By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon

We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Foods and Household Management - A Textbook of the Household Arts
Author: Kinne, Helen, Cooley, Anna M.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Foods and Household Management - A Textbook of the Household Arts" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber’s Note: The original publication has been replicated
faithfully except as shown in the TRANSCRIBER’S AMENDMENTS near the end of
the text. To preserve the alignment of tables and headers, this etext
presumes a mono-spaced font on the user’s device, such as Courier New.
Words in italics are indicated like _this_. Text emphasized with bold
characters or other treatment is shown like =this=. The footnotes section
is located near the end of the text.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: _From the London and Country Cookbook, 1770._ _Courtesy of
the Bryson Library._]

                          FOODS AND HOUSEHOLD

                               A TEXTBOOK
                                 OF THE
                             HOUSEHOLD ARTS


                              HELEN KINNE



                          ANNA M. COOLEY, B.S.


                                New York

                         THE MACMILLAN COMPANY


                         _All rights reserved_

                            COPYRIGHT, 1914,

                       BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.

      Set up and electrotyped. Published January, 1914. Reprinted
    February, June, August, October, 1914; February, June, October,
          1915; April, August, 1916; May, 1917; January, 1918.

                             Norwood Press

                 J. S. Cushing Co.——Berwick & Smith Co.

                         Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.


This volume, like its companion, _Shelter and Clothing_, is intended for
use in the course in household arts in the high school and normal school,
whether the work be vocational or general in its aim. It is hoped that
both volumes will prove useful in the home as well, including as they do a
treatment of the homecrafts, and the related topics now so significant to
the home maker,——the cost and purchasing of foods and clothing, the cost
of operating, the management of the home, and questions of state and city
sanitation vital to the health of the individual family.

The volume treats specifically of foods, their production, sanitation,
cost, nutritive value, preparation, and serving, these topics being
closely interwoven with the practical aspects of household management, and
they are followed by a study of the household budget and accounts, methods
of buying, housewifery, and laundering. It includes about 160 carefully
selected and tested recipes, together with a large number of cooking
exercises of a more experimental nature designed to develop initiative and
resourcefulness. _Shelter and Clothing_ deals with the organization and
ideals of the home, house sanitation, decoration, and furnishing; and
treats in full, textiles, sewing, costume design, and dressmaking.

Some of the recipes here given are adapted from those of such authorities
as Mrs. Lincoln, Miss Farmer, and Miss Barrows, and others are original
and from private sources.

The authors are glad to acknowledge their indebtedness to those who have
read and criticized the manuscript: Professor Mary Swartz Rose of
Teachers College, for her criticism and contributions to the book; Miss L.
Ray Balderston, of Teachers College, for reading the chapters on
Housewifery and Laundering; Professor May B. Van Arsdale, of Teachers
College, for reading the chapters on Food; Professor Van Arsdale, Miss
Bertha E. Shapleigh, and Miss Mary H. Peacock for their assistance in
arranging for photographs; Miss Laura B. Whittemore, formerly of Teachers
College, and Miss Amy L. Logan of the Horace Mann School for criticizing
the manuscript from the point of view of the high school teacher; and also
Professor Hermann Vulté for his kind assistance.

                        SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS

The topics in this volume are so arranged that they can be followed in
sequence as the course of study develops through the year, with such
modifications as seem necessary to the teacher in order that the work may
best meet the needs of the pupils. The practice has become quite general
of beginning the practical work in the autumn with the preparation and
preservation of fruit, especially for those pupils who have had previous
work in foods; and this plan commends itself as being seasonable and as
making an appeal to the interest of the pupils. The opening chapters
furnish material that is in part preliminary and that may also be studied
as the practical work progresses from Chapter V onward. The preparation of
a meal need not be deferred until all types of dishes have been cooked
singly, as it is possible to prepare a luncheon box, to set an invalid
tray, or to serve a simple breakfast quite early in the course, provided
the equipment permits. If the school program allows, it is well to give a
period to recitation at stated intervals, which would include a discussion
of the text and of problems that arise from the laboratory work. The cost
of food is a topic to be borne in mind throughout the year. It is an
excellent plan for the pupils to record the current prices of each food
material as it is used, and the cost of a given dish for a given number of
people, the topic culminating in a detailed discussion when the chapter on
the cost of food is read. A similar method may be pursued in connection
with the nutritive values of food, the theme developing from lesson to
lesson, until the pupils are ready for the chapter on menus and
dietaries. An occasional lesson on housewifery or laundering may be
introduced from time to time, if a complete sequence of lessons on these
topics does not seem practicable; and through the year the pupils may be
encouraged to keep simple accounts for themselves and in connection with
the supplies of the school kitchen. Those teachers are fortunate who may
coöperate with a school lunch room, thus affording their pupils
opportunity for dealing with practical administrative and economic
problems. The way in which the topics are used must of necessity vary with
the previous experience of the pupils, whether or not they have had
cookery, chemistry, and physiology, and the teacher will use the exercises
at the end of the chapters with freedom, omitting some questions, and
adding others as the need arises.

The following references will prove useful to teachers in developing the
different topics of the volume:——

  Laboratory Handbook for Dietetics——Mary S. Rose.
  Chemistry of Food and Nutrition——Sherman.
  Food Products——Sherman.
  Science of Nutrition——Lusk.
  The World’s Commercial Products——Freeman and Chandler.
  Elementary Household Chemistry——Snell.
  Nutritional Physiology——Stiles.
  Household Bacteriology——Buchanan.
  Bacteria, Yeasts, and Molds in the Home——Conn.
  Household Physics——Lynde.
  Selection and Preparation of Food——Bevier and Van Meter.
  Principles of Cookery——Anna M. Barrows.
  Technique of Cookery——M. B. Van Arsdale.
  Cost of Living——Ellen H. Richards.
  Cost of Food——Ellen H. Richards.
  Cost of Shelter——Ellen H. Richards.
  Cost of Cleanness——Ellen H. Richards.
  Standards of Living——Chapin.
  The New Housekeeping——Frederick.
  Increasing Home Efficiency——Martha B. and Robert W. Bruere.
  Household Hygiene——S. Maria Elliott.
  Household Management——Bertha E. Terrill.
  The New Hostess of Today——Larned.
  Laundry Manual——Balderston and Limerick.
  Bulletins of the U. S. Department of Agriculture.



                               CHAPTER I



  What Food is——Vegetable and Animal Foods——Foodstuffs——Elements in
    Foodstuffs——Foodstuffs in Nutrition——Food Adjuncts 1

                               CHAPTER II

                          KITCHEN FURNISHINGS

  Plans of Kitchens——Materials for Floors and Walls——The Table——The
    Cupboard——The Refrigerator——The Sink——The Hot Water Supply——The
    Utensils——Care of the Kitchen 15

                              CHAPTER III

                            FUELS AND STOVES

  Economy of Fuel——The Common Fuels——Electricity for Cooking——Cooking
    Apparatus for all Fuels——How to Operate——Cost of Operating      33

                               CHAPTER IV

                            FOOD PREPARATION

  The Principles of Cooking——The Technique of Cooking——Care of Food
    in the House——The Processes of Food Preparation——How to study a
    Recipe——Weighing and Measuring——Preparing and Mixing——Cooking
    Processes——Disposal of Waste Food                               54

                               CHAPTER V

                       WATER AND OTHER BEVERAGES

  The Functions of Water in Nutrition——Uses in Cookery——Fruit
    Beverages——Cocoa, Coffee, and Tea                               70

                               CHAPTER VI

                       FRUIT AND ITS PRESERVATION

  Composition and Food Value——Principles of Preparation——Molds,
    Yeasts, and Bacteria——Methods of Preservation and Preparation   87

                              CHAPTER VII


  Composition and Nutritive Value——How to Buy——Principles and Methods
    of Preparation                                                 109

                              CHAPTER VIII

                            CEREAL PRODUCTS

  The Manufactured Forms——An Economic Food——The Pure Starches——
    Principles and Methods of Preparation                          126

                               CHAPTER IX

                         EGGS, MILK, AND CHEESE

  Comparative Study of their Nutritive Values——Fresh and Cold-storage
    Eggs——Clean Milk——Cheese a Meat Substitute——Principles and
    Methods of Preparation                                         138

                               CHAPTER X

                        THE FATS AND THE SUGARS

  Comparison of Cost of Fat Foods——Fats and Sugars the Fuel Foods——
    Amounts to be taken Daily——Effect of Heat upon Them——Their Uses
    in Cookery                                                     158

                               CHAPTER XI


  Ingredients and Proportions——Leavening Agents——Tests for Baking——
    Experiments and Methods                                        171

                              CHAPTER XII

                              YEAST BREAD

  Importance of Yeast Bread——Manufacture of Flour——Experiments with
    Yeast——Ingredients, Proportions, and Making——Comparison of
    Homemade and Baker’s Bread                                     187

                              CHAPTER XIII

                           MEATS AND POULTRY

  Values in the Diet——Quality and Cost——Cuts of Meat——Principles and
    Methods of Cooking——Poultry——Principles and Methods of Cooking

                              CHAPTER XIV

                           FISH AND SHELLFISH

  Protection of the Fish Supply——Comparison of Nutritive
    Values——Varieties and Seasons——Methods of Preparation and Serving

                               CHAPTER XV

                          SALADS AND DESSERTS

  Their Place in the Menu——Materials Used——Methods of Preparation——
    Garnishing and Serving                                         247

                              CHAPTER XVI


  Preparing a Meal on Time——Serving and Garnishing Dishes——Table
    Equipment——Setting the Table——Duties of the Waitress           265

                              CHAPTER XVII


  Permanent and Variable Factors affecting the Price of Food——What is
    Cheap Food——Cost and Nutritive Value——Adulterations, Misbranding,
    and Preservatives——The Pure Food Laws——What to select and avoid
    in Shops and Markets                                           278

                             CHAPTER XVIII

                          MENUS AND DIETARIES

  Food Requirements for Energy and Growth——Meals; the Number, Amount
    of Food, and Regularity——Balanced Meals——Uses of the 100-Calorie
    Portions——Making of Menus——Relation of Nutrition to Cost       295

                              CHAPTER XIX

                          THE HOUSEHOLD BUDGET

  Divisions of the Income——Expenditures for Food, Shelter, Clothing,
    and Operating Expenses——Savings and Allowances——Typical Budgets

                               CHAPTER XX

                          SYSTEM IN MANAGEMENT

  Business Equipment——Keeping Accounts——Methods of Payment——The Bank
    Account and Check Book                                         332

                              CHAPTER XXI

                               HOW TO BUY

  Rules for Good Buying——Shopping Methods——Bargain Sales, Trading
    Stamps and Prizes——Purchasing of Clothing and Household Textiles

                              CHAPTER XXII


  Equipment and Materials for Cleaning——Methods of Cleaning——Care of
    Rooms——Household Insects——Precautions against Fire——Household
    Repairs                                                        352

                             CHAPTER XXIII

                      LAUNDERING AND DRY CLEANSING

  Principles of Washing and Ironing——Hard and Soft Water and
    Detergents——Laundry Equipment——Order of Work——Methods of Washing
    and Ironing——Public Laundries——Economics of Laundering         365

                                APPENDIX                           383

                                 INDEX                             391

                          FOODS AND HOUSEHOLD

                               CHAPTER I


=Food problems.=——“What shall I plan for the three meals?” is a question
as new each day as the day itself. That many women ask it, and are glad
for an answer or a suggestion is proved by a glance at the daily or weekly
paper or woman’s magazine, whose publishers know that it pays to print
menus innumerable. Indeed, the daily press is full of signs that the food
problem is an acute one, for the current joke about food prices, the
accounts of boycotts by housekeepers, popular articles on nutrition and
pure foods, and the records of state and national legislation, all show
that as a nation we are awake and seeking a way out of our present

Doubtless, the housekeeper has always found the task of supplying food to
her family one of the most perplexing, but modern conditions have made the
difficulties manifold when contrasted with olden times. A pretty picture
of household management in seventeenth century England is drawn by Sir
Walter Scott in “Peveril of the Peak.” The lord of the castle has invited
the village people to a great feast in celebration of the restoration of
Charles the Second, and Lady Peveril finds her larder rather low. To be
sure, there are carp in the pond, and deer in the park, but the beef
question is puzzling, for the steward does not wish to kill his choice
steer. Then appear in the courtyard two fine oxen, and several wethers, or
sheep, gifts from a neighbor, and the menu is complete. Lady Peveril is
described as an excellent housekeeper, and doubtless felt burdened by many
cares, but how different were her problems from ours, and how simple by
comparison! Beef trusts and the high price of beef, tuberculous cattle,
unsanitary transportation and markets were not factors in her problem. In
her day, and in the time of our grandmothers, less variety in diet was
possible, and less expected except on state occasions; food was not
transported over great distances, and the cost was not so much out of
proportion to the average income.

Now every large city, and even the small town, is the market of the world.
We have long been accustomed to the importation of oranges and lemons, and
dried fruits from distant lands; but now we have peaches and pears from
South Africa, melons from Spain, pineapples from the Azores, hothouse
grapes from England, and apples from Australia, and in 1913, we read of
the shipment of beef from Argentina. In our own country, early fruits and
vegetables travel from the south to the north, so that the season of some
foods is long extended. The large amount of canned food also does away
with the natural limits of the season, and this is further affected by
cold storage. Both the quality and the cost of food are modified by these
new methods of commerce, and furthermore, modern methods of manufacture
have changed the quality. In an ideal community these changes would be for
the better, but manufacturers often think more of their own profit than of
the quality of their goods, and as a result adulterations have crept in,
making necessary the enactment and enforcement of pure food laws. This is
by no means so simple a matter as it seems, for we must first understand
what pure food really is.

Instinct guides somewhat in the selection of food where conditions of
living are simple. Under more complex conditions there must be a
scientific study of the whole situation in order that the individual may
cope with it. Then, too, with such a variety of foods from which to
select, it is easy to be tempted beyond our means, and to disregard the
simple and the wholesome. We know that it is easy to develop a taste for
some one food in excess, as for instance, sweets or dishes rich in fat and
too highly flavored, and the physician adds his word here to the plea for
a study of food and its functions.

The conclusion is this, that the housekeeper who has the welfare of her
family at heart will not confine her interest in food to cooking processes
and new recipes. Good cooks we must have, and our standard of cooking
could easily be raised. But other facts about food are important to-day,
and as we learn to prepare and serve food daintily, we must study such
topics as the following:

What food is, its composition and how it nourishes us; how it is
manufactured and transported; “pure food”; sanitary and convenient
markets; the cost of food and how to buy; principles of food preparation;
suitable combinations and amounts of food. These topics are all treated in
this volume, and should be considered as important as the actual
preparation of food.

                             FOOD MATERIALS

=What is food?=——This would seem to be a difficult question to answer as
we look about a modern grocery or market with its bewildering assortment
of foods. It seems hardly possible to describe such a variety of articles
in a brief sentence, or to find a definition that will apply to all. Yet
we seem to know instinctively what food is, although we may not find it
easy to give a definition. Even the lower animals are guided in selecting
food by some natural instinct and seldom make a mistake.

A widely used government bulletin gives this definition: “Food is that
which taken into the body builds tissue or yields energy or does both.”
Probably we have learned this in our physiology, and admit it to be true,
but for practical purposes, we need a more complete statement than this.
Let us carefully determine what our foods really are, and what elements
they contain, in order that we may select wisely for purposes of
nutrition, and also that we may learn how to prepare food materials in a
way that will utilize everything in them and waste nothing.

=Vegetable and animal foods.=——It is easy to divide food materials in a
general way into those derived from the vegetable kingdom and those
derived from the animal kingdom. In the vegetable group we have first, the
different parts of many plants, and second, substances manufactured from
plants. While we do not usually eat the whole of any one plant, yet there
is not any part of the plant that we have not adopted as food. We use
roots and tubers in beets, carrots, and potatoes, and the onion is a bulb.
In celery and asparagus we eat the plant stalk. Plant leaves give us
lettuce and other salads, cabbage and the like. Peas and beans and nuts
are seeds, and cauliflower is a part of the flower. The fruit as a whole
is familiar in many forms. Manufactured vegetable food materials include
flour, meals, breakfast cereals, starch, sugar, molasses and sirups. The
animal kingdom gives us the flesh of animals, fish and shell fish, and
substances derived from animals, like eggs, milk, and the milk products,
cream, butter, and cheese.

These materials vary so much in appearance that they would seem to have
nothing in common. If, however, we compare the food of different animals
and different races of men, we cannot but conclude that this is a mistaken
judgment. We find an animal like the lion feeding entirely upon the flesh
of other animals, and a strong creature like the ox, eating nothing but
grass and grain. We also note that one race of men includes meat in its
diet, and another subsists almost entirely upon vegetable food, such as
rice and beans. Yet in both cases, these diverse kinds of food accomplish
the same end,——body building and the supplying of energy. Let us study two
common foods, from the two kingdoms, and see if through this study we can
discover in what ways they are alike.

=Comparison of milk and beans.=——A moment’s thought enables us to see that
in milk we have a food that must have all the elements needed in
nutrition, since it is the only food taken by many young animals. The baby
and the young calf find in it everything that is needed to build the
growing body, and to give them energy. If you see a young calf frisking
about the field, you can appreciate how well his food supplies his needs.

A simple experiment will help us to find some of the substances contained
in milk. Let the milk stand until the cream rises on the top. Skim the
cream, warm it slightly and beat it with an egg beater. Butter will soon
“come,” and butter, we know, is a form of fat. Warm a pint of the skimmed
milk, add to it a dissolved rennet tablet, and set it in a warm place. In
a short time, the milk becomes solidified to a consistency like that of
jelly. If allowed to stand longer, a watery liquid will separate itself
from the solid portion. These are the “curds and whey” that result, also,
from the souring of milk. The whey can be squeezed out of the curd,
leaving it quite dry. We have now found at least three constituents of
milk,——water, fat, and curd.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.——Composition of milk.

  1. Whole milk.
  2. Water.
  3. Fat.
  4. Protein.
  5. Carbohydrate.
  6. Mineral matter or ash.

_Courtesy of President Gulliver, Rockford College._]

You may then surmise from the sweet taste of milk that sugar is present;
the chemist knows how to obtain it in pure form as “sugar of milk.” The
chemist also finds certain mineral substances which remain behind when all
the water is evaporated and the curds and sugar burned away. These mineral
substances are spoken of by the chemist as “ash,” because this is what
remains after burning the other portions of a food material, as ashes
remain from a wood fire. Figure 1 shows you these substances in the
amounts in which each occurs in a pint of milk. The sugar is one of a
class of substances to which the chemist gives the name carbohydrate. To
the substance in the curd that is different from all the other substances
in the milk the name “protein” is given.

We will now turn to the composition of beans, for in beans we find food
stored up to nourish the young plant, which we, also, appropriate as
food. The composition of both the milk and the beans is given in this
table. Compare also Figures 35 and 41.

        Composition of Milk and Beans

                 | WATER  |PROTEIN |  FAT   |CARBOHYDRATE|   ASH
  Milk           |  87.0  |   3.3  |   4.0  |     5.0    |   0.7
  Beans, dried   |  12.6  |  22.5  |   1.8  |    59.6    |   3.5

Notice that the substances in the beans are the same in general nature as
those in the milk, although the amounts are different. The water that the
young plant needs is, of course, supplied from the earth. There is another
difference to note although this is not shown in the table; in the beans
the carbohydrate is of two kinds, sugar and starch.


All the varieties of food with which we are supplied will be found to
contain some of these substances: protein, fat, carbohydrate, mineral
matter, water; and to these we give the name _foodstuffs_. Some food
materials (like the milk and beans just studied) contain all the
foodstuffs, some only one, as in the case of sugar. We can now define food
as something that contains one or more of the substances known as
foodstuffs. But what are the foodstuffs themselves?

=Elements in the foodstuffs.=——Although we are not chemists, and may not
even have taken a course in chemistry, yet through our nature study or
physiology lessons, we are familiar with the fact that all the materials
about us, including our own bodies and our food, are made up of simple
substances that we call “elements.” We know, for instance, that coal is
chiefly carbon, and we are familiar with such substances as sulphur,
calcium, phosphorus, and iron. We know that the air contains oxygen, which
we inhale, and that we breathe out a combination of carbon and oxygen
called “carbon dioxide.” Since our bodies are composed of these and other
elements, these elements must be supplied by our foods, and therefore, the
foodstuffs in turn are composed of these same elements.

Proteins, fats, and carbohydrates all contain large amounts of carbon, and
on this account are called fuel foods. But proteins are distinguished
because they contain nitrogen in addition, which is found in no other
foodstuff. Sulphur, too, we get only from protein, but we need less of it
than of nitrogen, so we think about the nitrogen and let the sulphur take
care of itself. The nitrogen that we draw in from the air with every
breath, we breathe out again without being able to use it. This element is
necessary to every living cell, but we can make it ours only through our
protein food. Nitrogen is cheapest when obtained from the grains, from
dried beans and peas. We pay a higher price for it in milk, eggs, fish,
meat, and nuts. Carbon, which is found in all foodstuffs except water and
some kinds of mineral matter, costs much less, especially when we take it
in the form of carbohydrates such as starches and sugars. Oxygen is also
abundant in our foods, but we get it even more cheaply in water and by
breathing it in from the air. Phosphorus, iron, and calcium are very
important elements, but we do not need them in very large quantities. We
can get them cheaply in whole grains, peas and beans, some fruits and
green vegetables, but they are worth paying for in milk and eggs. The
elements last mentioned are present in the food partly as constituents of
certain proteins and fats, partly as mineral salts. Other elements found
as mineral matter are sodium and chlorine (which we take as common salt),
potassium, magnesium, and traces of iodine and fluorine. These are all
necessary to keep our bodies in good working order. We shall see later how
to select our food materials so as to have all the different elements in
the foodstuffs present in sufficient amounts.

                      FUNCTIONS OF THE FOODSTUFFS

=Food for energy.=——The first requirement of the body is for fuel, because
it has a great deal of work to do. Even when one lies perfectly quiet and
appears to be resting, the heart is working to keep up the circulation of
the blood, the chest and diaphragm muscles are working to maintain the
oxygen supply to the lungs, the alimentary tract is moving food material
along, working to digest it and get rid of waste, and the skeletal muscles
are being held up to “tone” so as to be ready for further action. All this
work that we scarcely realize, may be called involuntary. To it we may add
all sorts of voluntary movements, from simply speaking a word to turning
somersaults or lifting heavy weights. All work involves _energy_, which we
can obtain only from the fuel foods, proteins, fats, and carbohydrates.

Energy takes different forms. Our supply comes from the sun in the forms
of heat and light, and plants store it up in the form of chemical energy
when they build carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. This may be changed
into the forms of work or of heat when we eat the food. Whenever an
attempt is made to change chemical energy to work, some of it will change
to heat. So in our bodies, the fuel foods, which enable us to do both
involuntary and voluntary work, furnish heat at the same time, to keep our
bodies warm. When we are too cold, we can shiver or run or jump, and thus,
by doing more work, get more heat too.

=The unit of fuel value.=——In our studies of food materials, we must find
out just how much energy, or working power, can be obtained from each
kind. We must have a measure of energy or fuel value; and just as the inch
is a measure of length, and the pound of weight, so the Calorie serves as
a measure of fuel value. This unit[2] measures energy as heat, being the
amount of heat required to raise 1 kilogram of water 1° C. (or 1 pound of
water about 4° F.), but we can express it also as work, being sufficient
energy to raise a 1-pound weight 3087 feet into the air (or 1 ton about
1-1/2 feet) if it were possible to convert it into mechanical work without
loss. By burning foods in pure oxygen in a vessel placed in water so that
all the heat is given off to the water, and then noting the change in
temperature of the water, it is possible to find out just how much energy
each will yield. Such a device is called a calorimeter. In the body there
is usually a small portion of each kind of foodstuff which escapes
digestion, and protein is not quite so completely burned as in the
calorimeter. When allowance for the probable loss is made, the energy
values of the fuel foodstuffs are as follows:

  Protein        4 Calories per gram or 1814 per pound.
  Fat            9 Calories per gram or 4082 per pound.
  Carbohydrate   4 Calories per gram or 1814 per pound.

=The standard portion.=——Knowing the composition of any food material, it
is possible from these figures to calculate the total fuel value, or we
can refer to tables in which this has been calculated, and save ourselves
labor. For comparison of different foods the Standard, or 100-Calorie,
Portion is used, as this corresponds very closely with the amount of food
for a single serving in many cases. In the sections treating of different
foods the Standard Portion will be stated.

=Food for body building.=——Every living cell has a little life history of
its own, and constantly demands a certain amount of new material to
replace old which it has worn out. Besides this, old cells die, and new
ones have to be made to replace them. Hence even a full-grown person needs
building material, and much more is required in proportion when the person
is growing and perhaps adding several ounces a week to his weight. The
foodstuffs which have especial value as building material are protein and
mineral matter.

=Food for body regulating.=——To help in the digestion of food, to keep the
blood in proper condition, the muscles supple, and all the processes of
the body at their best, ash constituents and water in the diet are
necessary. A tabular summary of the functions of the foodstuffs and an
outline of the changes which take place in digestion will be found in the

We are now able to give a more complete answer to our question, “What is

Food has been said to be that which taken into the body builds tissue or
yields energy, or both. The food as a whole must contain all the chemical
elements needed by the body, these elements being supplied in substances
known as foodstuffs, viz., protein, fat, carbohydrates, mineral matter or
ash, water. To be a food, a substance must contain one or all of the

It must be noted here that our food materials as bought, contain inedible
matter, as in the shells of eggs, the bone of meat, the skins and pods of
vegetables. Moreover, the fiber that we eat in vegetable foods is not
digested under ordinary circumstances, but seems rather to serve a useful
purpose in giving bulk to our foods.

=Food adjuncts.=——In preparing foods for the table, we have the habit of
adding substances to develop or give flavor. With the exception of sugar,
which we use largely for its agreeable taste, these substances have no
nutritive value. They are not hurtful unless used in excess, although
pepper and other spices sometimes disturb digestion. Pepper, too,
irritates a delicate throat.

Only a few flavors are really detected by the sense of taste. These are
salt, sugar, acids, and bitter flavors; and something in the spices that
gives a sensation hard to describe, but is unmistakable in an overdose of
mustard or horse-radish. “Pungent” describes such a flavor.

The other flavors are really odors, and are detected by the sense of
smell. Have you not at some time seemed to lose the sense of taste when
suffering from a severe cold in the head? Yet even then you could taste
sugar, salt, vinegar, and feel the pungency of pepper. These other flavors
or odors are due to a volatile oil in the flavoring material, that is, an
oil that readily evaporates, especially when heated, as distinguished from
the non-volatile oils and fats like olive oil and butter. This is a
practical bit of knowledge in our cookery, for whatever passes off as
fragrance during the cooking process, is lost as flavor. For instance, to
cook vanilla essence in a soft custard is equivalent to throwing most of
it away.

_Salt._——A mineral substance that develops other flavors. It should not be
used in excess. A small amount is desirable even in sweet dishes.

_Acids._——Vinegar, lemon juice, and juices of other sour fruits. These are
pleasing in themselves, and in small quantities develop other flavors and
give a certain brightness of taste. They are used with meat and fish, and
in sweet dishes.

_Spices._——Red, black, and white pepper, cinnamon, cloves, allspice,
nutmeg, mace, and ginger are examples. They are made from the seeds of
certain plants, used whole or ground. Stick cinnamon is a layer of a stem.
Ginger is a root.

_Herbs._——Thyme, mint, sweet marjoram, summer savory are the leaves of
old-fashioned pot herbs, used either fresh or dried. There were many
others used in olden days that are not common now, such as sweet basil and
pot marigold. A quite complete list will be found nowadays in any good
seed catalogue. These herbs are used with meat dishes.

_Vegetable flavors._——Celery seeds and stalks, onions, leek and garlick,
carrots and turnips, all contain flavoring oils, and we use them for their
flavors in small portions, in meat dishes.

_Essences._——The oils of vanilla, bitter almonds, lemon and orange peel
are dissolved in alcohol, and used in liquid form in cakes and desserts.
Violet leaves and violet essence are sometimes used, but are a fad as a
flavor. Rose water made from rose leaves is an old-fashioned flavoring,
used infrequently now in blancmanges. The fresh leaf of a rose geranium
gives a pleasing flavor, for occasional use. Chocolate, coffee, and tea
are used for flavorings as well as for beverages.

_Coloring substances._——These come of many colors made from aniline dyes,
and while probably not often hurtful, they should be used only in sweets
and candies, and very seldom, if ever. It is better to depend on natural
fruit coloring when color is wanted.

The fine art of cooking is to develop the natural flavor of each foodstuff
by the proper application of heat, and never to use these condiments and
flavorings in excess. The artist in cookery has a gift for flavoring,
somewhat as the painter has for color.

=Beverages.=——The dictionary defines “beverage” as “drink of any kind.”
The word is used in different forms in several languages and is traced
back to the Latin _bibere_, to drink. The common beverages will be
studied in detail in connection with their preparation. They have slight
nutritive value, save for the added milk, cream, and sugar. Cocoa and
chocolate contain fat, and so have to be classed as foods. Milk is not a
beverage, strictly speaking, but a food, and should be counted as a part
of a meal.


1. State the important topics in the study of foods.

2. Explain the difference between a “food material” and a “foodstuff.”

3. What are the important elements in protein, fat, and carbohydrates?

4. What food materials are rich in protein? In fat? In carbohydrate? In
mineral matter?

5. Explain the meaning and use of the “Calorie.”

6. State the functions of food.

7. What is a food adjunct?

8. What is the waste material in food?

                               CHAPTER II

                          KITCHEN FURNISHINGS

There is no more attractive room than a well-fitted kitchen, shining with
cleanliness; and the kitchen furnishings should have their fair share of
the money spent in buying furniture for the house.

A spotless cleanliness is the standard for the kitchen, and all the
equipment should be selected with the thought of making cleanliness easily
possible. Next in order is forethought in securing the comfort and
convenience of the worker.

=Plan of the kitchen.=——Here the motto should be “Save steps.” How many
weary miles do women walk within their kitchen walls because the sink, the
stove, the refrigerator and the closets for food and dishes are put in to
fit the spaces allowed by the windows and doors, with no thought of the
rapid and easy dispatch of work.

Figure 2 shows the plan of a kitchen, of the “buffet” type, suitable for a
small home or apartment. As this plan is drawn it would be necessary to
use either electric apparatus, or a small gas stove upon one of the
tables. A large gas stove could stand in place of the table at (1), or
against the wall at (2), pushing the table at (3) nearer the door. The
cupboards at (4) and (5) should be raised, leaving table space at both the
right and left of the sink. Notice that the ice box is in the entry, and
also that there is a cupboard that could be used for food. The china
cupboard is conveniently near in the dining-room.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.——Plan of a small kitchen. _Courtesy of the House

Figure 3 shows a larger kitchen, with a serving room between it and the
dining-room. The ice box is in the outer wall and is filled from the
outside. The cupboard at (1) could hold the cooking utensils, as it stands
conveniently between the sink and the range. A kitchen as large as this
should have a small table on rollers for carrying food materials and
utensils back and forth. If you have ever visited the kitchen in a
dining-car you will realize that compactness is one of the advantages of
the small kitchen over the large, although the latter may be better
ventilated and cooler.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.——Plan of a larger kitchen. _Courtesy of the House

=Furnishing the kitchen.=——The walls and floors, and even the ceiling,
should be washable. A tiled wall is as easy to wash as a china dish, but
the expense is prohibitive in many cases. Table oilcloth for wall and
ceiling is very satisfactory; next to this in desirability is paint, and
for the last choice a washable paper. This paper will bear scarcely more
than a damp cloth for cleansing purposes, however. Avoid cracks and
crevices in the woodwork, having all surfaces as plain as possible.

The best floor is one covered with an inlaid linoleum, which gives warmth
and comfort to the foot, is easy to clean, and wears for many years (Fig.
4). It should be cemented down at the edges that no dust may collect. The
first cost is rather high, but it pays in the end. A hardwood floor of
maple or yellow pine is also satisfactory. Tiling is the cleanest of all
floorings, but is very fatiguing to the worker.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.——A kitchen corner. _Courtesy of the Department of
Household Science and Art, Pratt Institute._]

Enamel-paint makes a smooth finish for the woodwork. In the kitchen of the
future, which will be fireproof, steel fittings will probably take the
place of all wood.

Have harmonious colors in the kitchen. Decide upon a cheerful color
scheme, and carry it out in all the fittings. One most attractive kitchen
is furnished in soft brown and buff, with a touch of blue in the linoleum
on the floor. Figure 4 shows the interior of a small kitchen, practical
for a family of six or eight. The curtain at the window, which gives a
touch of daintiness, is of a washable material. Figure 5 shows a much
larger kitchen, with two sinks, and a work-table in the center. See how
conveniently the refrigerator is placed for serving, and for returning
food from the serving room to the refrigerator. The vegetable sink is near
the stove, and the utensils, too, are near by. A rolling table is seen at
the left.

No plan can be drawn that would be perfect in all situations. If you ever
have the opportunity to plan your own kitchen, decide just what you want
it to contain, and then plan the places for each article. Sometimes there
are too many drawers and shelves, and these not of the right size or

=The kitchen table.=——The table should have a top with room for food
materials and utensils to stand in neat order without crowding. Glass is
the cleanest top, painted steel and hard maple coming next in order. Have
some arrangement of shelves and drawers that small utensils and some food
materials may be always at hand. Figure 6 shows a kitchen “cabinet” of
painted steel with such conveniences. Notice the bin for flour, and the
inverted jar for sugar, both with an opening at the bottom. Spices and
flavorings and materials needed in small quantities are kept in jars on
the shelves. The cupboard and drawers beneath will hold small utensils,
towels, and whatever proves to be needed close by. Several makes of such
cabinets are now on sale. A flat-topped table for a large kitchen, Fig. 5,
could have drawers and cupboards below. If the outlay for a cabinet seems
too great, the bins for sugar and flour may be purchased separately and
fastened on the wall above the table, and one or two shelves screwed on
the wall for the jars, with hooks fastened in underneath on which a few
small utensils may be hung.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.——A well-equipped kitchen. _Courtesy of the J. L.
Mott Co._]

A small _rolling table_ may be made inexpensively by putting castors on a
light table costing not more than a dollar. Put table oilcloth over the
top. This is a great convenience in many ways. The height of the table
should be such that the worker is not fatigued by bending over. Thirty-two
inches is a good table height for a woman of five feet four or five
inches. Blocks hollowed to fit the table legs may be used with a table of
ordinary height for a tall person.

=Cupboards and shelves.=——If you purchase a cupboard see that the shelves
are movable, and of varying widths. There are a few large utensils that
need a deep shelf, about fifteen inches. If the shelves are to be built
in, provide several widths from six to ten inches. Much space is sometimes
wasted between shelves. Vary the distances here.

[Illustration: FIG. 6.——A kitchen cabinet. _Courtesy of the Columbia
School Supply Co._]

Smooth paint is the best surface for the shelf. Shelf covers of paper or
oilcloth look clean when they are fresh, but are less sanitary than
uncovered shelves. Drawers should not be too large, for these are heavy to
pull and push when full. Cupboard shelves are on the whole more
satisfactory than drawers, because this tiresome pulling out and pushing
in are avoided. Towels can be piled on the shelves, and small utensils
hung on right-angled screw hooks. Do not use curved hooks, except for
hanging cups from the bottom of a shelf.

[Illustration: FIG. 7.——Section of a refrigerator wall. _Courtesy of the
White Enamel Refrigerator Co._]

=The refrigerator.=——A good refrigerator is built with double walls, and
has several layers of non-conducting material. Figure 7 shows the careful
way in which the refrigerator wall is made. 1. Porcelain enamel lining
lock joint. 2. Inside wood lining. 3. Three-ply red rope water-proof
paper. 4. Wool felt deafening paper. 5. Flaxlinum insulation. 6. Dead air
space. 7. Flaxlinum insulation. 8. Wool felt deafening paper. 9. Three-ply
red rope water-proof paper. 10. Outside wood case. The ice chamber is
arranged to be easily filled, and has a connecting pipe for carrying off
the water. If this is connected with the sewerage system of the house,
make sure that it is properly trapped (Fig. 8). See “Shelter and
Clothing,” page 51, for description of the S trap. The closets for the
food should have an enamel or tiled lining. This is non-absorptive, and
may be kept perfectly clean. A large refrigerator is more economical of
ice than a small one, and in the end more than balances the few dollars
extra that must be paid for the larger size. Select the coolest spot that
you have for the refrigerator. Figure 9 shows the construction of a good

[Illustration: FIG. 8.——A refrigerator trap. _Courtesy of the White Enamel
Refrigerator Co._]

[Illustration: FIG. 9.——A well-constructed refrigerator. _Courtesy of the
White Enamel Refrigerator Co._]

Artificial ice is cleaner and therefore safer to use than the natural.
Always wash off the block before putting it into the ice chamber. Wash out
the ice chamber once a week, and pour a solution of washing soda down the
waste pipe.

The food chambers should be washed out once a week and dried, and no
spilled food allowed to remain a moment. Do not leave the doors open. Have
a strong ice pick for breaking ice.

A _window box_ fastened outside the window by strong iron brackets
provides a convenient place for cooling food, and keeping some
semi-perishable foods. It is easily made from a watertight wooden box,
painted outside and in, the opening toward the window having a curtain of
table oilcloth. A piece of wire netting set in one side of the box permits
of a current of air.

[Illustration: FIG. 10.——A sink of simple construction. _Courtesy of J. L.
Mott Co._]

=The sink.=——White enameled iron and porcelain are the most desirable
materials for the sink. A simply constructed sink is shown in Fig. 10.
Notice that the sink is supported from the wall, leaving a free space
underneath. A larger sink is shown in Fig. 11, with the draining board in
the sink. The trap below the sink should be a large S trap, and the trap
and faucets should be nickel plate.

[Illustration: FIG. 11.——A larger sink. _Courtesy of the J. L. Mott Co._]

An iron sink should be rubbed and polished until it becomes very smooth.
Do not attempt to paint it. If it is left perfectly dry, it will not rust.

=Hot water supply.=——A good supply is essential to rapid and thorough
work. The apartment dweller who finds it piped to the sink is most
fortunate. The separate house must have a boiler connected with the coal
range, or a water tank fastened to the range. If gas is used, have some
kind of gas water heater that will give a sufficient flow for dish-washing
and cleaning purposes. A boiler may be heated with a kerosene stove. The
boiler should be fastened above the floor with space below for a
one-burner blue-flame kerosene stove. Have a faucet in the boiler.
Wherever a boiler is used it is economy to have it covered with some
non-conducting material, just as steam pipes are packed.

=Utensils.=——The expert cook is known by the small number of utensils that
she uses. If you watch the expert at work, you will see too, that each
utensil is exactly fitted to its use.

The skilled cook is like the carpenter or painter, and her set of tools is
individual. The list given on page 28 is a sample one, to be changed to
suit the individual preference, and increased as the need arises; it could
be smaller, if necessary. When you first furnish a kitchen, avoid an
elaborate display of tools, beginning with the few essentials only.

No one material is suitable for the construction of all utensils. Those
subjected to intense heat must be of material able to resist it. The
material for a given utensil must be selected with the purpose of the
utensil in mind. The material should be durable, easy to clean, and of
such a nature that it does not affect chemically the food material cooked
in it.

_Aluminium._——A white metal, fairly durable, very light in weight.
Discolors easily, and is not easy to clean. Expensive. Used for all kinds
of utensils.

_Copper._——Endures heat, durable, fairly light to handle. Hard to keep
clean. Expensive. Used for kettles. Not desirable for family use.

_Earthenware._——Will not endure the highest temperatures without
crackling. Easily breakable. Easy to clean, unless crackled. Inexpensive.
Useful for slow oven processes, for pitchers and mixing bowls.

_Enamel._——A vitrified material upon iron or steel. The English enamel
ware upon iron is durable, excellent for preserving, heavy. The German and
American enamels are lighter. Avoid the attractive blue, and blue and
white except for pitchers, cups, bowls, and plates. They crackle and chip
off more easily with heat then the gray enamels. One German make, of a
dark mottled gray, is less brittle in the finish than most American makes.
All the enamels are easy to keep clean. Used for kettles, saucepans,
roasting, and baking. Less durable than steel and iron.

_Iron._——Endures intense heat. Durable. Heavy to handle. Becomes smooth
with long use, and then is not difficult to clean. Affects the color of
acid fruits. Not expensive. Used for frying kettles and pans and kettles
for boiling.

_Russia iron_ is a sheet iron of good quality for roasting and bread pans.

_Steel._——Endures intense heat. Durable. Medium weight. Fairly easy to
clean. Affects acid fruits. Medium cost. Same uses as iron, also for
roasting and baking pans, and smaller kettles.

_Tin._——Tin, a “useful metal,” is plated on thin sheet iron for utensils.
So-called _block_ tin is the best quality. Will not endure intense heat.
The tin wears and scratches off with use. Not easy to clean. Discolors
easily, and colors acid fruit. Poor tin ware is not worth buying. Good
quality is not cheap. May be used for measures, and for small saucepans,
but is less desirable than other wares.

_Wooden ware._——Used for molding boards, meat boards, and spoons.

_The patterns of utensils._——Select those made without seams, or flutings,
where food particles collect. Bowls, saucepans, and kettles should have a
_lip_ on the side, for the pouring out of liquids. A pitcher should be of
such shape that it can be easily washed, and it should have a lip that
will pour well. A pot for boiling coffee should have a lip and not a
spout. Select utensils with non-conducting handles.

Study carefully the selection of knives, and do not try to economize in
their purchase. Knives must be sharp, and poor quality steel will never
take a good edge. A worn table knife of Sheffield steel, when ground down,
makes the best of kitchen knives. Buy a good sharpener and use it

=Labor-saving devices.=——A good machine saves the wear and tear of human
muscle, and also much time. If you have studied the principles of the
lever and other mechanical devices, you will understand why this is.[3]

Learn to pay for, use, and clean good machines.

A “_Dover_” _egg beater_ is built on the principle of the “wheel and
axle.” The large wheel has five times as many cogs as the small, one
revolution of the large wheel giving five of the small, and one turn of
the handle five revolutions of the blades. It saves your wrist, and saves
time to use the “Dover” in place of a fork. It is more trouble to wash the
Dover beater than the fork. Yet a cook may object to a bread mixer and
meat chopper, because they are harder to clean than the bowl and spoon and

A _good bread mixer_ saves strength and is sanitary. Fig. 12.

[Illustration: FIG. 12.——An inexpensive bread mixer, cover on and off.
_Courtesy of Landers, Frary and Clark._]

A _meat chopper_ or grinder also saves strength and time, and is cleaner
than the wooden chopping bowl.

                          LIST OF UTENSILS[4]

_For preparing and mixing._

  1 can opener.
  1 corkscrew.
  1 vegetable knife, pointed.
  1 steel table knife, broad blade.
  1 meat knife and fork.
  1 bread knife, _or_ slicer.
  1 small meat axe.
  1 knife sharpener.
  1 3-bladed chopping knife, _or_ meat grinder.
  1 apple corer.
  2 plated or steel forks, table.
  1 long-handled fork, three-pronged.
  1 palette knife.
  1 pair heavy scissors.
  1 set skewers.
  1 large mixing spoon, enamel ware.
  6 plated tablespoons, or German silver.
  6 plated teaspoons, or German silver.
  1 saltspoon, bone.
  1 wooden spatula.
  1 Dover egg beater, large size.
  1 wire egg beater.
  1 wire potato masher.
  1 colander.
  1 wire strainer.
  1 wire strainer, cup size.
  1 flour sifter.
  1 flour dredger.
  1 salt shaker.
  1 coffee mill.
  1 grater.
  1 nutmeg grater.
  1 glass lemon squeezer.
  1 large mixing bowl for bread.
  1 medium bowl for cake.
  2 pint bowls.
  1 quart measure.
  1 half-pint measuring cup.
  1 molding board.
  1 rolling pin.
  1 meat board.
  1 or 2 plates.
  1 or 2 china molds.
  1 kitchen scales.

_Other conveniences._

  6 small hand towels.
  Towel racks.
  1 high stool.
  1 or 2 comfortable chairs.
  A clock.
  Sheets of paper, tissue and heavier.
  Heavy linen thread and large needle.
  Ball of soft, strong twine.
  A shelf for cook books.

_For stewing, steaming, and boiling._

(Sizes dependent on number in family.)

  1 teakettle, enamel or aluminium.
  1 double-boiler, enamel ware.
  1 pint saucepan, enamel covered.
  1 or 2 stewpans, enamel covered.
  1 kettle, covered.
  1 steamer.

_For broiling, pan broiling, the sauté, and frying._

(Broiler and toaster supplied with gas range.)

  1 wire toaster.
  1 heavy wire broiler.
  1 frying pan, with lip, steel or iron.
  1 frying kettle and basket.

_For roasting, braising, and baking._

(Roasting pan provided with gas range.)

  1 roasting pan, covered, steel or iron.
  1 or 2 heavy earthen pots, covered.
  1 baking pan for fish, iron, or heavy earthenware.
  2 or 3 bread pans (for loaf cake also).
  1 shallow pan for cake.
  1 muffin pan.
  1 flat cooky tin.
  3 round pans, for layer cake, enamel.
  2 pie pans.
  2 or 3 pitchers.
  6-12 heavy earthen cups, for popovers and custards.
  2 round baking dishes, earthen or enamel.

_For holding food materials._

  A few cheap saucers, plates, and bowls for food in the refrigerator.
  Bins for flour, meals, and sugar.
  A dozen glass wide-mouthed preserving jars.
  Jelly glasses for spices, etc.
  Tin boxes can be kept for such purposes.

  (Use gummed labels on these jars and glasses.)

_For washing dishes._

  1 dishpan, enamel.
  1 shallow rinsing pan.
  1 soap shaker.
  2 soap dishes.
  1 shaker for washing powder.
  6 glass towels.
  6 heavier towels.
  6 loose weave dishcloths.

=Care of the kitchen.=——The daily cleaning must include the care of the
sink and traps, the cleaning of the stove, brushing the floor, and washing
off of tables. More thorough cleaning includes the scrubbing of the floor,
washing of walls, woodwork, and windows, cleaning of closets and drawers.

The stoves should be rubbed often with paper, and washed thoroughly when
necessary. Great pains must be taken to keep the ovens clean, by frequent
washing out. Gas burners must be taken off and boiled in a solution of sal
soda once in a while. The top and bottom of coal ovens should be cleaned
out once a month. Kerosene stoves need constant cleaning. Stove blacking
makes the stove more attractive.

=Dish-washing.=——It is not difficult to wash dishes well, although many
people make it a very disagreeable process. The necessary apparatus is
given in the utensil list. The cleansing materials include a plentiful
supply of hot water, a good soap, ammonia or borax to soften the water, a
gritty soap or powder. Have a pan for washing and another for rinsing, and
a tray for draining if there is no drainer attached to the sink.

_Order of work._——Prepare the dishes by scraping and neatly piling
articles of a kind together. Rub greasy dishes with soft paper, and put
water and ammonia or washing powder into utensils that need soaking. Have
clean towels at hand. Make ready a pan of hot soap suds, by using a soap
shaker, or soap solution, but do not put the cake of soap in the pan. Have
rinsing water ready.

Wash the cleanest dishes first, usually the glasses, next the cups and
saucers, and the silver next. Have the soiled dishes near the pan, and put
in only one or two articles at a time, washing with mop or dish cloth. To
pile in a number means the nicking of china, and scratching of silver. Dip
each dish in the rinsing water and then put in the drainer. If there is
not room for two pans, the dishes may be piled on the drainer not too many
at a time, and the rinsing water poured over. Be careful not to use too
hot water for delicate china and glass. Change the soapy water when it
becomes in the least greasy.

Wipe the dishes while they are still warm, and use dry towels.

Wash the utensils thoroughly, especially on the bottom. Heavy utensils can
be dried without wiping, on or near the stove. Do not put any utensils
away until they are perfectly dry.

Steel knives should be scoured and thoroughly rinsed and dried. Wash out
the towels and dishpan, and leave the sink and drainboard perfectly clean.
It does take time and work for this whole process, but spotless
cleanliness is our aim.[5]

Home dish-washers are being devised, and should save some of the labor.
None as yet has proved very satisfactory.


1. What is essential to the planning of a convenient kitchen?

2. How may cleanliness be secured through the furnishings?

3. What are the requisites in a good work table?

4. Explain the construction of a refrigerator. Of a good sink.

5. Compare the materials used in utensils.

6. What is the advantage of a machine compared with hand power?

7. Make an estimate of the cost of utensils for the home kitchen from a
price list obtained from some standard furnishing shop.

8. Examine the utensils in the school kitchen and at home. Consider the
material and shape with reference to durability and convenience.

9. What are the important points in cleaning the kitchen?

10. What are the important points in good dish-washing?

11. What is a good order of work in dish-washing?

                              CHAPTER III

                            FUEL AND STOVES

The fuels most widely used in this country are coal, gas, and kerosene.
Wood is still used for cooking by those who own wood lots, or who live in
a district where wood is abundant, but in a sense it is the fuel of the
past. Electricity is generated from coal except in the few communities
where the electric current is derived through machinery from the energy of
falling water but electricity is not in common household use, and is still
the method of the future for the average family. Other substances are
burned for fuel occasionally or in restricted localities. Corn cobs are
used sometimes in the corn belt. Peat is an old-world fuel. It is a
vegetable substance taken in blocks from marshes, in reality the first
stage of coal formation. It is a slow-burning fuel which is cheap in its
own locality.

Economy of fuel is a world problem, for it is evident that the coal supply
will be exhausted in course of time, and this is true also of coal oil or
petroleum. Scientists are experimenting to discover practical methods, not
dependent upon the burning of coal, for generating electricity. Water
power is the only practicable method so far, and to make it permanently
available we must conserve the forests still remaining to us, and thus
safeguard the sources of our rivers.

Another effort toward economy is seen in the use for fuel of waste
products treated in some way to make them readily combustible. The briquet
is used in Europe where the fuel supply is limited. It is made of sawdust
or waste coal, with some petroleum, tar, resin, or other substance,
heated together and molded. Good briquets yield a large amount of heat in
proportion to bulk and weight. The problem here, as with all waste, is to
find a manufacturing process that will make the product cheap enough to be
practical for common use.

It is a natural impulse to use lavishly whatever is at hand in abundance,
and it is only a highly civilized community that takes thought for the
economy of the future. Considered only from a selfish point of view,
however, with coal and petroleum at the high prices that are likely to
prevail, the saving of fuel is one of our most important economies.

=The common fuels.=——_Coal_ is of two kinds, anthracite and bituminous, or
hard and soft. Hard coal of good quality has 90 per cent or more of
carbon, and burns with little flame. Soft coal contains as much as 18 per
cent of flame-making substances, and gives off a heavy smoke. Hard coal is
therefore cleaner, but it is more costly than soft coal, because the
supply is smaller. The most important anthracite mines are found in the
eastern United States, and hard coal is used more in this section than
elsewhere. Good hard coal may be recognized by its glossy black color and
bright surfaces. It is sold under different names taken often from the
locality where it is mined. There are two kinds, one leaving a reddish
ash, and the other a white. The red ash coal burns more freely than the
white ash and the ash is heavier and therefore cleaner. The price is
higher per ton or bag.

Coal is sorted in different sizes, a medium size being best for the
ordinary range. Poor coal has slaty pieces in it, that will not burn but
break up and mingle with the ashes. You can learn to detect it by the
slaty color. _Clinkers_ are formed by unburnable minerals, mixed with the
coal, that melt and stick together, and even adhere to the lining or the
grate. They are not often troublesome in the cooking range.

Coal is measured by the ton of two thousand pounds avoirdupois. A common
hod of coal holds about thirty pounds. Coal should be bought in large
quantity, and stored away in summer, if possible. The retail dealer in the
city often charges an exorbitant sum for coal by the bag, so that the
buyer of small quantities pays a much higher price for a ton bought in
this way. The wholesale price of coal has increased on an average about 13
per cent since 1900.

_Coke_ is the solid substance remaining after gas has been made from
certain kinds of coal, and is sometimes sold by gas companies, as a
by-product. It is light, and therefore easy to handle and does not smoke,
but it burns out quickly, and the fire of coke requires frequent
replenishing. It is sold by the bag, or in large quantities by the ton,
also sometimes by the chaldron, an old English measure for coal,
containing from thirty-two to thirty-six bushels.

_Gas_ was used for illuminating long before it came into common use for
heating and cooking. Commercial gas manufactured for both lighting and
cooking is really a mixture of various gases. One method produces it from
bituminous coal heated in retorts. Another method gives “water gas,” by
passing steam through heated coal. The value of gas will depend upon the
components of the mixture, and the manufacturer has an opportunity to make
an inferior gas unless the law stipulates what the quality shall be.

The small town or country dweller may use a gas machine on the premises,
the gas to be stored or generated in some tank in the ground, and piped
into the house. Acetylene, a compound of carbon and hydrogen, is used in
this way. Acetylene has a low flashing point, and there is question as to
its safety. One firm sends a mixed gas of good quality in metal bottles to
the consumer, the bottles being placed in a metal closet above ground
outside the house. The firm claims that an explosion has never occurred.

Gas is measured by the cubic foot, and its price estimated per 1000 cubic
feet. The amount is recorded on a meter as the gas passes into the house.
See Fig. 13. It is an easy matter to learn to read a meter, and every one
should do so who uses gas. Always compare the gas bill with the amount
recorded by the meter. If the gas bill becomes larger than usual, and you
feel sure that the consumption has been normal, report the matter to the
company. A meter may be out of order, and need repair.

[Illustration: FIG. 13.——Reading the gas meter. _Courtesy of New York
Consolidated Gas Co._]

_To read the meter._——Figure 13 shows the three dials found on the face of
a gas meter. The arrows show the direction. The dial at the right
indicates 100 cubic feet between the numbers, the middle dial 1000 and the
left-hand dial 10,000. The dials in this figure record 53,250 cubic feet.
The price of gas varies from eighty cents to a dollar and a half per
thousand cubic feet. “Eighty-cent gas” is the hope of many a consumer. At
a dollar and a half it is not a cheap fuel.

Gas does away with the handling of coal and ashes in the kitchen and is
thus a clean and labor-saving fuel. It gives an intense heat the moment
the flame is lighted and this heat is easily regulated in a well-made
stove. The flame should burn with a clear blue or greenish color. With a
properly constructed stove only a small percentage of the heat is lost. In
all these points it has the advantage over coal. The comparative cost is
studied in the problems on page 53.

_Natural gas_ is used in those regions where it occurs, piped to the house
from a central source. It is found in limited areas only, and in some
places has already been exhausted.

_Coal oil_, or _petroleum_, sometimes found oozing from crevices in rocks,
or even floating on water, is a natural inflammable oil stored in the
earth. It was known in ancient Persia, Greece, and Rome, but did not
become of great commercial importance until the middle of the nineteenth
century. It is now obtained by boring wells, and is found in great
quantities in certain regions of the country. The crude oil yields many
products valuable in the arts, medicine, and manufacture. _Kerosene_ is
the substance useful as a fuel and for giving light. When of good quality
it is nearly colorless, and the flashing point should be 149° F., or 65°
C. This _flashing point_ is the temperature at which the vapor from the
kerosene explodes or flashes. If the vapor flashes at a point lower than
this, it means that the oil has not been sufficiently refined; that is, in
the process of manufacture the substances that flash at a low temperature
have not been removed, and therefore the oil is less safe.

Kerosene is sold by the gallon or barrel. The price for a good quality is
about seventy cents for a five-gallon can. By the barrel a saving is made
of several cents a gallon. It is useful as a fuel to those housekeepers
who cannot have gas, and who find it a convenient substitute for coal in
the summer. With the new blue-flame stoves it gives an intense heat,
easily regulated. There is no heavy labor involved in its use, but even
the best stove requires constant care and watchfulness. It is not so clean
and easy to use as gas. The kerosene supply should be kept in a cool
place, and stoves and lamps should never be filled by candle or lamplight.

_Gasolene_ is used as a fuel for cooking in some places, but in others the
fire insurance companies have such strict rules in regard to it that its
use is practically prohibited. It is more volatile than kerosene, and its
flashing point is very low. Kerosene is much safer for household use.

_Alcohol_ is used with the chafing dish. Denatured alcohol is so cheap in
Germany that it is used in large and especially adapted stoves for cooking
purposes. There are denatured alcohol stoves on the market here, but they
are little used.

_Charcoal_, wood partially burnt out, is little used for domestic purposes

The relative value of the common fuels is stated in quantities as follows,
but this is of course dependent on the quality of the coal and the gas.
One thousand feet of gas about equals from fifty to sixty pounds of coal,
or four and one half gallons of kerosene; and one half ton of coal
approximates a cord of wood.

Those who may be interested will find a fuller discussion of fuels and
fuel values in Snell’s “Elementary Household Chemistry.”

_Electricity_ is not a fuel, but is classed here as a source of heat. It
may be supplied for cooking purposes by any company that furnishes
electric light, and should be available in the country wherever an
electric trolley runs. The energy supplied is measured and paid for by the
kilowatt; that is, one thousand watts. The terms used for electrical
measurements cannot be really understood until one has studied
electricity. It may be said, however, that the _ampere_[6] is the unit of
current strength, the _volt_ is the unit of electrical pressure or
electromotive force, the _watt_ is the unit of electrical power and the
basis of payment for current supplied for heating or lighting.

Voltage, amperage, and watt or kilowatt are the terms in common use. If
you read the circulars that advertise electric cooking apparatus, you will
find the request to state the voltage of your electric current in ordering
a piece of apparatus. Or again, the number of watts used per hour is
given, with the catalogue number and the size of an electric stove.

The cost of electricity per kilowatt (usually from ten to fifteen cents)
varies in different localities.

The great advantage of electricity is that little heat is lost in
radiation, and that the degree of heat is well under control. There are
also no products of combustion present, and this is the only source of
heat for cooking of which this is true. Both gas and kerosene vitiate the
air to some extent.

=Cooking apparatus.=——The wastefulness of cooking operations, past and
present, is due largely to the defects of the apparatus used. The open
fireplace for wood, and the open grate for coal, are two arrangements that
permit most of the heat to pass up the chimney, and into the room. See
Frontispiece and Fig. 14. In Fig. 14 there is illustrated at the right a
brick oven with a flue opening into the chimney. This was one of the
earliest inventions for saving fuel and heat. This oven was lined with
brick or stone, and the fire of wood was built in it, and allowed to
remain until it had burned out. The coals and ashes were removed, and
when the brick had cooled somewhat cakes and pies were put in to bake.
This oven retained its heat for twenty-four hours, and beans put in
Saturday afternoon were taken out hot for the Sunday morning breakfast.
The method was clumsy, but a good heat saver.

[Illustration: FIG. 14.——A colonial fireplace. _Courtesy of the Historical
Society, Ipswich, Mass._]

Figure 15 is an American stove, early nineteenth century, wood the fuel;
and from this form, modified for using coal, has developed the modern
American coal range (Fig. 18). Even the latest types are very wasteful of
heat. Stoves like that shown in Fig. 19 have been devised for use with
gas. Even with these only a small percentage of the heat generated is
available for cooking.

[Illustration: FIG. 15.——An early American stove, 1823. _Courtesy of the
Bryson Library._]

The ideal system is that which gives the largest possible percentage of
its heat for cooking, and puts the degree of heat under quick control
with the greatest saving of fuel, and of labor in operating. This does not
mean that the stove which gives the most intense heat is the best,
although some stoves seem to be constructed with that as the aim.

Let us consider some of the methods of saving heat, and study different
kinds of apparatus with this knowledge in mind.

We recall the fact, first, that some substances are good conductors of
heat, and others poor.[7] If you hold a metal poker in your hand, and
place the other end in red hot coals, you will realize that metal is a
rapid conductor of heat. If the poker has a wooden handle, the heat of the
coals does not readily reach your hand, for the wood is a poor conductor.
Moreover, this good conductor is a poor holder of heat, the heat radiating
rapidly from it into the surrounding air, but the poor conductor, once
thoroughly heated, cools off slowly.

You can think of many illustrations from your daily life. Why do you
prefer a woolen blanket on a cool night, rather than a linen sheet,
merely? Why do you use a cloth holder in ironing? What is the principle of
a hot water bottle? Air is a poor conductor. Can you think of an
illustration of this? What is the principle of a thermos bottle?

It is not difficult to see how these facts apply in our cooking apparatus.
From an oven with metal sides heat is lost by radiation. In a double oven,
with an air space between the inner and outer part, some heat is saved. If
the outer cover is of some non-conducting material, even less radiation
takes place. This is the principle of the oven devised by Mr. Edward
Atkinson. Here the inner oven is of sheet iron, and the outer covering of
a non-conducting material, some composition with wood pulp or paper as the
basis. If in this way heat can be trapped, as it were, in an oven, it will
follow that less heat will have to be supplied, and we can use a smaller
amount of fuel. This is the case in the Atkinson oven (Fig. 16), where the
source of heat is either a kerosene lamp, or a small Bunsen burner of the
rose type, which uses only a small amount of gas.

[Illustration: FIG. 16.——The Atkinson cooker.]

Another illustration of the conserving of heat by the prevention of
radiation is in the _fireless cooker_. This is a method used in Sweden in
simple form, and adapted and improved to suit modern needs. Heat is
supplied in the first place by gas or kerosene, and the water in the
vessel containing the food is raised to the boiling point, and held there
in some cases for a few minutes. The vessel is then placed in the
“cooker,” which is a box with thick walls of some non-conducting material,
and the heat already present is sufficient to finish the cooking process,
since the radiation is very slow. In some cookers a heated stone is
introduced to raise the temperature slightly. Both of these devices are
excellent for the long, slow cooking that seems to mellow the food
material and develop the flavors that do not result from rapid cooking.

At the same time, we need rapid processes, such as broiling and toasting,
which give characteristic flavors. To meet this double need, a new type of
gas stove has been made. See Fig. 17.

[Illustration: FIG. 17.——Construction of the duplex gas range. _Courtesy
of Domestic Equipment Co._]

This is a gas stove, where the oven has thick walls of a non-conducting
material. The oven is heated, for a short time only, the gas flame being
cut off when the oven has reached the desired temperature. At the left is
an attachment where rapid cooking may be accomplished when desired, and
there is a device at (1) with the same principle as the fireless cooker,
or the tea “cosey.” This cover is dropped over the kettle when the boiling
point is reached, the flame is turned out, and the heat in the water
finishes the process. There is no good reason why stoves embodying this
same principle should not be used with kerosene, and with the electric
current. Improved stoves of this type will be constructed, and certainly
will tend toward great economy of fuel.

One method of saving fuel is by the use of a _steam cooker_, which
consists of a series of compartments, one above another, containing
several kinds of food, all to be cooked over the same burner, either gas
or kerosene, or on one section of the top of the coal range when space is
being used for the wash boiler or irons.

It requires intelligence to use such devices, and those who lack it cling
obstinately to hot fires and violent cooking.

_The coal range._——Progress is slow, and the coal range will not be
abolished at present. Figure 18 is an example of a good range as easy to
manage as possible. The coal box at (1) has a lining that prevents the
iron from burning out. The air enters at (2) and passes out at (3), when
the fire is first made. When it is necessary to heat the oven, a damper is
closed at (4), and the heated air then passes around the oven in the
direction of the arrows. The coal is put in at (5) and the ashes shaken
down at (6). Larger ranges, resting upon the floor, have a “dump” for the
ashes directly into the ash box in the cellar, and some makes have a
device for operating this with the foot. The coal stove involves the
labor of bringing in coal and taking out ashes, and space must be given to
the coal bin and ash pit. A range of this size would serve for a family of
five or six. It requires from 2 to 3 hods per day. A hood should be placed
above a large range, whether coal or gas.

[Illustration: FIG. 18.——A modern coal range. _Courtesy of Detroit Stove

=To make a coal fire.=——See that the grate is clean and that the ashes
have been removed. You know that a current of air containing oxygen is
needed to make the fire burn. How will you arrange the damper at (2) and
(3) when you are starting the fire?

Coal does not begin to burn easily. Therefore we kindle it by materials
that have a low kindling temperature, light wood, paper, and matches.

In the bottom of the grate, lay twisted pieces of paper, or very finely
split pieces of wood, or shavings, next in order larger pieces of wood
laid “crisscross,” yet close enough not to let the coal fall through, and
on the top a shovelful or two of coal. Why do you not put in flat
newspapers, and lay the kindling lengthwise and solid? Put on the stove
lids, arrange the dampers properly, and touch the match. Why do you use
the match? Why does the match light? Perhaps your nature study lessons
will help you to explain this whole kindling process.

What should be the next step in the fire making? How should you finally
arrange the dampers?

A coal fire will keep well for a considerable length of time, if the coal
is put on and the ash removed regularly, provided the stove is well
constructed, and the coal of good quality. Add fresh coal before the fire
becomes a dull red, and shows ashes. If it gets too low, wood kindling
will be needed, and this is poor management. Be careful not to put in so
much coal that you cannot put the lid on firmly. It ruins the top of a
stove if the hot coals touch it.

Soot must be removed once in a while from the top and bottom of the oven,
and from the stove pipe.

_The gas stove._——Figure 19 shows a well-constructed stove of the usual
type. Notice the air space, and asbestos lining around the oven. The
burner for heating the oven is at (1). Holes in the sides allow the heated
air to pass outside of the oven at (2) and into the oven as indicated by
the arrows. The heated current passes out of the oven at the back of the
top, and passes out of the stove at (3), where it should be carried away
by a pipe into a flue. The heat of the oven burner is also used for
toasting and roasting underneath, on the movable rack at (4). The oven
burner is lighted by a leader burner at (5). The top burners, five in
number, are at (6). Below those is a removable pan at (7). The top of the
stove is removable in sections, and the burners are easily removed when
cleaning is necessary.

[Illustration: FIG. 19.——A modern gas range. _Courtesy of Detroit Stove

The gas burner (Fig. 20) is constructed on the principle of the Bunsen
burner, which you may have used in the laboratory. There is an opening in
the pipe, near the stopcock, which admits the air, that it may mix with
the gas, and give the blue flame. If there is not enough air, the flame
burns with a yellow color, and smokes. If there is too much air, there is
a roaring sound, and the flame “pulls back” and burns with a smoky yellow
flame, and disagreeable odor. There is a valve always to regulate the air
supply for each burner. Figure 20 shows a burner removed from the range.
(1) is the hollow, star-shaped chamber which gives space for the thorough
mixing of the gas with the air. The gas enters from the connecting pipe at
(2), the air at (3), and (4) is the valve for regulating the air supply.

[Illustration: FIG. 20.——A gas stove burner. _Courtesy of Detroit Stove

Gas ranges of this type are built in different sizes, and with varying
arrangements of ovens and hot-closets. An oven above the stove is
convenient. Ranges are built also for using either gas or coal. A range of
the size pictured, with four large burners on the top, will serve for a
family of five or six, if the work is well planned. The oven burner
consumes 30 to 40 cubic feet per hour, the top burners 2 cubic feet each,
and the simmering burner somewhat less. This is estimated for a burner
turned on full.

=To manage a gas stove.=——Before lighting the top or oven burners see that
the stopcocks are all tight, with no escaping gas. To light the top
burners, strike the match, turn on the stopcock, and touch the match to
the gas when it is flowing well. A disagreeable “popping” follows if the
match is applied to the burner before the gas flows. For lighting the
oven, a “leader” burner at the side of the stove acts as a taper. Open the
oven doors, and the door below, strike the match, turn on the leader, and
light it, turn on the back burner, and then the front burner, and _turn
out_ the leader. The so-called explosion of a gas stove is due to the
sudden lighting of a quantity of gas under the oven that has collected
without being lighted.

The important point in managing a gas stove is to keep the stopcock turned
so that the flame is low. The full flame is needed only when water is
being brought to the boiling point, and for the first heating of the oven.
The low flame should be protected from draft. Many gas stoves now have a
small simmering burner that is more useful than the large burner. Another
point in the use of the stove is the prevention of the “boiling over” from
some kettle. The low flame helps here, and it is also necessary that the
kettles should not be too full. “Boiling over” clogs the burners, and
makes necessary the frequent cleaning of the pan underneath the burners.

The oven burner should be lighted from five to ten minutes before the oven
is wanted, depending upon the intensity of the flames. After the food has
been put in the oven, allow a few minutes, not more than five, for the
food to heat through, and then turn the flame as low as possible. Often,
one burner can be turned out. This you have to learn by experience. When
toasting or broiling is the process, light the oven burner before using,
because the work is performed by the heated iron as well as by the gas
flame. Leave the lower door open, as bread toasts or meat broils, to
hasten the browning process, for it is the oxygen of the air that causes
the browning. Some coal ovens have a damper for admitting air for this
same purpose and though some flavor is lost in this way by evaporation,
the amount is negligible in a quick cooking process. The Atkinson oven is
so tightly closed, that food does not acquire a rich brown in it. An
opening at the top is available when a delicate brown is wanted. It is
true, however, that the slow process with a minimum of evaporation gives a
flavor that compensates for the brown color and flavor. All burners should
be removed if the holes seem clogged and be boiled out in a solution of
washing soda, two tablespoonfuls to a gallon of water. Do not blacken the

_Kerosene stoves._——The best type is a blue-flame stove with a wick.
Kerosene stoves are made with no wick, the kerosene being vaporized just
before it reaches the burner, but such a stove requires occasional pumping
to force the kerosene into the vaporizing chamber, and on the whole is
less satisfactory than the stove with the wick. The heat is intense from
this blue flame, and the burner is economical of the fuel. The small
kerosene stoves, burning with a yellow flame are always inclined to smoke,
and difficult to keep clean. A three- or four-burner oil stove with a
portable oven will do the cooking in summer for a family of five or six.
One burner consumes a gallon of oil in 15 hours. Portable double ovens are
furnished with such stoves.

The kerosene stove is cheaper to operate than a gas range, even with
kerosene at fourteen cents a gallon, but the heat is not under such
perfect control, and the stove requires more work to keep it clean.

The one important point in the management of this blue-flame wick stove is
to keep the flame down by having the wick low, and where it belongs. The
cylinder around the burner prevents the escape of heat and carries it to
the utensil above. A careless person, by raising the wick too high, and
producing a yellow smoky flame, makes much trouble for herself. It is
important to fill the tank without spilling a drop of kerosene, and to
keep every part of the stove well washed off with soap and water. The wick
should be rubbed off occasionally, never cut, and if an odor becomes
perceptible, the burner should be taken apart and boiled in a solution of
washing soda and water. The wick will need to be renewed at intervals,
depending upon the amount of use that it has. With care a stove of this
kind is clean and odorless.

_Electric apparatus._——Figure 21 shows a table arranged for cooking by
electricity, each piece of apparatus having its own connection. Compare
this with the frontispiece, the method of cooking in the eighteenth
century, and you will realize how far we have progressed in the way of
convenience, comfort, and heat economy. Figure 22 shows a disk stove four
and a half inches in diameter, upon which a saucepan may stand, and which
is therefore available for more than one purpose.

[Illustration: FIG. 21.——An electric cooking outfit. _Courtesy of
Department of Household Science, University of Illinois._]

The advantages of electric cooking are obvious. The heat is directly
conducted to each utensil, and a minimum amount is lost in radiation. The
degree of heat is perfectly under control, and the manipulation is nothing
more than the turning of a knob. When the apparatus is installed, it is
adjusted to the voltage, so that no further regulation is necessary.
There are no waste products, and no matches to light or throw away. If the
wiring is properly done, there is no danger from fire. The one present
disadvantage is the cost. Each piece of apparatus is expensive. The cost
of running must depend upon the cost of electricity in the neighborhood,
and the number of watts per hour used by each piece of apparatus. The
larger the utensil, the more watts consumed. The disk stove in Fig. 22
uses 250 watts; a disk of 6 inches diameter, 475 watts; of 8 inches, 650
watts. Some pieces of apparatus are arranged for three different heats,
with a different number of watts for each heat. With one disk stove 10
inches in diameter, 3 heats are possible, with 250, 500, and 1000 watts

[Illustration: FIG. 22.——A disk electric stove. _Courtesy of Landers,
Frary and Clark._]

=Oven thermometers.=——A thermometer is furnished set in the door of many
ranges. While these are guides after one has learned to use the oven, they
are not really accurate by scale. For exact work in testing oven
temperature, a hole must be bored in the side of the oven, and a chemical
thermometer inserted, protected by asbestos and metal.

Simple tests for oven temperature will be found in Chapter XI.


1. Why is the question of the cost and kind of fuel important?

2. What is the difference between hard and soft coal? Between red and
white ash?

3. Why are certain fuels in more common use than others?

4. Explain the advantage of gas over coal. Over kerosene.

5. What are the advantages of electricity as a source of heat?

6. Explain the way in which electricity is measured.

7. Read the gas meter at home and estimate the amount and cost per day.
(The ordinary burner consumes about two cubic feet per hour.)

8. Obtain the prices of the fuels used in the neighborhood and work out a
comparison of the cost of fuel for preparing a meal.[8]

9. What are the methods of conserving heat in cooking apparatus?

10. Explain the structure and management of a coal stove.

11. Explain the principles involved in making a fire.

12. The structure and management of a gas stove.

13. Why does gas in a burner sometimes “pull back”?

14. State the requirements in a perfect example of cooking apparatus.

                               CHAPTER IV


=The principles of cooking.=——In science the word “principle” ordinarily
means a formulation of some _general_ or _constant mode of behavior_——a
generalization based on many observations of fact. In cookery the word is
used in the same sense; for example, one may say that an important
principle to bear in mind when cooking with any fat is that the fats may
be melted without decomposition, but when too strongly heated they begin
to decompose with the production of acrid and irritating products.
Sometimes, however, we speak of “principles of cookery” in a broader and
somewhat less exact sense to indicate the _general purposes_ of cooking
operations, as when we say that the most important principle of vegetable
cookery is to soften the fiber without destroying the flavor or dissolving
away the ash constituents of the vegetable.

That is, the change either chemical or physical that takes place in a
certain foodstuff by the application of heat or cold or by the use of a
fermentation process may be referred to as the underlying, working
principle. We shall study in detail these changes as we experiment with
and prepare each food material, but a general statement of the effect of
heat on various foodstuffs will be helpful here.

_Protein._——There are several forms of protein, with differences that we
can understand only after a thorough study of chemistry. The most
important proteins in meat, fish, eggs, milk, old beans and peas
coagulate, or become slightly harder or firmer at a temperature below the
boiling point of water. We shall perform an experiment to show this while
studying the egg. There is no marked chemical change; that is, the protein
is not changed to another substance.

_Fats._——Solid fats are liquefied by heat, and freed from the tissue that
contains them in animal fats like suet.

When a fat begins to smoke with heat, a chemical change is taking place.
If intense heat is continued, all the hydrogen and oxygen are driven off
and pure carbon remains. When the fat is “brown,” giving the flavor we
like, a part of the oxygen and hydrogen have been driven off. The
“boiling” of fat in a kettle is ordinarily due to the boiling of the water
contained in the fat.

_Starch._——Starch occurs in the form of granules. See Fig. 39. In boiling
water, the granule expands and finally bursts, and frees the content, the
pure starch, and the whole mass thickens.

Boiled with an acid the starch is changed to dextrin, a substance
resembling a gum, and the mixture becomes thin; and this process continued
changes the dextrin to dextrose.

With intense “dry” heat, as in toasting, the granule expands and opens,
and the contents change to dextrin. Continued heat reduces the starch to
pure carbon. The brown color and pleasant flavor in toast are a stage on
the road to carbon.

_Sugar._——Sugar first melts with heat, then begins to decompose, giving
off water. This is also a stage on the road to pure carbon. Caramel, a
familiar flavor, is sugar in the brown stage, with the water partly driven

The art in applying intense heat to fat, starch, and sugar is to know the
stopping point,——to reach the “brown taste” and stop short of the “burnt

_Mineral matter._——The “ash” remains for the most part unchanged by heat,
but may be lost in the water in which vegetables and meat are cooked if
the water is thrown away.

_Vegetable fiber_ is softened by heat and moisture, and the protein,
starch, fat, and sugar are freed, making them available for our digestion
and nutrition.

_Meat fiber_ softens at a low temperature, that is, below the boiling
point of water, with moisture; continued intense heat shrinks and hardens
it. A tender steak fried with fat in a hot pan will soon resemble sole

=The technique of food preparation.=——From the moment the food materials
enter the kitchen until the unusable portions are destroyed or carried
away, there is a best way of working with them at each step, and the sum
of these may be said to make a good technique. This technique will include
cleanliness first and foremost, then skill in the use of tools, judgment
in managing cooking apparatus and in applying heat in cooking processes,
and accuracy and rapidity of execution. It will also include or add to
itself the æsthetic element, the fine art of flavoring, the dainty
garnishing of a dish. Moreover, this technique is the method of putting
into practice some basic, scientific principle. To illustrate:

The _principle_ that underlies toast-making is threefold,——

Heat evaporates moisture throughout the slice of bread.

Intense heat changes the content of the starch granules on the surface of
the slice of bread to dextrin.

Intense heat, long continued, will change first the surface starch, and
then all, to carbon (charcoal).

A _good technique_ will secure the first two, and avoid the third and

The selection of bread already partially dry.

The cutting of bread into slices of uniform thickness.

Regulating the source of heat.

Placing the slices firmly in a toaster, or on a fork, or evenly on a rack
when toasting by gas.

Keeping the toast at a distance from the source of heat that insures a
steady but not too rapid change.

Turning the toaster or the slices to cook each surface in turn and thus to
make the process slower.

Stopping the process before carbon is formed and the toast “burned.” (A
good technique does not include scraping the toast!)

The _æsthetic element_ in toast-making might be a pretty shape of the
slices, say triangular pieces, and a dainty arrangement. In this case and
in others it is true that the result of a good technique is æsthetic, in
that correct manipulation while securing the desired chemical change also
develops the pleasing golden brown that makes the toast so attractive.

=The care of food materials.=——When food materials are delivered, have
receptacles ready for each kind of food. (See kitchen furnishing.) Attend
first to perishable foods. Wash and dry milk and cream bottles before
putting them in the refrigerator. Treat eggs in the same way. This is also
a good plan with lemons and other skin fruit, unless the quantity is too
large, in which case they should not be put into the refrigerator. Remove
wrappings from meat, poultry, and fish; wipe them with a soft cloth,
dipped in salt and water, dry them, and place them in the ice box. Wash
the cloth thoroughly and dry it. Fish should be covered that its odor may
not affect other food. Vegetables like lettuce, celery, and spinach should
be washed and picked over immediately, and the poor portions thrown away.
All semi-perishable foods should be put in a cool, dry place, and the
non-perishables in their separate receptacles. (See page 20.) Do not keep
anything in brown paper bags, but save these bags for other uses.

Have a regular time for inspecting and for cleaning all the places and
receptacles where food is kept. Do not allow any spilled food material to
remain anywhere, and do not tolerate the presence of any material, cooked
or uncooked, that shows the least taint. A keen sense of smell is a good
servant here.

=The processes of food preparation.=——With kitchen in order, tools ready,
and food materials at hand, we are ready for the actual food preparation.
A distinction is to be made between cookery and cooking. Cookery includes
all the steps necessary to produce the finished product, while cooking is
the actual application of heat, only one step of the whole process,
though, indeed, one of the most important and difficult. The order of
procedure in food preparation is as follows:

See first that the stove is ready (Chapter IV). Then comes the choice and
study of the recipe or the method of cooking. The word “recipe” is from a
Latin word meaning “take.” Follow this advice and “take” or bring together
on the work table whatever materials are needed. Decide upon the necessary
utensils, and place them conveniently near. As you gather the materials
together you will measure and weigh the exact amounts. Do this before you
begin the putting together or mixing. Sometimes instead of mixing, the
necessary process is paring, or scraping, or cutting, each with its own
best way. Then follows the application of heat. Some foods are then served
at once, others must be carefully put away after cooling. Or again, there
is no application of heat, for instance, when the freezing temperature is
used in ice cream; or in a salad, or fruit preparation where cooling in
the refrigerator is the next step. The technique of preparing a meal and
serving will be found in Chapter XVI.

=How to study a recipe.=——Remember that a recipe is a bit of experience
handed down for us to make useful. Some one experimented at some time long
ago, perhaps failed at first, tried again, finally succeeded, and passed
on the result by word of mouth to others. There were doubtless good cooks
long before there were printed or written recipes. Some recipes, however,
have been handed down from Roman times, and recipes were printed as early
as the sixteenth century. Modern recipes are much more accurate than the
old, as you may see if you have opportunity to read some old cook book.

At first in using a recipe follow its directions exactly. Notice the
proportions, and read carefully the directions for combining the
ingredients, noting those points that are most important. Have the whole
process well in mind before you begin work. Do not let it be necessary to
refer to the printed page at every move you make. This is poor technique.

When the use of a recipe is preceded by some simple experiment that makes
the basic principle clear, it is much easier to use the recipe with

When you are no longer a novice you may take liberties with a recipe, even
a new one, scanning it with a critical eye, and perhaps giving it a cool
welcome. It may not be new at all! For this is the secret of
recipes,——there are really only a few, and the key to their use is the
recognition of the old in the new garb, and the having of a few type
recipes clearly in mind. Each kind of prepared dish has one, or two, or
three basic forms or mixtures. Learn these, and then with experience you
will become inventive, and make your own variations. For example, there
are but two kinds of cake,——those made with butter (or other fat) and
those without butter (the sponge cake). You will not attempt to memorize
many recipes, but you will find that in studying these type recipes you
have learned a few proportions so well that you cannot forget them. When
you have reached this stage of freedom you will still do exact work, but
your ingenuity and taste will have free play and you will not be tied to
other people’s recipes. But you cannot well begin at this end.

Make some plan for recording new recipes that you test and find good. It
may be a printed recipe, or one that a friend gives you. The most
convenient plan is a recipe box or card file. The guide cards are arranged
alphabetically, and each recipe is either pasted upon a card or written
upon it. This plan makes it easy to discard an old recipe, or one that has
proved unsatisfactory, and to keep new recipes in alphabetical order,
which cannot be done in a book. A loose-leaf book is made for recipes,
alphabetized at the side, with envelopes for holding cuttings that may be
fastened in between the pages. This is a little less easy to use than the
card file.

=Weighing and measuring.=——The system is “Avoirdupois,” sixteen ounces to
the pound. Learn to read the scales exactly, and when weighing, always
allow for the weight of the utensil or paper holding the food. Weighing is
more accurate than measuring, but it is slower, and the measuring can be
made sufficiently accurate for most daily work. Weighing is necessary in
the cookery of large pieces of meat and with poultry in order to estimate
correctly the time for cooking; and it is more convenient to weigh than
measure when preserving fruit if the quantities are large. Also in
studying food values it is usually necessary to weigh the articles of

The measures in common use are the saltspoon, teaspoon, and tablespoon,
the half-pint measuring cup, the pint, quart, and gallon of liquid
measure. The saltspoon is not accurate, and it is better to use some
fraction of a teaspoonful. Teaspoons and tablespoons of a standard volume
may be found at some furnishing shops. The spoons in common use vary in
size, and the only way to approximate accuracy is to use the level
spoonful. This is now the common practice. Tin and glass half-pint cups
are made gauged in quarters and thirds. Those commonly on sale sometimes
measure more than one fourth of the standard quart. Inquire when you buy
if the cup measure is standard,——that is, exactly one half standard pint.
A quart measure, with four divisions, is necessary for careful work. A
pint measure is convenient, but not necessary if you have the quart and
half-pint measuring cup.

It is necessary to know the relation of these different weights and
measures to each other. While you may find tables of relative weight and
measures in many cookbooks, it is much better for you to work out a few of
the most useful for yourself, making careful record in your notebooks.

The following abbreviations are short cuts in reading and writing.

  oz.   = ounce
  lb.   = pound
  ssp.  = saltspoonful
  tsp.  = teaspoonful
  tbsp. = tablespoonful
  cp.   = cup
  pt.   = pint
  qt.   = quart
  gall. = gallon

If you wish something quicker even than this for notebook work, you can

  t = teaspoonful
  T = tablespoonful
  C = cup
  P = pint
  Q = quart
  G = gallon

_Experiments in weighing and measuring._[9]

Answer these questions by performing the experiments. Record in notebook
in orderly form.

_Apparatus._ Standard scales, a quart measure, and for each pupil a
measuring cup, table knife, teaspoon, and tablespoon.

_Materials._ Those mentioned below.

1. How many eggs (medium size) to 1 lb.?

2. What is the weight of one egg?

3. Of one pint of flour?

4. Of one cup of flour?

5. Of one cup of granulated sugar?

6. Of one cup of powdered sugar?

7. Of one pint of milk?

8. Average the weight of six potatoes.

9. How many level teaspoonfuls of flour to a level tablespoonful?

10. How many teaspoonfuls of water to a tablespoonful?

11. How many tablespoonfuls of flour to a cup?

12. How many tablespoonfuls of water to a cup?

(These relative measures are convenient for dividing recipes.)

13. Measure a level tablespoonful of flour, by filling the spoon, holding
it level, and leveling the flour by running the back of the knife quickly
from the base of the bowl of the spoon to the tip.

How can you most accurately divide this in halves? In quarters?

14. How much does a cup of flaked cereal weigh?

15. How much does a cup of granular cereal weigh?

16. Butter is hard to measure in a cup. If a recipe calls for 1/4 cup
butter, it is easier to measure it by tablespoonfuls. Find out how many
make 1/4 cup.

17. How much does a cup of butter weigh? If you know this, you can weigh
it, instead of measuring, or if your butter is in pound “pats,” you will
be able to cut off a cupful, instead of weighing it.

18. An old-fashioned recipe for sponge cake reads thus: Take the weight of
the eggs in sugar and half their weight in flour. Translate this into

=Preparing and mixing.=——Food materials that are not to be mixed with
others still need special preparation before heat is applied.

For fruits and vegetables, _washing_ is the first stage, followed by
_scraping_, _paring_, _peeling_, _cutting_, or _slicing_. Meats, poultry,
and fish must be cleaned by wiping, and _cut_ and _trimmed_ with a sharp

Cooked meats and fish and vegetables may be _chopped_ or _sliced_.

Cooked vegetables are also _mashed_ and _beaten_.

Cream is _whipped_ or _beaten_, and eggs served raw likewise.

These seem simple processes, but each one needs a good tool and a knack in
the muscles. Each method will be taken up in detail, with each food

_Methods of mixing_ are important, where several ingredients are combined.
We seek for a way that will give the most complete mingling of all the
substances with smoothness and lightness, at the same time saving time and
strength. We must look always for the “short cut.” It is necessary to have
the texture of the food such that it can be well masticated and mixed with
the digestive fluids, but time is too precious to spend hours on a
dessert, or in beating biscuits.

_Sifting_, or putting materials through a fine mesh, is used to lighten
flour that has been packed down, to remove coarse portions, or to mix
thoroughly several dry ingredients.

_Stirring_ is done with a spoon, and is a round and round motion, used for
mixing a liquid and a dry ingredient.

_Rubbing_ is used for combining a dry ingredient with a semi-solid
substance like butter. _Creaming_ is a term used for the rubbing of butter
until it becomes soft and creamy. A spoon should be used, not the hand.

“_Cutting in_” with a knife is used for combining butter with flour in
biscuit and pastry where the butter should not be softened.

_Beating_ with a spoon, or beater of the spoon type, is a free over and
over motion, the spoon being lifted from the mixture for the backward
stroke. This is used for increasing the smoothness of the mixture after
the first stirring, and for beating in air. It needs a strong free motion
of the forearm. Beating is also accomplished by the rotary motion of a
mechanical beater like the Dover.

_Cutting and folding_ is the delicate process of mixing lightly beaten egg
with a liquid or semi-liquid without losing out the air. The spoon is cut
in, sidewise, a rotary motion carries it down and up again, and it folds
in the beaten egg as it goes.

_Kneading_ is a motion used with dough, and is a combination of a rocking
and pressing motion, accomplished by the hands. A good result can be
obtained by some bread machines, and this is the cleaner method.

_Rolling out_ is just what the term denotes, a rolling of a thick piece of
dough by means of a cylindrical wooden “pin” to the thickness proper for
cookies and crusts. Dry bread is also rolled to break it into fine crumbs.

_Pounding_ and _grinding_ are usually accomplished for us now in factories
in breaking of spices and coffee. It is better to have a coffee mill at

_The order of mixing_ is important in its effect in batters and doughs and
is discussed in that chapter.

=Cooking processes.=——For the beginnings of cooking we should need to go
back to the days when game was roasted by the open fire, built for warmth,
or corn parched on hot stones. Perhaps some root was cooked in the hot
ashes. This primitive method of roasting we still use in camp fires, and
in modified form wherever food is directly exposed to the heat of coal or
gas. Water could not be a cooking medium until man advanced at least to
the first stage of pottery making, when some rude basket daubed with clay
was water-tight and sufficiently heat proof.

Application of heat is the most difficult stage of the whole process of
cookery. It is so easy to have the heat too intense, or too low, to expose
the food for too long or too short a time to its action. Most of our
apparatus fails to give us a uniform heat, the tendency being to an
increase or decrease of temperature. Since the boiling temperature of
water remains at 212° F., boiling is an easy process to manage, provided
the water does not boil out. The presence of water insures a low or
moderate temperature always.

It requires patience and time to learn how to bring this natural force of
heat under control. One novice who had allowed a flour paste to boil over
and burn while she was looking out of the window remarked: “We may forget,
but they never do!”——a pretty way of stating the steady working of
nature’s forces which we can harness for our use only by the exercise of
reason and will and constant watchfulness. The unintelligent cook is
impatient of slow processes, and cannot believe that food will finally be
“done” unless the water is at a “galloping” boil, and a red-hot fire is
keeping the oven at burning temperature.

Look upon the application of heat as a continuation of nature’s slow
ripening process, a softening of tough fibers and a development of
pleasing flavors. For why do we cook at all except for these reasons?
Primitive man thought only that the food had a better taste. He may have
decided, too, that it was easier to masticate; but we have learned that in
some cases we may, with right methods of cooking, make it easier to digest
farther on in the alimentary canal. Modern science carries us a step
farther and teaches us that cooking destroys lower organisms, such as
harmful bacteria that may be present, and even animal parasites in meats.

We cook, therefore, _to improve the appearance of food, to develop
flavors, to render some foodstuffs more digestible and to destroy

We have at our command the following processes:

=Heat direct= from coal, charcoal, wood, or gas.

_Toasting._——Surfaces of food exposed and turned for browning.

_Broiling._——Thin portions of meat or fish exposed and turned for searing,
browning, and short cooking of the interior.

_Roasting._——Thicker cuts of meat exposed and turned frequently for
searing, browning, and gradual cooking of the interior. This is an ancient
method. It survives in the French “Rôtisserie”; and we use it in the
modern gas stove when we cook directly _under_ the gas.

=Heat through an intervening medium.=

_Water_, the medium.

_Boiling._——Cooking in boiling water, temperature, 212° F., or 100° C.

_Simmering_, _stewing_, or “_coddling_.”——Cooking in water below the
boiling temperature, 180° F. up to 210° F.

_Steaming._——Cooking in a receptacle into which steam penetrates, 212°
F.——or in a closed receptacle surrounded by steam or boiling water as in
a double boiler, or a “steamer,” temperature from 200° F. to 210° F.

_Fat_, the medium.

_Deep fat frying_, temperature 350°-400° F.

_Heated surfaces_, the medium.

_Pan broiling._——Cooking of chops or steaks in a heated pan, without
additional fat.

_Sauté._——To cook in a heated pan with a small amount of fat, enough
merely to prevent the food from sticking to the pan and to hasten the
browning process. “Baking” cakes on a griddle is a modification of this

_Baking._——Cooking in a heated oven, temperature from 300° F. to 450° F.,
or higher for rapid browning. Meat and poultry cooked in an oven are baked
and not roasted, although we use the word “roast” for this method.

_Braising._——Cooking meat in a heated oven in a closed vessel, with a
supply of water to keep down the temperature. This might be called an
“oven stew.”

These methods are sometimes combined in one process. In a brown stew, the
meat is first cooked in a pan with a little fat to brown it, and to sear
the outside for retaining the juices, before the actual stewing begins. A
“pot-roast,” is an old-fashioned method of cooking a solid piece of meat
with a little water in a pot on top of the stove. The water simmers out,
and the meat is browned. What methods does this process unite?

The American Indians in their Squantum, or Clam Bake, heated a layer of
stones by means of a fire on top, removing the ashes when the fire died
down. A layer of wet seaweed was placed on the stones, and upon this
clams, fish, and corn were laid, and covered with another layer of
seaweed. We have inherited this method from the Indians, and use it at the
shore. What is the cooking process?

=Care of food after cooking.=——Bread, cake, cookies, and pastry should be
cooled on a rack, or spread out in such a way that they do not steam. They
should then be placed in a tin box or stone jar, which has been cleaned by
washing and scalding with boiling water, and thoroughly dried. This
process destroys any mold that might be lurking about. Keep paraffin paper
on hand to cover this class of food in its box or jar. This will prevent
too rapid drying out. Do not use cloth. It flavors the bread or cake, no
matter how clean it may be.

All food that is to be served cold or reheated should be cooled before
placing in the ice box. For what reason? Cool by placing in a draught, or
set the vessel containing the food in running cold water from the faucet.
It is particularly important to cool soups and broths rapidly. Which of
these methods will you use, as being the more rapid?

All meat that is to be served cold should be cooled, especially if it is
rare, or underdone. How will you accomplish this?

=Care of left overs.=——This is one of the tests of food management. It is
so easy at the end of a meal either to throw food away, or set it into the
refrigerator on the dish in which it has been served. Have a good supply
of cheap bowls, plates, and saucers to hold left overs in the
refrigerator, thus avoiding one possibility for breakage of the table

Keep _slices of bread_ for toasting, _pieces of bread_, to dry for crumbs,
with special receptacles for each. Return pieces of _cake_ to the cake
box. _Muffins_ may be reheated. _Toast_ may be kept to serve under eggs or

All _butter_ should be saved. Pieces left on butter plates if clean should
be scraped into a wide-mouthed jar and kept for cooking.

Pieces of _meat_ should be kept for reheating or “made” dishes, stews or
soups or for salads. In hot weather, let your first order of meat be
small, and dispose of left overs as rapidly as possible.

_Vegetables_ may be reheated, or used for flavoring soups and stews, or
used cold in salads.

_Desserts_ and _fruits_ may be used for a “pick up” luncheon.

_Salads_ do not keep their freshness and flavor well, and should be used
very soon.

_Milk_ and _cream_ should be returned to proper receptacles in the
refrigerator as soon as possible.

=Disposal of waste food.=——This is the final test of good housekeeping,
and many otherwise good housekeepers fail just here. Even at its best the
garbage pail is not altogether a pleasing object, and at its worst it is
unspeakable. It must not be ignored.

Have a system adapted to your own kitchen, and the municipal method of
disposal, if there is such.

Use a covered pail of enamel ware, rather than one of galvanized iron. The
surface of the enamel is smooth, and therefore easier to wash, and there
is no excuse for putting off the cleansing of the pail. Wash, rinse, and
dry the pail and the cover immediately after it is emptied. Do not put a
piece of paper in the bottom of the pail. This request is made by the
department in New York City, and it is always better not to mix food waste
and paper waste. If you live in an apartment house, your name should be
painted on the pail.

Never put liquid into the garbage pail with solid refuse. Strain out
whatever liquid may be left in coffee or tea, and pour it into the sink
drain. If there is a greasy liquid to throw away, add to it a teaspoonful
or more of washing powder, and let it stand a time. If you have used
enough of the powder, you will find that you have a soapy liquid to pour
down the sink.

Coffee, tea, cocoa, or lemonade left in cups should be diluted and poured
down the sink and never into the garbage pail.

Empty garbage at evening when possible, to prevent the long standing
through the night. Keep the pail closely covered both day and night, to
keep out flies, and water bugs, if they are about. Allow the pail to stand
outside the kitchen unless the fire escape is the only accessible
out-of-doors. Remember that the fire escape is not a back porch, and that
you would be fined for using it as such if the inspectors were efficient.

There are two classes of waste: uncooked refuse, like potato skins, egg
shells, pea pods, meat trimmings and bones; and table scraps from plates.

_Pieces of fat_ may be “tried out,” but do not accumulate more than you
use. A few _egg shells_ may be kept for settling coffee, but again do not
keep too many.

The _country dweller_ has a simple problem. What the farm animals do not
eat will serve as fertilizer for plant life. After the bones have been
picked, keep them together, in some receptacle, and finally bury or burn
them. Have a compost heap properly covered where the uneaten fragments
will decompose and make fertilizer, or bury them at once if preferred.

The _city dweller_ who uses a coal stove is able to burn some refuse.
Strain out whatever liquid is present, dry the refuse _under_ the grate,
and put it into a _hot_ fire. Do not crowd damp refuse into the fire box
when the fire is low, for it will smoulder, and this heavy smoke will
eventually clog the flues. The odor of this smoke, too, is disagreeable in
the neighborhood. A garbage drier, set into the stove pipe, has been
devised, but the simpler plan of drying the refuse under the grate is
quite as satisfactory.

Where gas or kerosene is the fuel, or where electricity is used, the
garbage pail is the only resort, unless one lives in a building equipped
with a special stove or “garbage burner” for the disposal of waste.


1. What is a principle in cooking?

2. What are the effects of heat upon the foodstuffs?

3. What is meant by technique in cookery?

4. What are the essentials in caring for food in the house?

5. What are the steps in the preparation of food?

6. Explain the origin and usefulness of a recipe.

7. What are the standard weights and measures?

8. What is the purpose of stirring ingredients? Of beating?

9. What is the difference between boiling and steaming?

10. The difference between baking and roasting? Roasting and broiling?
Broiling and toasting?

11. What is the difference between frying and the sauté?

12. Describe the care of “left overs” and waste.

                               CHAPTER V

                       WATER AND OTHER BEVERAGES

Although water does not supply energy to the body, it plays an important
part in nutrition. As building material, it constitutes about two thirds
of the body weight, and as a regulator of body processes it serves as a
solvent and carrier of nutritive material and waste, keeps the blood and
digestive fluids of proper concentration, and helps to regulate the
temperature of the body. It is contained in nearly all food materials and
is the basis of all beverages.

=Water as a beverage.=——Water is being given off all the time from the
body through the lungs, skin, and kidneys. The exact amount depends partly
upon atmospheric conditions and the amount of exercise, which affect the
loss through the lungs and skin, and partly on the amount taken in, for
water passes through the body rather quickly. We can endure lack of food
for weeks, but can exist only a few days without water.

A drink of water taken the first thing in the morning tends to clean out
the digestive tract and put one in good condition for breakfast. Water
with meals aids digestion, provided it is not used to wash down food but
is taken when the mouth is empty. It should not be extremely cold nor hot.
Two glasses at a single meal are usually all that are desirable. When
there is much water in the food, as in soups, milk, fruits, and some
vegetables, or when other beverages are taken, less will be taken as plain
water. When one feels hungry and uncomfortable between meals a drink of
water will often relieve the sensation.

Water is either _soft_ or _hard_. Rain water is perfectly soft, but as it
passes through the earth after falling, it sometimes becomes laden with
mineral substances, that affect its cleansing properties, and that may
affect its physiological action. Such water is called _hard_.

_Temporary hardness_ is caused by a soluble lime compound which is
precipitated by boiling. If the teakettle is incrusted inside by a layer
of lime, the hardness is of this character. Such water should be boiled
and cooled for drinking. _Permanent hardness_ is due to other compounds of
lime and magnesia which are not precipitated by boiling, but which can be
counteracted for cleansing purposes by the addition of some substance like
ammonia, borax, or soda. If the excess of salts has some undesirable
physiological effect, this water should be distilled, or bottled water for
drinking brought from elsewhere.

Of much greater importance is the question of the freedom of the water
supply from harmful bacteria and organic matter. Never use a well without
having the water tested by an expert. This will sometimes be done by the
local or state Board of Health or Experiment Station. All water sources
should be guarded from contamination. (See “Shelter and Clothing,” Chapter
V.) Filters may be used, and are effective in straining out sediment, but
the home filter is seldom to be relied upon to remove actual bacterial
contamination. If used at all, the filter should be frequently cleaned and
sterilized in boiling water. In case the supply is suspected, the water
for drinking should be boiled for at least ten minutes, allowed to settle,
if necessary, and poured off into bottles for cooling. This is a practice
to be commended after a heavy rainfall, and especially in the autumn.
These bottles may be placed on the ice.

Ice must be used with caution always in drinking water, and it is the
safer way to cool the water beside the ice. The freezing of water in pond
and river does not purify or sterilize it. Natural ice is usually
questionable. Artificial ice, if properly manufactured, is much safer.

Always have a supply of water in covered pitcher or water bottle, with
clean glasses at hand, where it may be taken freely when wanted. Remember
that the individual cup or glass is an absolute necessity. The dipper or
glass in common must not be countenanced. In a large family of many
children it would save labor to use paper cups between meals.

Water should be swallowed slowly, and ice-cold water should not be taken
when one is overheated. When one is overthirsty, control must be exercised
in regard to quantity and rapidity of drinking.

=Water in cooking.=——Water is necessary to the softening of fiber, and the
cooking of starch. It acts as a solvent for sugar and salt and for
gelatin, and is the basis of meat soups, certain substances in the meat
dissolving in the water. The flavors of tea and coffee are extracted by

As a medium in cooking it supplies heat in the steaming, boiling, and
stewing processes, and in the form of melting ice with salt it acts as a
freezing medium.

It is not necessary to lift the cover of a kettle to see if the water
boils, if one is familiar with the action of water nearing and at the
boiling point. A simple experiment with the boiling of water in a Florence
flask is always interesting, and from it one gains practical knowledge.

_Experiments with the boiling temperature of water._

_A._ _Apparatus_: A ring stand, a Florence flask, a square of wire net, a
chemical thermometer, a Bunsen burner.

_Method_: Place the Florence flask, half full of water, on the square of
wire net upon the large ring of the ring stand over the Bunsen burner.
Put the chemical thermometer in the Florence flask, clamping it in such a
way that the bulb is covered by the water and yet does not touch the
bottom of the flask.

Make record in the notebook as follows:

(1) The temperature when the first small bubbles appear on the side of the

(2) Temperature when the first large bubbles appear on the bottom.

(3) Temperature when many bubbles rise rapidly to the top.

(4) Point at which temperature ceases to rise.

(5) Temperature when vapor first appears at the mouth of the flask.

(6) What differences are apparent in the amount and motion of the vapor
before and after boiling?

(7) Lift the thermometer above the water and note the temperature just
above the surface, when the water is rapidly boiling.

The small bubbles are bubbles of air. The large are bubbles of steam. A
complete study of the boiling process should be made in the Physics class.
The boiling point is the point at which water becomes steam, and also the
point at which steam condenses again to water. The temperature of boiling
water and steam are the same. Under pressure steam may be heated to a
higher temperature.

_B._ Boil water in a small saucepan closely covered.

(1) Note the _sounds_ of the water just before boiling, and the change in
sound as the boiling begins.

(2) Note the difference between the vapor escaping, before boiling, and
after. This experiment is best performed in a teakettle.

_C._ Test the temperature of the inner part of the double boiler, when the
water boils rapidly below. To be exact, a hole should be bored in the
cover of the boiler, a cork with a hole inserted, the thermometer run
through the cork. An approximate result is obtained by putting in the
thermometer, setting on the cover tilted, and covering the opening with a

_D._ Stir salt into rapidly boiling water in the lower part of the double
boiler until no more salt will dissolve (a saturated solution). Test the

_E._ Put the inner part of the double boiler containing water into this
boiling solution of saturated salt, being sure that the inner part is
sufficiently deep in the salt solution. Note the temperature of the water
in the inner boiler when it becomes heated.

=Boiling at high altitudes.=——When the air pressure upon the surface of
the water is lessened, the water boils at a lower temperature. As the
altitude increases, the air pressure decreases, as many a mountain
traveler knows to his cost. The boiling temperature of water is so much
lowered that the dwellers in high regions of several thousand feet find it
difficult to cook starchy vegetables well. A heavy iron pot is made with
clamps for fastening down a tight cover, which increases the temperature
somewhat. Experiments _D_ and _E_ indicate a method that can be used to a
small extent. The baking process should be largely used, and boiling
avoided. For meat, eggs, and fish the lower temperature is not
undesirable. (See the chapters relating to these foods.)

=The uses of ice.=——Water freezes and ice melts at the same point, 32° F.,
or 0° C. If ice is mixed with salt, the temperature is reduced far below
the freezing point, nearly to 0° F. This process reduces any watery
substance which it surrounds to its freezing point, the heat being used in
the melting of the ice. This is an interesting topic to discuss in the
Physics class.

Ice at its ordinary temperature of 32° F. is used for cooling food
agreeably. Its most important function in the refrigerator is as preserver
of food for a short time at least. For this it is invaluable, and cheap
ice is really necessary in summer to the health of a great city.

=Ice substitutes.=——Where the supply fails or the price is exorbitant, one
property of water makes it a partial aid. The rapid evaporation of water
will absorb heat so rapidly as to reduce the temperature of adjacent
bodies. In the tropics when ice is lacking, water is hung in porous jars
in the breeze, and the temperature of the water in the jar is reduced.

To keep milk and butter cool wrap a wet cloth about the containing jar,
and set the jar upon the window sill, keeping one end of the towel in a
vessel of water; or the cloth may be wrapped directly around the butter.
This method is surprisingly effective.

=Fruit beverages.=——Fruit juices with water and sugar make refreshing
beverages and have nutritive value as well. (See the next chapter.)

=Cocoa and chocolate, coffee, and tea.=——These are the three most
important non-alcoholic beverages used by man. They are used because of
the agreeable flavor given them by volatile oils, and also because they
have a stimulating effect. The stimulating property is due to an alkaloid,
a crystallizable substance known in cocoa as theobromine, in coffee as
caffeine, and in tea as theine. Chemical investigation indicates that
caffeine and theine are the same and theobromine is a closely related
substance. These substances have a recognized stimulating effect upon the
nervous system, and the beverages containing them should therefore be used
with caution by all. In the opinion of the writers, tea and coffee should
not be taken by young people under twenty-five years of age. Tea and
coffee also contain tannin, an astringent substance giving a disagreeable
flavor to coffee and tea when these are improperly made, and having an
undesirable effect upon digestion. Chocolate contains a non-volatile fat
(cocoa butter) in large amount, and should be classed as a food as well as
a beverage.

The plants from which cocoa, coffee, and tea are derived are natives of
semi-tropical or tropical Africa, Asia, and America, having been
introduced to Europe by early travelers in these lands.

The introduction of these beverages is an interesting bit of history. The
Spaniards found cocoa in tropical America, and carried it back to Spain,
and it was not used in England until 1657. It was sold in Danvers,
Massachusetts, in 1771, the raw material having been brought by Gloucester
fishermen from the West Indies. Coffee is said to have originated in
Abyssinia, reaching Europe by way of Arabia, and being sold in England in
1650. Coffee-houses were licensed in America in 1715. A Chinese tradition
places the discovery of the use of tea at 2700 B.C. It was first used in
England in 1657, and was imported into America in 1711. An amusing story
is told of the first tea party in a town of western Connecticut, where the
tea was boiled violently in a large iron kettle and served on a platter
with the leaves, as a form of soup, the leaves themselves being eaten.

=Cocoa and chocolate.=——Cocoa and chocolate are manufactured from the seed
of a tree, _Theobroma cacao_, grown in tropical America. The seeds, when
removed from the containing pod, are fermented to improve the flavor,
dried, cleaned, roasted, and finally ground. The outer husk is loosened in
the roasting, and is then removed, and sold as “cocoa shells.” It is the
basis of a cheap beverage with an agreeable flavor. The first crushing of
the seeds gives cocoa “nibs,” and these are further ground in a mill, and
finally molded into the cake of plain chocolate. The addition of sugar,
vanilla, cinnamon, and sometimes other spices gives a variety of sweet
chocolates. Powdered cocoa is prepared by the removal of the fat, which is
a valuable product in itself, sugar and flavorings are added and sometimes
a starch. The Dutch manufacturers use alkalies for removing the crude
fiber and improving the color, and the consequent loss of flavor is
balanced by the use of other flavoring matter. The adulterations of cocoa
are largely starch in excess. The French and American cocoas are flavored
with vanilla, the Dutch manufacturers using cinnamon as well.

The so-called soluble cocoas are very finely ground, and therefore mix
readily with water, remaining in suspension for some time, but the cocoa
itself is not dissolved. Powdered cocoa is bought in tin cans, is cheap,
and is even more economical if bought in large cans than in small.
Chocolate is more expensive always than the cocoa, and may be bought in
cakes in pound packages, or in powdered form for immediate use.

_Coffee_ is the inner seed of a berry from a tree, _Coffea arabica_, the
process of manufacture consisting of the removal of the outer pulp,
fermentation, washing, drying, and roasting. The first stages of the
process are carried on at the coffee plantation, the raw berries being
imported, and roasted shortly before using. The roasting in cocoa, coffee,
and tea is necessary for desirable flavors, the heat developing volatile,
aromatic principles, caramelizing the sugar, and causing other chemical
changes. The differences in the flavor of coffees are due to the variety,
the soil and climate, and methods of production and manufacture. No coffee
grown in the western hemisphere has excelled, and scarcely has any
equaled, the original Mocha and Java coffees, and these have long been
trade names for coffee from other places, because of the popular liking
for these brands. Brazil is now the great coffee producing country of the
world, and from South and Central America and the West Indies we obtain
coffee of excellent flavor.

The adulterations of coffee should be noted, although these are of the
kind that gives the buyer something cheaper in place of coffee, rather
than a substance that is injurious. Ground chicory root is sometimes mixed
with coffee, but cannot be classed strictly as an adulterant, because
many people, notably the French, add it openly, preferring its flavor.
Among adulterants are rye meal, bran, beans and peas, cocoa shells, and
even sawdust. Artificial beans have been made of bran, molasses, and
water, sometimes with the addition of chicory and coloring matter. If
ground coffee is put into a glass of cold water, it floats on the top and
remains hard, while several of the adulterants named soften and sink to
the bottom of the glass. Highly roasted coffee, however, will sometimes
sink. Coffee beans from which coffee extract has been made are sometimes
mixed with other coffee.

Coffee extracts and crystallized coffee are manufactured to simplify the
coffee-making process, but the flavor is not equal to that of coffee
infusion made directly from the bean. A preparation of coffee is also
offered with the caffeine removed by some chemical process, but it is
expensive in this country.

Buy coffee in the bean, and see that it is freshly roasted. Coffee, whole
or ground, is sold extensively by the pound in tin cans, with a fancy
label and name, and in this form it is usually expensive. Good coffee may
be bought for twenty-five cents a pound of many reliable dealers, and may
be purchased in five or ten pound packages, or bought in bulk to be kept
in a tightly closed can.

_Tea_ is the dried leaf of a shrub, _Camellia thea_, growing in the
comparatively high lands of Japan, China, India, and Ceylon. A tea
plantation exists in South Carolina, U.S.A., and furnishes a very pleasing
grade of tea, somewhat resembling Japan tea in flavor. We are familiar
with the fact that there are many kinds and grades of tea, the tea shrub
varying as does the coffee tree, and the methods of curing affecting both
color and flavor. The teas from the countries named have characteristic
flavors, and each country has different varieties and grades. Russian tea
is not grown in Russia, but is Chinese tea carried across the continent of

In general, tea may be classed as green or black, this difference in color
depending upon the age of the leaf, and largely upon differences in the
curing process. Green tea is made from the young leaf, and after picking
is dried immediately by artificial heat, being constantly stirred for
about an hour, in which time the leaves twist and curl. For black tea the
leaves are allowed to wilt and ferment, before they are rolled and heated;
and sometimes the heating is repeated. These details of the process vary
in different localities. The leaves are finally sorted and graded for

Both black and green teas are made in China. “Bohea” is one of the famous
black Chinese teas. “English Breakfast Tea” is known as such only in
America, and is a blend of black teas. Black tea is not so successfully
made in Japan as in China. “Oolong,” from the island of Formosa, has the
appearance of a black tea, with the flavor of a green. In Japan and China
old-time methods prevail, with much handling of the tea leaves, but in
Ceylon and India modern machinery makes the process a much more cleanly

Another classification of tea is that depending upon the age and size of
the leaf, the young leaf making the finer grade tea. For example, in the
black teas of India “flowery pekoe” is made from the youngest leaf,
“orange pekoe” from the second, “pekoe” from the third, and “souchong” and
“congou” come from the larger leaves.

The adulterations of tea are usually the leaves of other plants, but as a
matter of fact very little adulterated tea is imported. The first grades
of teas, however, and those most highly prized by the Chinese and
Japanese, seldom find their way to America.

=Other beverages.=——Several very acceptable coffee substitutes are on the
market, made from roasted and ground grain, and they give an agreeable hot
drink for breakfast when served with cream or milk. In some cases they
seem to have a laxative effect, which is well for some people and not for
others. A pleasant hot drink of the same nature may be made from the
browned crusts of bread.

The substitutes for tea are not usually satisfactory. The Indians of the
western coast of the United States make a tea from a plant which they call
“Buona Yerba,” but for us it has a strong resemblance to the medicinal
herb teas formerly used for curative purposes, such as sage, catnip,
motherwort, and the like.

                      GENERAL METHODS AND RECIPES

=1. Lemonade and fruit drinks.=

_Utensils._——Silver knife for paring and slicing, glass lemon squeezer, a
grater, a strainer, and a saucepan. Avoid the use of tin and iron

_Materials._——Lemon or other fruits, sugar water.

_Proportions._——One half lemon to a glass, or 2 or 3 to a quart of water.
Other fruits “according to taste.” Experiment here, using the juice and
pulp of any fruit, combining those that are very acid with those that lack
acidity,——lemon and raspberry, for example. One third to 1/2 cup sugar to
a quart. The proportion cannot be stated with exactness, for fruit varies
in acidity, and the final result must always be tested by the taste.


=Plain lemonade.=——After deciding upon the proper amounts to be used,
dissolve the sugar in a part of the water, brought to the boiling point.
When cool, add the lemon juice and remaining water, ice and serve. A small
portion of grated rind may be added to the boiling water.

Another method is to use lump sugar, rubbing the peel of the lemon upon
each lump before dissolving.

The general method is the same with other fruits, pulpy fruit and berries
being mashed, the water added, and strained.

_Cherries_, _strawberries_, and pieces of _pulp_ are sometimes added
before serving, when the fruit drink is ladled from a bowl as fruit punch.
Be sure to cut the berries if they are large. A brightness is imparted to
the fruit punch by the addition of carbonated water just before serving. A
quart of fruit punch, if served in small cups, will suffice for eight

=2. Cocoa shells.=

_Principle._——To extract the flavor from the shells, by boiling in water.

_Utensil._——A saucepan or coffee boiler.

_Proportions._——One half cup shells to 1 quart boiling water. As much as 1
cup of the shells may be used.


Wash the shells in a strainer under the faucet. Put the shells in the pot,
pour on boiling water, and simmer gently for 1/2 hour. Strain off, and
serve with cream, or milk, or evaporated milk and sugar.

=3. Cocoa.=

_Principle._——To mix the particles smoothly and evenly with the liquid by
stirring and by heating.

_Utensils._——A measuring cup, a saucepan, spoon, and beater. A double
boiler, if milk only is used.

_Ingredients._——Powdered cocoa, sugar, water, or milk, or milk and water.
Cocoa made with milk does not agree with some people, in which case it may
be made with water only, and served with cream, milk, or evaporated milk.

_Proportions._——One teaspoonful of cocoa to 1/2 measuring cup. More or
less as preferred. One teaspoonful of sugar, ditto.


Heat the liquid. Stir a portion of the liquid cold, with the cocoa, add
this to the hot liquid, add the sugar, and beat vigorously for a minute
before removing from the fire.

=4. Chocolate.=

_Principle._——To mix the chocolate smoothly with the liquid that the fat
may not float on the top. This is accomplished by having all the
ingredients either hot or cold. If after the chocolate is dissolved in a
hot liquid, cold liquid is added, the oil separates and floats.

_Utensils._——A grater, or sharp knife, a saucepan, mixing spoon, and

A French chocolate maker claims that any metal utensil affects the flavor
of the chocolate, and always uses an earthen pot and wooden spoon and
heater. An earthenware chocolate pot for this purpose is on the market.

_Ingredients._——Chocolate, sugar, milk, or milk and water.

_Proportions._——The amount of chocolate may be varied, depending upon the
richness desired. Three or 4 ounce squares to 1 quart liquid, 4
teaspoonfuls sugar to 1 quart. The liquid is better half milk and half
water, rather than milk only.

_Method 1._[10]

The cold method.

Put the liquid and sugar into the saucepan. Break or cut the chocolate
into small pieces, add to the liquid, and heat the liquid slowly, stirring
occasionally but not constantly. When the liquid is hot, just before it
reaches the boiling point, beat vigorously with a wooden spoon, or beater.
The Dover beater is convenient. This beating makes a velvety smooth and a
foamy mixture.

_Method 2._

The hot method.

Heat the liquid with the sugar. Grate the chocolate or shave it with a
knife. Protect the chocolate from the warmth of the fingers by a piece of
paper. The process is less “sticky” if the chocolate and grater are
chilled in the refrigerator. Just as the liquid is reaching the boiling
point, pour in the grated chocolate, and beat vigorously.

Beaten chocolate does not need any additional cream when served. Beaten
whipped cream is attractive on the top of each cup. But remember that
chocolate is already rich in fat, and that additional fat may be
indigestible. Such a cup of chocolate taken for luncheon with a roll is
sufficient for the meal, and is certainly too rich in fat for serving at
an afternoon tea.

=5. Coffee.=

_Principle._——To extract the flavoring oils at the boiling point of water,
and to avoid the extraction of the tannin. The tannin is extracted by
prolonged boiling, and when the liquid coffee stands upon the grounds.

_Utensils._——Coffee grinder, measuring cup, pot. The kind of pot depends
upon the method used. One house furnishing firm displays some seventy
different coffee pots, but they may be divided into three classes, the
_pot for boiling_, the _drip coffee pot_, and the _percolator_ (see Figs.
23 and 24). The coffee boiler should have a lip, and not a spout. A word
of warning is needed in regard to the care of the pot. Coffee grounds
should be removed from any pot immediately, and the pot washed at once in
scalding hot soapsuds, rinsed, dried, and aired. Let the pot stand with
cover off. If this is not done, a coat is soon formed on the inside of the
pot, which spoils the flavor of the coffee. Where the pot has been
neglected, boiling it out with a solution of caustic soda is sometimes a

[Illustration: FIG. 23.——A pot for boiling coffee and a pot for drip
coffee. _Courtesy of the Brambhall Dean Co._]

[Illustration: FIG. 24.——A coffee percolator. _Courtesy of Landers, Frary
and Clark._]

_Ingredients._——Ground coffee, water, cold or boiling, white of egg or egg
shell for boiled coffee. The coffee should be ground to medium fineness
for boiled coffee, to a finer powder for the percolated and drip coffee.

_Proportions._——One part of coffee to 5 or 6 of water, depending upon the
strength desired. One egg shell, or half the white of an egg to 1 cup of
ground coffee.

_Method 1._

=Boiling.=——Measure the coffee and water. Stir the white or the shell of
an egg with the coffee, adding a little of the water, put this into the
pot, add the remaining water _cold_, stir thoroughly, allow the water to
rise slowly to the boiling point, and to boil one minute, remove the pot
from the fire, pour in a small amount of cold water, and let the coffee
stand for five minutes or until the grounds settle. During the cooking
close the lip with clean soft paper if it has no lid. The actual boiling
is continued for a brief period only, and coffee made by this method is
considered by some people to have a flavor lacking in drip or percolator
coffee. The egg is added to clarify the coffee. Pour off the liquid coffee
from the grounds, and keep hot until it is time to serve it.

A second method differs from this in that the water is poured on at the
boiling temperature, allowed to reach the boiling point in two or three
minutes, and boiled for five minutes. The first gives uniformly better
results. It is true, however, that different kinds of coffee need
different treatment, and there is room here for much experimenting.

_Method 2._

=Drip coffee.=——In this method the coffee is put in a receptacle above,
the water passes slowly through, collecting in the pot below, from which
it is served. Stand the lower part of the pot in a pan of hot water, or
where it will keep hot. Measure the water, and bring it to the boiling
point. Heat the ground coffee slightly, put it in the upper section of the
pot, and pour on the water very slowly. Of course, the water is not
actually boiling when it touches the coffee. If the liquid coffee is not
strong enough, pour it from the lower part and pass it through the grounds
again. This is the French method, and is an excellent way to prepare
after-dinner coffee.

_Method 3._

=Percolator coffee.=——In the percolator the water boils within the pot,
and passes through the coffee at the boiling temperature. The exact method
depends upon the pattern of the pot, and directions always accompany a
given pot. For those who can use electricity, the electric percolator
certainly gives an excellent coffee.

Coffee is served “black,” or with cream, milk, or evaporated milk and
sugar. If milk is used for breakfast coffee, serve it hot.

=6. Tea.=

_Principle._——To extract flavor by allowing the leaves to remain for a few
minutes, in water which has been poured on at the boiling temperature, and
to avoid the extraction of tannin by making the period of steeping short.
Tea must _never_ be boiled.

_Utensils._——An earthen pot, measuring cup, teaspoon, strainer. Sometimes
a tea ball or piece of cheesecloth.

_Proportion._——One teaspoonful of tea to about 1 cup of water, the amount
depending upon the kind of tea.

_Method._——Measure the water and bring it to the boiling point. Heat the
tea slightly in the pot, pour on the water rapidly, allow to stand three
to five minutes, strain into a heated pot for serving. The length of the
steeping depends also upon the kind of tea. If there is an astringent
flavor, the tea has stood too long.

The following method was recommended by an expert in India teas. Bring the
water to a boil in a saucepan, throw in the tea leaves, lift the saucepan
instantly to stop the boiling, steep for 3 or 4 minutes, strain off and
keep hot. This expert claimed that by actually having the tea leaves at
the boiling temperature for an instant the flavor is improved. Serve with
cream or milk, or sliced lemon and sugar.

Where tea is to be served in very large quantities, this last method is
very convenient. The water can be brought to the boil in a large kettle,
and the tea thrown in, but care must be exercised to see that the steeping
does not last too long. The tea, once decanted, can be kept hot for
several hours, without losing flavor. Or again, a small amount of extra
strong tea may be prepared, to be diluted with boiling water as it is
served. The tea ball, or the plan of tying the tea in small pieces of
cheesecloth, is convenient for serving at an afternoon tea.

=7. Iced cocoa, coffee, and tea.=

=Cocoa and coffee= are agreeable in hot weather served in a glass with
ice, and cream and powdered sugar. Make both slightly stronger than for
hot drinks, as the ice in melting dilutes the liquid.

=Iced tea.=——Prepare a small amount of strong tea, using 4 teaspoonfuls to
1 cup boiling water, strain off and cool. Dilute with iced water to the
proper strength, sweeten with powdered sugar, and serve in glasses with
one or two slices of lemon to each glass. For those who do not like the
lemon, iced tea may be served with cream.


1. What are the functions of water in the body?

2. What cautions should be exercised when drinking water?

3. Explain the likenesses and differences of cocoa and chocolate, coffee
and tea.

4. Why is it better to serve whipped cream with cocoa, rather than with

5. Explain the principles in making each beverage.

       *       *       *       *       *

TEACHER’S NOTE.——The beverages are treated in one chapter for convenience,
but need not of necessity come at the beginning of the course. A fruit
beverage, or cocoa, may make a convenient first lesson, when the pupils
are becoming acquainted with the school kitchen. Coffee and tea may be
made during the baking lessons.

                               CHAPTER VI

                       FRUIT AND ITS PRESERVATION

The United States is fortunate in the native fruit supply, including as it
does so many degrees of latitude and longitude with the differences in
altitude, climate, and soil needed by different varieties. Now that we
count Porto Rico among our possessions, a list of our fruits would include
most of the varieties known in the temperate and semi-tropical zones. The
United States Department of Agriculture experiments with new varieties
from foreign lands that may make themselves at home in our soil, and work
like that of Luther Burbank produces new species. Scientific methods of
fruit growing are becoming more common, and the quality of fruit will
doubtless improve in spite of fungous diseases and injurious insects. Our
wild fruits are not yet entirely rooted out. The Maine blueberry, for
example, is found on hundreds of acres and needs no cultivation beyond
burning over every third year.

Fruit is necessary in our diet, and is not an extravagance unless we buy
fancy varieties brought from a distance, or native fruits out of season.

=Composition and nutritive value.=——The chief foodstuffs in fruits are
carbohydrates and mineral matter. Fresh fruit contains from 75 to 95 per
cent of water, and its presence is apparent in such juicy fruits as the
melon and the orange. Figure 25 shows that seemingly dry fruits like the
banana and the apple also contain much water. Even fruits which have been
artificially dried, like prunes and raisins, contain some water. (Fig.
26.) Although the carbohydrates of fruits are largely in the form of
sugars easily digested and valuable as fuel, this kind of food is
especially valuable for its rich supply of ash, including the compounds of
calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, and iron. The iron is of great
importance, being in a form much more useful to the normal processes of
the body than that prescribed medicinally. The bulk given by cellulose,
and the laxative property of fruit acids also are safeguards against
constipation, especially in a meat diet. Fruit is the best possible
dessert after a hearty meat dinner.

[Illustration: FIG. 25.——Composition of fruit.]

[Illustration: FIG. 26.——Composition of fruit.]

[Illustration: FIG. 27.——100-Calorie portions of fresh and dried fruit.
_A. Fowler, Photographer._]


  Apple         7.5
  Banana        5.5
  Grapes        4.9
  Orange        9.5
  Peaches      10.5
  Pears         6.3
  Apricots      1.3
  Dates         1.1
  Prunes        1.4
  Raisins       1.1

The digestibility of fruit is increased for some people by cooking. This
is probably due to the softening of the fiber, to the destruction of any
bacteria present, and in the case of the banana, to the cooking of the
starch. Fruit juice can be taken by little children and invalids who
might find the fiber troublesome. Some people cannot eat berries on
account of irritation caused by the seeds. In this case, juice may be
squeezed from cooked berries and used for beverages and jelly.

=How to buy.=——Since we should eat fruit daily, and not merely as a
“treat,” it is important to practice economy in buying it. Fresh fruits in
season, and dried fruits are the cheapest. Canned fruit is economical when
it is a product of one’s own garden, or put up when some fruit has a low
market price. Prices are so variable, even with one variety, that no
definite sum can be given as a fixed price. Apples vary from fifty cents a
bushel near the orchard and in season, to ten cents apiece for a fancy
table variety in the winter. When you buy fresh fruit, inquire the prices
of the many kinds offered, note which is cheapest, and then observe
whether the cheaper kind is such because it is abundant, or because it is
of inferior quality. If you chance to want apples for cooking, and the
only cheap apples are spotted and bruised, then buy dried apples, or even
canned. It is best to decide upon the fruit after you have studied market
conditions rather than before.

                      GENERAL METHODS AND RECIPES

                              Fresh Fruits

=Principles of preparation.=

    Thorough cleansing in clear water.

    Cleanliness, in avoiding use of the fingers.

    Making convenient for eating, sometimes by paring or cutting or
    expressing the juices.


    The juice of an acid fruit with an insipid fruit.

=Tools.=——A sharp steel knife for paring and peeling.

    A silver-plated knife for cutting.

    A glass lemon squeezer.


    _Berries._——Pick over.

        Wash in colander with a gentle stream of water, and shake
        carefully to avoid bruising and breaking.

        Chill in the refrigerator.

        Sprinkle with sugar when served.

    _Oranges._——Scrub the peel with a brush.

        (1) Cut in two crosswise and serve.

        (2) Peel with a sharp knife and remove the pith.

            Cut crosswise, remove seeds, and break up the slices.
            Sprinkle with sugar.

            Chill in the refrigerator.

    _Grapefruit._——The same method as with the orange, but in method
    (2) the pulp only should be served.

    _Bananas._——Wash thoroughly.

        (1) Cut in two lengthwise, and serve, _or_

            Pour a teaspoonful of lemon juice on each half, and
            sprinkle with sugar.

            Chill in the refrigerator.

        (2) Pull off the skin, lengthwise.

            Cut in slices crosswise.

            Chill, and serve with sugar and cream, _or_

        Pour on lemon or orange juice, add sugar, and chill.

    _Peaches._——Wash gently.

        Hold the peach on a fork at one end.

        Peel with a plated knife, and slice.

        Chill in the refrigerator for a short time only before
        serving, as peaches discolor quickly.

        Sprinkle with sugar when served.

    _Pears and apples._——When very mellow, these are delicious sliced
    and served with sugar and cream.

    _Fruit juice._——Cut the fruit in two, and press on the glass
    squeezer over a cup.

                             Cooked Fruits

=Principles of cooking.=

    The fiber, and skin when retained, are softened.

    Flavors are developed at a low temperature long continued. A high
    temperature at the end of process, browns, and adds flavor.

    Flavors retained by prevention of evaporation through covering

    Bacteria and molds are destroyed.

=Adjuncts.=——Sugar. Sometimes a bit of butter.

    Acid fruit juices, _or_

    An acid jelly.

    Seeded raisins, with acid fruit, as sour apples.

    Nutmeg or cinnamon with some fruits.

=Cooking processes.=——Stewing and baking.

  =Utensils.=——Knife and corer.

    Stew pan, enamel ware, close cover.

    Round or square baking pans, enamel ware, covered.

    Earthenware pot, covered.

=Methods.=——If you can cook one fruit, you can cook all. Two common
fruits are selected for your experiments, the apple and the prune;
both are delicious, and both contain iron, the prune more than the

    _The apple._——A tart variety is best for cooking. The Greening
    and the Baldwin are excellent.

    Apples are cooked whole, or as a sauce.

    _Whole_, cooked with or without the skin, either stewed or baked.

    For cooking whole, select those of uniform size.

    For cooking whole, with the skin, select those with fair skins.

    For cooking whole without skin, select firm texture, not mellow.

    _An apple sauce_ may consist of slices, or may be mashed or
    strained, and may be either stewed or baked. Less perfect apples
    may be used than for baking.

    _First step for all._——Wash, and examine carefully for blemishes,
    bruises, and insects in the interior.

=1. Whole apple baked, with skin.=

    (1) Remove core.

    (2) Place in pan, with enough water to barely cover the bottom of
    the pan.

    (3) Pour sugar into the holes.

    (4) A bit of butter may be put on the top of the sugar.

    (5) Nutmeg or cinnamon may be mixed with the sugar if the apples
    are flat in taste.

    (6) Cover the pan, and bake in a moderate oven, until the apples
    are tender. The length of time depends upon the quality of the
    apple. (See class experiment.)

=Half apples.=——This is a modification of (1).

    Cut the apples in two crosswise, and proceed as with the whole

=2. Whole apples baked, without skin.=——A good method when skins are

    (1) Remove core and pare.

    (2) Place in _earthen_ baking dish. The remainder of the process
    is the same.

    (3) Serve in the dish in which they are baked.

    (4) Currant jelly, or seeded raisins may be placed in the core
    holes instead of sugar.

_Class experiment._——Bake side by side two apples of uniform size, one
with, one without, the skin. Note carefully the length of time for baking
each. What difference? Why is this? It may be necessary in the school
kitchen to bake in a quick oven, on account of the shortness of the class
period. It does not spoil the apple to do this; but the longer process
that you can use at home gives a richer color and flavor.

For this experiment, one pupil may bake the apple without the skin, and
the next pupil one with the skin in case there is but one apple apiece; or
it may be made a class experiment with two apples.

=3. Whole, stewed.= (Compote.)——This is a more difficult method than
method 2, and really no better.

    (1) Core and pare five or six apples.

    (2) Dissolve 1/2 cup sugar in 1/2 pint water in a saucepan.

    (3) Place apples in the sirup. They should be barely covered.

    (4) Cover closely and keep just below the boiling point, until the
    apples are tender.

    (5) Cool slightly, remove the apples with care and place in the
    serving dish. Put a spoonful of jelly in each apple.

    (6) Boil down the sirup and pour it over the apples.

    (7) Chill, before serving with plain or whipped cream.

=4. Apple sauces.=——In the cooking of the whole apple you have all
the principles and processes of apple cooking. You can now make apple
sauce of your own invention, and need no printed directions. Answer
these questions before you begin work. After you have made the sauce,
record the work exactly in your notebook.

If you want the slices of apple to remain whole, will the method be like
1, 2, or 3?

If you wish a smooth sauce, what utensil will you need?

How will you determine the amount of sugar required? If you are very fond
of sugar, your taste may not be the safest guide.

_Practical home work._——If you can secure a very slow oven, say a coal
oven at night, or a gas oven with a low flame, make an apple sauce in an
earthenware pot, as heavy as a bean pot, closely covered, leaving the pot
in the oven from six to eight hours. This process is satisfactory in a
fireless cooker where a hot stone or iron is used. Remember that water
keeps down temperature, and also that it evaporates steadily even in a
slow oven. How much water will you put over the apples when the process

If you have never cooked apples in this way you will be surprised at the
color and flavor.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Some other fruits._——_Pears_ and _quinces_ develop pleasing flavors when

Cook the quinces sliced, as suggested for the apples, in the bean pot,
using a little molasses for sweetening and you will have the delicious
old-time “molasses quince.”

_Prunes._——We are dealing now with a dried fruit. If you compare the
raisins with the grapes in Fig. 26, you will see how much water is lost in
the drying process. The same difference would be evident if you had
pictures of a fresh plum and a prune, side by side. This water must be
supplied in the process of preparation. The best way to accomplish this is
by soaking the prunes many hours, say over night. Prunes have a most
undeserved reputation, because they are not well cooked, and at some
tables are served too often.

With this one new step introduced you may plan the cooking of the prunes,
from what you know of apple sauce. The slower and longer the process, the
better. The cheaper kinds of prunes will be very satisfactory, with the
soaking and slow cooking. What is the sensible thing to do in regard to

If on some occasion you would like prunes to be unusually nice, remove the
stones carefully, and in their places slip in seeded raisins which have
also been soaked and gently stewed.

_Other dried fruits_ may be treated in the same way.

Apricots and peaches yield delightful flavors when carefully prepared; and
dried apples are also excellent.


The preservation of fruit and other foods has been a household industry
for generations, and it is now an important commercial industry. The
old-time farm had its smokehouse where hams and beef were “cured,” the
barrel of brine stood in the cellar for pork and corned beef, apples and
corn were dried for winter use, and rows of preserve jars stood upon the
shelves. Food was preserved by simple processes long before the reason for
the decay and spoiling of food was fully understood, but with larger
knowledge and better appliances, we now preserve food more effectively and
in quantities larger than were possible in former days.

Fruit is the food material now most commonly preserved in the home
kitchen. Vegetables need to be subjected to heat for a much longer time
than fruit, and many people prefer to buy canned vegetables rather than to
go to the trouble and expense of canning them at home. Where there is an
oversupply of vegetables in the home garden, it is sometimes economy to
can them, and this may be done if care is exercised. The cost of fuel and
labor must be counted in, when studying the question of home preserving
versus buying the canned product.

Whatever the food material, and the process, the principles of
preservation are the same for all.

=Why does food spoil?=——The decay and moldiness of fresh fruit are matters
of common observation; and the housekeeper knows that mold is liable to
cover the top of a jelly glass, and that a can of fruit will ferment at
times, even to the point of bursting the can.

We recognize another kind of deterioration in meat and fish that have
become tainted, even when no mold is visible, and there is no opportunity
for ordinary fermentation. The microscope has given us eyes to see, and as
a result of the patient work of the scientist with this instrument we now
know that the difficulties in keeping food are caused by the presence of
minute vegetable organisms known as molds, yeasts, and bacteria. It is
impossible in some cases to draw a sharp line between these different
forms of lower life, yet we are able to distinguish them sufficiently for
practical purposes.

[Illustration: FIG. 28.——Three species of mold. _Buchanan’s Household

Masses of _mold_ that can be seen with the naked eye are distinguished by
a feathery appearance and bright color. Figure 28 shows three species of
the green mold that affects jam and jellies. Other species are found in
Roquefort and Camembert cheese, and give the flavors characteristic in
these cheeses.

The presence of _yeast_ can be detected by its action, but it cannot
itself be seen without the microscope. When canned fruit or homemade fruit
juice “works,” yeasts cells are present in great number. Figure 29 shows
one form of yeast, highly magnified, and Fig. 30 shows a single yeast
cell. The yeast cake is a mixture of thousands of such cells with some
flour or flour and meal, and the cells lie dormant in the cake, until we
are ready to use them in bread. (See Chapter XII.) The actual yeast,
however, is what Fig. 30 shows it to be, a tiny, one-celled plant,
increasing in number by the division of the single cell, or by the budding
out of one cell from another. When conditions are favorable the yeast
cells increase in number with great rapidity, and some of the sugar that
is present is broken down into carbon dioxide gas and alcohol. It is this
gas that causes the familiar bubbling when fermentation is taking place.
We put yeast cells into bread and cultivate it for this gas. But how does
it occur in canned fruits, when its presence is not desired? _Wild yeast_
floats in the air, and lies upon the surface of fruit. All cultivated
yeast has been derived from wild yeast. In old-fashioned ways of
bread-making no yeast was introduced, a soft dough being left in a warm
place to ferment naturally, the yeast cells probably being present in the
flour. The yeast that spoils the canned fruit is present in the fruit, in
the utensils, or can, and has not been killed as it should be in the
canning process.

[Illustration: FIG. 29.——One form of yeast. _Buchanan’s Household

[Illustration: FIG. 30.——A yeast cell. _a_, cell wall. _b_, vacuole. _c_,
granules. _d_, nucleus. _e_ and _e_, buds. _Buchanan’s Household

[Illustration: FIG. 31.——The four types of bacterial cells. _A_, cocci.
_B_, bacilli. _C_, spirilía. _D_, branched filamentous organism.
_Buchanan’s Household Bacteriology._]

The _bacteria_ are also one-celled microörganisms, smaller than the yeast.
Figure 31 shows the four types of bacterial cells. Their size is measured
by the unit used in the microscope, called the micron, which is about
1/25000 of one inch. Bacteria may measure from one to three or four of
these microns in length. Some bacteria are reproduced by means of spores
which form within the cell. Bacteria, as they develop in some material,
produce substances from the material that may or may not be injurious to
us. One important truth about the bacteria is this: that many of them are
harmless, and may even be made useful, as in the manufacture of fruit
vinegar. The pleasant acid of buttermilk and of sour milk is due also to
bacteria which are not harmful to us. However, there may be disease
producing bacteria present in milk that is not clean, and their presence
must not be tolerated. Other bacteria, developing in meat and fish,
produce substances known as _ptomaines_, which are dangerous poisons; or,
more often, the kinds of bacteria which thrive in meats and fish may
themselves be directly injurious to man.

It is evident, therefore, that the problem before us is the control of
these lower organisms, that we may increase or destroy them as we will.

=The control of microörganisms.=——With warmth, water, and food all living
things flourish and grow; most organisms require air, but some of the
microörganisms do not. Where these conditions are best met, the organism
is most active and multiplies most rapidly. To retard growth or to destroy
life, the conditions must be the reverse of favorable. While warmth, say a
temperature from 70° to 90° F., promotes the life of most microörganisms,
intense heat destroys it. The boiling temperature, 212° F., will kill
these lower organisms, although this heat has to be continued for some
length of time, particularly in the case of spores. The spores of certain
bacteria are quite resistant. A temperature of 32° F. and lower retards
growth, but it requires extreme cold to destroy bacteria. Since moisture
is necessary to all the lower organisms, they do not develop in a dry
material or dry place.

We cannot destroy these lower forms of life by removing food from them,
since they are ever present, but we can make the food unavailable to them
through the introduction in the material of certain substances called
preservatives which prevent their growth. The preservatives long familiar
are salt, sugar, wood-smoke, spices, vinegar, and alcohol. While a small
amount of sugar is necessary in the fermentation process, a large amount
acts as a preservative, as in candied fruit. It is an interesting fact
that alcohol and vinegar, products of fermentation processes, tend (when
sufficiently concentrated) to stop the growth of the fermentation

To the reader who desires a fuller account of the bacteria, yeast, and
molds, especially as related to household affairs, Buchanan’s “Household
Bacteriology” is recommended as the most recent and satisfactory book in
this field.

=A word about buying canned goods.=——When canned goods are put up in large
quantities at the factory, abuses are likely to exist. Poor, even decayed,
fruit may be used, the whole process may be unclean from beginning to end,
and undesirable preservatives or an excess of sugar or spice may be
introduced to cover the use of poor materials or methods. The condition of
the worker in the cannery is one of the important industrial problems at
the present time. Unhappily, poor conditions do often exist in canneries
that turn out a cheap product. On the other hand, there are firms that may
well take pride in their system from beginning to end.

=Serving canned food.=——All canned food should be exposed to the air for a
short time before serving, and stirred that the material may be aerated.
This partially removes a certain flatness of taste. Canned fruit is
improved by reheating, even.

When possible, vegetables bought in a tin can should be washed in the
colander before they are heated. This greatly improves the flavor.

=Principles of preservation.=

    Sterilization of food and all apparatus by the boiling
    temperature, 212° F.

    The removal of moisture by some drying process.

    The addition of a preservative.

    Sealing, to prevent the entrance of air.

=Practical methods.=

    _Canning._——Fruit or vegetables sterilized at 212° F. and tightly
    sealed in jars or cans.

    _Preserving._——Whole fruit, sterilized, large amount of sugar
    added, and sealed or covered in jars.

    _Jam making._——Fruit broken up, sterilized, sugar added, and

    _Jelly making._——Fruit juices, sterilized, sugar added, covered.

    _Pickling._——Fruit and vegetables sterilized, vinegar, spices, and
    sugar the preservatives used.

    _Drying._——Fruits and vegetables protected from dust and insects,
    and slowly dried by the sun’s heat or artificial heat.

[Illustration: FIG. 32.——Preserving kettles in a large factory. _Courtesy
of H. J. Heinz Co._]

=Apparatus.=——Scales. Quart measure. A preserving kettle of good enamel
ware. Plated knives. Large spoon of enamel or wood. Tablespoon and table
fork. Pint and quart cans with glass tops fastened by springs. New rubber
rings. Jelly glasses with covers. Cloth jelly bag. Stick on which to hang
the bag. Large bowl. Boiler, in which to stand the cans. A funnel. A
dipper. Old towels, or cheap cloths. Saucer and spoon for testing.


=General directions.=——Thoroughly wash all the utensils, just before
using. Sterilize the cans and glasses by placing them in a large kettle or
boiler on the stove, covering them with cold water, and allowing the water
to reach the boiling point and to boil for half an hour. Covers and rubber
rings should be treated in the same way.

[Illustration: FIG. 33.——Picking over strawberries. _Courtesy of H. J.
Heinz Co._]

Prepare the fruit by careful washing, picking over, paring and cutting.

The skins may be loosened on peaches and tomatoes by pouring hot water
over them.

Weigh both fruit and sugar, or measure if no scales are available.

See that the cooking apparatus is in good order, that the proper heat may
be continued.

Avoid rapid boiling of the fruit.

Place the cans when they are to be filled with hot fruit upon a towel wet
in very hot water, or in a pan holding an inch or so of hot water. Never
hold the can or glass in the hand.

Use a dipper for putting cooked fruit into the can. A funnel is useful
placed in the mouth of the jar.

Put whole fruit and halves compactly in the jar, using tablespoon and
fork, or two tablespoons. It requires practice to do this well.

See that all air bubbles are removed, and fill the cans to overflowing,
before putting on the glass tops and fastening on the spring. Wipe off the
jars, carefully, and stand them on their tops for a day in order to test
the tightness of the rubbers and the fastening.

After filling jelly glasses, set them at one side, and cover them all with
a piece of cheesecloth, until the jelly becomes firm. Then pour melted
paraffin upon the jelly in each glass, and when the paraffin is cooled,
put the covers on firmly.

Label the jars with the name of the fruit and the date of the preserving
before putting them away.


    _Method 1._——Material cooked before it is put into the can. This
    is a good method for berries, and for fruit that will be served
    as a sauce. Proceed in the preparation and finishing according to
    the general directions. Cook the fruit gently for half an hour.
    Use as little water as possible. No sugar is _required_ in the
    canning process, but the flavor is better if a small amount is
    used in the beginning, a half cup of sugar to a pound of fruit.

    _Method 2._——Material cooked in the can. This is the better method
    for whole fruit and halves. Select firm, well-shaped fruit for
    this method, rejecting the mellow and soft fruit. Pack the cans
    tightly with the fruit, and pour in hot water with sugar dissolved
    in it, a half cup to the quart can. More sugar can be used, if so
    desired. Set the jars in a boiler on a rack, and surround them
    with warm water, to a height that will not allow the water to boil
    into the cans.

    Set the cover on each jar, but do not fasten them. Cover the
    boiler closely, bring the water to a boil, and allow it to boil
    for an hour. At the end of this time, test the fruit for
    tenderness with a fork, pour in more sirup if it is necessary.
    Remove the jars when the water has cooled sufficiently, and adjust
    the covers. Cold water is sometimes used at the beginning, but
    this makes the process longer.

    This is a good method also for the canning of whole vegetables
    like peas and asparagus. The cooking of vegetables should continue
    for at least two hours, and three hours are better for peas and
    string beans.

    Apparatus is constructed for this method of canning, but the
    ordinary boiler answers the purpose.


    A good method for peaches, apricots, and quinces. Select firm and
    handsome fruit and prepare it carefully. Allow a pound of sugar
    to a pound of fruit. (What is the measure of a pound of sugar?)
    Place enough water in the kettle to cover the fruit, dissolve the
    sugar in the water, put the fruit into the kettle, and cook very
    gently until the fruit becomes a clear color. Rapid boiling
    spoils the shape of the fruit. Do not stir at all, but skim off
    any scum that rises to the top. When the fruit is done, put it
    with great care into the jars. If the sirup is thin, boil it down
    for a short time, and then fill the jar. Close the jar as in

    This is a difficult process for beginners.

=Jam making, and fruit butter.=

    This is the most economical of the preserving processes and the
    easiest for the novice. It is nothing more than a fruit sauce,
    with a larger amount of sugar than usual to assist in its

    Soft and somewhat imperfect fruit may be used. If in the basket of
    fruit bought for canning or preserving there are some fully ripe
    or poorly shaped specimens, these may be used for jam. For jam
    proper allow a pint of sugar to a pound of fruit. Cook the fruit
    with enough water to prevent its sticking to the kettle, using as
    little as possible.

    Mash the fruit by stirring it occasionally as it cooks. When the
    fruit is soft, add the sugar, stir thoroughly, and cook gently for
    about five minutes. Test by cooling a spoonful on a saucer. The
    jam should thicken slightly. When ready, pour it into jelly
    glasses, or somewhat larger earthen jars——“jam pots.” Seal, as
    directed for jelly.

    The _fruit butter_ is even more like fruit sauce than is the jam,
    for it is softer than jam, and contains less sugar. A cup or only
    a half cup of sugar to the pound of fruit is enough. Proceed
    exactly as in jam-making.

    _Apple butter_ may be flavored with spices, with ginger root and
    lemon juice, and with other fruits. One or two quinces or a slice
    of pineapple cooked with the apples gives a pleasing variety.
    Exercise the inventive faculty here.

=Jelly making.=

    There is another principle involved in jelly making in addition
    to the principle of preservation. Fruit contains a substance
    known as pectose, one of the carbohydrates, that partially
    solidifies the fruit juice when the water in the juice is
    partially evaporated. The addition of sugar helps in this
    process, but no amount of sugar will set the jelly if the pectose
    is not present. Some fruits have more than others, and also more
    when not over-ripe. Currants and firm apples are good jelly
    makers, and serve as a basis for other fruits that do not jelly
    well. Mellow summer apples do not set well. Crab apples are
    excellent for this purpose.

    There is another step in this process, the straining out of the
    juice from the pulp. For this, prepare a jelly bag from firm
    cotton cloth which has been boiled and washed. This bag must be
    hung in such a way that the juice drops from the point of the bag
    into a bowl below. It may be hung upon a stick between two chairs,
    or upon the rod of a strong towel rack over a table.

1. =Apple jelly.=

    Select tart, red-skinned apples, cut them in small pieces with
    the skins on, retain the cores, and put them in a kettle with
    cold water to barely cover. When thoroughly cooked and mashed,
    put this pulp into the jelly bag, and allow the juice to drip as
    long as it will. Do not squeeze the bag, nor stir the pulp if you
    wish clear jelly. This dripping process is a matter of hours, and
    in the home kitchen may continue all night. Allow a pint of sugar
    to a pint of juice. Return the juice to the kettle, and allow it
    to simmer for twenty-five minutes or half an hour, skimming when
    necessary. In the meantime, heat the sugar, being careful not to
    melt or burn it. Stir the sugar gently into the juice, and boil
    five minutes. Test a little upon a saucer. It should show signs
    of jellying as it cools. Boil longer, if necessary. Finish as
    directed. Jelly often does not set until twenty-four hours have

=2. Currant jelly.=

    The method is the same as with apple jelly. It is not necessary
    to remove the currants from the stem. Heat just long enough
    before the straining to make the juices flow well.

    Very agreeable flavors are secured by the combining of two or more
    fruits in a jelly; quince and pineapple with apple;——a leaf of
    rose geranium or lemon verbena in a glass of apple jelly;
    raspberry with currant. White apple jelly may be flavored with
    mint leaves, and used in place of mint sauce with meat.


    Pickles are not desirable in the diet. If acid is craved, it is
    much wiser to secure it by fresh fruits, and by the use of lemon


    This process should not be discarded if there is a supply of
    fruit in the orchard or garden. Place thinly sliced apples and
    peaches upon plates or trays, protect by clean cheesecloth, and
    dry in the sun. The color may be dark, but the flavor is

_Laboratory management._——The fruit selected for use in the school kitchen
depends upon the time of year. The autumn is the season for preserving,
but some fruit is available at any time of year: in the winter, apple and
peach butter from the dried fruit; in the spring rhubarb jam or jelly; in
the late spring or early summer, strawberry jam. If the school program and
the equipment permit the serving of meals by the class, fruit may be
preserved in the fall for these occasions.


1. Explain the value of fruit in the diet.

2. Why is cooked fruit sometimes better than raw?

3. Inquire the price of fresh fruit in the market, and compute the cost of
a 100-Calorie portion of two of the most common and cheapest.

4. The same with one or two of the dried fruits.

5. What are the important points in the preparation of fresh fruit for the

6. What changes are effected in baking an apple?

7. What are the principles of the preservation of food?

8. What is meant by a preservative?

9. What is meant by sterilization?

10. What is mold? Decay? Fermentation?

11. What are the important points in canning?

12. What is the difference between canned fruit and “preserves”?

13. How does jelly making differ from the other processes?

14. What is one of the most important points in cooking dried fruits?

15. Find the cost of a can of peaches at the grocery. Weigh the contents
and count the peaches. Compare with the cost of an equal amount of
home-canned peaches. What points in the problem must be taken into

16. The same problem with jelly bought at the grocery and made at home.

17. Work out the problem of estimating the comparative cost of canned
peaches and dried peaches, when calculated to the same food value.

                              CHAPTER VII


The distinction between the fruit and the vegetable is purely arbitrary,
since both are parts of plants and have the same general composition.
Botanically the tomato is as truly a fruit as the apple; but when it is
stewed and served with meat, it is classed as a vegetable. Other parts of
plants, however, besides the fruit are used as vegetables.

=Composition and nutritive value.=——Vegetables are much like fruits in
composition, being richest usually in carbohydrates and ash, but sometimes
containing a large amount of protein. Some have carbohydrates in the form
of starch, as the potato, and others in the form of sugar, as the beet;
young corn is rich in sugar, old corn in starch. All have more or less
cellulose, that in lettuce being very tender, while that in beets is so
firm as to be softened only by long cooking. Study carefully Figs. 34 and
35. Notice how the amount of water compares with the amount in fruits.
See, too, that beans, both green and dry, are richer in protein than other
vegetables. Celery has the highest percentage of water, and is valuable
for its ash and the bulk it gives because of the large amount of

[Illustration: FIG. 34.——Composition of vegetables.]

[Illustration: FIG. 35.——Composition of vegetables.]

To explain these facts we must understand something of the physiology of
the plant. The stem is the carrier of water and nutritive material to
other parts of the plant. The onion bulb, the parsnip root, and the potato
tuber are the winter storehouses of food for the next year’s plant when
the leaves first sprout. In the dry bean seed, and also in the pea and
lentil, the young plant lies dormant, with a large supply of all the
foodstuffs ready for its first growth when warmth and moisture are
supplied in the spring. Classified according to their nutritive value, the
vegetables rank as follows. Leaves are grouped with stems.

  The seeds            Contain all the foodstuffs. High in

  Roots and tubers     Contain all the foodstuffs. Low in
    and the bulb          protein and fat. High in starch
                          or some form of sugar.

  Rinds (squash and     Contain all the foodstuffs in small
    pumpkin)               amounts. Mineral content the
                           chief value.

  Leaves and stems      Mineral content the chief value.

Certain substances in some vegetables are supposed to have a physiological
effect, but we should be cautious in accepting statements that have not
been scientifically proved; for instance, that celery is “good for the
nerves.” It is doubtless true that the oils which give onions and the
cabbage their strong flavors do not agree with some people, and these
vegetables should be eaten with caution.

=How to buy.=——Much interest is added to the study of vegetables by the
examination of a seed catalogue easily obtainable from a firm selling
seeds and plants. In this way, one may increase one’s knowledge of
varieties for planting in the home garden, even if they are not common on
the market. City markets offer an increasing variety of vegetables, and
the purchaser should not hesitate to buy a vegetable because it is new to
her. An inexpensive Italian vegetable, fenucchi, is now sometimes found on
sale, and its characteristic flavor is very agreeable.

[Illustration: FIG. 36.——100-Calorie portions of vegetables.

    KIND                  WEIGHT OF PORTION, OUNCES
  Asparagus                     16
  Beets                         10
  Cabbage                       13
  Carrots                       10
  Corn                           9
  Cucumbers                     20
  Lettuce                       22
  Onions                         8
  Potatoes                       5
  Spinach                       15
  Tomatoes                      15

_A. Fowler, Photographer._]

The season of vegetables is so extended by canning, by the shipping of
vegetables from the South, and by growing under glass that there is always
a wide range of choice. There are in winter, however, some tempting
delicacies in the way of green vegetables that the buyer with a limited
purse should pass by. A cucumber at fifty cents or even at ten cents is
not a sensible purchase. Lettuce, grown under glass, at ten cents a head
is not an extravagance, if the income allows thirty-five to forty cents
per capita per day for food. As a rule, select the less expensive
vegetable, provided it is in good condition. The prices are so fluctuating
that a definite statement is impossible. (See Chapter XVII.)

_Root vegetables_ should be uniform in size, sound, the skins fair.

_Head vegetables_ should be solid, with but few waste leaves on the

_Vegetables with hard rind_ should be sound and firm.

_Asparagus_ should be even in size, the stalks not bitten by insects.

_Cauliflower_ should be firm and white, not affected by insects or blight.

_Celery_ should be firm and white, free from blemishes, fine in texture.

_Peas_ should have crisp pods well filled, but not too full.

_String beans_ should be crisp and snap easily.

_All leaf vegetables_ should be crisp——not wilted.

                      GENERAL METHODS AND RECIPES

=Uncooked vegetables.=——Crisp vegetables with tender fiber are eaten raw.
Their preparation includes freshening in cold water, thorough washing to
remove grit and insects, thorough drying by shaking in a soft cloth or
wire basket, and cooling on the ice. Lettuce should not be served so wet
that the water collects on the plate, making it impossible to dress the
salad with oil. See salad making, Chapter XV.

=Cooked vegetables.=——Vegetable cooking is an art much neglected, and in
consequence vegetables are sometimes served lacking their proper flavor
and their original nutrients. To cook vegetables in boiling salted water,
throwing the water away, is not the correct method, except in a few cases.
With this method much of the valuable mineral matter and the flavoring
substances are lost in the water. With such strong flavored vegetables as
the cabbage, old onions and beets, and old potatoes this method is
permissible, but even in these cases the nutritive value is decreased.

=Principles of cooking.=——Softening of the fiber.

Opening of the starch granules, when starch is present, at a temperature
of 212° F. Retaining mineral and flavoring matters.

=Cooking processes.=——These rank in value as they do or do not retain the
mineral and flavoring matters.

_Baking._——No nutritive material lost. The best method for potatoes and
sweet potatoes. Used also for squash, pumpkin, beets, young onions, dried
beans, peas, and lentils.

_Steaming._ (Cooking in a steamer.)——No nutritive material lost. A good
method for all fresh vegetables. Steamed vegetables have less flavor than

_Stewing._——Cooking in a stew pan or kettle with so little water that it
is almost boiled out at the end of the process, any remaining liquid being
served with the vegetable. The best method for spinach, which can be
cooked with no additional water, beyond that remaining on the leaves from
the washing. The French use this method almost entirely, and with tender
peas and carrots they omit water and use butter only. A substitute for
this latter is a very small amount of water, with the addition of
butterine or some good butter substitute.

_Boiling._——Cooking in a large amount of boiling, salted water, the water
to be drained off and thrown away. May be used with old beets of rank
flavor, strong onions, old potatoes, or potatoes boiled with the skins on.
A wasteful method.

=Adjuncts.=——Salt, pepper, butter, or some other fat, milk, cheese, bread
crumbs, parsley, eggs.

=Utensils.=——A vegetable brush, a sharp knife, a chopper, a potato masher,
a strainer, a colander, a stew pan, kettle or steamer, baking pan, baking
dish, bean pot, frying pan or kettle.

=General directions.=——Wash the vegetables, scrubbing the skin vegetables
with a brush. Washing in several waters is important with spinach to
remove all grit. Scrape off thin skins or pare off the thicker. Thick
skins such as those of old beets are more easily removed after cooking.
The outer covering must be removed in the case of peas, shell beans, and
sweet corn. Pull or cut strings from string beans with great care. Discard
all poor portions. Remove and throw away the inner pulp and seeds of old
squashes and pumpkins. The whole of a tender summer squash is eatable.

When boiling salted water is used, allow one tablespoonful of salt to four
quarts of water. Steamed and stewed vegetables are salted and dressed with
butter or butter substitute before serving. Butter is a better dressing
for vegetables than white sauce. Where cream is available, nothing is so
delicious. Use white sauce very sparingly with some escalloped vegetable
for variety. Making a sauce adds to the labor of preparation, and the
sauce hides the delicious flavor of a well-cooked vegetable. Some
vegetables are mashed before serving; potatoes, turnip, squash, either
boiled or baked.

=Time of cooking.=——The following table is a guide, but one must learn
from practice, for the time depends upon the quality of the vegetable,
whether tender or tough, and upon the size whether large or small. Test by
gently inserting a fork.

Allow more time for cooking in a steamer, than for stewing or boiling. It
requires more time to bake a potato than to boil one of the same size.


(For stewing and boiling unless stated otherwise.)

_Fifteen minutes._——Tender cabbage and sweet corn. These are usually
cooked too long.

_Thirty minutes._——Asparagus; peas; potatoes of medium size; summer
squash; tomatoes.

_Forty-five minutes._——Young beets and carrots; onions; young parsnips;
medium potatoes baked, sweet potatoes boiled.

_One hour._——String and shelled beans; cauliflower; oyster plant; winter
squash, steamed or baked; young turnips.

_Two hours._——Old carrots, beets, and turnips.

_Six to eight hours (or more)._——Dried beans, lentils, and peas, baked in
the oven, with water added.

=The potato, a starchy vegetable.=——Make it your pride to serve a plain
potato, mealy and inviting. Potatoes are “new,” fully ripe, and old. The
new potato is in market in July and August, and may be recognized by its
very thin skin. The later potatoes have a thicker skin, the color still
being fresh. In the spring after its winter storage, the potato is “old.”
It seems a little less firm, the color of the exterior is somewhat
changed; perhaps the buds in the eyes of the potato are beginning to grow.
When cooked it has a stronger flavor, and rather darker color. If the
potato has been frozen, a sweet flavor is developed, and the quality is
waxy. Potatoes are sometimes inferior in quality when the season is a poor
one, or when some potato disease is prevalent. The following
classification shows you in how many ways potatoes may be cooked, and also
shows you how easy it is to classify recipes in an orderly way.

I. Potatoes cooked whole.

    1. Steamed.

        _a._ With skin.

        _b._ Without skin.

    2. Boiled.

        _a._ With skin.

        _b._ Without skin.

    3. Baked.

        _a._ With skin.

        _b._ Without skin.

II. Potatoes, not whole.

    1. From raw potatoes.

        _a._ Sliced and escalloped.

        _b._ Cut in cubes and stewed.

        _c._ Cut in slices or fancy shapes and fried.

    2. From cooked potatoes.

        _a._ Mashed.

            (_a_) From boiled potatoes, plain or browned on top.

            (_b_) From baked potatoes, seasoned and served in shell.

        _b._ Creamed. From either cold-boiled or baked potatoes; the
        latter are better.

        _c._ Sauté.

            (_a_) Sliced and browned.

            (_b_) Hashed and browned.

If you know some other method, see if you can fit it into this grouping.

=1. Baked potatoes.=

    _Method 1._ The best method, for new potatoes. Select those of
    uniform size. When scrubbed, place them in a shallow pan, or upon
    the rack of the oven. The oven should be hot, about 450° F. or
    even a higher temperature. (See oven tests, Chapter IX.) The
    length of time required depends upon the size of the potato,
    forty-five minutes being the average time.

    A potato is largely water. What is the temperature of the interior
    of the potato during the baking process?

    Test by pressing firmly, protecting the fingers by a soft cloth;
    or insert a fork. When the potato is done, it yields to the
    pressure of the fingers. If the potatoes cannot be served at once,
    break the skin that the steam may escape, cover with a cloth, and
    keep them hot.

    For convenience at the table, cut the potatoes in two lengthwise,
    loosen the content of each half with a fork, sprinkle with salt,
    and add a bit of butter, as much as one would add at the table.

    _Potato on the half shell_ carries serving one step farther. Cut
    the baked potatoes in two lengthwise, remove the contents, mash
    lightly, add butter or butterine, milk, and salt, allowing a
    teaspoonful of butter, a tablespoonful of milk and a shake or two
    of salt to each potato. These measurements cannot be given with
    exactness, because potatoes vary in size. Beat this mixture well,
    replace lightly in each half shell, and brown the tops slightly.
    This is nothing more than mashed baked potato, prettily served.

    Invent other variations of this dish, adding ingredients that are
    agreeable when mixed with the potato. The beaten white of an egg
    added, gives greater lightness to the mixture in the potato shell.

    _Method 2._ The same as Method 1, except that the potatoes are
    pared before baking. A good method when the skins are not fair. A
    brown crust is formed on the potato, which is crisp and pleasant
    to eat. Large potatoes may be cut in two before baking, or even

    What difference in length of baking will there be between Methods
    1 and 2?

=2. Boiled potatoes.=

    The only way to prevent the loss of nutrients in using this
    process is to boil the potatoes with the “jackets” on. This is
    the best way with new potatoes. This method with ripe and old
    potatoes gives a yellowish color to the surface and indeed
    throughout. It is a labor-saving method for the busy housewife,
    as the skin cracks and loosens at the end of the boiling process,
    and is easily removed.

    If you choose to have a snow-white potato, it must be pared before
    boiling, and thus you deliberately waste the valuable mineral
    matter provided by nature. If your income permits this æsthetic
    pleasure, the mineral matter can of course be supplied in other
    vegetables. The woman who can spend but twenty to thirty cents per
    capita for food per day should boil the potatoes with the skins on
    and gratify her artistic sense in some other way.

    The method of boiling is the same in either case, whether the
    potato is pared or not.

    Have enough boiling water to cover the potatoes. Put the potatoes
    of uniform size one at a time into the kettle that the boiling may
    not stop. Allow a gentle boiling to continue until the potatoes
    are done. Why avoid rapid boiling? Test with a fork at the end of
    half an hour. When the potatoes are mellow, drain off the water,
    and set the kettle where the remaining moisture will steam off.
    Shake gently to hasten this process, and sprinkle the potatoes
    with salt. If they must stand before serving will you place a tin
    cover or a cloth over the kettle? Old potatoes, with a strong
    flavor, should be pared before boiling, or even soaked in cold

=3. Mashed potatoes.=——Some one devised this convenient method of
serving, to save trouble at the table. Mashed potato can be very poor
and unappetizing when wet and lumpy. Do not attempt it with new,
poor, or old potatoes. See that the boiled potatoes are as dry as can
be——every particle of water steamed away. Mash thoroughly with the
wire masher, add butter or butterine, salt and milk in about the
proportions given for potato in the half shell. Use a tablespoonful
or so of cream if it is available. _Beat vigorously._ The mealiness
of the potato and the vigorous beating are the secrets of success.
The finished product should be light and somewhat moist,——_not wet_.
Reheat in the kettle. Pile lightly in a hot dish and serve; or brown
the top before serving.

    _Potato puff._ (Soufflé.)——With your knowledge of mashed potato,
    can you not invent a potato puff?

=4. Escalloped potato.=——The name _escalloped_ is applied to any
baked dish that is arranged in layers. Escalloped potato is a
palatable dish and this is one of the most economical of methods.

    Wash, pare, and slice the potatoes in 1/4-inch pieces. Slightly
    grease an earthen or enameled baking dish. Cover the bottom of
    the dish with a layer of the slices, sprinkle the slices lightly
    with flour, and put on two teaspoonfuls of butter, or butterine,
    in small bits. Continue until the dish is nearly full. Pour in
    milk to barely cover the potatoes, put a cover on the dish and
    set the dish in an oven of 380° F. Remove the cover in time to
    allow the top to brown. Allow rather more than half an hour for
    the baking.

=5. Creamed potatoes.=——_Method 1_, an _easy way_. Chop cold _baked_
potatoes with the chopper. Allow one tablespoonful of butter to 1
pint of chopped potato. Melt the butter in a saucepan. Stir in the
potatoes. Shake from the dredger the equivalent of a tablespoonful of
flour, stirring the potato with one hand as you shake with the other.
Pour in enough milk to barely cover the chopped potato. Set the
saucepan in the coolest spot on the range; _or_ on the simmering
burner of a gas range, upon an asbestos mat; _or_ turn all into an
earthenware jar, or baking dish, and proceed as with escalloped
potato. Allow the mixture to cook until it becomes creamy.

    _Method 2_. Cut the cold potatoes in cubes, and heat in a thin
    white sauce. See Chapter X.

    Boiled potatoes may be used, but baked are better in texture and
    flavor for creaming.

=6. French fried potatoes.=——Wash and pare small potatoes, cut in
eighths lengthwise, and soak a few minutes in cold water. Take from
water, dry between towels, and fry in deep fat. Drain on brown paper
and sprinkle with salt.

    (1) _Deep fat frying._——An iron kettle is the best for deep fat,
    3 quarts a convenient size. A wire basket is almost necessary for
    frying soft material.

    Fill the kettle 1/2 full of fat and place over fire. When a slight
    blue smoke or vapor rises from it, it is ready to test. Test with
    small cubes of bread. If bread browns in 1 minute, the temperature
    is right for uncooked mixtures. If it browns in 10 seconds, it is
    right for cooked materials. Care must be taken to keep the
    temperatures at the right point, for if too cool, the material
    will soak fat; if too hot, both fat and material to be cooked will

    (2) _To clarify fat._——Drop several slices raw, pared potato into
    the fat and let bubble up. Strain all through cheesecloth back
    into pail from which fat was taken. The potatoes seem to absorb
    food odors and collect crumbs and leave the fat clear.

=7. Stewed celery.=——A green vegetable. Stalks of celery, too tough
or coarse for serving uncooked, are delicious when stewed. The
process is simple. Wash, scrape, and cut the stalks crosswise. Place
them in a stewpan, barely cover with hot water, adding a teaspoonful
of salt to a pint of celery. Cook gently for half an hour or until
the celery is tender. Use the liquid remaining in making a sauce,
adding some milk to make the necessary amount of liquid. Three
fourths of a cup of sauce is enough for a pint of celery. See Chapter

=8. Cabbage.=——The method given makes cabbage a delicious and
attractive vegetable, as delicate as cauliflower, and the odor in the
kitchen is not noticeable.

    Select a small cabbage, with the ribs in the leaves not too
    thick. Prepare the cabbage before washing it by cutting out the
    stalks from below with a sharp knife. Separate the leaves. Have
    ready the largest kettle available, nearly full of rapidly
    boiling water. Drop in one cabbage leaf at a time, pressing each
    one down with a long-handled spoon or skimmer. Do this so slowly
    that the water does not stop boiling. Leave the kettle uncovered,
    and allow the cabbage to cook from 12 to 15 minutes, depending on
    the thickness of the leaf stalks. Remove the leaves with a
    long-handled skimmer, putting them into a colander standing on a
    plate. _Immediately_ pour the hot water down the sink drain, turn
    on the cold water to flush away the odor, and fill the kettle
    with cold water. While the cabbage is cooking, you have made a
    pint of white sauce, No. 2 (Ch. X), adding a teaspoonful of salt,
    and have prepared 1/2 cup of buttered crumbs. Cut the cabbage
    leaves slightly, place them in a baking dish, pour the white
    sauce over them, sprinkle the crumbs on the top, and brown the
    crumbs in the oven or under the gas. If you can, prepare this as
    a surprise at home, and ask the family to “guess” what it is. If
    the cabbage is a good one, some of the leaves turn a very pretty
    green with this method of boiling.

=9. Baked beans.=——A nitrogenous vegetable and a meat substitute. A
dish known in old days in New England, baked to perfection in the old
brick oven. Baked beans seem difficult of digestion for some people.
The mustard is supposed to be helpful, and adds something to the
flavor. If the molasses is omitted, or but a small amount used, and
if butter takes the place of pork or suet, the beans seem more
digestible. In different parts of New England the dish is varied.
Some people prefer rather dry baked beans, others wish them moist and
very sweet.

    _Utensils._——A kettle. A covered bean pot.


        1 quart of white beans.

        1 teaspoonful of soda.

        1/4 lb. salt pork or more, _or_

        4 tablespoonfuls of beef fat or butter substitute.

        Molasses, from two tablespoonfuls to 1/2 cup, _or none._

        1 teaspoonful of mustard.

    _Method._——Wash, and soak the beans in cold water over night.
    Pour off any water that remains. Put the beans into the kettle,
    cover with cold water, add the soda, and cook gently until the
    beans are slightly softened. The soda aids the softening. Pour
    off the water again, and put the beans into the pot. Mix the
    molasses and mustard with a pint of water, and pour this over the
    beans, adding more water if the beans are not covered. Place the
    pork or other fat upon the beans, and cover the pot. If fat other
    than pork is used, salt must be added to the beans. The beans
    should bake slowly, for from 6 to 8 hours, and even longer in a
    very slow oven. A stove of the type shown in Fig. 17 is good for
    this purpose. They can be baked in the ordinary gas oven, if only
    one burner is used, and that is turned very low.

_Laboratory management._——The last experiment is the only one not easily
performed in the school kitchen. The process, can begin perhaps on one
day, and be finished the next. If there is some apparatus that cooks at a
low temperature, the practical difficulties may be overcome.

=Vegetable, or “cream” soups.=

These are of two classes: the purées (porridge), or thick soups, with
vegetable pulp as the thickening material, and the cream soups, which are
somewhat thinner, the juices of some vegetable giving the flavor.

Potato purée, or soup, is an example of the first; cream of tomato of the
second. The line is not sharply drawn between the two in many cook books.
Milk is an important ingredient in these soups, so that they are sometimes
known as milk soups. Butter and flour are used in both,——the flour in the
purée “binds” the mixture and makes it smoother; in the cream soup the
flour is used for thickening as well.

Dried beans, peas, or lentils make a delicious purée, the secret of
success being long slow cooking in some low temperature apparatus. They
are brought to perfection in the Atkinson Cooker.

=10. Potato Pureé.=


  Potato                    1 cup
  Milk                      1 quart
  Flour                     1 tablespoonful
  Butter                    1 tablespoonful
  Salt                      2 teaspoonfuls
  Celery stalks, cut small  1 teaspoonful
  Onion, chopped            1 tablespoonful
  Pepper, Cayenne           To taste.

_Remarks._——If a thicker purée is desired, use more of the mashed potato.
If celery salt is used, omit one teaspoonful of the salt. Less onion may
be used, and the pepper omitted.

_Utensils._——Make the list yourself, after reading the directions for

_Method of mixing._——Boil and mash the potato, or use cold mashed potato.
Heat the milk in the double boiler with the celery and onion. Add the milk
gradually to the mashed potato, beating vigorously.

Put this mixture through a strainer into the double boiler, and reheat
it. Melt the butter in a small saucepan, or stir in the flour, add
_slowly_ half a cup of the soup to the butter and flour paste, and then
pour this slowly into the mixture in the double boiler, stirring all the
time. The soup will be ready to serve in about ten minutes.

The _important point_ in this recipe is the quality of the mashed potato.
It should be dry and light. It may be made from hot, mealy baked potatoes.
If cold mashed potato is used, this should be made light again with a
fork. An excellent luncheon dish. Will serve four to six people.

=11. Cream of tomato soup.=


  Tomato juice          1/2 cup
  Milk                  1 quart
  Flour                 2 tablespoonfuls
  Butter                2 tablespoonfuls
  Salt                  2 teaspoonfuls
  Bicarbonate of soda   1/2 teaspoonful
  Pepper, Cayenne       To taste.

_Remarks._——Celery and onion may be added, but are not necessary. When you
become expert, you will be able to use a larger amount of tomato juice,
and even omit the soda.

_Method of mixing._——This you will be able to work out for yourself. First
perform this simple experiment. Stir together a tablespoonful of stewed
tomato and a tablespoonful of milk. What happens? Heat this mixture. What
further do you notice? How may you best extract the juice from the tomato?
You have noticed the effect of the acid tomato upon the milk. The soda is
added to partly counteract this effect. Will you stir the soda into the
tomato juice or into the milk? Will you stir the tomato juice into the
milk, or the milk into the tomato juice? Will you cook the mixture at all?
How long before serving will you mix the two? When will you add the butter
and flour?

_Laboratory management._——An individual portion of soup may be made with
1/2 cup of liquid, but it is better to allow 1 cup when possible to each
pupil, or two pupils may work together.

The important point in this soup is to prevent the curdling, so you
safeguard the milk at each step.

Croutons may be served with any of these soups.

=12. Chili sauce.=


  Tomatoes       12, medium sized and ripe
  Green pepper   1, finely chopped
  Vinegar        2 cups
  Sugar          3 tablespoonfuls
  Salt           1 tablespoonful
  Clove          2 teaspoonfuls
  Cinnamon       2 teaspoonfuls
  Allspice       2 teaspoonfuls
  Nutmeg         2 teaspoonfuls grated

_Method._——Peel tomatoes and slice into a preserving kettle. Add other
ingredients and heat to the boiling point. Cook slowly two and one half
hours. Pour into preserve jars and seal.


1. What is the distinction between fruits and vegetables?

2. How does the composition of apples compare with that of carrots?

3. Contrast the nutritive values of celery, potatoes, and old beans.

4. What other foods must be served with potato to make a meal complete?

5. How may we best retain the mineral matter of vegetables in cooking?

6. Is it allowable to cook a vegetable in boiling water and throw away the

7. Why must more time be allowed for baking a potato than for boiling?

8. Why more time for an old beet than for a young?

9. Find the cost of potatoes in your locality. Estimate the cost of a dish
of mashed potato for five people.

10. Estimate the cost of 100-Calorie portions of several vegetables. See
Fig. 36.

                              CHAPTER VIII

                            CEREAL PRODUCTS

The common grains, sometimes called cereals,[11] yield some of the most
important of all the food materials. Those most widely used are wheat,
maize, or Indian corn, oats, rice, barley, rye, and millet. In this
country wheat and corn are the two great crops upon which our prosperity
largely depends, and a shortage in one of these crops is felt in the
business world, not only in this country, but abroad. Rice is the
important cereal in China, Japan, and India, and a failure of the rice
crop may mean famine to millions of people, especially in India. These
facts are mentioned to show that the race has learned to depend upon the
grains as a staple food, and a study of their composition proves that this
common habit is founded in reason. The grains are all members of the grass
family, and the edible portion is the seed. From these seeds are
manufactured pure starch, breakfast cereals, meal, and flour. Like beans
and peas, these seeds are the storehouses of food for the young plants,
and we therefore find the high nutritive value depicted in Fig. 37. Notice
that the carbohydrate (starch) content is high in all; that all contain
protein, oats, wheat, and rye being about equal in this and higher than
the others; oats are highest in fat, corn ranking next. The ash contains
the same important mineral substances that we found in the fruits, the
percentages of each differing somewhat with the different grains and
being quite different for the cereals as a class than for the fruits and
vegetables as a class. It must be remembered that these percentages are
given for the whole grain, and that the amounts of the nutrients in the
manufactured product depend upon the process employed.

=Manufacture of cereal food materials.=[12]——The primitive method of
making the material in the grain available for use was by grinding the
grain between two stones, or by pounding one stone upon another, and this
method is used by the Mexicans and certain of the American Indians to this
day, human muscle being the power employed. Wind and water were harnessed
for grinding grain, and were the only motive powers available until the
invention of steam, the grinding being done by stones. In a Connecticut
town there still exists a mill stone, one of a pair so small that they
were carried into the settlement on horseback, and when placed in a small
mill by a brook, they ground a bushel of corn in a day.

[Illustration: FIG. 37.——Composition of cereals.]

Breakfast cereals and meal are now made in the great factories that
produce flour; steam is the motive power and the grains are broken, or
rolled, between steel rollers. (See Chapter XII.)

=Breakfast cereals.=——The ready-to-eat breakfast cereal has met the
popular demand for a quickly prepared food for the first meal of the day.
A few of these are made under known conditions, but they are sometimes
manufactured from inferior grain, and the presence of grit at times
indicates a possible lack of cleanliness in the process. It is a question,
too, whether or not the starch has been subjected to heat for a sufficient
length of time, and whether they can be masticated sufficiently to make
the grain digestible, and the nutritive material available. Their use for
young children is undesirable. For older people, they add variety to the
diet, but they are usually more expensive than the home-cooked breakfast
foods, even when the cost of fuel is taken into account. See Fig. 38.

=Cooked breakfast cereals.=——It is an easy task to cook a cereal,
especially now that the fireless cooker in some form is present in so many
homes. The cereal for breakfast does not necessitate early rising; as it
may be prepared the day or evening before and be served in palatable form
in the morning.

The most common breakfast cereals are made from oats, wheat, and corn,
varying in fineness of grain from those ground like a meal to the coarser
cracked wheat and the samp made from corn. It is well to use kinds made
from different grains, but when the worth of a few has been proved, it is
not wise to try another kind simply because it has a new label. One
manufacturer confessed to a visitor that the same cereal was put into
boxes of different colors and sold under different names as a means of
inviting purchasers. The cereal foods made from whole grains are
especially valuable on account of the high mineral content.

It usually pays to buy in boxes, rather than in bulk, in the case of
cereals; and always from a reliable grocer. If you purchase a box of
cereal as a “bargain,” weigh its contents and compare the weight with the
weight of a box bought in the regular way. Also examine such a box for the
presence of insects. These may be recognized sometimes by a webby
substance, and again the insects themselves may be detected. Do not buy
too large a stock of cereals, since they are better when they are fresh
from the factory, and a good firm renews its stock often.

[Illustration: FIG. 38.——100-Calorie portions of starches and cereals.

  NO.     KIND            WEIGHT OF PORTION
   1. Shredded Wheat           1.0
   2. Cornmeal                 1.0
   3. Farina                   1.0
   4. Rice                     1.0
   5. Tapioca                  1.0
   6. Cornstarch               1.0
   7. Hominy Grits             1.0
   8. Rolled Oats              1.0
   9. Flaked Wheat             1.0
  10. Corn Flakes              1.0
  11. Puffed Wheat             1.0
  12. Puffed Rice              1.0

  _A. Fowler, Photographer._]

                      GENERAL METHODS AND RECIPES

=Principles of cooking.=——1. Softening of the fiber by long-continued low
temperature with a supply of water present.

2. Complete opening of the starch granules by the boiling temperature of

3. The protein present presents no special problem. Its digestibility is
not especially affected, but the softening of the fiber of the cereal
makes the protein available to us.

=Methods.=——There are two classes into which the cereals may be divided,——
the flaked and the granular. The weighing experiments (page 62) show that
the granular is the heavier. This means that more water will be absorbed
by a given measure of the granular, because it contains more material.

In experimenting with a cereal at home it is well to try the proportion of
water and cereal printed on the box the first time, altering the
proportion if the first result is not satisfactory. There should be enough
water to soften the cereal, and _only_ just enough. If the cooked cereal
is stiff, the measure of water is short; if so thin that the cereal runs
on the plate, too much water was allowed.

=1. Preparation of breakfast cereal.=


      1 part, by measure, flaked cereal to 2 of water.

      1 part granular cereal to 3 to 4 of water.

      1 cup of dry cereal will serve three or four people.

      Samp, cracked wheat, and coarse corn meal will take from
          4 to 6 parts of water.

      Salt. A tablespoonful to a quart of water is an average

    _Utensils_: a measuring cup; a double boiler; a fork.

    _Method._——Measure the cereal and water, put the water into the
    inner part of the double boiler with the salt. Have the lower part
    of the boiler ready——about half full of hot water; place the inner
    boiler directly upon the stove or over the flame. When the water
    is boiling rapidly, shake the cereal into the water from a cup,
    _so slowly that the water does not stop boiling_. This is the
    first secret of a well-cooked cereal. The rapidly boiling water
    keeps the grains of cereal in motion, and thus they do not stick
    to the vessel nor to each other, and the heat reaches the starch
    in the grains equally. If the grains begin to settle, shake the
    vessel gently, but do not stir, even with a fork. Allow this
    process to continue for about five minutes, or until you see a
    thickening of the mass, so much so that the separate grains do not
    settle. If toward the end of this stage there is danger of
    sticking, _lift_ the mass with the fork, but do not stir it, as
    this motion will break the grains. This first process opens the
    starch grains. Place the inner part of the boiler in the outer
    over boiling water and allow the cooking to continue for _at
    least_ one hour. For this is the second secret of the perfect
    cereal,——a long-continued process that softens the fiber and
    develops flavor. One cereal, advertised as being cooked in three
    minutes, remains unpalatable after that length of time, but is
    delicious at the end of two hours. If you have a fireless cooker,
    put the cereal in the double boiler into the cooker overnight for
    the second stage. Any low temperature apparatus gives the desired

=2. The uses of cold cereal.=——Never throw away cooked cereals. The
cold cereal is useful in many ways.

    (_a_) Mold in small cups with dates or other fruit, and serve
    with sugar and cream for luncheon.

    (_b_) Cool corn meal mush in a flat dish, cut it in slices when
    cold, and brown the slices in a frying pan, with beef fat, or a
    butter substitute. Serve with sugar, molasses, or sirup for
    breakfast or luncheon.

    (_c_) Rice or hominy may be mixed with a beaten egg, molded into
    small cakes, and browned either in the frying pan, or in the oven.

    (_d_) A small remaining portion of any cereal may be used to
    thicken soup.

    (_e_) Any cooked cereal may be used in muffins or even yeast
    bread. (See those chapters.)

=3. Corn meal “mush.”=——This is cooked by the same method as the
other cereals, except that the amount of water is larger and the
first boiling should continue longer. The meal must be scattered
slowly into the boiling water, or else be mixed first with cold
water, as it lumps very easily. The second stage of the process
should continue several hours.

_Rice._——Rice varies very much in quality and in the shape of the grain.
Louisiana and Chinese rice are among those that have a firm and large
grain keeping its shape well when cooked. Inferior varieties become too
soft, and the finished product is pasty and poor in color and flavor. Much
is said at present about the harmful effect of the polishing process upon
the quality of the rice. An unpolished rice may sometimes be found on the
market, brownish in color and with a good flavor.

=4. Boiled rice.=——Rice may be cooked in the double boiler by the
same method as other cereals, allowing 1 part of rice to 3 of water.
The rice should be well washed in cold water.

The second stage need not be continued so long, from three quarters of an
hour to an hour being sufficient. The flavor is improved by the use of
milk in place of half of the water. By this method the nutritive value is
much increased.

Another method used by the Chinese continues the boiling throughout the
whole process. A very large amount of water is used, several quarts for
one cup of rice, and when the water is boiling violently the rice is
scattered in very slowly. The boiling continues from twenty minutes to
half an hour, or until the grains are tender, and then the water is
drained off, through a colander. The rice in the colander should then be
placed where the remaining moisture will steam off. By this method
nutrients are lost, but the grains of the rice stand out distinctly and
are light and dry. It is a difficult method for the novice, because its
success depends upon the removal of the rice from the water just at the
moment it is tender, but not too soft. The grains should be tested in
twenty minutes.

_Corn products._——Corn being our most abundant grain, it is the cheapest,
and we should promote its use. Hominy and samp and Indian meal, when well
cooked, are all most palatable. There is a difference between old and new
process corn meal, to be noticed in the flavor and in the behavior of the
two kinds in cooking. The new process meal now more largely on the market
has been deprived of the germ, which contains a large amount of oil, and
although the meal does not deteriorate so soon, there is some loss of
flavor. Moreover, when the new process meal is used in an old-time
recipe, more wetting must be used than the recipe calls for and a larger
amount of fat.

The old process of grinding between stones is still employed in some
localities. Southern and Rhode Island corn meal are ground in this way,
and may be found at some groceries. There are also two colors, the yellow
and the white, each with a distinctive flavor, and some people who think
they dislike corn meal find the white meal agreeable.

=Pure starches.=——These occur as food materials in several forms.
Cornstarch is the starchy portion only removed from the grain of corn.
Wheat starch is more largely used for laundry purposes than for food. Rice
flour may be treated as starch in cooking. Arrowroot is a fine starch from
the roots of a family of plants growing in the West Indies and other warm
climates. It is used principally in cooking for invalids. Cassava,
manioca, tapioca, and sago are starchy materials in granular form. The
first three are made from the pith of the cassava plant, the sago from the
sago palm. The pure starches are all easily digested and inexpensive. Corn
starch is the most abundant and cheapest pure starch in this country.

=The starch granule.=——To understand the behavior of materials like
cornstarch, rice flour, and arrowroot in cooking, we need to know more of
the starch grain. Cornstarch is composed of myriads of tiny granules
somewhat like those pictured in Fig. 39, but smaller. The starch granules
of different plants differ in size and even in shape, but they all have a
covering lying in folds, the pure starch being within. The granule unfolds
or bursts when exposed to heat. When these granules are floating in water,
and, being heated, open at the same moment, the starch paste is smooth;
otherwise, the starch lumps.

_A. Starch experiments._

Starch turns a characteristic blue color in the presence of iodine. This
is an unfailing starch test, but must be used in the cold.

1. Grate a piece of potato into a small amount of water, and strain out
the pulp. The starch settles from the water in a few minutes. Pour off the
water, and add a drop of diluted iodine to the remaining starch. If a
microscope is available, dilute this mixture and with a dropper tube place
a drop upon a slide. The potato starch granules are comparatively large
and easy to see through the microscope.

2. Drop a teaspoonful of dry starch into boiling water.

3. Mix a teaspoonful of starch with a small quantity of cold water, and
stir this into boiling water.

4. Mix a teaspoonful of starch with ¼ cup of cold water, and bring the
water to the boiling point, stirring the mixture as it heats.

Why are 3 and 4 similar in result, and different from 2?

[Illustration: FIG. 39.——Changes of starch cells in cooking: _a_, cells of
a raw potato with starch grains in natural condition; _b_, cells of a
partially cooked potato; _c_, cells of a thoroughly boiled potato.
_Farmers’ Bulletin No. 295, U. S. Dept. Agriculture._]

=Desserts from the starches.=——Cornstarch, in particular, is often
disliked, because it is undercooked, and too large a proportion is used.
It may be made very palatable, and is too valuable in cooking and too
inexpensive to be discarded.

=5. Chocolate cornstarch.=

  Milk                1 pint
  Cornstarch          3 tablespoonfuls, _level_
  Cocoa (Baker’s)     3 tablespoonfuls, _level_
  Sugar               1/2 cup
  Salt                1/4 teaspoonful
  Vanilla             1 teaspoonful

    What utensils? You should be able to plan the method of mixing.
    The milk must be heated in a double boiler. Which method of
    mixing in the cornstarch will you use? How can you best add the
    cocoa, sugar, and salt? The vanilla?

    It is difficult to boil milk directly over the fire or flame,
    without scorching it. Since the starch cannot well be exposed to
    the boiling temperature in this case, the process must continue in
    the double boiler until the mixture has thickened well, for at
    least half an hour, three quarters being better. When the cooking
    is finished, pour the mixture into molds which have been wet in
    cold water. When the mixture is cooled, chill it in the
    refrigerator. Serve with cream or milk and sugar for those who may
    want it sweeter. This gives a soft mold, that is much more
    palatable than one so stiff, that it has a firm shape. This will
    serve four or five people.

=6. Tapioca and sago.=——These materials make delicious desserts with
fruit. They are also used with eggs and milk. (See Chapter XV.)

_Laboratory management._——The undivided portion of cereal may be 1/4 cup.
Cornstarch may be made with 1/2 cup of liquid.

_Macaroni_, _spaghetti_, and _vermicelli_ are valuable cereal products
made from flour, this form of cereal food having originated in Italy. The
Italians manufacture the paste in a large variety of forms, and some of
the small fancy shapes are also used in soup. The composition of macaroni
is shown in Fig. 51. It is a valuable material, and when served or cooked
with cheese may well be the main dish of a home luncheon.

=7. Boiled macaroni.=


  Macaroni        3/4 cup, broken in inch pieces
  Boiling water   2 quarts
  Salt            1 tablespoonful
  Cream           1/2 cup

    _Method._——Cook macaroni in boiling salted water twenty minutes
    or until soft, drain in a strainer, pour cold water over it to
    remove stickiness. Add cream and reheat. A thin white sauce may
    be used in place of the cream.

=8. Macaroni baked with cheese.=——Cover the bottom of a baking dish
with plain boiled macaroni. Sprinkle with grated cheese. Add another
layer of macaroni and another of cheese. Repeat until the dish is
full. Pour a thin sauce over this, almost filling the dish. Cover
with buttered crumbs and bake in hot oven until crumbs are brown.
Some prefer to omit the crumbs and have a thick layer of the cheese
on top which becomes crisp and brown. Boiled macaroni and spaghetti
may be served with tomato sauce and a little grated cheese. This is
called “Italian style.”


1. For what reasons are the cereal products so valuable?

2. Compare the composition of the different grains.

3. What changes are effected in the proper cookery of cereals?

4. What are the important points in practice?

5. What are the advantages of a good “ready to serve” breakfast cereal?

6. Ascertain the cost of a box of puffed cereal and an uncooked cereal of
the same size. Weigh the contents of the two.

7. Estimate the cost of each one served to a family of six.

8. What is the cost of a 100-Calorie portion?

9. What is the advantage of serving dry toast with a cereal?

                               CHAPTER IX

                         EGGS, MILK, AND CHEESE

Eggs are a specially interesting food because they contain all the
elements necessary to the development of the young chick within the shell.
The structure of the egg is familiar, with its division into the yolk and
white, and it is interesting to note the details of this structure.

Break a fresh egg carefully into a saucer. The shell is porous, allowing
water to evaporate from the egg and air to enter. To this porosity is due
the fact that other substances may enter the egg, giving it an unnatural
flavor and even hastening its deterioration. Within the shell is a fine
membrane which protects the white. The yolk is also divided from the white
by a more delicate membrane which enables one to separate the yolk from
the white of a fresh egg. A careful examination reveals at each end of the
yolk a continuation of this membrane in the form of small cords which are
fastened at each end of the shell, holding the yolk evenly suspended in
the center of the shell. Rough handling or jolting breaks this membrane,
and the yolk drops to one side.

Lift the white carefully with a fork, and notice its elasticity. This
cohesive property makes it possible to beat air into the white until the
whole mass become porous. The yolk is creamy rather than light when
beaten, and a bit of the yolk mixed with the white prevents the latter
from becoming light and dry.

=Composition of the egg.=——Figure 40 gives the composition of the yolk and
white taken together, and of the yolk and white separated. The protein
content is high, and the fat content as well, the yolk containing a higher
percentage of these two foodstuffs than the white. The mineral matter is
of high value, iron and phosphorus being found in ideal forms in the yolk.
In using the egg as food we are availing ourselves of one of nature’s
richest storehouses. A single egg of average size yields about 75
calories, of which 60 come from the yolk and 15 from the white. A _very_
large egg, weighing two and two thirds ounces, will yield 100 calories.

[Illustration: FIG. 40.——Composition of eggs and cheese.]

=Fresh eggs and cold storage eggs.=——The fresh-laid egg is always desired
for its delicious flavor, and this flavor changes but little in a week or
two if the egg is kept cool. It is desirable to preserve eggs, however,
for future use at the season when they are most abundant and cheap. Many
methods have been tried, such as laying them away in sawdust, sinking them
in water-glass solution, or coating the shell with paraffin or some other
substance to prevent evaporation and the entrance of air. The introduction
of cold storage on a large scale promises a solution of the problem. If
eggs are fresh when placed in storage, it is possible to keep them just
above the freezing temperature for months without appreciable

Eggs too long in storage may be detected by the musty odor and flavor, the
running of the yolk into the white, and the thin quality of the white
which prevents beating stiff. Some states have already passed stringent
laws in regard to the sale of cold storage eggs.

=The cost of eggs and how to buy.=——The demand for fresh eggs is great,
and so many eggs are exported, that the price is high, even in the summer.
Twenty-five cents a dozen is a reasonable price, but this is below the
average at the present date. The thirty-five or forty-cent daily
allowance for food will permit the moderate use of eggs at thirty-five
cents a dozen, but not a liberal use in cakes and desserts. They should be
used at such a price and with that allowance as the main dish for
breakfast or luncheon at times, and not in sweet dishes calling for three
or four eggs. If a recipe for soft custard calls for three eggs to a pint
of milk, leave out one egg or even two, and use one or two tablespoonfuls
of cornstarch instead. Select eggs with a hard shell, and yolk of rich
yellow. If the shell is soft and the yolk pale, these deficiencies should
be reported, as they can be corrected by the poultryman. The difference in
color of the shells, whether white or brown, is not of great consequence.
If you can buy eggs by the crate direct from the poultryman, this is a
saving, provided the eggs can be used before they deteriorate. A small
crate holds fifteen dozen; the usual size thirty dozen. Some express
companies have a special rate for eggs, and parcel post should aid in this
method of buying.

=Relative digestibility of soft and hard-cooked eggs.=——The fact must be
recalled that to digest is to dissolve, and that the digestion of food
means a dissolving by the digestive juices, aided by water. When we speak
of the digestibility of food we may mean the ease and comfort of
digestion, or the length of time taken by the process, or the completeness
of the process. If we take the third of these meanings, hard-cooked egg is
as digestible as the soft-cooked or the raw egg, because it is completely
dissolved in digestion in the course of time. If the second meaning of
digestion is taken, the hard-cooked egg may be slightly less digestible,
for a slightly longer time is consumed in the process. The latest
researches, however, show that the digestive process is longer with any
food than was formerly supposed, and the difference in this case is not
especially important. Indeed, we must accept the conclusions of the
scientist and frankly admit that the differences of temperature in cooking
of egg do not have any great effect upon its digestibility.

Why then the popular idea that a hard-boiled egg is “absolutely
indigestible”? A hard-boiled egg, or more than one, eaten rapidly, without
mastication, at a picnic, and with much sweet food at an unusual hour, may
interfere with the “ease and comfort in digestion” resulting from such a
meal. But if the whites of the hard-boiled eggs are chopped fine, the yolk
mashed, and the two served upon toast, thus insuring mastication, a dish
is produced that is of average digestibility and that may be used for
breakfast or luncheon without hesitation.

If a tender, jellylike consistency is wanted, cook the egg below the
boiling point of water. If, however, a firmer egg is preferred, use the
old-time method, and cook the egg three or four minutes in boiling water.
It is the easier and quicker method.

Moreover, do not hesitate to use an egg “boiled” half an hour, provided it
is chopped fine or sliced.

                      GENERAL METHODS AND RECIPES

=1. Eggs used raw.=——An egg, swallowed whole, followed by a cracker,
is a “quick lunch” that is not harmful, and it is sometimes
convenient to be able to take an egg in this way. A sprinkling of
salt upon it makes it more agreeable.

=2. Beaten eggs.=——Beat the yolk and white separately. Add to the yolk a
teaspoonful of sugar, a shake of salt, some flavoring, and 3/4 of a cup of
milk. Beat the white gently into this mixture and serve in a glass. The
flavoring may be a quarter of a teaspoonful of vanilla, or a tablespoonful
of orange juice. This is sometimes served to an invalid who can take milk,
and is an agreeable luncheon for any one. If milk does not agree with one,
a larger amount of fruit juice may be used with the addition of some
water, possibly carbonated. The white alone is given in cases of severe
illness, mixed with a small amount of water, and fruit juice if the
physician permits the latter. This is sometimes the only food that can be
retained by an invalid.

=Principles of egg cookery.=——Protein in the form of an egg-albumin is the
foodstuff to consider in the cooking of eggs. Heat produces in the egg a
change in color and in texture or firmness, the firmness or hardness
depending upon the degree of heat and the length of time given to the
cooking. Coagulation is the term used for this change in the egg-albumin.

1. The white of egg begins to coagulate and to show an opaque white at
about 180° F.

2. A temperature somewhat below the boiling point of water for about ten
minutes will give the white a jellylike, tender consistency, and slightly
cook the yolk. Continued for an hour, the white becomes solid and adheres
to the shell.

3. The boiling point of water gives a firmer consistency than a
temperature below this point. The white is free from the shell.

4. A high temperature, that of a hot pan, will produce a leathery
consistency if long continued.

_A. An experiment with the egg._

Apparatus and materials.——A ring stand, wire net, Bunsen burner, glass
beaker, test tube, chemical thermometer, white of egg.

_Method._——Put the beaker two thirds full of water on the wire net over
the flame. Put enough white of egg into the test tube to cover the bulb of
the thermometer when this is put into the tube. Clamp the test tube so
that it rests in the water in the beaker. The surface of the water should
stand above the top of the white of egg. Clamp the thermometer so that it
is held in the white of egg in the test tube. The white should be stirred
with a fork before it is put into the test tube, and only a small quantity


    1. The temperature when the first visible change occurs.

    2. The temperature when the whole mass becomes of a jellylike

    3. The temperature when the water reaches the boiling point.
    Remove; note the consistency.

=3. Jellied or coddled eggs.=——See that the shells are whole and
clean. If the eggs are just taken from the refrigerator, lay them in
warm water a few minutes. Make ready a double boiler, the lower part
half full of boiling water. Put the required number of eggs into the
inner boiler, cover with water that has just stopped boiling, put on
the boiler cover, and stand the boiler where the water below will no
longer boil. The eggs will be done in from six to eight minutes.

    Having performed the preceding experiment, you should be able to
    invent another way of accomplishing this result.

=4. Boiled eggs.=

    Put one egg at a time from a tablespoon into boiling water. Allow
    the water to boil for three or four minutes, depending upon the
    preference of those served. Remove the eggs, and serve at once.

    The _hard-boiled egg_ should remain in the boiling water half an

    Bearing in mind the fact that hard-boiled eggs must be chopped or
    sliced, cannot you invent a way of using them in a luncheon dish?

=5. Poached eggs.=——Make ready a frying pan by setting muffin rings
in it, and filling it about half full of gently simmering water, with
a teaspoonful of salt dissolved in it. Break the eggs one at a time
into a saucer, and slip each egg carefully into a muffin ring. See
that the pan stands where the water is just below the boiling point,
for rapidly bubbling water breaks the eggs. When the white begins to
set, pour the hot water gently over the tops of the eggs from a
spoon. Cook until the white is firm. Slip a griddle cake turner under
the egg, lift it gently, and place it upon a piece of buttered toast
which you have ready on a hot plate, or platter, and remove the ring.

    An easier method resembling the poached egg is to break the egg
    raw into a small buttered cup or “patty,” standing the cups in a
    pan of water just below the boiling point, the pan being on the
    top of the stove or in the oven. Each egg should have a
    sprinkling of salt, and may have a bit of butter, and a shake of
    pepper. Cover the pan. This process is longer than the other, and
    the eggs must be watched to see when the process is complete.

=6. Scrambled eggs.=

    As the name denotes, this is a process needing a quick motion.
    Allow an egg to each person. Have ready a frying pan heated, a
    broad bladed knife, and a tablespoonful of butter, or butter
    substitute, ready to melt in the pan.

    (1) Melt the butter, break the eggs into the pan, without beating
    them, and begin to scrape them from the bottom of the pan with the
    knife, as fast as you can move your hand. This is an old-time
    method, and gives a mixture of white and yellow color. Stop the
    process when the eggs are softer than you wish them for serving,
    as they will stiffen after they are removed from the fire.
    Sprinkle in salt, before you give the last scramble, and serve at

    (2) Beat the eggs, adding a tablespoonful of water for each egg,
    and a shake of salt for each, and proceed as in (1).

=7. The omelet.=

    The novice should see an omelet made, as there is a “knack” in
    the motion not to be conveyed by words. The omelet is a French
    dish, and is made to perfection by the French cook. A perfect
    omelet is rolled or folded over, and is creamy within and a
    golden brown without. “Omelet pans” are made for the purpose, but
    a small frying pan may be used. The pan should be perfectly
    smooth. Do not attempt to make an omelet with more than two eggs
    until you become expert. This is one method, and others are used
    by different French cooks. The first stage makes the whole mass
    creamy, the second browns one surface.

    (1) Have the pan _warm_ enough to melt two teaspoonfuls of butter,
    but not hot. Beat two eggs with a fork until they are creamy but
    not foamy, and add two teaspoonfuls of water, with two shakes of

    Put the mixture into the pan, standing the pan where it has a
    medium heat. If over gas, the flame should be low, and covered
    with asbestos. Proceed as with the scrambled egg, with great
    rapidity, and when the mass is creamy, lift the pan, tip it
    slightly, and push the whole mass toward the handle end of the
    pan. Put two teaspoonfuls more of butter in the pan, and set it
    where the heat is intense. Smooth the mass of egg over the whole
    surface of the pan that the omelet may become brown underneath.
    Shake the pan gently back and forth, lift the omelet at the edge
    with a knife to see if the browning is accomplished, take the pan
    from the fire, fold or roll the omelet from the handle end of the
    pan to the front, and turn it out upon a hot plate.

    A method easier for the novice is to accomplish the first stage in
    a bowl set into a teakettle, beating into the mass as it thickens
    a teaspoonful of butter, or a tablespoonful of cream. When the
    mixture is evenly creamy, turn it into the hot buttered pan and
    proceed as with (1).

    (2) _Light omelet._——This is not a true omelet, but in reality a
    soufflé cooked in a frying pan. It is somewhat insipid in flavor
    and is not easier to make _well_ than the French omelet. As
    commonly served it is apt to be underdone or tough.

    With the light omelet, the eggs and whites are separated and the
    whites beaten until light and dry. Beat the yolks until creamy,
    adding water and salt as in (1). Pour this mixture over the white,
    and cut and fold the mass. See page 63. Pour this into a buttered
    baking dish and set in a _moderate_ oven. The oven should not be
    more than 300° F. Serve in the pan.

    When gas is used, the soufflé may be set in the oven with the
    flame low, and browned for a moment under the flame turned high.

    Both of these omelets may be varied by the addition of chopped
    parsley or chopped ham, or grated cheese.

_Laboratory management._ When the price of eggs is high, some of the
experiments can be demonstrated by the teacher. Eggs should be used when
the price is at its lowest, even if this interferes with the logical
sequence of lessons.

                         MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS

Milk is the natural food of the young mammal, and contains all the
foodstuffs in a form easily assimilable. Starch is not present, the
carbohydrate being found in the form of lactose, or milk sugar, a sugar
differing somewhat from the sugars found in vegetables and fruit (see
Chapter X).

Whole milk and the milk products, cream, butter, and cheese, are all
important food materials among the nations of the western world; and the
manufacture of milk products, such as condensed milk, butter, and cheese,
has developed large industries. While the Chinese and Japanese are two
great peoples who have not utilized milk or any of its products as food
for grown people to any extent, yet we are fully justified in counting
these foods among the necessities. Nothing can fully take the place of
milk in the family dietary.

Figure 41 shows how all the foodstuffs are represented in milk. When milk
first comes from the cow the fat is suspended in tiny, invisible particles
throughout the water, giving the milk its yellow tint, and the fat rises
to the top in the form of cream after a few hours. The protein, sugar, and
ash are dissolved in the water. When milk reaches the stomach, the protein
separates from the water in the form of curd. This change is brought about
by an enzyme (soluble ferment) called rennin, which is present, along with
pepsin, in the gastric juice. Curd is also formed by the souring of milk
through the action of bacteria, or by adding acid directly to the milk.
Milk should never be gulped down, but taken in sips, so that only small
portions of curd are formed in the stomach, because these are much easier
to digest than large ones. Sometimes milk is soured purposely, as in
buttermilk or zoolak or matzoon, that curds may form and be beaten fine
before it is drunk. This is very easy to digest, because then no large
curds can form. For the same reason, it is often better to take milk with
bread or some other food, or to cook it in some dish. Skim milk is a
valuable food, for it has everything found in whole milk but the fat. We
miss the flavor of the fat in drinking it, hence it is better to use it in
pudding or soup or in cooking cereals where we do not care so much about
the milk flavor. Study Fig. 41, comparing the percentages of the
foodstuffs in whole, skim, and buttermilk, and cream. Notice that the skim
milk is higher than the whole milk in protein and sugar, that it has as
much ash, and a trace of fat even. It does not tell us, however, that the
forms of ash in milk are most valuable, and that it is richer in calcium
than any other food material. How these foods compare in fuel value is
shown in Fig. 42.

[Illustration: FIG. 41.——Composition of milk and cream.]

[Illustration: FIG. 42.——100-Calorie portions of milk and cream.


  1.    Cream (18.5% fat)      1.8
  2.    Whole milk             5.1
  3.    Skim milk              9.6
  4.    Buttermilk             9.9

_A. Fowler, Photographer._]

=Wholesome and clean milk.=——At present, the milk supply is one of our
most pressing community problems, showing how closely the country and the
city are united. A case of typhoid fever in one farm family, not properly
cared for, may be the seed of a serious epidemic in some town. To insure
clean milk to the consumer, and a fair return in money to the producer, is
a great sanitary and commercial problem, not to be solved in a day.

Milk is a medium in which bacteria flourish, both the harmless and the
disease producing. Typhoid fever and other fatal diseases may be carried
by milk from unclean barns and dairies, and tuberculosis is possible from
diseased cows. The cows must be in good health, and the stable clean.
Figure 43 shows a stable with cement floor and good drainage. The cows
must themselves be clean, and should be curried and washed. The milkers
should have clean clothes and hands, and all receptacles should be
sterilized. The milk must be rapidly cooled (see Fig. 44), bottled in
sterilized bottles, kept cool during transportation, and delivered as
promptly as possible to the consumer. “Certified” milk is produced and
handled under the best conditions, but costs at least 15 cents a quart.
Since a quart of milk is equivalent to a pound of steak or to 8 eggs, milk
even at 15 to 20 cents a quart is more economical than meat and eggs at
ordinary prices. At the usual price of 8 to 10 cents a quart, milk is very
economical as compared with other perishable foods.

[Illustration: FIG. 43.——A modern cow house. _Courtesy of the
Walker-Gordon Laboratory._]

[Illustration: FIG. 44.——Milk bottling room. _Courtesy of Walker-Gordon

The question of preservation and pasteurization can be treated here but
briefly. Preservatives are forbidden by law in most states. Pasteurization
is heating at a temperature sufficiently high to kill any disease germs
present, but not high enough to give a cooked taste. This process, while
it destroys most of the bacteria, does not kill the spores of all. The
chief arguments against pasteurization are (1) that on a commercial scale
it is difficult to really accomplish this, and (2) that it is easily used
to cover the sale of unclean milk. The argument for it is, that it is
impossible to obtain as yet an ideal supply for a large city in hot
weather, and that pasteurization, if properly conducted, kills nearly all
of the dangerous bacteria and saves the lives of many babies. Clean milk
that needs no pasteurization is our ultimate aim, and we must remember
that milk pasteurized under unknown conditions needs to be kept cold and
treated with even more care than fresh milk, for it “spoils” quite as
easily, only we may not know it because it may not taste sour.

In the last few years the question of pasteurization has been studied
with very great care. It is found best to heat the milk for 20 to 30
minutes at a temperature of 140° to 155° F. If it is certain that this
method has been used, one need not hesitate to trust the milk, for the
arguments against pasteurization do not properly apply here.

=How to buy.=——Investigate by question and inspection, if possible, the
available milk supply. Be sure to do this in the country in the summer.
Always buy bottled milk. Where the income is small, good quality milk
should be used for the little children and invalids, and skim milk
purchased for cooking. In many places skim milk is supplied in bottles by
reliable firms. The usual price for bottled milk in the city is 8 to 10
cents, and this is of good average quality. Keep milk cold. If there is no
ice, use an ice substitute (page 74), and in very hot weather pasteurize
or scald the milk, cooling afterward as quickly as possible by placing in
cold water and stirring the water.

                      GENERAL METHODS AND RECIPES

=Principles of cookery.=——Clean, sweet milk is an ideal food, which
requires no cooking. Heating milk to 212° F. changes its properties in
some way, so that it is not considered an ideal food for babies’ regular
diet. If it must be used, for reasons of safety, some uncooked food, such
as orange juice, should also be given. This is the reason for pasteurizing
milk instead of boiling it.

Heating milk in an open vessel causes some of the protein to harden into a
thin “skin” on the top. This can be prevented by stirring the milk until
it is cool.

=1. To pasteurize milk.=

    This cannot be done accurately without a thermometer. The milk
    bottle should be placed upon a rack in a kettle of water, with a
    clean thermometer inserted through the cover of the bottle. Heat
    the water slowly, and watch the thermometer. When it reaches 155°
    F., see that the water becomes no hotter. Set the kettle on a
    rack on the stove top, or use a simmering burner with rack and
    asbestos mat. It is difficult to keep the temperature even, but
    it should remain at 140-155° F. half an hour. At the end of half
    an hour, the bottle should be removed, and cooled as rapidly as
    possible in running cold water.

=2. Rennet custard.=

    1 quart milk, two tablespoonfuls of sugar, a shake of salt,
    flavoring, 1 rennet tablet. The flavoring may be: 1 teaspoonful
    vanilla, _or_ a few tablespoonfuls of orange juice, _or_ the
    vanilla, plus three or four tablespoonfuls of cocoa to suit the

    _To prepare._——This is a process without cooking. Rennet tablets
    are made from the stomach of the calf, and contain the digestive
    enzyme, rennin, which results in the solidifying of the curd of
    the milk. Rennet custard has passed the first stage of milk

    Put all the flavoring substances into the milk, and warm it
    slightly, not more than 100° F. The cocoa when used should be
    “dissolved” in a small amount of hot water. Dissolve the rennet in
    a tablespoonful of cold water, and stir this very thoroughly into
    the milk. Pour the milk into the cups in which the custard will be
    served, and set the cups in a warm but not hot place. A good
    method is to place them in a pan of warm water (100° F.). The milk
    becomes firm in a half hour or an hour, and as soon as it is set,
    should be put in the ice box, otherwise the process continues and
    the custard becomes watery as the curd shrinks and forces out the
    whey. Serve very cold with fruit on the top, or whipped cream with
    the cocoa flavoring; or put grated nutmeg or powdered cinnamon on
    the top. This is a simple and delicious dessert, and one of the
    most wholesome. For children it should be flavored with fruit
    juice or vanilla rather than with cocoa.

=3. Uses of sour milk.=

    Do not throw away any sour milk that is clean and not stale. Milk
    that has soured enough to set, is a delicious dessert, with cream
    and sugar. The acid is very pleasant, being the same as that of
    buttermilk. Sour milk is better for griddlecakes and muffins than
    sweet milk. (See Chapter XI.) Another excellent use for sour milk
    is to make it into cottage cheese. (See below.)

=Matzoon= and other similar preparations are essentially soured milks,
prepared under controlled conditions. These preparations are the common
form of milk in certain parts of the Orient, where milk is never used

=Kumyss= is milk slightly soured and fermented with one species of yeast.
This is a Russian method. These preparations are excellent for invalids
and exhausted people, for they can sometimes be assimilated because of the
fine curds when sweet milk cannot.

=Condensed milk= is a practical method of preserving milk. The milk is
evaporated under pressure at a high temperature in apparatus constructed
for the purpose. Cane sugar or glucose is sometimes added. A new patent
process condenses the milk at low temperature, preserving it for a short
period, as compared with the condensed milk in tins, but it keeps well for
several days, and bears transportation. Condensed milk may be used in
cooking, when clean fresh milk is not available. The unsweetened kinds are
most useful, but, like pasteurized milk, must be treated with care after
the cans are opened.

=Cheese.=——Cheese is made from the curd of milk, and contains the most
nutritive parts of the milk in highly concentrated form. In the process of
manufacture, the milk is first curdled by rennet, and the whey strained
out. The curds after preliminary treatment, varying according to the style
of cheese to be made, are finally pressed together very slowly in a cheese
press, which is screwed down more tightly as the cheese becomes dryer. The
cheeses are then covered with cheesecloth and “ripened” slowly, the
ripening process giving characteristic consistency and flavor. This
ripening is due to the action of bacteria and molds. (See page 97.)
Foreign varieties of cheese, made originally in some one locality, have
marked colors, quality, and flavors, as Brie, Camembert, Roquefort, and
the Swiss cheeses. Parmesan is an Italian cheese, excellent with macaroni
and spaghetti.

_American cheeses_ vary in color, in strength of flavor, in creaminess,
and in degree of hardness. Much the greater part is, however, of the
general type known as “American cheddar” or “standard factory” cheese.

_Club cheese_ is an American cheese of good quality, put up in small jars.
It is a soft cheese, excellent to serve with crackers, but is too
expensive for common use.

_Cottage cheese_ is a home product made from sour milk, and used at once.

=Composition and nutritive value.=——Cheese is high in protein, and usually
in fat. (See Fig. 40.) Note the small amount of water, which makes cheese
a very concentrated food. The protein content makes it a meat substitute,
for those with whom cheese does not disagree. Being a dense as well as
concentrated form of food, it should be eaten in small quantities, and in
combination with other food materials in such a way that it will become
finely divided, or it will not be easily digested. The ash content is
high, the most valuable of the ash constituents of the milk being retained
in the cheese.

=The cost of cheese.=——The foreign cheeses are expensive, but American
cheeses may be classed among the moderate priced foods and they compare
favorably with other protein foods.

Cheese costs more than beans, and less than most cuts of meat. A good
American cheese costs about twenty-five cents per pound. Taking account of
composition as well as cost per pound, we find that a given amount of
money buys about twice as much food value when spent for cheese as it
would if spent for beef. See Fig. 45.

[Illustration: FIG. 45.——100-Calorie portions of cheese.


  1.    Swiss          0.8
  2.    Cream          0.9
  3.    American       0.8
  4.    Roquefort      1.0
  5.    Parmesan       1.9
  6.    Cottage        3.2

_A. Fowler, Photographer._]

=Care of cheese in the pantry.=——Cheese should be kept dry and covered,
that its odor may not be noticeable. Soft cheese should be kept in the ice
box. The receptacle for cheese should be thoroughly sterilized before each
new purchase is put away.

                      GENERAL METHODS AND RECIPES

=1. Uncooked cheese.=——Serve a cream cheese with a salad of lettuce,
and the imported cheeses with crackers and fruit for dessert.
American cheese may be thinly sliced and used in sandwiches. A small
piece of cheese with apple pie or pudding is an old-fashioned
combination that is always agreeable, but sometimes difficult of

=2. Cottage cheese.=

    Use sour milk that has set. Other ingredients: salt to taste,
    cayenne pepper or paprika, if liked. Quality and flavor are
    improved by the addition of a tablespoonful of butter or two
    tablespoonfuls of cream to a pint of the curd, but these are not

    Warm the milk slowly, until the whey begins to separate from the
    curd. If this process is continued too long, and the milk becomes
    hot, the curd will be tough. Place a piece of cheesecloth over a
    bowl, pour in the curds and whey, and lift the cloth carefully,
    allowing the whey to run through. Squeeze out the remaining whey.
    Add the seasoning and other ingredients to the curd, shape in
    balls, and chill before serving. It is delicious served with
    lettuce and dressing as a salad, or with gingerbread for dessert
    at luncheon or supper.

=Principles of cooking cheese.=——The fat in the cheese is melted by
heat. The protein is toughened by a high temperature, therefore a low
temperature process should be used.

=3. Cheese cooked with other food materials.=——A creamy cheese should
be selected for cooking. Cheese may be grated and sprinkled on the
top of potato on the half shell, or any other mashed potato; or it
may be sliced and placed with each layer in escalloped potato. Its
use is common with macaroni; and a dish of macaroni with milk and
cheese is a good meat substitute, and may be used as the main dish of
a luncheon or simple dinner. Those to whom cheese is agreeable will
find many places for its use. Its flavor harmonizes with celery and
with tomato. The Italians serve grated Parmesan cheese with soup, and
with spaghetti that has a tomato sauce.

=4. Cheese crackers.=——Select crackers of a firm quality that will not
crumble or flake easily, and of a small size. Spread very thinly with soft
butter, put the crackers in a pan, and sprinkle grated cheese upon each
one. Set the pan in a moderate oven until the cheese is melted. A
sprinkling of paprika may be used. Serve with lettuce, celery, or other
green salad.


1. Compare the composition of eggs, milk, and cheese.

2. How may an egg which has been kept too long in cold storage be

3. What is the effect of the boiling temperature of water upon an egg?

4. Compare a hard- and a soft-cooked egg for digestibility.

5. What are the dangers from unclean milk?

6. How may the milk supply be safeguarded?

7. Why is cheese a meat substitute?

8. What caution should we exercise in using it?

9. What precaution must we take in cooking cheese?

                               CHAPTER X

                        THE FATS AND THE SUGARS

Fats are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, but have much more
carbon than the other kinds of foodstuffs. Notice in Fig. 46 that olive
oil and lard are pure fats; the other fat foods containing water, protein,
and ash. Fat is available in various forms, with differing flavors and a
wide range of prices. To many people it is unpalatable in some of its
cheapest forms; yet its use is important, and some kind should be included
in the diet. Fluid and emulsified fats are the most easily digested, hence
olive oil, cream, and egg yolk are highly desirable. Bacon and butter
belong nearly in the same class. A vigorous man at hard labor can digest
fat of any kind without difficulty, and needs it because it gives so much
fuel in proportion to its bulk.

Fat tends to retard gastric digestion, and delicate persons must be
careful about taking with it other foods which are hard to digest, or
taking it in the form of fried foods, pastries, rich cakes, and sauces.
Persons with delicate appetite, who lose weight because they do not get
enough fuel, may be benefited by taking a little more fat in the diet,
especially if they do not digest starch and sugar readily, but a very
large amount (over 6 or 7 ounces a day) will not be perfectly digested.

=Fat as a food.=——_Beef fat_, as it occurs with lean, is a digestible fat.
If thoroughly browned in the cooking process, it is most palatable, and
the taste for it should be cultivated. In gravy, it may be used with
potato, instead of butter. Fat tried out from suet, may be used in place
of butter as an ingredient in some puddings, and even in batter mixtures.
It may also be used with vegetables when the price of butter is
prohibitive. See Fig. 47.

[Illustration: FIG. 46.——Composition of fat foods.]

[Illustration: FIG. 47.——100-Calorie portions of fat foods.

                                   WEIGHT OF PORTION
  No.  KIND                        OUNCES

  1. Cream (extra rich, 40% fat)      0.9
  2. Olive oil                        0.4
  3. Butter                           0.5
  4. Oleomargarine                    0.5
  5. Suet                             0.5
  6. Bacon                            0.6

_A. Fowler, Photographer._]

_Bacon_ is a digestible and agreeable form of fat, but it is not so cheap
as beef fat, though cheaper than butter.

_Fat pork_ is lower in price than bacon, and can be assimilated by
vigorous people, especially those living out of doors.

_Cream_ is one of the most delicious fatty food materials, and is
digestible, but ranks with butter and bacon as to cost. While it is not a
cheap food, it is not such an extravagance when moderately used as some
people suppose, who have not worked out the problem. Usually the most
economical source of cream is to take it from the top of the bottle of
milk. The remaining partially skimmed milk may be used at table or in
cooking or for making cottage cheese.

_Butter_ is a digestible fat, ranking at present among the more expensive
food materials.

Watchfulness is necessary with both cream and milk that cleanliness and
quality may be insured.

_Butter substitutes._——These are made from beef fat and other edible fats
and oils, and are much less expensive than butter. They may be used in
cooking with good result. The usual trade names are butterine, or
oleomargarine, or some word similar to these. Oleomargarine has the same
food value as butter at lower cost, but lacks fine flavor.

_Olive or sweet oil._——The fat content of olive oil is one hundred per
cent, its fuel value being equal to that of lard. See Fig. 46. It is made
in Italy, France, Spain, and California, the oils from the different
countries differing somewhat in flavor. The cheaper grades are sometimes
adulterated with corn oil or cottonseed oil, which have the same food
value but should, of course, be sold under their own names and not at
olive oil prices. An American firm is now manufacturing olive oil in
Spain; this and the California olive oil are of high grade. Italian oil by
the gallon is of good quality, and usually somewhat less expensive than
the French. It is a costly food material, but valuable in the dietary.
Never buy it in small bottles, as this adds greatly to the cost. The most
economical method is to purchase by the gallon in a tin can. If kept cool,
it will not deteriorate except very slowly. Always wipe off the mouth of
the bottle or can before pouring out the oil.

=Fat as a cooking medium.=——Fat is necessary for the sauté, and for deep
fat frying. For deep fat frying several preparations are made from
cottonseed oil that are agreeable to use and of moderate price.

_Lard_ has been the most commonly used, but many people object to the
flavor. _Beef drippings_ should be saved and kept cool in covered jelly
glasses. These drippings are useful for browning vegetables, meatballs,
and in pan-broiling if a small amount of additional fat is necessary.

When deep fat frying is used, great pains must be taken to see that the
fat is sufficiently hot in order that the food material may not soak fat,
and the cooked food must be kept hot when the fat is draining off on
absorptive paper. The best fats for this purpose are the vegetable oils.
The refined cottonseed oils now on the market are excellent. For details
of use see page 120. Keep a box of sand to pour into it, if the kettle of
fat takes fire. Never pour water into blazing fat.

                      GENERAL METHODS AND RECIPES

=Principles of cooking.=

    Fat melts at a low temperature.

    At about 350° F. it begins to smoke.

    At a higher temperature, a chemical change takes place, and the
    fat finally “burns,” as the hydrogen and oxygen pass off.

    It is emulsified by mixing with a substance like egg.

=1. To whip cream.=——Chill the cream, and set it in a bowl of ice
water, or chipped ice. If the cream is warm, the beating will churn
the cream to butter.

    (1) For a fine, close-whipped cream use a Dover egg beater.

    (2) For a lighter whipped cream, use a wire beater.

=2. To mold butter.=——A pair of wooden butter pats is necessary for
this. Dip these first into hot water, then into cold. Cut off a
square piece of butter, enough for one person, make it flat or round
with two knives, and then roll it into shape between the butter pats.
Chill, and serve in a dish on ice; or give one to each person on a
butter plate, just at the last moment before serving the meal. Never
serve soft butter.

=3. To cook bacon.=——Bacon has alternate layers of fat and lean, but
it is the fat that has chief consideration in the cooking process.
The aim is to brown and crisp the fat without burning it and without
causing a volume of smoke in the kitchen. Make ready a frying pan,
and have at hand a jar for holding fat standing on a plate. Cut the
bacon in thin slices with a sharp knife. Heat the pan, and put in the
bacon. The fat will begin to “try out” at the melting point. Pour
this melted fat into the jar. Turn the pieces of bacon with a fork.
If the smoke is rising in volumes the pan is too hot. The novice
should not try this experiment for the first time by herself. The fat
may even burst into flame if the pan is too hot. When the bacon is
sufficiently cooked to become crisp on cooling, it is ready to serve,
by itself, with toast, or with eggs.

=The making of sauces and gravies.=——Many sauces and gravies are made from
a fat, mixed with a starchy substance, the two mingled with a liquid. The
fat gives flavor and nutriment, the starch is used for thickening, the
liquid also gives flavor. You are now familiar with the cooking of fat and
starch, and can readily understand that the combination of all these
ingredients is not an easy matter. The fat will float upon the top of the
liquid unless the right amount of starch or flour is used, and the flour
will have a tendency to lump. There are several good methods in use. The
method given for your experiment is one of the simplest, because it uses
only a few utensils, and gives uniformly good results. It requires no more
watchfulness than the other methods.

These sauces and gravies are not foods for little children and invalids.

=4. Foundation recipe for sauces.=


  (1) Thin sauce (for milk toast)
      1 tablespoonful of fat, 1 of flour, 1/2 pint liquid.

  _or_ (2) Medium sauce (for vegetables).
      2 tablespoonfuls of fat, 2 of flour, 1/2 pint liquid.

  _or_ (3) Thicker sauce, also for vegetables, meats, fish, and
      3 tablespoonfuls of fat, 3 of flour, 1/2 pint liquid.
        Salt is used to taste.

    _Method._——Melt the fat in a saucepan. Pour in the flour, all at
    once, and stir the flour and fat together, until the mass
    thickens slightly. Pour in all the liquid at once, cold. Set the
    saucepan where the heat is moderate.

    Stir steadily with a wooden spoon until the mixture thickens.

=5. A white sauce= is made with butter, and milk the liquid. Stop the
cooking just short of the boiling point.

  =6. A tomato sauce= is made with butter or beef fat, strained tomato
  juice the liquid. Cook a piece of onion, a sprig of parsley, or a
  small portion of dried herbs, and a clove with the tomato before
  straining, if these flavors are liked.

  =7. A brown sauce= or _meat gravy_ may be made in the same way,
  using beef fat, and (as the liquid) water that has been poured into
  the pan in which the meat is cooked. When you are familiar with
  cooking there is an easier way for thickened meat gravies, as

    Pour off some of the fat from the meat pan. Set the pan upon the
    stove and stir in the flour,——about two tablespoonfuls for the
    ordinary roasting pan. When the flour is thoroughly mixed in, add
    about a pint of water, cold or warm, and stir again. Pour this
    mixture through a strainer. With practice you can make an
    excellent gravy in this way. It requires judgment to proportion
    the flour and liquid to the material in the pan.

                               THE SUGARS

Sugars are of common occurrence in the vegetable world in the fruits and
juices of many plants. Pure grape juice may contain as high as 25 per cent
of glucose though usually it is not so concentrated. Glucose is also found
in considerable amount in sweet corn and onions. It is not so sweet as
cane sugar (sucrose). Fructose is one of the sweetest of sugars, and helps
to give honey its great sweetness.

_Lactose_ or milk sugar is found chiefly in milk. It is the least sweet of
all the sugars. If there were as much cane sugar in milk, we should soon
grow tired of it because it would be too sweet. It is sometimes added to
milk to make its fuel value higher, especially in case the milk has been
diluted, as in the diet of babies and invalids.

_Maltose_ or malt sugar is formed from starch in germinating seeds.

_Sucrose_ or cane sugar is most commonly manufactured from sugar cane and
sugar beets. To a much smaller extent it is made commercially from the
sugar maple, sorghum cane, and sugar palm, and it is found in considerable
amount in some common fruits and vegetables.

Its manufacture forms a great industry, and its consumption is enormous,
some ten million tons coming into commerce annually, and this does not
represent the total consumption.

Figure 48 shows the composition of several common sugars. Notice that the
granulated sugar is a pure foodstuff, being 100 per cent carbohydrate,
while all the others contain traces of protein, ash, and water. Sugar is a
fuel food, exclusively, like olive oil and other pure fats.

[Illustration: FIG. 48.——Composition of sugars.]

Sugar is a valuable food material, but should not be used in excess; the
tendency in the United States is rather toward an excessive use of sugar.
It is liable to cause an acid fermentation in digestion, when taken in
large amounts, and is sure to irritate the stomach. It should be well
diluted by other foods. The amount that may be eaten daily varies for most
people from two ounces for young children to four ounces for adults, but
many people cannot eat these amounts without more or less irritation of
the stomach. It is a common practice to oversweeten cakes and desserts,
the sweetness of the sugar often disguising other agreeable flavors. The
liking for sweets should be well under control, for the eating of too much
sugar is a habit easy to form, and one which crowds out other valuable

_Cane Sugar_ is sold both brown and white, and is manufactured in
powdered, granulated, and solid form, the latter usually cut in cubes or

The canes are first crushed, the juices passing from the machine being of
a rather dark greenish color. This juice is first clarified and filtered,
and then boiled down in order to crystallize the sugar, the liquid sirup
forming molasses. In the older methods the sirup was boiled in open pans,
and the crystals filtered from the molasses by a slow process. In the
modern process the sirup is boiled at a low temperature in vacuum pans,
and the sugar is separated from the molasses by a centrifugal machine,
built on the same principle as a cream separator. The principles of beet
sugar manufacture are essentially the same, with some differences in

The _molasses_ manufactured in the older method is richer in cane sugar
and is a better table molasses than the new process molasses, the latter
being used chiefly for the manufacture of alcohol. Molasses is either dark
or light, the darker having a stronger flavor especially suited to
gingerbread and Indian meal pudding. Molasses comes in the bulk, and may
be slightly acid; or in cans, in which case no acid fermentation should
have taken place. Where canned molasses is used in a batter, it is
sometimes necessary to use baking powder instead of soda. “New Orleans” is
a light-colored molasses, “Porto Rico” dark.

Brown sugar has not passed through the refining processes necessary to the
whitening of the sugar. It is softer than the granulated white, has a
decided brownish color and a rich flavor.

In _buying sugar_ it is economy to purchase granulated in large
quantities, a fraction of a cent per pound being saved in this way. The
cut sugar comes in convenient boxes, which keep the product clean.
Powdered sugar may be bought in small quantities, three or five pounds,
since it is not used so much in cooking as the granulated.

=Candy, homemade and purchased.=——Candy, if not eaten between meals, is an
allowable form of sugar. The best time for eating it is at the end of a
meal, one or two pieces. Even in this case, however, it would be better
for the body if the craving for sweet were satisfied by fruit rather than

Candy made at home costs less than high grade commercial candy, even
counting in the labor. It is superior to cheap grade candy, which may even
contain poisonous coloring matter. It is a pleasure to make it at times,
and it is always a pleasing gift at the holiday season.

                      GENERAL METHODS AND RECIPES

=Principles of cooking.=

    A sirup is formed by cooking sugar with water.

    The sirup thickens if process is prolonged and water evaporates.

    Cane sugar is changed to glucose and fructose by boiling with an

    Heated without additional water, the sugar is partially
    decomposed, giving off water and becoming brown in color. This is
    “caramel,” used for coloring, and flavoring.

    The final stage of heating leaves pure carbon.

=8. Peanut brittle.=


      Sugar      2 cups
      Salt     1/4 teaspoonful
      Peanuts    1 quart

    _Method._——Shell the peanuts and chop them in small pieces. Put
    the sugar in a saucepan and place over a moderate fire. Stir from
    the bottom until the sugar is entirely melted and of a rich brown
    color. The sugar will lump badly at first, but these lumps will
    entirely melt in time. Turn the chopped peanuts and salt into the
    sirup and stir together and immediately turn out on a buttered
    pan. When cold, break into pieces.

=9. Fudge.=


      Sugar                2 cups
      Cream of tartar    1/8 teaspoonful
      Chocolate            2 squares
      Milk or water        1 cup
      Vanilla              1 teaspoonful

    _Method._——Mix the first four ingredients and place over a hot
    fire. Stir steadily until the mixture begins to boil. Stir
    occasionally after this until, when half a teaspoonful is dropped
    into cold water, it may be rolled to a soft ball with the
    fingers. Set the saucepan in a cool place and leave until it
    becomes just lukewarm. Add the vanilla and stir the mixture until
    it becomes thick and seems very slightly granular. Pour it into a
    buttered tin and as soon as possible cut into squares. The exact
    point at which to remove the fudge from the fire and again at
    which to cease stirring and pour into the pan is a matter which
    only practice can teach.

=10. Penocha.=


      Brown sugar              2 cups
      Butter                   2 tablespoonfuls
      Milk, cream, or water    1 cup
      Cream of tartar        1/8 teaspoon or less
      Vanilla                  1 teaspoon

    _Method._——As with recipe 9. The very dark brown sugar contains
    some acid and therefore less cream of tartar may be used. Chopped
    nuts may be added with the vanilla to both fudge and penocha.

=11. Fondant for French creams.=


      Sugar                 2 cups
      Cream of tartar     1/8 teaspoonful
      Boiling water       2/3 cup

    _Method._——Mix the sugar and cream of tartar. Add the boiling
    water and place over a moderate fire, stirring slowly and
    steadily until the sugar is dissolved. Do not stir after the
    mixture begins to boil, but let it boil slowly until the sirup
    will form a soft ball in cold water. Turn out on a platter
    without scraping the saucepan. The success of the fondant depends
    upon the complete changing of the cane sugar into fructose and
    glucose, the crystals of the latter being much finer than those
    of cane sugar. Stirring the mixture while it boils or before it
    has cooled sufficiently will result in the formation of cane
    sugar crystals, and the fondant will be harsh and rough.

    When the fondant is barely lukewarm begin to stir it with long
    steady strokes and continue this until the mixture becomes creamy
    and thick and begins to break away from the sides of the dish and
    the spoon. Then gather it all together into a round mass and knead
    like bread until it becomes pliable. It may then be wrapped in
    oiled paper or put into a covered bowl or fruit jar and kept until

    Fondant is the foundation for all bonbons and may be made up into
    a great variety of shapes and with many flavors. It may be mixed
    with chopped candied fruits or nuts or coated with chocolate.

_Laboratory management._——The holiday time is the natural season for the
candy-making lesson. It is not worth while to spend much time on this
topic, at the sacrifice of others.


1. What is meant by a fuel food?

2. Why should fat be taken daily?

3. Compare the cost of different kinds of fat.

4. Why is beef fat less expensive than butter?

5. How is fat mixed with other ingredients in a sauce?

6. What is the chief point to consider in the cookery of fat?

7. What is the difference between cane sugar and honey?

8. Compare the cost of a pound of homemade candy with that of good quality
bought at a shop.

9. How is fat changed in digestion?

10. How is sugar changed in digestion?

                               CHAPTER XI


Wheat flour is the important material in this group, but muffins and
biscuit may be varied by the use of corn meal, rye, and Graham flour, and
cooked cereals may also be utilized. The ingredients are flour, salt, a
liquid, sometimes a fat, eggs, and sugar. The flavorings are spices,
essences, fruit juice, dried fruits, nuts, chocolate. The mixture must be
smooth, but it is also necessary to make it porous or “light.” This is
accomplished by means of leavening agents, “to leaven” meaning “to make

=Leavening agents.=——The batter, or dough, is leavened by introducing into
it air or a gas that expands when heated in the oven, thus making the
whole more porous and larger in bulk.

_Air._——This is introduced into the batter by beating, or by beating air
into the white of egg and stirring the beaten white into the batter.

_Steam._——The water in the batter turns to steam in the oven, and as it
expands it assists in the leavening of the mass. See Popovers.

_Carbon dioxide gas._——This is introduced in three ways.

  (1) By using an acid with a carbonate.
  (2) By yeast fermentation.
  (3) By machinery.

Yeast fermentation is studied in the chapter on bread making (Chapter
XII), and the mechanical method is a commercial process exclusively. Only
the first method will be treated in this chapter.

When an acid and any alkaline carbonate are dissolved together, a
chemical action takes place, a gas is given off (carbon dioxide) and
another substance is formed that is neutral, being neither acid nor
alkaline, and known as a “salt.” In selecting the two substances we must
bear in mind this neutral substance that remains in the batter and insure
its harmlessness.

The _lactic acid_ of sour milk is probably the earliest used, being a
domestic product. The lactic acid is neutralized by bicarbonate of sodium,
the latter being also called “baking soda.” The resulting salt is

_Acid molasses_ with soda is another old-fashioned method. Here the acid
is developed by the fermentation of the molasses.

_Cream of tartar_ (acid potassium tartrate), obtained from crystals
deposited in wine vats, came into use later, neutralized by bicarbonate of
soda, two parts of cream of tartar to one of soda.

_Baking powder._——The first baking powders were made of cream of tartar
and bicarbonate of soda, mixed with a starch, to prevent the slight
chemical action which would cause the powder to lose strength; and these
two substances are now used in the best baking powders. The resulting salt
is the Rochelle salt of medicine.

An _acid phosphate_ is sometimes used with soda, and this gives a harmless
neutral substance.

Cheaper acids have sometimes been used, especially _alum_. It is best not
to use an alum powder. Select a standard kind, avoiding those that offer
prizes for a certain number of boxes purchased. Even if these latter do
not contain alum, there is probably an excess of starch or flour.

The advantage of baking powder is in the accuracy of the proportions of
the two substances by weight. Even though the measuring of the cream of
tartar and soda separately is accurate, the proportions may not be
correct. There is no great advantage in homemade baking powder. It costs
almost as much as the manufactured, and is not as perfect a product.

=The proportions of the main ingredients.=——Attempts are made to define
the degrees of stiffness of batters and doughs, but these distinctions are
not very accurate. A “pour batter” is liquid enough to pour, and a “dough
batter” soft enough to drop from a spoon; a “soft dough” is next in grade,
and “dough” is the stiffest of all.

To understand proportioning the ingredients, the nature of the ingredients
when heated must be taken into account. Butter and other fats melt when
heated, and behave like a liquid in the mixture. Therefore, when there is
a very large amount of butter, no other wetting is necessary, as in pound
cake. We may make a scale, with a thin popover mixture at one extreme,
with no butter in it, and the stiff pound cake at the other, with butter
the only liquid (except the flavoring). Between these two are the mixtures
of medium stiffness, with both butter and liquid. This general rule may be
given: As the quantity of butter is increased, the batter must increase in
stiffness, and there must be either less liquid or more flour.

A beaten egg looks like a liquid and behaves so during the mixing, but in
the oven it stiffens. For this reason we can make a sponge cake with many
eggs and no liquid in the mixing, and use no other leavening agent than
the air beaten into the egg.

One old-fashioned rule for sponge cake reads: Take the weight of the eggs
in sugar and half their weight in flour, with the juice and rind of a
lemon for ten eggs. Such a rule was adapted to the days when eggs were
cheap. We should now use fewer eggs in sponge cake, and this means that
water and baking powder must replace the eggs omitted.

=Methods of mixing.=——(1) _For popovers, griddlecakes, muffins, and plain

Sift together the dry ingredients.

Beat the eggs, without separating the yolk and white, and stir the eggs
and milk together.

Pour the liquid gradually into the flour, first stirring, then beating.

Melt the butter or other shortening, and beat it into the batter.

(2) _Biscuits and shortcakes._

Sift together the dry ingredients.

Cut in or chop in the butter.

Add the wetting slowly.

(3) _A richer, fine-grained butter cake._

Sift together the dry ingredients.

Cream the butter, and beat in the sugar.

Beat the whites and yolks of the eggs separately.

Beat the yolks into the creamed butter and sugar.

Add the flour and milk alternately; that is, a quarter or third of the
flour, then a portion of the milk, and so on. First stir, then beat

Fold in the beaten whites lightly and do not beat the mixture again.

(4) _Sponge cake._

If baking powder is used, sift with the flour.

Beat the whites and yolks of the eggs separately.

Beat the sugar into the yolks, and add the liquid and flavoring.

Add the flour and beaten whites in alternate portions, dividing both into
quarters or thirds.

=Baking.=——This is a science and an art that requires much practice. Do
not be discouraged if you do not succeed at first.

Concerning the utensils for baking, see Chapter II. The cups or pans are
prepared by warming and greasing. Use a bit of soft paper or a brush for
greasing the pan and ordinarily an inexpensive fat, reserving butter for
delicate cake. Flour sprinkled on a pan is sufficient for biscuit and
cookies. Line a pan for loaf cake with white paper, and grease the paper.

See that the oven is ready before the mixing begins. We shall not be able
to bake accurately until our ovens are equipped with thermometers. In the
meantime we must use some simple oven test. The indicators on the doors of
some ovens are a guide, although they are not really accurate according to
the scale of the thermometer. A glass door is also a convenience.

A loaf should be baked at a lower temperature than a biscuit or muffin.

_For loaves_, 380° F. Test by the hand, counting fifteen slowly, fifteen
seconds. A piece of white paper will become a delicate brown in five

_For biscuits, muffins_, and _small cakes_, 425° to 450° F.——Test by the
hand, a count of ten. A piece of paper becomes a deeper golden brown in
five minutes.

Any mixture containing baking powder may stand some little time before it
is put in the oven, provided it is kept cold. The action of the baking
powder is not immediate, and is very slight at a low temperature.

The stages of the baking are first, the rising; second, the crusting over;
third, the baking of the interior; and last, a shrinkage of the whole.

Many ovens bake unevenly, and pans must be shifted. This should be done
with care and not before the third stage of the baking. It is often well
to cool off the oven the latter part of the time. An oven that is too hot
may be cooled by a pan of water. Paper may be laid over the top of the
cake if the browning has been too rapid. These are all makeshifts, and
indicate a poor oven, or poor management of the fire. Do not look into the
oven for the first ten minutes of baking, and always close the oven door

When we are privileged to have electric ovens, with glass doors, and an
accurate thermometer, baking will be an easy and accurate process.

                        EXPERIMENTS AND RECIPES

_A. Experiments with baking powder._

1. Dissolve half a teaspoonful of baking powder in two tablespoonfuls of
water and heat in a test tube, or saucepan, over a flame; notice the
effervescence when the bubbling is at its height, and hold a lighted
match in the mouth of the tube. This is a simple test for carbon dioxide.

2. Dissolve 2 teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar in 1/2 cup water in a glass.

Dissolve 1 teaspoonful of bicarbonate of soda in 1/2 cup water in a glass.

Taste both of these.

Test both with litmus paper, noting the change of color. There are several
vegetable coloring matters that change color in this way, in the presence
of an acid or an alkaline substance.

Turn the two solutions together, and test with both blue and pink litmus
paper, after the solution has stood for several minutes. What results?

Taste this mixed solution to see if you can detect any difference.

To prove that there is a substance still left, evaporate the water.

3. A pretty form of this experiment is to use, instead of litmus, the
water in which red cabbage has previously been boiled and which therefore
contains some of the coloring matter of the cabbage. The changes in color
are very striking, and prove conclusively that neither the cream of tartar
nor the soda remains such.

_B. Oven experiments._

If one oven in the school kitchen can be equipped with a chemical
thermometer inserted in the oven, the following experiments are helpful.

1. Let each pupil test the oven by feeling, when it has reached 380° F.,
400° F., 425° F., 450° F., 475° F.-500° F.

2. Place pieces of white paper, one for each pupil, in the oven for five
minutes at the various temperatures. These may be pasted in the notebook
for future reference.

=1. Popovers, puffovers, or mahogany cakes.=

    _Ingredients for 12._

      Flour    1 pint
      Milk     1 pint
      Eggs     3
      Salt   1/2 teaspoonful

    Some rules give two eggs only.

    _For baking_, heavy earthen cups, hot and greased.

    _Method of mixing_ is No. 1.

    _Special points._——The liquid must be poured _very_ slowly into
    the flour to prevent lumping. A large Dover egg beater is
    convenient for beating out lumps, if any occur.

    The leavening of the popover is effected by steam, and it is not
    necessary therefore to spend time and strength in the long beating
    sometimes recommended. This has been conclusively proved by
    experiment. Neither is it necessary to put the batter into the
    oven immediately, as sometimes directed. It may stand all day or
    even over night.

    Pour the batter in the hot cups, having each cup two thirds full.
    The baking of the popovers is unique, in that they should be put
    into an intensely hot oven for the first stage of the baking—— as
    hot as 475° F., or even more——then the oven must be cooled. This
    first stage crusts the top; then the expansive force of the steam
    pushes up the top; and the muffin “pops” or “puffs” over. The more
    moderate heat cooks the sides and the bottom, and makes an
    agreeable crust. The perfect puffover is hollow. Three quarters of
    an hour is the average time of baking. If at the end of that time
    the oven door is set ajar, and the popovers allowed to remain
    longer, they are improved, coming from the oven stiff and crisp
    with a rich brown color, rather than soft and underdone. In an old
    family cookbook, one recipe, sixty years old, calls popovers
    “Mahogany Cakes.”

    They may be eaten as a muffin, or served with a pudding sauce as a

=2. Plain muffins.=

    _Ingredients for 12._

      Flour                                1 pint
      Baking powder                        3 teaspoonfuls
      Salt                               1/2 teaspoonful
      Eggs                                 2 or 1
      Milk                             1-1/4 cup
      Butter, _or_ butter substitute  1 tablespoonful
      Sugar, if desired                    1 tablespoonful

    _For baking_, greased muffin pan. Bake about half an hour.

    _Method of mixing_ is No. 1.

    This recipe may be varied in many ways.

        (_a_) Use 1/2 cup cooked cereal in place of an equal quantity
        of flour. Will you change the amount of wetting?

        (_b_) One cup fine white corn meal, or 1/2 cup yellow meal in
        place of equal quantities of flour. Corn meal absorbs more
        water than white flour.

        What change in the wetting?

        The oven should be the temperature for bread, and the baking
        at least 3/4 of an hour.

        (_c_) One cup Graham or rye meal in place of an equal quantity
        of flour.

=3. Baking-powder biscuit.=


      Flour                         1 pint
      Baking powder                 3 teaspoonfuls
      Salt                        1/2 teaspoonful
      Butter, _or_ butter substitute  1 or 2 tablespoonfuls
      Milk                          1 scant cup

    _For shaping_, molding board, rolling pin, and biscuit cutter.

    _For baking_, an iron sheet or pan sprinkled with flour. Oven
    about 425° F., a ten-second test, or golden brown paper. Bake
    twenty minutes to half an hour.

    _Method of mixing_ is No. 2.

    _To shape._ Dust the board with flour, turn out the dough, dredge
    with flour, pat into a firm mass, and then pat or lightly roll out
    to 1/2 inch thickness. Cut out with a cutter dipped in flour. (A
    small glass or the top of a round tin can may be used.)

    _Variations._——Add 1 egg. This makes a delicious biscuit. Sprinkle
    the top with granulated sugar, and spice. Dried currants washed,
    and dredged with flour, may be laid on the top.

    Increase the butter to two or three tablespoonfuls, and decrease
    the wetting and the mixture becomes _shortcake_. This is the
    mixture to use for the true strawberry shortcake. Many other
    fruits may be used, both uncooked and cooked.

=4. Sour milk griddlecakes.=


      Flour       2-1/2 cups
      Salt          1/2 teaspoonful
      Melted butter   2 tablespoonfuls
      Sour milk       2 cups
      Soda        1-1/4 teaspoonfuls
      Egg             1

    _Method._——Mix dry ingredients. Add sour milk, egg well beaten,
    and melted butter in order given. Beat thoroughly. Drop by
    spoonfuls on a greased griddle and let cook until the edges are
    cooked and the cake full of bubbles. Turn with a cake turner or
    spatula knife and cook on the other side. Serve with butter and
    sirup or scraped maple sugar.

=5. Sweet milk griddlecakes.=


      Flour           3 cups
      Baking powder   4 teaspoonfuls
      Salt            1 teaspoonful
      Sugar         1/4 cup
      Milk            2 cups
      Egg             1
      Melted butter   2 tablespoonfuls

    _Method._——Mix dry ingredients. Beat egg and mix with it the
    milk. Pour liquid ingredients into the dry ingredients and stir
    altogether until smooth. Add the melted butter and cook the cakes
    the same as with sour milk griddlecakes.

=6. Cookies.=——Cookies may be plain, or rich in butter; crisp and
thin, or soft and thick. They may be sweetened with sugar, or
molasses, and spiced in various ways. It would be an interesting
exercise to tabulate all the possible forms of cookies.


      Butter          1 cup
      Sugar       1-1/2 cups
      Eggs            2
      Milk            3 tablespoonfuls
      Flour             about 3 cups
      Baking powder   1 teaspoonful
      Salt        1-1/2 teaspoonfuls

    The flavoring may be two teaspoonfuls of vanilla, or lemon
    essence, one or two tablespoonfuls of ground spice, or caraway

    _For baking_, a floured iron sheet or flat pan. Temperature 425°
    F., or even more. The baking requires from 15 to 20 minutes,
    depending on the thickness of the cooky.

[Illustration: FIG. 49.——Materials and utensils for fancy cookies.
_Courtesy of Miss Anna M. Barrows._]

    The method of mixing is No. 3. Notice that this is a stiff dough.
    The amount of flour depends somewhat upon the expertness of the
    cooky maker. The flour used in rolling out must be accounted for,
    as the expert can manage a softer dough than the novice. Mix the
    baking powder and salt with one cup of the flour.

    _Shaping the cookies._——Figure 49 shows you the apparatus. The
    dough is turned out upon the floured board, gently rolled out to a
    quarter of an inch, cut and placed in a floured pan; or cut off a
    small piece, roll in the flour, until it forms a ball, set the
    ball in the pan, and pat it down to a round. This may seem to take
    longer, but it is easier, and there is no board to clean

    _A plainer cooky_ is made with 1/2 cup butter, and 1/2 cup water
    or milk, with somewhat more flour.

=7. Butter cake.=——A foundation recipe. Learn to make one cake well,
and vary it by changing the forms and flavors.


      Butter              1/3 cup
      Sugar                 1 cup
      Eggs                  2
      Milk                2/3 cup
      Flour             1-3/4 cup
      Baking powder     2-1/2 teaspoonfuls
      Salt                1/4 teaspoonful

    The flavoring may be 1 teaspoonful of vanilla or lemon essence,
    or 1/2 teaspoonful of almond, or two teaspoonfuls of spices.
    Raisins, 1/2 cup, citron 1/4 lb., nuts, 1/2 cup. The rind of 1/2
    orange is delicious with the vanilla flavor. With the vanilla use
    4 tablespoonfuls of cocoa, for a chocolate flavor.

    To make a plainer cake, omit one egg, use 1/4 cup butter, and 3/4
    cup of milk.

    If you use 1/2 cup butter, making a richer cake, what other
    changes should be made?

    Bake in deep or shallow pan, jelly cake tins, or small tin cups.

    The mixing is Method 3.

    As layer cake, it may be used with a variety of fillings and
    icings,——jelly, cream filling, soft icing with nuts, raisins, or

    _A chocolate filling._——One half cup milk, 2 ounces unsweetened
    chocolate, 1 cup of sugar, yolk of one egg, 1 teaspoonful vanilla
    extract. Break up the chocolate, melt it in a bowl over hot water
    or in a double boiler, with the sugar and the milk. When the
    mixture is smooth add the beaten yolk, cook for one or two
    minutes, add the vanilla, and remove from the fire.

[Illustration: FIG. 50.——A loaf of sponge cake. _Courtesy of Dept. of
Foods and Cookery, Teachers College._]

=8. Sponge cake.=——The old-time sponge cake is given on page 173.
Sponge cakes should be baked in a very moderate oven, below 380° F.,
the bread temperature. (See Fig. 50.)

  =9. Hot water sponge cake.=


      Eggs                   2
      Sugar                  1 cup
      Hot water _or_ Milk    3/8 cup
      Flour                  1 cup
      Baking powder      1-1/2 teaspoonfuls
      Salt                 1/4 teaspoonful
      Lemon _or_             1/4 teaspoonful
      Vanilla extract      1/2 teaspoonful

    _Method._——Separate eggs and beat yolks and whites thoroughly.
    Mix and sift the dry ingredients. Add the sugar gradually to
    beaten yolks alternately with water until well blended. Next add
    the flavoring and then fold in the stiffly beaten whites together
    with the dry ingredients until blended. Bake in a buttered
    shallow pan in a moderate oven for twenty-five minutes or until
    cake shrinks from the side of the pan.

=10. Plain gingerbread.=


      Molasses           1 cup
      Boiling water    1/2 cup
      Flour          2-1/2 cups
      Soda               1 teaspoonful
      Ginger         1-1/2 teaspoonfuls
      Salt             1/2 teaspoonful
      Butter             4 tablespoonfuls

    _Method._——Melt butter in boiling water. Mix dry ingredients. Add
    the molasses to the water and butter and stir this mixture into
    the dry ingredients, beating vigorously. Pour into a buttered
    shallow pan and bake twenty minutes in a moderate oven. If the
    molasses is taken from a freshly opened can, no acid will be
    present and the soda should be omitted and 3 teaspoonfuls of
    baking powder used instead.

_Laboratory management._——Effective work in batters cannot be accomplished
with less than 1/2 cup liquid, though a smaller portion is sometimes used.
It is well to have some group work, so that the pupils may learn to beat
larger quantities. If there is a school lunch room, large quantities may
be utilized there.

=Pastry.=——Pastry is a stiff dough with a large proportion of shortening,
and is flaky when baked rather than porous. Pastry and pies should not be
used as a staple food, but when well made and properly masticated, pies
may be eaten occasionally by people in good health. The crust should be
flaky, and thoroughly baked.

=11. Foundation recipes for pastry.=

    1. Proportions.

    (1) _Plain crust._

    This crust is more digestible and more economical than the “short”
    or rich crust and may be used for English deep apple pie, or meat
    or chicken pies.

      Flour                        2 cups
      Baking powder                2 teaspoonfuls
      Salt                       1/2 teaspoonful
      Fat (butter or lard, or
        half of each)            1/2 cup (measured solid)
      Ice water                  1/4 cup

    (2) _Short crust._

      Flour                        2 cups
      Salt                       1/2 teaspoonful
      Fat (equal parts butter
        and lard)                2/3 cup
      Ice water                  1/2 cup

    (3) _Rich flaky crust._

    Same as (2) (more fat is to be added later)

    2. Method of mixing for all.

    Have all the ingredients and utensils icy cold. Mix the dry
    ingredients and cut in the fat with two knives. Stir in the ice
    water until the dough will just hold together. Toss upon a floured
    board and roll to 1/4 inch or less in thickness. Roll this up. If
    not ready to be used, this pie crust may be covered with moist
    cheesecloth and put on the ice until wanted. This amount of crust
    will make two medium-sized pies with two crusts each.

    3. Method of shaping.

    _For plain crust._——Cut off 1/2 of the roll of crust. Roll out to
    about 1/8 inch thickness. Have a deep dish ready containing either
    the apple or meat fillings (see recipes below) and with the edge
    of dish buttered. Invert a small cup in the center of the dish to
    hold up the crust if apples are used. Lay the rolled-out crust
    over the top, having rolled it a little larger than the dish. Turn
    under the edges of the crust and crimp them down on the dish. Make
    several small cuts in the top of the crust to let the steam
    escape. Bake in a moderate oven until the filling (if apples) is
    cooked and the crust brown.

    _For short crust._——Cut off 1/4 of the roll of crust and roll very
    thin, keeping the shape round. Line a buttered pie plate with the
    crust. Fill this with the desired filling, moisten the edge of
    bottom crust with water, and cover with another round of crust
    rolled as before. Crimp down the edges of the top crust and make
    cuts in the top as before. Bake until the filling is cooked and
    the crust is brown.

    _For rich crust._——Roll the crust to 1/2 inch thickness. Have
    ready 1/3 cup ice-cold fat. Cut off small bits of this and spread
    it in dabs over the rolled-out crust. Roll this again and then
    proceed as for the “short” crust (2).

=12. Apple pie filling.=

    Use juicy, tart apples. Pare, cut in quarters, core, and slice
    apples into pie dish, filling it heaping full. Add 1/4 cup water
    and 1/2 cup sugar. Any flavor desired may be used, lemon rind, or
    spices. A little butter gives an agreeable flavor.

=13. Lemon pie filling.=


      1 heaping tablespoonful cornstarch   {1 egg whole, or
        mixed with                         {yolks of 2 eggs
      A little cold water                  Juice and rind of 1 lemon
      Large cup hot water                  A very little salt
      Piece butter the size of walnut      Whites of 2 eggs
      1 cup sugar                          Powdered sugar, 1 tablespoonful


    Mix the starch with the cold water, add the boiling water and cook
    until it thickens, and add the butter and sugar. Beat the egg (or
    yolks) and add the other ingredients. Add the lemon last. When the
    pie is done, if two yolks were used, beat the whites with a
    tablespoonful of powdered sugar, place on the top, and brown in a
    moderate oven.

=14. Meat or chicken pie.=

    Use left-over, cooked meat. Cut the meat into dice or small bits
    and fill the dish. Sprinkle with salt and moisten with gravy, if
    possible. If not, add 1 cup hot water and dredge lightly with
    flour. Have top crust only.

    How would the time for cooking this pie compare with that for deep
    apple pie?


1. What are the chief ingredients of batter mixtures and doughs?

2. Explain leavening by air.

3. Why is steam a leavening agent?

4. How is gas formed for leavening purposes?

5. How does the presence of butter or other fat affect the stiffness of a

6. What are the important points to remember in mixing ingredients?

7. Why are baking-powder biscuits mixed differently from popovers?

8. What are the most practical oven tests?

9. Why is a loaf cake baked longer than cookies?

10. How many muffins, average size, can be made from a pint of flour?

11. Compare the cost of homemade cake with bakers’ cake.

12. What are the advantages of the homemade over the bakers’, or the
bakers’ over the homemade?

                              CHAPTER XII

                              YEAST BREAD

Yeast bread when well made is a food of which the palate never tires, and
it is usually recognized as a part of every well-planned meal. The quick
breads are a convenient substitute at times, but they are not the staff of
life in the same sense, and are, on the whole, less widely used.

The making of a perfect loaf of bread is the goal of all those who aspire
to excel in cookery; and the art of bread making requires not only a clear
understanding of the underlying principles, but patience and persistence
in experimentation and practice until a uniformly perfect product is
achieved. The fact that in yeast we have a living organism with which to
deal makes the whole process a delicate one, in which every detail is of
importance, whether it be a matter of ingredients, proportions, methods of
mixing, or temperature.

=The standard of good bread.=——There will always be some difference of
opinion in regard to a desirable quality in bread, and individual
preference will control the final result, whether the crumb of the bread
shall be dry and porous or somewhat more moist and finer in grain. French
bread is of the former type, the English preferring a close grain and
solid loaf. Allowing for these differences, it is still possible to
standardize bread, and to state in percentages the different points to be
considered in judging a loaf.

We must consider the _size_ and _symmetry_ of the loaf, in order that the
interior of the bread may be baked to the very center, without overbaking
or burning the crust, and therefore very large loaves should be avoided.
The _crust_ should be uniform in color, the shade ranging from a light
golden to a darker brown, and the quality may be soft or crisp, but never
tough. The _crumb_ should be light, the cavities evenly distributed
throughout the loaf and of uniform size. It should also be elastic,
tender, and yet not pasty, evenly baked without streaks and heavy portions
near the crust, and the color should be creamy rather than a snowy white.
(Fig. 55.)

The following score cards will be useful in judging loaves, and in the
bread contests which are interesting and helpful.

                           BREAD SCORE CARD 1

  I. General Appearance                      15%
       1. Shape       2.5%
       2. Size        2.5%
       3. Crust      10.0%
         (_a_) Color
         (_b_) Smoothness

  II. Internal Appearance                    55%
        1. Depth of crust           10%
        2. Texture (lightness)      15%
        3. Crumb                    30%
         (_a_)  Moisture}
            Elasticity}  (25%)
         (_b_) Color      (5%)

  III. Flavor                                30%

                           BREAD SCORE CARD 2

  I. External Appearance                      20%
       1. Shape       5%
       2. Size        5%
       3. Crust      10%
            (_a_) Color
            (_b_) Smoothness

  II. Internal Factors                        50%
        1. Depth of crust           10%
        2. Texture                  20%
        3. Crumb                    20%
             (a) Moisture      (15%)
             (b) Color          (5%)

  III. Flavor                                 30%

NOTE.——These two score cards are the average of the work of sixty students
in judging bread in experimental cookery, Department of Foods and Cookery,
Teachers College, Columbia University. See also Bulletin 25, University of

=Digestibility and nutritive value.=——Bread of the standard described is
readily digestible when at least twelve hours old and stands high in
nutritive value. Figure 51 compares the composition of several varieties.

[Illustration: FIG. 51.——Composition of bread.]

Like the cereals, it has considerable protein, and some fat, but is
highest in starch. The white bread, unless made with milk, has very little
ash. A slice almost one inch thick weighing 1.38 ounces, from a baker’s
five-cent loaf, will yield 100 Calories.

=The cost of bread.=——The table in Chapter XVII states the amount of
protein and energy obtained for ten cents from bread as compared with
other common foods, and makes the fact clear that bread is essentially one
of the cheapest foods, remaining relatively so whatever the general
fluctuations in food prices may be.

A pound loaf of bread at the bakery should cost five cents, the cost being
slightly less when the bread is made at home, even taking the fuel into
account. It is an open question, however, whether bread should be made at
home or bought at the bakery, all the circumstances being weighed in the
balance by the individual. (See Chapter XVII.) In America, we need to
learn to dictate and control the methods in the public bakeries because
bakers’ bread is being used more and more, although it is said that 50 per
cent is still made at home. If bread is to be bought, it is necessary for
the housekeeper to understand the bread-making process and the standard of
good bread that she may criticize intelligently, and force the public
bakeries to furnish bread made under ideal conditions. Such bread is
supplied in France, where the housekeepers in the city, though noted for
their thrift, do not think of bread making at home as a practical or
economical procedure. It must be understood that the baker’s oven is
fitted to do better work than the small oven of the average kitchen, and
if the public through laws and inspection will control the quality of the
materials used and the cleanliness of the process, baker’s bread will be a
useful “ready-cooked” food.

=The ingredients of bread.=——The essential ingredients are flour, water,
and yeast. The liquid may be milk, or milk and water, the milk changing
the flavor slightly and increasing the nutritive value, while the cream in
the milk increases the tenderness of the crumb and crust. The
non-essentials include salt to develop flavor, sugar sometimes added to
hasten fermentation and also for flavor, and a fat to increase tenderness,
as, for instance, butter or some cheaper fat. Spices and dried fruits are
used in sweet breads, and when eggs are added sweet bread becomes a plain
cake having a delicious and characteristic flavor.

=The characteristics of good flour=.——The average composition of flour is
as follows:

  Protein           11.4 per cent
  Fat                1.0    ”
  Carbohydrate      75.1    ”
  Fuel value        1610 Cal. per pound
  100-Calorie portion 28 grams (1 ounce)

The protein occurs in the form of gluten, which has the property of
stretching and expanding, and which makes the framework of the loaf of
bread, since it retains the air and carbon dioxide, and hardens when
baked. The protein of oats and corn lacks this property, and therefore
oatmeal and corn meal give a very different type of bread. Rye flour
contains gluten, and the rye loaf therefore resembles the wheat loaf.
Wheat and flour differ largely on account of the difference in the amount
of gluten, and the gluten itself varies in quality with the variety of

[Illustration: FIG. 52.——Experiment illustrating the effect of the kind of
wheat upon the size of the loaf. _Courtesy of Utah Agricultural College._]

Figure 52 shows the result of an experiment with flour made from different
kinds of wheat, all the other factors in the bread making being identical.
This effect of the difference in the composition of the flour is very
striking. Again, the same variety of wheat will differ from season to
season, and the time of planting, also, affects the quality of the grain.
The time of planting and reaping gives us two classes of wheat and flour,
the winter and spring. Winter wheat is sown in the fall and obtains its
first growth before winter, living through the winter in those latitudes
where the climate is sufficiently mild, being harvested in early summer.
Spring wheat is sown in the spring and harvested late and it is the wheat
of the great flour-producing state, Minnesota. The difference in the
composition of the two wheats is shown in this table.[13]

                      | WATER | PROTEIN | FAT |CARBOHYDRATE| ASH |
  Wheat               |       |         |     |            |     |
    Spring varieties  |  10.4 |   12.5  | 2.2 |   73.      | 1.9 |
    Winter varieties  |  10.5 |   11.8  | 2.1 |   73.8     | 1.8 |

Note that the spring wheat contains more protein and therefore more
gluten. The flour from spring wheat is creamy in color, granular to the
touch, has more gluten, and is known as a _strong_ flour. Flour from
winter wheat is somewhat whiter in color and smoother to the touch,
feeling more like cornstarch, and if a portion is squeezed in the hand, it
retains the imprint of the fingers. It has less gluten, more starch, and
is known as a _soft_ flour. This type of flour is sometimes called “pastry
flour,” the smaller percentage of gluten making it more desirable for
pastry or cake than the stronger flour.

Flour manufacturers and bakers are constantly experimenting to find the
best possible varieties and combinations of varieties for bread flour.
Some difference of opinion exists, but a combination of winter and spring
wheat in flour is considered the best for bread by some authorities.

We must learn to like a creamy color in bread, for this means the presence
of more gluten. To summarize: a good bread flour contains a large
percentage of gluten, is creamy in color, and granular to the touch.

=Manufacture of flour.=——Modern machinery has taken the place of the
old-time stones in the grinding of flour, although the two main divisions
of the process remain the same, these being the crushing of the grain and
the sifting out of the coarse portion. Milling now includes many stages in
the process not possible with the cruder machinery of former times, and
the present effects a greater number of separations and permits the miller
to make a greater variety of products.

[Illustration: FIG. 53.——A dissected grain of wheat. _Courtesy of Washburn
Crosby Co._]

Figure 53 shows a dissected kernel of wheat, with its five layers of bran.
Within these at _B_ is a shell of glutinous matter, yellowish and of
flinty hardness, and within this, but not sharply divided from it, lie the
starch granules in a network of woody fiber, the germ lying at _A_. The
milling process must remove the bran coats and the germ, and crush and
roll the remaining portions to the necessary fineness. The germ if allowed
to remain affects the color and keeping properties. The breaking and
rolling are accomplished by steel machinery, and the final sifting is done
through silk bolting cloth. By the new machinery about 70 per cent of the
wheat is saved for food, 30 per cent being bran, “shorts,” and other
by-products used chiefly for cattle feeding.

Figure 54 shows the vertical section of a mill, simplified in the drawing
that all the steps of the process may be clear. The diagram does not, of
course, show the actual arrangement of the mill.[14]

[Illustration: FIG. 54.——Simplified diagram of a flour mill. _Courtesy of
the Washburn Crosby Co._]

The typical parts in a modern flour mill are as follows: (1) Scales, for
weighing wheat as it is received. (2) Receiving separator, for separating
other kinds of seeds from wheat. (3) Storage bins, for reserve supply of
wheat in advance of mill requirements. (4) Mill separator, for further
separating foreign seeds from wheat. (5) Scourer, for removing dust from
wheat kernels. (6) Cockle cylinder, for removing all round seeds. (7)
Wheat washer, for thoroughly cleansing the wheat. (8) Wheat dryer, for
drying wheat after washing. (9) 1st break rolls, for rupturing bran,
enabling bran and germ to be separated from interior. (10) 1st break
scalper, for sifting middlings through bolting cloth to separate from
bran. (11) 2d break rolls, for further loosening the middlings from bran.
(12) 2d break scalper, for separating more middlings from bran. (13) 3d
break rolls, for further loosening middlings from bran. (14) 3d break
scalper, for final separation of middlings from bran. (15) Bran duster,
for dusting low grade flour from bran. (16) Bran bin, for packing bran for
shipment. (17) Grading reel, for separating middlings by sifting through
various sizes of bolting cloth. (18) Dust collector and purifier, for
cleaning and purifying middlings by air and sifting. (19) Smooth rolls,
for grinding purified middlings very fine to flour. (20) Flour bolter, for
sifting flour from purified middlings. (21) 2d reduction rolls, for
further grinding of purified middlings. (22) Flour bolter, for separating
flour from purified middlings of second grading. (23) Flour bin and
packer, for packing flour for shipment. (24) Elevator, for raising
products to the various machines.

=Other forms of flour.=——There has been much discussion of entire wheat
flour _versus_ white flour, and the practical conclusions are as follows:
the bread from whole wheat flour compares favorably with that from white
flour (see Fig. 51), but this material is slightly less available for
digestion than the material of the white flour. The mineral content is
higher, and when the income is so limited that this cannot be furnished in
milk, green vegetables, and fruit, whole wheat bread should be used. It
makes a pleasing variety, too, for any table.

_Graham flour_ is a coarse flour, containing the outer bran. It is useful
for its effect upon the intestines in case of constipation, but has to be
avoided by some people on account of its irritating effect. White flour
may have coarser material mixed with it, for variety in bread making, such
as rye or Indian meal, or graham flour.

=Yeast in bread.=——Yeast is put into bread dough in order to produce
carbon dioxide gas to lighten the whole mass. It is studied in the chapter
on preservation of fruit, but in bread making we need to foster its growth
instead of destroying it as, you will recall, we found necessary in
preserving. You can easily reason out for yourself just how this should be
done, especially after performing the experiments with yeast.

If yeast is in good condition, it has little effect on the flavor of
bread, even if used in a rather large quantity to hasten the process.

The best forms of yeast now in use are the compressed and dried cakes, the
former needing to be fresh, the latter keeping the vitality of the yeast
cells for a long time. Liquid yeast may be made at home, but it is
somewhat uncertain unless made with great exactness, and less easy to
manage on the whole than the other forms.

=Proportions of the ingredients.=——One part of water to three of flour, or
one cup to three of flour for a loaf, is an average proportion. The
practiced bread maker will vary this slightly to suit the variations in
the flour from time to time, but it is a safe rule for the beginner to
follow. Spring wheat flour requires somewhat more water than the winter
wheat, or the blend of the two. _Salt_ should be used sparingly, for
although it improves the flavor of the loaf, salt is a preservative which
retards or prevents the growth of lower organisms, and in the case of
bread it acts therefore as a check to fermentation. One teaspoonful to a
loaf is the largest amount that it is best to use.

The quantity of _yeast_ depends upon several conditions. The larger the
amount of yeast used, the shorter is the time of rising, and as many as
two compressed yeast cakes may be used to one loaf if it is necessary to
hasten the process, without any perceptible effect on the color, texture
or flavor. If a very large amount of yeast is used, the bread is
“crumbly,” and a difference in flavor will be noticed. A smaller amount
may be used if time is allowed for the rising, even 1/8 cake of compressed
yeast to a loaf, if the bread is to rise over night in warm weather. It
must be remembered that, if the rising process is too prolonged, other
organisms have a chance to work, and the bread may sour.

A small amount of _sugar_ hastens fermentation, and from one to two
teaspoonfuls to a loaf may be used. Many people prefer the flavor of bread
with no sugar, however. Some bakers use malt extract both as a yeast food
to hasten fermentation and for its effect upon the flavor.

_Fat_, or _shortening_, should be sparingly used, not more than one or two
teaspoonfuls being allowed to a loaf. If you study a number of bread
recipes, you will see that this ingredient varies more than the others. As
a matter of fact, if the flour is of good quality and the bread well made,
this ingredient is not necessary (in loaf bread at least), although it
seems to improve the quality of biscuit and rolls.

=Methods of mixing and the rising of bread.=——Dissolve the yeast in a
portion of the liquid, stir this mixture into the remaining liquid, add
half the flour, and beat the mixture thoroughly at this stage. Add the
sugar if any is to be used. When this soft mixture, called the “sponge,”
becomes full of bubbles, add the salt, the shortening if used, and the
remaining flour. Knead the dough by the hand, or by the machine, for about
ten minutes, or until it is smooth and elastic. Put it into a greased
bowl, cover the bowl, and allow the dough to remain until it doubles its
bulk. Some bread makers knead in all the flour at the first, and obtain a
good result. The first rising is more rapid, however, and experience seems
to prove that the results are better on the whole with the sponge. Cut the
dough down, knead again, using as little flour as possible. Shape into
loaves, place the loaves in greased pans, cover, and leave again until the
loaves double their bulk, when they are ready for baking. If left too
long, the bubbles of gas become too large.

_Temperature_ and _time_ are important, in this matter of mixing and
rising. The process may be shortened to five or six hours, including the
baking, or lengthened to twenty-four by the choice of the amount of yeast
and the temperature. The shorter process is the better, on the whole.
After reading over the sections of the chapter on preservation of fruit,
performing the yeast experiments, and discussing the results, you will be
able to answer these questions:

1. What should be the temperature of the ingredients when the bread is

2. If milk is used, how may the souring of the milk be prevented?

3. What temperature will you secure for the bread while it is rising?

4. If an emergency occurs, and the dough cannot be kneaded or baked at the
moment it is ready, what can be done? Can you think of two expedients?

=A few suggestions.=——The kneading stretches the gluten and long kneading
gives a fine grain. In such a recipe as that for the making of Parker
House rolls, a very delicate quality results from a protracted process;
one old-fashioned housekeeper recommends a half hour’s kneading three
times. Fortunately a sufficiently good bread or roll may be made by ten or
fifteen minutes’ kneading at a time.

Bread dough may be cut or stirred with a large knife in place of the
kneading, and this is a good method to teach to those who live in crowded
space and find it difficult to have a perfectly clean kitchen and proper
utensils. With this method the dough must be softer, and it remains in the
bowl until it is turned into the baking pan. The resulting loaf is
somewhat moist, and not fine-grained, but the flavor is good.

Brushing the surface of the dough in the bowl or pan with water or milk
will prevent the formation of a dry crust on the top.

=Baking the bread.=——The temperature of the oven should be steady, and
about 380° F. An authority recommends 180° C. (355° F.) when the loaf is
put in, rising to 220° C. (425° F.).[15] The amount of flour for one loaf
has been given. A loaf this size should be baked in a pan 8-1/2 to 9
inches × 3-1/2 to 4 × 3 to 3-1/2. The material of the pan is not of great
consequence. Tin gives good results, a longer time being required for
baking in a granite pan. A loaf should bake about one hour. (See Fig. 55.)

[Illustration: FIG. 55.——A few loaves of bread. _Courtesy of the Dept. of
Foods and Cookery, Teachers College._]

_Rolls and biscuit_ may be shaped in many ways. (See Fig. 56.) How will
the baking differ from that of the loaf?

[Illustration: FIG. 56.——Rolls of different shapes. _Courtesy of the Dept.
of Foods and Cookery, Teachers College._]

=Care of bread after baking.=——Remove from the pans, cool on a rack, place
in tin box or stone jar, and cover with paraffin paper.

_Uses of stale bread._——Bread that has become too dry may be freshened by
moistening the surface and heating in the oven. Bread may be used for
toast, croutons for soup, escalloped dishes, puddings, crumbs for coating
other food materials, and may be made into cups for holding other

                         EXPERIMENTS AND RECIPES

_A. Experiment with gluten._

_Materials._——1 cup of flour, a 10-inch square of cheesecloth, a piece of
string, a pan or tin or granite plate.

_Method._——Tie the flour in the cheesecloth, and wash it, preferably under
the faucet, until the starch is washed out. Remove the gluten, stretch and
knead into a ball. Place the ball on a pan in the oven. Note results. Note
temperature of oven, if possible.

_B. Experiments with yeast._

1. _Materials_, (_a_) 1 cake of yeast dissolved in 1/3 of a cupful of
lukewarm water with water added to make 1/2 cupful, (_b_) 1/4 cup water
and 1/4 cup flour stirred together + 1 tablespoonful of molasses. Divide
this mixture into three parts.

_Method._——Add 2 tablespoonfuls of (_a_) to each of two thirds of (_b_).
Put remaining portion of (_a_) into a saucepan and bring it to the boiling
point and then add it to the third part of (_b_). Number these bowls 1, 2,

(1) Surround bowl No. 1 with lukewarm water and keep the water at this
temperature by adding warmer water from time to time. Note result.

(2) Surround bowl No. 2 with cracked ice and salt. Note result.

(3) Surround bowl No. 3 with lukewarm water as in No. 1. Note result.

(4) Before the end of the hour remove bowl No. 2 from the ice water and
surround it with water at 100° F. and watch results.

State conclusions as to effect of temperature upon the growth of the yeast

2. _Materials._——1 yeast cake dissolved in 1/2 cup of water 80° F. + 1
tablespoonful molasses. Limewater. 4 small wide-mouthed bottles, or test
tubes, 4 saucers or beakers.

_Method._——Fill the small bottle, cover with a saucer and invert; or the
same with the test tubes. Keep the bottles at a temperature of 80° F.
until they are emptied. Test for carbon dioxide with a match, and with

=1. Plain bread.=——You should be able to make your own recipe for
plain bread from the foregoing pages. Write this out in detail.

=2. Milk bread.=


      Milk          2 cups
      Butter        2 tablespoonfuls
      Sugar         1 tablespoonful
      Salt      1-1/2 teaspoonfuls
      Yeast         1 cake dissolved in 1/4 cup lukewarm water
      Sifted flour  6 cups

    _Special method._——Scald milk and add to this the butter, sugar,
    and salt. Cool this until it is just lukewarm. Add the dissolved
    yeast and stir in the flour beating thoroughly. Proceed as in
    general directions.

=3. Entire wheat bread.=


      Scalded milk              2 cups
      Sugar                   1/4 cup
      Molasses                1/3 cup
      Salt                      1 teaspoonful
      Yeast                     1 cake dissolved in 1/4 cup lukewarm water
      Entire wheat flour    4-2/3 cups

    _Special method._——Add sweetening and salt to scalded milk and
    cool until lukewarm. Add dissolved yeast and beat in the flour.
    Cover with cloth and let rise to double its bulk. Again beat and
    turn into greased bread pans, filling half full. Let this rise to
    not quite double its bulk, and bake same as white bread. This
    mixture may also be baked in gem pans.

=4. Parker House rolls.=


      Scalded milk     2 cups
      Butter           3 tablespoonfuls
      Sugar            2 tablespoonfuls
      Salt             1 teaspoonful
      Yeast            1 cake dissolved in 1/4 cup
                           lukewarm water

    _Special method._——Add butter, sugar, and salt to milk. When
    lukewarm, add dissolved yeast cake and three cups of flour. Beat
    thoroughly, cover and let rise until light. Cut down and add
    enough flour to knead (it will take about 2-1/2 cups). Let rise
    again, toss on floured board and knead, pat and roll out to 1/3
    inch thickness. Shape with a biscuit cutter first dipped in
    flour. Dip the handle of a case knife in flour and make a crease
    through the middle of each round. Brush over 1/2 of each piece
    with melted butter, fold over, and press edges together. Place in
    greased pan, one inch apart, cover, let rise, and bake in hot
    oven twelve to fifteen minutes. As the rolls rise they will part
    slightly, and if hastened in rising are apt to lose their shape.

=5. Buns.=


      Scalded milk               1 cup
      Butter                   1/3 cup
      Sugar                    1/3 cup
      Salt                     1/2 teaspoonful
      Raisins cut in quarters    1 cup
      Yeast                      1 cake dissolved in 1/4 cup
                                   lukewarm water
      Ext. lemon                 1 teaspoonful

    _Special method._——Add 1/2 sugar and salt to milk. When lukewarm,
    add dissolved yeast and 1-1/2 cups flour. Cover and let rise
    until light. Add butter, remaining sugar, raisins, lemon, and
    flour enough to make a stiff batter. Let rise, shape like
    biscuits, let rise again and bake. If wanted glazed, brush over
    with beaten egg before baking.

=6. German coffee bread.=


      Scalded milk             1 cup
      Butter                 1/3 cup
      Sugar                  1/4 cup
      Salt                   1/2 teaspoonful
      Egg                      1
      Yeast                    1 cake dissolved in 1/4 cup
                                 lukewarm milk
      Raisins stoned and
        cut in pieces        1/2 cup

    _Special method._——Add butter, sugar, and salt to milk. When
    lukewarm add dissolved yeast cake, egg well beaten, flour to make
    a stiff batter, and raisins. Cover and let rise. When light
    spread in buttered pan one half inch thick. Cover and let rise
    again. Before baking brush over with well beaten egg and cover
    with following mixture. Melt 3 tablespoonfuls butter, add 1/3 cup
    sugar and 1 teaspoonful cinnamon. When sugar is partially melted,
    add 3 tablespoonfuls flour and remove from fire.

_Laboratory management._——For individual work or for work in groups of
two, the use of 1/2 cup of liquid will be found to make as small an amount
of dough as it is desirable to handle. In making the white bread two
portions may be baked in one tin, brushing with butter where the two
portions touch each other, so that the loaves will separate when baked.

Where it is necessary to hurry the process not less than 1/2 yeast cake
should be used with this quantity.

It is impossible in an ordinary school period to complete the entire
process. A number of solutions will occur to the teacher. One of these is
to arrange the lessons as follows:

_Lesson I._

Yeast experiments, summary, bread mixed in groups and set to rise,
demonstration by teacher of kneading, using dough previously prepared.

_Lesson II._

Quantity of dough set to rise by volunteer pupils before class. Dough
kneaded, shaped and set to rise by pupils. Review of yeast experiments.
Baking of bread.

_Lesson III._

Parker House rolls or sweet breads mixed and set to rise, completed by
volunteers after class.

In recipes where three risings are called for one may be omitted, if

=7. Toast.=——Directions for making toast will be found in Chapter

    _To serve toast._——Toast should be served as soon as it is made,
    if possible, and if not must be kept hot. Fold it in a napkin.
    Toast may also be buttered, piled neatly on a plate, and kept hot
    in the oven until it is time for serving.

    For milk toast the bread is cut somewhat thicker than for buttered
    toast. The milk is prepared by thickening, No. 1 under White
    Sauce. Dip each slice of toast in the thickened milk and then put
    the slices in a dish for serving and pour the thickened milk over.
    To moisten toast that is too dry, or when moist toast is wanted to
    serve under some other food, place it in a steamer or colander
    over boiling water a few minutes before buttering it. This is much
    better than toast moistened with boiling water.

=8. The sandwich.=——The sandwich is a convenient way of serving bread
and other foods away from the table, for picnics, teas, and

    _To prepare the bread._——Either white or brown bread may be used.
    Select a well-shaped loaf of fine grain that will not crumb when
    it is sliced. Cut off the end of the loaf, spread the loaf evenly
    with butter, cut a thin slice, butter again, and so on. The
    butter should be softened. Be careful to spread it evenly and see
    that it is near the edge of the bread. Sandwiches may be made
    either with or without the crust. If the crust is to be removed,
    cut it off the loaf before buttering and slicing.

    _The filling._——There is an endless variety of filling possible
    for sandwiches, from slices of meat and poultry, which make a
    substantial luncheon for picnics, to the dainty fillings used for
    afternoon teas and receptions. A crisp bit of lettuce leaf with
    Mayonnaise dressing is always acceptable. Cream cheese mixed with
    nuts and raisins is a good filling. For a sweet sandwich, jam or
    jelly may be spread on the slices and possibly a small amount of
    cream cheese put between. You can invent many combinations.

    _The shape of the sandwich_ may be oblong, triangular, or round.
    The round sandwich is cut with a sharp cooky cutter. The pieces
    remaining may be dried and used for bread crumbs. The crusts may
    always be utilized in this way.

=9. Croutons.=——Cut a slice of bread a day old 1/2 inch thick. Spread
with soft butter, cut off the crust, put the slices in a pan, cut in
cubes and set the pan in the oven until the croutons are brown.


1. What is a standard for good bread?

2. Describe a perfect loaf.

3. How do climate and method of raising affect the composition of wheat
and flour?

4. What are the essentials of good bread flour?

5. Why is it so necessary to control temperature in bread making?

6. What is the best temperature and why?

7. Explain the part played by gluten in bread making.

8. State the underlying principles of bread making.

9. Explain the advantage of a bread machine over the hand in kneading.

10. What is the best temperature for baking a loaf? For baking biscuit?

11. What are the principles and practical points in toast-making? (See
Chapter IV.)

12. What is the argument in connection with homemade bread _versus_
baker’s bread?

13. How can the public insure good quality baker’s bread?

14. What is the nutritive value and digestibility of bread?

15. How much bread in the 100-Calorie portion?

                              CHAPTER XIII

                           MEATS AND POULTRY

The meats that we commonly use are derived from the flesh of domestic and
wild animals of herbivorous habits and from fowls. The flesh of
carnivorous animals is seldom used as food. The various kinds are obtained
as follows:

    _Meat_           _Animal_

    Beef             Ox
    Veal             Calf
    Mutton           Sheep
    Lamb             Young sheep
    Pork             Pig
    Ham and bacon    Pig
    Venison          Deer

Under the head of poultry we include the common fowl, turkeys, ducks and
geese, the guinea hen, and game birds.

[Illustration: FIG. 57.——Fiber cells of plain muscular tissue. _Kimber’s
Anatomy for Nurses._]

=Quality of good meat.=——The quality of meat is dependent on the condition
of the animal from which it is derived. The creature should be in perfect
health and well fed. Good beef is largely obtained from the cattle ranges
of the West, but there is no reason why cattle should not be raised to
greater extent in the East. Sheep for mutton are best raised where the
climate is not too severe. Methods of slaughter, transportation, and
preservation all affect the quality of beef. The pure food laws and
Federal meat inspection law are valuable to the consumer in their control
of the quality of the meat, that it shall be free from disease and from
adulterations. See Chapter XVII for the discussion of preservatives and
pure food laws.

[Illustration: FIG. 58.——Cuts of Beef.


  _A._ Ribs
  _B._ Hip bone
  _C._ Loin
  _D._ Porterhouse
  _E._ Prime ribs
  _F._ Shoulder
  _G._ Neck
  _H._ Head
  _I._ Brisket
  _J._ Shin
  _L._ Navel
  _M._ Plate
  _N._ Flank
  _O._ Leg
  _P._ Horseshoe
  _Q._ Round
  _R._ Oxtail
  _S._ Rump
  _Z._ Sirloin

_Courtesy of Bureau of Publications, Teachers College._]

In meat as it is purchased we have bone, fat, and the flesh, consisting of
the muscle of the animal with its connective tissue. The color of the meat
should be clear and fairly bright, not purplish or dull. There should be
little or no odor, and the meat should be firm and elastic to the touch.

_Beef_ should be a bright red and well streaked with fat.

_Veal_ should be pink and is somewhat less firm than beef. If watery and
flabby, it is too young.

_Mutton_ is a duller red, and firm. The fat is white or slightly yellow
and hard.

_Lamb_ is pink, rather than red, and slightly less firm.

_Pork_ is rather pale, somewhat less firm than beef and mutton, and the
fat is softer.

[Illustration: FIG. 59.——The hind quarter of beef hanging.

_Cuts_: _A_, Leg; _B_, Round; _C_, Rump; _D_, Top Sirloin; _E_, Loin; _F_,

_Bones_: _g_, leg bone; _h_, socket bone; _j_, rump bone; _k_, hip bone;
_e_, back bone; _m_, part of rump bone; _n_, wing rib.

_Courtesy of Bureau of Publications, Teachers College_]

=Tough and tender meat.=——To understand the difference between the tough
and tender cuts we must be familiar with the structure of the muscle (see
Fig. 57). Each muscle consists of bundles of tubes held together by
connective tissue. In tough meat, the muscle tubes are thicker and there
is more connective tissue present. Exercise strengthens the muscle, and
this accounts for the fact that the unexercised muscles of the young
animal give us a softer meat. In the mature animal the muscles most
exercised furnish the tough meat, and the less used muscles the tender. If
you study Fig. 58, you can easily determine where the tough meat will
occur, if you think of the proportionate amount of exercise that the
different muscles receive. The tough cuts come from the neck and legs, the
tender cuts from the middle of the back, the toughness increasing as the
cuts approach the neck and the hind legs. The muscles of the abdomen are
also tender, but they give a coarse-grained meat. The various cuts of meat
are shown as they occur in the standing animal in Fig. 58, and in the hind
and fore quarters hanging, in Figs. 59 and 60. The individual cuts of beef
and mutton are shown in the figures that follow. The tender cuts from the
ribs and loin are the most highly prized, and therefore bring the highest
price. These cuts are liked because of their tenderness although the
nutritive value of the tough meat is as high or possibly even higher than
that of the tender. All meat is now high-priced, and you will find the
reasons for this discussed in Chapter XVII. For the sake of economy we are
forced to use the relatively cheaper cuts, and to seek for meat
substitutes. We must also take pains to use the cooking processes that
will make the tough meats palatable.

[Illustration: FIG. 60.——The fore quarter of beef, hanging.

          KEY                                     USES
   1. 1st and 2d ribs }
   2. 3d and 4th ribs }   Prime                   Roasts
   3. 5th and 6th ribs                              ”
   4. 7th rib                                       ”
   5. 8th rib                                       ”
   6. 9th rib                                       ”
   7. Chuck steaks, or roasts, 10th to 13th ribs    ”
   8. Chuck pot roast                               ”
   9. Neck                                    Beef tea, etc.
  10. Yoke                                          ”
  11. Navel                                  Stew and corning
  12. Plate                                         ”
  13. Brisket                                    Corning
  14. Cross Rib                                 Pot Roast
  15. Shoulder                                      ”
  16. Shin                                         Soup

_Courtesy of the Bureau of Publications, Teachers College._]

=Composition and nutritive value.=——Figure 64 shows you the composition of
several common meats. Meat is valuable chiefly for its protein, fat, and
mineral salts. The juices of the meat in the muscle cells contain
nitrogenous extractive materials which give flavor, and are possibly
stimulating, but they have no food value. From the bone and also from the
connective tissue, gelatin is dissolved in cooking. Gelatin is a protein,
but differs in certain chemical properties from other proteins, and cannot
be used as the only source of nitrogen. It is a very useful protein,
however, and as it can be substituted in part for more expensive proteins,
it used to be called a “protein saver.”

In spite of the fact that meat is a common article of diet it should not
be used in excess. Other forms of protein, as those in eggs and milk, are
usually digested as easily, and most people can digest vegetable proteins
if the vegetables are carefully prepared. Very little children should not
have meat, for it has stimulating properties which are undesirable for
them, and it takes away the taste for foods more important for growth (see
Food for Growth, Chapter XVIII). When used largely in the diet, meat tends
to cause intestinal putrefaction and to form excess of acid in the body.
It is less likely to be harmful if taken with plenty of fruits and green
vegetables and liberal drinking of clear water.

[Illustration: FIG. 61A.——Left: Chuck rib roast, 9th and 10th ribs. Right:
Blade rib, 7th and 8th ribs.]

[Illustration: FIG. 61B.——Left: 1st cut prime rib roast. Right: 2d cut
prime rib roast. _Courtesy of Bureau of Publications, Teachers College._]

[Illustration: FIG. 62A.——Porterhouse steak; Delmonico steak. _Courtesy of
Bureau of Publications, Teachers College._]

[Illustration: FIG. 62B.——Flatbone sirloin steak; Hip steak.]

It should be realized that in none of the European countries is meat used
so liberally as in the United States, and that there are reasons to
believe that we might be better off if we could satisfy ourselves with a
meat consumption nearer the average of other civilized peoples——say half
as much meat per person per year as we are now accustomed to use. The fuel
value of meat depends largely upon the amount of fat which is eaten. If a
pound of steak contains 2 ounces of fat and 14 ounces of clear lean, the
rejection of the fat means a loss of fully one half of the fuel value. The
following table shows the difference between raw meat of the same cut,
free from bones and connective tissue, due to differences in amounts of
fat. Most people would prefer the strictly lean meat.


                   |     LEAN       | MEDIUM FAT     |
         MEAT      |----------------|----------------|
                   | Weight, Ounces |  Weight, Ounces|
  Beef, round      |         2.3    |         1.7    |
  Chicken (Fowl)   |         3.2    |         1.6    |
  Lamb, leg        |         2.8    |         1.6    |
  Mutton, leg      |         1.9    |         1.5    |
  Pork, loin chops |         1.4    |         1.0    |
  Veal, leg        |         2.9    |         2.2    |

[Illustration: FIG. 63A.——1: Rib lamb chops, French. 2: Rib lamb chops. 3:
Loin lamb chops. 4: Left: Blade shoulder chop. Right: Round bone shoulder
chop. 5: Chuck steak. 6: Skirt steak. 7: Flank steak.]

[Illustration: FIG. 63B.——Left.——Top and bottom round. Right.——Round bone
sirloin steak. _Courtesy of Bureau of Publications, Teachers College._]

For very complete and conveniently arranged tables giving the percentage
composition, the food values per pound and per ounce, the weight and
nutrients of the 100-Calorie portions of all the important meats and other
food materials as well, see Rose’s “Laboratory Handbook for Dietetics.”

=Dangers from meat.=——Three dangers from meat must be recognized; (1)
animal parasites, such as the trichina sometimes found in pork, (2)
poisons developed in the meat by bacteria when it is kept too long or
without sufficient refrigeration, this danger being recognized as ptomaine
poisoning, (3) bacteria, sometimes present in meat, which are directly
injurious to man and which are now held to be the cause of most of the
sickness commonly attributed to ptomaine poisoning. Government protection
must be given us here, but the housekeeper too has a responsibility. If
the raw meat has failed to receive proper inspection, we can protect
ourselves by cooking the meat to a degree that will kill any parasite
present. For this reason meat should not be served that looks raw or too
underdone. The cooked meat should be pink rather than red.

_Meat poisoning_ may be avoided in the first place by exercising great
care in regard to the odor of meat. Meat may hang to “ripen,” as the
butchers say, but one must learn to distinguish between the odor of
properly ripened meat, and that of even slightly tainted meat. Quite as
important is the _rapid cooling_ of meat, poultry, fish, and soups that
are not to be used at once. Cases of digestive disturbance and even actual
poisoning sometimes occur when underdone meat, especially lamb, veal, or
poultry, remains warm overnight.

[Illustration: FIG. 64.——Composition of meats.]

=The effect of heat upon meat.=——The _fat_ of meat is melted by heat. The
meat fiber shrinks and hardens with intense heat; on the other hand it
softens at a temperature somewhat below the boiling point of water. The
structure of the muscle must be studied further in order to make the
principles of cooking perfectly clear. If you think of the structure of
the muscle cell as somewhat resembling the structure of an orange, you can
picture quite clearly what happens under different conditions. Open a
section of orange and separate some of the single cells. These may
represent the muscle cells of meat that can be seen only under the
microscope. If you cut across one of these tiny cells, the contents will
escape, and this is what happens when the muscle cells are cut across.
Then, too, if the muscle is heated, the juices will pass through the
membrane of the cell, and this happens, too, if the meat is put into cold
water. The substances in the juices of the meat which are not coagulated
by heat are called the extractives, because they can be extracted by hot
water. The most valuable protein matter remains behind in the muscle cell,
however. Among these proteins are those known as meat albumin, and this
behaves in cooking very much as does the white of egg,——that is to say, it

Bearing these facts in mind, we can decide just what to do in order to
bring about the result that we desire in meat cookery, for sometimes we
wish to extract the juices and sometimes we wish to have all, or nearly
all, retained in the meat. We are now ready to state the principles of
meat cookery as follows:

1. _Juices retained._

In broiling, pan broiling, roasting, and boiling the high temperature
coagulates the meat albumin and hardens the fiber on the surface, thus
forming a coating which prevents the further escape of juices. In the
roasting and boiling of large pieces the temperature may then be lowered
to prevent the further shrinking and hardening of the fiber in the
interior of the meat, which comes from a protracted high temperature. With
a very thick steak after the surface searing the cooking may be completed
in the oven.

2. _Juices extracted._

In beef juice or beef tea, this may be done by placing the chopped beef in
a jar and placing the jar in an oven, or in hot water; or for beef tea and
ordinary soup by putting the chopped meat, or small pieces of meat, in
cold water and heating the water slowly.

3. _Juices partly retained and partly extracted._

This is desirable in stews, in braised beef, and in pot roast. State for
yourself just how this would be accomplished.

4. _Connective tissue softened_ at low temperature, and with water.

5. _Sterilization by continued_ heat which destroys parasites and

6. _Rapid cooling_, when serving is not immediate.

=Flavors suitable with meat.=

_Herbs._ All the pot herbs including savory, marjoram, thyme, sage, pot

_Vegetables._ Onion, carrot, turnip, celery, celery root, parsley root and

_Spices._ Clove, allspice, mustard, red, black, and white pepper. Some
nationalities use nutmeg.

_Acids._ Lemon, tomato, and other acid fruits.

                        EXPERIMENTS AND RECIPES

_Experiment A._

Chop finely a small piece of meat, squeeze out the juice with a lemon
squeezer and heat this juice in a saucepan. Observe the coagulation that
takes place.

_Experiment B._

(1) _Apparatus._——If possible, 2 glass beakers, 1 square wire net. If
these are not available, use an ordinary tumbler and a small saucepan.

(2) _Method._——_a._ Put a small piece of meat in a beaker with cold water,
and allow it to stand.

_b._ Bring water to the boiling point in the beaker on the net over the
gas flame. Throw in a small piece of meat.

Compare the appearance of the two pieces of meat and the water in the two

=1. Broiled steak.=

    (1) Wipe steak with a damp cloth. If a wood or coal stove is
    used, have a bed of glowing coals ready. If gas is used, have the
    gas broiler thoroughly heated. Grease the bars of the broiler.
    Place steak in the broiler and sear meat first on one side, then
    on the other. Continue to turn the broiler and cook the meat
    until it is brown and done according to taste. Steak an inch
    thick will take about ten minutes to be cooked to a medium
    degree. Chops are broiled in the same way.

    (2) Steak and chops may also be broiled in the pan. An iron frying
    pan is the best utensil. Heat the pan, and brush it over with a
    small piece of fat cut from the steak or the chops. The purpose of
    this is merely to keep the meat from sticking to the pan. The
    principle of procedure is the same as with (1). The steak or chops
    must be frequently turned, using a knife and a fork, being careful
    not to prick the meat with the fork. The length of time is
    slightly longer than for (1). This method must not be confused
    with the frying of steak in a pan with a large amount of fat. By
    this method the steak is not fried, and it is often a convenient
    substitute for (1).

=2. Roast of beef.=

    Wipe roast with a damp cloth. Sprinkle with salt and dredge with
    flour. Place in a roasting pan, fat side up if it is a standing
    roast. Put the roast in a very hot oven and after fifteen minutes
    reduce the heat. Baste roast two or three times with the fat that
    tries out during cooking. The usual allowance of time for a
    medium rare roast is fifteen minutes for every pound of meat.

    _Roast beef gravy._——After the roast has been taken from the pan,
    pour out all but 1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of the melted fat. Stir in 1
    heaping tablespoonful of flour and brown very slightly. Add one
    cup of cold water and stir constantly until thickened. Add 1/2
    teaspoonful salt. Strain.

=3. Bouillon.=

      Shin of beef     6 pounds
      Cold water       3 quarts
      Peppercorns    1/2 teaspoonful
      Cloves           6
      Bay leaf       1/2
      Thyme            3 sprigs
      Marjoram         1 sprig
      Parsley          2 sprigs
      Turnip}        1/2 cup each
      Onion }          cut in dice
      Salt            1 tablespoonful

    Wipe beef and cut the lean meat in inch cubes. Brown one third of
    the meat in fat cut from meat or marrow from a marrow bone. Put
    remaining two thirds with bone and fat in soup kettle, add water
    and let stand for thirty minutes. Place on back of range, add
    browned meat, and heat gradually to the boiling point. Cover and
    cook slowly six hours, keeping below the boiling point during
    cooking. Add the vegetables and seasonings, cook one and one half
    hours, strain and cool as quickly as possible. This is called
    soup stock.

    _To clarify bouillon._——When stock is cold, remove fat which has
    hardened on top and put quantity to be cleared into a stew pan.
    Allow white and shell of one egg to each quart of stock. Put over
    fire and stir constantly until boiling point is reached. Boil two
    minutes. Set back on stove and let simmer twenty minutes. Remove
    scum and strain through double thickness of cheesecloth.

=4. General directions for meat soups.=

    Soup making is an art that is well worth cultivating. The expert
    soup maker will obtain delicious flavors by adding bits of many
    kinds of left overs——almost anything that is found in the
    refrigerator in the way of fruit, vegetables, and pieces of meat.
    With the coming of the gas stove, many people have given up soup
    making. These various left overs add much to the flavor of the
    soup and can be used in a thickened soup which is like the
    bouillon strained and thickened. The thickening may be flour,
    arrowroot, cold cereal, sago, tapioca, or rice. Spaghetti,
    vermicelli, and fancy forms of paste are sometimes served.
    Vegetables may be cut into dice or fancy shapes and served in the
    clear soup. A great variety is possible in flavoring and serving
    soup if one will take the trouble to make it an art.

    _Soup meat_ may be served in a soup of the old-fashioned kind,
    thickened and containing vegetables. In such a soup some fat is
    left, and the total result is a dish that makes a meal when served
    with bread.

    When the soup is a clear soup, the meat that is left may be used
    for made over dishes; although some practical housekeepers think
    that it costs almost as much to make it palatable as to buy fresh
    meat. Try it in an escalloped dish with plenty of tomato, onion,
    and some dried herbs for additional flavor.

=5. Beef stew with dumplings.=

      Lean meat        3 pounds
      Potatoes         4 cups, cut in 1/4 inch slices
      Turnip}        2/3 cup each, cut in half inch
      Carrot}            cubes
      Onion          1/2 small one, cut in thin
      Flour          1/4 cup

    Wipe meat, cut in 1-1/2 inch cubes, sprinkle with salt and
    pepper, and dredge with flour. Cut some of the fat in small
    pieces and try out in frying pan. Add meat and stir constantly,
    that the surface may be quickly seared. When well browned, put in
    kettle, and rinse frying pan with boiling water, that none of the
    flavor may be lost. Cover with boiling water and boil five
    minutes, then cook below the boiling point until meat is tender
    (about 3 hours). Add vegetables except potatoes and seasoning the
    last hour of cooking. Parboil potatoes five minutes and add to
    stew 15 minutes before taking from fire. Thicken stew with 1/4
    cup flour mixed with enough cold water to pour easily. Pour in
    deep hot platter and surround with dumplings.

TEACHER’S NOTE.——Broiled steak would be suitable for group work, using
small steaks (Delmonico cut). A small roast may be prepared by a group and
roasted after class. This meat and that left from the steak should be used
in a subsequent class for a lesson on left over meat. Broiled or
pan-broiled chops may be prepared individually.

=6. Dumplings.=

      Flour            2 cups
      Baking powder    4 teaspoonfuls
      Salt           1/2 teaspoonful
      Butter           2 teaspoonfuls
      Milk           7/8 cup

    Mix and sift dry ingredients. Work in butter with a knife, add
    milk gradually. Remove enough liquid from stew so that when
    dumplings are dropped in they will rest on top of meat. Drop by
    spoonfuls and let cook about twenty minutes.

    The stew should be thickened before dumplings are dropped in.

=7. Uses of left over meat.=

    (1) _Rissoles._——Run meat together with small piece of onion
    through a chopper. Add salt, pepper, a little cold cereal, or
    bread crumbs, and beaten egg, allowing one egg to about a pound
    of meat. Shape into flat round cakes, roll in flour and sauté in
    butter until well browned. These may be served with tomato sauce.

        _Tomato Sauce._

      Onion       1 teaspoonful chopped
      Salt      1/4 teaspoonful
      Flour      2 tablespoonfuls
      Butter     2 tablespoonfuls
      Sugar      1 teaspoonful
      Cloves     3
      Tomatoes   2 cups

        Brown the onion in butter and stir in the flour. When it has
        bubbled up, add the tomatoes and seasonings. Stir constantly
        until it thickens. Strain into a hot bowl.

        TEACHER’S NOTE.——One sixth of these recipes would be as small
        an amount as it would be practicable to use.

    (2) _Croquettes._

      Cold meat or chicken   2 cups
      Salt                 1/2 teaspoonful
      Pepper               1/8 teaspoonful
      Cayenne                Few grains
      Onion juice            Few drops
      White sauce            1 cup, thick, hot
      Beaten egg
      Dried bread crumbs

    Mix ingredients in order given and let mixture cool. Shape into
    croquettes, roll in crumbs, beaten egg and crumbs again, place in
    a frying basket and fry in deep fat to a golden brown.

    (3) _Escalloped meat_

      Cold meat
      Bread crumbs, soft       2 cups
      Onion                    1 slice, chopped fine
      Salt                   1/2 teaspoonful
      Mixed poultry seasoning  1 tablespoonful

    A little chopped celery is desirable

    This is a simple method of serving left over meat that needs no
    specific recipe. Layers of bread crumbs are alternated with layers
    of meat which may be chopped or cut into small pieces. Liquid may
    be used like tomato or tomato juice, or soup that is left over, or
    plain water. The flavor may be varied by the use of the different
    materials that are suitable to meat. Layers of mashed potato may
    be used instead of bread.


In selecting poultry see that the flesh is firm, that there is a good
amount of fat underneath the skin, and that the skin is whole and a good
yellow. Notice the odor of the fowl particularly. The skin of cold-storage
poultry has not such a good color and is sometimes broken. Often the flesh
is shrunken, and if the cold storage has been too long continued the odor
is unpleasant. Refrigeration is allowable for a period. Another way to
judge cold-storage poultry is by the price. Well-fed poultry freshly
killed brings a high market price and a bargain quite often proves to be
poultry too long in cold storage. Good quality poultry is at present a
high-priced food.

To prepare poultry for cooking, the “dressing” of the chicken is often
done now at the market. If it is necessary to do this at home, make an
incision with a sharp knife just inside of one of the legs, in the groin.
Insert the hand and remove all the entrails. The skin must be loosened at
the neck and the crop removed. In any case, wash the chicken thoroughly
inside and out, even holding the cavity under running water. If there is
hair remaining on the chicken, singe this off over burning paper or over a
gas flame.

The composition is essentially the same as that of meat. The white of
chicken, fowls, and turkeys is thought to be more digestible than the dark

                      GENERAL METHODS AND RECIPES

=The principles of cookery= are the same as with the meat. Chicken soup is
made on the same principle as beef soup. After straining, it is delicious
with the addition of milk or cream. The meat of the chicken may be chopped
fine and used as a thickening. Rice may be added or a hard-boiled egg
chopped fine.

Chicken may be served cold, for luncheon or supper, and is always very
desirable in made-over dishes. Any stuffing left over may be used in the
made dishes.

=1.= =Roast chicken.=

    Dress and clean a chicken. Fill the cavity with stuffing and sew
    edges together. Truss chicken and place on its back in a roasting
    pan. Rub surface with salt and spread breast and legs with
    butter. Dredge with flour. Put a little water in bottom of pan.
    Place in hot oven and when flour is well browned, reduce the
    temperature. Baste frequently during roasting with liquid in pan.
    When breast meat is tender and a brown crust formed the bird is
    cooked. A four-pound chicken requires about 1-1/2 hours.

    _Stuffing._ (See recipe for stuffing, page 237.)

    Mix all together. No moisture need be added as the juices of the
    chicken will be sufficient.

    _Gravy._——Pour off liquid from pan in which chicken has been
    roasted. Add 2 tablespoonfuls of either chicken fat or butter.
    Stir in 2 tablespoonfuls of flour and let bubble up. Add one cup
    stock, in which giblets, neck, and tips of wings have been cooked,
    and stir steadily until thickened. Add 1/2 teaspoonful salt.

=2.= =Chicken fricassee.=

    Clean and cut up a fowl. Cover with boiling water and let boil 5
    minutes. Simmer until meat is tender. Remove chicken from kettle
    and place pieces in hot, greased frying pan. Sauté until browned.
    Put on platter. Melt 4 tablespoonfuls chicken fat in pan. Add 4
    tablespoonfuls flour. Stir and let bubble up. Add 2 cups chicken
    stock, stir and let boil until thickened. Pour over chicken on

_Laboratory management._——A lesson on poultry is a very expensive one and
difficult to manage so that each may have a share of the work. Such a
lesson is suitable where the pupils have had work in previous years and
are used to working in groups.

=Preserved meats and poultry.=——Smoked and salted meats are valuable
foods, although the nutritive content is somewhat less available for
digestion. The salted and smoked meats need long and slow cooking below
the boiling temperature of water.

_Canned meats_ and _poultry_ of good quality are now in the market, and
they are convenient and useful when not used to excess. Buy well-known
brands. The government inspection of canned meats is of great importance,
for the individual cannot protect himself. Canned soups are convenient for
those who cook by gas and who live in small quarters. Buy good brands even
if they are somewhat more expensive. The best firms manufacturing canned
soup are scrupulously clean in their methods and pride themselves on using
good material.

=Other parts of meat and poultry.=——Some of the internal organs of the
animals and fowl are used for food. Most of them are comparatively cheap,
and may be made palatable.

The _liver and kidneys_ are organs having to do with the waste products of
the body and objection is raised to their use on that account. If used,
they should be soaked in cold salted water, put into fresh cold water, and
allowed to heat very slowly. This water should be poured off, and then a
brown stew can be made. What flavors are pleasant with liver and kidneys?

Make your own recipe for liver or kidney stew.

The _heart_ does not contain waste products. Why is it tough? What process
would you select to make it tender? Even when softened, it would not be
attractive or very palatable without further treatment. It is hollow,
somewhat as the chicken is before roasting. Look over the recipes and
flavors suitable to meat and see if you cannot make your own for Baked

_Sweetbreads_, the pancreas, are highly prized on account of their
delicacy, and are costly. They may be broiled, or served in sauce in
pastry cases or in patties.

_Calf’s head and brain._——The brain is sometimes used as substitute for
sweetbreads. From the meat and bones of the head soup and stew may be


1. From what animals are meats derived?

2. What are the chief values of meat?

3. Why should its use be limited?

4. What actual dangers may arise from its use?

5. What precautions must be exercised by the government, inspector and the

6. We are told that chicken pie should have the crust pricked or lifted
when it comes from the oven. Is this reasonable?

7. How may you judge good meats in the market?

8. Why is the neck of beef tough? For what would you use it?

9. Why is porterhouse steak tender? Why is it not used in a stew? (It
would make a delicious stew.)

10. What cuts would you select for stewing and braising?

11. Make a list of the cuts of beef and mutton and lamb, pork, etc., in
your notebook, with the best methods of cookery for each.

12. Add to this list the current prices of each in your locality.

13. What is the size and cost of a 100-Calorie portion of beef round?

14. With this in mind, calculate how much round steak you would buy for
dinner for five people. How much porterhouse?

15. Explain the structure of the muscle.

16. What takes place when meat is seared? When is this process used?

17. Explain the principle of soup making. Devise an experiment to show the
effect of salt upon the pieces of meat. What is the nutritive value of
soup meat?

18. Explain the principle of stewing meats.

19. What is the difference between broiling and pan broiling?

20. What are some of the best ways of utilizing left over meat and

21. Which is more economical, croquettes or an escalloped dish? Explain

22. How may you distinguish poultry in good condition from that too long
in cold storage?

23. Why is good poultry not a cheap food?

24. Discuss making soup _versus_ buying canned soup.

25. What are the advantages of canned meat? The possible disadvantages?

                              CHAPTER XIV


Fish and shellfish are valuable assets as food, so much so that the
government has a Bureau of Fisheries, and has established stations at
intervals on the coast and on inland lakes for the study and production of
those foods that come from salt and fresh water. We have used these
products of the waters as if the supply were limitless, forgetting that
fish and shellfish are living creatures with habits that we cannot ignore
without working havoc to the species. Young salmon and shad are hatched in
the upper reaches of the rivers, and if we insist on trapping the mature
fish at the river mouth on their northern migrations, the number of young
decreases, and salmon and shad become high-priced foods. To ignore fishery
and game laws is an ignorant and dishonest proceeding, with far-reaching
economic results.

=Varieties of fish.=——In Bulletin No. 28 of the Office of Experiment
Stations, United States Department of Agriculture, forty-four different
fish are listed, all used as food. A visit to the fish stall in the market
of a seaboard city will acquaint you with many interesting species. Fresh
and salt water fish differ in flavor, and there is a difference to be
detected between fish from running, or from lake water, brook trout, for
instance, having a superior flavor. The food supply also influences the
flavor, and both fresh and salt water fish have a better flavor when taken
from sandy and rocky bottoms rather than muddy. The habit of the fish also
has an effect on the quality and taste. The chequit, for instance, is so
sluggish and easy to catch that it is sometimes called “lazy” or
“weakfish,” and it is watery and poor flavored compared with the shad, a
fish of more vigorous habits. The amount of fat also causes a difference
in flavor, such high flavored fish as salmon and shad containing much fat.
The distinctive flavors of mackerel and herring are apparently not due to
fat, since their fat content is not particularly high. Among the most
common and best liked fish are bass, blackfish, bluefish, cod, flounder,
haddock, halibut, herring, mackerel, porgy (sometimes called scup or
scuppaug), salmon, shad, smelt, weakfish, whitefish. Brook trout and
salmon trout are luxuries.

[Illustration: FIG. 65.——Composition of fish.]

=Composition and nutritive value.=——Figure 65 shows the composition of
several kinds. Compare their composition with that of meat. The nutritive
content is high, yet fish seems a lighter and less satisfying food than
meat, although on the seaboard of some countries it is the chief animal
food. The digestibility of fish and meat are about equal, but some
varieties of fish are less digestible than others, this being true of the
oily and strong-flavored fish,——herring, mackerel, salmon, and shad.

There are popular prejudices for and against fish that are not warranted.
The idea that fish is a “brain food” because it contains phosphorus was
exploded long since, for fish contains no more phosphorus than some other
foods, and phosphorus is no more valuable to the brain than to the other

Fish, however, is valuable in the dietary for supplying protein and giving
variety, and in season, it is one of the cheaper foods.

=Quality of fish.=——Fish deteriorates and decomposes much more rapidly
than meat, and is at its best when cleaned and cooked just after being
caught. Ice will preserve fish for a short time only. If ever on a camping
trip you have eaten bluefish caught in the surf, or trout from the brook,
cooked immediately, you know what flavor a fish may have. Fish should be
killed immediately, and put on ice if they are not to be cooked at once.
If there is no ice, clean the fish, sprinkle the flesh with pepper and
salt, wrap in a wet cloth, and set in a breeze or draught.

When fish are transported over long distances they should be packed in ice
in refrigerator cars, and you will notice that the fishman in the shop
keeps the fish on ice until he sells them.

In selecting fish, see that the flesh feels firm and that the eyes are
still bright. If you have a keen sense of smell, this will also guide you,
although to the novice the odor of fish may be disagreeable even if

Fish in season and caught plentifully near by, are of good quality and
should be cheap. Shad and salmon have their season in the spring, bluefish
come north in the summer, sometimes as late as August, porgies are a
summer and autumn fish, and smelt are abundant in the winter. Deep-sea
fish like cod and halibut have a long season, and may be bought at any

                      GENERAL METHODS AND RECIPES

The _scaling_ and _cleaning_ of fish are important first steps. In the
city this may be done for you at the market, but sometimes on fishing
expeditions when you are not a successful fisher you may make yourself
useful by cleaning the fish. Clean the fish on a large piece of paper. Use
a sharp strong knife, and rub off the scales from the tail to the head. To
skin a fish well, you should first watch an expert. Cut through the skin
of the back and abdomen, loosen it at the tail and pull it off. Remove
the head, open the abdomen, and take out the entrails. Burn the paper on
which the fish has been cleaned. Fish is boned by slitting the flesh down
the back, and patiently separating the flesh from the side bones, and
finally pulling out the spine and attached bones. The strong odor of fish
clings to everything the fish touches. Wash the fish, the knife, and your
own hands in cold water and salt. Always pour the water in which fish is
washed or cooked down the sink at once, pour in some salt, and flush the
trap with cold water. The utensils, and dishes in which fish is served,
need very careful washing in several waters.

The _connective tissue_ of fish softens and dissolves more readily than
does that of meat. Fish varies in the dryness of the flesh, but there is
no such thing as tough fish, and the texture of the muscles is about the
same in all parts of the fish, although there is a difference in flavor in
the dark and white flesh when these both occur. On account of this
characteristic of the connective tissue the fish “falls apart” and our aim
must be to prevent this.

=Principles of cooking.=

1. The protein is affected as in all other foods where it occurs.

2. The fat is melted.

3. Connective tissue quickly softened.

To avoid the breaking of the fish it may be wrapped in cloth for boiling,
and the water should simmer only. The coating of small fish or slices of
large fish with beaten egg and crumbs tends to hold it together. In all
cases avoid overcooking. Fish is done when a fork easily pierces it and
separates the flakes of flesh from the bone.

=1. Boiled fish.=

    Use thick pieces of large fish for boiling, or if small fish are
    used they may be boiled whole. Add salt and vinegar to water in
    proportion of 1 tablespoonful of salt and two of vinegar to three
    quarts of water. Use enough water to cover the fish. Wrap the
    fish in cheesecloth to prevent breaking apart, and plunge into
    boiling water. Do not let the water boil after fish is in. The
    fish is done when the flesh leaves the bone or when the flesh
    flakes apart easily. The usual time for a thick piece is 30-40

        _Mock Hollandaise sauce._

      Butter    3 tablespoonfuls
      Flour     3 tablespoonfuls
      Eggs      2
      Milk      2 cups
      Salt      1 teaspoonful
      Lemon   1/2 to 1.

    Make as for white sauce, adding the beaten eggs just before
    taking from fire and stirring until well thickened. Add lemon
    juice just before serving. This sauce is suitable for boiled fish
    and vegetables.

=2. Left over fish.=

    Fish may be picked apart, mixed with cream sauce, and served as
    creamed fish or served as an escallop.

    _Escalloped fish._

      2 cups left over fish, picked over and freed of bones.
      1 cup thin white sauce, dried bread crumbs buttered.

    Butter a baking dish and line with crumbs. Add a layer of fish,
    using half, and cover with half the sauce. Cover with a layer of
    crumbs. Add another layer of fish, sauce, and crumbs, making this
    last layer of crumbs quite thick. Place in a hot oven and leave
    until crumbs are brown and fish is heated through.

    _To butter crumbs._

    Melt a little butter in a saucepan and turn the crumbs in,
    stirring them over and over with a spoon until all the crumbs are

=3. Baked fish.=

    Almost any medium sized fish is suitable for baking. The
    favorites are bluefish, shad, haddock, and halibut, sliced.

    Clean the fish, seeing that all scales are removed. Stuff and sew.
    Shape with skewers to form a letter S and place upright on a
    baking pan or lay fish on side. If the fish is not a fat kind, put
    strips of salt pork over it and in pan or cut gashes in fish and
    lay strips of pork in them. Dredge with flour. Bake one hour for a
    three-pound fish, in a hot oven, basting frequently with the
    tried-out fat. Serve with drawn butter or Hollandaise sauce.

        _Fish stuffing._

      Dried crumbs   1 cup
      Melted butter  1/2 cup
      Salt       1/4 teaspoonful
      Pepper      1/8 teaspoonful
      Onion juice    A few drops
      Parsley}      1 teaspoonful
      Capers }      each, finely
      Pickles }      chopped

    Mix ingredients in order given.

=4. Creamed codfish.=

    Soak the fish in cold water, and pull it apart with knife and
    fork. Put it in a saucepan of cold water, allow the water to heat
    slowly, and stop the heating just before the water reaches the
    boiling point. Pour off the water, shake the saucepan over the
    fire, add a thin white sauce, No. 2, and reheat. Serve on toast
    if desired.

=5. Codfish balls or cakes.=


      Codfish, picked          1 cup
      Potatoes, cut in cubes   2 cups
      Egg                      1
      Salt, if needed          to taste
      Flour for dredging


    Put the fish and potatoes in a stewpan, cover with cold water,
    bring the water to the boiling point, and cook until the potato is
    tender. The whole process will take about 20 minutes. Drain off
    the water very thoroughly and shake the stewpan over the fire to
    dry the contents. It is very necessary to have the mixture free
    from water. Mash and heat the mixture in the stewpan, and add the
    egg. Taste to see if more salt is needed, as is sometimes the
    case. Finish as follows:

    (_a_) Shape into round flat cakes about an inch thick, dredge with
    flour and sauté.

    (_b_) The same, browning the cakes on a greased pan in the oven,
    or under the gas flame, turning if necessary.

    (_c_) Shape in balls, place these in a wire frying basket, lower
    the basket into hot fat until the balls brown, lift the basket,
    drain, and drain the balls on paper. Keep hot until it is time to

_Laboratory management._——For individual work or work in groups of two,
small fish, as perch, may be procured and these may be stuffed and baked
in the period.


The shellfish are of two classes; the mollusks including clams, mussels
(seldom used in this country), oysters, and scallops, and the
crustaceans,——lobsters and crabs. None of the mollusks have high nutritive
value, but they are a protein food, and add to the variety of the diet.
The composition of the oyster is shown in Fig. 65, and it will be noted
that the fat percentage is small and the calorie value low.

=The oyster= is raised in beds in the ocean, or bays often near the river
mouth, and it is the neighborhood to the river that makes it possible for
the oyster to carry germs of contagion, particularly of typhoid fever,
when city sewage poured into the river passes over the oyster bed. Here,
too, government protection is essential, and this is a matter that has
created so much excitement that conditions are already improved. There is
an association of oyster growers who make a point of advertising clean
oyster beds, and cleanly methods of handling and transporting.

Oysters vary in size and flavor, the flavor seeming to depend upon the
locality. The smaller are sought for serving raw, and the medium and
larger for cooking. They are sold by the measure or number when taken from
the shell, the latter giving the surer quantity; and the price is usually
one cent apiece. They are in season from September to May. The whole flesh
of the oyster is soft and edible, even the muscle by which it opens and
shuts its shell being tender.

=Clams= are of two kinds, distinguished differently in different places.
They are known as hard and soft, or round and long, and in Rhode Island
the hard round clam still bears the Indian name Quahaug, the soft shell
clam being the only “clam.”

The long clam lies buried in the soft mud of creeks and muddy shores left
exposed at low tide, when they are dug by hoes from the mud. The round
clam lies on the bottom of shallow warm waters, and is raked with an
implement made for the purpose. The round clam is used when very young and
small in place of raw oysters; but both kinds when matured have a tough
portion that is not softened in cooking, and that is more or less
indigestible. The long “neck” which protrudes from the shell has to be

Both kinds may be roasted in the shell, and are very palatable served hot
with melted butter, salt, and pepper. They are most commonly used in soups
and in chowder. They are purchased by the quantity or number, are cheaper
than oysters, and are always in season.

=Scallops=, as purchased, are only a part of the animal in the shell,
consisting solely of the round white muscle which operates the shell. The
escallop, or scallop, is migratory, moving by a shooting motion, the
mature scallops reaching the creeks and shores in the autumn, and though
found in so-called beds they are not fixtures like the oysters. The flavor
is sweet, and they have a quality that makes them more or less
indigestible, especially when fried. They are very palatable and more
digestible served in a stew made like an oyster stew. They are sold by the
measure and are cheap in season.

=The lobster= is now a luxury, for methods of catching in the past have
made them scarce in their old haunts. The lobster is a much more highly
developed animal than the mollusk, having strong muscles inside its coat
of mail, and the flesh has a protein content that compares very favorably
with meat. When fresh, and not served with rich sauces or eaten at
irregular hours, it is not especially indigestible, and may be the main
dish at luncheon or supper, served simply with salt, pepper, and melted
butter and not taken with meat foods. Its own delicious flavor needs no
addition in the way of sauces and high seasoning.

=The crab= is essentially like the lobster, being smaller, and having a
sweeter flavor. The soft shell crab is caught just as the old shell is
shed, and is highly esteemed as a delicacy. Both lobsters and crabs are
cooked in the shell, and if allowed to die naturally before cooking they
are uneatable. They may be purchased alive or cooked, and one is surer of
their condition when they are bought alive. Twenty-five cents a pound is
now an average price for lobsters in shell. Crabs are somewhat less
expensive at times, but soft shells are always high-priced.

The following table shows the food value of a few of this group in terms
of the weight of the 100-Calorie portion.


                   | WEIGHT OF 100-CALORIE PORTION     |
        KIND       |-----------------------------------|
                   | AS PURCHASED     |                |
                   |(Entrails Removed)| EDIBLE MATERIAL|
                   |    Ounces        |    Ounces      |
      Blue fish    |     7.8          |      4.0       |
      Cod.         |     7.6          |      5.5       |
      Flounder     |    12.5          |      6.2       |
      Haddock      |    10.0          |      4.9       |
      Halibut steak|     3.5          |      2.9       |
      Mackerel     |     4.5          |      2.5       |
      Salmon       |     2.8          |      1.8       |


  Cod, Salt         |     4.4          |        3.4     |
  Herring, Smoked   |     2.2          |        1.2     |
  Halibut, Smoked   |     1.7          |        1.6     |
  Mackerel, Salt    |     1.4          |        1.2     |


  Clams                                |        6.9     |
  Crabs                                |        4.3     |
  Lobster                              |        4.2     |
  Oysters                              |        7.0     |
  Scallops                             |        4.8     |

=Preserved fish and shellfish.=——_Smoking and salting_ are two old-time
methods that are still in use, and smoked salmon, herring, and finnan
haddie furnish us well-flavored foods at a reasonable price. Small smoked
herring are eaten uncooked, and the other two kinds are excellent broiled,
or parboiled and finished in the oven. Salt cod should not be despised,
for it is convenient and may be made palatable. Like the meats, the fish
preserved by these methods are slightly less available for digestion.

_Preserving in oil_ is made familiar to us by the sardine of Italy in
olive oil and the small herring of America in cottonseed oil, which also
bears the name of sardine. The latter is less delicate in flavor than the
European sardine, but is of course cheaper, and is palatable and of equal
food value.

_Canned fish and shellfish_ are used in localities where fresh fish are
not easily available, and should not be unwholesome if the process is
properly inspected. Canned salmon is the most common, and makes an
excellent luncheon dish when well prepared (see chapter on salads).

=Principles of cooking.=——The protein in all of these is the chief
consideration. The oyster is more delicate when cooked just below the
boiling point of water for a brief period only. This is also true of the
clam, except the tough membranes which must be chopped. The flesh of both
lobster and clam is toughened by cooking, and the process should be short.

                      GENERAL METHODS AND RECIPES

=General directions.=——All fish and shellfish should be thoroughly
cleansed in cold water before using, and under running water when
possible. Wash oysters, clams, and scallops in a colander or strainer
under the faucet. If the oyster or clam liquor is used, put it through a
fine strainer.

=1. To serve oysters and small clams raw.=

    Arrange on finely chopped ice on a plate, with a piece of lemon
    in the center. Cut a section of lemon, not a slice. Horse-radish
    is sometimes served with the raw oyster. Garnish with parsley if
    you wish.

=2. Creamed oysters.=

    Clean oysters of all pieces of shell. Cook them below the boiling
    point for a few minutes until plump and edges begin to curl.
    Drain and add to white sauce seasoned with celery salt. Serve on
    toast, in bread cases, or patty shells.

=3. Sautéd oysters.=

    Clean one pint of oysters, sprinkle on both sides with salt and
    pepper. Lift by the tough muscle with a fork and dip on both
    sides in cracker crumbs and sauté in butter until well browned on
    both sides.

=4. Clam chowder.=


      Clams         1 quart
      Potatoes      4 cups, cut in 3/4 inch dice
      Onion         One, chopped
      Salt          1 tablespoonful
      Pepper      1/8 teaspoonful
      Butter        4 tablespoonfuls
      Milk          6 cups, scalded
      Soda Crackers

    Clean and pick over clams, separate the hard and soft part of
    clams and chop the former. Strain clam liquor through
    cheesecloth. Try out the pork and fry the onion in it until brown
    and turn into a large kettle. Boil potatoes until tender, drain,
    and pour potatoes into kettle. Add clams, milk, butter, and
    crackers broken into small pieces. Let cook three minutes. Just
    before serving add clam liquor previously heated. Serve in bowls.

=5. To prepare lobster and crabs for serving.=

    Make ready a large kettle of rapidly boiling water. Wrap a piece
    of paper around the lobster or crab, and plunge it head downward
    into the boiling water. Let the water boil gently for 20
    minutes——longer if the lobsters are very large.

    To open, a strong pair of scissors is the best utensil and
    sometimes a hammer is necessary for the heavy claws. Pull out the
    flesh, keeping it as whole as possible. The stomach of the lobster
    and crab should be taken out and can be recognized near the head.
    The long intestine should also be removed and is easy to find in
    the hinderpart by splitting open this part and removing a long
    white string. The soft green portion is the liver and is eatable.

    _To serve._——(_a_) Pick apart and serve on lettuce with a French
    dressing, or (_b_) Serve hot with melted butter.

                            MEAT SUBSTITUTES

Among these, beans, peas, lentils, eggs, milk, and cheese have already
been mentioned. Fish is classed also as a meat substitute.

=Nuts.=——These are a valuable meat substitute, some of them having a good
protein content, and a high fat content as well. (See Fig. 66.) They maybe
served raw for dessert, with some fruit either fresh or dried, raisins and
nuts being a pleasing combination. They should be thoroughly masticated.
They are also palatable and possibly more digestible when cooked. The
reason that many people consider nuts indigestible is because they eat
them between meals, and do not give them a proper place in a meal, eating
them when enough food of other kinds has been taken. One who is
open-minded in the matter of menus will find that nuts, raw or cooked, can
literally take the place of meat in a meal.

[Illustration: FIG. 66.——Composition of nuts.]

_Almonds_ are always available in the markets and are so rich in protein
and fat that a pound of shelled almonds is equivalent in food value to
about three pounds of steak. At usual prices a good grade of almonds is
more economical than the ordinary cuts of meat.

_Chestnuts_ are a staple food in parts of Italy, and have a delicious
flavor in soups, stuffings, and sauces. Our own native chestnuts, boiled
and served whole or roasted, make an excellent simple dessert.

_Hickory nuts_, _English walnuts_, _pecan nuts_, and _filberts_ are not
only palatable in muffins, cake, and yeast bread, but add to the food
value in a rational way.

_Peanuts_ are rich in oil and protein. They are nearly equal to almonds in
food value and are even more economical. Peanuts are too concentrated a
food for eating between meals or to be taken after a meal already
sufficient, but they may take the place of meat in the meal and peanut
butter may be used on bread and in sandwiches without butter. They, too,
may be used with cake and cookies.

_Chopped nuts_ may be served with a variety of desserts. Remember always
that they are to be considered food.


  Brazil nuts                       0.5
  Chestnuts                         1.5
  Filberts                          0.5
  Hickory nuts                      0.5
  Peanuts                           0.6
  Pecans                            0.5
  Walnuts (English)                 0.5

TEACHER’S NOTE.——When time permits and circumstances make desirable the
development of the economic phase of the food work, students may be
directed to look up the composition, or the food value per ounce or per
pound, of a variety of the foods of whatever group is under study and work
out the return in food value for a given expenditure of money. The tables
in Rose’s “Laboratory Handbook for Dietetics” will be found especially
useful in such work.


1. What is the chief food value of fish?

2. Compare the composition of fish and meat.

3. What are the causes influencing the flavor and quality of fish?

4. What precautions may be taken to prevent the spoiling of fish?

5. How may the oyster beds be safeguarded?

6. In what way does the cookery of fish and shellfish resemble that of

7. In what important way does the cookery of fish differ from that of

8. Why is fish cheapest in season?

9. Estimate the cost of 100-Calorie portion of one or two given varieties.

10. What precaution is necessary in opening a lobster?

11. What must a food contain to make a meat substitute?

12. What are the important meat substitutes?

13. In what way should nuts be used in the diet?

14. What are some of the practical ways of using nuts?

15. Price several kinds of nuts and several cuts of meat in the market,
then look up the composition of each, remembering that the whole kernel of
the nut is eaten, but often only the lean part of the meat. With this in
mind calculate the food value actually obtained for a given expenditure in
each case.

                               CHAPTER XV

                          SALADS AND DESSERTS

Salads and desserts are sometimes looked upon as luxuries, and something
to be omitted where people must exercise strict economy, and as more or
less indigestible forms of food to be avoided. As a matter of fact both of
these types of dishes are extremely valuable in giving variety to the
diet. They may be very inexpensive, and when they have the right relation
to the rest of the meal, are not more indigestible than many other forms
of food. A heavy salad or rich dessert eaten after a sufficient amount of
other food will naturally cause digestive disturbance.

To disprove the theory of great cost of desserts, two friends once had an
amusing contest to see which could serve the largest number of palatable
desserts at the lowest price. It was interesting to see how many could be
made for a cost of from six to ten cents for a family of five.

=Materials used for salad.=——The word “salad” is said to be derived from
the Latin “salis” (salt) which implies that the salad has been looked upon
more or less as a relish. We all associate with a salad appetizing
crispness and freshness. The materials used in the modern salad are so
varied that a complete list would include nearly all our fruits and
vegetables and meat foods.

_Green vegetables._——Celery, chicory or endive, corn salad, cress,
cucumber, dandelion, lettuce, onions, peppers, romaine or cos lettuce,
radishes, and tomatoes.

_Cooked vegetables._——Beans, string and whole, beets, cauliflower,
carrots, potatoes, and spinach.

_Fruits uncooked._——Any fresh fruit, possibly with the exception of some
of the berries.

_Meat and poultry._——The white meats like veal, chicken, and turkey are
more attractive in salad, but any kind of cold meat may be used.

_Fish and shellfish._——Lobsters, crabs, scallops, and cold fish.

_Nuts._——Several kinds may be used in combination with fruit.

_Jellies._——Tomato jelly, meat, chicken, and fish molded in jelly, may be
served as a salad.

_Eggs._——Hard-boiled eggs are used as a garnish.

_Cream cheese._——May be served with lettuce.

=Salad dressings.=——Plain lettuce or celery served with salt is in a sense
a salad, but it is our custom to dress the lettuce with a mixture which
contains an acid and usually an oil. A very simple, old-fashioned form of
dressing used in this country is vinegar and sugar. Substitute lemon juice
or fresh lime juice for the vinegar and you will have a very refreshing
and simple salad for a summer day.

The ordinary dressing consists of vinegar or lemon juice, and oil; another
form is mayonnaise, where the yolk and sometimes the white of egg are used
to hold the oil and vinegar together.

Another form is a cooked dressing which may be bottled and kept for a
longer time than the French dressing or the mayonnaise.

_Olive oil._——This is the most delicious oil for salad dressing when the
flavor is liked and when it can be afforded.

_Cottonseed and corn oil._——There are now in the market clarified
cottonseed oil and corn oil that may be used in mayonnaise dressing, and
the flavor is not unacceptable, and certainly superior to the poorer
grades of olive oil which quite likely contain one of these oils as an
adulterant. Cottonseed oil makes a better substitute for olive oil then
does corn oil as it is at present refined.

_Butter._——Butter may be used in boiled salad dressing for those who
dislike the flavor of the oils.

_The acids in dressing._——These may be either vinegar or lemon juice, and
many people with whom the vinegar disagrees can eat a salad made with
lemon juice. The acid should not be used in excess in any case; the best
dressings do not give a distinctively acid taste.

_Adjuncts._——Salt, mustard, cayenne pepper, paprika.

[Illustration: FIG. 67.——A cucumber salad. _Courtesy of Dept. of Foods and
Cookery, Teachers College._]

                      GENERAL METHODS AND RECIPES

=General directions.=——The two important points in the preparation of the
material for salad are, first, that _everything_ should be thoroughly dry,
and, second, thoroughly chilled. The importance of these two points cannot
be overemphasized, and they are of equal value in salad making. Many a
salad is unpalatable because it is watery and wilted. For the preparation
of green vegetables see Chapter VII. Vegetables should be cut in cubes or
sometimes in slices. Meat, poultry, and shellfish should be cut in small
pieces or chopped. The prepared meat should be mixed with some of the oil
and acid and allowed to stand in an ice box for some time before it is
dressed and arranged for serving. This process is called marinating in the
cookbooks, and gives a flavor to the salad that it cannot have if a
dressing is poured over the meat just before serving.

=Combinations in salad.=——Several well-known combinations will at once
occur to you. Meat salads usually have a mixture of celery. Several
vegetables may be used together, as beans and carrots, or carrots, peas,
and string beans with lettuce. Apples, nuts, and celery make a pleasing
combination. Indeed there would seem to be no end to the possibilities

[Illustration: FIG. 68.——A salad with salmon molded in gelatin. _Courtesy
of Dept. of Foods and Cookery, Teachers College._]

=Serving and garnishing.=——The principle here is to make the dish
attractive with as little labor as possible. Everything served as a
garnish should be eatable. A bed of crisp dry lettuce leaves is the most
attractive setting for any salad. When this is not procurable, cress makes
an attractive border to a salad. Figure 68 shows you a salmon jelly molded
in a ring and attractively served in lettuce. Figure 67 shows a cucumber
placed on lettuce leaves, dressed with a French dressing and sprinkled
with chopped peppers. The cucumber is sliced ready to serve; the slices
being cut not entirely through the cucumber. This is rapidly prepared and
is most attractive. When the salad is arranged in its dish, it should be
put in the ice box and allowed to remain until it is time to take it to
the table. The salad is sometimes served on individual plates.

=1. French dressing.=


      Salt         1/2 teaspoonful
      Pepper       1/4 teaspoonful
      Vinegar        2 tablespoonfuls
      Olive oil      4 tablespoonfuls


    Mix the salt, pepper, and vinegar and stir in the olive oil
    slowly. A few drops of onion juice may be added.

=2. Mayonnaise dressing.=


      Mustard                 1 teaspoonful
      Salt                    1 teaspoonful
      Powdered sugar          1 teaspoonful
      A few grains of cayenne
      Eggs                    Yolks of 2
      Lemon juice             2 tablespoonfuls
      Vinegar                 2 tablespoonfuls
      Olive oil           1-1/2 cups


    Stir together the eggs, mustard, salt, pepper, and sugar. Add the
    oil, a drop at a time, stirring and beating constantly. The back
    of a silver fork is a good thing for mixing mayonnaise, though
    some people prefer a Dover beater. As the dressing becomes very
    thick it should be thinned occasionally with vinegar and lemon,
    alternately, but never let it lose its consistency. After the
    first, the oil may be added more rapidly. All ingredients and
    utensils must be cold. If the weather is warm, the bowl should be
    surrounded with ice water. If the dressing should separate, begin
    with another yolk of egg and stir the separated mixture into it
    slowly, as before. Set the bowl in a cold place and it should keep
    for many days.

=3. Boiled dressing.=


      Eggs               2
      Mustard          1/2 teaspoonful
      Salt             1/2 tablespoonful
      Sugar            1/2 tablespoonful
      Vinegar            3 tablespoonfuls
      Hot water        1/2 cup
      Butter             1 tablespoonful
             A few grains of cayenne


    Mix the dry ingredients and beat with the eggs until light. Add
    the vinegar and water and cook in a double boiler, stirring
    constantly until thick and smooth. Remove from the fire, stir in
    the butter and set away to cool. A little cream added after the
    dressing cools is a great addition. Sour cream may be used instead
    of the water, in which case less vinegar and butter should be

=4. Potato salad.=


      Potatoes, cold-boiled or baked
      Parsley or onion juice
      Egg, hard-boiled, olives, pickled beets, etc.
      French dressing


    Cut the cold-boiled or baked potatoes into 1/2-inch cubes.
    Marinate (_i.e._ mix and let stand) with French dressing. Chopped
    parsley or onion juice may be mixed with potatoes. Arrange in a
    mound and garnish with slices of hard-boiled egg, olives, pickled
    beets, etc.

=5. Chicken salad.=


      Cold-boiled or roast fowl
      Celery, 1/2 as much as fowl
      French dressing
      Mayonnaise or boiled dressing


    Cut cold-boiled or roast fowl in 1/2-inch cubes. Add to this 1/2
    as much celery which has been washed, scraped, and cut into cubes.
    Marinate with French dressing. Just before serving moisten with
    mayonnaise or boiled salad dressing. Garnish with celery tips and

=6. Waldorf salad.=


      Apples, tart and juicy
      Celery, 1/2 as much as apples
      Mayonnaise dressing
      Lettuce leaves


    Select tart, juicy apples. Cut in quarters, pare and core and cut
    in 1/2-inch cubes. Add half as much celery, washed, scraped, and
    cut into cubes. Mix with boiled or mayonnaise dressing and serve
    cold on lettuce leaves. If handsome red apples can be had, they
    may be washed and polished and a slice cut from the stem end and
    the apple used as a cup after scooping out the inside to use for a
    filling with the celery. Serve on a lettuce leaf. Chopped nuts may
    be mixed with the apple and celery if desired.

=7. Stuffed tomato salad.=


      Tomatoes, medium sized
      Boiling water
      Cucumbers (or celery)
      Mayonnaise dressing
      Lettuce leaves


    Cover medium sized tomatoes with boiling water for a minute and
    remove the skin. Cut a thin slice from the top and take out part
    of the seeds and pulp. Sprinkle inside of the tomato with salt,
    invert, and let stand one half hour. Fill tomatoes with cucumbers
    (or celery) cut in small cubes and moistened with mayonnaise
    dressing. Arrange on lettuce leaves and garnish top with
    mayonnaise dressing.

_Laboratory management._——1/2 egg yolk (1 teaspoonful) and 1/4 cup of
olive oil is as small a quantity as is practicable to use in making the
mayonnaise. This quantity made by groups of two works out well as the
process of adding the oil drop by drop is difficult for a beginner working
alone. The boiled dressing works in well as a variation of the boiled


The dessert in this country includes the sweet dish, or the fruit at the
end of the meal. In simple meals the dessert is usually one of the two,
although in more elaborate meals fruit is served after the sweet dish, and
sometimes crackers and cheese are served at the last. From the point of
view of nutrition and digestibility this is more than is necessary, and
you will notice that when both are served, the fruit is often declined.
Like the salad, the dessert may be made from a large variety of materials
and bears different names. There are hot puddings and cold puddings, pies
and tarts, jellies and ices and ice creams. It is very interesting to read
over the many dishes of this class in a cookbook and to attempt to
classify them. If you are fortunate enough to have access to a cookbook of
the eighteenth century, you will find that much labor was given to the
preparation of elaborate structures which served as table ornaments; even
now you will find French cooks who spend much time in making elaborate
displays of their skill. For everyday life the dessert should be
attractive to the eye and yet simple.

=Materials used in desserts.=

    _Eggs, milk, and cream_; these are important and are used in
    custards, in dishes stiffened with gelatin or thickened with
    cornstarch, or in ice cream.

    _Breadstuffs._——Cake and sponge cake, bread crumbs and sliced
    bread, are valuable in desserts. Bread pudding may be made a very
    delicious dish. Bread may be combined with fruit in the shape of
    an escalloped dish. Baking-powder biscuits, crust, and shortcake
    are also used.

    _Other starchy substances._——These are cornstarch, arrowroot,
    sago, tapioca and manioca.

    _Fruits._——Raw and cooked fruits of every possible kind. A few
    fruits like the lemon, orange, grapefruit, and melon are not
    cooked. For preparing fruit served alone, see Chapter VI.

    _Gelatin._——This material has been mentioned in the chapter on
    meat. It is prepared for use in desserts in a number of forms, the
    granular being the most convenient. Gelatin has the property,
    first, of absorbing water, then of dissolving at the boiling
    temperature of water and becoming stiff again when cool. After
    dissolving, as it is cooling and just as it begins to thicken
    slightly, it can be beaten like white of egg. If beating is
    attempted while the liquid is warm, or again if it becomes too
    stiff, the result is not successful. This property makes it useful
    in the sponges and other fancy desserts where the light spongy
    texture is desirable.

[Illustration: FIG. 69.——A gelatin mold. _Courtesy of Dept. of Foods and
Cookery, Teachers College._]

=Making desserts attractive.=——This is done by serving hot desserts in a
dish around which a napkin may be folded; and cold desserts, especially
those made with gelatin, may be molded in some attractive form and
garnished. Figure 69 shows a very simple gelatin dessert garnished with
candied cherries and a little angelica, the stem of a plant which has been
sugared, and the whole surrounded with whipped cream. Whipping the cream
and putting it around the base takes only a few minutes. As in salad, the
garnish should be eatable and easily prepared.

=1. Boiled custard.=


      Milk          1 pt.
      Sugar         2 tablespoonfuls
      Eggs          3
      Vanilla     1/2 teaspoonful
      Salt        1/8 teaspoonful


    Put the milk, sugar, and salt in a double boiler to scald.
    Separate the eggs and set the whites in a cold place until wanted.
    Beat the yolks until lemon-colored. Pour a little of the scalded
    milk on the yolks of the eggs, stirring until well mixed. Set the
    double boiler back on the stove and pour the egg and milk mixture
    slowly into the rest of the scalded milk, stirring constantly
    until thickened enough to coat the spoon. Remove from the fire,
    add the flavoring, and turn into a dish to cool. Just before
    serving beat the whites to a very stiff froth and pile by
    spoonfuls on the custard. The whites may be sweetened with
    powdered sugar after beating if desired. Corn starch may be used,
    and fewer eggs.

=2. Baked custard.=


      Milk            1 pt.
      Sugar           2 tablespoonfuls
      Salt          1/8 teaspoonful
      Eggs            2
      Lemon _or_
      Vanilla       1/2 teaspoonful


    Scald the milk, sugar, and salt together. Beat the eggs in a
    baking dish and pour the scalded milk over them. Add the flavoring
    and stir well. Set the baking dish in a pan of boiling water and
    bake in a moderate oven until a knife thrust into the custard will
    come out clean. Serve cold either plain, or with chocolate sauce.
    Nutmeg may be grated on top of the custard before baking, or
    caramel flavoring may be added in place of the vanilla.

=3. Chocolate sauce.=


      Chocolate        1 square
      Sugar          1/4 cup
      Boiling water  1/2 cup
      Cream          1/2 cup


    Mix the chocolate, boiling water, and sugar together and stir over
    the fire until smooth and thick. Add the cream and serve hot.

=4. Caramel flavoring.=


      Sugar          2 cups
      Boiling water  1 cup


    Pour the sugar into a saucepan and stir over the fire until it
    becomes a thick brown sirup. Pour the boiling water on this and
    leave on the fire, stirring occasionally until the sugar is all
    dissolved. This may be bottled and kept for some time.

=5. Shortcake.=


      Flour           1 cup
      Baking powder   1 teaspoonful
      Salt          1/4 teaspoonful
      Butter          4 tablespoonfuls
      One half butter and one half lard.
      Milk          1/2 cup


    Mix dry ingredients and cut butter into this mixture with two
    knives. Stir in the milk and spread the mixture out on a buttered
    layer cake tin. Bake in a hot oven until brown. Wash and hull a
    box of strawberries, sprinkle with 1/2 cup of sugar, and crush
    with a spoon. When the shortcake is done remove from the pan, cut
    around the edge with a sharp knife and right through the center of
    the cake, making two layers of it. Spread the lower layer with
    butter and then with the crushed strawberry. Replace the top layer
    and serve hot. Fresh peaches, preserves, or a mixture of orange
    and banana may be used for this shortcake.

    Another kind of strawberry cake is made of sponge cake, and served
    cold with whipped cream.

=6. Steamed pudding.=


      Suet chopped                          1 cup
      Raisins, currants, and citron sliced  1 cup
      Egg                                   1
      Sweet milk                            1 cup
      Molasses                            1/2 cup
      Soda                                  1 teaspoonful
      Salt                                1/4 teaspoonful
      Flour                             3-1/2 cups


    Skin, wash, and chop the suet, and dredge with flour. Wash, pick
    over and seed the dried fruit, slice the citron if it is used, and
    dredge all with flour. Stir together the milk and molasses, sift
    the dry ingredients with the flour, and stir the liquid into the
    flour slowly. Add the suet, beating the mass thoroughly, and last
    the fruit, sprinkling in both the suet and the fruit as you stir.
    Fill a greased mold 2/3 full, close tightly, and cook in a kettle
    of boiling water for three hours. Serve with a hard or foamy

_Laboratory management._——This can be made in class if each pupil will
bring an empty baking powder or cocoa tin to school. A strip of greased
cloth should be fastened around the edge of the cover. The recipe can be
made in 1/4 cup proportions, and this amount can be cooked if the class
period is two hours in length, but it is better to have the cooking
finished at home. This is a seasonable exercise at Thanksgiving or

=7. Brown Betty or apple scallop.=


      Buttered crumbs
      Tart cooking apples
      A little water

TEACHER’S NOTE.——Individual shortcakes may be made by using a stiffer
dough and rolling and cutting them like biscuits.


    Put a layer of buttered crumbs in a baking dish. Pare and slice
    tart cooking apples and put a layer into the dish. Sprinkle with
    sugar, cinnamon, and a little water. Add a layer of bread crumbs
    and repeat with apples, flavoring and cover the top with crumbs.
    Bake in a moderate oven until apples are cooked and crumbs brown.
    Any fruit such as peaches or blueberries may be used instead of
    apples. Serve hot with hard or foamy sauce or cold with cream and
    sugar, or the bread may be used in slices, buttered.

=8. Hard sauce.=


      Butter         1/3 cup
      Powdered sugar   1 cup
      Lemon extract  1/3 teaspoonful
      Vanilla        2/3 teaspoonful


    Cream the butter; add sugar gradually, and flavoring. Grate nutmeg
    over the top. Chill before serving.

=9. Foamy sauce.=


      Butter        1/2 cup
      Powdered sugar  1 cup
      Egg             1
      Vanilla         1 teaspoonful


    Cream the butter, add gradually the sugar, the egg well beaten,
    and vanilla. Beat while heating over hot water.

=10. Tapioca cream.=


      Pearl tapioca     1/2 cup
      Minute tapioca  1-1/2 tablespoonfuls
      Scalded milk        2 cups
      Eggs                2, _or_ 1
      Sugar             1/3 cup
      Salt              1/4 teaspoonful
      Vanilla           1/2 teaspoonful


    Minute tapioca needs no soaking. If pearl tapioca is used, it must
    be soaked one hour in cold water to cover. Pick over and wash the
    tapioca, drain off the water and add tapioca to the milk and salt
    scalded in the double boiler, and cook until the tapioca is
    transparent, or about 1/2 hour. Beat eggs and add the sugar to
    them. Combine mixtures by pouring a little of the hot mixture in
    the egg and then stirring this into the mixture remaining in the
    double boiler. Stir over fire until it becomes thick. Add the
    flavoring and pour into a dish to cool.

=11. Apple tapioca.=


      Minute tapioca    3/4 cup
      Lemon peel
      Boiling water   2-1/2 cups
      Salt              1/2 teaspoonful
      Tart apples         6
      Sugar             1/2 cup


    Cook the tapioca in salt water until it becomes transparent. Core
    and pare the apples and place in the bottom of the baking dish.
    Fill the cavities with sugar and add a little lemon peel. Pour the
    tapioca over the apples and bake in a moderate oven until the
    apples are soft. Serve cold with sugar and cream.

=12. Lemon jelly.=


      Shredded gelatin      1/2 box
      Granulated gelatin      2 tablespoonfuls
      Lemon juice           1/2 cup
      Cold water            1/2 cup
      Boiling water       2-1/2 cups
      Sugar                   1 cup


    Soak the gelatin in cold water for 20 minutes. Add the boiling
    water and sugar and stir until it dissolves. Add the lemon juice
    and strain into a mold and set away to harden. When it is stiff
    loosen from the sides of the mold (a cloth wrung out of hot water
    may be needed). Turn on to a plate and serve with whipped cream or
    soft custard.

=13. Snow pudding.=


      Granulated gelatin   1 tablespoonful
      Cold water         1/2 cup
      Boiling water        1 cup
      Sugar                1 cup
      Lemon juice        1/4 cup
      Eggs                 Whites of 3


    Mix as for lemon jelly. Set aside in a cool place, and as soon as
    it becomes sirupy stir occasionally until quite thick. Then beat
    with wire spoon or whisk until frothy. Fold in the beaten whites,
    and continue to beat lightly until quite stiff. Pile by spoonfuls
    on a plate and serve with boiled custard, or mold as in Fig. 69.

=Frozen mixtures.=——There are some interesting principles to note here.
The freezing is accomplished by using a mixture of chopped ice and rock
salt. Can you explain how this reduces the temperature?

Another interesting point is this: Have you ever seen a milk bottle on a
cold winter morning with the paper cover or even the metal cap pushed up,
the frozen milk standing high above the top of the bottle? What does this
suggest to you in connection with the filling of the ice cream freezer?

It must be noted, too, that a larger amount of flavoring material is
needed in a frozen dessert than in one that is not. The frozen custard,
for instance, needs more vanilla than one prepared in the ordinary manner.
Can you account for this?

=Method of freezing.=

    There are many patterns of ice cream freezers that are well
    constructed and inexpensive. They are sold by the size, a 2 quart
    freezer giving you 2 quarts of the frozen cream. See that the
    crank is oiled and the whole apparatus clean. Have ready pounded
    ice and rock salt, usually in the proportion of 1 part salt to 3
    of ice. Machines come for cutting the ice, but it is easy to
    pound it in a strong bag. Set the freezer can in place, put
    around it the ice and salt alternately, shaking down and packing
    firmly. Have the ice cream mixture cool, pour it in, having the
    can not more than 2/3 full. Put on the lid, cover with ice and
    salt, and begin to turn the crank. Open and stir down once or
    twice, being careful to keep out the salt. Take out the crank
    before the cream is too stiff. Pack the cream firmly down in the
    can. See that the melted water is removed from the pail, put in
    more ice and salt, and leave until the ice cream is firm.

    _To mold ice cream or mousse._ Directions for packing in a mold
    are given under _strawberry mousse_.

=14. American ice cream.=

    (_a_) _Ingredients._

      Cream       1 quart
      Sugar     3/4 cup
      Vanilla     1 tablespoonful


    Mix ingredients and freeze.

    (_b_) _Ingredients._

      Milk       1 pint
      Flour      1 tablespoonful
      Egg        1
      Sugar      1 cup
      Salt     1/4 teaspoonful
      Cream      1 quart
      Vanilla    1 tablespoonful

    _Method._ As in French ice cream.

=15. French ice cream.=


      Cream         1 quart
      Milk          1 quart
      Eggs          4 or 6 to 8 yolks
      Sugar     1-1/2 cups
      Vanilla       2 tablespoonfuls


    Make a custard of milk, eggs, sugar, and vanilla. Add cream, chill
    and freeze.

16. =Milk sherbet.=


      Milk        4 cups
      Sugar       1-1/2 cups
      Lemons      Juice of 3


    Mix juice and sugar, stirring constantly while slowly adding milk.
    If the mixture should curdle, this will disappear when frozen.

17. =Raspberry ice.=


      Water                4 cups
      Sugar                1-2/3 cups
      Raspberry juice      2 cups
      Lemon juice          2 tablespoonfuls


    Make a sirup by boiling water and sugar twenty minutes, add
    raspberry juice, strain and freeze. Any fruit juice may be used
    for this sherbet.

18. =Strawberry mousse.=


      Cream                   1 quart
      Strawberries            1 box
      Sugar                   1 cup
      Granulated gelatin      1-1/4 tablespoonfuls
      Cold water              2 tablespoonfuls
      Hot water               3 tablespoonfuls


    Wash and hull berries, sprinkle with sugar, and let stand one
    hour; mash and rub through a fine sieve, add the gelatin soaked in
    cold water and dissolved in hot water. Set in a pan of ice water
    and stir until it begins to thicken; then fold in the whipped
    cream, put into a mold, cover, pack in two parts ice to one of
    salt, and let stand four hours. Use a mold with a tight cover and
    seal the crack with a strip of cloth dipped in melted butter and
    bound around the mold while still wet.


1. Explain the value of salads and desserts in the dietary.

2. What are the important points in a good salad?

3. Give a number of agreeable combinations of material in a salad.

4. What are the substitutes for olive oil?

5. Why should mayonnaise dressing be kept cold in the mixing?

6. Make a classification of the different types of dessert.

7. What is gelatin, and why is it useful in desserts?

8. What are the underlying principles of custard making?

9. Why is it important that the can in a freezer should not be filled to
the top?

10. Why does chopped ice and salt freeze the mixture?

11. Estimate the cost of the following dishes for five people: Potato
salad with boiled dressing; a baked custard; a Brown Betty; French ice
cream; raspberry or lemon ice.

12. Explain what is meant by garnishing.

                              CHAPTER XVI


The preparation of a number of dishes assembled for a meal requires a
skill quite different from that necessary for the making of a single dish.
A menu being decided upon, it needs an accurate sense of time,
forethought, and promptness, to have a number of dishes ready at the same
time, or in proper sequence if several courses are served. Such questions
as the following must be answered:

_Technique of preparation._

1. What steps in preparation can be taken ahead of time, as washing,
paring, cutting, etc.?

2. What dishes take the longest to cook?

3. Which must be served the moment they are done?

4. Which can be kept hot for some time without injury?

5. Which can be finished and cooled perhaps several hours before?

6. Do the dishes selected require the same utensils at the same time? (If
so, the menus must be changed.)

7. What is the order of serving?

To understand the bearing of these questions you will need to select some
menu and make a plan for preparing it. (See exercises at the end of this

The fact is obvious that in preparing a meal you cannot finish the dishes
one at a time, but that steps individual to each dish must be interwoven
with each other, and the cook must have them all “on her mind,” and is
often doing half a dozen things at once. As a high school girl, preparing
a part of her first meal, remarked, “This is as good training as

The woman at home will devise many ways of easing and shortening the labor
just before the meal is served, avoiding haste and anxiety in this way.
With the fireless cooker and other slow-cooking apparatus, the heavy work
may sometimes be done far ahead of mealtime. A dessert can be prepared and
be cooking as breakfast dishes are washed, and at the time left overs are
put away they can be arranged ready for serving, as in the case of poultry
or meat to be served cold. While the preparation of the midday meal is in
progress, something can sometimes be done for the last meal, too. This,
indeed, is a field for generalship, and it is a successful campaign when
the meals are all on time and well prepared, and the cook and family

=Important points in serving each dish.=——Each dish should be perfectly
done, neither over nor under cooked. All hot dishes should be hot, and
cold dishes cold. Lukewarm food is not agreeable. Bread and cake and some
kinds of pastry are the only foods that may have the temperature of the
room. Sliced meat and salads should be _cold_. Chill chocolate éclairs
before serving and see how much they are improved; indeed, experiment with
a number of foods that are usually served at room temperature.

=To keep food hot.=——A hot closet above a coal or gas range is made for
this purpose, and steam heaters sometimes have hot-closets. A double
boiler is a help, and one utensil may be set into a larger, filled with
boiling water. Some dishes can be set back on the stove, or over a
simmering gas burner with an asbestos mat underneath. The oven may be used
sometimes, with the door set ajar. The food may be kept covered unless it
will steam, in which case cover it with a towel. Serve food in hot dishes.

=To keep food cool.=——Leave the dish in the ice box until the last
possible moment. Sometimes serve with ice (butter in warm weather). If
ice is lacking, use other cooling devices. Serve in chilled dishes.

=Garnishing the dish.=——All food must be neatly placed in the dish, and
arranged or piled with some sort of symmetry, and this is the most that
some people have time to do. Many foods may be served in the utensil or
dish in which they are cooked, and in the case of a baking dish, if its
appearance is not neat, a napkin can be folded about it. The simplest form
of garnish is browning on the top, which makes many dishes attractive
(mashed potato).

_Make the garnishing simple_, and have it eatable when possible. Slices of
hard-boiled eggs on spinach, chopped parsley and butter on boiled or
mashed potato, parsley and slices of lemon, with meat and fish.

_Vegetable borders_ are attractive and save labor in dish washing. Arrange
the meat in the center of the platter, and pile mashed potato, or boiled
rice or peas or beans, or a mixture of hot vegetables around the edge.
This saves time in table service, too.

The garnishing of salads, desserts, and cakes is treated in previous

=Table equipment and service.=——This is a place where beauty is a large
element, and most people understand the charm of a daintily laid table, as
the family gathers for a meal. But many factors must be taken into
account, for it is an easy matter to pass from the simple and beautiful to
an extravagant display, to spend more on the dining-room equipment than
the income warrants, and to waste much energy in unnecessary work. Our
great need here is to learn to see beauty in simplicity. We must remember,
too, that many people in our country live in crowded quarters, and have no
time for anything but the simplest kind of table service.[16]

The _table_ should be firm, large enough to accommodate the family
comfortably, and it should permit of extension when occasion demands a
larger board. The top should have an oil finish that will not easily mar
and that can be washed off. Have a thick cloth or pad to protect it——the
“silence cloth.”

_Table covers_ may be the small doilies with centerpiece, strips of fine
linen crash, or blue or brown and white Japanese toweling laid across both
ways, a cloth that just covers the table, or a large cloth that hangs well
below the table edge. The doilies and strips are used conventionally for
breakfast and luncheon, but save much labor when used for all meals. The
color may be white, or tinted, but the dark-colored cloth should be

The material may be linen or mercerized cotton. Many people think white
table oilcloth is impossible, but a table covered with it may be made very
pretty; it can be kept clean by washing at the end of each meal, and the
saving in labor is incalculable.

The pattern and quality and cost of table linens are mentioned in Chapter

_Napkins_ may match the tablecloths. A small size economizes labor. Avoid
fringes, selecting a scalloped edge or hemstitch. Japanese paper napkins
are useful in summer, and for box luncheons.

_The dishes._——Only a few practical suggestions can be given here. This is
a topic for the art class.

Buy from “open stock.” This means, not a single set, but a pattern that
the manufacturer and retailer have always on hand, so that the purchaser
can buy one plate or cup and saucer, to replace breakage.

An elaborate or highly colored design becomes wearisome, is not practical
for those who have a limited supply of dishes, and is in questionable
taste. A positive color demands always the same general scheme for other
decorations. A band of color, or a narrow design at the edge, of a color
harmonizing easily with other colors, is in good taste. Gold and green are
safe colors. See Fig. 72. White dishes with a raised border are dainty,
and any color scheme may be used with them. See Fig. 71.

The number of dishes depends upon the simplicity or elaborateness of the
method of living and the size of the family. It is much better to begin
with a few, and increase the number when necessary, than to have the
shelves filled with unused ware. (See exercises.)

_Glassware_ is pressed or cut, the latter being beautiful, but an
expensive luxury. Glasses for water, and dishes for berries, are made with
simple and attractive designs in the pressed ware, and serve all ordinary
purposes. A pretty shape for the glass for water is shown in Fig. 71.

_Silver and plated silver_ for knives, forks, and spoons, coffee and tea
sets, all add to the charm of the table. A large collection is not
necessary for everyday use, and it adds greatly to the labor of the
housewife. Figure 70 shows some good designs in spoons, and spoons and
forks of different sizes come in the same design. A simple design is easy
to clean. Three sizes of spoons, tablespoons, teaspoons, and coffee
spoons, and two sizes of forks are all sufficient, with a few larger
spoons for service and desserts.

Triple-plated ware lasts for years, if well cared for, and comes in good

Pewter, familiar in olden days, is being used again in Colonial designs,
and makes an attractive tea or coffee set, is less costly than solid
silver, and has a better tone and color than plated ware.

_Cutlery._——Plated knives are easy to care for, but steel knives are more
effective for some purposes. Purchase good quality steel knives,
especially in the carving set.

[Illustration: FIG. 70.——Good designs for table silver. _Courtesy of
Gorham Co._]

=Setting the table.=——The first principles here are to have everything
clean and shining, and to lay everything straight. Have as little on the
table as possible. It is not comfortable to have a large array of articles
at one’s place. Figure 71 shows you a dainty and well-laid table, arranged
for a Sunday night supper, and this arrangement is a good one for any
meal, with substitutes for the chafing dish.

Be sure that the _cloth_ is straight, the center fold in the middle of the
table, and that the cloth hangs evenly on all sides. See that centerpiece
and doilies are laid at even distance.

_Laying each place._——In Fig. 71 the knife, edge out, is at the right,
with one spoon, and the glass is at the right, in line with the end of the
knife. Two forks are at the left, and a plate for bread and butter, with
bread knife are at the left, opposite the glass. The napkin is at the
left. This plan, somewhat elaborated, may be safely followed for formal
service. Two knives may be placed at the right, with the soup spoon, and
three forks at the left. If more than these are needed, they may be
supplied later, laid on the plate placed for a certain course, in the
middle of the plate, handle toward the guest.

[Illustration: FIG. 71.——A table set for Sunday night supper. _Courtesy of
Dept. of Foods and Cookery, Teachers College._]

The other articles on the table may vary widely. For everyday use, where
there is no maid, or only one, set in places convenient to pass, the salt
and pepper, vinegar and sugar, bread plate and butter plate, and any small
dish of condiment or pickle, with pretty mats for the hot dishes to be set
on later, and enough spoons for serving. See that the arrangement is
symmetrical and convenient. A table laid in this way has room for little
more in the way of “decoration” than a slender vase holding a few flowers
in the center. The dishes for dessert can be ready on a side table.

For formal service nothing is placed on the table in addition to the
equipment at each place, but some centerpiece containing ferns or flowers,
with pretty dishes of silver or glass holding relishes, candies, or dried
fruits, a graceful arrangement being to alternate four of these with four
candlesticks for meals served late in the day.

_Table decorations._——Here fancy may run riot with color schemes, and
pretty devices for special occasions. A painted place card, a small bonbon
box, a single flower with a pin for fastening it on,——all these have their
place at times. Satin ribbon is not an appropriate table decoration laid
across the table in a broad band, even when it displays a class color.
Find some other way to make the color effective. A color scheme in the
food can be carried out to a degree for some occasion, but do not let the
color interfere with a really satisfactory menu.

Relishes have already been suggested as decoration——radishes cut in rose
shape, olives, candies, and fruit.

_The tray for invalid and convalescent._——Figures 72 and 73 suggest the
daintiness possible in setting a tray. It is well worth while to spend
time in the careful arrangement of the tray, for pretty dishes in orderly
array may tempt the appetite of the invalid.

[Illustration: FIG. 72.——A convalescent’s tray. _Courtesy of the Dept. of
Foods and Cookery, Teachers College._]

[Illustration: FIG. 73.——A convalescent’s tray with rack for holding
cover. _Courtesy of the Dept. of Foods and Cookery, Teachers College._]

=Waiting on the table.=——When we wait on ourselves, this should be done
with cheerfulness, and all should take a share. After the food is on the
table, one person can “help” one thing and one another. It is a good plan
for the young people of the family to take turns as waiter in removing the
soiled dishes and food and putting on the dessert. A quick method is to
place a tray on a small stand near the table, taking the dishes from one
place at a time, and sorting them on the tray as you go. The tray can then
be carried into the kitchen, with the dishes partly arranged for washing.

One mother uses a plan for having everybody help at breakfast time,
modeled after the tray system of a cafeteria. The breakfast is cooked
ready to serve, and on the kitchen table is a small tray for each one of
the family of four. All necessary articles are at hand, and even the boy
of seven sets his own tray and helps himself to food, and takes his place
at the table; and then when the meal is ended each one carries out his
dishes and puts them in neat array for washing.

The waitress at a formal meal has to be alert, rapid yet gentle in all her
motions, with a desire to make other people comfortable, and a faculty for
remembering their likes and dislikes. A good waitress does not pass a
second time a dish once declined.

The waitress must know the menu, and have everything ready for each course
at hand on the sideboard, with dishes kept hot in the hot closet.

The table is laid in time, she herself is immaculate, and the room is well
aired and the temperature agreeable. A piece of bread is folded in each
napkin. If the first course is cold,——perhaps a grapefruit,——she arranges
these at each place. If it is to be a hot bouillon, the cook tells her
that all is ready, and then she informs the hostess that dinner or
luncheon is served.

The details of this type of waiting vary with the place and the taste of
the hostess, but the following method is simple and rapid.

=Serving.=——Serve everything from the side table. Hold the dish to be
served firmly in two hands with a napkin underneath, a tablespoon and fork
being placed on the dish. Pass to the left of the guest, and hold the dish
at a convenient height and near the plate. After all the dishes in a
course are passed in this way, watch to see if second helps are needed.

Remove the soiled plates at the left, and place the clean at the left,
removing with the left hand and placing with the right.

Fill glasses at the right, and remove silver at the right before dessert
when there are pieces left unused.

Brush crumbs with a soft, folded napkin upon a plate, at the left, just
before dessert when everything is taken from the table but the center
decoration, the candies, and the glass of water. With this plan the guest
helps himself each time, even the after-dinner coffee being passed on a
tray with cream and sugar, and he can take as little as he pleases, or
decline. Some hostesses have some of the courses arranged on individual
plates and placed, and these may be placed either from the left or right.
But the other method is simple and satisfactory.

The finger bowls may be set on plates of dessert size with a doily
underneath. If a spoon or fork is needed with the dessert, one or both may
be placed on the plate also, one on each side, if both are used. The bowls
should be less than half full of water and the water should be a
comfortable temperature, neither cold nor noticeably warm. Set the plates
arranged in this way before each guest. The guest himself will remove the
bowl and doily and silver before the dessert is passed. In large banquets
the food must be placed on the individual plate.

The question is sometimes asked, “Who shall be served first?” It is a good
plan to change this from course to course, beginning the first time with
the guest of honor. It is not a matter of great importance, provided no
one has to wait long. Two waitresses make the service quicker.

The guests of honor sit at the right of the host and hostess.

_The number of courses._——Two or three courses are enough for everyday
comfort and health. In formal serving, it is good taste not to have too
many. A first course of grapefruit or perhaps oyster cocktail, a soup, a
fish course, or some light substitute for it,——the main course with meat,
a salad, dessert, coffee——make a quite sufficient meal. The “entrée” is a
light dish, say sweetbreads in cases, after the fish course, but it is
quite unnecessary. Many people are becoming very weary of the
long-drawn-out dinners and banquets, which are certainly far from

=Carving.=——This is an art that used to be taught as an accomplishment to
girls, and it is not an easy matter to master.

If not done at the table, it must nevertheless be well done. Watch a good
carver, and practice when you have a chance. A few simple directions can
be given, but a demonstration is really necessary. First and foremost,
have a sharp, strong knife, and a strong fork. The next essential is a
platter large enough to hold the meat, without having it slip off. The
fork must be firmly placed in the meat, and the meat held down. Notice the
shape of the cut of meat. Meat must be cut across the grain. Loosen from
the bone, notice the grain, and cut evenly and firmly. With fowl, discover
the joints, pierce with the end of the knife, disjoint, and lay at the
side, and then slice the breast across the grain. If carving at the table,
learn the preference of those served, whether they wish light or dark
meat, meat well done or underdone. Have a spoon for dish gravy and


1. Plan the order of work for the following menus: (_a_) Cooked cereal and
cream, stewed prunes, poached egg on toast, popovers, coffee. (_b_) Tomato
bisque, lamb chops with peas and mashed potatoes, plain lettuce with
French dressing, Brown Betty with foamy sauce, black coffee.

2. What are the important points in serving each dish? Give some simple

3. Obtain price lists and estimate the cost of table furnishings.

4. What do you consider good taste in china and silver?

5. What are the important points in table setting?

6. Make a list of dishes to be used for the menus given above, or other

7. What are the fundamentals in waiting on the table?

8. How may the home service be made comfortable?

9. Discuss different methods in formal service.

10. How may the guest be made most comfortable?

                              CHAPTER XVII


This is at all times an important matter, but the notable increase in food
prices, during the last decade, has made it a matter of interest to all.
The cost of food is one item only in the whole cost of living, and this is
affected by many conditions in manufacture and commerce and the business
of the nations. Economists and others interested in social questions are
studying the problem, but as yet they do not agree upon the cause, or
causes, of the increased cost of living. We cannot hope, therefore, to
understand the situation fully; but we must be determined to spend money
as wisely as we can, and to learn what we may about food prices in
relation to food values. There are a few causes of the difference in price
between one food and another that are more or less unchanging. The cost of
food may be considered from several points of view. The question of the
cost for each individual a day and relation of cost and nutritive value
are studied in Chapter XVIII. The proportion of the income to be spent for
food is taken up in Chapter XIX.

=Labor and prices.=——The amount of labor involved in producing a food
material affects its price. Meats cost more than staple vegetable foods,
like corn, wheat, or beans, because we must raise the corn first to feed
the animals. Meat is as cheap as vegetable foods only when the animal can
find its own food, as in the pioneer days of any country, when only a
small part of the land is under cultivation. To the Pilgrim Fathers, meat
was cheaper than corn, in terms of labor, with deer at hand in the forest
and corn raised with difficulty in small clearings. Meat production is now
an industry, and the product an expensive one, especially as the wide
cattle ranges of our West, where the animals have formerly found natural
food, are now used more and more for other purposes.

=Transportation.=——Carrying food from place to place increases its cost.
In one sense this is another form of labor. Each person who handles the
food material from producer to consumer adds something to what the
consumer pays. We have heard much discussion of late of the “middleman,”
and the effort to bring the producer and consumer closer together. This
simply means doing away with some person who handles the product after it
leaves the producer and before it reaches the consumer and who must have
something for his labor. In transportation there is another element
involved, the original cost of the means of conveyance; and the natural
wear and tear on the product are items that increase the final cost. The
modern farmer who carries his produce to market in an auto truck must have
a return for the original cost of the truck and the keeping of it in
repair. The long-distance railway furnishes cold-storage cars, and the
cost of these and their maintenance affect freight rates. A peach from
South Africa costs from fifty to sixty cents in the Boston market. It is
probably true, in this case, that a fancy price is asked because African
fruit is a novelty here; but the difficulty and expense of long-distance
transportation naturally make it costly.

=Demand and supply.=——The relation of demand to supply affects the price
of food in a way not difficult to understand. Where the supply is
permanently small and the demand widespread, the price of the particular
food material will be high, and _vice versa_. Olive oil is a good example
of the permanently high-priced food. California olive oil brings a high
price not only because it is pure and well flavored, but because many
people want it, and the industry is a small one. Many years are needed to
establish an olive grove, and olive raising is not a popular way of making
money, because it is slow. One enterprising American firm has bought an
olive grove in Spain, and is using new methods there, but the product,
though delicious, is no cheaper. Although the manufacture of olive oil
will doubtless remain a rather small industry, the use of olive oil is
increasing, in this country, at least. It does not seem likely, therefore,
to become a cheap form of fat.

We find nearly the opposite of this in cottonseed oil, a large supply and
a relatively smaller demand making a low price. The seed (a by-product of
the cotton industry) contains a large quantity of oil, and it is not all
used as food. Therefore, it is permanently a low-priced fat, as contrasted
with the permanently high-priced fat, olive oil.

=Agricultural conditions.=——There are two things of which the farmer can
never feel sure, the kind of weather to expect and the general character
of the season. Of course, the season affects the quality and the amount of
any crop, and this, again, influences the price.

Another aspect of the effect of season on food is this: that a food is in
its own locality cheaper when it is in season than at other times of year,
when it has to be brought from a distance.

Insect pests and plant diseases not infrequently spoil a crop, and the
market price goes up with the smaller supply. This is what happened not
long since to the potato crop and potato prices, when potatoes were
affected by the potato blight. Moreover, if the farmer succeeds in keeping
his crop free from a particular pest, it means a more or less permanent
increase in his expenses, for in fighting insects and fungi there is an
outlay for machinery and chemicals, and much labor is expended.
Unfortunately, injurious insects and plant diseases are on the increase,
and this may mean a permanent rise in the cost of certain foods. Another
fact has to be reckoned with in comparing the prices of different foods.
Some vegetables are more difficult to raise than others, even when the
season is favorable, and the insects at least partly conquered. Some
plants have more vitality than others, and grow under almost any condition
of soil and moisture.

Animal diseases must also affect the price of food. If a large number of
cattle are found to have tuberculosis, and are condemned as food, healthy
cattle bring a higher price, because, again, the supply is small in
relation to the demand.

=Quality of food.=——Poor food always costs less money than good food, but
it may not be economy to buy it. There may be more usable material in one
good apple at five cents than in three wormy ones for five.

=Form and place in which food is sold.=——Food in the package costs more
than in bulk, and each fancy label adds a fraction to the cost.
Plate-glass windows and ribbon decorations in a shop and the large expense
of rent on a fashionable street are all paid for by the consumer.

=Relative cost of home and shop products.=——When prepared food of any kind
is purchased, one pays for raw material plus the cost of fuel and the
labor involved in the cooking and the cleaning of apparatus and kitchen.
For example, canned soup sold by one of the best manufacturers brings a
good price because so much time and labor are used in a careful inspection
of all material, and in keeping up a high standard of cleanliness.
Remember, too, that whenever cooked food appears on the table, these two
items, fuel and labor, are in reality added to the cost of the raw
material. We may not pay cash always for the labor, but it must be
accounted for in time and energy. The woman who says, “My time doesn’t
count,” has a poor opinion of herself. Whether or not it is better to buy
cooked food or to prepare food at home is discussed on page 292.

=Other elements in food prices.=——So far we have considered those causes
of food prices that are what may be called “natural,” always to be taken
into account, and only partly under our control. There are others that
have to do with big business methods and interests and that have great
influence at some one period in a nation’s life, and less at others. They
are more or less under our control if we have the wisdom and courage to
act. A discussion of these causes is part of the study of economics
proper, and we can only stop by the way to think of them for a moment.

Transportation must always increase cost, as we have learned, but bad
methods, involving the handling of food by many people, increase it
unnecessarily. Our present methods of marketing food are clumsy, and not
economical, especially in large cities. The subject is being seriously
studied with a view to improvement, possibly by the establishment of
public markets.

At present we have a bewildering state of things, but the housekeeper who
sincerely desires, can learn to buy and prepare the less costly foods in
an appetizing way, and leave nothing for the garbage pail but the parts
that are actually not eatable.

=Comparative costs.=——It would be useless to print here a list of actual
prices, since they vary in different localities, and are constantly
changing. This list can be made by yourselves in your notebooks for your
own home town, and for the current year. The table on page 318 is a guide,
however, for in spite of fluctuations in prices there are certain foods
that are permanently more economical than others; for example, grain
products than meats, for reasons already explained. As a rule, the rising
cost of food has been so general as not to change greatly the relative
economy of the different types of food as compared with each other.

=Cost and nutritive value.=——The discussion of cost has dealt so far with
the cost of _food materials_ as they are found in the market. What we are
really seeking to learn is the amount of _nutritive_ material to be
obtained for a given sum of money, and in order to do this, we must think
of our purchases in terms of the _foodstuffs_ and their values. The
accompanying table from a government bulletin[17] gives an estimate of
cost from this point of view in terms of protein and fuel value. Notice
that wheat bread is a cheap food, standing first in the amount of building
material and energy.


                  |                   |          |  10 CENTS’ WORTH
                  |                   |          |    WILL CONTAIN
                  |                   | 10 CENTS |___________________
  FOOD MATERIALS  |       PRICE       | WILL BUY |    PRO- |  A FUEL
                  |                   |          |   TEIN  | VALUE OF
                  |                   |  Ounces  |  Ounces | Calories
  Wheat bread     |   5 cents per lb. |   32.0   |    2.9  |   2400
  Cheese          |  22 cents per lb. |    7.3   |    1.9  |    886
  Beef, average   |  20 cents per lb. |    8.0   |    1.2  |    467
  Porterhouse steak  25 cents per lb  |    6.4   |    1.3  |    444
  Dried beef      |  25 cents per lb. |    6.4   |     .1  |    315
  Eggs            |  24 cents per lb. |   10.0   |    1.3  |    198
  Milk            |   9 cents per qt. |   38.3   |    1.2  |    736
  Potatoes        |  60 cents per bu. |  160.0   |     ——  |   2950
  Apples          1-1/2 cents per lb. | 106.7    |     ——  |   1270

The price quoted for eggs is low, and even less could be obtained for ten
cents at prevailing prices in 1913-1914. This kind of estimate is a help
in making menus and dietaries. (See Chapter XVIII.) Another method of
estimating economy for this purpose is by calculating the cost of
100-Calorie portions of various food materials. A table giving such a
comparison will be found in the next chapter.

                            PURCHASING FOOD

In addition to the general principles of buying discussed in Chapter XXI
there are some details to be studied in purchasing food.

=Personal attention in buying food.=——It is absolutely necessary to visit
the market and the grocery where food is purchased. The purchaser would
not fail to visit a shop before deciding to patronize it regularly, but
frequent calls are necessary if buying is to be economical. Select the
grocery, market, and bakery with a view to their cleanliness. Notice if
the doors and windows are screened, and if proper effort is made to catch
flies that may have entered. Refuse to buy food that is exposed upon the
sidewalk, and if it is within doors, see that it is protected from dust
and flies. The best markets now have tiled walls and floors, which help to
insure cleanliness. The difference in odor is marked between a market that
is properly cleaned daily, and one where the proprietor uses uncleanly
methods. Meat and vegetables, in particular, should be personally selected
whenever this is possible. The butcher must understand that the purchaser
is familiar with the different cuts of meat and that honest service is
demanded in regard to the quality, trimming, and weight of the meat. One
does not want to be too suspicious, but it is well for the butcher to know
that the purchaser has a set of standard scales at home by which to prove
the accuracy of his weighing. It is also important to inspect fruit and
vegetables for quality and cost.

=Quantities in which to purchase food.=——The amount that one purchases of
a certain food depends on its keeping qualities, and upon the storage
space available at home. A general rule may be stated: Buy perishable
foods in small quantities; non-perishable foods in large. The reason for
buying in larger quantity is that the cost is somewhat less, although
sometimes it seems but little less. Some one has remarked that no one is a
good buyer who does not consider a quarter of a cent. In a modern house or
apartment where there is not room for a barrel of flour or sugar, then the
quantity must be gauged by the space. The same is true of canned goods as
of flour and sugar. Buying by the dozen saves a little on each can if you
have shelf room for piling the cans.

Foods may be classed in this connection as perishable, semi-perishable,
and non-perishable. This depends somewhat for any one housekeeper upon the
size of her refrigerator, and upon an available place where food may be
cool, even if not so cold as in the refrigerator. Those foods classed here
as perishable are those which readily “spoil,” that is, those that are
affected by mold and bacteria on account of the moisture that they
contain, and also those that lose flavor and freshness quickly. Those most
easily affected should be kept the coldest; those in the semi-perishable
group do not deteriorate so rapidly, although a low temperature is
desirable with all of these. Under the non-perishable foods are classed
those that are not subject to bacteria or mold in ordinary circumstances.
These should be kept dry, however, and never in a heated place. In a
sense, no food material is non-perishable. Insects sometimes develop in
the cereal products, for instance, and the material is thus rendered
unfit for food. The food adjuncts do not spoil except as they lose flavor
if kept too long.

_Perishable._——Milk, cream, uncooked meat, uncooked fish, shellfish,
berries, fruits with delicate skins, lettuce, and vegetables that wilt

_Semi-perishable._——Butter, eggs, cooked meat and fish, root vegetables,
cooked vegetables, left overs in general, skin fruits like apples,
bananas, oranges, and lemons, dried fruits, scalded milk and cream, smoked
and salted fish and meats, open molasses and sirup.

_Non-perishable._——Flour, meals and cereals, sugar, salt, and other
condiments and flavorings, jellies, preserves and canned goods, coffee,
tea, cocoa, and chocolate.

=Suggestions for buying.=——Milk and cream must be delivered daily. The
average amount used by the family is the regular order. Fresh meat should
be delivered on the day wanted unless the refrigerator is large with a
space for hanging meat. Even then, it should not be kept more than
twenty-four hours. Meat should not be placed directly on the ice. Fresh
berries and delicate vegetables should be delivered on the day wanted.
Butter and eggs may be purchased once a week; other semi-perishables in
quantities depending on storage space. It is economical to buy a box of
lemons, and the root vegetables in large quantities. Flour and sugar are
purchased by the bag or barrel; lump sugar, in boxes. Breakfast cereals
are best bought in packages, and it is wise not to buy a large number at
one time. It is better to purchase oftener and have fresher material.
Coffee may be bought in pound cans, but it is economy to purchase it in
five or ten pound quantities, unground. Tea comes in closely sealed
packages, in 1/4, 1/2, and 1 lb. and larger. Cocoa is bought in 1/2 lb.
cans, but it is economy to buy in large cans if it is frequently used.
Macaroni is bought by the package, and the number at one time must depend
on how much it is used in the menu. Rice, tapioca, and sago may be bought
in bulk and kept in tin or glass jars. Salt by the bag or box. Spices,
ground, in tight boxes; whole in bulk, to be kept in tightly closed cans.
Molasses comes by the gallon or in cans. If in bulk, it is usually acid;
in the can it is not. Vinegar comes by the gallon, or in bottles. Canned
and preserved goods, singly, by the dozen, or case. Bakery products, when
bought at all, should be purchased daily, or every other day. Do not buy
so much that stale bread accumulates.

=Weights, measures, and packages.=——The buyer is at a disadvantage here in
regard to quantities, for the baskets in which fruits and vegetables are
sold do not always conform to the standard dry measures, and dishonest
dealers evade the law in regard to the use of standard scales. Even if
they have the standard, they resort to tricks that give the customer short
weights. Here the Bureau of Weights and Measures, with its Commissioner
and corps of inspectors, comes to the aid of the purchaser. Effective work
has been done in our cities in enforcing the laws, and this work

Selling fruit, vegetables, and even eggs by weight would simplify matters
in many ways, and this is the custom in some parts of the United States
with vegetables and fruit, although it is not yet a common practice; with
eggs it seems more convenient to sell by the dozen, but grading according
to size is a step toward standardization.

The alluring packages in which so many articles are offered are quite
uneven as to the quantities they contain. They certainly do away with some
handling of food, and they keep out dust. Unfortunately, an attractive
package does not guarantee a clean factory or clean handling in the
packing. Dried figs, for example, in pretty baskets are sometimes packed
in uncleanly places. Moreover, small packages are poor economy, since the
box adds to the cost of the food material, and sometimes there seems even
more package than food. If the family consumes many biscuits or
“crackers,” it costs considerably more to buy them in packages. Yet, these
are convenient, and should be cleanly, and are justified for these
reasons, provided the housekeeper does not buy many small packages.

The quantities in canned goods are variable and sometimes below measure
when purchased from a second-rate dealer. In September, 1914, the net
weight amendment to the National Food Law will go into effect, after
which, in general, foods sold in packages must be labeled to show net
weight or measure or numerical count.

As already suggested, you should own standard scales for testing the
purchases made by weight, even baker’s bread. Buy fruit and vegetables by
the quart, peck, and bushel, rather than by the basket of uncertain
measure. Examine baskets containing small fruits to see if they have false
bottoms. If you discover small measure, report at once to the dealer, and
to whatever authority has charge of such matters in your town.

=Quality.=——Modern methods of manufacture, transportation, and storage
make it difficult to determine the history and quality of food we purchase
in the markets. Yet the consumer has a natural right to know if the food
offered for sale is the best of its kind; fresh eggs, clean milk, meat
from healthy animals, untainted and free from harmful preservatives, sound
vegetables and fruit, manufactured and preserved foodstuffs unspoiled by
the manufacturing processes, free from harmful preservatives, and of good
flavor. Many people must be in danger of forgetting the flavor of a
fresh-laid egg. The familiar signs in many small shops, “Fresh eggs,”
“Strictly fresh eggs,” “Fancy eggs,” are amusing, but they bespeak an
unnatural state of things.

As our business methods have created conditions beyond the control of the
individual consumer it follows that we must take concerted action, and
make and enforce whatever laws are necessary. This is done partly through
the Federal government, and partly through state laws and municipal
ordinances. Thus, while we may not know the actual conditions in which
food is produced, we may through legislation seek to insure that the food
we buy shall be

(1) what it purports to be in kind and amount,

(2) free from deterioration or unwholesome conditions,

(3) possessed of full nutritive value.

The Federal Food and Drugs Act of June 30, 1906, commonly known as “The
Pure Food Law,” and on which subsequent legislation by most of the states
has been largely based, defines the main types of adulteration and
misbranding, but, except in the case of confectionery and of habit-forming
drugs, does not name the specific substances which are to be prohibited or
restricted in use, nor does the law itself contain standards of
composition for foods.

According to this law _a food is deemed adulterated_:

(1) If any substance has been mixed or packed with it so as to reduce or
lower or injuriously affect its quality or strength.

(2) If any substance has been substituted, wholly or in part.

(3) If any valuable constituent has been wholly or in part abstracted.

(4) If it be mixed, colored, coated, powdered, or stained in a manner
whereby damage or inferiority is concealed.

(5) If it contain any added poisonous or other added deleterious
ingredient which may render such article injurious to health.

(6) If it consists in whole or in part of a filthy, decomposed, or putrid
animal or vegetable substance, or any portion of an animal unfit for food,
or if it be the product of a diseased animal, or one that has died
otherwise than by slaughter.

_And a food is deemed to be misbranded:_

(1) If it be an imitation of or offered for sale under the distinctive
name of another article.

(2) If it be labeled or branded so as to deceive or mislead the purchaser,
or purport to be a foreign product when not so, or if the contents shall
have been substituted in whole or in part, or if it fail to bear a
statement on the label of the quantity or proportion of any narcotic or
habit-forming drug which it contains.

(3) If it bear an incorrect statement of weight or measure.

(4) If the package containing it or its label shall bear any statement,
design, or device which is false or misleading in any particular.

For a fuller discussion of the basis of pure food legislation and the
essential features of the United States laws see Sherman’s “Food
Products,” from which a part of the summary here given is drawn.

The modern cold storage plant is of immense service in keeping food from
the season of abundance to that of scarcity, but it may prove worse than
useless if improperly managed. State and federal laws must control the
management, and government inspection must be thorough. Cold storage would
be a benefit to all under proper conditions of management, and the prices
of many foods would be evenly adjusted by the maintenance of a steady
supply. Many states now have laws regulating cold storage plants and there
is every reason to hope that the abuses which have sometimes existed will
be eliminated and the usefulness of cold storage extended.

We may feel that the progress of the pure food movement has been most
satisfactory, even though much more remains to be done. The states
generally have either enacted new food laws, or revised their laws
following the national law. Under the national law over 2000 prosecutions
have already (1913) been decided in favor of the government.

Congress has passed an even more stringent law for meat inspection
supplementary to the Pure Food Law with ample appropriation for its
enforcement. Moreover, in 1913, the Secretary of Agriculture appointed
outside experts to inspect meat-packing establishments throughout the
country. This inspection is to check up the regular work being done by the
Bureau of Animal Industry.

The enforcing of federal and state laws has already largely stopped the
misbranding of package foods as to weight or measure, cheap substitutions,
the removal of valuable ingredients, and the sale of decomposed or tainted
food derived from diseased animals. Remember that abuses can be kept down
to any extent that we are willing to pay for. Taxpayers must appropriate
money to pay for inspection, for laws, no matter how good, will not insure
pure food unless carried out faithfully by an adequate number of specially
trained inspectors.

In the face of all these difficulties we must not be frightened into that
state of mind where danger seems to lurk in every mouthful. We must use
caution and common sense in our buying, and earnestly support every good
movement for bettering conditions.

There is a certain difference in quality even at a first class dealer’s
that one must learn to distinguish. One can of peaches will cost more than
another, because the peaches are larger. If it is only this, and there is
only a slight difference in flavor in favor of the more costly, buy the
cheaper by all means. A fancy brand of imported preserves brings a fancy
price which it is not worth while to pay. We have to learn to distinguish
between poor and good quality, on the one hand, and between good and what
may be called “fancy,” on the other. We should demand the good, but most
of us cannot afford the “fancy.”

=Ready-cooked foods.=——More and more cooked food, canned or otherwise, is
taking its place in the market. When canned goods were first manufactured
on a large scale they comprised fruits, vegetables, meats, and fish, but
we are now accustomed to a miscellaneous variety, including soups, baked
beans, puddings, and pudding sauces, spaghetti, hashed meat, and
shellfish. Bakery products have a larger sale than ever, and are found in
small towns, and even in country districts carried there by bakers’
wagons. In our large cities we find the “delicatessen shop” very common,
where small portions of cooked meats and fowl may be purchased after the
custom of Europe, and these stores are open even on Sunday.

How shall we decide what is best for us in our buying? We must not condemn
entirely the buying of cooked food without a careful study of the
situation. The custom has grown with changes in our mode of living,
especially in cities, where the small apartment is common, and where gas
is the fuel. Under these conditions it is difficult to prepare foods that
need long and slow cooking, and these processes are more expensive when
gas is used. The long slow cooking of soup and beans, the even baking of
bread, are difficult to accomplish. The odors from these processes fill
the small apartment, and scent it for some time, and this is unpleasant at
all seasons.

Take another example, the canning and preserving of fruits. The first cost
of the fruit is usually high in the city, and this plus the sugar and the
gas, and the labor and the lack of storage space make it seem
impracticable in these conditions, and many people decide in favor of
buying goods already canned. Such housekeeping is simplified by buying
cooked products to some extent. The fireless cooker helps here, but not
for all processes. Counting in fuel, the cost is not so much greater as we
might suppose; and comfort and convenience are increased. Under other
conditions, even in the city, a different conclusion is reached. If coal
is the fuel, and a steady fire is kept, perhaps in winter for heating
purposes, then it is economy to cook most food materials at home.

In the country and small village different conditions prevail. Here the
abundance of certain fruits in season makes it economical to can and dry,
even counting fuel and labor. In some sections many people can their own
vegetables also. However, even in the country in the summer, it is a
decided relief to the farmer’s wife, probably short of “help,” to win a
little leisure by buying staple bakery products. Here if strict economy is
not necessary, is it not better to save strength rather than money? Each
housekeeper must work out these problems for herself.


1. What are the more permanent factors in the cost of food material?

2. Why is vegetable food usually cheaper than animal food?

3. Explain the effect of season upon the cost.

4. Why does transportation affect the cost of food?

5. Why is clean milk more costly than unclean?

6. How do business conditions affect the cost?

7. Why is wheat bread a truly cheap food?

8. How can we estimate the cost of the actual nutrients in food?

9. Describe the working of the pure food law.

10. Why are such laws necessary?

11. How may we all aid in the passage and enforcement of pure food laws?

                             CHAPTER XVIII

                        MENUS AND DIETARIES[18]

When we have learned to choose and cook wholesome and appetizing food we
have not solved the whole problem of successful feeding. It is possible to
make people sick with good food, if it is badly selected and fed at wrong
times or in unsuitable amounts. Whether children grow to their full size
and strength depends more upon the choice of their food than upon any
other one thing. The effect of food is strikingly shown in the case of the
white rats in Fig. 74. The two upper ones are the same age. Both had the
same mother, lived in the same kind of clean cages, and had plenty of
food, but the diet of the upper was good for growth, while that for the
middle one was not. It remained perfectly well, but became stunted because
of the character of its food. You can see that it resembles the lowest one
in the illustration, which is only one fourth as old. In this chapter we
shall consider how and when and in what amounts to serve food so that
every one may get from it the fullest benefit in both health and

[Illustration: FIG. 74.——The effect of food on growth. Reprinted from
publication of the Carnegie Institution. _Courtesy Professor Lafayette B.

In Chapter I we learned that the body is a working machine whose first
requirement is fuel. Hence the first consideration in the diet is to have
the proper amount of fuel for each day, to provide energy for the constant
internal work that keeps the body alive, and for the variable external
work which may be so light as to consist of the few movements that one
makes lying in bed, or sitting quietly; or so hard as to exercise many
muscles, as playing tennis, bicycling, or swimming.

[Illustration: FIG. 75.——Respiration calorimeter, open. From the “Journal
of Biological Chemistry.” _Courtesy of Professor Graham Lusk._]

=Energy requirements of adults.=——We have also learned something about the
foods which supply this energy; we must now find out how much fuel (in the
form of food) it takes to do different amounts of work, just as the owner
of an automobile wants to know how much gasoline per mile or per hour is
required to run his machine under different conditions. Very careful
experiments have been made on many men in different ways to measure their
energy output, the most accurate and interesting being those made in a
respiration calorimeter, a device so delicate as to be able to measure the
extra heat given off when one changes from lying perfectly quiet to
sitting up equally still, thus adding the work of holding the upper part
of the body upright. A respiration calorimeter large enough to hold a
child is shown in Figs. 75 and 76. You can see that it consists of a
chamber with thick walls to prevent loss of heat. In Fig. 75 the door is
open. When an experiment is going on the door is closed, as in Fig. 76,
air being furnished through special tubes. The walls are fitted with
delicate thermometers and every device which will help to get the exact
amount of heat given off from the body is employed.

[Illustration: FIG. 76.——Respiration calorimeter, closed. From the
“Journal of Biological Chemistry.” _Courtesy of Professor Graham Lusk._]

Just as it takes more fuel to run a big machine than a little one, so it
takes more energy for a large person than a small one; therefore we must
know the weight of the one whose food requirements we wish to calculate,
as well as the amount of energy required to do different kinds and amounts
of work. The following table will help in calculating the approximate fuel
requirements of any grown person. The food needs of children and young
people under twenty-five will be discussed later.


       Occupation             Calories per pound
                                   per hour
  Sleeping                           0.4
  Sitting quietly                    0.6
  At light muscular exercise         1.0
  At active muscular exercise        2.0
  At severe muscular exercise        3.0

Light exercise may be understood to include work equivalent to standing
and working with the hands, as at a desk in chemistry or cookery; or work
involving the feet like walking or running a sewing machine. Many persons,
as students, stenographers, seamstresses, bookkeepers, teachers, and
tailors do little or no work heavier than this.

Active exercise involves more muscles, as in bicycling compared with
walking, or exercise with dumb-bells as compared with typewriting.
Carpenters, general houseworkers, and mail carriers do about this grade of
work while on duty.

Severe exercise not only involves a good many muscles, but causes enough
strain to harden and enlarge them. Bicycling up grade, swimming, and other
active sports would be included in this kind of exercise. Lumbermen,
excavators, and a few others do even heavier work than this.

Knowing the weight of a grown man or woman, and something of the daily
occupation, as in the case of a professional man, we can estimate the
probable energy requirement somewhat as follows:

    Sleeping, 8 hours; 8 × 0.4 Calories = 3.2 Calories per pound.

    Sitting quietly (at meals, reading, etc.), 8 hours; 8 × 0.6
    Calories = 4.8 per pound.

    At light muscular exercise (dressing, standing, walking, etc.), 6
    × 1.0 Calories = 6.0 Calories per pound.

    At active muscular exercise 2 hours, 2 × 2.0 Calories = 4 Calories
    per pound.

Total Calories per pound for 24 hours, 18; 18 × 154 pounds (the weight of
the average man) = 2772, or approximately 2680, Calories per day required.
Calculate in this way the energy requirement for various grown persons
whom you know.

=Energy requirements during growth.=——In estimating food requirements of
those who are under twenty-five years old, we must bear in mind that the
same materials which serve for fuel serve in part for building material.
Protein is used for muscle building as well as for supplying energy, and
the larger one grows, the greater the reserves of carbohydrate and fat
which he can carry. Furthermore, internal activity is greater in the young
than the middle aged or very old, and external activity is apt also to be
greater. Think, for instance, how much running children do compared with
their parents. For all these reasons, we cannot use the table for adults
in calculating the energy requirement of young people. In the following
table an attempt has been made to take account of their greater needs, but
the estimates include only moderate exercise; with hard work more will be
required. Notice that the highest allowance per pound of body weight is
for the youngest children.


  Age in Years             Calories per pound
                                per day
  Under 1                        45
  1-2                           45-40
  2-5                           40-36
  6-9                           36-30
  10-13                         30-27
  14-17                         27-20
  17-25                    not less than 18

With these two tables for calculating energy requirement we can determine
about how much will be needed by each member of the family. A group
consisting of a professional man, his wife, and three children under 16
will require about 10,000 Calories per day; a workingman’s family with the
same number of children from 12,000 to 14,000, because of the harder work
which both parents and possibly the children will do.

=Protein requirement.=——Since few of our foods consist of a single
foodstuff, and we are not likely to make even a single meal on pure fat,
or pure protein, or pure carbohydrate alone, we are sure to get some
building material in any diet, but we must see to it that we are getting
amounts which furnish the best possible conditions for growth and repair.

As we have already seen, nitrogen in the form of protein is necessary to
the life of every cell in the body. From protein, too, muscle is built,
though we cannot build good muscle merely by feeding protein; a diet
moderate in its amount of protein, but with plenty of fuel for healthy
exercise is best for muscle building. Under all ordinary conditions, if
ten to fifteen Calories in every hundred (10 to 15 per cent of the total
Calories) are from protein, the need for this kind of building material
will be met. Thus a family requiring 10,000 Calories per day should have
from 1000 to 1500 of these as protein Calories. The following table gives
the protein Calories in the 100-Calorie portions of some common food


                      |      | DISTRIBUTION OF CALORIES
                      |      |
  FOOD MATERIAL       |WEIGHT|-------+-----+------------
                      |      |PROTEIN| FAT |CARBOHYDRATE
                      |Ounces|       |     |
                      |      |       |     |
  Almonds, shelled    |  0.5 |  13   | 77  |  10
                      |      |       |     |
  Apples, fresh       |  7.5 |   2   |  6  |  92
                      |      |       |     |
  Bacon               |  0.5 |   6   | 94  |  ——
                      |      |       |     |
  Bananas             |  5.5 |   5   |  6  |  89
                      |      |       |     |
  Beans, dried        |  1.0 |  26   |  5  |  69
                      |      |       |     |
  Beef, lean round    |  2.5 |  54   | 46  |  ——
                      |      |       |     |
  Bread               |  1.4 |  14   |  4  |  82
                      |      |       |     |
  Butter              |  0.5 |   1   | 99  |  ——
                      |      |       |     |
  Cabbage             | 13.3 |  21   |  7  |  72
                      |      |       |     |
  Carrots             | 10.1 |  10   |  5  |  85
                      |      |       |     |
  Cheese, American    |  0.8 |  27   | 73  |  ——
                      |      |       |     |
  Cod, salt (boneless)|  3.1 |  98   |  2  |  ——
                      |      |       |     |
  Cornmeal            |  1.0 |  10   |  5  |  85
                      |      |       |     |
  Eggs, whole         |  2.7 |  36   | 64  |  ——
                      |      |       |     |
  Flour, white        |  1.0 |  12   |  3  |  85
                      |      |       |     |
  Lamb chops          |  1.3 |  23   | 77  |  ——
                      |      |       |     |
  Lentils             |  1.0 |  29   |  4  |  67
                      |      |       |     |
  Macaroni            |  1.0 |  15   |  2  |  83
                      |      |       |     |
  Milk, whole         |  5.1 |  19   | 52  |  29
                      |      |       |     |
  Milk, skimmed       |  9.6 |  37   |  7  |  56
                      |      |       |     |
  Oats, rolled        |  0.9 |  17   | 16  |  67
                      |      |       |     |
  Peanuts, shelled    |  0.6 |  19   | 63  |  18
                      |      |       |     |
  Peas, canned        |  6.4 |  26   |  3  |  71
                      |      |       |     |
  Peas, dried         |  1.0 |  27   |  3  |  70
                      |      |       |     |
  Salmon, canned      |  2.4 |  54   | 46  |  ——
                      |      |       |     |
  Veal                |  3.2 |  70   | 30  |  ——
                      |      |       |     |
  Walnuts, shelled    |  0.5 |  10   | 82  |   8

Notice that some foods, like bread, have about the right proportion of
protein calories; others, like beef, beans, and peas are very high in
protein calories. By combining some foods high in protein with others
containing little or none, we can get the right proportion. Thus, 100
Calories of beef combined with 400 each of bread and butter will give 900
Calories of which 114, or 12.7 per cent, are from protein.

                                    | PROTEIN   |  TOTAL
                                    | CALORIES  | CALORIES
  Beef                              |    54     |   100
  Bread                             |    56     |   400
  Butter                            |     4     |   400
        Totals                      |   114     |   900
        (114 ÷ 900 = 0.127 or 12.7%)

It is interesting to work out other combinations which give these good

=Ash requirement.=——We are also assured of ash in any ordinary diet, but
some attention should be paid to kind and amount, especially as many
common foods have lost the parts richest in ash. Patent flour, for
instance, made from the inner part of the grain, is not so rich in ash as
whole or cracked wheat. Valuable salts are also lost in cooking vegetables
when the water in which they were cooked is thrown away. If not desired
with the vegetable, this should be saved for gravy or soup. It is not
necessary to calculate a definite amount of ash for the diet, if
ash-bearing foods are freely used. By reference to the table on page 384
you can see what foods are valuable for supplying the important kinds of
ash. Milk is particularly rich in calcium and hence is required when the
bones are growing. Eggs have iron and phosphorus in forms well suited to
growth. But if eggs are too expensive, the vegetables and fruits
generally will supply these same substances.

=Diet for growth.=——Diets made in the chemical laboratory from mixtures of
pure (isolated) protein, fat, carbohydrate, and ash to satisfy all the
requirements which we have so far mentioned, do not behave alike when fed
to animals. The kind of protein is important as well as the amount. This
is shown by experiments in which only one protein is fed at a time. On
some, the animals will not thrive. On others, adult animals do very well,
but the young ones become stunted like the one shown on page 295. Milk has
been found to contain proteins on which young animals can thrive. But even
in diets containing the protein from milk, young animals do not develop
normally unless the salts of milk are added too. No perfect substitute for
milk has ever been found. During the first year of life, a child lives on
it almost exclusively; for the first five years it should be considered
the most important article in the diet; and throughout the period of
growth it should be freely used if children are to become vigorous men and
women. If not liked as a beverage, it can be used in cocoa, or cereal
coffee, in soups, puddings, and other dishes. Considering what milk may
save in the way of more expensive protein foods, such as eggs and meat,
and of ash-supplying foods like fruits and vegetables, it is to be
regarded as a cheap food. It is possible to get the proper amounts of fuel
and protein from white bread and meat, but such a diet is poorly balanced
as to ash constituents and especially lacks calcium. It would need to be
balanced by adding some fruit or vegetable and even then would not contain
as much calcium as is best for growing people. A diet of bread and milk,
on the other hand, is so nearly perfectly balanced (supplying fuel,
protein, and ash constituents in suitable amounts) that it can be taken
exclusively for a long time. Whole wheat bread and milk would be even
better, because the whole wheat would supply more iron, in which white
bread and milk are not rich. The addition of fruits and vegetables to the
bread and milk diet would also be an advantage——partly for the same

Other foods especially valuable for growth are eggs and cereals from whole
grains. Children should acquire the habit of eating fruits and green
vegetables of all kinds, for when they are older and likely to take less
milk and cereals, the fruits and vegetables supply important ash
constituents and also help to prevent constipation.

The foods good for children are also good for adults, but the latter can
keep their bodies in good repair with less protein and ash in proportion
to body weight than are required during growth, and many kinds of protein
serve for repair. If there are not enough milk and eggs to go around,
adults can take meat, nuts, peas, beans and bread for protein, and trust
to these and fruit and vegetables for ash. When the body has been wasted
by sickness, however, a return to the foods of growth, especially a diet
of milk and eggs, is best for building it up again.

=The number of meals in a day.=——Knowing how much and what kinds of food
are best for each member of the family, we must next find out how to
divide the total food for the day into meals. Few of us could take our
required fuel in one meal, and if we could, we should probably be hungry
before the time for the next meal. Some persons get along very well with
two meals a day, but usually their fuel requirement is not high. Most
people are more comfortable and more likely to eat a suitable amount in a
deliberate fashion if they have three meals a day. When large amounts of
fuel have to be taken, four or five meals may be better than three; babies
who have to eat in proportion to their size, often 2-1/2 times as much as
their mothers, take 2-1/2 times as many meals, _i.e._ 7 or 8 in a day.

=The amount of food for each meal.=——While the number of meals depends
largely on the amount to be eaten in the whole day, and the appetite of
the subject, the amount at each meal is most influenced by the nature of
the daily occupation. The baby with nothing to do but eat and sleep has
meals uniform in kind and amount. The business man who works very hard
through the middle of the day, and has not time to take an elaborate meal,
nor time to rest after it so that it may digest easily, takes a light
luncheon and makes up for it at breakfast and dinner. The outdoor worker
who has a long hard day and expends much energy, takes an hour at noon for
a substantial dinner, in addition to a hearty breakfast and supper and
sometimes a mid-forenoon or mid-afternoon lunch.

=Regularity of meals.=——More important than the number of meals is
regularity as to time of eating and amount of food. Training for the
digestive tract is just as important as training the eye or the hand or
the brain. We cannot expect good digestions if we have a hearty luncheon
to-day, none at all to-morrow, and perhaps a scanty and hasty late one the
next day. To take food into the stomach between meals is to demoralize the
digestive system. Foods that are excellent as part of a meal provoke
headaches and bad complexions, and many symptoms of a protesting stomach,
when taken between meals. The younger the person, the more important is
regularity. Little children soon suffer if their meals are not “on the
minute.” Adults have more difficulty in controlling their time, but if
they have to be late to meals, they should be more careful than usual to
eat slowly and to choose plain simple food that will digest easily.

=Mental attitude toward meals.=——Good food may be provided at the proper
time and yet the members of a family may fail to keep well and happy
unless they come to meals in the right condition. Haste, chill,
exhaustion, anxiety, excitement, fretfulness, or anger may interfere with
the digestion of the most digestible of meals. Orderly table service, good
manners, and cheerful conversation are very important factors in the
success of a meal. Peace and joy as well as “calories” are watchwords of
good nutrition.

=Balanced meals.=——Having determined how many meals to serve in the day
and what their hours shall be, the next question is how to choose and
distribute the constituents of the day’s ration so as to promote
digestibility and satisfaction. A meal of pure protein, or fat, or
carbohydrate would not be relished, and would have some physiological
disadvantages. Digestion is likely to be more complete on a mixed diet. A
meal of carbohydrate alone leaves the stomach more quickly than any other
kind, and one would feel hungry before the next meal, though one might
have had plenty of fuel; a meal of fat alone would leave the stomach very
slowly, and one would not have so good an appetite for the next meal; a
meal of pure protein would stimulate heat production without any
particular advantages, except possibly in very cold weather: it would be
decidedly undesirable in hot weather. For these and other reasons it is
best to have the different foodstuffs represented in each meal, and to see
that no one contains an excess of fat, which tends to retard all
digestion. This is what is usually meant by a balanced meal, but it may
also include care that about the same proportion of fuel is served at the
same meal each day. A meal does not need to be “balanced” in quite the
same sense as a day’s ration. The latter must have a definite amount of
fuel, a suitable proportion of protein, ash well represented, some food
for bulk, the whole selected with regard for the physical condition,
tastes, habits, and pocketbooks of those to be fed.

=Menus.=——Food taken at a stated time constitutes a meal. It may consist
of a single food material, as bread, or a single dish, as soup; or it may
contain many kinds of food and many dishes. When the day’s ration consists
of a single food, there is no trouble in arranging the bill of fare, for
all meals are alike. But as soon as we have two foods, we may consider
whether they will digest better if eaten together or separately, and which
way they will please the palate better. Balanced diets do not necessarily
afford attractive menus. Macaroni and oatmeal would make a fairly well
balanced meal except as regards ash constituents, but no one would call
such a combination pleasing. By the substitution of a little cheese and an
orange for the oatmeal, a meal containing about the same fuel value and
proportion of protein could be arranged, and it would certainly appeal
more to the appetite, and furnish better proportions of ash constituents.

In the construction of the menu for the day or meal, we must consider not
only food values and time of day and combinations which shall be
digestible, but flavor, color, texture, and temperature of our foods. The
study of digestible combinations belongs to the science of nutrition. The
harmonious blending of tastes, odors, colors, and the like is an art. Just
as there are pleasing combinations of sound, so there are harmonies of
flavor; certain dishes seem naturally to “go together.” Habit has a great
deal to do with food combinations. A Chinaman would not eat sugar on rice;
a Japanese would not cook beans with molasses as the Bostonian does. It is
interesting to experiment with new combinations, and study to find out why
old ones are pleasing. Why do we like crackers with soup? Butter on bread?
Toast with eggs? Peas with lamb chops?

=Digestible menus.=——Some of our eating habits are worth preserving and
cultivating. Fresh fruit for breakfast stimulates the appetite and helps
to prevent or overcome constipation. A mild-flavored food like cereal is
better relished before we have had meats or other highly flavored food.
Soup at the beginning of a meal puts the stomach in better condition to
digest the food that follows. Ice cream at the end of a meal is less
likely to chill the stomach than at the beginning. Bread and butter afford
a good combination of fat and carbohydrate. Crackers help in the breaking
up of cheese into particles easy to digest.

Not all of our eating habits are good, however. Griddlecakes, melted
butter, and maple sirup taste good, but the cakes make a pasty mass
difficult for digestive juices to penetrate. The sirup is likely to
ferment, and the butter coating the whole delays digestion greatly.
Chicken salad is popular, but combinations of protein with much fat (as in
the mayonnaise dressing) always digest very slowly. Simple dishes, without
rich sauces or gravies, and not excessively high in fat, are easiest of
digestion. Pastries, fried foods, meats with much fat, like pork and
sausage, are always more or less difficult and should be attempted only by
the strong, or when the body is free from physical or nervous weariness,
and not about to undertake mental work.

Attention to the art of menu making not only helps to make the diet easier
to digest, but also better balanced. Foods which are similar in color,
flavor, and texture, like potatoes and rice, are not artistic in
combination, and it is better to substitute for one of them a green
vegetable, or meat or butter, in which case we get a better balance, as
more ash, protein, or fat would then be included with the starch of the
rice or potato.

In making the bill of fare it is a great mistake to consider each meal by
itself alone. If we do so, some days are likely to be very high in fuel,
while others may be very low. Then, too, the impression left from one
meal carries over to the next. We do not care to see on the dinner table
the same foods that we saw at luncheon. Our love of variety is one of
nature’s ways of seeing to it that we get different kinds of foodstuffs in
our diet. Variety stimulates appetite, but this does not mean a great
variety at one meal. The truest variety is obtained by a few well-selected
dishes at each meal. If we do not exhaust our resources on one meal, we
shall be able to have a greater range of foods in the course of a week. A
hotel may have fifty or sixty items on its bill of fare, but after a few
days one feels as if there were a great sameness, because all of them are
impressed on the mind at each meal and every day.

=Dietaries.=——A dietary, as we shall use the term here,[19] is a statement
of the food requirements of a person or group of persons for a day or some
other definite length of time, with a selection of foods to satisfy this

The first part of a family dietary will have to be calculated according to
the age, weight, and occupation, as stated on pages 299-303. When
complete, it will stand somewhat like this:


                    |            |   POUNDS  |  CALORIES   |  CALORIES
  Man               |     40     |    154    |    2680     |   268-402
  Woman             |     38     |    120    |    2160     |   216-324
  Girl              |     16     |    110    |    2200     |   220-330
  Boy               |     12     |    75     |    2250     |   225-338
  Boy               |     6      |    40     |    1600     |   160-240
  Total requirements                         |   10,890    |  1089-1634

In selecting food to satisfy these requirements it is a good plan to make
first a list of those foods that need to be included in the day’s dietary,
no matter what the particular menu may be. This will include foods for
growth where there are children, special dishes needed if any one is sick,
and those common foods which we are accustomed to include in every day’s
menu, such as bread and butter.

For the family which we are considering, this list will stand somewhat as

  FOOD              100-CALORIE PORTIONS
  Milk                    20[20] (6 for each child, the rest for the
  Cereal                   5                                      adults)
  Eggs (for children)      2 (counting 2/3 portion per egg)
  Fruit                    5
  Green vegetable          2
  Meat or meat substitute  5
  Bread                   15
  Butter                  15

This list is to be kept in planning the menu, whose character is further
determined by certain dishes which we wish particularly to have included.
For instance, we may desire roast beef for dinner. This is a highly
flavored meat, and a protein food which will go a long way towards
satisfying the adult’s protein needs. Special protein food for breakfast
may well be omitted, or take the form of eggs, which are a contrast to the
meat in flavor, form, etc. Protein food for luncheon might be fish or some
other meat substitute.

Vegetables for dinner should not only harmonize with the meat, but
contrast pleasingly with each other. This result is insured by choosing
one vegetable from the starchy type, as potatoes or sweet potatoes, and
the other vegetable of the green or succulent group, as spinach or

Below are two menus, in which have been kept in mind the foods which
ought to be included (see page 311) and the artistic arrangement of the
day’s meals, with roast beef as the keynote.

  Menu No. I.                    Menu No. II.

    _Breakfast_                    _Breakfast_

  Oranges                        Grapes

  Flaked wheat                   Oatmeal

  Twice baked rolls and          Toast with butter
                                 Cereal café au lait for
  Milk for children              children

  Coffee for adults              Coffee for adults

     _Luncheon_                    _Luncheon_

  Creamed salmon on toast        Eggs au gratin

  Peas                           Stewed tomatoes

  Graham bread and butter        Bread and butter

  Stewed pears                   Raspberry tapioca

  Milk to drink                  Cocoa

    _Dinner_                       _Dinner_

  Clear tomato soup              Julienne soup

  Roast beef                     Roast beef

  Mashed potatoes, string        Creamed macaroni,
  beans                          spinach

  Cabbage salad                  Celery and nut salad

  Lemon jelly, whipped cream     Pineapple ice, lady fingers

  Milk for children to drink     Milk for children to drink

By a little calculation from tables giving the 100-Calorie portions of
food materials[21] we can find out whether or not we have well-balanced
dietaries. Let us take, for example, Menu I, and make a list of the foods
required to prepare it for a family of this size.

         FOOD MATERIAL       |100-CALORIE |   TOTAL |   PROTEIN
                             | PORTIONS   | CALORIES|  CALORIES
  Oranges                    |   2.5           250         15
  Flaked wheat               |   5.0           500         74
  Rolls                      |   5.0           500         61
  Milk for children          |   6.0           600        114
  Thin cream for cereal      |   5.0           500         26
  Butter for rolls           |   5.0           500          5
  Sugar for coffee           |   1.0           100         ——
  Creamed salmon             |
    Salmon                   |   3.0           300        160
    Milk                     |   2.0           200         38
    Flour                    |   0.3            33          4
    Butter                   |   2.0           200          2
    Toast                    |   3.0           300         43
  Peas                       |   2.5           250         70
  Butter for peas            |   1.0           100          1
  Graham bread               |   5.0           500         68
  Butter for bread           |   5.0           500          5
  Pears                      |   2.5           250          8
  Sugar for pears            |   2.0           200         ——
  Milk to drink              |   6.0           600        114
  Tomato soup                |
    Tomatoes                 |   0.5            50         10
    Butter                   |   2.0           200          2
    Flour                    |   0.3            33          4
  Roast beef                 |   5.0           500        138
  Mashed Potatoes            |   5.0           500         52
    Milk                     |   1.0           100         19
    Butter                   |   1.0           100          1
  String beans               |   0.5            50         11
  Butter for beans           |   1.0           100          1
  Bread                      |   5.0           500         72
  Butter                     |   5.0           500          5
  Cabbage salad              |
    Cabbage                  |   0.5            50         10
    Lettuce                  |   0.1            10         ——
    Heavy cream for dressing |   2.0           200          4
  Lemon jelly                |
    Gelatin                  |   0.5            50         50
    Lemon juice              |   0.1            10         ——
    Sugar                    |   4.0           400         ——
  Whipped cream              |
    Heavy cream              |   3.0           300          7
  Milk to drink              |   6.0           600        114
                             |             ------------------
            Totals           |              10,636       1308

It is evident that we have enough protein, and as a good share of it is
from milk, we know that it will satisfy the children’s requirements in the
best possible way. The adults will get theirs largely from the salmon and
meat. Comparing this list with our first tentative one, we find that we
have used in building up our dietary 21 portions of milk, 5 of cereal, 5
of fruit (not including lemon juice), 4.1 of green vegetable, 8 of meat
(including salmon), 18 of bread, and 22 of butter, but no eggs. We have a
good representation of the different kinds of foodstuffs, with this
exception, and as the boys would need the eggs most, we could put them in
for their breakfast, thus adding about 140 total Calories and 50 protein
Calories. With this addition we are still slightly deficient in total
energy, but to add one or two hundred Calories is a very simple matter. A
second serving of potatoes, an extra roll for those whose fuel requirement
is highest, or a slightly more liberal use of butter, might well solve the
problem. This dietary calculation shows how the menu may help in getting a
balanced diet, and how knowledge of food values can be applied as a check
on the menu. If we had had fewer dishes in each meal, we should have had
to plan to serve larger portions of some or all of them, or to use more
freely such staples as bread, butter, and milk.

Each family must find out the kind of menu best suited to its resources.
Some typical meal plans suitable for everyday use are given below.











  1 other hot dish



  Hot dish
  Bread and butter


  Hot dish
  Bread and butter
  Simple dessert


  Another hot dish
  Bread and butter


  2 other hot dishes



  2 hot dishes (as meat and vegetable)
  Bread and butter


  2 or 3 other hot dishes (as meat and one or two vegetables)
  Bread and butter


  2 or 3 hot dishes
  A relish (as jelly or pickle)
  Bread and butter

More elaborate plans than these should usually be reserved for state

=The cost of the dietary.=——The types of menu used will depend very
largely upon the income of the family. It is comparatively easy to plan
attractive bills of fare if one does not have to consider the amount of
work involved in preparing them, or the cost of the materials to be used.
With knowledge of food values an expensive dietary may be wholesome, but
there is great temptation to overeating and waste of food, and it is wise
to keep meals simple for the sake of good digestion. Most families have to
consider carefully the cost of food if any money is to be saved for books
or travel or emergencies. A dietary such as planned on page 313 will
probably cost from $1.50 to $2.00 for the day, or from 1-1/2 to 2 cents
per 100 Calories, depending on the locality. Nothing is allowed for waste,
which may, if the cook and those who eat the food are not careful, amount
to from 10 to 15 per cent of the total cost. It is often estimated that
the “average” man will consume about 3000 Calories per day, and the cost
may be expressed on this basis as from 45 to 60 cents per man per day; or
the dietary spoken of as a 45-cent or 60-cent dietary or whatever the
exact cost per 3000 Calories may be. The cost of food for such a family
for a year would at this rate be from $550 to $750.

If the allowance for food be placed at 25 per cent of the total
income,[22] this dietary would be appropriate for a family with an income
of $2200 to $3000 per year. The majority of families have to get along
with a lower expenditure for food, yet they want to be well nourished and
to enjoy their fare. Fortunately there is no real connection between cost
and nutritive value, some of the most nutritious foods being among the
cheapest. At the same time, we cannot get wholesome food for nothing.
There are very few foods which to-day cost less than 1/3 of a cent per 100
Calories, and these are mostly cereal products, such as cornmeal, rolled
oats, and flour, or sugars and molasses. These alone will not make a
well-balanced, palatable dietary, though they will supply all the fuel
needed for an “average” man for a day for ten cents. In many parts of the
country to-day it is hardly possible to make a dietary satisfactory week
in and week out with an average allowance of less than 3/4 of a cent per
100 Calories, and even this sum will prove satisfactory only provided
there be skill in food preparation as well as food selection. With an
allowance of 1 cent per 100 Calories it is possible almost anywhere to
make a balanced dietary with some attractiveness in appearance and flavor.
In choosing foods with regard to cost a table that shows which are cheap
fuel and which dear, is a great help. Prices vary so much with place and
season that it is difficult to make one which is very exact, and some
rearrangement to suit any particular region may be necessary. The table on
page 318 will, however, serve as a guide.


             _Arranged according to cost per 100 Calories_

  GROUP I           | GROUP II        |   GROUP III      | GROUP IV
  Less than 1¢ per  | 1-2¢ per 100    | 2-1/2-5¢ per 100 | Over 5¢ per 100
  100 Calories      |   Calories      |   Calories       |   Calories
  Apples, dried     | Almonds         | Beans, canned    | Asparagus
  Bacon (all fat    | Apricots, dried | Limas            | Beans, canned,
    eaten)          | Bananas         | Beans, string,   |   string
  Beans, dried      | Butter, over    |  fresh           | Celery
  Bread             |  32¢ per pound  | Beets, fresh     | Chicken
  Butter under      | Cabbage         | Cauliflower      | Cod, fresh
    32¢ per pound   | Carrots, old    | Codfish, salt    | Cucumbers
  Corned beef       | Cheese          | Corn, canned     | Lettuce
  Cornmeal          | Chestnuts       | Eggs, 25-36¢     | Olives
  Cornflakes        | Chocolate       |   per doz.       | Oysters
  Cornstarch        | Cocoa           | Haddock          | Peaches,
  Cottonseed oil    | Cream           | Halibut          |   canned
  Crackers, soda    | Eggs under 25¢  | Ham              | Pears, canned
  Dates             |   per doz.      | Lamb chops       | Salmon,
  Farina            | Figs            | Onions (city     |   canned
  Flour             | Grapes          |   prices)        | Sardines,
  Grapenuts         | Milk, 7 to 13¢  | Oranges          |   canned
  Lard              |   per qt.       | Round steak      | Scallops
  Lentils           | Olive oil       | Rump of beef     | Steak, choice
  Macaroni          | Peaches, dried  | Tomatoes         |   cuts
  Milk at 6¢ or     | Peanuts         | Veal, leg        | Spinach
    less per qt.    | Peanut butter   |                  | Veal, loin
  Molasses          | Pork sausage    |                  |
  Oatmeal           | Puffed cereals  |                  |
  Oleomargarine     | Sweet potatoes  |                  |
  Rolled oats       | Turnips         |                  |
  Peas, dried       | Walnuts         |                  |
  Potatoes          |                 |                  |
  Raisins           |                 |                  |
  Pork, salt fat    |                 |                  |
  Prunes            |                 |                  |
  Rice              |                 |                  |
  Suet              |                 |                  |
  Sugar             |                 |                  |
  Tapioca           |                 |                  |

Inspection of this table shows that if we can afford only one cent per 100
Calories for food, we must get a large share from Group I, and a few from
Group II; if we wish to use foods in Group III, we shall have to do so
sparingly, or offset them with some of the very cheapest in Group I, to
keep the average as we wish it.

When we plan an attractive menu and find it is too expensive for us, we
may often carry out our plan by substituting cheaper foods of the same
sort. Thus in the dietary on page 313 we may substitute as follows:

  Bananas for oranges.
  Top milk for cream.
  Oleomargarine for a part of the butter.
  Bean loaf with tomato sauce for creamed salmon and peas.
  Stewed apricots for pears.
  Rump roast instead of rib roast.

Doing this, omitting the soup and crackers and the salad for dinner, and
increasing bread and potatoes, flaked wheat, and other cheaper foods to
prevent any deficiency in fuel, we can still prepare palatable and
digestible meals with the right food values, and save perhaps 25 per cent
on the total cost for the day.

=Feeding the sick.=——When illness is serious enough for a physician to be
consulted, he will give directions concerning the diet, and these should
be scrupulously followed. If the case is so severe as to demand a trained
nurse, she will have charge of the feeding, under the physician’s
guidance. Many times, however, a member of the family is temporarily
indisposed and needs food different from the ordinary family bill of fare.
It is well to remember that in the first day or two of illness, fasting or
taking of very little food does no harm, and may be an excellent help
toward recovery, as it gives the digestive tract a chance to rest, if it
has been disturbed.

Nevertheless, the internal work of the body goes on, 0.4 Calorie per pound
per hour being expended during sleep, and about 0.6 Calorie per pound per
hour during waking hours in bed. A person in bed for twenty-four hours
will require about 0.5 Calorie per pound per hour to prevent use of body
material for fuel. A man of average weight, lying in bed, will thus need
about 1850 calories per day. Hence we must see to it, that after a person
has been sick for more than a few days (during which he can afford to burn
body fat) enough fuel is given to satisfy his energy requirements if he
can possibly digest it.

Food for an invalid must always be given in its most digestible forms.
Milk is one of the most valuable foods in sickness, not only because it
supplies so many body needs, but because it can be used in so many
ways,——hot, or cold, flavored or plain, made into junkets or sherbets,
combined with eggs in eggnogs and custards, fermented as in kumyss or
soured as in buttermilk or zoolak. In some form or other milk can almost
always be made digestible. Eggs are also of great value, not only poached
or dropped and served on toast, but as dainty omelets, or in beverages, as
eggnog, egg lemonade, and orangeade. Mild fruit juices, as orange, grape,
or pineapple, are not only refreshing but of considerable fuel value. If
there is no fever, chicken, lamb chops, tender broiled steak or roast beef
may serve to add variety to the menu. Broths stimulate the appetite and
help digestion, though they are of little or no food value themselves.
Cereals, eggs, and milk may be added to increase their food value. Cereals
in the form of gruels or delicate puddings, as cornstarch blancmange and
tapioca cream, are easily digested. Vegetables are best given rather
sparingly, and only delicate, mild-flavored ones, such as spinach or
asparagus, if digestion is much disturbed. In getting an invalid to take
sufficient food, much depends upon the attractiveness of the service.
Remember that very little things, like a fingermark on a glass, or coffee
spilled into the saucer, may take away appetite and prevent enough food
being eaten. Food in small quantities and taken at more frequent intervals
than in health helps towards the best results. Knowledge of what
particular diet is best in different diseases comes only through careful
study of the science of nutrition after much study of chemistry and


1. Calculate your own energy requirement.

2. Calculate the energy requirement of your family group.

3. Find the cost for your locality of the dietary arranged from Menu No.

4. Make a dietary yielding 10,000 Calories, from ten to fifteen per cent
of which shall be protein calories, from Menu No. II, and calculate its

5. Find out the lowest sum for which a balanced dietary could be obtained
in your locality.

6. Revise the dietary from Menu No. I, so that it shall not cost over one
cent per hundred Calories.

7. Plan an ideal day’s dietary for yourself.

8. Plan a day’s dietary for an invalid which shall yield 2000 Calories,
300 of which shall be protein Calories.

                              CHAPTER XIX

                          THE HOUSEHOLD BUDGET

The divisions of the income for which we should provide are food, shelter,
including taxes and operating expenses, clothing, and the “higher life,”
including recreation, education, and savings. The size of the income
determines largely the proportion of money allotted to each division. We
must be nourished and protected from the elements by shelter and clothing,
and an income must at least provide for these necessities to be a living
wage. Yet we justly claim something more from our income than mere

In most families there is a fairly definite income. When the amount is not
known it is wise to estimate upon the minimum income and have a surplus,
rather than to expend too much. Seventy-five years ago things cost less
and incomes were less, to-day the incomes have increased and cost of
living is growing higher. The question is one to be studied relatively,
and the cost of living will depend on the ratio between income and one’s
methods of living.

Just what other satisfactions than the merely physical are to be gratified
is the great question for the woman who divides the income. The problem is
naturally hardest with the smallest income, where the “must be” crowds out
the “may be.” But there is room for choice even with the small wage.

This work of dividing the income and deciding on the ideals should be
shared by the family. When the home is first started the husband and wife
should discuss frankly the problems of division and should agree on the
methods of expenditure. This common understanding between members of a
family forms a bond of union, and each feels a greater pleasure and pride
in doing his part. The fact that there is a budget and a system brings
orderliness in methods of work and freedom from worry and anxiety as well
as a saving of money. And this saving of money and strength is the same as
an increase in income. This budget or division of expenses acts as a
sailing chart and can be referred to from month to month. It should not,
however, become a burden, and one should not worry if every penny is not
accounted for.

Statisticians tell us that about 75 per cent of the male adults of our
country earn somewhat less than $600 a year. That in large cities $900 to
$1000 a year is necessary to bring up a family to live decently and enjoy
human happiness. Much depends upon how this income is divided as to
whether results will tend to develop efficiency in the members of such a
family. As the income increases from $1000 to $5000 it is possible to
apportion the income and indicate certain percentages which represent wise
family expenditures so as to include the higher intellectual and emotional
life as well as the physical welfare of the family.

From comparison of many budgets statisticians have worked out certain
percentages that are helpful in making our decisions, although they are
not to be taken as fixed rules.

=Expenditure for food.=——On examining the budgets of families having
incomes from $500 to $5000, it is found that the percentage spent for food
increases as the income decreases, amounting sometimes to at least 50 per
cent of the income. This means that there is a limit to the money spent
per capita per day for food, below which we cannot go and maintain life
with even sufficient efficiency for unskilled labor. Figure 77 shows that
a $900 income gives about 45 per cent to food. An expenditure of thirty
cents per capita per day for food in a family of five with an income of
$1500, is 36.5 per cent; _i.e._ more than one third of the total income.
Suggestions as to allowance for food in families of different incomes are
contained in the tables of budgets given farther on in this chapter.

[Illustration: FIG. 77.——Typical division of a small income. _Courtesy of
Ladies’ Home Journal, Oct., 1912._]

Thrift in buying and using is necessary with the small income, and highly
important with the larger where we are prone to yield to a foolish impulse
to please a whim of the palate.

=Expenditure for shelter.=——The increased cost of building and the general
advance in rentals make the expenditure for shelter a large one.

The question whether homes should be owned or rented is a vital one.
Ownership is possible for comparatively few, but there is probably nothing
that contributes more to the upbuilding of a community and the development
of good citizenship than the permanent residence of families in
localities. The pride of the members is enlisted in the home, its
surroundings and general community welfare. This sense of ownership makes
a house _more_ a home although real home spirit is not confined to
ownership of buildings. There are of course advantages and disadvantages
of ownership, and these should be carefully weighed. Preference for fresh
air, more space, less crowded conditions even if they necessitate daily
travel, have driven people of limited incomes and certain ideals from the
crowded cities to the suburbs in search of homes. When it is possible it
is certainly much more advantageous to own than to rent a home, when
living means the attainment of certain ideals in the lives of the members
of the family.

In deciding upon the proper expenditure, we must take into account the
location, whether convenient to business, school, and church, sanitary
conditions in surroundings and in the house or apartment, the appearance
of the house and the attractiveness of the neighborhood as well as its
convenience and healthfulness. The house should be adapted to the needs of
the family and selected with this thought in mind. See the companion
volume, “Shelter and Clothing,” Chapters II and III.

It has been estimated that 20 per cent of incomes ranging from $500 to
$5000 will secure a home, not including operating expenses, with the
proper sanitary conditions and one which will contribute to a right
standard of living. If necessary to secure healthful surroundings more
than 20 per cent may need to be spent, but 25 per cent of the income is
the limit of the amount to be spent upon rent unless this also includes
heat (as in many apartments) when as much as 28 per cent may be so spent.
If more than this is paid, it is practically impossible to avoid debt when
any unforeseen contingency arises. One thrifty German woman used 30 per
cent of the small family income for rent, in order to have more bedrooms
than most tenement-house dwellers can afford. She did make ends meet by
working until midnight at the family sewing, and tailoring; but though she
was the very soul of thrift in regard to food, and had never called in a
doctor, she could not save money until the children began to earn.

=Operating expenses.=——The question of operating expense is closely
associated with the selection of shelter and should be carefully
considered with it in the division of the income. They are the expenses
necessary to keep the house clean, warm, lighted, insured, and in constant
repair. To these must be added in a suburban community water tax, property
tax, perhaps even a fire tax.

In city apartments, heat and hot water are often furnished, and this must
be taken into account in deciding between apartment and house, and between
renting and ownership.

Labor is an important item in the running of the house. The close
connection of selecting and operating a home will be seen. Should the
administrator divide the family income in such a way that little is left
for operating, the little things of everyday life become a constant source
of worry.

The questions of the number of rooms, and their care, relative expense of
heating by furnace, steam, or hot water, the cost of regular service in
wages per week in order to attain one’s ideals, the cost of extra service,
the lighting by gas, oil, or electricity are all problems of operating.
Knowledge of sanitary science will make the homemaker demand cleanliness
in her surroundings, quick disposal of waste, and the prompt removal of
dust. Much care in planning is necessary here in order that there may be
no leakage and that there may be the full share of comfort for each

For the income of from $500 to $5000 it has been estimated that a
proportion of from 10 to 20 per cent must usually be spent for operating
in order to secure comfort. Much must necessarily depend upon the amount
of hired service required, which, in turn, depends largely upon whether
the homemaker is to give her time chiefly to the care of her children or
chiefly to the conduct of the housework.

=Clothing.=——A large proportion of the family income is spent on clothing.
A knowledge of textiles and of purchasing is necessary in order to do this
wisely and economically. Clothing is as necessary an expense as food, for
it conserves the heat which the food furnishes and thus maintains body
temperature. Health is the main factor in efficiency, and health is
preserved by clothing which protects the body from sudden changes in
temperatures, and conserves the energy for other purposes. Money should be
spent on clothing to secure health, but too often more than the right
percentage of income is expended because of love of display. The instinct
for show, color, ornamentation is a primitive one, and the æsthetic “want”
is, in one sense, as real as the physical and should be considered in
expenditures for this purpose. It is a duty to look well, but it is not
necessary, nor does it show good sense, to sacrifice the health,
happiness, and higher life of the family by economizing on food and other
essentials in order to secure hats, shoes, gowns, and accessories that
cater to a mania for show. If the income be limited so that the essentials
of clothing only can be purchased, the margin of income which can be spent
for pleasure may, if taste so dictates, be spent on clothing instead of
pictures, books, or some recreation. That is a matter for the individual
or family to decide. In the typical budgets cited below it will be seen
that the expenditure for clothing was usually between 10 and 18 per cent.

=The higher life.=——There are other needs of family life for which money
must be spent besides the material ones of food, shelter, and clothing. In
the division of some family incomes little thought is given to this phase
of living. After the income reaches a certain amount, it is possible so to
plan that education, recreation, philanthropy, and savings all figure in
the division of expenditures. Some writers say that 25 per cent of the
income of $1000 to $5000 should be spent in this way. If thought is given
to this, it would mean opportunities for books, periodicals, lectures, and
membership in societies; some travel and vacation, social clubs, theaters
and concerts; charity and church expenditures; life insurance and other
savings. It is the idea of ownership of property, of homes, of possessions
of all kinds that has led from primitive living to advanced civilization.
And with advanced civilization comes the need for the higher life which
should be satisfied and can be through wise division of funds. The choice
of things to satisfy this higher life rests with the individual; it may be
music, it may be the cultivation of altruistic feeling in the help given
to neighbors; it may be a bank account for some future good, or money
spent on excursions, lectures, or theater. Whatever it is, it satisfies
the emotional, spiritual, and intellectual life of man and distinguishes
him as one of advanced civilization.

=Savings.=——Something should be saved yearly even if at first it is but
little. Small amounts put away regularly in a savings bank mount up to a
considerable sum at compound interest, for regular saving is the only kind
that counts. Life and sickness insurance are other forms of saving.

=Allowances.=——Each member of the family should have a personal allowance,
even though it is small. One mother gave each of her children five cents a
week, beginning at five years of age, and increasing a cent a week each
year, until they were old enough to be trusted with more. Even at this age
opposite characteristics showed themselves. One boy saved his allowance
until he had a quarter to spend at one time; another was in debt before
the end of the week. Each had a bank, and kept accounts, as well. It is
sometimes better for a child if he “earns” his allowances by performance
of such household duties as seem best adapted to promote his development.

=Suggested and typical budgets.=——In preparation for the division of one’s
income it is helpful to study the budgets of other families or
individuals. Mrs. Richards in her book on “The Cost of Living” gives a
theoretical division of incomes, which is shown in the accompanying table
headed Suggested Budgets. It is interesting to study this account and then
those of families who have worked out their problems (either with or
without the preparation of definite budgets in advance) as shown in the
table of Typical Budgets.

In New York City it has been estimated by those studying the problems of
the cost of living of to-day that it is impossible for the average family
of mother, father, and three children under 14 years to get food enough to
keep the body in good condition with clothing and shelter to meet the most
urgent demands of decency for less than $900. This amount in other
localities would probably buy more. This means that in New York City for
$900 a family of five can have a very bare existence, and that with $1000
this family can begin to maintain a decent standard of living unless there
is long sickness or other catastrophe. At $1200 a normal family standard
can be maintained so as to preserve health, and so that the family will
have opportunities to develop in a self-respecting manner. When one
considers that many families subsist on $500 or $600 a year, it is
necessarily under conditions of shelter and with limitations of food and
clothing, not conducive to the best development.


  F Food
  R Rent
  O Operating expenses, Wages, Fuel, Light, ETC.
  C Clothes
  H Higher Life, Books, Travel, Church, Charity, Savings, Insurance

                         |     PERCENTAGE FOR       |
  FAMILY INCOME          | F  |  R  |  O  | C  | H  |
  Two adults and two or  |    |     |     |    |    |
    three children (equal|    |     |     |    |    |
    to four adults):     |    |     |     |    |    |
      Ideal division     | 25 | 20± | 15± | 15 | 25 |
    $2000 to $4000       | 25 | 20± | 15± | 20 | 20 |
    $800 to $1000        | 30 | 20  | 10  | 15 | 25 |
    $500 to $800         | 45 | 15  | 10  | 10 | 20 |
    Under $500           | 60 | 15  |  5  | 10 | 10 |


                          |             PERCENTAGE FOR                   |
                          |      | Rent and | Operating|       | Higher  |
    FAMILY INCOME         |      | Car Fares| Expenses;|       |  Life,  |
                          | Food |   to     |   Fuel,  |Clothes| Savings,|
                          |      | and from |  Wages,  |       | Charity,|
                          |      |  Work    |  etc.    |       |  etc.   |
  $3098, three adults, two|      |          |          |       |         |
    children              | 27.5 |   21.1   |   16.8   | 10    | 24.6    |
                          |      |          |          |       |         |
  $2500 (Mass.), three    |      |          |          |       |         |
    adults, no children   | 25   |   25     |   13     | 12    | 25      |
                          |      |          |          |       |         |
  $2500 (Mass.), two      |      |          |          |       |         |
    adults, one child,    |      |          |          |       |         |
    much company          | 32   |   18     |   18     | 10    | 22      |
                          |      |          |          |       |         |
  $1980 (St. Louis), four |      |          |          |       |         |
    adults, two children  | 36.3 |   24.2   |   20.9   | 18.60 |         |
                          |      |          |          |       |         |
  $950  (Mass.), two      |      |          |          |       |         |
    adults, three children| 20   |   19     |   16     |  15   | 30      |
                          |      |          |          |     {26.1       |
  $600 (Boston), two      |      |          |          |     {Travel,    |
    adults, two children  | 23   |   26     |    4     |   5 {sickness,  |
                          |      |          |          |     {and        |
                          |      |          |          |     {sundries:  |
                          |      |          |          |     {15.9       |
                          |      |          |          |       |         |
  $535 (N.Y.), two adults,|      |          |          |       |         |
    three children        | 55.2 |  22.4    |    5.3   |   9.4 | 7.7     |
                          |      |          |          |       |         |
  $312 (“mean” Englishman)|      |          |          |       |         |
    two adults,           |      |          |          |       |         |
    three children        | 55.2 |  15.5    |    8.9   |  13.1 | 7.3     |
                          |      |          |          |       |         |
  $300, Dr. Engel’s       | 62   |  12      |    5     |  16   | 5.0     |
         estimates        |      |          |          |       |         |

                           TYPICAL BUDGETS[25]
                                    | AVERAGE   | AVERAGE   | AVERAGE
                                    |INCOME $650|INCOME $748|INCOME $846
  Rent                              |    $154   |    $161   |    $168
  Carfare                           |      11   |      10   |      16
  Fuel and light                    |      38   |      37   |      41
  Furniture                         |       6   |       8   |       7
  Insurance                         |      13   |      18   |      18
  Food                              |     279   |     314   |     341
  Meals eaten away from home        |      11   |      22   |      17
  Clothing                          |      83   |      99   |     114
  Health                            |      14   |      14   |      22
  Taxes, dues and contributions     |       8   |       9   |      11
  Recreation and amusement          |       3   |       6   |       7
  Education                         |       5   |       5   |       7
  Miscellaneous                     |      25   |      32   |      41
         Total                      |    $650   |    $735   |    $811


1. What definite aims should the wise homemaker have in mind in dividing
the income?

2. What ideals should affect the amount spent for food?

3. What should determine selection of the house whether owned or rented?

4. What is meant by the operating expenses of a house?

5. What ideals should determine the amount spent for clothing?

6. In what ways should the “higher life” of the family or individual be
considered in the division of the income?

7. Plan to keep account of every penny of spending money for one year.
Look over and criticize at the end of the year.

8. Plan a budget for a family of five in your community having $1000.
Suppose they have $2000, how would you change your budget?

9. Work out with your parents a budget or schedule of probable household
expenditures for your home for the next month; the next year.

                               CHAPTER XX

                          SYSTEM IN MANAGEMENT

The housekeeper should learn to use the labor-saving devices for her
records that are now employed so largely in the world of business. This
equipment should include a desk with fittings for systematized and rapid
work. A roll-top desk, with pigeonholes and drawers is convenient, but a
flat-topped desk with drawers below gives a larger space for writing,
although it has to be supplemented by boxes to take the place of
pigeonholes. Such desks may be purchased for twenty dollars and upward, in
woods to match other furniture. It is a pleasure to have artistic desk
furnishings, but a large amount may be spent on these, and the desk still
be unequipped for practical purposes.

=Files and loose-leaf books.=——A card file is as advantageous to the
housekeeper as to the business man. Some desks contain a place for the
card file in the upper right-hand drawer.

Guide cards are furnished in several colors to indicate divisions of the
file, and these are plain, or with printed numbers and letters. The record
cards also are made of several colors, to indicate different uses. The
suggestions here cover only a few of the possibilities. Visit some office
furnishing department or shop to see what an array of conveniences has
been devised for the dispatch of business. If you once form the habit, you
will find new uses for the card file almost daily, and will keep on the
cards, addresses, engagements, cash accounts, shopping lists, inventories
of clothing and furnishings, menus and recipes. A loose-leaf book is
preferred by some people for inventories and accounts.

A letter file shaped like a pocketbook can be purchased for only
twenty-five cents, and will serve the purpose for a small correspondence.
Large files with guide cards are made for a larger correspondence.

The small file will answer for filing bills and is useful also for
clippings. Some desks have bill files in the pigeonholes, and a letter
file in one of the large drawers.

Have regular hours daily for attending to work at the desk, stated times
for planning menus, making shopping lists, looking over the inventories,
recording expenditures, and balancing accounts.

Order in time and place are studied further in the chapter on Housewifery.

=Keeping of accounts.=——This has been called by many, drudgery and tedious
routine. Many business men go through much such drudgery to attain their
goals, why should not the housewife be willing to make a similar sacrifice
in her home for the sake of the service she is rendering the members of
her household? The aim in keeping the accounts is to register the amounts
spent for various purposes so that all phases of life will be considered
and so that the manager will be able to profit the second year because of
the experience of the first year. This makes housekeeping interesting and
businesslike. The expenditure is made to produce the maximum of value
received and is accompanied by the greatest possible pleasure.

In keeping accounts there should be some method of showing the receipts
and expenses, the income and the outgo, so that a balance can be made at
any time. The items should be so listed, too, that it is possible to tell
what expenditure has been made for any one item, as rent, or food, or
other necessities. It is only in this way that the accounts become of
value for future use.

There are many ways of keeping such accounts. The simplest one for the
housewife is the best if it shows the points mentioned above. The envelope
system is used by some when the income is small, and a certain amount of
money according to budget plan is put in labeled envelopes for various
purposes, as rent, food, operating expenses, etc. As sums are drawn from
the various envelopes, a slip of paper put in the particular envelope
registers the amount drawn. It is easy at the end of the month to balance
the accounts. This system necessitates the presence of a good deal of
money on hand, and sometimes of confusion of accounts, if money is
borrowed from one envelope for use in another.

  |           |       |      |     |    |   |     |       |OTHER HEADINGS
  +-----------+-------+------+-----+----+---+-----+-------+ACCORDING TO
  | _January_ |       |      |     |    |   |     |       |EXPENSE
  |           |       |      |     |    |   |     |       |
  | Jan. 1    |       |      |     |    |   |     |       |
  | Jan. 5    |       |      |     |    |   |     |       |
  | (Dates of |       |      |     |    |   |     |       |
  |  expendi- |       |      |     |    |   |     |       |
  |  tures)   |       |      |     |    |   |     |       |
  |           |       |      |     |    |   |     |       |
  |           |       |      |     |    |   |     |       |
  |           |       |      |     |    |   |     |       |
  |           |       |      |     |    |   |     |       |
  | Totals    |       |      |     |    |   |     |       |

Various systems of card catalogues, journals, and ledgers are in use, and
all have more or less value. The simplest form for the average young woman
or housewife can be kept in an ordinary blank book and the spaces ruled
according to one’s need. The account book can be started in somewhat the
following manner, with the dates of expenditures in the first column and
the respective amounts opposite under their proper heads. In this way it
is possible by using double pages of the blank book to keep all the items
for each month in horizontal series. The columns for items of expenses
should be ruled as needed, but it is desirable to keep them under as few
heads as will suffice to give the information which may be desired. The
use of the double page is advisable, for then the outer edge of the
left-hand page can be used for the dates of purchase and plenty of room
for columns of expense left across the two pages. The total in the various
columns can be easily calculated at the end of the first month and a new
set of pages ruled for the second. The expenditures should be entered
daily so as not to be forgotten. A slip of paper kept in one’s purse is of
help if amounts are jotted down while one is shopping. The totals for each
month should be entered in another part of the blank book. Rule spaces for
the year with columns for the months across the page and items of expense
corresponding to those in the daily entry at the left-hand side. In this
way at the end of twelve months the totals for each item of expense can be
easily found. If one desires to know from day to day of a month how the
balance stands, it is possible to add to Form I two columns for this
purpose. One column should show the income or amounts received with
dates, and the second the total sum expended each day. This sum is found
by adding the expense of each item across the page for the day and
entering in the expense column.

Form II

  |                   | JAN. | FEB. |MARCH | APRIL| MAY  | JUNE |
  | Butcher           |      |      |      |      |      |      |
  | Grocer            |      |      |      |      |      |      |
  | Baker             |      |      |      |      |      |      |
  | Milk              |      |      |      |      |      |      |
  | Ice               |      |      |      |      |      |      |
  | Light             |      |      |      |      |      |      |
  | Service           |      |      |      |      |      |      |
  | Fuel              |      |      |      |      |      |      |
  | Clothes           |      |      |      |      |      |      |
  | Rent              |      |      |      |      |      |      |
  | Dentist           |      |      |      |      |      |      |
  | School            |      |      |      |      |      |      |
  | Sundries and other|      |      |      |      |      |      |
  |   items           |      |      |      |      |      |      |
  | Totals            |      |      |      |      |      |      |

  | JULY | AUG. | SEP. | OCT. | NOV. | DEC. | TOTALS |
  |      |      |      |      |      |      |        |
  |      |      |      |      |      |      |        |
  |      |      |      |      |      |      |        |
  |      |      |      |      |      |      |        |
  |      |      |      |      |      |      |        |
  |      |      |      |      |      |      |        |
  |      |      |      |      |      |      |        |
  |      |      |      |      |      |      |        |
  |      |      |      |      |      |      |        |
  |      |      |      |      |      |      |        |
  |      |      |      |      |      |      |        |
  |      |      |      |      |      |      |        |
  |      |      |      |      |      |      |        |
  |      |      |      |      |      |      |        |
  |      |      |      |      |      |      |        |

Somewhere in the book there should be kept an account of the receipts from
all sources. The balance of the yearly expense account with the sheet of
receipt can be easily made.

Some plan must be made for showing which purchases are paid for in cash,
and which are charged. A simple method is to record the articles charged,
with the place, date, and price on a card in the card file in a division
kept for this purpose, and labeled “Purchases charged.” When the bill is
rendered, it can be checked up from these cards, and the purchases entered
in the permanent account book. The record in the account book gives thus
the date of payment, but not the date of purchase, unless this is added
too. The date of purchase can be recorded in the inventory of household
goods (see Chapter XXII).

This simple method of keeping accounts enables one to look over the
monthly and yearly expenses and to see if the expenditure is apportioned
to the different divisions as it should be. If some of the needs of the
physical or intellectual life are being neglected, it should be possible
to cut down or readjust the next year to the satisfaction both of the
housewife and of her family.

It is wise for all girls before they have homes of their own to keep
account of their own small incomes. In many families daughters are given
money for clothing and daily expenses. Some such system of keeping
accounts as the above can be used. It is astonishing in examining
accounts for clothing, to see how few maintain a correct balance. One
girl found, by keeping accounts, that she spent entirely too much for hats
and gloves and did not have the proper underwear to protect her body and
maintain the correct temperature for health. Accounts help us to determine
whether our methods of living measure up to the ideals or standards of
life which we have established in order to live rightly.

=Methods of payment.=——Payment is either immediate, known as “spot cash,”
or deferred. If deferred, the articles purchased are charged by the
dealer, and a bill rendered the first of each month. When a charge account
is opened, a good business reference must be given. According to another
system, articles may be paid for in installments,——that is, so much each
month, according to some agreement. Of this method it may be said that it
is unsafe, or at least unwise, always. Remember that more is always paid
in the end.

In either case the payment may be made in bills, specie, or by checks;
although in ordinary shopping immediate payment is usually made in bills
and specie.

The advantage of immediate payment is that the buyer spends only what she
has, and does not count on future money. This method of payment enables
one to keep the balance well in hand. It necessitates, however, keeping
bills and specie in the house, and in one’s pocketbook, with the
possibility of theft or loss; and cash payment takes more time in the
shop, with the long wait for change. Sending “collect on delivery”
(C.O.D.) is a way of making cash payment and saving time at the shop. Be
sure that in this case there is the exact change at home, and some one
ready to receive the goods.

Charging goods makes for economy of time. If you can remember that an
article charged means money spent, this is a safe plan. One careful buyer
says that she is too optimistic to have a charge account; too sure that
while she has not cash enough to-day for something that she wants, she
will surely have it by the first of next month.

There is another method of payment introduced by a few large department
stores. The firm requires a monthly deposit at the first of each month and
charges up purchases against this. This is good in so far that the
customer is spending money that he really has, but it restricts purchases
to that one shop, and this is inadvisable in the case of a small income.

=The bank account and check book.=——Whether payment is immediate or
deferred, payment by check is a great convenience. It saves time and is
also a record of money paid.

Select a bank, conveniently located, and recommended by a conservative
business man. Take to the bank a letter of introduction, with the sum for
deposit. The bank will record your signature, and give you a bank book in
which is recorded the amount deposited. A check book will be given you
that contains blank checks, and provides for keeping account of deposits
and checks drawn. Each check has to be filled in, and signed with your
name exactly as recorded at the bank, when you make a payment. This must
be recorded in the proper place when the check is made out, stating date,
amount, and payee. The sums paid out are added, usually for every three
checks, and this sum deducted from the deposit, and the balance carried
forward. In this way you may always know your balance in the bank,
provided you are accurate. Great care must be taken to fill in the blank
spaces correctly so that the check cannot be easily altered by any one.

If a check is made out to you, and you wish to cash it, or deposit it,
you “indorse” it by writing your name on the back across the left-hand end
of the check. The name must be written exactly as it appears on the face
of the check. If by chance the name is misspelled, write it in with the
correct spelling below.

The checks that you make out are indorsed by the payee in the same way,
and cannot be cashed until so indorsed. Therefore, if a check is lost in
the mail, you do not lose the money. The bank should be notified to “stop
payment” on the lost check, and you can then send another check in place
of the first one.

When you wish bills or specie, you go to the bank and present to the
paying teller a check made out to “Cash” and signed by yourself. It is
wise not to make out or sign such a check until you reach the bank,
because if such a check is lost on the way, there is danger of its being
cashed by the finder.

Once a month you should leave the book with the teller to be balanced. In
a few days you may call for it, and will receive with it the checks that
you have drawn, and that have been returned to the bank by the date to
which the book is balanced. These checks are called vouchers. With these
there is also a list of the amounts showing the total paid out on them by
the bank. Check up the vouchers with the list, then check up the vouchers
with your check book to see if all in your check book had been returned to
the bank by the date of balancing. If there are some still out, add that
sum to your check book balance, and then compare the bank book balance
with your check book.

Deposits may be sent by mail, either with or without the check book. If
the book is sent, it should go by registered mail. If you do not send the
book, the bank will send a receipt, which you return with the book the
next time the balance is made. In either case, write “For deposit” above
your signature on the back.


1. Of what value is business equipment in household management?

2. Suggest ways in which a card file might be used in the household.

3. Suggest a system for filing household letters; bills.

4. What should be one’s aim in keeping household accounts?

5. Estimate the cost of your clothing for the last year.

6. Name different methods of payment of bills. Which do you consider the
best for the family with $1200 income?

7. Describe fully payment by check.

8. How should a check be indorsed?

9. How can one deposit checks by mail?

                              CHAPTER XXI

                               HOW TO BUY

The first rule in good buying is to know standard quality in your intended
purchase, for then you need not be dependent upon the salesman. The second
is to know your own needs, that you may not be beguiled by the clever
advertisement in the daily paper, or the well-displayed bargain, and will
not need to ask the salesman’s advice about quantity. Keep lists of
articles needed in the card file, and make your shopping lists from these.
The third rule is to apportion your purchases to your income and the
divisions of your budget.

=Where to buy.=——Patronize reliable firms. There are in any community
shops of different grades, and you will not find the best return for your
money always at those houses where there is the greatest parade of cut
prices and bargains. In the end the reliable places are the cheapest.
Sometimes a firm trades on its reputation and a degree of fashion it has
attained, but on the whole it is true that if one house has goods
uniformly cheaper than another, it is because the quality is inferior.

One fact that a good shopper learns is this——that certain articles may be
purchased to greater advantage at one place than another. One firm excels
in silks, another in household linen, another in coffee, and so on.

Almost every community now has a “white list” and a branch of the
Consumers’ League, the significance of which was explained in “Shelter and
Clothing,” p. 202.

=How to shop.=——Know the shops you patronize, first by personal
inspection, unless, of course, you are ordering from a distance.

Mail orders and the telephone are helps to the buyer. These should not
entirely take the place of personal visits to the shops, but, if well
used, save many weary hours. The parcel post makes possible buying by mail
even perishable articles direct from the producer. Many country dwellers
do a large part of their shopping even for clothing and furniture by mail,
and there are reputable firms who cater largely to this trade, and send
out well-illustrated price lists as guides. However, this method should be
used very cautiously, and it may be unsatisfactory for articles where the
æsthetic element is important, as well as the quality.

_Bargains, sales, and advertisements._——Here the buyer matches her wit
against the wiles of the seller. Bargain sales may be made up of sweat
shop goods. Many women ignorant of textile production, flock to the sales
of materials and garments, helping the storekeeper to dispose of silk
which is rotting on his shelves, or garments which have been poorly or
cheaply constructed and which go to pieces the first time laundered.
Remnants are often cut from materials on the regular shelves, and
sometimes are offered at an advance in price at the so-called bargain
sales. In reliable shops one can sometimes find bargains during clearance
sales. It pays to wait and buy out of season, as much can be saved in this
way. A “best” hat in January, or a white dress in August, may often be
purchased to advantage. In order to do this, one must plan the wardrobe

_Trading stamps and prizes._——Remember that nothing is given away, and
that you pay for everything that you receive. It is well to deal with a
firm that sells standard goods at standard prices. A discount is sometimes
allowed for cash.

_Buying on installments._——Methods of payment are discussed in Chapter XX.
The installment plan is important to consider, since it is so common for
people of small means. How tempting for a young couple, who have no
savings, to furnish the new home in this way? It is a “gambling on
futures,” however, as much as are some methods in the Stock Exchange. If
the income stops, because the position is lost, or if sickness comes, and
the installments cannot be paid, the whole outfit may be lost. There have
been real household tragedies of this kind. The better way is to save
until a small amount of simple furniture can be purchased outright. The
installment method is also used by established firms of sound reputation
to tempt one to buy the latest encyclopædia, or the new musical
instrument, or some other much-desired possession. This is safe if one is
absolutely sure of a fixed future income; but here again it is better to
save first and buy outright. You may say that the installment plan gives
the use of the encyclopædia at once, and this is true. But if you have the
saving habit, there will already be a fund on which to draw.

=The ethics of shopping.=——There is no greater test of good breeding and
kindness than the tour of a crowded shop; and sometimes the silken thread
is strained to the snapping point. Remember that tired human beings are at
the counter.

Time your shopping that you may not help to crowd business at the closing
hour. If the shop closes at five, leave several minutes before the hour.
As a matter of fact it is only to the shopper that the shop closes at the
stated hour; some of the hardest work of the day comes after hours. Avoid
shopping at the luncheon hour, and on Saturday afternoon at the time of
the week when the salespeople are most tired. This is also a hard time for
delivery men and boys. Consult here the pamphlets of the Consumers’

In times of stress, the shopkeeper asks you to carry small bundles home
with you, and this you should cheerfully do. Some women carry the C.O.D.
privilege to an extreme, ordering in this way with the intention of
sending certain articles back, thus creating much unnecessary labor.

=Purchasing of clothing and household textiles.=——Experience is a good
teacher, but knowledge so gained is often paid for at high price. It seems
an easier way, with much saving of time, money, and energy, for girls to
learn beforehand what to guard against in purchasing their household
textiles for both clothing and furnishings. Our great-grandmothers were
sure their household textiles would wear, for they followed every step of
their manufacture and knew they were durable and honest. Conditions
changed with the factory system of manufacture, and to-day women know very
little about textile fabrics or the making of garments. This ignorance of
manufacturing processes results in the increased cost of living by the
wasteful expenditures made for household textiles. Women rely on the
information given by clerks in stores, often to their sad disadvantage. As
we have learned, about 15 to 20 per cent of the family income is usually
spent on clothing and household furnishings for a family of four. Is it
not necessary then that girls should learn to make the dollars earned buy
just as much as possible?

There is need of a pure textile law in order that the adulterations of
textiles may be defined. Some of us cannot afford to buy pure linen or all
wool, but we do wish to know the percentage of adulterant in order that we
may judge whether the materials will meet our needs. It is beyond the
power of women now to control the making of fabrics, and the government,
therefore, must help to maintain standards and proper supervision of
textile labeling. Women can, however, study this problem, and with a
knowledge of the manufacture and composition of textiles will come the
power to choose wisely, for manufacturers have been able to perpetuate
these frauds chiefly because of ignorance. (See the companion volume,
“Shelter and Clothing.”)

_Some things to remember in purchasing household linens._

1. Design is important. French designs are the most beautiful in damasks,
Scotch and Irish are good, and German patterns perhaps the least
attractive. Weave often affects the wearing quality of linen as well as
the appearance. The satin stripes and long threads on surface are apt to
wear off quickly and they are sometimes introduced to cover defects
beneath. They cannot stand heavy ironing as the closer, more even, weaves.

2. Linen is sometimes adulterated with cotton; if bought as union goods
one may expect it. If bought for pure linen, ravel the material and
untwist warp and woof threads. Do the threads appear long and lustrous?
The round threads are best. If cotton has been used, the ends will fly
apart and fuzz, if linen they will appear more parallel and pointed at the
ends when separated. The cheaper “all linens” are sometimes made from the
tow or short refuse. If the fiber is short, it will not last as well as
the long. Moistening with the finger was an old-fashioned test. A better
one is to use a drop of olive oil. This test must be made at home. Water
spreads more rapidly on linen than on cotton. The oil makes the linen
fibers more translucent than cotton.

3. Cost is a guide. Linen is expensive. Is the price that which should
insure a good article? If cheap, beware.

4. Feel the cloth. Is it cold and does it feel rather heavy when crushed
in the hand? Many buyers in department stores judge by weight. In
purchasing table linen less than 4-1/2 oz. to the square yard is not worth
buying. Above that it improves. Reliable firms will tell the weight.
Custom house inspectors judge by the picks or throws of woof to the inch.

5. Notice the finish. Is it full of starch and sizing which can be picked
off? If so, in washing that will all disappear, leaving a loosely woven
instead of a smooth satiny surface. Calendering and beetling make the
material smooth and lustrous and reduce the thickness. Do not be deceived.
It is better to buy a soft linen than one stiff with starch which will

6. In buying table linen the goods received in December and January are
apt to be the bleach of the previous summer. Remember that poor bleaching
affects the wearing quality. One can sometimes tell by tearing a sample.

For quality, beauty, and variety of patterns, Scotch, French, and Irish
linens are the best. German damask is excellent. The unbleached will wear
much longer, is less expensive, and is bought by many housewives and
bleached as used.

Damask by the yard for tablecloths is slightly cheaper. Tablecloths from
2-1/2 to 3 yards are good size for a medium family of five or six. One
dollar a yard is a fair price for everyday linen. The cloth should about
equal 1 dozen napkins in cost, and a cloth will usually wear as long as
1-1/2 to 2 dozen napkins. Napkins come in three sizes, 5/8, 17-22 inches;
3/4, 23-27 inches; 7/8, 29-31 inches.

7. For family towels, huckaback is the most serviceable, although damask
is used a great deal (see Fig. 78). Linen towels vary in price from three
dollars a dozen up, according to size and quality. Dish towels of linen
crash are very serviceable.

[Illustration: FIG. 78.——Huckaback towels. _Courtesy of J. McCutcheon

8. Bedding. Sheets can be purchased ready made in linen or cotton in
various sizes. If they are to be made at home, buy sheeting that can be
obtained for single, two thirds, or full-sized bed. If cotton, buy in
bleached or unbleached condition. Purchase sheets which are long enough to
fold over at the top and protect the blankets. There are several good
brands of cotton sheeting. “Fruit of the Loom” is one of the best known.

Tubing for pillow cases may also be bought. It has no seams, and comes in
several widths.

9. It is better to purchase a certain amount of new linen annually and
gradually supplement that worn than to wait and have all wear out at once.

_Some things to remember in purchasing silk._

1. That pure silk is seldom manufactured. It is nearly always weighted,
and a large proportion of weighting is to be guarded against, as it
weakens the wearing quality. Up to 30 per cent is not harmful and helps
the silk to take the dye. The fact that it is heavy in the hand does not
always mean that it is a good piece of material and will wear well——the
weight may be due to artificial “weighting” and not silk. Choose rather a
softer pliable silk.

2. Try the test for strength with the thumb (see “Shelter and Clothing,”
page 199) to see if the warp and woof threads are equally strong, or
stronger one way than the other. If the latter, it will not wear well.

3. Fray out the threads. Do they break easily? If so, the silk is not of
good quality. If the warp threads are weak, the silk will split across, if
the woof is weak, the silk dress will go in ribbons.

4. If you have time before purchasing, test a sample of silk by burning.
Place in a porcelain dish and heat gently for thirty minutes. The silk
will vanish and the weighting remain.

Burn the threads to see if there is cotton in warp or woof. Burn end of
sample. If it is the same shape after burned, it is probably weighted.

5. Close weaves wear better than more loosely woven ones and soft silks
better than stiff. Guard against buying soft silks, however, that are so
woven as to pull in the seams when worn.

6. Are you buying material made of reeled or spun silk? Bargains are
seldom found at silk sales. Should you expect to find pure silk at 50 or
60 cents a yard or as many yards of silk thread B as A on a spool?
Remember that the demand for a cheap product means the production of cheap
products. Wear something else rather than cheap silks.

7. Is the silk adulterated with mercerized cotton or artificial silk? Try
the tests. (See “Shelter and Clothing,” page 196.)

_Some things to remember in purchasing wool._

1. Wool mixed with cotton makes a cheaper fabric and should not be sold
for all wool. It wears well, but is not as warm as all wool. Garments made
of it do not keep their shape as well. Woolens are often adulterated in
felting. Pull the closely woven fabric apart and untwist the fibers to see
if cotton is present.

2. The burning test will help in deciding on the composition. (See
“Shelter and Clothing,” page 198.)

3. A good woolen or worsted fabric can always be remade. The inexpensive
is not cheap unless you wish something which costs little but does not
look well or wear well. One should not expect to get blankets of all wool
for two dollars a pair. They cost five or six.

4. Shoddy is one kind of recovered wool and is used to cheapen cost of
all-wool material. It can be detected because of shortness of the staple
of wool, but when mixed is difficult to see.

5. The weave of material affects the wearing quality. A close twill weave
is more durable than a basket weave.

_Some things to remember about color._

1. _Blue._ Dark blue in woolen material or gingham usually fades little.
Light blue is not as durable in color.

2. _Red._ Woolen material of this color wears well and usually fades
little. Red cotton when washed looks less brilliant. It soon fades by

3. _Black and gray._ Woolen materials of gray, white, and black or in
combination are generally satisfactory. Cotton materials of gray or black
are apt to show starch in washing.

4. _Lavender._ This is a poor color to buy. It fades easily in cotton

5. _Pink._ Fades with washing. If a deep shade be bought it may be

6. _Green._ Usually very unsatisfactory. In good high-priced ginghams it
may not fade, but in cheap ones it is apt to turn yellow.

7. _Brown._ Good usually in ginghams, but likely to fade in woolen

8. See chapters on costume design and dressmaking in “Shelter and
Clothing,” for suggestions in relation to colors one should wear.

       *       *       *       *       *

The above brief suggestions must be considered in the light of the
knowledge gained from the study of the chapters on textiles in the
companion volume, “Shelter and Clothing.”

In purchasing any materials for clothing or household furnishings,
remember that demand causes production and those who are intelligent will
make the right demands in the right places. Insist on the honest labeling
of goods and demand that for which you pay. Why should cotton
manufacturers label handkerchiefs which are cotton “pure linen,” and sell
them at ten cents? We too should know linen cannot be bought at that
price. The United States government employs experts to examine the
standards of textiles used in making army, navy, and other uniforms, and
will accept only those materials from the contracting manufacturers which
stand their tests. If a fuller discussion of the buying of textile
materials is desired, see Woolman and McGowan’s “Textiles,” particularly
the chapters on consumer’s judgment of textiles, on social and economic
conditions, and on clothing budgets.


1. What rules should be borne in mind in planning to buy the furnishings
for a home?

2. What should guide one in relation to where to buy?

3. What methods of ordering facilitate shopping?

4. What is meant by the ethics of shopping?

5. What important facts should you have in mind in buying table linen?

6. What knowledge should you have before going to purchase a silk dress?

7. What will you think about in selecting colors for your garments?

8. Mention five important facts to remember in purchasing wool fabrics.

9. How does the United States government protect itself in the purchase of

10. What knowledge should a wise shopper possess?

                              CHAPTER XXII


This old-fashioned word is used here to include the methods and processes
connected with the actual work of the house, excepting the cookery,
sewing, and laundering, which have fuller treatment elsewhere. This
department of household management is a combination of sanitation and the
economics of labor.

=Order in place.=——Keep articles of a kind together conveniently arranged
in places set apart for them, these places to be easily accessible. Make
an inventory of household goods in a card file,——household linen, personal
apparel, including lists of clothing put away for summer or winter,
dishes, and valuables. Each housekeeper must make a scheme that suits her
own needs, but a few suggestions may be helpful.

Keep _bed linen_ and _towels_, piled preferably on shelves, near bedrooms
and bathrooms, marked and numbered. Put the clean underneath when they
come from the laundry.

_Clothing_ should be kept in an orderly way by each member of the family.
Winter clothing and furs should be cleansed for putting away, protected
from moths by wrapping in paper, hanging in tar bags, putting in cedar
chests, or in trunks with some strong odored substances,——moth balls or
cedar oil. Camphor is too expensive. Summer clothing should be washed and
put away unstarched and unironed.

_Dishes and silver_ should be carefully arranged in very definite places,
and counted often enough to keep account of breakage and loss.

[Illustration: FIG. 79.——Madam, who keeps your house? _Courtesy of the
Woman’s City Club, Chicago._]

_Brooms_, _brushes_, _dusters_, and _cleansing materials_ should have a
place of their own, well ventilated when possible, and all articles put
away clean.

=Order in work and division of labor.=——This depends so largely upon the
number of workers, and upon the equipment of the house that no definite
plan can be made for all. The question must be differently answered for
the woman who has a helper one day a week, or with one or two, or with a
large staff of workers. However, there should be some definite plan for
the days of the week and the hours of the day, and some division of work
among the members of the family or between the family and paid helpers.
The young people of the family should each have some regular piece of
work, at least in their own rooms; and the paid helpers should have a
definite plan given them, including some hours to themselves, as regular
as possible. There are emergencies that upset even the most perfect
system, and these must be met as they come, but a fair amount of work at
regular times should be the system.

“Domestic service” is too large a social and economic problem to discuss
at length here. Miss Jane Addams calls it “belated industry,” meaning that
in domestic work we are far behind the productive industries of commerce
in organization. We are trying experiments in putting work out, and having
helpers come in, and in time we may bring order out of chaos when
employers and employees are all properly trained and have the right
relation to each other.

=Processes of housewifery.=——Good working equipment, including
labor-saving apparatus, is an essential; and we must have knowledge of the
effect of different cleansing materials on fabrics, wood, paint, glass,
and metal.

=Equipment.=——_Brooms_ should be made of pliable straw (broom corn), be
evenly made, with a light and comfortable handle.

_Brushes_ may include the whisk broom, soft brush of bristles both short
and long handled for floors, a long handled brush of wool or soft material
for walls, ceilings, and cornices, a soft brush for furniture, a thin
brush for radiators, a silver brush, and stiff scrubbing brush. The
variety of brushes at a furnishing shop is very large, and interesting to
study. It is economy to buy good quality when you can, and if cleaned and
not abused they last a long time. Wash the brushes in soapsuds and water,
drain and dry before putting away. A bamboo beater is convenient. The
dustpan should have a narrow cover at the handle side, and a strong

_Carpet sweepers_ prevent dust from flying and are easy to use, but
inclined to wear off the pile of the carpet.

_Vacuum cleaners_ are a necessity in crowded city quarters, where we
cannot beat and shake dusty carpets and rugs out of windows, on the roof,
or in the street, on account of our neighbors. That we cannot all have
them does not make them less necessary. While they may involve no less
muscular exertion they remove dust and old dirt in a remarkable way from
fabrics, and are very useful for taking dirt from cracks in the floor and
woodwork and from upholstered furniture. The principle of operation
differs with different makes, and some are less effective than others, but
there are several patterns that do good work and are not expensive.
Experiment with one at the first opportunity. A room cleaned in this way
is markedly different in odor from a room that has been swept with a
broom, even when this is well done.

A good vacuum cleaner must have an air conveying system, a separator or
other means of disposal of the material picked up, and a vacuum producer.
They may be divided, according to the method employed, into those worked
by bellows, by fan, by rotary pump and piston pump. This is a problem to
take to the class in physics.

_Cleaning cloths._——Have a good supply of cheesecloth dusters, and heavier
cloth for work on the floors. A sponge and chamois are useful. The mop,
which is a cloth or fiber fabric on a handle, is something that we ought
to banish when we can, for it is hard to keep clean, and is a trap for
bacteria. A substitute for the common mop is a long handle with a cross
bar covered with corrugated rubber, which is held down on the cloth, and
rubbed back and forth but not fastened to the cloth. Avoid the use of
linty old cloths, because the thread and lint clog the traps and drains.

Cleaning cloths should be boiled in strong soap suds, rinsed, and
thoroughly dried before putting away. This is a difficult rule to enforce,
for it is a temptation to tuck such things away where they will not show.
Watch this matter as you do the garbage pail. When a cloth is too dirty to
wash clean, burn it or send it away with paper refuse.

_Cleaning materials._——Air, sunshine, and water are the great purifiers,
plus muscular energy or the power of machinery, but we frequently use
chemical aids. These should all be kept in stock.

_Soaps and alkalies._——White and yellow soap, some washing powder, sal
soda, caustic soda, household ammonia. Buy these in quantities if you have
room to store them, and if they will not be used too lavishly because the
supply is large. The soap is not much cheaper by the box, but it hardens
with age, and then it wastes less rapidly when used.

_Oils and polishes._——Crude oil, kerosene, a mixture of linseed oil,
vinegar, and turpentine, one part each, cottonseed oil, alcohol.

_Acids._——A solution of oxalic acid marked poison. Vinegar is on hand
among kitchen supplies.

_Gritty substances._——Rotten stone, whiting, some gritty soap of a kind
that does not scratch, a gritty powder, or fine sand for coarse work.

_Disinfectant and deodorizers._——A weak solution of carbolic acid marked
poison, chloride of lime, or some reliable preparation[26] (though these
are rather expensive), rock salt, and coarse common salt.

=Methods of cleaning.=——We must first consider what the substance is that
has to be removed. The fabrics and upholstery used in furnishing catch
dust which contains lint, grit, organic material from our bodies, and
bacteria. Fabrics also become spotted (see next chapter). The walls and
ceilings, floors and cracks, catch dust. All wood and glass surfaces
become soiled from the touch of even clean fingers, and the moisture of
the air mixed with dust dulls them. Metal surfaces oxidize, and this
oxidized layer must be rubbed off.

_To clean fabrics._——If you live in a suburb or in the country, brush,
shake, and beat articles to be cleaned out of doors, noticing the way of
the wind that the dust may not be carried back into the house.

To cleanse a rug, spread it on the grass, rub with a medium stiff brush
with white soap solution on the wrong side, turn it over, and rinse with
water from the hose; or better still, tack it by two corners to a wooden
wall, and then wash with hose. The city dweller must resort to the vacuum
cleaner, or rely upon a cleaning establishment. The other alternative is
to shake out the dust in the room, remove each article as it is cleaned,
let the dust settle, and take it out as well as it can be. One apartment
dweller heard this remark rise from the window below her: “Shut the window
quick. Those dirty people upstairs are brushing a rug out the window!”

_Painted surfaces_ and woodwork should be wiped off with a soft cloth
wrung out of tepid water. A small amount of neutral white soap solution in
the water can be used for paint if it is greasy, but alkalies are ruinous.

_A highly polished surface_ (piano) is cleaned by washing with a sponge
and tepid water, and rubbing until dry with a wet chamois wrung out of
cold water. This method was learned from a piano polisher, and it works
excellently. A dry chamois streaks the surface.

_The wood of furniture_ is kept clean by rubbing with a soft dry cloth,
but once in a while needs cleaning with crude oil or the mixture of oil,
turpentine, and vinegar. Bureau drawers need watching for finger marks.

_Glass_ is best cleaned by rubbing on a mixture of whiting and water.
Leave it to dry and rub off with a dry cloth. A fine gritty soap comes for
this purpose. Ammonia and water and a soft cloth work well, the success
depending upon the final polishing. Very soft tissue paper is satisfactory
for polishing.

_Marble, porcelain, and enamel_ need little more than white soap suds,
rinsed off and the surface dried. If spotted, use the finest kind of metal

_Metals._——Fine silver and plated ware should be kept polished by the
daily careful washing, rinsing in hot water. Silver will spot and tarnish.
Use whiting and alcohol, let it dry on, and rub off with a clean cloth or

The silver powders sold at the silversmith’s are very good, but the patent
powders and liquids should not be used, as they remove too much of the

_Brass and copper_ are polished with rotten stone and oil. If the metal is
spotted, use oxalic acid solution with the rotten stone. After rubbing
well, the metal should be washed off in hot soap suds and finished with a
dry cloth.

_Nickel plate_ keeps bright if kept clean by daily dry rubbing.

=Care of rooms.=——_The bedroom._——The daily care includes airing the room
and its closets, airing and making the bed, dusting, removing lint and
threads from the floor, and removing slops and bringing fresh water if
bathing apparatus is in the room.

_To make the bed._——The amount of airing of the bedclothes depends
somewhat upon the weather; bed linen absorbs too much damp if placed by
the window on a rainy or foggy day. Pull back the bedclothes and hang them
over a chair set front to the foot of the bed, seeing that the bedclothes
do not drag on the floor. On a bright, fresh day remove all the clothes
and hang them singly near the window. If there is a screen in the room,
this is convenient for this purpose. The blankets should be hung out on
the line once in a while, and washed twice a year. One important point in
the cleanliness of the bed is a pad or thick cloth placed on the mattress
under the sheet. The mattress should be sunned and aired often, and beaten
or cleaned with the vacuum cleaner.

To make the bed, place the cover on the mattress, lay the under sheet
straight, tuck in firmly at top and bottom, and fold the sides under
straight, making angles at the corners. Put each piece on separately,
turning the upper sheet down over the others. The cover is sometimes
placed over all, and a strip to match over the pillows.

_Care of the washstand._——This is all important, and cannot be neglected a
day, without causing an unpleasant odor. The jars containing slops should
be rinsed in cold water, washed out in warm soap suds, dried, and aired.
If the ware is china, hot water may crackle the glaze, and then it is
impossible to remove odors. Wash and dry all the small articles and wipe
out and refill the water pitcher.

_Care of the bedroom at night._——Fold back, or remove the covers, and lay
the bedclothes partly back. See that drinking water is in the room, and
lighting conveniences.

=The living room, dining room, and halls.=——The daily care consists in
setting furniture and such small articles as the pictures and ornaments
straight, removing lint and dust from the floor, dusting wherever needed.

=The weekly cleaning of all rooms.=——Whether a thorough cleaning is needed
weekly, depends upon the situation of the house, and the number of people
who use the rooms. The rooms in a country house set in wide green spaces
do not need cleaning so often as those of a city house.

_General order for all rooms._——Dust all small articles, place them
together and cover them. Dust and clean off furniture and take the lighter
pieces from the room. Cover what remains. Clean the textile fabrics in
the best way available. Brush the walls, with a special brush, or soft
cloth on a broom. Dust and cover pictures. Brush the rugs, or use vacuum
cleaner. If the floor is hardwood, brush it with a soft brush, taking
long, steady strokes from corner and sides to center. Take up dust in pan,
and carry away to burn, or put in dust can at once. Wipe the floor with
moist cloth, or with oiled cloth.

If there is a carpet and a broom is to be used, scatter pieces of wet
paper over it, moisten the broom, and sweep as directed for brushing,
using steady strokes and not allowing the dust to fly. The broom should be
washed and dried. If dust flies, allow it time to settle. Dust the
surfaces left exposed. Wipe off the woodwork if necessary, remove covers,
and replace all articles. To have the room perfectly clean, windows should
be washed, but if this is not convenient at the time, or the weather is
bad, rub them and dust the sashes. Wash mirrors and the glass of pictures.
This means much labor, and some people cannot accomplish it every week;
and different rooms should have different cleaning days. But such thorough
cleaning occasionally is necessary for keeping all articles in good
condition and also for the health of the family.

The old-fashioned yearly house cleaning seems hardly necessary if cleaning
is well done through the year, but in both fall and spring some extra
freshening may be necessary in the way of thorough cleansing of textiles
and furniture. All closets should have everything removed from them and
the whole closet cleansed. Drawers should come out, be emptied, washed and
aired, and fresh white or brown paper put in all.

=The bathroom and toilet.=——This needs very particular care, no matter
what the type may be. All drains and traps should be flushed daily, and a
solution of caustic soda put down weekly. If there is an odor about the
water closet, try salt first, and then some chloride preparation. The
basin, the tub, and the seat and basin of the toilet should be thoroughly
washed daily. When the bathroom is used by more than one person, all
should be taught to leave all the toilet equipment perfectly clean. If the
toilet is not of the water-closet type, even greater care should be taken.
Everything must be kept scrubbed clean, and chloride of lime should be
put down daily, if there is not a removable pail with earth. (See “Shelter
and Clothing,” p. 48.)

=Care of lamps.=——If kerosene is used, this is an important feature of

Have a tray for holding necessary articles, soft cloth, paper, strong,
sharp scissors, lamp chimney brush. When the lamp is to be cleaned, set it
upon this tray. Take off all the easily removable parts. Fill the lamp
through a funnel, and do not let the kerosene run over. Wipe off the
charred wick with paper, and wipe the burner. Wash off the lamp in warm
soap suds, wash and polish the chimney and shade, and replace. If you
cannot get rid of odor, take the burner apart, boil it in a solution of
washing soda, and put in a new wick. Cleaning a lamp is not nearly so
disagreeable as many people think it, when it is done with good will. To
shirk it means an unpleasant odor in the room and a poor light. Always
fill the lamp in the daytime and keep it away from the fire.

=Household insects.=——Keep out flies and mosquitoes by screens, but see
first that your premises are clean, and do what you can in the whole

Flies breed in dirty stables and mosquitoes in standing water. The stables
must be cleaned and kept so, and water drained off or kerosene put upon
it. Mosquitoes will breed in water in an empty milk bottle or old tomato
can. If flies enter the house, kill them in some way. Wire or net fly
killers cost only ten cents, and do good work. If the flies are very
numerous, catch them in wire traps, or burn pyrethrum powder in the room.
At night when they are on the ceiling, catch them in a glass of hot water
and soap, not quite full, by holding the glass under the fly and gently
knocking the glass against the ceiling. If the ceiling is high, tack an
empty can on the end of an old broom stick and set the glass in that.

Clothing moths are kept out by precautions already mentioned.

If bed bugs appear, go over the bed with great care and examine the
bedstead. Wash it off with kerosene, putting this well into the cracks. A
single insect may be brought in on the clothing. If they continue to
appear, all wall paper should be removed, woodwork varnished or painted.
It may be necessary to resort to fumigation, but this should be done by an
expert. Croton or water bugs are difficult to destroy, if they are once in
a house. No garbage should be left about, to attract them at night. There
are powders that drive them away, and another remedy is sulphur paste,
which comes for the purpose, and which may be spread on slices of potato.
The U. S. Department of Agriculture issues free bulletins on the
suppression of household insects.

=Precautions against fire.=——So many disastrous fires occur as a result of
a careless act that we need to train ourselves in caution. The matches
used should be of the safety type. They should be blown out, never shaken,
and never thrown into a basket of papers. When matches are used, always
have a small fire-proof receptacle in each room. Smokers are often
careless in regard to their matches, cigars, and pipes. Be careful in
summer to see that a breeze cannot blow some light curtain over a candle
or lamp.

If a kettle of fat catches fire, pour on sand, but never water. As a
general rule, extinguish a flame by covering it rather than by throwing on

If clothing catches on fire, wrap a rug or any large woolen article
tightly around the body. To rush into the air is fatal.

If a towel or apron catches fire, roll it up quickly before the blaze
spreads. This can be done without injury to the hands.

Small fire extinguishers are not expensive. Most kinds contain a solution
of soda and a bottle of sulphuric acid which mix when the extinguisher is
inverted, and throw out a stream of water charged with gas from a small
hose. This works well just as a fire starts. Extinguishers arranged to
throw a stream of carbon tetrachloride are also on the market.

=Repairs.=——Too often in planning the budget, and the daily work, the
housekeeper forgets to allow for the constant wear and tear on the house
itself, and its furnishings; but to preserve the beauty and usefulness of
both the house and furniture, as much thought and time are necessary as
for the repair of clothing. In addition to the care and cleaning, there
must be a constant attention to small repairs.

_Inspecting and reporting._——Have a series of cards in the card file, or
pages in the notebook, where needed repairs may be jotted down. Have a
regular time for looking over different parts of the house; and give a
brief daily look as you pass from room to room. Each member of the family
should be asked to report whatever goes wrong in his province,——a leaky
faucet, a squeaky door, or broken castor, a tear in a curtain, a shade
roller that does not work.

For large repairs, like a leak in the water or waste system or shingle on
a roof, a trained worker is needed; but for small repairs a special worker
from outside is too expensive, and there needs to be a handy person in the
house, who can put in a screw, and use a monkey wrench, touch up the paint
or varnish, or mend the wall paper. It is pleasant work, and in these days
when schools teach so much handicraft, there should be some one in the
family glad to do it.

_A repair outfit._——Have a shelf somewhere for the repair “kit.” Look at
the woodwork of your house, and see what is needed; whether paint, or
varnish, an oil mixture or stain, or all of them. Have on hand a small can
of each, and bottles of alcohol, turpentine, and glue. Two or three paint
brushes of good quality and of different sizes are needed. Keep a bundle
of wall paper including pieces of all the patterns on the walls. A box of
tools is needed, including a hammer, gimlet, screw driver, monkey wrench,
a sharp knife, with boxes of nails and screws of mixed kinds and sizes
such as may be found at any hardware store.


1. What are the reasons for keeping an inventory of household goods?

2. How should winter garments be cared for in summer?

3. Obtain a price list and estimate the cost of an equipment of brooms and
cleansing materials.

4. What are the advantages of a vacuum cleaner over a broom?

5. What are the best methods of removing dust? Of cleaning paint and
woodwork and glass?

6. How are metals cleaned?

7. What are the most important points in caring for a bedroom?

8. What is the order of work in a thorough cleaning of a room, and why?

9. How should plumbing be cleaned?

10. Is the old-fashioned order of work the best now——Monday, washing;
Tuesday, ironing; Wednesday, mending; Thursday and Friday, cleaning; and
Saturday, baking?

11. How may all the family help to some extent in household work?

12. Can you plan the best order of work for a day for the home worker who
has no help but some one to wash and iron?

13. What are the dangers from different household insects?

14. If a kerosene lamp suddenly blazes up, what should you do?

15. What is the principle involved in putting out a fire?

16. What are some of the simple methods of fire prevention?

17. What simple repairing can be done by members of the family?

                             CHAPTER XXIII

                      LAUNDERING AND DRY CLEANSING

“Washing is a necessity, ironing a luxury.” This terse sentence expresses
very clearly the relative value of the two large divisions of the
laundering process. The thorough washing of clothing is a most important
branch of household sanitation, upon which the health of the family and of
the whole community depends, for disease is communicable by means of
soiled garments and those that are imperfectly cleansed in unsanitary
houses and possibly in commercial laundries. The ideal city will have many
large and spotlessly clean laundries, where skilled labor intelligently
directed will insure clothing as clean as it can possibly be made.

There is an æsthetic element in laundering as well, for good washing
methods give a tinted white to fabrics that it is a pleasure to see, and
ironing makes a smoothness that is pleasant to the touch, and brings out
beauty of design, as in damasks and embroideries. There is an economic
feature, too, in that poor and rough methods of work in both washing and
ironing injure fabrics and shorten their term of usableness.

“Washing Day” has an ill repute that it does not deserve, for laundering
is a science and an art that it is a pleasure to practice, if one has
skill. Make it one of the household arts which you must carefully study,
and you will find it pleasurable as well as necessary.

=Soil in garments.=——The dust and dirt of the street and house that soil
our garments contain inorganic particles of earth, lint from textiles,
organic matter from animals and human beings, and also bacteria. The
material from our bodies consists of particles of skin, skin secretions,
and bacteria, which are collected in underwear and bed linen and towels.
Spots of grease and stains may fall upon our outer clothing, and fruit
stains affect table linen in particular.

=Cleansing agents.=——Water is the great cleanser, and if it is not
available in abundance and used freely, the washing is a failure. All
other agents are merely aids to the water or substitutes for it. In
primitive outdoor methods, still largely used in some countries, the
flowing water is the only agent, and yet the result is fairly good. We aid
the process by the use of soap or washing powders or ammonia.

The air and sun are also purifiers, and clothing should be exposed to
their action for drying whenever possible. There is a sweetness in air and
sun-dried clothing that no artificial drier seems to give. Probably there
takes place some oxidation of impurities present in very small amount and,
moreover, any bacteria still clinging to the fabric may be killed by the
sun’s rays. Heat is a purifier, oily substances being more readily removed
by hot water and soap than by cold; and the boiling temperature of water
renders bacteria and organic matter harmless.

Some mechanical action that forces water through the fabric is necessary,
and the method of accomplishing this is one of the important problems in
laundering. We seek a method that will be thorough, that will not injure
the fabric, and that will economize the muscular energy of the worker.
Beating, pounding, and rubbing are the old methods, the use of a machine
the new, and that is the best machine that meets all the requirements of
the properly conducted washing process as described below.

The _water_ should be soft and clean. Rain water is a perfectly soft
water and excellent for laundering if the cistern is kept clean, and free
from the dust of the roof. Lake, river, and well water are sometimes soft.
Strainers may be used on the faucets if at any time the water from these
sources becomes muddy. (See Chapter V for discussion of soft and hard

Hard water prevents the soap from lathering, and this must be counteracted
for laundering. _Temporary hardness_ is removed by boiling. _Permanent
hardness_ is not affected by boiling and can be overcome only by the
addition of some substance like ammonia, borax, or soda. Only enough of
these should be used to allow the soap to do its work, since they may
injure fabric and the skin of the worker.

_Soap_ is the most useful of the cleansing agents added to water. It may
have been accidentally made in the first place by some housewife who put a
greasy pot to soak with a solution of lye made from the ashes of her
hearth fire. Heat and alkali break up the fat into two parts, glycerin and
a fatty acid. The fatty acid combines with the alkali, giving soap, and
the glycerin remains free. Both animal and vegetable fats are used, and
different forms of alkali, usually potash or caustic soda, the former for
soft, the latter for hard, soap.

In these days soap is much better made in the factory than it can be at
home. In the factory the alkali is proportioned by weight, so that as
little free alkali is left as possible. Such a soap is called “neutral.”
Resin is added, in yellow laundry soaps, and is supposed to aid in forming
suds. When there is an excess of resin, as in some cheap soaps, it is hard
to rinse out and colors the clothes. Borax is sometimes added to soap, and
is useful when the water is hard, but not necessary in soft water. Naphtha
or some other petroleum oil in soap increases the cleansing property of
soap, by dissolving fatty or greasy impurities.

A _soap solution_ is essential for use in the boiler and in washing
machines and is useful for rubbing on spots before washing.

To make soap solution, cut up the soap and dissolve it in hot water, one
pound soap to one gallon of water. It should be strong enough to jelly
when cool, and may be kept in jars ready to use. Even more convenient are
soap chips which come by the barrel, but may be bought at pound rates.

=Bleaching and bluing agents.=——The sun, as it bleaches white fabrics, may
be counted in this group. Chemical bleaches are used to whiten clothes,
but should not be resorted to unless clothes are yellow from poor washing,
as in the end they weaken the fabric. Commercial laundries sometimes use
an excess of acid for this purpose. Cream of tartar is a harmless bleach.
Javelle water is another household bleach, chloride of lime being the
bleaching substance. This is also a good disinfectant.

_To use cream of tartar._——Dissolve cream of tartar in hot water, 1
teaspoonful to each quart. After the yellowed fabrics have been thoroughly
washed and rinsed, lay them overnight in a solution of this strength,
rinse, blue, and dry in the morning.

_Javelle water._——1/4 pound chloride of lime, 1 pound sal soda, 2 quarts
of cold water. Dissolve the chloride in half the water cold, and the sal
soda in the other half boiling. Stir together thoroughly, allow the
mixture to stand several hours, pour off the clear water with care, and
bottle it. Use a tablespoonful of the solution to a gallon of water, and
heat the yellow fabric in this mixture after thorough washing, for half an
hour, not allowing the temperature to rise above 100° F. Rinse very
thoroughly before bluing and drying.

=Bluing= is used to neutralize the slightly yellowish tint of the fabric,
when it cannot be completely bleached.

Ultramarine blue is sold in small balls and cakes.

Aniline blue is a strong color, and in a very dilute solution gives a
pleasing pearly tint to the fabric, especially when the violet tint is
used. Mix an ounce of the blue with one gallon water, and bottle for use.

Prussian blue is to be avoided, since it is a salt of iron, and often
yellows or spots the clothes. It is usually sold in liquid form. To test,
mix the liquid blue with a strong solution of washing soda and heat. If
the mixture turns red, and there is a reddish precipitate, the blue is
this salt of iron.

=Starch= is used to fill the interstices of fabrics and give a smoothness
and stiffness to the cloth that prevents the rumpling of garments. Both
wheat and cornstarch are used for laundry purposes when only the natural
starches are available, the wheat starch being better for home laundering,
as the cornstarch gives a quality that is too stiff and crackling.
Recently, however, the manufacturers have learned to make “thin boiling”
starches from corn and have placed on the market a variety of such
modifications of cornstarch for laundry use. Rice starch or “rice water”
is used for very thin muslins.

_To make starch._——For method of making, see starch experiments, Chapter
VIII. The starch must be perfectly smooth, and should be stirred while it
is boiling for a few minutes, and strained.


1. For lingerie, 1 teaspoonful of starch to 1 quart water.

2. For medium fabrics, 1-1/2 to 3 tablespoonfuls starch to 1 quart water.

3. For stiff work, 5 tablespoonfuls starch to 1 quart water.

=Ironing.=——The ironing process is the most difficult art in laundering,
and requires good tools, practice, and patience. In the summer it is an
exhausting labor unless an electric or gas iron is available. Much energy
may be saved in hot weather by omitting the ironing of certain articles.
Dish towels, even toilet towels, and soft underwear may be stretched and
folded, and are perfectly comfortable to use. Some women who do their own
work even fold sheets and pillow cases without ironing.

The smoothing of the fabric is accomplished by heated irons, or by
pressing between rollers in a mangle.

_To summarize._——The essential steps in laundering are: the forcing of
clear water through the fabric; loosening of the soil and stains by soap
and appropriate chemicals, sterilization by boiling temperature, drying
and sweetening in the air if possible. The less essential are bluing,
starching, and in some cases ironing.

=Laundry equipment.=——We are beginning to realize that a separate room for
laundering purposes is an essential in a well-equipped home. Such a
laundry will be light and well ventilated, will have washable floors,
walls, and ceilings, running water and hot water supply, sanitary tubs and
conveniences in the shape of machinery. We shall not have perfect
laundries until electric power is available at a fair price. Much is said
about electricity on the farm, and the progressive farmer who has his own
engine should not fail to use the power for all laundry work. Trolley
power should be available, and this use of electricity should be made
cooperative when practicable. In a few communities abroad and at home, the
power available in a creamery is used for laundering purposes as well.

Where there cannot be a separate laundry, take pains to have the equipment
as good as space will allow.

=The tubs.=——If possible, have three tubs, for this makes for economy of
time. Enameled tubs are the most sanitary, and be sure that they are
white. You cannot tell whether or not the clothes are clean and blued to
the proper tint in a buff-tinted tub, which you may be tempted to buy
because it is cheaper.

_Round portable tubs_, to be set upon a bench, should be of galvanized
iron, which is sanitary and light. Wooden tubs are things of the past,
unsanitary and heavy.

=Equipment for forcing water.=——The rubbing board is the old-time method,
yet it wears the fabric and wears out the worker, and should be used as
little as possible. If still considered necessary, it should be of glass
set in wood. The wooden board is unsanitary and the metal board may at any
moment develop a tiny crack that will tear the fabric.

Fortunately, many women are learning that the washing machine, properly
used, is a great economy of fabric, time, and strength. Many machines are
on the market, and we need to discriminate and to select the machine
constructed to force the water through the fabric without injury to the
fabric, and with the smallest amount of muscular energy and that properly
exerted without strain. Of course, if machine power is available, the
problem is easy. These many washers may be classed in four groups. One is
a revolving arrangement, sometimes consisting of two corrugated boards set
in the center of a tub of clothes, one objection being that the clothes
are sometimes torn. Another type has a revolving perforated inner cylinder
for the clothes, and an outer one for the soap and water. This is much
more expensive. Still a third rocks the clothes in soap and water and is
very effective. A fourth type makes use of suction.

The principle of cleansing by pressure and suction is used in several
machines and hand washers, and these are, on the whole, inexpensive and
practical for home work. The work is accomplished by an inverted cone,
pushed down on the clothes, and lifted. Such a washer is seen standing on
the floor in Fig. 80. The same figure also shows another of this type
standing on the table, and still another to be used in the boiler.

Most of these devices can be used with power.

=The boiler.=——A portable boiler is convenient. It should be made of good
quality tin with copper bottom and must be thoroughly washed and dried
after using.

=The wringer= is of great assistance to good work. It should be a good
machine having hard rubber rollers, ball-bearing action, and strong
springs at the side. It must be cleaned after using, dried, the pressure
loosened, and the whole kept covered.

=The drier.=——If clothesline or heavy wire is used, this must be of good
quality, and well cared for. The clothesline should be taken in after each
using. A revolving drier is convenient, and may even be used in apartment
houses. The steam drier has a rack on which clothes are hung, and
economizes space and time.

[Illustration: FIG. 80.——Simple laundry equipment for the home. _A.
Fowler, Photographer._]

=Irons.=——The hand iron is heated in several different ways. The
old-fashioned iron heated on the stove, and the electric iron are the most
satisfactory. In buying hand irons, select those of good weight, for this
makes the work easier. Three or four will suffice for ordinary work, and
they should weigh from 4 or 5 to 7 pounds. A small pointed iron is
necessary for fine work, and for sleeves there is a special, narrow iron.
The irons must be kept clean, and perfectly dry when not in use. Wax tied
in a cloth is a good cleaner, and should be at hand during the ironing
process. A stand is necessary on which the iron may rest, and paper or
cloth on which to rub the iron when it comes from the stove.

Electric irons are proving very satisfactory, and although the first cost
is high, they should be used wherever possible.

=The mangle.=——Small mangles, used either cold or heated, are now made for
family use, and are great labor savers in flat work. Towels and small flat
pieces may even be put through the wringer, while they are still damp,
with very good effect.

=The ironing board.=——This should be firm, well padded, and covered with
clean cloth. The cover may be made to tie on so that it can be easily
changed. Ironing boards should be placed in a good light. Boards may be
attached to the wall, and these have firm support. In a small room, the
board can be made to turn up.

=Other apparatus.=——A hamper or bag for soiled clothes, a basket for
clean, pail and dipper, a clothes stick, a large pan, a small and a large
saucepan, a teakettle for boiling water, a knife, wooden spoon, common
spoons and measures, a sprinkler or brush for sprinkling clothes, a
clotheshorse, clothes hangers for waists and dresses. The soiled clothes
bag should be washed weekly, and the hamper should have a removable lining
also for weekly washing.

Monday and Tuesday are the traditional days for washing and ironing, but
the woman who does her own work, or perhaps has a helper, or one maid, may
find it a good plan to do no more on Monday than the mending, removing of
stains, and sorting. This gives time to make the house orderly, after
Sunday, and to prepare food, some of which may last over the next two
days. Some of the clothes may then be soaked overnight.

=Order of work.=——Mending, sorting the clothes, removing stains, soaking,
washing, boiling, rinsing, bluing, starching, drying, sprinkling and
rolling, ironing, folding, airing, sorting, and distributing.

=Methods.=——Mending and removing spots from fabrics are discussed in
“Shelter and Clothing.” A few common stains are removed as follows:

_Fruit and coffee stains._——Hold the spotted fabric tightly over a bowl
and pour boiling water through it. Of course, remove stains at once if

_Peach stains_ are removed by Javelle water. Apply a few drops and pour
boiling water through at once.

_Cocoa and chocolate stains_ are helped by borax, and by soap and cold

_Ink._——Liquid ink removers provided for the library table are convenient.
Wet the spot, use 1, dry with a blotter, and use 2, and rinse at once. The
same thing is done by wetting, applying an oxalic acid solution first,
then Javelle water and rinsing.

_Blood stains_ are removed by soaking in lukewarm water, and washing in a
soap solution with a little ammonia and kerosene, or with a naphtha soap.

=Sorting.=——Separate the fabrics, wool from cotton and so on, and colored
cotton from white; also separate body linen from bed linen and from table

=Soaking.=——This hastens the process since it loosens dirt, and one
laboratory experiment seemed to show that soaked clothes are freer from
bacteria, than those that are not.

Shrinkable fabrics cannot be soaked. Body and table linen should be soaked
separately. The water should be cold, softened with a little ammonia.

=Washing.=——Wash woolens and silk underwear first, in warm, not hot, soap
suds, wring out, rinse, and hang to dry. Use a white, neutral soap. Have
the same temperature for both washing and rinsing. Boiling water shrinks
wool, and yellows silk. Hand-knit wool, as shawls and jackets, stretch in
drying. If dried in a bag or pillow case, this is partly obviated, or lay
them on a pad on the table.

Prepare hot water in the tub, with dissolved soap in it, either for
handwork or a washer. Wash table linen first, then bed linen and towels,
and next the body clothes. Soap the articles well, and rub or use a
washer. It is well to wash handkerchiefs by themselves, boiling in a pail
for half an hour. If one of the family has a cold or influenza, soak his
handkerchiefs in a solution of salt and water and perhaps a little
bleaching powder before washing and boiling.

Make fresh suds often. This means heavy labor in the case of portable
tubs, but clothes cannot be cleansed in dirty water.

_Colored cotton and linen_ articles may be washed last. They should be put
first into salt and water to set the color, washed in tepid water with
white soap, rinsed thoroughly and hung in the shade, wrong side out.

=Boiling.=——Boil the washed clothes in soap solution for ten minutes. In
case of infectious disease, all the patient’s linen should be boiled an
hour,[27] and of course exposed clothing is kept separate through the
whole process.

=Rinsing.=——This must be thorough and two or three waters must be used.
This is the stage where many laundresses fail. The suction washers are
very useful here.

=Wringing.=——This must take place between every two stages of the process.

=Bluing.=——Add the bluing solution to clean water to the desired shade,
shake each piece, put it through the water, and wring out at once. Do not
use bluing in excess.

=Starching.=——Next the fabrics that need a little thin starch may be
starched. _Starch_ for stiff collars and shirts is rubbed in at the time
of ironing.

=Drying.=——Hang out the clothes, having pieces of a kind together, and the
threads straight. If out of doors, hang in such a way that the air will
have easy access.

Take down, when dry, and _fold_ lightly in a basket.

_Sprinkle_, roll tightly, and leave them until ironing time. Thin fabrics
should be very moist, as they dry quickly.

=Ironing.=——This art must be acquired by watching the expert and by

[Illustration: FIG. 81.——Folding of nightdresses. _Courtesy of Balderston
and Limerick._]

Shake or stretch the article, and lay it straight upon the board. Iron
from right to left, arranging the material with the left hand, and iron
with the long thread of the material. Bring the article on the board
toward you. Iron first the parts that will wrinkle least, such as ruffles
and trimming and sleeves. Embroidery and damask should be ironed on a very
soft material like a Turkish towel, right side down. Always iron until the
fabric is dry.

All tucks and folds must be carefully straightened, and if ironed crooked,
they must be made very wet and done over again. When ironing a waist will
you do the sleeve or the body first?

Large flat pieces, towels, and napkins are folded in the ironing. Doilies
and centerpieces should not be folded.

Folding is necessary in order to make the garments of convenient shape for
putting away. Figures 81 and 82 will suggest the method for some garments.

[Illustration: FIG. 82.——Folding of corset covers. _Courtesy of Balderston
and Limerick._]

=Commercial laundries.=——The convenience of these has been suggested
already. When we can make them all sanitary, and when methods are used
that will not injure the fabric, we can safely put this kind of work out
of the house, but at present many commercial laundries are unsanitary and
ruin the clothes.

=Cost of laundering.=——We cannot have good service without paying for it,
and one cause of poor laundry work is the public demand for cheap work,
and this too has its effect upon the laundry worker. The housekeeper often
fails to have the laundry ready when the wagon calls, and yet demands a
quick return, which also results in poor work.

If you have never done any laundering and expect a laundress to do up fine
lingerie at a low rate, it will be a revelation to you to attempt to iron
a shirt waist or lingerie dress, and then decide what remuneration you
would yourself like to receive. One class of high school girls, after a
course of six laundry lessons, decided that a dollar a dozen was fair pay
for _ordinary_ work! This is an interesting question for class and home

=Dry cleaning.=——This is accomplished by gasoline, naphtha, or benzine,
and should not be attempted by the city dweller. In the country or
suburbs, it should be done out of doors, far from any source of fire. Use
a basin or tub, and immerse the article in the liquid, using as much as if
water, lifting gently up and down. Rinse in a second portion. A suction
washer may be used with large garments. Do not rub the fabric in the
liquid. Lift, drain, and hang to dry. Keep the can in a safe place, safety
being insured by coolness.

_Powdered French chalk_ may be rubbed into delicate silk and wool, where
there is a grease spot, or an oiliness from the skin. Leave for
twenty-four hours, then shake, and brush out.

_Ether and chalk_ may be used, but the ether affects some people
unpleasantly, and dissolves out some delicate colors. _Meal_ may also be
used for cleaning wool, especially knitted fabrics, but it is difficult to
shake out, and it needs blowing out on the clothesline.

_Laboratory management._——A few lessons can be given in laundering where
there is no complete equipment. Dish towels, doilies, and napkins can at
least be washed in dishpans in the school kitchen, and a few irons
provided. A few such lessons are helpful at least in developing an
appreciation of what good laundering means at home and to the community.

The following order of practical work is suggested, when there is a school
equipment. (From “A Laundry Manual,” courtesy of Balderston and Limerick.)

                              FIRST COURSE

  I. Make Javelle water, detergent, soap, and give general notes.

  II. Removal of stains.
       Table linen.
         1 tablecloth for every four students.
         1 napkin for each student.
         1 doily for each student.

  III. _Wash._
      Bed linen.
        1 sheet for every four students.
        1 pillow case for each student.
        Tablecloth, napkins, and doilies.

  IV. _Wash._
        Drawers and stockings.
        Sheets and pillow cases.

  V. _Wash._
      Towels and plain colored pieces.
      Drawers and stockings.

  VI. _Wash._
      Nightdress and corset covers.
      Towel and colored clothes.

  VII. _Wash._
      Flannel underwear.
      Nightdress and corset covers.

  VIII. _Wash._
      Embroideries and flannels.

                             SECOND COURSE

  I. _Wash._
      White skirts.
     _Wash and iron._
      Doilies and drawn work.

  II. _Wash._
      White skirts.

  III. _Wash._
       Knit and crocheted articles and flannel waists.

  IV. _Wash._
      Woolen dress goods, down quilt, and blankets.
      Flannel waists.

  V. _Wash._
     Collars and cuffs, child’s dress, ribbons.
     Finish quilt and blankets.

  VI. _Wash._
      Silks, collars and cuffs, child’s dress.

  VII. _Wash._
      Laces, lace curtains.

  VIII. _Wash._
      Collarettes, stocks, handkerchiefs.
      Collarettes, stocks, handkerchiefs.
      Finish lace curtains.


1. Why is ironing less necessary than washing?

2. What are the chief cleansing and purifying agents?

3. Explain the difference between hard and soft water. Remedies for

4. What is soap, and how does it act?

5. Why do we blue and starch clothes?

6. Describe the methods of forcing water through clothes.

7. Why are clothes boiled?

8. What are some of the labor saving devices and methods in washing and

9. Why must clothes be sorted according to fabrics?

10. What are the essentials of a good washing machine?

11. Make a list of the cleansers and chemicals necessary to have on the
laundry shelf.

12. Obtain price lists and estimate the cost of simple but sufficient
laundry equipment.

13. Obtain a laundry list from a commercial laundry. Make a list of the
articles washed at home, and compare cost with the cost of putting out
clothes, estimating fuel, cleansers, labor, and some wear and tear of



                     Elements required by the body

  Iodine (traces)
  Fluorine (traces)
  Silicon (traces)

                  Foodstuffs furnishing these elements

Proteins——furnish carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, and
sometimes phosphorus and iron

Fats——furnish carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

Carbohydrates——furnish carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

Mineral matter——furnishes phosphorus, iron, calcium, magnesium, sodium,
potassium, chlorine, iodine, fluorine

Water——furnishes hydrogen and oxygen

                 General functions of these foodstuffs

To supply energy

To supply building material

To regulate body processes

                  Special functions of each foodstuff

Proteins——supply energy; also nitrogen, sulphur, and sometimes phosphorus
for body building

Fats——supply energy in the most concentrated form

Carbohydrates——supply energy in the most economical form

Mineral matter——supplies building material and helps to regulate body

Water——supplies necessary material (about 60 per cent of body being water)
and helps to regulate body processes

       Examples of food materials rich in each of the foodstuffs

  Lean meats

  Meat fats
  Vegetable oils
  Yolk of egg

  Cereals and cereal products
  Potatoes and other starchy
  Sweet fruits

  _Mineral matter_
  Green vegetables
  Whole wheat and other
  whole cereal products
  Egg yolk

  Fresh fruits
  Fresh vegetables
  Beverages, including water
  as such

                      Digestion of the foodstuffs

Having seen what each of the foodstuffs does in nourishing the body, we
may now see how they are prepared for the use of the body in the digestive

=Digestion of carbohydrate.=——The simplest carbohydrate is a sugar which
cannot be broken up into other sugars. Such a simple sugar is called a
monosaccharid. There are two common in foods, glucose and fructose; a
third, galactose, is derived from more complex sugars. Two simple sugars
united chemically make a double sugar or disaccharid; thus cane sugar or
sucrose will yield glucose and fructose, while milk sugar or lactose will
yield glucose and galactose, and maltose will yield two portions of
glucose. These three disaccharids are the only common ones. Starches,
dextrins, and cellulose or vegetable fiber are made of many simple
glucose groups, and are hence called polysaccharids. All carbohydrates to
be used by the body must be reduced to simple sugars. Glucose needs no
digestion therefore, but the double sugars must be split by enzymes into
two simple sugars in the intestinal juice, one for each kind, namely,
sucrase (sucrose-splitting), maltase (maltose-splitting) and lactase
(lactose-splitting). The digestion of starches and dextrins begins in the
mouth, where amylase (starch-splitting) changes starch first to dextrin
and finally to maltose, and maltase may change a little of the maltose so
formed into glucose. In the stomach there are no enzymes acting on
carbohydrates, but the digestion may continue under the influence of
swallowed saliva for a time. In the pancreatic juice there is another
amylase, which completes the splitting of starch to maltose, and then the
intestinal maltase can reduce this to glucose, which will be absorbed.
Cellulose cannot be digested and simply serves to add bulk to the diet.

=Digestion of fat.=——A fat is made up of two parts, one a fatty acid, the
other glycerol. Fat cannot be absorbed by the body until it is split into
these two parts. A fat splitting enzyme is called a lipase. There is none
in the mouth; one in the stomach works only on fat in the state of
emulsion; the most powerful is found in the pancreatic juice. Since fat
cannot be digested in the mouth nor to any great extent in the stomach, it
is bad to have food coated with it, for the protein and carbohydrates will
have to wait till the fat is digested away, before they can be digested;
that is, till the intestine is reached. This is one reason why pastries
and fried foods are hard to digest.

=Digestion of protein.=——There are no enzymes in the mouth acting on
protein. In the stomach, the hydrochloric acid helps to make it soften and
swell, and then pepsin begins its digestion. Protein, like fat and
carbohydrate, can be subdivided into smaller and smaller portions, finally
being reduced to a form which the body can absorb, namely, amino acids, of
which there may be 17 or 18 kinds from a single protein.

The digestion in the stomach produces chiefly large fragments of the
original protein, called proteoses. In the pancreatic juice is a powerful
enzyme called trypsin, which digests proteins, first to fragments, next
smaller than proteoses, called peptones, and finally breaks these peptones
into amino acids. In the intestinal juice is another enzyme called
erepsin, which also forms amino acids from proteoses and peptones, thus
finishing any digestion of protein left incomplete by the trypsin.

                    Fate of the absorbed foodstuffs

Carbohydrates, absorbed as glucose or other monosaccharids, are carried by
the portal blood to the liver, and thence passed into the blood, to be
burned in the muscles, if needed for fuel, or stored temporarily in the
liver and muscles as glycogen (a polysaccharid yielding glucose) for
future conversion to sugar when required as fuel.

Fats, passing through the intestinal wall as fatty acids and glycerol,
enter the lymph largely as fat again, and finally pass to the blood to be
burned in the muscles for fuel, or to be stored as fat until needed.

Proteins pass into the blood as amino acids. Those needed for building
material are taken up by the cells (especially cells of the muscles) and
those not required for this purpose are freed from their nitrogen (in the
liver or muscles) and then burned for fuel.

For a fuller discussion of the fate of the absorbed foodstuffs see Chapter
IV of Sherman’s “Chemistry of Food and Nutrition.”


                               _TABLE I_

           Edible Organic Nutrients and Fuel Values of Foods

Note 1.——Adapted from Table I, Appendix, “Chemistry of Food and
Nutrition,” Sherman. See this volume for more complete list. Also Bulletin
28, Office of Experiment Stations, U. S. Department of Agriculture.

Note 2.——E. P. signifies edible portion; A. P. signifies as purchased.

                            |        |      | CARBO-|  FUEL  | 100-
          FOOD              |PROTEIN | FAT  |HYDRATE| VALUE  |CALORIE
                            |(N×6.25)| PER  |  PER  |  PER   |PORTION
                            |PER CENT| CENT |  CENT | POUND  | GRAMS
                            |        |      |       |CALORIES|
  Apples               E. P.|    .4  |   .5 |  14.2 |   235  |  159
                       A. P.|    .3  |   .3 |  10.8 |   214  |  212
  Asparagus, fresh     A. P.|   1.8  |   .2 |   3.3 |   100  |  450
    cooked             A. P.|   2.1  |  3.3 |   2.2 |   213  |  213
  Bacon, smoked        E. P.|  10.5  | 64.8 |  ———— |  2840  |   16
                       A. P.|   9.5  | 59.4 |  ———— |  2372  |   19
  Bananas              E. P.|   1.3  |   .6 |  22.0 |   447  |  101
                       A. P.|    .8  |   .4 |  14.3 |   290  |  156
  Beans, dried              |  22.5  |  1.8 |  59.6 |  1565  |   29
    lima, dried             |  18.1  |  1.5 |  65.9 |  1586  |   29
    string, fresh      E. P.|   2.3  |   .3 |   7.4 |   184  |  241
                       A. P.|   2.1  |   .3 |   6.9 |   176  |  259
    baked, canned           |   6.9  |  2.5 |  19.6 |   583  |   78
  Beef                      |        |      |       |        |
    fore quarter, lean E. P.|  18.9  | 12.2 |  ———— |   842  |   54
                       A. P.|  14.7  |  9.5 |  ———— |   655  |   69
    hind quarter, lean E. P.|  20.0  | 13.4 |  ———— |   907  |   50
                       A. P.|  16.7  | 11.2 |  ———— |   757  |   60
    porterhouse steak  E. P.|  21.9  | 20.4 |  ———— |  1230  |   37
                       A. P.|  19.1  | 17.9 |  ———— |  1077  |   42
    roast              A. P.|  22.3  | 28.6 |  ———— |  1576  |   29
    round, lean        E. P.|  21.3  |  7.9 |  ———— |   694  |   64
    sirloin steak      E. P.|  18.9  | 18.5 |  ———— |  1099  |   41
                       A. P.|  16.5  | 16.1 |  ———— |   960  |   48
  Beets, cooked        E. P.|   2.3  |   .1 |   7.4 |   180  |  252
  Bluefish             E. P.|  19.4  |  1.2 |  ———— |   402  |  113
  Bread, graham             |   8.9  |  1.8 |  52.1 |  1189  |   38
    toasted                 |  11.5  |  1.6 |  61.2 |  1385  |   33
    white, homemade         |   9.1  |  1.6 |  53.3 |  1199  |   38
    average                 |   9.2  |  1.3 |  53.1 |  1182  |   38
    whole wheat             |   9.7  |   .9 |  49.7 |  1113  |   41
  Butter                    |   1.0  | 85.0 |  ———— |  3491  |   13
  Cabbage             E. P. |   1.6  |   .3 |   5.6 |   143  |  317
                      A. P. |   1.4  |   .2 |   4.8 |   121  |  376
  Carrots, fresh      E. P. |   1.1  |   .4 |   9.3 |   204  |  221
                      A. P. |    .9  |   .2 |   7.4 |   158  |  286
  Celery              E. P. |   1.1  |   .1 |   3.3 |    84  |  542
                      A. P. |    .9  |   .1 |   2.6 |    68  |  672
  Cheese, American pale     |  28.8  | 35.9 |    .3 |  1990  |   23
    Full cream              |  25.9  | 33.7 |   2.4 |  1890  |   24
  Chicken, broilers   E. P. |  21.5  |  2.5 |  ———— |   493  |   92
                      A. P. |  12.8  |  1.4 |  ———— |   289  |  157
  Chocolate                 |  12.9  | 48.7 |  30.3 |  2768  |   16
  Cocoa                     |  21.6  | 28.9 |  37.7 |  2258  |   20
  Cod, dressed        A. P. |  11.1  |   .2 |  ———— |   209  |  217
  Corn, green               |   2.8  |  1.2 |  19.0 |   455  |  102
  Corn meal                 |   9.2  |  1.9 |  75.4 |  1620  |   28
  Crackers, butter    A. P. |   9.6  | 10.1 |  71.6 |  1887  |   23
    soda              A. P. |   9.8  |  9.1 |  73.1 |  1875  |   24
    water             A. P. |  10.7  |  8.8 |  71.9 |  1855  |   24
  Cream                     |   2.5  | 18.5 |   4.5 |   883  |   50
  Cucumbers           E. P. |    .8  |   .2 |   3.1 |    79  |  575
                      A. P. |    .7  |   .2 |   2.6 |    68  |  666
  Eggs, uncooked      E. P. |  13.4  | 10.5 |  ———— |   672  |   68
                      A. P. |  11.9  |  9.3 |  ———— |   594  |   76
  Farina                    |  11.0  |  1.4 |  76.3 |  1640  |   28
  Figs, dried               |   4.3  |   .3 |  74.2 |  1437  |   32
  Flour, wheat, average     |        |      |       |        |
    high & med. grades      |  11.4  |  1.0 |  75.1 |  1610  |   28
  Fowls               E. P. |  19.3  | 16.3 |  ———— |  1017  |   45
                      A. P. |  13.7  | 12.3 |  ———— |   752  |   60
  Gelatin                   |  91.4  |   .1 |  ———— |  1660  |   27
  Grapes              E. P. |   1.3  |  1.6 |  19.2 |   437  |  104
                      A. P. |   1.0  |  1.2 |  14.4 |   328  |  138
  Haddock             E. P. |  17.2  |   .3 |  ———— |   324  |  140
                      A. P. |   8.4  |   .2 |  ———— |   160  |  283
  Ham, fresh, lean    E. P. |  25.0  | 14.4 |  ———— |  1042  |   44
                      A. P. |  24.8  | 14.2 |  ———— |  1030  |   44
  Hominy                    |  8.3   |   .6 |  79.0 |  1609  |   28
  Honey                     |    .4  | ———— |  81.2 |  1481  |   31
  Kumyss                    |   2.8  |  2.1 |   5.4 |   234  |  194
  Lamb, chops, broiled E. P.|  21.7  | 29.9 |  ———— |  1614  |   28
  leg, roast                |  19.7  | 12.7 |  ———— |   876  |   52
  Lemons               E. P.|   1.0  |   .7 |   8.5 |   201  |  226
                       A. P.|    .7  |   .5 |   5.9 |   140  |  323
  Lettuce              E. P.|   1.2  |   .3 |   2.9 |    87  |  525
                       A. P.|   1.0  |   .2 |   2.5 |    72  |  633
  Lobster, whole       E. P.|  16.4  |  1.8 |    .4 |   379  |  120
                       A. P.|   5.9  |   .7 |    .2 |   139  |  326
  Macaroni                  |  13.4  |   .9 |  74.1 |  1625  |   28
  Milk, condensed,          |        |      |       |        |
  sweetened                 |   8.8  |  8.3 |  54.1 |  1480  |   31
  skimmed                   |   3.4  |   .3 |   5.1 |   167  |  273
  whole                     |   3.3  |  4.0 |   5.0 |   314  |  145
  Mutton, fore quarter E. P.|  15.6  | 30.9 |  ———— |  1543  |   29
                       A. P.|  12.3  | 24.5 |  ———— |  1223  |   37
  hind quarter         E. P.|  16.7  | 28.1 |  ———— |  1450  |   31
                       A. P.|  13.8  | 23.2 |  ———— |  1197  |   38
  Oatmeal                   |  16.1  |  7.2 |  67.5 |  1811  |   25
  Olives, green        E. P.|   1.1  | 27.6 |  11.6 |  1357  |   33
  Onions, fresh        E. P.|   1.6  |   .3 |   9.9 |   220  |  206
                       A. P.|   1.4  |   .3 |   8.9 |   199  |  228
  Oranges              E. P.|    .8  |   .2 |  11.6 |   233  |  195
                       A. P.|    .6  |   .1 |   8.5 |   169  |  268
  Oysters              E. P.|   6.2  |  1.2 |   3.7 |   228  |  199
  Pea soup, canned     A. P.|   3.6  |   .7 |   7.6 |   232  |  196
  Peaches, fresh       E. P.|    .7  |   .1 |   9.4 |   188  |  242
                       A. P.|    .5  |   .1 |   7.7 |   153  |  297
  Peas, canned         A. P.|   3.6  |   .2 |   9.8 |   252  |  180
  green                E. P.|   7.0  |   .5 |  16.9 |   454  |  100
  Pies, apple               |   3.1  |  9.8 |  42.8 |  1233  |   37
  squash                    |   4.4  |  8.4 |  21.7 |   817  |   56
  Potato chips         A. P.|   6.8  | 39.8 |  46.7 |  2598  |   17
  Potatoes, white, raw E. P.|   2.2  |   .1 |  18.4 |   378  |  120
                       A. P.|   1.8  |   .1 |  14.7 |   302  |  149
  sweet, raw           E. P.|   1.8  |   .7 |  27.4 |   558  |   81
                       A. P.|   1.4  |   .6 |  21.9 |   447  |  102
  Prunes, dried        E. P.|   2.1  | ———— |  73.3 |  1368  |   33
                       A. P.|   1.8  | ———— |  62.2 |  1160  |   39
  Radishes             E. P.|   1.3  |   .1 |   5.8 |   133  |  341
                       A. P.|    .9  |   .1 |   4.0 |    91  |  488
  Raisins             E. P. |   2.6  |  3.3 |  76.1 |  1562  |   29
  Rice                      |   8.0  |   .3 |  79.0 |  1591  |   29
  Salmon, dressed     A. P. |  13.8  |  8.1 |  ———— |   582  |   78
  Shad, whole         E. P. |  18.8  |  9.5 |  ———— |   727  |   61
                      A. P. |   9.4  |  4.8 |  ———— |   367  |  127
  Shredded wheat            |  10.5  |  1.4 |  77.9 |  1660  |   27
  Spinach, fresh      A. P. |   2.1  |   .3 |   3.2 |   109  |  417
  Squash              E. P. |   1.4  |   .5 |   9.0 |   209  |  217
                      A. P. |    .7  |   .2 |   4.5 |   103  |  443
  Strawberries              |   1.0  |   .6 |   7.4 |   169  |  269
  Succotash, canned         |   3.6  |  1.0 |  18.6 |   444  |  102
  Sugar                     |  ————  | ———— | 100.0 |  1815  |   25
  Tomatoes, fresh     A. P. |    .9  |   .4 |   3.9 |   104  |  438
  canned              A. P. |   1.2  |   .2 |   4.0 |   103  |  443
  Turkey              E. P. |  21.1  | 22.9 |  ———— |  1320  |   34
                      A. P. |  16.1  | 18.4 |  ———— |  1042  |   43
  Turnips             E. P. |   1.3  |   .2 |   8.1 |   178  |  256
  Veal, cutlet        E. P. |  20.3  |  7.7 |  ———— |   683  |   66
                      A. P. |  20.1  |  7.5 |  ———— |   670  |   68
  Wheat, cracked            |  11.1  |  1.7 |  75.5 |  1635  |   28


  Abbreviations for weighing and measuring, 61.

  Accounts, keeping of, 333.

  Account book, 334.

  Acetylene gas, 35.

  Acid phosphate, 172.

  Acids, 12, 13, 356.

  Adulterated food, 289.

  Agricultural conditions, 280.

  Alcohol, 38.

  Alkalies, 356.

  Allowances, 328.

  Almonds, 245, 318.

  Alum, 172.

  American, ice cream, 262.
    stove, 40.

  Amino acids, 386.

  Amperage, 39.

  Amylase, 385.

  Animal foods, 4.

  Apple, 2, 92, 283, 318, 387.
    baked, 93.
    butter, 106.
    jelly, 106.
    pie, 185.
    sauces, 94.
    scallop, 258.
    stewed, 94.
    tapioca, 260.

  Apples, dried, 96.

  Apricots, dried, 96, 318.

  Artificial ice, 23, 72.

  “Ash,” 6, 109, 112, 304, 383, 384.

  Ash requirement, 303.

  Asparagus, 4, 114, 116, 318, 387.

  Atkinson oven, 42.

  Avoirdupois, 60.

  Bacon, 161, 163, 318.

  Bacteria, 99, 149.

  Baked, apple, 93.
    beans, 122, 387.
    custard, 256.
    fish, 236.
    macaroni, 137.
    potatoes, 117.

  Baking, 66, 174.
    bread, 201.

  Baking powder, 172.
    biscuit, 178.
    experiments with, 175.

  Bananas, 92, 318, 387.

  Bank account, 339.

  Bargain sales, 343.

  Bathroom, to clean, 360.

  Batters, 173.

  Beans, 4, 5, 7, 114, 116, 122, 318, 387.

  Bed, to make, 358.
    linen, 352.

  Bedding, 347.

  Bedroom, care of, 358.

  Beef, 2, 210, 387.
    average composition, 283.
    corned, 318.
    cuts of, 210.
    dried, 283.
    drippings, 162.
    heart, 229.
    roast of, 222.
    rump of, 318.
    stew, 224.

  Beet sugar, 167.

  Beets, 4, 116, 318, 387.

  Benzine, 378.

  Berries, 92.

  Beverage, water as a, 70.

  Beverages, 13.
    fruit, 75.

  Bill of fare, 309.

  Bleaching agents, 368.

  Blood stains, 374.

  Bluing, 368, 375.

  Body building, and regulating, 11.

  Boiled, custard, 256.
    dressing, 252.
    eggs, 144.
    fish, 235.
    potatoes, 118.
    rice, 133.

  Boiler, for clothes, 371.
    for coffee, 83.

  Boiling, 66.
    at high altitudes, 74.
    in laundering, 375.
    temperature of water, experiments with, 72.

  Bouillon, 223.

  Braising, 66.

  Brass, to clean, 358.

  Bread, 318.
    baking, 201.
    cost of, 190.
    digestibility and nutritive values of, 190.
    entire wheat, 204, 305.
    German coffee, 205.
    Graham, 388.
    ingredients of, 191, 198.
    machine, 28.
    methods of mixing, 200.
    milk, 203.
    one hundred-Calorie portion, 191.
    plain, 203.
    score card, 188.
    wheat, 283.
    white, 304, 388.
    whole wheat, 388.
    yeast, 187.

  Breakfast, cereals, 4, 129.
    plans, 314.

  Brick oven, 39.

  Briquet, 33.

  Broiled steak, 222, 319.

  Broiling, 65, 66.

  Brooms, 354.

  Broths, 319.

  Brown Betty, 258.
    sauce, 164.
    sugar, 167.

  Brushes, 355.

  Budget, household, 321.
    typical, 328.

  Buns, 205.

  Butter, 4, 5, 12, 161, 318, 388.
    cake, 181.
    fruit, 105.
    substitutes, 161.
    to mold, 162.

  Buttermilk, 99, 147.

  Buying, canned goods, 101.
    fruits, 91.
    groceries and meat, 286.
    on installments, 344.
    sugar, 168.
    vegetables, 112.

  Cabbage, 4, 116, 318, 388.
    baked, 121.

  Caffeine, 75.

  Cake, 59, 181.

  Calcium, 8, 304.

  Calf’s head and brain, 229.

  Calorie, definition of, 10.
    portion. See One-hundred-Calorie portion.
    protein, 303.

  Calorimeter, 10, 298.

  Candy, 168.

  Cane sugar, 167.

  Canned, beans, 318.
    food, 2.
    goods, 101.
    meats, 228.
    poultry, 228.

  Canning, 101, 104.

  Caramel flavoring, 257.

  Carbohydrate, 6, 8, 10.
    digestion of, 384.

  Carbohydrates, functions of, 383.

  Carbon, 8, 55.

  Carbon dioxide gas, 8, 98, 172.

  Card file, 60, 332.

  Care, of kitchen, 30.
    of lamps, 361.
    of rooms, 358.
    of washstand, 359.

  Carpet sweepers, 355.

  Carrots, 4, 116, 318, 388.

  Carving, 277.

  Cauliflower, 4, 114, 116, 318.

  Celery, 4, 114, 318, 388.
    stewed, 121.

  Cellulose, 90, 385.

  Cereals, 126, 305, 318, 320.
    breakfast, 4.
    manufacture of, 128.
    molded, 132.
    one-hundred-Calorie portion, 129.
    principles of cooking, 129.
    ready to eat, 129.
    uses of cold, 132.

  Charcoal, 38.

  Check book, 339.

  Cheese, 4, 154, 283, 318, 388.
    cost of, 155.
    cottage, 154, 156.
    crackers, 156.
    one-hundred-Calorie portion, 155.
    principles of cooking, 156.

  Chemical elements in body, 383.

  Chestnuts, 245, 318.

  Chicken, 318.
    broilers, 388.
    fricassee, 228.
    pie, 186.
    roast, 227.
    salad, 252.

  Chili sauce, 125.

  Chinaware, 268.

  Chocolate, 14, 75, 76, 81, 318, 388.
    cornstarch, 135.
    filling, 182.
    sauce, 257.
    stains, 374.

  Clam chowder, 242.

  Clams, 238.
    small, raw, 242.

  Cleaning, agents, 366.
    and polishing, 357.
    bathroom, 360.
    cloths, 356.
    dry, 378.
    equipment, 354.
    fabrics, 357.
    materials, 354, 356.
    methods of, 357.
    rugs, 357.
    toilet, 360.
    weekly, 359.

  Clean milk, 149.

  Clothing, expenditure for, 326.
    purchasing of, 345.

  Coal, 34.
    fire, to make, 46.
    oil, 37.
    range, 45.

  Cocoa, 14, 75, 76, 318, 388.
    iced, 85.
    shells, 81.
    stains, 374.
    to make, 81.

  Coddled eggs, 143.

  Coddling, 66.

  Codfish, 318.
    balls, 237.
    creamed, 237.

  Coffee, 75, 77.
    iced, 85.
    pots, 83.
    stains, 374.
    to make, 82.

  Cake, 35.

  Cold storage, 2.
    eggs, 140.

  Coloring substances, 13.

  Colors in textiles, 350.

  Commercial laundries, 377.

  Composition of foods,
    charts, 90, 109, 128, 140, 149, 161, 166, 190, 218, 233, 245.
    tables, 7, 191, 193, 283, 302, 384, 387-390.
      See also under name of each food.

  Condensed milk, 153.

  Consumers’ League, 344.

  Cooker, fireless, 43.
    steam, 44.

  Cookery, principles of, 54, 143.
    vegetable, 109.

  Cookies, 179.

  Cooking, apparatus, 39.
    care of food after, 67.
    principles of, 54.
    processes, 64.
    utensils, 25.
    water in, 72.

  Copper, to clean, 358.

  Corn, canned, 318.
    green, 116, 388.
    oil, 248.
    products, 133.

  Corn meal, 318, 388.
    mush, 132.

  Cornstarch, 318.
    chocolate, 135.

  Cost, of dietary, 315.
    of electricity, 39.
    of food, 278, 282, 315.
      See also under each food.
    of food, relative, home and shop products, 281.
    of food, table of comparative, 283.
    of fuels, 35, 36, 37.
    of laundering, 377.

  Cottage cheese, 154, 156.

  Cottonseed oil, 248, 318.

  Course of laundry work, 379.

  Courses, number of, 276.

  Crabs, 240.
    to prepare, 243.

  Crackers, 318, 388.

  Cream, 4, 161, 318, 388.
    of tartar, 172, 368.
    of tomato, 124.
    soups, 123.
    tapioca, 259.
    to whip, 162.

  Creamed codfish, 237.
    oysters, 242.

  Croquettes, 226.

  Croutons, 125, 207.

  Crumbs, to butter, 236.

  Cucumbers, 318, 388.

  Cupboards, 20.

  Curds, 5.

  Currant jelly, 107.

  Custard, 12.
    rennet, 152.

  Custards, 256.

  Cutlery, 270.

  Cuts of meat, 210.

  Damask, 347.

  Dates, 318.

  Decorations for the table, 272.

  Deep-fat frying, 66, 120, 162.

  Demand and supply of food, 279.

  Deodorizers, 356.

  Design in linens, 346.

  Desserts, 247, 254.

  Dextrin, 55.

  Diet for growth, 304.

  Dietaries, 295, 310.

  Dietary, cost of the, 315.

  Digestion, of carbohydrate, 384.
    of fat, 385.
    of protein, 385.

  Dining room, to clean, 359.

  Dinner plans, 315.

  Disaccharids, 384.

  Dishes, 352.

  Dishwashing, 31.

  Disinfectant, 356.

  Division, of income, 321.
    of labor, 354.

  Dover egg beater, 27.

  Dressings, salad, 248.

  Dried fruits, 95.

  Drier for clothes, 371.

  Drip coffee pot, 83.

  Dry cleaning, 378.

  Drying, 102, 107.

  Dumplings, 225.

  Economy, of fuel, 33.
    of milk, 150.
    See Cost.

  Eggs, 4, 283, 304, 305, 318, 388.
    beaten, 142.
    boiled, 144.
    coddled, 143.
    composition and cost of, 140.
    digestibility of, 141.
    experiment with, 143.
    jellied, 143.
    one-hundred-Calorie portion, 140.
    poached, 144.
    principles of cookery, 143.
    raw, 142, 388.
    scrambled, 144.
    structure of, 138.

  Eggnogs, 319.

  Electric, apparatus, 50.
    irons, 373.

  Electricity, 33, 38.

  Elements, 8, 383.
    in the foodstuffs, 7, 383.

  Enamel, to clean, 358.

  Energy, 9.
    requirements of adults, 297.
    requirements during growth, 300.

  English walnuts, 245.

  Entire wheat bread, 204, 305.

  Enzymes, 385.

  Erepsin, 386.

  Escalloped, fish, 236.
    fruit, 254.
    meat, 226.
    potato, 120.

  Essences, 13.

  Expenditure, for clothing, 326.
    for food, 322.
    for operating, 325.
    for shelter, 324.

  Fabrics, to clean, 357.

  Fat, 8, 10, 14, 55, 158.
    as a cooking medium, 162.
    digestion of, 385.
    elements in, 383.
    function of, 383.
    one-hundred-Calorie portion, 160.
    to clarify, 121.

  Fat frying, deep, 66, 120, 162.

  Fatty acids, 385.

  Feeding the sick, 318.

  Fiber, meat, 56.
    vegetable, 56.

  Figs, 318, 388.

  Filberts, 245.

  Fire, precautions against, 362.

  Fireless cooker, 43.

  Fish, 4.
    composition and nutritive value of, 233.
    one-hundred-Calorie portion, 240.
    preserved, 241.
    principles of cooking, 242.
    principles of preparation and cooking, 235.
    quality of, 233.
    stuffing, 237.
    varieties of, 231.

  Flavors, 12.
    vegetable, 13.

  Flour, 4, 318, 388.
    composition of, 191.
    entire wheat, 197.
    Graham, 197.
    manufacture of, 194.
    mill, 195.
    patent, 303.
    spring and winter wheat, 193.

  Foamy sauce, 259.

  Fondant for French creams, 169.

  Food, adjuncts, 12.
    adulterated, 289.
    charts showing composition of. (See Composition of foods.)
    comparative costs of, 282.
    cost of, 278, 315.
    definition of, 11.
    demand and supply, 279.
    disposal of waste, 68.
    effect of, 295.
    expenditure, 322.
    for body building and regulating, 11.
    for children, 305.
    for energy, 9.
    for invalids, 319.
    materials, 3.
    materials, care of, 57.
    materials, table 100-Calorie portions of common, 302, 318, 387-390.
    misbranded, 290.
    non-perishable, 286.
    perishable, 286.
    preparation, processes of, 58.
    preparation, technique of, 56.
    prices, elements in, 282.
    problems, 1.
    purchasing of, 278, 284.
    quality of, 288.
    quantities to purchase, 285.
    ready-cooked, 292.
    relative cost of home and shop products, 281.
    requirements, 310.
    semi-perishable, 286.
    table of comparative cost of, 283.
    to keep hot and cool, 266.
    transportation, 279.

  Foods, animal and vegetable, 4.

  Foodstuffs, elements in, 7, 383.
    digestion of, 384.
    fate of, 386.
    functions of, 9, 383, 386.
    in food materials, 384.

  Fowls, 388.

  French, chalk, 378.
    dressing, 251.
    ice cream, 262.

  French-fried potatoes, 120.

  Fricasseed chicken, 228.

  Frozen mixtures, 261.

  Fructose, 166.

  Fruit, beverages, 75.
    butter, 105.
    buying, 91.
    composition and nutritive value, 87.
    digestibility of, 90.
    dried, 95.
    drinks, 80.
    juice, 92, 319.
    one-hundred-Calorie portion, 90.
    preparation of, 91.
    preservation of, 96.
    stains, 374.

  Frying, deep-fat, 66, 120, 162.

  Fudge, 169.

  Fuel, foods, 158.
    value, unit of, 10.

  Fuels, 33, 38.

  Functions of the foodstuffs, 9, 383.

  Furnishings, kitchen, 15.

  Furniture, to clean wood of, 358.

  Garnishing the dish, 267.

  Gas, 35.
    natural, 37.
    burner, 48.
    meter, to read, 36.
    stove, 16, 43, 46, 48.

  Gasoline, 38, 378.

  Gelatin, 72, 255, 388.

  German coffee bread, 205.

  Gingerbread, plain, 183.

  Glass, to clean, 358.

  Glassware, 268.

  Glucose, 164.

  Gluten, 192, 202.

  Glycerol, 385.

  Glycogen, 386.

  Graham, bread, 388.
    flour, 197.

  Grapefruit, 92.

  Grapenuts, 318.

  Grapes, 2, 318, 388.

  Gravies, 163, 164, 222.

  Griddle cakes, sour milk, 178.
    sweet milk, 179.

  Halibut, 318.

  Halls, to clean, 359.

  Ham, 318, 388.

  Hard-boiled eggs, 144.

  Hard sauce, 259.

  Herbs, 13.

  Hickory nuts, 245.

  Hominy, 132, 389.

  Honey, 389.

  Horse radish, 12.

  Hot-water, sponge cake, 182.
    supply, 24.

  Household, accounts, 333.
    budget, 321.
    expenditures, 321.
    insects, 361.
    linens, purchasing, 346.
    textiles, 345.

  Huckaback towels, 347.

  Hundred-Calorie portions. See One hundred-Calorie portions.

  Ice, 72.
    artificial, 23.
    box, 16.
    creams, 262.
    substitutes, 74.
    uses of, 74.

  Iced, cocoa, 85.
    coffee, 85.
    tea, 86.

  Income, divisions of, 323.
    yearly, 322.

  Ingredients. See under each food.

  Ink stains, 374.

  Insects, household, 361.

  Installments, buying on, 344.

  Invalid feeding, 318.

  Iron, 8.

  Ironing, 369, 376.
    board, 373.

  Irons, 373.

  Jam making, 102, 105.

  Javelle water, 368.

  Jellied eggs, 143.

  Jelly, lemon, 260.
    making, 102, 106.

  Keeping of accounts, 333.

  Kerosene, 37.
    stoves, 50.

  Kidneys, 229.

  Kilowatt, 39.

  Kitchen, care of, 30.
    colors in, 17.
    furnishings, 15.
    plan of, 15.
    table, 20.

  Knives, 27.

  Kumyss, 153, 319, 388.

  Labor-saving devices, 27.

  Lactic acid, 172.

  Lactose, 166.

  Lamb, 211, 389.
    chops, 318.

  Lamps, care of, 361.

  Lard, 162, 318.

  Laundering, 365.

  Laundries, commercial, 377.

  Laundry equipment, 370.

  Law, Pure Food, 2, 289, 291.
    Pure Textile, 345.

  Leavening agents, 171.

  Left overs, care of, 67.

  Lemon, jelly, 260.
    pie, 185.

  Lemonade, 80.

  Lemons, 2, 389.

  Lentils, 123, 318.

  Lettuce, 4, 318, 389.

  Linens, bed, 352.
    designs in, 346.
    purchasing household, 347.

  Lipase, 385.

  Liver, 229.

  Living room, to clean, 359.

  Lobster, 239, 389.
    to prepare, 243.

  Loose-leaf books, 332.

  Luncheon plans, 315.

  Macaroni, 136, 318, 388.

  Mail orders, 343.

  Making, bed, 358.
    chocolate, 81.
    coal fire, 46.
    cocoa, 81.
    coffee, 82.
    tea, 85.

  Maltose, 166.

  Managing a gas stove, 48.

  Mangle, 373.

  Manufacture. See under each food.

  Marble, to clean, 358.

  Markets, clean, 284.

  Mashed potato, 119.

  Matzoon, 147, 153.

  Mayonnaise dressing, 251.

  Meals, balanced, 307.
    number of, 305.
    serving, 266.
    technique of preparation, 265.

  Measures, 60, 61, 287.

  Measuring, 60, 61.

  Meat, 209, 304.
    canned, 228.
    composition and nutritive value, 213.
    cuts of, 210, 211, 213, 216, 217.
    dangers from, 218.
    effect of heat upon, 218.
    experiments with, 221.
    fiber, 56.
    gravy, 164.
    grinder, 28.
    one-hundred-Calorie portion, 216.
    pie, 186.
    poisoning, 218.
    preserved, 228.
    soups, 223.
    substitutes, 243.
    tough and tender, 211.

  Menus, 295, 308, 312.

  Metals, to clean, 358.

  Meter, to read the gas, 36.

  Methods, of cleaning, 356.
    of payment, 338.

  Milk, 4, 5, 14, 146, 283, 304, 318, 319, 389.
    bread, 203.
    composition of, 7, 146.
    one-hundred-Calorie portion, 149.
    principles of cookery, 152.
    sherbet, 263.
    sour, 99.

  Mineral matter, 8, 56, 384.
    functions of, 383.

  Misbranded food, 290.

  Mixing, methods of, 63.

  Mock Hollandaise sauce, 236.

  Molasses, 4, 167, 318.

  Mold, 97.

  Molded, butter, 162.
    cereal, 132.

  Monosaccharid, 384.

  Mousse, strawberry, 263.

  Muffins, plain, 177.

  Mustard, 12.

  Mutton, 211, 389.

  Napkins, 268.

  Naphtha, 378.

  National Food Law, 289.

  Natural, gas, 37.
    ice, 72.

  Nickel plate, to clean, 358.

  Nitrogen, 8.

  Non-perishable foods, 286.

  Nuts, 4, 243.
    one-hundred-Calorie portion, 245.

  Oatmeal, 318, 389.

  Oils, 356.
    cottonseed and corn, 248.
    olive, 12, 318.

  Oleomargarine, 318.

  Olive oil, 161.

  Olives, 318, 389.

  Omelet, 145.

  One-hundred-Calorie portions, 10.
    bread, 190.
    cheese, 155.
    common food materials, 302.
    cost of, 318.
    eggs, 140.
    fat foods, 160.
    fish and shellfish, 240.
    foods generally, 387-390.
    fruit, 90.
    in meals, 313.
    meats and poultry, 216.
    milk and cream, 149.
    nuts, 245.
    starches and cereals, 129.
    vegetables, 113.

  Onions, 4, 116, 318, 389.

  Operating expenses, 325.

  Oranges, 2, 92, 318, 389.

  Order in work, 354.

  Orders by mail, 343.

  Oven, Atkinson, 42.
    brick, 39.
    experiments, 176.
    thermometers, 52.

  Oxygen, 8.

  Oyster, 238, 318, 389.

  Oysters, creamed, 242.
    raw, 242.
    sauté, 242.

  Paint, to clean, 357.

  Pan broiling, 66.

  Pancreatic juice, 385.

  Parasites, animal, 218.

  Parker House rolls, 204.

  Pasteurization, 150.

  Pasteurized milk, 151.

  Pastry, 183.

  Patent flour, 303.

  Payment, methods of, 338.

  Peaches, 2, 92, 318, 389.
    dried, 96.

  Peach stains, 374.

  Peanut brittle, 168.

  Peanuts, 245, 318.

  Pears, 2, 92, 95, 318.

  Peas, 4, 114, 116, 318, 389.

  Pea soup, 389.

  Peat, 33.

  Pecan nuts, 245.

  Penocha, 169.

  Pepper, 12.

  Peptones, 385.

  Percolator coffee pot, 83.

  Perishable foods, 286.

  Petroleum, 37.

  Pewter, 270.

  Phosphorus, 8.

  Pickling, 102, 107.

  Pies, 184, 389.

  Pineapples, 2.

  Plain bread, 203.
    gingerbread, 183.
    muffins, 177.

  Plan of the kitchen, 15.

  Plated silver, 270.

  Poached eggs, 146.

  Polished surface, to clean a, 357.

  Polishes, 356.

  Popovers, 173.

  Porcelain, to clean, 358.

  Pork, 161, 211, 318.

  Portion, standard, 10.
    See One-hundred-Calorie portions.

  Potatoes, 4, 116, 283, 318, 389.
    baked, 117.
    boiled, 118.
    escalloped, 120.
    French-fried, 120.
    mashed, 119.
    on the half shell, 118.
    puff, 119.
    purée, 123.
    salad, 252.

  Poultry, 209, 226.
    canned, 228.

  Preservation of fruit, 96.

  Preservatives, 100.

  Preserved meats, 228.

  Preserving, 101, 105.

  Protein, 6, 8, 10, 54.
    digestion of, 385.
    elements in, 383.
    function of, 383.
    requirement, 301.

  Proteoses, 385.

  Prunes, 95, 318, 389.

  Ptomaines, 100.

  Pudding, snow, 261.

  Pudding, steamed, 258.

  Purchasing, clothing, 345.
    food, 278, 284.
    household linens, 346.
    silk, 347.
    wool, 349.

  Purée of peas, 123.

  Pure, Food Law, 2, 289, 291.
    starches, 134.
    Textile Law, 345.

  Quinces, 95.

  Radishes, 389.

  Raisins, 318, 390.

  Raspberry ice, 263.

  Reading the gas meter, 36.

  Ready-cooked foods, 292.

  Ready-to-eat cereals, 129.

  Recipe, foundation for sauces, 163.
    how to study a, 58.

  Recipes. See under each food.

  Refrigerator, 22.

  Rennet custard, 152.

  Rennin, 147.

  Rent, proportion of income for, 323, 324.

  Repairs, 362.

  Respiration calorimeter, 298.

  Rice, 132, 318, 390.
    boiled, 133.
    cakes, 132.

  Rissoles, 225.

  Roast beef, 222, 319, 387.
    gravy, 222.

  Roast chicken, 227.

  Roasting, 65.

  Rolled oats, 318.

  Rolling table, 20.

  Rolls, Parker House, 204.

  Rooms, care of, 357.

  Rugs, to cleanse, 357.

  Salad, 247.

  Salmon, 233, 318, 390.

  Salt, 12.

  Sandwich, 207.

  Sardines, 318.

  Sauce, foundation recipe for, 163.

  Sauce, Mock Hollandaise, 236.
    tomato, 164, 225.
    white, 164.

  Sauces, 259.
    apple, 94.
    brown, 164.
    chili, 125.
    chocolate, 257.

  Sausage, 318.

  Sauté, 66.

  Sautéd oysters, 242.

  Savings, 328.

  Scallops, 239, 318.

  Scrambled egg, 144.

  Season of fish, 234.

  Semi-perishable foods, 286.

  Serving, 274.

  Serving meals, 266.

  Setting the table, 270.

  Shad, 233, 390.

  Shellfish, 4, 231, 238.
    preserved, 241.

  Shelves, 20.

  Sherbet, milk, 263.

  Shopping, 342.
    ethics of, 344.

  Shortcake, 257.

  Shredded wheat, 390.

  Silk, purchasing, 347.
    test for, 349.

  Silver, 352.
    for table, 270.

  Simmering, 66.

  Sink, 24.

  Sirups, 4.

  Skim milk, 147.

  Snow pudding, 261.

  Soap, 356, 367.
    solution, 368.

  Soups, “cream,” 123.
    meat, 223.
    pea, 389.
    vegetable, 123.

  Sour milk, 99, 153.

  Spaghetti, 136.

  Spices, 13.

  Spinach, 318, 390.

  Sponge cake, 182.

  Spring wheat, 193.

  Squash, 112, 116, 390.

  Stains, 374.

  Standard of good bread, 187.

  Standard portions 10.
     See One-hundred-Calorie portions.

  Starch, 4, 55, 369.
    experiments, 135.
    granule, 134.

  Starches, one-hundred-Calorie portions, 129.
    pure, 134.

  Starching, 375.

  Steak, broiled, 222, 319.
    porterhouse, 283, 387.
    round, 318.
    sirloin, 387.

  Steam cooker, 44.

  Steamed pudding, 258.

  Steaming, 66.

  Stew, beef, 224.

  Stewed, apple, 94.
    celery, 121.

  Stewing, 66.

  Stove, American, 40.
    gas, 16, 43, 46.

  Stoves, kerosene, 50.

  Strawberries, 390.

  Strawberry mousse, 263.

  Studying a recipe, 58.

  Stuffed tomato salad, 253.

  Stuffing, fish, 237.
    for fowl, 228.

  Succotash, 390.

  Sucrose, 166.

  Suet, 318.

  Sugar, 4, 12, 55, 164, 166, 167, 318, 390.
    of milk, 6.
    principles of cooking, 168.

  Sulphur, 8.

  Sweetbreads, 229.

  Sweet, oil, 161.
    potatoes, 318.

  Tablecloths, 268.

  Table, decorations, 272.
    dining-room, 267.
    kitchen, 20.
    of comparative cost of food, 283.
    of composition of foods, 387-390.

  Table, setting the, 270.
    waiting on the, 272.

  Tannin, 75.

  Tapioca, 318.
    puddings, 259.

  Tea, 75.
    iced, 86.
    to make, 85.

  Technique of food preparation, 56.

  Test for silk, 349.

  Textiles, colors in, 349.
    household, 345.

  Theine, 75.

  Theobromine, 75.

  Thermometers, oven, 52.

  Toast, 56, 206, 388.

  Toasting, 65.

  Toilet, to clean, 360.

  Tomato, 116, 318, 390.
    salad, stuffed, 253.
    sauce, 164, 225.
    soup, 124.

  Towels, 347, 352.

  Trading stamps, 343.

  Transportation of food, 279.

  Trypsin, 385.

  Tubs, laundry, 370.

  Turkey, 390.

  Turnips, 116, 318, 390.

  Typical budgets, 328.

  Unit of fuel value, 10.

  Utensils, 25.
    list of, 28.
    materials used in, 26.
    patterns of, 27.

  Vacuum cleaners, 355.

  Vanilla, 12.

  Veal, 211, 318, 390.

  Vegetable, cookery, 109.
    fiber, 56.
    flavors, 13.
    foods, 4.
    soups, 123.

  Vegetables, 320.
    composition and nutritive value, 109.
    how to buy, 112.
    one-hundred-Calorie portions, 113.
    principles of cooking, 115.
    quality of, 114.
    season of, 114.
    time-table, 116.

  Vermicelli, 136.

  Vinegar, 12.

  Voltage, 39.

  Waiting on the table, 272.

  Waitress, 274.

  Waldorf salad, 253.

  Walnuts, English, 245, 318.

  Washing, 374.
    machine, 371.

  Washstand, care of, 359.

  Waste food, disposal of, 68.

  Water, as a beverage, 70.
    elements in, 383.
    experiments with the boiling temperature of, 72.
    in cooking, 72.
    soft and hard, 71, 366, 367.

  Watt, 39.

  Weekly cleaning, 359.

  Weighing, 60, 287.
    abbreviations for, 61.

  Wheat, 193, 390.
    bread, 283.
    flour, 171.

  Whey, 5.

  Whipped cream, 162.

  White, bread, 304.
    sauce, 164.

  Whole wheat. See Entire wheat.

  Window box, 23.

  Winter wheat, 193.

  Wool, purchasing, 349.

  Wringer, for clothes, 371.

  Yeast, 97.
    bread, 187.
    in bread, 197.
    experiments with, 203.

  Zoolak, 147, 319.

       *       *       *       *       *

                Printed in the United States of America.

       *       *       *       *       *

                        THE GLEN STEEL DOOR MAT



=The Glen= is the most sanitary mat known. It does not collect dust and
germs as all old style mats do. It requires no beating or cleaning.

=The Glen= is heavily galvanized to prevent rusting. It will not stain
either stone or tile.

=The Glen= has no sharp, dangerous corners to scratch surfaces or any
loose ends to ravel.

=The Glen= is flexible: it conforms to uneven surfaces.

=The Glen= is easily handled: it can be rolled or folded.

=The Glen= is made in all sizes and special shapes.

=The Glen= means cleaner homes.


        Agents wanted in all sections. Write us, _Dept. G_, for
          particulars and terms. Our market is in every home.

                       McKINNEY MANUFACTURING CO.

                        PITTSBURG, PENN., U.S.A.

               Chemistry and its Relations to Daily Life


         Professors of Chemistry in the University of Wisconsin

        _Cloth, 12mo, illustrated, 393 pages. List price, $1.25_

       *       *       *       *       *

If the contributions of chemical science to modern civilization were
suddenly swept away, what a blank there would be! If, on the other hand,
every person were acquainted with the elements of chemistry and its
bearing upon our daily life, what an uplift human efficiency would
receive! It is to further this latter end that this book has been
prepared. Designed particularly for use by students of agriculture and
home economics in secondary schools, its use will do much to increase the
efficiency of the farm and the home. In the language of modern educational
philosophy, it “functions in the life of the pupil.”

Useful facts rather than mere theory have been emphasized, although the
theory has not been neglected. The practical character of the work is
indicated by the following selected chapter headings:

  II.  The Composition and Uses of Water.

  IV.  The Air, Nitrogen, Nitric Acid, and Ammonia.

  IX.  Carbon and Its Compounds.

  XII. Paints, Oils, and Varnishes.

  XIII.  Leather, Silk, Wool, Cotton, and Rubber.

  XV.  Commercial Fertilizers.

  XVI.  Farm Manure.

  XX.  Milk and Its Products.

  XXI.  Poisons for Farm and Orchard Pests.

       *       *       *       *       *

                         THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

                           64-66 FIFTH AVENUE

              BOSTON          NEW YORK CITY        DALLAS

             CHICAGO           ATLANTA        SAN FRANCISCO

                           Practical Physics

By N. HENRY BLACK of the Roxbury Latin School Boston, and Professor HARVEY
N. DAVIS of Harvard University.

              _Cloth, 12mo, illustrated, 488 pages. List price, $1.25_

    “In preparing this book,” say the authors in the Preface, “we have
    tried to select only those topics which are of vital interest to
    young people, whether or not they intend to continue the study of
    physics in a college course.

    “In particular, we believe that the chief value of the informational
    side of such a course lies in its applications to the machinery of
    daily life. Everybody needs to know something about the working of
    electrical machinery, optical instruments, ships, automobiles, and
    all those labor-saving devices, such as vacuum cleaners, fireless
    cookers, pressure cookers, and electric irons, which are found in
    many American homes. We have, therefore, drawn as much of our
    illustrative material as possible from the common devices in modern
    life. We see no reason why this should detract in the least from the
    educational value of the study of physics, for one can learn to
    think straight just as well by thinking about an electrical
    generator, as by thinking about a Geissler tube....

    “To understand any machine clearly, the student must have clearly in
    mind the fundamental principles involved. Therefore, although we
    have tried to begin each new topic, however short, with some
    concrete illustration familiar to young people, we have proceeded,
    as rapidly as seemed wise, to a deduction of the general principle.
    Then, to show how to make use of this principle, we have discussed
    other practical applications. We have tried to emphasize still
    further the value of principles, that is, generalizations, in
    science, by summarizing at the end of each chapter the principles
    discussed in that chapter. In these summaries we have aimed to make
    the phrasing brief and vivid so that it may be easily remembered and
    easily used.”

The new and noteworthy features of the book are the admirable selection of
familiar material used to develop and apply the principles of physical
science, the exceptionally clear and forceful exposition, showing the hand
of the master teacher, the practical, interesting, thought-provoking
problems, and the superior illustrations.

                         THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
                           64-66 Fifth Avenue
                 Chicago       New York City     Dallas
             Boston           Atlanta        San Francisco

                     =Botany for Secondary Schools=

                            BY L. H. BAILEY

                         Of Cornell University

              _Cloth, 12mo, illustrated, 460 pages. List price, $1.25_

It is not essential nor desirable that everybody should become a botanist
but it is inevitable that people shall be interested in the more human
side of plant and animal life. We are interested in the evident things of
natural history, and the greater our interest in such things, the wider is
our horizon and the deeper our hold on life.

The secondary school could not teach _botanical science_ if it would; lack
of time and the immaturity of the pupils forbid it. But it can encourage a
love of nature and an interest in plant study; indeed, it can originate
these, and it does. Professor Bailey’s _Botany_ has been known to do it.

In the revision of this book that has just been made, the effective
simplicity of the nature teacher and the genuine sympathy of the nature
lover are as successfully blended as they were in the former book.
Bailey’s _Botany for Secondary Schools_ recognizes four or five general
life principles: that no two natural things are alike; that each
individual has to make and maintain its place through struggle with its
fellows; that “as the twig is bent the tree inclines”; that “like produces
like,” and so on. From these simple laws and others like them Professor
Bailey proceeds to unfold a wonderful story of plant individuals that have
improved upon their race characteristics, of plant communities that have
adopted manners from their neighbors, of features and characteristics that
have been lost by plants because of changed conditions of life or
surroundings. The story vibrates with interest.

The book is, moreover, perfectly organized along the logical lines of
approach to a scientific subject. Four general divisions of material
insure its pedagogical success:

  PART I.——The Plant Itself;
  PART II.——The Plant in Its Relation to Environment and to Man;
  PART III.——Histology, or the Minute Structure of Plants;
  PART IV.——The Kinds of Plants, including a Flora of 130 pages.

                         THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
               Publishers   64-66 Fifth Avenue   New York

                         Studies in Literature

                       BY FREDERICK MONROE TISDEL

     Assistant Professor of English in the University of Missouri.

               _Cloth, 12mo., illustrated, 333 pages, list price $.90_

In Part I of this book the author introduces the student to more than
twenty standard English classics, giving in connection with each a brief
explanatory introduction, suggestions for study and topics for oral and
written discussion. These classics are grouped with respect to the
different types of literature which they represent,——epic, drama, essay,
novel, etc., and there is a brief exposition of the type. The result is
that in the mind of the reader the individual masterpiece and the type
with its characteristics are inseparably connected.

Part II consists of a brief but masterly survey of English literature. The
book as a whole serves to systematize and unify the study of secondary
school literature,——a most desirable end.

Professor E. A. Cross, State Teachers College, Greeley, Colo. “It meets
with my heartiest approval. It is brief, considers all the writers high
school students need to know, touches the interesting features in the
lives and works of these men,——about all you could want it to do.”

Mr. John B. Opdycke, English Department of the High School of Commerce,
New York City. “I like it very much indeed. It has just enough in its
review of the history of English literature, and its treatment of the
classics is restrained and dignified. So far as I have seen, this is the
only book that combines the two in one volume. I am all against the use of
an abstract History of English Literature in the high school and I am all
in favor of putting into the hands of the students some book that analyzes
classics fully and yet with restraint. This book seems to have combined
the two in just the right proportions and treated them in just the right

                         THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
             Publishers   64-66 Fifth Ave.   New York City
          Boston   Chicago   Atlanta   Dallas   San Francisco

       *       *       *       *       *


[Footnote 1: TEACHER’S NOTE.——The term “foodstuff” is used in place of
“food principle,” as being the later and better term.]

[Footnote 2: This is the “greater calorie” or “kilogram calorie,” and is
written Calorie to distinguish it from the “lesser calorie” or “gram
calorie,” largely used in physics and chemistry.]

[Footnote 3: TEACHER’S NOTE.——The machines operating with a crank are
examples of the “wheel and axle,” or the windlass, or both. The mechanical
advantage can be worked out mathematically,——a good problem for the
physics or mathematics class. See “Household Physics,” C. J. Lynde.]

[Footnote 4: TEACHER’S NOTE.——A good way to study utensils is to begin
with the school kitchen equipment. Utensils for the home kitchen can be
listed in the notebook, as these are used in the school kitchen, having
the list grow by degrees throughout the year. For reference, have a price
list and illustrated catalogue from some good firm.]

[Footnote 5: _Laboratory management._——In the school kitchen the
dish-washing may be done at the sink by housekeepers appointed for the
day, or if equipment allows, the work may be done in twos with some
definite plan for dividing the work.]

[Footnote 6: These terms perpetuate the names of scientists famous for
their work in electricity. Volta was an Italian who invented an electric
battery; Ampere was a French electrician; and Watt a Scottish engineer and

[Footnote 7: TEACHER’S NOTE.——The teacher of physics can coöperate here,
and indeed throughout the whole topic of apparatus and cooking processes.]

[Footnote 8: TEACHER’S NOTE.——If a meter can be used, very exact problems
can be worked out with gas and electricity.]

[Footnote 9: TEACHER’S NOTE.——These experiments may be performed as each
food material is used. In this case a page should be kept in the notebook
for the table of weights and measures, and each observation recorded as it
is made. It may be that the perishable articles will not be on hand,
except as they are used in order. The weighing and measuring should be
dwelt on all through the course.]

[Footnote 10: Both these methods were taught by French cooks connected
with well-known chocolate firms, and both give good results.]

[Footnote 11: “Cereal” is derived from the Latin word “cerealis,”
pertaining to Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture.]

[Footnote 12: The manufacture of flour is discussed in the chapter on
bread making.]

[Footnote 13: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Farmers’ Bulletin 389, p.

[Footnote 14: Several of the large firms manufacturing flour issue
pamphlets descriptive of the whole process, to be mailed free on

[Footnote 15: “Some Points in the Making and Judging of Bread,” 1913.
Isabel Bevier, Univ. of Ill. Bulletin No. 25.]

[Footnote 16: For Furnishing the Dining Room, see “Shelter and Clothing,”
p. 88.]

[Footnote 17: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Farmers’ Bulletin 487.]

[Footnote 18: Contributed by Mary Swartz Rose, Ph.D., Assistant Professor,
Department of Nutrition, Teachers College.]

[Footnote 19: Observations of the food eaten by individuals or groups of
people are also called dietary studies, whether the observed dietary is
such as to satisfy the food requirement or not.]

[Footnote 20: One quart of milk yields 6-3/4 portions.]

[Footnote 21: Rose, “Laboratory Handbook for Dietetics.”]

[Footnote 22: The apportionment of the income to the different expenses of
living (food, clothing, shelter, etc.) is discussed in Chapter XIX. It
will be found that the smaller the income the higher is the percentage of
it which must be allowed for food.]

[Footnote 23: Printed by permission of J. Wiley & Sons, publishers of “The
Cost of Living,” by Ellen Richards.]

[Footnote 24: Published by J. Wiley & Sons, publishers of “The Cost of
Living,” by Ellen Richards.]

[Footnote 25: From Chapin’s “Standards of Living.” By permission Russell
Sage Foundation.]

[Footnote 26: Some of the widely advertised disinfectants are rather
ineffective. Those interested should look up the tests of commercial
disinfectants published from time to time by the United States Public
Health Service.]

[Footnote 27: Depending upon the nature of the infection, it may be
possible to substitute the use of a proper disinfectant, followed by short

                        TRANSCRIBER’S AMENDMENTS

Transcriber’s Note: Blank pages have been deleted. Some illustrations have
been moved and page references to such illustrations have been updated.
Footnotes have been moved to the end of the etext. Paragraph formatting
has been made somewhat more consistent. The publisher’s inadvertent
omissions of important punctuation have been corrected. Some wide tables
have been re-formatted to narrower equivalents including a key.
Duplicative front matter has been removed. Some Laboratory Management
Notes have been moved.

The following list indicates any additional changes made. The page number
represents that of the original publication and applies in this etext
except for footnotes and illustrations since they may have been moved.

  Key: {}[]


     82  _Method 2._{[10]}{}
     82  chocolate, and beat vigorously.{[10]}[]
    141  these {deficiences}[deficiencies] should be reported
    170  foundation for all {bon bons}[bonbons]
    203  1 cake dissolved in 1/4 cup {luke warm}[lukewarm] water
    209  wild animals of {herbiverous}[herbivorous] habits
    216  {}[Left: ]Chuck rib roast, 9th and 10th ribs. {}[Right: ]
    216  {}[Left: ]1st cut prime rib roast. {}[Right: ]2d cut
    336  {Total expenditure for year}[Totals]

       *       *       *       *       *

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Foods and Household Management - A Textbook of the Household Arts" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.