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Title: Notes and Queries, Vol. V, Number 121, February 21, 1852 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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[Transcriber's note: Original spelling variations have not been
standardized. Underscores have been used to indicate _italic_ fonts. A
list of volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries" has been added at the
end.]



NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION

FOR

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

VOL. V.--No. 121. SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 21. 1852.

Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition, 5_d._



CONTENTS.

                                                                Page


      NOTES:--

      Readings in Shakspeare, No. II.                            169

      National Defences                                          171

      Notes on Homer, No. II., by Kenneth R. H. Mackenzie        171

      Folk Lore:--Fernseed--Cornish Folk Lore                    172

      Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words                 173

      The Last of the Palæologi                                  173

      The last Lay of Petrarch's Cat                             174

      Minor Notes:--Sobriquet--Origin of Paper--Persistency
        of Proper Names--Cheap Maps                              174

      QUERIES:--

      Did St. Paul quote Aristotle? by Thomas H. Gill            175

      Minor Queries:--Silver Royal Font--L'Homme de 1400
      Ans--Llandudno, on the Great Orme's Head--Johnson's House,
      Bolt Court--Bishop Mossom--Orlando Gibbons--Portraits
      --Barnard's Church Music--The Nelson Family--Letters
      to the Clergy--Margaret Burr--Northern Ballads--"Blamed
      be the man," &c.--"Quid est Episcopus"--Henry Isaac--German
      Poet quoted by Camden--American Degrees--Derivation
      of News--Passage in Troilus and Cressida--Bachelor's
      Buttons--Princes of Wales and Earls of Chester, eldest
      Sons of the Kings of England--Authenticated Instances
      of Longevity                                               175

      MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--Laud's Letters and Papers--Scot's
      Philomythie--Robin of Doncaster--Horæ
      Belgicæ--Dulcarnon                                         179

      REPLIES:--

      Number of the Children of Israel                           180

      Serjeants' Rings and Mottoes, by J. B. Colman, &c.         181

      Learned Men of the Name of Bacon                           181

      Collar of SS.                                              182

      The Königsmarks                                            183

      Boiling Criminals to Death, by J. B. Colman, &c.           184

      "Admonition to the Parliament"                             184

      "Sir Edward Seaward's Narrative," by W. H. Lammin, &c.     185

      General Wolfe                                              185

      Replies to Minor Queries:--Commemoration of Benefactors
      --King Robert Bruce's Watch--Hornchurch--Buzz--Melody of
      the Dying Swan--"From the Sublime to the Ridiculous is but
      a Step"--"Carmen perpetuum," &c.--Sterne at Paris--The
      Paper of the present Day--Cimmerii, Cimbri--Rents
      of Assize--Monastic Establishments in Scotland--History
      of Brittany--Marches of Wales, and Lords Marchers--The
      Broad Arrow--Miniature of Cromwell--The Sinaïtic
      Inscriptions--Why cold Pudding settles One's Love
      --Covines--"Arborei foetus alibi," &c.--Poniatowski
      Gems                                                       186

      MISCELLANEOUS:--

      Notes on Books, &c.                                        190

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted                               190

      Notices to Correspondents                                  191

      Advertisements                                             191



Notes.


READINGS IN SHAKSPEARE, NO. II.

_Hamlet_, Act I. Sc. 4.

                      "The dram of eale
      Doth all the noble substance of a doubt
      To his own scandal."--_Quarto of 1604._

                    "The dram of eafe."

      _Quarto of 1605._

                      "The dram of ill
      Doth all the noble substance often dout,
      To his own scandal."

      _Knight and Collier._

I cannot look upon this emendation, although sanctioned by the two
latest editors of Shakspeare, as by any means a happy one. The original
word in the second quarto, "ease," so nearly resembles "eale" in the
first quarto (especially when printed with the old-fashioned long
"[s]"); and the subsequent transition from _ease_ to _base_ is so
extremely obvious, and at the same time so thoroughly consistent with
the sense, that it is difficult to imagine any plausible ground for the
rejection of _base_ in favour of _ill_. _Dram_ was formerly used (as
_grain_ is at present) to signify an indefinitely small quantity; so
that "the dram of base" presents as intelligible an expression as can be
desired.

But in addition to its easy deduction from the original, _base_
possesses other recommendations, in being the natural antagonist of
_noble_ in the line following, and in the capability of being understood
either in a moral or physical sense.

If the whole passage be understood as merely assertive, then _base_ may
have, in common with _ill_, a moral signification; but if it be
understood as a metaphorical allusion to substantial matter, in
illustration of the moral reflections that have gone before, then _base_
must be taken (which _ill_ cannot) in the physical sense, as a _base
substance_, and, as such, in still more direct antagonism to the _noble
substance_ opposed to it.

In a former paper I had occasion to notice the intimate knowledge
possessed by Shakspeare in the arcana of the several arts; and I now
recognise, in this passage, a metaphorical allusion to the degradation
of gold by the admixture of baser metal. _Gold_ and _lead_ have always
been in poetical opposition as types of the _noble_ and the _base_; and
we are assured by metallurgists, that if lead be added to gold, even in
the small proportion of one part in two thousand, the whole mass is
rendered completely brittle.

The question then is, in what way "the dram of base" affects "all the
noble substance?" Shakspeare says it renders it doubtful or suspicious;
his commentators _make him say_ that it _douts_ or extinguishes it
altogether! And this they do without even the excuse of an originally
imperfect word to exercise conjecture upon. The original word is
_doubt_, the amended one _dout_; and yet the first has been rejected,
and the latter adopted, in editions whose peculiar boast it is to have
restored, in every practicable instance, the original text.

Now, in my opinion, Shakspeare did not intend _doubt_ in this place, to
be a verb at all, but a noun substantive: and it is the more necessary
that this point should be discussed, because the amended passage has
already crept into our dictionaries as authority for the verb _dout_;
thus giving to a very questionable emendation the weight of an
acknowledged text. (Vide Todd's _Johnson_.)

Any person who takes the amended passage, as quoted at the head of this
article, and restores "dout," to its original spelling, will find that
the chief hindrance to a perfect meaning consists in the restriction of
_doth_ to the value of a mere expletive. Let this restriction be
removed, by conferring upon _doth_ the value of an _effective verb_, and
it will be seen that the difficulty no longer remains. The sense then
becomes, "the base _doth_ doubt to the noble," i.e. _imparts_ doubt to
it, or renders it doubtful. We say, a man's good actions _do him
credit_; why not also, his bad ones _do him doubt_? One phrase may be
less familiar than the other, but they are in strict analogy as well
with themselves as with the following example from the _Twelfth Night_,
which is exactly in point:

      "Thou hast, Sebastian, done good feature shame."

Hence, since the original word is capable of giving a clear and distinct
meaning, there can be no possible excuse for displacing it, even if the
word to be substituted were as faultless as it is certainly the reverse.

For not only is _dout_ an apocryphal word, but it is _inelegant_ when
placed, as it must be in this instance, in connexion with the expletive
_doth_, being at the same time in itself a verb compounded of _do_.
Neither is the meaning it confers so clear and unobjectionable as to
render it desirable; for in what way can a very small quantity be said
to _dout_, or expel, a very large quantity? To justify such an
expression, the entire identity of the larger must be extinguished,
leaving no part of it to which _the scandal_ mentioned in the third line
could apply.

But an examination of the various places wherein scandal is mentioned by
Shakspeare, shows that the meaning attached by him to that word was
false imputation, or loss of character: therefore, in the contact of the
base and the noble, _the scandal_ must apply _to the noble substance_--a
consideration that must not be lost sight of in any attempt to arrive at
the true meaning of the whole passage.

So far, I have assumed that "often" (the third substitution in the
amended quotation) is the best representative that can be found for the
"of a" of the original; and inasmuch as it is confirmed by general
consent, and is moreover so redundant, in this place, that its absence
or presence scarcely makes any difference in the sense, it is not easily
assailable.

The best way, perhaps, to attempt to supplant it is to suggest a better
word--one that shall still more closely resemble the original letters in
sound and formation, and that shall, in addition, confer upon the sense
not a redundant but an effective assistance. Such a word is _offer_: it
is almost identical (in sound at least) with the original, and it
materially assists in giving a much clearer application to the last
line.

For these reasons, but especially for the last, I adopt _offer_, as a
verb in the infinitive ruled by _doth_, in the sense of causing or
compelling; a sense that must have been in familiar use in Shakspeare's
time, or it would not have been introduced into the translation of
Scripture.

In this view the meaning of the passage becomes, "The base _doth_ the
noble offer doubt, to his own scandal"--that is, causes the noble to
excite suspicion, to the injury of its own character.

Examples of _do_ in this sense are very numerous in Spenser; of which
one is (_F.Q._, iii. 2. 34.):

      "To _doe_ the frozen cold away _to fly_."

And in Chaucer (_Story of Ugolino_):

      "That they for hunger wolden _do_ him _dien_."

And in Scripture (2 Cor. viii. 1.):

      "We _do_ you _to wit_ of the grace of God."

By this reading a very perfect and intelligible meaning is obtained, and
that too by the slightest deviation from the original yet proposed.

By throwing the action of offering doubt upon "the _noble substance_,"
it becomes the natural reference to "his own scandal" in the third line.

Hamlet is moralising upon the tendency of the "noblest virtues," "be
they as pure as grace, as infinite as man may undergo," to take, from
"the stamp of one defect," "_corruption in the general censure_" (a very
close definition of scandal); and he illustrates it by the metaphor:

                                "The dram of base
      _Doth_ all the noble substance offer doubt,
      To his own scandal."

    A. E. B.

  Leeds.


NATIONAL DEFENCES.

Collet, in his _Relics of Literature_, has furnished some curious
notices of a work on national defences, which perhaps ought to be
consulted at the present time, now that this matter is again exciting
such general interest among all classes. It was compiled when the
gigantic power of France, under Buonaparte, had enabled him to overrun
and humble every continental state, and even to threaten Great Britain;
and when the spirit of this country was roused to exertion by a sense of
the danger, and by the fervour of patriotism. The government of that day
neglected no means to keep this spirit alive in the nation; and George
III. conceiving the situation of his dominions to resemble, in many
respects, that which terminated so fortunately for England in the days
of Queen Elizabeth, directed proper researches to be made for
ascertaining the principles and preparations adopted at that eventful
period. The records of the Tower were accordingly consulted; and a
selection of papers, apparently of the greatest consequence, was formed
and printed, but not published. This work, which contained 420 pages in
octavo, was entitled, _A Report of the Arrangements which were made for
the Internal Defence of these Kingdoms, when Spain, by its Armada,
projected the Invasion and Conquest of England; and Application of the
Wise Proceedings of our Ancestors to the Present Crisis of Public
Safety_. The papers in this work are classed in the order of external
alliance, internal defence, military arrangements, and naval equipments.
They are preceded by a statement of facts, in the history of Europe, at
the period of the Spanish Armada; and a sketch of events, showing the
effects of the Queen's measures at home and abroad. As a collection of
historical documents, narrating an important event in British history,
this work is invaluable; and, as showing the relative strength of this
country in population and other resources in the sixteenth century, it
is curious and interesting.

    J. Y.


NOTES ON HOMER, NO. II.

(_Continued from_ Vol. v., p. 100.)

_The Wolfian Theory._

The most important consideration concerning Homer is the hypothesis of
Wolf, which has been contested so hotly; but before entering on the
consideration of this revolution, as it may be called, I shall lay
before your readers the following quotation from the introduction of
Fauriel to the old Provençal poem, "Histoire de la Croisade contre les
Albigeois," in the _Collection des Documens Inédits sur l'Histoire de
France_. He observes:--

  "The romances collectively designated by the title of
  Carlovingian, are, it would seem, the most ancient of all in the
  Provençal literature. They were not, originally, more than very
  short and simple poems, popular songs destined to be recited with
  more or less musical intonation, and susceptible, consequently on
  their shortness, of preservation without the aid of writing, and
  simply by oral tradition among the _jongleurs_, whose profession
  it was to sing them. Almost insensibly these songs developed
  themselves, and assumed a complex character; they attained a fixed
  length, and their re-composition required more invention and more
  design. In another point of view, they had increased in number in
  the same ratio as they had acquired greater extent and complexity;
  and things naturally attained such a position, that it became
  impossible to chant them from beginning to end by the aid of
  memory alone, nor could they be preserved any longer without the
  assistance of a written medium. They might be still occasionally
  sung in detached portions; but there exists scarcely a doubt, that
  from that period they began to be read; and it was only necessary
  to read them, in order to seize and appreciate their contents."[1]

  [Footnote 1: P. xxx., quoted in Thirlwall's _History of Greece_
  (Appendix I.), vol. i. p. 506., where it is given in French.]

These remarks, though applied to another literature, contain the
essentials of the theory developed by Wolf in regard to Homer. Before
the time of Wolf, the popularly accepted opinion on this subject was as
follows: That Homer, a poet of ancient date, wrote the _Iliad_ and
_Odyssea_ in their present form; and that the rhapsodists having
corrupted and interpolated the poems, Peisistratos, and Hipparchos, his
son, corrected, revised, and restored these poems to their original
condition.

Such was the general opinion, when at the end of the seventeenth century
doubts began to be thrown upon it, and the question began to be placed
in a new light. The critics of the time were Casaubon, Perizon, Bentley,
Hédelin, and Perrault, who, more or less, rejected the established
opinion. Giambattista Vico made the first attempt to embody their
speculations into one methodical work. His _Principi di Scienza nuova_
contain the germ of the theory reproduced by Wolf with so much
scholarship. Wolf, founding his theory on the investigations of Vico and
Wood, extended or modified their views, and assumed that the poems were
never written down at all until the time of Peisistratos, their
arranger. In 1778, the famous Venetian Scholia were discovered by
Villoison, throwing open to the world the investigations of the
Alexandrian critics; and by showing what the ideas of the Chorizontes
were (on whom it were madness to write after Mure), strengthening the
views of Wolf. In 1795, then, were published his famous _Prolegomena_,
containing the theory--

  "That the _Iliad_ and _Odyssey_ were not two complete poems, but
  small, separate, independent epic songs, celebrating single
  exploits of the heroes; and that these lays were, _for the first
  time_, written down and united as the _Iliad_ and _Odyssey_ by
  Peisistratus, tyrant of Athens."[2]

  [Footnote 2: Smith, ii. p. 501.]

The former critics (Hédelin and Perrault) had been overruled, derided,
and quashed by the force of public opinion; but Wolf brought so many
arguments to support his views,--collected so formidable a mass of
authorities, both traditional, internal, and written, that the classical
world was obliged to meet him with fresh arguments, as ridicule would
not again succeed. Thus arose the formidable Wolfian controversy, which
"scotched," though not "killed," the belief of the critical world in
Homer. The principal arguments he adduces are from the poems themselves,
in his attempt to establish the non-being of writing at the time of
their composition.

Thus, in the _Odyssea_,[3] a master of a vessel has to remember his
cargo, not having a list of his goods; in the _Iliad_,[4] Bellerophon
carries a folded tablet containing writing or signs to Prætos in Lycia.
This Wolf interprets to signify conventional marks, like the picture
writing of the otherwise civilised Mexicans.[5] Again, in the _Iliad_
(VII. 175.), the chiefs are represented as throwing lots in a helmet,
and the herald afterwards handing the lots round for recognition, as
each of the lots bore a mark known only to the person who made it. From
this Wolf argues that writing was unknown at the time, or the herald
would have immediately read the names aloud. But do we not even now make
use of such marks without confounding them with writing? This is nothing
at all; and it must be remembered, firstly, that this does not apply to
the Homeric time, but to the period of Troy; secondly, that if it had
applied to that time, it would be absurd to expect from illiterate
warrior chiefs, education superior to the mediæval crusaders, their
counterparts at a later period of the world's progress. These are the
principal arguments that Wolf adduces to prove the non-existence of
writing at the Homeric period; whereas, far from proving anything, they
are self-contradictory and incorrect.

  [Footnote 3: Lib. viii. 163.]

  [Footnote 4: Lib. vi. 168.]

  [Footnote 5: See Mure, vol. iii., Appendix L., p. 507. foll.; and
  Appendix M. vol. iii. p. 512. foll.; and see chap. vii. book III.
  vol. iii. p. 397. _passim_.]

To prove that the Peisistratidæ first wrote down the poems of Homer, he
cites Josephus (Orat. contr. Apion., I. 2.), who observes that--

  "No writing, the authenticity of which is acknowledged, is found
  among the Greeks earlier than the poetry of Homer; and, _it is
  said_, that even he did not commit his works to writing, but that,
  having been preserved in the memory of men, the songs were
  afterwards connected."

Josephus had merely heard this reported, as is evident from his use of
the words "it is said." Pausanias, in the _Tour in Greece_ (vii. 26.
6.), has the following observation:--

  "A village called Donussa, between Ægira and Pellene, belonging to
  the Sicyonians, was destroyed by that people. Homer, _say they_,
  remembered this town in his epic, in the enumeration of the people
  of Agamemnon, 'Hyperesia then, and Donoessa, rocky town' (Ιλ.
  β. 573.); but when Peisistratos collected the torn and widely
  scattered songs of Homer, either he himself, or one of his
  friends, altered the name through ignorance."

Wolf also makes use of this report, liable to the same objections as the
above, as one of his proofs. It is even doubtful whether Peisistratos
did edit Homer at all; but, under any circumstances, it was not the
first edition;[6] for is not Solon represented as the reviser of the
Homeric poems?

  [Footnote 6: Granville Penn, _On the primary Arrangement of the
  Iliad_; and Appendix B to Mure, vol. i.]

Cicero (_de Oratore_, III. 34.) says:

  "Who is _traditionally_ reported to have had more learning at that
  time, or whose eloquence received greater ornaments from polite
  literature than that of Peisistratos? who _is said to have been_
  the first that arranged the books of Homer, from their confused
  state, into that order in which we at present enjoy them."

This also is produced as a proof by Wolf, though, for the same reason,
it is doubtful. But see Wolf's principal inaccuracies ably enumerated
and exposed by Clinton (_F.H._, i. p. 370.).

Such is the far-famed theory of Wolf, which, as most modern scholars
agree, is only calculated "to conduct us to most preposterous
conclusions."[7] And this last dictum of Othello's, Mr. Editor, reminds
me, that here it would not be preposterous to come to a conclusion for
the present, and to close my observations in another paper, where I
shall a theory "unfold," which, after the most patient consideration and
reconsideration, I am inclined to think the most approximative to the
truth.

  [Footnote 7: _Othello_, Act I. Sc. 3.]

    KENNETH R. H. MACKENZIE.

  Feb. 16. 1852.


FOLK LORE.

_Fernseed._--I find in Dr. Jackson's works allusions to a superstition
which may interest some of your readers:

  "It was my hap," he writes, "since I undertook the ministery, to
  question an ignorant soul (whom by undoubted report I had known to
  have been seduced by a teacher of unhallowed arts, to make a
  dangerous experiment) what he saw or heard, when he watcht the
  falling of the _Fernseed_ at an unseasonable and suspicious hour.
  Why (quoth he), fearing (as his brief reply occasioned me to
  conjecture) lest I should press him to tell before company, what
  he had voluntarily confessed unto a friend in secret some fourteen
  years before, do you think that the devil hath aught to do with
  that good seed? No; it is in the keeping of the _king of Fayries_,
  and _he_, I know, will do me no harm, although I should watch it
  again; yet had he utterly forgotten this king's name, upon whose
  kindness he so presumed, until I remembered it unto him out of my
  reading in _Huon of Burdeaux_.

  "And having made this answer, he began to pose me thus; S'r, you
  are a scholar, abut I am none: Tell me what said the angel to our
  Lady? or what conference had our Lady with her cousin Elizabeth
  concerning the birth of St. John the Baptist?

  "As if his intention had been to make bystanders believe that he
  knew somewhat more on this point than was written in such books as
  I use to read.

  "Howbeit the meaning of his riddle I quickly conceived, and he
  confessed to be this; that the angel did foretell John Baptist
  should be born at that very instant, in which the _Fernseed_, at
  other times invisible, did fall: intimating further (as far as I
  could then perceive) that this saint of God had some extraordinary
  vertue from the _time_ or _circumstance_ of his birth."

  _Jackson's Works_, book v. cap. xix. 8. vol. i. p. 916. Lond.
  1673, fol.

In the sixth and seventh sections of the same chapter and book I find
allusions to a maiden over whom Satan had no power "so long as she had
vervine and St. John's grass about her;" to the danger of "robbing a
swallow's nest built in a fire-house;" and to the virtues of
"south-running water." Delrius also is referred to as having collected
many similar instances.

I have not access to Delrius, nor yet to Huon of Burdeaux, and so am
compelled deeply to regret that the good doctor did not leave on record
the name of the "king of the Fayries."[8]

  [Footnote 8: [_Oberon_ is his name, which Mr. Keightley shows to
  be identical with _Elberich_. See _Fairy Mythology_, p. 208. (ed.
  1850).--ED.]]

    RT.

_Cornish Folk Lore._--A recent old cottage tenant at Poliphant, near
Launceston, when asked why he allowed a hole in the wall of his house to
remain unrepaired, answered that he would not have it stopped up on any
account, as he left it on purpose for the _piskies_ (Cornish for
_pixies_) to come in and out as they had done for many years. This is
only a sample of the current belief and action.

    S. R. P.


DICTIONARY OF ARCHAIC AND PROVINCIAL WORDS.

Will you allow me to suggest that, under the above, or some such
heading, "N. & Q." should receive any words not to be found in any
well-known dictionary; such, for instance, as Halliwell's or Webster's,
which do not by any means contain all the words belonging to the class
of which they profess to be the repositories. You may also invite
barristers, reporters, professional men generally, and others, to send
such waifs of this description as they meet with. "N. & Q." will then
soon become in this department of literature, as it is already in many
others, a rich mine from which future authors will draw precious store
of knowledge. I will begin by giving one or two examples.

_Earth-burn._ An intermittent land-spring, which may not show itself for
several years. There is such a spring, and so named, near to Epsom.

_Lavant._ A land-spring, according to Halliwell. But this also is an
intermittent spring. The word is probably from _lava_, to flow.

_Pick._ (Lancashire.) To push with the hand. "I gen her a pick;" that
is, "I pushed her from me;" or, "I gave her a violent push forward."

_Pick_ is also the instrument colliers get coals with; or an excavator
gets earth with; or a stonemason uses to take the "rough" off a stone.
He may also finish the face of ashlar by "fine-picking" it.

_Gen._ (Lancashire.) A contraction of the word _gave_.

    ROBERT RAWLINSON.

  P.S.--I have seen, in a court of justice in Lancashire, judge and
  counsel fairly set fast with a broad spoken county person; and
  many of the words in common use are not to be found in any
  dictionary or glossary. Again, I have spoken to reporters as to
  technical words used at such meetings, for instance, as those of
  the mechanical engineers in Birmingham, and I have been informed
  that they are frequently bewildered and surprised at the numbers
  of words in use having the same meaning, but which are not to be
  found in any dictionary. It would be of the utmost value to seize
  and fix these words.

    R. R.

  [The proposal of our correspondent jumps so completely with the
  object of "N. & Q.," as announced in our original Prospectus, that
  we not only insert it, but hope that his invitation will be
  responded to by all who meet with archaisms either in their
  reading or in their intercourse with natives of those various
  districts of England which are richest in provincialisms.--ED.]


THE LAST OF THE PALÆOLOGI.

In Chambers' _Edinburgh Journal_, vol. xvii. p. 24., there is a very
interesting article, bearing the above heading, in which it is shown
that Theodore Palæologus, the fourth in direct descent from Thomas, the
younger brother of Constantine, the last Christian Emperor of Greece,
lies buried in the church of Landulph in Cornwall. This Theodore married
Mary, the daughter of William Balls, of Hadley in Suffolk, gentleman; by
whom he had issue five children, Theodore, John, Ferdinando, Maria, and
Dorothy. Theodore, the first son, died in or about 1693, without issue.
Of John and Ferdinando there is no trace in this country. Maria died
unmarried; and Dorothy was married at Landulph to William Arundell in
1636, and died in 1681.

Ferdinando Palæologus appears to have died in the island of Barbadoes in
1678, and was buried in the church of St. John.

These researches are extremely interesting, and it is only to be
regretted that they are not more frequently made and left on record.
Allow me to suggest that such of your readers as have time, inclination,
and opportunity for making inquiries of this nature, should, through the
medium of "N. & Q.," place on record any striking illustrations similar
to the above. Your own publication, Vol. iii., p. 350., contains a list
of names of the poor of St. Albans, several of which are borne still by
noble families. Possibly there may be still existing descendants of the
Dorothy Palæologus who married William Arundell at Landulph.

To mention another instance: I believe there now lives at Rugby a member
of the legal profession, who is directly descended from one of the most
renowned Polish families. Particulars of this case, if furnished by or
with the consent of the head of the family, would, I have no doubt,
prove exceedingly interesting.

    L. L. L.


THE LAST LAY OF PETRARCH'S CAT.

In the year 1820 I saw the following Latin verse inscribed under the
skeleton of a cat in one of the rooms of Petrarch's favourite villa at
Arqua, near Padua. If you choose to print them, with or without the
accompanying English version, they are at your service:--

      Etruscus gemino vates ardebat amore:
        Maximus ignis ego; Laura secundus erat.
      Quid rides? divinæ illam si gratia formæ,
        Me dignam eximio fecit amante fides.
      Si numeros geniumque sacris dedit illa libellis
        Causa ego ne sævis muribus esca forent.
      Arcebam sacro vivens à limine mures,
        Ne domini exitio scripta diserta forent;
      Incutio trepidis eadem defuncta pavorem,
        Et viget exanimi in corpore prisca fides.

       *       *       *       *       *

      The Tuscan bard of deathless fame
      Nursed in his breast a double flame,
        Unequally divided;
      And when I say I had his heart,
      While Laura play'd the second part,
        I must not be derided.

      For my fidelity was such,
      It merited regard as much
        As Laura's grace and beauty;
      She first inspired the poet's lay,
      But since I drove the mice away,
        His love repaid my duty.

      Through all my exemplary life,
      So well did I in constant strife
        Employ my claws and curses,
      That even now, though I am dead,
      Those nibbling wretches dare not tread
        On one of Petrarch's verses.

    J. O. B.


Minor Notes.

_Sobriquet._--As this word is now pretty generally adopted in our
language, I send you this Note to say that the word is not _sou_briquet,
as some of your correspondents write it, but _so_briquet; the former
being what the French term a _locution vicieuse_, and only used by the
illiterate. Ménage derives the word from _rubridiculum_.

    PHILIP S. KING.

_Origin of Paper._--Whether a product is indigenous or foreign may
generally be determined by the rule in linguistics, that similarity of
name in different languages denotes _foreign_ extraction, and variety of
name _indigenous_ production. The dog, whose name is different in most
languages, shows that he is indigenous to most countries. The cat, on
the contrary, having almost the same name in many languages, is
therefore of foreign extraction in nearly all countries. The word
_paper_ is common to many tongues, the moderns having adopted it from
the Greek; in which language, however, the root of the word is not
significant. In Coptic (ai GUPTIC) the word _bavir_ means a plant
suitable for weaving: and is derived from the Egyptian roots _ba_, fit,
proper; and _vir_, to weave. The art of paper-making may therefore be
inferred to be the invention of the Egyptians; and further, that paper
was made by them as by us, from materials previously woven. This
inference would be either confirmatory or corrective of history, in case
the history were doubtful, which it is not.

    T. J. B.

  Lichfield.

_Persistency of Proper Names._--The village of Boscastle, originally
founded by the Norman Botreaux, still contains, amongst other French
names, the following:--Moise, Amy, Benoke, Gard, Avery (_Query_,
Yvery),--all old family names; and places still called Palais, Jardin,
and a brook called Valency.

    S. R. P.

  Launceston.

_Cheap Maps._--This is the age of cheap maps and atlases, yet the public
is miserably supplied. We have maps advertised from 1_d._ to 5_s._, and
atlases from 10_s._ 6_d._ to 10 guineas. Yet they are generally
impressions from old plates, or copies of old plates, with a few places
of later notoriety marked, without taking the entire chart from the
latest books of voyages and travels. Look at the maps of Affghanistan,
Scinde, Indian Isles, American Isthmus, &c.

On inquiry at all our shops here for a moderately priced map of the new
railway across South America to _Panama_, and for maps of _California_
and _Borneo_, not one could be got.

Have any of your chart-wrights in London got up such maps for youth and
emigrants? If not, let them take the hint now given by

    PATERFAMILIÆ.

  Edinburgh.



Queries.


DID ST. PAUL QUOTE ARISTOTLE?

Throughout the writings of St. Paul, his exactly cultivated mind is
scarcely less visible than his divinely inspired soul. Notwithstanding
his magnificent rebukes of human learning and philosophy, and his
sublime exaltation of the foolishness of God above the wisdom of men,
the Apostle of the Gentiles was no mean master of Gentile learning. His
three well-known quotations from Greek poets furnish direct evidence of
his acquaintance with Greek literature. He proclaimed the fatherhood of
God to the Athenians in the words of his countryman the poet Aratus
(Acts, xvii. 28.). He warns the Corinthians by a moral common-place
borrowed from the dramatist Menander (1 Cor. xv. 33.). He brings an
hexameter verse of a Cretan poet as a testimony to the bad character of
the Cretan people (Titus, i. 12.). I do not positively assert that I
have discovered a fourth quotation; I would merely inquire whether the
appearance in a Pauline epistle of a sentence which occurs in a treatise
of Aristotle, is to be regarded as a quotation, or as an accidental and
most singular identity of expression. In the _Politics_ (lib. III. cap.
8.), Aristotle, in speaking of very powerful members of a community,
says, "κατα δε των τοιουτων ουκ εστι νομος" ("but against such
there is no law"). In the Epistle to the Galatians (v. 23.), Paul, after
enumerating the fruits of the Spirit, adds, "against such there is no
law" ("κατα των τοιουτων ουκ εστι νομος"). The very same words
which the philosopher uses to express the exceptional character of
certain over-powerful citizens, the apostle borrows, or, at least,
employs, to signify the transcendent nature of divine graces. According
to Aristotle, mighty individuals are above legal restraint, against such
the general laws of a state do not avail: according to Paul, the fruits
of the Spirit are too glorious and divine for legal restraint; they
dwell in a region far above the regulation of the moral law.

While there is no possibility of demonstrating that this identity of
expression is a quotation, there is nothing to forbid the idea of this
sentence being a loan from the philosopher to the apostle. Paul was as
likely to be at home in the great philosophers, as in the second and
third-rate poets of Greece. The circumstance of Aratus being of his own
birth-place, Tarsus, might specially commend the _Phænomena_ to his
perusal; but the great luminary of Grecian science was much more likely
to fall within his perusal than an obscure versifier of Crete; and if he
thought it not unseemly to quote frown a comic writer, he surely would
not disdain to borrow a sentence from the mighty master of Stagira. The
very different employment which he and Aristotle find for the same words
makes nothing against the probability of quotation. The sentence is
remarkable, not in form, but in meaning. There is nothing in the mere
expression peculiarly to commend it to the memory, or give it proverbial
currency. I cannot say that it is a quotation; I cannot say that it is
not.

I am not aware that this quotation or identity of expression has been
pointed out before. Wetstein, who above all editors of the Greek
Testament abounds in illustrations and _parallel_ passages from the
classics, takes no notice of this _identical_ one. It is surely worth
the noting; and should anything occur to any of your correspondents
either to confirm or demolish the idea of quotation, I would gladly be
delivered out of my doubt. I should not think less reverently of St.
Paul in believing him indebted to Aristotle; I should rather rejoice in
being assured that one of the greatest spiritual benefactors of mankind
was acquainted with one of its chief intellectual benefactors.

    THOMAS H. GILL.


Minor Queries.

_Silver Royal Font._--I remember having read of a very ancient silver
font, long preserved among the treasures of the British crown, in which
the infants of our royal families were commonly baptized. Is this relic
still in existence? where may it be seen? what is its history? have any
cuts or engravings of it been published? where may any particulars
respecting it be found?

    NOCAB.

_L'Homme de 1400 Ans._--In that very extraordinary part of a very
extraordinary transaction, the statement of Cagliostro, in the matter of
the _Collier_ (Paris, 1786, pp. 20. 36.), mention is twice made of an
imaginary personage called _l'homme de 1400 ans_. Cagliostro complains
that he was said to be that personage, or the Wandering Jew, or
Antichrist. He is not, therefore, the same as the Wandering Jew. I
should be very curious to learn where this notion is derived from.

    C. B.

_Llandudno, on the Great Orme's Head._--Having occasion to visit the
above interesting place last summer, among other objects of curiosity, I
was induced to visit a "cavern," which the inhabitants said had been
lately discovered, and which they said had been used by the "Romans"
(Roman Catholics) as a place of worship. A party of five hired a boat
for the purpose of visiting the place, which is about two miles from the
little bay of Llandudno; for it is quite inaccessible by land. We
arrived in about an hour; and were quite surprised at the appearance of
the "cavern," which seems to have been made as private as possible, and
as inaccessible, by large stones being piled _carelessly_ upon each
other, so as to hide the entrance, and which we could not have found
without the assistance of the sailors. The "cavern" is about ten feet
high, lined with smooth and well-jointed stone work, with a plain but
nicely executed cornice at the height of seven or eight feet. The shape
is heptagonal, and the fronts on each side are faced with smooth stone;
the space from front to back, and from side to side, is equal, about six
feet six inches. On the right, close to the entrance, is a font, sixteen
inches across inside, twenty-two outside, and eight or nine inches deep.
There is a seat round, except at the entrance; and there has been a
stone table or altar in the centre, but a small portion of it and the
pillar only remain. The floor has been flagged, but it is in a very
dilapidated state. That it was used for worship, there is little doubt;
but how and when it was fitted up, seems marvellous. It is not mentioned
by Pennant, or any Welsh tourist.

Will any of your correspondents oblige me and the public with the
history of this "cavern," as it is called, at Llandudno?

    L. G. T.

_Johnson's House, Bolt Court._--Can any of your readers inform me
whether the house in which Dr. Johnson resided, and in which he died,
situate in Bolt Court, Fleet Street, is yet in existence? You are
probably aware that an engraving of it appeared in the _Graphic
Illustrations_ edited by Mr. Croker, and prefixed to this engraving was
an announcement that it was destroyed by fire.

There is reason, however, to believe that this is a mistake, and that
the house so destroyed by fire belonged not to Johnson, but to Johnson's
friend, Allen the printer.

You are probably aware that the house which stands opposite the
Johnson's Head Tavern, is shown as the residence of the great moralist;
and on comparing another engraving by Smith of the Doctor's study with
the room now claimed to have been occupied by Johnson, the likeness is
exact. Cobbett, too, who afterwards lived here, boasted in one of his
publications that he was writing in the same room where Johnson compiled
his _Dictionary_. At any rate it is an interesting question, and
probably can be set at rest by some of your literary friends, especially
as I have reason to believe that there is one gentleman still living who
visited the Doctor in Bolt Court. Madame D'Arblay, I think, once said,
that the author of the _Pleasures of Memory_ arrived at the door at the
same moment with herself during Johnson's last illness.

    EDWIN LECHLADE.

_Bishop Mossom._--Robert Mossom, D.D., was prebendary of Knaresboro' in
Yorkshire, 1662, and Bishop of Derry, 1666. In dedicating his _Zion's
Prospect_ (1651) to Henry (Pierrepont) Marquess of Dorchester and Earl
of Kingston, towards the end he says, "Besides this, mine relation to
your late deceased uncle;" then referring to the margin he has "Ds. T.
G., _Eques felicis memoriæ_."

_Zion's Prospect_ (a copy of which, with several of his other works, is
in the library of the British Museum) has on the title-page, "By R. M.,
quondam è coll'o S. P. C."

His grandson, Robert Mossom, D.D. (son of Robert Mossom, LL.D., Master
in the French Court of Chancery), was Senior Fellow of Trinity College,
Dublin, and subsequently Dean of Ossory from 1701 to 1747; he married
Rebecca, daughter and coheir of Robert Mason of Dublin, and
granddaughter, _I believe_, of Jonathan Alaud of Waterford. Dean Mossom
was one of the oldest friends of Dean Swift; Sir Walter Scott has but
one letter to him in _Swift's Correspondence_ (2nd ed. Edin. 1824, vol.
XIX. p. 275.). Are there any other letters that passed between them in
existence?

Can any of your readers refer me to a pedigree of the _Masons_ of
Dublin, and also any pedigree that connects the Mossom with the _Elaud_
family of Yorkshire?

What college was that of S. P. C.? and who was Sir T. G----, Knt.; and
how was he related to Bishop Mossom?

    T. C. M. M.

  Inner Temple.

_Orlando Gibbons._--Hawkins, in his _History of Music_, gives "a head"
of this musician. Is there any other engraved portrait?

    EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

_Portraits._--What is the most correct catalogue of all the engraved
_portraits_ which are known to exist?

    S. S.

_Barnard's Church Music._--Can any of your readers point out where John
Barnard's first book of selected church music, folio, ten parts, 1641,
is to be found? The writer knows of the imperfect set at Hereford
Cathedral, a tenor part at Canterbury, and a bass part in private hands.
Dr. Burney makes mention, in his _History of Music_, of having sought
diligently throughout the kingdom, but could not find an entire copy.
Perhaps some of your correspondents may kindly favour the writer with a
list of its contents.

    AMANUENSIS.

_The Nelson Family._--In Burke's _Commoners_, under the head of "Nelson
of Chuddleworth," it appears that _William Nelson_ of Chuddleworth, born
in 1611, had by his second wife, the daughter of John Pococke,
gentleman, of Woolley, among other children, a son named _William_; but
of whom no further mention is made.

Can any of your Norfolk or Berkshire friends state whether this son
_William_ ever settled at Dunham Parva, in Norfolk?--as, by so doing, an
obligation will be conferred on your occasional correspondent

    FRANCISCUS.

_Letters to the Clergy._--In the _Diary of Walter Yonge_ (published by
the Camden Society), p. 24., is the following:

  "16 Dec. 1614. This day the Ministers of this Diocese (Exon) were
  called before the Bishop of Exon, who read letters from the
  Archbishop, the effects of which were, that every minister should
  exhort his parishioners to continue together the Sabbath Day, and
  not to wander to other preachers who have better gifts than their
  own pastors, but should content themselves with the Word of God
  read and Homilies. 2. That all should kneel at the receiving of
  the Sacrament. 3. To declare unto their parishioners that it is
  not necessary to have the Word preached at the Sacraments.--Dictu
  Magistri Knowles, Vicarii de Axminster, at that time present."

Query, Can any of your readers say to what letter, and on what occasion
such orders were issued by the archbishop, and also whether they have
been published in any volume on ecclesiastical matters?

    H. T. E.

_Margaret Burr._--It is related in Allan Cunningham's _Life of
Gainsborough_, that he married a young lady named Margaret Burr, of
Scottish extraction; and that

  "On an occasion of household festivity, when her husband was high
  in fame, she vindicated some little ostentation in her dress by
  whispering to her niece, now Mrs. Lane, 'I have some right to
  this, for you know, my love, I am a prince's daughter.'"

The biographer of the _British Painters_ prefaces this by saying,

  "Nor must I omit to tell that rumour conferred other attractions
  (besides an annuity) upon her; she was said to be the natural
  daughter of one of our exiled princes, nor was she, when a wife
  and a mother, desirous of having this circumstance forgotten."

As I just now read in Vol. iv., p. 244., some account of Berwick, and
other natural children of James II., I was put in mind of the above
anecdote, and should be glad of any information respecting the Miss
Burr's parentage in question. Myself a collateral descendant of her
husband, I know from other sources that the tradition is worthy of
credit; and to the genealogist and antiquary it may be a historically
interesting enquiry.

    H. W. G. R.

_Northern Ballads._--Is any gentleman in possession of any _old printed_
copies of Danish or Swedish popular ballads, or of any _manuscript
collection_ of similar remains? Are any such known to exist in any
public library in Great Britain? By printed, of course I mean old
fly-sheets, from the sixteenth century downward; they are generally of
four, sometimes of eight, leaves small octavo. Any information, either
personally, or through "N. & Q.," will much oblige

    GEORGE STEPHENS.

  Copenhagen.

_"Blamed be the man," &c._--Where is the following couplet to be found?

      "Blamed be the man that first invented ink,
      And made it easier for to write than think."

    N. O. K.

"_Quid est Episcopus._"--Can any correspondent furnish me with the
reference to a passage supposed to exist in one of the early fathers (I
think Irenæus):--

      "Quid est episcopus, nisi primus presbyter?"

    X. G. X.

_Henry Isaac._--I shall feel obliged to any person who can give any
account (for genealogical purposes) of Henry Isaac, who lived at
Roehampton about the middle of last century. He was a diamond merchant
from Holland. He had a collection of pictures, one of which was the Lord
of the Vineyard paying his Labourers, by Rembrandt.

    H. T. E.

_German Poet quoted by Camden._--_Britannia, sive regnorum Angliæ,
Scotiæ, et Hiberniæ chorographica descriptio_: Gulielmo Camdeno: Lond.
1607, folio, p. 302., Middlesex.

  "Nec magno hinc intervallo _Tamisim_ duplici ostiolo Colus
  postquam insulas sparserit, illabitur. _Ad quem_ ut nostræ ætatis
  Poeta Germanus lusit:

      "'Tot campos, sylvas, tot regia tecta, tot hortos
      Artifici dextrâ excultos, tot vidimus arces,
      Aut nunc Ausonio, Tamisis cum Tybride certet.'"

Camden, speaking of the Colne falling with a double mouth into the
Thames, quotes a German poet of his day; and I should be much obliged by
any reader of the "N. & Q." favouring me with the name, and reference to
the author from whence the preceding quotation is taken.

    --> F.

_American Degrees._--Several members of the Brougham Institute here, and
constant readers of "N. & Q.," would feel obliged if some of your
learned correspondents would give them some information about the
obtaining of American degrees, as recently a large cargo of diplomas had
arrived in this quarter, such as D.D. and LL.D., and conferred on men of
third-rate talent. What we want is, to be informed how such degrees are
obtained; if it is the president, or president and professors, of the
American academies who confer them. This subject is so frequently
agitated here, that you would greatly oblige many inquirers by making a
question of it in "N. & Q.," so that we may obtain full reply
explanatory of how these degrees are obtained, and of the bestowers of
them.

    J. W.

  Liverpool.

_Derivation of News._--It is just two years since the word _News_ was
stated to be derived from the initial letters of the cardinal points of
the compass, as prefixed to early newspapers. I well remember the
impression which the statement made on me: if written seriously, as a
mark of credulity; if sportively, as rather out of place. Moreover, it
was both stated as a _fact_, and as an _ingenious etymology_--a manifest
inconsistency.

In the fierce and tiresome discussion which arose out of that
announcement, the main points in support of the asserted derivation were
never once introduced. Do such early newspapers exist? Is the derivation
itself of early date? As to the first question, I must declare that no
such newspapers ever came under _my_ observation; but as to the second,
it must be admitted that the derivation has been in print, with all the
weight of evidence which belongs to it, above two centuries.

I shall assume, if not better informed, that it has no other authority
than the subjoined epigram in _Wits recreations_, first published in
1640, and said to contain the _finest fancies_ of the muses of those
times. In default of the original edition of that rare work, I
transcribe from the re-publication of it in 1817.

      "_News._

      "When news doth come, if any would discusse
      The letter of the word, resolve it thus:
      News is convey'd by letter, word, or mouth,
      And comes to us from _North_, _East_, _West_, and _South_."

    BOLTON CORNEY.

_Passage in Troilus and Cressida._--Would MR. J. PAYNE COLLIER, whose
name I have often seen among your contributors, have the kindness to
inform me whether any light is thrown, in the emendations inserted in
his folio edition of _Shakspeare_, 1628, on a line which has always
puzzled me in Ulysses' speech in council, in Scene 3. of Act I. of
_Troilus and Cressida_? The passage runs thus:

                "How could communities,
      Degrees in schools, and brotherhood in cities,
      _Peaceful commérce from dividable shores_,
      The primogenitive and due of birth,
      Prerogative of age, crowns, sceptres, laurels,
      But by degree, stand in authentic place?"

It will be seen that the third line, according to the usual
pronunciation of the last word, is defective in scanning; that, if
derived from _divido_, the vowel in the penultimate syllable would be
_i_ and not _a_; and that, even if intended to express the word
_divided_, as suggested by one of our commentators, would be too vague
and inexpressive.

Might I suggest that the derivation is not from the word _divido_, but
rather from a compound of the words _divitiæ_ and _do_; the expression
"riches-giving shores" not only completing the sense of the passage, but
forming a compound not uncommon with our immortal bard.

    W. S. D.

_Bachelor's Buttons._--That should be their name if they exist; but, if
so, where are they to be got? I never heard of them. I should think a
clever fellow might make a fortune by inventing some kind of substitute
which a man without the time, skill, or materials necessary for sewing
on a button, might put in the place of a deserter. If you do not insert
this Query, may your brace buttons fly off next time you are dressing in
a hurry to dine with the grandest people you know!

    YOUR WELLWISHER.

_Princes of Wales and Earls of Chester, eldest Sons of the Kings of
England._--In the _New Memoirs of Literature_, vol. iv., July, 1726, it
was announced that Mr. Bush, one of the Clerks of the Record Office in
the Tower, and late Fellow of King's College, Cambridge, designed to
print a Collection of Charters, Letters Patent, and other instruments
concerning the creation and investiture of the eldest sons of the Kings
of England as Princes of Wales, Dukes of Cornwall, Earls of Chester and
Flint, &c. &c., from the time of Edward, the first Prince of Wales
(afterwards King Edward II.), to the time of Edward IV.

Can any of your correspondents inform me whether such a work ever was
published? and who was the editor of the monthly review entitled _New
Memoirs of Literature_, which extended to six volumes 8vo.? It contains
notices of many old and now rare works, and stopped in December, 1727.

    G.

_Authenticated Instances of Longevity._--Your correspondent A. B. R.
(antè, p. 145.) and others argue _their_ question of the old Countess of
Desmond very ably;--will any one of them be pleased to argue _my_
question? Is there one word of truth in the story, or any other story
that rests, as a preliminary condition, on the assumption that people
have lived to one hundred and fifty years of age? Of course the proof is
to rest on dates and facts, parish registers--on _clear legal evidence_.
It is admitted by actuaries and others, learned in such matters, that
the average duration of life is greater now than it was; so, we might
fairly assume, would be the exceptional life. Can these gentlemen refer
us to a single instance of an insured person who lived to one hundred
and fifty? to one hundred and forty, thirty, twenty, ten? aye, to one
hundred and ten? There is a nonsensical inscription to this effect on
the portrait of a man of the name of Gibson, hung up in Greenwich
Hospital, but its untruth has been proved. I also remember another case
made out to the entire satisfaction of some benevolent ladies, by, as
afterwards appeared, the baptismal register of John the father being
made to do duty as the register of John the son. I mention these things
as a warning; I protest, too, at starting against flooding "N. & Q."
with evidence brought from Russia or America, or any of the back
settlements of the world, and against all evidence of people with
impossible memories. What I want is _good legal evidence_; the greatest
age of the oldest members of the Equitable, Amicable, and other
Insurance offices--lives certainly beyond the average; the greatest age
of a member of the House of Peers coming within the eye of proof. When
these preliminary questions, and reasonable inferences, shall have been
determined, it will, I think, be quite time enough to raise questions
about the old Countess, old Parr, old Jenkins, and other like
ante-register longevities.

    O. C. D.


Minor Queries Answered.

_Laud's Letters and Papers._--Can any of your correspondents inform one
where any unpublished letters or papers of Archbishop Laud are to be met
with, besides those at Lambeth or in the British Museum?

Anthony à Wood mentions his speech against Nathanael Fiennes; and
Wanley, in his _Catalogue of English and Irish MSS._, states that many
of his writings, both political and theological, were extant at that
time in private libraries.

    B. J.

  [Archbishop Laud's _Works_ are now in the course of publication in
  the Library of Anglo-Catholic Theology, and from the editor's
  valuable bibliographical prefaces to vols. i. and ii., we think it
  probable that some notices of these MSS. will be given in the
  subsequent volumes. Our correspondent may also consult _Catalogi
  Librorum Manuscriptorum Angliæ et Hiberniæ_, Oxon. 1697.]

_Scot's Philomythie._--_Philomythie, or Philomythologie, wherein
Outlandish Birds, Beasts, and Fishes are taught to speak true English
plainlie, &c._

The same volume, a small quarto unpaged, contains "The Merrie American
Philosopher, or Wise Man of the New World," and "Certaine Pieces of this
Age Parabolized, viz. Duellum Britannicum; Regalis Justitia Jacobi;
Aquignispicium; Antidotum Cecillianum; by Thomas Scot, Gentleman, 1616,
with illustrative woodcuts."

Query: Is the book rare, and who was Thomas Scot?

    L. S.

  [But little appears to be known of the personal history of Thomas
  Scot. Sir S. Egerton Brydges, in his _Censura Literaria_, vol.
  iii. pp. 381-386., and vol. iv. p. 32., has given some account of
  his works, but no biographical notice of the author. The
  dedications to his poems being principally to the Norfolk and
  Suffolk gentry, it is probable he belonged to one of those
  counties. The first edition of _Philomythie_ was published in
  1610; the second in 1616; but some copies of the second edition,
  according to Lowndes, are dated 1622, others 1640. There is a
  third portion which our correspondent does not appear to possess,
  entitled _The Second Part of Philomythie, or Philomythologie_,
  containing Certaine Tales of true libertie, false friendship,
  power united, faction and ambition. By Thomas Scot, Gent. London,
  1616, 1625. Thomas Park thought that, from the great disparity of
  merit between this and the preceding part, there is little reason
  to suppose them to be by the same author, though they bear the
  same name. Scot's works are considered rare, especially his first,
  entitled _Four Paradoxes of Arte, of Lawe, of Warre, of Seruice_:
  London, 1602, consisting of twenty-four leaves, in verse,
  dedicated to Ladie Helena, Marquesse of Northampton, which is
  marked in _Bibl. Anglo. Poet._ at 25_l._, and resold for 7_l._
  12_s._ (Hibbert, 7243.)]

_Robin of Doncaster._--Give me leave to ask for an explanation of the
following enigmatical epitaph, which will be found in the _History of
Doncaster_, by Dr. Edward Miller, p. 74.:

              "Howe, Howe, who is heare?
      I Robin of Doncaster and Margaret my feare.
              That I spent, that I had,
              That I gave, that I have,
              That I left, that I lost. A.D. 1579.
      Quoth Robertus Byrkes, who in this world did reign
      Three score years and seven, and yet liv'd not one."

Dr. Johnson latinized a part of it thus:

      "Habeo, dedi quod alteri;
      Habuique, quod dedi mihi;
      Sed quod reliqui, perdidi."

      See _Works of English Poets_, vol. lxxii.
      Lond. 1790, small 8vo. Poemata,
      p. 99.

In _Magna Britannia et Hibernia, antiqua et nova_, vol. vi. p. 429., it
is stated that Robin of Doncaster gave Rossington Wood to that
corporation. Perhaps some reader may be able to supply more of his
biography.

    --> F.

  [A similar epitaph to the above will be found on the tomb of
  William Lambe, in the church of St. Faith under Paul: see Strype's
  Stow, book iii. p. 146. Dr. Miller does not appear to have given
  any biographical notices of Robert Byrkes, except that he was
  Mayor of Doncaster during the years 1569, 1573, and 1577. The
  following explanation of this inscription is given by Bland in his
  _Proverbs_, vol. i. p. 23.:--"By prudence in the distribution of
  his benevolence, by giving only to good and deserving persons, he
  procured to himself friends, on whose advice and assistance he
  might depend whenever occasion should desire it; and by expending
  only what he could conveniently spare, and laying it out on such
  things as administered to his comfort, he enjoyed, and therefore
  had what he expended; but what he left, not being enjoyed by
  himself, nor going perhaps to persons of his choice, or being used
  in the manner he would have preferred, that portion might be truly
  said to be lost."]

_Horæ Belgicæ._--In what language is the second part of Hoffman von
Fallersleben's _Horæ Belgicæ_ written? This, from its title being
written in Latin, may seem a foolish question, but it is also called (N.
& Q., Vol. v., p. 7.) _Holländische Volkslieder_: and where can it be
procured or seen?

    W. S. S.

  [Hoffman's work consists of six parts, of which the first--a
  bibliographical essay on old Flemish literature--is written in
  Latin. The second, to which our correspondent refers, is in
  German. Part III. contains the Flemish _Floris ende Blancefloer_,
  with a German Introduction; Part IV., the old Flemish _Caerl ende
  Elegast_, has a Latin preface; while Part V., containing
  _Lantsloof ende die scone Sandrijn and Renout van Montalbaen_, and
  Part VI., _Altniederländische Schaubühne_, a collection of early
  Flemish dramatic pieces, have German introductions. We believe the
  work may be procured of Williams and Norgate. If not, or our
  correspondent only wishes to refer to it, we shall be very happy
  to place our copy at his service for a few weeks.]

_Dulcarnon._--"I am at Dulcarnon." What is the origin of the above
saying? I heard it used the other day by a person who, declaring he was
at his wit's end, exclaimed, "Yes, indeed I am at Dulcarnon." Since that
I have seen it in Boyer's _French Dictionary_, but in no English book.

    H. CORVILLE WARDE.

  Kidderminster.

  [In addition to the note in our first Vol. p. 254, we may remark
  that Mr. Halliwell, in his _Dictionary_, says this word has set
  all editors of Chaucer at defiance. A clue to its meaning may be
  found in Stanihurst's _Description of Ireland_, p. 28.: "These
  sealie soules were (as all _dulcarnanes_ for the most part are)
  more to be terrified from infidelitie through the paines of hell,
  than allured to Christianitie by the joies of heaven."]



Replies.


NUMBER OF THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL.

(Vol. v., p. 11.)

Your correspondent ÆGROTUS sees a difficulty in the rapid increase of
the Israelites in Egypt, and proposes to lessen it by doubling the time
of their stay there, and including women in their census. His
criticisms, however, seem to be as inadmissible as his difficulty is
unreal.

For, first, in the place he quotes (Ex. xii. 37.), the number is said to
be "nearly 600,000 _that were_ men," where the Italics are intended to
throw emphasis on _men_; because the Heb. םיִרבָגְּ means men
_as opposed_ to women, _strong_ men, even soldiers. Also, from Numb. i.
2. 46. we see that the number 603,550 included only "every male ... from
20 years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war," thus
excluding the tribe of Levi (v. 47.). Josephus, indeed, says (_Antiq._
III. viii. 2. and xii. 4.) that it included only the men between 20 and
50 years of age.

Then, as to the time that they were in Egypt: it is evident from Gal.
iii. 17. that, going back 430 years from the Exode, we must come into
the time of Abraham: so that the 430 years in Ex. xii. 40. must begin
when Abraham first went into Egypt. And this is confirmed by the reading
of the LXX there: κατῴκησαν ἐν γῇ Αἰγύπτῳ καὶ ἐν γῇ Χαναὰν, ἔτη
τετρακόσια τριάκοντα. That they remained only 215 years in Egypt, is
not merely the opinion of Professor Lee, as ÆGROTUS seems to think: it
is given by Josephus (_Antiq._ II. xv. 2.), was received by the Jews and
early Christians generally, and is now (at least almost) universally
adopted.

Now, to come to the supposed difficulty itself: none such really exists,
even if we take the higher number and the shorter time, as I think
indeed we ought. The men being taken at about 600,000, we must reckon
the whole people, at least, at 2,000,000. A calculation of no difficulty
shows that if 70 persons increase in 215 years to 2,000,000, the number
of the people must double itself every 14-½ years: or, if they
increase to 3,000,000, the number must double every 14 years. Now,
compare this with what we know about some other nations. Humboldt, in
his _Essai Politique sur le Royaume de la Nouvelle-Espagne_ (tom. i. p.
339.) says:

  "The information which I have collected proves that, if the order
  of nature were not interrupted from time to time by some
  extraordinary and disturbing cause" [_e.g._ famine, pestilence],
  "the population of New Spain ought to double itself every
  _nineteen_ years. [...] In the United States, since 1774, we have
  seen the population double itself in 22 years. The curious tables
  which M. Samuel Blodget has published in his _Statistical Manual
  of the United States of America_ (1806, p. 73.), show that, for
  certain States, this cycle is only _thirteen_ or _fourteen_
  years."

Again, Malthus, in his _Essay on the Principles of Population_, p. 6.,
says:

  "According to a table of Euler, calculated on a mortality of 1 in
  36, if the births be to the deaths in the proportion of 3 to 1,
  the period of doubling will be over 12 years and 4-5ths. And this
  supposition is not only a possible supposition, but has actually
  occurred for short periods in more countries than one. Sir William
  Petty (_Polit. Arith._, p. 14.) supposes a doubling, possible in
  so short a time as _ten_ years."

What difficulty, then, can there be (knowing the promise in Gen. xvii.
6.) in believing that the number of the Israelites in Egypt doubled
itself every _fourteen_ years?

    F. A.

  P.S. Assuming what Malthus considers an ordinary rate of increase,
  when population is unchecked, viz. a doubling in 25 years, 70
  persons in 430 years would increase to 10,539,000: which is what
  ÆGROTUS wishes to know.

At Vol. v., p. 11., ÆGROTUS suggests that the "600,000 men" of Ex. xii.
37. mean "men and women." He will find some valuable "Notes" on Hebrew
statistics in the 1st and 2d chapters of Numbers, that appear to
militate against his theory! (Numb. i. 1, 2, 3., ii. 32.)

    A. A. D.


SERJEANTS' RINGS AND MOTTOES.

(Vol. v., pp. 59. 92. 110.)

The following will, I believe, be found to be a _correct_ list of the
Serjeants' mottoes during the last twenty years. The Law Reports not
being probably accessible to all your readers to whom the subject may be
one of interest, I have compiled this list with the view of preserving
(in as brief a form as possible) in your pages, what is now scattered
through many volumes.

      Serjeants.

      1832.   J. Gurney       | _Justo secerne iniquum._
              J. T. Coleridge |
              T. Denman         _Lex omnibus una._
      1834.   J. Williams       _Tutela legum._
      1837.   T. Coltman        _Jus suum cuique._
      1838-9. T. Erskine        _Judicium parium._
      1839.   W. H. Maule       _Suum cuique._
              R. M. Rolfe       _Suaviter fortiter._
      1840.   J. Manning      |
              J. Halcomb      |
              W. F. Channell  | _Honor nomenque manebunt._
              W. Shee         |
              D. C. Wrangham  |
              W. Glover         _Regina et lege gaudet serviens._
              S. Gaselee        _Nec temere nec timide._
      1842.   J. V. Thompson    ?
              F. S. Murphy      _Incidere Ludum._
              H. G. Jones       _Bene Volens._
              A. S. Dowling     _Onus allexit._
      1843.   N. R. Clarke      _Sapiens qui assiduus._
              J. B. Byles       _Metuis secundus._
      1844.   E. Bellasis     |
              J. A. Kinglake  | _Paribus legibus._
              C. C. Jones     |
              W. Erle           _Tenax justitiæ._
      1845.   T. J. Platt       _Labor et fides._
              R. Allen          _Hic per tot casus._
              E. S. Bain        _A Deo et Regina._
              C. Wilkins        _Non quo sed quomodo._
      1847.   E. N. Williams    _Legum servi ut libere._
      1848.   A. Wallinger      _Quid quandoque deceat._
      1850.   S. Martin         _Labore._
              R. Miller         _Honeste niti._

N.B. The subsequent titles of those of the above learned Serjeants who
have received promotion are omitted for brevity sake.

    J. B. COLMAN.

  Eye.

MR. FOSS is, I believe, mistaken in supposing that all the serjeants
called at the same time have the same motto. That is the usual practice,
but it has not been invariably observed. Sir John Walter, Sir Henry
Yelverton, and Sir Thomas Trevor, were all called on the same day (May
10, 1 Car. I.). Sir John Walter and Sir Thomas Trevor gave the same
motto on their rings, and Sir Henry Yelverton gave rings with a
different motto. There are other instances of the like kind; that above
referred to I take from the only old law-book I have now at hand
(Croke's _Reports_).

    C. H. COOPER.

  Cambridge.

The following is probably the case referred to at p. 92. It is contained
in 1 _Modern Reports_, case 30.:

  "Seventeen serjeants being made the 14th day of November, a daye
  or two after, Serjeant Powis, the junior of them all, coming to
  the King's Bench bar, Lord Chief Justice Kelynge told him that he
  had something to say to him, viz., that the rings which he and the
  rest of the serjeants had given weighed but eighteen shillings
  apiece; whereas Fortescue, in his book _De Laudibus Legum Angliæ_,
  says, 'The rings given to the Chief Justices and to the Chief
  Baron ought to weigh twenty shillings apiece;' and that he spoke
  not this expecting a recompense, but that it might not be drawn
  into a precedent, and that the young gentlemen there might take
  notice of it."

    W. H. LAMMIN.

  Fulham.

MR. FOSS quotes what he considers the _happiest_ of these mottoes.
I think the following at least as happy, and certainly more
classical. I believe (but am not sure) it was adopted by Mr.
Serjeant Bosanquet. I need not point out its application:

      "Antiquam exquirite matrem."

    F. R.


LEARNED MEN OF THE NAME OF BACON.

(Vol. iii., pp. 41. 151.)

As no one appears inclined to follow up the suggestion of your
correspondent with regard to the learned men of the name of Bacon, I
have drawn up the following list, which I have met in the course of my
reading, according to their dates.

1st. Robert Bacon, an eminent divine, born 1168, and died 1248. He
studied at Oxford, and perfected his education at Paris; his principal
work was the life of his friend and patron, Edmund, Archbishop of
Canterbury, which was highly esteemed; he also wrote many other learned
works.

2nd. Roger Bacon, the learned monk; of him it will suffice for me to
mention the date of his birth and death, as none will dispute _his_
right to a place in the list. He was born near Ilchester, in
Somersetshire, 1214, and died at Oxford 1294.

3rd. John Bacon (surnamed _the Resolute Doctor_) was born at the latter
end of the thirteenth century, in the little village of Baconthorpe, in
Norfolk; from thence he is often called Baconthorpe. After some years
spent in the Convent of Blackney, five miles from Walsingham, he removed
to Oxford, and thence to Paris, where he was honoured by degrees both in
law and divinity, and was considered the head of the Averroïsts. In 1333
he was invited by letters to Rome; and Paulus Pansa, writing of him from
thence, says, "This one _resolute doctor_ has furnished the Christian
religion with armour against the Jews, stronger than any of Vulcan's,"
&c. He was held in great esteem all throughout Italy. He died in London,
1346.

4th. Sir Nicholas Bacon, Lord Keeper of the great seal to Queen
Elizabeth, was born at Chislehurst, in Kent, 1510, and educated at
Cambridge. "As a statesman," says his historian, "he was remarkable for
a clear head and deep counsels; he had much of that penetrating genius,
solidity, and judgment, persuasive eloquence, and comprehensive
knowledge of law and equity, which afterwards shone with so great a
lustre in his son" (Francis Lord Verulam). He died Feb. 26th, 1578,
equally lamented by the queen and her subjects; a monument was erected
to him in St. Paul's, which was destroyed by the Great Fire, 1666. Sir
Nicholas left several MSS., which have never been published.

5th. Anthony Bacon, the eldest son of Sir Nicholas by his first wife,
born 1558, and educated at Cambridge. He was personally acquainted with
most of the literati of that age. At Geneva he lodged in the house of
the celebrated Theodore Beza. In 1585, he visited Henry of Navarre, then
at Berne; here he became acquainted with the learned Lambert Danæus,
who, as a mark of esteem, dedicated several of his works to him. In
1586, he formed an intimacy with the famous Philip Plessis de Mornay at
Montaubon; 1591, he returned to England; from this time he carried on an
extensive correspondence with the literati, and in 1596 he began a
correspondence with Henry of Navarre, then Henry IV. of France. The time
of his death is uncertain.

6th. Sir Francis Bacon, Viscount St. Albans, second son of Sir Nicholas,
born 1560, educated at Trinity College, Cambridge; died April 9th, 1621.
What can be a more concise and expressive notice of this great man than
that of Walpole!--

  "_The Prophet of Arts_ which Newton was sent to reveal.... It
  would be impertinent to enter into an account of this amazing
  genius or his works; both will be universally admired so long as
  science exists."

7th. Sir Nathaniel Bacon, K.B., a younger son by his second wife of Sir
Nicholas, was an excellent painter. He studied his art in Italy, but his
style and colouring approach nearer to the Flemish school. I can find no
date of his birth, &c.

8th. Phanuel Bacon, D.D., an admirable wit and poet. He died at Balden,
Jan. 2nd, 1733.

9th. John Bacon, the celebrated sculptor, and possessed also of
respectable literary talents; born in Southwark 1740, died 1799.

I hope you will not consider this list too long for insertion; but I
thought it useless to give a long string of names without a short notice
of each.

    MYFANWY.


COLLAR OF SS.

(Vol. v., p. 81.)

Having only commenced subscribing to "N. & Q." at the beginning of the
present year, I am not aware what has been said prior to this date, with
reference to the Collar of SS.; but should not Mr. Boutell's remarks
about this collar have been published, I beg to send them for the
information of those interested:

  "Next to the Garter itself, the most celebrated knightly
  decoration of this class is the Collar of SS. introduced by King
  Henry IV., apparently as a memorial of the success with which his
  aspiring ambition had been crowned: this letter S, repeated either
  in links of gold, or in gold embroidery, worked upon a fillet of
  blue, is the initial of the word 'Souveraine,' Henry's motto,
  which he bore while Earl of Derby, and which, as he afterwards
  became sovereign, appeared auspicious."

I dare say this idea of Mr. Boutell's may have been very ably refuted,
by having pointed out the existence of the collar on a knight who is
known _for certain_ to have died prior to the reign of Henry IV.; but I
must say that I have seen nothing in the Numbers of the current year
which alters my opinion.

With reference to what MR. LEWIS EVANS says, at page 38., I beg to
remark that he only assumes their dates _from current report_, for the
dates are not on either of the tombs he mentions; and I think MR. EVANS
is not a great studier of monumental effigies, otherwise he would not
talk of a knight being dressed in "a coif de mailles and pointed
helmet." I assume he means "_a camail_ and pointed bascinet."

LLEWELLYN, at p. 81., makes mention of several, but of the only two upon
which he ventures to fix a date, prior to Henry IV., one is "commonly
ascribed," &c., and the other is "vulgarly called," &c., so that I place
no reliance upon the truth of his deductions. Edwardus de la Hale, whom
he mentions as No. 7., died, I think he will find, in 1431, and not
1421.

As regards the brass of Sir Thomas Peryent and lady, at Digswell, Herts,
I may mention that although he wears a collar, yet I do not think it
ought to be fixed as certain that it is that of the SS., for no letter,
or portion of a letter, remains to prove it, although the collar which
Lady Peryent wears is perfectly distinct.

I send you a list of a few more knights and ladies who wear this collar:

  A.D.

  1382. Sir Thomas Burton, at Little Casterton, Rutlandshire.

  1407. Sir W. and Lady Bagot, at Baginton, Warwickshire.

  1411. Sir John Drayton, at Dorchester, Oxfordshire.

  1412. Sir Thomas Swynborne, at Little Horkesley, Essex.

  1424. Lord and Lady Camoys, at Trotton, Sussex.

  1430. Sir John Dyve, at St. Owens, Bromham, Beds.

  1435. Lady Delamere (but not worn by her husband), at Hereford
  Cathedral.

As regards the brass of Sir Thomas Burton, although the date affixed to
it is 1382, yet it is quite evident, from the style of armour worn by
him, and the execution of the brass itself, that it was not executed
till 1410, and that he died about that time, and his wife at the date
mentioned.

    H. L.

To MR. FOSS'S list of effigies bearing the Collar of SS. allow me to add
the brass of Sir Thomas Peryent and his lady, at Digswell, Herts, both
of whom wear this collar. Sir Thomas was a squire at arms to Henry IV.,
and died A.D. 1415.

At Arundel Church, also in Sussex, is a brass to Thomas Salmon and his
lady. The figure of the knight is destroyed, but that of his lady bears
the collar. Perhaps some of your readers can give some account of this
knight.

Query, What persons are _now_ entitled to wear it?

    NEDLAM.


THE KÖNIGSMARKS.

(Vol. v., pp. 78. 115.)

A tragic destiny was that of most of the posterity of that John
Christopher Königsmark, who commanded at the storm of the suburbs of
Prague, the last deed of arms of the Thirty Years' War. John Christopher
himself was born at Kotzlin in the Mark on Feb. 25, 1600, and from his
brother descended the Königsmarks of the Mark. He fought first in the
imperial service and in Italy, but afterwards joined the Swedes, and
after the peace was Stadtholder of Bremen and Vredun, became Count and
Royal Councillor (Reichsrath), and left behind him at his death in 1663
property worth 130,000 thalers yearly. He had three sons; the second,
John Christopher, died in 1653 at Rottemburg, in Swabia, by a fall from
his horse. The youngest, Count Otto Wilhelm, was born at Minden on June
3, 1639; studied under Esaias Pufendorf, and in 1654 was Rector
Magnificus at Jena; served different powers as soldier and diplomatist;
distinguished himself as general of the Venetians in the Morea; and died
on September 16, 1688, of fever, when before Negropont. He was married
to a Countess de la Gardie, of the well-known Swedish family. He
probably was that Count Königsmark to whose protection John Leyser
(Theophilus Alethaus) fled when he forfeited his offices of preacher and
inspector at Pforta, which he had held since 1664, on account of,
although himself chaste and virtuous, having defended polygamy; was
pursued, taken, placed in prison, and died at Amsterdam in extreme
poverty in 1684. The eldest son, Konrad, was first in the Swedish, then
in the Dutch service, and fell a lieutenant-general at the siege of Bonn
in 1673. He had married Marie Christine, daughter of Marshal Hermann
Wrangel, and the Pfalzgravine Amalie Magdalene of Sulzbach, who bore him
three sons and two daughters; one son died young. Which of the two
others was the elder is doubtful. Certain it is that the one, Karl
Johann, who is generally, though on no sufficient grounds, held to be
the elder, was born in 1659, at Nieuburg on Fuhnen; studied till 1674 at
Hamburg and Stade; then travelled in Holland, England, France, and
Italy; fought so bravely on board the Maltese galleys, that on his
departure in 1678 he, although a protestant, received the grand cross of
the order. He then visited Rome, Florence, Genoa, Venice, Madrid, Paris,
Holland, Hamburg, Stockholm, Windsor; set out in all haste when Tangiers
was attacked, to take share in the battle; and, as the fleet was delayed
by contrary winds, made his journey to Tangiers through France and
Spain; from thence back again to Madrid and Paris; then again to
Gibraltar, and three times to Africa; was with the English before
Algiers; wandered round in Holland, England, and Germany; was with the
French before Courtrai; and in Catalonia fought bravely under his uncle
at Argos, and died in Greece on August 26, 1686.

The most mysterious episode of his life was brought on by his sueing for
England's richest and highest heiress, Elizabeth, daughter of Josceline,
second Earl of Northumberland.

The other brother, Count Philip Christopher, was involved in the
well-known tale of the unfortunate wife of George I., the unhappy Sophia
Dorothea of Zelle, afterwards Duchess of Ahlden, and met his death under
circumstances of much mystery. According to the Duchess's assertion, he
was the elder brother, as she states he was born in 1656.

The sisters were--Amalie Wilhelmina, and the well-known mistress of
Augustus II., Maria Aurora, the mother of Marshal Saxe. Amalie married
the Count Charles Gustavus of Löwenhaupt.

Extract from Von Bulau's _Geheime Geschichten_, vol. iii., article on
"Count Löwenhaupt."

    J. R. J.


BOILING CRIMINALS TO DEATH.

(Vol. v., pp. 32. 112.)

MR. JOHN GOUGH NICHOLS'S observations upon the reply you favoured me by
publishing upon this subject, require from me some few observations in
further support of it. When I wrote the article in question, I had not
had an opportunity of consulting the statute of 22 Hen. VIII. itself. In
making the assertion that, prior to the case of Roose, "there was no
peculiarity in the mode of punishment," I did so principally on the
authority of Blackstone, who says--

  "Of all species of deaths the most detestable is that of poison,
  because it can of all others be the least prevented either by
  manhood or forethought, _and therefore_ by the statute of 22 Hen.
  VIII. c. 9. it was made treason, and a more grievous and lingering
  kind of death was inflicted on it _than the common law allowed_,
  namely, boiling to death."

Upon a perusal of the statute (as published by you at p. 33.), I am
confirmed in my opinion that the statute _was_ "retrospective in its
enactments as against" Roose, and was more extensive in its operation
than (as MR. NICHOLS appears to consider) merely depriving the culprit
of the "advantage of his clargie." The Act, after reciting the facts of
the case, enacted that the particular act of poisoning should be deemed
high treason; and that the said "Richard" should be attainted of high
treason: and because that offence, then "_newly_ practised," required
_condign punishment_, it was further enacted, that the said Richard
Roose should be boiled to death without benefit of clergy.

If this particular punishment already existed for the crime stated in
the Act to be "new," why the necessity for thus particularising the mode
of punishment? The conclusion of the Act (differing much in the verbiage
from that part relating to Roose) confirms me in my opinion, for it
enacts that all future poisoners should not only be adjudged guilty of
high treason, and not be admitted to the benefit of clergy, _but also_
provides for the punishment in the mode in question.

With regard to the case instanced by MR. NICHOLS, in the 13th Hen., I
merely observe that it appears to have escaped the attention of
Blackstone, and others who have written upon the subject. Assuming that
case to have happened, a reference to the statutes of Henry of that
period might probably show that an Act was passed for the punishment of
that particular offence; but not extending further, it became necessary
to pass another, both specific and general, upon the occurrence of
Roose's case.

In support of my view as to the discontinuance of the punishment, vide
_Blackstone_, vol. iv. p. 96.

N.B. The date "1524" (third line from the bottom of second column, p.
112.) appears a misprint for "1542".

    J. B. COLMAN.

  Eye.

The punishment of boiling criminals to death was not inflicted solely
for such a crime as poisoning. It was a common punishment for coining.
See _Annales Dominicanarum Colmariensium_ in Urstisius, Ger. _Illust.
Script._, vol. ii. p. 12.; and Ducange, in verb. _Caldariis decoquere_.
I believe instances of it will also be found in Döpler, _Theatrum
Poenarum_; and it will be seen by a reference to Ayala, _Cronica del Rey
Don Pedro_, that this was the favourite mode of putting to death all
persons who had offended him, employed by that monarch, who is best,
and, as I think, most truly, known in history as "Peter the Cruel."

    W. B. MACCABE.

As the punishment of boiling has been a matter of investigation lately
in your columns, perhaps the following contribution on the same subject
may not be uninteresting to some of your readers. It appears that in the
year 1392, when Florentius Wewelinghofen, or Wewelkofen, was Bishop of
Utrecht, a certain Jacobus von Jülich, by means of forged credentials
from the Pope, contrived to pass himself off, for a time, as suffragan
to the same see. Upon the discovery of the cheat, however, Florentius
summoned a synod of six bishops to Utrecht, who condemned the
unfortunate pretender to be sodden to death in boiling water! Zedler, in
his _Universal Lexicon_, tom. ix. col. 1282., alludes to the fact. Wilh.
Heda, in his _Hist. Episc. Ultraject._ pp. 259, 260., gives the story
thus:

  "Circa hæc tempora, scilicet anno 1392 ... quidam ex professione
  Divi Francisci, sese pro Sacerdote et Episcopo gerens, et in
  Suffraganeum Episcopi Florentii assumptus, cum aliquandiu sacra
  omnia peregisset, inventus falso charactere atque literis usus,
  destituitur, et ferventibus aquis immergendus adjudicatur;
  impositus vero aquis (quia clamore suo Episcopum ad pietatem
  commovit) statim extrahitur et capite truncatus obtinuit
  sepulturam."

Perhaps the Cardinal, should this meet his eye, or any one of your
readers equally skilled in Roman ecclesiastical archæology, can inform
the public whether this may not be the origin of the phrases, "getting
oneself into hot water," and "being sent to pot."

    J. B. MCC.

  British Museum.


"ADMONITION TO THE PARLIAMENT."

(Vol. v., p. 4.)

This is not at all an uncommon book. There are at least three copies in
the University Library, Cambridge; one at Trinity College; besides
others in other college libraries. There is also one at Lambeth; two in
the Bodleian, Oxford; and copies are from time to time occurring at
booksellers' for sale. There is not, however, one in the British Museum;
and the first edition is exceedingly scarce. MR. PAYNE COLLIER is, I
think, mistaken in the dates which he assigns to the _Admonition_ and
to Whitgift's _Answer_. He follows indeed Herbert's _Ames_, in which
reference is made to Strype; but Strype would have furnished materials
for a more accurate statement. Whitgift's _Answer_ was first published
towards the end of 1572; for the edition of that year does not contain
"Certayne notes and properties of Anabaptistes," which Whitgift himself
(_Defense of the Aunswere_, p. 33., and elsewhere) tells us he had
introduced into the _second_ edition. But these "notes" do appear in the
edition dated 1573, which must therefore be only the second. Moreover,
Thomas Norton wrote to Whitgift dissuading him from publishing his
_Answer_. This letter was dated Oct. 20, 1572. In a subsequent letter to
Archbishop Parker, dated Jan. 16, 1572 (1573), Norton speaks of his
former epistle as having been written "before Mr. Whitgift's book came
out." (See _Strype_; _Whitgift_, book I. chap. vi.; _Parker_, book IV.
chap. xii.) The date of the _Answer_ thus ascertained, we may the better
conjecture the dates of the editions of the _Admonition_, which MR.
COLLIER says he gathers "had been printed four times anterior to" 1572.
Whitgift, it would seem, had written, if not published, his reply before
more than a single edition of the _Admonition_ was abroad; for he says
(_Answer_, 1573, p. 189.), "After I had ended this confutation of the
_Admonition_, there comes to my hand a new edition of the same, wherein
some things be added," &c. He also says (_Defense_, p. 34.), "the
_Admonition_ was published after the Parliament, to the which it was
dedicated, was ended ... it was not exhibited in Parliament, as it ought
to have been," &c. Further, the _Admonition_ itself, fol. A. viii.,
says, "immediately after the last Parliament holden at Westminster,
begun in Anno 1570, and ended in Anno 1571," &c. This could hardly have
been said earlier than 1572. For these reasons (I will not occupy space
by alleging more) the _Admonition_ could not, we may gather, have "been
printed four times anterior to that year."

    A. J. H.


"SIR EDWARD SEAWARD'S NARRATIVE."

(Vol. v., p. 10.)

The following is a copy of a letter addressed by Miss Porter to a
relative of mine:--

  "Esher, Jan. 30, 1832.

  "Madam,--I hasten to express the pleasure with which I answer your
  favour on the subject of Sir Edward Seaward's _Narrative_, to the
  best indeed of my power, but, I regret to say, not as explicitly
  as I wish. However, with respect to the authenticity of the
  events, I have no reason to doubt them; the manner of the original
  MSS. coming into my hands having been precisely what my Preface to
  the work described.

  "The same query that you have made has been put to me from various
  quarters; and I have communicated most of them to the owner of the
  MSS., but he invariably declines allowing me to give his name, or
  other proofs of the facts in the _Narrative_, saying, that 'since
  the public has done him the honour of putting his old heir-loom
  into mystery, even in the face of the editor's simply told
  Preface, he will not deprive himself of the amusement such
  unexpected doubts afford him.'

  "Thus far his whimsical decision; nevertheless, as editor of the
  work, I cannot deny myself adding the sincere satisfaction I feel
  in the sympathy so universally expressed with the virtues of the
  truly amiable Seaward and his family; and the more so, as his
  lessons of piety and domestic concord in the most trying
  situations may well be considered his richest bequeathment.

  "I have the honour to subscribe myself, Madam,

  "Very much yours,

  "JANE PORTER."

This corroborates the account given by W. W. E. J., and may be thought
worthy of a place in "N. & Q."

    W. H. LAMMIN.

  Fulham.

If we may credit the inscription on the monument erected to the memory
of the Porter family in Bristol Cathedral, the real author of Sir E.
Seaward's _Narrative_ was none other than Miss Porter's own brother, Dr.
Wm. Ogilvie Porter, who within three months followed his sister to the
grave, being the last survivor of that talented and distinguished
family. Dr. Porter commenced his medical career as a surgeon in the
navy, and was probably acquainted with the Caribbean Sea and its
islands; for his first wife, who died in 1807, and was buried at St.
Oswald, in the city of Durham, was a native of Jamaica. Whether he
avowed himself the writer, when he entrusted the work to his sister for
publication, seems doubtful. It is possible she may have been led to
regard it as a genuine account of real transactions, whereas it is said
to be an entirely fictitious and imaginary story, written solely for
amusement.

May I take this opportunity of asking for information respecting the
origin of the Porter family? Their father, who was a surgeon in the
army, and died in early life, is said to have been of Irish extraction.
Their mother was a Miss Blenkinsop, of the city of Durham. Any
information respecting the families of Porter and Blenkinsop would be
interesting. What is the name of the Russian nobleman or gentleman to
whom the daughter of Sir R. K. Porter is married? If she is still alive,
she is the sole representative of the Porters, it is believed.

    E. H. A.


GENERAL WOLFE.

(Vol. v., pp. 34. 136.)

As a sequel to the inquiries suggested in your pages respecting General
Wolfe, permit me to contribute the inscription on the obelisk erected
by Lord Dalhousie, in 1827, in a conspicuous part of Quebec, in honour
of the General and of his brave opponent Montcalm.[9] I give it in the
precise form in which it was obligingly communicated to me by the
present Bishop of Quebec, in reply to my suggestions, a year or two ago,
of another inscription, which I also send:

        "Mortem Virtus communem
            Famam Historia
      Monumentum Posteritas dedit."

Upon the base:

                      "Hujusce
        Monumenti in memoriam virorum illustrium
                  WOLFE et MONTCALM.
      Fundamentum p. c. Georgius Comes de Dalhousie,
          In Septentrionalibus Americæ partibus
              Ad Britannos pertinentibus
              Summam rerum administrans
            (Quid duci egregio convenientius?)
          Auctoritate promovens, exemplo stimulans
                  Munificentiâ fovens
              Die Novembris XV. MDCCCXXVII
              Georgi IV. Britanniarum Rege."

       *       *       *       *       *

_Suggested Inscription._

                    "Hoc in loco
              JACOBUS WOLFE, Anglorum,
          LUDOVICUS DE MONTCALM, Francogallorum,
                Exercitibus præfecti,
          Optimis belli pacisque artibus pares,
                  Vitæ exitu simili,
                  Dispari fortunâ,
      Commissâ inter Anglos et Francogallos pugnâ,
              Ille in amplexu victoriæ
            Hic victus, sed invicto animo,
                Vulneribus confossi
            Satis honorificé defuncti sunt.

       *       *       *       *       *

                    "Felices ambo!
      Quorum ingenio, moribus, bellicæ virtuti,
            Duarum amplissimarum gentium
              Mutuo luctu lacrymisque
                      Parentatum."

  [Footnote 9: [An account of laying the first stone of the obelisk
  to Wolfe and Montcalm, on Nov. 20, 1827, will be found in Quebec
  and its Environs, 8vo. 1837.--ED.]]

  P.S.--I would add, in connexion with this subject, that an elegant
  and classical epitaph on Montcalm, printed in Popham's _Illustrium
  Virorum Elogia Sepulchralia_, ends as follows:

        "Mortales optimi ducis exuvias in excavatâ humo,
      Quam globus bellicus decidens dissiliensque defoderat,
                  Galli lugentes deposuerunt,
            Et generosæ hostium fidei commendârunt."

  Query, Where is this epitaph inscribed; and is the fact recorded
  in it noticed in any cotemporary history?

    F. K.

  Bath.

Under the impression that the following Note, with reference to the
gallant General James Wolfe, may tend to illustrate some other fact
connected with the later period of the life of that generally lamented
individual, I send it at a venture.

General Jones Wolfe was (I am not aware of the military rank he then
filled) at--

  "An encampment on Bradford Heath. about two miles from the town of
  Dorchester, co. Dorset, in the year 1757. The encampment consisted
  of the following regiments, under the command of Lieut.-Gen. Sir
  John Mordaunt and Major-Gen. Conway; viz. Bland's Dragoons; the
  Old Buffs, two battalions; Kingsley's, two battalions; one company
  of the Train of Artillery--in all ten troops, six battalions.
  Generals Mordaunt and Conway, and a great part of these forces,
  being sent on the expedition against Rochford, the remainder was
  reinforced and commanded by Lieut.-Gen. John Campbell, afterwards
  Duke of Argyll, and Major-Gen. Mostyn."

The above is extracted from Hutchins's _History of Dorset_, 1st edition,
vol. i. p. 375.

That General Wolfe was in the above encampment, I had the information
from a gentlemen who knew him; and many years ago I accidentally met
with a book with the autograph of the General, "James Wolfe," written on
the fly-leaf, in a bold and gentlemanly style. The volume being on a
military subject, was not taken any care of, and lost: it was left by
the General in the hands of Messrs. Gould and Thorne, booksellers in
Dorchester, from whose successors I had it.

    G. F.

  Weymouth.


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Commemoration of Benefactors_ (Vol. v., p. 126.).--The office for
commemoration of benefactors now used in the several colleges in the
university of Cambridge, is prescribed by the statutes given to the
university by Queen Elizabeth in the 12th year of her reign, cap. 4.
sec. 38.

An earlier office (2 Eliz.) is given in Dr. Cardwell's _Documentary
Annals_, vol. i. p. 282.

    C. H. COOPER.

  Cambridge.

_King Robert Bruce's Watch_ (Vol. v., p. 105.).--The watch known under
this name is now, I believe, generally admitted to be a forgery. There
is a letter in the _Gentleman's Magazine_, vol. ii. p. 688., dated
Forfar, August 20, 1785, and signed J. Jamieson, who therein states that
the watch was offered for sale to him by a goldsmith hawker of Glasgow,
who afterwards sold it for two guineas, and it was next sold for five.
The letter does not trace this curiosity further; but I find in a little
work by Adam Thompson, entitled _Time and Timekeepers_, that it
subsequently found its way into the collection of George III.

    W. W. E.

_Hornchurch_ (Vol. v., p. 106.).--Permit me to call the attention of
your correspondents to some other peculiarities relating to Hornchurch.
There once, I believe, were (are there now?) a pair of horns over the
east window of the church; thence the name is probably derived. The
great tithes were once the property of the monks of the celebrated
monastery of St. Bernard in Savoy. Are not the horns connected with the
arms of Savoy? New College received the great tithes directly from the
monks, and have in their possession the license from the crown to
alienate.

    A. HOLT WHITE.

_Buzz_ (Vol. v., p. 104.).--Corruption of _bouse_ or _booze_, to drink
to excess. In Scotland they say "bouse a'," drink all.

    J. R. J.

"_Buzz_," _to empty the Bottle_ (Vol. v., p. 104.).--The connexion
between this and the drunken man, "with his head full of bees" (Vol.
iv., p. 308.), must strike every thoughtful reader!

    A. A. D.

_Melody of the Dying Swan_ (Vol. v., p. 107.).--A reference to Platon's
_Phædon_, p. 84. sub fin., with Fischer's note, forms a tolerable answer
to a Query on this subject. Fischer says--

  "De cantu cygnorum, qui jam multis veterum fabulosus, v. _Lucian.
  de Electro_, c. 5.; _Ælian. H.A._ ii. 32.; xi. 1.; xiv. 13.;
  _Pausan._, i. 30.; _Eutecnius Paraphr. Ixeut. Oppian._, p. 78. 5.;
  _Eustathius ad Il._ βʹ., p. 254., aliosque qui a Jac.
  Thomasio laudati sunt in libelli singulari de cantu cygnorum."

[Where is this to be heard of?] Add Arist. _H.A._, viii. 11.; Ovid.
_Heroid._ vii. 1.; Hesiod. _Sc._ 316.; _Æsch. Ag._ 1444.

    A. A. D.

_"From the Sublime to the Ridiculous is but a Step"_ (Vol. v., p.
100.).--In MR. BREEN'S interesting article entitled "Idées
Napoléoniennes" (p. 100.), is the following passage:

  "It will be seen that the original saying has undergone a slight
  modification, Longinus making the transition a gradual one,
  κατ' ὀλίγον, while Blair, Payne, and Napoleon make it but
  'a step.'"

Now there is nothing in the whole range of scholarship and philology
that requires more tender handling than the Greek preposition, unless it
be the prepositional adverb, which results from the combination of a
preposition with an adjective. I would not be so bold as to assert that
κατ' ὀλίγον does _not_ mean "gradually, by little and little." I
feel convinced that I have seen it so used before now; but I beg to
submit that in the powerful passage quoted from Longinus it can only
mean "_presently, at once, with little_" delay or interval. The purport
of the passage seems to be this:--[The instances which I have cited]
"exhibit rather a turbid diction, and a confused imagery, than a
striking and forcible discourse. For, take them one by one, and hold
them up to the light, and what first looked terrible shall _presently_
take its true colour, and appear contemptible."

Longinus had quoted certain turgid and empty attempts at a very high
rhetorical strain: he then in the passage before us condemns them for
their confusion both of thought and phrase; and says, that they won't
bear looking into _for a minute_ (κατ' ὀλίγον).

If these remarks are correct, I fear they must damage the parallelism so
industriously instituted by your correspondent; but if he will not be
offended, I shall not regret it: for I confess to some feeling of
jealousy in favour of modern forms of thought, and their claims to
originality. The field of thought is finite, and great minds have tilled
it before us; so that scarcely in its remotest corners shall you find a
patch of virgin soil, or a bud till now unseen. But originality is not
excluded for all that. He that culls a flower in the nineteenth century,
and has an eye for its beauty, is as _original_ an admirer as he who did
the same on the day of creation. And he who with quick perceptions
combines the thoughts which have arrested his attention, and with a
lively and apt expression, fresh and free from conventional formalism,
gives them out to another, that man may be called original. The opposite
of _originality_ is not _repetition_, but _imitation_. When, therefore,
we would prove that a writer is not original, it is not enough to
produce similar thoughts or phrases in older writers, unless our
instances are so numerous as to afford an appearance of systematic
copyism, or historical evidence of the fact of imitation be forthcoming
from some external source.

    J. E.

  Oxford.

"_Carmen perpetuum_," &c. (Vol. v., p. 104.).--The words in Ham's Bible
are from the _Metamorphoses_ of Ovid (I. 3.):

                    "Primâque ab origine mundi
      Ad mea perpetuum deducite tempora carmen."

This book has been called the Heathen Bible. It should be studied with
the Greek translation of Tzetzes (Boisaunade's edition), to show the
identity of the gods and heroes of Greece and Rome under their different
names in the two languages. Ovid was by profession a learned priest; and
it is probable that the subjects of his verse were the subjects of
scenic representations in the mysteries, to which probably moral and
natural or theological instruction was added, much after the manner of
the Greek choruses. That these mysteries taught something worth the
attention of a philosopher and moralist is manifest from the encomiums
of Cicero:

  "Nam mihi cum multa eximia, divinaque videntur Athenæ tuæ
  peperisse, atque in vitâ hominum attulisse, tum _nihil melius
  illis mysteriis_, quibus ex agresti immanique vitâ exculti ad
  humanitatem et mitigati sumus: initiaque ut appellantur, ita
  reverâ _principia vitæ_ cognovimus; neque solùm cum lætitiâ
  vivendi rationem accepimus, sed etiam cum _spe meliore
  moriendi_."--_De Leg._ lib. ii. c. 14.

  "For amongst other excellent and divine things which owed their
  origin to your Athens, and in which we participate, nothing is
  more admirable than those mysteries which have caused us to pass
  from a wild and uncivilised condition to one of amelioration and
  humanity: or, to speak more correctly, they first brought us to
  life, as indicated by the term _initiation_ (beginning), which the
  mysteries have retained; since this new kind of life
  (regeneration) is not only attended with happiness, but is
  succeeded by the hope of a better destiny after death."

    T. J. BUCKTON.

  Lichfield.

_Sterne at Paris_ (Vol. v., p. 105.).--In _Mémoires d'un Voyageur qui se
repose_, by Mons. Dutens, or Duchillon, as he also called himself, is an
amusing account of a scene between Sterne and him, at Lord Tavistock's
table at Paris, on the 4th June, 1762.

    M. S.

_The Paper of the present Day_ (Vol. iii., p. 181.).--A. GRAYAN'S note
on the "First Paper Mill" reminds me of a too long neglected remark of
your correspondent LAUDATOR TEMPORIS ACTI on the inferiority of the
paper made in the present days as compared with that of olden times. As
a matron, whose proper business it is to be curious in such matters, I
venture to suggest that the universal use of calicos and printed cottons
in the place of linen articles of dress, is the true cause of the
deterioration of the paper of our books. The careful inspection of the
rags of present days on their arrival at a paper-mill, will, I think,
confirm my statement, if any gentleman who still clings pertinaciously
to the linen shirts of "better times" is disposed to doubt the fact.

    MARGARET GATTY.

_Cimmerii, Cimbri_ (Vol. iv., p. 444.).--If the belief which derives the
Cimbrians from Gomer, son of Japhet, be on the increase, I fear the
movements of our restless race are not altogether progressive.

But there is good reason to think, that the Cimbri were of the
Brito-Gallic race and tongue. Morimarusa (Pliny, iv. 27.) does not
belong to Indogermanic, or any such high categories as will prove nearly
what you please. It is a piece of exact and determinate Brito-Gallic.

Pompeius Festus and Plutarch agree in stating, that the meaning of the
name was _robbers_;--not, of course, as applied to individual offenders,
or to any offenders, but as the hereditary boast of predatory tribes.
"Thou shalt want ere I want" is the motto of the Lords Cranstoun, and
was the motto of all Cimbrians.

Cimmerii has certainly every appearance of being the same name as
Cimbri. In like manner, Cymmry becomes Cumbria and (unaccountably)
Cambria; Ambrosius becomes Emmrys, and Humber Hymmyr. What remains of
the old word Cimbr, or Cimmr, as meaning Latro, is the verb _cymmeryd_
(and its cognate words), to take, or, more etymologically, to apportion:
Dividers of booty. The change of the sharp iota into that short vowel of
which we possess not the long, but of which the long is the French _eu_,
forms the difficulty; but the savages of Asia, and those of Caius
Marius, may be conceived to have used vowels of shriller pronunciation
than the Gauls and Britons.

The Brigantes of Yorkshire, &c., bore a synonymous appellation, still
used in French and Armorican, and not wholly extinct in Welsh. Of a race
named Cimbri, or Cumbri, in this island, nothing whatever is known from
ancient geography or history. And probably no such name co-existed with
that of the Brigantes. For, if the two synonymes were used together,
neither would express a distinctive peculiarity. The fable of the Brut
probably has a core of general truth, when it refers that name to the
days of the Cambro-Scoto-Saxon tripartition, disguised as
Cambro-Albano-Loegrian.

    A. N.

_Rents of Assize_ (Vol. v., p. 127.).--Rents of Assize, _Redditus assisæ
de assisa_ vel _redditus assisus_. The certain and determined rents of
ancient tenants paid in a set quantity of money or provisions; so
called, because it was assised or made certain, and so distinguished
from _redditus mobilis_, variable rent, that did rise and fall, like the
corn rent now reserved to colleges. (Cowel's _Interpreter_.) _Ob. q._
mean respectively _obolus_ and _quadrans_.

The _great pipe_ is a roll in the Exchequer wherein all accounts and
debts due to the king delivered and drawn out of the remembrancer's
offices, are entered and charged. I presume the Bishop of Winchester's
great pipe was a roll of all accounts and debts due to him in right of
his bishopric.

      "Ad regis exemplar, totus componitur orbis."

    J. G.

  Exeter.

Lord Coke (_2nd Institute_, 19.) gives this definition:

  "_Redditus assisus_, or _redditus assisæ_: vulgarly, rents of
  assise, are the certain rents of the freeholders and ancient
  copiholders, because they be assised, and certain, and doth
  distinguish the same from _redditus mobiles_, farm rents for life,
  years, or at will, which are variable and incertain."

_Ob. q._ means three farthings, "ob." being an abbreviation of _obolus_,
a halfpenny, and "q." of _quadrans_, a farthing.

The _great pipe_ in the document referred to apparently means the pipe
roll of the Bishops of Winchester, of which some account may be seen in
the report of the case of Doe dem. Kinglake _v._ Beviss, in 7 _Common
Bench Reports_, 456.

    C. H. COOPER.

  Cambridge.

_Monastic Establishments in Scotland_ (Vol. v., p. 104.).--In
_Picturesque Antiquities of Scotland_, etched by Adam de Cardonnel, is
a list of the different monastic establishments in Scotland. If your
correspondent has not seen this volume, which I apprehend to be rather
scarce (it was printed for the author in 1788), I shall be happy to
supply him with a transcript of the list that Mr. De Cardonnel has given
in his introduction.

    M. S.

_History of Brittany_ (Vol. v., p. 59.).--MR. KERSLEY will find much
information of the kind he wishes in the genealogies of the families of
Bretagne by D'Hosier, "Chevalier, Conseiller du roy en ses conseils,
Juge d'Armes de la Noblesse de France," circiter 1765.

My copy of the _Genealogies of Normandy_, by d'Hosier, was bought at
Quaritch's, who also, I remember, a few months ago advertised other sets
of the same herald, and I think Brittany amongst them.

    I. J. H. H.

  St. Asaph.

_Marches of Wales, and Lords Marchers_ (Vol. v., pp. 30. 135.).--In
connexion with this Query, it may be interesting to G. to know that Mr.
Thos. Davies Lloyd, of Bronwydd, Caermarthenshire, is the only "Lord
Marcher now extant in the kingdom" (extract from a letter of Mr. Lloyd
to me). Mr. Lloyd holds the barony of Kemes, in the county of Pembroke,
which was erected into a Lordship Marcher by Martin de Tours, one of the
companions of William I., who exercised the Jura Regalia, and other
peculiar privileges.

    I. J. H. H.

  St. Asaph.

_The Broad Arrow_ (Vol. iv., pp. 315. 371. 412.; Vol. v., p. 115.).--I
can see nothing to connect this symbol with the worship of Mithras, but
I have always fancied it of much earlier date than that commonly
assigned to it. A coin of Carausius with a Greek legend would be an
object of great interest to our English numismatists, but nothing of the
kind has ever been seen! My reason for thinking that the symbol of the
"broad arrow" is one of considerable antiquity is, that the name by
which sailors and "longshore" people designate it, namely, the "Broad
Ar," is clearly not a vulgarism, but an archaism. In the north of
England "ar" or "arr" is still used for a mark. It occurs on very early
Danish coins, and I entertained a hope that some northern antiquary
would have told me how it originated; but my enquiry has ended in
disappointment. Query, When was the Pheon, which it is supposed to be,
first used as an heraldic device? I have before me a coin of Stralsund,
minted in the fourteenth century, with the Pheon for the principal type.
By German writers this object is called a fishspear, but I cannot help
thinking that its origin may be connected with the broad arrow.

    J. Y. AKERMAN.

_Miniature of Cromwell_ (Vol. iv., p. 368.; Vol. v., pp. 17. 92.).--In
addition to those already mentioned, I have seen in the possession of a
gentleman connected with a Presbyterian trust, a miniature of Oliver
Cromwell by Cooper. The building connected with the trust, is one of
those built after the passing of the Five Mile Act, and is near
Yarmouth; with which place, as is well known, Cromwell was much
connected.

    X. Y. Z.

_The Sinaïtic Inscriptions_ (Vol. iv., p. 382.) have been deciphered by
Dr. E. F. Beer. Vide his _Studia Asiatica_, Leipsic, 1840.

    S. W.

_Why cold Pudding settles One's Love_ (Vol. v., p. 50.).--As no one has
replied to the Query of "AN F. S. A. WHO LOVES PUDDING," may I be
permitted to offer the following conjectural solution? In some parts of
the principality it is customary on the morning of a wedding-day for the
bridegroom, with a party of his friends, to proceed to the lady's
residence; where he and his companions are regaled with ale, bread and
butter, and _cold custard pudding_! I hope I have hit the mark! But,
perhaps, it does not become me to speculate upon these dainty matters.

    AN OLD BACHELOR.

  Hoxton.

_Covines_ (Vol. iv., p. 208.).--A. N.'s inquiry for a reference not
having been answered, I beg to name Sir Walter Scott's _Demonology and
Witchcraft_, p. 206.; or, if he desires to "sup full of horrors,"
Pitcairn's _Criminal Trials in Scotland_, vol. iv. Appendix, p. 602.,
where the confessions of the witches of Aulderne are given at length. It
appears by these confessions that a _covine_ consists of thirteen
witches ("the Deil's dozen?"), of whom two are officials, the _Maiden of
the Covine_, who sits next the Deil, and with whom he leads off the
dance (called _Gillatrypes_), and the _officer_, who, like the crier in
a court of justice, calls the witches at the door, when the Deil calls
the names from his book.

_Covine_ is conventus. _Covent_ Garden. See Dr. Jamieson on the word
_Covine-tree_.

    W. G.

"_Arborei foetus alibi_," &c. (Vol. v., p. 58.).--Had the "head master"
been as well versed in the subject as he undoubtedly was in the words of
the _Georgics_, he would have explained to the "sixth form" that, in the
lines

      "Hic segetes, illic veniunt felicius uvæ;
      Arborei foetus alibi, atque injussa virescunt
      Gramina."

the intention of the poet was to contrast an agricultural with a
pastoral district. The _alibi_ which he establishes in the case of
"arborei foetus" he applies equally to "injussa gramina;" and his
obvious meaning is this:--One district is naturally fitted for the
cultivation of corn; another for that of vines; whilst a third is more
adapted for woodland, or rather, perhaps, orchards, meadows, and
pastures: the sowing down or formation of which, if indeed the hand of
man has had anything to do with them at all--being a thing of the past,
and, perhaps, not within the range of the oldest inhabitant's memory,
their produce may with propriety be termed "injussa," or spontaneous.

    W. A. C.

  Ormsary.

_Poniatowski Gems_ (Vol. v., p. 140.).--A.O.O.D. is informed that the
first sale of these gems took place in 1839, by Christie, and they were
bought by a Mr. Tyrrell for 12,000_l._

    M----N.



Miscellaneous.


NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC.

_The Men of the Time in 1852, or Sketches of Living Notables_, is
intended, as we are told in the Preface, "to bring together in one
muster-roll the people who take the lead in doing the Work of the World,
in literature, in politics, in art, and in science,--who are influential
in their generation, either in thought or in action." The idea is a good
one, and the book will eventually supply a want which all have felt. We
say "eventually," because both Editor and Publisher must be aware that
no first attempt of a work of this nature can at all approach
perfection. We do not complain that, within the small compass of the
present volume, we find many names we should scarcely have looked for in
such a selection; but we would, for the purpose of improving the next
edition, point out the omission of many very important ones. In the
field of learning, antiquarian and historical, we miss all mention of
Ellis, Hallam, Mahon, Maitland, Madden, Palgrave, Kemble, Thorpe and
Wright. In other classes again we meet with similar omissions. We find
Robert Owen, but not Professor Owen; Southwood Smith, but not Sir Harry
Smith; Faraday we have, but not Wheatstone; the Bishops of Exeter,
Oxford, and St. David's, but not the Bishops of London or Ely. We have
Pusey, but neither Hook, Bennett, Close, nor Newman. We have George
Dawson the lecturer, but not Cowden Clarke the lecturer. Such are some
of the instances of omission which have occurred to us, and which will
no doubt be supplied in a new edition. May we add our hope that in such
new edition as ample justice will be rendered to all "men of learning"
as is in the present one rendered to all "men of the press."

When we find that the new issue of Bohn's _Illustrated Library_ consists
of the first volume of a revised and enlarged edition of _The Battles of
the British Navy_, by Joseph Allen, Esq., R.N., we are almost disposed
to imagine that this indefatigable publisher had seen with prophetic eye
that in the opening of 1852 Mr. Cobden's theory of universal peace would
lose favour, and that John Bull would resume his old love for the "blue
jackets." Be that as it may, such a work as the present, popularly
written, handsomely illustrated, and published at a moderate price,
which would at all times be a boon, is not likely to be less welcome at
a moment when there is a general feeling abroad, that England's best
securities for that peace which all would preserve, "like her best
bulwarks," are "her wooden walls."

Sir Joshua Reynolds was a painter among painters, and a man of letters
among men of letters; and as long as the literature of this country
endures, his name will be held in remembrance and in honour. In giving,
therefore, to the world a new edition of _The Literary Works of Sir
Joshua Reynolds, the first President of the Royal Academy; to which is
prefixed a Memoir of the Author, with Remarks on his Professional
Character illustrative of his Principles and Practice_, by Henry
Williams Beechey, Mr. Bohn has conferred a boon, not only upon the
professional student, but upon all who would acquire a knowledge of the
presiding principle which regulates every part of art, and who can
appreciate the eloquent and admirable manner in which the great
president conveyed that knowledge.

When a glimpse of sunshine warns us of the approach of spring, and that
our young friends are bethinking them of the country and its varied
pleasures, when they will again--

      "---- hear the lark begin its flight,
      And singing, startle the dull night,"

we are reminded of a long-delayed wish to call their attention to
Gosse's _Popular British Ornithology, containing a Familiar and
Technical Description of the Birds of the British Isles_, as a means of
turning their pleasant rambles to a source of profitable instruction.
With this scientific, though concise and popularly written volume,
profusely illustrated as it is with coloured figures of the most
remarkable British birds, as their guide--and a little patient
observation--an amount of knowledge of birds and their habits will soon
be acquired by them, which will prove a source of never-ending
enjoyment, and give new zest to every fresh visit to the woods and
fields.


BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES

WANTED TO PURCHASE.

GREGORY'S (DR.) SECOND MEMORIAL TO THE MANAGERS OF THE ROYAL INFIRMARY,
EDINBURGH.

HERON'S (SIR ROBERT) NOTES. First Edition. Privately printed.

COBBETT'S STATE TRIALS. 8vo. Vol. VIII. 1810.

ARNOTT'S PHYSICS. 2 Vols.

ISR. CLAUDERI DISPUTATIO DE SALE SUB PRÆSIDIO SAGITTARII. Jenæ, 1650.

CRESCENT AND THE CROSS. Vol. I. Third Edition.

MACKINNON'S HISTORY OF CIVILISATION. Vol. II. 1846.

LITE'S DODOENS' HERBAL. First Edition. (An imperfect copy to complete
another.)

TURNER'S A BOOKE OF THE NATURES OF THE BATHES IN ENGLAND. 1568. (An
imperfect copy to complete another.)

A MOST EXCELLENT AND PERFECTE CORNISH APOTHECARY. 1561. (An imperfect
copy to complete another.)

TURNER'S A NEW HERBALL. (An imperfect copy to complete another.)

FIELDING'S WORKS. 14 Vols. 1808. Vol. XI. [Being 2nd of Amelia].

SHADWELL. Vols. II. and IV. 1720.

ARCHBISHOP LEIGHTON. Vol. IV. 1819.

BARONETAGE. Vol. I. 1720. Ditto. Vols. I. and II. 1727.

CHAMBERLAYNE'S PHARONNIDA. (Reprint.) Vols. I. and II. 1820.

HOLCROFT'S LAVATER. Vol. I. 1789.

DRECHSLERUS DE LARVIS. Lipsiæ, 1674.

ELSLEY ON THE GOSPEL AND ACTS. London, 1833. Vol. I.

  [Star symbol] Letters, stating particulars and lowest price,
  _carriage free_, to be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "Notes and
  Queries," 186. Fleet Street.


Notices to Correspondents.

W. M. N. _is thanked for the kindly spirit of his communication. The
articles to which he refers shall be attended to._

AMERICA. _Our friends who desire to know how_ "N. & Q." _may be
forwarded to_ America _are informed that all that is required is to affix
a_ penny stamp _to a copy of the stamped edition._

SALOPIAN. _There is as little doubt that Friday is considered unlucky
because it is the day of the Crucifixion, as that the belief of its
being unlucky for thirteen to set down to a meal together owes its
origin to the remembrance of the Last Supper._

G.R.E.E.N. _is no doubt a wag_. _But as we do not share his_ viridity,
_we have committed his communication to the_ fire, _and can assure him
for his consolation that, like Sir Andrew Aguecheek's leg, it looked
"indifferent well in a_ flame_-coloured stock."_

F. M. W. (Camden Town), _who inquires respecting the meaning and origin
of "era," is referred to our_ 4th Vol. pp. 383. 454., _and_ 5th Vol. p.
106.

K. (of Carlisle). _This correspondent has not said what the
communication was to which he refers. We are therefore unable to reply
to his inquiry._

TILLOTSON'S SERMONS, by Parker, Vol. I., _may be had on application to
the Publisher._

REPLIES RECEIVED.--_Ring Finger--Sanctus Bell--Bastides--Gospel
Oaks--Hyrne--Cibber's Lives of the Poets--Poniatowski's
Gems--Stoke--Pendulum Demonstration--Theoloneum--Rent of
Assize--Kissing under the Mistletoe--Cambridge Commemoration
Service--Asters with Trains of Fire--Celebrated Trees--Hieroglyphics
of Vagrants--Pasquinades--Traditions from remote Periods--Wiggan
or Utigan--Derivation of "Era"--Smothering Hydrophobic
Patients--Grimsdyke--Queen of the Isle of Man._



Just published, Twenty-fourth Thousand, price 7_s._ cloth.

  PROVERBIAL PHILOSOPHY.--A Book of Thoughts and Arguments,
  originally treated. By MARTIN F. TUPPER, Esq., D.C.L., F.R.S., of
  Christchurch, Oxford.

  Also, by the same, second edition, with notes, price 4_s._,

  PROBABILITIES: An Aid to Faith.

    "It is difficult to convey by extracts the charm which is diffused
    over this little book. There is, in the infinite variety of
    subject, a continuous line of thought, which fixes the attention
    to its progress, and leaves the mind amused and edified with the
    perusal."--_Christian Remembrancer._

  London: T. HATCHARD, 187. Piccadilly, and all Booksellers.


Just published,

  A CATALOGUE of a very choice and valuable Collection of Rare,
  Curious, and Useful BOOKS, in the English and Foreign Languages,
  including an extraordinary Specimen of Early Block-printing,
  splendid Specimens of Early Typography, from the Presses of Fust,
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  Worde, &c. &c. Very rare and interesting Books, printed by the
  Aldine Family, from the first one issued by them in 1494 to 1592;
  Works upon English History, Topography, and Antiquities;
  Black-letter Books; Books of Prints and General Literature; Rare
  and Curious Books in the French, Italian, and Spanish Languages;
  many of the first and best editions of the Greek and Latin
  Classics, &c. &c., in fine condition, chiefly in Morocco and
  Russia Bindings, by the most eminent English and Foreign Binders.
  Now on sale at the very reduced prices affixed, by

  JOSEPH LILLY, 7. Pall Mall, London.

  [Star symbol] Not a single book in this Catalogue has ever
  appeared in any of Lilly's former ones, but they have all been
  recently purchased, under very advantageous circumstances, from
  one of the most extensive and valuable Collections of Books ever
  formed in this country. It will be forwarded to any gentleman on
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  PART II., containing a most interesting Collection of Rare and
  Curious Books in Early English Literature, is in preparation, and
  will be forwarded to any gentleman sending his address.


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  London: ROBERT COCKS & CO., New Burlington Street, Publishers to
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TO the MUSICAL PUBLIC.--Gratis and Postage Free.--MESSRS. ROBERT COCKS'S
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  SCARCE MUSICAL WORKS.--Just published, and to be had gratis, and
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  Founded A.D. 1842.

  _Directors._

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      T. Somers Cocks, Jun. Esq. M.P.
      G. Henry Drew, Esq.
      William Evans, Esq.
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      F. Fuller, Esq.
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      James Hunt, Esq.
      J. Arscott Lethbridge, Esq.
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LONDON LIBRARY, 12. St. James's Square.

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The Devotional Library.

EDITED BY WALTER FARQUHAR HOOK, D.D., Vicar of Leeds.

  THE DEVOTIONAL LIBRARY is intended to furnish, at the lowest
  possible price, a series of Works, original or selected, from
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  Helps to Self-Examination, ½_d._ Original.

  The Sum of Christianity, 1_d._ A. Ellis.

  Directions for Spending One Day Well, ½_d._ Abp. Synge.

  Short Reflections for Morning and Evening, 2_d._ Spinckes.

  Prayers for a Week, 2_d._ Sorocold.

  The above may also be had, bound together in cloth, as "Helps to
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  Short Meditations for Every Day in the Year, 2 vols. 1260 pp.
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AN AUTHOR'S WIDOW, AGED 80.--The WIDOW of the late GEORGE CRABB, of
Magdalen Hall, Oxford, M.A., and of the Inner Temple, Barrister at Law.
Author of "An Historical Dictionary," "A Technological Dictionary," "A
Dictionary of Synonymes," "A History of the English Law," "A Digest of
the Statutes at Large," "A Treatise on the Law of Real Property," &c.
&c. The abject poverty in which Mrs. CRABB, at the advanced age of 80,
finds herself left on the death of her Husband, having come to the
knowledge of one or two persons slightly acquainted with the deceased,
they have made it a duty strictly to inquire into the merits of this
distressing case, and as such earnestly to recommend it to the sympathy
of those who value literature and pity the necessities of age. It is
proposed to raise by subscription a Fund with a view to purchase an
Annuity of about 50_l._ per annum for this venerable relict of one who
has laboured for more than half a century in the preparation of Works of
standard usefulness.

      Subscriptions already received:

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On the 1st of March, 1852, will be published the First Number of the
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  Court.



Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, February 21, 1852.



      [Transcriber's Note: List of volumes and content pages in "Notes
      and Queries", Vol. I.-V.]

      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. I.                                   |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.     | Date, Year        | Pages     | PG # xxxxx  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  1 | November  3, 1849 |   1 -  17 | PG #  8603  |
      | Vol. I No.  2 | November 10, 1849 |  18 -  32 | PG # 11265  |
      | Vol. I No.  3 | November 17, 1849 |  33 -  46 | PG # 11577  |
      | Vol. I No.  4 | November 24, 1849 |  49 -  63 | PG # 13513  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  5 | December  1, 1849 |  65 -  80 | PG # 11636  |
      | Vol. I No.  6 | December  8, 1849 |  81 -  95 | PG # 13550  |
      | Vol. I No.  7 | December 15, 1849 |  97 - 112 | PG # 11651  |
      | Vol. I No.  8 | December 22, 1849 | 113 - 128 | PG # 11652  |
      | Vol. I No.  9 | December 29, 1849 | 130 - 144 | PG # 13521  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 10 | January   5, 1850 | 145 - 160 | PG #        |
      | Vol. I No. 11 | January  12, 1850 | 161 - 176 | PG # 11653  |
      | Vol. I No. 12 | January  19, 1850 | 177 - 192 | PG # 11575  |
      | Vol. I No. 13 | January  26, 1850 | 193 - 208 | PG # 11707  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 14 | February  2, 1850 | 209 - 224 | PG # 13558  |
      | Vol. I No. 15 | February  9, 1850 | 225 - 238 | PG # 11929  |
      | Vol. I No. 16 | February 16, 1850 | 241 - 256 | PG # 16193  |
      | Vol. I No. 17 | February 23, 1850 | 257 - 271 | PG # 12018  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 18 | March     2, 1850 | 273 - 288 | PG # 13544  |
      | Vol. I No. 19 | March     9, 1850 | 289 - 309 | PG # 13638  |
      | Vol. I No. 20 | March    16, 1850 | 313 - 328 | PG # 16409  |
      | Vol. I No. 21 | March    23, 1850 | 329 - 343 | PG # 11958  |
      | Vol. I No. 22 | March    30, 1850 | 345 - 359 | PG # 12198  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 23 | April     6, 1850 | 361 - 376 | PG # 12505  |
      | Vol. I No. 24 | April    13, 1850 | 377 - 392 | PG # 13925  |
      | Vol. I No. 25 | April    20, 1850 | 393 - 408 | PG # 13747  |
      | Vol. I No. 26 | April    27, 1850 | 409 - 423 | PG # 13822  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 27 | May       4, 1850 | 425 - 447 | PG # 13712  |
      | Vol. I No. 28 | May      11, 1850 | 449 - 463 | PG # 13684  |
      | Vol. I No. 29 | May      18, 1850 | 465 - 479 | PG # 15197  |
      | Vol. I No. 30 | May      25, 1850 | 481 - 495 | PG # 13713  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. II.                                  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.      | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 31 | June  1, 1850      |   1- 15 | PG # 12589  |
      | Vol. II No. 32 | June  8, 1850      |  17- 32 | PG # 15996  |
      | Vol. II No. 33 | June 15, 1850      |  33- 48 | PG # 26121  |
      | Vol. II No. 34 | June 22, 1850      |  49- 64 | PG # 22127  |
      | Vol. II No. 35 | June 29, 1850      |  65- 79 | PG # 22126  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 36 | July  6, 1850      |  81- 96 | PG # 13361  |
      | Vol. II No. 37 | July 13, 1850      |  97-112 | PG # 13729  |
      | Vol. II No. 38 | July 20, 1850      | 113-128 | PG # 13362  |
      | Vol. II No. 39 | July 27, 1850      | 129-143 | PG # 13736  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 40 | August  3, 1850    | 145-159 | PG # 13389  |
      | Vol. II No. 41 | August 10, 1850    | 161-176 | PG # 13393  |
      | Vol. II No. 42 | August 17, 1850    | 177-191 | PG # 13411  |
      | Vol. II No. 43 | August 24, 1850    | 193-207 | PG # 13406  |
      | Vol. II No. 44 | August 31, 1850    | 209-223 | PG # 13426  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 45 | September  7, 1850 | 225-240 | PG # 13427  |
      | Vol. II No. 46 | September 14, 1850 | 241-256 | PG # 13462  |
      | Vol. II No. 47 | September 21, 1850 | 257-272 | PG # 13936  |
      | Vol. II No. 48 | September 28, 1850 | 273-288 | PG # 13463  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 49 | October  5, 1850   | 289-304 | PG # 13480  |
      | Vol. II No. 50 | October 12, 1850   | 305-320 | PG # 13551  |
      | Vol. II No. 51 | October 19, 1850   | 321-351 | PG # 15232  |
      | Vol. II No. 52 | October 26, 1850   | 353-367 | PG # 22624  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 53 | November  2, 1850  | 369-383 | PG # 13540  |
      | Vol. II No. 54 | November  9, 1850  | 385-399 | PG # 22138  |
      | Vol. II No. 55 | November 16, 1850  | 401-415 | PG # 15216  |
      | Vol. II No. 56 | November 23, 1850  | 417-431 | PG # 15354  |
      | Vol. II No. 57 | November 30, 1850  | 433-454 | PG # 15405  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 58 | December  7, 1850  | 457-470 | PG # 21503  |
      | Vol. II No. 59 | December 14, 1850  | 473-486 | PG # 15427  |
      | Vol. II No. 60 | December 21, 1850  | 489-502 | PG # 24803  |
      | Vol. II No. 61 | December 28, 1850  | 505-524 | PG # 16404  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. III.                                 |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 62 | January  4, 1851  |   1- 15 | PG # 15638  |
      | Vol. III No. 63 | January 11, 1851  |  17- 31 | PG # 15639  |
      | Vol. III No. 64 | January 18, 1851  |  33- 47 | PG # 15640  |
      | Vol. III No. 65 | January 25, 1851  |  49- 78 | PG # 15641  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 66 | February  1, 1851 |  81- 95 | PG # 22339  |
      | Vol. III No. 67 | February  8, 1851 |  97-111 | PG # 22625  |
      | Vol. III No. 68 | February 15, 1851 | 113-127 | PG # 22639  |
      | Vol. III No. 69 | February 22, 1851 | 129-159 | PG # 23027  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 70 | March  1, 1851    | 161-174 | PG # 23204  |
      | Vol. III No. 71 | March  8, 1851    | 177-200 | PG # 23205  |
      | Vol. III No. 72 | March 15, 1851    | 201-215 | PG # 23212  |
      | Vol. III No. 73 | March 22, 1851    | 217-231 | PG # 23225  |
      | Vol. III No. 74 | March 29, 1851    | 233-255 | PG # 23282  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 75 | April  5, 1851    | 257-271 | PG # 23402  |
      | Vol. III No. 76 | April 12, 1851    | 273-294 | PG # 26896  |
      | Vol. III No. 77 | April 19, 1851    | 297-311 | PG # 26897  |
      | Vol. III No. 78 | April 26, 1851    | 313-342 | PG # 26898  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 79 | May  3, 1851      | 345-359 | PG # 26899  |
      | Vol. III No. 80 | May 10, 1851      | 361-382 | PG # 32495  |
      | Vol. III No. 81 | May 17, 1851      | 385-399 | PG # 29318  |
      | Vol. III No. 82 | May 24, 1851      | 401-415 | PG # 28311  |
      | Vol. III No. 83 | May 31, 1851      | 417-440 | PG # 36835  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 84 | June  7, 1851     | 441-472 | PG # 37379  |
      | Vol. III No. 85 | June 14, 1851     | 473-488 | PG # 37403  |
      | Vol. III No. 86 | June 21, 1851     | 489-511 | PG # 37496  |
      | Vol. III No. 87 | June 28, 1851     | 513-528 | PG # 37516  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. IV.                                  |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No.  88 | July  5, 1851      |   1- 15 | PG # 37548 |
      | Vol. IV No.  89 | July 12, 1851      |  17- 31 | PG # 37568 |
      | Vol. IV No.  90 | July 19, 1851      |  33- 47 | PG # 37593 |
      | Vol. IV No.  91 | July 26, 1851      |  49- 79 | PG # 37778 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No.  92 | August  2, 1851    |  81- 94 | PG # 38324 |
      | Vol. IV No.  93 | August  9, 1851    |  97-112 | PG # 38337 |
      | Vol. IV No.  94 | August 16, 1851    | 113-127 | PG # 38350 |
      | Vol. IV No.  95 | August 23, 1851    | 129-144 | PG # 38386 |
      | Vol. IV No.  96 | August 30, 1851    | 145-167 | PG # 38405 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No.  97 | Sept.  6, 1851     | 169-183 | PG # 38433 |
      | Vol. IV No.  98 | Sept. 13, 1851     | 185-200 | PG # 38491 |
      | Vol. IV No.  99 | Sept. 20, 1851     | 201-216 | PG # 38574 |
      | Vol. IV No. 100 | Sept. 27, 1851     | 217-246 | PG # 38656 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 101 | Oct.  4, 1851      | 249-264 | PG # 38701 |
      | Vol. IV No. 102 | Oct. 11, 1851      | 265-287 | PG # 38773 |
      | Vol. IV No. 103 | Oct. 18, 1851      | 289-303 | PG # 38864 |
      | Vol. IV No. 104 | Oct. 25, 1851      | 305-333 | PG # 38926 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 105 | Nov.  1, 1851      | 337-358 | PG # 39076 |
      | Vol. IV No. 106 | Nov.  8, 1851      | 361-374 | PG # 39091 |
      | Vol. IV No. 107 | Nov. 15, 1851      | 377-396 | PG # 39135 |
      | Vol. IV No. 108 | Nov. 22, 1851      | 401-414 | PG # 39197 |
      | Vol. IV No. 109 | Nov. 29, 1851      | 417-430 | PG # 39233 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 110 | Dec.  6, 1851      | 433-460 | PG # 39338 |
      | Vol. IV No. 111 | Dec. 13, 1851      | 465-478 | PG # 39393 |
      | Vol. IV No. 112 | Dec. 20, 1851      | 481-494 | PG # 39438 |
      | Vol. IV No. 113 | Dec. 27, 1851      | 497-510 | PG # 39503 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. V.                                   |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         |  Pages  | PG # xxxxx |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. V  No. 114 | January  3, 1852   |   1- 18 | PG # 40171 |
      | Vol. V  No. 115 | January 10, 1852   |  25- 45 | PG # 40582 |
      | Vol. V  No. 116 | January 17, 1852   |  49- 70 | PG # 40642 |
      | Vol. V  No. 117 | January 24, 1852   |  73- 94 | PG # 40678 |
      | Vol. V  No. 118 | January 31, 1852   |  97-118 | PG # 40716 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. V  No. 119 | February  7, 1852  | 121-142 | PG # 40742 |
      | Vol. V  No. 120 | February 14, 1852  | 145-167 | PG # 40743 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol I. Index. [Nov. 1849-May 1850]             | PG # 13536 |
      | INDEX TO THE SECOND VOLUME. MAY-DEC., 1850     | PG # 13571 |
      | INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. JAN.-JUNE, 1851     | PG # 26770 |
      | INDEX TO THE FOURTH VOLUME. JULY-DEC., 1851    | PG # 40166 |
      +------------------------------------------------+------------+





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