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Title: The Church Index - A Book of Metropolitan Churches and Church Enterprise: Part I. Kensington
Author: Pepperell, William
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Church Index - A Book of Metropolitan Churches and Church Enterprise: Part I. Kensington" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

Transcribed from the [1872] W. Wells Gardner edition by David Price,
email ccx074@pglaf.org.  Many thanks to the Royal Borough of Kensington
and Chelsea Libraries (Local Studies department), for their help in
making this transcription.

                            THE CHURCH INDEX:

                                  A BOOK
               Metropolitan Churches and Church Enterprise.

                                  BY THE
                         REV. WILLIAM PEPPERELL.

                                 PART I.


                                  OF THE




                      OF CHURCH AND CHAPEL BUILDING;

                       CONTEMPORARY CHURCH HISTORY.

                           All rights reserved.


                            W. WELLS GARDNER,

                        2, PATERNOSTER BUILDINGS.
                  DODD, 270, FULHAM ROAD, WEST BROMPTON.


Abbotts, Church of St. Mary                          1, 81
Andrew, Church of St. Philip and St.                     3
All Saints, Church of, Notting Hill                     39
Assisi, Church of St. Francis of                        52
Augustine, Church of St.                            22, 67
Baptist, Church of St. John                         41, 70
Baptist Chapel, Johnson Street                          54
Baptist Chapel, Silver Street                           54
Baptist Chapel, Upper Westbourne Park                   60
Baptist Chapel, South Kensington                        60
Brethren, Plymouth                                      53
Barnabas, Church of St.                             31, 81
Carmelite, Church of, Fathers                           41
Christ Church, Kensington                               10
Clement, Church of St.                                  44
Clarence Place Wesleyan Chapel                          21
Congregational Chapel, Kensington                       25
Cornwall Road Baptist Chapel                            50
Convents                                                62
Denbigh Road Wesleyan Chapel                            46
Episcopal Chapel, Brompton                              29
George, Church of St., Campden Hill                     33
Horbury Congregational Chapel                           46
James, Church of St.                                    36
John, Church of St.                                     32
Jude, Church of St.                                  5, 70
Kensington Palace Chapel                                69
Lancaster Road Chapel (Congregational)                  57
Luke, Church of St.                                     20
Mark, Church of St.                                     38
Mary, Church of St., Bolton’s                           11
Matthias, Church of St., Earl’s Court            6, 69, 70
Michael, Church of All Angels and St.                   55
Missions and Preaching Houses                           61
Norland Chapel                                      56, 71
Oratory, Brompton                                       23
Paul, Church of St., Onslow Square                 17,  68
Paul, Church of St., Vicarage Gardens                   36
Peter, Church of St., Onslow Gardens                    18
Peter, Church of St., Notting Hill                      35
Primitive Methodist Chapel                              59
Pro-Cathedral, Kensington                               13
Scotch Church, Kensington                               29
Sloane Place Chapel                                     55
Stephen, Church of St.                                   9
Swedenborgian Chapel                                44, 72
Tabernacle, Hornton Street (Baptist)                    42
Tabernacle, Free, Notting Hill (Baptist)                49
Talbot Tabernacle, Notting Hill (Baptist)               58
Trinity, Church of Holy                                 15
Warwick Gardens, Wesleyan Chapel                        27
Westbourne Grove Chapel (Baptist)                       48
Workhouse Chapel                                        61
A Comparative Denominational View                       72
Church Building                                         74
Church Music                                            77
Church and Population                                   79
St. Mary Abbotts Church                                 81
The Parochial System                                    82
Notes                                                   64


Views of the following Churches will be found in their appropriate
places:—St. Mary Abbotts, Kensington; New Church (exterior, interior,
Organ); Old Church (exterior); St. Barnabas, Kensington; St. Peter’s,
Onslow Gardens (exterior and interior); St. Jude’s (exterior and
interior); St. Paul’s, Onslow Square; Onslow Chapel; St. Mark’s, Notting
Hill; St. Mary, Bolton’s; Warwick Gardens Wesleyan Chapel; Tabernacle,
Notting Hill; St. Luke’s, South Kensington.


PARTICULAR church chronicles are scarcely found among the thousands of
volumes which annually issue from the press, although there are no
chronicles that have in them more of what is really of public import.  In
regard to Metropolitan churches, nothing of the kind we here present to
our readers has yet been attempted.  Detached notices of a church here
and there will sometimes be found in our periodicals or newspapers; but
no effort has yet been made to supply a collective and relative view of
all particular church history and operations in given districts in a
permanent and useful form.  Yet, these churches have now become so
numerous and influential, and are yearly increasing to such a degree,
unparalleled in any former age, that it would seem they demand distinct
and special recognition and record, and surely are worthy to be preserved
in their characteristics as among the ingredients which must enter into
the general church history of our times.  It may thus happen that we are
supplying a real desideratum in Christian literature.  The present issue
may either be taken as an entire work in itself, or as the first of a
series which will appear at intervals, as often and as regularly as
circumstances may determine.  It contains accounts, longer or shorter as
each case admitted, _historical_, _ecclesiastical_, _architectural_,
_clerical_, religious, and social of over fifty churches—established and
non-conforming—in the populous parish of Kensington.  This parish extends
from the Brompton Road, the Boltons and Earl’s Court southward, where it
joins the parishes of Chelsea and Fulham, to Upper Westbourne Park and
Kensal, beyond Notting Hill, north, where it abuts upon Paddington, and
from Hyde Park and Bayswater, east, to Shepherd’s Bush and Hammersmith,
west.  It covers an area of 2200 acres, and has fifty miles of main
streets or carriage-ways within the bounds.  The population, according to
the late census, is 121,100 souls.

It will thus be seen that we have been treating in these pages the
spiritual provision made for a population greater than that of many a
large town or city in the kingdom.  We were first attracted to
Kensington, a former “suburban village,” not only because of its
importance as a representative Metropolitan parish, but as forming the
centre of the Western suburbs, and on account of the rapidity with which
church-building has gone on there of late years.  We now present the
first part of our task completed, and in the “Index” with the “Notes”
will be found all that it is requisite to know about these churches.
There is other church matter included at the end which may add to the
interest of the whole.  Also, a goodly number of engravings and
photographs of principal church buildings, additions which will
contribute greatly to the interest and value of the book in the Christian
household or in professional hands.

The author’s thanks are due, and are hereby warmly and respectfully
presented, to those clergy and other gentlemen of all denominations who
have freely opened to him original and reliable sources of information.
He is thus enabled to present the work freer from all sorts of
inaccuracies than would probably otherwise be the case.  He has, also,
gratefully to acknowledge valuable aid from Mr. J. P. Churcher,
Architect, of Kensington, who has kindly given the advantage of his
professional knowledge in regard to a considerable number of the churches
herein described.

The work is now commended to the considerate attention of the public;
trusting that the effort may be accepted as some contribution in
illustration of Metropolitan churches and church enterprise, treated upon
a thoroughly Catholic basis.

There are not wanting signs of a general growing interest in such
subjects.  Even the political discussions of the last few years—bearing
largely upon the state of the Church—have had, at least, the effect of
concentrating public attention upon its fortunes, and of awakening a
large amount of sympathy with its varied labours.  Let us hope that this
will tend to the happy result of securing a permanent practical regard in
the public mind for every thing connected with the progress of
Christianity in our midst; and if in some humble degree this great object
is advanced by the contents of the following pages it will be esteemed an
abundant reward and cause of much thankfulness by

                                                               THE AUTHOR.

               SHEPHERD’S BUSH, W.



                        CHARLES JAMES FREAKE, ESQ.


                      THIS VOLUME IS (BY PERMISSION)

                         Respectfully Dedicated,


                                                               THE AUTHOR.

                                * * * * *


IT was said of one of old, “He loveth our nation, and he hath built us a
synagogue.”  It is no less a pleasure than a duty to recognize genuine
patriotism; and wherever it exists in its highest character, it is
associated with zeal for the extension of the Church of God
commensurately with the nation it loves.  Although, Sir, your habitual
modesty would not allow you to invite the commendation, I cannot forbear
according it to you, that by the blessing and providence of God you have
realized the ideal.  Having contributed largely by honourable enterprise
to the extension of the suburbs themselves, you have been mindful of the
spiritual interests of the population.  Two handsome churches—St. Paul’s,
Onslow Square, and St. Peter’s, Onslow Gardens—are due to your Christian
thoughtfulness and generosity.  Some men can only project such works, and
leave others to execute and pay for them; but you, Sir, have been endowed
with the will and the power to do all these yourself; and you _have_ done
them with that unaffected zeal and good will to men, which, as it
commands our admiration, will not fail of the blessing of Heaven.  On
various other good works of Christian charity for the education and
improvement of the physical condition of the poor, I need not now dwell.
They are well known to your neighbours, and to all who daily share their
benefits, and will not be forgotten in time to come.  For these reasons I
have deemed it appropriate to dedicate to you this work, in the subjects
of which you take so deep and practical an interest.  Praying that your
useful life may be long preserved to us an example and blessing to many,

                                                           I am, dear Sir,
                                                          Yours sincerely,
                                                            WM. PEPPERELL.

Charles J. FREAKE, Esq.

                                * * * * *



AT the moment of our writing, St. Mary Abbotts, Kensington, is, in a
literal sense, without a parish church.  The old one has passed away, and
the new one is in course of erection.  There is, however, _the_ church,
with its long, chequered, and interesting history and associations of the
past, and, we trust, its equally interesting and still more glorious
future.  The Venerable Archdeacon Sinclair, the present vicar, his
churchwardens and friends must feel themselves the subjects of peculiar
and pleasurable feelings as being the chief actors in the great change
now coming over the site lately occupied by the old church, and thus
placing themselves on a line with a long and eventful history.  We must
go back far into the middle ages for the origin of the parish church of
Kensington, and to the days of dark Papal rule in the land.  In the time
of Henry I. we read of this church being bequeathed, on his deathbed, by
Godfrey de Vere, Lord of the Manor, to the Monastery of Abingdon.  It
was, however, shortly after claimed by and restored to the Diocese of
London, in which it has ever since remained.  This was in the thirteenth
century.  The first endowment of the Vicarage was in 1260, and from time
to time it received consideration from various monarchs.  In 1520 Queen
Mary accorded to it a portion of the 7,000_l._ granted by Henry VIII. in
augmentation of the living of incumbents and scholars in England.  The
history of the old Saxon church is bound up with that of the manor, which
was bestowed, inclusive of the rectory, upon various noblemen by royal
grants under several reigns.  The collation of the vicarage has belonged
to the Bishops of London, _pleno jure_, about 390 years.  While the
Reformation was yet struggling against Papal tyranny, as though we were
to have a forecast of the Evangelical type and freedom which have marked
this church in after times, it possessed a martyr.  Not one, indeed, led,
as far as we know, to the stake, but cruelly driven from his position and
living, and possibly to temporal ruin.  In 1527 Sebastian Harris, the
curate, was proceeded against for having in his possession a translation
of the New Testament and a book entitled _Unio Dissidentium_, containing
the doctrines of Luther.  He was, for this _criminal_ offence, cited to
appear before the Vicar-General in the long chapel, St. Paul’s Cathedral,
and required there to make oath that he would not retain these books in
possession any longer, nor sell them, nor lend them, nor make any
acquaintance with any person suspected of heresy, and finally adjudged to
quit London within twenty-four hours, and not to come within four miles
of it for two years!

   [Picture: The New Church of St. Mary Abbotts, Kensington, 1872.  The
                  Venerable Archdeacon Sinclair, Vicar]

The late church began to supersede the first in 1683.  The population
even then was said to increase, and the inhabitants, to provide for the
increase, built a new aisle on the south side.  In the beginning of 1695
the north aisle and chancel were supplanted by others of larger
dimensions; and in 1696 it was resolved to take down and rebuild the
whole church, excepting the tower at the west end.  The cost of this was
met by subscription.  King William gave 300_l._; the Princess Anne
100_l._; Earl Craven 100_l._; the Bishop of London 50_l._; and the Earl
of Warwick 40_l._; the entire expense amounting to no more than 1,800_l_.
_ _Bowack, who visited the church in 1705, thus describes the rebuilt
church in his “Antiquities of Middlesex”: “In form quadrangular, somewhat
broader than long, 80 feet from north to south, and hardly 70 from east
to west.  Paved handsomely with Purbeck stone.  The pewing and galleries
very neat and convenient.  The pulpit and chancel handsomely adorned with
carving and painting.”  It might be added that the pulpit and desk were
the gifts of King William the Third and Queen Mary, in addition to their
contributions to the building fund.  The pulpit has a crown inlaid with
the initials, “W. & M. R.,” and the date, “1697.”

In 1704, the defects of the recent work evincing itself so clearly by the
cracking of the building, it was found necessary to take off the old
roof, pull down the north and south walls, and rebuild them; which was
done at a further outlay of 1,800_l._

Again in 1772 the church underwent a thorough repair, and the old Gothic
tower was taken down and the later one erected.

Once more in the year 1811 the church showed signs of decay, and it was
necessary to underpin the walls, rebuild the vaults, and entirely
renovate and adorn the interior.  This was done at an expense of
5,000_l._, which was met by a church-rate of sixpence in the pound,
spreading over three years.  This church, now spoken of as the “old
church,” was a plain brick structure, with no pretensions to
architectural display.  The interior was composed of nave, chancel, and
two aisles, separated by wooden pillars supporting the galleries.  It was
spanned from the entablature of six wooden columns over the nave, and
three large brass chandeliers wore suspended from the ceiling.  There was
the royal pew curtained round in ancient style, which long continued to
be used by high personages from the Palace.  Here the Duke and Duchess of
Kent and the late Duke of Cambridge worshipped; and from this very pew
the Duchess returned thanks after the birth of our present gracious and
beloved Queen Victoria.  The brows of other distinguished persons have
been seen within the old walls.  Sir Isaac Newton, Addison (after his
marriage with the Countess of Warwick, of Holland House), Lady Margaret
Macdonald, “Lady of the Isles,” Wilberforce, George Canning, Sir David
Wilkie, Lord Macaulay, Thackeray, &c.—all of whom were residents in
Kensington, were attendants at the parish church.  Such were the minor
glories of the former house.

  [Picture: Church of St. Mary Abbotts, Kensington, 1872.  The Venerable
                       Archdeacon Sinclair, Vicar]

In 1866 it was seen that its fate was sealed.  Competent architects
pronounced that it would not be safe to use it for public worship more
than two or three years beyond.  The closing services were held on
Whit-Sunday, May 16, 1869, when sermons were preached by the Bishop of
London in the morning and by the Vicar in the evening.  The church was
crowded—said, indeed, to be “packed to the ceiling.”  Collections made on
the occasion towards the new building fund amounted to 265_l._  The
church contained no less than 114 monuments and tablets, among which one
in white marble was most conspicuous, dated 1759, in memory of the Earl
of Warwick, the Countess, and their daughter, Lady Charlotte Rich.  The
Earl is represented sitting, resting his arm on an urn and clothed in a
Roman habit.  All the monuments were carefully removed before the church
was pulled down, and some, it is expected, will be reinstalled in the new

[Picture: Design of Organ for new Church of St. Mary Abbotts, Kensington.
                       Built by Hill & Son, London]

At first it was thought that the entire enterprise of the new parish
church could not be undertaken at once, for want of funds, and it was
resolved to proceed by degrees, laying the foundation and building vestry
and chancel, with a temporary nave.  But the funds shortly realised and
promised encouraged the deacon and churchwardens to build the whole of
the fabric at once, with the exception of tower and spire.  The estimated
cost of the work when completed is 35,000_l._, the tower and spire alone
being estimated to cost 10,000_l._ of the amount.  The fine old ring of
bells—eight in number—which have quickened and delighted the ears of
Kensingtonians for many a long year, will find a place in the new tower
and be heard again, and probably their joyous music be listened to by
generations to come.  The spire, when completed, will be 240 feet from
the base to the vane.  The estimated cost of the interior fittings, pews,
pulpit, screen, and altar is 4,460_l._  The church will be brilliantly
lit with gas, and warmed with hot water on the most improved principle.
The length of the interior is 155 feet, and its greatest breadth 100
feet, and is capable of accommodating 1,600 persons on one floor.  There
will be no galleries.  The style of the building is Gothic, a specimen of
the transitional period from the early English to the decorated, and the
architect is Mr. Gilbert Scott R.A., of Spring-gardens; the contractors
Messrs. Dove Brothers, of Islington; and the grotesque and other carving
with which the church is ornamented is executed by Messrs. Farmer and
Brindly.  The external material of the building is Kentish rag, with
selected Bath-stone dressings.  From what can be seen of the work in
progress, the ample Bath-stone turrets and mouldings will add much to the
effect of the building.  In the interior there is no plaster, but the
whole of the church is faced with solid Bath ashlar.  There are on plan,
nave, side aisles, and transepts.  The nave will be 107 ft. and the
chancel 48 ft. long, and 27 ft. wide; the aisles are 14 ft. 6 in. wide.
There are also chancel aisles, and on the north side of the chancel an
organ chamber, and the tower—the tower space being occupied with a
vestry, from which the clergy will pass to the chancel by a vestibule.
The font is on the north side of the west door; it is intended to be a
very handsome marble one, with a conical cover, the cost being 400_l._
Several ladies in Kensington are exerting themselves to raise funds for
this particular work.  The principal entrance to the church is on the
west side, and the door has a sumptuous carving in Bath stone over it.
The next principal entrance will be on the south side, through a porch,
and another on the north side.  A scheme is projected by the ladies of
the congregation, and a plan is now preparing by Messrs. Clayton and
Bell, to fill the whole church with painted windows.  Should this be
accomplished, and the eminent firm mentioned be employed to carry it out,
it will doubtless add vastly to the effect of the interior.

     [Picture: The Old Church, High Street, Kensington.  In Memoriam

It is hoped and expected by the Vicar that the church will be opened by
Easter next (1872).  A very fine organ is now being built for this
handsome fabric, by Messrs. Hill and Son, of the Euston-road, at a cost
of about 1,200_l._, to be provided by a separate fund.  This instrument
has three manuals and a pedal organ.  _Great Organ_—containing double
open diapason and bourdon, 16 feet; open diapason, 8 feet; ditto, No. 2,
8 feet; gamba, 8 feet; stopped diapason, 8 feet; principal, 4 feet;
harmonic flute, 4 feet; 12th, 3 feet; 15th, 2 feet; mixture, 4 ranks;
Posaund, 8 feet; clarion, 4 feet.  _Choir Organ_—open diapason, 8 feet;
dulciana, 8 feet; Gedact, 8 feet; Gamshorn, 4 feet; Wald flute, 4 feet;
flautina, 2 feet; clarionet, 8 feet.  _Swell Organ_—Bourdon, 16 feet;
open diapason, 8 feet; salcional, 8 feet; stopped diapason, 8 feet;
principal, 4 feet; Suabe flute, 4 feet; 12th, 3 feet: 15th, 2 feet;
mixture, 3 ranks; horn, 8 feet; oboe, 8 feet; clarion, 4 feet.  _Pedal
Organ_—CCC to F, 30 notes; sub-Bourdon, 32 feet; open diapason, 16 feet;
violone, 15 feet; Bourdon, 16 feet; principal, 8 feet; 15th, 4 ft.;
trombone, 16 ft.; 5 couplers.  Up to the present time about 24,000_l._
has been received and promised to the Building Fund, to which Her Majesty
the Queen subscribes 200_l._  It will be seen, therefore, that a large
proportion of the money has yet to be raised, although no doubt is felt
that public spirit will display itself in connection with this great
public object, so as to relieve the promoters of all anxiety as to the
speedy and successful termination of their work.  Archdeacon Sinclair is
the treasurer of the fund, and the Rev. W. Wright, of 2, Bath-place, the
secretary.  The present churchwardens are Charles Greenway, Esq., of 3,
Bath-place, who has filled the office for sixteen years, and Robert
Harvey, Esq., of 92, High-street, Notting-hill, who has been in office
for two years.  Attached to the parish church there are national schools,
with 200 boys and 130 girls; an infant school with 200; and a
ragged-school in Jennings’-buildings—a notoriously low part of the
town—with 60 or 70.  There is also an industrial school for young girls,
where 35 or 40 are taught various useful domestic works.  There are
Sunday-schools answering to the day-schools; also a district visiting
society, composed of ladies and clergymen who visit the poor and
distribute alms; and annual collections are made for missionary and other
religious and charitable purposes.

The venerable Archdeacon Sinclair has been Vicar for the last twenty-nine
years, and was appointed Archdeacon soon after his accession to the
Vicarage.  It is known to be a wealthy living, but its exact value cannot
be precisely stated.  The net value, however, is estimated at 912_l._ per
annum.  The Vicar is well known and admired both for the elevation of his
personal character and his able and truly Evangelical ministry.  He is
now well stricken in years—being seventy-four years of age—but retains a
notable degree vigour, and preaches regularly twice every Sunday, at
present to the congregation of St. Paul’s, Palace-gardens, one of the
chapels of ease to the parish church.  Christ Church, Victoria-road, is
the other.  Associated with the Vicar in the spiritual work of the parish
are at present four curates, the Rev. W. Wright, M.A., the Rev. E. T.
Carey, M.A., the Rev. G. Averill, M.A., and the Rev. J. J. T. Wilmot,

The principal congregation of the old church are, during the re-building,
worshipping in the vestry-hall adjoining.  Here we had the pleasure of
uniting with them on the morning of Sunday, Oct. 15, 1871.  The service
is a reflection of what it was in the old temple, and what, under the
venerable vicar, it is intended to be in the new.  It was plain devout
Church of England service, earnest and as inspiring as it could be in a
plain hall.  The officiating clergyman was the Rev. J. J. T. Wilmot,
M.A., who took the whole of the service and preached the sermon.  The
latter was a faithful exposition and application of 1 Tim. i.
16—“Godliness with contentment is great gain.”  Some very pointed remarks
on the evils of the lust of riches, and the value of the gain of
godliness, were delivered in a clear and sonorous voice, and pointed with
familiar illustrations.  The impression on our minds was that such a
method of conducting worship, and such a style of pulpit or platform
discourse, cannot but be the means of doing great good.

                              (_See Notes_.)


THIS church is a recent instance of the modern forward movement to
overtake the spreading population of the suburbs.  It is situated at the
extreme north of the parish, in the midst of a vast mass of new property,
which is very properly called _New-town_, or Kensal New-town.  The
parish, which was formed out of the extensive one of All Saints’,
Notting-hill, has a population of 9,000; and up to the present has been
very ill-provided with means of religious worship.  Indeed, it seems as
if no effort can be abreast of the fast-growing needs of the metropolis.
But here is, at least, a large and handsome church situate in a locality
in which _primâ facie_ it would appear a very _God-send_.  Alighting at
the Westbourne-park Station, and passing over the bridge, a sign-board
directs the inquirer along the main Newtown-street, and after four or
five minutes’ walk another board points out the site of the church.  Or
an equally ready way of access may now be found from the Notting-hill
Station, by the Ladbroke and recently-opened Golborne-road.  This edifice
is the fruit of private and public zeal combined.  A Christian lady in
Bayswater devoted 5,000_l._ of her abundance, and the Bishop of London’s
Fund, together with some local donations, supplied the remainder of
7,000_l._, which was the cost of the building.  It is therefore
unencumbered with debt, and has a free and open course before it for
Christian usefulness.  The ceremony of consecration took place on
Saturday, the 8th of January, 1870, when our reporter in attendance wrote
that, “Notwithstanding the furious gale over the parish, upwards of 700
ladies and gentlemen were present.”  The then new Bishop of London (Dr.
Jackson) officiated, and was assisted in the service by the Venerable
Archdeacon Sinclair, Vicar of St. Mary Abbotts, Kensington; the Rev. A.
G. Pemberton, of Kensal-green; the Rev. A. Campe; and the Rev. R. Towers,
the incumbent.  A number of other clergymen were also present, amongst
whom were the Rev. R. W. Forest, the Rev. Daniel Moore, the Rev. Bryan
Hodge, the Rev. W. A. Newton, the Rev. W. A. Bathurst, &c.

The building is of red brick with Bath-stone mouldings, covered with the
best Welsh slates, and surrounded on all sides with a strong iron
railing.  In the exterior there is no other particular feature, except a
prettily-shaped belfry, which is an ornament to the east front.  The
interior does credit to the architect, Mr. Keeling, of Gray’s-inn; who,
forbidden the versatility of device he has displayed in St. Mark’s,
Notting-hill, St. George’s, Campden-hill, and elsewhere, has given a free
adaptation of early French Gothic.  There are a nave and aisles,
separated on either side by five handsome columns of Devonshire marble,
with carved-stone capitals, and supporting an entablature of six arches
on each side, from which a lofty groined roof spans the nave.  The arches
are of variegated brick, with Bath-stone dressings; and the higher part
of the side walls in the same, the lower part being faced with Bath-stone
ashlar.  The choir and chancel are ample in dimensions, the former being
furnished with high cathedral-backed stalls, and the former ornamented
with neatly-illuminated texts, the Ten commandments, &c., and over the
communion-table the words—which it may be hoped, will be a faithful index
to the ministry ever to be exercised in the church, “Christ is the end of
the law for righteousness to him that believeth.”  The organ is a
borrowed instrument of very inferior quality, and which is shortly to be
supplanted by one more adapted to the beautiful and spacious edifice.
Towards this most desirable improvement 40_l._ only has yet been raised,
towards 250_l._, the estimated cost.  As the congregation and immediate
neighbourhood are mainly poor, it would be a real boon if some wealthier
person or persons beyond the district could devise the means to present
to the church a suitable instrument.  The church is admirably adapted for
the free passage both of light and sound, and the plain but
variously-stained windows, without Scripture or canonical characters, add
to the beautiful effect of the whole structure.  There are no galleries;
but the ground floor, well laid out with substantial open pews, supplies
accommodation for 950, but is capable of taking 1,000 without
overcrowding.  We regretted to observe that the congregation present at
the morning service were not anything like half the number.  The audience
in the evening, however, is said to be much larger, a feature very
characteristic of poor localities, where many week-day working people are
seldom prepared for church before evening on the Sabbath.  The place is
well warmed by a large stove, which sent a comforting glow of heat
through the entire space; and is lit at night from ornamental pillars,
each having four branches, and each branch three jets, specially designed
by Messrs. Johnson Brothers, of High Holborn.  The floors of the aisles,
choir, and chancel are inlaid with tessellated tiles.

The first builder was unable to fulfil his contract, which occasioned
considerable delay; but ultimately it was taken in hand by Messrs.
Scriven and White, of Camden-town, who carried out their engagement to
perfect satisfaction.

Church work, in this case, is yet in its infancy, and seems to ask for
assistance.  There are, however, the seeds of what, let us hope, may
prove a future moral and spiritual harvest.  The population requires to
be wrought upon outside the walls, that they may be brought more fully to
comprehend their privileges.  It appears quite certain that within there
are all the means of good to them.  The service is devoutly and earnestly
performed in its Evangelical interpretation, the prayers, psalms, and
creeds being read, and responded to by the congregation.  The musical
part is Gregorian plain-song; but sufficiently varied to prevent the
sense of severe monotony.  The choir is at present a mixture of male and
female voices; and there is some room for improvement, which will
doubtless come when it is assisted by a better organ.  The hymn-hook is
the “Church and Home Metrical Psalter and Hymnal.”  The Rev. Robert
Towers, B.A., the Vicar, was without assistance in the clerical portion
of the service.  He reads in a distinct and feeling manner; and preaches
extempore, purely and properly so.  His text was taken from Matthew ix.
12: “They that be whole need not a physician, but they that are sick,”
&c.  In this discourse in simple language and illustration, we verily
believe was preached _the_ truth as it is in the Gospel.  We could not
but wish that the place had been crowded to hear it.  The disease of sin
was scripturally set forth as _inherent_ in man’s nature, _hereditary_,
_loathsome_, _contagious_, and by all human means _incurable_.  Mr.
Towers is a preacher who is not afraid to speak of sin in appropriate
terms, telling his audience plainly that “it damns the soul and fills
hell”; and that in the world wherever it is found, “the blast of the
devil passes over, and carries its accursed infection beyond.”  As to its
human incurability, “Not even religious ceremonies in themselves could
avail.  Baptism was not regeneration.”  Sin would still reign and
increase “its deadly and damnable effects in the soul,” for there was “no
getting through or living it down.  It was very _death_ itself.”  “But
thanks be unto God that though the wages of sin be death, the gift of God
is eternal life, through our Lord Jesus Christ.”  The character and
ability of the great Physician, and the Divine mode of cure, through the
application of “the precious blood” by “the Holy Ghost” to the repentant
sinner, were impressively and unmistakeably set forth, together with the
delightful effects in the experience of men.  In short, we have never
listened to more real Gospel within thirty minutes of time than on the
morning of Sunday, November 12, 1871.  We sincerely hope the church will
soon be filled, from the chancel to the baptistry.  There is a
Sunday-school with about 150 scholars, and an excellent staff of
teachers.  A Church of England Young Men’s Society has been established
about six months, and supplies a number of very competent male teachers
to the school, which at present meets in the church in the afternoon.  A
near site, however, for a school is already purchased, and will be built
upon as soon as funds are secured for the purpose.  Mission-rooms
attached, capable of holding about 100 persons, are at 15,
Appleford-road, where a missionary is employed and holds service Sunday
afternoons and Monday evenings; three Bible-women are also doing their
useful work in the parish.  There would appear, therefore, to be much of
the machinery requisite for carrying on the work in this new locality;
but the church is entirely dependent on voluntary support, and, the
people being poor, that support is as yet but feeble.  The weekly
offertory was at first adopted; but soon discontinued, being considered
unpopular, and boxes were placed at the doors.  The financial result,
however, is most insignificant; and it is evident that something more is
necessary, if this fine church and zealous few are not to be crippled in
their energies.  An earnest appeal is therefore being made by the Vicar
and the Churchwardens, Mr. W. J. Murlis and T. Horsman, for help to meet
the expenses.  One thing should not be unnoticed; a provident fund is
established for the poor, from which the sick, aged, and persons
suffering from want of work, are aided in time of need.  The society adds
two-pence to every shilling deposited by the members when able, and
already between 60_l._ and 70_l._ stands to the credit of the fund.


THE new Church of St. Jude’s, South Kensington, is situate close to the
Cromwell and Gloucester-roads, and stands out boldly, tree-less, and
alone, a striking object in the surrounding plain, looming largely in the
distance.  Nor is it less striking on a closer view.  It is in the early
Gothic style, some fair detail of which it possesses, especially in the
character of the west front, which is a happy composition; but its most
remarkable features consist in the number of gables, gable-crosses,
terminations, and chimneys, the great size of some of its windows, and a
certain stilted appearance that the structure has, altogether a whole not
perfectly pleasing or picturesque.  The view from the north-west is
perhaps the most telling in point of effect, but this would be greatly
improved by the addition of the tower and spire, which we hope will soon
appear, but there is a certain comfortable-looking bell-turret which
seems to say, “I answer all purposes required.”

        [Picture: Interior of St. Jude’s Church, South Kensington]

The church is built of Kentish rag and Bath stone dressings, and the
roofs are covered with slate in bands of colour.  The gates and
approaches when finished will add greatly to the general appearance.

If the outside is peculiar, the inside, perhaps, is more so.  The
building, which is slightly cruciform on plan, covers a large area, about
135 feet long by 87 feet wide.  These dimensions are sufficient to give a
great idea of space, and this effect is increased from the fact of the
floor being nearly free from the usual obstructing columns; for although
there is the general arrangement of nave and aisles, yet the slight iron
columns, that support the arcades offer but very little impediment either
to sight or sound.  The acoustic properties are exceedingly good, and the
preacher can be seen and heard to advantage from all points; whilst the
large north and south windows admit such volumes of light that there is
an entire absence of that “dim religious light” favoured by a section of
the English Church.

          [Picture: View of St. Jude’s Church, South Kensington]

Architecturally the iron columns are suggestive of having too much to
do—looking weak and unequal to the task of supporting the pretty nave
roof and coloured-brick arches; this is especially the case with the
columns at the transepts.  The iron, as we have said, from its lightness,
assists sight and sound, but then beauty is sacrificed to utility, which
to some extent we think unfortunate; but the church has evidently been
designed to assist the preacher’s voice, and therefore we must
congratulate the architect, Mr. J. H. Godwin, of Brompton, on his
complete success.  The prevailing buff colour of the bricks, being
imitated in the painting of the columns, is not pleasing, and we think
may be altered with advantage.  The church will hold 1,700 persons, and
the galleries add to the auditorium, but are no assistance to effect, and
compel the use of a stilted and old-fashioned pulpit.

The organ-chamber and a capital vestry are at the north-east angle of the
church, and the baptistry, at the west end, is well arranged and contains
a handsomely-designed early font.  The east window is of stained glass,
illustrating the life of Christ.  The doors are ample and admit of good
entrance and exit.  The pewing is comfortable and compact.  The school
class rooms and offices below account for the stilted appearance before
referred to.

St. Jude’s is one of the latest and most noticeable instances of
aggressive effort on the part of the Established Church.  It was
originated by the Rev. J. A. Aston, late Vicar of St. Stephen’s,
Kensington, to provide for the spreading suburban population in that
part, and has cost, as it now stands, 10,000_l._, which is entirely the
munificent gift to the district of Mr. J. D. Allcroft, of 55,
Porchester-terrace, and Wood-street, E.C.  When all complete, including
the site and the vicarage shortly to be erected, the cost will be about
19,000_l._, the additional 9,000_l._ being jointly guaranteed by Mr.
Allcroft, the Rev. J. A. Aston, and the present Vicar.  There is a
capital organ, ably presided at by Mr. M. Lochner, having four manuals,
and favoured on the choir organ with that very rare stop, the _Vox
Humana_, and capable of enlargement.  This fine instrument was built by
Mr. H. Wedlake, of Fitzroy-square, at a cost of 700_l._, and is another
of the grand offerings in connexion with the St. Jude enterprise—being
the sole gift of Mrs. Walter Powell of Notting-hill.  The largest of the
three rooms underneath the east end of the church is forthwith to be
fitted up.  It is capable of holding 400 people, and to be used for the
purpose of meetings, Sunday-schools, &c.  It is not intended at present
to have day-schools.

Although opened for Divine Service so recently as the 23rd of Dec., 1870,
it has within three months collected within its walls one of the largest
congregations to be met with around London.  It is estimated to
accommodate 1,700 worshippers—and on a special occasion it might very
well contain 2,000.  On Sunday morning, February 26, there were from
1,500 to 1,600 present, and the church did not present a crowded
appearance.  A glance over the large assembly showed that it contained
scarcely a sprinkling of the lower or labouring classes.  It was composed
almost entirely of the aristocracy and gentle people of the district,
together with the middle and trading classes.  The sittings are let at
2_l._ 2s., 35s., 30s., and 20s. per year; but as one-third of the entire
number are to be _free_, it may be hoped that the “rich and the poor”
will here also meet together before Him “who is the Maker of them all.”

The service is a vigorous rendering of the plain Church Service,
cautiously guarded against Ritualistic signs.  The members of the choir
are not robed in white, nor have they anything to distinguish them but
the place they occupy.  The clergy wear a simple surplice at prayers, and
appear in the pulpit in a black gown.  The Rev. R. W. Forrest, M.A., of
Trin. Col., Dublin, the first vicar of this new church, was transferred
to it from the Lock Chapel, Paddington, having been previously incumbent
of St. Andrew’s, Liverpool.  In Paddington he enjoyed a well-deserved
popularity, which appears still to attend him in his new sphere of duty.
In appearance he is about forty years of age, tall and commanding in
presence, and possessing a strong pleasant voice, used with ease and
heard without effort in the remotest corner of the spacious edifice.  His
reading of the Holy Scriptures is specially distinct, natural, and
impressive.  The pulpit discourse was founded on Heb. iv., and part of
the 16th verse, “But was in all points tempted, like as we are, yet
without sin.”  It was a practical and touching illustration of our Lord’s
temptations in their bearing upon the experience and present comfort of
his people, and, being delivered _extempore_, brought the preacher into
direct sympathy with his audience.  The Rev. F. Moran (curate) assisted
in reading the prayers—a clergyman who also possesses a clear and
distinct enunciation—suitable to the place and the congregation.  Among
Mr. Forrest’s hearers on the occasion of our visit were Bishop Barker, of
Sydney, Metropolitan of Australia, and the Dean of Ripon.


THE Church of St. Matthias, Warwick-road, Earl’s-court, Kensington, is
within sight of St. Jude’s, and, like it, stands almost alone in the open
fields.  It has no boundary walls or fences, unless a broken-down hedge
on the east side can be called a fence.  Externally, as a structure,
there are no very pleasing features; the permanent and temporary portions
do not harmonise, and, indeed, the chancel and aisles, the only parts
finished, have not in point of detail and design much to recommend their
brick walls with bath stone dressings and window tracery of simple
character.  Of course the temporary portions as such cannot fairly be
criticised; yet if we must have temporary churches and of corrugated
iron, we see no reason why they should not be picturesque, or at any rate

Internally the temporary nave has no attempt at appearance or effect, a
remarkable fact seeing that the Anglican school generally pride
themselves upon effects.  A matched-boarded lining to walls and roof is
simply varnished, the glazing of the windows is rendered shocking to
taste by masses of blue and red colour, and a box pulpit is too much like
a box.  The excessively plain chancel, arch, and arcades, and general
detail of the windows, have evidently been designed with a view to
economy; and if, when the nave is built, the same quiet spirit is
adopted, we shall be anxious to learn the cost of the structure, which
will certainly be a minimum sum, and valuable to note in these
church-building days.  The style is early English.  The dwarf stone
parapet and ornamental iron screen across the chancel arch form rather a
nice feature, and the stall-seats are of good design.

The east window is partly filled with effective stained glass, and as the
predominant colour is blue, it is vexatious that the side-lights, not yet
completed, are screened with green blinds.

Two figures of saints over the altar-table are not clearly seen—one might
be St. Matthias; and the reredos might as well have English written on
it—the unlearned could then understand and appreciate.

St. Matthias stands in the midst of a poor district, which was originally
cut off from St. Philip’s, Kensington.  A temporary iron church was first
opened on April 17, 1869, and the permanent chancel was consecrated and
opened on the following 10th of July.  Nave and chancel together
accommodate from 700 to 750 persons.  The cost of the whole structure has
been 4,800_l._; and it is intended if possible to build the nave this
year 1871, which will cost about 4,000_l._ or 5,000_l._ more.  The
architect is Mr. J. H. Hatrevile, 5, Southmolton-street.  There are no
appropriated sittings; all are free, and the church is always open for
public or private prayer.  It is supported by the offertory alone, which
in 1869–70 amounted to the sum of 1,100_l._, and in 1870–71 it will
amount, we are informed, to 1,600_l._  Out of this all the expenses of
the church and the charities and the clergy are met.  There are three
_priests_ attached—the Rev. S. C. Haines, M.A., the Vicar; the Revs. H.
Westall, A.K.C., and S. Martin.  There is a superb organ built by Jones,
of the Fulham-road, with three manuals, forty stops, and 2,255 pipes, at
a cost of 700_l._  The choir is large—about fifty in number—under the
precentorship of Mr. J. Elwin, of 21, Coleherne-road, Brompton, professor
of musical elocution.  During Lent there is daily Communion at eight
A.M., four services every day, and five on Friday, when there is an extra
Communion at eleven A.M.

The service is Gregorian plain song, and on the morning of March 5, the
second Sunday in Lent, the ceremonial is described as being extremely
ornate and symbolical.  Our representative says: The chancel is unusually
deep, the space between the altar and the railing being apparently
designed with a view to Ritualistic development.  In fact, it is a large
stage on which a numerous company can play their parts.  The choristers
wear surplices, and the clergy, over the surplice, a stole, which is at
the present season of the true Lenten violet—according to the practice of
Ritualists—who use the symbolic colours of violet for Lent, black for
Good Friday, red for Martyrs, yellow for Confessors, and so on.  The
altar-cloth and pulpit-cover, and even the offering-bags, are also of the
same tinge, the latter being embossed with a white cross.  The prayers
were intoned by Mr. Westall, a young gentleman whose voice is in some
danger of collapsing from sheer tension of monotone.  The Ritualists have
attained perfection in denying to nature its own freedom and flexibility
of voice.  The lessons were read by the second curate, Mr. Martin, who,
we learn, is new to the church, and whose voice, trained in the true
Anglican style—rises always where it ought to fall, and _vice versâ_.
The bowings, curtseys, and genuflexions of this service are so numerous
and complicate, we almost despair of tracing them.  Not only in the
Creed, but in every other part where the name of the Saviour occurred and
on every repetition of the _Gloria Patri_, there was a low curtsey as
long as the body could be conveniently bent, which had a most singular
effect in the general aspect of the congregation.  In the Nicene Creed,
in the part “Light of light” and up to “rose again,” there was a sudden
drop of voice to a mere whisper—which, being quite unprepared for at the
moment, might startle one into the idea that the congregation and choir
had simultaneously lost their vocal power.  But all this was merely
dramatic.  On entering the Communion Service the _processional_ hymn is
sung, during which the clergy three abreast commence their pilgrimage to
the altar.  They approach it by three stages, pausing at every one, and
on arrival bow and cross themselves, and then dispose themselves on the
left, in line with their backs to the congregation—one a step above the
other—the highest reading the Commandments, turning meanwhile to the
people.  They then break line again, and one reads the Epistle for the
day; they form inline again, and the centre figure, the Vicar, reads the
Gospel, during which the curate at his feet turns towards him obliquely,
bending in a worshipping attitude.  After the Creed—and so as to chime in
with the close—the Vicar passes with a sharp step to the pulpit, which is
as close to the chancel as it can be; and on entering it, whilst the
people are still standing, crosses himself, fronting them, and repeats
quickly, “To God, the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, Amen,” and at once
announces his text.  The short prayer before sermon is dispensed with.
The motion with the finger to the two shoulders and the forehead is the
great feature at this point.

The sermon was founded on 1 Cor. i. 20—“Where is the wise?  Where is the
scribe?  Where is the disputer of this world?  Hath not God made foolish
the wisdom of this world?”  Having on the previous Sunday treated of
bodily mortification and fasting, the preacher would now speak of the
subjugation of human imagination, intellect and reason to the dominion of
truth—of the folly of the “wise,” the “scribe,” the “disputer of this
world,” in view of the “wisdom of God.”  In what was mainly an
_extempore_ address, aided only by copious notes, and accompanied by much
declamation and earnest action, Mr. Haines denounced the intellect and
literature of the day as extremely sordid, timeserving, and egotistic.
It was “a day of advertisements,” when intellect was “bought and sold
over the counter,” when one might “buy all the intellect of England for
gold, and for so many guineas have so many pages;” and if in any case
pride prevented this degradation, literature was then “but the expression
of an extreme egotism.”  Periodicals and books were “pretentious and
misleading;” the novels of the age embodied its “sensualistic intellect;”
our art in its exhibitions handed down pictures and ideas of depravity.
“It would be well if the scientific world would send forth no more
theories.”  In short the preacher held in the profoundest contempt all
the ordinary exercises of the human mind and reason.  Perverted intellect
had produced anarchy in America, revolution and bloodshed in Europe; and
in the history of Christianity there had been nothing but contention and
division since the intellect of the church first departed from the “holy
Catholic religion,” and so rendered government impossible.  The preacher
eulogised, indeed, intellect _sitting at the feet of Christ_; but this
was so explained as to mean, in fact, sitting at the feet of “Holy
Catholic Church.”  This part of the sermon was, to our minds, a virtual
denouncement of the Protestant Reformation.  In speaking of the mysteries
of religion against which the world’s intellect revolted, the preacher
adverted to that one, “the sacrifice of the altar,” which they were then
daily celebrating.  “Christ was in Heaven, but he was also there, yea,”
glancing round to the spot, “on that altar was the real body and the real
blood of our Lord.”  Would they deny these mysteries because they could
not understand them?  Were there not mysteries in all nature? and did not
the saint see all around him the great sacrifice of nature—the outward
and visible sign of the inward, present, and omnipotent God?  After
sermon the preacher returns to the altar, when a fourth functionary
appears, whom we suppose must be termed an acolyte.  He carries in his
hand a taper, with which he proceeds to light the candles in the
candelabra at either end of the altar, each having seven lights.  A hymn
is being sung and the collection made at the same time, and when ended
the offertory bags are borne to the altar, and, being solemnly placed
upon it, one of the priests, prostrating himself before it, raises the
offering high towards the cross, and there holds it for some moments in
the act of consecration, after which the Benediction is pronounced.  The
church in the morning is filled with a congregation chiefly composed of
the higher middle classes of the people, and in the evening principally
of the poor of the immediate locality.


A PLEASANT walk on a Sunday morning from westward, through that
fashionable part of Kensington known as the Addison-road and
Warwick-gardens, brings us to the Church of St. Philip, which stands at
the corner where the Earl’s-court and Pembroke-roads join.  It is a brick
structure in the perpendicular decorated style belonging to the fifteenth
century; and as, with its modest spire, it comes into view, and the
worshippers slowly moving up every main approach, in response to the
“church-going bell,” the whole produces a very pleasing effect.  As one
silently views the interior a somewhat mystical impression imperceptibly
steals upon him.  The architect, Mr. Thomas Johnson, of Lichfield, would
appear to have studied and followed out the ideal of a former period in
the details generally.  This is especially seen in the windows, the
arcades, &c.  The nave has a lofty aspect, much more so than would be
expected from the exterior view.

This church was built in 1858, and its district taken principally out of
St. Barnabas, with a small portion from the old Kensington parish.  It
originally had accommodation for 1,000, but, in consequence of the
increasing demand, it was enlarged in 1862 to 1,400 sittings, 500 of
which are free.  The cost of both the original building and the
subsequent enlargement has been almost entirely borne by the Vicar, the
Rev. J. Dickson Claxton, M.A., of Trinity College, Cambridge, he having
been aided only to the amount of 1,400_l._ or 1,500_l._ in subscriptions,
which were towards the first erection.  The enlargement was carried out
at his own sole cost.  The great need of this was manifest from the magic
rapidity with which population increased in the neighbourhood of the
church.  It stood at 8,000 until recently—the spring of 1869—when the
formation of the sub-district of St. Matthias reduced it to 5,000.  But
so rapid is the growth that it has already again risen to fully 6,000.
There is at present but one curate, the Rev. J. C. Sykes, B.A., of
Queen’s College, Cambridge.

Three schools are in part connected with the church, being maintained in
conjunction with St. Barnabas, and containing altogether upwards of 600

The other charities maintained alone by St. Philip’s are several.  There
are “A Provident Fund and District Visiting Charity,” a “Maternity
Charity,” “Work Charity,” “Soup Charity,” “Blanket Charity,” and “Old
Clothing Charity.”  Taking the year round it would seem that a large
amount of temporal comfort most be distributed over the poorer parts of
the district by these benevolent operations.  The church itself contains
several objects of interest worthy of note.  There is a splendid reredos
of Caen stone and alabaster, and a peculiarly handsome altar-rail of vert
antique and alabaster.  Over the altar is a beautiful stained window by
Heaton and Butler, at the west end an immense and magnificent one to the
memory of the late Lord Holland, also two other small memorial windows,
all by the same firm.  The organ is a superior instrument by Walker, of
the Tottenham-court road, and cost upwards of 600_l._  It is played by
Mrs. Higgins—whose husband holds the post of master over a choir without
surplices, chiefly voluntary, aided by a few paid voices.  Under the same
direction there a large choral association connected with church.  The
services are principally, through not exclusively, Anglican.  In the
morning the responses are intoned, and at night the choral is adopted.
Daily prayer at 9.30 A.M. and 5 P.M.  On Sundays there is a children’s
service at 9.30 A.M., and full service at 11 A.M., 3.30 P.M., and at 7
P.M.  The weekly offertory, and proceeds of the Communion Service twice a
month, are solely relied upon for the maintenance of the charities and
church expenses, in lieu of church rates.

The vestments of the clergy are of the simplest and most irreproachable
kind, and the performance of the service according to the order of the
Common Prayer.  There is certainly no trifling with rubrics, and no need
for dexterous evasion of ecclesiastical injunctions.  Yet the service we
attended was earnest and solemn.  The curate read audibly, and the
preacher, who happened not to be the Vicar, was scholarly and
Evangelical.  But, on the whole, the service might be deemed a little too
quiet to be a perfect model of what a service in our English Church
should be.  As to the general ministry under the Rev. J. D. Claxton, whom
we had not the pleasure of hearing in _propria persona_, its effects must
be taken as proofs of its acceptableness and usefulness.  Commencing, as
we understand, with an original congregation of ninety, he has had the
gratification of seeing it increase to 1,400, and that, too, whilst so
many other churches and chapels have risen all around.  The congregation
appeared to our eye to bear that settled and orderly aspect which is one
of the readiest proofs of ministerial success and pastoral fidelity; and
not the least pleasing feature was the large number of the poorer people
who filled the free seats, and regarded with attention and reverence
every part of the service.  An official kept the door, who cannot be
termed a verger, scarcely a beadle, but who, if he had no rod or robe, or
staff, had a coat with bright buttons fixed upon a brown cloth.  He
handed the stranger over to the care of a matronly-looking female inside,
with a white cap, who very courteously led the way to a seat.  When
there, the general effect upon us undoubtedly was that we were in a
church of _the people_—one where _the people_ were to be found quite at
home in their worship of the Creator, and free from the stiffness and
restraint of more tinselled and conventional forms.


ST. STEPHEN’S, close to the Queen’s-gate-gardens in the Gloucester-road,
South Kensington, is a very handsome and well-proportioned church, and is
a pretty object seen from the Cromwell-road.  The composition of its west
front is remarkably good, and indeed there exists an agreeable harmony in
the design and in the quiet general tone of colour in the stone of which
it is built that is pleasing to the eye.  There is a refined look about
the building, and perhaps it would not be too much to say that it seems
accustomed to good society.  To the architect there are some portions of
the detail rather interesting.  The cloistered doorways beneath the
buttresses, the triplet and rose-windows of the east front, and the north
porch and back turret are all worthy of remark.  The interior is
exceedingly effective and elegant.  Again the harmony strikes one as
perfect; there is a peaceful influence produced by the quiet colouring
and grey columns and excellent proportions of the church, such as ought
to belong to the house of God.  There is nothing glaring, nothing
particular to arrest or attract the eye, yet every part is worthy of
inspection, and the parts taken together produce one of the best and most
exquisitely charming interiors with which we are acquainted in this
neighbourhood.  The plan of the church may be said to be cruciform, and
is divided into a nave and aisles, north and south transepts, and chancel
and aisles.  The grey columns of the nave support the arcades and
clerestory, and the light nave roof springs from angel-corbelled columns.
The chancel arch is well-proportioned, and the dog-tooth enrichments
harmonise with the caps of the columns.  The chancel is parted from the
aisles by light screens supported by alabaster columns, and on the north
side above the screen is the organ loft, and the south side is occupied
by a gallery.  The chancel itself is simply decorated, the
Communion-table space without any colouring other than of the softest
kind.  Three figures of saints occupy the triplet—St. Stephen filling the
centre, and St. John and St. Paul the side lights; the rose window over
has the Saviour in His Ascension scene.  The stone pulpit on the north
side of the chancel arch is well designed, and its little alabaster and
coloured marble columns relieve the still colour of the stone.  The font,
of similar design, occupies a slight recess in the baptistry, close to
the north porch door.  An octagonal vestry is at the south east angle of
the church.  A new west gallery is not exactly an improvement to the
effect.  The pewing and stall seats are of good design.  The passages are
floored with tiles of simple pattern.  The architecture is early English.

The one drawback to the external appearance of this church is its want of
relative elevation.  Its base appears to drop about two feet below the
level of the roads and ways which form its approaches.  The fault was
that of the architect, who did not calculate on the effect of making-up
roads where they had not previously existed.  In 1866, when the church
was built, that part of South Kensington was only beginning to open up.
The base of the edifice should, therefore, have been raised.  But instead
of this the architect appears to have proceeded in utter disregard of the
near and certain future of the locality.  The result is that whereas
originally steps upward were required to enter by the gates, it is now
necessary to descend in reaching the interior; and a flat and depressed
aspect is thus given to a building which would otherwise have been a most
prominent and pleasing object in the view.  We understand it is intended
to add a spire to the edifice very shortly, and this will probably
somewhat relieve to the eye the defect of which we have spoken.

The church was built under the ministry of the Rev. J. A. Aston, M.A., to
replace an iron church which for some time he occupied on the opposite
side of the road.  The same continued minister until the autumn of 1870,
when he was succeeded by the present officiating minister, the Rev. J. P.
Waldo, M.A.  The progress made under Mr. Aston’s pastorate is seen from
the circumstance that it was found necessary in two or three years to
increase the accommodation by the building of galleries on the west and
south sides.  This work was completed in March, 1870, at a cost of
600_l._, by Mr. Aldin, of Queen’s-gate-place.  The cost of the whole,
when completed, we are told will not be less than 20,000_l._, a very high
figure when it is considered that the church has no more land than that
on which it stands, and the narrow bare paths around it.  There are about
1,150 sittings, which let at an average of 2_l._ 2s. per annum each,
leaving about 150 sittings free—1,300 in all, which appear to be well
occupied by a congregation of a superior class.  Out of the pew-rents and
collections the clergy and the church are supported.  There are temporary
day and Sunday schools attached, situated in the Queen’s-gardens, near
the site, where from one to two hundred children are instructed.  The
organ is very ably played by Mr. Lowe.  The choir is composed of both
males in plain dress and females.

The prayers were read and also the psalms, with the exception of the
first, which was chanted.  There is no variance from the accepted English
and Evangelical mode of conducting worship.  The hymn book is the “Church
and Home Metrical Psalter and Hymnal,” selections from various authors.
The congregation did not join with so much zest and animation in the
service as could be desired, except in one hymn—“Lord of the Worlds
above,” &c., the peculiarly lively words and music of which appeared to
evoke devotional feeling and dispel restraint.  We are sorry, however, to
see this hymn, which in its original dress, as it stands in another
hymn-book, is one of the finest in the language, so sadly mutilated by
the simple act of transference from one collection to another.  We
deplore the liberty which editors of our numerous collections sometimes
take with the productions of even our best hymn-writers.  Why should this
be so?  We have never seen an alteration of this kind which has not been
for the worse as it regards both thought and expression.  The curate
reads well and agreeably to the ear, in a voice more remarkable for
clearness than strength.  The vicar, the Rev. Mr. Waldo, is still new to
the audience, having been at St. Stephen’s about four months.  His vocal
powers and reading are good; the former have not that compass which
enables them to meet the requirements of the large congregation with the
greatest ease.  The sermon, founded on Gen. xlv. 5, was an elegant piece
of composition, not only _read_, but _delivered_ in the reading, which is
not always the case.  The thoughts presented on the _general_ and
_special_ providence of God, as unfolded in the history of Joseph, were
those of a devout, thoughtful, and cultivated mind, and most comforting
to the troubled and disconsolate.  From what we saw and heard, we have
much pleasure in recording our belief that good Christian work is being
done at St. Stephen’s.


THIS church, which stands at the foot of the Victoria road, might have
been much better placed, so as to be seen in perspective, which indeed
its near appearance would warrant.  Its fair and well-proportioned tower
and spire would then have formed a striking object, and might have been
visible even from Kensington-gardens.  Could it be lifted out of the pit
in which it seems to nestle at the dark end of a road which is no
thoroughfare, and out of its unsightly surroundings in Cornwall-gardens,
it would be an immense benefit to the mere appearance of the building.
The building in itself is generally very simple, but not without effect.
It is built of ragstone with bath-stone dressings, and covered with
slate.  The enclosure is nicely planted, neatly kept, and fenced with
dwarf walls.  Internally the church is unimposing.  The nave and aisles
are surmounted by a heavy-looking but plain roof—without clerestory
lights.  The tower space on the north side of the chancel, is occupied as
an organ chamber.  The chancel is quite plain and without aisles.  In the
windows, which are of good design and filled with glass of geometrical
patterns, there is an absence of stained glass and decoration; which in
reality the church requires, to relieve that tame and cold look, which
some day might be slightly altered with advantage.  A large gallery at
the west end does not tend to lighten the interior aspect of the church;
nor do the exposed heating pipes, which it would be better to conceal
from view.  The font, pulpit, and pewing are of plain design, and the
passages are paved with red and black tiles, laid diagonally.  Christ
Church is a chapelry of ease to the parish church of St. Mary Abbotts,
Kensington, or rather a trust chapel, served by the Venerable Archdeacon
Sinclair, Vicar of Kensington.  It was opened and consecrated July 23,
1851, by Bishop Blomfield.  The present officiating ministers are the
Rev. W. Wright, the morning and evening preacher, who has been curate
since 1855, and is now termed the “senior curate.”  The Rev. E. T. Carey
is the second curate and afternoon preacher, and entered upon his duty in
1869.  Both ministers are much esteemed; and from the impressions of our
visit the estimation in which they are held is well founded.  Mr. Carey
read the prayers and lessens in good voice, and with an evident mental
appreciation of their religious sense and application.  Mr. Wright
officiated in the Communion Service and preached the sermon.  His voice
is penetrating, if not full, and leaves the most dull-eared without
excuse.  His sermon was an able and faithful exposition of Psalms 142 and
4th verse—“Refuge failed me; no man cared for my soul.”  The distinction
between the circumstances of the Psalmist and his times and our own was
finely drawn.  In the former case every incident of temporal life—adverse
or favourable—was interpreted as a certain indication of the Divine
favour or displeasure.  With us it was not so much so.  We had in general
every spiritual advantage; although there were yet some, as at the
East-end of London, who, from the scarcity of religious provision, might
still say, “No man careth for my soul.”  In short we quite thought we
were listening to a charity sermon; and after so touching an appeal on
behalf of the spiritually destitute, prepared ourselves for a collection.
Mr. Wright, however, has our best thanks for touching in so delicate a
manner a very sensitive chord in our moral nature.

The chapel is capable of holding 700 persons, and there are less than 100
free sittings; but although it was supposed to have not only its own, but
also many of the congregation of the parish church—which is closed for
re-erection—it was by no means full.  It is hoped, when the central
church is completed and reopened, it will have a good effect in the
locality, and help to supply the dependent church with an adequate
congregation.  We have known churches and chapels in the worst
situations, under special influence, to be filled with devout
worshippers; but they are occasions too rare.  Would that we could see
them more frequently!  One remark made by the preacher in speaking of the
need of churches at the East-end was much to the point.  It was to the
effect that it would be useless to build churches unless there were
efficient ministers to carry on the service and occupy the pulpit.  Mr.
Wright appears to have reflected long enough to learn that the greatest
problem of the day is, after all not how churches may be built, but
rather how, when built, they may be suitably and successfully served.
Here is a good organ under the care of Mr. Brain, of the Eldon-road, but
no choir.  It is, therefore, purely congregational singing assisted by
the organ.


THE Church of St. Mary, West Brompton, from its position in the centre of
the Boltons, can be seen from many points of view to great advantage.  It
is in the decorated Gothic style, and is an exceedingly good specimen of
the Revival of Gothic architecture, having been built some fifteen years
ago.  Built in the shape of a cross, its tower and spire rise at the
intersection of the nave, chancel, and transepts, and are in excellent
proportion.  The spire is octagonal, and is terminated at its junction
with the tower by a pierced parapet with angels at the angles.  The
octagonal portion of the tower is continued downwards below the tower
lights, when it becomes square, with corbelled angels at the four
corners.  The west front is well designed, and surmounted by a corbelled
bell turret, in which hang the only two bells the church possesses,
though there would appear to be ample room in the empty tower for a
chime.  The ragstone of which the church is built, with Bath stone
tracing and dressings, has now enough of age to give a softened look to
the exterior generally, and the young spring foliage and well-kept
surrounding gardens lend their aid to make a rather pretty picture.
Internally the church is effective, especially the view from the west
end; but the absence of the usual nave arcades and aisle give a long,
narrow look to the church, and take from the idea of its size, as at this
point the transepts cannot in any way be seen.  The nave roof is heavy,
and the apostle corbels that support it too large and too near the eye to
be in good taste.  The choir stalls have lately been extended westwards
under the tower space, and the pulpit, of very peculiar design, being
more properly a rostrum, though by no means unsightly, stands at the
north side of the nave arch, and a recently-erected gallery across the
north transept contains the organ.  The small vestry is at the north-east
angle of the church.  The chancel has lately been redecorated and made to
agree with the usual arrangements of the Anglican school of worship.  The
stained glass in the east windows is poor, representing the Ascension
some geometrical patterns fill some of the other windows, likewise of a
very poor character.  The pewing is very plain, and the passages are
paved with tiles.  The stone font is large and very well executed.  The
church, as we before said, is a Revival church, and as such it would be
unfair to criticise it too much; but, on the contrary, much praise is due
to the architect, Mr. Godwin, for giving so fair a specimen of Gothic
work when the art was at so low an ebb.

         [Picture: St. Mary’s Church, The Boltons, West Brompton]

The performance of Divine worship at St. Mary’s is decidedly of the High
Church order, with a Ritualistic tendency.  In this it differs from what
it was under Mr. Swaile, the first minister of the church, and even under
Mr. Pearson the second.  The present vicar, the Rev. W. T. Du Boulay,
M.A., has been there about two years, and during his time a constant
Higher tendency has been observed.  This has been traceable in the large
increase of public services and Eucharistic celebrations.  The latter
takes place every Sunday morning at eight, and on every alternate Sunday
at the eleven o’clock service as well.  After Lent we understand a still
further increase was intended in the number of these in ordinary.  During
Lent and other great festivals there is a celebration every morning at
the early service, on Good Friday two, and on Easter Sunday three.  Apart
from this, the whole aspect of things in the chancel looks towards
Ritualism.  Thus, for instance, the Communion-table, or what High
Churchmen call the “Altar” or “Altar-table,” is surmounted by a large
gilt cross, which from its exceeding brightness forms a most conspicuous
figure—also two large candlesticks, and other lustrous objects.  The
cover is of deep violet, trimmed with white, and all the moveable
furniture, even to the cushions of the chancel, desks, and pulpit, are of
the same—this being the colour used by the High Church party during Lent.
The choristers number over thirty, and are led in procession to the
choir, the people all rising as they and the clergy enter.  The vestments
are a surplice with the cassock underneath, and visible below the knees;
and in addition, the clergy themselves wear the usual sign of degree.  No
change of dress is made for the pulpit.  The Curate—the Rev. Arthur
Veysey—intones the prayers, in, we may say, the most perfect style we
have yet heard out of a cathedral.  His voice is sonorous, and he has
cultivated the manner of intoning to a high degree.  He has certain
little varieties, too, of his own, which render such a method of
performing worship as pleasant as it can be.  Thus the note is altered in
the absolution, and the voice dropped to the lowest tenor, and at the
same time quickened; and then again at the Lord’s Prayer a strong bass is
put on in a low key.  In like manner the Collects were sung quickly in an
undertone.  At every mention of the Saviour’s name, whether in the
prayers, the _Gloria Patri_, creeds, epistle, or gospel, the reader
bowed.  And as in the latter it was often named, the frequent bowing of
the head must have been a great task; for in this case the Curate read
the gospel as well as the epistle, passing in the act from one side of
the chancel to the other.  The Vicar read the lessons well and
distinctly, and preached the sermon.  On entering the pulpit the
customary invocation was not used; but, standing erect and glancing
eastward, the preacher simply uttered the words, “The Father, Son, and
Holy Ghost,” and at once proceeded.  Too little, to our minds, was made
of the sermon; it was a short homily in the midst of the service, very
good in its way.  It consisted largely of exhortation, found on Phil. ii.
3, in which the Saviour was presented as an example of passive and active
obedience, and some very practical remarks were made.  Quietly useful
this style of preaching may be when based on pure Gospel doctrine and
view; but it is one from which the old power and higher effect of the
pulpit are absent.  A novelty, at least to us, occurred in this service.
Instead of the usual hymn on the minister entering within the Communion
rail, another form is adopted, called the “Introit,” which is a selection
of Scripture adapted as much as possible to the day, and sung as an
anthem by the choir.  To our modern ears the Introit is new; but it is in
reality an old thing, in this and some other instances revived.  In the
first Prayer-book of Edward VI. there is a psalm, containing something
proper to the day, printed before every collect, epistle, and gospel.
This, from being sung or said whilst the minister made his entrance
within the rails, was called _introitus_ or _introit_.  There is,
therefore, an ancient reference in the adoption of this form; and by
adoption of the name as well as the form, the Vicar of St. Mary’s betrays
a certain mediæval direction in church matters.  It is, in our opinion,
far from an improvement.  The “Introit” is a poor substitute for the
devotional hymn, in which all the congregation can join, and which has no
particular reference to the minister’s bodily movements.

There are connected with this church, a National School, situated in the
Chelsea-grove, Fulham-road, and a Sunday-school, containing about one
hundred scholars; and it is a pleasing circumstance that the ordinary
afternoon service on Sunday is given to the children, and is called the
“Children’s Service,” consisting of the Litany and catechising.  There is
also a lending library in the schoolroom, where books are given out and
exchanged every Monday between twelve and one o’clock, the subscription
being only one penny per month.  There are District Visitors, and a
“Mother’s Meeting” is held at the Vicarage on Mondays from 3 to 5 P.M.
There are also a Maternal Charity, Coal, Clothing, Shoe, and Blanket
Clubs, and even a “Guild” or association for servants.  It is clear that
the Rev. Mr. Du Boulay has laid himself out for extensive influence and
usefulness, and, there is no reason to doubt, in all Christian sincerity.
But there are certain forms and ecclesiastical signs about his church
arrangements which in many minds cause fear, lest his zeal should not in
its effects prove to be of the purest Evangelical character.  We regret
this very much, as the impression on our own minds of his personal spirit
was most favourable.  It is of course within his power to remove anything
from before his congregation that tends to impair his usefulness.
Experience will, no doubt, suggest to him that the Ritualistic line, or,
what is really the same, the High Church, is not that in which a
clergyman can now be so religiously useful as we are convinced Mr. Du
Boulay desires to be.  He has daily matins at 8 A.M. and evening song at
5 P.M., choral celebrations at great festivals and on the third Sunday in
every month; and the Litany on Wednesdays and Fridays at 11 A.M.  The
musical arrangements for Easter Sunday, were very extensive and
elaborate, and the music entirely Anglican.  Less singing, more genuine
prayer, with able and earnest preaching, would, as many think and feel,
be a vast improvement in the services of this church.  The choir is a
partly paid one; and the organist, Mr. Buttery, of 173, Piccadilly, is
highly esteemed both by the clergy and congregation, and no less so by
the choir over which he presides.  There are 720 sittings, 220 of which
are free.  There are no endowments; the church and services are supported
by pew rents, valued at about 350_l._ per annum, and by the offertory,
which raises about 440_l._ per annum.  The numerous charities and the
schools, together with the Water-side Mission Association, and one in aid
of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, all have their distinct
funds and resources; not at present to any large extent, but all capable
of extension.  There is a strong band of district visitors—consisting of
fourteen or sixteen, chiefly ladies, with a few gentlemen, to whose care
as many districts are allotted.

One of the most remarkable things connected with St. Mary’s is what the
vicar has called the “Guild of St. Michael,” an association for female
domestic servants, the object of which is stated to be to help and
comfort “those who are striving to get their own living and to do their
duty.”  Among the terms of admission are: A year’s good character from
last employer; that they be monthly communicants; that they engage to add
to their morning and evening prayers a _short prayer_ which will be given
on admission; that they regularly deposit in a savings bank; that on the
feast of St. Michael and All Angels they send back their cards of
admission and receive fresh ones, and promise not to attend fairs, races,
dancing, or music-halls.  The privileges held out to secure obedience to
this unique code are that at an annual meeting “refreshments will be
provided,” a monthly paper to be sent to each, the benefit of a registry
and the society’s recommendation for situations; a temporary home when
out of place for a small weekly payment and a small added interest to
their yearly savings.  The intrinsic idea of all this is excellent; but
why revert to the antiquated name of “Guild,” and why connect it with the
feast of “St. Michael?”  This veneration for saints’ days and festivals,
of which the Vicar of St. Mary’s appears enamoured, is a mere relic of
Popery, nay, very much a relic of old heathenism.  It is this bent
towards the obsolete and discarded, with the general tendency to ornament
and formality in worship, that we fear will damage, if it does not
entirely destroy the real good that might otherwise result from the
multifarious labours undertaken by Mr. Du Boulay and his colleagues.  The
sooner these matters are looked carefully at in the light of Protestant
sentiment and feeling, the better will it be for the church in the
Boltons, and all the interests circling around it.


THE Roman Catholic Church of _Our Lady of Victories_, commonly called the
Pro-Cathedral, situate in Newland-terrace, Kensington, is a very fine,
yet simple structure in early English style of Gothic architecture; but
is so hidden by the houses behind which it has been placed that the real
effect of the building is lost, and one can therefore only make a guess
at the probable general appearance.  The building is sufficiently lofty,
however, to be easily seen from a distance, and its high-pitched and
crested roof, with miniature angled and decorated spire, breaks up the
sky line somewhat pleasingly.  Upon closer inspection the north front
(the church is built N. and S.) possesses some very excellent detail.
The centre doorway is double, recessed and handsomely treated with
polished granite shafts, and the doors are surmounted by a seated figure
of the Saviour.  The buttresses with ancient pinnacles are effective, and
the general treatment of this front, though executed in simple brick and
stone, is very bold.  The architecture of the interior is also very
boldly treated, and even more than the outside is strikingly plain—one
might say white.  This is accounted for by the absence of stained glass
and coloured decorations of any kind, a defect which we understand is now
about to be remedied.  There are six altars besides the high altar.
Looking up the nave towards the latter, the effect is certainly very
good, and the polished granite columns and carved stone caps surmounted
by the lofty arcade and clerestory and simple roof together make up a
very excellent interior.  The chancel is apsidal and has a groined
ceiling, and is lighted by a very plain window on each side of the apse.
The aisles are interspersed with the altars and confessionals, and the
altar to the Virgin has an elaborate reredos, over which are various
figures, the centre one being, as the Roman Catholics say, “Our Lady.”
The organ, a very fine one, is mounted on granite columns at the north
end of the nave, and is approached by a rather awkward open and spiral
staircase, and the columns are confusing, which we do not think adds to
the good effect of the church.  The font is very nice indeed and carved
in relief; on the four sides are the emblems of the Evangelists; it has a
handsome oak cover, but, like the building itself, is lost in a corner.
The benches are very plain, and the aisles are intended to be filled with
chairs.  The pulpit is enormous, and we must say unsightly; and the gas
standards, like the pulpit, strike one as being too large, and appear to
offer great obstruction to sight and sound.

The movement for a new Roman Catholic Church in Kensington began about
six years ago, on account of the small dimensions of the former chapel in
Upper Holland-street.  The area of the latter was 71 ft. by 21 ft., that
of the new church 144 ft. by 58 ft., making a difference of 6,861 square
feet area; and the architect, J. Goldie, Esq., has made good use of the
space at his disposal.  There are 820 seats, of which 180 are free.  The
pews in the centre have 470 seats; the sides are occupied by chairs, and
those on the right are free.  By an extension of the same system, the
church can accommodate about 1,100 persons.  The works were commenced in
1867, and the church opened on July 2nd, 1869.  The total cost, including
the organ, is about 27,000_l._  Of this a considerable portion remains as
a debt; which circumstance will prevent a most desirable improvement in
the entry from the main road for some time to come.  At the opening Dr.
Manning made it his _Pro-Cathedral_—_i.e._, the church which he would use
instead of a cathedral, until his own should be finished.  The enterprise
has been much assisted by the Very Rev. Mgr. Capel, the Travelling
Chaplain of the Marquis of Bute, and the present principal priest of the
church.  The other clergy attached are the Rev. R. F. Clarke and the Rev.
James O’Connell.

Intending to visit the church on Easter Sunday morning, we made a
preliminary visit on Saturday afternoon.  Although busy preparations were
going on for the great ceremonial to follow, it was open for worship; and
during our stay, from five to half-past six P.M., a considerable number
came and went for prayer and confession, sprinkling themselves with the
_holy water_ from the vases both on entering and retiring, and bowing the
knee towards the high altar.  The majority of the comers were females,
many of them young; but not a few older women, and some both young and
old of the other sex.  Those who intended confession gathered near the
“confession boxes,” of which there are two.  The one most in request was
that on the east side, occupied, as confessor, by the Rev. Monseigneur
Capel.  The other, on the north side, was held by the Rev. Mr. O’Connell.
A number of young persons on their knees awaited opportunity near the
former and some near the latter.  The box or cell known as the
Confessional is a small wooden structure, fixed against the wall, having
three niches concealed by curtains.  In the centre one sits the
confessor, his surplice being just visible where the curtains should join
over the dwarf door; and on either side a niche into which the penitent
enters, communicated with by the priest through a grated aperture.  The
visitor gently taps at this, and the confessor listens to hear the
whispered complaint, and whispers back his reply, his queries, his
comfort or admonition.  Most that entered within the curtain were young
women, apparently of the servant class, but to this there were a few
exceptions, and in one instance a young man entered.  As we tarried a
great lady came, closely followed by her footman in powdered wig.  It was
the Countess of —, known in West-end circles during the London season.
She has a handsome presence, and entered the church with a cheerful,
beaming countenance.  Addressing an instruction to her servant, he went
to a small side chapel near the chancel, and soon returned with a young
dark official in a dingy cassock, who might have been taken for an ardent
Carmelite under all the depression of protracted fasting and bodily
neglect.  To him the Countess gave a note or a card, which he deposited
with Mgr. Capel at the Confessional.  Shortly both priests left their
boxes and walked up the centre aisle to the side chapel, the Countess
following.  In about fifteen minutes they returned, and the lady took her
departure.  She was much altered in countenance, looking sad and

On Easter Sunday—the great day of all the days in the year with the
Catholics—at eleven A.M., commenced the performance of High Mass, and
Archbishop Manning, as announced, was present, and preached the sermon.
The church was well attended, but not crowded.  There was no rush to
obtain the “shilling” or “six-penny” seats, and a large number remained
unlet to the end.  This charge for the seats probably kept many out; but
it is understood to be a necessary measure, in consequence of the heavy
debt on the place, the large current expenses of the services, and the
general poverty of the people.  In the congregation were several
notabilities; and far up towards the chancel the white hair and
expressive features of Mr. Bellew, the well-known dramatic reader, were
visible.  He was until recently a clergyman in the Church of England, and
is now a layman in the Romish Church at this place.  It was impossible to
repress a reflection on the score that the public reader in the pew and
the principal actor in the scene were both during the better half of
their days ministers in the Protestant Establishment.  The first view of
the ceremony revealed a crowd of priests and mass attendants variously
arrayed and employed.  One faced the altar at a little distance, swinging
a censer vessel, to the time and motion of the pendulum of a clock.
During the ceremony he appeared several times in the same position and
act.  A number, grouped round the Archbishop on his throne, having a
gorgeous canopy and draped in scarlet and amber, were very busy in
adjusting their vestments.  The movements, to the uninitiated, might seem
a simple toilette operation, but were really part and parcel of the
ceremony, every one having a symbolical allusion to the events of the
commemoration.  Even the style and colour of the dresses were charmed by
occult references, not traceable to the outsider.  Taking off the
Archbishop’s mitre and replacing the tall cloven covering on his head,
which occurred several times, was a great formality, performed by a
priest with the most tender and reverent care, all the others devoutly
witnessing.  The rising and stepping forth of the Archbishop, with his
huge silver crook, to bow or prostrate himself before the _altar_, and to
adore the _sacrifice_, were luminous points of interest, and brought into
view a _tout ensemble_ and tinsel of ornate worship never to be
witnessed, except at High Mass in a Romish Church.  To describe all the
acts of this most intricate and complicate ceremonial would not be
possible in this article.  The flitting of acolytes with candles, the
processions, the swinging of censers filled with incense, until the altar
and chancel were enveloped in a cloud; the wafting of the perfume to the
congregation till it reached the very limits of the church; kissing the
altar, and all the mysterious movements thereat; the changes of books,
the brief Latin recitations, the tinkling of bells, the elevation of the
Host, all allied with perpetual animation, make up a whole which it is
difficult, indeed, either to describe or understand.  To witness it lays
very large demands both upon the patience and gravity of ordinary
mortals, and is liable to trouble even the conscience of a genuine

The choir accompanied the performance with the grand music of Mozart’s
7th Mass, Herr Carl Stepan singing the principal bass with admirable
effect, and the treble being well sustained by the boys.  The organist is
R. Sutton Swaby, Esq., of Gordon-cottages, Hammersmith.  This instrument,
built by Messrs. Bryceson Bros., is classed among the finest of the day.
It has four manuals and a powerful pedal organ.  In all there are
fifty-four stops, and the solo stops, including the _voix celeste_ and
the _voix humaine_, are considered particularly fine.  Mr. Swaby is
master of a very superior instrument, and feels pleasure on Sunday
evenings after service in giving the people an opportunity of hearing its
different effects by playing a short selection of music in varied styles.
On Sunday morning the offertory was accompanied with the _Hæc Dies_, and
the Hallelujah Chorus formed a grand voluntary at the end.  During the
execution of this the Archbishop, crook in hand, the priests, and altar
servants formed and walked in procession down the centre aisle and round
the church to the side chapel, preceded by the acolytes with candles.
The prelate waved his hand as he went in token of blessing the people,
and the chief priests bore his train.  Dr. Manning appeared in the
closing scene to move feebly and to be well-nigh exhausted.

The sermon came in the midst of the service, a procession escorting the
Archbishop to the pulpit.  On reaching it, turning to the priests in the
rear, he delivered to one his crook, and bowing his head another took off
his mitre, and, wishing to be free from all impediments, he handed to
them the book-rest and book, and, advancing to the front bareheaded and
without book or paper, commenced an extempore discourse on John xi. 25:
“I am the Resurrection and the Life.”  Although somewhat aged of late,
the Doctor retains remarkable strength and clearness of voice.  As to the
doctrine of the sermon, it was in the main in unison with the
requirements of the Christian pulpit, being a review of the Saviour’s
humanity in his incarnation, suffering, death, and resurrection.  This
latter event was most graphically portrayed in its various circumstances,
and in the Christian’s hopes and interests which centre in it, in that
chaste and elegant language for which the Archbishop is noted.  The
course of remark offered an opportunity for putting forward some of the
distinguishing dogmas of Popery, but the preacher did not seem to avail
himself of it.  Having, however, done with the text and its doctrines, he
launched into political questions connected with the Papacy.  An article
had appeared on the previous day in the _Times_ treating of their
services on Good Friday; and admonishing the Catholics to fall in with
the course of “modern civilisation.”  This the Archbishop called a
“petulant, senseless, and clamorous” article; and stigmatised “modern
civilisation” as the “world going its own course, without God, Christ, or
religion.”  He inveighed keenly upon this point, referring to the present
and past condition of Paris as the “centre of so-called modern
civilisation,” and confidently predicted that the temporal power of the
Pope, which had been so _wickedly_ assailed, could never be shaken.  By
that he meant not the mere possession of “a bit of land,” but “that
independence of all earthly power and control with which the Vicar of
Christ was invested.”

The Roman Catholic population of Kensington is from 1,800 to 2,000, a
large proportion being of the poorer classes and principally the Irish
residents.  Three poor schools are supported—a boys’ school in Upper
Holland-street, educating about 70 or 80; a girls’ and infant school in
Earl’s-court, educating about 50; of which more than half are reported to
be Protestants; the third school (girls’ and infants’) is by
Kensington-square, with about 150 children.  There are no district
churches attached; but the clergy supply the convent in

The congregation at the _Pro_-Cathedral is said to have greatly increased
since the opening; and the collections now reach an average of 30_l._ per


HOLY TRINITY, BROMPTON, is a church beautiful for situation.  One cannot
fail to be struck by the sudden change from town to country experienced
on entering the long and pretty avenue by which it is approached, and in
the perspective of which the vestry-door overgrown with ivy is seen.  We
know of no other church in the metropolitan suburbs thus entered, and
which has all disturbing sights and sounds so effectually shut out.  The
church cannot be said to be beautiful as a Gothic structure, being of
plain brick and stone, but in these days we are so spoilt that nothing
seems to satisfy us; yet we must not forget that the church was built
when Gothic architecture was not much studied and but little appreciated,
so that, added to its woodland effect, it is only a wonder that it is
Gothic at all.  Then, too, Professor Donaldson was the architect, who is
now almost the father of his profession, and as such revered and
respected by all.  The church has undergone very considerable alteration
with regard to the interior.  The old high pewing has been substituted by
low oak pewing of good design.  A very handsome font has been added, and
three sides of the bowl are ornamented with well-cut diaper and the side
towards the nave is occupied by a panel in relief, containing the
appropriate figure of Jesus receiving little children.  The stem is
formed of stout shafts of polished marble, and the foliated caps are
freely executed.  A rose window in the east wall of the south gallery is
a good feature added a few years since.  Some of the windows have been
filled with stained glass; the font and rose windows are from designs by
Mr. E. C. Hakewill.  The interior effect is very heavy, owing to the
flatness of the nave ceiling and the galleries which surround three sides
of the church; but much evidently has been done to relieve this,
especially with the exposed timbers of the aisle roofs.  The plan of the
church consists of a nave and aisles and a recess for the chancel at the
east end, with a vestry.  The tower is at the west end, the space of
which is occupied by the organ.

Holy Trinity was consecrated on June 6, 1829, being a district church in
that part of the old parish of Kensington known as Brompton.  Since then
great changes have come over the district of South Kensington, which
includes, Brompton.  Those who knew it only then would scarcely recognise
it now.  Wide open space has been converted into long streets and roads,
nay, a city of palaces, under the magic touch of capitalists and builders
like Mr. Freake and others.  The former gentleman still lives, and
happily continues his labours and enterprise in the neighbourhood; and,
as though it were to remind us of the fact, as we approached the church
on Sunday morning, the first thing that caught our eye was a handbill
upon the board at the entrance convening a meeting for Thursday evening,
to consider a generous offer of that gentleman to build an infant-school
at his own cost on a piece of vacant ground in the churchyard, and
present it to the district.  The consent of the parishioners was needed
to the use of this land for such a purpose, and of course it was readily
given.  As we are upon the subject of schools, it may at once be stated
that there are connected with the church, national schools, which were
established in 1842 in the Brompton-road, a school library, and evening
classes for young men.  There are, also, infant schools, and a
Sunday-school, held only in the afternoon from 2.30.  The church will
accommodate about 1,500 persons, and from 300 to 400 sittings are free.
In proportion as the external appearance of that now fashionable suburb
has changed, the interior has been transformed.  When the late vicar, Dr.
Irons, was appointed to it thirty years ago he found, as above intimated,
the old style of pew and the old style of everything.  There was no
organ-loft or stained window, or noticeable pulpit or chancel.  But under
his energetic and active measures—at a cost of upwards of 3,000_l._—the
interior became entirely modernised.  During the greater part of his time
his ministry was popular, and the church filled; so that he had only to
ask and to have.  But there was this peculiarity about his character and
relations with the district—he was in himself, by training and connexion
with Oxford, essentially _High Church_, but experience taught him that
the principal elements composing his congregation would not admit of the
development of his sympathies with Ritualism.  He was wise enough to
regard this circumstance, and aimed at establishing a medium—a modified
form of High Churchism—as a compromise between himself and the people.
As all half-done things are sure to create misunderstanding and
ultimately to alienate some of both sides, the case of Dr. Irons was no
exception to the rule.  Despite his great pulpit talent and distinguished
learning, the congregations declined; and about two years ago he retired
to a quiet country living in Lincolnshire.

The present Vicar, the Rev. Thomas Fraser Stooks, M.A. (Cambridge),
Prebendary of St. Paul’s, and Chaplain to the Lord Bishop of London, has
not, to the present time, succeeded in refilling the church.  On Sunday
morning last it was thinly attended, but we remembered it was a wet
morning.  We are, however, informed by a constant attendant that it was
quite an average congregation.  In that case the church is considerably
behind the general run of suburban churches as to the numbers attending
it.  But since this statement appeared in the _Suburban Press_ it is but
right to say that the editor has received the following from the Rev. W
Conybeare Bruce: “While fully admitting that, owing to a variety of
causes, into which it is not our place to enter here, our church is at
present ‘considerably behind the general run of suburban churches as to
the numbers attending it,’ I must, with the leave of a ‘Constant
Attendant,’ distinctly state that the congregation on that particular
Sunday was decidedly and evidently _below_ the average.  This is a point
on which I cannot be mistaken as it is my habit to take special notice of
the numbers of each congregation.  You may, Sir, also accept it as a
fact, on which I am sure you will congratulate us, that our congregations
have increased, slowly but perceptibly, since the present Vicar’s

The Rev. Mr. Stooks has, it appears, taken his stand upon the question of
the services.  He will have no intoning, increase of singing, or
excessive ritual.  With High Churchism he has no compromise; and in so
far is still wiser than his predecessor.  The prayers are read and the
responses said, and the only touches of formality are on entering the
Communion, when an Introit is sung, and in the passage to the pulpit,
which is illuminated by the following of a gold-laced church beadle,
bearing a massive silver-mounted staff on his shoulder.  The clergy, too,
in addition to the surplice, wear rather a showy collegiate hood.  It is
in one of a bright violet colour, and in another a rich crimson, and in a
third black silk trimmed with fur.  The violet hood marks an Associate of
King’s College, the crimson is the Oxford M.A. hood, and the black silk
trimmed with white fur is the Oxford B.A. hood.  The organist, H. Lahee,
Esq., did his work well, but was unassisted by anything in the shape of
an effective choir.  There are three curates—among whom the Vicar himself
did not appear on the occasion of our visit (April 16th).  The Rev.
Nathaniel Liberty read the prayers, the Litany, and the Epistle very
devoutly, but a little more power of voice would have made it still more
impressive.  The Rev. W. Conybeare Bruce, B.A., read the first lesson,
and the Rev. John Bliss, M.A., Senior Curate, read and preached the
sermon.  The text was John xx. and 20th verse: “Then were the disciples
glad when they saw the Lord.”  A beautiful text and seasonable, and
commented upon with piety and Christian feeling.

At this church there are three general services on Sunday, at 11 A.M., 4
and 7 P.M., and Holy Communion is celebrated every Sunday at 8 A.M., and
at midday.  On week-days—morning and evening prayer daily at 8 and 5.
Litany on Wednesdays and Fridays at 12.  On holy days celebration of Holy
Communion and an address, at 12.  The hymn-book used is “Hymns for Public
Worship,” published under the direction of a Committee of the Religious
Tract Society.  The church, since the abolition of church-rates, is
supported entirely by the pew rents, offertory, collections, and
subscriptions.  The first source of income is appropriated for the clergy
exclusively; one reason, assuredly, why the pews should be well occupied.
The income from other sources is applied for the maintenance of the
church, its services and accessories.  Brompton is a fine field for
Christian labour; and situated as Holy Trinity is, in the midst of a vast
population composed of all classes, from the higher to the lower, and at
the very next door to the Roman Catholic _Oratory_ and the South
Kensington Museum, it may—we hope it will—revive to an extent which will
make it a centre of light and true religion influence to all around.


ST. PAUL’S, Onslow-square, South Kensington, is a specimen of one of
those churches built not so much for effect as for utility.  A church was
wanted in this locality at the time it was erected, and hence the idea it
gives one of having been built in a hurry.  The plan of the church is
reversed, the Communion table being at the west end; but the architecture
is tame and poor.  It may be said to be a perpendicular Gothic,—certainly
not an excellent example.  The tower and spire have a stunted appearance,
and would have looked better a few feet higher.  The inside is in the
fashion of a past age.  Roofed in one space, there is no arcade; large
galleries run round three sides of the church, and to enable the reader
and preacher to be seen from these, a large and very tall pulpit and desk
are used, which quite shut out the west, or Communion end.  There is an
entire absence of decoration, the church being almost Quakerlike in its
simplicity, and, to the searcher after the picturesque, contains but
little to interest.  There is some coloured glass of geometrical
patterns, but not pleasant in tone.

For this church the district is largely indebted to the Christian
liberality of Charles J. Freake, Esq., of Cromwell House, a near
resident, and owner of large properties in the locality.  The site and
two-thirds of the building fund, which amounted to about 14,000_l._, were
entirely from this source.  Mr. Freake is also the patron.

On Sunday morning, the 23rd of April, some disappointment was felt at
this church through the absence of the esteemed Vicar, on rather a
prolonged after-Easter holiday.  The Rev. Capel Molyneux—formerly of the
Lock Chapel, Paddington—is favourably known as a very popular and
attractive preacher.  He is, also, distinctly Evangelical in his
ministry, and anti-Ritualistic in all his services, which are conducted
in the plainest style of outward devotion.  Yet, out of one of the most
aristocratic centres to be met with around London, he has succeeded in
building up a very large congregation, upon whom he appears to have
impressed that form as the very ideal of Christian worship.  And we
cannot refrain from saying that, as far as we could judge, a more lively
and earnestly devout congregation is rarely to be met with.  The church,
which accommodates in all 1,600 persons—inclusive of 600 free
sittings—was well filled, to our eye, except in the galleries; but we
were informed the congregation was by no means equal to what it is when
the Vicar himself is present.  His place, however, was very ably and
profitably supplied by the Rev. J. F. Sargeant, of St. Luke’s,
Marylebone, who performed the entire service, and discoursed extempore
with much pathos and power on the 23rd Psalm.  There is no intoning in
the prayers, and no chanting or singing but in the _Jubilate_, the _Te
Deum_, the _Gloria Patri_, and the hymns; the latter being Psalms and
Hymns based on “The Christian Psalmody” of the late Rev. G. Bickersteth,
as compiled by his son, and sold by Dean and Son, Ludgate-hill—one of the
very best of all the collections extant.  The organist, Mr. Carter, uses
an instrument by Bishop to good effect, and is accompanied in the vocal
parts of the music by a rather numerous and full-voiced choir in, of
course, plain dress.  There is one assistant clergyman—the Rev. T.
Burrows—who was not present on the occasion.  On Sundays there are three
services—at 11 A.M., 3.30, and 7 P.M.; Holy Communion on the first Sunday
in the month after the morning, and on the third after the evening,
service, and on the last Tuesday evening in the month.  There is a usual
week-day service on Thursday evening at seven, and on the first Monday
evening in the month, at eight, there is a special service for working
men, when all the seats are thrown open.  This, we understand, is a most
interesting and important service, and usually well attended.

Although St. Paul’s was opened by Bishop Blomfield on Christmas Eve, in
the year of our Lord 1860, there are no day or Sunday-schools identified
with it,—a fact in part resulting from the almost total absence of poor
people in the district.  The circumstance is remarkable; but may find
some explanation also in the general character of Mr. Molyneux’s
congregation, and in the direction of its zeal and resources to other
Christian objects.  We do not know whether, in London or out, any church
can be found so distinguished for Christian benevolence, in all its
social branches, as St. Paul’s, Onslow square.  We have been familiar
with many grand doings of Christian people, but we have not in our
recollection any congregation which, as a whole, must feel it “more
blessed to give than to receive” than this one.  It is no small pleasure
to us to record it as a matter of local Church history.  Sometimes it has
been said that Church people do not understand the art of giving.  If
there were any truth in this as a rule, we may point to St. Paul’s as a
noble exception.  The clergy and the church are maintained solely out of
the pew-rents, and the offertory taken at the doors is for other
purposes; and the latter, commonly thought not the most effective mode of
making collections, yields an average of nearly 100_l._ per Sunday.  The
offertory at the Communion is in full proportion.  In addition to this,
the congregation supports a “Church Home for Destitute Girls,” for which
about 500_l._ a-year is contributed at sermons preached by the Vicar, and
in donations and subscriptions.  An annual effort for the Church
Missionary Society results in little short of 300_l._  The Irish Church
Mission and Church Pastoral Aid Society are yearly united together in an
appeal, and the response to the last was taken at the doors, in the
morning, 53_l._ 10s. 9d.; and in the evening, 23_l._ 4s. 10d.  The London
City Mission, we hope, recognizes in St. Paul’s one of its strongest
supports.  The collection after sermon for this object amounted on the
last occasion to 108_l._ 18s. 4d., and the regular subscriptions swelled
the amount to over 450_l._  The “Jews’ Society” has also an annual
benefit.  The “Consumption Hospital,” which is situated within the parish
bounds, has its funds replenished every year to a very important and
gratifying extent.  At the last preaching of sermons on its behalf, there
was taken at the doors in the morning 70_l._ 10s., and in the evening
92_l._ 9s. 7d.—162_l._ 19s. 7d.  All this is done in a general way; but
there are special occasions on which the distinguished charity of this
Church has shone forth with even greater lustre.  We all remember what
national sympathy was evoked by the Lancashire Famine in 1862.  The Rev.
Capel Molyneux made a collection for thirteen weeks in succession for
this object.  On the first day—November 9, 1862—there was taken at the
doors in the morning 780_l._, and in the evening 299_l._ 9s. 9d., making
for the day 1,079_l._ 9s. 9d.  In the twelve following weeks the gross
amount collected in the same way was 1,363_l._ 5s., making a grand total
for that patriotic object of 2,442_l._ 14s. 9d., which was duly remitted
to the Lord Mayor’s Committee.  So recently as the 26th of February last,
a collection was taken up in relief of the Paris distress which reached
the figure of 229_l._ 16s. 8d.  In the midst of all this we have further
to record that for the past five years this congregation and people have
contributed 600_l._ a-year towards poor and distressed churches in the
east of London.  We repeat, we do not know where, with an average
congregation of 1,500, or where with any congregation, such figures as
these can be paralleled.  We confess to a profound admiration of such
results.  The persons who have contributed to them are known to
Omniscience; it is not necessary that they should be known to the world.
Although our architectural correspondent, from a professional point of
view, does not appear to think highly of the church, as a material
structure, it forms, to our eye, a very pleasing feature in
Onslow-square.  Even outwardly, it breaks up the monotony of palatial
secular dwellings very agreeably; but religiously, morally, and socially,
it is a bright and beautiful spot, which we trust will shine and flourish
more and more unto the perfect day.


THE Church of St. Peter, situate in Onslow-gardens, South Kensington, is
a much more important church, on close examination, than a distant view
leads the observer to believe.  There are not many good points from which
the church is seen, and the view from the north is cut up by the vicarage
recently erected, which we suppose is to form part of a terrace, but
which does not improve the general appearance.  The west front, by no
means a fine composition, possesses some good details, and the tower and
spire, which form a portion of this elevation, do much to assist in
lending a picturesque effect.  The spire is of very good design, but the
tower is too stunted, and, like St. Paul’s, would be improved by an
additional ten feet in height.  The spire wears the appearance of having
been placed on too soon.  Entering the church by the west door, the
perspective view is very effective and telling; this is mainly
attributable to the arcades, which, though of very simple Early English
character, are very well-proportioned; and the pointed triplet arcades at
the transept form a pleasing variety from the usual monotony of ordinary
church nave arrangements.  The transverse arch at the transepts rather
takes from the perspective, and might with advantage have been less
depressed.  A very peculiarly corbelled chancel arch—in shape like a
bishop’s mitre—is, we should think, unique.  The arch, as originally
built, was too contracted; the chancel pieces have been cut away, and
large corbels introduced, suggesting the shape before referred to.
Indeed, if it had been possible to open the apsidal chancel a little
more, it would have been an improvement.  The good general appearance of
the eastern windows, with their excellent stained glass, by Messrs. Ward
and Hughes, of Frith-street, Soho, is still very much obscured and lost.
The nave roof is light and well-designed, but not quite agreeable, being
somewhat too late in character.  The details of the windows and
clerestory are all very simply designed, to accord with the style of the
church; the stalls, prayer-desk, and lectern, being somewhat in advance
of the chancel arch, are enclosed by a dwarf-stone screen, which
separates them from the body of the church.  The font is very plain
indeed—indicative of the simplicity of baptism, we suppose—possessing no
ornamentation on the octagonal bowl save the monogram well cut in relief.
But it is in contemplation further to embellish it.  The stone pulpit is
octagonal also, and has well-carved figures in relief of the four
Evangelists.  The floor of the church is well covered with some rather
pretty benches, which, together with transept galleries, will contain a
congregation of about 1,500.  The vestry is on the north-east angle of
the church, and the organ, quietly decorated, is placed in the south
chancel aisle.  This instrument, which is a very superior one, was built
by Messrs. Hill and Sons, at a cost of 800_l._  It has three rows of keys
and 29 stops.

St. Peter’s was consecrated on St. Peter’s Day, June 29, 1867, by the
Bishop of London, Dr. Tait, now Archbishop of Canterbury.  It was build
and presented to the district by Chas. J. Freake, Esq., of Cromwell
House, who is its patron, and the pulpit was the special gift of Mrs.
Freake.  The parsonage is also built on ground given by Mr. Freake.  The
district is composed of the area between the Fulham and the
Brompton-roads, including Elm-place, and in about the centre of which the
church stands, being at present only very sparsely populated.  This
church, like many others in the suburbs, was built in anticipation of
future population, and meanwhile draws its congregation mainly from
beyond.  It is, however, a large one, there being present at the ordinary
Sunday morning service over a thousand persons; but, almost without
exception, of the upper class.  Strictly speaking, there is not a poor
person to be seen in it.  There are few free sittings to mention; and
such as go by that name at the remote end from the chancel appear ready
to let as occasion may offer.  Not that all the other sittings are taken;
for although the body of the church appears tolerably full, there are not
700 sittings really let—scarcely one-half the number provided.  We
cannot, therefore, understand why the verger guards all that part of the
church so jealously, and when a stranger asks for a seat higher up tells
him with some peremptoriness that he cannot go.  If, however, the Vicar
has no poor people within his church walls, the Rev. Gerald Blunt, Vicar
of Chelsea, has lately made him a present of 2,300, who border on his
district, to care for.  This sacred trust the rev. gentleman is setting
himself to fulfil with zeal and diligence.

We must confess to some surprise, considering the evident social
character of the congregation, that the collections and offertory yield
comparatively so little.  There are boxes at the doors for offerings
towards church expenses, and the highest sum received from this source in
one day, in 1870, was 4_l._ 19s. 5d., and that was on Easter-day.  But,
taking the year through, it does not average one pound per week.  There
is something in this more than ordinarily sad, for the people that go in
and out at those doors count their income not by hundreds, but by
thousands.  The offertory is a more direct appeal, but it only yielded in
the year 184_l._ 16s. 9s.  Altogether, including subscriptions (less
commission for collecting them), there was only 357_l._ 16s. 6d. raised
for church expenses.  For the poor of the district, by offertories and
private donations, there was raised 144_l._ 1s. 6d.  This sum was
disbursed in various outlays for the relief and comfort of the needy
poor.  But how small the amount compared with the ability to do!  There
is a day-school in Arthur street, connected with the church, for the
support of which from all sources, private subscriptions, collection
after sermon, &c., there was raised 305_l._ 19s. 11½d.  Collections in
church for other than local purposes amounted to 121_l._ 6s., including
60_l._ 13s. for the Bishop of London’s Fund, and for the Chelsea
Dispensary and Victoria Hospital for sick children 60_l._ 13s.  The
whole, therefore, of the visible liberality of this wealthy congregation
is at present summed up in the figures 985_l._ 1s. 2½d. per annum.  We
trust that an era of larger heartedness will speedily dawn.
Congregations, as well as individuals, require to learn the art and
luxury of giving.  It should not be passed without notice that Mrs. Byng,
assisted by a few young ladies of the congregation, has established a
Sunday-school and mothers’ meetings, which are in good working, although
as yet in their infancy.  There are also an evening sewing class,
night-school and a clothing club, superintended and directed by Mrs.

The Hon. and Rev. Francis E. C. Byng, M.A. (Oxford), was formerly of
Twickenham, from whence he was introduced to the new church of St.
Peter’s by its patron, Mr. Freake.  He is a minister unquestionably
Evangelical in doctrine, and the ceremonial he has established in his
church is a _medium_ one, being at equal distance from excessive
plainness on the one hand, and High Church Ritual on the other.  The
service is earnest and lively without over much singing; but what there
is of the latter is excellently done by a choir in surplices, under the
able direction of Mr. Arthur Sullivan, the organist; who, as a composer
and conductor in other than church music, has just earned himself no
small praise at the opening concert of the International Exhibition.  Mr.
Sullivan has conducted the musical part of the service from the first and
it is owing to his zeal and talent that it has attained such efficiency.
The prayers and lessons were well read in a clear voice by the Rev. C.
Scholefield, M.A. (Cambridge), curate, the Litany being taken by the
Vicar.  Both as reader and preacher, the Hon. and Rev. Mr. Byng, gifted
with a good voice and having a suitably animated manner, fixes and
retains the attention of his audience.  His sermon on April 30 was from
Deut xxxiii., 25th verse, “And as thy days so shall thy strength be.”  It
was the effusion of a devout mind, intelligently comprehending the trials
and experiences of our common life, and fully aware of the sole secret of
human hope and consolation.  Though read there was nothing perfunctory in
the delivery, the preacher being sufficiently free from his manuscript to
put himself on a line with the eye, and we cannot but think with the
heart of all his hearers in every part of the church; occasionally even
turning to look into the galleries and into the chancel, that the
occupants of those parts may not think themselves forgotten.  If all
preachers used their MSS. in the manner of Mr. Byng, and always made them
speak such excellent things, much of the current objection to their use
in public would vanish.  In taking leave for the present of St. Peter’s,
we cannot but congratulate the people there on their beautiful church,
and the religious advantages they enjoy.


AS another interesting example of how churches spring up in our midst,
following or hastening before the population, we have now to notice
another new enterprise in South Kensington.  St. Luke’s is at present a
temporary iron church, put up to await the erection of a more enduring
one, on what is known as the Redcliffe Estate, in South Kensington, now
being covered with dwellings of a superior order, by Messrs. Corbett and
M‘Clymont.  These gentlemen have presented the site for the new church,
which is a most eligible one, situate in the yet uncompleted
Redcliffe-square.  Plans for the new-church are in preparation by Messrs.
G. and D. Godwin, of the Fulham-road, and it is intended to be built in
the course of 1872.  By the time it is erected, it will show itself to be
in one of the best-selected positions to be met with around London.  The
structure will be in the early decorated style, and is to cost about
10,000_l._, and it is a circumstance to place the promoters beyond the
reach of much anxiety on the subject, that 7,000_l._ of the amount is
already deposited.  Meanwhile the iron church on the other side of the
way is doing good service.  It was put up in July last, and opened on the
23rd of that month, just six months ago, by the Rev. Wm. Fraser Handcock,
M.A. (of Oxford) the vicar (designate), and previously vicar of St.
Luke’s, Cheltenham.  To this latter church South Kensington has recently
given a new minister, in the person of the Rev. J. A. Aston, late vicar
of St. Stephen’s, and has received in return the Rev. W. F. Handcock, but
to open entirely new ground.  Mr. Handcock not only came from Cheltenham,
but he brought the material of the church in which he now preaches with
him from thence.  It was a wooden structure, and consequently before he
could commence work in it, occasion was given for some correspondence and
trouble with the Metropolitan Board of Works.  He unwittingly incurred
the Board’s disapproval by violating one of its bye-laws, and they
compelled him to case it in iron of certain dimensions before it was
opened.  This caused a further outlay of 400_l._, which was a matter of
some consequence to the rev. gentleman, as he had personally undertaken
the whole responsibility of the temporary church.  The district assigned
to St. Luke’s is taken out of that of St. Mary’s in the Boltons, and
includes at present about 3,000 population; but may have double that
number four or five years hence.  The present building has sittings for
700, and between 100 and 200 are free; the remainder let in the nave at
2_l._ per annum and in aisles at 1_l._  Considering the time it has been
opened, the church is very well attended.  At the morning service we
found about 300 present, a full choir of youths in surplices; who
rendered the chants, psalms, and hymns in a creditable manner to Anglican
strains.  The organ—well played by Mr. Henry P. Keens—is small; but, like
the church itself, temporary.  The prayers were read, and the whole tone
of the service was Evangelical.  Hymns in use, “Ancient and Modern.”
There is a weekly offertory for the church expenses, which is taken
before the sermon.

     [Picture: St. Luke’s Church, Redcliffe Square, South Kensington]

The Rev. W. Fraser Handcock is a minister apparently about forty years of
age.  He begins his service in rather a low tone of voice, but
immediately rises to the compass of the auditorium, and thoroughly
maintains it to the end.  The emphasis in his reading is placed with
almost faultless accuracy; so that the true sense is never lost to the
hearer.  The sermon was read, but delivered with very considerable
effect.  In matter it was most intelligent, instructive, and Evangelical.
Discoursing from John xviii. 38: “Pilate saith unto him, what is truth?”
the preacher considered Pilate as the representative sceptic of his age;
and drew a striking parallel between him and modern sceptics, in their
affected uncertainty and unbelieving inquiries, as to how the truth was
to be determined; and, like Pilate, they found vain excuses for their
infidelity in the divided state of Christendom.  In France religion was
suffering through the recoil from that “sham” of Christianity set up
there by Popery; and in England, silently but too certainly, the evil
leaven had been at work; in the Universities, in schools, and in
literature.  When a convert from Rome, as had often happened, first
landed on our shores, it was not to be wondered at if, on a superficial
survey of the Church as it was, he inquired, doubting, “What is truth?”
When he glanced at the various tenets taught within even their own
Church, could any other result be expected!  We heard, for instance, from
some that a species of magical spiritual power was vested in the
ministers of religion, so that the sprinkling of a little water in
baptism, or the uttering of a few words over the elements used in
celebrating the Lord’s Supper, produced necessarily divine
effects—teaching against which our finer sense revolted.  He went to
another extreme, and found others objecting to everything in the world
not purely spiritual; even to all kinds of music not sacred in its
character and use.  Then, perhaps, he took up a book written by some
plausible, philosophising author, the fallacies of which he was not able
to detect; and it was easy enough for him in all these phases of our
intellectual and religious life to find an excuse, and inquire, “What,
then, is truth?”  But after all, it was out a mere excuse, a vain
pretence; for there were the great cardinal truths of Revelation plain
enough to be understood: about God, about eternity, the soul, and God’s
way of winning it.  But men rejected or quibbled about these Bible truths
and things raised upon them, because, in fact, Christianity was not
merely a _creed_, but it was a life—a life that men must live both
inwardly and outwardly.  And this was the grand reason why men evaded it:
the Master said, if any man would _do_ God’s will, they should know of
the doctrine that it was of him.  But it was because they were not
inclined humbly to _do_ it, that men remained in such ignorance and
confusion about it.  This witness is faithful and true, for there can be
no doubt that the chief difficulties in the way of the reception of the
religion of the Bible are to be sought in the moral rather than the
intellectual condition of men.  This was the great point clearly and
forcibly brought out by the preacher, and if this is an average sermon in
purport and aim, we cannot but congratulate the neighbourhood on the
advent of Mr. Handcock, and on the building of the new church.  As yet,
as a matter of course, the usual church adjuncts are only in
contemplation.  A Sunday-school, however, will be opened immediately, and
before the permanent edifice is consecrated, all the usual parochial
machinery will be at work.  The assistant minister is the Rev. E. J.
Haddock, B.A., Dublin.  The churchwardens are Capt. A. Waldy, of 9,
Stanhope-gardens, and Dr. Daniell, of Cathcart road, South Kensington.


THERE is a very old lady still living in Young-street, Kensington, whose
recollections of early Methodism in that town are still with her, and who
is fond of the opportunity of quietly recounting them.  Among her
remotest remembrances is a visit of Mr. Wesley, the incidents of whose
advent were the talk of the neighbourhood when she first began to notice
anything she heard.  She tells how the great evangelist preached in a
smithy, somewhere in the vicinity of the present Jenning’s-buildings,
“amidst great opposition.” {21}  Subsequently preaching services were
held in a house—which has long since been taken down—but which stood upon
the site 17, Young-street.  This was the property of her husband’s
father—who was one of the earliest Methodists in Kensington—and who
suffered much persecution.  It was, it appears, the object of his
opponents to make him stop the Methodist service altogether; but his
devotion to the cause enabled him to brave the taunts and injury to which
he was subjected; and to afford larger accommodation he built up a
temporary chapel in his own yard, which answered for the service of the
Methodists many years.  Methodism, however, has never flourished in the
Court suburb to the extent to which the self-sacrifice and devotion of
its few first members might have seemed to promise.  To the first
temporary building succeeded another; then followed the present chapel in
Clarence-place in the year 1838.  A ninety-nine years’ lease of the land
was obtained at a ground-rent of 10_l._ per annum in 1836, and the
foundation-stone was laid by the late Mr. Farmer, of Gunnersbury House,
in 1836, and in June, 1838, the Rev. Dr. Bunting and the Rev. Dr.
Beaumont conducted the opening services, when the collections amounted to
42_l._ 5s. 2d., the whole cost being 600_l._  It is a very plain edifice,
almost completely hidden from view by the surrounding dwellings, and
having no architectural expression.  It has no gallery, and will
accommodate on the ground-floor 200 persons, the congregation as a rule
reaching to about half the number.  About twenty sittings only are held
as free, although many more must generally be so used.  There are between
fifty and sixty Church members meeting in class.  Prior to 1861, when the
Bayswater Wesleyan _Circuit_ was formed, this chapel was ministerially
supplied from Hammersmith circuit, and from the Theological Institution,
Richmond.  But since that date the services have been attended by the
regular ministry of the Bayswater station, to which the chapel was at
that period attached.  The form of service is that belonging to the
Wesleyan Body, which consists of 1, a hymn; 2, a prayer; 3, a lesson; 4,
a hymn; 5, sermon; closing with another hymn and benediction.  The hymns
of the Wesleys are those mainly used; although there are bound up with
them some select productions from other well-known hymn-writers, the
whole forming, without any controversy, by a long way the best collection
of hymns that Christendom has yet produced.  Its excellence is attested
by the fact that into whatever church or chapel we enter, the collections
there in use, under all sorts of titles and editorships, are much
indebted to its pages.  In the present instance the singing is aided by a
harmonium, which might very well give place to the more suitable
instrument—the organ.  Behind the chapel there is a very capital
schoolroom, where about sixty children are taught on the Sabbath; and
adjoining this a large vestry, both built in 1857, and forming a good
reserve for meetings of all kinds connected with the church and
congregation.  In the Wesleyan circle in Kensington the following names
appear to be much revered and honoured as having contributed at
successive stages of the work, time, talent and money towards its
building up, names for the most part well known in the town—Messrs.
Rowland, Tomlinson, Maunder, Pocock, Bridgnell, Jarvis, Eyles, Bond,
Gush, Rigg, Haine, Trownsan, Farmer, &c.  The building of the larger and
more beautiful Wesleyan chapel in Warwick-gardens has, however, tended to
weaken the society at Clarence-place, by drawing away some of its
principal members and supporters, and a small portion of its general


ST. AUGUSTINE’S CHURCH, close to Hereford-Square, South Kensington, is a
temporary iron erection, and, like most such buildings, possesses no
architectural features or details worthy of notice.  The Incumbent, the
Rev. R. R. Chope, B.A., five or six years ago conceived a necessity for a
church in that place, and, means failing him to obtain a substantial
structure, or to procure a separate site, he made use of a corner of his
own private garden, put up the iron building, and called it the “Church
of St. Augustine.”  It is a low, dull, dingy-looking object outside, and
as a stranger approaches it—with its roof only just visible above the
garden-wall, it is in danger of being passed without notice, except one
should suppose it a rather large conservatory or garden shed.  It must
have required some courage in a minister to attempt a church for himself
in such a position; and we are not surprised after this that Mr. Chope is
now going on to a larger and more promising enterprise.  In the
Queen’s-gate, a new and permanent church is rising, under the same energy
which originated the first.

The present “St. Augustine’s,” in the interior, is a long narrow space
fitted with very plain benches, all being free to all-comers, and capable
of containing 700 or 800 persons.  They were well filled on Sunday
morning, the 7th of May, with a congregation remarkable for its
preponderance in the female element.  One whole side of the church is
reserved entirely for females, and no intrusion of the other sex is
allowed.  On the other side both sexes are compelled to mingle, and even
there two-thirds are of the feminine gender.  To say that the service
here is High Church is not saying all the truth; it is Ritualistic, and
highly so, in its whole spirit and ceremonial.  It is, in fact, the
nearest approach to Romanism that we have yet witnessed in an Anglican
Church in the course of these visitations, if indeed it be not very
Popery itself under the thinnest guise of the Protestant name.  The
communion-table is called an _altar_, and regarded as such in fact, and
decorated accordingly.  It is covered with a white cloth embroidered with
yellow and red flowers and fringe.  It has a large gilt cross upon it,
two huge gilt candlesticks, and several vases of flowers.  Branching
candelabra also on its right and left.  The ministers are called
_priests_, and look very priestly in their garments, with short surplice
and long cassock, and stole of yellowish silk with rich embroidery and
fringe.  In the absence of the Incumbent, the Curate, the Rev. A. J.
Foster officiated.

Prior to the beginning of the service, an official in long cassock with
tassels was busy in arranging the chancel furniture, and adjusting a silk
embroidered covering upon the altar over the elements to be used in the
celebration of the Eucharist.  This work he performed with the minutest
punctilio, moving backward and forward and on one side to see its effect,
and never failing to bow on passing the Cross, and on leaving off moving
backward and bowing.

On entering church, the people, before taking their seats, bow one knee
in the aisle towards the altar, and some cross themselves precisely in
the manner of Roman Catholics.  The time of service arrived, the organist
takes his seat, having on a surplice and purple hood with white fur
trimming, and, sending out a few solemn strains, the choir is heard in
the vestry at the remote end of the church singing “Amen.”  It sounds
like a distant echo among the mountains.  Immediately the people rise,
and choristers and clergy walk in procession through the centre aisle to
the chancel.

Except the lessons, which were read in a serious and rational manner by a
stranger, an aged clergyman, who did not seem quite at home in his
priestly apparel, and appeared, amidst all the circumstances, somewhat to
dislike himself, the whole service was intoned and sung.  The music was
Gregorian, and performed in its most sombre mood.  The congregation
appeared perfectly trained to bowings and genuflexions.  At every mention
of the Saviour’s name they bent lowly, and during the whole of the first
part of the _Gloria Patri_.  In one of the hymns, the sacred name
occurred in every verse, and in some verses almost every line, and there
was a constant bending and rising.  It appeared merely a mechanical
process, and quite inconsistent with that mental gravity which is
essential to true devotion.  Amidst all this mechanism of outward
worship, we regret to say there was small visible evidence of spiritual
concern.  It was the coldest piece of formalism it has been our lot to
witness in an English church.

In intoning the Litany, the clergyman came out of his desk, crossed
himself, and knelt with both knees on the lowest step of the chancel in
front of the altar, with his back to the people.  This motion is quite
advanced in Ritualistic practice; and, taken together with the peculiar
strain of the intoner’s voice, and its rising at the end of every verse
of that sublime and all-comprehending prayer, gave the service the stamp
of parody rather than of sincere and enlightened Christian devotion.  We
can only express ourselves in this form, for nothing else will indicate
our real sense and conscience of this mode of religious service.  The
puerilities of Romanism Englishmen we thought had learnt to despise, and
yet here are some untalented young gentlemen in the Church of England
whose habits would deprave our Protestant religious instincts and lead
the young and weaker intellects of our race back into the thraldom of
Popish superstition.  After the Litany there was a hymn, and then
followed the sermon, differing in this respect from the usual church
order, which places the sermon after the Creed in the Communion Service.
After ascending the pulpit and crossing himself, pronouncing “To God the
Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost,” whilst standing erect, the text was
taken from John xvi. 7, “Nevertheless, I tell you the truth; it is
expedient for you that I go away,” &c.  As in most cases where excessive
attention is lavished on the mere ceremonial, the sermon failed to fulfil
the most modest ideal of pulpit work.  There appeared to be no intention
or effort to give it effect either as an exposition or application of
Scripture.  In this case, too, it was evident the preacher could not
shake off the intoning habit of voice, but carried it in great measure
with him from the desk to the pulpit.  The principal point of doctrine in
the sermon was on the important subject of God _dwelling_ in believers,
and was stated in this way: “As St. Paul said we were the temples of God
by the Holy Ghost dwelling in us; so God the Son dwelt in us by _means of
his holy sacraments_”.  “For,” it was further explained, “by the holy
sacraments he gives us spiritual life; for, except we eat the flesh of
the Son of God and drink his blood, we have no part in him,”—a strange
confusion of ideas between the outward and visible, and inward and
spiritual.  Baptismal regeneration, sacramental efficacy, were clearly
articles in the preacher’s creed.  We always thought the teaching of
Scripture to be that both God the Father and God the Son dwelt in the
true believer by one and the same inhabitation of the Holy Ghost.  In
connection with this sublime principle of spiritual life, there is no
place in the Bible where such words as “by means of the holy sacraments”
are to be found.  Feeble preaching can diffuse error if it cannot do
justice to the truth.  After the sermon, during the singing of the hymn,
the offertory is taken every Sunday, by which the church is wholly
supported, and the minister passes to the Communion Service.  The
collectors bow towards the altar on presenting the offertory bags in the
chancel, or on leaving; and in preparing for the celebration the
_priest_—with his back to the people—is long engaged, and on one occasion
kneels and rises quickly twice or thrice in succession before the
consecrated bread.  The Rev. R. R. Chope has studied to make his service
as ornamental, high, and formalistic as can be under the Anglican name.
He says he believes that “the meanness and costliness of worship reflects
the spirit of the worshippers,” a fundamental error if it be attempted to
apply it as a general rule.  We take it that there is a medium to be
observed, and in all cases the _costliness_ must be regulated by

Every Sunday at 8 A.M. there is Communion, Prayer (choral), with sermon,
at 11; second celebration at 12 30.  Evening prayer (choral) and sermon
at 7 P.M.  Thursday, at 8. A.M., Communion. 11 A.M., morning prayer.

Saints’ days: Two celebrations and daily prayer, at 8 A.M. and 5 P.M.

There are several small charities, a day-school, and Sunday-school, both
in their infancy.


THE Roman Catholic Oratory stands within an enclosure of high brick walls
and gates, above which its plain brick, warehouse-looking south gable is
visible, and if it were not that the said gable is surmounted by a plain
Latin cross, there is nothing to indicate an ecclesiastical structure.
The interior (in effect reminding one of a large music-hall) is Italian
in its style of the simplest kind, painted and gilded.  The nave or body
of the church is very long, roofed in one span, and covered with a plain
panelled ceiling.  The northern end is occupied by the high altar, richly
decorated with artificial flowers and burdened with candles.  The altar
stands considerably elevated and enclosed by dwarf balustrades, and
flanked by rather ornate benches or sedilia.  The nave floor is entirely
occupied by mean wooden benches, intersected by a centre and two side
passages, the latter giving entrance and exit also to numerous recesses
or bays, which serve as chapels, in which are erected altars to saints;
and also to a number of confessionals, by which last we infer that the
practice of confession is carried on to a great extent by Oratorians.  As
to the saints, those represented at the Oratory have their altars all
duly supplied with pictures, candles, and flowers, and have their
particular admirers and devotees.  A large platform kind of pulpit is on
the west side, in which the preacher is accommodated with a chair.  The
font is very plain, close to the main entrance doors in the bay called
the Baptistry.

The “Oratory of St. Philip Neri,” situate next to the South Kensington
Museum on the one side and Holy Trinity Church, Brompton, on the other,
was dedicated to the “Immaculate Heart of Mary” in the year 1854.  It had
previously been established in King William-street, Charing-cross, since
1849, in the building now known as the Charing-cross Theatre.  But the
more eligible site in Brompton offering, it was embraced; and this centre
of Roman Catholic propgandism in West London was transferred from amidst
the shops, warehouses, and _cafés_ of the Strand, to a scene of
retirement, wealth, and fashion.  The interior of this church is laid out
in the most elaborate style of Roman Catholic art.  On entering, the high
altar in the distance—north—strikes the eye irresistibly.  It has upon it
a high cross and six tall candlesticks with candles lit.  There are also
other candles and suspended burning lamps through the entire vista.  The
æsthetic effect of the first glance is not soon forgotten.  The details
are not less effective, considered as mere imagery addressing the outward
sense.  Including the Baptistry, there are eight side chapels, or
altar-recesses, four on each side, all richly and artistically furnished.
On the left, or what is termed the “Gospel side,” the first is the
“Chapel of the Sacred Heart;” second, the Chapel of St. Eutropius; then
that of St. Joseph, and that of St. Philip.  On the right, the first
recess is the Baptistry; second, “Calvary Chapel,” where there are
life-size figures of the crucified Saviour with the malefactors, and the
mother of Jesus and his brother sitting at the foot of the cross; third,
the Chapel of “Our Lady of Dolours” (sorrows); and forth, the Chapel of
“Our Lady.”  The altar here, with a large image of the Virgin and her
infant Son upon it, is now profusely decorated with flowers.  It is the
month of May; and the following notice is attached to the doors of the
church: “Offerings of flowers and candles will be thankfully received for
the month of Mary.”  The former part of the appeal appears to have been
already liberally responded to.  The bouquets are piled up to the very
feet of the image, and decorating her brow in all their radiant
freshness.  The whole reminds one of a certain wax-figure display in
Baker-street: only in this instance the kneeling worshippers around the
rails of the chancels suggest that something more is involved.  We saw
many of them, especially in front of “_Our Lady’s Altar_.”  But they were
distributed all through in smaller numbers or in ones.  The “Calvary
Chapel” is intended as a most literal rendering of the crucifixion.  It
is a shocking scene to look upon—those carved images of bleeding and
mangled forms.  To any one who has really in imagination conceived
something of what the actual crucifixion was, and dwelt upon its moral
import, it is likely to seem an impious mockery.  But some appeared to
approach it with reverence; and a little girl, who had been kneeling by
her mother’s side, crossed over the rail, crept up to and kissed the
wooden cross on which the central image hung!  These scenes are to be
witnessed after every public service, matins or vespers, or whenever the
church is open, which in fact is at all times when people can attend
either by rule or chance.

The usual services at the Oratory are numerous and continuous.  On Sunday
there is Mass at 6.30 A.M., at 7, 8, 9, and 10; and at 11 High Mass and
sermon; at half past 2 P.M.  “Exposition of the Sacraments,” and
“Vespers” at half-past 3; occasional courses of lectures at 4 P.M., and
service with sermon and the benediction at 7 P.M.  At this latter the
meetings of the confraternities of “The Precious Blood” and of “St.
Patrick” are held, and the “Intentions of members _given out_.”  This
means that each member confesses to some dominant desire or purpose then
in his mind.  It may be for the comfort of a sick friend, the repose of a
dead one, the conversion of sinners or heretics, or any other matter that
may engage his thoughts at the moment.  There is also the “Little
Oratory,” where there is a separate service for “Meditation and Mass,”
for brothers only, at 7.30 A.M. and 4.15 P.M.  On week-days there is Mass
at 6.30, 7, 7.30, 8, 8.30, 9, 10.  Sermon every evening at 8, except
Saturday; and on Thursday and Saturday a benediction at 4.30.  On holy
days, High Mass, with sermon, at 11 A.M., and vespers at 4.40 P.M.  The
work of the confessionals appears to be interspersed at all times between
these numerous services.  The wonder is how such a machinery can be kept
always going, how it does not wear out in interest and effect from sheer
continuity of motion.  We must assume that it has its flagging moments,
and sleepy rests, by which its motive energies are recruited, and that at
certain seasons and services the priests have it pretty much to

THE FATHERS.—At the present time there are fourteen attached to the
Oratory, the majority, we are informed, having been previously clergymen
in the Church of England.  Their names are as follows: The Very Rev. W.
T. Gordon (superior); the Rev. John B. Dalgairns, the Rev. Richard M.
Stanton, Thomas F. Knox, John G. Bowden, Edward G. Bagshaw, James B.
Rowe, Felix Philpin, Edward S. Keogh, W. B. Morris, Chas. H. Bowden,
Kenelm Digby Beste, Thomas Graves Law (nephew of the Earl of
Ellenborough), James Arthur V. Maude, Francis A. O. Carroll, Henry G. S.
Bowden.  There is a large library belonging to the Fathers in common,
which occupies an entire quadrangle, about one-third the length of the
church itself westward, where the clergy spend such spare moments as they
can snatch from their other engagements.  Little is known of these
gentlemen by the outside world.  They act their parts from day to day
within the sombre enclosure of their high brick walls, and continue to be
content to move in their appointed spheres amidst the gaudy but wearisome
formalism within.  On Sunday morning, May 14, it was High Mass at the
eleven o’clock service.  The magnificent organ, played by Mr. Pitts, sent
forth its thrilling peals precisely at the moment.  The organ itself is
considered one of the very best in London, and cost 2,000_l._  Meanwhile
four principal priests appeared at the altar, and after bowing several
times turned to face the congregation.  They proceed to the front of the
chancel, the centre one waving a rod, and one on each side bearing his
train and exhibiting the rich scarlet lining of his robe.  He bows lowly,
and stretches out the rod waving it right and left over the people, and
they retire again to the altar.  This action in glittering vestments,
heralded and followed by bursting music, is in all respects like the
opening scene of an opera, and ostensibly not a whit more solemn or
religious.  It is difficult to realise that you are in a house of prayer.
It is useless here to give a description of the whole performance.
Barring a few brief intonings of the priests in Latin it consisted
entirely of the sundry dumb and complicated bodily movements peculiar to
the Mass.  If we were to criticise them it could only be to say, as we
should say of any other performing company, that this performer was more
graceful and striking in his action, et cetera, than the other.  The
plentiful smoke of incense and the music made up the rest.  This latter
accompanied the whole with the briefest intervals.  There were solos and
choruses innumerable, and the art-pretension of the performance was its
great feature.  The choir is railed in effectually from the congregation
around the organ, and consists of male singers only in plain dress, under
the conduct of M. Wilhelm Schulthes, a composer of some note.  It is but
just to say that the singing was in itself excellent, if one could forget
the main object for which a church is erected.  The voices were
unexceptionally good, and the parts brilliantly executed; but the whole
was _operatic_ in effect—too secular, and too much of it, to assist
devotion.  But the Mass music of the day is employed with a special
regard to popularity; which, however, as a matter of fact, and as a part
of religious service, it does not succeed in acquiring.  There is, after
all, an idea, however vague, in the popular mind of the moral “fitness of
things,” and if people find themselves in a place ostensibly for
Christian worship, and yet chiefly entertained with an artistic and
elaborate display of music not distinctively devotional, it does not
commend itself to their better judgment.  The congregation at the Oratory
on Sunday morning appears to bear out this remark.  Had the same musical
skill been announced for an ordinary evening concert in any London
music-hall it would have commanded plenty of patronage at 5s. and 2s.
6d.; but in this case (although the charge was only 3d., and 1s. for the
best seats) they were far from fully occupied.  Undoubtedly, the most
rational and appropriate part of the service was the sermon, which was
preached _extempore_ by Father Law, who is the morning preacher for the
“Month of Mary”—a somewhat youthful-looking Father, but he discovers
considerable maturity of mind; and somewhat pleasingly surprised us at
the Protestant colour of some parts of his teaching.  Grounding his
remarks upon Luke xix. 5: “Zaccheus make haste and come down, for to-day
I must abide at thy house,” the preacher explained how it was that Jesus
dwelt with his people.  In passing, the preacher observed that Christ
dwelt with us in his Church, sacraments, and through the “Blessed Lady,”
who ruled over them that day, in allusion to the peculiar homage paid to
the Virgin at this time.  But this was only in passing, and as though to
keep his Catholicism in countenance.  He enlarged chiefly and with much
feeling upon what was, he said, “most important of all,” “Christ dwelling
in us by the Holy Ghost, and so abiding with us,” in our inner life.  The
Rev. Father seemed for the moment to rise above the trammels of peculiar
Popish dogmas, and to conceive the fundamentals of religious life as
practicable without them.  Certainly he did not say as much in as many
words, but if he did not intend it, his discourse was without meaning or
aim.  It is remarkable that on the previous Sunday we listened to an
Anglican divine discoursing on the same subject, and were boldly told
without any qualification that Christ dwelt in his people “by means of
the Holy Sacraments.”

There are attached to the Oratory day-schools for boys and girls, which
are carried on in Pont-place, near to St. Luke’s Church, and are rather
numerously attended.  There is also what is termed “The Nursery of our
Lady and St. Philip Creche,” at 56, Walton-street, where infants of
working people, from three weeks to five years old, are taken charge of
whilst their parents are at work in the day-time.  References must be
given as to honesty and engagements before the child is admitted, and 3d.
per day is charged for each child.  The church itself will accommodate
about 1,200 persons.


KENSINGTON CHAPEL, on the east side of Allen-street, is worthy of notice.
It is substantially built of stone, and commands a foremost place amongst
the best examples of classic architecture in the neighbourhood.  The
portico is the most noticeable portion.  Its Corinthian columns and
pilasters are in good proportion and well-executed, and assure even the
most unpractised eye of their capability to support the massive
entablature and pediments that surmount them.  The present minister, Dr.
Stoughton, laid the chief corner-stone in June, 1864.  The interior is
well and handsomely treated, and is light, commodious, and adapted for
sound.  The large British School recently erected is certainly not an
improvement to the architectural appearance of the chapel.  There is a
want of truthfulness about the design, which one must regret, seeing that
the chapel itself is in such good taste.

The church connected with this place traces its origin so far back as the
year 1795, and owns a very interesting history.  The first Congregational
Chapel was in Hornton-street, and was founded in 1793; and in October,
1794, the Rev. Dr. Lake was chosen first pastor.  In March of the
following year he gathered into religious communion about forty persons,
and on the 9th of April following was solemnly ordained to the pastorate
by Dr. Hunter, author of “Scripture Biography,” who was assisted in the
service by other ministers.  The church and congregation gradually
increased under Dr. Lake’s ministry, and also under his successors.
These were men of no less eminence than the Revs. John Clayton, Dr.
Liefchild, and Dr. Vaughan.  For a church to have held such pastoral
relations in unbroken succession, and for these to be followed and
crowned by the worthy name of the present esteemed minister, Dr.
Stoughton, is a remarkable fact, and prepares us for chronicles of
superior influence and success.  In this we are not disappointed.  In the
year 1845 the jubilee of the church was celebrated.  Dr. Stoughton had
commenced his ministry in 1843, and on the 50th anniversary preached a
commemorative sermon.  From this, which is in print, it would appear that
the first half-century witnessed a gradual but certain growth of
Congregationalism in the town, the number of church members having
increased from the foundation number of 40 to 251.  These were the
figures when Dr. Stoughton began his work.  The labour of those earlier
times had been well and patiently done, and the basis firmly laid for a
larger edifice of success to come.  The Rev. John Stoughton appears to
have been the well-chosen minister for the opening era of its later
history.  On Monday, October 4, 1868, the church and its friends rejoiced
together over the fruits of the pastor’s labours through a quarter of a
century.  At that time, which may be allowed to speak for the present,
1,200 members had been added, and there was a fixed membership of 500,
having just doubled itself since 1843.  The Hornton-street Chapel had
been enlarged in 1845 at a cost of 1,400_l._; a branch chapel—now known
as the Horbury Chapel, Notting-hill—had been built in 1849, and a church,
of 40 members and 100 seat-holders, given it from the parent congregation
to begin with.  This new cause was largely aided and supported by Mr.
Stoughton and his people.  Notwithstanding this separation, the places of
those who had retired to the north of the parish were soon filled, and
the chapel became overcrowded, so that it became a necessity to provide
new and enlarged accommodation.  Hence the present commodious chapel in
Allen-street, which was opened for Divine worship on the 30th of May,
1855, the foundation-stone having been laid in June, 1854.  The entire
cost, including the freehold site and organ, was 8,748_l._ 9s. 6d., the
whole of which was defrayed by the end of January, 1860; 600_l._ more was
laid out on repairs and embellishments in 1863.  There is accommodation
for 1,000, including about 250 free sittings.  More recently British
schools have been built, adjoining the chapel, at an outlay of 5,000_l._,
which now have from 300 to 400 children in attendance.  Here, also, large
and important Sunday-schools are conducted, having about 700 children
under religious instruction.  These were established in the year 1809.
We understand that every available sitting is at present let; and the
congregation contains several persons of literary eminence and
professional distinction.  It is generally of that character which a
minister of Dr. Stoughton’s ability may be expected to draw and keep
around him.  For Christian liberality it is justly entitled to a record;
and is, undoubtedly, one of the best instances to be found of what can be
achieved on the voluntary principle when intelligently and powerfully
directed.  During the first twenty-five years of Dr. Stoughton’s
ministry—independently of the amounts raised by pew rents, &c., for
support of the ministry—there was raised for various objects the noble
sum of 32,821_l._, being an average of 1,313_l._ per annum. 12,800_l._
was for chapel and school building purposes; 8,870_l._ for missionary
societies at home and abroad; 5,630_l._ for support of educational
institutions; and 5,480_l._ for relief of the poor and distressed, both
in a general way and in various cases of public need.  This scale of
giving is maintained and even enlarged upon, the church raising 500_l._
for the London Missionary Society last year; and—which may be considered
an expression of genuine catholicity of spirit—contributing 100_l._
towards the building fund of the new parish church now in course of
re-erection.  Annual collections are made for St. Mary’s Hospital,
Paddington, the West London Hospital, for a Christmas Poor Fund, Chapel
Building Society, London City Mission, and various other Christian
objects.  There is no endowment, and the ministry is entirely supported
from seat rents.  As a proof of the esteem in which the minister is held,
the church voted him 400_l._ in 1868, to enable him to visit Palestine,
which he did; and it may be added that at the present time a co-pastor is
being arranged for to assist him in his labours.

The Rev. Dr. Stoughton has the good fortune—attending but few settled
pastors in the same degree—to enjoy the continued confidence and good
opinion of his people; and through the effect of a prolonged ministry he
has acquired an amount of influence over them seldom realised.  That
influence has been for good.  It has lifted them out of the narrowness
which, rightly or wrongly, is generally considered an attribute of close
churches; it has moulded them into a catholic temper, and imbued them
with social sympathies which render them a fact and a power in the town
and district.  “Like priest, like people,” is an old adage; and probably
it has never found a better illustration than in the present instance.
And where the former has strength and goodness combined, the likeness to
himself he impresses upon his congregation over a long ministry, at any
rate, ought to be traceable.  Dr. Stoughton himself cultivates the most
friendly relations with ministers and Christian people of all
denominations.  Occasionally at his house may be witnessed a little
Evangelical Alliance, in the presence of a bishop, or a dean, or an
archdeacon, with clergymen Episcopal, Baptist, Methodist, and
Congregational; and the same genuine fraternal feeling he carries into
public meetings and committees of all kinds where general Christian or
social interests are concerned.  On the rev. gentleman’s pulpit
characteristics it is scarcely necessary to enlarge.  In these sketches
it is our plan only to say enough on this point to indicate the general
standard of preaching, talent, or aptitude, together with the doctrinal
teaching and mode of conducting service.  As to the latter, the minister
appears in the pulpit in a gown; and in the singing part of the service
the usual Congregational Hymn-book is supplemented by a collection of
church music, consisting of chants, anthems, _Te Deum_ and Sanctuses.
After the second prayer the _Te Deum_ is sung; and the music, both for
hymns and chants, inclines pretty much to the Gregorian strain.  We may
describe this congregation, in its general tone and style of worship, as
occupying that part of the Dissenting territory which lies nearest the
Church of England.  In the minister’s personal part there is a brief
opening prayer, a lesson, a second prayer, a second lesson, and a third
prayer; and in these several extempore petitions, in the present
instance, were included almost every conceivable object of supplication
hardly exceeded in variety of matter by the Book of Common Prayer itself.
The discourse was founded on 2nd Corinthians x, 5: “Bringing into
captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ,” and was delivered
extempore, with the aid only of a manuscript skeleton.  The perfect ease
and quiet of the preacher is apt at first to tempt the stranger to think
him slightly indifferent to his hearers; but he has only to be heard a
while to convince one that the feature arises from complete self-control
and command of his own thoughts; and that, so far from indifference, it
arises from deliberate anxiety to clear himself with the intellect and
conscience of his audience.  It is certain that this is achieved with
great success.  The clearness of the preacher’s thoughts, and equal
clearness and felicity of his language, make one feel as though sitting
in the calm light of intellect, reflected from every point of the
compass.  Starting with the assertion that the words of the text were
directly “against the grain” of the “most fashionable thinking of the
day,” which was on the side of what was called “freedom of thought,” he
entered the lists with the free-thinkers of the period.  Demonstrating
with a masterly hand that the true liberty of our nature is only found in
the captivity of thought to the obedience of Christ, he showed, on the
other, with convincing power, that the boasted “freedom” of the day was
slavery itself.  It was slavishness to prejudice, to some human
irresponsible authority, to the most “fantastic ideas,” without any basis
in reason, to an idea of novelty and change, where, however, there was no
originality; for, the preacher remarked, amidst all this, “originality
was a very rare thing in our time.”  The freedom contended for was one
which bound our whole nature up in the bonds of fixed and rigid laws of
development, which extinguished the very possibility of freedom.  After
so withering an exposure of the boasted free thought of the age, there
was peculiar force and beauty in pressing home the great Gospel truth,
“But if the Son shall make you free, then are ye free indeed.”  Christ
carries us away captive; but He does it as a conqueror of our foes, who
tyrannised over us; and following in His train is our deliverance, our

On Sunday, service is held at 11 A.M. and 6.30 P.M., and at 3.15 P.M. a
prayer-meeting in the Lecture-room.  The Lord’s Supper the first Sunday
in the month after morning service; baptism every three months, both to
adults and children, or more frequently if desired.  Communion tickets
are distributed to members in December, which they are expected to put
into the plate after each celebration.  Members are accepted after
private conversation with the minister, and approval by the church in its
ensuing monthly meeting.  The time when the minister may be consulted on
this solemn subject is from six to seven on Thursday evenings weekly.


THE WESLEYAN CHAPEL, situate at the corner of Warwick-gardens,
Kensington, is a specimen of one of those buildings by which we may say
that Nonconformists have made a step in the right direction.  It is
architectural, and, though of simple character as regards material, being
of brick and stone and covered with slate, yet the brick and stone have
been treated very successfully in the design of the west front.  It
claims to be an example of Early English work, and, with its spire and
pinnacles, forms a good feature, seen from the entrance of the gardens
from the Kensington main road.  Enclosed by iron gates and rails, and
dwarf walls, the chapel is approached by a flight of steps and entered by
a vestibule or lobby, which also gives access, to the right and left, to
the gallery stairs.  Inside, considering the large galleries, which at
all times are an objection, the effect is exceedingly good.  The light
ribbed roof over the body of the chapel is supported by a timber arcade
of very good design, and if, instead of iron, the columns that receive
the arcade had been of wood, we should, in spite of the galleries, have
been able to report some very successfully effective work.  The organ is
recessed, and appears just above a somewhat tall and bulky pulpit.
Beyond this there is very little to remark save the quiet neatness that
prevails generally.  The basement is occupied by school and class rooms
and offices, with separate entrances and approaches.  The chapel is from
the designs of Messrs. Lockwood and Mawson, of London and Bradford; and
the building contract carried out by Mr. Nevill Simonds, of London.  The
warming was executed by Messrs. Stuart and Smith, of Sheffield; and the
standard gas-lights by Messrs. Thomasson and Co., of Birmingham.

          [Picture: Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, Warwick Gardens]

This chapel was opened for worship on Thursday, the 10th December, 1863,
and is partly the fruit of a general effort among the Wesleyan Methodists
for chapel extension in London and its suburbs.  The first metropolitan
chapel building fund was started in 1861, and zealously promoted by the
Rev. W. Arthur, M.A., and the late Rev. John Scott, in connexion with
several of the wealthier laymen.  The spirit of church and chapel
erection which has recently taken hold of other leading religious bodies,
and notably of the Establishment, has been largely participated in by the
Wesleyan body; so that the chapel business which centres in a Chapel
Committee has become a very large and imposing department.  It
superintends the erection of chapels in every part of the Connexion, and
has its rules upon which these works are to be carried out.  Every chapel
built without compliance with its regulations and primary sanction is
jealously viewed, and reported to Conference as irregular, with profound
“regrets” at the Methodistic insubordination implied in it.  No matter
though a chapel be made really a good property of and handed over, it
cannot condone the offence against the spirit of _red-tapeism_ centreing
in the Conference Committee.  It will only be officially recognised after
a good scolding has been administered to the offenders for the pains they
have taken to erect a chapel for Methodism.  This is one of the points at
which the Central Conference rule is liable to collision with local
voluntary efforts, and often produces great irritation.  The Committee
administers the chapel erection fund and makes grants in aid.  It also
controls a large sum of money—raised some years ago to assist in clearing
chapels from debt.  This money is lent out to trustees upon application,
to be returned in so many annual instalments, free of interest.  Probably
no fund has been more useful to the material interests of Methodism.
Chapels formerly burdened with debt have been set free by yearly payments
similar to what they were before paying for interest; and thus their
resources have been left available for extension purposes.  There is also
a special fund for chapel building in Watering-places, commenced by the
Rev. W. M. Punshon in 1861, which succeeded very well as far as it went,
but did not attain large dimensions.  The “Metropolitan Chapel Building
Fund” is a more important and progressive affair.  It started with a
subscribed fund of 20,000_l._, to be kept up by annual appeals; and an
effort is now being made to raise a very much larger sum—Sir Francis
Lycett having made the generous offer of 50,000_l._, to be distributed in
sums of 1,000_l._ each to fifty new chapels, that shall be erected in the
metropolis with a specified accommodation, within a given time.  For this
offer to be utilised to the full extent, at least 200,000_l._ will have
to be raised.

The Warwick gardens Chapel benefited from the first fund to the extent of
1,000_l._, the whole estimated cost being 4,700_l._  In default of a
freehold, 32_l._ per annum is paid as ground-rent, which was to be
covered by a yearly investment.  1,175_l._ was left as a temporary debt,
to be paid off within one year.  We believe, however, that this was found
to be impossible, and the debt in whole or part, still remains.  The
estimated income from seat-rents was fixed at 200_l._ per annum, a very
small estimate indeed, had the project succeeded.  But in this there has
been grievous disappointment.  The chapel will accommodate 1,000 persons,
but after more than seven years it hardly commands an average
congregation, in all, of 200, and a number of these are from a distance,
and properly belonging to other Methodist congregations.  We fear,
therefore, this is a case to be recorded as so far a failure.

A degree, perhaps, of laudable ambition has led some leading Methodist
ministers and laymen of late years to desire to place chapels in
neighbourhoods different from those usually occupied.  In short, there
has been a movement to plant chapels in more _respectable_ localities,
such as that of Warwick-gardens.  But if the experiment is to be judged
by its results in this instance, it would appear a lamentable mistake;
and it may after all be worth considering whether John Wesley’s own rule
will not yet serve Methodism for all time—“To preach the Gospel to the
poor, and to go not only to those who need us, but to those who need us
most.”  There are Sunday-schools, where about 100 children of both sexes
attend; and four or five small classes, which include all the society at
present attached to the chapel.  It is united in what is called the
Bayswater Circuit, the headquarters of which are in the Denbigh-road,
Bayswater, and which has three ministers appointed to it by the
Conference.  These are assisted in the occupation of the pulpits by
ministers belonging to Connexional departments in London, or students
from the college at Richmond.  The chapel, therefore, has the best
ministerial provision that the system of Methodism can supply, but there
appears to be no public effect.  On Sunday evening, 21st of May, the
pulpit was occupied by the Rev. W. B. Boyce, one of the secretaries at
the Mission-house in Bishopsgate-street.  He holds a high position in the
body, and on many accounts is deservedly respected.  He has seen much
service in the Mission-field; and to this it may be in part attributable
that he retains in speech the broad provincialisms of his early life.  He
also holds fast to the old Methodist style of putting the doctrine of
“Conversion,” which was the subject of his discourse.  According to his
teaching on this occasion, a man may be everything Christian to the
outward eye—and even be a martyr for the truth—and yet be unconverted,
unsaved, and perish eternally.  If such a case be _possible_, we must
remark it is so rare in experience that it may well cause a minister to
pause before he gives it prominent and unqualified application in a
sermon.  There are certain to be a number of weak consciences and
doubting minds in every congregation, who must be very much troubled and
perplexed with such teaching, whereas there may not be a single
individual to whom it really applies.  It is a mode of preaching, in our
idea, not based upon sufficiently large views of human experiences and
circumstances; yet Mr. Boyce exhibits great sincerity and earnestness.


THE Scotch Presbyterian Chapel stands at the corner of the Foxley-road
and Allen-street, and is a fair specimen of geometric gothic.  Of course
it requires the tower to be finished to make it the good architectural
object that it should be in the long perspective of Allen-street; yet it
is even now fairly prominent, and is substantially built of Kentish rag
with Bath stone dressings, and roofed with slate.  The principal entrance
is on the north side, over which is a large and rather noticeable window,
and the rose window in the west gable, too, seems to invite the visitor
to an inspection of the interior.  Passing through a very plain corridor
or vestibule, the body of the chapel is immediately entered to the right
and left hand.  A feeling of disappointment it is impossible to repress
ensues.  The interior in no way accords with the idea conveyed by the
outside inspection.  It is roofed in one span, and heavily ceiled and
panelled, producing a sense of depression.  The walls are simply bare
plaster, the pulpit very large and heavy, the pewing poor and plain.  A
northern gallery, evidently intended for an organ, is organless, and not
much improved by large curtains.  The Presbyterian movement in Kensington
began in 1861, under the present pastor, the Rev. Gavin Carlyle, in a
hall in Holland-street.  After about a year’s labour in this place some
forty or fifty members had collected, and it was then resolved to build a
church.  A site was first sought in Campden-hill, but was not to be found
there.  Ultimately the present site was scoured, the building commenced
in July 1862, finished in May 1863, and opened on the 24th of that month,
and the Rev. Mr. Carlyle, was formally ordained to the charge on June 2nd
following.  Since then the progress has been steady; and the membership
has increased to between one and two hundred.  The church is connected
with the English Presbyterian Church, and the late Dr. Hamilton, of the
latter, took great interest in it, and did much to originate it.  It will
contain 500 persons, and cost to build 5,280_l._; by the addition of
galleries, it would be capable of accommodating 700 or 800.  There is no
endowment, and the minister is dependent upon pew-rents and voluntary
offerings.  A Dorcas Society is kept up by a few ladies; and collections
are made annually for foreign missions and other objects.  The Duke of
Argyll is a seatholder and frequent communicant; and other persons of
general and literary distinction.  At a meeting a few weeks since, at
which the Duke of Argyll presided, several Indian and other notabilities
were present, including Dr. Macleod, Sir Bartle Frere, Sir Wm. Hill, &c.,
who had assembled to hear a lecture on India, by Dr. Wilson, of Bombay.
The Rev. Gavin Carlyle is an M.A. of the Edinburgh University, and
studied theology in the Free Church College, Edinburgh, followed by a
year’s study in Germany.  He is a nephew of the famous Edward Irving; and
editor of his uncle’s “Collected Writings,” published by Strahan and Co.
He is also editor of the _Weekly Review_, the weekly organ of
Presbyterianism in England; also of _Christian Work_, a monthly journal
of religious and missionary intelligence.  Mr. Carlyle’s congregation is
at present a small one compared with many; but on the occasion of our
visit his sermon was certainly such as to justify a larger attendance.
It was the first of a series of discourses on the Ten Commandments, and
founded on the first “I am the Lord thy God,” &c.  The distinct existence
and all-pervading presence and control of the Almighty was the subject.
It was well and clearly treated, in a manner to meet the principal
intellectual quibbles or difficulties of the times; and the preacher
proved to the satisfaction of every thoughtful mind—to use his own
words—that “all reason speaks to us of God; and that it is nothing but
unreason and mystical cloudiness that attributes the effects of Nature to
any other cause or operation,” and that science when rightly conceived is
“the handmaid of religion.”


THE Brompton Episcopal Chapel, situate close to the Brompton-road, in
Montpelier-street, is a structure strictly Georgian in its character,
Georgian indeed to the back-bone, if one may be allowed to use such an
expression ecclesiastically.  It has no beauties to make it worthy a
visit in the search after the picturesque.  It is simply ugly outside,
and very little more may be said of it inside.  It rather reminded us of
old Kensington Church, without its historical interest.  Like all
buildings of the kind, it has its painted columns supporting a flat
ceiling, and high-back gallery.  It has its high pulpit and prayer-desk,
each duly draped in hot velvet, its high-backed pews comfortably shut up
and cushioned, in fact, everything belonging to it is high, only that it
would be too much to call it High Church.

This chapel attained its centenary in 1869, being opened on Easter
Sunday, 1769, as a chapel of ease to the parish church of Kensington.
The Rev. Richard Harrison was the first minister, who was a preacher of
some note, and continued his labours to the end of life, which occurred
in 1793.  A tablet to his memory may now be seen on the south side of the
Communion-table.  Since then the course of the ministry has been somewhat
chequered, and not always connected with the happiest reminiscences.
Although so ancient a chapel, it appears to have been generally poor, and
the only relic it contains of bygone days is a set of old _pewter_
collecting-plates, having the original engraving, “The Parish of
Kensington.”  The building is now seen in every respect as it was at the
beginning.  It has successfully resisted all modern innovations; no
alterations of any kind have taken place, excepting that a coating of
stucco has been bestowed upon the front.  The same is true of the
character of the public service.  It has rigidly preserved its own
unadorned plainness, against all the ecclesiastical refinements of later
years.  The clergy are ordained ministers in the Church of England, and
licensed by the Bishop of London, and the present are the Rev. W.
Dunford, who is also the private owner of the property, and the Rev. W.
Crofts Bullen, assistant minister.  The latter was doing duty at the time
of our visit, with rather a thin congregation, but showed considerable
earnestness, read distinctly and audibly, and preached in his black gown
an extempore discourse on Rev. iv. 3.  The sublime passage was expounded
by references to other parts of Scripture, connected with some plain,
out-spoken utterances applied to the audience in a fearless and faithful
manner.  Regarding the text as symbolical of the Holy Trinity—it being
Trinity Sunday—the preacher knew nothing about “the liberality of faith
in the nineteenth century.”  There was “a severe and hard line to be
drawn between the believer and unbeliever, the saved and the unsaved.”

The Episcopal Chapel will hold about 800 persons, and the congregation
averages from 400 to 500.  Having no endowment, the clergy rely only on
seat-rents and quarterly collections for church expenses, which are made
by passing the pewter-plates round to the assembly in the pews.  There is
a good Sunday-school carried on in the chapel, morning and afternoon,
with about 130 scholars, a number which it is said might be greatly added
to but that the Churchwardens will not allow more space.  This
unfavourable condition, however, the zealous superintendent, Mr. Warder
and teachers, assisted by the children, are seeking to remedy, having
opened among themselves a weekly subscription towards a separate and
commodious schoolroom.  The weekly pence already contributed amounts to
50_l._  This is a most worthy example; and it may be hoped that some
large-hearted persons outside the school, may some day or other feel
inclined to encourage by large gifts so laudable an attempt at self-help.
The school is also provided with a library by subscriptions of the
teachers and churchwardens, from which books are lent free of charge.
The Sunday-school is an interesting feature at this chapel, and is said
in the neighbourhood to be highly prized by the children themselves, who
are reported to be most regular in attendance.  The services are—Sunday,
morning at 11, evening at 6.30; Wednesday at 7 P.M.; the Lord’s Supper on
the last Sunday in the month.  The hymn-book used is a selection of
psalms and hymns arranged by the Rev. Charles Kemble, M.A.—the 1853


ONSLOW CHAPEL, situate in Neville terrace, Brompton, has many pretensions
to Gothic architectural effect.  It is slightly decorated in design, and
somewhat early.  Long before the two churches were thought of, between
which it now stands, St. Pauls and St. Peters, its two little spires
could be seen like landmarks in the surrounding plain.  It is one of
those early attempts of the Nonconformists to establish a better style of
architecture in their buildings for public worship.  The west front is,
however, all of which it can boast, the inside being of true chapel type,
consisting, one may almost say, of a large hall, ribbed and vaulted in
plaster.  The western gallery adds to the accommodation for sittings, and
the body of the chapel is well filled with simple pewing.  The pulpit is
tall, and backed up by the organ.  In the usual way the Vestry is at the
east end.  The foundation-stone was laid by that great and good man, the
Hon. Arthur Kinnaird, in 1856.

                 [Picture: Onslow Chapel, Brompton, 1856]

This chapel was built fifteen years ago, for the church then meeting in
Alfred-place, under the pastorate of the Rev. G. Bigwood.  It seats 650
persons, and cost 6,000_l._  But this outlay included, besides the
chapel-proper, convenient class-rooms, and a spacious schoolroom which
runs back on a line with the chapel into Neville-street, and is now
mentioned as Onslow Hall, a suitable place for meetings and lectures.
The Rev. G. Bigwood’s ministry lasted about eighteen years, and he was
succeeded in 1870 by the Rev. Joseph Upton Davis, B.A., the present
pastor.  The minister is a Baptist, but the membership is open to
Christians of other Evangelical communions.  As a preacher, Mr. Davis has
considerable gifts.  To a pleasing manner and voice there is a goodly
share of refinement, general evidence of culture, and preaching ardour,
which are essential to the modern pulpit.  “He that hath an ear let him
hear what the spirit saith unto the churches” was solemnly enforced, and
the dwellers in Laodicean ease—the “neither cold nor hot”—were keenly
rebuked, although affectionately dealt with.  The congregation was not a
full one; but it was pleasing to note that with very few exceptions all
remained to the Communion service, which immediately followed the first
service.  The hymn after the sermon was followed only by the benediction,
briefly rendered, which, as a rule, is somewhat unlike Nonconforming
services, in which the preacher generally offers a short prayer, having
some reference in spirit to the matter of the discourse.  A Sunday-school
is conducted in the schoolroom, where, under management, 400 scholars
assemble morning and afternoon, superintended by Mr. Mayers.  The general
services are—Sunday morning at 11, evening at 6.30, Thursday evenings at
7, and communion the first Sunday in the month.


THE Church of St. Barnabas is situated in the Addison-road, and can be
seen with pleasing effect from the main road.  In the distance the
brickwork has a nice grey tone about it, and harmonises well with the
stone dressings and tracery and the contrast of the mounting ivy round
the pinnacled buttresses gives a picturesque appearance which is much
assisted by pretty surrounding foliage.  A nearer view, however, is
somewhat disappointing as to architectural detail, in which it resembles
the chapel of King’s College, Cambridge, which is generally considered
the best example of perpendicular Gothic.  The west elevation is worthy
of description.  The gable and pierced parapet partially conceal a
low-pitched roof, which is flanked by open bell turrets.  The centre of
the gable is occupied by a large perpendicular window above the western
entrance to the church.  This consists of a centre and two side doors
opening into a corridor or vestibule, giving access to the body of the
building and to the galleries right and left.  Flights of steps lead up
to the several entrances, which are enclosed by rather lofty railings and
gates.  The interior, roofed in one span with sub-arcades or columns, is
finished with a flat ceiling, relieved and pannelled by horizontal bands
and kerbed ribs.  Large galleries surround three sides of the church, and
at the west end a double tier.  At first sight these galleries look
almost unsupported, the iron columns are so slender as well-nigh to
escape observation.  The body or ground floor is fitted with simple
square pewing, divided by a centre and two side passages.  Close to the
western doors stands a bold font, a fair specimen of perpendicular work.
The pulpit is tall and plain.  The prayer-desk, lower and more ornate, is
placed on the north side of a very simple chancel arch, before which the
very handsome bronze eagle lectern stands slightly elevated.  The chancel
is a simple recess, and its entrance is occupied by stall benches.  The
front of the altar is pierced with tracery, which has a good effect.  The
east window is filled with stained glass of Georgian school design,
strongly reminding us of the Church of St. Dunstan, Fleet-street, where
there is a similar window.

         [Picture: St. Barnabas Church, Addison Road, Kensington]

Three windows on the north side and four on others are also filled with
stained and quarried glass, with designs of a better school.

The organ, a fine instrument by Walker, is at the west end in the
gallery, and well decorated.

It is now forty-three years since this church was consecrated, and during
the last eighteen years it has been under the same incumbent, who has
been one of the Kensington Clergy for nearly thirty years.  It occupies a
large district in the west of Kensington, and has itself, in progress of
time, become a parent church to several others which have risen within
its bounds.  St. Philip’s and St. Matthias are districts formed out of
it; and the more recent erection of St. John the Baptist’s Church in the
Holland-road marks a still further development.  It has also a separate
appendage to itself in the “Church House” in the Warwick-gardens, which
has been built to accommodate the surplus of its regular congregation,
sanctioned by the Bishop, and served by its own clergy.  Here invalids
who cannot conveniently attend the larger congregation, and such as
cannot for the present obtain accommodation there, are invited to attend.
In point of fact it is altogether a separate church served by the Vicar
of St. Barnabas and his curates.  As, however, it is treated simply as an
out-building of St. Barnabas—and is used for the transaction of its
various parochial business—we must consider it as included with it.

    [Picture: St. Barnabas Church House, Warwick Gardens, Kensington]

St. Barnabas’ Church has accommodation for about 1,500, and its morning
congregation averages from 1,200 to 1,400, looking well filled.  The
evening congregation, however, is much smaller, as a rule, as is the case
with most West London churches.  But we may attribute this partly to the
existence of an afternoon service, at which there is public catechising,
which is very fully attended.  The church is daily open, and the Holy
Communion is celebrated every Sunday.  There is no High Church costume,
or parade of surpliced choristers, but there is a most efficient choir,
who fill the space in front of the organ in the end gallery.  On the
occasion of our visit, which was St. Barnabas’ day, June 11, the church’s
annual Feast of Dedication, the performance consisted in a Gregorian and
other much more pleasing chants in D and A, with hymns special to the
occasion.  The Gregorian strain never pleases; and seems to us adapted
mainly to break up and destroy the natural form, music, and sense of the
English tongue.  There are three curates, who perform their subordinate
parts in the service with great propriety and credit.  Such only who
could accomplish this would be at all in keeping with the character of
the chief pastor.  Dr. Hessey has a matured, well-cultured Christian
mind, in addition to learning, and natural talent and taste for the
duties of the pulpit.  There is also a gravity and kindliness in his
general manner and utterance which leaves one in no doubt as to the
secret of his power.  The sermon on the occasion of our visit was an
anniversary one, and as being confined to a portion of appropriate
historical Scripture (Acts xi, 26), did not offer scope for the full
exercise of the preacher’s powers.  Yet the evidence of their existence
was there.

The clergy are supported chiefly by pew-rents, and there are offertories
and collections for various charities, missions, and other objects.  For
the poor, for schools, missions, choir, incidental church expenses, the
Bishop of London’s Fund, in aid of hospitals and other charities, there
was raised altogether in 1870 704_l._ 11s. 10¼d.  Out of this it is found
impossible to provide for the heavier church expenses.  A church-rate is
also levied, to which it does not appear what response is made.  We have
reason, however, to believe that no large sum is thus collected, or the
churchwardens would have been able to spend more on the decoration of the
church.  There is clearly room for considerable improvement here, and we
hope there will be no great difficulty in providing means to carry out
the church repairs which are so much needed.  The whitewasher, painter,
and grainer might in the interior be employed with good effect.


A BUILDING set on a hill cannot be hid, and it is literally true of St.
John’s Church; it is just on the crest, of Notting-hill, and may be seen
from a great distance in the perspective of the long road, to the west of
which it stands.  Its effect is at first sight very good; the spire,
however, rising at the intersection of the nave and transepts, appears
too stunted, as if it had been drawn down several feet into the tower, a
fault to be deplored in many instances.  Built of stone and covered with
slate, the early English detail, generally very good, the character of
the style very truthfully retained, as shown by the chancel windows, the
well-executed caps and bosses, and in the eastern triplet, make up a very
excellent attractive whole.  The plan of the church is cruciform, and is
divided into a nave and aisles, north and south transepts, chancel and
aisles, with a vestry at the N.E. angle.  There are several large
galleries, one at the west end, one in each of the transept and chancel
aisles, which add very considerably to the accommodation for sittings.
The organ is placed in the west gallery, and rather takes from a good
perspective, as seen looking westward, the stone columns and
plaster-moulded arcade giving a very poor effect; and the church
generally supports some well-designed work in the clerestory, where oddly
enough we find stone used again, though we cannot help feeling glad to
see it, instead of the plaster work before referred to.  The roof is
high-pitched and open, of good design, but, owing to so little of the
light of heaven illuminating the interior, we are unable to say much
about it.  The lancet windows are not enough to admit the cheering rays,
and this is certainly a drawback; it gives to the church a gloomy
appearance which it ought not really to have.  Most of the windows are
filled with stained glass, but of no good type, except the eastern
subject, representing the Lord’s Supper.  The font, close to the west
door, is of simple design, and has the emblems of the Evangelists
sculptured in relief on the bowl.  The pulpit, too much like a large
wineglass, is lofty, and blocks out the view, looking east.  The pewing
is very mean, and on a level with the pewing of the passages, which is
not improving.  Some simple wooden screens shut out the chancel from the
aisles, and the table is plain and railed off.  The diaper work painted
on the chancel wall is well done and effective.

Early in 1845 the Church of St. John was consecrated for divine service
in the northern division of Kensington.  Misgivings were expressed at the
time that the site, one of the most attractive in London, had been chosen
too far out in the fields; but the population of the district has since
risen from less than 3,000 to more than 60,000, and has been partitioned
among six new parish churches, all built from voluntary contributions,
and maintained without endowments.  The church, parsonage, and schools of
St. John’s represent an expenditure of nearly 20,000_l._, almost entirely
raised within the parish; and the subscriptions and collections for 1870
amounted to 996_l._ collected in the church, besides 850_l._ pew-rents,
and 2,390_l._ collected in other ways for local and missionary purposes.
Between 500 and 600 children are in attendance at the schools, and nearly
400 of them belong to the Parochial Provident Society, which consists in
the aggregate of 731 members.  The congregation appear much in need of
the additional comfort and accommodation which would be derived from
removing the organ out of the west gallery, and letting in the light from
the handsome window behind it.  The design of the architect might then be
carried out, and the organ and pulpit be placed as originally intended,
throwing back the fronts of the north and south transept galleries.  This
church has suffered a good deal at different times from well-meant
efforts to provide additional accommodation for the vast population which
has grown up round it; but nothing has been done which might not be
easily set right at a small expenditure.  The present incumbent has been
seventeen years in residence, and was appointed by the late Bishop
Blomfield, of London, the see to which the patronage belongs.  The east
window is an adaptation in coloured glass of the “Last Supper” of
Leonardo da Vinci, and was offered by the parishioners as a memorial of
their sorrow for the early loss of Eleanor Isabella, only child of Sir
John Franklin, and wife of the incumbent, who was cut off in the midst of
a career of singular activity and Christian usefulness about ten years
ago.  A mural monument close by records the decease of the previous
incumbent, the Rev. E. Denniss, who fell a victim to cholera in 1854.
This likewise was placed there by the parishioners as a monument of their
affectionate regret; and it is very observable that our new churches
derive increased solemnity and repose from the gradual increase of such
mementoes as these.

Out of 1,400 sittings, this church has about 400 free; all the others let
at rates varying from 4s. to 15s. per quarter.  The congregation is
composed mainly of the well-to-do people of that part, and the
collections which are made for various objects through the year average
from 50_l._ to 60_l._ a Sunday, whether it be for home or foreign
objects.  The organist, Mr. Cooper, is surrounded in the orchestra by a
selection of the male Sunday scholars—who are evidently well-trained, and
make up an effective choir—without surplices.  The service is completely
on the Evangelical model, animated and thoroughly devotional, and the
congregation join in it earnestly.  The prayers and lessons were well
read by a substitute for one of the curates, who are two, the Rev.
Messrs. Leicester and Newton.  The sermon was preached by the incumbent,
the Rev. J. P. Gell, from Psalm iii. 4, “He hath made his wonderful works
to be remembered.”  The rev. gentleman’s preaching is careful, practical,
and devout; and appears to come directly home to his hearers, over whom,
through a long series of years he has maintained a very manifest
influence for good.  The ordinary services are on Sundays at 11 A.M., and
7 P.M., and lecture on Wednesday evening.  At 12.30 there is full
Communion Service every first Sunday in the month, after the morning
service; and an early celebration at 9 A.M. on every third Sunday in the


ST. GEORGE’S, Campden-hill, the spire of which, in the distance, is so
closely allied to the Kensington Water-tower and that other familiar
object of West London distance, Tower Cressy, that we suppose there are
few who are unacquainted with the rather odd-looking trio.  Either of
them taken alone would form a good distance object, but as it sometimes
happens they all three lump together in the landscape, the effect is not
only odd, but certainly striking, the water-tower always looking like the
big brother of the other two.  St. George’s, however, must now be taken
alone, and really it deserves to be especially noticed.  The church
stands N. and S., the south elevation being worthy of remark for much
excellent and effective detail.  The tower and spire, of fair proportion
at the S.E. angle of the building, form an important feature of this
view.  The spire is broached and covered with slate in bands, and
relieved with wooden spire lights with iron finials, giving a picturesque
appearance.  The tower is without buttresses, and, like all other
portions of this south elevation, is faced with stone in random courses,
with Bath stone quoins and dressings, and clean-cut bands of stone of
warmer colour.  It is lighted by deeply-recessed lancet windows, with
columns and foliated caps, and bands on all sides.  The staircase within
is clearly marked by raking lines of windows, simple and effective.  The
centre of the gable of this elevation is occupied by a large and
boldly-treated window, with geometric rose and four lancet lights, deeply
recessed with label mould, encircling three well-carved heads in relief;
this window is flanked by side two-light windows, partly concealed by the
tile roof of the large cloistered porch.  Being the principal entrance to
the church, this roof is supported by dwarf and massive columns, with
carved caps and cusped arcade.  The whole forms a picturesque feature in
perspective.  The side and north elevations are very plainly treated in
brickwork, with coloured bands or strings continued round the buttresses.
The windows are executed in stone, plain-cut, unsplayed tracery; the
reason for this change in design is evident—these elevations will shortly
be hidden by the houses that are hourly springing up round the church.
The usual stone finials and crosses are replaced by iron of like

The plan of the church is slightly cruciform, and consists of a nave and
aisles, east and west transept, a doubly-recessed apsidal chancel, and
aisles.  Large galleries run round nearly three sides of the body of the
church, and at the south end there is a double tier for school-children.
Galleries, as we have often observed before, do not improve the good
effect of a building; however, these galleries have a novel treatment:
the balcony—if such an expression may be used—is suggestive of a
conventional ship’s side with the ports complete.  We by no means wish to
convey a false impression by these remarks, for the lines of these
galleries are very graceful, and yet sufficiently angular to be quite in
keeping with the style of the church.  The corbelled principals of the
galleries, too, are effectively cut; they take a bearing on the iron
columns of the arcades, from which, in every other respect, they run
clear.  We never remember to have seen iron better treated in
church-arcade columns.  The detail is sharp and clean, and the columns
are not so slender as to appear unequal to their task of supporting the
brick arches and clerestory, and the light nave and other roofs with
saw-tooth cut and intersecting ribs.  Generally the interior effect is
exceeding good, especially the arcade of the east transept.  There is
evidence of great originality of thought on the part of the architect,
which we cannot fail to notice and admire, and the colouring is
harmonious and quiet in the corbels, bands, and courses, which are of
stone, nearly all ornamented with flowing Gothic scrolls, painted black
and incised.  The font is an excellent example of early work jewelled
with coloured bosses round the circular bowl, with the inscription “One
Lord, one Faith, one Baptism.”  It stands near to the southern doors.
The oak pulpit is elevated to suit the galleries, stilted on stone
clustered columns, with foliated caps, and butts upon the chancel west
pier.  The oak-eagle lectern is also at the entrance of the chancel, and
is very well executed.  The pewing, perhaps the least attractive portion
of the fittings, is, however, well cut, but too dark to our mind.  The
organ occupies the west chancel aisle, and is placed over the vestries
and quite undecorated.  The chancel windows in the apse are well filled
with stained glass, by Messrs. Lavers and Barraud.  In the rose is
represented the Crucifixion; the four lancets, the Evangelists and their
emblems.  The passages are paved with plain tiling.  Mr. Bassett Keeling,
of Gray’s-inn, was the architect, and we must congratulate him upon
having produced an exceedingly beautiful and original type of church.
The first stone was laid by the Ven. Archdeacon Sinclair, in Feb., 1864,
and by Trinity Sunday in the following year the church was opened for
Divine Service.

This church is situated partly in the Ward of St. Mary Abbotts and partly
in that of St. John’s, Notting-hill, having in both departments a little
over 8,000 inhabitants.  It provides 1,400 sittings in all, 413 of which
are free.  But these in cases of emergency can be added to by about 150,
provided by a system of _telescopic_ seats, which can be drawn upon
occasions from under the fixed pews, across the main aisles, filling up
the entire area of the church.  Six or seven years ago the site of St.
George’s was a cabbage-garden; but a private Christian gentleman
conceived the happy idea of converting it to its present purpose, built
this beautiful edifice at his own cost, and presented it to the district.
The congregation has grown up almost as rapidly as the building itself.
All the sittings not free are let at from 1_l._ 1s. to 2_l._ 2s. per
annum, and the congregation is usually full and of a superior class at
the morning and evening services.  The Duke of Argyll and the Earl of
Airlie and families hold sittings, and usually attend here, with other
families and persons of note and character located in and about this
aristocratic neighbourhood.  On Sunday morning, the 25th of June, 1871
the church was crowded, a rumour having gone abroad that the Princess
Louise, the daughter-in-law of the Duke of Argyll, was expected to be
present.  If this were the cause, however, there must have been
considerable disappointment, as the Princess was certainly not there.
The Vicar, the Rev. George Bennett, who is usually the morning preacher,
preached a useful and discriminating sermon on John xvii. 16, pointing
out in what sense Christ was not of the world, and in what sense his true
people are not of the world.  Some seasonable remarks were made about the
temptation under which Christians now lie to succumb to what is called
“public opinion,” until there is danger of their placing the voice of
“society” above the voice of conscience and the word of God.  Yet this
was the only standard of right and wrong; whilst the standard set up by
the world was an _unreal_ one, and not sincerely believed even by those
who, from the force of fashion, practised it.  The prayers were read by
the Rev. Mr. Becker, and the Litany by the Rev. Mr. Frampton, the
Curates.  In this instance there is also a lay reader, Mr. Gordon
Cleather, who, in a surplice, read the lessons well and distinctly.  The
Rev. Dr. Davis is the evening preacher, who is known as a clergyman of
distinguished talent.  The church has no endowment, and the clergy are
maintained and the expenses met out of the pew-rents and offertories.
There are several religious and benevolent institutions, also, supported
by the congregation or receiving aid from it.  In St. George’s Schools
there are boys about 100 and girls the same number, with infants about
130.  These received voluntary aid to the amount of 160_l._ in 1870.
There is a District Visiting Society account, for which, including a
_Maternity_, Provident, and Work Society, there was received from various
sources and disbursed the sum of 360_l._ in the year.  The offertories,
apart from subscriptions—and from which all objects are aided in
proportion—brought 181_l._ 0s. 6d.; and there are lists of subscribers to
all the funds—as, for instance, to the Church Service Fund, the
offertories for which amounted only to 39_l._ 16s. 9d., but which was
raised by two collections in the year and subscriptions to 108_l._ 11s.
4d.  The worship is plain Church of England, barring the intoning of
portions of the prayers.  The choir is not surpliced, and the singing,
for the most part, lively, accompanied by a good organ, well played by
Herr Sowerby, Professor.  The hymns are “Ancient and Modern,” published
at the Sacred Music Warehouse, Novello and Co., Dean-street.  The order
of services are—Sunday: morning at 11, afternoon 3.30, evening at 7;
Wednesdays, Fridays, and holidays.  Holy Communion on the first and third
Sunday in the month at 9 A.M., and on the second Sunday after the morning


ST. PETER’S, Notting-hill, in the Kensington-park-road, is an Italian
edifice, looking of some importance as regards its west elevation, the
only portion of the church seen from the road.  On close inspection it is
disappointing to find stucco in place of stone facing the work.  The
elevation consists of a large enclosed portico with engaged columns,
supporting an entablature and pediment, which is surmounted by a square
tower with engaged columns and tower lights, and terminating with a sort
of pepper box top.  Although not so prominently or so beautifully placed
as St. John’s, it has a pleasing appearance from the road; the effect,
however, is somewhat diminished by a dwarfed cupola.  A more lofty,
tapering campanile would have added much to its importance.  The façade
is not seen to advantage, from its close proximity to the road.  A large
vestibule gives access to the main body of the church and the gallery
staircases.  The plan of the church consists of a nave and aisles, a
portion of the east end being railed off to form a chancel.  Three large
galleries partly enclose the church, and entirely cover the space of the
aisles.  Large Corinthian columns and entablature support the roof; just
above the cornice are semicircular clerestory lights, glazed in a
fan-like manner.  The roof is enclosed by a flat ceiling in panels,
ornamented with centre flowers, and the aisles are ceiled at a lower
level below the clerestory.

The church has had everything done for it that can be in the way of
decoration, which has been very beautifully executed, and in perfect
keeping with the style of the building.  The Greek ornament and colouring
are at once harmonious and agreeable, and should prove a good lesson to
all, showing what may be done to beautify even a heavy building, and how
very efficient church decorators have hitherto been in the adornment of
our churches.  One can only hope that some whitewash advocates may be
induced from these remarks to visit St. Peter’s.  We are quite sure they
will change their minds—and some churchwardens may well blush for their
own doings, and set about an improved state of things in their own
churches.  The east end is more ornately decorated than other portions;
the caps and bases of the columns are guilded, the panels are fitted with
diaper and lily ornaments.  Some rather happy stained glass, illustrating
incidents in the life of St. Peter, assists in producing an exceedingly
well-conceived whole.  Two of the windows are of superior workmanship, by
Clayton and Bell, but the centre large one is slightly pretentions,
somewhat faulty in drawing, and not equal to the general features of the
decorations, though the appearance of the chancel on entering the church
is singularly fine.  The Gothic furniture and stalls of the chancel we
dislike, being out of place.  The pulpit is cleverly contrived to be as
light and unobstructive as possible, yet necessarily high, on account of
the galleries, and, moreover, so gossamer-like with regard to its
enclosing railing, that any near-sighted strangers may be forgiven for a
feeling of nervousness for the safety of the preacher.

The vase font is near the western entrance.  The organ is in the west
gallery.  Some stained glass of good design fills some of the
aisle-windows.  The passages are paved, with ornamental tiles, the pewing
has been cut down, and would be greatly improved raised four or five
inches above the level of the passage-paving.  The church is thoroughly
and expensively heated with warm air, and lighted at night by a
sun-burner from the roof, containing 120 jets.  Every attention appears
to have been paid to ensure the comfort of the congregation.  The most
marked feature of St. Peter’s Church is its interior, which, as a whole,
is very beautiful.  The style is worked out in Pompeian red, and,
although florid in development, is by no means obtrusive; and from the
general harmonies of colour and subdued blendings, it is thought to
conduce to a feeling of devotional repose.  The galleries, however,
constitute a great drawback to this otherwise very pleasing interior.
They are too flat in construction, and too ponderous for the limited
space between the roof and the floor of the side aisles.

This church is one of six now gathered round the original church of St.
John’s, Notting-hill, and is allocated to one of the six new parishes
into which the old parish has been subdivided.  It was built in the year
1856, with funds furnished partly by the incumbent and partly by
donations from the immediate neighbourhood.  It has sittings for 1,400
persons, out of which 400 are free.  There are, in connexion with it,
large and exceedingly well appointed schools, numbering 150 boys, 150
girls and 220 infants.  The efficiency of these schools has been
authoritatively commended.

The present vicar, the Rev. J. Robbins, D.D., of Christ Church, Oxford,
was appointed in the year 1862.  We had not the opportunity of hearing
the rev. gentleman preach, but he read the first lesson, and we consider
him quite a model reader.  From a firm, distinct, and flexible utterance,
and as from a ready appreciation of its sense, Scripture is made to speak
its meaning, and to convey real effect in the reading.  The general order
of service he has adopted is semi-choral.  The prayers are monotoned, the
chants and responses are Gregorian.  The choir is mostly composed of
boys, with surplices, educated in the schools attached to the church, and
who sing the music about as well as such music can be done.  The Creed
is, also, in reality, sung and accompanied with the organ.  We must
confess to a disappointment in the effect produced by the organ, the
tones of which did not seem to harmonise with the flow of voices; but we
hear this is about to be remedied.  To many there would doubtless seem in
this service an excess of singing, and that, monotonous in a large
degree.  But it is the High Church order of things; and St. Peter’s is
confessedly High Church.  There are various societies attached for the
visitation of the poor and the distribution of several charities.

The sermon on Sunday morning, July 2, 1871, was preached by the Rev. C.
R. Robinson, M.A., Canon of Rochester, for the Gravesend (or St.
Andrew’s) Waterside Mission.  Notwithstanding the inclement weather, the
church was fully attended by a congregation in the midst of which it was
hard to discern a single poor person.  The preacher discoursed pleasantly
on 1 Peter v. 10, 11—“But the God of all grace,” &c.  His account of the
origin of St. Andrew’s Mission, of which he himself was the founder about
ten years ago, and of his personal interviews with seamen in going to sea
and returning, distribution of books, &c., riveted the attention of the
audience, and appeared to excite intense feeling in favour of the noble
objects of the society.  The usual preliminary part of the Communion
Service, including the Commandments, the Nicene Creed, Epistle and
Gospel, was not read; but the sermon followed the Litany and hymn.  The
hymn-book used is “Hymns Ancient and Modern” (Novello, Ewer, and Co.,
Berners-street).  Usual services—Sundays: 8 A.M., Holy Communion; 11,
Morning Prayer, Litany, and sermon; 12.30 P.M., Communion (choral); 3.30
P.M., Evening Prayer and catechising the children; 7 P.M., Evening Prayer
and sermon.  Week-days: 8 A.M., morning prayer; 5.30 P.M., Evening Prayer
(choral); Wednesday and Friday, Litany, 12.30 P.M.; Thursday, Communion
at 7 A.M., and also on saints’ days and holidays.  The church is open all
day for prayer and meditation, and a public notice at the doors requests
“all persons to observe silence.”


ST. PAUL’S, Campden-hill, is a large iron structure, standing at one
corner of Vicarage-garden.  As an iron building there is very little to
say about it; it is not beautiful—iron buildings never are—but the
situation is so very charming, that, plain as the features are of the
church, the pleasant nook in which it is placed seems quite to take from
its ugliness and lend some of its cheerful pastoral happiness to its iron
tenant.  One thing strikes us as worthy of notice—the very large open
porch at the western entrance offers ample shelter and accommodation to a
large dispersing congregation in wet weather, and it has the advantage of
offering protection from heat as well as wet, and keeps the west end of
the building cool; it is like an open vestibule or lobby.

St. Paul’s was erected as a chapel of ease to the parish church, St. Mary
Abbots, Kensington, in the year 1854, so that it was one of the earliest
of this temporary method of providing for public worship; and it may be
added that, from the present firm and substantial appearance of the
structure, it is evident this comparatively inexpensive way of dealing
with the question—where larger funds are not at command—may be made to do
good service through at least a generation.  It affords accommodation for
1,200 people, and but few of the sittings are free, not, we believe,
amounting to more than fifty.  The church is served by the curates of
Archdeacon Sinclair, Vicar of Kensington, and at present, during the
re-erection of the new parish church, has double service performed in it
every Sunday.  The early service at a quarter to ten, and afternoon at
half-past three, at which the Archdeacon’s curates officiate, are for the
congregation of the Old Church, who, _pro tem._, are without
accommodation, and the services at half-past eleven and seven are given
to the congregation of St. Paul’s, when the Archdeacon himself usually
preaches.  This is of a high-class character, and remarkable for a very
large preponderance of gaily-dressed ladies, quite in keeping with our
established ideas of a court suburb.  The service is Evangelical, the
clerical robes of the simplest character, and the chancel without
conspicuous ornament of any kind, but that which is the greatest adorning
of a church, a reverent and rational performance of Divine worship,
without formalism or Ritualistic affectation of voice and manner.  We
were favoured to hear the venerable Bishop of Bangor, who delivered an
impressive sermon, full of Evangelical sentiment, from 1st Epistle of
John, c. iii., v. 2: “Beloved now are we the sons of God; and it doth not
yet appear what we shall be,” &c.  A young clergyman—a stranger to the
congregation—read the prayers, Psalms, lessons, and Litany.

The congregation is of course interested in the schools and charities
belonging to the parent church, and contribute in a liberal degree to
their efficiency and support.  These will be fully described in their
proper place, when we treat of the beautiful new parish church now in
course of erection.


ST. JAMES’S, Notting-hill, is situated in the Addison-Road North, and is
seen to some advantage at the entrance to the road.  From its central
position, its square tower and sharp pinnacles look grey and old, an
appearance which the church loses upon closer inspection.  It is built of
grey brick, with moulded angle bricks and slight stone dressings, and the
low-pitched roofs are covered with slate.  The plan of the church
consists of a nave and aisles, with an apsidal chancel, the tower forming
an excrescent on the south side, about the middle of the nave.  This
tower acts as a porch on the lower story, and has a ringing floor on the
gallery level; these galleries surround the church on three sides,
extending to the arcades.  In style the church is a revival of the early
English, and, like all churches of the period, is full of mistakes,
though as a specimen of that age it is perhaps a very fair example.  But
the efforts of revivalists must not be forgotten; much of our perfection,
if it can _yet be called so_, is due to their endeavours.  The iron
columns of the nave are worthy of remark, showing how very well iron
could be treated even in those days.  The roofs are open, and though
rather heavy possess some fair effect.  The windows are chiefly without
tracery, and the stained glass is poor.  The pewing is very simple; the
pulpit high.  The prayer-desk and oak-eagle lectern speak of a desire for
better things.  The font is poor and too perpendicular.  The organ is in
the western gallery.  The decoration of the nave is not well done; it is
evidently the work of an unskilful hand.  There is no need for Greek
ornament in a Gothic building; surely there is scope enough for the
ornamentalist in Gothic work without going to the Greeks for examples.

St. James’s, Notting-hill, is one of the older modern suburban churches,
having been built more than a quarter of a century ago, which is a great
deal to say as compared with a number of the churches we are now
reviewing.  It accommodates 1,100 persons, and 500 of the sittings are
free, which is in larger proportion than general.  It has national
schools attached to it, where 135 boys, 100 girls, and 150 infants are
instructed according to the principles of the Church of England.  These
schools are kept up at a cost of about 500_l._ per annum, about 170_l._
of which is obtained by Government grant, about 140_l._ from the
children’s fees, and the remainder from subscriptions and offertories.
There are Mothers’ Meetings and a District visiting Society, with which
is connected a mission woman and a mission-house in Crescent-street,
where extra services are held.  Also a Maternity Charity, and the “St.
James’s Norland and Potteries Benevolent Society,” and an “Auxiliary
Church Missionary Society.”  Help is also given to the Additional Curates
Society and the Bishop of London’s Fund.  All these charities and works
were well inaugurated in the time of the former Vicar, the Rev. T. P.
Holdich, and have been well sustained since his removal—three years
ago—by the Rev. George T. Palmer, M.A., his successor, and the present
Vicar.  An important alteration, however, has been made in the mode of
providing the necessary funds.  Formerly it was done by special annual
charity sermons; but for this method Mr. Palmer has substituted, we are
informed with some advantage to the interests concerned, a weekly
offertory, or collection taken at every Sunday morning service, which is
apportioned among all the charities and calls, according to their
relative claims.  This covers everything, and beyond it there is nothing
but a church-rate, voluntarily given, amounting to about 25_l._ per
annum.  From these sources and the pew-rents the clergy are maintained,
the church expenses met, and the charities supported.  The Curate, up to
Michaelmas-day last, was the Rev. P. E. Monkhouse, M.A., which
appointment he resigned on accepting the head-mastership of the
Notting-hill Proprietary School, in order to devote the whole of his time
to the education of the boys entrusted to his charge.  Mr. Monkhouse,
however, still gives his services to Mr. Palmer, and preaches frequently.
His successor is the Rev. I. Cammack.  On the occasion of our visit the
latter read, or rather monotoned the prayers with a clear voice, and Mr.
Monkhouse read the two lessons with good taste and effect.  Mr. Palmer
himself read in the Communion Service and preached the sermon.  In giving
notice of the Communion for the following Sunday morning, the rev.
gentleman dispensed with the usual form, and simply made the announcement
that it would take place at nine A.M.  The sermon was founded on 1 Peter
iii. 13: “And who is he that will harm you if ye be followers of that
which is good!”

The sermon was extempore, expository, and instructive.  What it was to
follow good was well expounded; and the limitations with which the
implied promise was to be understood clearly set forth.  Although the
Christian’s lot was not to be represented too darkly, it was not to be
supposed that he had no trials or suffered no evils.  Yet, after all,
many of his trials did not arise from his following good, but rather from
his not doing so in some particulars in connexion with which his trials
arose.  Mr. Palmer has thoroughly entered into the labours of his
predecessors.  He has, however, instituted a few changes as to which some
members of the congregation, who could bear no variation from the order
of things under their old pastor, took offence and betook themselves
elsewhere—not in any great numbers, but it was sufficient to draw from
the rev. gentleman a justification in his first pastoral.  Therein he
shows that some of the changes, especially in regard to the offertory,
were contemplated by Mr. Holdich; and as to the conduct of the service,
he had done nothing but what was in accordance with the Rubric.  To allay
all suspicions of a Ritualistic tendency which had, he says, “unjustly,
though not unnaturally risen,” he declares to his flock his belief that
“the practices commonly known as Ritualistic are as much opposed to the
spirit and structure of the Prayer-book as they were for the most part
unknown in the worship of the Church in the apostolic age, and that every
decision in the ecclesiastical courts had made this conclusion more
plain.”  There is no pretence for styling Mr. Palmer a Ritualist nor a
High Churchman.  His service occupies a position between the latter and
what is known as extreme Low Church.  His prayers are not intoned, but
monotoned; his music is Anglican; his chancel is freshened up with modest
ornament; the choir, although not surpliced, is very efficient; the hymns
used are “Hymns Ancient and Modern.”  He considers that “a dislike to
Ritualism had in many cases produced tediously dreary services, and
painfully indecorous conduct in church,” and has been influenced by a
desire to give “heartiness” and “reverence” to the service.  The words
are probably a little too strong to convey the true meaning.  Tedium and
indecorum are, alas, things incidental to High service as well as Low,
and must by no means be connected essentially with a plain and simple
performance of worship.  Mr. Palmer has an interesting, well-conducted
congregation of a very respectable class, with a fair intermixture of the
humbler classes, especially in the evening.  It struck us that the
assembly was heartily devout; but was not yet thoroughly congregational
in the singing.  The last published pastoral bears evidence to the energy
with which the minister follows out his plans for usefulness; but he has
occasion still to notice a degree of _unpunctuality_ in attendance at the
service, many not being in their places at the reading of the general
confession.  It is gratifying to see a clergyman dealing faithfully with
his people and entering into the details of their practice, not shrinking
from pointing out their failings as occasion offers, but in an anxious
and kindly spirit.  For this Mr. Palmer is to be admired, and his people
will love him all the more.  Shortcomers have no objection to be
faithfully dealt with, if done in a genial temper; and it is a mistake to
suppose that winking at irregularities of this kind pleases anybody.

Beyond the church and church work there are few things to be noticed in
St. James’s.  We have only been able to ascertain one very special matter
of interest, which was found in the book of the register of marriages.
The marriage of a certain Edward Walker and Ann Whinfield Williams, which
took place on Sept. 30, 1847, was attested by no less a personage than
the present ex-Emperor Napoleon—then as now an exile in this country.  As
we read the handwriting, “Napoleon Louis B.,” followed by another, “Count
de Montauban,” a crowd of reflections rushed to our minds such as
probably our own age alone could supply.

Services on Sunday are at 11 A.M., 3.30, and 7 P.M.  Holy Communion is
celebrated on the first, third, and fifth Sunday in the month after
“Morning Prayer,” and on other Sundays at 9 A.M.


ST. MARK’S, Notting-hill, takes one by surprise, it being almost hidden
from view until the visitor turns the corner of the St. Mark’s-road.  The
west elevation possesses some good composition, and is boldly treated.
The tower stands at the south-west angle of the building, and is
surmounted by a broached spire, covered with slate in coloured bands, and
terminating in a weathercock, with the cardinal points indicated,
relieved by spire lights.  The spire dies into a square brick tower,
banded in colour with stone dressing.  The belfry windows are deeply
recessed with marble shafts and foliated caps, with sharp-pointed
lancets.  The tower also contains one of the western entrances to church,
which forms an excellent feature.  It is treated as a square-headed
double door, with the tympanum enclosed by a large hood mould, encircling
well-carved panels in relief, containing the emblems of the Evangelists.
The principal gable contains a three-light, simply-designed west window,
with a series of lancets, and small buttresses below.  A porch also at
the north-west angle, in harmony with the rest of the front is plainly
and boldly designed, and is flanked by a stone pinnacle, the use of which
we do not quite understand.  One of the most striking portions of the
outside, however, are a series of flying buttresses, which are,
unfortunately, nearly hidden from view by the closely-surrounding houses.
These buttresses spring from square piers, standing perfectly free from
the church, and in perspective giving the effect of a north and south
cloister arcade.  The finials are of iron.

Entering the church by either of the before-mentioned porches, they lead
into large lobbies, containing the gallery stairs, separated by screen
walls one from the other; in the northwest porch is a large and handsome
stone bench, the elbows well cut, and each ornamented with a Maltese

The interior may really be said to be grand, owing very much to the
imposing height of the nave and the fearless nature of the detail of roof
and clerestory; the bold ribs, the bold sustaining caps and corbels, all
with sharply-defined and clean cut foliage, indicating a skilled hand in
design.  We confess not to be very fond of many bands of brick and stone,
they give to an interior a sliced appearance and take away from the
effect of space; yet, notwithstanding this defect, there can be no
question of a fine effect of heights.

The detail of galleries—the arrangement of the arcade and iron columns,
with the clustered angle columns at the transepts—resembles St. George’s,
Campden-hill, which was planned from the pattern of St. Mark’s.  The
transept and chancel aisle arcade is also similarly treated.  The church
is cruciform in plan, with the galleries free of the transepts.  The
north transept contains the organ in a sort of high-legged loft, which
rather looks like putting the organ out of the way.  A fine chancel-arch
shows nearly the whole of the apsidal chancel, the walls of which are
well-covered with a tessalace of tiles.  Seven steps lead up to the
Communion space, the pulpit is raised on four clustered shafts of red
Mansfield stone, with richly-carved caps, and handsomely enclosed with
good ironwork, instead of the usual stone box.  The choir-stalls and
prayer-desk are complete and of good design, and the brass lectern is
well-raised.  The pewing and bench-ends strike us as being too heavy.
The font is peculiarly elegant and graceful, and is a good specimen of
early work.  The passages are all paved with tile of dark colour.  The
style of the church is early English ornately treated, if anything
perhaps a little too much so, the charm and beauty of early work being
its extreme simplicity.

St. Mark’s was consecrated on Nov. 27, 1863, by Bishop Tait, the
foundation-stone having been laid Nov. 1 in the previous year.  E. B.
Keeling, Esq., was the architect, and Messrs. Dove, Bros., the builders,
and the cost in all 7,720_l._  A debt of about 1,000_l._ on the building
account was discharged by the contributions of the congregation within
the first three years.  The site was given by Mr. Blake, a freeholder in
Notting-hill, and the sum of 5,000_l._ presented towards the building by
the present patron—a great gift and benefit to the locality.  The church
is furnished with a good organ, built originally by Hunter and Webb at a
cost of 450_l._, but which has been considerably improved since by
Bryceson, by the addition of several stops, including the _vox humana_,
at the moderate further outlay of 65_l._  The instrument is skilfully
employed in the service by Mr. Tamplin, professor of music, who has
associated with him rather a numerous choir, which has, within the last
twelve months only, taken to surplices.  In the first instance the
service at this church was Evangelically plain; but within the last three
years, monotoning the prayers and chanting the psalms have been
introduced, as well as a large increase of Eucharistic celebrations, and
now more recently the surpliced choir.  These changes have occurred under
the same pastorate—that of the Rev. Edward Kaye Kendall—who has been
Vicar of St. Mark’s from its foundation.  Mr. Kendall is an enlightened
and able minister, as is evident from his pastoral circulars and the good
reputation he has among his people; and we presume is fully satisfied in
his own mind as to these changes, although some others have not approved
them.  His congregation is good.  The church, including the accommodation
of _telescopic_ seats, will hold 1,500, 1,000 of the sittings being
rentable, and 500 free.  The average congregation is about a thousand or
over; and, together with a large proportion of the higher middle class,
there are many poor.  Earnest parochial work is being done.  Quite
recently capital school buildings have been erected in St. Mark’s road,
where there is an average attendance on week-days of near 400 children of
both sexes, including infants, and on Sundays 350.  At the first a house
close to the site was rented and used as a school, but soon it was so
crowded in every room, and even on the stairs, that to obtain better
accommodation became a necessity, and it is gratifying to note that the
liberality of Mr. Kendall’s friends and congregation has enabled him to
accomplish this work with so much expedition and success.  A separate
service is held for the children on Sunday mornings in the schoolrooms,
conducted principally by lay-helpers, whose church-work the Vicar is very
anxious to utilise.  Once a-month the children are also taken to a
service in the church in the afternoon.  There is a “Lay-helpers’
Association,” the members of which, with the district visitors, have done
much towards filling the church with people, and in extending parochial
work in general.  There is also a “Mothers’ Meeting,” a “Clothing
Repository,” a Provident and a Maternity and Sick Funds, a Needlewomen’s
Institution, a Lending Library, and a Soup-kitchen in winter.  For these
various objects, as well as for several foreign Christian enterprises,
the offertory account amounted last year to 663_l._ 2s. 6d.  There is no
endowment, and the clergy are supported and all expenditure provided for
by the pew-rents and other voluntary means.  The usual services are:
Sundays, at 11, 3.30 P.M., and 7 P.M.  Weekdays, on Wednesday, prayers at
11 A.M., and Fridays prayers at 11 A.M., and prayers and sermon at 7.30
P.M.  Communion every Sunday at 8.30 A.M., and after morning service, and
on every holy day falling on a weekday at 8 A.M.

We had not the opportunity of hearing the Rev. Vicar on Sunday, July 23,
1871, his place being supplied by the Right Rev. the Bishop of Honolulu
(Dr. Staley).  The prayers were monotoned by the Rev. F. F. Kelly, LL.M.,
who succeeded to the curacy at Christmas last, upon the removal of the
Rev. A. H. Dunn to Acton, where we understand the latter is very usefully
employed as a missionary in originating a new church, of which he is to
be the future vicar.


ALL SAINTS, NOTTING-HILL, once looked desolate and forsaken.  It was like
a church in a desert, and for a long time remained so; but now the houses
and pleasant squares have grown up around it, and we can say it is
situated in Colville-gardens.  It is early English in style, built of
stone in regular course, and covered with slate.  At a distance it is
cathedral-like in miniature, and it is not too much to say so, for upon a
closer inspection the beautiful detail of all its parts quite satisfies
the mind of the artist, and he leaves it without a feeling of
disappointment.  The roofs are peculiar in the rise of their ridges at
the gables.  This gives a somewhat broken look to them.  The tower is
very handsome, but unfinished.  It requires the lantern to be completed,
and marble shafts are required at the belfry windows.  The church has
three entrances—one in the tower to the west, by a handsome south porch,
and by a north door.  Slightly cruciform in plan, without nave aisles,
transepts, chancel, and aisles, the nave arcade is peculiarly good,
clustered marble shafts, and well-designed caps and bases, with full
moulding to the arches.  The clerestory is excellent in detail, and the
ring-post and ribbed roof is a change from the usual style of church
roof.  The aisle corridors, too, are treated as a light arcade with
clustered marble columns.  The church is light, and the windows are
filled with tinted and figured glass, also some good stained glass in the
aisles.  The pulpit and font are of alabaster; the pewing is light and of
good design; the flooring is tiled.  The organ in south transept is
raised in a gallery of its own.  The eastern wall of the Sacrarium is
decorated with fresco, rather floridly painted—the angel saluting Mary
and the birth of Christ.  These frescoes have been universally
recommended by art judges.

All Saints was consecrated in 1851, and represented an outlay of
20,000_l._  The tower alone cost 10,000_l._—a very large sum, when we
consider the incomplete character of the object on which it was spent.
One chief thing about it worth notice is its bell; which tolls for
church, and which has a deep and rich tone, reminding the ear, more than
any other in the vicinity, of a cathedral “Tom.”  The church is furnished
with a very fine organ, by Messrs. Gray and Davidson, and cost 1,500_l._
It has forty stops, including the _vox humana_, and is, at present, under
the management of Mr. Walker, a pupil of Dr. Steggall.  There is sitting
accommodation for between 1,100 and 1,200, 300 sittings being free, and
the remainder letting at from one to two guineas per annum.  The
congregation is of a highly respectable class, and apparently matured and
settled.  The clergy consisting of the Rev. John Light, M.A., and three
curates, the Revs. Messrs. Bathurst Coults, and Griffiths, are supported
entirely from pew-rents, and a weekly offertory, which produces between
500_l._ and 600_l._ a-year, meets all other expenses.  With regard to the
service at All Saints it is moderately High Church; in every part of it
there is an imitation of cathedral effects.  There is a good choir, with
surplices of course.  Twelve of the boys have a free literary and musical
education under one of the curates in what is termed the Choir School,
the efficiency of the choir being thus continuously provided for.  The
singing is of a superior order—lively and spirited—and sufficiently wide
of the Gregorian monotone.  The _Te Deum_ and _Jubilate Deo_ are sung as
anthems with good effect.  The Prayers and Psalms are intoned, and the
responses sung by the choir and congregation.  And in excess of what is
sometimes witnessed in High churches, the General Confession was intoned
by the priest, and responded by the choir and people in song; and the
Commandments were intoned by the Vicar himself.  It may be observed that
the assistant curate knelt with his back to the congregation, whilst the
Vicar intoned the Commandments.  At the name of Jesus in every place the
minister and people bow.  A more striking illustration of the
inconvenience of this carried to excess could not be witnessed than in
the singing of one of the hymns.  It was Hymn 314 in the Appendix to
“Hymns Ancient and Modern,” “When morning gilds the sky,” &c.  There are
eight verses of six short lines each, and in every third line the sacred
name occurs—that is sixteen times in the course of the hymn.  And the
hymn being quickly sung, the head was kept in almost constant motion.
The Nicene Creed was also sung.  Then followed the sermon.  The Vicar,
ascending the pulpit and facing the congregation, whilst yet standing,
pronounces, “To God the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost;” and at once gives
out his text.  It was a brief address of fifteen minutes, delivered
without book or note.  High Churchism pretty much sets on one side the
old-established Gospel and Apostolic institution of “preaching the Word.”
In the present instance, here was a minister of very considerable natural
and acquired ability, which all who know him must allow places him far
above mediocrity; there was a magnificent text of Scripture to discourse
upon, “For our conversation is in heaven; from whence also we look for
the Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ.” (3 Phil. xx. 1.)  It would have been
refreshing had there been time for this Scripture to have received a more
adequate illustration from the lips of Mr. Light.  But there are two full
services every day, four on every Sunday and on festivals.  Two
administrations of the Holy Communion on Song Sunday and Festival; three
sermons every Sunday, the brevity of which is justified at All Saints
upon the principle, “That as God’s house is a house of prayer, and not
merely a house of preaching, the service should be put before sermons.”
But may not this notion be carried too far?  What is the relation between
_preaching the Gospel_ and a proper devout performance of general
Christian service, implied in true conversion and progress in spiritual
life?  We are not advocates for long sermons, but it appears to us to
abbreviate them as some are doing is calculated to impair or defeat the
higher spiritual objects of public worship.


THE Church of St. John the Baptist is a temporary iron structure, and,
like most other buildings of the sort, offers no point for architectural
notice.  It is, however, very good of its kind, and is, externally—as
seen in the comparatively vacant part of the new Holland-road in which
its stands—more picturesque than some others we have had to review.  But
the approaches to it are at present quite unformed, and when autumn and
winter returns—unless something be done—the state of the road can
scarcely be expected to help the congregation.  We are glad, however, to
hear that road improvement is in immediate contemplation.  The interior
is fitted with plain benches, and the temporary chancel neatly arranged,
with a slight tendency to ornament.  The church was at first rented from
the builder, but has since been purchased.  It has sittings for about 900
persons, of which one half from east to west are free.  Of the other half
a proportion only are at present let, at rentals varying from 1_l._ 1s.
0d. to 30s. per annum; so that a great majority of the congregation
appear to avail themselves of the free seats.  The church was opened in
February, 1869, being planted in and intended to form a sub division in
the ecclesiastical division of St. Barnabas, Kensington.  The Rev. George
Booker is incumbent and vicar designate.  The rev. gentleman is at
present without assistance in the services, except on Sunday evenings,
when the Rev. Dr. Cosmo R. Gordon, minister of St. Mary’s, Park-street,
Grosvenor-square, and head-master of the Notting-hill Collegiate School,
is lecturer.  In consequence of this arrangement, the Sunday evening
lectures at this church are highly appreciated, Dr. Gordon being a
talented and an esteemed preacher.  The Rev. G. Booker, we believe, has
set before him in the services—“To realise the spirit of the Prayer-book
_as it is_, and not as any extreme party, High or Low, would wish it to
be.”  There is, however, nothing in the general service but what is
reconcilable with High Churchism, although it does not appear to be
intended.  Unisonal chanting has been introduced within the last few
weeks, on account of its greater volume of sound, the acoustic qualities
of the church being very indifferent; but partly, also, from the
difficulty felt in this as other churches in keeping together a complete
double choir for antiphonal singing, where the services of the lay-clerks
are voluntary.  There is, however, a great preponderance of chanting in
monotone, and this, whilst the minister intones his parts in the service,
gives to the whole the impress of High Church service.  There is a
four-part surpliced choir of considerable efficiency, and one is apt to
think it might appear to greater advantage in another style of singing.
But the Rev. Mr. Booker is personally a minister of an earnest,
evangelical type.  His reading of the Scriptures is deliberate and most
appropriate in tone and manner, and his sermon is by no means stultified
in deference to the other parts of the service.  This is a great merit.
The sermon we had the privilege of hearing was founded on Luke xvi. 9:
“And I say unto you make to yourselves friends of the mammon of
unrighteousness; that when ye fail they may receive you into everlasting
habitations.”  There was a very clear exposition of the parable of the
unjust steward, and the right use as against the abuse of riches was
cogently put, with a due amount of illustration and enforcement.  We do
not remember to have listened to a more instructive, practical, and
useful treatment of this somewhat delicate subject.

The maintenance of the clergy, church expenses, interest on purchase
money, &c., are objects to which the proceeds of the pew-rents and weekly
offertory are devoted.  The former source of income is at present limited
and undeveloped.  The offertory, up to this time, averages about 330_l._
per annum.

There is a very excellent middle-class school in connection with this
church, conducted by Mr. Studdy, a B.A. of the London University.  In
this school the boys of the choir are amongst the pupils and have their
education free.


THE Carmelite Church in Church street, Kensington, is built of plain
brick and stone and covered with slate, and though plainly treated and of
simple and almost severe design, is nevertheless a good specimen of
modern early English church-building.  The east front (the church stands
east and west) is the principal feature externally.  It contains a fine
rose window and double entrance doors; those doors open into a lobby to
the right and left.  The inside is certainly very good, and reminds one a
great deal of the style of the Pro-Cathedral, but slightly more decorated
and ornate, though not so large.  It has a fine effect of height, and the
roofs are handsomely decorated—between the rafters having gold stars on a
blue ground.  The plan of the church is simple; a nave and aisles, and
the west end is treated as an apse, in which stands the high altar, very
fine and richly decorated, with crocheted canopy, pinnacles, and niches.
The nave arcade requires to be finished, and the plaster arches present a
very poor effect.  It is to be regretted that such a substitute has been
employed.  The church has a number of chapels, altars, confessional
boxes, &c., usually found in Roman Catholic churches.  The floors of
passages are paved with tiles, and the nave is occupied with simple
pewing.  The pulpit is very plain, almost ugly.  Some good stained glass
fills the windows of the apse and some of the aisle windows, but we do
not admire the red glass of the clerestory.

The Church of the Carmelite Fathers was opened six years ago, having been
erected at a cost of 5,000_l._, after the design of Mr. Pugin, architect,
of Ramsgate, by Mr. Smith, builder, of the same town.  The organ, which
is a very splendid instrument, built by Cavaille and Co., of Paris, and
which is equally remarkable for its soft and powerful tones, cost
2,000_l._  The altars, furniture, confessionals, &c., cost about
3,000_l._ more, so that there is here represented an outlay of at least

The fathers, who occupy the monastery adjoining, and serve the church
only—having no parish work—are at present five in number.  The prior is
the Rev. Stanislaus Viney; and the second and following priests are,
Signors Lignori, Eschewiria, Felix Rizzo, Hillarion Berger, and Edmund
Sharples—four Italians and one Englishman.  There are services every hour
from seven A.M. to eleven; and on Sundays vespers at half past three P.M.
Sermon and benediction, high-mass at eleven A.M.  There are two
confraternities—that of St. Peter and the Arch-confraternity of
Thanksgiving.  In connexion with the first was established in 1863, at
the invitation of Cardinal Wiseman, “nocturnal adoration” of the
sacrament.  Each active member—who can only be a male person—has to watch
once a-month one hour at night—a bed being provided for him in the
monastery the remainder of the night.  Fourteen members of this
confraternity are summoned for every Wednesday, and attend at ten P.M.,
the “Service of Exposition” and prayers, after which all but two retire
to the dormitory.  These two then commence the “Adoration of the
Sacrament.”  Ladies are admitted as honorary members only, and their
privileges are to partake with the others of the “merit of the
adoration,” to be allowed to “forward their intentions to be prayed for,”
and to pay a subscription of 2s. 6d. annually.

“The Arch-confraternity of Thanksgiving” has for its special objects to
render thanks for gifts, and above all for the “gift of God—the
Eucharist.”  “To make up for the frightful ingratitude of the greater
number of men.”  For all benefits, but especially for Jesus, “Who is
really present on our altars in the Divine Eucharist as pontiff and
victim.  For the Eucharist is not only the gift of God to men, but the
sacrifice of men offered to God.”  The sole obligation of the brothers
and sisters is to “recite every day as a thanksgiving for all men, three
_Our Fathers_, three _Hail Marys_, and _three Glorias_.”  The rewards
promised to this confraternity are _special plenary indulgences_—

1.  _On the_ “_usual conditions_, _on the day aggregation_.”

2.  _At the point of death_.

3.  _On the second Thursday of each month_.

4.  On the Thursday of _Corpus Christi_.

5.  On the 8th of September, the feast of the “Immaculate Conception.”

6.  One of seven years and seven quarantains; whenever an hour of
adoration is made before the sacrament.

7.  One of 300 days attaching to the reciting of three “Our Fathers,”
three “Hail Marys,” and three “Glorias.”  All these indulgences are
further declared to be “applicable to souls in Purgatory,” and subjects
of them are exhorted to use prayer especially for this object.  All this
is enforced by the following reflection: “Association tends rather to pay
our debts to heaven than to acquire new personal gifts.  Would not this
end be sooner attained by placing in the merciful hands of the Virgin the
suffrages obtained by the exercise of our gratitude, so that she may
dispose of them as she pleases in favour of the poor suffering souls who
are still waiting for their deliverance from the _expiatory_ flames?
Heaven would thus be opened for the souls whom Mary loves best.”

Such is Popery, in the very heart of West London!  The church is capable
of holding about 800 people; but the congregation is usually not full.
There is no preacher of any note, but the English priest, E. Sharples, is
represented to be the best and most acceptable.  There are three side
altars on each side of the church, besides the High Altar, and an equal
number of confessionals, and the church is open all the day.  A quiet
midweek afternoon was the occasion of our visit.  It was very warm; and
here, at this confessional or altar and the other, was a lady or a girl,
bending in silence.


KENSINGTON TABERNACLE, in Horton-street, close to the High-street, is a
very neat-looking modernised building, so far at least as its west front
goes; all has been done for it that stucco can do, and its entrance
arcade gives to it an uncommon appearance, unlike the usual arrangements
applied to chapels.

The interior, with its large encircling gallery, good pulpit, harmonium,
nice pewing, make up a very satisfactory whole; but the great charm of
the interior consists in the quiet, excellent taste displayed in the
coloured decoration and painting, very much to be admired, and worthy of
imitation, and seeming to tell its own tale of the simplicity and the
faith of the congregation that worship there.

The history of Hornton street Chapel has been various and chequered.  The
church connected with it has been successively Presbyterian,
Congregational, and Baptist.  The old Presbyterian cause in Kensington
began to shape itself about the year 1790, when the few united together
met in a plain barn-like building at a place called South-end, at the end
of St. James’s-street, leading out of Kensington-square.  The most
remarkable part of the church’s history here was that it was right in the
teeth of the noted local infidel of that day, Tom Taylor, who held near
the same spot what he called his “Hell-fire Club,” in which, with his
rough disciples, he used to meet, and rave against religion and society.
From hence, we believe, the corner is vulgarly known by the awful
nomenclature of “Hell-fire-corner.”  From this scene the church removed
to Hornton-street in 1793.  Three of the members had joined their means
and influence to procure this more eligible meeting-house.  They were a
Mr. Gray, a nurseryman, Mr. Broadwood, the founder of the great
pianoforte firm, and Mr. Foreacre, the then coachman of King George III.
Of these three worthies it is told that they built the chapel by
bond-deeds, the amount of responsibility being equally divided among
them.  Some time after the opening there remained still due to each of
them 600_l._, 1,800_l_. in all; and at a certain meeting of the deacons,
one of them took up the poker from the grate and, winding his bond round
the end of it, thrust it into the fire, the other two immediately
following his example.  By this noble act the chapel was freed from debt,
there remaining only a ground-rent of 8_l._ 8s. per annum.  It is also
related that the royal coachman about this time dropped a handful of
tracts into the coach one day, when about to take out his royal master,
and the King, who it appears perused the tracts diligently, afterwards
commanded his devout servant to get him a further supply.  The Rev. Dr.
Lake was the first minister, in whose time members of the Royal Family
from Kensington Palace rented a pew in the chapel.  He was succeeded in
the pastorate by the Revs. John Clayton, Dr. Liefchild, Dr. Vaughn, and
Dr. Stoughton, now of Allen-street Chapel, our account of which we should
recommend to be read in connexion with this.  In the time of the latter
pastorate, Hornton-street Tabernacle became the parent of two other
chapels—viz., Horbury and Allen-street, to the latter of which Dr.
Stoughton attached himself with his church.  The chapel was then closed
for a considerable time, and used only as an appendage to Allen-street
for school accommodation, &c.  There was, however, a division of opinion
in the matter, a few of the old members, contending that the chapel
should still have been used for its original purpose, and that there was
in the town abundant room for a second cause.  To this Dr. Stoughton
himself was decidedly opposed, and consequently it remained closed until
it had been purchased by the Metropolitan Railway Company, who, needing
the schools in the rear for the progress of their works, were compelled
to take the whole property.  4,000_l._ was thus obtained, with which Dr.
Stoughton was enabled to build his present superior schools in
Allen-street.  In the meantime, Mr. Orchard and a few others of the
Baptist persuasion, had met in an office, now an auction and estate
agency, adjoining the old chapel, and engaged the Rev. R. J. Mesquitta,
of Mr. Spurgeon’s College, as pastor.  That minister’s success was so
great that they were shortly obliged to adjourn to the Avenue Assembly
Rooms.  Whilst here, the railway company put the old chapel into the
market to be let.  The church availed itself of the opportunity and
returned to it, undertaking it at an annual rental of 115_l._  This was
about a year and a half ago.  600_l._ was required to put it in order,
build galleries, &c., which was promptly promised by members of the
congregation.  One would have thought that this was the beginning of
better days; but, alas! through some evil fortune, it was the beginning
of a new and distressing decline.  In the settlement of the property now
acquired in the chapel, the four persons who had transacted the business,
it appears, did it all in their own names, without any legal reference to
the church for which they were the intended trustees.  This certainly was
an error, from which one subsequently, when he discovered the effect, was
honourably anxious to disentangle himself.  The other three, however,
held out against the remonstrances of the minister, Mr. Orchard, and
others, who had made themselves responsible for the money to those whom
they had looked upon as trustees.  The natural ultimate consequence was,
that the minister left in the midst of his usefulness, the members and
congregation quitted their seats, and the church became again a wreck.
To this state of things the present pastor, the Rev. Mr. Hawes, succeeded
a short time since.  He appears to be a minister of great earnestness of
purpose.  He is a good Evangelical preacher, and delivers himself mainly
extempore, with considerable power and unction, and it can only be hoped
that he will succeed in repairing the breaches of Zion, and building up
this church anew.  There are about 700 seats, 300 of which—all the
galleries—are free.  There is a small Sunday-school, having about 60
scholars of both sexes.


CLOSE to the Mall and the High-street, Notting-hill, is a large,
gloomy-looking structure of the Classical School, not that it is by any
means a good example of classical work; it is heavy and badly
proportioned as regards its stucco-pediment cornice and columns, the
latter engaged, and the spaces bricked in and filled with window and
doors with stucco dressings.  The interior we are not able to report
upon, the chapel being without a congregation.

This chapel was built nine years ago by Mr. Robert Offord, of Kensington,
for his brother, the Rev. John Offord, then of Plymouth.  It appears to
have been originally designed for a Baptist Chapel, being provided with a
baptistry; but the Rev. Mr. Offord from the first gathered around him
Christian people of all denominations, and formed what may be termed an
open union church.  Of this he was the minister about seven years, and
won himself high esteem with all who could appreciate Christian learning
and excellence of character.  He was not in the general sense popular as
a preacher, but drew around him a goodly number of admiring friends, and
the congregation prospered.  The chapel contains accommodation for 1,000
persons, and the average congregation in his time was between 600 and
700.  The chapel, however, was the private property of Mr. Robert Offord,
and it had never been settled upon trust for the benefit of the church,
but had, in fact, been hired by the congregation of the owner, at a
rental of 200_l._ a-year.  The consequence was that, when the owner died,
about two years ago, some confusion ensued in the affairs of the church.
The minister and his friends, not feeling equal to the task of
undertaking a chapel in no degree their own, were inaugurating
arrangements to remove to some other place, when, in the providence of
God, the minister himself—surviving his brother but by a little time—was
called away by death.  The chapel was then put into the market for sale,
and was bought for 5,500_l._ by the late Dr. Schwartz, of well-known
German Jewish origin, but converted to the Protestant faith and
ultimately a Presbyterian minister.  As a condition of concluding the
purchase, the property was made freehold, which must be a great advantage
to all subsequent owners.  This was all in last year, and Dr. Schwartz
entered upon his labours, but only for a short time.  Six months after
his commencement, and only six weeks after his formal induction by the
presbytery to the pastorate, he, too, was called to his rest.  And now,
the chapel still having remained private property, the prospects of the
church became as clouded and uncertain as ever.  It was put again into
the market by the executors of Dr. Schwartz, in the interests of his
widow and family, and was brought to the hammer at the Mart, in
Tokenhouse-yard, on the 14th of June last.  The matter had now been taken
in hand by the presbytery on behalf of the church, and they instructed
their solicitor, Mr. Lewis, to attend the auction and bid for the church
to the extent of 5,000_l._  He, however, found himself at the Mart, in
presence of a powerful competitor unknown to him, but who seemed resolved
to outbid him.  He was induced to exceed his limit by 225_l._, but, being
still pressed, declined to follow on his own responsibility, and,
accordingly, the chapel was knocked down to the highest bidder, who
turned out to be purchasing for the Swedenborgians.  Mr. Finney, a
wealthy merchant of Manchester, had made this body a present of
10,000_l._ for the purpose of establishing a cause in Kensington.  Hence
the sharp competition into which they entered for the edifice, which was
obtained by them for the sum of 5,000 guineas.  It is intended to build
an organ, and make other improvements, and in four or five weeks to open
it as the place of assembling for the “New Jerusalem Church,” or, in
other words, the Swedenborgians.  None appear to regret more than the
friends of the Presbyterian cause themselves the passing entirely away
from them, and from the use of Orthodox Protestant Christianity, of this
well-situated and commodious structure.  They would have given, and on
the next day one of them offered a very considerable premium to the
purchasers to relinquish their bargain; but, although remarking that had
they known it was the congregation of the chapel itself bidding against
them they would not have persevered, they nevertheless held to their
purchase.  The Congregational Church is at present meeting in the Mall
Hall, where they hold Divine Service every Sunday, and are making inquiry
for an eligible site, on which, as soon as secured, they are prepared at
once to build.


ST. CLEMENT’S, Notting-hill, situated close to the Lancaster-road and the
Potteries, is a very noticeable structure—as simple, indeed, as it is
possible to be, yet treated with much good feeling and power.  The style
is early English in a rather modest form, plain lancets and gables,
without decoration or carving.  As a faithful example of the style,
however, it is worthy of notice; and it may be observed that a permanent
structure, plainly and simply, and therefore cheaply treated, is at all
times preferable to temporary iron buildings, often unworthy to be called
churches, but which far too often are allowed to be anything but
temporary.  The nave and chancel and aisles have an unbroken line of roof
and ridge, save that at their intersection a small spire or bell-turret
rises square on plan, and like the roof is covered with slate.  The
gables and facials add importance to the structure.

The building is of yellow brick with red bands and stone dressings, and
the construction of the roof might be noted as being peculiarly light and
elegant in appearance.  Mr. St. Aubyn was the architect, and was
certainly successful in producing a building well adapted for hearing and
seeing the officiating clergy.  The ventilation is excellent.  The nave
and aisles are separated by wooden posts or iron columns supporting the
roofs, taking the place of the ordinary arcades.  The furniture of the
church is in keeping with its general character, and the floors are paved
with tiles.  The cost of the whole was 5,500_l._  There is a very
sweet-toned organ by Holdich, but we are sorry to learn it is not the
property of the church, but hired.  As, however, it can be acquired for
the sum of 300_l._, or probably something less, we hope it will not be
long before the congregation will own it.  It is ably played by Mr. F. K.
Blanch, who is assisted in the musical parts of the service by a very
efficient surpliced choir.  The cast of the service generally is
semi-Anglican; the prayers are read and nothing is _intoned_ by the
clergy; but all the responses are sung by the choir and the congregation.
The worship appears carefully guarded against the peculiarities of High
Churchism, without falling into the other extreme, and we must confess
the performance struck us as being hearty and devout, as it regarded both
the clergy and the congregation.  The present ministers are the Rev.
Arthur Dalgarno Robinson, M.A., of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, vicar, the
Rev. E. J. Venning, M.A., of Worcester College, Oxford, and the Rev.
Herbert Rowsell, M.A., of St. John’s College, Cambridge, curates.  We had
the pleasure of hearing the Rev. Vicar himself, who, in the absence of
his curates taking their holiday, had all the duty to himself.  Mr.
Robinson has a clear and pleasant voice, distinctly heard in every part
of the church.  He reads with remarkable propriety and effect, a matter
of first importance in a clergyman.  In the sermon, which was read, and
founded on Deut. iv. 22, referring to the last words of the great Jewish
lawgiver, and to his not being permitted to cross over into the land of
promise, but to die in that land, the preacher gave evidence of careful
study, imaginative powers, and deep feeling.  The remarks were highly
instructive, and specially consolatory to the Christian chastened in
tribulation and disappointed of his earthly hopes.  The Rev. A. D.
Robinson has been incumbent from the foundation of the church, which was
opened for Divine Service and consecrated by the Lord Archbishop of
Armagh on Tuesday, the 7th May, 1867.  It was erected for a district,
perhaps the poorest in all the Western districts, and containing a
population according to the recent census of 20,000.  It supplies 900
sittings, the whole of which are free, and has an average congregation of
from 600 to 700.  It is noteworthy that, though in the midst of so poor a
neighbourhood as the Potteries and vicinity, the congregation in the
morning does not by any means appear of the poorer order, but in the
evening many of the poor are to be seen enjoying the services.  The
Argyle family, and others from the wealthier parts of the parish of
Kensington, have taken a warm interest in the St. Clement’s cause with
regard to the peculiar population around.  But that people have not yet
shown great appreciation of these Christian efforts.  Yet a good work is
doing.  There is the church, in which we are glad to believe the Gospel
is preached, and into which any poor man can freely enter.  There is a
mission-woman working about among the poorest, both in body and soul; but
she sadly needs a co-labourer in this useful department of Christian
work.  There are, too, we are pleased to add, very capital day and
Sunday-schools, where about 700 of the children of the poor are receiving
a sound religious and elementary education for the modest fees of 3d. and
2d. per week.  There is, therefore, the hope that St. Clement’s will be,
more and more, the centre of Christian civilisation and religious
influence to that needy neighbourhood which it was originally intended to
be.  We heartily wish that the Rev. Mr. Robinson could obtain what the
particular work in which he has embarked really deserves and
demands—viz., a larger amount of general recognition and support from the
outside public.  As the case now stands, he must often look around him
and say, “Truly the harvest is great, but the labourers are few.”  There
is a small endowment on the church, to which the proceeds of a weekly
offertory are added.  As both sources of income, however, are at present
small, they can barely suffice to keep up the work even to its present
standard.  We are assured that a little more material support would be
highly acceptable and useful, well bestowed, and gratefully felt and
acknowledged at St. Clement’s.


STANDS at the fork of two roads—the Kensington-park-road and
Ladbroke-road—and looks effective and well, which is partly owing to its
open position, and partly to the grey and sombre appearance of the stone
of which it is built, and rendered darker, too, by the effect of London
atmosphere and a little age.  The detail is not very good.  The south
front is the principal feature, composed of a high-pitched gable and two
square flanking towers and dwarf tile spires.  The towers are relieved
with windows, simple arcade work, weather bands and strings, and
oversailing and corbelled courses, and each has a gallery entrance.  The
gable has a terminal with a large window of fair design, and divided into
four lights.  The chief entrance to the chapel is also in this front,
approached by steps.  The interior is simple—roofed in one span with
light open timbers, and ribs on stone corbels.  Galleries on iron columns
surround three sides of the chapel, parts of which in the transepts are
set apart for the schools, a large pulpit and railed platform, with table
and stalls, is at the north end, and the body of the chapel is filled
with close pews.

The Horbury Chapel and congregation date from the year 1849; and the 21st
year of their existence was celebrated in 1870 by the erection of side
galleries and by other improvements, at a cost of about 950_l._  Horbury
Chapel enterprise was an off-shoot from Hornton-street Congregational
Church, under the care of the Rev. Dr. Stoughton.  The Rev. W. Roberts,
B.A., is the minister, and enjoys the reputation of an able and judicious
pastor of his flock.  There is accommodation for nearly 1,000
worshippers, and the congregation averages from 550 to 650.  The
pew-rents yield about 500_l._ per annum, and the weekly offerings 120_l._
There are excellent day-schools attached, with 400 children on the books,
and an attendance of 300; also a Sunday-school, with an attendance of
about 200.  There is an out-school, too, in Notting-dale, with 115 under
instruction and a ragged-school in Ernest-street, which is eminently
useful in collecting together a class of children who would not otherwise
be cared for.  100 are in attendance at the infant day-school, and 50 at
the night school, and there are 50 in a Sunday-night school.  There is a
penny bank established in connection with the ragged-school, and last
year there were deposits to the amount of 278_l._ 8s. 10d.  At a mothers’
meeting there are usually in attendance thirty persons.  Following the
example of the parent congregational church in Hornton-street, the
Horbury is aggressive in its labours.  The increasing population about
Acton has attracted its attention.  A new chapel is built there, and it
is hoped that a large congregation will shortly be gathered into it.
There is a tract society—the useful labours of which deserve notice;
besides which and its other home enterprises the Horbury congregation
contributes sums of various amount to the London City Mission, the
British Missions, the Foreign Sailors’ Society, the London Missionary
Society, and the Evangelisation of the Jews Society.  There is much that
is gratifying about the unobtrusive Christian character and efforts of
this church, for which every Christian mind must pray them “God speed.”

The services are: Lord’s-day, 11 A.M., 3 P.M. (Young Women’s
Bible-class), and 6.30 P.M.  Holy Communion, first Sunday in the month,
after the morning service, and on the third Sunday, after the evening
service.  Wednesday evening at 7, an expository lecture, followed by a
Psalmody-class, to practise anthems and tunes.  Prayer and church
meetings at stated times.  There are six deacons, Messrs. Coats,
Cullingford, Holt, E. Nash, Starkey (Mrs. S.), and Walton.


THE Wesleyan Chapel situate in the Denbigh-road, Notting-hill, is the
principal chapel of what is marked on the Methodist Conference plan as
the _Bayswater Circuit_.  It was built in the year 1858, after the
designs of W. W. Pocock, Esq., architect, and is a fair specimen of the
Grecian style.  In no religious body do tastes as to ecclesiastical
architecture vary more than among the Wesleyans.  Some prefer the Gothic
of the thirteenth century, others the decorated Gothic of the fourteenth.
Some adopt the perpendicular of a still later date, whilst others hold to
the Grecian, which was the style in which Mr. Wesley himself built.  The
Wesleyans of Bayswater have followed the original Connexional pattern,
but have erected a very neat edifice, which would be more effective as an
ornament to the neighbourhood but that its front falls slightly behind
the line of houses amidst which it stands, and cannot be seen except in
close proximity.  The interior arrangement is noticeable for its combined
utility and elegance.  The seats on the ground-floor are arranged in the
amphitheatre style, and all made to converge to the pulpit, so that every
hearer directly faces the preacher, and the latter has the most perfect
command of all his audience.  There are galleries on three sides, and in
the west gallery is a good organ with ornamental pipes, played by Mr.
Brocklehurst, and a numerous choir of young persons of both sexes, whose
singing is lively and animating, the tunes being such as the congregation
can join in, and which it does with remarkable freedom and spirit.  The
chapel has recently been repainted, and decorated very tastefully by Mr.
Hearne of London, at a cost of 450_l._  The occasion of our visit,
Sunday, September 10, 1871, was also the occasion of the re-opening after
a closing of five weeks for this purpose.  The work is done in white and
gold, and the gilt on the columns, gallery fronts, and pulpit, which is a
wide platform structure, is ample, and, together with the light blue and
white and buff of the ceiling, contributes to make up one of the
prettiest and most effective interiors we have yet seen.  The original
cost of the chapel was 4,500_l._, and it affords accommodation for 950
persons, 300 of the sittings being free.  After retiring from their
former chapel in Queen’s-road, and securing the present site, the
Wesleyans, resolved not to build until secure of funds to complete the
work undertaken, first worshipped in a large room.  Next, proceeding by
degrees, they erected their walls and put the roof on, and used the body
of the chapel in an unfinished state, and finally they built their
galleries, and completed the furniture, both of the chapel and
schoolroom; and, what is most gratifying to add, possessed themselves of
their beautiful sanctuary in its completeness entirely free from debt.
The Rev. W. M. Punshon, M.A., now President of the Canadian Conference,
was the first resident minister appointed to take charge of this new and
important enterprise.  Under his popular ministry the congregation
rapidly increased and reached its full dimensions, which it retained to
the end of the three years itinerant term, every sitting being let and
occupied, and the aisles also generally being crowded.  The Revs. J.
Rattenbury, George Maunder, J. D. Brocklehurst, who followed Mr. Punshon
in succession, were also highly popular and useful ministers, so that the
Denbigh-road congregation has enjoyed all the influence and advantage
that Methodism could supply, for raising up and consolidating a
prosperous church.

The able ministry with which it has been uniformly supplied is well
maintained in the present appointments, if we may judge from our own
hearing.  The Rev. T. M. Albrighton, the superintendent minister of the
circuit, and especially attached by residence to that chapel, occupied
the pulpit; and after an impressive reading of the Church prayers, as
used by the Wesleyans at the morning service, preached an eloquent and
powerful discourse founded on Zech. vi. 12 and 13, “And speak unto him
saying, Thus speaketh the Lord of Hosts saying, Behold the man whose name
is the Branch; and he shall grow up out of his place, and he shall build
the temple of the Lord; even he shall build the temple of the Lord; and
he shall bear the glory and shall sit and rule upon his throne, and he
shall be a priest upon his throne, and the counsel of truth shall be
between them both.”  This fine text of Scripture was treated in a manner
indicative of its importance.  The sermon was delivered extempore, but
well studied, and, we should say, previously thought out to the last
sentence.  The discourse was replete with theological intelligence, and
threw much Evangelical light upon the text with which it had to do.  It
was delivered too, with feeling, and evident intention of doing good; but
this paramount purpose, kept steadily in view, did not, as is too often
the case, disturb in any degree the order, method, and effect of the
sermon as such.  If a sermon to be really good should have method, then
this sermon was quite an example.  There was a suitable introduction, the
divisions naturally rose out of the words of the text, and the
peroration, delivered with deep feeling, brought it to a close, the whole
occupying three-quarters of an hour.  The colleagues of Mr. Albrighton
upon the Bayswater Circuit are the Revs. J. S. Banks and Nehemiah
Curnock, who interchange pulpits with him and each other, but are more
particularly attached respectively to the congregations worshipping in
the Warwick-gardens and Bassin-park Chapels.

There is a present membership of 430—_i.e._, recognised members of the
Wesleyan body, by virtue of meeting in class—attached to the Denbigh-road
Chapel.  Every department of Christian work appears to be in fair
activity.  There is a good Sunday-school, having 450 children under
religious instruction.  This school has an important feature in a young
men’s Bible-class, numbering about 100, under the conductorship of Mr.
Walter Heal.  From this fact it is not difficult to conjecture the cause
of the presence of so many young men in the congregation as are to be
seen on the Sunday.  There is also a Young Men’s Mutual Improvement
Society in full operation during the winter months.  Associations for
visiting the sick, ministering to the destitute, distributing tracts,
&c., afford occupation to all willing to work; and these, we are
informed, are not few at Denbigh-road.  The general efforts through the
year in aid of foreign missions are supplemented by the activity of a
“Juvenile Missionary Association,” who use their youthful influence as
occasion offers to advance the great work of the world’s conversion with
pleasing results.


A SOMEWHAT heavy-looking, but substantial structure in the
main-thoroughfare attracts the attention of every passer-by at the
west-end of Westbourne-grove, occupying also the corner of the
Ledbury-road, where it intersects the Grove.  It was intended to be in
early English style, and so we presume it must be considered, although it
does not strike one as realising the ideal in a very impressive degree.
It is, however, slightly decorated, and has something of the details of
early work.  It is solidly built of Kentish rag, with Bath-stone facings,
having two flanking towers, surmounted with stone spires.  In addition to
the principal entrance, over a flight of steps in the front, these towers
afford access to the galleries, to which, also, there are two other
approaches from without, at the north end of the chapel, one on each
side.  This is the largest chapel we have yet seen in West London; and
the space within is economised to the utmost extent by gallery
accommodation, there being double galleries on three sides, two having
nine rows of seats.  These, with the pewing completely covering the
ground floor, give accommodation for 2,000 persons.  The great feature of
the interior is massiveness, which is only slightly relieved by an
ornamental panelling on the gallery fronts, and a modern platform pulpit.
When pretty well filled, as we saw it on the morning of Sunday, the 17th
of September, 1871, the place has an imposing effect.  On the north side,
behind the pulpit, there is an apse, with an organ and a few singers,
answering well the purpose of leading the large congregation, which joins
heartily in the musical parts of the service.  There are also behind the
chapel proper, six spacious rooms for Bible-classes, committees, &c.,
which is a noticeable feature, affording great facility to the several
societies attached.

The Baptist Church now worshipping at this chapel was originally formed
at a small chapel or meeting-place in Silver-street, Kensington
Gravel-pits, in the year 1823.  Its first settled pastor was the Rev. W.
Southwood, who laboured with it from 1826 to 1830.  The Rev. John Broad
succeeded in 1831, who occupied the post for ten years; and was followed
by the Rev. John Berg in 1841, the Rev. F. Wills in 1843, and by the Rev.
W. G. Lewis, the present pastor, in 1847.  Mr. Lewis preached his first
sermon April 11 in that year, and was formally ordained in the following
September.  The progress made through these years—and especially under
the latter pastorate—is sufficiently told by the fact that the first list
of members appearing in the church book in 1826 included only seventeen
names, whilst the list in December of last year (1870), numbered as many
as 725.  The small chapel in Silver-street becoming too strait for the
growing cause—after considerable research—the prominent and important
site of the present chapel was obtained and built upon in 1853, at an
entire original cost of 5,500_l._  Since then galleries were added in
1859, at a cost of 579_l._, and in 1866 a considerable enlargement took
place, at a further grand outlay of 5,895_l._, so that the chapel as it
now stands represents an expenditure of about 12,000_l._  Thus,
apparently by a course of uninterrupted progress, within the last quarter
of a century has grown up a very large and powerful church, which takes
rank with the first of West London churches for numbers, for wealth, for
influence, and for its multifarious Christian labours.  There are few
finer instances of the effect of the Voluntary principle in religion to
be found, whether we look for them in the Established Church or in
Nonconformity.  In the year 1870, 668_l._ 5s. 6d. was received for
pew-rents, and the weekly offerings amounted to 198_l._ 16s.; collections
at the Lord’s Supper, 106_l._ 2s. 8d.  There are large Sunday-schools,
with 632 scholars of both sexes and all ages, and a capital school
library of 500 volumes, to which 371 of the scholars subscribe.  Towards
the expenses of the school the church contributed 32_l._ 2s. 5d., and
from this and its other sources of income, after paying its expenses, the
school contributed 53_l._ 6s. 7d. to the Baptist Missionary Society, in
addition to 100 dresses which were made and sent to a mission station in
Western Africa.  An “Evangelical Mission,” the object being tract
distribution, sick visitation, &c., obtained from the congregation to
assist its work 24_l._ 3s.; the London City Mission, 88_l._; Baptist
Missionary Society, 165_l._ 8s. 2d.; a Soup Kitchen, coals and bread,
23_l._ 10s.; Children’s Friend Society, 10_l._ 5s. 4d.; Maternity
Society, 4_l._ 1s. 10d.; a “Ladies’ Working Society” produced 27_l._ 9s.
7d.; a “Mother’s Meeting,” by which nearly 200 poor women were assisted
in providing clothes for themselves and families, 115_l._; and a “Young
Men’s Mutual Improvement Society” raised 84_l._ 2s. 7d.  Besides all
these, and independently of them, the congregation contributed 524_l._
5s. 1d. towards the reduction of a debt still remaining upon the chapel,
the whole representing an income and an appropriation of 2,469_l._ 19s.
11d.  In connexion with the Children’s Friend Society there is a
penny-bank, which received in the year 224_l._ 3s. 8d. deposits.  It must
be evident to all, that great and sustained effort, and some self-denial
in the moving spirits of these various operations, can alone account for
such results.  The Rev. W. G. Lewis might well be congratulated upon the
health and energy he has been enabled to bring to bear on this work, and
upon the most efficient aid he has found ready to his hands in the
numerous and zealous church and congregation over which he presides.  As
to the general character of his pastorate and ministry, their abundant
acceptableness and usefulness are sufficiently manifest from their
duration, and from the present aspect of affairs at Westbourne-grove.
Twenty-five years’ continuous ministry to the same church, and things all
round still healthy, vigorous, and flourishing, places a minister almost
beyond criticism, if any were disposed to indulge it.  Mr. Lewis appears
to be an earnest and affectionate pastor, and calculated to govern a
church without destroying it, and to its building up in the unity of
faith and love.  He is undoubtedly an able and gifted minister of the New
Testament, discerning the spiritual requirements of his charge, and
skilful in meeting them by bringing out of the treasury “things new and
old.”  Speaking from our own observations and information, the whole of
his service, from beginning to end, is religiously profitable and
instructive in a very high degree.  Having a good voice, capable of
elocutionary effect, under the control of a well-furnished mind, his
sermons are refreshing in their originality of conception and their
terseness, yet completeness of expression and illustration, so that the
hearer, at the close, feels that he has neither had too much or too
little, but has been fed with intellectual and spiritual food “convenient
for him.”  Mr. Lewis is well known as Editor of the _Baptist Magazine_,
which has been for twelve years under his management.  The subject of
discourse was Mary of Bethany and the alabaster box of ointment (Matt.
xxvi. 13).  The force of the Divine love working in the human heart, and
illustrating the effects of the Saviour’s love to the world, was
appropriately set forth.  Its power, its freedom, its breadth,
inventiveness and self-sacrifice in devotion and doing good, were set out
in vivid contrast to the narrow bonds of worldly conventionality and of a
cold-hearted time serving religious profession.  The good work which Mary
did against the Saviour’s burial was symbolical of his own “good work”
which he did by giving himself for us.  “Very costly, and embodying all
that he could give.”  The hours and order of service at this chapel are:
Sundays, 7 A.M., prayer-meeting; 11 A.M., public worship; afternoon: 3
P.M., Bible classes; 6½ P.M., public worship; 8 P.M., prayer-meeting.
Monday evening at 6, prayer-meeting for females only; 7, general
prayer-meeting.  Baptism by immersion administered as occasion arises.
The Lord’s Supper on the evening of the first Sabbath in each month at 8.
Church meetings on the Friday before the first Sunday in the month, at 7

The deacons are Messrs. Fenn, W. B. Head, Rabbeth, W. Dearle, J. R.
Philips, G. Lindup.  The city missionary attached is Mr. J. Browne.


THE name of the “Free Tabernacle” and Mr. Varley are indissolubly united
in Notting-hill.  The Tabernacle is a very plain brick structure, in
Norland-square, or rather in St. John’s-place, leading out of the square.
It admits of no architectural description; but on entering one is
impressed with the idea that it has been built with an object.  It has
the appearance of a large hall, with a platform pulpit at one end, and a
choir gallery behind it.  There is no other gallery at present; but the
ground floor is thoroughly pewed, and the whole is capable of
accommodating 1,000 persons, and, if necessary, 1,200 could find a place.
The original cost of the building was 2,200_l._, the responsibility of
which was entirely borne by the present minister and his father-in-law,
Mr. Pickworth, who undertook the work solely in the interests of the
spiritually destitute poor of the neighbourhood.  Mr. Varley, who was at
the time and has ever since been engaged in business, first began to
preach nine years ago in the Potteries, in the Notting-dale Schoolroom,
where he speedily collected a congregation from the poor people of that
district, so large and overcrowded that he was compelled to find another
place.  This led to the building of the Tabernacle, and to one of the
most valuable voluntary religious efforts that we have yet had the
pleasure of recording.  Upon this basis, at the present time, an average
congregation of 800 in the morning, and 1,000 in the evening, assemble
for public worship.  Upon special occasions the number is increased to
1,100 and 1,200, and it is interesting to note the respect and affection
with which Mr. Varley is regarded by all this people.  He has succeeded
in establishing an influence undoubtedly for good over a class not to be
founds in many of the congregations we have yet had under review.  It is
notorious that, as a rule, our poor do not attend our churches and
chapels, but the “Tabernacle” supplies an exception to the rule.  In this
case the minister himself is an active tradesman, and appears to possess
that kind of talent which adapts him to the mind and circumstances of the
class to whom he ministers.  Without even the shadow of lowness or
vulgarity Mr. Varley has a certain colloquial style and manner which
impart both pleasure and profit to his hearers, while it wins and retains
their respect.  His preaching is to a large extent expository, as on the
morning of Sunday, the 23rd of September, the text (Heb. viii. 6) was
illustrated by frequent references to other portions of Scripture.  There
was a peculiarity which we have not observed so fully carried out
anywhere as here, a great proportion of the congregation had their Bibles
in their hands, and regularly followed the preacher in his references
with manifest interest, very much after the manner of a Bible-class
following the teacher.  They had evidently been well trained to this, and
did it as from established habit.  Mr. Varley also expounds in the
reading of the lessons, and in so doing on this occasion denounced all
assumption of a _priesthood_ by men, and the pretended sacrifice of the
Mass, as a sin against God and a complete contravention of the
Scriptures.  The hymns used are entitled “Hymns of Grace and Glory,”
arranged especially for the service of this congregation, and are sung to
simple melodies in which all can join.  The singing is universal, lively,
and devotional, and appears to realise the great object of music in
public worship.  The harmonium, however, it may be observed, is a little
too much heard.  It is, perhaps, what some would term noisy, and is too
apt to drown instead of assist the congregational voice.  The church,
which now numbers about 550 members, is Baptist by profession, but what
maybe termed an “open” Baptist Church, freely admitting Christian people
of all denominations to its communion.  Amongst other peculiarities at
the Tabernacle there is a communion every Sunday morning after the public
service, except on the first Sunday in the month, when it is after the
evening service.  It is the only case in a Nonconforming place we have
yet had to notice in which there is a weekly celebration.  Mr. Varley
believes this to be the Scriptural order; and from the large number that
tarry to that service it would appear that his people are one with him in
this belief.  The public services are on Sundays at eleven and half-past
six; Monday evening prayer-meeting at seven, and on Wednesday evening a
sermon at seven.  There is a good Sunday-school attached, with about 500
children and a staff of 30 teachers.  The church derives all its
financial support from voluntary effort.  Weekly offerings are taken at
the doors, and all the sittings are free.  Up to the present time, Mr.
Varley’s labour has been gratuitously bestowed.  It is with some surprise
we learn that he has never yet received any earthly reward or testimonial
whatever for his valuable services.  We do not know whether it would be
approved by Mr. Varley himself, but we would suggest that it is one of
the first duties of the church at the Tabernacle to set their minister
free from the concerns of worldly business, that he might devote all his
time to study and the discharge of his pastoral duties.  Having, under
God, raised the church, he surely is its natural and fitting pastor; and
one cannot but think that his separation to the work would prove a
blessing to that people.  At present, his Sunday labour is supplemented
by that of a missionary (Mr. Ashdown), supported by the congregation, who
does much pastoral work through the week, visiting the people and
striving to keep alive their interest in public worship.  Although the
present building is a large place, it is thought not to be adequate in
space to the demands; and is, therefore, now about to be closed for some
weeks, pending important alterations.  After these are effected there
will be an area of 74 ft. by 94, and galleries all around, affording
accommodation for over 2,000 people; and in addition to this there will
be several class-rooms, and one large room for general service,
calculated to hold 500 persons.  It will easily be conceived that in “Mr.
Varley’s Tabernacle” (as it is now commonly called) there must be a
centre of powerful influence in dealing with a great mass of people not
reached by other agencies, and which circumstances have caused to
congregate around it.  The exterior will be greatly beautified by the
alterations—a view of which, by favour of the architects, Messrs.
Habershon and Pite, we are enabled to produce.

  [Picture: Mr. Varley’s Tabernacle, St. James’ Place, Notting Hill, W.]


THIS is situated near the point where the Cornwall-road crosses the
Ladbroke-grove-road, with a low, single-arched looking front, approached
by a flight of steps from the footway, and inclining towards the latter
road.  It is a wooden structure, but protected by a coating of lath, with
an outside covering of Portland cement; and when on the other side the
whole building is in view, it looks a long, dark, narrow object, which
would not be readily taken for a place of worship, reminding one of a
huge ironclad lying at anchor in a quiet harbour.  It may be explained
that the shell was formerly a part of an _annexe_ belonging to the
Exhibition building of 1862; and having been made a present, by the
contractors, Messrs. Lucas and Co., to Sir Morton Peto, was presented by
that gentleman for its present good purpose in the Cornwall-road.  It was
set up in 1863, including a large, commodious schoolroom, deacons’ and
minister’s vestries all included.  The chapel itself is a spacious
oblong, fitted with an organ gallery behind the pulpit, and another
gallery of similar dimensions at the opposite end, but having no side
galleries.  The organ was also the gift of Sir M. Peto, and built by
Willis, of the Albany-road, Regent’s-park, at a cost of 300_l._  There is
a plain pulpit, sufficiently elevated, and the floor is plainly pewed;
but the woodwork in the roof is tastefully coloured in light blue and
white, which gives a light and pleasing aspect to the interior.  The
place will accommodate about 800 persons.

The Rev. J. A. Spurgeon, brother of the Rev. C. H. Spurgeon, of the
Metropolitan Tabernacle, was the first minister of the chapel.  He
laboured very successfully for four years—collecting an excellent
congregation and a goodly body of church members.  He was, however,
unfortunately for his people, removed to assist his brother in the duties
of the college which he had founded in connexion with his South London
enterprise.  Previously to his departure, however, the church gave
substantial proof of the esteem in which it held him, by presenting him
with a purse containing 50_l._, and a handsome gold watch and key, by
Bennett, of Cheapside, which cost 24_l._

The successor was the Rev. Charles White a minister who can scarcely be
said to have settled in the church.  At his inauguration the Rev. C. H.
Spurgeon preached an appropriate sermon, at the close of which he hoped,
and in fact predicted, that the Rev. Mr. White would prove the “right
man” for the congregation.  It, however, almost immediately after
transpired that a serious feeling of estrangement, and of something
beyond, sprung up between several of the principal members and deacons
and the new minister.  It need not be surmised which side was most to
blame.  Probably it is safe to omit all conjectures on the subject.  This
“letting out” of the waters of strife became painful in its consequences.
The church was completely rent; and in about nine months after his
appointment Mr. White left the chapel, and betook himself, with a large
number of the congregation, to the Ladbroke Hall near, where he continued
to minister for another year.  In the meantime the chapel was well nigh
forsaken and the church severely tried.  It was at this juncture that the
present minister, the Rev. R. H. Roberts, B.A. (of London University),
was invited, and undertook the charge.  Under the difficult circumstances
he appears to have acted the part of a wise man, resolving and avowing
his resolution not in any way to interfere with Mr. White, or harbour any
feeling of hostility towards him or his friends, but, on the contrary, to
evince towards them an amicable disposition.  There was, however, not
long the need for this display of Christian temper in that direction, as
very soon Mr. White removed from the neighbourhood.  From that time the
church has been gradually revived and the congregation visibly increased,
many of the old members returning, and some new being added; and at
present it looks as though it must shortly recover its former strength.
Mr. Roberts, who has now been two years with the church, is an
intelligent and thoughtful preacher, and from the discourse to which we
listened, founded on the parable of the pounds, we should think he is
aiming at inspiring his people with a high sense of their responsibility.
There were some pointed and pregnant utterances in the sermon which are
apt to fix themselves in the memory.  As for instance, in regard to the
constancy of Christian service: “Let not this be a work for ‘saints’
days,’ for all days are, or ought to be, _saints’ days_ in the calendar
of the kingdom of heaven.”  As to the Saviour’s second advent: “The
_best_ way of waiting for Christ is to continue _working_ for him.  With
the nearness or distance of his coming we have nothing to do; the word
says ‘Occupy _till_ I come.’”  As to the proper use of our talents: “Some
men prosper and come into the front _by accident_; but the outward
seeming will be _pierced_ through in the day of account, and the very
heart of whatever reality there is about us will be got at.”  Then,
again, as to human attainments: “All human attainments are only divine
endowments developed and magnified.”  These and similar terse remarks,
thrown out in passing, added effect to various parts of the subject.

The service of song is well provided for here.  “Psalms and Hymns” for
use in Baptist congregations is the book used, in which it is
satisfactory to observe the name of every author drawn upon appended to
his composition.  The Bristol Tune-book is distributed, and the name of
the tune is given out with the hymn.  There is also Allen’s Book of
Congregational Chants and Anthems; and that grand and universal hymn _Te
Deum Laudamus_ was not omitted, but was sung in the midst of the service
with much propriety and spirit by the whole congregation.

In the Sunday-school there are a little over 300 children on the books,
and an average attendance of about 100 in the morning and 220 in the
afternoon.  There is a “Home Missionary Society,” which employs twelve
tract distributors; a “Maternal Society,” a regular “Mothers’ Meeting,”
and a “Dorcas Society.”  In its late troubles, as a matter of course, the
finances of the church became deranged and fell into arrears.  Although
surely improving, a rather heavy balance is still due to the treasurer.
Yet, notwithstanding, we observe that the congregation contributed last
year 43_l._ 18s. 7d. to foreign missions.  The church draws its home
support from pew-rents, which last year amounted to 185_l._ 11s., and a
weekly offertory, a special fund, incidental sources, and collections,
yielding in all, from July 1869 to July 1870, 497_l._ 1s. 11d.

The order of services is: Sunday—Prayer-meeting at 10.15, public worship
at 11 A.M. and 7 P.M.; Monday, prayer-meeting at 7.30; Wednesday,
“Congregational Bible-class,” a service intended for the simple
exposition of any passage of Scripture upon which any person present
might wish comment offered; alternating with singing classes, teachers’
meetings, church meetings, &c.  Inquirers’ meetings are held on Monday
evenings by the pastor in the Vestry, from 7 to 7.30.  Communion on the
first Sabbath in each month after the evening service, and on the third
Sabbath after the morning service.

The Deacons are eight in number—viz., Messrs. W. Baynes, W. Knight,
Charles Chambers, Dr. Pennell, Dr. Manning; Messrs. Catchpole, Hunt, and


THIS church is situated in Pottery lane, near the north end of
Portland-road, bordering on the Potteries, from the poor population of
which—more particularly the Irish portion—it draws its congregation.  The
building and the school attached occupy one side of the road, and a row
of stables the other; and, as though not to be desecrated by looking on
the latter, there is not a noticeable window in the road side of the
church; consequently no architectural attraction in the exterior, which
is about as uninviting as the site on which it stands.  It is not until
one has passed through a small enclosed courtyard, thence by an
unexpected turn into a half-hidden portico, and again through a
cloistered doorway—all impressing with a strong idea of seclusion—that he
becomes really conscious of the presence of an ecclesiastical edifice.
Everything to this point is plain as plainness itself—there being nothing
to be seen but a heavy, bulky pile of common brickwork, wearing something
of the aspect of a very poor monastic enclosure.  But on reaching the
interior a different impression is awakened, although still heaviness and
gloom prevail.  The principal nave is short, and that, with the side
called “Our Lady’s Chapel,” are together not capable of holding more than
about 500 persons.  At the same time it looks overcrowded with pillars,
which darken and intercept an otherwise limited view.  The effect of the
whole is that of strength, but dimness and lowness.  The architecture is
of a mixed kind, in which the Italian is prominent, with a slight
blending of Gothic.  The diminished effect of space and light are,
however, of course relieved by the illuminations and ornaments peculiar
to a Roman Catholic church—the numerous candles, the images, the high
altar, its bright furniture, drapery, and ministrant priests, standing
out conspicuously, and lit by daylight from the chancel-windows.
Moreover, a strip of the walls through the full length on both sides is
ornamented with some effective painting on slate, representing various
passages in our Lord’s sufferings, by Westlake, who also executed a
couple of frescoes at the back of the side altars, and the subjects of
three or four stained windows.  The decorations of the large side-altars
to the Virgin and St. Francis are partially seen through the commingling
columns.  The body of the church is filled with plain benches and
cane-bottomed chairs, all of which are much the worse for wear, and in
their present state looking quite in keeping with the voluntary austerity
and poverty of the famous mendicant friar of the thirteenth century from
whom the church derives its name, and whom it regards as its patron
saint, _St. Francis D’Assisi_.  A charge is made for entering the seats,
and be it noted that not one was observed to enter without dropping his
coin, larger or smaller, in the plate.  The fee appears to be considered
in the light of a _weekly offering_.  One of the most notable objects in
the church is the baptistry, where there is a handsome marble font, with
a large conical lid and fixed pulley machinery for raising it.

This church was built ten years ago, by Mr. Clutton, as a chapel of case
to the larger Roman Catholic cause—St. Mary’s, Bayswater—which
establishment was the first outcome of the late Cardinal Wiseman’s
Ultramontane mission in London.  The Rev. Father H. A. Rawse, M.A., then
of the Oratory, Brompton, and previously an Anglican priest of Oxford,
illustrated his zeal as a convert to Rome by the donation of 7,000_l._ to
the St. Francis enterprise, and became its first resident priest.  The
Rev. Father Lescher is the present minister, who is occasionally assisted
by priests from the parent church at Bayswater, or from the Oratory, and
had present, on the morning of our visit, Father Robertson, from the
former place.  Father Lescher himself has lately given proof of his zeal
by the handsome gift of 500_l._ towards 1,400_l._ for the purchase of the
Silchester Hall, recently occupied by the Methodists, and being acquired
by the Catholics for a school.  Their present day-school, in
Pottery-lane, has about 160 pupils, who pay, as a rule, a penny per week,
the necessary balance being made up by other funds.

Father Lescher was the preacher for the morning, and prefaced his homily
by several announcements, one of which had reference to looking after
their pauper children who were taken to the Kensington Workhouse.  On any
child being taken there, notice was to be given to the priest, who would
cause inquiry to be made as to the spiritual oversight of such children;
and the congregation were earnestly exhorted to attend to this, as he
said it would “prevent the _proselytism of the poor_.”  He congratulated
them that they had succeeded in sending some Roman Catholics to the Board
at the last election, and so had fared better of late.  But he urged them
to endeavour to return more at the next election, in order that their
prospects in regard to the children might be still more improved!

The rev. father took for his text Ephesians iv. 23, 24, “And be renewed
in the spirit of your mind; and that ye put on the new man; which after
God is created in righteousness and true holiness.”  The discourse was a
simple, pointed extempore address on regeneration, or, as the preacher
sometimes called it, “conversion,” occupying about thirty minutes.  There
was “a great difference between the Christian and the heathen.”  “We were
not born Christians, but sinners; and sin would master us unless a change
be wrought in us.”  “Heresy always had some truth in it; but it was truth
carried out without being duly limited by other truths.”  Thus as to
regeneration, which was wrought by the grace of God in the soul—no doubt
that grace began to work in baptism.  But a man was not regenerate or
converted because he had been baptized, for he might be living in sin.
Conversion was a thing to go on continually through a man’s life.  Europe
was covered all over with a race of baptized, but really unregenerate
men.  Sin should be completely taken out of our heart.  From beginning to
end regeneration was God’s work.  He made us new creatures.  Christ was a
new man in this world, and was a pattern to which we were to be
conformed; we must be like him, setting aside all worldly-vain, foolish,
and vicious thoughts.  St. Francis was an example, whose feast they had
just celebrated, who, by the grace of God, was enabled to live a life of
devotion and self-denial.  “Let them pray to St. Francis, that he might
help them to follow in his steps.”  Apart from the exhortation to pray to
St. Francis, many will take the essence, form, and language of this
outline as thoroughly Evangelical.  There appears to be a departure from
the strict doctrine of essential sacramental efficacy, and a distinct
insistence on the necessity of a change of heart and of a holy life.  It
was high mass, and one of Mozart’s formed the musical part.  The organ is
a small one, but sweet in tone, and played by a new organist—a pupil from
the Pro-Cathedral.  The choir did not contain any distinguished voice,
but the singing, though less florid, was more appropriate than the
extreme artistic affectations of the Oratory and Pro Cathedral.  On the
previous Wednesday—which was the Roman Catholic Feast Day of St. Francis
D’Assisi—Archbishop Manning had preached in the church.


THE meeting-place of this _peculiar_ people is in an upper room,
Clarendon-place, Clarendon-road, Notting-hill.  It appears filled with
150 persons, and as far as we could incidentally learn they have about
eighty acknowledged brethren and sisters.  This society is the result of
a division in the one formerly united in Bayswater, and is composed of
what are termed the “Darbyite party” in that schism.  The “Brethren” have
been in West London over twenty years, but this part of their small body
has been at Clarendon-place five or six years.  They form the only
congregation of that persuasion in the parish of Kensington.  We found
them on visit to be an extremely close and uncommunicative people, with
the single exception of an amiable sister, next whom we happened to sit,
and who politely tendered more information than we could subsequently
extract from all the brethren.  It was the usual Sunday morning service
of “breaking of bread.”  The loaf, which was a plain baker’s loaf, was in
the centre of a table; in the coarse of the “breaking” the middle of it
disappeared, and little but the shell remained.  There were also two
plain glasses upon the table.  As a rule these services of bread-breaking
are conducted in silence; but on this occasion some speaking was allowed,
and two of the leading brethren in succession read and commented in a
familiar way upon portions of Scripture.  Some of the remarks we are
obliged to notice were extremely simple, quite spontaneous, and were
delivered under what the speakers appeared to think _spiritual impulses_.
There was, however, nothing very instructive or useful in what was said.
The speaking done, a brother engaged in prayer, and after another brother
had read a list of names of persons who wished, on the next Sabbath, to
break bread with them, one marriage of a brother and sister to take place
on the following Saturday, and two burials for that day, the meeting
terminated.  In separating the amount of _hand-shaking_ and friendly, and
doubtless cordial, recognition of each other, was so protracted that we
could not get from our _extra saint_ seat for a considerable time.  When
at length we got near the table and encountered a few of the leading
brethren, being invited thereto by our observant and kindly sister, we
endeavoured with all humility to make acquaintance with the case as it
stood; but, we are sorry to say, found ourselves impeded at every step.
Our object was keenly and suspiciously canvassed.  On being simply told
that our design was in general to furnish through the Press a connective
view of the Christian influences and operations at work upon this vast
population, and by so doing to interest the public more fully on the
subject, we were met with indescribable scorn at the mention of the
“Press.”  They would consider it “a sin” to give any information to the
“Press.”  It was the curse of the world, was the “Press.”  On being asked
if there was not a Christian side to the “Press,” they emphatically
answered “No.”  There was no such thing as a “religious Press.”  It was
“all worldly” from beginning to end.  The magazines even of the religious
bodies were only trying to unite religion and the world.  With amusing
simplicity one brother asked if by the “_Press_” we meant “that machine
by which tracts, &c., were printed;” and we had to explain that by the
“Press” in this connection we meant “a Christian literature as opposed to
what was worldly, secular, or infidel.”  With one voice they exclaimed
there was “no such thing.”  We asked if they did not hope to make some
use of Christian literature in striving to effect the world’s conversion.
The reply to this important question given by the principal brother very
gravely was, “No; _we have nothing to do with the world_; our work is to
_gather God’s saints out of the world_.”  “But,” we rejoined, “is not the
Gospel sent to the world?  And did not the Son of God come to save the
world?”  The answer was unhesitatingly given by the same gentleman, “No;
it was to collect his saints out of the earth.”  After this we could not
prolong the conversation and took our leave; but before we had left the
landing to descend the stairs we were followed by a young man
commissioned to ask us this question, “Have you eternal life?”  In
answer, we affirmed our belief and hope that we had, and asserted our
experience of conversion many years ago.  On this we were reminded that
there “was but one way.”  We replied that the “one way” was found in
every Christian Church and in the Church Catholic; but, strange to say,
this declaration was met with evident disbelief.  “God,” it was said,
“did not make sects.”  We left, asking ourselves the question, How upon
these principles could the great purpose of the Son of God in this world
be answered?

After the above appeared in the _Suburban Press_ a letter of explanation
was received by the Editor from one of the brethren, which will be found
among the supplementary notes.  The latter appears to have been written
upon reflection, whilst the preceding conversation was doubtless
conducted upon the feeling of the moment.  Yet, it faithfully reflected
the peculiarities of the members, who appear to have no faith in anything
but what is strictly identified with their own belief and practice;
altogether too narrow for the expanding evangelistic tendencies of the


THIS is one of the plainest of buildings for religious purposes, low and
uncommanding, and almost lost even among the humble dwellings amidst
which it stands—a simple meeting-house, with a stuccoed front, but
looking neat and clean, having been recently repaired and painted, and
the walls newly coloured within, giving it a fresh and healthy look.  The
pewing is of a humble character and unvarnished, and the pulpit plain and
high.  There is a gallery in the west end, which, added to the
accommodation on the ground-floor, gives about 250 sittings, the ordinary
congregation being at present about 100.  The church and people are
Strict Baptist in persuasion.  Upon the corner-stone we find the
following inscription: “This stone was laid by Messrs. Foreman and Wells,
Oct. 13, 1851.  The chapel is for the use of the _Particular Baptists_.
P. W. Williamson, Pastor.  J. Cook and T. Rowley, Deacons.”  The chapel
has thus been in existence twenty years.  The church—never very vigorous
or flourishing—has had a chequered history, disputes having arisen among
its members from time to time upon subjects relating to its internal
affairs, and which resulted six years ago in a division, further
weakening its situation and diminishing its few members.  From this blow
it appears never to have recovered, there being now no more than between
fifty and sixty acknowledged members.  The present minister is the Rev.
C. W. Banks, who has been there one year, and the cause is supported by
pew-rents and voluntary weekly offerings.  A “Free-will Offering” box is
fixed on the inside of each entrance to the aisles, and on every
succeeding Sunday the amount so collected is placed in large figures
against the side walls.  On the occasion of our visit, the account for
the previous Sabbath stood thus: “Loose money, 3s. 8d.; in thirteen
envelopes, 10s. 3d.”  The preacher had a strong voice, and exerted it
even beyond the natural requirements of his small audience; but at times
it would be almost impossible to hear him if he did not, in consequence
of the noisy costermongers, who shout one against the other in the narrow
street and immediately in front of the chapel, without any regard to its
presence or the service proceeding within.  This is certainly a crying
evil, and should attract the attention of the police.  We had no idea
that vegetable and other carts (hand and donkey drawn) were so numerous
and noisy during the hours of Divine Service, as we witnessed them in
Johnson-street, and other adjacent back streets and ways in the rear of
High-street, Notting-hill.  Surely there is yet need for a “Suppression
of Sunday Trading Society.”  There is a small Sunday-school, attended by
a few self-denying teachers, and the public services are—Sunday at eleven
and half-past six; prayer meeting at three P.M.  Wednesdays, preaching at
half-past seven; and on Monday evenings, prayer-meeting; and a special
monthly prayer-meeting every first Friday evening in the month.  There is
manifest care under difficulties for the Christian work.


THE place known by this name is situated in Kensington-place, near its
junction with Silver-street, a poor unsightly edifice, within two or
three minutes’ walk of the Johnson-street Chapel, and is the
meeting-place of the separated portion of its former congregation.  The
building is in a dilapidated state, the plaster broken away, and the
woodwork the worse for lack of paint.  The congregation was celebrating
its sixth anniversary, and from all appearances there was great need of
replenishing the exchequer.  However, the event did not seem to have
aroused much enthusiasm, for scattered over a rather larger area there
was even a smaller congregation than in the former place.  The chapel
will apparently hold about 350, and there must have been less than 100
present.  There is a gallery at one end, and all the other sittings are
on the ground floor.  The present minister is the Rev. D. Crumpton, whose
voice, in its general tone, was indicative of discouragement, assuredly
with every apparent reason.  The two congregations together might make up
an appearance in the smaller of the two chapels; but separately they
appear weak and helpless in the extreme, a sight to make a good man mourn
over strife and division.  It will be next to a miracle if ever these
churches rise to a position of influence and power in the neighbourhood.
The locality is low and in great need of evangelistic efforts; and if
anything could be done to bring the noisy, idle people who fill those
narrow streets, or stand at their wretched little open shop-doors,
waiting for stray customers, who steal out to market in the hours of
Divine Worship, it would be a great boon.  There is a Sunday-school
attached to the chapel, in which some of the poor children around are
collected together, and in this circumstance there may linger hope.  The
order of services is: Sunday, prayer-meeting at 7 A.M.; preaching at 11.0
A.M. and 6.30 P.M., and prayer-meeting at 3.0 P.M.  The school is held at
9.30 A.M. and 3.0 P.M.  On week-days there is prayer-meeting on Monday
evening at 7.30, and preaching on Thursday evening.  The prayer-meeting
at 7.0 A.M. on Sunday morning may be noted as a rarity in these days, and
if tolerably well attended, shows that there is life, amidst all existing


THIS is the smallest place of worship we have yet had to notice, being
apparently intended for the sole use of the occupants of that obscure
court in North-street, called Sloane-place.  North-street branches out of
Sloane-street, and runs through a very low neighbourhood; and in about
the lowest part of it, densely populated, is the court down which one
passes to reach the chapel.  It is at the extreme end of the parish
eastward.  The chapel has an aspect in every way in keeping with the
humble class of tenements among which it stands, and of course has
nothing architecturally to notice.  It has a lamp over the low front
door, which may serve in the stead of a parish lamp, to illumine the
gloomy alley on dark evenings.  The building has a dwarfed and dingy
appearance; was from the first, is, and perhaps ever will be private
property, lent for its present purpose by the proprietor.  It will hold
at the utmost only 100 persons.  There is no settled pastorate; but it is
supplied with preaching on the Sunday evening only, under the direction
of the Rev. Dr. Alexander, of the Belgrave-square Presbyterian Church.
The preacher is usually Dr. Stewart, of Grosvenor-street, a medical
gentleman belonging to Dr. Alexander’s church.  This Christian doctor is
regularly at his post on Sunday evenings, except an extraordinary
professional engagement hinder, holding forth the Word of Life to the few
poor people who assemble beneath the humble roof.  There are no regular
ordinances and no other public services, except a prayer-meeting on
Sunday morning and on Thursday evening.  All the sittings are free.  A
Sunday-school is a notable feature.  Sixty or seventy poor children come
together in the chapel from 3 to 4.30 on Sunday afternoons, and are
attended to by a few zealous teachers who enter heartily into this work.
Poor and humble as the building is in itself and all its surroundings, it
is thus undoubtedly a light shining in a dark place.  The self-denial and
devotion of those kind persons who attend to Christian work in this place
is quite exemplary, and will certainly meet with its reward.


THE new Church of “St. Michael and All Angels” embraces the northern part
of the District of All Saints’, Notting-hill, in its new extension
towards Kensal-green, in the Ladbroke-grove-road.  No doubt, just at this
spot, there will, in time, be a middle-class population sufficient to
fill the church.  But at present the property is new, and, therefore, it
would seem St. Michael’s must for some time to come draw from a distance.
The Vicar Designate, the Rev. Edward Ker Gray, was formerly curate to Dr.
Robbins, of St. Peter’s, Kensington-park, and has family connexions in
the neighbourhood, who have largely contributed to his present
enterprise; and the plot of land on which the edifice stands, and that on
which a parsonage is yet to be built, are the gift of Messrs. Blake and
Parsons, who are freeholders in that part.  The style of architecture
adopted differs from that of most churches, being what is professionally
known as the “Romanesque of the Rhine,” and is executed chiefly in terra
cotta and ornamental bricks, by Mr. Cowland, of Notting-hill, under a
contract (exclusive of tower and fittings) for 4,300_l._  The architects
are Messrs. Edmeston of Crown-court, Old Broad-street; and the plan
consists of a nave ninety-nine feet long, exclusive of chancel and
western apse, by forty-three feet wide, roofed in one span, with an
eastern, western, and southern apse, leaving a northern apse to be added
at some future time.  On the north side the church is hidden by houses,
and it is seen to best advantage at the south-west angle, where it will
form rather a picturesque object, when the grouping of tower, turret,
apse, and gable are added to the view.  The interior is yet unfurnished,
and only sufficiently fitted up for the performance of worship.  The
pulpit, desk, organ, and chancel furniture are all temporary.  The
contract for the decoration is given to Messrs. Howland and Fisher, who
decorated St. Peter’s, Bayswater, which is considered one of the
handsomest church interiors in London.  About 1,000 sittings are
provided, applications for which are requested.  The occasion of our
visit was the service of consecration, in May, 1871, conducted by the
Right Hon. and Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of London.  There was a good
congregation present; and immediately after the entrance of the Bishop,
Mr. Shephard, the Registrar of his Lordship’s diocese, read the petition
of the Vicar, Churchwardens and parishioners praying for the consecration
of the church.  The Bishop having replied, “I am ready to consecrate this
church, according to the prayer of the petition,” a procession was as
once formed, headed by the parish beadles with their staves, followed by
the churchwardens, Bishop, and clergy, who slowly walked round the
church, the Bishop repeating the usual service.  On returning to the
Communion Table, the deed of conveyance was formally received and laid
upon the table by the Bishop.  The prayers for the ordinary morning
service were read by the Rev. Mr. Gray, the Psalms, Te Deum, and hymns
being chanted by a choir of good voices, male and female, blending well
together, under the direction of Mr. Sydney Naylor, organist.  On
ascending the pulpit the Bishop took for his text, John xvii. 6, “I have
manifested thy name to the men which thou gavest me out of the world,”
&c.  The subject was divided into three parts: 1. What name he
manifested.  2. How he manifested it.  3. The character of the persons to
whom he manifested the name of his Father.  These topics were worked out
with great clearness of thought and felicity of utterance; the Bishop
steering delicately through the difficult problem of Divine
predestination and human free will, and rendering the point as
satisfactory as it ever can become to mortal reflection.  A very feeling
individual application of the subject to the congregation concluded the
discourse.  It is about twelve years since we had the pleasure of
listening to Dr. Jackson at a confirmation service in a small town in
Lincolnshire, and it is gratifying to observe the same doctrinal safety
and thorough practical bearing in his ministry which struck us at that
time.  He also bears his increased years well, displaying a freshness in
his appearance and a vigour equal to if not superior to himself more than
a decade since.  A collection was made after sermon from pew to pew
towards the organ and church expenses, and the remainder of the Communion
Service and the benediction concluded the whole.  It ought to be noticed
that a number of the local clergy were present, and that the Rev. Dr.
Robbins read the first lesson—the consecration of the Temple by
Solomon—in a most impressive manner, and the Rev. J. S. Gell the few
verses which compose the second lesson.  The Bishop’s chaplain, the Rev.
Mr. Fisher, also assisted in the service within the chancel rail.

Mr. Gray’s ministry is reported Evangelical in its character, and his
service lively and devotional, without Ritualistic features.  The
congregation gradually increases, and it is hoped that ere long the
furnishing will be completed, and that the church will answer all the
purposes for which it was built in that rising population.  The
Churchwardens are Captain N. W. Boyce and J. D. Cowland, Esq., and the
services are: Sundays at 11 A.M. and 3 and 7 P.M.  Weekdays, Wednesday
and Friday at 11 A.M., the Litany, Holy Communion, at 9 A.M. every
Sunday, and after the 11 A.M. service the last Sunday in every month.
Baptisms at 2.30 first Sunday in the month, and at 10.30 A.M. on
Wednesday and Friday.


NORLAND CHAPEL is situate in the Queen’s-road, Notting-hill, and on the
extreme western boundary of the Parish of Kensington.  The boundary stone
of the parish is fixed in the wall which surrounds the chapel, and the
iron pillar which marks the line of the Hammersmith Parish stands near to
it about half a foot further west.  It was built in the year 1859, the
foundation-stone being laid in May of that year by the late Robert
Hanbury, Esq., M.P., for Middlesex.  The architect was Mr. Stent, of
Warminster, and builders, Messrs. Hill and Robinson, of Whitechapel.  Mr.
Hill was the builder of the new Holborn-viaduct, and is now building the
streets connected with the Holborn-valley improvement.  In architecture
it is of a very various order, but may be defined as “mixed Italian.”
The front, which is towards the south, is somewhat picturesque.  The
porch is reached by a wide flight of steps, and is adorned with four neat
columns of Portland stone, with carved capitals of Bath stone; and
surmounted with a large circular window; the whole front having
Bath-stone dressing upon coloured brick.  There are two side doors, which
lead to the gallery in the south end.  The building, as a whole, is of
plain brick and has a substantial appearance.  The west front corner was
intended to receive a spire; which, however, has not yet been built.  Its
erection would certainly be a great improvement to the edifice.  In the
interior, the space is well economised.  Beneath the floor of the chapel,
there is a spacious school-room; which serves also as a week-night
lecture, preaching, and anniversary tea-meeting room.  It is well
furnished, and has a harmonium to assist in the services held there.  The
space behind is laid out in class-rooms, minister’s vestries, and
offices.  A more compact and commodious suite of rooms for the space at
disposal we have seldom met with.  The chapel proper provides sittings
for 650 people—500 on the ground-floor and 150 in the end gallery.  The
sittings are let at from 2s. 6d. to 5s. per quarter, and the congregation
averages from 300 to 400.  A modern raised platform pulpit is an
ornament, flanked with two handsome gas pillars; and the pewing is in
stained wood, and looks as good as new, after a dozen years’ wear.  In
lieu of columns to support the roof the ribs which span it rest on
ornamental Bath-stone corbels inserted in the walls at about 12 feet
high, which are really stronger than they look, and are adopted to
prevent the obscurity of the view, and the absorption of space by
columns.  The chapel is lit by gas pendants from the roof, and is warmed
in winter by the same, being lit over night.  By this means a comfortable
heat is diffused through the building, reaching, if required, to seventy
degrees.  This method of warming will, of course, be greatly improved, if
the gas companies will adopt the patent gas offered them by the “Patent
Gas Company,” which professes to reduce the amount of sulphur in every
hundred feet of gas from forty-four degrees to about four.  In that case,
warming by gas would no doubt soon supersede some other methods.  Red
baize with brass mouldings faces the side walls all round to a certain
height above the pews, which gives a comfortable and cheerful appearance
to the whole interior.  The original cost of the building, including the
freehold site, was 3,000_l._

The church and congregation at this place are Baptist; but open their
communion to all who “profess and give evidence of the New Birth;” and
are sufficiently open occasionally to receive any Christian person at the
Lord’s Supper who may desire it, and who has previously sent a note or
card to the vestry.  The basis of its membership is thus expressed in its
articles: “We enter this fellowship as Christians, each one holding that
the other is united to the Lord Jesus Christ by faith in him according to
the Scriptures.”  Prior to the present chapel, the congregation met
temporarily in an old building facing Shepherd’s-bush-green; but removed
to the new and more commodious edifice, with their first minister, the
Rev. John Stent, as soon as it was ready.  Mr. Stent continued the pastor
until he had completed eight years.  He was then succeeded by the Rev. W.
H. Tredray, who after two years was in turn superseded by the Rev. W. P.
Balfern.  After two years also of ministerial labour, Mr. Balfern has
just been compelled to retire in consequence of ill-health.  The church
has thus for some little time been deprived of a stated ministry; but we
understand, that a minister is upon the point of being formally invited,
and will, in all probability, be settled for a period.  We heard a plain,
earnest sermon from an occasional supply on the morning of our visit.
The service was conducted in the way ordinary to Baptist chapels; but we
were particularly struck with the excellence of the congregational
singing, to which we believe the late pastor devoted much attention.  The
people appeared very well trained to the perception of harmony, and had
in use the Bristol Tune-book, which is well known to be one of the best
extant.  They were, moreover, effectually sustained by the organ, which
is a capital 250_l._ instrument, by Jones, of Brompton, and well played
by the son of the senior deacon of the church.

The support of the ministry is from pew-rents and the proceeds of a
weekly offering.  The other active institutions are a Sunday-school, with
over 300 scholars; a home missionary, supported by the late minister, Mr.
Balfern; a Dorcas meeting, maternal society, tract society, and a
mothers’ meeting.  There is in addition a penny bank, in which a number
of poor people and children store their little savings.  The order of
services is—Sunday, at 11 A.M. and 6.30 P.M., Sunday-school in the
afternoon; prayer and preaching on Friday evening at 7.30; a psalmody
class meets every Thursday evening for the practice of singing.


THE foundation-stone of this chapel was laid by Samuel Morley, Esq.,
M.P., in July, 1865, when, although so recent, the whole of that part of
North Kensington in which it is situated was open field, with here and
there a dotting of new buildings commenced, and new streets laid out.  At
the present time the occupied suburbs extend quite a mile beyond it
either North or West.  The congregation worshipping here first assembled
in smaller numbers in Westbourne-hall, where they kept together for
between two and three years, always with a view to a separate building as
opportunity offered.  The present freehold site was ultimately obtained
for 1,350_l._, and the cost of the building raised upon it, including the
schoolrooms, was 3,500_l._  It is a substantial structure with a Gothic
expression, although totally devoid of ornament.  It was, however,
originally designed, and is yet intended to have a spire, which certainly
will be a vast improvement to the exterior.  The interior is light and
pleasant, without galleries, with a plain pulpit and pewing, affording
accommodation for 500 persons, 100 of the sittings being free, all the
remainder let at prices ranging from 5s. to 1_l._ 1s. per annum.  The
chapel was opened in January, 1866, by inauguratory services conducted by
the Hon. and Rev. Baptist Noel and the Rev. Samuel Martin, of
Westminster.  From the first the stated minister has been the Rev. Jas.
Stuart Russell, whose ministry is highly appreciated as pious,
scriptural, able, and earnest.  During its continuance there has been
gradual prosperity, the church now numbering about 120 communicants, and
the congregation reaching an average of between three and four hundred.
There is a large Sunday-school, with, including infants, 250 scholars,
attended by a goodly staff of teachers: morning and afternoon, under the
superintendence of Mr. S. Hicks.  The form of service is what is
understood as Congregational, and the Congregational Hymn-book is used.
An organ well suited to the dimensions of the building is efficiently
employed by Mr. Charles Wetton, Jun., in aid of the devotional singing,
which seems to lose nothing of its congregational life and character by
the presence of the instrument.  Divine Service is held on the Sabbath at
11 A.M. and 7 P.M., and in the schoolroom during the week, on Monday and
Wednesday evenings, at 7.30.  A Communion service on the first Sunday in
every month.  There are at present four deacons, Messrs. Hicks, Ellerton,
W. Knowles, and Wetton, Sen.  The locality of this chapel is one which
furnishes ample scope for Christian labour and extension on every side.
The district in the heart of which it stands, that of All Saints’, has a
population of 20,747, according to the figures of the recent census, and
it is the only Congregational place of worship within the bounds.


THIS is an iron church, situate in the Talbot-road, Notting-hill, and a
few steps only from and on the same side of the road as “All Saints’”
Church.  It has the same general features as all the iron buildings, but
is larger than most of them, having an end gallery, and affording ample
accommodation for one thousand persons.  The north end or chancel is
occupied with a platform, which serves as a pulpit, and the benches of
the auditorium come close to it.  It is well warmed with a stove, and lit
with plain gas pendants; and altogether has a very comfortable
appearance.  The history of this building must be traced in connexion
with the career of Mr. Gordon Forlong, a name now well known in and
beyond the immediate scene of his labours.  This gentleman is a Scotch
barrister, who, a few years ago (in 1856), felt moved to give up the
pursuit of his profession for the work of an evangelist.  His endeavours
to make known the Gospel appear to have been highly appreciated in his
native Aberdeenshire; and were soon sought for in different parts of
Scotland and in Edinburgh, where Mr. Forlong spent some time.  After a
trial, however, he found that the condition of an itinerant preacher,
with a family, became impracticable, and resolved on seeking a settled
charge in London.  Here his first appearance was in the Victoria-hall,
Archer-street, in October, 1867.  The hall, which he hired on his own
responsibility, was generally well attended at his services, and
continued to be used by him until 1869.  In the latter half of that year,
the present building was secured at a cost in all of 2,000_l._, to be
liquidated by instalments, there being also a ground-rent of 96_l._ per
annum.  Apart from a little aid which Mr. Forlong has drawn from his
friends in the North and elsewhere, the whole financial obligation of
this enterprise has rested with himself and the friends who have been
inclined to assist him on the spot.  That it has been a great struggle is
not surprising.  At the end of the first year there was a balance on the
wrong side of the sheet to the amount of 476_l._ 1s. 9d., which, being
paid by the minister, left the total amount advanced by him for the
church 714_l._ 9s. 6d.  This, it may be hoped, has been ere now
discharged by the congregation; more especially as up to the present
time, the minister’s services, both at the Hall and in the new church,
have received no remuneration.  There are about 150 sittings, let at from
4s. to 30s. per seat per annum; and there are church-boxes for weekly
offerings and various collections through the year.  This together may be
considered a sufficient financial basis to work upon, in order to place
the concern, not long hence, in a free and prosperous condition.

Mr. Gordon Forlong rejects the title of Reverend.  Having never obtained
or sought ordination in any church, he looks upon himself as a lay
preacher of the Gospel, called and set apart by God only; and treats with
indifference and even contemns all ministerial titles and peculiar
functions, as looking in the direction of priestcraft, which he abhors.
He has, from the first, taken his special mission in the neighbourhood to
be to oppose Ritualism, which he found developing itself on his arrival,
and to call together a people to exemplify spiritual religion.  To these
objects he has certainly confined himself with great steadiness, and not
without success.  A number of persons, it is said, find refuge at the
“Tabernacle” who have been alienated from their mother Church hard by
through Ritualistic practices; and the truth of this statement, it
appears, cannot be challenged.  The character of the church and
congregation which Mr. Forlong has formed is _non sectarian_, and does
not allow itself to be called either Baptist, Congregational, or
Wesleyan, or anything else but the Church of Christ; although the mode of
conducting the service may be described as a free adaptation of any and
all of these.  Along with the reading of the Scriptures there is
_exposition_.  The hymns used are gathered from all the Nonconformist
collections, under the title of “Psalms and Hymns,” published by Elliott,
of Tichborne-street.  It contains selections from the principal
writers—Watts, Doddridge, Toplady, Wesley, &c.  One we heard sung was one
of the finest and most impassioned of the latter author, commencing—

    O Love Divine, how sweet thou art!
    When shall I find my willing heart
       All taken up by thee?
    I thirst, I faint, I die to prove
    The greatness of redeeming love,
       The love of Christ to me!

This was sung by the congregation to a lively tune and with good
devotional effect.  At the close of this, the preacher read a number of
requests for special prayer from members of the congregation for specific
objects stated on the paper, connected with their personal or family
experience, and some of thanksgiving for former prayers answered.  This
took considerable time, and was followed by a brief petition, giving a
general utterance to these supplications.  The sermon was extempore, and
founded upon Psalm xxiii.  Probably it should be termed a free address,
intended to bring out, by scriptural illustration, the character of the
Redeemer as the “Great Shepherd.”  Mr. Forlong does not appear to believe
in the ordinary style of sermonising, or “philosophising” on distinct
portions or mottoes of Scripture; and has adopted the plan of turning his
audience into a great Bible class.  They follow him systematically
through chapter and verse from beginning to end, and the preacher simply
connects the sense of the passages, and pauses here and there to enforce
a passing thought.  The expositor, however, is animated (as most
Scotchmen are), and familiar in his illustrations; and as to Scripture
itself his system is highly instructive.  The sermon lasts about forty
minutes.  There were about 400 present, on a very inclement morning.
There is a Sunday-school attached, with a good voluntary staff of
teachers, conducted morning and afternoon in the Golborne-Hall, having
200 children of both sexes.  The public services are, Sunday morning at
eleven; evening at seven; and prayer-meeting on Thursday evening.
Communion service on the first Sunday in the month at the morning
service, and the second Sunday at the evening service.  This service is
administered without written form, and by handing round the bread and
wine to the communicants in their seats.  All religious persons are
admitted to it by introduction to the minister.


A SMALL plain brick edifice, built in the old, familiar Grecian style,
and situated in Fowell-street, in the Potteries, Notting-hill.  The
building is a square; and has in the interior on three sides a gallery,
the other being occupied with a platform for the preacher.  In all,
ground floor and galleries, there is accommodation for about 200 people.
On a memorial stone outside is the following: “This stone was laid August
2, 1864, by J. Fowell, Esq., who kindly gave the land, Rev. J. Phillips,
Superintendent Minister.  J. Carrud, Architect and Builder.”  The chapel
is connected with what is called the “Second London” Primitive Methodist
Circuit, in which there are about a dozen different localities
associated, and of which the Rev. Mr. Toulson is the present
superintendent minister, having with him four colleagues.  As one of the
earlier branches from the old Wesleyan body—dating as far back as
1812—the “Primitives,” as their adopted name implies, conceive that they
follow more closely in the steps of Mr. Wesley than the parent body.
Nevertheless their doctrines and their practices are precisely the same,
except in a few minor matters, which it would seem impossible to trace to
a Wesley origin.  Camp-meetings was the question upon which they first
separated from the conference, which disallowed them; but this
peculiarity has much declined of late years.  Female preaching was
another peculiarity, and at one time female preachers were frequently
found upon their plans; but this, too, may be said to have well nigh
passed away.  In general church arrangements and working they assimilate
to the old body in everything, except in the constitution of their
Conference, in which there is a considerable difference.  The Conference
proper of Wesleyanism is composed entirely of ministers, but preceded by
“General Committees,” where the laity are admitted.  In the Primitive
Methodist Connexion, the Conference itself is composed of both ministers
and laymen, and the latter are in the proportion of two to one of the
former.  The two bodies, however, work side by side without antagonism,
but it may be said also without much fraternising.  The social status and
monetary power of the two communities are widely different.  The
Primitives are poor, their chapels are of the least costly kind, and
their ministers have barely a subsistence, yet are they highly
respectable in their order, and exert themselves with vigour and
enthusiasm in their calling.  One of the junior ministers, the Rev. Mr.
Knipe, was officiating in Fowell-street, and offered extempore prayer
with an ardour, read with a homely emphasis, and preached with a
demonstration of manner that can seldom be heard except in a Primitive
Methodist chapel.  His congregation consisted of about 70 or 80 of the
adult population, respectable-looking poor people, by no means the lowest
class to be found in the Potteries.  The latter is not the class that
attend either church or chapel.  The _society_, or the church proper,
consists of from 50 to 70 persons, recognised as members of class.  There
is a Sunday-school with about 80 children, held in the morning and
afternoon.  The services are on Sunday at 11 A.M. and 6.30 P.M.;
Wednesday, 7 P.M.; prayer-meetings, Sunday morning at 7, and on Monday,
Tuesday, and Thursday evenings at 7.  The society, according to Methodist
custom, contributes its quota towards the support of the ministry by the
weekly pence of the members, quarterly contributions, and collections.


THE place of worship known by this name is situated in the Bosworth-road,
Upper Westbourne-park, or, more properly, in Kensal New Town.  It is in
the midst of a mass of new houses, either completed or in progress.  It
was opened for worship in June, 1870.  The Rev. H. W. Meadows, a minister
from Mr. Spurgeon’s College, first instituted services in a room in the
neighbourhood, from which he progressed to the building of this chapel,
at an entire cost of 360_l._  The place is far larger and more commodious
than this sum would seem to indicate; and it impresses one with how much
can be done for 360_l._  Of course, the structure is not imposing, but of
a plain and useful type, having more the appearance of a public hall, but
the interior is solidly fitted with benches.  There is a good platform
pulpit, with a gallery behind it, flanked on one side with a minister’s
vestry.  It is comfortably warmed by a stove in the centre, and well lit
by a set of neat gas-pendants from the beams of the roof.  A debt of
200_l._ remains, which it is hoped will shortly be liquidated.
Accommodation is given for 400 persons; but the attendance, when largest
(in the evening), does not as yet generally exceed 150; and there are
about thirty members in church fellowship.  Mr. Meadows and his friends
have had difficulties to contend with on the spot, as one or two small
preaching-rooms near conducted by persons of the same persuasion would
seem to show.  He has evidently had uphill work; and it was not until the
18th of January, 1872, that a church was finally formed and a settlement
of his pastorate arrived at; and on January 28 in the evening he held his
first ordinance of baptism by immersion.  The cause is regarded as a
branch from Westbourne-grove Baptist Church, and as under the particular
notice and care of the Rev. W. G. Lewis.  The financial support is from
pew-rents and weekly offerings, with occasional aid; but the minister has
never yet derived the benefit of a salary.  The services are, on Sundays:
Prayer-meeting, 7.30 A.M.; preaching at 11 and at 6.30 P.M.  A
Sabbath-school is held, in which there are about eighty scholars, at 9.30
A.M. and 2.30 P.M.  There is a service also on Wednesday evening at 7.30.
The deacons are Mr. W. S. Hook and Mr. C. Heard.  This is not a Strict
Baptist church, but adopts the open communion.


THE memorial stone of this edifice was laid on June 23, 1868, by James
Harvey, Esq., Treasurer of the London Baptist Association; when an
address was delivered by the Rev. W. Brock, D.D., of Bloomsbury Chapel.
A meeting followed in the evening, presided over by J. H. Tritton, Esq.,
when most of the principal ministers representing Nonconformity in West
London were present; and among them the Rev. J. A. Aston, M.A., the then
catholic-spirited Incumbent of St. Stephen’s Church, which is situated
close to the chapel.  The immediate site is in the Cornwall-gardens,
Gloucester-road, and near the Gloucester-road Railway-station, one of the
most eligible sites that could be selected, in the midst of one of the
newest and choicest suburbs of the metropolis.  The neighbourhood
included between the Brompton-road and Queen’s-gate in one direction, and
the Cornwall and Fulham-roads in the other, has few rivals in or around
London.  It includes the vicinity of South Kensington Museum,
Cromwell-road, Onslow-square, Onslow-gardens; Gloucester-road,
Queen’s-gate, Victoria-road, &c.  It was here that the Rev. Samuel Bird,
after having laboured for some time at the Hornton-street Tabernacle, and
subsequently at the Avenue-place Room, Kensington, conceived the idea of
erecting a chapel.  Having taken a lease of the land, with a right of
pre-emption after a specified period, he proceeded to build.  Messrs.
Searle and Sons were the architects, and Mr. W. Higgs the builder, and in
due course it was opened for Divine worship.  At first it seemed as
though Nonconformity in South Kensington was about to make an onward
movement; but whether from any social peculiarity in the locality, or
personal peculiarity in the minister, or from the circumstance of the
opening and enterprising of two or three more new churches in the same
part, we cannot pretend to say; but certain it is that the new Baptist
church, ere yet it was scarcely formed, suddenly collapsed.  After about
two years’ effort, the minister departed and the chapel was closed.  It
has remained closed to the present time (Feb., 1872); and is now
announced to be sold by auction at the City Mart, by Messrs. Fox and
Bousfield, on the 14th inst.  Its future history therefore cannot for the
moment be predicted.  It is an affecting sight to see so handsome a
building deserted; and on visiting it for the purpose of a survey, an
aged person, formerly, as we learned from himself, a member of the
congregation, and who now seemed not far from the better world, was
pensively whiling away the quiet morning in the fresh air around the
silent temple.  He was sadly deploring the desolation and abandonment of
his Zion; and seemed to have his own theory as to the cause of the
failure, of which he made no secret.  The building is one of the
completest, most commodious and effective chapels to be met with around
London.  It is in brick with Bath-stone dressings, and designed generally
in the early geometrical Gothic style of architecture; and has been
greatly beautified by the mortgagee, since it was closed to the public,
by the erection of a handsome tower and spire; and the facilities of the
interior have been also increased by the erection of a gallery.  It now
affords accommodation for 1,000 persons.  It is substantially fitted with
modern pewing and pulpit, and has an excellent baptistry, vestry, large
schoolroom, and apparatus for warming and lighting.  There are three
front entrances with lobbies, two communicating by staircases with the
gallery, and the centre one with the body of the building.  There are
also two side entrances; and three handsome lamp-posts adorn the
frontage.  It must have been heart-breaking to be the instrument of
rearing such an edifice, and so soon to be compelled to relinquish it.
For some time past the Incumbent of St. Stephen’s has been using the
spacious schoolroom underneath the ground-floor of the chapel for a


DIVINE SERVICE is held at the Kensington Workhouse, for the inmates, on
Sundays, at 9.30 A.M. and 3 P.M.  At present there are no other services;
but a new code is now being introduced which will effect a very desirable
change in this respect.  At a recent meeting of the Guardians, the
“Visiting Committee” made the following report and recommendation to the
Board: “The Visiting Committee having in consideration the resolutions
passed by the Board on the 1st of February inst., and having also
considered the letter from the present Chaplain of the 14th inst., in
which he states his inability to devote a much larger portion of his time
than he has done for the last twenty five years, resolve that it is
desirable that the Chaplain of the Workhouse and Infirmary give his whole
time to the spiritual care of the inmates in the same way as the
clergyman of a parish, and that, considering the numbers of this house
and the work to be done, the least salary should be 150_l._ per annum.”
This resolution is adopted by the Board, and will henceforth be acted
upon—an urgently necessary improvement, although it may come to involve a
further change in the chaplaincy.  The Rev. Dr. Frost, formerly of the
Kensington Grammar School, has held the appointment for a quarter of a
century.  When he first began he had the spiritual care of less than 150
inmates.  The number gradually rose until two years ago they amounted to
800.  At the present time, March, 1872, the house contains 760.  It will
be seen, therefore, that the religious requirements of this large number
are quite beyond the provision made under the old system; and the
Guardians have acted under a strong sense of duty in bringing about a
thorough reformation.  It was not until two years ago, when the inmates
were 800, that any increase of salary was asked for on behalf of the
Chaplain.  Previous to that it stood at 50_l._ per annum; since then it
has reached 65_l._  Double this sum will enable a chaplain to give a
principal part of his working time to the objects of his calling in the
house, and to bring a more decisive moral influence to bear upon the
inmates.  The paucity of religious service in this workhouse up to this
time can be looked upon in no other light than a calamity; and may serve
in some measure to explain the fact that there are so many refractory and
misbehaved paupers taken hence to the magistrate at Hammersmith for
correction.  We cannot but think there might have been, there ought to
have been, at least one week-night service instituted long ago; and if
the Guardians were not in a position to pay for this, among the numerous
clergy in Kensington some one might have been found who would
occasionally have taken duty gratuitously.  But we fear that up to the
present time it has occurred to few to reflect that the _souls_ of
inmates required a fair amount of attention as well as their bodies.


leading out of Kensington-square southward, is a very humble
building—apparently a former dwelling house—converted into what are
termed “Little Charles-street Day and Sunday-schools.”  In the upper room
the preachers of the Primitive Methodist Connexion hold services on
Sundays—morning and evening—at eleven and half-past six.  The
congregation averages about 40, and the Sunday-school children number
about 60.

PALACE-AVENUE ROOM.—This is a large room sometimes used for other public
purposes, at the rear of the King’s Arms Hotel, High-street, Kensington.
It has lately been engaged on Sundays for religions worship and
preaching, on a professedly _unsectarian_ principle.  Hours of service,
eleven A.M. and half-past six.

SHAFTESBURY HALL.—At this hall, situated at the end of the Portland-road,
Notting-hill, a mission preaching service is conducted on Sunday evenings
at seven, by Mr. William Winton, attached to the City Mission in that
district.  Mr. Winton is an earnest man, and addresses himself to the
working classes of the Potteries and vicinity, and generally has the
hall, which will hold about 100, well filled at his services.

BLECHYNDEN-STREET MISSION-SCHOOL.—Here are day and Sunday-schools for the
poor children of the Potteries, situated in the lowest part of that poor
district.  It is a separate building, and answers well its purpose.  On
Sundays, morning and afternoon, there is school, with an average of 30 to
40 in attendance, including infants.  In the evening, at seven, there is
preaching by Mr. Norris, a missionary in that part, who gathers a
congregation of from 60 to 80.  In the day-school, there are about 120
scholars, boys and girls.

GOLBORNE HALL, GOLBORNE-ROAD.—This hall, situated in the new
Golborne-road, Upper Westbourne-park, is capable of seating 200 people,
and has been opened on Sundays for some twelve months past for Divine
Service.  It was first engaged for mission services by a clergyman of the
Church of England, but is now held by the Rev. Mr. Davis, a Nonconforming
preacher, formerly of the Kilburn-park Chapel.  Here is something like
the nucleus of a society or church, professing to be _unsectarian_.
There is preaching at 11 A.M. and 6.30 P.M. on Sundays, and at 7 on
Tuesday evenings, and the Sacrament is administered every first Sunday
evening in the month.  All the seats are free, and the cause is supported
by voluntary weekly offerings.  In the morning the congregation contains
but few adults; but in the evening it reaches an average of 80 or 90.
There is a Sunday-school, with about forty scholars of both sexes in

on service in the Silchester-hall, which they hired, but about six months
ago adjourned to the present rooms, upon the occasion of the purchase of
the hall by the Roman Catholics.  Thus excluded from a very commodious
place, the present rooms, adjoining Silchester-villas, which are not
convenient, are only held temporarily, until a chapel or a better place
can be obtained, for funds to provide which an appeal is now being made.
There is a good Sunday-school attached, with 300 children on the books,
and an average attendance of 100 in the morning and 200 in the afternoon.
Between 30 and 40 members compose the society, and the adult public
services are attended by numbers varying from 30 to 50 in the morning,
and 50 to 80 in the evenings.  The “rooms” are included in the Bayswater
Wesleyan “Circuit,” and the preaching is arranged for on the plan of that
circuit, and principally done by the “local,” with an occasional visit
from the itinerant preachers.


THE CONVENT OF THE ORDER OF ST. CLARE.—A convent of this order of nuns,
sometimes termed _Clarisses_, but more commonly spoken of as the “Poor
Clares,” is planted on a fine site, near two acres in extent, in
Notting-hill.  It comprises two blocks of buildings, one more in the
interior of the grounds, and the other abutting upon the main, opposite
to Edmund-terrace in the Cornwall-road.  Excepting this part, by which
communication with the outside world is kept up, through a low, strong,
cloistered doorway, the whole premises are enclosed within high brick
walls, and along the Ladbroke-grove-road the whole length, from its
junction with Cornwall road to that of Blenheim-crescent.  Entering by
the low door in the Cornwall-road, the visitor finds himself in a shaded
vestibule or hall, and having directly on his left the entrance of the
convent chapel.  This chapel occupies only a small space, being capable
of containing, if filled, about fifty worshippers.  It is profusely
decorated on all sides with images of the Virgin and saints.  It has a
small altar, and on the right a darkened sacristry.  The most noticeable
thing—the thing mostly felt—is the profound silence reigning, which the
hushed movement of the priest, whose white surplice was just visible in
the gloom, only served to make more manifest.  The religious offices are
performed by priests from the Catholic Church of St. Mary’s, Bayswater.
This order of nuns was founded in 1212, by St. Clara—from whom it derives
its name—a native of Assisi, in Italy.  She adopted the rule of St.
Francis in all its rigour, and her followers are absolutely forbidden to
have any possessions.  There are also other peculiarities in their rules,
habit of dress, &c.  Those who enter by this door surrender all ownership
of earthly treasure, and doom themselves to perpetual poverty; and in the
end, on attaining the higher degree of devotion, sever themselves from
all contact with and even from the sight of the outer world.  In this
convent at Notting-hill there are at present about twenty nuns, who are
pretty equally divided into the two classes of “Externals” and
“Internals,” or, in other words, into those who maintain subdued
communications with beyond the walls, and those who are strictly and
unchangeably confined within.  Very little farther is or can be known of
them.  The sisters work with their own hands, and, under the direction of
the Lady Superior, do all their domestic service according to a
prescribed order.  Great strictness of discipline is understood to
prevail.  On ringing at the low door, which is darkened from its depth in
the wall, the blind of a small grated window was withdrawn, and a pair of
lustrous dark eyes peered through.  Anon the door is softly opened; and,
in answer to a deferential inquiry as to whether it might be practicable
for an outsider to come and look within, the gentle portress—then acting
as such in her turn—promptly and with a cheerful air gave permission to
enter and see the chapel.  This nun carried herself so pleasantly, and
answered our queries so readily and agreeably, as almost to ignore the
impression so common on these occasions, of secret restraint.

THE CONVENT OF THE FRANCISCANS.—This has been established in the northern
part of the Portobello-road, Notting-hill, about ten years.  It is a
substantial brick structure, entered by strong conventual doors, and
sufficiently enclosed from the profane world.  We were politely admitted
by the kind sister who attended as portress, to whom we made known our
object.  “Are you a Catholic?” she asked; “Yes,” was the reply.  But the
quick-witted sister at once detected the expression of countenance with
which the answer was given, and said, smilingly, “Ah, a Protestant
Catholic.”  We readily accepted this position, and were ushered into a
neat waiting-room, pending consultation by our guide with the “rev.
mother,” apparently with the view of clearing herself from all
responsibility in the matter.  In about five minutes she returned with
permission for us to see the chapel.  This we entered by what is termed
the door and chapel of the “Externals.”  The compartment is divided into
three parts, the outer court, a small chapel in itself appropriated for
“Externals,” which in this case means visitors, or such as may
occasionally be tarrying in the convent, but who are not really entered
in the order.  The other part, which resembles the choir in an ordinary
church, is sacred to the sisters themselves.  The chancel divides the
two, which has the altar and the usual furniture, and in the background
an effective fresco by Westlake, portraying the “Annunciation” and
“Coronation” of the Virgin.  This we were allowed to approach; but when
we made for the “Nuns’ Choir” below, we were impulsively caught back, and
told that none “ever entered there” but the “sisters” themselves.  We
apologised and retired.  There are now between twenty and thirty nuns at
this establishment, who appear to enjoy slightly more life than their
sisters the “Poor St. Clares.”  In a remote room a piano was being
played, accompanying a clear, strong voice; and the corridors and
apartments through the silence of which it rang were light and cheerful.
The order established here is not the _strictest_ sect of St. Francis.
The “Poor Clares” are supposed to be that; but the “Franciscans”
correspond more with the “Brethren of the Community,” who in the 14th
century insisted on mitigating the more austere rules of the founder.
Although the _recluse_ life and the vow of poverty are upon them, in
practice the severity of these rules is relaxed to meet, in some sort,
the varying temperament of human nature.  Attached to the convent, at the
next door, is a school for poor children, called the “Saint Elizabeth’s
Home.”  This is entirely managed by the sisters, and contains at present
66 girls, ranging in age from four to fourteen years.  The religious
ceremonies are here also performed by priests from St. Mary’s, Bayswater.

establishments of the Roman Catholics in West London this is in some
respects the most remarkable.  It is situated exactly opposite the former
building in Portobello-road, a large brick edifice, giving one the
impression of a workhouse or hospital, and in fact not unlike them in its
objects.  It has been founded about four years, and subsists entirely
upon voluntary charity.  It is a home for the aged and infirm poor of
both sexes, and has at the present time no less than 210 inmates.  It is
under the management of the nuns of the place, known as the “Little
Sisters,” which may also be considered as a sect of the order of St.
Francis.  The Franciscans were first called by the saint _Fraterculi_,
“Little Brethren,” in token of their humility.  For a like reason the
corresponding order of nuns take the appellation “Little Sisters.”  At
this place they are foreigners, and of a humble grade.  In the former
cases the sisters we saw were English, and refined in their deportment
and speech; in the present they appeared of another class, but adapted to
the work they have to do.  The “Rev. Mother,” who is the “matron” of the
place, came, with a meek young nun in attendance, to converse with us.
She was extremely reticent, and inquisitive as to our motive, concerning
which we found it difficult to satisfy her.  She, however, readily
conducted us through the place, the attendant nun following closely.  The
chapel is large for a private one, and great care and some expense have
been bestowed upon the chancel, altar, and little side chapels—devoted
respectively to the Virgin and St. Joseph.  Several of the old people
were sitting about, saying their _Ave Marias_, and counting their beads,
and a young foreign priest knelt at the railings enclosing the main
altar.  Perceiving us about to leave without bowing to the altar, the
“Rev. Mother,” who had already bowed, turned and bowed again several
times, as though in atonement for our omission.  The dormitories are
large and airy, and closely fitted up with beds down each side, having
plain patchwork counterpanes, made with charitable hands, all after the
same pattern.  In a large room below many of the old men were sitting
about at leisure, reading books and newspapers, with which charity
accommodates them.  In another large compartment the old women were at
tea, served up to them in good-sized basins, with plain bread, and
butter, if any, invisible.  They seemed to be thoroughly enjoying
themselves, and rose politely as we passed through.  The wards of the
infirmary presented the most affecting sight of all.  The inmates here
were not numerous, and all—with one or two exceptions—very old bedridden
people, who appeared to be dying from natural exhaustion in the ordinary
course, and, as some of them tearfully and hopefully said, in answer to
our few words of encouragement, “Waiting their change.”  There were more
men than women; and two or three of the males were about in middle life.
One of these, the Matron told us, had been in bed for twenty-five years.
The “Little Sisters” provide homes for the aged poor, professedly
“without distinction of religion;” although, of course, all the internal
arrangements are Roman Catholic.  They appeal for help to the public, and
say they accept “any contributions in money, food, clothing, &c.”  They
have no funds for the maintenance of the home but what is thus regularly


ST. PETER’S, NOTTING-HI LL.—A second visit to this church enabled us to
hear a sermon preached by the respected Vicar himself, the Rev. John
Robbins, D.D.  The text was taken from 2 Tim. i. 12: ‘For I know whom I
have believed.’  The subject of the discourse was _Faith_; and after a
brief _exordium_, illustrating that faith was man’s own act under the
influence of Divine grace, and improved by the exercise of a man’s own
faculties, the preacher proceeded to show that when God commands us to
believe, and when he is pleased to make our faith a condition of
salvation, it would seem that faith cannot be “some magical and arbitrary
something which suddenly falls into the soul,” but a thing which in some
measure depends on ourselves.  Faith, in all its stages and degrees,
“always” depended on the _will_.  The principle was illustrated by the
experience of two persons starting in life, each having a certain faith
in justice and honesty derived from early education—the one yields to the
temptations of evil, and the other resists, the result being that the
first loses all faith, whilst the other grows in it to
perfection—retaining “the moral ideal and will” to a “high and happy
development.”  Each of these characters is responsible for the degree of
his faith, that “depending on the action of his own will.”  Faith, then,
was strengthened by fidelity; and he would say to them, “Live for
holiness, truth, justice, the good, the beautiful, the true, and then
they would surely believe that they were not mere cold abstractions of
theology, but the most real of all things!  Let them now go to the very
core of religious faith.  If the Gospel told them to believe in Jesus
Christ, was it not that Jesus Christ is truth, was holiness, love, living
and incarnate?  The more they followed him the more they would believe in
him.  For instance, there is one who as yet sees in Jesus a mere man, but
his doctrine attracts and seems of a beauty incomparable.  He would not
like to pass for a man without faith, yet when he analysed his faith he
found that it reduced itself to a mere belief in Christ’s moral teaching.
That was very little, said some of them.  But he was not one to despise
little beginnings.  Let him act up to his faith, and strive to conform
his own life to the sublimity of Christ’s morality, and keep that object
courageously and unflinchingly in view, and he would not need to continue
this long before he would be forced to admit that he was very far from
his end, and that the holiness of Christ’s life completely and utterly
transcends the natural strength of mere humanity.  It would not then
require a great effort in him to believe that the Scripture speaks truly
when it speaks of the fall of man and the slavery of sin.  He would defy
him to examine his state long before a voice from the depths of his own
heart told him that he too needed pardon.  Following this it would bring
him to the foot of the cross, and then, casting a glance of holy
self-abnegation (which was faith in her truest aspect), he would
gratefully adore the divine wisdom which was able to reconcile on the
cross, justice and mercy; and, ravished by a pardon which alone could
satisfy the conscience, he would rise the redeemed of the Lord, and able
to say with St. Paul, ‘I know in whom I have believed.’”  After some
further discriminating views as to the possible variations in human
experience in the attainment of saving faith, the preacher concluded with
a pointed application of the truth to his hearers, the sermon lasting
about forty minutes.  As a preacher, Dr. Robbins is earnest and
intelligent.  He uses his MS., but does so freely, without apparently
being trammelled by it.  As we before remarked upon his excellent reading
of the Scriptures, we can now record a similar view of his pulpit work.
His manner is natural and impressive, and his style fresh; whilst there
is evident painstaking to think out a subject for his audience, and to
enable them to follow him along the course of his argument.  His
congregation is large, and, in appearance, of the more wealthy and
educated classes; and his mode of teaching the experience of true faith
as above was probably an adaptation to the mental habitude and
circumstances of his hearers.  We can conceive a different class of
audience whom Dr. Robbins would soon discover to require quite another
way of putting the process of religious experience.  But it is surely a
great part of the wisdom of the Christian teacher to find out the
readiest line by which those to whom he is ministering can be led to
Christ.  Yet, the impression is probably correct that the Rev. Doctor is
in theology of the “Broad Church School.”

THE PRO-CATHEDRAL, KENSINGTON.—At the time of our former sketch of this
place, the principal preacher did not occupy the pulpit, and we therefore
now append a note on Monsignor Capel, who is unquestionably a leading
attraction at the Pro-Cathedral.  This rev. father appears about forty
years of age, and may be said to be very superior in everything as a
preacher, except that in which, after all, we must conclude it is of the
highest moment that a preacher should attain perfection—viz., the Gospel.
To say that he does not preach the Gospel would not be quite correct; but
there is just so much that is not the Gospel intermingling in his
discourses, that we much fear that in many the good wheat must be choked
by the tares.  As a divine, he is, of course, framed upon the Roman
Catholic system of theology—and all that can be said is that his
preaching does not illustrate the peculiarities of Popery more strongly
than the fundamental truths of the Christian religion.  To a cultivated
theological ear the latter will form the staple of his discourses, and
the former the colouring incidents.  And they are there in sufficient
degree to show that Monsignor Capel studiously identifies all the errors
of Romanism with the Gospel—enough to a decided Protestant ear to mar the
better effect of his eloquence.  To hear him makes one grieve that such
elocutionary powers as he manifestly possesses are not confined
altogether to the illustration of those great verities of the Gospel upon
which he often descants with feeling and power.  But he is trammelled by
Romish dogma and tradition.  It is impossible to deny that Monsignor
Capel is an orator of no mean order.  We have heard greater pulpit
orators certainly, but seldom one who, upon the whole, has been more
pleasing in his own style.  He has not only the natural gift of voice and
manner, but he has culture, which together, if he were in any other than
the Roman Catholic Church, would probably open his way to extensive
influence.  He is now, however, ministering to a congregation of four or
five hundred in the morning, and six or seven in the evening, in great
measure of a very miscellaneous and unsettled character.  He preaches
quite extempore; but such is the order maintained throughout his
discourse, and such the flow of appropriate language, that an idea of the
most careful preparation is conveyed to the hearer.  We are creditably
informed by those who know the habits of the rev. gentleman that he is a
very hard worker; that, in fact, he works “night and day” at sermonising;
hence no doubt the freshness and general excellence of his pulpit
orations.  Such harmonious arrangement of thought, with such general
felicity of diction, continued, as a rule, for from forty-five minutes to
an hour, can only come of mental labour in the study.  The discourse we
heard was from the words “The Prince of Peace,” being the morning of
Christmas-eve.  After an appropriate introduction, the preacher proceeded
to enlarge on the following topics: I. Christ was the only source of that
principle on which peace could be obtained by man.  Under this head the
enmity between God and man, by reason of original sin, and reconciliation
by the atoning death of Christ were topics fully brought out; and an
affecting appeal was made to the congregation on the “vanity” of seeking
peace in earthly or conventional sources without coming to the cross.
II. Christ was the sole undivided object of our affections, and as such
was the centre of, the Prince of Peace to his people.  Here the ways in
which the Saviour seeks to win the affections of his people were
treated—even, the preacher said, to the “multiplying himself upon our
altars.”  In view of such tokens of condescending love, the
uncharitableness of Christians, and their frequent cynical criticisms on
their fellow-Christians, “even from the Pope down to the peasant,” were
sharply rebuked, and the habitual imitation of Christ’s own love and
tenderness enforced: for thus were all men to know that they were his
disciples—that they “loved one another.”  III. Christ was the Prince of
Peace in that he prescribes the rule by which we are to follow peace.  We
must submit to his authority in this; and this authority he had placed in
his Church.  Many sought it outside the Church, in pursuing their own
fancies, or the opinions of other men; but to them there was no peace.
And even within the Church, although “the great body of Catholics held
the truth,” yet there was a vast amount of perverseness with some, and a
sad tendency to follow their private judgment, or the teaching of some
preacher or order, rather than the directions of the Church.  But the
Church alone had authority to teach, and if we would have peace of soul
we must be ruled by those fundamental laws of authority reposed in her.
She taught that the royal road to peace was by the Cross.  The crown of
thorns must be upon our heads.  “There must be bodily mortification as
well as interior mortification.”  He advised them to try a week of
mortification—willingly to take up their cross—they would then see if
peace would not follow.  With this they were to connect prayer; _prayer_,
and not _vain repetitions_.  They were to struggle as earnestly for this
divine peace as they had often done for some earthly object.  These views
were expanded and applied with great force of language and facility of
illustration, together with a pathos in appeal which led one to lament
that it had not a sounder basis of biblical teaching to rest upon.  But
Romish dogmas and discipline were often put in the place of the free and
open word of God, and bodily exercise in the place of penitent faith unto
salvation.  Then as to all the eloquence, the fine, flowing sentences,
the vocal modulations, we were inclined to ask, “_Cui bono_?”  It seemed
after all but beating the air—a strange confusion of Bible truth and
man’s inventions and conceits; as distinct from sound reason as from
sound doctrine.

ST. MARK’S, NOTTING-HILL.—Since our first article on this church we have
availed ourselves of a second visit.  The Rev. E. K. Kendall, the vicar,
of whose usual ministry we had heard very favourable accounts, preached
the sermon.  Being the first Sunday after Epiphany, the rev. gentleman
took his text from Luke ii. and 51st, “And he went down with them and
came to Nazareth, and was subject unto them.”  The preacher had on the
previous day discoursed on the visit of the Magi to the infant Saviour,
and remarked upon the _humility_ of these learned men in the presence of
the Babe of Bethlehem.  He now passed to the still greater example of
humility, presented in the life and conduct of the Redeemer himself, who
dwelt at Nazareth in humble subjection to his parents, and visibly grew
in wisdom and stature, and in favour with God and man.  His mother, the
lowliest of saints, might well think of these things, and wonder at the
strange dealings of Providence which led her to exaltation by such a way
of humility.  The present season was full of the same teaching—viz., that
“Before honour is humility.”  There was not only the lowly mother called
“Blessed” because the Most High had done great things for her; not only
the humble wise men, laying aside the pride of human learning before the
great mystery of Godliness, but there was the still more wonderful
abasement of Him who is the Son of God, but still emptied himself of his
glory and took on him the form of a servant, made in the likeness of man,
and prepared for his Divine work by the life of simple obedience in the
carpenter’s home in despised Nazareth.  Strange it may seem to us—strange
in this nineteenth century, that humility should be thus set before us as
pre-eminently a Christian grace, and that the title and admission to the
blessings of the Christian covenant should be still declared, “Except ye
be converted and become as little children, ye shall in no case enter the
kingdom of heaven.”  “Be ye clothed with humility.”  The saints in all
ages had learned as a first lesson on entering the Divine Presence, that
the only seemly attitude of a sinner is one of self-abasement.  He would
not have them to think that the religion of Christ was one suitable only
for a world in its infancy and not in its manhood, as some in their pride
taught; and therefore he would enforce the absolute necessity of all
being clothed in the same humble garment.  The language of Scripture was
undeniable in its inculcation of a teachable and childlike spirit.  The
Old Testament was as clear upon this point as the New, both alike
insisting on the duty of obedience not only in a child, but in a man, and
this not only to the ordinance and revelation of God, but even for the
Lord’s sake to the ordinance of man.  Ambition as such was in every one
condemned.  It is the duty of man to use and not abuse the powers and
gifts which come from God; and if he thus becomes great as the world
reckons greatness, it is only because God has given him the power, and
the responsibility of using that power well.  But those who measure
themselves by themselves, and compare themselves among themselves were
not wise.  Christianity may be summed up in three words, Repentance,
Faith, Obedience, and each of those implies that the man is humble—humble
for his own faults, which abase him in dust and ashes; humble as to his
own understanding, submitting to believe that which he cannot see; humble
as to his own judgment—even in practical matters content to obey rather
than behave as may best suit his own notions or convenience.  Was it not
so, that this humility many would consider somewhat out of date.  True a
man of extreme self-assertion was apt to wound the pride of his
neighbours, and so come to be despised, especially if his pretence were
without solid qualities to back it.  But did we on the whole esteem and
admire those who are humble-minded; were we not too apt to judge as if
such a quality were a sign of weakness in its possessor?  Or that,
however lovely it might appear, it is not one of those virtues which
ordinary men can afford to cultivate, but rather as a hothouse plant or
tender exotic; too frail to stand the rough blasts of the world?  Were
there not tendencies ahead which seem to show that humility is thought by
some a virtue which might beseem the babyhood of civilisation; but that
it is ours to practice a mode of thinking and acting natural to its
manhood?  Repentance well enough if it only meant living by experience of
the past; faith well enough for those devoid of critical faculties, but
certainly not to be exacted for any dogmas or doctrines even from the
unlearned, who should be left free to their own opinions; obedience well
enough as a thing to be claimed so far as society may agree to lay down
certain rules for its own protection or benefit, to which all citizens
must submit as a matter simply of mutual convenience, not at all as a
matter of duty.  He (the preacher) did not exaggerate when he said that
such were the evil tendencies which seemed to him to be at work among us,
contrary alike to the principles of true religion and true wisdom,
repeating in a form suited to our own day the first temptation of our
first parents in Eden.  Were they not reminded of the saying of
Scripture—that in the last days “perilous times should come; for men
shall be lovers of their own selves, covetous, boasters, proud,
blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy, without natural
affection, truce-breakers, false accusers, incontinent, fierce, despisers
of those that are good, traitors, heady, high-minded, lovers of pleasure
more than lovers of God, having the form of Godliness, but denying the
power thereof.”  He thought the lessons of the Nativity and Epiphany came
as a very wholesome corrective to these tendencies.  The preacher went on
to show that the causes of this want of humility were that God was
forgotten, and self-abasing views of his holiness were, therefore, not
obtained; and that men lost sight of the fact that this humility was a
Divine grace, and insisted that it was not to be looked on as littleness,
want of enterprise or subtle resource, and certainly not a want of power,
and that the greatest of men have been most noted for humility.  A very
effective sermon on the subject was brought to a close by a pointed and
affectionate application of the truth, that this humility can alone lead
us to true dignity and peace.  As a preacher, Mr. Kendall possesses a
style of simple and engaging eloquence, with a clear utterance, one under
which it is next to impossible to be inattentive.  Though advantage is
taken of the M.S., the sermon is nevertheless _preached_, and that with
considerable expression of manner.  Indeed, we are glad to observe the
old style of simply _reading_ over sermons in a perfunctory manner
passing out of sight; and Mr. Kendall is a good example of the happy
change.  The sermon was not too long or too short but struck the medium
well, at the point of thirty-five minutes.  We were pleased in this case
with the fine effect of a good pulpit to preach from.  St. Mark’s is one
of the best pulpits we have seen, being of noble proportions and
commanding, and is a good setting for any preacher who may occupy it.
This is no small matter in church architecture.

ST. AUGUSTINE’S, SOUTH KENSINGTON.—The church of this name, since our
former notice, has removed from the temporary iron building then used, to
the permanent structure in Queen’s gate.  This was opened in an
incomplete condition in September last, the works of the exterior not
being finished and the chancel not built.  In consequence of these
circumstances the Bishop of London declined to consecrate it, and service
is carried on in the nave.  The edifice, when all complete, will have
cost about 18,000_l._, more than one-half of which has yet to be raised.
The building of the chancel is therefore delayed, upon which we
understand the Vicar, Mr. Chope, is intending to expend a large sum.
Meanwhile, a space is appropriated for a chancel and choir out of the
nave, and under what is to be the chancel-arch.  The architect, Mr.
Butterfield, has produced thus far an elegant interior, combined with
strength.  Six beautiful columns of alternate blocks of Bath stone and
Portland divide the nave on each side from the aisles, and support an
equal number of imposing Gothic arcades in Bath-stone, and clerestory of
variegated brickwork.  The windows of the clerestory are numerous, and
form the only medium of light and ventilation.  The west front exterior
is in the Decorated style, built of red and straw-coloured brick, with
Bath-stone dressings.  A principal feature is the _window tracery_, which
is elaborately carried out.  The style of the worship is precisely as in
the former place, only we do not observe the same _punctilio_ in
separating the male and female portion of the audience.  At every repeat
of the _Gloria Patri_, the clergy and choristers turn their backs to the
people; the intoning was done, in the purest Gregorian tone, by the Vicar
himself, and the Litany was chanted by one of the curates, kneeling in
front of the altar with his back to the congregation.  As an instance of
the effect of the Ritualistic style on the minds of persons brought up in
the plain Christian worship of the Church of England, we may mention that
at one part of the service, a gentleman, evidently a stranger from the
country, turned and observed to us inquiringly, “I suppose this _is_ a
Church of England Church, is it not, Sir?”  He was clearly in perplexity
upon the subject, and after he received our answer he looked on with
growing astonishment through the whole service.  The sermon was preached
by a visiting clergyman; who possessed a very good voice, but which, from
some unfortunate peculiarity in its use, did not succeed in conveying to
us at the other end of the church one single intelligible sentence.
Apart from sundry not unmusical modulations—alternating with whispers—the
whole was a blank even to our somewhat practised ear.  The church has
very grave acoustic defects, or the preacher equally grave defects in the
management of his vocal organ.  Accommodation is here provided for 1,000
persons.  At the opening service it is recounted by persons present that
the celebrant at the communion, at the close of the service, in presence
of the people, drank up all the wine that remained, completely turning
the chalice bottom upwards, and ate all the bread with scrupulous care.
There is a large metal crucifix fixed upon a block on the altar.  What is
the real difference between this and its standing on the altar itself?
It is in “apparent connection with the altar,” and the vicar must know
that this is a contravention of the law.  Two huge candle-sticks with
candles are upon the altar, and occasionally lit at times “when not
wanted for the purpose of giving light.”  This also is a thing not
allowed.  Mr. Willis is building an organ for this church at a cost of
1,000_l._, towards which not 300_l._ has yet been promised.
Services—Sunday, Communion at 8 A.M.; matins, Litany, and sermon at 11
A.M.; second celebration at 12.30 P.M.; evensong and sermon at 7 P.M.
Week-day matins at 10 A.M.; evensong at 3 P.M.  Saints’ days and
Thursdays, at 8 A.M., Holy Communion.  Full choral service on Sundays and
the greater holy days.  Christmas-day, choral A.M., and carols at

ST. MATTHIAS, WEST BROMPTON.—The nave of this church is now being built,
apparently in the same style as that of St. Augustine.  Meanwhile, the
temporary structure is used within the outer building shell.  Mr. Haines,
since our former notice, has not failed to refine Romewards upon his even
then notorious Ritualism.  Some of his immediate neighbours, who
occasionally attend his place, have expressed astonishment at his
progress.  At the celebration of the Eucharist after a Sunday morning
service we ourselves observed that it was difficult in reality to
distinguish it from High Mass at the Pro-Cathedral or the Oratory.  There
were three priests at the altar, with their backs to the audience,
mysteriously manipulating the elements, crossing and recrossing each
other, in frequent change of place, bowing each time to the centre,
alternately kneeling and rising together, breaking the dumb motions with
an occasional priestly murmur, given in exact imitation of the Low Latin
monotone of a Romish priest, all varied now and then with a few stains in
solo or chorus from the choir, which was in full force, apparently
emulating the Mass music of other places.  All this in the dim light of a
shaded chancel, with three sevens of candles burning on altar, flanked by
two tall ones on the right and left—twenty-three candles in all—with
sundry other movements of symbolical design, and we have the St. Matthias
representation of the Mass.  The congregation was a full one for a
Communion Service; but in the main composed of young persons, many of
whom appeared to be present from curiosity or in the capacity of

ST. PAUL’S ONSLOW-SQUARE.—On a second visit we had the opportunity of
hearing the Rev. C. Molyneaux, vicar.  Having heard of his fame as an
eloquent and Evangelical minister, we were anxious that the “Index”
should not go forth in its separate form without a note which seemed
necessary to complete our former account.  Our impression on hearing Mr.
Molyneaux was that public report concerning him, had “nothing
exaggerated,” nor “set down aught in malice.”  And, indeed, it is
noteworthy that the general impression created concerning a minister is
seldom far from the truth as to prevailing characteristics, although it
may often be amenable to correction on those finer points which require
experience and trained appreciation to estimate.  Mr. Molyneaux’s voice
is moderately strong only, but his utterance is distinct, and therefore
he can be well heard in every part of the church.  He preaches
_extempore_; but has so well prepared his theme, that his thoughts and
language flow evenly and briskly on without hindrance or incumbrance to
the end.  We can truly say that we have never listened to a minister
without a MS. with more of that pleasureable sense which arises from the
feeling that he who is addressing us is perfectly free from
embarrassment.  Nothing troubles a hearer more than to feel that the
preacher has not thoroughly mastered his subject, and therefore is liable
at every step to mental perturbation.  We can safely promise any who go
to worship at St. Paul’s and to hear the Rev. Capel Molyneaux the most
complete immunity from any such infliction.  The address is intelligible
to every one, the eloquence is of that home-speaking kind which is most
likely to find its way to the heart, and, doubtless, it does reach to the
hearts of many; whilst the teaching is in the main of that unmistakable
Gospel kind which enlightens without mystifying.  Mr. Molyneaux is at the
antipodes from those “priests” who are oft in preaching up the “Church,”
the “Clergy,” the “Altar,” much as though they were afraid people would
forget their own professional importance.  In the ministry at St. Paul’s
all this essential emptiness is scattered to the winds.  The great themes
are Christ himself, his redemption for man, his glory, and the future of
his faithful people.  On the latter subject the rev. gentleman discoursed
on the day in question—“And I John saw the holy city, new Jerusalem,
coming down from God out of Heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her
husband.” (Rev. xxi. 2.)  The preacher opened with expressions of
gratitude that the new Lectionary had enabled them that day, for the
first time in the history of their Church, to read under authority from
the book of Revelation.  It was to him (the preacher) a remarkable and
somewhat discreditable fact that the use of a book of Scripture into
which the Holy Spirit had introduced words of special blessing had been,
though not intentionally, yet virtually ignored and proscribed in the
public service of the Church.  He intended to take advantage of the happy
change now brought about to expound to the congregation the heavenly
teaching of that important book.  In everything that Mr. Molyneaux said
about the general blissful prospects of the faithful every mind would
gratefully concur; but even this excellent minister is not without his
peculiarities.  If men _will_ have peculiarities of doctrinal views, we
had rather far that they refer to the future than to the past, because
here men can indulge their fancy with an innocence which they cannot when
they take liberty with the accomplished and recorded facts of Bible
history.  Prophecy offers a wide scope for the imagination to play in;
and Mr. Molyneaux has lively imagination, and gives it a bold flight in
dealing with the mystical book.  It was apparent enough that the preacher
was a _Millennarian_; no doubt conscientiously so.  First, he considered
the City itself; secondly, its relations to this earth; and thirdly, the
general religious purpose and utility of such a revelation.  The preacher
declaimed warmly against the “Spiritualists,” who explain everything in a
spiritual sense only.  This city was “no shadow,” “no myth,” but “a real
city,” “a locality,” “a glorious habitation.”  True there were figurative
expressions in describing its “foundations, walls of precious stones,
gates,” &c., but all this must represent something.  It indicated a
reality, or else we were led astray from beginning to end.  This was
evident enough.  But it was not quite so plain to our understanding when
speaking of the relations of this city to earth, the preacher represented
it as coming literally down to a position “contiguous” to earth, and
there being situated with Christ the King and Ruler in it; and, by
excessive glory, giving light to the saved nations of the earth, which
(the earth) it was emphatically declared would “never be destroyed,” but
would continue “for ever and ever.”  This descent of the city was to be
the salvation of “the nations” then living; and Israel occupying the
foremost place.  It was an error to suppose that the nations of the earth
would ever be converted by the preaching of the Gospel, or that there
would be anything different to what we witness now, before that great
event.  No nation ever had been, no nation as such ever would be,
converted until then.  The conversion of individuals would go on, and
many now in sin may be and would be converted.  But nothing beyond this.
We confess to feeling a great deal of prophetic confusion under this
teaching, because whilst the rev. gentleman was rapidly, and with some
appearance of appositeness, quoting passages in proof his opinions, our
mind instinctively reverted to other portions of Scripture which he did
not refer to or attempt to explain.  But this, perhaps, he will do on
some future occasion.  Thus one could not but think of the 11th verse of
the 20th chapter, on the subject of the earth’s abiding—“And I saw a
great white Throne and Him that sat upon it: from whose face the earth
and the heaven fled away; and there was found no place for them”—and in
the very verse preceding the preacher’s text—“And I saw a new heaven and
a new earth; for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away;
and there was no more sea.”  It seemed to us a very heavy draw upon the
imagination to ask us to believe that the descent of the city was to be a
literal fact, without believing the context entitled to a literal
accomplishment.  But as our object is not polemical we cannot pursue, if
we sometimes permit ourselves to suggest controversy.  In conclusion we
may say, notwithstanding some divergence of view in minor matters, how
much we esteem the Rev. C. Molyneux as an able and earnest minister on
all essential themes of the New Testament, and admire him for his
sharply-defined Evangelical type; and as to vestment, declining to change
the colour of his pulpit garb from black to white, although advised by
the bishops.  If men think there is anything of principle at the bottom
of the vestment controversy, they ought certainly to be decided and
unflinching on the side they conscientiously take.  But Mr. Molyneux as a
Premillennialist is quite another question; and we may be excused for
expressing a serious doubt as to the possibility of maintaining the
Chiliast theories on Scriptural grounds.

KENSINGTON PALACE CHAPEL.—The palace is always associated with
Kensington, being in the very heart of the parish, although strictly
speaking not belonging to the parish.  It is this which gives to
Kensington the distinction of the “Court suburbs,” although by some
ancient eccentricity of events it is really situated in the parish of St.
Margaret, Westminster.  Yet it comes properly within our province to
notice it here, as far as the “Chapel Royal” is concerned, included in
the familiar red brick pile spoken of as Kensington Palace.  It will
probably be known to most readers that William III. was the first Royal
proprietor and resident of the palace.  In the various alterations that
monarch effected, he took care to impress upon the building the plain
Dutch style; so that if we may attribute to him the existing chapel
before it was used as such first in 1834, there is no ground for surprise
at its extremely primitive and unpretending character.  It was the
character of the man who breathed his last within those walls.  William
was not one with a passion for magnificent palaces; but was as happy and
content as his nature would allow in this place in society with his
beloved Mary, whose death he lamented with the modest remark, “_I cannot
but grieve_, _since I have lost a wife who_, _during my marriage_, _has
never been guilty of a single indiscretion_.”  Queen Anne, both beloved
and adored by her subjects, Prince George of Denmark, were much at this
palace; also the two first Georges and Queen Caroline, who herself
effected most of the improvements in the Royal residence.  It is
impossible that we should forget to note in our day, that here her
present Majesty passed her early days, and here too she held her first
council on acceding to the throne.  In taking a seat in this little
chapel, it is difficult to repress, even for higher considerations, a
multitude of thoughts which gather around our modern English history.  It
has nothing of architectural beauty to boast of, being nothing more nor
less than a loft apartment in the palace set apart for Divine service.
The ceiling is heavily ribbed and panelled, the walls simply distempered,
and the three arched openings to the west answer, without the slightest
ornament, the sole useful purpose of admitting the light.  A dado all
round forms a back to the high square pewing, and the communion table,
which is fixed, without any ecclesiastical reference, at the south end.
There is a simple prayer-desk on the east, and a high pulpit on the west
side, in which, in consequence of disproportion to the entire space, the
preacher is well nigh lost to view.  The north end is occupied by the
Royal pew, elevated considerably above the rest, and screened by crimson
curtains.  The body of the chapel is filled with about forty chairs.  Any
strangers, or people from without, are here accommodated, whilst the
servants and other members of the household occupy the tall pews which
run parallel with the walls—there being in all 71 seats.  The singing is
assisted by a harmonium, the young lady performer on which is not cheered
with much vocal companionship.  The instrument was presented by Queen
Victoria.  The communion plate is marked with the initials and arms of
William III., Queen Anne, and George II.  Worship is here conducted in a
simple, homely manner; and the Rev. W. T. Bullock, the Chaplain, is a
minister that has to content himself with that, and appears to have no
disposition to go beyond.  His sermon, however, struck us as being more
elaborate than necessary to the audience then present; but it must be
remembered that he often has to address royal personages from that high
pulpit.  The Princess Mary Adelaide of Teck, her circle and royal
visitors, sometimes step into the high pew, and the minister is put upon
his best efforts, and to be always ready is to be on the safe side.  On
Sunday there is a short household service at 8.30 A.M.; full service,
with sermon, at 11.15; evening prayer, without sermon, at 3.30; singing
practice at 4 P.M.  Family prayer every morning at 8.30.  Holy communion
first Sunday in the month.

completion.  The nave and aisles are built, and the flooring laid down.
It is Early English in style, the arcades and columns and lofty roof,
with the distant stained window of the chancel, producing a pleasing,
though quiet, effect.  The interior is everything here, the exterior is
very plain, the lancet windows alone defining the structure.  There is no
entrance from the west and principal front, and the public approach to
the church is only by two doors—one on the north, and the other on the
south side; an arrangement approved of by the Incumbent as one to prevent
the gathering of idle persons around the entrance from the main road, and
so securing greater quiet in the services.  The building is calculated to
accommodate, on one floor, 1000 persons, and upon special occasions 1200
might find place in it.  It is built after the designs of Mr. J. H.
Hakewill, of South Molton Street, by Messrs. R. Avis and Co., of Baltic
Wharf, Putney.  In our former account we referred to the very superior
organ with which this church is furnished, built by Mr. Henry Jones, of
the Fulham Road.  We are pleased now to be able to give a complete
description of this fine instrument.

KENSINGTON.—This Organ has 3 Manuals, compass of each CC to C, 61 notes,
and an independent Pedal Organ, compass CCC to F, 30 notes.  The Stops
are arranged as under:—

                  GREAT ORGAN, CC to C, 61 notes.
                            Compass.            Pitch.        Pipes.
1.        Bourdon                CC                 16       wood 61
2.        Open Diapason          CC                  8      metal 61
3.        Rohe Flöte             CC                  8       wood 61
4.        Gamba                  C                   8      metal 49
5.        Flute                  CC                  8         ,, 61
6.        Octave                 CC                  4          „ 61
7.        Flute                  CC                  4         ,, 61
8.        Octave Quint           CC                 2⅔          „ 61
9.        Super octave           CC                  2          „ 61
10.       Great Mixture          CC            various         „ 214
          (4 ranks)
11.       Trumpet                CC                  8          „ 61
12.       Clarion                CC                  4          „ 61
                                                 Total           903
                  SWELL ORGAN, CC to C, 61 notes.
13.       Bourdon                CC                 16       wood 61
14.       Open Diapason          CC                  8      metal 61
15.       Salicional             C                   8         ,, 49
16.       Lieblich Gedact        CC                  8       wood 61
17.       Octave                 CC                  4      metal 61
18.       Flute                  CC                  4          „ 61
19.       Super octave           CC                  2         ,, 61
20.       Mixture (3             CC            various        ,, 183
21.       Horn                   CC                  8          „ 61
22.       Oboe                   C                   8         ,, 49
23.       Clarion                CC                  4         ,, 61
                                                 Total           769
                  CHOIR ORGAN, CC to C, 61 notes.
24.       Geigen                 CC                  8      metal 61
25.       Dulciana               CC                  8         ,, 61
26.       Lieblich Gedact        CC                  8         ,, 61
27.       Flauto Traverso        CC                  4       wood 61
28.       Flautina               CC                  2         ,, 61
29.       Keranlophon            C                   4      metal 49
30.       Clarionet              C                   8         ,, 49
                                                 Total           403
                  PEDAL ORGAN, CCC to F, 30 notes.
31.       Great Bass            CCC                 16       wood 30
32.       Sub-Bass              CCC                 16       wood 30
33.       Violoncello           CCC                  8         ,, 30
34.       Trombone              CCC                 16     [wood and
                                                           metal] 30
                                                 Total           120
35.       Coupler.—Swell to Great Organ.
36.       ,, Swell to Choir Organ.
37.       ,, Swell to Pedals.
38.       ,, Great Organ to Pedals.
39.       ,, Choir to Pedals
40.       ,, Choir to Great Organ.


                    Stops.       Pipes.
Great Organ                12          903
Swell ,,                   11          769
Choir ,,                    7          403
Pedal ,,                    4          120
Couplers                    6
           Total           40         2195

                       COMPOSITION PEDALS, &C. &C.

1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th       Act upon the Great Organ.
5th, 6th, and 7th            Act upon the Swell Organ.
8th                          Ventil to Great Organ.
9th                          Tremulant to Swell.
10th                         Swell Pedal.
11th                         Great Organ to Pedals.

ST. JUDE’S, SOUTH KENSINGTON.—Since our earlier article on this church
was printed, some slight changes have taken place in the service,—the
most conspicuous of which is the adoption by the Vicar in deference to
the view taken of the question by the Bishops, of the surplice in the
pulpit.  The Rev. R. W. Forrest, however, has not changed the tone of his
preaching, if he has seen fit to change in the matter of vestment.  He is
still evangelically effective, and does not appear to have diminished the
number of his friends by the incident.  Not, however, that it has passed
without remark; but no one suspects Mr. Forrest of general Ritualistic
designs.  By the kindness of the Architects, the Messrs. Godwin, of
Brompton, we are enabled to produce an excellent view of the interior of
this fine church, and also a view of the exterior, as it will be when, as
we hope, not long hence, the tower and the spire will be completed.

Kensington, which had been successively a sphere for the ministration of
the Rev. Mr. Offord, and the Rev. Dr. Schwartz, but purchased by a
gentleman in the North of England, redecorated, and endowed with an
income of 300_l._ a year, for the use of the Swedenborgian or New
Jerusalem Church.  The pastor is the Rev. Dr. Bayley, of Argyle Square,
and the dedication festival took place on Thursday afternoon, the 21st of
March, 1872.  The ceremonies consisted of a service in the church,
conducted by the Rev. Dr. Bayley, Rev. Dr. Tafel, and Rev. W. Bruce, a
tea-meeting, and the annual gathering of the New Church Association, when
an excellent selection of vocal music was performed.  Large numbers were
present on each occasion.  The chapel has been entirely refitted at
considerable cost, and is now seated for nine hundred.  There are two
handsome octagon pulpits, one on each side of the communion, and built of
a mixture of very rare South American wood and Japanese elm, the panels
being elaborately and tastefully carved.  The communion-table is of the
same material, and also the font, which is octagon, and has a basin of
solid silver.  The chapel has a good organ, by Wadsworth, of Manchester.
The whole of the improvements have been most tastefully executed by the
Messrs. Dove Brothers, of Islington.

THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH.—This congregation, formerly meeting in the above
chapel, still carry on service in the Mall Hall very near to it, but the
Presbytery are assisting it to acquire a new and commodious church, and
delay is mainly occasioned by the great difficulty experienced in
procuring a suitable site for the building.  It is, however, not
improbable that a site will open in the Kensington Park Road, northward,
than which a more important one could scarcely be selected.

                                * * * * *

THE SURPLICE IN THE PULPIT.—A conference of clergy and laity was held on
Wednesday, January 24, 1872, at Exeter Hall, to consider the Bishop of
London’s recommendation in his recent charge, that clergymen should wear
the surplice in the pulpit.  The points to be discussed had previously
been submitted by circular to 1,250 Evangelical Churchmen.  On the motion
of the Rev. J. C. Ryle, the following resolutions were adopted, with four
dissentients: 1. “That the general adoption of the surplice as the pulpit
dress, before the legality of such dress is duly established by law, is
highly inexpedient, inasmuch as it is a departure from long established
usage, is contrary to the recommendation of the Ritual Commissioners, and
is not desired by the laity; and furthermore is likely to give grave
offence to many congregations, and to disturb the peace of the church.”
2. “That this resolution be signed by the chairman, and embodied in a
memorial, on behalf of the conference and the bodies represented in it,
to be forwarded to the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, and made
public in any way the Council of the Church Association and the Committee
of the Clerical and Lay Union may think best.”  In the course of the
discussion, the Rev. Capel Molyneux, Vicar of St. Paul’s, Onslow-square,
South Kensington, said that he would never consent to be inveigled by the
bishops into giving up first one thing and then another merely to please
the Ritualistic Romanisers in the Church.  The surplice was the badge of
priestcraft, and he thanked God he was not a priest.  (A Voice: What are
you, then?)  He had always preached in his gown, and he would continue to
do so until the end.  He would urge all Evangelicals never to preach in a
surplice, but to let the black gown be a badge of those who faithfully
preach Christ.  The Rev. J. C. Ryle, the Rev. Mr. Money, &c., spoke in a
similar strain, and expressed determination to resist the suggested
change of vestment to the end.



OF ESTABLISHED CHURCHES there are 25 in Kensington, giving 30,020 seats,
or an average of 1250 each; and of this number, 10,883, or rather more
than one-third, are free.

Of NONCONFORMING CHAPELS and other places, such as rooms or halls, 25,
furnishing accommodation for 15,550, of which 5370 are free seats.

The ROMAN CATHOLICS have four churches, which are the foremost of that
persuasion in London.  The Pro-Cathedral provides 1100 seats, inclusive
of 150 free; the Oratory 1200, 200 being free; the Church of the
Carmelite Friars 800, none free; and that of St. Francis 500, none free.

There is one NON-SECTARIAN CHURCH, the Talbot Tabernacle, with 800
sittings, 200 of them free; and two Non-Sectarian Halls, with space
together for 400.

The FOLLOWERS OF SWEDENBORG have one Chapel, with accommodation for 1000,
no seats being definitely free.

Thus it will be seen that all the denominations together supply 49,070
seats, more than three-fifths of which are found by the Church of
England; 15,550 by Protestant Nonconformists; and the remainder 3500 by
Roman Catholics.

The numbers allotted to English Nonconformity stand as
follows:—_Baptists_, 7450; _Congregational_, 2600; _Wesleyan Methodists_,
2250; _Primitive Methodists_, 300; _Scotch Presbyterian_, 600; _Plymouth
Brethren_, 150; _Non-Sectarian_, 1200; _Swedenborgians_, 1000, =15,550.

The Established Church is, therefore, relatively strong in Kensington;
and when we consider that the whole of this Church accommodation, with a
single exception or two, has been provided by voluntary effort, and
without the slightest pecuniary aid or benefit from the State, it must be
accepted as a striking evidence of the popularity of that Church.

The principal parish Church, now just completed and about to be opened at
a cost of but little under £40,000, is built entirely upon the voluntary
principle.  We have only heard of one instance in all this mass of
property in which a helping hand has been extended, even by the Bishop of
London’s Fund, and then only to the extent of about £2000.  West London
Churchmen have been deemed capable of doing their own work, and have been
left to do it, and certainly they have done and are doing it.

It is also to be observed that the different ecclesiastical schools in
the Church, by mere dint of rivalry, have done comparatively little in
this great work.  There are three or four decidedly Ritualistic Churches;
two or three High Church; two Broad Church, which affects doctrine
chiefly; and all the others are really and truly Evangelical Churches,
and varying but very slightly, if any thing, in form and ceremony.
Church extension may, therefore, be regarded as a genuine and earnest
out-come of English protestant Churchmanship, prompted by higher motives
than those connected with Ecclesiastical disputes.

Among the nonconforming bodies, the BAPTISTS are by far the most numerous
here.  It is, however, very observable that they do not appear to base
the strength of their cause upon their denominational views as to Baptism
by Immersion; but in every case except one, and that a very small Church,
have what is called “open communion,” and admit to fellowship Christian
believers of good repute generally, even though they disagree on that
denominational point.  They are, therefore, to be distinguished from the
_Ana-Baptists_, who insist upon re-baptism before communion; whilst they
are equally far removed from the _Particular Baptists_, who preach
particular Redemption.  The peculiarities of Calvinism are rarely, if
ever, heard from their pulpits.  The body, then, that have obtained in
Kensington, it may be of some importance to remember, are the _General
Baptists_, who are characterized by liberality of sentiment, both as it
regards Church conditions and doctrinal teaching.  The largest of these
Churches is that of Westbourne Grove, under the pastorate of the Rev. W.
G. Lewis.

CONGREGATIONALISM is not largely represented in Kensington, and mainly
centres in one or two Churches, viz. that presided over by the Rev. Dr.
Stoughton, in Allen-street, formerly of Hornton-street, and that at
Horbury Chapel, under the Rev. W. Roberts,—the former being the older and
larger Church.  This is highly vigorous and prosperous, and has been
progressively so under the now lengthened ministration of Dr. Stoughton.
Aided by the well-known Catholic sentiments of this minister,
Independency, in the parish of Kensington, has received a breadth of
sympathy with Christian people of other denominations which enables it to
maintain the most friendly relations with all.

WESLEYANISM has not hitherto displayed the popular adaptation here by
which it is characterized in many parts of the country, not excepting the
chief centres of population.  Its efforts, however, in this direction,
are yet young, and cannot be expected to have gathered the strength and
influence of age.  It finds, moreover, at least in this part of the
metropolis, abler, keener, and more active rivals than in rural parts, or
in most provincial towns.  The Wesleyans, from their _connexional_
principle, have an immense advantage over other bodies, as it regards the
mere building of places of worship, for which, if they chose, they need
not be in the least dependent upon mere _local_ effort.  If recommended
by Conference, a general subscription for a first-class chapel in
Kensington would be opened in the connexional organs, and closed in a few
weeks, with surplus funds at the bankers, over the amount actually
required for the purpose.  This is a wonderful material facility for any
Church to possess, and if the raising of material fabrics were
necessarily signs of real success, then it is quite certain that no
nonconforming body in the land could compete with the Wesleyans.  But in
the present condition of society, and distribution of the Churches and
Church influences, if there is not sufficient interest in any given
locality to build a Chapel wholly or mainly at its own cost, there is but
little probability of creating a sufficient interest for the future by
simply making it a present from a distance.  It might or it might not
succeed; but the probability is that it will not.  One body of Christians
cannot be every where, and there must be some points at which it will be

SCOTCH PRESBYTERIANISM is also without vigorous expression in Kensington.
Always and every where an exotic Southward, it does not seem greatly to
flourish.  It is a mission, established mainly for the benefit of Scotch
residents or travellers, and was never intended to interfere with our
native religious and Ecclesiastical growths.  Yet we are glad to see it
among us.  It is a great way of showing how _united_ the _United_ Kingdom
is, and our Scotch brethren, with their northern crispness and rigidity,
ought to be perfectly at home with us.

In touching on ROMANISM, we have it in this large suburb in all the
strength and fascination with which it has hitherto been imported into
the metropolis.  Here the wealth of its richest English adherents and
foreign residents combine with the talent of its foremost men to give it
popular effect.  This has been accomplished to a limited extent only; for
the result at present is by no means commensurate with the efforts put
forth.  Yet Protestants may not slumber upon this fact.  Romanism here is
making a distinct and anxious bid for popular sympathy and local
influence, and presents a calmly active energy and fertility of resource
which might awaken vigilance if it need not create alarm.  Its preachers
are eloquent and earnest, its Churches and ritual are gorgeous and
costly, its music is enchanting, its monastic orders, its conventual
settlements, and all their attached agencies are quietly and ceaselessly
at work, and their schools, are diligently plied.  Just as we go to
press, the foundation stone of a new “Home” is laid at Kensal New Town,
and with it, ground taken up for a large Church.  This is hard by the new
Protestant Church of “St. Andrew’s and St. Philip’s” on the one hand, and
the Baptist Chapel on the other.  No stone is being left unturned; and
should Ultramontane projects fail in this part of the suburbs, it will be
a grievous discouragement to it all over London.  It was the promised
land marked out for Romanism by Cardinal Wiseman, and Archbishop Manning
is striving to lead the people up to possess it.  Should he ever succeed
in a conspicuous degree, it will be owing as much to Protestant
shortcomings as to his own efforts no doubt; but at present there is, on
this head, but little reason to complain as far as building of Churches
and Chapels is concerned.


THAT we live in a Church-building age is made manifest in the foregoing
pages.  Of the fifty-three Churches and Chapels in Kensington, fifteen
have been erected and opened within the last five years; sixteen others
within ten years; and in all within the past twenty years there have been
no less than forty-three erections.  Five Churches and Chapels are over
twenty years of age, three over thirty, and two have stood for a
century,—and still remain.  The old St. Mary Abbotts has succumbed to the
weight of years, and a new and splendid fabric has just taken its place.
A half a million of money is represented in these structures, by far the
larger half of which has been raised and expected within the last decade.
Whatever the verdict of posterity may be upon these buildings from an
artistic point of view, it will not hesitate to accord the high merit of
distinguished energy and liberality.  As to Architecture, some few of
these erections embody and will hand down to future times examples of the
improved taste of our day; but for the most part they have been erected
under pressure of urgent necessity, arising from the rapid and
overwhelming outflow of population towards the western suburbs.  The
question has been all along how places could be erected with sufficient
speed to save new communities from habitual forgetfulness of the Sabbath
and public worship for the mere want of places in which to assemble.
Never has been in the past, never probably will be in time to come, an
extensive suburban area like this so rapidly covered with habitations of
men and all the concomitants of our social life.  So recently as 1845,
when the Church of St. John was erected on the crest of Notting-hill, the
eye ranged from that eminence north and west only over open fields, and
it was thought at the time that the Church had been placed too far in the
country.  Yet St. John’s now stands in the centre as it were of a vast
city, the unbroken lines of which stretch around and away for miles.  St.
John’s would never now be thought or spoken of as “in the fields” any
more than St. Paul’s, Knightsbridge, or St. Mary’s, Paddington.  The same
is true of many other Churches first erected on the border-land; and it
is not until we realize the extraordinary rapidity with which this mighty
change has been wrought, that we can understand the comparative hurry in
which some of the Churches have been built; but in most cases they are
substantial buildings, and offer scope for further decoration and filling
up of the Architect’s original designs as opportunity offers.

The province and purpose of the Temporary Iron Church has been most
marked in Kensington.  There are but few exceptions to the rule that, as
to the later erections Iron has been the pioneer of stone or brick.  It
is utilized for the first formation of districts and sub-parishes, and
for the collection of congregations.  The young clergyman settles himself
down to a new locality, puts up the Temporary Church at a small cost,—in
the midst of bricks and lime, heaps, and scaffolding all around; the
houses, however, are soon completed and occupied, and in two or three
years he feels himself strong enough to turn his attention seriously to a
permanent erection, and in many cases in an incredibly short time the
work is accomplished, and the useful Iron friend is sold or hired out to
some brother minister who wishes to imitate the process in another place.
Of course the Iron Church comes in for its share of contempt from the
fastidious.  It is “dingy-looking,” unattractive in every architectural
respect, and denounced with its so-called “_tin-kettle_” bell as a
disfigurement to the neighbourhood, and offensive to the ear.  But it
does a good work notwithstanding, and ought to be highly prized and
respected for its work’s sake.  There are, moreover, instances in which
some of the objectionable features can be got over, and, at least, the
interior of the Iron Church be made elegant and inviting.  The nicest
individual ought to feel pleased with an interior like that of St. John
the Baptist’s Church in Holland-road; where Mr. Edmeston, the Architect,
has displayed a taste and contrivance which almost impose on one the idea
that he is in a well-built permanent Church instead of a temporary one.
He had previously exhibited great taste in his treatment of the interior
of St. Peter’s Notting-hill, which is considered one of the most
beautiful in London; and with a far inferior subject at St. John the
Baptist’s has not been wanting to himself.  Indeed, we could scarcely
have believed that so good general effect could have been wrought out
between iron walls.  The people at that Church can well be content with
their lot for some little time to come, should it not yet be convenient
to build in a more costly and enduring style.

We are glad to be able to supply in these pages views of a number of the
principal Churches and Chapels, which will give the reader a better idea
of the state of Church Architecture among us than any pen and ink
description without their aid.  To begin with the new parish Church; both
the exterior and interior are seen as reduced for this work from larger
drawings, by permission of the Architect, Mr. G. G. Scott, by Mr. Avery,
the photographer, of the Ladbroke-road.  They make beautiful pictures,
and show an edifice which, when all complete, will be in every way worthy
of the Court Suburb.  We have also a capital drawing of the old
Church—_In Memoriam_—taken expressly for the “Index,” that it might not
be quite lost sight of amidst the superior splendour of the modern
temple.  And to complete the series, Messrs. Hill and Son, of the
Euston-road, have enabled us to introduce a woodcut of the magnificent
new organ they are building for the Church, and whose tones will be heard
at the opening in a few weeks’ time.  These illustrations of themselves
would have been sufficient to give unusual interest to the work; but we
are favoured with many more.  Kensington Churches, as a whole, are so
fairly and fully illustrated, that nearly every style of building is seen
that has hitherto obtained among us.  St. Peter’s, Onslow-gardens,
through the esteemed favour of the founder and patron, C. J. Freake,
Esq., shows a fine interior as well as neat exterior; and St. Jude’s,
South Kensington, the same—only in the latter case the spire represented
is not yet built.  St. Paul’s, Onslow-square, is a specimen of plain
unambitious gothic, in great measure purposely so, as according with the
order of things instituted there; but partly, also, from the necessity
existing at the time for making haste with the work.  St. Mark’s,
Notting-hill, is an example of another kind, and by the kindness of the
Rev. E. K. Kendall, the Vicar, we are enabled to introduce an excellent
engraving.  Mr. Keeling has here displayed professional skill and
freedom,—as also in St. George’s, Campden-hill.  The picturesque effect
both in outline and detail is boldly sought, and successfully obtained;
and we have a good view of the exterior.  Mr. Varley’s Tabernacle, as
will be seen, is putting on a very improved countenance, under the hands
of Messrs. Habershon and Pite, and from being utterly devoid of
attraction, will be henceforth recognized as an ornament to the
neighbourhood.  The beautiful Church of St. Barnabas, one of the very
best specimens of Ecclesiastical Architecture in the parish, together
with its useful appendage the “Church House,” are seen by favour of the
Rev. Dr. Hessey, who has kindly supplied the blocks for the purpose.  The
“Church House” is capable of being converted at any convenient time into
a building of greater parochial importance; and, in fact, considering the
popularity of the Church in that immediate neighbourhood under the good
influence of Dr. Hessey, the time may not be far distant.

Through the good offices of Mr. Bridgnell, of Warwick-gardens, we have an
engraving Wesleyan Chapel there.  It is the nearest neighbour of Dr.
Hessey’s Church, and one of the best productions of Mr. W. Pocock, who is
a popular Architect in Wesleyan circles.  He has here produced a Chapel,
or rather a Church, which, for architectural expression and cheapness
combined, may compare with any thing we have seen.  Nothing has struck us
more in this review of our Churches than the unaccountable difference in
the _mere cost_ of production.  In Kensington we can point to Chapels and
Churches that have cost the promoters nearly as much again as the
Warwick-gardens Wesleyan Chapel cost, and are barely half so large,
commodious, or beautiful.  In this matter there surely must be an open
path to improvement.  It is painful even to think that £8000 and £10,000
are expended upon places inferior in every respect to others that cost
about half the sum.  It is good for people who are thinking of building
to take this fact into consideration.  If they desire to have superb
structures, and are prepared to pay for them, let them take care they
have full value for their money; if otherwise, and they have only
moderate means, still let them get as much as their funds can procure.


THE great variety in Church Music which we have noticed during our tour
of the churches naturally leads us to some remarks upon this subject.  We
cannot doubt that great exertions have been, and are still being made, to
secure what is considered by the promoters a becoming performance of this
part of public worship.  We have not entered a church or chapel where
singing the praises of God has not formed a prominent feature of the
service, for it so happens that we have not been able to find a Quakers’
Meeting in all the parish of Kensington.  In some cases the “service of
song” is redundant and all-pervading in the worship, which may be said to
consist almost entirely of singing in one form or another, _i.e._ by the
minister, the choir, or the congregation, either in their different parts
or together.  In Roman Catholic places one is prepared to expect a
super-abundance of music of a certain kind; but we have found in at least
four English churches in the parish an almost equally exuberant display.
In the majority of cases, however, a better proportion is maintained in
this in its relation to other parts of Divine Service.  In nonconforming
congregations there is clearly a general desire to bring up the standard
of their musical performances to the requirements of the times, and in
several instances this has been accomplished with great success.  We find
included in their programme the _Te Deum Laudamus_, and sometimes an
anthem with the words taken from Scripture, which, added to the usual
hymns in use—sung as simple chorales in unison by the whole
congregation—make a pleasing variety in the service, and often conduce to
the best devotional effects.  The degree of this of course depends
greatly upon the skill of the execution, which again depends upon the
degree of musical knowledge and capacity possessed.  In some cases we
observe a tendency to cultivate congregational singing in harmony, but it
does not well succeed, for the manifest reason that all the congregation
are not adequately trained to _part-singing_.  It thus sometimes happens
that a number of the people persist in unisonal singing to the best of
their ability, whilst the more educated with their music before them
struggle on for the effect of harmony by rigidly adhering to their own
parts.  This creates confusion, and greatly mars the effect of the
whole,—an evil which, we can only hope to see remedied by a more general
diffusion of the whole,—an evil which we can only hope to see remedied by
a more general diffusion of musical knowledge.  If the time has come when
music is to be insisted on as one part of ever child’s education, the
period cannot be far distant when a more perfect state of things will
obtain.  We cannot conceive a more delightful effect upon the mind than
that producible by a whole congregation singing in perfect harmony some
of those beautiful hymns which embody, when merely read, so much of
elevating sentiment.  We are compelled, however, to notice that the
majority of the hymn collections we have seen, both in churches and
chapels, contain compositions so inferior to the ideas themselves which
possess the mind of any intelligent worshipper, that, guided by the words
before the eye, it is impossible to rise to the highest sense of
devotion.  The conclusion is, therefore, forced upon us, that any
considerable advance in musical education must be supplemented by a
thorough revision of these collections, or by putting them aside
altogether in favour of others that shall comprise all their beauties,
and rigidly exclude their deformities—the feebleness of sentiment and
expression, the doggerel and frequent lack of good sense.  The age is in
want of a master-mind in the important department of hymn composition and
collation for the service of the sanctuary.  If any able writer and
compiler should be so inspired, he might now labour with the greatest
advantage to Christian worship, if he can combine the religious fervour
and enlightenment of some earlier hymnists with the science of the
present times.

It should be laid down as an unalterable rule that the object of all
sacred music intended for the use of the sanctuary is to enable as many
of the congregation as have voice and inclination to join in the service
of holy song.  Tested by this principle the congregational adaptation of
music would seem to be the most, if not the only, suitable method.  We
would not say that other forms might not occasionally be employed with
advantage to musical expression, and, perhaps, to the exciting of
religious feeling in the hearer; but _choral-singing_ and _anthems_ ought
not to be adopted as constant and principal parts of public worship, as
is now the case in many churches.  The reasons against this are obvious:
it excludes the people from participating in the devotions, and is apt to
turn them into mere admirers of human art and skill, whilst it tends to
the introduction of a florid style, bordering too closely on secular
music, and not consistent with the solemn grandeur, the mingling
joyousness, and plaintive emotion which ought ever to attend Christian
worship.  Some years ago it was felt, and justly so, that the musical
part of public worship had been too much neglected, and had fallen into
disrepute.  A revival to a proper standard of efficiency was necessary,
and in seeking to promote this some have fallen into the other extreme.
In a number of parish and district churches the choral, that is,
cathedral service, is adopted, without any regard to the fact that this
form of song was never designed for such use, and intended only for
cathedral and college foundations, where the entire body performing it
were understood and expected to have a competent knowledge of the musical
art.  Its general application was never contemplated, and, as far as our
observation goes, it cannot be done without prejudice to other and still
more important branches of public worship.  It will be seen that in some
churches nearly the whole of the service is now song, and to such an
excess is this carried, that there is scarcely any time left for the
sermon.  And this is intentionally so; for some clergymen do not hesitate
to say that the sermon is of little consequence, and that they make no
account of it as compared with the other parts of their service.  The
minister chants his portions of the Liturgy from beginning to end in a
monotone.  The choir with the people alternately chant the versicles and
responses; the Psalms for the day are chanted.  Then there is the service
of the hymns, alternate chanting of the Litany, intoning and responding
to the commandments in song, singing of the Nicene Creed, the Sanctus,
and Gloria in Excelsis, and other parts permitted to be sung by the
rubrics, and, added to all, the anthem by the choir, which is often of
considerable length.  In this kind of service there is scarcely any thing
left soberly to be _said_ which the common people can readily appreciate
and heartily join in.  If they are not up to the music they cannot
follow, and if they cannot imbibe the words they have no profit.  The
music, too, is often of that kind which bars their uniting in it
intelligently.  It would seem proper that the Psalms should be chanted.
Their very name seems to point out that there can be no objection to
this; but the objection lies against the music to which they are
generally set.  The _Gregorian_ and other cognate chants are adopted
because of their ease and simplicity, being within the compass and
ability of every one’s voice; but the sense of the words, upon the
meaning of which the very essence of devotion depends, is almost totally
sacrificed to the music.  The words are slurred over, and often whole
sections of verses are necessarily dropped, so that if what is really
sung were put down on paper no sense whatever could be made of it.
Unless music can be rendered more conservative of the words and sense of
these inspired compositions, it would be better far to read them
alternately, as is done with good and lively effect in many churches.  On
what ground the Nicene Creed is chanted instead of being said, and why
the minister monotones the commandments as well as the people sing the
responses to them, is not easy to comprehend.  Notwithstanding the
superstitious belief of the Jewish people, we dare believe that the Ten
Commandments were never given by Moses from Mount Sinai in a recitative.

It is therefore evident to us that, whilst in some of the churches the
musical standard is slightly too low, both in quality and decree, and a
certain languor results therefrom to the service, on the other hand true
spiritual vigour in the worship is still more endangered by the opposite
extreme to which we have referred.  In a just medium lies all the virtue
and good effect of Church Music.  It should neither be so much as to
obscure or invade unduly other parts of public worship and service, nor
be so little as not to assist them.  It should neither be so florid as to
dissipate devotional feeling, nor so dull as to prejudice its


THE population of Kensington at the recent census was ascertained to be
121,100, and we have seen that the total of accommodation made by all
denominations for public worship is for 49,070 souls, or, in round
numbers, allowing for possible crowding, 50,000.  The proportion is,
therefore, above the average in most parishes; and although at no given
time will the full amount of accommodation be taken up, yet the average
attendance on the Lord’s Day at the principal services is good.  Out of
the 50,000 that might attend, from 35,000 to 40,000 will be found at the
morning service, and from 30,000 to 35,000 at the evening.  If we allow
one-half the number in the evening to be of those who attended in the
morning—and experience shows them to be in larger proportion—we have
still the suggestive fact forced upon us for reflection, that a very
great number never attend at all.

The following table, showing in detail the population of the several
Ecclesiastical divisions of the parish, has been prepared by order of the
Vestry of Kensington, and obligingly sent us by Mr. G. C. Harding, the
Clerk.  It will be very useful to refer to in connexion with the
foregoing accounts of the Churches and Chapels situated in the several
wards, parishes, and districts mentioned.

      _Summary of the Population of the Parish of St. Mary Abbotts_,


 _Ecclesiastical    Separate       Inhabited      Empty.       Building.      Males.       Females.       TOTAL.
    Division_.      Families       Houses.
                                     _The Ward of_ ST. MARY ABBOTTS, KENSINGTON.
St. Mary Abbotts            3,067          2,088           93             24        6,319         10,377        16,696
St. Barnabas                  968            808           59             28        1,666          3,498         5,164
St. Philip                  2,226          1,141           62             77        3,855          5,168         9,023
St. Stephen                   337            298           77             81          815          1,548         2,353
Part of St.                   753            435           38             47        1,382          1,823         3,205
                            7,351          4,770          329            257       14,037         22,414        36,451
                                        _The Ward of_ HOLY TRINITY, BROMPTON.
Holy Trinity                2,537          1,594          126             ..        4,428          6,838        11,266
St. Peter                      99             86            8             ..          140            251           391
St. Paul                      328            237           18             51          578          1,194         1,772
St. Augustine                 288            180           22             27          451            749         1,200
St. Mary                    1,627          1,121          200             73        2,896          4,601         7,497
                            4,829          3,218          374            151        8,493         13,633        22,126
                             _The Ward of_ ST. JOHN, NOTTING HILL, and ST. JAMES NORLAND.
St. John                    1,179            918           49              7        2,205          4,281         6,486
St. James                   1,546            853           68             ..        2,910          3,753         6,663
Part of St.                 1,227            538            4             17        2,284          2,714         4,998
St. Peter                   1,293          1,051           49             17        2,576          4,292         6,868
All Saints                  4,580          2,361          328            125        9,117         11,630        20,747
St. Mark                    1,313            800           99             15        2,447          3,380         5,827
St. Clement                 2,648          1,203          126              8        5,310          5,624        10,934
                           13,786          7,724          723            189       26,849         35,674        62,523
                    _Grand Total of the Parish of_ ST. MARY ABBOTTS, KENSINGTON, _April_ 2, 1871.
                            4,829          3,218          374            151        8,493         13,633        22,126
                            7,351          4,770          329            257       14,037         22,414        36,451
                           13,786          7,724          723            189       26,849         35,674        62,523
                           25,966         15,712        1,426            597       49,379         71,721       121,100


THE new Parish Church has progressed slowly towards completion; and it is
hoped by its promoters that it may be opened by the first week in May.
The builders, however, have a slight misgiving on this point, and suspect
that Whitsuntide will be here before it is ready to receive a
congregation.  On either supposition the time is near; and it is
remarkable that our own “opening,” or publication of the “Church Index”
in the parish, is exceedingly opportune, as it regards the consecration
of the new edifice.  Our readers will be able now to consult our pictures
and letterpress of the Church, at the same time that they see the
original.  We must, however, remind them that the pictorial illustration
is more complete than the building will be for some time to come.  The
beautiful tower and spire which give such effect to the exterior in the
picture, will not attract the admiring gaze of the beholder for a year or
two.  We hope, however, it may be sooner than some imagine; for we
confess it is painful to us to see a fine edifice like this waiting a
long time for its headpiece and chief ornament.  The project for
obtaining stained windows has not hitherto fully succeeded so far as the
public are concerned; but one window in the north aisle has, we are
informed, been arranged for privately, by a lady as a family memorial, at
a cost of not less than 300_l._ or 400_l._  It is considered by some that
the Church is already sufficiently Mediæval and ornamental, and that
without any addition, it will offer as it now stands too strong a
temptation to the Ritualists to covet the prize for themselves.  But
during the present Vicar’s life, it may be deemed safe from the effects
of any conceivable machinations of this kind; and it must be hoped that
after that the strength of Evangelical sentiment will be such in the
town, as to prevent its perversion from its original type of ceremony and
doctrine.  For our own part, we hope, at least, yet to see the east
window filled with stained glass of good Ecclesiastical design; nor need
this detract one _iota_ from the strength of that true Evangelical spirit
which we trust, from the day of the opening, will be for ever enshrined
in this _temple_.  We opine, however, that the extra cost is the main
cause of hesitation on this head.  And at this we are not surprised; for
the outlay on the Church as a whole has been large, and any considerable
extra expenditure would have to be provided for chiefly by those who have
already done so nobly.  It is well not to strain matters too far; and if
the building of the tower and the stained windows were both left to the
rising generation to accomplish hereafter, that which has already
attained maturity in Kensington need not be ashamed of its own work. {81}


THE following most seasonable remarks occur in the Annual Pastoral Letter
recently issued by the Rev. Dr. Hessey to his parishioners of St.
Barnabas, Kensington:—

    “Since I last addressed you in this form our Bishop has delivered his
    primary charge, the very watchword of which is the PAROCHIAL SYSTEM.
    Convinced as I am of the value of that system to our country, I
    rejoice in having my own views on the subject confirmed by so high an
    authority.  It is in virtue of that system, still by law established
    among us, that I have written to you, from year to year, not merely
    as the minister of a particular place of worship to which a certain
    number of Christians habitually resort, but as one to whom the care
    of a certain number of souls spread over a certain area is actually
    committed; as one who is expected to care for rich and poor alike,
    and to form as it were a link between them; as one who is responsible
    ecclesiastically to the Bishop of the Diocese, but in a far higher
    sense to the Divine Head and Pastor of the Church.

    “Some distinguished men have thought that the parochial system has
    had its day, and ought now to be forgotten.  Every day’s experience,
    however, tends to prove that such is not the case; for never has that
    system shown more vitality and efficiency than during the last thirty
    years.  To take a single instance which is familiar to us all: I know
    not how, without the parochial system, provision could have been made
    for the pastoral care of what is technically called the suburban
    village of Kensington.  It now contains upwards of 121,000 souls; and
    yet rapidly as its population has been increased, fresh churches have
    been built for the use of that population, to which parochial rights
    and duties have been successively attached; and each new parish has
    again been subdivided, as soon as the necessity has occurred.  Such
    repeated subdivision is still going forward; and, as you are aware, a
    Temporary Church, within the Parish of S. Barnabas, has already a
    conventional district attached to it, and waits only to be replaced
    by a permanent building in order to have its district legally
    assigned.  When Mr. Booker commenced the temporary building, the site
    selected was part of an open field.  It now is surrounded by houses,
    which appear to find tenants as fast as they are built.

    “But for the facilities of Subdivision furnished by the Parochial
    System which still exists among us, I should find myself at this day
    perhaps weighed down with the care of a population of more than
    14,000 souls.  Whereas now our population is such that every
    inhabitant may know his Pastor if he will, and the Pastor may know at
    least each family, if not each member of his flock.”

THE NEW LECTIONARY.—In treating of this the Doctor says,—

    “We have thankfully availed ourselves of the New Table of Lessons,
    which now forms part of our Church’s Prayer Book, having been issued
    on the same authority as the Prayer Book itself.  We have never been
    among those who wish to see the Prayer Book itself revised, and we
    rejoice to find that in such divided and controversial times as
    these, that work is not likely to be taken in hand.  But in regard to
    the reading of the Scriptures in Church, the case is wholly
    different.  At the time of the Reformation, the Bible had been so
    long kept back from the people, that it was most desirable that the
    whole of it should be brought within their reach.  And in an age when
    but few persons could read and still fewer possessed copies of the
    Scriptures, there was no better way of making God’s Word known, than
    the frequent and public reading of the whole of it in the Church.
    This was accordingly done, and hence the Table of Lessons contained
    nearly the whole Bible, with the exception of certain portions of
    unfulfilled Prophecy, which in the excited state of the public mind
    were liable to be misunderstood.  The case, however, is different
    now.  Those who worship in the Church are, for the most part, able
    and willing to read the Bible also at home, and are not likely to be
    misled by the visions either of Ezekiel or St. John.  These Books are
    therefore read among the rest, and the Lessons in general are so
    selected as to be more appropriate in subject to the days on which
    they are read; and from their brevity more likely to be retained in
    memory.  The Old Table of Lessons provided Lessons only for Morning
    and Evening Prayer, but it is now found that not a few persons attend
    both an Afternoon and an Evening Service; it has therefore been
    arranged that there should be two sets of Evening Lessons for every
    Sunday, one of which may be used in the afternoon, and the other in
    the evening.  There are also many persons, especially among the poor,
    who are able to attend but one Service on Sunday, and that an Evening
    Service.  Formerly they could hear no second Lesson except those from
    the Epistles; but now they hear the Gospels alternately with the
    Epistles; for in the former half of the year the Gospels are read in
    the morning, the Epistles in the evening; while in the latter half
    this arrangement is reversed.  Much has been said about the
    difficulty of finding the proper Lessons, and the necessity of
    purchasing new Prayer Books.  There is, I believe, no such necessity.
    A few days will make the new arrangement as familiar as the old, and
    a copy of the new Calendar and Table of Lessons, to be fastened in
    any Prayer Book or Bible, may be purchased at any shop for one
    halfpenny, having been printed by authority at the smallest possible
    price.  I would hope that none will omit to provide themselves with
    such a Table of Lessons, and I think that in the use of it they will
    find great advantage.  And let me here suggest that the advantage
    will be far greater to those who attend the daily services than to
    those who are able to attend on Sundays only.  Let me therefore
    suggest to these last that if they wish to study their Bible
    systematically, the New Table of Lessons will form an excellent guide
    for the reading of the Holy Book at home.”


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                                                      James Reading &
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This College is conducted by MISS CATCHPOLE, assisted by Professors and
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The moral training and health of the Pupils receive the most careful
attention.  The Gardens are spacious, and afford every facility for
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                            TERMS REASONABLE.

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  Little Boys between the ages of Four and Eleven Years are received as
    Boarders or Day Scholars, and are carefully instructed in The Holy
    Scriptures; the English, French, and Latin Languages; Writing and
  Arithmetic, Drawing, Geography, and History, on the following Terms:—

For Day Pupils, 8 Guineas; for Day Boarders, 16 Guineas; for Weekly
Boarders, 25 Guineas; for Yearly Boarders, 30 Guineas; Day Pupils under
Six Years of Age, 4 Guineas, per annum.  MUSIC, 1 Guinea per Quarter.

 The Hours of Attendance are—_Morning_, 9.30 to 12.30.  _Afternoon_, 2.15
                                 to 4.30.

The Boarders being limited to Six are offered many of the comforts of
home with the benefit of the instruction in Classes with the Day Pupils.

  _It is requested that the payment be punctually made at each Quarter_.

                                * * * * *


                 Head Master—Rev. P. E. MONKHOUSE, M.A.,
           Late Head Master of the Lower School, Rossall; late
              Scholar of Merton College, and Exhibitioner of
                         Lincoln College, Oxford.

             A full and efficient staff of Assistant Masters.

This School was established in 1866 “to provide on moderate terms, a
sound religious, classical, and mercantile education of the highest
order, on the principles of the Church of England; but pupils whose
parents object to the Church Catechism shall not be required to learn
it.”  Vide Memorandum of Association.

In the CLASSICAL Department pupils are prepared for the Universities, and
for the Oxford and Cambridge Local Examinations.

In the MODERN Department for the Army, Navy, and Civil Service, and for
Commercial and Mercantile pursuits.

The School being Proprietary the masters have no mental anxiety as to
pecuniary matters, and are thus enabled to give their undivided attention
to the education of the pupils.  The Directors also call attention to the
large, airy, well ventilated room, so essential to the health of the
pupils, the School Hall being 75 feet in length by 30 wide and 41 feet in
height.  The covered and open Play Ground is 90 feet by 60.

Boarders are received by the Head Master and Resident Manager.

Terms and all further information may be obtained of Dr. J. E. Carpenter,
Secretary, 53, Norland Square, Notting Hill.

                                * * * * *


                                * * * * *

Notting Hill Collegiate School,

                                * * * * *

                   Head Master—Rev. C. R. GORDON, D.D.,
         Incumbent of St. Mary’s, Park Street, Grosvenor Square,
           W. (late Head Master of the Notting Hill Proprietary
                           School), assisted by

               Rev. W. FULFORD, M.A.; G. W. LAWRANCE, Esq.;
              C. SMITH, Esq.; Dr. FISCHEL; J. DENVER, Esq.;
                    Dr. S. AUSTEN PEARCE; Mr. BARNHAM.

This School comprises Three Departments: Classical, Modern, and
Preparatory.  In the first of these, pupils are prepared for the
Universities and Public Schools.  The Modern School will train for the
various Examinations of the Civil Service and for Mercantile pursuits;
and the Preparatory for the reception of little boys to qualify for
either of the other schools.

Boarders are received by nearly all the Masters, and the School Year is
divided into three terms.

The Sons of Gentlemen only are now admitted, and early application ought
to be made, as the number is limited.

All applications to be made to the Head Master, No. 3, Norland Place,
Notting Hill, W.

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                          “TIMES” LENT TO READ.

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Bibles, Prayers, New Church Services, Hymn Books for all the Churches and
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  _Advertisements of Births_, _Marriages_, _Deaths_, _&c._, _inserted in
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 “Times” and all other London Papers to be had by 7 A.M.; a large supply
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Coughs, Colds, Bronchitis, Asthma, &c., and in support of that assertion
copies of Testimonials will be forwarded on application.


                              JOSEPH MOYLE,
                        (Late Newby and Dunsford,)
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The general dose for a Grown Person is One Pill; but for some
constitutions Two Pills are required.  It is best to take them at
bed-time, though they may be taken in the morning (or in urgent cases at
any time of the day); and the dose should be repeated every other day,
two or three times successively; then rest a few days, and repeat the
dose as occasion may require.

                                * * * * *

                             PREPARED ONLY BY
                              W. C. TAYLOR,
                      Family and Dispensing Chemist,
        (Associate of the Pharmaceutical Society by Examination,)
                              MEDICAL HALL,
                   Stretheden Terrace, Shepherd’s Bush.
                           _ESTABLISHED_ 1856.

                                * * * * *




                          OF EVERY DESCRIPTION.

Carte de Visite Portraits, from     5s. per doz.
Cabinet Portraits, from             10s. ,,

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Life Size enlargements, in Crayons, from 2 Guineas.

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T. P. A. having secured the services of able Artists, he can produce
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Photographs, Engravings, &c., Framed by workmen kept on the Premises.
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qualities, always kept in stock.

                                * * * * *

                    T. P. AVERY, GENERAL PHOTOGRAPHER,

                                * * * * *


                      (_SEE PLAN ON OPPOSITE PAGE_).

                           CORBETT & McCLYMONT,
                         BEG TO CALL ATTENTION TO
                    The Substantial Family Residences
                                THEY HAVE
                       ERECTED IN REDCLIFFE SQUARE,
                          “REDCLIFFE MANSIONS,”
            From Drawings supplied by Messrs. G. & H. GODWIN.

                                * * * * *

The elevation is carried out after the French style, with Mansard roofs
and polished granite columns to the entrance-porches.

The fronts of the Houses overlook the Square, which is laid out as
pleasure-grounds for the recreation of the occupants only.

St. Luke’s Church (see page 20) is being erected in the western half of
Redcliffe Square, and Divine Service is now being conducted in the
temporary Iron Building until St. Luke’s Church is finished.

This Estate is within four miles of Charing Cross, and has a subsoil of
gravel and sand.  It is within a few minutes’ walk of Gloucester Road,
West Brompton, Earl’s Court, South Kensington, and Chelsea Railway
Stations, which afford ready and rapid communication with all parts of
the City and West End.  Omnibuses pass along the Fulham Road and Richmond
Road very frequently.  The steamboat pier is also within 15 minutes’ walk
of the southern end of the Estate.

                                * * * * *

                       Messrs. CORBETT & McCLYMONT
 Have various and Convenient Houses on the Redcliffe Estate, and also at
                            Surbiton, Surrey,
           to Let at Rents ranging from £50 to £300 per Annum.

             [Picture: Plan of Redcliffe Estate, Kensington]

The West London Hospital

         [Picture: West London Hospital, G. Saunders, Architect]

                           HAMMERSMITH ROAD, W.

_The Committee earnestly appeal for Funds to enable them to throw open
the Thirty-eight Beds now unavailable for want of means_.

                                                            _April_, 1872.
                                           T. ALEXANDER, _Secy. and Supt._

                                * * * * *


                                * * * * *

    Dedicated (by permission) to the Most Noble the Marquis of Exeter,

                                * * * * *

             Translated from the Original French into English
                          BY WILLIAM STRATFORD,
         _Maître d’École et l’Auteur de l’Anglaise_, _Kettering_.

                                * * * * *

             London: ELLIOT STOCK, 62, Paternoster Row, E.C.

               Gilt Edges, 1_s._ 6_d._; Plain, 1_s._ 3_d._

                                * * * * *

              NEW SERIES.  Price One Shilling.  Illustrated.


    Edited by WILLIAM FRANCIS AINSWORTH, Ph.D., F.S.A., F.R.G.S., &c.

                          CURRENT CONTENTS.
I.  BOSCOBEL: a Tale of the Year    IV.  JACOB’S CURSE; or, The Mummy
1651.  By William Harrison          of Gottingen.  By L. M‘Clintock.
Ainsworth.  Illustrated by Wallis
Translated from the “Bagh o         Nicholas Mitchell.
Bahar,” by the Author of the “Two

               London: ADAMS AND FRANCIS, 59, Fleet Street.

             *** And at all Bookstalls and Railway Stations.

                                * * * * *

                     JUST PUBLISHED, PRICE SIXPENCE.

                                * * * * *


   Remarks with reference to the MARRIED WOMEN’S PROPERTY ACT of 1870.

                            BY PHILOFAMILIAS.

                                * * * * *

                 London: HATTON & SON, 22, Chancery Lane.

                                * * * * *

                   Fcap. 8vo. cloth boards, 2_s._ 6_d._


Being a Brief Manual of Christian Doctrine and Practice.  By the Hon. and
Rev. W. H. LYTTELTON, M.A., Rector of Hagley.

                            Now ready, Vol. I.
                         THE BAPTISMAL COVENANT.


                                * * * * *

        New Edition (Fifth), fcap. 8vo, cloth boards, 3_s._ 6_d._


By the Rev. W. WALSHAM HOW, M.A., Hon. Canon of St. Asaph, Rector of
Whittington, Shropshire.


                                * * * * *

                               Price 6_d._


A Sermon preached in the Chapel of Lambeth Palace at the Consecration of
the Bishop of Colombo.  By the Rev. W. R. CLARK, M.A., Prebendary of
Wells and Vicar of Taunton.


                                * * * * *

               Illustrated, 18mo, cloth boards, 1_s._ 6_d._

By H. A. F.

    “This little book contains a dozen stories, which, both in the
    naturalness of the plots and simple terseness of the narration, are
    much above the average found in tale-books.”—_Church Bells_.

    Uniform with the above,

                            By Miss CROMPTON.

    “Excellent in conception and execution.”—_Literary Churchman_.


EDITH VERNON’S LIFE-WORK.  THIRD EDITION.  Crown 8vo, cloth boards, 3_s._

A LOST PIECE of SILVER.  ILLUSTRATED.  Crown 8vo, cloth boards, 3_s._


                                * * * * *


                                * * * * *

Every description of Church and Chapel Organs in Stock, or made to Order.

                                * * * * *

                            SECOND-HAND ORGANS
   _Of various Sizes for Sale Cheap_, _having been taken in exchange_.

                                * * * * *

                          MAY BE HEARD DAILY IN
                         SOUTH GALLERY, ROOM 23,
                     INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1872.

                                * * * * *


ESTABLISHED A.D. 1857 for counteracting the Proselytizing designs of the
Brompton Oratory, and for promoting Reformational principles.

            _President_, CAPTAIN THE HON. FRANCIS MAUDE, R.N.


  _Treasurer_, J. ROBISON WRIGHT, Esq., 16, Summer Place, Onslow Square,

  _Honorary Superintendent_, Rev. G. W. WELDON, M.A., 4, Vincent Street,
                             Ovington Square.

                      _Secretary_, Mr. M. WALBROOK.

                                         _Office_, 5B, SLOANE STREET, S.W.

ORIGIN OF THE INSTITUTE.  Was formed in 1857 by a few friends who were
interested in the maintenance of Evangelical principles, and who were
anxious at the same time to combat the aggressive movements of the Romish
Priests connected with the Brompton Oratory.

OBJECT.  To maintain and defend that blessed Gospel which our Reformers
in the 16th Century brought to light, after it had been obscured by the
darkness of Mediæval superstition.  In a word, to warn the incautious, to
win back the lapsed, inform the ignorant, and enlighten those whose minds
are darkened by superstition.

MEANS EMPLOYED.  The combined agency of the Press, the Platform, and the
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over the efforts of Romish emisssaries.  The issuing of papers bearing
directly on the truths of the Gospel, as opposed to the innovations of
the Church of Rome.

_Subscriptions and Donations will be thankfully received at the Office_,
5B, SLOANE STREET, S.W., _by the Treasurer_, J. ROBISON WRIGHT, Esq.; _or
the Secretary_, Mr. M. WALBROOK.  _Money Orders to be drawn on the Post
Office_, 179, Sloane Street.  _Bankers_, THE CONSOLIDATED BANK, Charing
Cross, S.W.

                                * * * * *

Job and Post Masters,

   WHEATSHEAF TAVERN, and the Yard at the Back of the QUEEN OF ENGLAND
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                    BY THE HOUR, DAY, WEEK, OR MONTH.

    N.B.—_Orders to or from Railways_, _Churches_, _&c._, _punctually
                              attended to_.

                                * * * * *

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Dinner Services, 60 pieces, 15_s._ 6_d._, 22_s._, and upwards; Dinner
Services, 108 pieces, £1 16_s._, £2 10_s._, and upwards; Good Cut
Tumblers, per doz., 4_s._ 3_d._; Good Cut Wine Glasses, per doz., 3_s._
6_d._; Cut Quart Decanters, per pair, 7_s._; Cut Pint Decanters, per
pair, 5_s._; China Breakfast Services, 28 pieces, 10_s._ 6_d._; China Tea
Services, 28 pieces, 7_s._; Toilet Services, 5_s._ 6_d._

  _Goods’ Lent on Hire_, _including Rout Seals_, _Plate_, _and Cutlery_.
                             MODERATOR LAMPS.

Ecclesiastical Embroidery and Tapestry

                           Rodolphe Helbronner,


                                * * * * *

                        GOLD AND SILVER, FABRICS,
                        AND EVERY REQUIREMENT FOR
                            CHURCH NEEDLEWORK,
                     CARPETS, AND TEXTILE FABRIQUES.

                                * * * * *


                        ESTABLISHED IN MAY, 1868,

to supply a connective view of Local matters and doings relating to all
the principal suburban Parishes and Districts, with intelligent and
useful articles.  A great need existed for such an organ in consequence
of the rapid progress of population, west, north, and south-west of the
Metropolis.  All that is done by a Journal specially representing the
interest of the CITY, is done by this as the press representative of the
SUBURBS, having at the same time a city and a general connexion.  This
Journal contains much Church matter and news.

In Politics it is Conservative; in Religion it is thoroughly Protestant
and catholic.  By its design, scope, and editorial management, it obtains
ready acceptance with all classes.

As an Advertising medium it is therefore most eligible, and the following
scale of charges places its advantages within the reach of all:—

                                                      _s._     _d._
Situations, Apartments, Houses, Businesses Required   0        9
or to Let, 20 words or under
Every additional line                                 0        3
Marriages, Births, and Deaths                         1        6
Tradesmen’s Ordinary Announcements, per inch          1        6
Double Column, per inch                               2        6
Paragraphs, Company, Legal, Election, and Parochial   0        6
Advertisements, per line
Auctioneers’ Announcements, per line                  0        4


_Printed and Published every Saturday morning at the Office_, _Shepherd’s
           Bush_, _W._, _and to be obtained of all Newsagents_.

All communications to be addressed to the Editor, 22, St. Stephen’s Road,
                       Shepherd’s Bush, London, W.
          Cheques and Orders made payable to WILLIAM PEPPERELL.

                                * * * * *


  [Picture: Decorative advertisement for Jones & Willis, Birmingham and
                    London, Ecclesiastical Furnishers]

                                * * * * *


    Hire, Twelve Shillings per Month, or on Purchase from Two or Three
                           Guineas per Quarter.

These Instruments cannot be surpassed for Brilliancy of Tone, _Repetition
 of Touch_, _Elegance_, and Durability.  All have Seven Octaves, Metallic
  Plate, and Registered Keys.  Pianos Tuned, Repaired, and Lent on Hire.
               Single Tuning 3_s._ 6_d._; Yearly, £1 1_s._

                                * * * * *

               THOMAS D. DURRANT, Pianoforte Manufacturer,
                      Manufactory—LINDFIELD, SUSSEX.
                            ESTABLISHED 1840.

                                * * * * *


_ESTABLISHED_ 1829.—_ROBERT S. STACY_, _Wholesale_, _Retail_, _and
Manufacturing Stationer_, General Printer, Engraver, Lithographer, and
Bookseller, 257, Euston Road, London, N.W.

Sample Packets of Writing Paper and Envelopes sent post free on receipt
of Two Stamps.—Ledgers, Cash, Journal, Day, Order, Memorandum, and Pocket
Books of every variety.

Every description of School Stationary and Materials.—Coloured and Fancy
Paper of every description.—Importer of Foreign Fancy Goods.—Numerical
Printing, Perforating, and Binding for the Trade.—Catalogues on
application post free.

The Country Trade and Schools liberally treated.  Orders by post,
accompanied by P. O. O., payable at Gower Street, above 20_s._, executed
promptly, and carriage free to any Railway Station.  Cheques crossed
“City Bank.”

ROBERT S. STACY, Manufacturing Stationer, 257, Euston Road (between Gower
Street Station and Tottenham Court Road.)


{0}  This advertisement and those following come at the front of the
published book, but have been moved to the end to make the eBook more

{21}  Mr. Wesley’s Journal reveals, as follows, his presence in
Kensington twice; but says nothing about the _preaching_, except his
discourse to the smith and his servant.  But the fact of his being
subsequently there and lingering in the Gardens would seem to argue that
he went there on preaching missions:—

    “Monday, August 22, 1743.—Passing through Kensington found my mare
    had lost a shoe.  This gave me an opportunity of talking closely for
    near half an hour both to the smith and his servant.”

    “Saturday, July 6, 1754.—I spent two hours in the Gardens at
    Kensington.  They are just fit for a king, far more grand than
    pleasant; and yet nothing so grand as many parts of the Peak in

{81}  Since writing the above the new Church has been consecrated.  The
works having been pushed forward, it was in a sufficient state of
preparation by the 14th of May, on which day the Lord Bishop of London
consecrated the edifice, just three years after the old Church had been
closed.  A large and influential assembly gathered within the walls of
the new building, comprising many people of various denominations.  To
these the Right Rev. Prelate discoursed on Christian unity, in a truly
Catholic spirit and manner; and after the sermon the offertory taken by
collection from pew to pew amounted to £358 7_s._ 2_d._  Of this amount
£196 10_s._ 4_d._ was in paper; £61 in sovereigns; £38 10_s._ in
half-sovereigns; £62 6_s._ 3_d._ in silver, and sevenpence in copper.

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