_ had been
for several years published, and had passed through two editions. His
translation of _Jonah_, with a long prologue, was printed in 1530 and
1537, and republished in Matthew's (Tyndale's) Bible in 1549. The
prologue is inserted in _The Works of Tyndale_, _Frith, and Barnes_,
and the translation of _Jonah_ by Tyndale is denounced by Sir Thomas
More. Why MR. WALTER doubts its existence I cannot imagine. The
title-page is given at full length by Herbert in his _Typographical
Antiquities_; and it is a fact that _Henry Walter_, in 1828, in his
_Second Letter to the Bishop of Peterborough_, clearly states that which
in 1852 he says is "adhuc sub judice." Coverdale rejected from the canon
all apocryphal chapters and books, and placed them together as a
distinct part, in four of his editions, between the Old and New
Testaments, and in one between Esther and Job. In this he neither copied
from the Latin nor the German.

No subject connected with English history has been more confused and
misrepresented than the history of the English Bible. Mr. Anderson's
errors in quotation are most remarkable,--a fact much to be regretted in
so laborious a compilation. In his selection of passages to prove the
superiority of Tyndale over Coverdale (_Annals_, vol. i. pp. 587, 588),
in copying forty-six lines he has made _two hundred and sixty-one
errors_; viz. 191 literal errors in spelling, 5 words omitted, 1 added,
2 words exchanged for others, 11 capitals put for small letters, 47
words in Italics which ought to be Roman, 3 words joined, and 1 divided.
These extracts ought to have been correct, for accurate reprints were
within his reach; it probably exhibits the most extraordinary number of
blunders in as short a space as could be found in the annals of
literature. Mr. Anderson is equally unfortunate in nearly all his
extracts from written documents and printed books: let one more instance
suffice. He quotes the just and memorable words of Dr. Geddes in eulogy
of our translations made in the reign of Henry VIII. It is astonishing
how little obsolete the language of it is, even at this day, and "in
point of perspicuity and noble simplicity, propriety of idiom, and
purity of style, no English version has yet surpassed it." To this
extract Mr. Anderson adds a note (vol. i. p. 586.): "These words are
applied by Geddes, by way of distinction, to Tyndale, and not to
Coverdale, as sometimes quoted." They occur in Dr. Geddes's _Prospectus
for a New Translation of the Holy Bible_, 4to. 1786, p. 88. His words
are: "The first compleat edition of an English version of the whole
Bible, from the originals, is that of Tyndale's and Coverdale's
together." It is to the united labours of these two great men that Dr.
Geddes applies his just, and, for a Roman Catholic, liberal eulogium.

Amidst a mass of errors Mr. Anderson complains, in a note on p. 569.,
that Lewis's _History of the English Bible_ is "grievously in want of
correction!" Mr. Anderson's _Annals_ are encumbered with a heavy
disquisition on the origin of printing, which reminds us of
Knickerbocker's _History of New York_, in which we find to a
considerable extent learned accounts of the cosmogony of creation,
because, if the world had not been created, in all probability New York
would not have existed: the same probability connects the origin of
printing with the history of the English Bible. Why the annalist should
have omitted any notice of those important Roman Catholic translations
at Rheims and Douay, after a long account of Wickliffe's, which was from
the same source, is as difficult to account for as is his total silence
with regard to a most important revision of the New Testament made in
the reign of Edward VI., called by the Company of Stationers "the most
vendible volume in English," and which was introduced into Parker's, or
the Bishop's Bible, in 1568. A good historical work on this subject is
greatly needed, showing not only the editions and gradual improvement,
but also the sources whence our translation was derived, and its
faithfulness and imperishable renown.

    GEORGE OFFOR.


"AS STARS WITH TRAINS OF FIRE," ETC.

(Vol. v., p. 75.)

Your correspondent A. E. B. has shown on more than one occasion so high
an appreciation of the wonderful powers of Shakspeare, and his
speculations in connexion therewith are so ingenious, that I feel
considerable regret when I am compelled to dissent from his conclusions.
I believe with him, that Shakspeare's learning has been very much
underrated; but at the same time it must be confessed, that so soon as
we abandon the intuition, which some would substitute for learning, by
which his knowledge was acquired, the latter ceases to be "mysterious."
I regret, however, to say that, if it could be shown that he wrote
"asters," and with the intention which A. E. B. claims for him, my
conclusion would be against that misuse of learning which left the
meaning of a passage dependent on the antithesis between two words used
each in a sense different from the usual one, and not understood by the
audience to whom they were addressed.

Let us now take another view of the question. The purpose of the passage
is to record the occurrence of a series of omens, the harbingers of
"fierce events." "The graves _stood tenantless_;" "the sheeted dead _did
squeak and gibber_;" "the moist star _was sick almost to doomsday with
eclipse_:" each circumstance is distinct. But what did "asters with
trains of fire," and "disasters in the sun" do? Mr. Knight says that
Malone's proposal to substitute "astres" for "as stars," appears to get
rid of the difficulty; but not until the English language admits of the
formation of a perfect sentence without a verb will it do so. In short,
there is nothing gained by the substitution, as Malone saw when he
proposed to turn "disasters" into "_disasterous_," and to supply the
verb.

I have no alteration of my own to propose; but I think possibly a
suggestion as to the directions to be taken in search of the right text
may be of service. In the case of a line or lines being lost, nothing
can be done; but I discern a gleam of hope in two other directions. In
the first place it is to be observed, that the thoughts of the speaker
would in all probability be turned to _night_-portents. There is a
reference to the same circumstances in _Julius Cæsar_, Act II. Sc. 2.,
as having occurred in the night, and been seen by the watch. Now, though
there is certainly no reason why Horatio might not have enumerated spots
in the sun as one of the omens preceding terrible events, it seems
scarcely probable that it was in the order of his allusions to the
events of the "fearful night" preceding the death of Cæsar. Let the
corruption then be sought for here. Or look for a verb in the place of
"disasters" that shall intelligibly connect "the sun" with what
precedes. "As stars" must not be changed into "asters" until it can be
shown that such change is necessary to a better constructed sentence
than any which has yet been suggested.

    SAMUEL HICKSON.

  St. John's Wood.


DIALS, DIAL MOTTOES, ETC.

(Vol. iv., p. 471., &c.)

Perhaps the following will be of use to your correspondent HERMES (Vol.
iv., p. 471.), referring to dials which I take to mean sun-dials.

Lately there was rather an interesting object of that kind to be seen
upon the south wall of Glasgow Cathedral, with this motto or
inscription:--

      "Our life's a flying shadow, God's the pole,
      The index pointing at Him is our soul;
      Death the horizon, when our sun is set,
      Which will through Christ a resurrection get."

That the above cannot now be classed among _living_ inscriptions is
entirely to be ascribed to the zeal for clean walls exhibited by Her
Majesty's Commissioners of Woods and Forests, under whose auspices the
renovation of our cathedral has been accomplished. I regret to mention
some other memorials have also disappeared, long familiar to the eye of
the antiquary--not granting but that these gentlemen have a power to do
what they please; however, _en passant_, we would entreat, if they can,
to lay on their hands as charily as possible when such innocent matters
come in their way. Though the following well-known lines--

      "Good friend, for Jesus' sake forbear,
      To dig the dust inclosed here;
      Blest be the man that spares these stones,
      And curst be he that moves my bones"--

be not literally applicable in the present case, they breathe such a
spirit as would almost make any one "nervous" in tampering with revered
and time-honoured relics nearly become sacred.

Glasgow does not appear at all rich in dial erections; the only one I
know of is in our old street the Gallowgate (or _Gallow's Gate_; as you
would say, _the road to Tyburn_), on the south front of a tenement, with
no motto, but date 1708. Our long fame for numerous public clocks and
excellent bells, according to the ancient adage--

      "_Glasgow for bells_,
      Linlithgow for wells,
      Falkirk for beans and pease,
      Edinburgh for wh----s and thieves,"

together with our frequent wet murky atmosphere, may all have
contributed to the unfavourableness of endeavouring to mark the flight
of Time through the medium of the solar rays.

The cities and villages under the sunny skies of southern climates, and
where also appears a better taste generally than with us for
inscriptions on public and private monuments, would, I think, be the
richest field for HERMES to explore. I speak from some little
observation in a tour of France and Italy, &c., in the year 1846.
Sun-dials were to me objects of curiosity, but not of that importance as
to be engrossing. On a loose memorandum I have the two following mottoes
which particularly struck me, but have not preserved a note of the
places, that I think lay on the route from Florence to Bologna:--

  (Latin Englished) "This dial indicates every hour to man but his
  last."

      "Se il Sol benigno, mi concede il raggio,
      L'ora ti mostra, è il ciel ti dia buon viaggio."

On a building near the Cathedral of Geneva, there is rather a novel and
curious example of the sun-dial, in a perpendicular line bisected on
each side by two curves, the curve on the one side _black_, the other
_gilded_, with the following:--

      "Fait en 1778--Restauré en 1824,
      La Courbe noire Indique le Midi du 21 Juin au 21 Décembre,
            et la
      Courbe dorée du 21 Décembre au 21 Juin."

Meridian lines, though not, properly speaking, coming under the order of
sun-dials, may be reckoned so far cognate; fine specimens of these may
be seen in the cathedrals of Milan, Bologna, &c.

Public clocks occasionally become objects of considerable interest, as
at Berne, &c., not to mention the _monster_ of Strasbourg, which all the
world has heard of.

Quaint allegorising on such subjects as the foregoing, as presenting
different stages in the life of man and the fleeting nature of times and
things, were not unusual among our old Scotch divines, as in the
subsequent quotation from _The Last Battell of the Soule in Death_, by
Mr. Zachary Boyd, Glasgow, 1629:--

  "Men's dayes are distributed vnto them like _houres_ upon the
  _Horologe_: some must liue but till _one_; another vnto _two_;
  another vnto _three_. The _Palme_ turneth about, and with its
  finger pointeth at the _houre_. So soone as man's appointed
  _houre_ is come, whether it bee the _first_, _second_, or _third_,
  there is no more biding (abiding) for him. _Nec prece nec precio_,
  neither by _pryce_ nor _prayer_ can Death be moued to spare him
  but an _houre_; no, not, As the sound of the _clocke bell_
  ringing, his last _houre_ passeth away with all speede, and
  turneth not againe, so must the poor man at death packe him out of
  sight, and no more be seene upon the _land of the living_."

    NIGEL.

  Glasgow.


CAN BISHOPS VACATE THEIR SEES?

(Vol. iv., p. 293.)

In answer to your correspondent K. S.'s Query, "Can bishops vacate their
sees?" I have little hesitation in saying that they can; though I know
of no instance (in modern times) of such an occurrence (except colonial
bishops); nor have I ever heard of any one but Dr. Pearce who wished so
to do. Lord Dover is, however, mistaken in supposing that "his
resignation could not be received, on the ground that a bishopric, as
being a peerage, is inalienable." The bishop's own account of the matter
(see his Life, prefixed to his _Commentary on the Gospels and Acts_) is
as follows:--Feeling himself unable, from his age and other infirmities,
to perform any longer his duties as Bishop of Rochester, and wishing
like Charles V. to retire from the world, he requested his friend Lord
Bath to apply to the king for permission to resign. He was soon after
sent for by the king, who told him that he had consulted _Lord Mansfield
and Lord Northington, and that neither of them saw any objection_. In
the mean time, however, Lord Bath asked the king to appoint, as his
successor in the see of Rochester, Dr. Newton, then Bishop of Bristol.
On this the ministry, not wishing any ecclesiastical dignities to be
granted except through their hands, interfered so as to prevent the
resignation from being effected; Dr. Pearce being told by the king that
his resignation could not be accepted, but that he should have all the
credit of it.

Lord Dover's mistake is, I think, to be attributed to his assumption
that bishops are peers of the realm. This is, however, by no means the
case. A bishop is simply _a Lord of Parliament_, and possesses none of
the privileges of the peerage; not those, among others, of freedom from
arrest, and trial by their peers. A peer can only be deprived of his
peerage by a special act of parliament, and after a trial by the House
of Lords; while a bishop can be deprived of his see, and, of
consequence, of his seat in the House of Lords, by the sentence of the
archbishop of the province, assisted by such of his suffragans as he may
summon. The two last instances of deprivation were those of Bishop
Watson, of St. David's, by Archbishop Tenison, and of the Bishop of
Clogher, in 1822.

A bishop so deprived does not cease to be a bishop, but only ceases from
having jurisdiction over a diocese. Whether a bishop can be deposed from
his episcopal office altogether is a matter of doubt, though it is held
by most of those who are learned in the canon law, that there is not
sufficient authority in any ecclesiastical person, or body of persons,
to degrade from the office of bishop any one who has once received
episcopal consecration.

    R. C. C.

  Oxon.


CHARACTER OF A TRUE CHURCHMAN.

(Vol. v., p. 105.)

J. Y. makes an inquiry as to the author of the _Character of a True
Churchman_, printed 1711. Your correspondent will do me good service by
stating the size, and giving the first few words, of his tract. In 1702,
or perhaps in the preceding year, Richard West, D.D., Fellow of Magd.
Coll. Oxford, and prebendary of Winchester, published _The True
Character of a Churchman, showing the False Pretences to that Name_, one
sheet in quarto, no date, of which I have two editions; and it was
reprinted in the Somers' _Tracts_: "It is commonly observed," &c. This
was answered by Sacheverell in _The Character of a Low Churchman_, 4to.
1702: "It cannot but be visible," &c. And in the same year there was an
edition of both these characters printed, paragraph by paragraph, the
original character and the reply: London, for A. Baldwin.

I have also _The Character of a True Church of England Man_, a single
sheet in 4to.: London, by D. Edwards for N. C. 1702: "Next to the name
Christian." And _The True Churchman and Loyal Subject_: London, for J.
Morphew, 1710, 8vo. pp. 168.: "The name of the church in whose communion
I am," &c. Is this the same with J. Y.'s book with another title?

    P. B.

  [We have submitted the above to J. Y., who states that "neither of
  the tracts mentioned by P. B. is the one noticed in his Query. It
  commences with the following words: 'He [_i.e._ the True
  Churchman] is one who is not only called a Christian, but is in
  truth and reality such.' Prefixed is a short letter from the
  author to his friend in the country; and the edition of 1711
  appears to have been the first. It makes sixteen pages of octavo,
  and consists of short sententious paragraphs, more practical and
  devotional than controversial. J. Y. discovered it in the British
  Museum bound up with Dr. Hickes' _Seasonable and Modest Apology_,
  and other tracts."]


WEARING GLOVES IN PRESENCE OF ROYALTY.

(Vol. i., p. 366.; Vol. ii., pp. 165. 467.; Vol. v., p. 102.).

MR. SINGER'S explanation (Vol. ii., p. 165.) is simple, and, I believe,
correct. The covered hands might be considered as discourteous as a
covered head: but why should uncovering either be a mark of respect? The
solution of this question seems to me of some curiosity, and may perhaps
be to many of your readers of some novelty. These and most other modern
forms of salutation and civility are derived from chivalry, or at least
from war, and they all betoken some deference, as from a conquered
person to the conqueror; just as in private life we still continue to
sign ourselves the "very humble servants" of our correspondent.

The _uncovered_ head was simply the head _unarmed_; the helmet being
removed, the party was at mercy. So the hand _ungloved_ was the hand
_ungauntleted_, and to this day it is an incivility to shake hands with
gloves on. Shaking hands itself was but a token of truce, in which the
parties took hold each of the other's _weapon-hand_, to make sure
against treachery. So also a gentleman's _bow_ is but an offer of the
neck to the stroke of the adversary: so the lady's _curtsey_ is but the
form of going _on her knees_ for mercy. This general principle is
marked, as it ought naturally to be, still more strongly in the case of
military salutes. Why is a discharge of guns a _salute_? Because it
leaves the guns empty, and at the mercy of the opponent. And this is so
true, that the saluting with blank cartridge is a modern invention.
Formerly salutes were fired by discharging the cannonballs, and there
have been instances in which the compliment has been nearly fatal to the
visitor whom it meant to honour. When the _officer_ salutes, he points
his drawn sword to the ground; and the salute of the troops is, even at
this day, called "_presenting arms_,"--that is, presenting them to be
taken.

There are several other details both of social and military salutation
of all countries which might be produced; but I have said enough to
indicate the principle.

    C.


GOSPEL OAKS.

(Vol. ii., p. 407.)

The inquiry of STEPHEN into the origin of "this delightful name,"
applied to some fine old oak trees in different parts of the country,
has not elicited one answer, nor an additional note of other trees so
designated. Oaks are not the only trees so honoured; for I remember
reading of a "gospel _elm_," but where situated I do not recollect. Had
your valuable publication been then in existence, I should most probably
have made a note of it. It would be desirable to elucidate this
interesting subject; and if your correspondents would send you a note of
such as may be in their neighbourhoods, with the traditions attached to
them, much curious and interesting information would be accumulated; and
it is possible that some approximation to their date and origin might be
arrived at. The Rev. A. G. H. Hollingsworth, in his _History of
Stowmarket_, gives an account of a very fine one still remaining in the
park of Polstead Hall, Essex, the seat of Charles Tyrell, Esq.:

  "It stands (he writes) almost in front of the house, at a distance
  of about 150 yards, and close to the adjoining early Norman
  church. It rises like a small feudal tower out of the green field,
  to the height of twenty feet, and still possesses vigorous remains
  of the three enormous stems into which it was divided above. This
  earth-born giant is forty-three feet in circumference four feet
  from the ground, and the base slopes gradually outwards as the
  sides bury themselves in the earth, giving one the idea of a
  skilful architect's hand having systematically planted an enormous
  foundation for that stupendous mass of wood, with which 1000 or
  1500 years must have loaded its shoulders. It is hollow within,
  and could seat eight or ten persons. The bark is generally gone,
  except in one or two places, where it winds like a stream of rough
  verdure to supply the branches, which still drop their acorns into
  your face as you gaze upwards, and are thus reminded of the
  passing seasons. Its wood is seared, knotted, and in some places
  looks like a piece of sculpture smoothed and wrought by hand into
  waving channels. By its side, and at a distance of some eight
  feet, is a tall oak of eighty years' growth,--a scion, no doubt,
  of such a mighty tree. But it looks puerile, and a child, when
  compared with its parent. And some idea may be formed of this,
  perhaps one of the last fast departing memorials of Roman and
  Saxon times, when on comparison it would take twenty or more such
  trunks of a hundred years' growth, to make up the bulk of the
  glorious size of this mighty pillar, thus erected by the hand of
  nature to the memory of past generations."

Mr. Hollingsworth appears to consider them relics of Druidism:

  "When Christianity was first introduced into England, it was
  customary for the missionaries to select some one known gigantic
  tree as their place of assemblage. These leafy tabernacles were
  generally oaks of vast size and stature. Nor is it at all unlikely
  that some of them were thus chosen because from their gigantic
  bosoms the sacred mistletoe of the Druids had been cut, and they
  were consecrated by superstitious veneration in the minds of the
  people as sacred places. Nor were they inappropriate pulpits for
  the apostolic bishops and priests, who thus, in making their
  shades vocal with the gospel words, proclaimed by their voice and
  presence the victory of Christ over darkness and idolatry."

  P. 18.

Can the following item in the will of John Cole, of Thelnetham, dated
May 8, 1527, be considered as throwing any light upon their origin and
use?

  "Item, I will have a newe crosse made according to Trappett's
  crosse at the Hawelanesende, and sett vp at _Short Groves end,
  where the gospell is sayd vpon Ascension Even_, for y'e w'ch I
  assigne X_s._"

  _Bury Wills_, p. 118.

    BURIENSIS.


THE PENDULUM DEMONSTRATION.

(Vol. v., p. 84.)

A few lines will suffice for my rejoinder to H. C. K.'s further
observations on this subject.

Since he and I are substantially of the same opinion as to the reality
of the phenomenon, it would be bootless to discuss the comparative
merits of the considerations that have led us to it. But inasmuch as I
am very careful in making assertions, so am I proportionately impatient
when their correctness is wrongfully impugned.

H. C. K., in remarking upon a statement of mine, enters into a
calculation to show that it is absurd. At least such I suppose to be the
meaning of the paragraph concluding with the words "which is absurd."

My assertion was, that the difference alluded to was "greatly in excess
of the alleged apparent motion."

Now "_the difference_" was fifty feet in twenty-four hours, or upwards
of two feet in the hour; and "_the alleged apparent motion_" had been
stated over and over again to be a complete revolution in about thirty
hours (for the latitude of London). Hence, the circumference of a
ten-feet circle being about thirty feet, it requires no great profundity
to discover that "the alleged apparent motion" is one foot in the hour;
but the "difference" in velocity is two feet in the hour, which surely
justifies the assertion that the latter is "greatly in excess" of the
former.

It would occupy too much space to show H. C. K. where it is that his
calculation has gone astray; but if he will reconsider it, he will
perceive, firstly, that he has no authority, except his own, for
assuming a revolution (of the line of oscillation) in _twenty-four_
hours; and secondly, that five feet _on either side_ of the centre is
equal to ten feet altogether.

But, above all, he must recollect that his own original assertion (Vol.
iv., p. 236.), to which mine was but an answer, was, that "the
difference" would be "_practically nothing_:" of this even his own
calculation is a sufficient refutation.

    A. E. B.

  Leeds.


EXPURGATED QUAKER BIBLE.

(Vol. iv., pp. 87. 412.; Vol. v., p. 44.)

By favour of an intelligent and respected friend, I am enabled to send
some kind of answer to the inquiries made on this subject in your
Numbers.

The Society of Friends have never published nor authorised a mutilated
edition of the Holy Scriptures. The Bible in common use with them is the
authorised version of King James. The translation published in 1764, by
Antony Purver, a member of the Society, contains several alterations
from the received version, but it does not _omit_ any part. Besides,
this edition never came into general use. It was too expensive, and too
bulky, being in two large folio volumes. It never was reprinted, and in
fact is seldom found except in public libraries. It is quite true, that
many of the Friends, as well as other Christians, have felt that there
are parts of the sacred volume, which at this time are ill suited for
being read aloud and discussed in a family circle: and some of them have
devised expedients for a ready selection of the most edifying portions
of Holy Writ for such occasions. One of their ministers, Mr. George
Withy, published a small tract in 1846, which he named _An Index to the
Holy Scriptures, intended to facilitate the Audible Reading thereof in
Families and in Schools_. His tract enumerates those chapters of the Old
and New Testaments, which he judged _most_ suitable for that purpose.

In 1830, John Kendall (to whom one of your correspondents alludes)
published in 2 vols. 12mo. _The Holy Scriptures of the Old and New
Testament, by way of Abstract; containing what is more especially
Instructive in the Historical Parts, &c. &c._ He designed this for the
special use of young persons, and expressly states that "it was not
intended to supersede the reading of the Scriptures at large by those
who are come to an age of discernment." He adheres mostly, but not
entirely, to the words of the authorised version.

Twenty or thirty years later, the same feeling of the want of an edition
of the Bible _entirely_ fit for audible reading in the presence of a
mixed family, induced Mr. William Alexander, a printer of York, to
endeavour to supply the deficiency: and after fourteen years of earnest
attention to the subject, he issued proposals for publishing a Bible so
arranged. It was designed to be in three (perhaps four) volumes,
imperial octavo size: but, for want of sufficient encouragement, only
the first volume appeared, containing the Pentateuch. This consists of
792 pages; has foot-notes, side-notes, and marginal references; together
with introductions to the several books, and dissertations upon sundry
interesting subjects. It is evident, that the whole work, if completed
in the same manner, would have been far too cumbrous for general use,
and could not have been sold for less than fifty shillings or three
pounds; so that we need not be surprised at its remaining unfinished, as
it would have been little likely to find its way into many of those
families for whose benefit it was kindly intended.

The author explains his views and manner of proceeding in his preface. I
cannot enter into them at length here. Where a single word or
expression in the authorised version appeared to him objectionable, he
has removed or changed it. Where entire verses, or a whole chapter,
seemed little fitted for family reading, he has placed such portions in
the lower part of the page, and has printed them in _Italics_ by way of
distinction. He has also added a lineal arrangement of numerous passages
which seemed peculiarly fitted to exhibit the characteristic features of
Hebrew poetry.

Altogether, it appears that Mr. Alexander's object was most
praiseworthy, his learning considerable, and his diligence very great;
and it is to be hoped that the remaining portions of his work are not
lost, but that they may yet be made available in some manner for the
pious purpose which the author had in view.

    H. COTTON.

  Thurles, Ireland.


JUNIUS RUMOURS.

(Vol. v., p. 125.)

The experience of a pretty long life has taught me never to believe a
Junius "rumour"; never to believe in any story of a coming Junius, no
matter how confidently or circumstantially told, which is not _proved_;
and I think the short experience of the Editor of "N. & Q." must have
convinced him that what is asserted on men's personal knowledge--the
evidence of their own eyes and ears (see case of ÆGROTUS, Vol. iii., p.
378.), may possibly be untrue, on the proof that it was impossible. Out
of respect, however, to "N. & Q.," I will say a few words on the rumours
to which JUNIUS QUERIST refers.

One of your correspondent's rumours is to this effect, that an eminent
bookseller was lately called in to value certain MSS., and thus
accidentally discovered who "Atticus _or_ Brutus was, and _consequently_
who Junius himself was." This _consequently_ is certainly a most
astounding _non-sequitur_ to those who are reasonably well-informed as
to the present state of the Junius question. But let that pass. Still I
must observe that your correspondent is dealing with a rumour; that the
rumour does not tell us whether the discovery is inferential or
positive--relates to Atticus or Brutus: nothing can well be more vague.
Now my "rumour" said the discovery was of the writer of the letters of
Lucius. Under these circumstances it would be idle to waste another line
in speculation: enough for the information of your correspondent, if I
add, that in one case the discovery _might_ help us to a _conjecture_
who Junius _was_; in another, might prove who he was _not_.

As to the "rumours" about the scents contained in the _Grenville
Papers_, they would fill a volume. They have been buzzing about for more
than a quarter of a century. The nonsense of one-half was demonstrable
by any intelligent person who would have taken the trouble to examine
and test them: but nobody did take such trouble. "N. & Q." was not then
in existence. The most plausible, and seemingly, from its
circumstantiality, best authenticated version, was given by Mr. Barker,
in 1828, to the effect that three letters had been discovered, one of
which had a fictitious signature; another asked legal advice of Mr.
Grenville as to publishing the letter to the King; and the third
enclosed a copy of Junius's letter to Lord Mansfield, signed with the
author's initials, and with a reference therein to a letter received
from Mr. Grenville.

The publication of the letters will soon put an end to "rumour."
Meanwhile the few following facts will dispose of Mr. Barker's
circumstantial fictions, and perhaps satisfy your correspondent.

There are amongst the _Grenville Papers_ three letters, dated Feb.,
Sept., and Nov., 1768; the _last_ therefore before the _first_ Junius
was published.

_Two_ of these letters are signed with the initial C.; and, on the
similarity of the handwriting, it is assumed that the _three_ letters
came from the same person. The writer of the _unsigned_ letter claims to
have written many of the letters which had latterly appeared in the
newspapers, and, amongst others, a letter signed Atticus, a copy of
which he encloses. This is according to my recollection; but I will not
say positively that he does not claim to be the writer of the _letters_
signed Atticus. The question, therefore, at present stands thus:--The
connexion of these letters with the writer of Junius's letters is an
inference or assumption, not a fact. It remains to be proved: and, for
anything I know to the contrary, it may hereafter be proved by the
editor of the _Grenville Papers_,--a diligent and careful man,--that the
unknown writer of the unsigned letter is worthy of belief; that he was
the same person who wrote the two letters signed C.; that Mr.
Grenville's correspondent C. in 1768, was Woodfall's correspondent C. in
1769; and then, whether Mr. Grenville's Atticus was the same Atticus
whose four letters were published as written by Junius, by Mr. _George_
Woodfall in the edition of 1812. Simple as this last question may
appear, and naturally as most persons would come to a conclusion on the
subject, I think it well to mention as a warning, that there were, as
admitted in the _Public Advertiser_, two persons who about the same time
wrote under that signature, and I think clear evidence of a third
writer.

    J. R.


WADY MOKATTEB NOT MENTIONED IN NUM. XI. 26.

(Vol. iv., p. 481.; Vol. v., pp. 31., 87.)

Your pages are not suited to the discussion of topics like this: I mean,
that to enter fully into all the points raised by MR. MARGOLIOUTH, would
occupy more space than you could afford. I therefore write only a few
general remarks, lest my silence should be interpreted as an
acquiescence in MR. M.'S arguments. The difficulty MR. M. has to contend
with is evidently this: how came the eminent Hebrew scholars, who were
the authors of the ancient versions--how came the whole body of Jewish
Rabbis who have written upon the law, to be ignorant of what seems so
clear to MR. M., that םיבותכה, in the passage in question was
in fact a proper name, denoting _the place_ in which Eldad and Medad
were? How came it that they all took it in the sense expressed in our
English version? [I do not admit the Chaldee paraphrase as an exception
(notwithstanding what MR. M. remarks), because the words איביתכב ‎ואנון
are an exact rendering of the Hebrew text, and partake of the
same ambiguity, if there be any ambiguity.] The legend which I quoted
from Rashi clearly proves that the Jews of his time understood the
passage as our English translators have done. This is MR. M.'s
difficulty: and how does he meet it? He says, "What of that, if they
happen to be wrong? Such a consideration will never interfere with my
own judgment, founded on a thorough knowledge of the meaning of the
Hebrew word."

What is this but to say that the Septuagint translators, the authors of
the other ancient versions, the Jewish Rabbis, had not the same
"thorough knowledge of the meaning of the Hebrew word" which MR. M. "in
his own judgment" believes himself to possess? I do not, however,
suppose that MR. M. really intends to set up his own judgment against
these authorities, as if he was better acquainted with Hebrew than those
who lived when the language was vernacular; but when he tells us "that
he has long since learned that opinions are not necessarily true because
they are old, nor doctrines undeniably infallible because we have
believed them from our cradles," it becomes necessary to remind him that
I never asserted any such thing, and that my argument, from authority,
amounted simply to this,--that the judgment of the LXX, and other
ancient translators, with that of all the Jewish Rabbis of later date,
was a better authority, in my judgment, as to the meaning of a Hebrew
word, than the unsupported opinion of MR. MARGOLIOUTH, which (as it
seems to me) is also inconsistent with the context of the passage. If
MR. M. will produce the judgment of any other authority, especially of
those who lived near the time when Hebrew was a vernacular language (for
this is what makes the age of the authority valuable), his opinion will
be more worthy of attention.

  MR. M. says, as one of his arguments, "It would appear that DR.
  TODD himself found the ב insurmountable, and therefore
  omitted it in his last Hebrew quotation."

This omission was the error of your printer, not mine; and I think any
one who did not greatly need such an argument, must have seen that it
was a mistake of the press. In my own defence I must say that I had not
the advantage of being allowed to correct the press.

I do not deny that MR. M.'S interpretation is ingenious and clever, but
it is for this reason especially that I object to it; Holy Scripture is
too sacred a thing to be trifled with by ingenious conjectures: it is
easy for a man of talent like Mr. M. to gain a reputation with the
unlearned by affecting to correct our English version on a "thorough
knowledge of Hebrew words." This is a rock upon which many have
foundered; the temptation is very great to a man like MR. M., who has
been brought up with a verbal knowledge of the Hebrew Scriptures: and it
is in no unkindly spirit towards him, but very much the reverse, that I
venture to give him this warning.

    J. H. TODD.


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Rotten Row._--I cannot agree with any of the etymologies of this
phrase, as given at p. 441. of Vol. i., p. 235. of Vol. ii., or at p.
40. of Vol. v. of "N. & Q.," because I have found the same applied to
many places with which such etymologies could not, by any possibility,
have the remotest connexion. In my examination of the _Hundred Rolls_ or
_Acre Books_ of the various parishes in the hundred of Skirbeck in
Lincolnshire, I found that a portion of several of those parishes was
named _Rotten Row_: I will instance two, Freiston and Bennington. Upon
consulting the best authorities I could meet with, I found that Camden
derives the name from _Rotteran_, to muster; and we know that the Barons
de Croun and their descendants, the Lords Rous, who formerly held the
manor of Freiston, were in the habit of mustering their vassals under
arms. "William Lord Ros, then residing at Ros Hall, Freiston, received a
command to attend Edward II. at Coventry; and hastened to him with all
his men at arms, divers _Hoblers_, and some foot soldiers accordingly."
(See Dugdale's _Baronage_.) That the term _Rotten Row_ has this military
origin receives additional corroboration from the fact, that in Blount's
_Glossographia_, 1670, the word ROT is defined to be "a term of war; six
men (be they pikes or musketeers) make a _Rot_ or file." Under the word
BRIGADE in the same dictionary, I find it stated that "six men make a
_Rot_, and three _Rots_ of Pikes make a corporalship, but the
musqueteers have four _Rots_ to a corporalship. Nine _Rots_ of pikes and
twelve _Rots_ of musqueteers, or 126 men, make a complete company." In
Cole's _Dictionary_, 1685, I find "ROT, a file of six soldiers."

From these authorities I am led to infer that the term _Rotten Row_ is
a corruption of the name originally applied to the place where the
feudal lord of a town or village held his _Rother_ or muster, and where
the _Rots_, into which his vassals were divided, assembled for the
purpose of military exercise.

    P. T.

  Stoke Newington.

"_Preached from a Pulpit rather than a Tub_" (Vol. v., p. 29.) is from
the conclusions of _Religio Clerici; a Churchman's First Epistle_, 3rd
edition, Murray, 1819. The author thus dictates his own epitaph:--

      "This be my record: Sober, not austere,
      A Churchman, honest to his Church, lies here;
      Content to tread where wiser feet had trod,
      He loved established modes of serving God;
      Preached from a pulpit rather than a tub,
      And gave no guinea to a Bible Club."

    B. R. I.

_Olivarius_ (Vol. v., p. 60.).--CLERICUS D. may be informed that the
work of _Petrus Joannes Olivarius de prophetiâ_; _Basilea_, 1543, is in
the library of Trinity College, Dublin.

    TYRO.

  Dublin.

_Slavery in Scotland_ (Vol. v., p. 29.).--To the question of E. F. L.,
as to what time the custom of mitigating the punishment of condemned
Scottish criminals to perpetual servitude was done away with, I cannot
at present give a definite answer; but perhaps the following curious
extract from the _Decisions_ of Fountainhall may be interesting to
enquirers on this subject:--

  "Reid, the _Mountebank_, pursues Scot of Harden and his Lady, for
  stealing away from him a little Girl, called the _Tumbling
  Lassie_, that danced upon his stage; and he claimed damages, and
  produced a contract, whereby he _bought her from her mother_, for
  £30 Scots. But _we have no Slaves in Scotland_, and mothers cannot
  sell their bairns; and physicians attested the employment of
  tumbling would kill her; and her joints were now grown stiff, and
  she declined to return; though she was at least a 'prentice, and
  so could not run away from her master; yet some cited Moses's Law,
  that if a servant shelter himself with thee, against his master's
  cruelty, thou shalt surely not deliver him up. The lords,
  _renitente cancellario_, assoilzied Harden, on the 27th January
  (1687)."--Vol. i. p. 439.

    R. S. F.

  Perth.

_Cibber's Lives of the Poets_ (Vol. v., pp. 25., 116.).--P. T. says that
"he has not Croker's _last_ edition of Boswell's _Life of Johnson_," to
which MR. CROSSLEY had referred him as to Shiells' share in Cibber's
_Lives_. He has printed "last" in Italics; but I see reason to suspect
that he has not seen _any_ of Mr. Croker's editions, nor even Boswell's
own; for the MS. note which he quotes from a fly-leaf of his (P. T.'s)
copy of the _Lives of the Poets_, is nothing but a verbal repetition of
what Boswell had stated on Dr. Johnson's authority in his text, but of
which he had added a refutation in a note; which note, with some
corroborative circumstances, was repeated in _both_ Mr. Croker's
editions.

There can be no doubt that Shiells misled Johnson, and that Johnson
misled Stevens, into the statement which P. T. has copied at some _third
or fourth hand_, after it had been twice or thrice refuted.

It is a little hard that your valuable space should be taken up by
gentlemen who will not even take the trouble of referring to the
authorities where you tell them that they will find an answer, and then
begin questioning again, as if you had not already settled the matter.

    C.

_Theoloneum_ (Vol. v., p. 105.).--Theoloneum is the Latin law term for
toll, corrupted from the Greek Telonium. I am surprised that I cannot
find it either in Du Cange or Spelman.

    C. B.

_John of Padua_ (Vol. v., p. 78.).--I have often endeavoured without
success to obtain some correct particulars about John of Padua, and also
to ascertain whether he was the same person as "John Thorpe." I hope,
therefore, that the inquiry in your last number may lead to a
satisfactory result; for we ought to know more of these worthies.

    BRAYBROOKE.

  Audley End.

_Stoke_ (Vol. v., p. 106.).--W. B. asks the meaning of the word _stoke_
in the names of places; as Bishopstoke, Ulverstoke, &c. (Ulverstoke
being, I presume, a miscopying or misprint of Alverstoke). I cannot at
all concur in the derivation you quote from Bosworth, from _stoc_, "a
place;" for then every place might be called _stoke_ without
distinction. But in all the _stokes_ that I remember in England there is
always and actually a kind of _stockade_ or sluice, which dams up some
watercourse to a certain level. Whether this explanation will apply to
the local circumstances of all the _stokes_, I know not; but it
certainly does to the cases of Bishopstoke and Alverstoke, and of at
least half a dozen other _stokes_ within my own observation.

    C.

_Eliza Fenning_ (Vol. v., p. 105.).--Eliza Fenning was a maid servant
convicted and executed for poisoning her master's family. I happened to
be very intimate with some charitable and distinguished persons who had
doubts of her guilt. I myself did not partake those doubts, but I
assisted my friends in their benevolent inquiries, and was so frequently
in communication with them both at the time, and long after, that I
think I may venture to say that there can be no foundation for the
statement that another person had confessed to the crime for which she
suffered.

    C.

On or about Christmas Day, 1833, there may be found in _The Times_
newspaper a notice of the death of a man, who, after leading a
dissolute life, ended his days in the workhouse of some town either in
Suffolk or Essex. On his death-bed he confessed that he was the brother
of the law-stationer, and that he had put the poison into the pudding,
by the eating of which his brother and family died, and for which crime
Eliza Fenning had suffered innocently.

    F. HH.

With reference to the inquirer respecting Elizabeth Fenning, I would
remark, that I well remember that it was inserted in a provincial paper,
many years ago, that Turner, in whose family the poisoning took place,
had confessed before his death that he himself was the guilty person. My
impression is, that it was inserted in an Ipswich newspaper. There was
great excitement in London at the time of Eliza Fenning's execution, and
the house of Turner had to be protected from the fury of the populace.
Mr. Hone had several pamphlets at his shop window on the circumstance. I
have heard Mr. Richard Taylor say she was the last person condemned by
Sir John Sylvester.

    X. Y. Z.

_Ghost Stories_ (Vol. iv., p. 5.; Vol. v., pp. 89. 136.).--I hope it
will not be thought that I mean to vouch for the truth of the stories
after which I am inquiring, if it should turn out that there really are
any; and also that I shall not be thought captious if I am not satisfied
with the substitutes which are proposed. When your correspondent says
that Reichenbach's "system may be advantageously applied to the
explanation of corpse-candles, illuminated churchyards, and other
articles of Welsh and English superstition," I can only say that, as far
as I understand the superstitions referred to, nobody ever thought of
connecting _them_ with _ghosts_. There may be stories of "illuminated
churchyards," with ghosts in them, of which I have not heard but no
ghosts are mentioned by your correspondent. I am not laying undue stress
on a word. If the word _ghost_ means anything, it means a _spirit_; and
I apprehend that the enlightened Baron will not thank any friend who
would sink, or explain away, that meaning. So, I presume, his translator
Dr. Ashburner understood him, when he triumphantly exclaimed, "The
_glorious_ Reichenbach has, in this treatise, done good service against
the _vile demon of superstition_," p. 180. These words would have been
too grand for the celebration of such a petty triumph as snuffing out
Welsh candles, and explaining one or two small superstitions of the
vulgar. I must therefore again, if you will allow me, ask whether
anybody knows of such stories as would really meet what appears to be
the meaning of the author and translator.

    S. R. MAITLAND.

  Gloucester.

_Autographs of Weever and Fuller_ (Vol. iv., pp. 474. 507.).--Upon
reading the Query of A. E. C., I remembered to have seen some of
Weever's handwriting a year or two since, in the copy of his _Funerall
Monuments_ in the library of Queen's College, Cambridge, of which I was
then librarian. I have since written to a resident member of the
college, who has kindly sent me a careful tracing of the MS. note; it is
as follows:

      "To the learned and judicious View of
      the Maister and Fellowes of
      Queenes Colledge in Cambridge
      John Weever
      Presents these his imperfect labours."

The tracing, the accuracy of which may be relied upon, I shall be very
happy to lend to A. E. C., if it will be of any service to him. Fuller's
autograph has not yet been discovered in the library, but, I have reason
to believe, will be found in the President's lodge.

    W. SPARROW SIMPSON, B.A.

  14. Grove Road, North Brixton, Surrey.

_Lines on the Bible_ (Vol. iv., p. 473. Vol. v., p. 66.).--It has been
already shown that these lines are _not_ Byron's, but are to be found in
the 12th chapter of Sir W. Scott's _Monastery_. I write now for the
purpose of noting, that in a similar collection, almost exclusively of
the Evangelical school, called _Sacred Poetry_, and published by
Oliphant of (I think) Edinburgh, Byron's lines from _The Giaour_,
beginning--

      "Yes! Love indeed is light from heaven;
        A spark of that immortal fire,
      With angels shared, by _Allah_ given,
        To lift from Earth each low desire," &c.--

are printed with the "Allah" of the third line simply changed into
"Jesus!" And so a passage, applicable solely to the earthly Eros, is
made to do duty as descriptive of another love of which the noble poet
had, I fear, remarkably little notion. The editors have had the grace
not to append Byron's name as the author. How far is this mode of
"improving" a passage honest?

    HARRY LEROY TEMPLE.

_Hell-rake_ (Vol. iv., pp. 192. 260.).--I cannot dispossess my mind of
the impression that, like the theological word _hell_, so the
agricultural term _hell-rake_ is derived front the well-known Saxon word
signifying to _cover_.

Every Devonshire vestryman or mason well enough knows what is meant by
the "helling," or "heleing," or "heeling," of a church, viz. the
covering of the roof; and every farmer or labourer in the west will tell
you, that the _second-helling_ of potatoes is the covering them with
earth a second time. Query: Was not the _hell-rake_ originally an
implement used in husbandry for the purposes of _covering_ the
broad-cast seed, and for other kindred purposes?

    J. SANSOM.

_Family Likenesses_ (Vol. v., p. 7.).--The remarkable preservation of a
family likeness is the subject of one of your "Minor Notes." It has
been often observed, I believe, that in the continuation of such
resemblance, a generation is not unfrequently passed over, and the son
is not like the father, but the grandfather. The Note recalled to my
mind some powerful lines in a poem, printed more than forty years ago,
for private circulation only, which I transcribe, thinking that perhaps
you may consider them not unsuited to your pages. To establish the
relationship of one who claims kindred with another, several proofs are
offered, viz. a bracelet, a ring, a letter: but the satisfactory
evidence is afforded by the family resemblance:--

      "That bracelet with Elmina's hair,
      That bridal ring which join'd the pair,
      From Geoffrey, or from Geoffrey's son,
      By craft or outrage might be won.
      That letter, where I seem to view
      Sir Endo's lines precise and true,
      Of forger's hands the fruit may be,
      Or penn'd for others, not for thee.
      But the mild lustre of her eye,
      Soft as the tint of noontide sky,
      The grace that once her lips array'd,
      Nor force nor fraud could thine have made.
      The semblance of Elmina dead
      Thus o'er thy every feature spread,
      No finger on thy front could trace,
      _'Tis God's handwriting on thy face_."

    S. S. S.

_Grimsdyke_ (Vol. iv. _passim_).--Your correspondent NAUTILUS asks it
there are any ancient entrenchments in England known by the name of
_Grimsdyke_, besides the one he mentions in Hants. I have to inform him
that one of the most remarkable of the _many Celtic and Druidical
remains_ on Dartmoor, in the county of Devon, is _Grimspound_, with its
dyke or ditch, a small stream running through, or just outside, its
circumvallation. He will find two very good accounts of it lately
published, one in _A Perambulation of the Ancient and Royal Forest of
Dartmoor_: by Samuel Rowe, M.A., Vicar of Crediton (published by
Hamilton, Adams & Co.); and another, in a _Guide to the Eastern
Encampment of Dartmoor_, _with a Descriptive Map_ (published by Dr.
Croker, of South Bovey).[2]

  [Footnote 2: The _Guide_ is published by Holden, Exeter; and
  Kirkman and Thackray, London.]

There is a good print of Grimspound in Mr. Rowe's book, who describes it
as by far the finest and most extraordinary of all the relics of this
class. Its situation is on the N.W. slope of Hamel Down, on the borders
of the parishes of Manaton (Colonel Hamilton says, _Maen-y-dun_, the
fort or inclosure of erect stones), North Bovey, and Widdecombe. Dr.
Croker says Grimspound is about 400 feet diameter; the wall inclosing
the area is formed of loose stones (granite), several of which are of
immense size: when first erected it appears to have been about twelve
feet in height. There are two entrances, N. and S., with evident marks
of a pavement. Within are many smaller circles formed by erect stones
three feet high, and in general twelve feet in diameter.

    WM. COLLYNS, Surgeon.

  Kenton, Devon.

_Portraits of Wolfe._--I have by me a print well known by "hearsay" to
all the admirers of Hogarth (though evidently none of _his_
performance), the print of "A living dog is better than a dead lion." It
shows a profile likeness of Wolfe, which certainly corresponds with
every other likeness I have seen of him. I never saw any other print of
it but that in my possession.

Now we are upon the subject of Wolfe's portraits, it may not be amiss to
state that in the celebrated print by Woollett, every face there was
engraved by the celebrated Ryland; for this I had the authority of my
father, who was acquainted with him.

    B. G.

_Jenings or Jennings Family_ (Vol. iv., p. 424.).--Mr. Jennings or
Jennens (William), of Acton Place, Suffolk, who died at the close of the
last century, was a son of Robert Jennens, who served as aide-de-camp to
the great Duke of Marlborough. _His_ grandfather Humphrey was settled in
Warwickshire, became an eminent iron manufacturer in Birmingham, and
afterwards purchased extensively in Leicestershire. The father of
Humphrey was settled for some time at Hales Owen in Shropshire; but I
have reason to believe his family came from Yorkshire, as suggested by
A. B. C. of Brighton. The will of Humphrey was dated Feb. 25th, 1651;
and, as it was proved, may throw some light on his kindred. Various
works touching on the pedigrees of Yorkshire may also give the querist
information, especially Whitaker's _Ducatus Leodiensis_ and his _Leodis
and Elmete_, Surtees' publications, Part I. for 1836; Cleveland's
_Cleveland_; Davis's _York Records_; Hunter's _South Yorkshire_;
Nichols's _Collectanea Topographica et Geneologica_, vols. iv. and viii.
&c. &c. Doubtless, too, there are local histories of Craven and Ripon
which might aid his object; but if it would justify expense, he should
examine the diocesan and parochial registries of York in regard to those
localities. Mr. Jennens died at a very advanced age, having been the
godson of William III., and afterwards page of George I. He amassed an
immense property in lands and stock, much of which is, I believe,
unappropriated and yet unclaimed.

    JOHN D'ALTON.

  48. Summer Hill, Dublin.

_The Father of Cardinal Pole_ (Vol. v., p. 105.).--I. J. H. H. does not
state by what authority Sir Richard Pole is styled "a Welsh knight:" and
the surmise that this name was a corruption of Powell is clearly
unfounded. The not uncommon names of De la Pole, Atte Pole, and Poole,
are of English origin; belonging to the _minor_ class of local
cognomina, like Brook, Gate, Wood, &c. The family from which the
cardinal sprang was wholly distinct from the De la Poles, earls and
dukes of Suffolk, and can only be traced for three generations: but the
series of "Pedigrees of Noble Families related to the Blood Royal,"
made, it is believed, by Wriothesley Garter, and printed in the first
volume of the _Collectanea Topogr. et Genealogica_, throws some light
upon it. It appears that Sir Richard Pole and Alianor, who was married
to Ralph Verney, Esq., and had issue, were the children of _Geoffrey
Pole of Buckinghamshire_ by Edith, daughter of Sir Oliver St. John, and
half-sister to Margaret, Countess of Richmond, the mother of King Henry
VII. Sir Harris Nicolas, who edited the pedigrees in question, remarks
upon this alliance:

  "It has been a subject of surprise that Sir Richard Pole, of whom,
  or of whose family, little was known, should have married Margaret
  Countess of Salisbury, the last descendant of the Plantagenets.
  One of these pedigrees proves that Sir Richard Pole was nearly
  related to the king, which accounts for the fact."

Sir Harris Nicolas further remarks, that where, in another page of the
same manuscript, the arms of Sir Geoffrey Pole (for he was, it seems, a
knight) ought to have been inserted, the shield is _left blank_; and
that the coat which is engraved on the garter-plate of Sir Richard Pole
at Windsor, being Party per pale argent and sable, a saltire engrailed
counterchanged, appears as if it may have been formed upon the saltire
of the Nevilles, in allusion to the great inheritance of his wife, the
Lady Margaret of Clarence.

    J. G. N.

_Sir Gammer Vangs_ (Vol. ii., pp. 89. 280. 396.).--I have just found
some account of this absurd story in Swift's _Correspondence_, Scott's
edition, vol. xvi. p. 306. It seems to have been printed in a pamphlet,
a copy of which was sent to the Dean by his friend Mr. Ludlow (Sept. 10,
1718), under the name of _Sir Politic Would-be_, who gives it sportively
(as I always thought it _really_ had) a political meaning, and there
seems to have been some allusion in it to the Dean himself. The pamphlet
may, perhaps, be found in some of the Irish libraries.

    C.

_Delighted, Meaning of_ (Vol. ii., pp. 113. 329.).--A discussion was,
some time ago, carried on in the pages of "N. & Q." relative to the
signification of the word _delighted_ as used by Shakspeare. The same
word occurs in a sense very different from that which it now bears in
the "Epistle Dedicatory" (dated 1667) to _The City and Country Purchaser
and Builder_, by Stephen Primatt. The book is dedicated to Sir Orlando
Bridgman and "the rest of the Justices and Barons appointed----for
Determination of Differences touching Houses burnt down or demolished by
reason of the late Fire in London," and the following is the passage
alluded to:

  "The truely merited reputation by your Honours equal ballancing
  the Scales of Justice, hath, and is the daily cause of so many
  Petitioners to you for the same, especially in the late
  wisely-erected Court of Judicature; wherein your Honours, by your
  quick and _delighted_ equitable dispatch of such differences as
  have come before you, hath sufficiently testified your undoubted
  loyalty to our Sovereign Lord the King, and amity to his people,"
  &c.

    R. C. H.

_Stops, when first introduced_ (Vol. v., p. 1.).--The semicolon had been
freely used in England some years before the date (1589) of Puttenham's
_Arte of English Poesie_. If Sir Henry Ellis will turn to the first
edition of Archbishop Sandys' Sermons, _Sermons made by the most
reuerende Father in God, Edwin, Archbishop of Yorke_: At London, printed
by Henrie Midleton, for Thomas Charde, 1585, he will find semicolons in
abundance. I see that the note of interrogation occurs in _A Compendiovs
and very frvtefvl treatyse teachynge the waye of Dyenge well_, _by
Thomas Lupsete;_ London, 1541. It is no doubt to be found at an earlier
date, but my poor library does not afford an older English book. The
same mark, I may add, was used as a note both of interrogation and of
exclamation.

    A. J. H.

_Force of Conscience_ (Vol. iii., p. 38.).--The relation given by your
correspondent J. K. is also to be found in a volume entitled _The
Providence of God illustrated_, 12mo., London, 1836, pp. 386. 387., in
very similar words, but no authority is given. Many anecdotes equally
extraordinary are to be found in this work; it would be very desirable
to authenticate them.

    W. SPARROW SIMPSON, B.A.

_Monton in Pembroke_ (Vol. iv., p. 371.).--I have to remark that this
mountain, or monton (the meaning of which B. B. finds it difficult to
explain), is situated outside the walls of Pembroke on the adjoining
hill; and there is now the remains of a priory in or about the midst to
which this village belonged, and that in old deeds it is written
Monkton, or Moncton. Perhaps this may solve his difficulty.

    J. D.

_Catterick for Cattraeth_ (Vol. iv., p. 453.).--I understand MR.
STEPHENS to insinuate that Cattraeth means Catterick or _vice versâ_.
That both names begin with _cat_, and so much only, I am able to
concede.

Catterick was Cataractonium, or Cataracta, a Latin word of Greek
derivation, alluding to the rapids of the Swale. No man can dispute that
Cat-traeth is a compound of regular and truly idiomatic formation.
Therefore the best meaning I can surmise is this: that Aneurin, wishing
to play upon the syllable _cat_, the battle, and disregarding the
falsehood and inapplicability of _traeth_, therefore travestied
Cataracta into Cattraeth. For the meaning of _traeth_, in topography,
see Giraldus, _Itin. Cambr._ lib. ii. cap. 6., and the common sources of
information.

But that meaning was not one tolerated by Aneurin, maugre its untruth,
in order to avail himself of the other and appropriate word. It was one
on which he leant heavily and with emphasis, reproducing, and
multiplying it in several forms. For he calls the scene of contest not
only Cat-traeth, seabeach of battle, but also Gall-traeth, sea-beach of
prowess; and Mordai, the sea-shore: "Gododin ar llawr mordai: Gododin
whose ground-plot is on the sea-shore." Again, the scene of "outcry and
slaughter" is called Uffin; but Uffin was situate on "y mordai ymmoroedd
Gododin," on the sea-shore of the sea of Gododin.

Catterick is remote from the sea, and inconsistent with all that Aneurin
says. And though Sigston should mean in Anglo-Saxon _town of victory_,
from some ancient occurrence, Catterick is assuredly not derived from
_cat_, a battle, in British. Bilinguar etymology, of the same date, and
from the same event, would be suspicious, even if facts did not confute
it.

    A. N.

_Biographical Dictionary_ (Vol. iv., p. 483.).--It is almost unnecessary
to direct Z. Z. Z. to the _Biographical Dictionary_ of the Society for
the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, inasmuch as it is but a splendid
fragment, comprising only the letter A, in seven half-volumes. But it
may be of use to call attention to this work; and as, from an
examination of the plan, the names of the contributors, and that of the
editor, no one can have any doubt of its worth and superiority, so one
would imagine that an enterprising publisher might take up the
continuation of it without risk.

    ED. STEANE JACKSON.

  Saffron Walden.

_Martinique_ (Vol. v., p. 11.).--One of your correspondents from St.
Lucia asks why the Island of Martinique was so called. It is from the
circumstance of its having been discovered on _St. Martin's Day_, 1502,
by Christopher Columbus.

    PHILIP S. KING.

_A Regular Mull_ (Vol. iii., pp. 449. 508.).--The suggestions of W. E.
W. and M. as to the origin of this expression are amusing, and show,
however farfetched the derivations, their authors have not gone so far
as "Malabar or Deccan." Had either of these gentlemen been from the land
of the wise, they would have known that the residents of Bengal, Bombay,
and Madras are, in Eastern parlance, designated "Qui Hies," "Ducks," and
"Mulls." Madras not hitherto having been so highly favoured by "Kumpanie
Jehân," is in a comparatively less advanced stage of civilisation than
its sister presidencies. The Qui Hies and Ducks, attributing this to the
inertness and want of go-a-headness of the Mulls, hold them (though most
unjustly) in cheap estimation; hence they say of a person deficient in
skill and cleverness that he is "a regular Mull."

    TAPROBANE.

_The Pelican as a Symbol of the Saviour_ (Vol. v., p. 59.).--In Lord
Lindsay's _Christian Art_, vol. i. xx. xxi., we find, in the text: "God
the Son (is symbolised) by a Pelican" (Psalm cii. 6.), to which is added
the following note:

  "The mediæval interpretation of this symbol is given as follows by
  Sir David Lindsay of the Mount, Lion King (nephew of the poet), in
  his MS. Collectanea, preserved in the Advocates' Library,
  Edinburgh:--

  "'The Pellican is ane foule in Egipt, of the quhilkis auld men
  sayis that the litill birdis straikis thair fader in the face with
  thair wingis, and crabis him quhill (till) he slayis thame. And
  quhen the moder seis thame slane, scho greitis (weeps) and makis
  grit dule thre dayis lang, quhill scho streikis hirself in the
  breist with hir neb (beak), and garris the blude skayle (flow)
  vpone hir birdis, quhairthrow thai restoir and turnis to lyf
  agane. Bot sum folkis sayis thai ar clekkit swown and (hatched
  swooning), lyk as thai war bot (without) life, and that thair
  fader haillis (heals) thame agane with his blude. And this maner
  haly kirk beiris witnes, quhair our Lord sayis that he is maid lyk
  the Pelican.'"

I wish Lord L. had translated "crabis."

    F. W. J.

_Church_ (Vol. v., p. 79.).--Can it be that MR. STEPHENS is not aware
that there is a long dissertation on the subject of his Query in Ihre's
_Glossarium Suio-Gothicum_ voce "Kyrka?" The Welsh still retain the
derivative from the Latin, _Eglwys_.

    B. WILLIAMS.

_Donkey_ (Vol. v., p. 78.).--C. W. G. asks, "What is the origin of
_donkey_?" Perhaps he may consider the following (from the great
authority) as satisfactory. Porson was introduced to a _Danish_
archæologist of celebrity, who, thinking it necessary to say something
to Porson, rather abruptly addressed him thus: "I dink, Mr. Porson, that
you vil agree wid me, that asses is derived from Asia." Porson eyed the
learned Dane, and observed: "Yes, Sir, about as much as that _donkey_ is
derived from Denmark: and that is a thought that never struck me till
now."

    ÆGROTUS.

_Moravian Hymns_ (Vol. v., p. 113.).--Dr. Pusey's _Letter to the Bishop
of London_ (Epiphany, 1851), § vi., forms a curious comment on the
almost blasphemous lines quoted on this page.

  A. A. D.



Miscellaneous.


NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC.

A Note on the coins of Edward III. by PROFESSOR VAN DER CHŸS, director
of the cabinet of coins and medals in the University of Leyden, in a
former part of this Number, reminds us to inform our readers that the
Teyler's Society in Haarlem have just published the treatise on the
coins of the ancient duchies of Brabant and Limberg from the earliest
times to the pacification of Ghent, referred to by the professor, who,
has been several years occupied in making drawings and descriptions of
coins in his own collection, in the cabinet under his care, and in other
public and private collections in the Netherlands and neighbouring
countries. His work, comprising more than 400 quarto pages of
description and historical research, with 36 well-executed plates
containing 470 specimens of coins from original drawings, supplies a
want long felt, and will be equally welcomed by the lover of coins and
the student of history. It is not less remarkable for its cheapness than
for its beauty.

Since the days when Teofilo Folengo, who has with some propriety been
regarded as the forerunner of Rabelais, gave to the world, under the
name of Merlinus Cocaius, the "Libriculum ludicrum et curiosum, partim
latino, partim italiano sermone compositum," which may be said to have
called into existence that burlesque style of composition which is now
understood by the term Macaronic, not only has he found many imitators,
but his and their works have always found a numerous class of purchasers
at least, if not of readers. In 1829, Genthe gave to the literary world
of Germany an excellent history of the works of this peculiar class. He
was followed in this country in 1831 by Mr. Sandys, who then gave us his
interesting _Specimens of Macaronic Poetry;_ and we have now to thank M.
Octave Delepierre for his _Macaronéana, ou Mélanges de Littérature
Macaronique des différents Peuples de l'Europe_--an agreeable and
amusing work upon the same subject. M. Delepierre, while busied in its
preparations, has had the advantage of consulting the library of M. Van
de Weyer, which appears to be as rich in this peculiar branch of
bibliography, as it is known to be not only in every department of the
literature of the Low Countries, but in everything that relates to the
general history of literature.

When we consider the unwearied zeal and well-directed perseverance
manifested by Mrs. Cowden Clarke in her admirable _Concordance to
Shakspeare_, and the unvarying good taste and great ability with which
she has shadowed forth the infant life of those female characters which
Shakspeare has drawn with such mastery,--we feel that we have scarcely
done justice to _The Girlhood of Shakspeare's Heroines_ in allowing this
graceful and interesting series of Tales to draw to the close, to which
it has now been brought by the publication of _Viola the Twin_ and
_Imogen the Peerless_, without having directed the attention of our
readers to the various tales, as they were from time to time presented
to the world. The press has been unanimous in commending the plan
proposed to herself by Mrs. Clarke, as well as her execution of it; and
although at the eleventh hour, we join most heartily in a commendation
as well deserved as it has been universally bestowed.

If Authors have their peculiar calamities, they may console themselves
by the reflection that Editors have also some which are peculiarly their
own. Is it a small matter to receive a book (with a title which alone
would occupy nearly a column) containing upwards of a thousand
closely-printed pages, and be expected to give, in the short space which
we can allot to such notes, an account of its objects, merits, &c.? And
yet, when one reads in the opening of _The Grammar of English Grammars,
with an Introduction, Historical and Critical; the whole methodically
arranged and amply illustrated_, &c., by Goold Brown,--that it is the
fulfilment of a design formed upwards of a quarter of a century
since,--one feels pained at being merely enabled to announce that it is
a work obviously the fruit of much reflection on the part of its author,
and as obviously deserving of the attention of all whose duty it is to
discover the most advantageous system of inculcating the rules of
English Grammar.

We understand that several very important publications will shortly be
issued from the Oxford University Press. We may first mention the _Fasti
Catholici_, or _Universal Chronology_, by the Rev. Edward Greswell,
author of the _Harmony of the Gospels_, _the Parables_, &c. It is stated
that the present work, which contains the result of the indefatigable
labour and research of the Editor for several years, is a still more
learned and elaborate production than any of his previous publications.
Another, which will excite great attention, is a _Catalogue of the
Manuscripts contained in the Libraries of the Twenty-four Colleges and
Halls of the University of Oxford_, which has been prepared by the Rev.
Henry Octavius Coxe, ore of the sub-librarians of the Bodleian Library,
editor of _Roger of Wendover's Chronicle_, and of Lewis's _Collection of
Forms of Bidding Prayer_, from the manuscript in the Bodleian Library.
And, lastly, we may mention a reprint of Bishop Burnet's _Lives of the
Dukes of Hamilton_, which is usually considered as a supplement to
Spottiswoode's _History of the Church of Scotland_.


BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES

WANTED TO PURCHASE.

ISR. CLAUDERI DISPUTATIO DE SALE SUB PRÆSIDIO SAGITTARII. Jenæ, 1650.

TILLOTSON'S SERMONS. Vol I. First Edition. 1670-80. Edited by Parker,
his Chaplain.

CRESCENT AND THE CROSS. Vol. I. Third Edition.

MACKINNON'S HISTORY OF CIVILISATION. Vol. II. 1846.

LITE'S DODOENS' HERBAL. First Edition. (An imperfect copy to complete
another.)

TURNER'S A BOOKE OF THE NATURES OF THE BATHES IN ENGLAND. 1568. (An
imperfect copy to complete another.)

A MOST EXCELLENT AND PERFECTE CORNISH APOTHECARY. 1561. (An imperfect
copy, to complete another.)

TURNER'S A NEW HERBALL. (An imperfect copy to complete another.)

FIELDING'S WORKS. 14 Vols. 1808. Vol. XI. [Being 2nd of Amelia.]

SHADWELL. Vols. II. and IV. 1720.

ARCHBISHOP LEIGHTON. Vol. IV. 1819.

BARONETAGE. Vol. I. 1720. Ditto, Vols. I. and II. 1727.

CHAMBERLAYNE'S PHARONNIDA. (Reprint.) Vols. I. and II. 1820.

HOLCROFT'S LAVATER. Vol. I. 1789.

DRECHSLERUS DE LARVIS. Lipsiæ, 1674.

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA. Vol. I. Third edition, published in 1794,
Edinburgh, for A. Bell.

GIBBON'S DECLINE AND FALL. Vol. II. Dublin. Luke White. 1789.

ELSLEY ON THE GOSPEL AND ACTS. London. 1833. Vol. I

SPENSER'S WORKS. Pickering's edition. 1839. Sm. 8vo. Vol. V.

WHARTON'S ANGLIA SACRA. Fol. Vol. II.

ARISTOPHANES, BEKKER. (5 Vols. edit.) Vol. II. London, 1829.

LYDGATE'S BOKE OF TROYE. 4to. 1555. (Any fragment.)

COLERIDGE'S TABLE TALK. Vol. I. Murray. 1835.

THE BARBERS (a poem) by W. Hutton. 8vo. 1793. (Original edition, not the
fac-simile.)

THE DOCTRINE AND PRACTICE OF THE CHURCH OF ROME TRULY REPRESENTED, by
Edw. Stillingfleet, Bishop of Worcester, edited by William Cunningham,
Min. Edinburgh.

A CATECHISM TRULY REPRESENTING THE DOCTRINES AND PRACTICES OF THE CHURCH
OF ROME, with an Answer to them, by John Williams, M.A.

DODD'S CERTAMEN UTRIUSQUE ECCLESIÆ: or a list of all the Eminent
Writers, Catholics and Protestants, since the Reformation. 1724.

THE SALE CATALOGUE of J. T. Breckett's Library of British and Foreign
History, &c. 1823.

DODD'S APOLOGY FOR THE CHURCH HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 1742. 12mo.

SPECIMENS FOR AMENDMENTS FOR DODD'S CHURCH HISTORY, 1741. 12mo.

JOURNAL OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF DUBLIN. Vol. I. Part I. (Several
Copies are wanting, and it is believed that many are lying in London or
Dublin.)

CH. THILLON (DE HALLE) NOUVELLE COLLECTION DES APOCRYPHES.. Leipsic,
1832.

  [Star symbol] Letters stating particulars and lowest price,
  _carriage free_, to be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND
  QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.


Notices to Correspondents.

REPLIES RECEIVED.--_Many Children at one Birth--Dial Mottoes--Lines on
the Bible--Theoloneum--Seven Children--Serjeants' Rings--Commemoration
of Benefactors--Recess in Trumpington Church--St. Valentine's Day--A
Baron's Hearse--Isabel Queen of Man--Donkey--Shoplatch--John of
Horshill--King Robert Bruce's Watch--Sir Edward Seward's
Narrative--Death of Sir J. Moore--Haberdasher--Madrigal--Arborei
foetus--Please the Pigs--Porson's Puns--Carmen perpetuum--Coke and
Cowper--Baskerville--Though lost to sight--Covines--Herschel
anticipated--Monastic Establishments in Scotland--Black Rood
of Scotland--Stone Pillar Worship--Sacre Cheveux--Rent of
Assize--Cabal--Parish Registers--White-livered--Blaen--Connecticut
Halfpenny--London--Tripos--Bow-bell--St. Bartholomew, &c._

_Full price will be given for clean copies of_ No. 19 _upon application
to our Publisher._

_Neat cases for holding the Numbers of_ "N. & Q." _until the completion
of each Volume are now ready, price_ 1_s._ 6_d., and may be had by order
of all booksellers and newsmen._

_Copies of our Prospectus, according to the suggestion of_ T. E. H.,
_will be forwarded to any correspondent willing to assist us by
circulating them._

VOLUME THE FOURTH OF NOTES AND QUERIES, _with very copious_ Index, _is
now ready, price_ 9_s._ 6_d. cloth boards._

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them
to their Subscribers on the Saturday._

_Errata._--Page 81. col. 1. l. 37, for "building" read "Church;" p. 105.
col 2. l. 41., in the article "Sterne in Paris," for "wit" read "visit."



Preparing for publication.

  A HISTORY of the ENGLISH SCHOOL of PAINTING in WATER COLOURS, with
  Examples Illustrative of its Process, and BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES of
  the most eminent Professors of the Art.

  By JOS. J. JENKINS,

  Member of the Society of Painters in Water Colours.

  Mr. Jenkins respectfully solicits information relating to the
  early professors of the art.--5. Newman Street.


Just published, price 6_d._, by post 8_d._

  THE PLANTING OF NATIONS A GREAT RESPONSIBILITY. A Sermon preached
  at the Church of St. Mary the Virgin, in Oxford, on the occasion
  of the Third Jubilees of the Society for the Propagation of the
  Gospel in Foreign Parts. By SAMUEL, LORD BISHOP OF OXFORD, Lord
  High Almoner to the Queen, and Chancellor of the Most Noble Order
  of the Garter. Published by Request.

  London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street


LONDON LIBRARY, 12. St. James's Square.

  Patron: His Royal Highness Prince ALBERT.

  This Institution now offers to its members a collection of 60,000
  volumes, to which additions are constantly making, both in English
  and foreign literature. A reading room is also open for the use of
  the members, supplied with the best English and foreign
  periodicals.

  Terms of admission--entrance fee. 6_l._; annual subscription,
  2_l._; or entrance fee and life subscription, 26_l._

    By order of the Committee:

  J. G. COCHRANE, Secretary and Librarian.

    September, 1851.


THE BEST is the CHEAPEST.

      The Best Congou Tea           3_s._ 8_d._ per lb.
      The Best Souchong Tea         4_s._ 4_d._   "
      The Best Gunpowder Tea        5_s._ 8_d._   "
      The Best Old Mocha Coffee     1_s._ 4_d._   "
      The Best West India Coffee    1_s._ 4_d._   "
      The Fine True Ripe Rich
          Rare Souchong Tea         4_s._ 0_d._   "

  40_s._ worth or upwards sent CARRIAGE FREE to any part of England
  by

  PHILLIPS & CO., TEA MERCHANTS, No. 8. King William Street, City,
  London.


WESTERN LIFE ASSURANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY.

  3. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON.

  Founded A.D. 1842.

      _Directors._

      H. Edgeworth Bicknell, Esq.
      William Cabell, Esq.
      T. Somers Cocks, Jun. Esq. M.P.
      G. Henry Drew, Esq.
      William Evans, Esq.
      William Freeman, Esq.
      F. Fuller, Esq.
      J. Henry Goodhart, Esq.
      T. Grissell, Esq.
      James Hunt, Esq.
      J. Arscott Lethbridge, Esq.
      E. Lucas, Esq.
      James Lys Seager, Esq.
      J. Basley White, Esq.
      Joseph Carter Wood, Esq.

      _Trustees._

      W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.
      L. C. Humfrey, Esq., Q.C.
      George Drew, Esq.

  _Consulting Counsel._--Sir Wm. P. Wood, M.P.

  Solicitor-General.

  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.

  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.

  VALUABLE PRIVILEGE.

  Policies effected in this Office do not become void through
  temporary difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given
  upon application to suspend the payment at interest, according to
  the conditions detailed in the Prospectus.

  Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100_l._, with a Share
  in three-fourths of the Profits:--

      Age    £.  _s._ _d._
       17    1   14    4
       22    1   18    8
       27    2    4    5
       32    2   10    8
       37    2   18    6
       42    3    8    2

  ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S. Actuary.

  Now ready, price 10_s._ 6_d._ Second Edition, with material
  additions, INDUSTRIAL INVESTMENT and EMIGRATION: being a TREATISE
  on BENEFIT BUILDING SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of
  Land Investment, exemplified in the Cases of Freehold Land
  Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a Mathematical Appendix on
  Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A.,
  Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3. Parliament
  Street, London.


BOOK PLATES.--Heraldic Queries answered; Family Arms found, and every
information afforded. Drawing of Arms, 2_s._ 6_d._; Painting ditto,
5_s._; Book Plate Crest, 5_s._; Arms, &c. from 20_s._; Crest on Card
Plate, and One Hundred Cards, 8_s._; Queries answered for 1_s._ Saxon,
Mediæval, and Modern Style Book Plates. The best Authorities and MS.
Books of thirty-five years' practice consulted. Heraldic Stamps for
Linen or Books, with reversed Cyphers and Crests. Apply, if by letter,
enclosing stamps or post office order, to JAMES FRISWELL (Son-in-law to
J. Rumley, publisher of "The Crest Book," "Heraldic Illustrations").
Heraldic Engraver, 12. Brooke Street, Holborn.


SPECIAL NOTICE TO INTENDING ASSURERS.

  Intending Life Assurers are respectfully invited to compare the
  principles, rates, and whole provisions of the

  SCOTTISH PROVIDENT INSTITUTION

  with those of any existing company.

  In this Society the whole profits are divisible among the
  policy-holders, who are at the same time exempt from personal
  liability. It claims superiority, however, over other mutual
  offices in the following particulars.

  1. Premiums at early and middle ages about a fourth lower. See
  specimens below.(*)

  2. A more accurate adjustment of the rules of premium to the
  several ages.

  3. A principle in the division of the surplus more safe,
  equitable, and favourable to good lives.

  4. Exemption from entry money.

      (*) Annual Premiums for 100_l._, with Whole Profits.

      --------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
      Age 20  |  25   |   30  |  35   |  40   |  45   | 50    |   55
      --------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------
      1  15  8|1 18  0|2  1  6|2  6 10|2 14  9|3  4  9|4  1  7|5  1  11
      --------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------

      (*) Annual Premiums for 100_l._, with Whole Profits, payable
      for 21 years only.

      ---------+-------+--------+--------+--------+--------+-------
      Age 20   |  25   |   30   |   35   |   40   |   45   |  50
      ---------+-------+--------+--------+--------+--------+-------
       2   7  0|2 10  8|2  14  6|2  19  8|3   6  4|3  14  9|4  7  2
      ---------+-------+--------+--------+--------+--------+-------

  All policies indisputable unless obtained by fraud.

  Forms of proposal, prospectus containing full tables, copies of
  the Twelfth Annual Report, and every information, will be
  forwarded (gratis) on application, at the London Office, 12.
  Moorgate Street.

  GEORGE GRANT, Agent for London.


PARTICIPATION IN PROFITS.

      GLOBE INSURANCE,
      CORNHILL AND PALL-MALL,
      LONDON.

      Established 1803.
      (_Empowered by Special Acts of Parliament._)

      FOR

      FIRE, LIFE, ANNUITIES, AND THE
      PURCHASE OF REVERSIONS AND
      LIFE CONTINGENCIES.

  JAMES WM. FRESHFIELD, Esq., M.P. F.R.S., Chairman.

  FOWLER NEWSAM, Esq., Deputy-Chairman.

  GEORGE CARR GLYN, Esq., M.P., Treasurer.

  _Capital._--One Million _Sterling_--_the Whole Paid-up and
  Invested_.

  New Tables of Life Premiums on a Just and Liberal basis have been
  adopted by the "Globe Insurance," combining the _Plan of
  Participation_, with those principles of Solidity and Security,
  which have distinguished the Company from its formation.

  Two Scales of Premiums, _Participating_ and _Non-Participating_.

  Two-Thirds of Profits divided as Bonus every Seven Years.

  One-Third of the Premium may remain _Unpaid_ as a debt upon the
  Policy--and other facilities afforded to Insurers.

  Insurances taken to the extent of 10,000_l._ on a Single Life.

  Every class of FIRE and LIFE Insurance Business transacted.

  PROSPECTUSES with full Tables and Details--and Forms, may be had
  at the Offices of the Company, or of any of the Agents.

  (_By Order of the Board_)

  _Jan. 1852._

      WILLIAM NEWMARCH.
      _Secretary._


Vols. I. II. and III. now ready.

  Elegantly bound in ultramarine cloth, gilt edges, price 6_s._
  each.

  GIRLHOOD OF SHAKSPEARE'S HEROINES. A Series of Fifteen Tales. By
  MARY COWDEN CLARKE. Periodically, in One Shilling Books, each
  containing a complete Story.

      Vol. I. Price 6_s._
      Tale I.  PORTIA; THE HEIRESS OF BELMONT.
      Tale II. THE THANE'S DAUGHTER.
      Tale III. HELENA; THE PHYSICIAN'S ORPHAN.
      Tale IV. DESDEMONA; THE MAGNIFICO'S CHILD.
      Tale V. MEG AND ALICE; THE MERRY MAIDS OF WINDSOR.

      Vol. II. Price 6_s._
      Tale VI. ISABELLA; THE VOTARESS.
      Tale VII. KATHARINA AND BIANCA; THE SHREW, AND THE DEMURE.
      Tale VIII. OPHELIA; THE ROSE OF ELSINORE.
      Tale IX. ROSALIND AND CELIA; THE FRIENDS.
      Tale X. JULIET; THE WHITE DOVE OF VERONA.

      Vol. III. Price 6_s._
      Tale XI. BEATRICE AND HERO; THE COUSINS.
      Tale XII OLIVIA; THE LADY OF ILLYRIA.
      Tale XIII. HERMIONE; THE RUSSIAN PRINCESS.
      Tale XIV.  VIOLA; THE TWIN.
      Tale XV. IMOGEN; THE PEERLESS.

  SMITH & CO., 136. Strand; and SIMPKIN & CO., Stationers' Hall Court.


Just Published.

  PROPERTY AND INCOME TAX: SCHEDULE A, AND SCHEDULE D.

  London: JAMES RIDGWAY, Piccadilly.


BOOKS PRINTED FOR THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD.

  At the Prices annexed, _in Boards_.

  Sold by JOHN HENRY PARKER, in Oxford; and 377. Strand. London; and
  E. GARDNER, 7. Paternoster Row.

  These books are also supplied in neat library binding, and
  specimens may be seen at Mr. Parker's, either in Oxford, or at
  377. Stand, London.

  The Wycliffe Versions.

  THE HOLY BIBLE, CONTAINING THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS, with the
  APOCRYPHAL BOOKS, in the Earliest English Versions made from the
  Latin Vulgate by JOHN WYCLIFFE AND HIS FOLLOWERS. Edited by the
  Rev. JOSIAH FORSHALL, F.R.S. &c., late Fellow of Exeter College,
  and SIR FREDERIC MADDEN, K.H., F.R.S., Keeper of the MSS. in the
  British Museum. 4 vols. 4to. 5_l._ 15_s._ 6_d._

  REFORMATIO LEGUM.--THE REFORMATION OF THE ECCLESIASTICAL LAWS, as
  attempted in the reigns of King Henry VIII., King Edward VI., and
  Queen Elizabeth. A New Edition. 8vo. 6_s._ 6_d._

  THE LIFE OF JAMES DUKE OF ORMOND; containing an account of the
  most remarkable affairs of his time, and particularly of Ireland
  under his government; with an Appendix and a Collection of
  Letters, serving to verify the most material facts in the said
  History. A new Edition, carefully compared with the original MSS.
  6 vols. 8vo. Price 2_l._ 6_s._ in boards.

  A CATALOGUE OF ALL GRADUATES IN DIVINITY, LAW, MEDICINE, ARTS, AND
  MUSIC, who have regularly proceeded or been created in the
  University of Oxford, between October 10 and December 31, 1850. To
  which is added, a List of Chancellors, High Stewards,
  Vice-Chancellors, Proctors, Heads of Colleges and Halls, and
  Burgesses of the University; together with a Statement of
  Matriculations and Regencies. 8vo. 12_s._ 6_d._

  A PARAPHRASE and COMMENT UPON THE EPISTLES AND GOSPELS APPOINTED
  TO BE USED IN THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND ON ALL SUNDAYS AND HOLYDAYS
  THROUGHOUT THE YEAR. By GEORGE STANHOPE, D.D., sometime Dean of
  Canterbury. A New Edition. 2 vols. 8vo. 18_s._

  THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENT CONNECTED IN THE HISTORY OF THE JEWS AND
  NEIGHBOURING NATIONS, from the declension of the Kingdoms of
  Israel and Judah to the time of Christ. By HUMPHREY PRIDEAUX, Dean
  of Norwich. 2 vols. 8vo. Price 14_s._ in boards.

  THE WORKS OF RICHARD HOOKER. With an account of his Life and
  Death. By IZAAC WALTON. A New Edition, with additions; arranged by
  the Rev. JOHN KEBLE, M.A., late Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford,
  Professor of Poetry. 5 vols. 8vo. 1_l._ 11_s._ 6_d._

  A PARAPHRASE AND ANNOTATIONS UPON ALL THE BOOKS OF THE NEW
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  H. HAMMOND, D.D. 4 vols. 8vo. 1_l._ 10_s._

  CLARENDON'S (EDW. EARL OF) HISTORY OF THE REBELLION AND CIVIL WARS
  IN ENGLAND, together with an Historical View of the Affairs of
  Ireland; now for the first time carefully printed from the
  original MS. preserved in the Bodleian Library. To which are
  subjoined the Notes of Bishop Warburton. 7 vols. 8vo. 2_l._ 10_s._


PROVIDENT LIFE OFFICE, 50. REGENT STREET.

  CITY BRANCH: 2. ROYAL EXCHANGE BUILDINGS.

  Established 1806.

  Policy Holders' Capital, 1,192,818_l._

  Annual Income, 150,000_l._--Bonuses Declared, 743,000_l._

  Claims paid since the Establishment of the Office, 2,001,450_l._

      _President._

      The Right Honourable EARL GREY.

      _Directors._

      The Rev. James Sherman, _Chairman_.
      H. Blencowe Churchill, Esq., _Dep.-Chairman_.
      Henry B. Alexander, Esq.
      George Dacre, Esq.
      William Judd, Esq.
      Sir Richard D. King, Bart.
      The Hon. Arthur Kinnaird
      Thomas Maugham, Esq.
      William Ostler, Esq.
      Apsley Pellatt, Esq.
      George Round, Esq.
      Frederick Squire, Esq.
      William Henry Stone, Esq.
      Capt. William John Williams.

      J. A. Beaumont, Esq., _Managing Director_.

  _Physician_--John Maclean, M.D., F.S.S., 29. Upper Montague
  Street, Montague Square.

  NINETEEN-TWENTIETHS OF THE PROFITS ARE DIVIDED AMONG THE INSURED.

  Examples of the Extinction of Premiums by the Surrender of Bonuses.

      Date of Policy. 1806
      Sum Insured. £2500
      Original Premium. £79  10  10 Extinguished
      Bonuses added subsequently, to be further interested annually.
          £1222   2   0

      Date of Policy. 1811
      Sum Insured. £1000
      Original Premium. £ 33  19   2 Ditto [Extinguished]
      Bonuses added subsequently, to be further interested annually.
           £231  17   8

      Date of Policy. 1818
      Sum Insured. £1000
      Original Premium. £ 34  16  10 Ditto [Extinguished]
      Bonuses added subsequently, to be further interested annually.
           £114  18  10

  Examples of Bonuses added to other Policies.

       Policy No.  521
       Date. 1807
       Sum Insured.  £900
       Bonus added. £982  12  1
       Total with Additions to be further increased. £1882  12  1

       Policy No. 1174
       Date. 1810
       Sum Insured. £1200
       Bonus added. £1160   5  6
       Total with Additions to be further increased. £2360   5  6

       Policy No. 3392
       Date. 1820
       Sum Insured. £5000
       Bonus added. £3558  17  8
       Total with Additions to be further increased. £8558  17  8

  Prospectuses and full particulars may be obtained upon application
  to the Agents of the Office, in all the principal Towns of the
  United Kingdom, at the City Branch, and at the Head Office, No.
  50. Regent Street.


LITERARY ASSISTANCE.--Extracts made from Books and Manuscripts in the
British Museum, and other Libraries; and Researches connected with all
branches of Literary Inquiry, conducted on extremely moderate terms, by
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  treasures contained in the metropolitan collections.


Second edition, 12mo., cloth 3_s._, with Illustrations.

  THE BELL, its Origin, History, and Uses. By the Rev. ALFRED GATTY,
  Vicar of Ecclesfield.

  "A new and revised edition of a very varied, learned, and amusing
  essay on the subject of bells."--_Spectator._

  GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.



Printed by Thomas Clark Shaw, of No. 8. New Street Square at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and
published by George Bell, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, February 14. 1852.



      [Transcriber's Note: List of volumes and content pages in "Notes
      and Queries", Vol. I.-V.]

      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. I.                                   |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.     | Date, Year        | Pages     | PG # xxxxx  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  1 | November  3, 1849 |   1 -  17 | PG #  8603  |
      | Vol. I No.  2 | November 10, 1849 |  18 -  32 | PG # 11265  |
      | Vol. I No.  3 | November 17, 1849 |  33 -  46 | PG # 11577  |
      | Vol. I No.  4 | November 24, 1849 |  49 -  63 | PG # 13513  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  5 | December  1, 1849 |  65 -  80 | PG # 11636  |
      | Vol. I No.  6 | December  8, 1849 |  81 -  95 | PG # 13550  |
      | Vol. I No.  7 | December 15, 1849 |  97 - 112 | PG # 11651  |
      | Vol. I No.  8 | December 22, 1849 | 113 - 128 | PG # 11652  |
      | Vol. I No.  9 | December 29, 1849 | 130 - 144 | PG # 13521  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 10 | January   5, 1850 | 145 - 160 | PG #        |
      | Vol. I No. 11 | January  12, 1850 | 161 - 176 | PG # 11653  |
      | Vol. I No. 12 | January  19, 1850 | 177 - 192 | PG # 11575  |
      | Vol. I No. 13 | January  26, 1850 | 193 - 208 | PG # 11707  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 14 | February  2, 1850 | 209 - 224 | PG # 13558  |
      | Vol. I No. 15 | February  9, 1850 | 225 - 238 | PG # 11929  |
      | Vol. I No. 16 | February 16, 1850 | 241 - 256 | PG # 16193  |
      | Vol. I No. 17 | February 23, 1850 | 257 - 271 | PG # 12018  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 18 | March     2, 1850 | 273 - 288 | PG # 13544  |
      | Vol. I No. 19 | March     9, 1850 | 289 - 309 | PG # 13638  |
      | Vol. I No. 20 | March    16, 1850 | 313 - 328 | PG # 16409  |
      | Vol. I No. 21 | March    23, 1850 | 329 - 343 | PG # 11958  |
      | Vol. I No. 22 | March    30, 1850 | 345 - 359 | PG # 12198  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 23 | April     6, 1850 | 361 - 376 | PG # 12505  |
      | Vol. I No. 24 | April    13, 1850 | 377 - 392 | PG # 13925  |
      | Vol. I No. 25 | April    20, 1850 | 393 - 408 | PG # 13747  |
      | Vol. I No. 26 | April    27, 1850 | 409 - 423 | PG # 13822  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 27 | May       4, 1850 | 425 - 447 | PG # 13712  |
      | Vol. I No. 28 | May      11, 1850 | 449 - 463 | PG # 13684  |
      | Vol. I No. 29 | May      18, 1850 | 465 - 479 | PG # 15197  |
      | Vol. I No. 30 | May      25, 1850 | 481 - 495 | PG # 13713  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. II.                                  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.      | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 31 | June  1, 1850      |   1- 15 | PG # 12589  |
      | Vol. II No. 32 | June  8, 1850      |  17- 32 | PG # 15996  |
      | Vol. II No. 33 | June 15, 1850      |  33- 48 | PG # 26121  |
      | Vol. II No. 34 | June 22, 1850      |  49- 64 | PG # 22127  |
      | Vol. II No. 35 | June 29, 1850      |  65- 79 | PG # 22126  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 36 | July  6, 1850      |  81- 96 | PG # 13361  |
      | Vol. II No. 37 | July 13, 1850      |  97-112 | PG # 13729  |
      | Vol. II No. 38 | July 20, 1850      | 113-128 | PG # 13362  |
      | Vol. II No. 39 | July 27, 1850      | 129-143 | PG # 13736  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 40 | August  3, 1850    | 145-159 | PG # 13389  |
      | Vol. II No. 41 | August 10, 1850    | 161-176 | PG # 13393  |
      | Vol. II No. 42 | August 17, 1850    | 177-191 | PG # 13411  |
      | Vol. II No. 43 | August 24, 1850    | 193-207 | PG # 13406  |
      | Vol. II No. 44 | August 31, 1850    | 209-223 | PG # 13426  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 45 | September  7, 1850 | 225-240 | PG # 13427  |
      | Vol. II No. 46 | September 14, 1850 | 241-256 | PG # 13462  |
      | Vol. II No. 47 | September 21, 1850 | 257-272 | PG # 13936  |
      | Vol. II No. 48 | September 28, 1850 | 273-288 | PG # 13463  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 49 | October  5, 1850   | 289-304 | PG # 13480  |
      | Vol. II No. 50 | October 12, 1850   | 305-320 | PG # 13551  |
      | Vol. II No. 51 | October 19, 1850   | 321-351 | PG # 15232  |
      | Vol. II No. 52 | October 26, 1850   | 353-367 | PG # 22624  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 53 | November  2, 1850  | 369-383 | PG # 13540  |
      | Vol. II No. 54 | November  9, 1850  | 385-399 | PG # 22138  |
      | Vol. II No. 55 | November 16, 1850  | 401-415 | PG # 15216  |
      | Vol. II No. 56 | November 23, 1850  | 417-431 | PG # 15354  |
      | Vol. II No. 57 | November 30, 1850  | 433-454 | PG # 15405  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 58 | December  7, 1850  | 457-470 | PG # 21503  |
      | Vol. II No. 59 | December 14, 1850  | 473-486 | PG # 15427  |
      | Vol. II No. 60 | December 21, 1850  | 489-502 | PG # 24803  |
      | Vol. II No. 61 | December 28, 1850  | 505-524 | PG # 16404  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. III.                                 |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 62 | January  4, 1851  |   1- 15 | PG # 15638  |
      | Vol. III No. 63 | January 11, 1851  |  17- 31 | PG # 15639  |
      | Vol. III No. 64 | January 18, 1851  |  33- 47 | PG # 15640  |
      | Vol. III No. 65 | January 25, 1851  |  49- 78 | PG # 15641  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 66 | February  1, 1851 |  81- 95 | PG # 22339  |
      | Vol. III No. 67 | February  8, 1851 |  97-111 | PG # 22625  |
      | Vol. III No. 68 | February 15, 1851 | 113-127 | PG # 22639  |
      | Vol. III No. 69 | February 22, 1851 | 129-159 | PG # 23027  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 70 | March  1, 1851    | 161-174 | PG # 23204  |
      | Vol. III No. 71 | March  8, 1851    | 177-200 | PG # 23205  |
      | Vol. III No. 72 | March 15, 1851    | 201-215 | PG # 23212  |
      | Vol. III No. 73 | March 22, 1851    | 217-231 | PG # 23225  |
      | Vol. III No. 74 | March 29, 1851    | 233-255 | PG # 23282  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 75 | April  5, 1851    | 257-271 | PG # 23402  |
      | Vol. III No. 76 | April 12, 1851    | 273-294 | PG # 26896  |
      | Vol. III No. 77 | April 19, 1851    | 297-311 | PG # 26897  |
      | Vol. III No. 78 | April 26, 1851    | 313-342 | PG # 26898  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 79 | May  3, 1851      | 345-359 | PG # 26899  |
      | Vol. III No. 80 | May 10, 1851      | 361-382 | PG # 32495  |
      | Vol. III No. 81 | May 17, 1851      | 385-399 | PG # 29318  |
      | Vol. III No. 82 | May 24, 1851      | 401-415 | PG # 28311  |
      | Vol. III No. 83 | May 31, 1851      | 417-440 | PG # 36835  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 84 | June  7, 1851     | 441-472 | PG # 37379  |
      | Vol. III No. 85 | June 14, 1851     | 473-488 | PG # 37403  |
      | Vol. III No. 86 | June 21, 1851     | 489-511 | PG # 37496  |
      | Vol. III No. 87 | June 28, 1851     | 513-528 | PG # 37516  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. IV.                                  |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No.  88 | July  5, 1851      |   1- 15 | PG # 37548 |
      | Vol. IV No.  89 | July 12, 1851      |  17- 31 | PG # 37568 |
      | Vol. IV No.  90 | July 19, 1851      |  33- 47 | PG # 37593 |
      | Vol. IV No.  91 | July 26, 1851      |  49- 79 | PG # 37778 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No.  92 | August  2, 1851    |  81- 94 | PG # 38324 |
      | Vol. IV No.  93 | August  9, 1851    |  97-112 | PG # 38337 |
      | Vol. IV No.  94 | August 16, 1851    | 113-127 | PG # 38350 |
      | Vol. IV No.  95 | August 23, 1851    | 129-144 | PG # 38386 |
      | Vol. IV No.  96 | August 30, 1851    | 145-167 | PG # 38405 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No.  97 | Sept.  6, 1851     | 169-183 | PG # 38433 |
      | Vol. IV No.  98 | Sept. 13, 1851     | 185-200 | PG # 38491 |
      | Vol. IV No.  99 | Sept. 20, 1851     | 201-216 | PG # 38574 |
      | Vol. IV No. 100 | Sept. 27, 1851     | 217-246 | PG # 38656 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 101 | Oct.  4, 1851      | 249-264 | PG # 38701 |
      | Vol. IV No. 102 | Oct. 11, 1851      | 265-287 | PG # 38773 |
      | Vol. IV No. 103 | Oct. 18, 1851      | 289-303 | PG # 38864 |
      | Vol. IV No. 104 | Oct. 25, 1851      | 305-333 | PG # 38926 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 105 | Nov.  1, 1851      | 337-358 | PG # 39076 |
      | Vol. IV No. 106 | Nov.  8, 1851      | 361-374 | PG # 39091 |
      | Vol. IV No. 107 | Nov. 15, 1851      | 377-396 | PG # 39135 |
      | Vol. IV No. 108 | Nov. 22, 1851      | 401-414 | PG # 39197 |
      | Vol. IV No. 109 | Nov. 29, 1851      | 417-430 | PG # 39233 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 110 | Dec.  6, 1851      | 433-460 | PG # 39338 |
      | Vol. IV No. 111 | Dec. 13, 1851      | 465-478 | PG # 39393 |
      | Vol. IV No. 112 | Dec. 20, 1851      | 481-494 | PG # 39438 |
      | Vol. IV No. 113 | Dec. 27, 1851      | 497-510 | PG # 39503 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. V.                                   |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         |  Pages  | PG # xxxxx |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. V  No. 114 | January  3, 1852   |   1- 18 | PG # 40171 |
      | Vol. V  No. 115 | January 10, 1852   |  25- 45 | PG # 40582 |
      | Vol. V  No. 116 | January 17, 1852   |  49- 70 | PG # 40642 |
      | Vol. V  No. 117 | January 24, 1852   |  73- 94 | PG # 40678 |
      | Vol. V  No. 118 | January 31, 1852   |  97-118 | PG # 40716 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. V  No. 119 | February  7, 1852  | 121-142 | PG # 40742 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol I. Index. [Nov. 1849-May 1850]             | PG # 13536 |
      | INDEX TO THE SECOND VOLUME. MAY-DEC., 1850     | PG # 13571 |
      | INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. JAN.-JUNE, 1851     | PG # 26770 |
      | INDEX TO THE FOURTH VOLUME. JULY-DEC., 1851    | PG # 40166 |
      +------------------------------------------------+------------+





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