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Title: The Rand-McNally Bible Atlas - A Manual of Biblical Geography and History
Author: Hurlbut, Jesse L.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Rand-McNally Bible Atlas - A Manual of Biblical Geography and History" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



[Illustration: THE MODERN WORLD AND THE BIBLE LANDS.

NOTE.--The Bible Lands are those included within the red lines.]

[Transcriber's Note: Bold text is set off by =equal signs= and italic
text by _underscores_.]



BIBLE ATLAS


A MANUAL OF

BIBLICAL GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY

ESPECIALLY PREPARED

FOR THE USE OF TEACHERS AND STUDENTS OF THE BIBLE, AND FOR SUNDAY SCHOOL
INSTRUCTION, CONTAINING

Maps, Plans, Review Charts, Colored Diagrams,

AND

ILLUSTRATED

WITH ACCURATE VIEWS OF THE PRINCIPAL CITIES AND LOCALITIES KNOWN TO
BIBLE HISTORY.


REVISED EDITION.


BY REV. JESSE L. HURLBUT, D. D.,

AUTHOR OF "REVISED NORMAL LESSONS," "STUDIES IN THE FOUR GOSPELS,"
"STUDIES IN OLD TESTAMENT HISTORY," ETC.

WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY

REV. BISHOP JOHN H. VINCENT, D. D., LL. D.,

CHANCELLOR OF THE CHAUTAUQUA UNIVERSITY.

          CHICAGO:
          RAND, McNALLY & COMPANY,
          PUBLISHERS.



          MANUAL OF BIBLICAL GEOGRAPHY.

          COPYRIGHT, 1884, BY RAND, MCNALLY & CO.
          COPYRIGHT, 1887, BY RAND, MCNALLY & CO.
          COPYRIGHT, 1899, BY RAND, MCNALLY & CO.
          COPYRIGHT, 1908, BY RAND, MCNALLY & CO.
          COPYRIGHT, 1910, BY RAND, MCNALLY & CO.



INTRODUCTION.


ON this side of the sea we sit down with a big book in our hands. It is
an old book. Nearly two thousand years have passed since the last word
of it was written, and no one can tell how many thousands of years ago
the records were made or the words uttered, out of which its first
writer prepared his wonderful statements.

This old book is a singular book as to the variety of its
contents,--ranging from dry chronological statement to highest flight of
royal poetry. Many pages of it are simply historical, with lists of
kings, and names of family lines through many generations. Geographical
allusions descending to minutest detail are strewn thickly through its
pages. There is no department of natural science which does not find
some of its _data_ recognized in the chapters of this venerable volume.
Stones and stars, plants and reptiles, colossal monsters of sea and
land, fleet horse, bird of swift flight, lofty cedar and lowly
lily,--these all find their existence recognized and recorded in that
book of "various theme."

As it is a long time since these records were made, so are the lands far
away in which the events recorded are said to have occurred. We measure
the years by millenaries, and by the thousand miles we measure the
distance. The greatest contrast exists between the age and land in which
we live and the age and lands in which this book found its beginning,
its material and its ending.

To one familiar only with the habits, dress and customs of American
life, the every-day events recorded in the book seem fabulous. We do not
dress as the book says that people dressed in those far-away years and
far-away lands; we do not eat as they did; our houses are not like
theirs; we do not measure time as they did; we do not speak their
language; our seasons do not answer to the seasons that marked their
year. It is difficult, knowing only our modern American life, to _think_
ourselves into the conditions under which this book says that people
lived and thought in those long-ago ages. Their wedding feasts and
funeral services differed utterly from ours. They lived and died in
another atmosphere, under a government that no longer exists; made war
upon nations that are powerless to-day as the sleeping dead in a
national cemetery; and the things which we read concerning them seem
strange enough to us.

In the changes which have taken place through all these centuries, it
would be an easy thing, under some circumstances, for men to deny that
the people of the book ever lived, that the cities of the book were ever
built, that the events of the book ever transpired. And, if its historic
foundation were destroyed, the superstructure of truth, the doctrinal
and ethical teachings resting upon it, might in like manner be swept
away.

This old Book--the Bible, a divine product, wrought into the texture of
human history and literature with the gradually unfolding ages--is the
old Book we study to-day on this side the sea.

It is a "Book of books,"--the Book out-shining all other books in the
literary firmament, as the sun out-splendors the planets that move in
their orbits around him.

It is a book that deals with man as an immortal soul; making known the
beginnings of the race; going back of the beginning to God, who is from
"everlasting to everlasting," and who "in the beginning created the
heaven and the earth"; revealing the creative purpose and loving grace
of God; tracing the fall and deterioration of man, the divine
interposition in human history, the preparation of a family, a race, a
nation, and a world at large, for the coming of the Redeemer; revealing
the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ; showing how the Christ
came, what he did, what he said, what he resisted, what he endured, what
he suffered, what he achieved; telling in simple way the story of the
early church, from the little meeting of the bereaved disciples in the
upper room to the magnificent consummation of Christ's coming, as seen
in the prophetic visions of St. John on the Isle of Patmos.

It is a book full of history, of geography, of archæology, of prophecy,
of poetry, of doctrine, of "exceeding great and precious promises."

In an important sense the foundations of this book are laid in human
history and geography. However high toward the heavens it may reach in
doctrine and promise, its foundations lay hold of the earth. If the
children of Israel did not live in Egypt and Canaan and the far East, if
the statements of their history as recorded in the book be not _facts_,
if the story of Jesus Christ be false,--everything fails us. With the
sweeping away of fact, we must also bid farewell to the words of
doctrine and of promise here recorded; to the divine words of assurance
which now give comfort to the penitent, hope to the despairing, strength
to the feeble, and immortal life to the dying.

As we sit down on this side of the sea, it is well that we are able to
look beyond the sea to the lands which gave to the world the book in our
hands. And it is well, that, as we look, we are able to connect the book
of to-day with those same lands as they now lie among the rivers and by
the seaside, from the sources of the Tigris and Euphrates to the mouths
of the Nile, from the palaces of Babylon to the dock at Puteoli and the
prison at Rome. And it is well that the lands as they are found to-day
correspond to the records of the Book as they were made centuries and
centuries ago. The Book, on its human historic, geographical and
archæological side, is true to the facts as in the nineteenth century
they are presented to us in the lands of the East.

There are those who believe with firm faith, that, for these days of
skepticism and of merciless and conscienceless historic criticism, the
lands have been kept almost in their original condition, that the
testimony of the modern skeptical traveler might (though unintentionally
on his part, but necessarily) corroborate the teachings of the Bible.
Have the mummy wrappings of Mohammedan domination held the far East
unchanged through the centuries, that in these days of doubt the hills
of Canaan, the plains of Egypt and the ruins of Mesopotamia might lift
their voice in solemn attestation to the divine truthfulness of the
sacred historians?

These lands are memorial lands. They are now what the Book says they
once were. Although the sweeping away of ancient governments and the
reign of anarchy have modified the face of the country, the evidences
still remain that the most glowing descriptions of their prosperity were
not exaggerated. Infidels have doubted, for example, whether Palestine
could contain the immense populations which, in its prosperous days,
according to the statements of the Book, were resident there. But
scientists show that the soil of Canaan, under cultivation, is one of
the richest and most fertile in the world. The broken terraces that may
still be traced on the hill-sides, the walls of cities and other ruins
that fill the land, sustain the account of the prosperous days and the
immense populations of Bible times.

So little have the conditions of social life been modified, that one may
live the old life over again in Canaan. Soil and scenery, the seasons of
the year, Jacob's well and the Jordan, Ebal and Gerizim, the plain, the
wilderness and the city, all give witness to the words of the Book.

The names of olden time still linger. One lands at _Yafa_, the "Joppa"
of old; Jerusalem is now _el Khuds_,--"the Holy"; _Bahr-lut_--"the Sea
of Lot"--is the Dead Sea in the Valley of Sodom and Gomorrah; _Bir es
Seba_ is the Beersheba of the olden time; _el Azariyeh_ is Bethany, the
home of Lazarus; _Beit-lahm_ is still Bethlehem; and _el Khalil_--"the
Friend"--is the name of Hebron, the home of Abram, "the Friend of God."

In the customs and costumes, in the habits of speech and the manners of
the people, you read the same lesson. In the spring of 1863 I was
permitted to spend forty days and forty nights in Palestine. I saw
Abraham at his tent-door; Rebekah vailing herself at the approach of the
stranger; the long caravan of camels and Midianites on their way toward
the South. I saw the wailing mourners at the house of death; the roof
that might easily have been broken up; the wedding procession; the grass
on the house-tops; the sparrow making a nest for her young in the
synagogues of Jerusalem. I saw the elders in the gates; David the
shepherd, with his sheep, on the hill-side; the Jewish mother teaching
Timothy the words of the old Book in the old city on the hill. Verily,
it is the old land; it is the old life; it is the memorial presentation
in concrete form of what the Book says was true there thousands of years
ago.

As I stood on Safed, overlooking the Sea of Galilee and the lovely land
about it, I turned and looked toward the north, and saw snow-sheathed
Hermon, probably the Mount of Transfiguration, as it stood out that day
against the blue sky of Syria. I thought of Ruskin's words: "These pure
white hills, near to the heavens and sources of all good to the earth,
are the memorials of the light of his mercy that fell snow-like on the
Mount of Transfiguration."

I once saw the Alps glorified by the setting sun. I was standing on _La
Flégére_, looking down upon the Valley of Chamounix, and upward upon the
magnificent heights, above which towered the great Mont Blanc. A pall of
mist had hidden the rough and unilluminated rocks; but, when that mist
grew thin as a vail of delicate lace, I saw the Alps beyond, and they
appeared as if on fire. I cried out in ecstacy, "Behold Mount Zion."
Through the mists of earth I saw the splendors of heaven. The story of
the transfiguration on Mount Hermon, in the days of Jesus, if taken
literally, is not so marvelous as the history we call the life and
character of Jesus. Both belong to the realm of the supernatural. The
"life" granted, the transfiguration has no surprise in it. So I discover
the strange blending of the natural and supernatural in the Land and the
Book,--in the Land as to-day hallowed by the Book,--in the Book as
to-day supported and made real by the Land.

It thus easily appears that every Bible reader should be acquainted with
the outlines of Biblical and geographical antiquities. Without such
knowledge it is impossible properly to understand the divine word. How
often, through ignorance of sacred archæology, we overlook the force and
beauty of the allusions which abound in the narrative, poetic and
prophetic parts of Scripture. And there is, moreover, an air of reality
imparted to all history by familiarity with the geography involved in
it.

In view of the supernatural character of Bible history, acquaintance
with Bible geography is particularly important. Once give its wonderful
transactions an actual locality among the hills, valleys and cities
which may still be found and visited, connecting and comparing them with
the records of our present history, and our youth will readily
distinguish the miraculous from the mythical, and discover not only
clear illustrations of many portions of the Bible, but strong and
irresistible evidence in favor of its divinity.

I therefore hail with joy the admirable presentation of the facts of
Bible history and geography in this volume--a presentation so clear, and
so abundantly illustrative, that the humblest teacher and most
indifferent student may be interested and instructed.

The study of Bible history and geography must not be limited to the
theological school, the pastor's study, or the advanced Bible class. It
is a department peculiarly adapted to our youngest children, and by them
most needed, that they may secure the vivid realization of actuality in
the Bible narratives. Boys and girls to-day may not take much delight in
the advanced doctrinal teachings of the Bible; but it is possible so to
connect its history with stories of modern travel, through the regions
referred to in that history, that they will become interested in the one
because of the pleasure they find in the other.

Our Sunday School libraries should contain the many books of travel
through the far East which are published in these days. And our
ministers should enlist young people, through special classes, in the
study of Bible history and geography. In this way a "week-day hold" upon
our young people may be secured.

During ten years of my pastoral life, wherever the itinerant system of
my church placed me, I held on every Saturday afternoon, in the
lecture-room of my church, a class to which old and young, and the
representatives of all denominations, were admitted. It was called "The
Palestine Class," and was devoted to the study of Bible history and
geography. An outline of facts, prepared in catechetical form, was
printed, and committed to memory by every pupil. Difficult old Hebrew
names of lands, cities and mountains, were arranged in a rhythmic way,
and chanted after the manner of the old-time "singing geography"
classes. Answers were given in concert to help the memory, and personal
examinations were afterward conducted to test it. The class constituted
an "ideal company of tourists to the far East." The course of lessons
was divided into five sections, covering the whole of Bible history. As
each member, passing a personal examination, gave proof that he had
thoroughly mastered "Section One," he was constituted a PILGRIM to the
Holy Land, and given a certificate to that effect. Having studied
"Section Two," and passed a satisfactory examination, he was made a
RESIDENT in Palestine, and his name was associated with one town or
mountain. In that way every principal place on the map was associated
with the name of some member, who was held responsible to the class for
information concerning its history and present condition. An examination
in "Section Three" made our "pilgrim" and "resident" a DWELLER IN
JERUSALEM. Having been examined in "Section Four," he was made an
EXPLORER of other Bible lands, and was located on some mountain, or city
of Egypt, Arabia, Chaldea, Asia Minor, etc. A final examination made him
a TEMPLAR.

The songs, concert exercises, responses and ideal pilgrimage gave
enthusiasm to the class, while the personal examinations guaranteed
thoroughness. As I recall those Saturday afternoons of my early
ministry, surrounded by earnest women and wide-awake boys and girls of
all ages, I am amply rewarded for all the labor and time expended. The
enthusiasm and delight, the perceptible growth in knowledge, the spirit
of catholicity, the steadiness promoted in the frivolous, the
gratification afforded on the occasion of public examinations and
reviews, the increased appreciation of the Sunday preaching, visible on
the faces of young and old, the grateful words that have come through
the intervening years from those who were by these studies incited to a
more intelligent and earnest Bible study--these are some of the results
of those years of pastoral service. The plan is practicable for every
pastor. The book which I now have the honor of introducing to the public
furnishes to every minister a complete preparation for directing such
classes--a preparation which, twenty-five years ago, would have been a
great benediction to me.

One of these Palestine classes reported its imaginary tour through the
village paper. These articles gave local interest to the movement,
delighting the imaginary tourists, and (through no fault of ours)
deceiving more than one simple-hearted reader in the community. From
these letters I make a few extracts.


"PALESTINE CORRESPONDENCE OF THE 'INDEPENDENT WATCHMAN.'

          "DEAR INDEPENDENT: In fulfillment of the promise
          made the night before our departure, I sit down to
          write the first of a series of letters detailing
          the most noteworthy incidents of our journey to
          the Holy Land, with such historical and
          geographical facts as are suggested by the
          localities we may be permitted to visit.

          "As you are well aware, an association, which has
          for its specific object the study of Bible history
          and geography, was organized in your town some
          months ago. After a course of thorough preliminary
          training, arrangements were consummated for a tour
          of observation through Egypt, Arabia,
          Palestine,--the lands of Hebrew life and
          literature, the scenes of the early Christian
          history, and, later, the arena of Saracenic
          invasion and domination. We are now on the way
          thither. While the tide of mighty immigration is
          pouring westward toward the American desert, the
          Rocky Mountains, Pike's Peak and Cherry creek, a
          tiny rill of exploration is trickling eastward
          toward the desert of Sinai, the mountains of
          Egypt, the peaks of Lebanon, and the river of
          Jordan." * * * * *

After calling attention to two books which had just then appeared--"The
Land and The Book," by Dr. Thomson, and "Palestine Past and Present," by
Dr. Osborn--the Palestine correspondent continued:

          "No class of literature is more refining and
          exalting than the records of cultivated minds made
          amid the sacred scenes of Palestine, and the not
          less interesting ruins of Egypt, Asia Minor and
          Greece. A taste for such mental pabulum is a
          better safeguard against the popular and polluting
          fictions of the day than all the mandates of the
          parent or the uncompromising denunciations of the
          pulpit. Preoccupy by the good, and there will be
          no evil to expel. Create a taste for healthful
          literature in our young people, and they will not
          crave the blood and fire potions now so
          mercilessly provided by the corrupt press. This is
          one object of our present pilgrimage to Palestine.
          We would open a new world--the newest and yet the
          oldest of worlds--to their view. We would unfurl
          bright maps and open new books, and delight them
          in a field of thought and research, in which
          healthful influences prevail, a field of fragrant
          and thornless flowers, of luscious and life-giving
          fruit. * * * * * The association to which I have
          referred is composed of about eighty pilgrims. On
          Saturday morning, the 25th, we left your quiet
          village, reaching Chicago the same evening.
          Tuesday morning found us on our way to New York,
          where we arrived early this morning. We shall sail
          on Saturday, April 2, for the Orient. In order to
          diminish our expenses, we forego the speed of the
          regular steam route, and have chartered the
          sailing vessel, the schooner 'Star of Bethlehem.'
          She is a new vessel, and a 'bright light' in her
          way. Well rigged, and ably manned, she is prepared
          for the buffeting of old ocean. Her captain is the
          distinguished and experienced _Hardstudy_, with
          whom, I am sure, you have some acquaintance. He is
          a true gentleman, and, I am told, has been an
          intimate companion of several Oriental travelers.
          He accompanied Dr. Robinson on both his tours. The
          'Star,' built expressly for excursions to the
          Mediterranean waters, is a stout boat, and is
          provided with the modern conveniences and luxuries
          of travel. She is about 150 tons burden. I spent
          an hour on board of her this afternoon, and am
          much gratified with the neatness and elegance
          displayed in all her departments. The library and
          reading-room is a little palace. It contains about
          1,500 volumes, chiefly of Eastern travel, which,
          together with a number of good maps and paintings,
          will afford us every opportunity to prepare for
          the interesting tour we are about making. All thus
          far are well. Remember us in our wanderings, and
          send us copies of your paper, directing to the
          'care of the United States Consul at Alexandria.'
          Prepay to New York, and send 'Via Liverpool and
          Beyrout.'"

The next letter gives an account of the various pilgrimages which have
been made to Palestine from the days of Abraham down to the present.

          "Off Sandy Hook, 3.30 P. M.," our correspondent
          wrote. "The wide ocean is before us. We have
          passed the Battery, Brooklyn, Staten Island, the
          ruins of old quarantine and the forts,--feeble
          protection in cases of invasion,--and yonder to
          the east is Sandy Hook. The bell of the tug rings.
          In five minutes our friends who accompany us down
          will return to the city, and we shall be alone
          upon the wide, wide sea. The waters appear quiet;
          a faint west wind is rising; all the children are
          in good spirits. If they are as bright to-morrow
          it will be strange. Farewell, native land!
          Farewell!"

The third letter opened with a quotation from Browning:


          "'In the dimmest northeast distance
           Dawned Gibraltar, grand and gray.'

                    "SCHOONER STAR OF BETHLEHEM,
                          "HARBOR OF GIBRALTAR, May 4, '59.

          "DEAR INDEPENDENT: Thirty-two days ago we left the
          port of New York, and day before yesterday glided
          through the Straits of Gibraltar, casting anchor
          in this harbor. Our voyage was short and
          agreeable, all that could be desired, with the
          exception of the sea-sickness that prevailed among
          us for the first four or five days, and the alarm
          occasioned by the heavy gale of last week. For two
          days the storm raged so violently that our fears
          were much excited. On the evening of the 26th ult.
          the winds were lulled, the clouds broke away, and
          the rays of the setting sun hurried swiftly across
          the yet raging waves, to brighten their foaming
          crests with golden light, and bring hope to our
          hearts. Religious services were conducted each
          Sabbath by the chaplain, and our programme of
          study and reading was faithfully observed every
          day. All that we did, and all that we saw, cannot
          be reported in a single letter. Our young friends
          must themselves write about the wonders of the
          sea,--whales, dolphins, icebergs; sunset, sunrise,
          midnight; calms, storms, water-spouts; and all
          other sources of joy or terror in ocean life.
          Yesterday was spent in an excursion to the town of
          Gibraltar." * * * * *

After a description of Gibraltar, the writer says:

          "The whole juvenile forces of our vessel have been
          invited to dine this afternoon with the officers
          of _H. M. S. Manchester_, in company with the
          British and American consuls of Gibraltar, and
          left an hour ago, under the charge of Captain
          _Hardstudy_, to comply with the gracious
          invitation, and I remain to prepare this letter
          for the morrow's steamer from Valetta to
          Liverpool. The sun is already sinking in the blue
          and gold waters of the Mediterranean. A fresh
          breeze has startled the sleeping waves into lively
          gambols, and our flag points eagerly westward and
          homeward. See our party of little travelers just
          off for the 'Manchester'! How their boats dance up
          and down over the water! 'Boom!' 'boom!' go the
          signal guns from the kind old ship! Now hear the
          thunderous volleys from the batteries on the huge
          mountain, proclaiming the hour of sunset!"

The letters which follow are from "Alexandria, Egypt, May 28"; from the
"Steamer Rameses, River Nile, June 11"; from "Off Joppa, June 16"; from
"Jerusalem, July 5"; from "Nablous, 'the City of Samaria,' July 12";
from "Beyrout, Syria, July 23"; and on Monday morning, July 25, our
correspondent writes his farewell, as follows:

          "Well, friend INDEPENDENT, our travels are ended.
          We came on board the 'Star of Bethlehem' this
          morning. The steamer for Liverpool leaves this
          afternoon, and we shall send our letters ashore to
          be mailed. By the 30th of September we hope to be
          with you again. We have seen the earthly Canaan,
          with its degradation and defilement. Our minds
          turn toward the better Canaan. With Watts we sing:

           "'Look up, our souls, pant toward the eternal hills;
             Those heavens are fairer than they seem.
             There pleasures all sincere glide on in crystal rills;
             There not a dreg of guilt defiles,
               No grief disturbs the stream
               That Canaan knows,--no noxious thing,
               No cursed soil, no tainted spring;
               No roses grow on thorns, nor honey wears a sting.'"

Such devices as these help to inspire the young with an interest in
sacred things. They may not yet be prepared to appreciate the night of
prayer on the mountain, the agony of the Lord in Gethsemane, or the
rapturous experiences of St. John on Patmos; but they may take delight
in the land, its customs, its wonderful histories, read with
gratification an account of journeys from Dan to Beersheba, with perils
from robbers, and the pranks of native children, the lonely horseback
ride from Jerusalem down to Jericho, the encampment by the "Fountain of
robbers" north of Jerusalem, the loveliness of Nazareth, the beauty of
the Sea of Galilee, and the glories of Lebanon and Hermon. Finding
delight in these more human things, they may, incidentally, under the
leadership of the divine Providence and Spirit, catch glimpses of his
face who, by simile and word and spirit, sanctified the land from north
to south and from Bashan to the sea.

                                                       J. H. VINCENT.



PREFACE TO THE REVISED EDITION.


DURING the fourteen years since this work was prepared great advancement
has been gained in knowledge of the ancient Oriental world. In the light
of recent researches it has become necessary to revise the entire book.
The work has been done with care, every location has been
reinvestigated, and the historical allusions have been compared with the
latest and best authorities. In this revision the author has been
materially aided by Prof. Robert W. Rogers of Madison, N. J., and Prof.
Karl P. Harrington of Chapel Hill, N. C., to both of whom thanks are
rendered. It is possible that some errors may yet remain, and if any
appear to students who make use of this work, corrections or suggestions
with regard to them will be gratefully received.

                                                      JESSE L. HURLBUT.



GENERAL INDEX.


                                                          PAGE
  Ancient World, and the Descendants of Noah                23
  Apostolic History, Early                                 112
  Bible History, Chart of                                   13
  Conquest of Canaan                                        50
  Empire of David and Solomon                               68
  Illustrations, List of                                    11
  Index to Descriptive Matter                              157
  Index to Map of Old Testament World (Map on pp. 18, 19)  156
  Index to Map of Palestine (Map on pp. 152, 153)          151
  Introduction                                               3
  Isles of Greece and the Seven Churches                   132
  Jerusalem, Ancient                                        72
  Jerusalem, Environs of                                    82
  Jerusalem, Modern                                         77
  Journeys of the Apostle Paul                             116
  Journeys of the Patriarchs                                33
  Kingdom of Saul                                           64
  Lands of the Sojourn and Wandering                        41
  Life of Christ, The                                      103
  Measures of the Bible, The                               148
  New Testament Palestine (Kingdom of Herod the Great)     100
  Old Testament World, The                                  17
  Oriental Empires, The Great                               91
  Palestine Among the Twelve Tribes                         55
  Palestine Before the Conquest                             36
  Palestine, Lessons in the Geography of                   143
  Palestine Under the Judges                                60
  Physical Palestine                                        28
  Roman Empire, The                                         97
  Solomon's Empire, The Division of                         86
  Tabernacle, The                                          135
  Table of Contents                                          9
  Temple, The                                              138



TABLE OF CONTENTS.


                                                 PAGE
  CHART OF BIBLE HISTORY                        13-16

     I. GENERAL PERIODS.
    II. SUBDIVISIONS.
   III. PERSONS AND RULERS.
    IV. EVENTS OF BIBLE HISTORY.
     V. THE HISTORY OF EGYPT.
    VI. THE KINGDOMS OF THE EAST.
   VII. THE ORIENTAL EMPIRES.
  VIII. THE WORLD IN GENERAL.


  THE OLD TESTAMENT WORLD                       17-22

     I. EXTENT.
    II. SEAS.
   III. MOUNTAIN RANGES.
    IV. RIVERS.
     V. LANDS.
          I. _Lands of the Mountain System._
               1. Armenia;
               2. Media;
               3. Persia.
         II. _Lands of the Plain._
               1. Assyria;
               2. Elam;
               3. Mesopotamia;
               4. Chaldea;
               5. Arabia.
        III. _Lands of the Mediterranean._
               1. Asia Minor;
               2. Syria;
               3. Phoenicia;
               4. Palestine;
               5. The Wilderness;
               6. Egypt.


  ANCIENT WORLD, AND DESCENDANTS OF NOAH        23-27

     I. THE JAPHETIC NATIONS.
          1. Gomer;
          2. Magog;
          3. Madai;
          4. Javan;
          5. Tubal;
          6. Meshech;
          7. Tiras.
    II. THE HAMITIC RACES.
          1. Cush;
          2. Mizraim;
          3. Phut;
          4. Canaan.
   III. THE SEMITIC RACES.
          1. Elam;
          2. Asshur;
          3. Arphaxad;
          4. Lud;
          5. Aram.


  PHYSICAL PALESTINE                            28-32

     I. DIMENSIONS.
          1. Canaan;
          2. Palestine Proper;
          3. The Land of Promise.
    II. NATURAL DIVISIONS.
          1. Maritime Plain;
          2. Mountain Region;
          3. Jordan Valley;
          4. Eastern Table-Land.
   III. THE WATERS OF PALESTINE.
          1. The River Jordan;
          2. The Three Lakes;
          3. The Brooks.
    IV. THE MOUNTAINS OF PALESTINE.
          1. West of the Jordan;
          2. East of the Jordan.
     V. THE PLAINS OF PALESTINE.
          1. Phoenicia;
          2. Sharon;
          3. Philistia;
          4. Esdraelon;
          5. Negeb;
          6. Jordan;
          7. Hauran.


  THE JOURNEYS OF THE PATRIARCHS                33-36

     I. THE JOURNEYS OF ABRAHAM.
          1. Ur to Haran;
          2. Haran to Canaan;
          3. Visit to Egypt;
          4. Removal to Hebron;
          5. Pursuit of the Elamites;
          6. Settlement at Beersheba;
          7. Offering of Isaac;
          8. Burial of Sarah.
    II. THE JOURNEYS OF ISAAC.
        Homes:
          1. Beer-lahai-roi;
          2. Gerar;
          3. Rehoboth;
          4. Beersheba;
          5. Hebron.
   III. THE JOURNEYS OF JACOB.
          1. Flight to Haran;
          2. Return to Canaan;
          3. Residence in Canaan;
          4. Descent into Egypt;
          5. Burial Procession.


  PALESTINE BEFORE THE CONQUEST                 36-40

     I. THE EARLIEST INHABITANTS.
          1. The Rephaim;
          2. The Zuzim;
          3. The Emim;
          4. The Horim;
          5. The Avim;
          6. The Anakim.
    II. THE TRIBES OF THE PATRIARCHAL ERA.
          1. Zidonians;
          2. Canaanites;
          3. Philistines;
          4. Hittites;
          5. Girgashites;
          6. Hivites;
          7. Perizzites;
          8. Jebusites;
          9. Amorites.
   III. THE NATIONS AT THE TIME OF THE CONQUEST.
          1. Amorites;
          2. Moabites and Ammonites.
    IV. THE SURROUNDING NATIONS.
          1. Hivites, Arkites, Sinites,
               Arvadites, Hamathites;
          2. Ammonites;
          3. Amalekites, Kenites, Edomites.


  LANDS OF THE SOJOURN AND WANDERING            41-49

     I. THE LAND OF EGYPT.
          1. Names;
          2. Boundaries and Dimensions;
          3. Divisions;
          4. The Nile;
          5. The People;
          6. History;
          7. Principal Places.
    II. THE WILDERNESS OF THE WANDERING.
          1. Situation;
          2. Natural Features;
          3. Inhabitants.
   III. THE LAND OF EDOM.
          1. Boundaries;
          2. Names;
          3. Natural Features;
          4. History;
          5. Peculiarities.
    IV. THE WANDERING IN THE WILDERNESS.
          1. Rameses to the Red Sea;
          2. Red Sea to Mt. Sinai;
          3. Mt. Sinai to Kadesh-barnea;
          4, 5, 6. Kadesh-barnea to Mt. Hor,
               Ezion-geber, and Return;
          7, 8. Kadesh-barnea to Elath and Jordan;
               Table of Stations.


  THE CONQUEST OF CANAAN                        50-54

     I. CONQUEST OF EASTERN PALESTINE.
          1. Gilead;
          2. Bashan;
          3. Midian.
    II. CONQUEST OF WESTERN PALESTINE.
          1. Central;
          2. Southern;
          3. Northern.
   III. SUPPLEMENTARY CONQUESTS.
          1. Judah and Simeon;
          2. Caleb and Othniel;
          3. Dan.


  PALESTINE AMONG THE TWELVE TRIBES             55-59

     I. REUBEN.
    II. GAD.
   III. MANASSEH--EAST.
    IV. SIMEON.
     V. JUDAH.
    VI. BENJAMIN.
   VII. DAN.
  VIII. EPHRAIM.
    IX. MANASSEH--WEST.
     X. ISSACHAR.
    XI. ASHER.
   XII. ZEBULON.
  XIII. NAPHTALI.
   XIV. LEVI.


  PALESTINE UNDER THE JUDGES                    60-63

     I. SUPPLEMENTARY TO THE CONQUEST.
          1. Judah and Simeon;
          2. Danite Migration;
          3. Civil War.
    II. OPPRESSIONS AND JUDGES.
          1. Mesopotamian (south);
          2. Moabite (central);
          3. Early Philistine (south);
          4. Canaanite (north);
          5. Midianite (central and north);
          6. Ammonite (east);
          7. Philistine (south and central).
   III. BATTLES OF THE PERIOD.


  THE KINGDOM OF SAUL                           64-67

     I. SAUL'S APPOINTMENT AS KING.
    II. THE WARS OF SAUL.
   III. SAUL'S PURSUIT OF DAVID.
    IV. SAUL'S DEATH.


  THE EMPIRE OF DAVID AND SOLOMON               68-71

     I. DAVID'S REIGN OVER JUDAH.
    II. THE UNION OF PALESTINE.
   III. DAVID'S FOREIGN CONQUESTS.
    IV. THE CALAMITIES OF DAVID'S REIGN.
     V. THE CLOSE OF DAVID'S REIGN.
    VI. THE REIGN OF SOLOMON.


  ANCIENT JERUSALEM                             72-76

     I. NAMES.
    II. LOCATION.
   III. GEOLOGIC FORMATION.
    IV. VALLEYS.
     V. MOUNTAINS.
    VI. WALLS.
   VII. HISTORY.


  MODERN JERUSALEM                              77-81

     I. LOCATION.
    II. WALLS.
   III. GATES.
    IV. QUARTERS.
     V. FOUNTAINS AND POOLS.
    VI. OUTSIDE THE WALLS.


  THE ENVIRONS OF JERUSALEM                    82-85

     I. NORTHERN ROAD.
          1. Mizpeh;
          2. Nob;
          3. Gibeah;
          4. Anathoth;
          5. Ramah;
          6. Michmash;
          7. Ai;
          8. Beeroth;
          9. Bethel;
         10. Rimmon;
         11. Ephraim.
    II. EASTERN ROAD.
          1. Bethany;
          2. Steep Descent;
          3. Jericho.
   III. SOUTHERN ROAD.
          1. Plain of the Rephaim;
          2. Rachel's Tomb;
          3. Bethlehem;
          4. Valley of Elah;
          5. Hebron;
          6. Jeshimon.
    IV. SOUTHWESTERN ROAD. "Jerusalem to Gaza."
     V. WESTERN ROAD.
          1. Emmaus;
          2. Kirjath-jearim.
    VI. NORTHWESTERN ROAD.
          1. Ramah;
          2. Gibeon;
          3. Beth-horon.


  THE DIVISION OF SOLOMON'S EMPIRE              86-90

     I. KINGDOMS:
          1. Syria;
          2. Israel;
          3. Judah;
          4. Moab;
          5. Edom.
    II. PERIODS:
          1. Period of Division;
          2. Syrian Period;
          3. Restoration of Israel;
          4. Fall of Israel;
          5. Fall of Judah.
   III. BATTLES OF THE PERIOD.


  THE GREAT ORIENTAL EMPIRES                91-96, 99

     I. THE EARLY CHALDEAN EMPIRE.
    II. THE ASSYRIAN EMPIRE.
   III. THE BABYLONIAN EMPIRE.
    IV. THE PERSIAN EMPIRE.
  THE DIVISION OF ALEXANDER'S EMPIRE, B.C. 250.
          1. Persian Supremacy;
          2. Macedonian Supremacy;
          3. Egyptian Supremacy;
          4. Syrian Supremacy;
          5. Maccabean Independence;
          6. Roman Supremacy.


  THE ROMAN EMPIRE                              97-99

     I. EUROPEAN PROVINCES.
    II. INSULAR PROVINCES.
   III. ASIATIC PROVINCES.
    IV. AFRICAN PROVINCES.


  NEW TESTAMENT PALESTINE                     100-102

     I. THE PROVINCES OF PALESTINE.
          1. Judea;
          2. Samaria;
          3. Galilee;
          4. Peræa;
          5. Decapolis.
    II. THE POLITICAL HISTORY OF PALESTINE,
         B.C. 4-A.D. 70.
          1. Kingdom of Herod the Great;
          2. Tetrarchy;
          3. Kingdom of Herod Agrippa;
          4. The Two Provinces.


  THE LIFE OF CHRIST                          103-111

     I. PERIOD OF PREPARATION.
          1. Presentation in the Temple;
          2. Flight into Egypt;
          3. Settlement at Nazareth;
          4. Visit to the Temple.
    II. PERIOD OF INAUGURATION.
          1. Baptism;
          2. Temptation;
          3. Marriage at Cana;
          4. First Passover;
          5. Return to Galilee.
   III. PERIOD OF EARLY GALILEAN MINISTRY.
          1. Opening of the Ministry;
          2. Tour in Eastern Galilee;
          3. Second Passover;
          4. Sermon on the Mount.
    IV. PERIOD OF LATER GALILEAN MINISTRY.
          1. Tour in Southern Galilee;
          2. Gadarene Voyage;
          3. Tour in Central Galilee;
          4. Retirement to Bethsaida.
     V. PERIOD OF RETIREMENT.
          1. Journey to Phoenicia;
          2. Journey to Decapolis;
          3. Journey to Cæsarea Philippi;
          4. Last Return to Capernaum.
    VI. PERIOD OF JUDÆAN MINISTRY.
          1. Galilee to Jerusalem;
          2. Jerusalem to Bethabara.
   VII. PERIOD OF PERÆAN MINISTRY.
          1. Bethabara to Bethany;
          2. Retirement to Ephraim;
          3. Journey in Peræa;
          4. Jericho to Bethany.
  VIII. PERIOD OF THE PASSION.
          1, 2, 3. Bethany to Temple and Return;
          4. Bethany to Supper;
          5. Supper to Gethsemane;
          6. Gethsemane to House of Caiaphas;
          7. Caiaphas to Pilate;
          8. Pilate to Herod and Return;
          9. Pilate to Calvary.
    IX. PERIOD OF THE RESURRECTION--The Ten
         Appearances of Christ:
          1. At Jerusalem;
          2. At Jerusalem;
          3. Near Emmaus;
          4. At Jerusalem;
          5. At Jerusalem;
          6. At Jerusalem;
          7. Near the Sea of Galilee;
          8. On a Mountain in Galilee;
          9. At Jerusalem;
         10. Near Bethany.


  EARLY APOSTOLIC HISTORY                     112-115

     I. PHILIP'S JOURNEY.
    II. SAUL'S JOURNEY.
   III. PETER'S JOURNEY.
    IV. BARNABAS' JOURNEY.
     V. BARNABAS AND SAUL'S JOURNEY.


  JOURNEYS OF THE APOSTLE PAUL                116-131

     I. THE PROVINCES OF ASIA MINOR.
          1. On the Black Sea;
          2. On the Ægean Sea;
          3. On the Mediterranean;
          4. In the Interior.
    II. THE FIRST MISSIONARY JOURNEY.
          1. Antioch in Syria;
          2. Seleucia;
          3. Island of Cyprus;
          4. Salamis;
          5. Paphos;
          6. Perga;
          7. Antioch in Pisidia;
          8. Iconium;
          9. Lystra;
         10. Derbe;
         11. Return, and Attalia.
   III. THE SECOND MISSIONARY JOURNEY.
          I. _Asiatic Stations._
               1. Syria;
               2. Cilicia;
               3. Derbe;
               4. Lystra;
               5. Phrygia;
               6. Galatia;
               7. Troas.
         II. _European Stations._
               1. Philippi;
               2. Amphipolis;
               3. Apollonia;
               4. Thessalonica;
               5. Berea;
               6. Athens;
               7. Corinth;
               8. Cenchrea.
        III. _Stations of the Return Journey._
               1. Ephesus;
               2. Cæsarea;
               3. Jerusalem;
               4. Antioch.
    IV. THE THIRD MISSIONARY JOURNEY.
          I. _Outward Journey._
               1. Antioch;
               2. Galatia;
               3. Phrygia;
               4. Ephesus;
               5. Troas;
               6. Macedonia;
               7. Greece.
         II. _Return Journey._
               1. Philippi;
               2. Troas;
               3. Assos;
               4. Mitylene;
               5. Chios;
               6. Samos;
               7. Trogyllium;
               8. Miletus;
               9. Coos;
              10. Rhodes;
              11. Patara;
              12. Tyre;
              13. Ptolemais;
              14. Cæsarea;
              15. Jerusalem.
     V. THE VOYAGE TO ROME.
          1. Jerusalem;
          2. Antipatris;
          3. Cæsarea;
          4. Zidon;
          5. Myra;
          6. Crete;
          7. Melita;
          8. Syracuse;
          9. Rhegium;
         10. Puteoli;
         11. Appii Forum;
         12. Rome.
    VI. THE LAST JOURNEYS OF PAUL.
          1. Colosse, Ephesus;
          2. Macedonia;
          3. Crete;
          4. Nicopolis;
          5. Troas;
          6. Ephesus;
          7. Rome.


  THE ISLES OF GREECE AND THE SEVEN CHURCHES  132-134

     I. PATMOS.
    II. ASIA.
   III. THE SEVEN CHURCHES OF ASIA.
          1. Ephesus;
          2. Smyrna;
          3. Pergamos;
          4. Thyatira;
          5. Sardis;
          6. Philadelphia;
          7. Laodicea.


  THE TABERNACLE                              135-137

     I. ORIGIN.
    II. HISTORY.
   III. DEPARTMENTS OF THE TABERNACLE.
          1. The Court;
          2. The Altar;
          3. The Laver;
          4. The Tent;
          5. The Holy Place;
          6. The Holy of Holies.


  THE TEMPLE                                  138-142

     I. COURT OF THE GENTILES.
    II. SACRED ENCLOSURE.
   III. COURT OF THE WOMEN.
    IV. COURT OF ISRAEL.
     V. COURT OF THE PRIESTS.
    VI. THE HOUSE OF GOD.


  LESSONS IN THE GEOGRAPHY OF PALESTINE       143-147

     I. LINES AND WATERS.
    II. NAMES AND DISTANCES.
   III. NATURAL DIVISIONS.
          1. Sea-Coast Plain;
          2. Mountain Region;
          3. Jordan Valley;
          4. Eastern Table-Land.
    IV. MOUNTAINS.
     V. PLACES.
          1. In the Sea-Coast Plain;
          2. In the Mountain Region;
          3. In the Jordan Valley;
          4. In the Eastern Table-Land.
    VI. PROVINCES.
          1. Judæa;
          2. Samaria;
          3. Galilee;
          4. Peræa;
          5. Bashan.


  THE MEASURES OF THE BIBLE                   148-150

     I. SMALLER MEASURES OF LENGTH.
    II. LARGER MEASURES OF LENGTH.
   III. DRY MEASURES OF CAPACITY.
    IV. LIQUID MEASURES OF CAPACITY.
     V. MEASURES OF WEIGHT.
    VI. MEASURES OF VALUE.


  INDEX TO AND MAP OF PALESTINE               151-155

  INDEX TO MAP OF OLD TESTAMENT WORLD             156

  INDEX TO DESCRIPTIVE MATTER                157, 158



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


  MAPS.
                                                    PAGE
  Alexander's Empire, Division of                     94
  Ancient Jerusalem in New Testament Period           72
  Ancient World, and Descendants of Noah              24
  Assyrian Empire                                     92
  Babylonian Empire and its Surroundings              92
  Beth-horon and Vicinity                             50
  Conquest of Canaan                                  50
  Corinth and Vicinity                               123
  Damascus and Vicinity                              114
  Division of Solomon's Empire                        86
  Early Apostolic History                            112
  Empire of Chedorlaomer                              34
  Empire of David and Solomon                         68
  Environs of Jerusalem                               82
  Island of Cyprus                                   119
  Isles of Greece and the Seven Churches             132
  Isle of Patmos                                     134
  Journeys of the Patriarchs                          36
  Kadesh-barnea and Vicinity                          48
  Kingdom of Egypt at its greatest extent under
      Rameses II                                      42
  Kingdom of Herod the Great                         100
  Kingdom of Saul                                     64
  Lands of the Sojourn and Wandering                  44
  Modern Jerusalem                                    81
  Modern Palestine                              152, 153
  Modern World and Bible Lands              facing title
  Mount Sinai, Vicinity of                            44
  Natural Features of Jerusalem                       75
  Nineveh and Vicinity                                96
  Old Testament World                             18, 19
  Oriental World in the Time of David                 70
  Outline Map for Review                              26
  Outline Maps (Geography of Palestine)          143-146
  Palestine among the Tribes                          58
  Palestine as Promised and Possessed                 53
  Palestine before the Conquest                       36
  Palestine during the Ministry of Jesus             102
  Palestine under the Judges                          60
  Palestine under the Maccabees, B.C. 100             96
  Paul's First Missionary Journey                    116
  Paul's Second Missionary Journey                   120
  Paul's Third Missionary Journey                    124
  Paul's Voyage to Rome                              126
  Paul's Last Journeys                               130
  Period of Preparation.          (Life of Christ)   104
  Period of Inauguration.               "            104
  Period of Early Galilean Ministry.    "            106
  Period of Later Galilean Ministry.    "            107
  Period of Retirement.                 "            107
  Period of Judæan Ministry.            "            108
  Period of Peræan Ministry.            "            109
  Period of the Passion.                "            109
  Persian Empire                                      94
  Peter's Journey                                    112
  Philip's Journey                                   112
  Physical Palestine                                  28
  Plain of Esdraelon                                  60
  Restoration of Israel, B.C. 800                     89
  Roman Empire in New Testament Period                98
  Saul's Last Battle                                  64
  Saul of Tarsus' and Barnabas' Journeys             112
  St. Paul's Bay, Malta, enlarged                    128
  Syrian Period, B.C. 884-840                         88
  The Two Provinces, A.D. 44-70                      102


  ENGRAVINGS.

  Ancient Coins                                 149, 150
  Antioch in Syria                                   117
  Arches under Temple Area                           147
  Areopagus at Athens                                121
  Assyrian Palace                                     91
  Babylon                                             95
  Bashan, View in the Eastern Table-Land              55
  Bethany                                            150
  Bethlehem                                          105
  Bible Measures                                148, 149
  Birs Nimroud (supposed Tower of Babel)              23
  Black Obelisk                                       93
  Brazen Altar                                       137
  Capernaum and the Sea of Galilee                   101
  Church of the Ascension                             54
  Church of the Holy Sepulchre                        16
  Church of Nativity, Bethlehem                       71
  Colosseum at Rome                                   97
  Damascus                                           113
  David's Tomb                                        73
  Defile between Jerusalem and Jericho                83
  Dome of the Rock (Site of the Temple)              139
  Egyptian Temple                                     41
  Entry of Pilgrims into Bethlehem                   xii
  Garden of Gethsemane                                49
  Gethsemane                                          85
  Grotto of Jeremiah                                  99
  Hebron                                              39
  Jericho                                             67
  Jericho and the Jordan                              37
  Jews' Wailing Place at Jerusalem                    27
  Laodicea from Hierapolis                           133
  Moabite Stone                                       88
  Modern Jerusalem, Panorama and Description of   78, 79
  Mosque El Aska                                      90
  Mount Ararat                                        20
  Mount Tabor                                         61
  Mount Zion                                         115
  Mugheir (supposed to be Ur of the Chaldees)         33
  Nazareth                                           110
  Pool of Siloam                                     103
  Râs es Sufsafeh (Mount Sinai)                       43
  River Jordan                                        30
  Round about Jerusalem                               59
  Shechem                                             51
  Solomon's Pools                                     84
  Tabernacle                                         135
  Tower of David                                      69
  Table of Shew Bread                                136
  Via Dolorosa                                       111


  CHARTS.

  Bible History                                   14, 15
  Chronological Chart of Kings of Israel and Judah    87
  Paul's First Journey, Review                       119
  Table of Nations, Review                            27


  COMPARATIVE DIAGRAMS.

  Age of the Patriarchs, before and after the Deluge  34
  Areas of Asia Minor and Texas, U.S.                118
  Area of Egypt                                       42
  Areas of Palestine and New England                  29
  Area of Palestine at Different Periods              70
  Areas of Assyrian, Babylonian and Persian Empires   93
  Height of Bible Mountains                           17
  Height of Mountains in Palestine                    32
  Population of the Twelve Tribes at Entrance into
      Canaan                                          57
  Size of the Territory of the Tribes                 56
  United States and Old Testament World               17


  PLANS.

  Antioch, Ancient                                   114
  Athens, Ancient                                    122
  Babylon                                             93
  Camp of Israel                                      47
  Ephesus and Vicinity                               125
  Rome, Ancient                                      129
  Sacred Enclosure (Herod's Temple)                  141
  Section of Palestine, North to South                31
  Section of Palestine, East to West                  31
  Section Through the Middle of Temple, East to West 140
  Solomon's Temple                                    71
  Temple in the Time of Christ (Herod's)             138

[Illustration: ENTRY OF PILGRIMS INTO BETHLEHEM.]



CHART OF BIBLE HISTORY.


THE Geography and the History of the Bible are so closely united that
neither subject can be studied to advantage without the other. We
therefore present at the opening of our work the Chart of Bible History,
upon which the leading events of Bible History and those of the ancient
world in general are arranged in parallel columns. The blue lines
extending across the page represent the centuries before Christ, each
space between them being 100 years. Until recently the common chronology
found in all reference Bibles and Biblical works, was that prepared by
Archbishop Ussher, who died in 1656, long before the present sources of
information from "the monuments" had been discovered. His chronology has
not been regarded as trustworthy by scholars for thirty years past; but
until recently it has been retained because students of Biblical and
Ancient History were not agreed as to the dates which should be given in
place of it. But there is now a substantial, though not complete
agreement among scholars; and we therefore discard the Ussherian system,
and adopt that obtained from the information given in the inscriptions
of Assyria, Babylonia, and Egypt, when compared with statements in the
Bible.

We begin at the date 2500 B.C. as the events of Bible History earlier
than 2500 B.C. cannot be fixed with any certainty. And it must be
admitted that none of the dates earlier than 1000 B.C. can be regarded
as established.

I. =General Periods.= In the first column we note the five great periods
of Bible History. These are the natural divisions of the events
contained in the Bible story.

1. The Period of the Early Races, from the Deluge, at a date unknown, to
the Call of Abraham, B.C. 2280. Before the Call of Abraham, the history
in the book of Genesis is introductory.

2. The Period of the Chosen Family, from the Call of Abraham, B.C. 2280,
to the Exodus from Egypt, about 1250 B.C.

3. The Period of the Israelite People, from the Exodus, 1250 B.C., to
the Coronation of Saul, about 1050 B.C.

4. The Period of the Israelite Kingdom, from the Coronation of Saul,
1050 B.C., to the Captivity in Babylon, B.C. 587.

5. The Period of the Jewish Province, from the Captivity in Babylon, 587
B.C., to the Destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, A.D. 70.

II. In the second column the larger periods are broken up into
=Subdivisions=. 1. In the _Period of the Early Races_ the line of
division is made at the Dispersion of the Races, to which no date is
assigned. 2. _The Period of the Chosen Family_ is subdivided at the
Descent into Egypt by Jacob and his family, about 2060 B.C. 3. _The
Period of the Israelitish People_ has three subdivisions. (1.) The
Wandering in the Wilderness, from the Exodus, B.C. 1250, to the Entrance
into Canaan, B.C. 1210. (2.) The Settlement, extending to the
Mesopotamian Oppression, B.C. 1180. (3.) The Rule of the Judges, to the
Coronation of Saul, B.C. 1050. 4. _The Period of the Israelitish
Kingdom_ naturally divides itself into three sections. (1.) Unity, to
the Division of the Kingdom, B.C. 935. (2.) Division, to the Captivity
of the Ten Tribes, B.C. 721. (3.) Decay, the stage of the kingdom of
Judah alone, from B.C. 721 to 587, the Babylonian Captivity. 5. _The
Period of the Jewish Province_ has five subdivisions. (1.) Chaldean
Rule, to the Return from Captivity, B.C. 536. (2.) Persian Rule, to the
Conquest by Alexander the Great, B.C. 330. (3.) Greek Rule, under the
kingdoms of Alexander's successors to the Revolt of Mattathias, B.C.
168. (4.) Jewish Independence, to the Annexation of Judæa to the Roman
Empire, A.D. 6. (5.) Roman Rule, to the final Destruction of Jerusalem,
A.D. 70.

III. Next, we notice the prominent =Persons and Rulers= in Sacred
History. The perpendicular lines opposite the names of the patriarchs
indicate the duration of their lives, according to the common
chronology. Only the most important of the Judges are named, and with
each is given his number in the order of the list. The crowns show the
kings, and the years show the period of their reigns. The chronology
during the age of the Judges is very uncertain, and the dates are only
conjectural.

IV. =The Events of Bible History=, given in the fourth column, are too
numerous to be recapitulated. The student should divide them according
to the Subdivisions of the Periods, already given.

V. =The History of Egypt= occupies the fifth column. The opinions of
scholars are greatly at variance with regard to the dates of the first
eighteen dynasties, some of them differing by a thousand years. The
ancient history of Egypt is divided into three sections. (1.) The Old
Kingdom, founded by Menes perhaps 4700 B.C., and governed by ten
dynasties in succession. (2.) The Middle Kingdom, from about 2900 B.C.
to 1570 B.C., Dynasties XI. to XVII. (3.) The New Kingdom, from 1570
B.C. to 525 B.C., Dynasties XVII. to XXVII. Egypt was part of the Persian
Empire from 525 to 332 B.C. After 323 B.C. it was governed by a line of
Greek kings, who bore the name of Ptolemy, until 30 B.C., when it became
a Roman province.

VI. =The Kingdoms of the East=, Babylonia and Assyria, appear on the
sixth column; beginning with a number of states in Babylonia; becoming
an empire under Hammurabi about 2280 B.C.; by turns strong and weak
until about 1100 B.C., when the Assyrian empire arose, overpowering
Babylon. The Assyrian Empire lasted until 625 B.C., when Babylon again
arose to power, though the Chaldean Empire did not begin until 606 B.C.
In 536 B.C. it fell before the Persian conquerors, and the whole world
of the Bible was under Persian control until 330 B.C., when Alexander
the Great won it. No world-empire arose after the death of Alexander,
until the Roman period.

[Transcriber's Note: This time-line has been changed from the original
layout due to width and text constraints. Originally, there were eight
columns across with the Roman numeral major divisions noted below and
the century marks ran down the left and right margins. The original is
also color-coded to indicate eras of history such as the Roman Rule of
Israel. To try to make this time-line still useful in a text format,
each item from each column has been arranged in order with a letter
indicating its original column title. This leads to some necessary
repetion. For example:

          [C] c. 1010. David, King.
          [D] 1010--David King over Judah.

because David was both a "Ruler in Bible History" and a part of the
"History of Israel." Below this linear timeline is a format more like
the original but with only one, two or three columns in a section
depending on the space available.]

  A I. General Periods
  B II. Subdivision of General Periods
  C III. Persons and Rulers in Bible History
  D IV. History of Israel
  E V. Egypt
  F VI. Kingdoms of the East
  G VII. The Oriental Empires
  H VIII. The World in General


  Pre-2500 B.C.
  [A] Period of Early Races, from the deluge. (Date unknown)
  [B] The United Races to the Dispersion. (Date unknown)
  [D] [All the dates in this column are uncertain above 1000 B.C., and
          are given tentatively. The dates are not sufficient for a
          complete and sure chronology].
  [E] 4700(?)--Egypt founded by Menes. Old Kingdom (Dynasties I.-X.).
          Memphis earliest capital.
  [F] 4500 B.C.--Kingdoms existing in Babylonia.
  [H] Dates earlier than 700 B.C. traditional and uncertain.
  [F] 3900(?)--Rise of Ur to power.
  [E] 3500(?)--Pyramids built (Dynasty IV.).
  [F] 3000--Nineveh in existence.
  [E] 2900(?)--Middle kingdom begins (Dynasties XI.-XVII.).
  [H] 2850--China founded by Fu-hi.

  2500
  [A] 2500-2280--I. Period of the Early Races to the Call of Abraham
          c. 2280.
  [B] 2500-2280--II. The Dispersed Races to the Call of Abraham.
  [F] 2454(?)--First dynasty of kings begins to reign at Babylon with
          Su-mu-abi.
      Eleven kings reigning 2454 to 2151(?).

  2400
  [F] 2357--Lao reigning in China.
  [E] During the middle kingdom, 2900-1570 B.C. Thebes was capital until
          about 2000 B.C. The dates are very uncertain, but between 2500
          and 2000 B.C. the kingdom declined. 12th Dynasty 2500-2300.
  [C] c. 2355 Abraham.

  2300
  [A] 2280-1250--II. Period of the Chosen Family.
  [B] 2280-2060--Journeys of the Patriarchs.
  [G] 2280-1120--EARLY BABLYLONIAN EMPIRE
  [F] 2280(?)--Hammurabi (Amraphel(?)) (Gen. 14), sixth king of the
          first dynasty reigning at Babylon. He conquered many states,
          established a code of laws, and may be regarded as founder of
          the early Babylonian Empire.
  [D] c. 2280(?)--Call and Migration of Abraham.
  [D] c. 2270(?)--Abraham's Victory over the Five Kings. [Gen. 14]
  [B] c. 2256 Isaac.
  [D] c. 2232(?)--The Offering of Isaac on Mount Moriah.
  [H] 2205--Chinese History Begins

  2200
  [C] 2195--Jacob
  [F] 2150(?)--Second dynasty of kings at Babylon begins with An-ma-an.
          (According to records, not certain, it lasted until 1783 B.C.)
  [D] c. 2180(?) Death of Abraham.
  [D] c. 2120(?)--Jacob's Vision and Journey to Padan-aram.
  [C] 2103--Joseph
  [D] c. 2103(?)--Jacob's Return to Canaan.

  2100
  [D] c. 2084(?)--Joseph Sold into Egypt.
  [D] c. 2073(?)--Joseph Ruler in Egypt.
  [B] 2060-1250--Sojourn in Egypt.
  [D] c. 2060(?)--Jacob and his Family go down to Egypt; Beginning of
          the SOJOURN OF THE ISRAELITES.
  [D] c. 2045(?)--Death of Jacob in Egypt.
  [E] About 2000 B.C. Lower Egypt fell under the power of invaders from
          the desert, who were called Hyksos, or Shepherd Kings. Their
          capital was Tanis, or Zoan. Very little is known of their
          history, and their names cannot be given with certainty, as
          their memory was hated by the rulers that followed them, and
          their inscriptions may have been obliterated. They ruled Egypt
          until about 1570 B.C.(?), though the dates both of their
          conquest and their departure are uncertain.
  [F] 2000--Ishkibal, fourth king of second dynasty, reigning at
          Babylon.
  [H] 2000--Aryan migration to India(?).

  2000
  [D] 1993(?)--Death of Joseph in Egypt. The Israelites remain in the
          Land of Goshen, between Egypt and the Wilderness, from about
          2062 to 1250 B.C. [dates very very uncertain]. During most
          of this period the Hyksos or Shepherd-Kings, friendly to the
          Israelites, were ruling in Egypt.
  [H] 1920--Gold and silver first mentioned as money.
  [F] 1800--An Assyrian Kingdom in existence, but subject to Babylon.
          Asshur, its capital.
  [F] 1782--Third dynasty of kings of Babylon, beginning with Gandish,
          reigning 1782-1767. This dynasty, known as Kassites, came from
          Elam, conquered Babylonia, and held rule until 1207. Not much
          is known of Babylonian history during this period; but the
          kingdom was declining.
  [E] About 1570 the war of liberation from the Hyksos began under
          Dynasty XVIII., and the New Kingdom opened.
  [E] 1570-1320(?)--Dynasty XVIII. reigning (Amosis, Amenophis, Queen
          Hatasu, Thutmosis (or Thotmes) III., Amenophis II., Amenophis
          III., Amenophis IV.). A period of conquest. Egyptian invasion
          of Syria about 1490(?) (Thutmosis III.). Battle of Esdraelon
          in Canaan. Tell-el-Amarna letters written in reigns of
          Amenophis III. and IV.
  [H] 1556--Athens founded. (traditional.)
  [H] 1546--Traditional founding of Troy.
  [H] 1507--Court of Areopagus founded at Athens.
  [D] 1500--The Israelites still in Egypt.
  [F] 1500-1207--Kassite dynasty still reigning at Babylon.
  [H] 1500--Thebes founded. Greek alphabet introduced by Cadmus.
  [H] c. 1500--Hittite migration to southern Asia Minor.

  1500
  [F] 1430--Assur-nadin-akhi. King of Assyria. (From this reign,
          regular lists of Assyrian kings; and their kingdom grows in
          power.)
  [H] 1400--Rise of Hittite Kingdom in Asia Minor.

  1400
  [E] 1359(?)--Dynasty XIX. begins. Seti I. powerful ruler and
          conqueror. Rameses II., "Pharaoh of the Oppression"(?).
          Merenepthah, "Pharaoh of the Exodus"(?). Decline of Egyptian
          power. Rameses III., date unknown.
  [C] c. 1330 Moses.
  [D] About 1330(?) begins the Oppression of the Israelites under
          Dynasty XIX. in Egypt. About the same time 1330(?) Moses was
          born. All the dates of this period are uncertain.
  [F] 1300(?)--Shalmaneser I., King of Assyria, begins conquests. Calah
          becomes capital.

  1300
  [F] 1290(?)--Tukulti-ninib, King of Assyria, conquers Babylon; but it
          soon regains its independence. Babylonian Kingdom declining
          in power.
  [C] 1260--Joshua.
  [A] 1250-1050--III. PERIOD OF THE ISRAELITE PEOPLE.
  [B] 1250-1210--WANDERING.
  [D] 1250(?)--The Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt. End of the
          Sojourn; Beginning of the History of Israel as a People. Death
          of Moses.
  [H] 1235--Theseus, King of Athens.
  [H] 1233--Carthage founded.
  [B] 1210-1180--CONQUEST.
  [D] 1210(?)--The Israelites enter the Land of Canaan, and begin the
          Conquest of Canaan. Battle of Beth-horon, 1210(?).
  [F] 1207-1075--Dynasty of Isin in Babylon; wars between Assyria and
          Babylonia; continued decline of Babylonia and rise of Assyria.
  [H] 1200--Dorian migration into Greece.

  1200
  [H] 1193--Trojan war begins.
  [B] 1180-1020--Rule of the Judges
  [D] 1180(?)--Death of Joshua.
  [D] 1170(?)--Age of the Judges in Israel begins.
  [C] c. 1170. Othniel, Judge.
  [C] c. 1130. Gideon, Judge.
  [D] 1130--Gideon ruling in Israel.
  [H] 1120-626 B.C. ASSYRIAN EMPIRE
  [F] 1120-1090--Tiglath-pileser I., the first great king of Assyria,
          conqueror over many lands. THE ASSYRIAN EMPIRE begins.
  [H] 1122--Chow dynasty reigning in China.
  [C] c. 1100. Jephthah, Judge.

  1100
  [E] 1089(?)--Dynasty XXI. begins; a line of kings of foreign race who
          obtained control in Egypt.
  [C] 1080--Samuel, Judge.
  [D] 1080--Samuel, the last of the Judges.
  [H] 1070--Codrus; last king of Athens.
  [A] 1050-587--IV. PERIOD OF ISRAELITE KINGDOM
  [B] 1050-925--UNITY
  [C] c. 1050. Saul, King.
  [D] 1050--Coronation of Saul, King of Israel.
  [H] 1015--Minos gives laws in Crete.
  [C] c. 1010. David, King.
  [D] 1010--David King over Judah.
  [D] 1003--David King over Israel.

  1000
  [D] 990--David conquers Syria, Moab, and Edom.
  [C] 970. Solomon, King.
  [D] 970--Solomon, King of Israel, Syria, Moab, and Edom.
  [B] 935-721--DIVISION
  [C] KINGS OF ISRAEL.    KINGS OF JUDAH.
      935. Jeroboam.      935. Rehoboam.
  [D] 935--Division of the Kingdom. Jeroboam, King of Ten Tribes
          (Israel). Rehoboam, King of Judah.
  [E] 925--Shishak, King of Egypt, invades Judah, and takes many cities.
  [E] 900(?)--Zerah, the Ethiopian (Osorkon II.), invades Egypt.

  900
  [H] 886--Homeric Poems brought into Greece.
  [F] 885-860--Assur-nazir-pal, King of Assyria.
  [C] 875. Ahab (Isr.)
  [D] 875--Worship of Baal introduced into Israel by Jezebel.
  [C] 870. Jehoshaphat. (Jud.)
  [D] 870--Elijah the Prophet.
  [F] 860-825--Shalmaneser II., King.
  [F] 854--Victory of Shalmaneser over Syrians and Israelites (under
          King Ahab) at Karkar.
  [H] 850--Lycurgus, lawgiver of Sparta.
  [C] 842. Jehu (Isr.)    842. Athaliah, usurper. (Jud.)
  [D] 842--Jehu King of Judah. Athaliah usurper in Judah.
  [F] 842--Jehu, King of Israel, pays tribute to Shalmaneser.
  [C] 836. Jehoash. (Jud.)
  [D] 836--Revolution in Judah under Jehoiada, the Priest.
  [F] 800--Babylon under Assyrian control.

  800
  [C] 799. Joash. (Isr.)
  [D] 799--Joash, King of Israel.
  [C] 783. Jeroboam II. (Isr.)    783. Uzziah. (Jud.)
  [D] 783--Jeroboam II., King of Israel. Israelite power; Prophet Amos.
  [D] 769--Uzziah, King of Israel; Age of Prosperity.
  [H] 753--Traditional founding of Rome by Romulus.
  [H] 750--Syracuse in Sicily founded by Corinthians.
  [D] 748--Prophet Hosea in Israel.
  [F] 745-727--Tiglath-pileser III., King of Assyria; great conqueror;
          receives tribute from Menahem, King of Israel. 732--Damascus
          taken.
  [C] 741. Menahem. (Isr.)
  [D] 738--Prophet Isaiah begins his Ministry. Jotham, King of Judah.
  [C] 735. Ahaz. (Jud.)
  [C] 730. Hoshea. (Isr.)
  [D] 730--Hoshea, last King of Israel.
  [F] 727-722--Shalmaneser IV., King. 725--Siege of Samaria begun.
  [E] 725--Hoshea, King of Israel, in Alliance with So (or Sabakon),
          King of Egypt.
  [F] 722-705--Sargon II., King of Assyria.
  [B] 721-587--DECAY
  [D] 721--Fall of Samaria. Israel carried captive by Sargon II. of
          Assyria.
  [C] 719. Hezekiah. (Jud.)
  [H] 708--Median Kingdom begins under Deioces.
  [F] 704-687--Sennacherib, King. Nineveh made capital.
  [D] 701--Sennacherib's invasion of Judah.
  [E] 701--Defeat of Tirkahah by Sennacherib, King of Assyria.

  700
  [C] 690. Manasseh. (Jud.)
  [F] 680-668--Esar-haddon, King. 674--Egypt invaded by Assyrians.
          Empire of Assyria at its culmination.
  [E] 674--Invasion of Egypt by Esar-haddon, King of Assyria.
  [F] 668-626--Assur-bani-pal, King. Decline of Assyrian Empire begins.
  [E] 665--Destruction of Thebes by the Assyrians.
  [H] 660--Japanese History begins with Jimmu Tenno whose descendants
          have reigned since without intermission.
  [H] 658--Byzantium founded by Byzas. 640--Media independent of
          Assyria.
  [D] 647--Manasseh a captive at Babylon; but released later.
  [C] 639. Josiah. (Jud.)
  [D] 628--Prophet Jeremiah begins Ministry.
  [G] 626-536--CHALDEAN EMPIRE
  [F] 625-604--Nabopolassar, King of Babylon, founder of Chaldean
          Empire.
  [D] 621--Josiah begins great reforms. Finding of the Book of the Law.
  [H] 621--Laws of Draco in Athens.
  [F] 609--FALL OF ASSYRIAN EMPIRE. Nineveh destroyed by the Medes.
  [C] 608. Jehoiakim. (Jud.)
  [D] 608--Death of Josiah in battle at Megiddo. Necho of Egypt invades
          Judah. Jehoiakim, King of Judah.
  [F] 608--Victory of Nebuchadnezzar, son of Nabopolassar, over Necho,
          King of Egypt, at Carchemish. CHALDEAN EMPIRE begins
          (606-536).
  [D] 606--First visit of Nebuchadnezzar to Judah; first group of
          Captives to Babylon.
  [E] 606--Necho, King of Egypt, defeated at Carchemish by
          Nebuchadnezzar.
  [F] 604-562--Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon.

  600
  [D] 598--Chaldeans invade Judah a second time.
  [C] 597. Zedekiah.
  [D] 592--Prophet Ezekiel in Chaldea.
  [A] 587 B.C.-(?) A.D.--PERIOD OF THE JEWISH PROVINCE
  [B] 587-536--CHALDEAN RULE
  [D] 586--Fall of Jerusalem; end of Kingdom of Judah; Jews taken to
          Babylon.
  [F] 586--Jerusalem taken and destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar.
  [F] 585-573--Siege of Tyre by Nebuchadnezzar.
  [H] 583--Laws of Solon in Athens.
  [H] 578--Money coined in Rome.
  [E] 567--Egypt invaded by Nebuchadnezzar, but not held.
  [F] 562--Rapid decline of Chaldean power after death of
          Nebuchadnezzar.
  [H] 560--Pisistratus usurps rule at Athens.
  [F] 558-536--Nabonidus, last king of Babylon. He associates his son
          Belshazzar in the government.
  [H] 557--Buddha born in India.
  [F] 553--Cyrus, the Persian, conquers the Medes. Beginning of Persian
          power.
  [H] 550--Confucius born. Laocius and Mencius, the other Chinese sages,
          lived in same century. 546--Cyrus overthrows empire of
          Croesus.
  [C] 536. Zerubbabel, Prince.
  [D] 536--Decree of Cyrus, King of Persia, permitting return of Exiled
          Jews.
  [F] 536--Babylon taken by Cyrus. End of Chaldean Empire.
  [D] 535--Rebuilding of Temple begun.  522--Discontinued.
  [G] 530-330--THE PERSIAN EMPIRE.
  [F] 529-521--Cambyses, King of Persia. Egypt conquered.
  [E] 525--Egypt conquered by Persians under Cambyses and annexed to the
          Persian empire. From that time until 332 Egypt was under
          Persian rule.
  [F] 521-486--Darius, King of Persia.
  [D] 520--Prophets Haggai and Zechariah.
  [D] 515--Second Temple completed.
  [H] 510--Romans abolish royalty; Government by Consuls begins.
  [H] 510--Africa first circumnavigated.
  [H] 500--Pythagoras teaching in Greece.

  500
  [F] 491--Darius, King of Persia, invades Greece. 490--Battle of
          Marathon. Greeks victorious over Persians.
  [H] 490--Battle of Lake Regillus in Italy.
  [H] 490--Battle of Marathon in Greece.
  [F] 486-466--Xerxes (Ahasuerus in book of Esther), King of Persia.
  [F] 481--Expedition of Xerxes into Greece.
  [F] 480--Battles of Thermopylae and Salamis.
  [D] 478--Esther's deliverance.
  [F] 466-425--Artaxerxes Longimanus, King of Persia. Empire declining
          in power.
  [C] 458. Ezra.
  [D] 458--Ezra's visit to Jerusalem.
  [C] 444. Nehemiah.
  [D] 444--Nehemiah rebuilds the Wall of Jerusalem.
  [D] 440--Separation of Samaritans from Jews.
  [F] 425--Xerxes II., King of Persia.
  [F] 424-404--Darius II., King.
  [H] 418--Battle of Mantinea in Greece.
  [D] 400(?)--Malachi, last of Old Testament Prophets.
  [H] 400--Retreat of the Ten Thousand in Persia.
  [C] c. 400--END OF OLD TESTAMENT

  400
  [H] 399--Death of Socrates.
  [F] 361--Artaxerxes (or Darius) Ochus, King of Persia.
  [C] 350. Jaddua, High Priest.
  [D] 350--Jaddua, High Priest.
  [F] 336--Darius Codomannus, last king of Persia.
  [D] 332--Visit of Alexander the Great to Judea.
  [E] 332--Alexander the Great receives the submission of Egypt.
  [B] 330-168--GREEK RULE
  [G] 330-60--KINGDOMS OF ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS
  [C] 330. Onias, High Priest.
  [D] 330--Onias, High Priest.
  [F] 330--Persian Empire conquered by Alexander the Great (Battle of
          Arbela.)
  [E] 328--Ptolemy Soter establishes the Greek kingdom of Egypt.
  [F] 323--Alexander the Great dies at Babylon.
  [D] 305--Jerusalem taken by Ptolemy Lagus, of Egypt. Judea subject to
          Egypt.
  [F] 301--Alexander's empire divided among his four generals Ptolemy,
          Seleucus, Cassander, Lysimachus.
  [C] 300. Simon the Just, High Priest.
  [D] 300--Simon the First, High Priest.

  300
  [E] 286--The Alexandrian library and Museum began by King Ptolemy II.,
          Philadelphus.
  [D] 275(?)--Translation of the Old Testament into Greek begun
          (Septuagint.)
  [H] 264--First Punic war begun by Rome.
  [E] 247-225--Reign of Ptolemy Euergetes, ablest and most powerful of
          the Ptolemies.
  [H] 216--Battle of Cannae; overthrow of Hannibal.
  [H] 211--Wall of China completed.
  [E] 205-182--Reign of Ptolemy V. Epiphanes.

  200
  [D] 197--Palestine annexed to kingdom of Syria under Antiochus III.
  [F] 187--Seleucus IV., Philopator,  King of Syria.
  [F] 175--Antiochus IV., Epiphanes, King of Syria.
  [B] 168-43--JEWISH INDEPENDENCE
  [D] 168--Persecution of the Jews by Antiochus IV. (Epiphanes).
  [D] 168--Revolt of Mattathias against Syrian rule.
  [C] 166. Judas Maccabeus.
  [D] 166--Judas Maccabeus, Liberator and Ruler of Judea.
  [E] 165--The Roman senate intervenes in Egypt.
  [F] 162--Demetrius I., Soter, King of Syria.
  [D] 142--Simon, brother of Judas, High Priest and Ruler.
  [H] 123--The Gracchi in Rome.
  [D] 107--Aristobulus assumes title of King of Judea.
  [D] 105--Rise of Sects, Pharisees and Sadducees.

  100
  [F] 69--Syria and Armenia conquered by Romans.
  [C] 63. Antipater.
  [D] 63--Jerusalem taken by Pompey; Romans intervene in Judea.
  [D] 63--Antipater, Ruler, under Roman authority.
  [G] 60 B.C.-100 A.D.--ROMAN EMPIRE
  [E] 52-30--Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt.
  [B] 43--START OF ROMAN RULE
  [C] 43. Herod the Great.
  [D] 43--Herod the Great made King by Roman Senate.
  [H] 41--Assassination of Julius Caesar.
  [E] 30--Egypt becomes a Roman province.
  [F] 27--Syria made an imperial province of Roman empire.
  [H] 27--Augustus, Emperor of Roman World.
  [D] 4 B.C.--Jesus born at Bethlehem.  4 B.C.--Death of Herod.

  A.D.
  [H] 14--Tiberius, Emperor.
  [C] 26. Pontius Pilate, Procurator.
  [D] 26--Ministry of John the Baptist.
  [D] 30--Crucifixion, Resurrection, and Ascension of Christ.
  [D] 37--Conversion of St. Paul.
  [C] 41. Herod Agrippa I. King of Judea.
  [H] 41--Claudius, Emperor.
  [D] 50--Council of Christian Church at Jerusalem.
  [C] 52. Felix, Procurator.
  [H] 54--Nero, Emperor.
  [C] 60. Festus, Procurator.
  [D] 68--Revolt of Jews against Roman Empire.
  [D] 68--Martyrdom of St. Paul.
  [D] 70--Destruction of Jerusalem by Titus.
  [H] 79--Titus, Emperor.



  B.C.   I.              II.              III.
         GENERAL         SUB DIVISION     PERSONS AND RULERS IN BIBLE
         PERIODS.        OF GENERAL       HISTORY.
                         PERIODS.

         I. PERIOD
         OF THE          I.
         EARLY           THE UNITED
         RACES,          RACES
         FROM THE        TO THE
         DELUGE.         DISPERSION.

         (Date unknown)  (Date unknown)
  2500
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
         I.              II.
         PERIOD          THE DISPERSED
         OF THE          RACES TO
  2400   EARLY
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
         RACES           THE CALL OF
         to the Call of
         of Abraham      ABRAHAM.         c. 2355 Abraham.
         c. 2280
  2300
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
         2280 B.C.       c. 2280
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                          c. 2256 Isaac.

                         JOURNEYS

  2200
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                    c. 2180           c. 2195 Jacob.

         II.             OF THE

                         PATRIARCHS                  c. 2103 Joseph.
  2100
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
        PERIOD                            c. 2075

                         c. 2060 B.C.
                       +------------
                       |
                       |                             c. 2045.
  2000                 |
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       |                                      c. 1993.
        OF THE         |
                       | THE
                       |
                       |
                       |
                       |
                       |
  1500                 |
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       |
        CHOSEN         |
                       | SOJOURN IN
  1400                 |
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       |
                       |             c. 1330 Moses.
        FAMILY.        |
                       | EGYPT.
  1300                 |
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       |
                       |                      c. 1260 Joshua.
         1250 B.C.     | 1250
         --------------+============--------------------------------------
                       |
                       |  WANDERING
                       |
                       |
        III.           | 1210            c. 1210
                       +------------
  1200                 | CONQUEST.
  ---------------------|---------------------------------------------------
        PERIOD         | 1180                    c. 1180
                       +------------             c. 1170. Othniel, Judge.
        OF             |
                       | RULE
        ISRAELITE      |
                       | OF THE                  c. 1130. Gideon, Judge.
        PEOPLE         |
                       | JUDGES.
                       |
                       |                         c. 1100. Jephthah, Judge.
  1100                 |
  ---------------------|--------------------------------------------------
                       |                         c. 1080. Samuel, Judge.
                       |
         1050 B.C.     | 1050                    c. 1050. Saul, King.
          ----------------------------------------------------------------
                       | UNITY
                       |
        IV.            |                         c. 1010. David, King.
                       |
  1000                 |
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       |
                       |         970. Solomon, King.
                       |
                       | 935     KINGS OF ISRAEL.    KINGS OF JUDAH.
                       +---------935. Jeroboam.     935. Rehoboam.
        PERIOD
  900
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 875. Ahab
                                                  870. Jehoshaphat.

                                 842. Jehu.       842. Athaliah, usurper.
        OF               DIVISION                 836. Jehoash.
  800
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                799. Joash.
                                783. Jeroboam II. 783. Uzziah.


                                741. Menahem.

                                                  735. Ahaz.
         ISRAELITE
                                730. Hoshea.
                         721
                       +-------
                       |
                       |                          719. Hezekiah.
                       |
  700                  |
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       |
        KINGDOM        |                          690. Manasseh.
                       | DECAY
                       |                          639. Josiah.
                       |
                       |
                       |
                       |                          608. Jehoiakim.
                       |
                       |
                       |
                       |
  600                  |
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
         587 B.C.      | 587                      597. Zedekiah.
                       |
                       |
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------
                       |
                       | CHALDEAN
        PERIOD OF      | RULE                     536. Zerubbabel, Prince.
                       | 536
        THE JEWISH     +-------
        PROVINCE

  500
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
        PERIOD

                       PERSIAN  458. Ezra.

                                444. Nehemiah.

        (END OF OLD
        TESTAMENT)

  400
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       RULE

                                350. Jaddua, High Priest.

        OF             330 B.C. 330. Onias, High Priest.
                     +---------
                     |
                     |
                     |          300. Simon the Just, High Priest.
  300                |
  -------------------|----------------------------------------------------
                     |
                     | GREEK
        JEWISH       |
                     | RULE
  200                |
  -------------------|----------------------------------------------------
                     |
                     |
                     |
                     |
                     | 168 B.C.
                     +---------
        PROVINCE     |          166. Judas Maccabeus.
                     | JEWISH
                     |
                     | INDEPENDENCE
  100                |
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
                     |           63. Antipater.
                     |
                     |
                     | 43 B.C.   43. Herod the Great.
                     +--------

  A.D.
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         ROMAN

                                 26. Pontius Pilate, Procurator.
                                 41. Herod Agrippa I. King of Judea.
                                 52. Felix, Procurator.
                                 60. Festus, Procurator.



                         RULE
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
  100



  B.C.              IV.
         THE HISTORY OF ISRAEL.



         [All the dates in this column are uncertain above 1000 B.C.,
         and are given tentatively. The dates are not
         sufficient for a complete and sure chronology].



  2500
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------



  2400
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------



  2300
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
         c. 2280(?)--Call and Migration of Abraham.
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
         c. 2270(?)--Abraham's Victory over the Five Kings. [Gen. 14]

         c. 2232(?)--The Offering of Isaac on Mount Moriah.


  2200
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
         c. 2180(?) Death of Abraham.


         c. 2120(?)--Jacob's Vision and Journey to Padan-aram.
         c. 2103(?)--Jacob's Return to Canaan.
  2100
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
         c. 2084(?)--Joseph Sold into Egypt.
         c. 2073(?)--Joseph Ruler in Egypt.
         c. 2060(?)--Jacob and his Family go down
             to Egypt; Beginning of the SOJOURN OF THE ISRAELITES.

         c. 2045(?)--Death of Jacob in Egypt.

  2000
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
         1993(?)--Death of Joseph in Egypt.
             The Israelites remain in the Land of Goshen, between Egypt
         and the Wilderness, from about 2062 to 1250 B.C. [dates very
         very uncertain]. During most of this period the Hyksos or
         Shepherd-Kings, friendly to the Israelites, were ruling in
         Egypt.

         1500--The Israelites still in Egypt.
  1500
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------



  1400
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------

         About 1330(?) begins the Oppression of the Israelites under
           Dynasty XIX. in Egypt. About the same time 1330(?)
           Moses was born. All the dates of this period are uncertain.
  1300
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------


  1250   1250(?)--The Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt. End of the
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
           Sojourn; Beginning of the History of Israel as a People.
           Death of Moses.


         1210(?)--The Israelites enter the Land of Canaan, and begin the
           Conquest of Canaan. Battle of Beth-horon, 1210(?).
  1200
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------

         1180(?)--Death of Joshua.
         1170(?)--Age of the Judges in Israel begins.



         1130--Gideon ruling in Israel.



  1100
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
         1080--Samuel, the last of the Judges.

  1050   1050--Coronation of Saul, King of Israel.
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------


         1010--David King over Judah.
         1003--David King over Israel.
  1000
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
          990--David conquers Syria, Moab, and Edom.
          970--Solomon, King of Israel, Syria, Moab, and Edom.

          935--Division of the Kingdom. Jeroboam, King of Ten Tribes
           (Israel). Rehoboam, King of Judah.

  900
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
          875--Worship of Baal introduced into Israel by Jezebel.
          870--Elijah the Prophet.

          842--Jehu King of Judah. Athaliah usurper in Judah.
          836--Revolution in Judah under Jehoiada, the Priest.
  800
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
          799--Joash, King of Israel.
          783--Jeroboam II., King of Israel. Israelite power;
           Prophet Amos.

          769--Uzziah, King of Israel; Age of Prosperity.
          748--Prophet Hosea in Israel.
          738--Prophet Isaiah begins his Ministry. Jotham, King of Judah.
          730--Hoshea, last King of Israel.


          721--Fall of Samaria. Israel carried captive by
           Sargon II. of Assyria.

          701--Sennacherib's invasion of Judah.
  700
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------


          647--Manasseh a captive at Babylon; but released later.

          628--Prophet Jeremiah begins Ministry.
          621--Josiah begins great reforms. Finding of the Book of the
           Law.

          608--Death of Josiah in battle at Megiddo. Necho of Egypt
           invades Judah. Jehoiakim, King of Judah.
          606--First visit of Nebuchadnezzar to Judah; first group of
           Captives to Babylon.
  600
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
          598--Chaldeans invade Judah a second time.
          592--Prophet Ezekiel in Chaldea.

          586--Fall of Jerusalem; end of Kingdom of Judah; Jews taken
           to Babylon.
          536--Decree of Cyrus, King of Persia, permitting return of
           Exiled Jews.
          535--Rebuilding of Temple begun.  522--Discontinued.
          520--Prophets Haggai and Zechariah.
          515--Second Temple completed.
  500
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------

          478--Esther's deliverance.
          458--Ezra's visit to Jerusalem.

          444--Nehemiah rebuilds the Wall of Jerusalem.
          440--Separation of Samaritans from Jews.


  400     400(?)--Malachi, last of Old Testament Prophets.
      (END OF OLD
        TESTAMENT)
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------


          350--Jaddua, High Priest.
          332--Visit of Alexander the Great to Judea.
          330--Onias, High Priest.

          305--Jerusalem taken by Ptolemy Lagus, of Egypt.
           Judea subject to Egypt.
          300--Simon the First, High Priest.
  300
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
          275(?)--Translation of the Old Testament into Greek begun
           (Septuagint.)


  200
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
          197--Palestine annexed to kingdom of Syria under
           Antiochus III.

          168--Persecution of the Jews by Antiochus IV. (Epiphanes).
          168--Revolt of Mattathias against Syrian rule.
          166--Judas Maccabeus, Liberator and Ruler of Judea.
          142--Simon, brother of Judas, High Priest and Ruler.

          107--Aristobulus assumes title of King of Judea.
          105--Rise of Sects, Pharisees and Sadducees.
  100
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
           63--Jerusalem taken by Pompey; Romans intervene in Judea.
           63--Antipater, Ruler, under Roman authority.

           43--Herod the Great made King by Roman Senate.


  A.D.      4 B.C.--Jesus born at Bethlehem.  4 B.C.--Death of Herod.
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------

           26 A.D.--Ministry of John the Baptist.

           30 A.D.--Crucifixion, Resurrection, and Ascension of Christ.
           37--Conversion of St. Paul.

           50--Council of Christian Church at Jerusalem.
           68--Revolt of Jews against Roman Empire.
           68--Martyrdom of St. Paul.
           70--Destruction of Jerusalem by Titus.
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
  100



  B.C.               V.                               VI.
                   EGYPT.                     KINGDOMS OF THE EAST.

         4700(?)--Egypt founded by Menes.
           Old Kingdom (Dynasties I.-X.).   4500 B.C.--Kingdoms existing in
            Memphis earliest capital.         Babylonia.
                                            4000(?)--City of Babylon
                                              founded.
                                            3900(?)--Rise of Ur to power.
         3500(?)--Pyramids built
           (Dynasty IV.).
                                            3000--Nineveh in existence.
         2900(?)--Middle kingdom begins
           (Dynasties XI.-XVII.)
  2500 B.C.
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                            2454(?)--First dynasty of kings
                                              begins to reign at Babylon
                                              with Su-mu-abi.
                                            Eleven kings reigning 2454 to
                                              2151(?).
  2400
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------


         During the middle kingdom, 2900-1570
           B.C. Thebes was capital until about
           2000 B.C. The dates are very uncertain,
           but between 2500 and 2000 B.C. the
           kingdom declined. 12th Dynasty 2500-2300.

  ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                           2280(?)--Hammurabi (Amraphel(?))
                                             (Gen. 14), sixth king of the
                                             first dynasty reigning at
                                             Babylon. He conquered many
                                             states, established a code of
                                             laws, and may be regarded as
                                             founder of the early
                                             Babylonian Empire.
  2300
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                           2150(?)--Second dynasty of kings
                                             at Babylon begins with
                                             An-ma-an. (According to
                                             records, not certain, it
                                             lasted until 1783 B.C.)

  ------------------------------------------------------------------------

         About 2000 B.C. Lower Egypt
           fell under the power of invaders
           from the desert, who were called
           Hyksos, or Shepherd Kings. Their
           capital was Tanis, or Zoan. Very
           little is known of their history,
           and their names cannot be given
           with certainty, as their memory
           was hated by the rulers that
           followed them, and their
           inscriptions may have been
           obliterated. They ruled Egypt
           until about 1570 B.C.(?), though
           the dates both of their conquest
           and their departure are          2000--Ishkibal, fourth king of
           uncertain.                         second dynasty, reigning at
                                              Babylon.
  2000
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
         About 1570 the war of liberation
           from the Hyksos began under
           Dynasty XVIII., and the New
           Kingdom opened.
         1570-1320(?)--Dynasty XVIII.       1800--An Assyrian Kingdom in
           reigning (Amosis, Amenophis,       existence, but subject to
           Queen Hatasu, Thutmosis (or        Babylon. Asshur, its capital.
           Thotmes) III., Amenophis II.,
           Amenophis III., Amenophis        1782--Third dynasty of kings of
           IV.). A period of conquest.         Babylon, beginning with
           Egyptian invasion of Syria          Gandish, reigning 1782-1767.
           about 1490(?) (Thutmosis III.).     This dynasty, known as
           Battle of Esdraelon in Canaan.      Kassites, came from Elam,
           Tell-el-Amarna letters written      conquered Babylonia, and
           in reigns of Amenophis III.         held rule until 1207. Not
           and IV.                             much is known of Babylonian
                                               history during this period;
                                               but the kingdom was
                                               declining.

                                            1500-1207--Kassite dynasty
  1500                                         still reigning at Babylon.
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                            1430--Assur-nadin-akhi. King of
                                              Assyria. (From this reign,
                                              regular lists of Assyrian
                                              kings; and their kingdom
                                              grows in power.)
  1400
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
         1359(?)--Dynasty XIX. begins.
           Seti I. powerful ruler and conqueror.
           Rameses II., "Pharaoh of the Oppression"(?).
           Merenepthah, "Pharaoh of the Exodus"(?).
           Decline of Egyptian power. Rameses III.,
           date unknown.

                                            1300(?)--Shalmaneser I., King
                                              of Assyria, begins conquests.
  1300                                        Calah becomes capital.
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                            1290(?)--Tukulti-ninib, King
                                              of Assyria, conquers Babylon;
                                              but it soon regains its
                                              independence. Babylonian
                                              Kingdom declining in power.


                                            1207-1075--Dynasty of Isin in
                                              Babylon; wars between Assyria
                                              and Babylonia; continued
                                              decline of Babylonia and rise
  1200                                        of Assyria.
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                            1120-1090--Tiglath-pileser I.,
                                              the first great king of
                                              Assyria, conqueror over many
                                              lands. THE ASSYRIAN EMPIRE
  1100                                        begins.
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
         1089(?)--Dynasty XXI. begins; a line of
           kings of foreign race who obtained control
           in Egypt.

  1000
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------

          925--Shishak, King of Egypt, invades
           Judah, and takes many cities.

          900(?)--Zerah, the Ethiopian (Osorkon II.),
  900      invades Egypt.
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                            885-860--Assur-nazir-pal, King
                                              of Assyria.

                                            860-825--Shalmaneser II., King.
                                            854--Victory of Shalmaneser
                                              over Syrians and Israelites
                                              (under King Ahab) at Karkar.
                                            842--Jehu, King of Israel, pays
                                              tribute to Shalmaneser.

                                            800--Babylon under Assyrian
  800                                         control.
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                            745-727--Tiglath-pileser III.,
                                              King of Assyria; great
                                              conqueror; receives tribute
                                              from Menahem, King of Israel.
                                              732--Damascus taken.

          725--Hoshea, King of Israel, in   727-722--Shalmaneser IV., King.
           Alliance with So (or Sabakon),     725--Siege of Samaria begun.
           King of Egypt.                   722-705--Sargon II., King of
                                              Assyria.
                                            704-687--Sennacherib, King.
          701--Defeat of Tirkahah by          Nineveh made capital.
  700      Sennacherib, King of Assyria.
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
          674--Invasion of Egypt by         680-668--Esar-haddon, King.
           Esar-haddon, King of Assyria.      674--Egypt invaded by
          665--Destruction of Thebes by       Assyrians. Empire of Assyria
           the Assyrians.                      at its culmination.
                                            668-626--Assur-bani-pal, King.
                                              Decline of Assyrian Empire
                                              begins.
                                            625-604--Nabopolassar, King of
                                              Babylon, founder of Chaldean
                                              Empire.
                                            609--FALL OF ASSYRIAN EMPIRE.
                                              Nineveh destroyed by the
                                              Medes.
                                            608--Victory of Nebuchadnezzar,
                                              son of Nabopolassar, over
                                              Necho, King of Egypt, at
          606--Necho, King of Egypt,          Carchemish. CHALDEAN EMPIRE
           defeated at Carchemish by          begins (606-536).
           Nebuchadnezzar.                  604-562--Nebuchadnezzar, King
  600                                         of Babylon.
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                            586--Jerusalem taken and
                                              destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar.
          567--Egypt invaded by             585-573--Siege of Tyre by
           Nebuchadnezzar, but not held.      Nebuchadnezzar.
                                            562--Rapid decline of Chaldean
                                              power after death of
                                              Nebuchadnezzar.
                                            558-536--Nabonidus, last king
                                              of Babylon. He associates
                                              his son Belshazzar in the
                                              government.
                                            553--Cyrus, the Persian,
                                              conquers the Medes. Beginning
                                              of Persian power.
                                            536--Babylon taken by Cyrus.
          525--Egypt conquered by Persians    End of Chaldean Empire.
           under Cambyses and annexed to    530-330--THE PERSIAN EMPIRE.
           the Persian empire. From that    529-521--Cambyses, King of
           time until 332 Egypt was under     Persia. Egypt conquered.
           Persian rule.                    521-486--Darius, King of
  500                                         Persia.
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                            491--Darius, King of Persia,
                                              invades Greece. 490--Battle
                                              of Marathon. Greeks
                                              victorious over Persians.
                                            486-466--Xerxes (Ahasuerus in
                                              book of Esther), King of
                                              Persia.
                                            481--Expedition of Xerxes into
                                              Greece.
                                            480--Battles of Thermopylae and
                                              Salamis.
                                            466-425--Artaxerxes Longimanus,
                                              King of Persia. Empire
                                              declining in power.
                                            425--Xerxes II., King of Persia.
  400                                       424-404--Darius II., King.
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                            361--Artaxerxes (or Darius)
                                             Ochus, King of Persia.

                                            336--Darius Codomannus, last
                                             king of Persia.
          332--Alexander the Great
           receives the submission of
           Egypt.                           330--Persian Empire conquered
                                             by Alexander the Great
          328--Ptolemy Soter establishes     (Battle of Arbela.)
            the Greek kingdom of Egypt.
                                            323--Alexander the Great dies
                                             at Babylon.
                                            301--Alexander's empire divided
                                             among his four generals
                                             Ptolemy, Seleucus, Cassander,
  300                                        Lysimachus.
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
          286--The Alexandrian library and
           Museum began by King Ptolemy II.,
           Philadelphus.
          247-225--Reign of Ptolemy Euergetes,
           ablest and most powerful of the
           Ptolemies.

  200     205-182--Reign of Ptolemy V. Epiphanes.
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                            187--Seleucus IV., Philopator,
                                              King of Syria.
                                            175--Antiochus IV., Epiphanes,
                                              King of Syria.
          165--The Roman senate
           intervenes in Egypt.            162--Demetrius I., Soter,
  100                                         King of Syria.
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                            69--Syria and Armenia
                                             conquered by Romans.
          52-30--Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt.

          30--Egypt becomes a Roman province.
                                            27--Syria made an imperial
  A.D.                                        province of Roman empire.
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------



  100
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------



  B.C.         VII.                     VIII.
       THE ORIENTAL EMPIRES.    THE WORLD IN GENERAL.
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               Dates earlier than 700 B.C.
                                 traditional and uncertain.



                                2850--China founded by Fu-hi.
  2500
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------


  2400
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                2357--Lao reigning in China.

  2300
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
                2280 B.C.
           +-----------------+
           |                 |  2205--Chinese history begins.
  2200     |                 |
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |                 |
  2100     |                 |
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |     EARLY       |
           |                 |
  2000     |                 |  2000--Aryan migration to India(?).
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |                 |  1920--Gold and silver first mentioned as
           |                 |    money.
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |                 |  1556--Athens founded. (traditional.)
           |                 |  1546--Traditional founding of Troy.
           |                 |
           |                 |  1507--Court of Areopagus founded at Athens.
           |                 |
           |                 |  1500--Thebes founded. Greek alphabet
           |                 |    introduced by Cadmus.
           |                 |
           |                 |  c. 1500--Hittite migration to southern
  1500     |                 |    Asia Minor.
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |  BABYLONIAN     |
           |                 |
           |                 |  1400--Rise of Hittite Kingdom in Asia
  1400     |                 |    Minor.
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |                 |
  1300     |                 |
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |     EMPIRE.     |
           |                 |
           |                 |  1235--Theseus, King of Athens.
           |                 |  1233--Carthage founded.
           |                 |
           |                 |
  1200     |                 |  1200--Dorian migration into Greece.
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |                 |  1193--Trojan war begins.
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |                 |  1122--Chow dynasty reigning in China.
           |   1120 B.C.     |
           +-----------------+
  1100     |                 |
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |                 |  1070--Codrus, last king of Athens.
           | ASSYRIAN EMPIRE |
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |                 |  1015--Minos gives laws in Crete.
  1000     |                 |
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |                 |
           |    ASSYRIAN     |
           |                 |
           |                 |
  900      |                 |
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |                 |  886--Homeric Poems brought into Greece.
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |                 |  850--Lycurgus, lawgiver of Sparta.
           |                 |
  800      |                 |
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |     EMPIRE.     |
           |                 |
           |                 |  753--Traditional founding of Rome by
           |                 |    Romulus.
           |                 |  750--Syracuse in Sicily founded by
           |                 |    Corinthians.
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |                 |  708--Median Kingdom begins under Deioces.
  700      |                 |
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |                 |  660--Japanese History begins with Jimmu
           |   626 B.C.      |    Tenno whose descendants have reigned
           +-----------------+    since without intermission.
           |                 |  658--Byzantium founded by Byzas. 640--Media
           |                 |    independent of Assyria.
           |                 |  621--Laws of Draco in Athens.
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |CHALDEAN EMPIRE  |
           |                 |
  600      |                 |
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |                 |  583--Laws of Solon in Athens.
           |                 |  578--Money coined in Rome.
           |                 |  560--Pisistratus usurps rule at Athens.
           |                 |  557--Buddha born in India.
           |                 |  550--Confucius born. Laocius and Mencius,
           |                 |    the other Chinese sages, lived in same
           |   536 B.C.      |    century. 546--Cyrus overthrows empire of
           +-----------------+    Croesus.
           |                 |  510--Romans abolish royalty; Government by
           |                 |    Consuls begins.
           |                 |  510--Africa first circumnavigated.
  500      |                 |  500--Pythagoras teaching in Greece.
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |    PERSIAN      |  490--Battle of Lake Regillus in Italy.
           |                 |  490--Battle of Marathon in Greece.
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |    EMPIRE.      |
           |                 |  418--Battle of Mantinea in Greece.
  400      |                 |  400--Retreat of the Ten Thousand in Persia.
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |                 |  399--Death of Socrates.
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |   330 B.C.      |
           +-----------------+
           |                 |
           |                 |
  300      |                 |
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |                 |
           |    KINGDOMS     |
           |                 |  264--First Punic war begun by Rome.
           |                 |
           |                 |  216--Battle of Cannae; overthrow of
           |                 |   Hannibal.
           |                 |  211--Wall of China completed.
  200      | OF ALEXANDER'S  |
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |   SUCCESSORS.   |  123--The Gracchi in Rome.
           |                 |
  100      |                 |
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |                 |
           |                 |
           |    60 B.C.      |
           +-----------------+  41--Assassination of Julius Caesar.
           |                 |
           |                 |  27--Augustus, Emperor of Roman World.
           |                 |
  A.D.     |  ROMAN EMPIRE.  |
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |                 |  14 A.D.--Tiberius, Emperor.
           |                 |
           |                 |  41--Claudius, Emperor.
           |                 |
           |                 |  54--Nero, Emperor.
           |                 |
           |                 |  79--Titus, Emperor.
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
  100 A.D. |   100 A.D.      |
           +-----------------+


VII. =The Oriental Empires= are indicated upon the seventh column of the
chart. While they follow in regular succession, there were brief periods
of anarchy and confusion between them, which cannot be indicated. (1.)
The Early Babylonian Empire, 2280-1120 B.C. Much of the time this was
not an empire, but rather the leading state in the oriental world. (2.)
The Assyrian Empire, 1120-626 B.C.; its capital at Nineveh on the Tigris
River, its people fierce warriors, but not able rulers. (3.) The
Chaldean Empire, 606-536 B.C., established by Nebuchadnezzar, and
passing away soon after his death. (4.) The Persian Empire, 536-330,
founded by Cyrus, and ruling over all the Old Testament lands. (5.) The
Kingdoms (not empire) of Alexander's Successors, 330-60 B.C. The empire
of Alexander the Great lasted only seven years (330-323), and was
followed by war until 301, when the four generals of Alexander made a
division of his conquests. (6.) The Roman Empire became dominant in the
east about 60 B.C., and continued supreme until after the New Testament
period.

VIII. =The World in General.= We arrange on the last column events
showing the general progress of the world outside of the Bible lands.
The student will note that Bible History antedates the annals of Greece
and Rome by many centuries.

[Illustration: THE CHURCH OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE.]



THE OLD TESTAMENT WORLD.


I. =Extent.= The Old Testament World embraces the seas and lands between
30° and 54° east longitude, or from the mouth of the Nile to that of the
Persian Gulf; and between 27° and 40° north latitude, from the parallel
south of Mount Sinai to that north of Mount Ararat. The total extent of
territory is about 1,400 miles from east to west and 900 miles from
north to south, aggregating 1,260,000 square miles. Deducting from this
the space occupied by the Mediterranean Sea and other large bodies of
water, the land will include about 1,110,000 square miles, or one-third
the extent of the United States, excluding Alaska. Unlike the United
States, however, nearly two-thirds of this extent is a vast desert, and
uninhabitable, so that the portion actually occupied by man is less than
an eighth of that included in the American Union.

[Illustration: COMPARATIVE VIEW OF UNITED STATES AND OLD TESTAMENT
WORLD.]

II. =Seas.= This world of the Old Testament embraces several large
bodies of water. 1. The _Caspian Sea_, the largest body of water
surrounded by land on the globe, occupies its northeastern corner. 2.
The _Persian Gulf_, the outlet of the great rivers of the Old Testament
history, is in its southeastern border. 3. The two arms of the northern
end of the _Red Sea_, the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Akaba, are on its
southwestern side. 4. The _Mediterranean Sea_, "the great sea toward the
going down of the sun" (Josh. 1:4), forms a part of its western
boundary. These are its largest seas; but besides these may be named
three others, all salt lakes, imbedded in its mountain system. 5. The
_Dead Sea_, called in the Bible "Sea of the Plain," and "Salt Sea,"
lying 1,290 feet below the Mediterranean, and situated in the land of
Palestine; 6. _Lake Van_, anciently Arsissa, in Armenia; and 7. _Lake
Urumiyeh_, in Media. Neither of the last two are referred to in the
Bible.

III. =Mountain Ranges.= The nucleus of the mountain system is found in
the land of Armenia, on the north of the map. Here five great ranges of
mountains have their origin. 1. The _Ararat Mountains_ are lofty masses,
lying between the Caspian Sea and Asia Minor. They are arranged in three
sections, nearly parallel: Mount Masius, on the south; Mount Niphates,
north of Lake Van; and Mount Abus, still farther north. One of the peaks
of this latter section is the traditional resting place of the ark (Gen.
8:4), and is the summit of the group, 17,750 feet high. 2. The _Caspian
Mountains_, branching from Ararat, bend around the southern end of the
Caspian Sea and extend eastward, forming the northern boundary of Media.
3. The _Zagros Mountains_ also start from Ararat, and follow a direction
generally southeast, to the northern shore of the Persian Gulf. They
form the eastern watershed of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. 4. The
_Lebanon Range_ starts from the western side of the Ararat group, and
follows the Mediterranean coast through Syria and Palestine, then down
the Sinaitic peninsula. Its general direction is west of south. In Syria
and Palestine it is divided into two parallel branches, Lebanon and
Anti-Lebanon, the latter on the east. Its highest peak is Mount Hermon,
about 9,000 feet above the sea. South of Palestine it forms the
remarkable Sinaitic group of mountains, upon one of which the Law was
given. 5. The last range is _Mount Taurus_, which also branches from
Ararat, in a westerly direction, and forms the southern coast line of
Asia Minor.

[Illustration: COMPARATIVE HEIGHT OF BIBLE MOUNTAINS.]

[Illustration: THE OLD TESTAMENT WORLD.]

IV. =Rivers.= Passing by many unimportant streams, we notice the
following, the largest of which have their rise in the mountain
system of Armenia. 1. The _Araxes_, not named in the Bible, but
important as a boundary, rises in the northern section of the Ararat
Range, and flows, in a general direction, eastward into the Caspian Sea.
2. The _Tigris_, called in the Bible Hiddekel, rises in Mount Niphates,
of the Ararat Range, and flows in a southeasterly direction, following
the line of Mount Zagros, unites with the Euphrates, and thence flows
into the Persian Gulf. Its length to the union with the Euphrates is
1,146 miles; beyond the union to the gulf, at present, 100 miles, though
anciently much less; and at a time within the limits of history the two
rivers discharged by separate mouths. Their united stream is now called
the _Shaat el Arab_. 3. _The Euphrates_, or the _Frat_ (a word meaning
"abounding"), is the great river of the Bible world. It has two
important sources, both in Armenia: one at a place called _Domli_; the
other, the more distant and true source, at _Diyadin_, at the foot of a
mountain called _Ala Tagh_, 20 miles west of Mount Ararat. It flows
westward 400 miles, then southward about as far, then in a southeasterly
direction 1,000 miles, uniting at last with the Tigris to form the
_Shaat el Arab_. It is navigable for 1,100 miles, and has in all ages
formed the principal means of travel between Eastern and Western Asia.
At Babylon, it is nearly a mile in width, though for 800 miles it does
not receive a single tributary, as it flows through a desert. It
overflows its banks every year, rising as high as twelve feet. 4. The
_Orontes_ rises in Mount Lebanon, and flows northward parallel with the
Mediterranean until, just before reaching Asia Minor, it breaks through
the mountains and empties into the sea. 5. The _Jordan_, least yet most
important of all, flows southward from the foot of Mount Hermon into the
Dead Sea. It will be described in connection with the Physical Map of
Palestine. 6. The _Nile_, the great river of Africa, rises in the centre
of the continent and flows northward into the Mediterranean Sea, turning
the desert through which it passes into a garden.

V. =The Lands.= These are not easy to determine since their boundaries
and names varied at different periods of the history. Yet their
locations may be given, and their natural limits are generally known.
They may be classified as follows: 1. Lands of the Mountain System, all
north and east of the Zagros chain of mountains: Armenia, Media, and
Persia. 2. Lands of the Plain: Assyria, Elam, Mesopotamia, Chaldea,
Arabia. 3. Lands of the Mediterranean: Asia Minor, Syria, Phoenicia,
Palestine, The Wilderness, Egypt.

[Illustration: MOUNT ARARAT.]


I. LANDS OF THE MOUNTAIN SYSTEM.

1. =Armenia= is a name nowhere used in the original Scriptures, but in
our version is a translation of the word "Ararat," which word properly
appears in place of "Armenia" in the Revised Version. The province
embraces the lofty plateau and mountain group between the Caspian and
Black Seas, and north of Mesopotamia and Assyria, the source of four
great rivers, the Araxes, Tigris, Euphrates, and Acampsis, the latter
pouring into the Black Sea. Its boundaries are: upon the north, the
Caucasus Mountains; on the east, Media and the Caspian Sea; on the
south, Media, from which it is separated by the Araxes, and Assyria,
from which it is divided by Mount Masius; and on the west, the
Euphrates, separating it from Asia Minor. Tradition states that it was
settled by Haïk, a grandson of Japhet; and the earliest history names it
as tributary to Assyria. Excepting the resting of Noah's ark upon one of
its mountains, few events of Scripture are associated with it.

2. =Media= is in the original the same word as Madai, the son of Japhet.
(Gen. 10:2.) Its boundaries are the river Araxes and the Caspian Sea on
the north, the great salt desert of Iram on the east, Persia on the
south, and the Zagros Mountains, separating it from Assyria and Armenia.
A branch of the Zagros Mountains, running eastward, divides it into two
portions, anciently known as Media Atropatene (the one northward) and
Media Magna. In each of these provinces the principal city was called
Ecbatana. The Medes were of the Aryan or Japhetic stock, and were always
a warlike and independent people. Though conquered by Assyria, their
land was never formally annexed to the Assyrian empire. In B.C. 633 the
Median kingdom was established, and soon became supreme over Assyria,
Armenia, and Persia, and formed the Medo-Persian empire, which succeeded
to the power of Babylon in the East, B.C. 536. After that date the
history of Media is lost in that of Persia.

3. =Persia= was originally a small province on the Persian Gulf, still
known as _Fars_. But Persia Proper included, besides the sandy plain on
the gulf, a mountainous plateau north of it, and was bounded by Media on
the north, by Carmania on the east, by the Persian Gulf on the south,
and by Elam on the west. Its people were of the Aryan race, and at first
subject to the Medes. They revolted under Cyrus the Great, and became
the controlling power in the conquest of Nebuchadnezzar's dominion. The
Persian empire arose to greatness at the fall of Babylon, B.C. 536,
conquered and ruled over all the lands from India to Ethiopia, and was
by far the greatest of the great Oriental monarchies. It was subjected
by Alexander the Great, B.C. 330. The capital of the Persian empire was
Susa, called in the Bible "Shushan the Palace" (Esther 1:2); which was,
however, situated not in Persia Proper, but in Elam. The most important
places in the province were Persepolis (its capital at one period),
Pasargada, and Mesambria, none of which are named in the Bible.


II. LANDS OF THE PLAIN.

Of these, two are situated mainly between the Zagros chain of mountains
and the Tigris river, Assyria and Elam; two are between the Tigris and
Euphrates, Mesopotamia and Chaldea; and one is the vast Arabian desert.

1. =Assyria=, in the Hebrew everywhere Asshur, was properly the province
now called _Kurdistan_, lying on the western slope of the Zagros
Mountains, and extending across the Tigris to the Sinjar hills and the
border of the Mesopotamian desert. The mountains separate it from
Armenia; and the line of division from Elam, on the southeast, was near
the place where the Tigris and Euphrates approach nearest before their
separation. The land was occupied by people of various races, of which
the Semitic were predominant. The earliest city was at Asshur, supposed
to be _Kileh Sherghat_, where a dynasty of kings began to rule about
1800 B.C., while the Israelite tribes were in Egypt. The seat of
government was afterward transferred to Calah, or Halah (_Nimrud_),
north of Asshur; and finally a permanent location of the capital was
made at Nineveh, which became the centre of the great Assyrian empire.
This will be described more fully with the map of that empire, on page
91. The Assyrian kingdom was long in its duration, but passed through
many vicissitudes, several times ruling all the lands of the Euphrates,
and again, in a feeble condition. Its principal cities, besides Nineveh,
were Calah, Resen (which may have been at _Selamiyeh_, three miles south
of Nineveh), and Rehoboth. There is reason to believe that all the four
cities named in Gen. 10:11, 12, were combined in the walls of Nineveh.

2. =Elam=, called Susiana by the Greeks, lay southeast of Assyria and
west of Persia Proper, between the Zagros chain of mountains and the
Tigris river. It included both a mountainous and a lowland tract, the
latter very fertile. Shushan (Susa), the capital of the Persian empire,
lay within this province, and was its principal city. The earliest
conqueror named in the Bible, Amraphel, was the king of Elam, and held
dominion over most of the lands as far west as Canaan. (See the map of
his empire, on page 34.) This kingdom was not of long continuance as an
independent state, but soon fell under the power of Assyria, though
maintaining its own organization as a vassal state until the Persian
period, when it became a province of the empire.

3. =Mesopotamia=, called in Scripture Aram-naharaim, or "Syria of the
two rivers," was a land of indefinite boundaries. The name means
"between the rivers," and hence it was often applied to all the plain
between the Tigris and Euphrates, including even Chaldea and a part of
Assyria. A more frequent use of the name restricts it to the
northwestern portion of the region between the rivers, above the place
where they approach and separate again. The Sinjar hills, crossing,
divide it into two sections, a higher and a lower, the former
mountainous, and the latter mostly a great desert. The upper section
contained the cities of Orfa (Edessa), formerly supposed to be the
birthplace of Abraham; Haran, the patriarch's resting place on the way
to Canaan; Nisibis and Amida, now _Nisibin_ and _Diarbekr_. The only
time when Mesopotamia appears in Bible history as a kingdom was a brief
interval during the period of the Judges. (Judg. 3:8.) Earlier it had
been occupied by separate and warring tribes; later it was a part of
Assyria.

4. =Chaldea= is also called Shinar and Babylonia. The name Chaldea, in
its most accurate sense, belongs to the southern portion of the
province, but is generally used with reference to all the Mesopotamian
plain south of _Baghdad_. It is perfectly level, and by nature one of
the most fertile places on the whole earth. Its earliest inhabitants, at
least the ruling portion of them, were Cushites, of the stock of Ham. An
early Oriental kingdom began at Ur (_Mugheir_) about B.C. 3900. It
lasted, with varying fortunes, until B.C. 538. Babylon afterward became
the capital, and in a later period was the greatest city of the East.
(See diagram on page 93.) Other cities of Chaldea were Erech (_Orchoë_),
Calneh, and Sepharvaim. Further details of its political history are
given in the account of the Babylonian empire of Nebuchadnezzar, on page
92.

5. The desert of =Arabia= occupies more than half of the map of the Old
Testament World. That portion of it included upon the map is a vast
triangle, having for its base the 28th parallel of latitude, from the
Persian Gulf to the Red Sea, the Euphrates on its northeastern side, and
the border of the Lebanon chain of mountains for its western. It is
called in the Bible "the land of Kedar." It is a high, undulating, dry
plain, with few oases, and almost impenetrable to travelers. From the
days of Abraham until the present, the caravans have gone around it upon
the north, following up the Euphrates to Tiphsah (Thapsacus), and then
turning southward rather than face its terrors. Only once in history is
it related that an army crossed it. This was when Nebuchadnezzar, while
ravaging Palestine, learned of his father's death, and crossed this
great desert by the most direct route, in order to take possession of
the throne.


III. LANDS OF THE MEDITERRANEAN.

These lands will receive more extended treatment in connection with
other maps, so that we give them only a brief mention here.

1. =Asia Minor= scarcely enters the field of the Old Testament, except
as the "land of the Hittites." It will be noticed under the topic of the
Journeys of the Apostle Paul, page 117.

2. =Syria=, in the Hebrew Aram, is a name of indefinite signification,
sometimes embracing all the territory north of The Wilderness of the
Wandering, and therefore including Palestine and the provinces around
it. But Syria Proper seems only to indicate the territory bounded by the
Amanus and Taurus ranges of mountains on the north, by the Euphrates and
the desert on the east, by Palestine, beginning with Mount Hermon, on
the south, by the Mediterranean and Phoenicia on the west. It reaches
the Mediterranean only near the mouth of the Orontes. It consists of
three portions: On the north an elevated tract, never thickly populated,
having Carchemish and Samosata as its principal cities; between the
Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon ranges of mountains a great valley, called
Coele-Syria, "hollow Syria," forming the bed of the Orontes, flowing
north, and the Leontes (_Litany_), flowing south; and on the east a
level country reaching to the desert, containing the cities of Damascus
on the south, Tiphsah (Thapsacus) on the north, and Tadmor (Palmyra) in
the desert. During the times from Jeroboam to Jehoash, Syria was an
independent kingdom, the rival of Israel, with which its political
relations may be seen on the map on page 86. In the Old Testament
period, Damascus was its principal city, and exercised sovereignty; but
later, Antioch, in the north, became more prominent, and was the Greek
and Roman capital of the province.

3. =Phoenicia= is a narrow strip of territory between the Mediterranean
Sea and Mount Lebanon, north of Palestine and south of the Orontes. Its
two great cities were, Zidon, the mother of Mediterranean commerce; and
Tyre, her daughter. Its boundaries were never extensive; but its vessels
traded with every land, and its colonies were planted all along the
shores of the Mediterranean.

4. =Palestine= lies south of Phoenicia, between the Mediterranean and
the desert. It will be described in connection with the Physical Map of
Palestine, page 29, and Moab and Edom, near it, on pages 39 and 45.

5. South of Palestine is =The Wilderness=, a part of Arabia, in which
the Israelites wandered during forty years. Its description may be found
on page 42.

6. =Egypt= lies in the northeastern corner of Africa. See its
description on page 41.


OUTLINE FOR TEACHING AND REVIEW.

1. Let the teacher state the EXTENT of the Old Testament World, and its
comparison in size with the United States, as given in the description;
the class taking down the figures in their note-books.

2. Let the teacher draw upon the blackboard the SEAS of the map, in
presence of the class, describing each as it is drawn. If drawn in
advance with an ordinary slate pencil, the mark cannot be seen by the
class, but can be traced by the teacher with white chalk. Do not try to
make the lines exact. A general sketch will answer far better than
finished work. Write upon each its initial letter, but let the class
give its full name; and at the same time follow the teacher by drawing
the map on slates or in note-books. Review the names of the seas:
_Caspian_, _Persian Gulf_, _Red Sea_, _Mediterranean_ or _Great Sea_,
_Dead Sea_, _Lake Arsissa_ or _Van_, _Lake Urumiyeh_.

3. Draw next the most important of the MOUNTAIN RANGES, showing their
general lines, in blue or green color, naming each as drawn, requiring
the class to repeat its name, and to review at the close all the names:
_Ararat_ (including _Masius_, _Niphates_, _Abus_), _Caspian_, _Zagros_,
_Lebanon_, _Taurus_.

4. Draw the RIVERS in white chalk, and drill the class upon their names
as the course of each is shown: _Araxes_, _Tigris_, _Euphrates_,
_Orontes_, _Jordan_, _Nile_. Review the names of seas, mountains, and
rivers, before beginning the next subject.

5. Show the LANDS in their three classes, and drill the class upon their
names. (1.) MOUNTAIN LANDS: _Armenia_, _Media_, _Persia_. (2.) LANDS OF
THE PLAIN: _Assyria_, _Elam_, _Mesopotamia_, _Chaldea_, _Arabia_. (3.)
LANDS OF THE MEDITERRANEAN: _Asia Minor_, _Syria_, _Phoenicia_,
_Palestine_, _Wilderness_, _Egypt_.

Review the entire map, from the beginning; then erase it, and call for
the class to give the names as they are indicated by the pointer without
marking.



ANCIENT WORLD, AND DESCENDANTS OF NOAH.


ONE of the most ancient and valuable accounts of the races of mankind is
found in the tenth chapter of Genesis. It states the location and, in
large degree, the relationship of the various families upon the earth,
as they were known to the descendants of Abraham.

[Illustration: BIRS NIMROUD (SUPPOSED TOWER OF BABEL).]

In the interpretation of this "Table of Nations" certain facts and
principles are to be borne in mind. 1. It is _incomplete_; not
undertaking to name all the races of mankind, but only those in the
Hebrew, Egyptian, and Assyrian sphere of interest. Neither the yellow,
the brown, or the black races are represented upon it, and only a
portion of the ruddy or white race. 2. It is _popular_ and not
scientific. The Orientals never wrote with the precision of modern
students. Hence find in this document terms employed in a general and
indefinite manner. 3. It is, in reality, _geographical_ rather than
racial. For example, when it says "the sons of Canaan," we are not
always to infer a literal descent, but a location in the land of Canaan.
The names upon this table are generally not those of individuals, but of
tribes. In some instances relationship may be indicated; but generally
propinquity of settlement is all that can positively be affirmed. 4. It
arranges the nations _according to zones_, in a general direction from
northwest to southeast; not by continents, as was formerly supposed. The
nations of the Japhetic family are found in Asia and Europe; the
Shemites, or Semites, in Asia; the so-called Hamitic races, in Asia and
Africa. After the deluge an instinct of migration took possession of the
human family. From the original home (long supposed to be near the
Caspian Sea, but now uncertain as to locality) clans moved in all
directions, and nations arose, occupying different lands.


I. THE JAPHETIC NATIONS.

These belonged to seven families, who are called "sons of Japheth" in
Gen. 10:2; and seven others, who are spoken of as his grandsons in Gen.
10:3, 4. These statements are not necessarily to be understood
literally. There may have been other sons and grandsons of Japheth; but
these were the ones whose names are remembered as the founders of
nations. The peoples descended from Japheth belong to what is called the
Aryan or Indo-European race.

1. =Gomer= is named, in Ezek. 38:2-6, as a race opposed to Israel after
the captivity. They were probably the people whom the Assyrians called
_Gimirrai_, and the Greeks _Kimmerioi_. Their name is perpetuated in the
_Crimea_, their early home. A branch of this race moving westward became
the _Cimbri_, who were formidable enemies of Rome; and probably another,
the _Cymry_, settled in the British Isles, and were the ancestors of the
Welsh and the Irish. The Celtic races, to which the French partly
belong, are descended from this family.

Three of the families descended from Gomer formed separate tribes,
named, in the table of nations in Gen. 10:3, after Ashkenaz, Riphath and
Togarmah. All of these had homes around or near the Black Sea.

(1.) _Ashkenaz_ is the name of a people spread out of _Mysia_ and
_Phrygia_ in Asia Minor. "Ascanios," a Greek form of the word, occurs in
Homer as the name of a Mysian and Phrygian prince. It is, however, true
that, in Jer. 51:27, Ashkenaz is located in Western Armenia, whither
this people had later migrated. Here, also, the Assyrians located them.

(2.) _Riphath_ was formerly supposed to point to the _Riphæn Mountains_,
north of the Danube and west of the Black Sea, but this is very
doubtful.

(3.) _Togarmah_ (Ezek. 27:14; 38:6) is identified with the land of
_Armenia_, whose people have a tradition that they are descended from
Targom.

2. =Magog= (called, in Ezek. 38 and 39, _Gog_, the prefix _Ma_ being
thought to signify "land") is generally understood to designate the
_Scythians_.

[Illustration: THE ANCIENT WORLD AND THE DESCENDANTS OF NOAH.]

3. =Madai= is everywhere in Scripture the word translated _Medes_, whose
early home was south of the Caspian Sea, whence they marched westward,
and conquered the lands as far as the Mediterranean.

4. =Javan= is the Hebrew term for the _Greeks_, as is indicated by
various references in the Old Testament. It is especially applied to the
Ionians (originally called Iafon-es, the descendants of Iafon, or
Javan), who were the Grecian people, with whom the Israelites were
brought into commercial relations.

Five lands and races are named as subdivisions of the family of Javan in
Gen. 10:4, all of which were situated near each other.

(1.) _Elishah_ (or, as in Ezek. 27:7, "the isles of Elishah,") is
supposed to refer to the _Æolians_, inhabiting the isles of the Ægean
Sea, from which came the purple dye mentioned in Ezekiel's reference.

(2.) _Tarshish_ was formerly supposed to refer to _Tarsus_ in Cilicia of
Asia Minor, on the authority of Josephus, but is now identified with
_Tartessus_ in Spain, embracing the coast land from Gibraltar to the
Guadalquiver.

(3.) _Kittim_, or _Chittim_, was the name applied to the island of
_Cyprus_, of which one of the cities was called Kitium. The name Chittim
was also loosely given by the Hebrews to the shores and isles of the
Mediterranean.

(4.) _Dodanim_ (or, as in some copies of 1 Chron. 1:7, Rodanim). If the
reading _Dodanim_ be preferred, this may point to the _Dardanians_, a
name often applied in the classics to the people of Troy, the famous
city of Homer. The other reading, _Rodanim_, which is preferred by some
critics, is supposed to point to the isle of Rhodes, in the Ægean Sea, a
home of the ancient Greeks. Thus both Javan and all his sons who founded
families were connected with the Greek race.

(5.) _The Isles of the Gentiles_ (Gen. 10:5) in Hebrew refers not only
to islands, but all lands bordering upon the sea. Here it refers to the
Japhetic colonies on the coasts of the Mediterranean, the Black and the
Caspian Seas.

5. =Tubal=, and 6. =Meshech=, are generally associated in Scripture.
(Ezek. 27:13; 32:26; 38:2, 3; 39:1.) From their associations, they are
to be sought near the Caspian and Black Seas, where Herodotus mentions
the _Tibareni_ and the _Moschi_.

7. =Tiras= (1. Chron. 1:5) was believed by the Jews to refer to the
_Thracians_, southwest of the Black Sea. There is nothing to oppose this
view, but no evidence except the similarity of name in its favor.


II. THE HAMITIC RACES.

These are named with greater particularity, because they were those
which rose to prominence early in the history, and those with which the
Hebrews were brought into closer relations, either as enemies or as
friends. Four principal races are given, some of which were greatly
subdivided. The homes of these races were in Africa, Eastern Arabia,
with a fringe of sea-coast along the eastern Mediterranean, and the
great Mesopotamian valley, in which arose the earliest world empires.
They have been sometimes called _Turanians_. It is by no means probable
that all these nations should be regarded as the descendants of Ham, the
son of Noah. In this list are evidently grouped together some races
whose territory was contiguous, but whose physical appearance and
language show no relationship.

1. =Cush= is, throughout the Bible, the word translated _Ethiopia_.
Generally this refers to the region south of Egypt, now known as
Abyssinia; but in Gen. 2:13, Isa. 11:11, and Ezek. 38:5, the reference
must be to an Asiatic Cush, in Mesopotamia. The subdivisions of the
Cushite tribes in Gen. 10:7-12, show that the earliest great Oriental
monarchies were of this race. These subdivisions are as follows:

(1.) _Seba._ These were, probably, the Ethiopians of Meroë, on the Nile,
anciently called _Saba_; in Isa. 43:3 and 45:14, connected with the
Egyptians.

(2.) _Havilah._ This is supposed to refer to _Arabia_, or at least a
part of it.

(3.) _Sabtah._ This may refer to the _Sabbatha_, or _Sabota_, of Pliny
and Ptolemy, on the southern shore of Arabia.

(4.) _Raamah_, with whom are associated his sons or descendants, _Sheba_
and _Dedan_, occupied the eastern shore of Arabia, near the Persian
Gulf.

(5.) _Sabtechah._ This is unknown, but, from the relation of the
previous names, may have been in the southeastern portion of Arabia.

(6.) _Nimrod_ is named as a descendant of Cush (perhaps the only name of
an individual in the list), and the founder of the early Babylonian
empire.

2. =Mizraim= is the name everywhere used for _Egypt_ in the Hebrew. The
word is in the dual form, representing the two divisions of the country,
and corresponding to the two crowns on all the royal effigies. Several
branches of this race are especially mentioned.

(1.) _Ludim._ Not the same with the _Lud_ of verse 22, but from its
associations plainly in Africa. The location has been given as _Nubia_,
but is very doubtful.

(2.) _Anamim._ An unknown people, whose identity was early lost in some
other race.

(3.) _Lehabim._ These are elsewhere in Scripture called _Lubim_, and
were the Libyans, or people of Libya, west of Egypt, on the southern
shore of the Mediterranean.

(4.) _Naphtuhim._ Probably the _Na-Ptah_ of the Egyptian monuments,
having their home at _Memphis_, south of the Delta.

(5.) _Pathrusim._ Often referred to in the prophets as _Pathros_, or
Upper Egypt.

(6.) _Casluhim._ An unknown people, perhaps in the vicinity of _Goshen_.

(7.) _Caphtorim._ Generally supposed to refer to the people on the
island of _Crete_. With these, and not with the _Casluhim_, should the
_Philistim_ be connected. (See Deut. 2:23, Jer. 47:4, Amos 9:7.)

3. =Phut.= The word is several times translated _Libya_, and, from its
association with other tribes, should probably be referred to that
section in Northern Africa. (See Jer. 46:9; Ezek. 27:10; 30:5; 38:5;
Nah. 3:9.) Some of these passages would indicate that there was also an
Asiatic branch of this same family.

4. =Canaan.= The ancient inhabitants of Palestine and Lower Syria, from
Gaza to Hamath. In their most flourishing period, just before the
conquest by Joshua, they embraced six subdivisions or clans. (See map on
page 36, and explanations.)


III. THE SEMITIC RACES. (Gen. 10:21-31.)

The descendants of Shem are placed last in the list of the table of
nations, not because their founder was the youngest, but because out of
their lines one family is chosen as the especial theme of the history,
which thus receives a fitting introduction. Shem was the founder of five
great races, and of many subordinate tribes.

1. =Elam= everywhere is recognized as the name of a province east of the
Tigris and north of the Persian Gulf, called by the Greeks _Elymais_.
The name was often applied, in later times, to the whole of Persia,
whose capital stood within its territory.

2. =Asshur= is frequently mentioned in the Old Testament. It was located
on the Tigris, having Nineveh as its capital, and its people at one time
were rulers of all the lands westward to the Mediterranean.

3. =Arphaxad=, or _Arpachshad_ (as in the margin of Gen. 11:10), has
been supposed to be the ancestor of the Chaldeans, whose home was at the
head of the Persian Gulf. The patriarch Abraham belonged to his race,
and was born in "Ur of the Chaldees." Another of Arphaxad's descendants
was _Joktan_, from whom arose thirteen tribes, named after _Almodad_,
_Sheleph_, _Hazarmaveth_, _Jerah_, _Hadoram_, _Uzal_, _Diklah_, _Obal_,
_Abimael_, _Sheba_ (the most important of all in after history,
absorbing most of the rest), _Ophir_, _Havilah_, and _Jobab_. All these
occupied the southeastern and southern sections of the great Arabian
peninsula. The fact that some of these names have already been mentioned
in the Hamite genealogies may indicate that the two races became
mingled.

4. =Lud.= This is believed by most scholars to refer to the _Lydians_,
who dwelt on the southwestern border of Asia Minor, and under their
king, Croesus, became a powerful nation. Their history was short, as
their empire was conquered by Cyrus the Great.

5. =Aram.= This is the word uniformly rendered _Syria_ throughout the
Bible. The Arameans, or Syrians, occupied the region between Canaan and
Phoenicia, on the east, the Euphrates on the north, and the great desert
on the west and south. Four branches of this race formed separate
tribes. _Uz_, the race of the ancient Job, was settled in the middle of
North Arabia, near Nejd. _Hul_ and _Gether_ are supposed (but with
slight evidences) to have occupied the country near Lake Merom, where
the _Geshurites_ were afterward found. _Mash_, or, as called in 1 Chron.
1:17, _Meshech_, may have merged with the Meshech of the Japhetic line.

[Illustration: OUTLINE MAP FOR REVIEW.]


OUTLINE FOR TEACHING.

1. The principal authorities for the map on page 24, and its
explanations, are: "Ethnic Affinities," by Canon George Rawlinson; E. H.
Browne, in "The Speaker's Commentary"; J. G. Murphy's "Notes on
Genesis"; Dillmann, "Commentary on Genesis"; and "The Races of the Old
Testament," by A. H. Sayce. To these the student is referred for more
thorough discussion of the subject.

2. In teaching, draw on the blackboard a sketch map (no matter how
roughly) of the outlines of the coast, as given above, and then write on
each place the name of the people occupying it. Take, first, the great
divisions of Noah's family; then, the subdivisions; then, the minor
tribes. Review the locations as each family is finished. Write on the
board only the first syllable of each name, as an aid to memory, as _Ar_
for _Arphaxad_, _Cu_ for _Cush_, etc. If the names of each of the three
great races are written in chalk of a different color, it will make the
distinctions more readily understood.

3. If practicable, by means of a duplicating process, print a sufficient
number of copies of the sketch map to supply the class or audience, and
let each person, with pencil, place on the map the names of the tribes
as they are located. This will greatly add to the interest of the
lesson.

[Transcriber's Note: This family tree was originally one tree. It was
separated into families to accommodate size issues.]

REVIEW CHART--THE TABLE OF NATIONS.


                            NOAH
       +---------------------+----------------------+
    JAPHETH                 HAM                    SHEM
  (_Aryan Race_)     (_Turanian Race_)        (_Semitic Race_)


                        JAPHETH (_Aryan Race_)
       +---------+---------+------------+--------+-------+-------+
       |         |         |            |        |       |       |
     Gomer     Magog      Madai       Javan    Tubal  Meshech  Tiras
  (_Celts_)(_Scythians_)(_Medes_)   (_Greeks_)             (_Thracians_)
        |                              |
   Ashkenaz (_Nysia and Phrygia_)  Elishah (_Æolians_)
   Riphath (_Riphaean Mts?_)       Tarshish (_Tartessus_)
   Togarmah (_Armenia_)            Kittim (_Cyprus_)
                                   Dodanim (_Trojans_)


                    HAM (_Turanian Race_)
       +-------------+------+--------+
       |             |      |        |
      Cush        Mizraim  Phut    Canaan
  (_Ethiopia_)  (_Egypt_)(_Libya_)(_Palestine_)
     |               |
    Seba          Ludim
  (_Meroë_)     (_Nubia?_)
    Havilah       Anamim
  (_Arabia_)
    Sabtah        Lehabim
  (_Sabbatha?_) (_Libya_)
    Raamah        Naphtuhim
  (_Per. Gulf_) (_Na-petu_)
    Sabtechah     Pathrusim
                (_Pathros_)
    NIMROD        Casluhim-Philistim
                (_Philistia_)
                  Caphtorim
                (_Crete_)


                          SHEM (_Semitic Race_)
     +--------------+-------------+------------+-----------+
     |              |             |            |           |
    Elam          Asshur       Arphaxad       Lud         Aram
  (_Elamites_) (_Assyrians_) (_Chaldeans_) (_Lydians_) (_Syrians_)
                                  |                         |
                                Salah                       Uz
                                  |                         Hul
                                  |                        Gether
                                  |                        Mash
                                 Eber
                              +---+---+
                              |       |
                             Peleg   Joktan(_Arabia_)

[Illustration: THE JEWS' WAILING PLACE, AT JERUSALEM.]

[Illustration: PHYSICAL MAP OF PALESTINE.]



PHYSICAL PALESTINE.


I. DIMENSIONS.

THE terms Canaan, Palestine and the Holy Land are used with various
meanings. The first is the original name, taken from the ancestor of its
early inhabitants; the second is a modernized form of the word
"Philistine," a race occupying its southwest portion; the third is the
name applied to it as the land where the Saviour of the world lived and
died. In either one of these three names we may also find three
different limitations of meaning. 1. Strictly speaking, the word
"Canaan" refers to the country between the Jordan and the Mediterranean;
bounded on the north by Mount Lebanon, and on the south by the desert.
The name "Palestine" is often given to this section only. This region
includes about 6,600 square miles, a territory smaller than the State of
Massachusetts by 1,200 square miles. 2. Palestine Proper, the Land of
the Twelve Tribes, embraces both Canaan and the region east of the
Jordan, loosely called Gilead, though that name strictly belongs to but
one section of it. Palestine Proper is bounded on the north by the river
Leontes, Mount Lebanon and Mount Hermon; east by the Syrian desert,
south by the Arabian desert, and west by the Mediterranean; and forms a
sort of parallelogram, embracing an area of about 12,000 miles, about
the size of Massachusetts and Connecticut. 3. The Land of Promise (Num.
34), in its largest meaning, extended from the "Entrance of Hamath," on
the north, to Mount Hor, Kadesh-barnea, and the "River of Egypt" (_Wady
el Arish_); and from the Euphrates to the Mediterranean; including an
area of 60,000 square miles, a little less than that of the five New
England States. This was realized only during a part of the reigns of
David and Solomon. Not all of even Palestine Proper was possessed by
Israel during most of its history; for the plain along the sea-shore was
held by the Philistines on the south, and by the Phoenicians on the
north.

[Illustration: COMPARATIVE AREAS OF PALESTINE AND NEW ENGLAND.]


II. NATURAL DIVISIONS.

The divisions of Palestine made by the natural features of the country
are four, generally parallel to each other: 1. The Maritime Plain. 2.
The Mountain Region. 3. The Jordan Valley. 4. The Eastern Table-Land.

1. =The Maritime Plain= lies along the coast of the Mediterranean for
the entire length of the country, broken only by Mount Carmel, north of
which it is quite narrow; but immediately south of the mountain it is 8
miles wide, thence widening to 20 miles at the southern boundary of the
country. It is an undulating surface of low hillocks of sandy soil, from
100 to 200 feet above the sea-level, and very fertile. In the Old
Testament period it was but little occupied by the Israelites, whose
home was on the mountains. It is divided into four portions. North of
Mount Carmel a narrow strip is called Phoenicia. Directly east of Mount
Carmel the level country is pressed inward, and lies between the
mountains, forming the remarkable Plain of Esdraelon, physically
belonging to the Maritime Plain, but geographically to the Mountain
Region. South of Mount Carmel lay Sharon; and further southward was
Philistia, a land whose people, the Philistines, were long the enemies
of Israel, and have since given the name PALESTINE to the whole land.

2. =The Mountain Region=, between the Jordan Valley and the Plain, is
the backbone of the country, and was the principal home of the
Israelites. It is a continuation of the Lebanon range of mountains, and
extends southward to the desert. It is divided into five sections, by
natural rather than political lines of boundary. (1.) In Upper Galilee
the mountains average a height of 2,800 feet above the sea, and _Jebel
Jermuk_, the highest peak, is 4,000 feet high. (2.) In Lower Galilee the
hills are about 1,800 feet high, their southeastern slopes precipitous,
the northern and northwestern gentle. In this section lies the Plain of
Esdraelon, about 250 feet above the sea, 9 miles across, and 14 miles
north and south. (3.) The Hill Country of Samaria and Judæa, called in
the Old Testament "Mount Ephraim," and "the mountains of Judah," is from
2,000 to 3,000 feet high, consisting of mountain and valley, with the
watershed midway between the Jordan and the sea. Near the Dead Sea is
the Wilderness of Judæa, an uninhabitable region, without verdure, and
penetrated with ravines and caves; sometimes called Jeshimon. (4.) The
_Shefelah_, or "low hills," are the foot-hills of the Mountain Region,
forming a natural terrace 500 feet above the sea-level, on the western
side of the mountains, between them and the Plain. This extends along
both Samaria and Judæa. (5.) The Negeb, a word meaning "dry," translated
"South Country" in the Bible, begins just south of Hebron, and slopes
southward to the Arabian desert, in a series of hills much lower than
those in the northern section.

3. =The Jordan Valley= is a remarkable depression, beginning at the
sources of the river, and plowing a gorge which grows deeper as it goes
southward. At the springs of the Jordan it is 1,700 feet above the sea,
with lofty mountains on each side, Hermon and Lebanon. At lake Merom it
is 7 feet above the level of the sea. Below Merom it descends by a fall
of 60 feet to the mile, and at the Sea of Galilee is 682 feet below the
Mediterranean. Here begins the _Ghor_ (its Arab name, meaning "hollow"),
a gorge 65 miles long to the Dead Sea, and descending 610 feet further
in its depth, with a barrier of cliffs on either side, from 2 to 8 miles
apart, except at the "Plain of Jordan," or "Plain of Jericho," just
north of the Dead Sea, which is 14 miles wide. This plain lies 400 feet
above the level of the Dead Sea, and is encompassed by mountains which
rise above it about 4,000 feet.

4. =The Eastern Table-Land= is a lofty plateau, east of the Jordan. The
mountains on this side are higher and more steep than are those on the
west; and from their summit a plain stretches away to the great Syrian
desert. It is mostly fertile, and especially adapted to pasturage. On
the north is Bashan, now called "the Hauran," in the centre lies Gilead,
and south was the land of Moab.


III. THE WATERS OF PALESTINE.

These may be noticed under three heads: 1. The River Jordan. 2. The
Three Lakes. 3. The Brooks, or mountain torrents.

[Illustration: THE RIVER JORDAN.]

1. =The River Jordan= has three sources. (1.) The most northerly is at
_Hasbeiya_, on Hermon. (2.) The largest stream proceeds from a great
spring at the ancient Dan, now _Tell el Kady_. (3.) The one recognized
as the source by the Jews is at Banias, near the ancient Cæsarea
Philippi. It may be divided into three sections: from Hasbeiya to Lake
Merom, about 40 miles; from its entrance into Merom to the Sea of
Galilee, 15 miles; and from the northern end of that lake to the Dead
Sea, 79 miles,--making its direct length 134 miles, though by its
windings the channel is about 200 miles long. In its progress it falls
over 3,000 feet, an average fall of over 22 feet to the mile. It varies
in width from 80 to 180 feet, and in depth from 5 to 12 feet.

2. =The Three Lakes= are: (1.) Merom, now called _Huleh_, a triangular
sheet of water three miles across, located in a swamp in Northern
Galilee. (2.) The Sea of Galilee, called Chinnereth in the Old
Testament, a pear-shaped lake, 14 miles long, and 9 wide. (3.) The Dead
Sea, 46 miles long, its surface 1,290 feet below the level of the
Mediterranean, and in some places 1,300 feet deep, though the great
lagoon on its southern end is not more than 20 feet deep.

[Illustration: SECTION OF PALESTINE FROM NORTH TO SOUTH.]

3. =The Brooks=, or mountain torrents, are an important feature in the
country. They are dry for most of the year, but during the winter are
large and rapid. (1.) On the east of the Jordan Valley are: (_a_) the
Hieromax (now called the _Jarmuk_), flowing from the highlands of Bashan
into the Jordan, south of the Sea of Galilee; (_b_) the Jabbok (now
_Zerka_), descending from the table-land, and entering the Jordan a
little south of midway between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea;
(_c_) the Arnon (now _Mojeb_), entering the Dead Sea about the middle of
its eastern shore. (2.) Flowing from the Mountain Region eastward are:
(_a_) the _Farah_, "the waters of Enon" (John 3:23); (_b_) the brook
Cherith (1 Kings 17:3), perhaps _Wady Kelt_, near Jericho; (_c_) the
brook Kedron, running past Jerusalem, eastward, into the Dead Sea,
probably the _Wady en Nar_. (3.) Flowing into the Mediterranean are:
(_a_) the Leontes (now _Litany_), the northern boundary of Palestine, a
stream almost as long as the Jordan; (_b_) the Kishon, "that ancient
river" (Judg. 5:21), watering the Plain of Esdraelon; (_c_) the brook
Besor (_Wady es Sheriah_), near the southern frontier. Others might be
named, but these are the most important, though not in all cases the
largest.

[Illustration: SECTION OF PALESTINE FROM EAST TO WEST.]


IV. THE MOUNTAINS OF PALESTINE.

These may be considered either in order of height or of location. The
diagram groups the principal mountains in the relation of their
comparative height above the sea-level; we may notice them in their
order of location. They naturally divide into two sections: 1. Those of
the Mountain Region west of Jordan. 2. Those of the Eastern Table-Land.

[Illustration: COMPARATIVE HEIGHT OF MOUNTAINS IN PALESTINE.]

Beginning at the northern boundary of Palestine, we find: 1. Mount
Lebanon, "the white mountain," a range of lofty mountains stretching
northward, parallel with the sea, generally about 5,000 feet high, but
at its highest point, _Jebel Mukhmeel_, 10,200 feet high. 2. The highest
point in Galilee is _Jebel Jermuk_, northwest of the Sea of Galilee,
4,000 feet high. 3. West of the Sea of Galilee is _Kurûn Hattin_, "the
horns of Hattin," the traditional "Mount of the Beatitudes," 1,200 feet
high. 4. At the northeastern corner of the Plain of Esdraelon is Mount
Tabor, a symmetrical cone, the battle-field of Deborah and Barak, 1,843
feet high. 5. A short distance to the south stands Little Hermon, "the
Hill of Moreh," now _Jebel el Duhy_, 1,815 feet high. 6. Southward still
is Mount Gilboa, the place of Gideon's victory and of King Saul's
defeat, 1,715 feet high. 7. Sweeping around the southern border of the
Plain of Esdraelon to the Mediterranean Sea is Mount Carmel, at its
highest point 1,750 feet, but 500 as it meets the sea. These last four
mountains form the boundary of the Plain of Esdraelon. In the land of
Samaria, which we now enter, are but two important elevations: 8. Ebal,
the mountain of the curses, 3,075 feet; 9. Directly opposite, Gerizim,
the mountain of the blessings, 2,850 feet. The principal peaks in Judæa
are the following: 10. Mount Zion, the seat of David's castle, 2,550
feet; 11. Across the valley of the Kedron eastward, the Mount of Olives,
2,665 feet; 12. Mount Hebron, 3,030 feet. South of Hebron the land
slopes away to the level of the desert.

The Eastern Table-Land has fewer elevations, and is generally less
noticed in the Scriptures. 1. On the north rises Mount Hermon, 9,000
feet high, the southern end of the range known as Anti-Lebanon, or
"Lebanon toward the sun-rising." 2. South of the river Hieromax is Mount
Gilead, about 3,000 feet high. 3. Near the northern end of the Dead Sea
is Mount Nebo, 2,670 feet high, on a "shoulder" of which, Mount Pisgah,
Moses beheld the Promised Land, and died.


V. THE PLAINS OF PALESTINE.

These have been already noticed, to some extent, but may be named
together. Upon the Maritime Plain, we notice: 1. Phoenicia, a very
narrow strip along the Mediterranean, north of Mount Carmel, never
possessed by the Israelites, and having Tyre and Sidon as its principal
cities. 2. Directly south of Mount Carmel, Sharon, having Cæsarea and
Joppa as its most important places. 3. Still further south, Philistia,
the land of Israel's ancient enemies, containing several cities, of
which Gaza and Ashkelon (afterward Ascalon) were chief. Upon the
Mountain Region we find imbedded, 4. The Plain of Esdraelon, a Y-shaped
region, 250 feet above the sea-level, surrounded by mountains, and
situated between Mounts Carmel, Tabor and Gilboa. 5. The Negeb, or South
Country, between Hebron and the desert, in Southern Judæa, may be
regarded as a plain, though of rolling character, as its hills are not
so high as those on the north. 6. In the Jordan Valley, just north of
the Dead Sea, is a place called "the Plain of Jordan," or "the Plain of
Jericho," the site of the destroyed "cities of the plain." 7. In the
northern section of the Eastern Table-Land is the vast highland known as
"the Hauran," anciently called Bashan, watered by the streams which form
the Hieromax river.


OUTLINE FOR REVIEW.

I. _Dimensions._ 1. Canaan. 2. Palestine (Twelve Tribes). 3. Land of
Promise.

II. _Natural Divisions._ 1. Maritime Plain. 2. Mountain Region (Upper
Galilee, Lower Galilee, Hill Country, Shefelah, Negeb). 3. Jordan Valley
(Merom, Galilee, Dead Sea). 4. Eastern Table-Land (Bashan, Gilead,
Moab).

III. _Waters._ 1. Jordan (sources, sections). 2. Lakes (Merom, Galilee,
Dead Sea). 3. Brooks. (1.) East: Hieromax, Jabbok, Arnon. (2.) Mountain
Region: Farah, Cherith, Kedron. (3.) Maritime Plain: Leontes, Kishon,
Besor.

IV. _Mountains._ 1. West of Jordan: Lebanon, Jermuk, Hattin, Tabor,
Little Hermon, Gilboa, Carmel, Ebal, Gerizim, Zion, Olives, Hebron. 2.
East of Jordan: Hermon, Gilead, Nebo.

V. _Plains._ 1. Phoenicia. 2. Sharon. 3. Philistia. 4. Esdraelon. 5.
Negeb. 6. Jordan. 7. Hauran.



THE JOURNEYS OF THE PATRIARCHS.


AT the close of the eleventh chapter of Genesis a change is made in the
subject of the Bible story. Thus far it has been a history of the entire
race; but from this point to the close of Genesis a single family is
brought into prominent notice, and the rest of the tribes of men are
referred to only incidentally. The family of Abraham, of Semitic origin,
deserve all their prominence in sacred history, since through them the
true religion was perpetuated until the world was ready for its wider
dissemination in the gospel period.

[Illustration: MUGHEIR, SUPPOSED TO BE UR OF THE CHALDEES.]


I. THE JOURNEYS OF ABRAHAM.

These extend over nearly all the lands of the Old Testament, from
Chaldea to Egypt. They represent the separation of a Semitic clan from
the great body of the race, which was then ruled by an Elamite dynasty;
and they bring to our notice the political relations of the world about
two thousand years before Christ, in the early Chaldean period of the
East.

1. =From Ur to Haran.= (Gen. 11:27-32.) The family of Abraham (then
called Abram) lived at Ur of the Chaldees, probably _Mugheir_, south of
the Euphrates, and an early seat of empire. Thence, at God's call, they
migrated, moving up the Euphrates to Haran, in Mesopotamia, probably the
Roman Carrhæ, and the modern _Haran_, on the river Belik, 50 miles above
its entrance into the Euphrates. Here the family remained until the
death of Terah, Abraham's aged father, whose traditional tomb is still
shown.

2. =From Haran to Canaan.= (Gen. 12:1-9.) A branch of the family, the
descendants of Abraham's brother Nahor, settled in Haran; but Abraham
and his nephew Lot moved on southward, past Damascus, to the land of
Canaan. They paused first at Shechem, and afterward at Bethel, at each
place building an altar; but after a time removed further southward,
impelled by the dearth of food in the land.

3. =The Visit to Egypt.= (Gen. 12:10-20.) The famine caused a removal of
the entire clan to Egypt, where the beauty of Sarah was the occasion of
Abraham's deception, of Pharaoh's wrong, and of Abraham's expulsion from
the land. He returned to his former abode at Bethel. (Gen. 13:3, 4.)

4. =The Removal to Hebron.= (Gen. 13:5-18.) This was occasioned by the
scarcity of pasture for the immense flocks and herds of Abraham and Lot.
The two chieftains made a division of the land, Lot choosing the Jordan
Valley, north of the Dead Sea, near the city of Sodom, and Abraham the
highlands around Hebron, anciently Kirjath-arba, now known by Abraham's
title, _el Khalil_, "The Friend," _i. e._, of God.

5. =Pursuit of the Elamites.= (Gen. 14.) At that period the early
Babylonian empire, under Amraphel or Hammurabi (see p. 91), was at the
height of its power. Its king governed Elam, Chaldea, Assyria,
Mesopotamia, and most of Palestine. Chedorlaomer, the head of the united
peoples, led his armies against the aboriginal races east of the Jordan.
(See Map of Palestine Before the Conquest, and description, on page 37.)
After subduing them he passed around south of the Dead Sea, smote the
Amorites in the mountains near Hazezon-tamar, afterward En-gedi, and
poured his host down upon the Jordan Valley. The cities on the north of
the Dead Sea, Sodom and Gomorrah, with their dependent villages, being
unable to stay his progress, were ravaged, and their inhabitants
(including Abraham's nephew Lot) carried away captive, up the valley.
News of the invasion came to Abraham, and he instantly gathered his
servants and allies, and pursued the marauders. He overtook them near
Laish, afterward Dan, now _Tell el Kady_, attacked them by night,
pursued them as far as Hobah, near Damascus, and brought back the booty
and the prisoners. On the return took place the remarkable interview
with Melchizedek, a priest-king over the city of Salem, perhaps the
place afterward Jerusalem. After the return to Hebron the following
events occurred: 1. The covenant of God with Abraham. (Gen. 15.) 2. The
birth of Ishmael. (Gen. 16.) 3. The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah.
(Gen. 18, 19.) These cities were probably located on the plain of
Jordan, north of the Dead Sea, and not on the south, as formerly
supposed; but all traces of them have entirely disappeared.

[Illustration: EMPIRE OF AMRAPHEL OR HAMMURABI.]

6. =The Settlement at Beersheba.= (Gen. 20-25.) After the destruction of
the cities of the plain, Abraham moved southward, and made his home at
Beersheba, on the desert border, now _Bir es Seba_. Here he spent most
of his later years, as after various journeys we find him each time
encamped at Beersheba.

7. =The Offering of Isaac.= (Gen. 22.) From Beersheba Abraham took his
son Isaac, at God's command, to offer him as a burnt offering in "the
land of Moriah." Some authorities accept the Samaritan tradition, that
this place was Mount Gerizim; but we see no sufficient reason to dissent
from the general view, that it was Mount Moriah, at Jerusalem, ten
centuries afterward the site of the Temple. After this sublime token of
his faith in God, the patriarch returned to his tent at Beersheba.

8. =The Burial of Sarah.= (Gen. 23.) We find Abraham again at Hebron, in
his old age. Here Sarah died and was buried in the cave of Machpelah.
This is undoubtedly covered by the Mohammedan mosque so sacredly guarded
against the intrusion of travelers. The after events of Abraham's
history may have taken place at Hebron or at Beersheba, as neither place
is named as his residence at the time of Isaac's marriage or his own
death. He was buried in the family sepulchre at Hebron, beside the body
of Sarah.


II. THE JOURNEYS OF ISAAC.

The life of Isaac, though longer than the lives of Abraham and Jacob,
was spent in a comparatively small range of territory, and with
comparatively few events. We have not noted upon the map the lines of
his journeyings; but the localities may be seen, as far as they are
identified, upon the map of Palestine, on page 58.

The homes of Isaac were as follows: 1. Beer-lahai-roi, "Well of the Life
of Vision," _i. e._, where life remained after seeing God; an unknown
locality in the south of Canaan, between Bered and Kadesh. It was so
named by Hagar, after meeting an angel, before the birth of Ishmael.
(Gen. 16:13.) 2. Gerar. (Gen. 26:1.) This was the chief city of the
Philistines in that age; and is now called _Kirbet el Gerar_. The wells
dug by Isaac, and seized by the Philistines, were probably in the region
near this city. 3. Rehoboth (Gen. 26:22) is probably at the _Wady_
(Valley) _er Ruhaibeh_, south of Beersheba. 4. Beersheba. (Gen.
26:23-35.) Here he made a treaty of peace with the Philistine king, and
remained for many years. It was his home during the strife of Jacob and
Esau, and from this place Jacob departed on his long visit to Haran.
(Gen. 28:10.) 5. Hebron. (Gen. 35:27.) Here, beside the tomb of his
parents, Isaac at last met his son Jacob, and here he died and was
buried, at the age of 180 years.

[Illustration: COMPARATIVE AGE OF THE PATRIARCHS BEFORE AND AFTER THE
DELUGE.]


III. THE JOURNEYS OF JACOB.

The life of Jacob is related with more of detail than that of any other
person in Old Testament history; yet there is great uncertainty
concerning the division of its periods. His first sixty years were
passed near Beersheba; then twenty years in Haran, and fifty years in
Canaan (though some of the best chronologers allow _forty_ years in
Haran, and _thirty_ years in Canaan); and seventeen years in Egypt. The
principal places named in Jacob's journeys are: 1. Beersheba, now _Bir
es Seba_, a well-known place in the south of Palestine. 2. Bethel, now
_Beitin_, 10 miles north of Jerusalem. 3. Haran, now bearing the same
name. (See under Abraham's life, Journey No. 1.) 4. Mizpah, called also
Jegar-sahadutha, "the heap of witness," perhaps the important place
afterward known as Ramoth-gilead, now _es Salt_, 13 miles south of the
Jabbok. But this seems too far south to represent the event, and we are
inclined to place it at some unknown mountain between the Jabbok and the
Hieromax. 5. Mahanaim, probably at _Mahneh_, 10 miles north of the
Jabbok. 6. Peniel, afterward Penuel, unknown, but somewhere on the brook
Jabbok. 7. Succoth, "booths," recently identified as _Tell Darala_, a
mile north of the Jabbok, in the Jordan Valley. 8. Shalem, "peace." If
this refers to a place, it is _Salim_, 3 miles east of Shechem. But some
read the sentence, "Jacob came in peace [_i. e._, in safety] to
Shechem." (Gen. 33:18.) 9. Ephrath, the place of Rachel's death and
burial, near Bethlehem.

The Journeys of Jacob may be arranged as follows:

1. =The Flight to Haran.= (Gen. 28:10-29:14.) Fearing the vengeance of
Esau after the stolen blessing, Jacob hastily left his home at
Beersheba, and journeyed northward to Haran. At Bethel he saw the vision
of the heavenly ladder, and arrived safely at Haran, distant 450 miles
from Beersheba. Here he remained either 20 or 40 years, according to
different views, and married his two wives.

2. =The Return to Canaan.= (Gen. 31-33.) At Mizpah he made a treaty with
Laban; at Mahanaim was comforted by a vision of angels; at Peniel
wrestled with "the angel of God," and was reconciled to his brother
Esau; and at Salim (if that be the name of a place), near Shechem, he
rested in the Land of Promise.

3. =The Residence in Canaan.= (Gen. 34-45.) The slaughter of the
Shechemites by Simeon and Levi, caused Jacob to move his increasing clan
further south. At Bethel he renewed the covenant with God. (Gen.
35:1-15.) Near Ephrath, or Bethlehem, his beloved wife Rachel died and
was buried. (Gen. 35:10-20.) At Hebron he met once more his aged father,
and remained during most of his after-life in the land. (Gen. 35:27.)
While Jacob was living at Hebron, Joseph was sold a slave to the
Midianites, at Dothan, on the southern slopes of Mount Gilboa, and by
them taken down to Egypt. (Gen. 37.)

4. =The Descent into Egypt.= (Gen. 45-50.) At the invitation of Joseph,
then prince in Egypt, Jacob left Hebron to go down into Egypt. At
Beersheba he offered sacrifices, and received divine guidance. His home
was fixed in the Land of Goshen, a small but fertile district between
the eastern channel of the Nile and the desert, the modern province of
_es Shurkiyeh_, including the _Wady Tumilat_. Here the family of Jacob
remained until they became "a great nation," a period variously
estimated at from 200 to 400 years, or even longer.

5. =The Burial Procession.= (Gen. 50.) After the death of Jacob, his
embalmed body was borne from Egypt to Hebron. The direct route was not
taken, probably on account of the hostility of the Philistine and
Amorite tribes; but the procession passed around the south of the Dead
Sea, through the land of Moab, and crossed the Jordan at Abel-mizraim,
near Jericho, a place afterward known as Beth-hoglah; and thence to
Hebron, where the last of the three fathers of the chosen people was
laid to rest in the ancestral sepulchre.


OUTLINE FOR REVIEW.

I. _Journeys of Abraham._ 1. Ur to Haran. 2. Haran to Canaan. (Shechem,
Bethel.) 3. Visit to Egypt. (Return to Bethel.) 4. Removal to Hebron. 5.
Pursuit of Elamites. (Dan, Hobah, Salem.) 6. Settlement at Beersheba. 7.
Offering of Isaac. (Moriah.) 8. Burial of Sarah. (Hebron.)

II. _Journeys of Isaac._ 1. Beer-lahai-roi. 2. Gerar. 3. Rehoboth. 4.
Beersheba. 5. Hebron.

III. _Journeys of Jacob._ 1. Flight to Haran. (Beersheba, Bethel,
Haran.) 2. Return to Canaan. (Mizpah, Mahanaim, Peniel, Shechem.) 3.
Residence in Canaan. (Bethel, Bethlehem, Hebron, Dothan.) 4. Descent
into Egypt. (Beersheba, Goshen.) 5. Burial Procession. (Abel-mizraim,
Hebron.)

[Illustration: PALESTINE BEFORE THE CONQUEST.

JOURNEYS OF THE PATRIARCHS]



PALESTINE BEFORE THE CONQUEST.


THE knowledge which we possess of the inhabitants of Palestine before
the 13th century B.C. is quite scanty. The names of tribes, more or less
settled, are given; but we know very little of their language, customs
or origin. The description of Palestine during the first eight hundred
years after the Deluge may be arranged as follows: 1. The Earliest
Inhabitants. 2. The Tribes of the Patriarchal Era. 3. The Nations at the
Time of the Conquest. 4. The Surrounding Nations.


I. THE EARLIEST INHABITANTS.

[Illustration: JERICHO AND THE JORDAN.]

In most lands the earliest people have been of an unknown race, as the
mound builders of America and the cave dwellers of Europe. Very early in
the history of the race a people entered Palestine, and settled upon
both sides of the Jordan, generally among the mountains. They were
remembered by different names in various parts of the country, but the
names show the dread inspired by them among the later tribes. They were
doubtless of one race, but whether of Hamitic or Semitic stock is
uncertain; and their history is as unknown as their origin. They were
already in their decline in the times of Abraham, when the Canaanite
races, the second series of inhabitants, were in possession of the land.
They belonged to six tribes or divisions, each having a different name
and location, but all bearing the same characteristics, and all regarded
as giants by those who came after them. Our principal authorities
concerning these archaic peoples are Gen. 14:5-7, and Deut. 2:10-23.

1. The =Rephaim=, "lofty men," are frequently named in the Old
Testament, the word being generally translated "giants." In the age of
Abraham they were living in the highlands of Bashan, where their
capital, Ashteroth Karnaim, "the two-horned Ashtaroth," was taken by the
Elamite king, Chedorlaomer, the earliest conqueror in Bible history. By
degrees they lost their nationality and were merged with the Amorites,
over whom one of their race, the gigantic Og, king of Bashan, ruled at
the time of the conquest. They may have settled also west of the Jordan,
near what was afterward Jerusalem, since a locality in that vicinity
(see map on page 82) was long afterward known as "the Valley of the
Rephaim." (2 Sam. 5:18.)

2. The =Zuzim=, "tall ones," are supposed to be the same people with
those who in Deut. 2:20 are called =Zamzummim=. They occupied the
eastern table-land, south of Bashan and Gilead. Their capital was Ham, a
city not yet identified, unless it was (as some suppose) the place
afterward known as Rabbath Ammon. These people were also giants, like
the Rephaim (Deut. 2:21), were also overswept in the raid of
Chedorlaomer (Gen. 14:5), and during the time of the Israelites' sojourn
in Egypt, were dispossessed by the Ammonites, who occupied their
country afterward, until in turn driven out by the Amorites.

3. The =Emim=, "terrible ones," were south of the Zuzim, and therefore
directly east of the Dead Sea. They were overcome by Chedorlaomer at
Shaveh Kiriathaim, "the dale of the two cities," and their land was
afterward occupied by the Moabites.

4. The =Horim=, "cave dwellers," or Horites, occupied Mount Seir, south
of the Dead Sea. Their genealogy is given in Gen. 36:20-30, and 1 Chron.
1:38-42. They lived in caves, which are still found in great numbers
through that region. They were beaten by Chedorlaomer, and subsequently
dispossessed by the descendants of Esau, the Edomites.

5. The =Avim=, "ruins," or "dwellers in ruins," lived in the Shefelah,
or foot-hills, between the Philistine plain and the mountains of Judah.
(Deut. 2:23; Josh. 13:2, 3.) They were early conquered by the Caphtorim,
a Philistine race, and were in a depressed condition at the time of the
entrance of the Israelites. The word Hazerim (Deut. 2:23) means
"villages," or "nomad encampments," showing that they were not a
settled, but a wandering people.

6. The =Anakim=, "long-necked ones." The name may refer either to their
size, or their strength (which in Hebrew comes from a word similar to
_neck_). They were descendants of Arba, and divided into three clans,
named Sheshai, Ahiman and Talmai. (Josh. 14:15; 15:14.) Their principal
home was at Hebron, called by them Kirjath-arba; but they also occupied
a city near it, called Kirjath-sepher, or "book-town," a name which is
suggestive of a national literature. Unlike the other races, they seem
to have maintained a foothold in the presence of the incoming Canaanite
races, and their gigantic appearance struck terror to the Israelite
spies during the wandering. (Num. 13.) But they were conquered by Caleb
(Josh. 14), and their remnant, driven from the mountains, mingled with
the Philistines of the sea-coast plain. One family of this race remained
as late as the days of David, that of Goliath and his brothers. (1 Sam.
17:4; 2 Sam. 21:15-22.)


II. THE TRIBES OF THE PATRIARCHAL ERA.

The chosen family came to Palestine about 1921 B.C., according to the
common chronology, but probably from two to four hundred years earlier.
At this time these earliest races were already superseded in nearly all
the land by later tribes, of Hamitic origin, with which the patriarchs
were often brought into contact. Those tribes were often called
Canaanites, because the nation of that name was both the original stock
and in possession of the richest and best portion of the land.

We notice these tribes, as far as practicable, in the order of their
location in the four great natural divisions of the country: the tribes
of the maritime plain, those of the mountain region, those of the Jordan
Valley, and those of the eastern table-land.

1. Beginning at the north, on the narrow plain by the Mediterranean Sea,
we find the =Zidonians=, with their two great cities, Zidon the earlier,
and Tyre the later. Perhaps the latter city was not yet founded in the
patriarchal age. These people were early famous as the traders of the
Mediterranean world, having commercial relations as far as Spain. They
occupied a narrow strip of territory between Mount Lebanon and the sea,
north of Mount Carmel. Their country was never possessed by the
Israelites, and most of the time the relations between the two races
were peaceful.

2. Next in order of location we come to the =Canaanites= proper, or that
branch of the descendants of Canaan which retained the family name.
While _all_ the tribes of Palestine are often called Canaanites, as
descended from one stock, the name strictly belongs only to people who
lived in two sections of the country. The word means "lowlanders," and
was applied particularly to those dwelling on the maritime plain, on
both sides of Mount Carmel, the plain of Esdraelon and that of Sharon;
and to those in the Jordan Valley. These together constituted "the
Canaanites on the east and on the west." (Josh. 11:3.) They occupied the
richest and most valuable portions of the land. The only city on the
coast belonging to the Canaanites existing during the patriarchal age
was Joppa, still standing. The Canaanite cities in the Jordan Valley
were the "five cities of the plain," Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboim and
Zoar, of which all except the last were destroyed by the visitation of
God. (Gen. 19.) Their location was in the plain on the north of the Dead
Sea, and there is no reason to suppose that they are covered by its
waters. In the time immediately before the conquest we find Jericho has
arisen in the place of the destroyed cities, and not far from their
site, as the most important city of the Jordan Valley.

3. South of the Canaanites, on the maritime plain, were the
=Philistines=. "Emigrants" is the meaning of the word, supporting the
view that they came from Caphtor, or Crete, which is but little more
than a surmise. They were related to the Egyptians, and hence were of
Hamitic stock. They came to the land before the time of Abraham, drove
out and subdued the earlier Avim (Deut. 2:23), or Avites, and had
frequent dealings with Abraham and Isaac. In the patriarchal age their
principal cities were Gaza and Gerar; but before the conquest they had
moved northward, and were a powerful confederacy of five cities: Gaza,
Ashkelon, Ashdod, Gath and Ekron. (Josh. 13:3.) Their territory, if
taken at all during the campaigns of Joshua, was soon reconquered, and
the Philistines were the most dangerous enemies of Israel during all the
period of the Judges. In David's time they were subjected; but not until
the Maccabean age were they fully conquered, and their land made a part
of Israel.

4. We turn now to the tribes of the mountain region, beginning, as
before, at the north. As these northern regions are not alluded to in
patriarchal history, and only very briefly named in the annals of the
conquest, it is not easy to determine which of the tribes occupied them.
But, from allusions in Josh. 1:4 and 11:3, and from frequent mention on
the monuments of Egypt, we incline to the opinion that the =Hittites=
were the possessors of this country. They have left their name in
Hattin, the Caphar Hittai of the Talmud, near the Sea of Galilee.
Another branch, more frequently mentioned, were in the south, at and
around Hebron (Gen. 23), perhaps extending as far south as Beersheba.
(Gen. 27:46.) With these people the relations of the patriarchs were
ever peaceful, and of them Abraham purchased his family sepulchre.

[Illustration: HEBRON.]

5. The position of the =Girgashites= is uncertain, from the infrequent
mention of them. But the slight indications point to the region west of
the Sea of Galilee, where we locate them conjecturally. They may have
been absorbed by the surrounding tribes.

6. South of Mount Carmel, and extending to what was afterward the border
of Benjamin, we find the =Hivites=, having Shechem as their principal
city in the time of Jacob. (Gen. 34:2.) Afterward, they occupied several
towns immediately north of Jerusalem, four of which formed the
"Gibeonite league," and made a treaty of peace with Joshua. (Josh.
9:3-15.) They were a quiet people, averse to war, and submitting readily
to foreign domination.

7. The =Perizzites=, "villagers" are always named in connection with the
Canaanites. From the allusions in Gen. 34:30, Josh. 17:15, and other
places, we locate them between the Hivites and the western Canaanites,
in the northern portion of the Shefelah, or foot-hills, where villages
would more readily cluster than among the mountains. They remained in
the land as late as the time of the restoration from Babylonian
captivity. (Ezra 9:1.)

8. The =Jebusites= lived in the mountains around their city Jebus,
afterward Jerusalem. They were of Canaanitish origin, a small but
warlike tribe. Their king was slain by Joshua; but the city, though
burned by the Israelites (Judges 1:8), was still held by its own people,
and remained in their possession, a foreign fortress in the midst of the
land, until finally taken by David, and made his capital. (2 Sam. 5.)
South of the Jebusites were the southern branch of the Hittites, already
referred to.

9. One more nation of the Canaanite stock remains, perhaps the most
powerful of all, the =Amorites=, or "mountaineers." They occupied,
originally, the wilderness between Hebron and the Dead Sea, having
Hazezon-tamar (afterward En-gedi) as their capital; were smitten by
Chedorlaomer, but aided Abraham in his pursuit and battle. (Gen. 14.)
Afterward they pushed northward, crossed the Jordan, and possessed all
the eastern table-land north of the Dead Sea, dispossessing the
Ammonites of its southern portion, and the Rephaim of its northern. This
great country was the "land of the Amorites" at the time of the
conquest, ruled by two kings, Sihon and Og.

It is probable, that, during the patriarchal era, while Abraham and his
family lived as wanderers in their Land of Promise, the lands east of
the Jordan were occupied by their primeval inhabitants, the Rephaim in
the north, the Zuzim between the Jabbok and the Arnon, and the Emim in
the south.


III. THE NATIONS AT THE TIME OF THE CONQUEST.

What changes may have taken place among the tribes of Western Palestine
during the four centuries while the Israelites were in Egypt, is not
known; but, as the land became more thickly settled, the strifes of the
Canaanite tribes and their roving traits would result in many
alterations of boundary lines. But east of the Jordan the changes may be
more distinctly marked.

1. The =Amorites=, already named, probably conquered the eastern
table-land, north of the Jabbok, during the period of the sojourn
(_i. e._, the stay of the Israelites in Egypt), and dispossessed its
early inhabitants. Many of these, however, remained among the conquerors,
and one of this race, Og, the King of Bashan, ruled over the northern
Amorites when the Israelites entered the land, and was slain by them.

2. Two new tribes, closely related, made their appearance during this
epoch, the =Moabites= and =Ammonites=. They were descended from Lot, the
nephew of Abraham, and their origin is related in Gen. 19. They arose
during the period of the sojourn, and conquered the primitive Emim and
Zuzim (Deut. 2:19-23), probably as far north as the Jabbok. But the
Amorites on the north wrested their conquests from them and drove them
back south of the Arnon, which was thenceforward their northern
boundary. The Moabites were the settled portion of the tribe, dwelling
in cities; while the Ammonites were the predatory, wandering element,
living mostly in the east, and without permanent dwelling places. During
the period of the Judges they were among the oppressors of Israel
(Judges 3 and 10), were defeated by Saul, (1 Sam. 11), and conquered by
David. (2 Sam. 8:2.)


IV. THE SURROUNDING NATIONS.

The principal nations bordering upon the land of Canaan before the
conquest were the following:

1. On the north were the =Hivites=, "that dwelt in Mount Lebanon, from
Mount Baal-hermon unto the entering in of Hamath." (Judges 3:3.) This is
supposed to have been the original home of the race, from which they
journeyed to their seat in Central Palestine. Still further north were
the =Arkites=, the =Sinites=, the =Arvadites= and the =Hamathites=.

2. On the northeast lay the desert, and on the southeast roamed the
=Ammonites=, already mentioned.

3. On the south were several tribes, not all of which can be located
with certainty. In the west, south of the Philistine country, were the
=Amalekites=, a people of unknown origin and predatory habits. South of
Judah were the =Kenites=; and southeast of the Dead Sea, were, in early
times, the Horim (already mentioned), succeeded during the time of the
sojourn by the =Edomites=, a race descended from Esau, who will be
described hereafter. (See explanations to map on page 44.)

With regard to these early inhabitants of Palestine, the following facts
may be noteworthy: 1. In respect to =race=, most of them belonged to the
Hamitic stock; though the origin of the six earliest peoples remains
unknown, and the two latest, the Moabites and Ammonites, were Semites,
and closely related to Israel. 2. As to =language=, they probably spoke
the Hebrew tongue, or one closely allied to it. In Isa. 19:18, the
Hebrew is evidently "the language of Canaan," _i. e._, of the
Canaanites. Whether this language was the one originally spoken by
Abraham's ancestors or not, we have no means of knowing; but it is
possible that it was gained, during the period of the journeyings, from
the Canaanites. 3. In =government=, each village or tribe had its own
ruler, who was called a "_king_"; but his authority was limited by the
"_elders_," a body having influence partly from birth, and partly by
force of character of its members. 4. Their =religion= was widely
different from that of the Hebrews, who, from the age of Abraham,
worshiped one invisible, self-existent, spiritual God. The Canaanites
deified nature under various forms, especially as Baal, the giver of
life, and Ashtoreth (Greek, Astarte), the corresponding female divinity.
Their rites of worship were abominable, cruel and licentious. They
sacrificed not only captured enemies, but their own children, to their
idols, and performed acts of the grossest wickedness at their idolatrous
service. 5. Their =history= is unwritten, save in its tragical close,
the conquest of their land by the Israelites under Joshua, and the
annihilation of many of their races. Still, many lived as a separate
people through all Jewish history; and some of the best scholars are of
opinion that the native population of Palestine at the present time
mainly belongs to this old Canaanite stock.


OUTLINE FOR REVIEW.

I. _Earliest Inhabitants._ Rephaim, Zuzim, Emim, Horim, Avim, Anakim.

II. _Tribes of the Patriarchal Era._ 1. Maritime Plain: Zidonians,
Canaanites, Philistines. 2. Mountain Region: Hittites (north),
Girgashites, Hivites, Perizzites, Jebusites, Hittites (south), Amorites.
3. Jordan Valley: Canaanites. 4. Eastern Table-Land: Rephaim, Zuzim,
Emim.

III. _Nations at the Time of the Conquest._ East of Jordan: Amorites,
Moabites, Ammonites.

IV. _Surrounding Nations._ 1. North: Hivites, Arkites, Sinites,
Arvadites, Hamathites. 2. Southeast: Ammonites. 3. South: Amalekites,
Kenites, Edomites.



LANDS OF THE SOJOURN AND WANDERING.


THE LAND OF EGYPT.

I. =Names.= The present name, "Egypt," was given by the Greeks, and was
never used by the inhabitants in ancient times. On the monuments it is
generally called KEM. In the Old Testament the most frequent name is
"Mizraim," in plural form. The poetical books of the Bible contain the
name "Rahab," "the proud, or insolent," and "Land of Ham."

[Illustration: AN EGYPTIAN TEMPLE.]

II. =Boundaries and Dimensions.= On the north, Egypt is bounded by the
Mediterranean Sea; on the east, by Palestine, the Arabian Desert, and
the Red Sea; on the south, by Nubia; and on the west, by the great
African Desert. Its limits have been the same in nearly all ages. In a
geographical sense, it embraces 115,000 square miles; but of this more
than nine-tenths consists of uninhabitable deserts. The true Egypt, the
home of its people, is simply the Valley of the Nile and the space
between its mouths, an area of 9,600 square miles, a little larger than
the State of New Hampshire. Deducting from this the area covered by the
Nile and its branches, the land of Egypt which may be occupied or
cultivated includes about 5,600 square miles, or less than the united
area of Connecticut and Rhode Island.

III. =Divisions.= There have always been two Egypts, Northern and
Southern. Northern or Lower Egypt comprises the Delta of the Nile,
triangular in shape, a plain between the eastern or Pelusiac branch of
the Nile and its western or Canopic branch. This is a vast garden, with
soil the richest in the Old World, and the grain field of the Roman
empire. Southeast of the Pelusiac branch lay the Land of Goshen (now
_Esh Shurkiyeh_), the home of the Israelites during the Sojourn.
Southern or Upper Egypt is a narrow valley, winding with the course of
the Nile, varying in width from two to ten miles; a strip of fertile
soil between two barren hills, beyond which the desert lies on either
side. The two sections were always regarded as separate, and each was
represented in the double crown worn by the kings. There was another
division, made in very early times, into _nomes_, or provinces, each
having its own ruler, and its own object of worship. Of these nomes
there were from 36 to 50 at different times.

IV. =The Nile.= This has been in every age the most important feature in
the topography of the country, and the cause of its surpassing
fertility. Its sources, long unknown, are in the great lakes of Central
Africa, whence it flows in a northerly direction. The main stream,
called the White Nile, receives in Nubia its principal tributary, the
Blue Nile, which rises in Abyssinia. During the last 1,500 miles of its
course it is not increased by any other stream, and flows through a
torrid desert. Yet, as it enters the Mediterranean, its current is still
that of a mighty river. Its mouths are at present three in number,
though formerly seven; and, from their resemblance on the map to the
Greek letter [Greek: D], that portion of Egypt is called the Delta. Its
annual overflow begins, in Lower Egypt, about the 25th of June, attains
its height in three months, and remains stationary twelve days, at a
height of about 36 feet above its ordinary level at Thebes, 25 feet at
Cairo, and 4 feet at its mouth. This overflow is due to the rains in
Central Africa, and as it brings down new soil, keeps the land always
fertile. But for the Nile, Egypt would only be a part of the Great
Desert.

V. =The People of Egypt= were of the Hamitic stock, a race of high
capacity, forming the earliest civilization known in history. They were
religious, but worshiping animals, and even the lowest forms of life;
contemplative and studious, attaining to considerable knowledge, though
on narrow lines of research; patriotic, but not fond of war, and
therefore rarely conquerors of other nations. Their language was
"agglutinative monosyllabic," with mingled Nigritic and Semitic
characteristics. Their government was most thoroughly organized, and
took cognizance of even the minute matters of life. Their art was
massive and sombre, imposing from its vastness, but not varied, and
therefore giving but little play to genius. The Egyptians were slender
of frame, but strong. Their faces were oval and olive-colored; their
hair long, crisp and jet-black. They are supposed to be represented at
the present time by the Copts.

[Illustration: AREA OF EGYPT.]

[Illustration: THE KINGDOM OF EGYPT AT ITS GREATEST EXTENT UNDER RAMESES
II.]

VI. =The History of Egypt= begins at a time undated, but long after the
flood. It is divided into three periods, those of the Old, Middle, and
New Empires. The Old Empire was founded by Menes, and had its capital at
Memphis. During the fourth dynasty of this period the Pyramids were
built. The Middle Empire arose at Thebes, and lasted until 1570 B.C. The
Twelfth dynasty was most powerful during this epoch, conquering Ethiopia
and Arabia. About 2000 B.C. the land was conquered by foreign princes,
who ruled 400 years, and were known as the Hyksos, or Shepherd Kings.
The New Empire arose in 1570 B.C., after the expulsion of the Hyksos,
and lasted for a thousand years. Its greatest monarch was Rameses II.,
who has been supposed to be the "Pharaoh of the Oppression" (not of the
Exodus), and ruled as far east as Chaldea and Assyria. The above dates
are all uncertain. Concerning the chronology, see page 13. The land was
conquered by the Persians, B.C. 527, and annexed to the Persian empire.

VII. The principal =Places= were, in Lower Egypt, Memphis, the ancient
capital; Heliopolis, called in the Bible On, near the eastern branch of
the Delta; Rameses, in the Land of Goshen; Pelusium, at the eastern
mouth of the Nile; and Alexandria, in later history the metropolis of
Egypt, near the Canopic mouth of the Nile. In Upper Egypt, Thebes was
the most important place, and long the capital.


OUTLINE FOR REVIEW.

1. _Names._ Egypt, Kem, Mizraim, Rahab, Land of Ham.

2. _Boundaries and Dimensions._ North (Mediterranean Sea); East
(Palestine, Arabia, Red Sea); South (Nubia); West (African Desert).
Area, 115,000 square miles. Inhabitable, 9,600 square miles. Land, 5,600
square miles.

3. _Divisions._ Lower (Delta); Upper (Valley).

4. _Nile._ White Nile, Blue Nile; Sources; Delta; Overflow.

5. _People._ Hamitic Origin; Civilization; Language; Art; Physical
Traits.

6. _History._ Old Empire (Memphis, Pyramids); Middle Empire (Thebes,
Dynasty XII., Hyksos); New Empire (Rameses II., Persians).


THE WILDERNESS OF THE WANDERING.

I. =Situation.= This region lies between Egypt and Edom, a great
triangle, having for its three points the border of _Lake Menzaleh_, the
southern extremity of the Dead Sea, and _Ras Mohammed_, the southern end
of the peninsula. Its northern boundary is the Mediterranean Sea, the
land of the Philistines, and the _Negeb_, or South Country. Its
southeastern line is the depression of the _Arabah_, and the Gulf of
Akaba, or Ælanitic Gulf. Its southwestern line is the Isthmus of Suez
and the Gulf of Suez. From Egypt, in a line due east, to the Dead Sea,
is about 200 miles; from the Mediterranean, at the _Wady el Arish_ ("the
River of Egypt"), to Ras Mohammed, a line a little east of south, is
about 225 miles, thus making the entire area of the triangle about
22,500 square miles, or less than the aggregate area of New Hampshire,
Vermont and Massachusetts, though larger than any two of those States.

[Illustration: RÂS ES SUFSAFEH (MOUNT SINAI).]

II. =Natural Features.= This region has two general divisions, and three
others closely connected with them. 1. The Table-Land. 2. The Sinaitic
Mountains. 3. The narrow plain by the western arm of the Red Sea. 4. The
Arabah, or valley between the Ælanitic Gulf and the Dead Sea. 5. The
Negeb, or South Country.

1. The northern and central portion of the triangle is a sterile
table-land of limestone, from 2,000 to 2,500 feet high, and consisting
of rolling plains with a gravelly surface; with few springs, and these
mostly of impure water; and watered only by the streams of the _Wady el
Arish_ ("the River of Egypt"), a torrent which is dry during most of the
year.

This was the Wilderness of Paran, "the great and terrible wilderness"
(Deut. 1:19) in which the Israelites wandered for 38 years. It is now
called _et Tih_, "the wandering," and is traversed from east to west by
two caravan routes, marked by the bleached bones of camels that have
perished by the way. On the north it slopes away to a plain of white
sand reaching to the Mediterranean, which was generally called the
Wilderness of Shur. On the other three sides it is bounded by a chain of
mountains, 4,000 feet high, called _Jebel et Tih_. It was in this
wilderness country that the children of Israel were doomed to wander
until all the generation that came out of Egypt died, except Caleb and
Joshua. Even Moses was not permitted to more than see the Promised Land
from the top of Pisgah.

2. Beyond the desert, and separated from it by the chain of mountains
above named, and also by a narrow strip of sand south of the mountains,
is the group of the Sinaitic Mountains. This group is triangular in
form, and consists of ranges radiating from a centre. The names Horeb
and Sinai seem to have been used interchangeably, though some consider
the former the name of the group, and Sinai a single peak. There has
been much discussion as to which is the "Mountain of the Law," from
which the Ten Commandments were given. Three peaks have been most
prominently presented by different explorers. _Jebel Musa_, "the
Mountain of Moses," which is supported by local tradition, and by the
authority of Ritter, Kurtz, Keil and Kalisch; _Jebel Serbal_, claimed by
Lepsius; and _Râs es Sufsafeh_, supported by Robinson, Dean Stanley, and
the most of recent travelers. This is a granite cliff standing above the
plain so boldly that one may walk up and lay a hand upon its wall, which
rises 1,500 feet above the plain, and 6,500 feet above the sea. The
plain in front of it is called _er Rahah_, and is 2,300 yards long and
900 yards wide, sufficiently large for the presence of all the
Israelites before the mount, without including another plain on the
northeast, branching from _er Rahah_, and called _Wady esh Sheikh_. It
is situated in a vast and dreary desert, occupied for the most part by
hordes of Arabs, who subsist by plunder, and render the journey to Sinai
impossible except to large and well defended caravans.

3. Between the mountains and the western arm of the Red Sea lies a
narrow plain, following the line of the coast. On the northwestern
section it was called the Wilderness of Etham; opposite the Sinaitic
group of mountains, the Wilderness of Sin. This lower portion is now
called _el Kaa_.

[Illustration: LANDS OF THE SOJOURN AND WANDERING.

VICINITY OF MOUNT SINAI.]

4. From the head of the Gulf of Akaba (Ælanitic Gulf) a gorge extends
nearly northward to the Dead Sea, an extension of the Jordan Valley, the
Arabah, called in the history the Wilderness of Zin. It lies between the
mountain chain on the east of the Wilderness of Paran (_et Tih_) and
Mount Seir, the home of the Edomites. The opinion held by many early
writers, that the Jordan once flowed through this depression into the
Red Sea, may be correct as regards a past geologic period, but not as an
historical fact; for it is evident that no great change has taken place
in this region within the limit of historical time. Opposite the
traditional Mount Hor the bed of the valley is about 500 feet above the
sea-level; and from this point it slopes northward to the Dead Sea,
1,300 feet below the sea-level, and southward to the Gulf of Akaba.

5. The Negeb, or South Country, has already been described. (See p. 32.)
The southern section of this region belongs to the Wilderness of the
Wandering, from Mount Halak northward.

III. =Inhabitants.= The only inhabitants of this region at the time of
the Israelite Wandering were the Amalekites, who roamed throughout the
desert of Paran. Their origin is uncertain; and they may have belonged
to the same stock with the earliest inhabitants of Canaan, as they were
a distinct tribe in the times of Abraham. (Gen. 14.) They were the
bitter enemies of Israel during all the period of the Wandering,
attacking their rear, and destroying detached companies of them on their
march. (Deut. 25:18.) The only pitched battle with them took place at
Rephidim, near Mount Sinai, when they were defeated by Israel; but they
attacked the Israelites again at Hormah, and inflicted serious injury.
Long afterward their power was broken by Saul (1 Sam. 15), and their
destruction was completed by David. (1 Sam. 27 and 30.)


OUTLINE FOR REVIEW.

I. _Situation._ Triangle (Menzaleh, Dead Sea, Ras Mohammed). Boundaries.
North (Mediterranean Sea, Philistines, Negeb); Southeast (Arabah,
Akaba); Southwest (Isthmus and Gulf of Suez). 200 miles east and west;
225 north and south.

II. _Natural Features._ Table-Land (Paran, Shur); Sinaitic Mountains
(Horeb and Sinai); Plain (Etham, Sin); Arabah (Zin); Negeb (Mount
Halak).

III. _Inhabitants._ Amalekites (Rephidim, Hormah).


THE LAND OF EDOM.

I. =Boundaries.= The country of Edom, or of the Edomites, lay south of
that of the Moabites, the boundary between them being the brook Zered
(_Wady el Ahsy_), which flows into the southern lagoon of the Dead Sea.
On the east it extended to the great Arabian desert, in that section
supposed to be the "land of the Temanites." On the south its border was
the country of the Midianites, and the head of the Gulf of Akaba. The
western boundary was the Arabah, or sunken ravine running northward
between the Red Sea and the Dead Sea. There is, however, an opinion
gaining ground, that "the field of Edom" extended somewhat to the west
of the Arabah, and south of Palestine.

II. =Names.= The earliest name of this country, and one often used
throughout Bible history, was Mount Seir, "the rugged," from its rough,
mountainous nature. This was the name of its earliest inhabitants, "the
sons of Seir the Horite." (Gen. 36:20.) Afterward it was possessed by
the descendants of Esau, and called Edom, "red," from the "red pottage"
for which Esau sold his birthright. Probably the red color of its
sandstone mountains also aided to fix the name. In the New Testament
time the word received a Greek form, and became Idumea. Josephus called
it Geballene, "mountainous." At present it is divided into two sections,
each having a different name; north of Petra being called _Jebal_, and
south, _esh Sherah_.

III. =Natural Features.= Edom is emphatically a land of mountains. On
the west, along the side of the Arabah, is a line of low limestone
hills. Back of these rise higher, igneous rocks, surmounted by
variegated sandstone, of peculiar color, 2,000 feet high. The eastern
side of the mountains slopes gently away into the Arabian desert. But,
though rough, the land is rich, and the terraced hill-sides have in all
ages been bright with vegetation, and its people have been prosperous.
So the blessing of Esau (Gen. 27:39, 40) has been fulfilled in a land of
"the fatness of the earth, and of the dew of heaven." Its capital during
the Old Testament period was Bozrah (now _Busireh_), near its northern
border. Afterward, Sela, the _Petra_ of remarkable rock-hewn buildings,
arose to prominence. Ezion-geber, at the head of the Gulf of Akaba, was
its seaport.

IV. =History.= Mount Seir was first settled by the Horites, or Horim,
like the inhabitants of Palestine a people of unknown origin. During the
later patriarchal age it was conquered and possessed by Esau, the
brother of Jacob, and ever after occupied by his descendants, the
Edomites. The refusal of this people to allow the Israelites to journey
through their territory compelled them to make a long detour around Edom
on the south and east, and enter Palestine by the land of the Moabites.
During the period of the Judges the Edomites are not mentioned; but they
were beaten by Saul, and thoroughly conquered by David, after a severe
struggle. At the division of the kingdom, B.C. 935, Edom was held by
Judah. Its people rebelled in the time of Jehoram, the son of
Jehoshaphat, and, although defeated by Judah, were able to maintain
their independence. They joined the Chaldeans under Nebuchadnezzar in
the destruction of Jerusalem, for which the later prophecies and psalms
gave them bitter denunciations. About the time of the captivity, B.C.
587-536, the Edomites gained possession of most of the country south of
Judah, extending even to the confines of Egypt. But they lost their own
land, Mount Seir, which became the possession of the Nabatheans. These
were a race, perhaps allied to the Arabians, who laid aside their nomad
habits, and founded a kingdom, whose people grew rich by the caravan
trade. The Edomites, or Idumeans, south of Palestine, were conquered by
the Maccabean princes and incorporated with the Jews, B.C. 130, and the
Nabathean kingdom was annexed to the Roman empire, A.D. 105.

V. =Peculiarities.= The Edomites, though descended from the stock of
Abraham, adopted the idolatry of the Canaanites, with whom they had
intermarried. But their most remarkable feature, as a nation, was that
of dwelling in caves. The mountains of Idumea are of soft sandstone,
easily wrought, and are penetrated with caves and grottoes, which were
used, not like those of other nations, for burial places, but for
residence. The rock-hewn temples, palaces and homes of Petra, so well
known to travelers, are magnificent in appearance. The custom probably
arose from the fear of robbers, and from the ease with which the caves
could be excavated in the sandstone rock.


OUTLINE FOR REVIEW.

1. _Boundaries._ Moab; Desert: Midianites; Arabah.

2. _Names._ Seir, Edom, Idumea, Geballene, Jebal and esh Sherah.

3. _Natural Features._ Mountains; Soil; Capitals (Bozrah, Petra).

4. _History._ Horites; Esau; Edomites; Israelite Supremacy; Chaldeans;
Nabatheans; Maccabeans; Romans.

5. _Peculiarities._ Religion; Rock Houses.


THE WANDERING IN THE WILDERNESS.

There are great difficulties in fixing the location of the places and
the order of events in the history of the forty years which intervened
between the exodus, or "going out," from Egypt, and the entrance into
the Promised Land (B.C. 1250-1210). These difficulties arise from
various causes: the antiquity of the events, the fragmentary character
of the history, the extent of the country, our scanty knowledge of the
region, and especially the changes which have taken place in the
sea-coast during the 3,000 years past. While the general course of the
journey can be easily defined, the particular localities are, in many
instances, exceedingly uncertain. For the convenience of the student, we
divide the entire journey from Egypt to Canaan into sections.

I. =From Rameses to the Red Sea.= (Exod. 12-14; Num. 33:5-8.) The
sojourn of the Israelites was passed in the Land of Goshen, between the
Nile and the Isthmus of Suez. The court of the reigning Pharaoh during
the time while Moses was negotiating for the departure of the
Israelites, was at Zoan, or Tanis (Psa. 78:12), the royal city of the
Delta. Rameses, the place of meeting for the Israelites, was probably a
district rather than a city (Gen. 47:8), but may have been at _Abu
Kesheib_. Pithom (Exod. 1:11) has been discovered at _Tell Maskutor_,
ten miles west of Lake Timsah. Succoth, "booths" or "tents," was
probably not a city but a camp, and its location is unknown. Etham,
"wall" (Exod. 13:20), may indicate a place near the great wall which
extended across the isthmus. Pi-hahiroth may be at _Agrud_, near Suez.
Baal-zephon may be the mountain _Jebel Alaka_. The Israelites crossed
the sea at the narrow Strait of Suez, where the distance from shore to
shore is about two-thirds of a mile. At that time the gulf probably
extended several miles north of its present position. The northeast wind
drove out the waters, leaving a path across the gulf, with pools on
either side, as a "wall" or defense to the crossing Israelites.

II. =From the Red Sea to Mount Sinai.= (Exod. 15-19; Num. 33:8-15.) The
general direction can be traced with certainty, but the precise places
of encampment are only conjectural. It is probable that so vast a body
of people, about two millions, must have occupied a large extent of
territory, and the "stations" were the various headquarters of the camp.
This section of the journey was mostly spent in the two narrow plains
along the coast, the Wilderness (or desert) of Etham, and that of Sin.
At Marah (_Ain Hawârah_) the bitter waters were healed; at Elim (_Wady
Ghurundel_) they were refreshed by the "twelve wells and three-score and
ten palm trees." At the next station, No. 9, "the encampment at the Red
Sea," they saw for the last time the waters of the western gulf, and the
land of Egypt beyond them. Here they turned eastward, and, passing the
mountain barrier, entered the Wilderness of Sin. (This is to be
distinguished from the Wilderness of Zin, or the Arabah, on the eastern
side of the peninsula.) In this wild and barren country, food failed
them, and the manna began to be supplied (Exod. 16), to last for forty
years. Their general course was now eastward, through the _wadies_, or
dry beds of winter torrents. At Rephidim (station 13) two events are
recorded as occurring. The want of water led to a miraculous supply from
the smitten rock (Exod. 17:2-7); and the Israelites fought the first
battle in their history, with the wandering Amalekites, who attacked the
rear of the scattered host. Under Joshua, who here appears for the first
time, they were defeated, and devoted to complete destruction. (Exod.
17:8-16; Deut. 25:18.) The next station was Mount Sinai, in front of
which they encamped, probably on the plain _er Rahah_. Their journey
thus far had occupied two months and a half, and here they remained for
a year. The principal events at Mount Sinai were: 1. The giving of the
law. (Exod. 19-31.) 2. The worship of the golden calf, and its
punishment. (Exod. 32.) 3. The building and consecration of the
Tabernacle. (Exod. 35-40.) 4. The numbering and organization of the
people. (Num. 1-2.)

III. =From Mount Sinai to Kadesh-barnea.= After a year spent at and
around Mount Sinai, the camp was taken up, and the host, led by the Ark
of the Covenant, entered once more upon its march. The direction of the
journey was northeast, and the route was probably through the _Wady
Saal_. At Taberah (station 15), the "fire of the Lord" consumed some on
the verge of the camp who murmured against God's commands. (Num.
11:1-3.) At Kibroth-hattaavah (station 16), (perhaps the same place with
the preceding), a dislike of the manna and a lust for flesh-meat seized
the crowd of people, and for a month they fed upon quails, but were
punished by a plague, which destroyed multitudes, and gave a name to the
place, "the graves of lust." (Num. 11:4-35.) At Hazeroth (probably _Ain
Hudherah_), Miriam instigated Aaron to a rebellion against Moses, but
was smitten with leprosy, though healed at the prayer of Moses. (Num.
12:1-16.) The Israelites followed the mountain chain by the Red Sea,
keeping upon the western side of the hills, and, passing through the
edge of the Wilderness of Paran and along the Arabah, followed up the
line of the "Mount of the Amorites" (which appears to have been a
general name for the mountains in the southern portion of the Negeb, or
South Country), until they came to Kadesh-barnea. The location of this
place is the great difficulty in the geography of the period. The name
appears to be used with reference to a region, and more definitely
referring to a place. Three localities have been claimed, all on the
border of the "Mount of the Amorites," or the South Country. The most
southerly location is that now known as _Ain esh Shehabeh_, on the _Wady
Jerafeh_; the most westerly, at _Ain Gadis_, or _Quadis_, directly south
of the land of Judah; the one farthest to the north and east, at _Ain el
Weibeh_, in the edge of the Arabah, south of the Dead Sea. The latter
has been regarded by most explorers since Dr. Robinson, as the correct
site, and as it appears on the older maps. But the Rev. J. Rowlands, on
a journey through the entire region, identified _Ain Quadis_ as the true
Kadesh-barnea, and his conclusion was confirmed by Dr. H. C. Trumbull
after a thorough investigation of all the three places. It is now
accepted by most writers. We have therefore regarded _Ain Quadis_ as
Kadesh-barnea, and have made it the center of Israelite journeying
during the thirty-eight years of the wandering. The change in the
location of Kadesh-barnea may necessitate a change in the location of
Mount Hor, which Trumbull places at _Jebel Maderah_, but we have
retained the old locality on the edge of Edom. Twice the Israelites were
encamped at Kadesh, which marked the beginning and end of the
thirty-eight years' wandering in the Wilderness of Paran. From Kadesh
the twelve spies were sent northward into the Land of Canaan, and the
adverse report of ten of them caused such terror and rebellion in the
host, that God declared that they should not enter the Promised Land
until all that generation should have passed away. (Num. 13, 14.) They
were ordered to turn back into the wilderness, but disobeyed, and,
against their leaders' advice, undertook to force a passage to Canaan,
probably up the pass _es Sufa_. But the inhabitants of the mountains
(Amorites, Canaanites, and Amalekites in alliance) attacked them to
their utter defeat at Hormah, and effectually barred their entrance to
the land through the South Country, as the warlike Philistines had
closed it against them by the way of the plain by the sea. (Exod.
13:17.) Discouraged and despairing, the host of Israel again turned
their faces once more toward the terrible Wilderness of Paran.

IV., V., VI. =From Kadesh-barnea to Mount Hor, Ezion-geber, and Return.=
The period of the next thirty-eight years remains in shadow. Scarcely an
event is named which certainly belongs to this division, the longest by
far in the journey. In the history at Num. 14:45, there is a break in
the record, and other topics are referred to until we find the people at
Kadesh once more, at the end of the 38 years, in chapter 20; and the
list of stations in Num. 33:18-36, is only a barren catalogue of 18
places, in which not one is clearly recognized, and only two or three
can be even guessed at. Some have thought that the entire period was
spent in the Arabah, wandering up and down, as two of the stations
plainly belong there. But it is more probable that the people wandered
over the borders between the Negeb (South Country) and the Wilderness of
Paran. For convenience we may subdivide this period of wandering into
its three journeys. From Kadesh, through 12 unknown stations, to
Moseroth, which is afterward named in the account of Aaron's death
(Deut. 10:6), showing that it was near Mount Hor. This is indicated on
the Map as Journey IV. Journey V. was from Mount Hor down the Arabah
southward to Ezion-geber, at the head of the Ælanitic Gulf. Journey VI.
was once more through the Arabah, northward to Kadesh-barnea, completing
the period of the punishment for the rebellion of 38 years before. Here
three events took place. 1. The rock was smitten by Moses, when God had
bidden him speak to it, in order to bring forth water; and, as a
penalty, he was not permitted to enter Canaan. (Num. 20:1-13.) 2. The
Israelites asked of the Edomites (on whose western border they were
encamped at Kadesh), the privilege of crossing their territory on their
journey to Canaan, but their request was denied. 3. Soon after this, the
king of the Canaanite city of Arad, in the Negeb, or South Country, 20
miles south of Hebron, hearing of Israel's approach by the same route as
that of the spies, 38 years before, went out to meet the invading host.
He was repulsed near the same place where Israel had suffered a defeat
before, and which was thenceforth called Hormah, "destruction." (Num.
21:1-3.)

  +-------------+---------------------------------------+-------------+
  |             |                  NORTH.               |             |
  |    WEST.    |+-----------++-----------++-----------+|    EAST.    |
  |             ||    DAN,   ||    ASHER, || NAPHTALI, ||             |
  |+-----------+||  62,700.  ||   41,500. ||  53,400.  ||+-----------+|
  || BENJAMIN, ||+-----------++-----------++-----------+||   JUDAH,  ||
  ||  35,400.  ||               CAMP OF DAN.            ||   74,600. ||
  |+-----------++---------------------------------------++-----------+|
  |             |  +---+     TRIBE OF LEVI.             |             |
  |+-----------+|  | G |  +--------------+  +---------+ |+-----------+|
  || MANASSEH, ||  | E |  |   MERARITES  |  |         | || ISSACHAR, ||
  ||  32,200.  ||  | R |  +--------------+  |         | ||  54,400.  ||
  |+-----------+|  | S |  +--------------+  |  AARON  | |+-----------+|
  |             |  | H |  |  TABERNACLE  |  |         | |             |
  |+-----------+|  | O |  +--------------+  |  MOSES  | |+-----------+|
  || EPHRAIM,  ||  | N |  +--------------+  |         | || ZEBULON,  ||
  ||  40,500.  ||  | I |  |  KOHATHITES  |  | Priests | ||  57,400.  ||
  |+-----------+|  | T |  +--------------+  |         | |+-----------+|
  |             |  | E |    TRIBE OF LEVI.  |         | |             |
  |  CAMP OF    |  | S |                    +---------+ |  CAMP OF    |
  |             |  +---+                                |             |
  |  EPHRAIM.   +---------------------------------------+   JUDAH.    |
  |             |            CAMP OF REUBEN.            |             |
  |             |+-----------++-----------++-----------+|             |
  |             ||    GAD,   ||   SIMEON, ||  REUBEN,  ||             |
  |             ||  45,650.  ||   59,300. ||  46,500.  ||             |
  |             |+-----------++-----------++-----------++             |
  |             |                SOUTH.                 |             |
  +-------------+---------------------------------------+-------------+

[Illustration: CAMP OF ISRAEL.]

VII., VIII. =From Kadesh-barnea to Elath and Jordan.= The Israelites
were now ready to enter their Land of Promise. But, as the entrance by
the south was found impracticable, and the Edomites would not permit
them to cross their mountains, a long detour became necessary; so for a
third time they took their journey through the Arabah. This we have
indicated on the map as No. VII. They paused before Mount Hor, while
Aaron left them, to ascend the mountain and to die. The peak still bears
his name, _Jebel Haroun_. So according to most travelers; but Trumbull
locates Mount Hor in the Negeb. At Ezion-geber and Elath (stations 43
and 44), they saw once more the Red Sea, at its eastern arm. On this
journey, too, but whether before or after passing the Red Sea, is
uncertain, they were plagued by serpents, and "the brazen serpent" was
lifted up by Moses. (Num. 21:4-9.) At last the southern point of Mount
Seir was reached and passed, and now for the last time (Journey VIII.)
the Israelites turned their faces northward. They traveled through the
land of Teman, between Edom and the Arabian desert. At the brook Zered
(_Wady el Ahsy_), station 49, they entered the land of Moab, which they
crossed in safety (Num. 21:11); and at the brook Arnon they came into
the country of Sihon, the king of the Amorites, who came against them,
and was defeated and slain at Jahaz. (Num. 21:12-31.) The Amorites of
Bashan on the north were ruled by the giant Og, a descendant of the
ancient Rephaim. (See page 37.) His land was conquered and himself slain
in a decisive battle at Edrei. From the heights of Abarim (station 57)
they descended to the Jordan Valley, and encamped at their last station
(No. 58) before entering the Land of Promise, on the eastern bank of the
Jordan, opposite Jericho. Here occurred: 1. The episode of Balaam's
prophecy. (Num. 22-24.) 2. The iniquity of Israel with the women of
Moab, and the plague on the people as a result. (Num. 25:1-18.) 3. The
numbering of Israel. (Num. 26.) 4. The campaigns against the Moabites
and Midianites. (Num. 31.) 5. The allotment to the tribes of Reuben and
Gad, and half the tribe of Manasseh. (Num. 32.) 6. The repetition of the
law and the recapitulation of the journeys, in the book of Deuteronomy.
7. Last of all, the ascent of Moses up the height of Nebo, his prophetic
view of the Promised Land, and his lonely death. (Deut. 34.)

[Illustration: KADESH-BARNEA AND VICINITY.

(According to DR. TRUMBULL.)]


STATIONS OF THE ISRAELITES DURING THEIR JOURNEY FROM EGYPT TO CANAAN.

I. FROM RAMESES TO THE RED SEA.

  +============================+=================+======+======+======+
  |   STATION.                 |IDENTIFICATION.  |EXOD. | NUM. |DEUT. |
  +----------------------------+-----------------+------+------+------+
  |1. Rameses                  |Abu Kesheib      |12:37 |33: 3 |      |
  |2. Succoth                  |Unknown          |12:37 |33: 5 |      |
  |3. Etham                    |Unknown          |13:20 |33: 6 |      |
  |4. Pi-hahiroth              |Bir Suweis       |14: 2 |33: 7 |      |
  |5. Red Sea                  |                 |14:22 |33: 8 |      |
  +----------------------------+-----------------+------+------+------+


II. FROM THE RED SEA TO MOUNT SINAI.

  +============================+=================+======+======+======+
  |   STATION.                 |IDENTIFICATION.  |EXOD. | NUM. |DEUT. |
  +----------------------------+-----------------+------+------+------+
  |6. Desert of Shur,          |Shore of Red Sea |15:22 |33: 8 |      |
  |     or of Etham            |                 |      |      |      |
  |7. Marah                    |Ain Hawârah      |15:23 |33: 8 |      |
  |8. Elim                     |Wady Ghurundel   |15:27 |33: 9 |      |
  |9. Red Sea                  |Wady Taiyibeh    |      |33:10 |      |
  |10. Desert of Sin           |El Murkîyeh(?)   |16: 1 |33:11 |      |
  |11. Dophkah                 |Ain Markhâ(?)    |      |33:12 |      |
  |12. Alush                   |Uncertain        |      |33:13 |      |
  |13. Rephidim                |Wady Feiran      |17: 1 |33:14 |      |
  |14. Sinai                   |Plain er Râhah   |19: 1 |33:15 |      |
  +----------------------------+-----------------+------+------+------+


III. FROM MOUNT SINAI TO KADESH-BARNEA.

  +=============================+=================+======+======+======+
  |   STATION.                  |IDENTIFICATION.  |NUM.  | NUM. |DEUT. |
  +-----------------------------+-----------------+------+------+------+
  |15. Taberah                  |Wady Sâal(?)     |11: 3 |      | 9:22 |
  |16. Kibroth-hattaavah        |Erweis el Ebeirig|11:34 |33:16 |      |
  |17. Hazeroth                 |Ain Hudherah     |11:35 |33:17 |      |
  |18. Mount of the Amorites    |Jebel Magrah(?)  |      |      | 1:19 |
  |19. Kadesh-barnea            |Ain el Weibeh(?) |13:26 |      | 1:19 |
  +-----------------------------+-----------------+------+------+------+


IV. FROM KADESH-BARNEA TO MOUNT HOR.

  +=============================+================+======+======+======+
  |   STATION.                  |IDENTIFICATION. |NUM.  | NUM. |DEUT. |
  +-----------------------------+----------------+------+------+------+
  |20. Rithmah                  |Uncertain       |      |33:18 |      |
  |21. Rimmon-parez             |Uncertain       |      |33:19 |      |
  |22. Libnah                   |Uncertain       |      |33:20 |      |
  |23. Rissah                   |Uncertain       |      |33:21 |      |
  |24. Kehelathah               |Uncertain       |      |33:22 |      |
  |25. Mount Shapher            |Jebel Araif(?)  |      |33:23 |      |
  |26. Haradah                  |Uncertain       |      |33:24 |      |
  |27. Makheloth                |Uncertain       |      |33:25 |      |
  |28. Tahath                   |Uncertain       |      |33:26 |      |
  |29. Tarah                    |Uncertain       |      |33:27 |      |
  |30. Mithcah                  |Uncertain       |      |33:28 |      |
  |31. Hashmonah                |Uncertain       |      |33:29 |      |
  |32. Moseroth                 |Mount Hor       |      |33:30 |      |
  +-----------------------------+----------------+------+------+------+


V. FROM MOUNT HOR TO EZION-GEBER.

  +=============================+================+======+======+======+
  |   STATION.                  |IDENTIFICATION. |NUM.  | NUM. |DEUT. |
  +-----------------------------+----------------+------+------+------+
  |33. Bene-jaakan              |Arabah          |      |33:31 |      |
  |34. Hor-hagidgad             |Wady Ghudhaghidh|      |33:32 |      |
  |35. Jotbathah                |Emshâsh(?)      |      |33:33 |      |
  |36. Ebronah                  |Uncertain       |      |33:34 |      |
  |37. Ezion-geber              |Gulf of Akabah  |      |33:35 |      |
  +-----------------------------+----------------+------+------+------+


VI. FROM EZION-GEBER TO KADESH-BARNEA.

  +=============================+================+======+======+======+
  |        STATION.             |IDENTIFICATION. | NUM. | NUM. |DEUT. |
  +-----------------------------+----------------+------+------+------+
  |38. Kadesh-barnea            |Ain Quadis      |20: 1 |33:36 |      |
  +-----------------------------+----------------+------+------+------+


VII. FROM KADESH-BARNEA TO ELATH.

  +=============================+================+======+======+======+
  |    STATION.                 |IDENTIFICATION. |NUM.  | NUM. |DEUT. |
  +-----------------------------+----------------+------+------+------+
  |39. Bene-jaakan              |Arabah          |      |      |10: 6 |
  |40. Mosera                   |Mount Hor       |20:22 |33:37 |10: 6 |
  |41. Gudgodah                 |Wady Ghudhaghidh|      |      |10: 7 |
  |42. Jotbath                  |Uncertain       |      |      |10: 7 |
  |43. Ezion-geber              |Gulf of Akaba   |21: 4 |      | 2: 8 |
  |44. Elath                    |Akabah          |      |      | 2: 8 |
  +-----------------------------+----------------+------+------+------+


VIII. FROM ELATH TO JORDAN.

  +=============================+================+======+======+======+
  |        STATION.             |IDENTIFICATION. | NUM. | NUM. |DEUT. |
  +-----------------------------+----------------+------+------+------+
  |45. Zalmonah                 |Wady Amran(?)   |      |33:41 |      |
  |46. Punon                    |Uncertain       |      |33:42 |      |
  |47. Oboth                    |Uncertain       |21:10 |33:43 |      |
  |48. Ije-abarim               |Uncertain       |21:11 |33:44 |      |
  |49. Zered                    |Wady el Ahsy    |21:12 |      |10:13 |
  |50. Arnon                    |Wady Môjeb      |21:13 |      |10:24 |
  |51. Dibon-gad                |Dhibân          |      |33:45 |      |
  |52. Almon-diblathaim         |Uncertain       |      |33:46 |      |
  |53. Beer                     |Uncertain       |21:16 |      |      |
  |54. Mattanah                 |Uncertain       |21:18 |      |      |
  |55. Nahaliel                 |Uncertain       |21:19 |      |      |
  |56. Bamoth                   |Uncertain       |21:19 |      |      |
  |57. Abarim, Nebo, or Pisgah  |Jebel Neba      |21:20 |33:47 |      |
  |58. Plains of Moab, or Jordan|Ghôr en Nimrîn  |22: 1 |33:48 |      |
  +=============================+================+======+======+======+

[Illustration: GARDEN OF GETHSEMANE.]

[Illustration: Beth-horon and Vicinity.

CONQUEST OF CANAAN.]



THE CONQUEST OF CANAAN.


AFTER the forty years of the Wandering came the seven years of the
Conquest. Yet it is true, that in the complete sense the conquest began
before the Israelites crossed the Jordan under Joshua, and was not
finished until long after the period of the Judges. As Dean Stanley
says: "The conquest began from the passage of the brook Zered, under
Moses; it was not finally closed till the capture of Jerusalem by David.
But in a more limited sense it may be confined to the period during
which the territory, afterward known by the name of Palestine, was
definitively occupied as their own by the Israelites." The map on page
36 shows us the territorial divisions of the land before the conquest;
the one which we are now studying presents the campaigns by which it was
won. These may be divided into three sections. 1. The conquest of the
territory on the east of the Jordan, in three campaigns, during the rule
of Moses. 2. The conquest of that on the west of the Jordan, under the
leadership of Joshua, in three campaigns. 3. A series of supplementary
conquests completing the work of subjugation.

[Illustration: SHECHEM.]


I. THE CONQUEST OF EASTERN PALESTINE.

This region was occupied, at the time of the arrival of the Israelites,
by the Moabites between the brooks Zered and Arnon, and by the Amorites
north of the Arnon. The latter people were divided into two kingdoms.
The land of Gilead was ruled by King Sihon, whose capital was at
Heshbon; and the table-land of Bashan by Og, a remnant of the old race
of the Rephaim. Tributary to Sihon, and on the border of the Arabian
desert, were the Midianites (Josh. 13:21); and near the Moabites were
their nomadic kinsmen, the Ammonites.

1. =The Conquest of Gilead.= (Num. 21:21-31.) The Amorites, under Sihon,
had wrested from the Moabites the land between the Arnon and the Jabbok,
a short time before the coming of Israel. Moses sent messengers,
requesting the privilege of journeying through their land; but they
refused to permit the passage of such a vast host, and came out to meet
the Israelites in battle at Jahaz, near their border, at the brook
Arnon. They were defeated, and their whole land was conquered, including
their own territory north of the Jabbok, as well as their Moabite
possessions south of it. Thus the Israelites obtained, as their first
foothold, the rich region of the eastern table-land, from the Arnon to
the Hieromax.

2. =The Conquest of Bashan.= (Num. 21:32-35.) The success of the war
with one nation of the Amorites encouraged the Israelites to cross the
Hieromax and undertake the conquest of the rich pasture fields of
Bashan, the kingdom of Og, whose capital was at the ancient city of his
race, Ashteroth Karnaim. There is some evidence to indicate that the
leader in this campaign was Nobah, of the tribe of Manasseh. (Num.
32:42.) A decisive battle was fought at Edrei, at the entrance to the
_Ledja_, or mountainous district; and Og was slain, and his kingdom
possessed by Israel. Its western portion, including Kenath and its
vicinity, was given to Nobah, who named the region after himself. (Num.
32:42; Judges 8:11.)

3. =The Conquest of Midian.= (Num. 25 and 31.) While the Israelites were
encamped on the plain of Jordan, opposite Jericho, their last station,
called Shittim (Num. 25:1), a league was formed by the Moabites and
Midianites to resist their advance. Balaam, the Mesopotamian seer, was
summoned to aid them by his curses against Israel; but his words were
turned to blessing. (Num. 22-24.) Fearing the result of open war, the
allied nations now undertook to corrupt Israel by their friendship and
the seductions of their women; and they succeeded to such an extent that
multitudes of the people perished by a plague which fell upon the nation
as a penalty. The Moabites were punished by exclusion for ten
generations from the privileges of Israel (Deut. 23:3, 4), and by the
loss of that portion of their territory already taken from the Amorites.
The Midianites, evidently the guiltier nation, were doomed to utter
destruction. The campaign against them was regarded as a sacred war, and
Phinehas the priest took command of the army. The entire people were
laid under the ban, and the portion of them east of the Jordan were
thoroughly annihilated. This was, however, only a small section of the
great tribe of Midian, whose principal home was on the eastern shore of
the Red Sea, south of the Edomites; and their former home near Moab was
again repopulated, and, some centuries afterward, gave new trouble to
Israel.

The entire country east of the Jordan and north of the brook Arnon was
thus conquered by the Israelites before the death of Moses. It was
assigned to the tribes of Reuben and Gad, and half the tribe of
Manasseh, as their home, upon condition that their warriors should
accompany the rest of the tribes in the conquest of Western Palestine.
(Num. 32.) Their boundaries will be noticed in connection with the map
of Israel, as divided among the Twelve Tribes.


II. THE CONQUEST OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

This was undertaken by Joshua after the death of Moses, and, as far as
can be ascertained from the record, was accomplished in three campaigns.
The war began with the passage of the Jordan, B.C. 1210, and, so far as
active hostilities were concerned, was finished in seven years. But the
great mass of the native population remained upon the soil, to plague
the Chosen People by the influence of their wickedness, so that the
conquest was never thoroughly completed. Indeed, some writers think that
the inhabitants of Palestine at the present time belong mainly to the
old Canaanite stock, which has perpetuated itself under all the changes
of government.

1. =The Conquest of Central Palestine.= (Josh. 3-8.) According to the
account in the book of Joshua, this was a brief campaign; but the
Samaritan records relate a series of supplementary sieges and battles,
which would indicate that the war may have been longer than appears.
Still, there are evidences that the Hivites and Perizzites, who occupied
most of this district, were peaceful peoples, readily yielding to the
conquerors, so that the resistance was less stubborn than in other
sections. The war began with the passage of the Jordan, an event ever
kept in mind as the entrance of the people upon their own land. They
pitched their camp at Gilgal, in the Jordan Valley, and fortified the
place as a permanent headquarters during the entire period of conquest.
(Josh. 5.) Jericho was first taken, by supernatural aid, and devoted to
God as the first fruits of conquest. (Josh. 6.) An act of trespass
against God by Achan, caused a defeat at Ai (near Bethel), the next
place attacked; but the sin was punished, and, by a stratagem and
ambush, Ai was taken. They then marched northward to Shechem, an ancient
Hivite city, of which the last previous account is its destruction by
the sons of Jacob. (Gen. 34.) It may not have been rebuilt, as we find
at this time the Hivites occupying a number of towns at a distance from
it (Gibeon and others, Josh. 9); or it may have submitted to the
overwhelming power of Israel. In the Vale of Shechem, between the
mountains Ebal and Gerizim, all the Israelites were assembled, the law
was read in their hearing, and memorial stones were erected. After this,
the Hivites of four villages, of which Gibeon was the most important, by
means of a deception made a treaty of peace with the Israelites, and
obtained a pledge of protection; being the only nation in all the land
formally spared from destruction. Their deceit was soon discovered; but
the word of Israel was kept, though the people of the four villages were
reduced to the condition of "servants of the sanctuary," _i. e._,
employed in the menial duties of the Tabernacle. The central portion of
the land was now possessed by Israel, from Jericho and Gibeon northward
to the Carmel range of mountains, and the army returned to the fortified
camp at Gilgal. (Josh. 9.)

2. =The Conquest of Southern Palestine.= (Josh. 10.) The conquest had
thus far been easy; mainly because there was no union among the native
tribes, but each city and village was ruled by its own "king," or
sheikh, and all were jealous of one another, so that they were readily
conquered in detail. Warned by the fate of Jericho and Ai, and alarmed
at the defection of Gibeon, the kings of five cities formed a league to
resist the invading host. The head of the confederation was Adoni-zedek,
the king of Jerusalem, and associated with him were the rulers of
Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish and Eglon, and perhaps other subordinate
chiefs. They began by an attack on the city of Gibeon, as a tributary of
Israel. Joshua at once called forth his warriors, left the camp at
Gilgal, made a swift night march through the mountain passes, and came
suddenly upon the enemy near Beth-horon. Here was fought perhaps the
most important battle in all human history, and one at which "the sun
and moon" might well "stand still," since the religious destiny of all
the world was at stake in its result. In this one battle the conquest of
Canaan was made certain, though it was not fully accomplished until long
afterward. The flying host were pursued to Makkedah, on the border of
the plain, where the five kings were captured and slain. Then in
succession, the strongholds of Libnah, Lachish, Eglon, Hebron, and, last
of all, Debir, were taken by storm. From the list of the kings captured
(Josh. 12:9-24), it would appear that Joshua carried his conquests
through the South Country, as far as Arad and Hormah, places where the
Israelites had suffered defeat during the period of the wandering (Num.
21:1-3); though these kings may have been captured at Hebron or Debir.
But, though all may not have been ravaged by the Israelites, all was
certainly conquered, from Jerusalem to the great desert on the south.
The conquest was afterward made complete by the aged Caleb, who with his
nephew Othniel took possession of the very cities of which the name had
filled the Israelites with terror a generation before. (Num. 13.)

[Illustration: PALESTINE AS PROMISED AND POSSESSED.]

3. =The Conquest of Northern Palestine.= (Josh. 11.) This region was
also occupied by a number of independent chiefs, of whom the most
powerful was Jabin, the king of Hazor, a title which afterward reappears
in the history. (Judges 4, 2.) They ruled over small tribes of various
races, from Mount Hermon to Mount Carmel, especially on the Plain of
Esdraelon. The king of Hazor called together the associated tribes, and
their camp was pitched near Lake Merom. Joshua made one of his
characteristic swift marches, up the Jordan Valley, attacked them
suddenly, and utterly defeated and scattered them. He burned the many
war chariots, and so cut the sinews of their horses as to make them
useless; since these animals were never used by the Israelites. After
the battle he marched through the northern regions, capturing the cities
and slaying their rulers, a number of whom are mentioned in the
catalogue of Josh. 12:9-24. This campaign closed the active operations,
so that "the land rested from war" (Josh. 11:23); but for many years the
strife was feebly continued, and it was not entirely finished until the
reign of David.


III. SUPPLEMENTARY CONQUESTS.

Although the struggle of the conquest was over, yet in most of the land
the task of expulsion or destruction was yet to be accomplished, and in
many places was never entirely wrought. The entire section of the
maritime plain remained in the hands of the Philistines; in almost every
tribe were fortresses, which long resisted the Israelites, and formed
centres of rebellion, and sometimes of oppression. And many of the
cities taken by Joshua were soon reoccupied by their original
inhabitants, and once more fortified. The book of the Judges relates
briefly three campaigns after the conquest.

1. =The Campaign of the Judaites and Simeonites.= (Judges 1:1-8.) This
was undertaken against Adoni-bezek, the king of Bezek, a place in or
near the tribe of Judah, not positively identified. Adoni-bezek was a
petty chieftain, who had cruelly mutilated no less than 70 local chiefs
whom he had taken in battle. He was surprised by the allied forces of
Judah and Simeon, and ten thousand of his warriors were slain. He was
taken prisoner, and treated as he had treated other captive kings; his
thumbs and great toes being cut off, thus making him helpless. After
this, the allied tribes marched down upon the maritime plain, and took
the Philistine cities of Gaza, Ashkelon and Ekron. But their conquests
were not permanent; they withdrew to the mountains, and the Philistines
were soon in possession of their cities, which long stood as a menace to
Israel. Another campaign was directed against the cities of the Negeb,
or South Country, and resulted in the destruction of Zephath and Hormah,
both south of Hebron.

2. =The Campaign of Caleb and Othniel.= Caleb was the oldest man in
Israel, having accompanied Joshua and the other spies, thirty-eight
years before the entrance of Israel into the Promised Land. (Num.
13-14.) For his faithfulness when so many were overcome with terror, he
received a promise of inheritance in the land. At least 45 years
afterward, Hebron, in the south of Judah, was allotted to him. It had
been taken by Joshua (Josh. 10:36, 37), but afterward reoccupied by the
Anakim (see page 38), and the Amorites, its original possessors. Caleb
led an army against it, once more won the city, and made it his own. He
promised his daughter, Achsah, to the warrior who should take Debir, or
Kirjath-sepher, south of Hebron, which had also been reoccupied by the
enemy. His younger brother (perhaps nephew) Othniel, won the city and
his bride. (Josh. 14:1-15; 15:13-19; Judges 1:10-15.) This campaign was
probably about the same time with the one narrated above, and may have
been in connection with it.

3. =The Danite Campaign.= (Judges 18.) The tribe of Dan found themselves
unable to overcome their Philistine neighbors, and were straitened for
room in their narrow possessions. They sent out a body of men to search
for a new home. These spies traversed the country as far to the north as
Laish, or Leshem, a Phoenician city, near one of the sources of the
Jordan. The Danite spies returned to their people at Zorah and Eshtaol,
and made their report. A part of the tribe agreed to migrate to this
northern region. Their first encampment on the journey, near
Kirjath-jearim, in Judah, long bore the name of "the camp of Dan." At a
village in Mount Ephraim they plundered Micah of his idols and carried
away their priest, who was a degenerate grandson of Moses the prophet.
At Laish they fell suddenly upon the defenseless Phoenicians, destroyed
their city, and built in its place one which they called Dan. It was the
northern landmark of the land, as Beersheba was its southern, giving
rise to the term "from Dan to Beersheba." Dan remained an idol
sanctuary, and a place of corrupting influence during all the after
history of Israel.

Upon the map are noted: 1. The six campaigns of the conquest, three on
each side of the Jordan. The precise route of travel cannot be
identified, but the general direction is shown by a red line. The
"supplementary conquests" are not indicated, in order to avoid
confusion, but can be easily traced. 2. The important battle-fields are
indicated by flags. These were at (1) Jahaz, (2) Edrei, (3) the land of
Midian, (4) Jericho, (5) Ai, (6) Beth-horon, (7) Hazor. Besides these
were many cities captured by Joshua during his campaign in Southern
Canaan. 3. The royal cities captured by Moses and Joshua are each
indicated on the map by a crown. These were, on the east of Jordan:
Heshbon, the capital of Sihon's kingdom, and Ashtaroth, the capital of
Og's kingdom; and on the west of Jordan, 31 cities, whose kings were
taken and slain by Joshua. (Josh. 12:9-24.) The places identified are
the only ones marked upon the map. 4. The four cities of the Hivite
league, which alone made a treaty with Israel, are shown by clasped
hands, the token of peace. 5. At the close of the conquest a large part
of the country was left in the possession of the native races. This
region is indicated by the yellow color. 6. Many towns remained in the
hands of the Canaanite and Philistine races. Some were taken by Israel,
but afterward reoccupied by their original inhabitants; others held out
against the Israelites, and were a constant source of danger, both by
their opposition, and still more by their friendship. The ceasing of the
war before the native races were either utterly exterminated or driven
away, was a mistaken mercy, which cost Israel centuries of strife, the
infection from their idolatry, and the corrupt influence of their
morals. The sparing of the Canaanites imperiled and well nigh thwarted
the destiny of Israel as the depositary of religious truth for all the
world.


OUTLINE FOR REVIEW.

I. _Conquest of Eastern Palestine._ 1. Gilead. (Amorites, Sihon, Jahaz.)
2. Bashan. (Amorites, Og, Edrei; Nobah, Kenath.) 3. Midian. (Phinehas.)

II. _Conquest of Western Palestine._ 1. Central. (Gilgal, Jericho, Ai,
Shechem, Gibeon.) 2. Southern. (Beth-horon, Makkedah, Libnah, Lachish,
Eglon, Hebron, Debir.) 3. Northern. (Hazor.)

III. _Supplementary Conquests._ 1. Judah and Simeon. (Adoni-bezek,
Bezek; Gaza, Ashkelon, Ekron; Zephath, Hormah.) 2. Caleb and Othniel.
(Hebron, Debir.) 3. Dan. (Laish.)

[Illustration: CHURCH OF THE ASCENSION.]



PALESTINE AMONG THE TWELVE TRIBES.


THE division of the land among the Twelve Tribes took place in three
stages. 1. After the conquest of Eastern Palestine, during the lifetime
of Moses, the two tribes of Reuben and Gad and half the tribe of
Manasseh received their portion, on condition that their warriors should
aid their kinsmen in the war for the rest of the land. (Num. 32.) 2.
After the campaigns in Western Palestine (see last map and
explanations), the two leading tribes of Judah and Ephraim and the
remaining half of Manasseh received their inheritance, and took
possession of it, as far as conquered: Judah in the south, Ephraim a
small but choice portion in the centre, and Manasseh immediately north
of it. (Josh. 15-17.) 3. The remaining seven tribes delayed long in
obtaining their portions in the land, but at last, after a rebuke from
the aged Joshua for their slowness, made the division by lot, and
entered upon their inheritance. (Josh. 18, 19.) The cities of refuge,
and those for the priests and Levites, were last of all appointed, late
in the life of Joshua, and then "the land had rest from war," and Israel
entered upon its history in its own land.

It is not easy to fix the tribal boundary lines, since some tribes
possessed cities within the domain of other tribes, and the boundaries,
if not entirely indeterminate, varied greatly in different ages.
Geographers are agreed upon the general position, but not upon the
precise boundary lines. We follow the map of Dr. James Strong, in
McClintock and Strong's Cyclopedia.

[Illustration: VIEW IN THE EASTERN TABLE-LAND--BASHAN.]

I. =The Tribe of Reuben= (Num. 32:1-38; Josh. 13:15-23) had the river
Arnon for its southern border, this river separating it from Moab. It
was bounded on the east by the Syrian desert, and on the west by the
Dead Sea and the lower end of the Jordan. Its northern line began at
Beth-jeshimoth, and extended northeasterly to near Rabbath Ammon. Its
territory consisted of a low region by the sea and the river, a
precipitous mountain range, and a rolling plateau eastward, well adapted
for pasture. Among its prominent localities were: Heshbon, the capital
of the Amorite king, Sihon; Dibon, where recently the Moabite stone was
discovered; Mount Nebo, where Moses died; Bezer, a city of refuge;
Aroer, Ataroth, Medeba, Kiriathaim, and Kedemoth.

II. =The Tribe of Gad= (Num. 32:34-36; Josh. 13:24-28) was located north
of Reuben. Its boundary on the west was the river Jordan, from the Sea
of Chinnereth (Galilee) almost to its mouth. Its eastern border was the
desert, from Rabbath Ammon to Mahanaim, from which point its line ran
northwest to the Sea of Chinnereth. Like the land of Reuben, its
territory embraced portions of the Jordan Valley; the eastern
mountains, divided by the torrent Jabbok; and the table-land, a rich
and well-watered district. The part in the Jordan Valley was, however,
never possessed by the Israelites, but remained in the hands of the
native Canaanites. In the valley, its cities were Beth-nimrah and
Succoth. Among the mountains the places were: Jazer, near the border of
Reuben; Ramoth-gilead, a famous fortress, often the scene of war;
Penuel, the place of Jacob's wrestling with the angel (Gen. 32:24-32);
Jabesh-gilead, whose warriors rescued the bodies of Saul and Jonathan (1
Sam. 31:11-13); Mahanaim, a place of refuge both for the son of Saul,
and afterward for David (2 Sam. 2:8; 2 Sam. 17:24); and Gadara, a
foreign city, on the northern frontier.

  +-----------------------------------------------------------+
  |+---------------------------------------------------------+|
  || Manasseh, (East)  2,590 Sq. M.                          ||
  ||            (_Partly Desert_)                            ||
  |+---------------------------------------------------------+|
  || Judah, 1,400 Sq. M.           |                          |
  ||(_Exclusive of Philistia and   |                          |
  ||  Desert by Dead Sea_)         |                          |
  |+-------------------------------+                          |
  || Gad,                       |                             |
  ||1,300 Sq. Miles.            |                             |
  |+----------------------------+                             |
  ||Simeon, 1,000 Sq. M.|                                     |
  ||(_Partly Desert_)   |                                     |
  |+--------------------+                                     |
  ||Manasseh, (West) |                                        |
  ||  800 Sq. M.     |                                        |
  |+-----------------+                                        |
  ||    Naphtali,    |                                        |
  ||  800 Sq. M.     |                                        |
  |+-----------------+                                        |
  ||    Reuben,   |                                           |
  ||  700 Sq. M.  |                                           |
  |+--------------+                                           |
  || Ephraim,   |                                             |
  ||  600 Sq. M.|         COMPARATIVE SIZE                    |
  |+------------+                                             |
  ||   Dan,   |                                               |
  ||500 Sq. M.|               OF                              |
  |+----------+                                               |
  ||      |Issachar,                                          |
  ||      |400 Sq. M.    TERRITORY OF THE TRIBES.             |
  |+------+                                                   |
  ||   |Zebulon,                                              |
  ||   |300 Sq. M.                                            |
  |+---+                                                      |
  ||   |Asher,                                                |
  ||   |300 Sq. M.                                            |
  |+---+                                                      |
  ||   |Benjamin,                                             |
  ||   |300 Sq. M.                                            |
  |+---+                                                      |
  +-----------------------------------------------------------+


III. =The Half Tribe of Manasseh, East= (Num. 32:39-42; Josh. 13:29-31),
occupied the northern portion of Eastern Palestine, generally known in
the Old Testament as Bashan, larger than the portion assigned to any one
tribe. It extended from Mahanaim northward to Mount Hermon, and from the
river Jordan and its two northern lakes eastward to the desert. Though
some of this land is a desert, yet most of it is fertile, and even now
it is called "the granary of Palestine." It consists of undulating
plains between two masses of mountains; the one on the east, now known
as _el Ledja_, and the other on the side of the Jordan Valley. On its
western hills were Aphek, and Golan, a city of refuge; near its centre
were Ashtaroth, the former capital of Og, who reigned over Bashan before
the conquest, and Edrei. Kenath, taken by Nobah, was at the foot of _el
Ledja_, east of the line of the map. Its people never conquered the
Geshurites on the east, and were separated from their brethren by the
Canaanites in the Jordan Valley (see map on page 50), so that they were
not closely identified with the history of Israel, and were the first to
be carried away captive. (2 Kings 10:32, 33.)

IV. =The Tribe of Simeon= (Josh. 19:1-9) received a portion of the land
previously given to Judah. Its location was on the extreme south, and
its boundaries were indeterminate, being indicated only by the list of
eighteen towns belonging to it. It was the strip of grazing land between
the mountains and the desert of the wandering, where Abraham and Isaac
spent most of their lives. Its most important place was the historic
Beersheba; but it included also Gerar, on the Philistine border; Arad,
whose king twice resisted the Israelites' progress during the wandering;
Hormah, in the South Country; and Ziklag, at one time the home of David.
Nothing is known of this tribe's history. From its frontier position it
probably lost its individuality, a part of its people becoming merged
with the wandering races of the desert, and a part with its more
powerful neighbor, Judah. Most of its cities were held by the
Philistines until the reign of David.

V. =The Tribe of Judah= (Josh. 15:1-63) occupied the most valuable
portion of the land, and for three centuries was the rival of Ephraim in
the leadership of the nation. Its boundary line on the north is
described with great minuteness, but was changed after the building of
the Temple to include a part of the city of Jerusalem. It ran from the
northern end of the Dead Sea, south of Jerusalem, in a direction
generally east, though with many turnings, from the Jordan to the
Mediterranean. The region embraced five sections. 1. The Philistine
plain, by the sea, never conquered. 2. The Shefelah, or low hills, a
boundary disputed with the Philistines. 3. The "hill country," the home
of the tribe. 4. The Negeb, or South Country, extending from Hebron
southward. 5. The wild, uninhabitable Jeshimon, called in later history
"the wilderness of Judæa," on the western shore of the Dead Sea.
Omitting the Philistine cities by the Mediterranean, its most important
cities were: Hebron, the inheritance of Caleb; Debir, the conquest of
Othniel; Bethlehem, the birthplace of David, and, in after ages, of his
greater Son; Maon, Carmel; En-gedi, a haunt of David during his exile;
Lachish and Libnah, on the Shefelah; and Kirjath-jearim, at one time the
abode of the ark.

VI. =The Tribe of Benjamin= (Josh. 18:11-28) was located between Judah
and Ephraim, having the Jordan on the east, and Dan on the west. It was
a small country, 25 miles long by 12 wide, yet rich in natural
advantages; and many events of Bible history took place within its
borders. It included 26 cities, of which the most important were:
Gilgal, the military capital during the conquest; Jericho, the first
town taken on the west of the Jordan; Jerusalem, long held by the
Jebusites, but from the time of David the capital of the country;
Bethel, connected with many events; Ramah, the home of Samuel; Gibeah,
the residence of King Saul; Michmash, Gibeon and Mizpeh, the places of
famous battles. No portion of the land contains more of Jewish history
than Benjamin, the smallest of all the tribes of Israel.

[Illustration: COMPARATIVE POPULATION OF THE TWELVE TRIBES AT THE
ENTRANCE INTO CANAAN.]

          Judah,          306,000.
          Dan,            257,600.
          Issachar,       257,200.
          Zebulon,        242,000.
          Asher,          213,600.
          Manasseh,       210,800.
          Benjamin,       182,400.
          Naphtali,       181,600.
          Reuben,         174,920.
          Gad,            162,000.
          Ephraim,        130,000.
          Simeon,          88,800.
          Levi,            46,000.

VII. =The Tribe of Dan= (Josh. 19:40-48; Judges 18) was situated between
Benjamin and the sea, and, though apparently large, was in reality very
small, since nearly all its territory was held by the original
inhabitants, the Canaanites. Its southernmost town was Timnath, a small
village not on the map, but two miles west of Beth-shemesh; its northern
limit was a brook just north of Joppa. The original inhabitants proved
too strong for the Danites, who were compelled to maintain a sort of
fortified camp in and between the villages of Zorah and Eshtaol, called
"the camp of Dan." (Judges 13:25.) A part of the tribe migrated
northward, as related in the interesting account in Judges 17, 18; and,
by a surprise, seized the Phoenician village of Laish, or Leshem, in the
far north of Palestine, changed its name to Dan, and made it a new
rallying centre for the tribe. This place, with Beersheba on the south,
was named, in the expression "from Dan to Beersheba," as one of the
limits of the land. It remained for centuries the place of an idolatrous
worship, perpetuated under all the changes of government, down to the
final captivity of the land.

VIII. =The Tribe of Ephraim= (Josh. 16) was located on the north of
Benjamin and Dan, and extended from the Jordan to the Mediterranean, in
the centre of the country. But inasmuch as the Canaanites were able to
resist the power of the Ephraimites on both sides of the mountain,
toward the river Jordan and toward the sea, the haughty tribe deemed its
possession too small for its needs, and asked a larger space of Joshua.
They were answered in a half-jesting, half-rebuking manner by the
leader, and urged to drive out the enemy and make for themselves more
room, a counsel which they followed only in part. (Josh. 17:14-18;
Judges 1:22-26.) The principal places in "Mount Ephraim" (as the
district of this tribe was generally called) were: Shechem, between the
twin mountains of Ebal and Gerizim; Shiloh, the place of the ark, and
the religious centre of the land; Beth-horon, the field where the
decisive victory of the conquest was won; Timnath, the burial place of
Joshua; and Samaria, built during the kingdom as the capital of the Ten
Tribes.

IX. =The Half Tribe of Manasseh, West= (Josh. 17), was located north of
Ephraim, and extended from the Jordan to the Mediterranean. Its boundary
followed the northern slope of Mount Carmel, except by the sea, where
the mountain was given to Asher. The lowlands on the Jordan, the Plain
of Esdraelon, and the Mediterranean, were held by the Canaanites, in the
cities of Dor, Megiddo, Taanach and Beth-shean, a chain of fortresses
which gave control of the larger portion of the province, so that the
Manassites were restricted to the mountains, where they occupied Geba,
Dothan and Jarmuth.

X. =The Tribe of Issachar= (Josh. 19:17-23) was allotted the Plain of
Esdraelon (which it was never able to possess), and the mountains of
Tabor and Little Hermon ("Hill of Moreh"), extending to the Jordan south
of the Sea of Chinnereth (Galilee). Both the plain and the Jordan Valley
were held by the Canaanites, but the tribe occupied the mountains. Its
cities were En-gannim, Shunem, Haphraim, Daberath, and Beth-shemesh. The
towns of Cana, Nain and Nazareth, in New Testament history, were located
in this tribe.

XI. =The Tribe of Asher= (Josh. 19:24-31) lay along the sea-coast, and
extended from Mount Carmel to Zidon. Nearly all its cities were
controlled by the Canaanites and Phoenicians, and the people soon
entered into friendly relations with them, and lost their power. A part
of the tribe, however, occupied the mountain range, and retained their
relationship with the rest of the Israelites.

XII. =The Tribe of Zebulon= (Josh. 19:10-16) occupied a triangle between
Mount Carmel, the Sea of Chinnereth (afterward the Sea of Galilee), and
the village of Aijalon; having as its base the mountain border north of
the Plain of Esdraelon, and its western line the mountain chain
following the Mediterranean. As this belonged to the mountain region, it
was controlled mainly by the Israelites, though the Canaanites held two
towns, Kitron and Nahalol. (Judges 1:30.) Its principal places were:
Gath-hepher, the home of the prophet Jonah; Bethlehem (to be
distinguished from the town of the same name in Judah); and, in later
times, most of the cities of Galilee visited by our Lord.

[Illustration: PALESTINE AMONG THE TRIBES.]

XIII. =The Tribe of Naphtali= (Josh. 19:32-39) was the farthest to the
north in all Israel. It occupied a section running north and south,
between the Jordan and the Sea of Chinnereth on one side, and the
Phoenician border on the other. Its central city was Kedesh, a city of
refuge. Other towns were Hazor, Abel-beth-maachah, Beth-rehob (the
extreme point visited by the spies, Num. 13:21) and Beth-shemesh. Dan
(see on Tribe of Dan) was also in the limits of this tribe.

XIV. =The Tribe of Levi= was the priestly caste, and received no
separate province in the land, but was allotted certain cities
throughout the tribes. These cities were given up to the Levites, either
wholly or in part; though it is evident that they were not the only
places occupied by the priests, and that others besides the Levites
dwelt in them. These "Levitical cities" were divided into two classes:
those for the priests proper, or descendants of Aaron, thirteen in
number, and all in the tribes of Judah, Simeon and Benjamin (a
remarkable arrangement, since the altar and the Tabernacle were in the
tribe of Ephraim); and those for the Levites, or subordinate priests,
thirty-five in number, divided among the other tribes. Thus there were
in all forty-eight Levitical cities. These were so arranged that in each
tribe four cities were assigned to the priests, except in Judah (which
had more), and Simeon and Naphtali, the frontier tribes, which had less.
As far as they have been identified and located, they are indicated upon
the map: the priests' cities by the _tiara_, or head-dress, worn by the
priests; the Levites' cities by a _trumpet_, as they formed the choral
bands in the worship of the Temple. Six of these cities were assigned as
"cities of refuge" for the innocent man-slayer. (Josh. 20.) Three cities
were chosen on each side of the Jordan; in the south, the centre and the
north of the land. These were: Bezer, in Reuben; Ramoth-gilead, in Gad;
Golan, in Manasseh, East; Hebron, in Judah; Shechem, in Ephraim; and
Kedesh, in Naphtali. Each of these is indicated on the map by a tower.


OUTLINE FOR TEACHING AND REVIEW.


SUGGESTIONS FOR TEACHING.

Draw a rough map of Palestine, omitting mountains and all other lines
except the river and the seas. Do not attempt to make it accurate. In
presence of the class, draw the boundary lines of the tribes, not
attempting an accurate copy, but roughly indicating them. With each
tribe indicate the most important places by their initial letters.
Review all the places before beginning another tribe, and occasionally
go back to the beginning and review all the work done. Let the class, on
slate or paper, also draw the map, and locate the places. At the close,
call upon the scholars to give the location and name the places of the
tribes.


REVIEW.

I. _Reuben._ Heshbon, Dibon, Mount Nebo, Bezer, Aroer, Ataroth, Medeba,
Kiriathaim, Kedemoth.

II. _Gad._ Beth-nimrah, Succoth, Jazer, Ramoth-gilead, Penuel,
Jabesh-gilead, Mahanaim, Gadara.

III. _Manasseh, East._ Aphek, Golan, Ashtaroth, Edrei, Kenath.

IV. _Simeon._ Beersheba, Gerar, Arad, Hormah, Ziklag.

V. _Judah_ (5 sections). Hebron, Debir, Bethlehem, Maon, Carmel,
En-gedi, Lachish, Libnah, Kirjath-jearim.

VI. _Benjamin._ Gilgal, Jericho, Jerusalem, Bethel, Ramah, Gibeah,
Michmash, Gibeon, Mizpeh.

VII. _Dan._ Zorah, Eshtaol, Dan.

VIII. _Ephraim._ Shechem, Shiloh, Beth-horon, Timnath, Samaria.

IX. _Manasseh, West._ Dor, Megiddo, Taanach, Beth-shean, Geba, Dothan,
Jarmuth.

X. _Issachar._ En-gannim, Shunem, Haphraim, Daberath, Beth-shemesh,
Cana, Nain, Nazareth (in New Testament History).

XI. _Asher._

XII. _Zebulon._ Gath-hepher, Bethlehem.

XIII. _Naphtali._ Kedesh, Hazor, Abel-beth-maachah, Beth-rehob,
Beth-shemesh.

XIV. _Levi._ Forty-eight Levitical cities in all. Six of these were
cities of refuge, as follows: Bezer, Ramoth-gilead, Golan, Hebron,
Shechem, Kedesh.

[Illustration: ROUND ABOUT JERUSALEM.]

[Illustration: PALESTINE UNDER THE JUDGES.

THE PLAIN OF ESDRAELON.]



PALESTINE UNDER THE JUDGES.


THE map on page 60 is intended to illustrate the history of Palestine
from the division of the land (about 1170 B.C.) to the accession of
David (B.C. 1010.) This period may be noticed under three topics. 1. The
movements among the tribes supplementary to the conquest. 2. The
oppressions and the Judges. 3. The reign of the first king, Saul. (See
The Kingdom of Saul, page 64.)


I. SUPPLEMENTARY TO THE CONQUEST.

1. =The Conquests of Judah and Simeon.= (Judges 1.) These were made by
the two southern tribes in alliance, and were accompanied by decisive
victories at Bezek, Hebron, Debir, and Zephath (afterward known as
_Hormah_, "destruction"). These places are marked with flags upon the
map. Jerusalem, Gaza, Ashkelon, and Ekron were also attacked and taken;
but the conquest was not permanent, since these places were soon
reoccupied by the native races.

2. =The Danite Migration=, related in Judges 17, 18, took place about
the same time. The tribe of Dan was crowded by the Philistines into two
towns, Zorah and Eshtaol. A part of the warriors went upon an expedition
northward, and finding Laish, at one of the sources of the Jordan,
undefended, slew its Zidonian inhabitants, and made it their home and a
sanctuary of idols, under a new name, Dan. This formed the northern
outpost of the land of Israel.

3. =The Civil War.= (Judges 19-21.) This was caused by a crime among the
people of one city, Gibeah, whose part was taken by the entire tribe,
according to the Oriental view of honor among members of a clan. It led
to a war between Benjamin and the rest of the tribes, at the end of
which, by the battle of Gibeah, the one tribe was almost annihilated.

[Illustration: MOUNT TABOR.]


II. THE OPPRESSIONS AND THE JUDGES.

From the times of Joshua to those of Saul, the Israelites were ruled by
men raised up to meet the needs of the hour, not by succession or
appointment, but by personal character and influence. Most of them ruled
over a limited region, and more than one doubtless was in authority at
the same time, in different parts of the land. They were called forth by
a series of _oppressions_, which were sometimes invasions by foreign
tribes, and sometimes the uprising of the native peoples against their
Israelite conquerors, reversing the relation for a time. The judges
were, in most instances, men who led the Israelites in throwing off the
yoke of these foreign races. The oppressions are generally reckoned as
seven, though the third was rather an invasion than an oppression; and
the judges, as fifteen in number, though several were not judges, in the
strict sense of the word.

1. =The Mesopotamian Oppression= (Judges 3:1-11) was the first,
occurring soon after the death of Joshua. It resulted from the conquests
of a king named Chushan-rishathaim, who reigned in Mesopotamia. From the
two facts, that at this period the kings of Edom had Aramean names (Gen.
36), and that the deliverer of Israel was Othniel, of the tribe of
Judah, the first judge, it has been concluded that the region of this
oppression was the territory of that tribe, in the southern portion of
Palestine.

2. =The Moabite Oppression.= (Judges 3:12-30.) The Moabites lived south
of the torrent Arnon, on the east of the Dead Sea. In alliance with the
wandering Ammonites, further eastward, and the Amalekites of the desert,
under their king, Eglon, they took possession of Jericho (which stood as
an unwalled town), and made it the centre of rule over the central
portion of the land, chiefly Benjamin and Judah. Ehud, the second
judge, assassinated Eglon, and then called upon his countrymen to
assemble at Mount Ephraim. A decisive battle was fought at the "Fords of
Moab" (where the Israelites had crossed the Jordan on their first
entrance to the land), resulting in the defeat of the Moabites and the
freedom of Israel.

3. =The Early Philistine Oppression= (Judges 3:31) was perhaps no more
than a raid of these people upon the mountain region of Judah. It was
repelled by Shamgar, the third judge, whose army of farmers, hastily
gathered, had no other weapons than their formidable ox-goads. The
precise place of the victory is unknown, but it was on the frontier
between Judah and Philistia.

4. =The Canaanite Oppression= (Judges 4, 5) was an uprising of the
native people against the Israelite conquerors. They changed the
relations of the two races, by becoming the dominant people in all the
region north of the Carmel range of mountains. Their capital was at
Hazor, and their chief military post at Harosheth, near the Plain of
Esdraelon. A woman, Deborah, living between Ramah and Bethel, was then
recognized as the fourth judge. She called upon Barak, of Naphtali, who
aided her in gathering a little army, chiefly from the tribes of
Issachar, Zebulon and Naphtali. They met at Mount Tabor, from which they
poured down upon the Canaanites, who were encamped upon the plain. In
the rout that followed, the Israelites were aided by a sudden storm,
and a rise in the torrent Kishon, which swept away many of their
enemies. The power of the Canaanites was broken, and thenceforward the
race made no attempt to regain its independence.

5. =The Midianite Oppression= (Judges 6-8) was the most severe, thus
far, in the history of the judges. The Midianites, a migratory tribe on
the east of Palestine, joined with the Amalekite Bedouins in an invasion
which overran all the central portion of the land, plundering the
inhabitants, and destroying the fruits of the field. So low were the
Israelites reduced, that they were compelled to hide their crops, and
themselves also, in the caves of the mountains. The deliverer of Israel
at this period was Gideon, the fifth judge. At God's call he summoned
his countrymen, and gathered an army on Mount Gilboa, while their
enemies were encamped at the foot of the Hill Moreh (Little Hermon), an
innumerable host. With three hundred chosen men Gideon made a night
attack upon the Midianite host. They were defeated, and fled down the
ravine to the Jordan Valley, past Beth-shean, Abel-meholah and Tabbath.
Beth-barah, where they were intercepted by the men of Ephraim, was not
the same with the Bethabara of the New Testament, but probably in the
Jordan Valley, north of the Jabbok. At Succoth, near the junction of the
Jabbok and the Jordan, and at Penuel, in the valley of the Jabbok, the
pursuing Israelites under Gideon were inhospitably treated by the
inhabitants, but avenged themselves on their return. The remains of the
routed Midianite army were found by Gideon at Karkor, a place not
precisely known. He made a circuit, attacked them on the east, and
utterly destroyed them. After this victory Gideon bore rule over Israel
from his home in Ophrah, until his death.

After the death of Gideon arose his son Abimelech, the sixth judge, "the
bramble king," who reigned over a small district around Shechem. (Judges
9.) He was not one of the divinely chosen deliverers, and strictly
should not be reckoned in the list of judges. He was slain ignobly at
Thebez, north of Shechem. The seventh judge was Tola, who ruled from
Shamir, in Mount Ephraim. (Judges 10:1, 2.) The eighth was Jair, whose
home was at Camon, in Mount Gilead, east of the Jordan. (Judges 10:3-5.)

6. =The Ammonite Oppression= (Judges 10:6-18; 11:1-40) was perhaps
contemporaneous with the early part of the one named after it, the
Philistine. It embraced the land of the tribes on the east of the
Jordan, and lasted eighteen years. The Israelites rallied at Mizpeh of
Gilead (the place where Jacob and Laban made their covenant, Gen.
31:49), and called to the command Jephthah, the ninth judge, who was
living as a freebooter in the land of Tob, north of Gilead. He marched
against the Ammonites, and fought them at Aroer, on the border of the
torrent Arnon. He drove them in flight northward, and wasted their
territory as far as Minnith, near Heshbon. On his return took place the
fulfillment of his vow upon his daughter (Judges 11:40); and a civil
strife with the haughty tribe of Ephraim (Judges 12:1-6), which attacked
Gilead, but was beaten and put to flight. At the fords of Jordan many
thousand Ephraimites were slain in attempting to cross. Probably this
was the same place referred to already as Beth-barah. (Judges 7:24.)

After Jephthah, the tenth judge was Ibzan of Bethlehem, north of Mount
Carmel; the eleventh, Elon of Aijalon, in the tribe of Zebulon; the
twelfth, Abdon of Pirathon, in Ephraim. (Judges 12:8-15.)

7. =The Philistine Oppression= (Judges 13-16) began about the same time
with the Ammonite, but lasted far longer. During all the judgeships of
Eli, the thirteenth judge, of Samson the fourteenth, of Samuel the
fifteenth and last, and the forty years of Saul's reign, Israel remained
more or less under Philistine domination. In the reign of Saul we read
of Philistine garrisons throughout the land, as at Bethel (1 Sam.
10:3-5) and at Geba (1 Sam. 13:3), and not until all Israel was
consolidated under the strong sceptre of David, was the Philistine yoke
entirely thrown off.

Eli, the thirteenth judge, was also high-priest, and ruled from Shiloh,
the place of the ark. The history relates only the events at the close
of his judgeship, when, by the loss of the ark at Ebenezer, and the
death of Eli, on the same day, the Israelites were reduced to the lowest
condition of trouble.

The exploits of Samson were all personal, and in a narrow district. He
led no army, but wrought brave deeds singlehanded, in the "camp of Dan"
and the country of the Philistines. Had he added the administrative
powers of a Samuel to his courage and strength, the triumphs of David
would have been anticipated by a century. He was born at Zorah, in the
tribe of Dan (Judges 13:2), and won victories at Timnath (Judges
15:1-8); at Lehi ("the jaw," from the weapon used), a place whose
precise location is uncertain (Judges 15:9-20); and in his death, at
Gaza. (Judges 16.)

Samuel, the fifteenth judge, was born at Ramah (also called
Ramathaim-zophim) (1 Sam. 1:1), and ruled from the same place during his
period of government, from the loss of the ark to the Anointing of Saul.
The great event of his rule was the victory at Ebenezer (1 Sam. 7),
which gave a name to the place of the former defeat. Other places
connected with this period are Kirjath-jearim, where the ark was long
kept; Mizpeh, the place where the active rule of Samuel both began and
ended; Bethel and Gilgal, where also he exercised the functions of
judge; and Beersheba, in the south of Judah, where his sons ruled for a
time as deputies in his name.

Upon the map the names of the towns which remained during this period
under the control of the native races, are printed in red. Some of these
were Philistine, others Canaanite. Those on the maritime plain, west of
Judah and Benjamin, were mainly Philistine, as Gaza, Ashkelon, Ashdod,
Ekron and Gath. Those in the interior, as Aijalon and Jebus; around the
Plain of Esdraelon, as Harosheth, Megiddo, Taanach and Hadad-rimmon; and
in the Jordan Valley, as Beth-shean and Jericho, were under the control
of the Canaanite races.

We give the names of the fifteen judges, and their various centers of
authority, as indicated in the books of Judges and First Samuel. Some of
the locations are uncertain; but the places cannot be far from those
assigned upon the map. The names and locations are: 1. Othniel, tribe of
Judah. 2. Ehud, tribe of Benjamin. 3. Shamgar, tribe of Judah. 4.
Deborah, between Ramah and Bethel, in Ephraim. 5. Gideon, Ophrah, in
Manasseh, West. 6. Abimelech, "the bramble king," at Shechem, in
Ephraim. 7. Tola, in Shamir, of Manasseh, East. 8. Jair, in Manasseh,
East. 9. Jephthah, in the tribe of Gad. 10. Ibzan, in Bethlehem, north
of Mount Carmel. 11. Elon, at Aijalon, of Zebulon. 12. Abdon, at
Pirathon, in Ephraim. 13. Eli, at Shiloh, in Ephraim. 14. Samson, at
Zorah, in Dan. 15. Samuel, at Ramah, in Benjamin.

The battles of this period are indicated upon the map by flags, and are
as follows: 1. Bezek. 2. Hebron. 3. Debir. 4. Zephath. All these in the
campaign of Judah and Simeon. (Judges 1.) 5. Laish (Dan), in the north,
the Danite conquest. (Judges 18.) 6. Gibeah, the extermination of
Benjamin. (Judges 20.) 7. Fords of Moab, Ehud's victory over the
Moabites. (Judges 3.) 8. Mount Tabor, Deborah's victory over the
Canaanites. (Judges 4.) 9. The Hill Moreh (Little Hermon), Gideon's
victory over the Midianites. (Judges 7.) 10. Karkor, the capture of the
chiefs of Midian. (Judges 8.) 11. Shechem, Abimelech's conquest. (Judges
9.) 12. Thebez, Abimelech's death. (Judges 9.) 13. Aroer, Jephthah's
victory over the Ammonites. (Judges 11.) 14. Beth-barah, Jephthah's
victory over Ephraim. (Judges 12.) 15. Timnath. 16. Lehi. 17. Gaza,
Samson's three slaughters of the Philistines. (Judges 14-16.) 18.
Ebenezer, the loss of the ark. (1 Sam. 4.) 19. Ebenezer, the victory of
Samuel. (1 Sam. 7.)


OUTLINE FOR REVIEW.


I. SUPPLEMENTARY TO CONQUEST.

1. _Judah and Simeon._ Bezek, Hebron, Debir, Zephath.

2. _Danite Migration._ Zorah, Eshtaol; Laish (Dan).

3. _Civil War._ Benjamin, Gibeah.


II. OPPRESSIONS AND JUDGES.

1. _Mesopotamian._ (South.) Othniel, 1st Judge.

2. _Moabite._ (Central.) Jericho. Ehud, 2d Judge; Fords of Moab.

3. _Early Philistine._ (South.) Shamgar, 3d Judge.

4. _Canaanite._ (North.) Hazor, Harosheth. Mount Tabor; Deborah, 4th
Judge, Ramah.

5. _Midianite._ (Central and North.) Hill Moreh, Karkor; Gideon, 5th
Judge, Ophrah. Abimelech, 6th Judge; Shechem, Thebez. Tola, 7th Judge,
Shamir. Jair, 8th Judge, Camon.

6. _Ammonite._ (East.) Aroer; Jephthah, 9th Judge; "Fords of Jordan."
Ibzan, 10th Judge, Bethlehem. Elon, 11th Judge, Aijalon. Abdon, 12th
Judge, Pirathon.

7. _Philistine._ (South and Central.) Eli, 13th Judge, Shiloh; Ebenezer.
Samson, 14th Judge; Timnath, Lehi, Gaza. Samuel, 15th Judge, Ramah;
Ebenezer.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Battles of the Period._ 1. Bezek. 2. Hebron. 3. Debir. 4. Zephath. 5.
Laish (Dan). 6. Gibeah. 7. Fords of Moab. 8. Mount Tabor. 9. Hill Moreh.
10. Karkor. 11. Shechem. 12. Thebez. 13. Aroer. 14. Fords of Jordan
(Beth-barah?). 15. Timnath. 16. Lehi. 17. Gaza. 18, 19. Ebenezer.

[Illustration: KINGDOM OF SAUL.

Saul's Last Battle.]



THE KINGDOM OF SAUL.


DURING the last century of the Judges, there was a growing tendency
toward a more settled form of government; and the wise rule of Samuel
inspired a still stronger desire for a better organization of the state.
The rival tribes of Ephraim and Judah were conciliated by the choice of
a king from the weak tribe of Benjamin, equally dependent upon both; and
Saul, an obscure farmer of Gibeah, was called to the throne. The events
of his reign are here related only so far as is necessary to present the
localities referred to, which may be grouped under the following heads:
1. His Appointment. 2. His Wars. 3. His Pursuit of David. 4. His Death.

I. =Saul's Appointment as King.= (1 Sam. 9-12.) This is connected with
four places. Ramah, the residence of Samuel (probably _Neby Samwil_,
3-1/2 miles nearly north of Jerusalem), where Saul was privately
crowned; Mizpeh, an unknown place, near by, and also north of Jerusalem,
where he was introduced to the people as king; Gibeah (_Tuleil el Ful_,
4 miles north of Jerusalem), his home and capital; and Gilgal, in the
Jordan Valley, where he was formally recognized as king, after his
victory at Jabesh-gilead. The places named in the account of Saul's
search for his father's stray asses, which led him to Samuel, are not
known with certainty; but Shalisha may be _Sirisia_, 13 miles north of
Lydda, and Zuph may be another name for Zophim, or Ramah, of which the
name in full was Ramathaim-zophim.

II. =The Wars of Saul.= (1 Sam. 11-18.) These were as follows:

1. _The Ammonite War._ (1 Sam. 11.) The Ammonites were a roving,
predatory, cruel people, ancient enemies of Israel, living east of the
Moabites. Under their king, Nahash, they invaded the territory east of
the Jordan, and besieged Jabesh-gilead (_ed Deir_). Word came to Saul,
who instantly summoned the warriors of Israel. They met at Bezek (not
the same with the Bezek of Judges 1:4, but probably the ruin _Ibzik_, a
little north of Tirzah), marched against the Ammonites, and, under
Saul's vigorous leadership, utterly discomfited them. The relief of
Jabesh-gilead, Saul's first victory, greatly strengthened his authority
as king, over the tribes.

2. _The First Philistine War._ (1 Sam. 13, 14.) At the time of Saul's
accession, the Philistine outposts held Geba, Bethel, and other places
in the mountain region. Saul undertook to free the land, and summoned
the Israelites, who came tremblingly, being thoroughly cowed under their
oppressors. Saul's son Jonathan struck the first blow, by attacking the
Philistines at Geba (_Jeba_), near Gibeah, Saul's capital; and soon
followed it up by a great victory at Michmash, across the valley from
Geba. The Israelites now gained courage, and pursued the Philistines,
even to their own borders. Nevertheless, the Philistines continued to
hold their fortresses in Israel through all the reign of Saul, and wars
were constant between the two races.

Three other wars of Saul are named in a single verse (1 Sam. 14:47),
without mention of particular events. These are as follows:

3. _The Moabite War._ These people lived south of the brook Arnon, and
east of the Dead Sea. The war with them may have taken place in
connection with the Ammonite campaign, already referred to. No
battle-fields are named, so that the places of the war cannot be given.
It resulted in the defeat of the Moabites, but not in their subjection
to Israel.

4. _The Edomite War_ perhaps occurred at the same time, and may have
been caused by an alliance of Edom, Moab and Ammon against Israel, as
all these tribes lived near each other, the Edomites south of the Dead
Sea. Probably after the victory at Jabesh-gilead, Saul pursued the
flying Ammonites, ravaged their territory, and then entered the lands of
Moab and of Edom.

5. _The Syrian War._ This was against "the kings of Zobah." (1 Sam.
14:47.) Zobah was situated near Damascus, northeast of Palestine, and
was the head of a kingdom until subjected in the reign of David. It is
likely that Saul's campaign was a defensive one, protecting his border
against a Syrian inroad, but no places or particulars are named.

6. _The Amalekite War._ (1 Sam. 14:48; 15:1-35.) This marked the turning
point in Saul's career; for, though a signal victory, it was the
occasion of his alienation from Samuel, the priests and the prophetic
order, and the beginning of his decline. The Amalekites were wild
Bedouins of the desert, whose presence made the southern border unsafe,
and against whom an ancient ban had been pronounced. They were to be
utterly destroyed, not merely conquered or despoiled. Saul assembled his
army at Telaim, on the southern border (probably _el Kuseir_, between
Beersheba and the Dead Sea), and marched into the land of the
Amalekites, destroyed their principal city, laid waste their country,
and brought away their king a prisoner. But the command had been, not to
plunder, but to destroy; as the safety of Israel (and, we may add, the
salvation of the world through Israel) was endangered by these nomad
hordes; and Saul, after leading his host with their plunder over the
mountains of Judah, met Samuel at Gilgal, and received a rebuke for his
disobedience, and the warning of his own rejection as the theocratic
king.

7. _The Second Philistine War._ (1 Sam. 17, 18.) War was the normal
condition between the Israelites and the Philistines, and there were
doubtless many battles and campaigns of which no mention is made. But
this was notable for the first appearance of DAVID, the destined king,
who had been privately anointed by Samuel at Bethlehem. The Philistines
were encamped at a place called Ephes-dammim, or Shochoh, and the
Israelites across the Valley of Elah, where between the two hosts David
met the gigantic Goliath of Gath, and killed him, in a deed of mingled
skill and courage. As a result the Philistines fled, and were pursued by
Israel even to the gates of Ekron and Gath. David was now brought
prominently into notice, and became one of Saul's household at Gibeah,
though soon an object of suspicion by the jealous king.

III. =Saul's Pursuit of David= (1 Sam. 19-28) is the principal subject
of the history during the close of his reign. We have indicated upon the
map, by a red line, the wanderings of David during this period, as
nearly as the localities have been identified, and have marked each
place by a number.

1. At _Gibeah_, the capital, David was more than once threatened with
death, until at last he fled from Saul's wrath to Ramah.

2. At _Ramah_, David was with Samuel and the "sons of the prophets," in
a neighborhood called Naioth, "pastures," or "dwellings." Here Saul came
to slay him, but was overcome by the ardent worship of the prophetic
band, and, forgetting his errand, joined in their devotions, while David
escaped once more to Gibeah. (1 Sam. 19:18-24.)

3. At _Gibeah_, David found a place of hiding for a few days, and then
met his friend Jonathan, in the farewell interview, when "the arrows"
were shot as tokens. (1 Sam. 20.)

4. David's first stopping place, in his permanent exile, was at _Nob_,
where stood the Tabernacle. Here he received food, and took the sword of
Goliath, which he carried as his weapon during his wanderings. This act
of hospitality afterward cost the high-priest and many of his order
their lives, at the hand of Saul. (1 Sam. 21:1-9; 22:6-23.) Nob was
probably about two miles north of Jerusalem.

5. From Nob, David made his way down the mountains to _Gath_, at that
time the head of the Philistine league. Here he was suspected by the
Philistines, and compelled to escape by a stratagem. (1 Sam. 21:10-15.)

6. He found a hiding place in the _Cave of Adullam_. This was in the
Shefelah, or low country, perhaps at _Beit-jibrin_, where immense
caverns are found. Here a force of men gathered around him, and his aged
parents and brothers joined him, probably from a well-grounded fear,
that Saul, who about this time slaughtered the priests for an act of
kindness to David, would not scruple to kill the members of his family.
(1 Sam. 22:1, 2.)

7. To find a safe refuge for his parents, David left Judah, and went
into the land of Moab. Here he placed his parents in the care of the
king of Moab, while David and his men took up their abode at _Mizpeh of
Moab_, in a place called "the hold." This may have been at _Kerak_. (1
Sam. 22:3-5.)

8. By the advice of the prophet Gad, who probably had been one of his
companions at Samuel's "school of the prophets," in Ramah, David led his
little army back to the land of Judah, and made his headquarters in the
_Forest of Hareth_ (perhaps _Kharas_, in the mountains near Hebron).
Here he received news of the massacre of the priests, and was joined by
Abiathar, bearing the ephod of the high-priest. (1 Sam. 22:5, 20-23.)

9. Next, he led his men to _Keilah_ (_Kilah_, in the mountains northwest
of Hebron), to repel an attack of the Philistines. But, learning that
the ungrateful people were about to betray him to Saul, he removed in
haste to the wilderness between Hebron and the Dead Sea, called
Jeshimon, "waste." (1 Sam. 23:1-13.)

10. In this wilderness David remained for a time, at _Ziph_ (_Tell Zif_,
south of Hebron). Here he met his friend Jonathan for the last time. His
followers scattered, and David was alone, except for the presence of a
few faithful companions. The Ziphites were willing to betray him to
Saul, and he was again compelled to flee. (1 Sam. 23:14-24.)

11. His next hiding place was a mountain in the wilderness of _Maon_, 7
miles south of Hebron. Here he was again in great danger from Saul, but
was saved by an opportune foray of the Philistines, which called the
king and his troops away. (1 Sam. 25:24-28.)

12. From Ziph he took refuge in the almost inaccessible mountains of
_En-gedi_ (_Ain-jedy_), overlooking the Dead Sea. Here David showed his
generosity in sparing Saul, when it was in his power to slay him. (1
Sam. 24.)

13. About the time of Samuel's death, David returned into the south of
Judah, to the neighborhood of _Maon_, 7 miles south of Hebron. (See
above, Nos. 10, 11. The likeness of the account in the two visits, has
suggested that but one event may be related in both.) Here the
narrow-minded Nabal was saved from David's wrath by the wisdom and
generosity of his wife, Abigail, who, after Nabal's death, became
David's wife. (1 Sam. 25.) About this time, and while David was in or
near this locality, occurred David's act of mercy in sparing Saul's life
a second time, when by moonlight he penetrated to the very centre of
Saul's camp. (1 Sam. 26.)

14. Despairing of safety in Saul's realm during his reign, David finally
took refuge in _Gath_ (_Tell es Safieh_), on the Shefelah, the capital
of the Philistines. Here he was more kindly received than before (see
No. 5), as his relations with Saul were better understood, and he was
able to obtain from Achish, the king of Gath, the grant of a city as his
home. (1 Sam. 27:1-4.)

15. The place allotted to David, was _Ziklag_, on the south of Judah,
which was at that time recognized as a possession of the Philistines.
Its location is unknown, but we have followed Conder in placing it at
_Zuheilikah_, 11 miles south of east from Gaza. Here David remained
during the closing years of Saul's reign. He accompanied the
Philistines as far as Aphek, in Mount Ephraim, but was sent back, from a
fear lest he might desert to the Israelites. Returning, he found his
home plundered by a roving band of Amalekites, pursued them, rescued his
family and possessions, and also took a great quantity of booty, which
he judiciously used in making presents to the leading people of various
places in Judah, after the death of Saul. (1 Sam. 27, 29, 30.) These
places are located upon the map as far as they are known.

16. From Ziklag David went up into the mountain region at _Hebron_, soon
after the death of Saul. Here he was made king, first of the tribe of
Judah, and afterward of all Israel. (2 Sam. 2:1-3.)

IV. =Saul's Death.= This took place B.C. 1010, when Saul had reigned 40
years. We have noticed two wars with the Philistines as prominent in the
history of Saul's reign. We call the last campaign of Saul the _third_
Philistine war, as no others are related, though their existence may be
inferred. This marked the flood tide of Philistine power; for it left
them at Saul's death in command not only of the Plain of Esdraelon and
the Jordan Valley, but of all the centre of the country. Their armies
met at Aphek, in the tribe of Benjamin (their old rallying place, 1 Sam.
4:1), and thence marched northward to the Plain of Esdraelon, at the
foot of Mount Gilboa, on which the Israelites were encamped. Saul, full
of fear, went around the Philistine camp to the village of Endor, where
he sought the counsel of a "woman having a familiar spirit," and met the
spirit of Samuel, which gave him warning that on the morrow he should
die. The battle was fought on the next day. Saul and three of his sons,
including the princely Jonathan, were slain; and Israel experienced the
heaviest defeat thus far in its history. All the middle section of the
land of Palestine was conquered by the Philistines, cutting the tribes
in sunder in each direction, from north to south and from east to west.
At such a low ebb were the fortunes of the Chosen People, when David
ascended the throne. Saul's body was fastened up on the wall of the
Canaanite city of Beth-shean, but was rescued by the warriors of
Jabesh-gilead, in grateful remembrance of Saul's brave deed in behalf of
their city, early in his reign. (1 Sam. 31.)

Upon the map the following are indicated: 1. The portions of the land
under Philistine and Canaanite control are given in yellow, while the
territory governed by Saul is shown in pink. The mountain region was
held by Israel, and the lowlands, both by the sea and the Jordan, by the
Philistines. 2. The names of Philistine cities are printed in red. Some
of these were their own hereditary possessions; others (as Aphek, Geba
and Bethel) were fortresses in the mountain region, garrisoned to hold
Israel in subjection. 3. The battle-fields and wars of Saul are
indicated by flags, and numbered. (1.) Jabesh-gilead, over the
Ammonites. (1 Sam. 11.) (2.) Michmash, over the Philistines. (1 Sam.
14.) (3.) In Moab, at some unknown place. (1 Sam. 14:47.) (4.) In Edom,
at a place also unknown. (1 Sam. 14:47.) (5.) Over the Syrians of Zobah.
(1 Sam. 14:47.) This we have indicated as taking place in the half tribe
of Manasseh, East; but its precise location is unknown. (6.) "A city of
Amalek," place unknown. (1 Sam. 15:5.) (7.) Valley of Elah, over the
Philistines. (1 Sam. 17:2.) (8.) Mount Gilboa. (1 Sam. 31.) 4. The
various places named in Saul's pursuit of David are shown upon the map,
with their most probable identifications. These places are: (1.) Gibeah.
(2.) Ramah. (3.) Gibeah. (4.) Nob. (5.) Gath. (6.) Adullam. (7.) Mizpeh
of Moab. (8.) Hareth. (9.) Keilah. (10.) Ziph. (11.) Maon. (12.)
En-gedi. (13.) Maon. (14.) Gath. (15.) Ziklag. (16.) Hebron.


OUTLINE FOR REVIEW.

I. _Saul's Appointment._ Ramah, Gibeah, Gilgal, Shalisha, Zuph.

II. _Wars of Saul._ 1. Ammonite. (Jabesh-gilead, Bezek.) 2. First
Philistine. (Geba, Michmash.) 3. Moabite. 4. Edomite. 5. Syrian. 6.
Amalekite. (Telaim, Gilgal.) 7. Second Philistine. (Valley of Elah.)

III. _Pursuit of David._ 1. Gibeah. 2. Ramah. 3. Gibeah. 4. Nob. 5.
Gath. 6. Adullam. 7. Mizpeh of Moab. 8. Hareth. 9. Keilah. 10. Ziph. 11.
Maon. 12. En-gedi. 13. Maon. 14. Gath. 15. Ziklag. 16. Hebron.

IV. _Saul's Death._ Aphek, Gilboa, Beth-shean, Jabesh-gilead.

[Illustration: JERICHO.]

[Illustration: THE EMPIRE OF DAVID AND SOLOMON.]



THE EMPIRE OF DAVID AND SOLOMON.


[Illustration: TOWER OF DAVID.]

THE greatness of David may be shown by a comparison of our last map with
the present one, keeping in mind the difference of scale between them.
David succeeded to the throne of Israel when it represented about 6,000
square miles of territory, more or less, under control; he left to his
successor, Solomon, an empire embracing an area of 60,000 square miles.
See the comparative diagram on page 70. The map now before us being upon
a scale greatly reduced from that of Saul's kingdom, it will be
impossible to represent upon it all the localities mentioned in the
history of David and Solomon. Those in the neighborhood of Jerusalem
will be found on the map of the Environs of Jerusalem, page 83, and
those of minor importance in the land of Israel may be found on the map
of Palestine Among the Tribes, page 58.

We present the events and localities under the following outline: 1.
David's Reign over Judah. 2. The Union of Palestine. 3. David's Foreign
Conquests. 4. David's Calamities. 5. The Closing Events. 6. The Reign of
Solomon.

I. =David's Reign over Judah.= (2 Sam. 1-4.) After the death of Saul,
David went from Ziklag to Hebron, and was there accepted as king over
the tribe of Judah. His reign lasted for seven years, from 1010 to 1003
B.C. During a part of this time, Ishbosheth, the only remaining son of
Saul, was also nominally reigning over a large part of the land, the
real power being held by Abner, Saul's general, and the ablest man of
his time. War naturally arose, and many battles were doubtless fought,
of which but one, at Gibeon, is related. At last, Abner and Ishbosheth
were both murdered, though not by David's desire nor with his
approbation; and, with one consent, David was accepted as king over all
the Twelve Tribes.

II. =The Union of Palestine.= (2 Sam. 5-7.) David was now ruler over the
mountain region only, as Saul had been before him, and in various places
were garrisons of the Philistines, and cities held by the Canaanite
races. He began by a siege of Jebus, or Jebusi, a fortress of the
Jebusites, on the border of Judah and Benjamin. Though deemed
impregnable by the natives, it was taken by storm, and, under its new
name, JERUSALEM, became the capital of the kingdom. The Philistines had
been friendly with David in the past, and were perhaps recognized as the
"lords paramount" during his reign over Judah; but now they were jealous
of his growing power, and, as of old, entered the mountain region with
their armies. But in David they met an enemy of a different character
from either Samson or Saul. Two battles were fought, both near
Jerusalem, at a place called "the Valley [or plain] of the Rephaim"; and
in each the Philistines were utterly routed.

David followed up his advantage, after the second victory, by marching
down upon the Shefelah and the plain. He took Gath (called Methegammah,
"the bridle of the metropolis," in 2 Sam. 8:1), and subjugated the
entire Philistine confederacy so completely that thenceforward they
ceased to trouble Israel for centuries.

The land was now united, and David turned his attention to the religious
reformation of the people, brought the ark from Baale, or
Kirjath-jearim, to Jerusalem, planned for the Temple to be built by his
successor, and organized the worship on a magnificent scale. (2 Sam. 6,
7.)

III. =David's Foreign Conquests.= These were not altogether inspired by
ambition, but were necessary for the safety of Israel, and to keep its
people from the contamination of the idolatry of the surrounding
nations. These conquests are indicated by flags on the map, though the
precise locations of the battles are not known in all cases. The lands
conquered by David were as follows:

1. _Moab._ (2 Sam. 8:2.) It is stated by Josephus, that the cruel
treatment of the Moabites (though fully in accord with the customs of
Oriental war in that day) was in revenge for the slaughter of David's
parents by the king of Moab, an event not mentioned in the Bible.

2. _Zobah_ (2 Sam. 8:3, 4), at that time the principal state between
Damascus and the Euphrates.

3. _Damascus_ (2 Sam. 8:5-12), in alliance with Zobah, and the largest
city in Syria.

4. _Edom_ (2 Sam. 8:13, 14), south of the Dead Sea. The word "Syrians,"
in verse 13, should undoubtedly be "Edomites." The battle was fought at
the "valley of salt," an unknown place, but probably near Sela, or
Petra, the capital of Edom.

5. _Ammon._ (2 Sam. 10-13.) This was the longest of David's wars, and
was waged not against the Ammonites only, but against the allied forces
of several small Syrian kingdoms, as Zobah (already conquered, but not
subjugated), Maachah, Rehob and Tob, districts on the north and east of
Israel. Three great battles were fought; the first near Medeba; the
second at Helam, an uncertain locality (if it be the name of a place,
which is questioned, as the word means "host," or "army"); and the
third, the siege and capture of Rabbah, the capital of the Ammonites,
which ended the war. During this war occurred the crime of David with
Bathsheba, and the murder of Uriah. (2 Sam. 11.) This completed the
series of conquests, and made the throne of David supreme from the Red
Sea to the Euphrates. One fact which made these conquests possible was
that the tribes around Israel were not united into strong nations, as
afterward in the cases of Syria and Assyria, but were independent
principalities, easily overcome in turn by the trained warriors of
David.

As a result of these wars the kingdom of David, which he transmitted to
his son Solomon, was the largest in the Oriental world at that time. The
Assyrian empire had not arisen, the great kings of Egypt had passed
away, and the East was broken up into small principalities, among which
Israel easily rose to power.

                COMPARATIVE AREA OF PALESTINE
                    AT DIFFERENT PERIODS.

                  +------------------+
                  |                  |
                  |                  |
                  |                  |
                  |     Solomon,     |                      +-------+
   +-------+      |                  |              +-------+       |
   |       |      |    B.C. 1000,    +-------+Judah |Macca- | Herod |
   |Joshua,+------+                  | Ten   | B.C. | bees, |  the  |
   |  B.C. |Saul, |   60,000 Sq. M.  |Tribes,| 975, |  B.C. | Great,|
   | 1443, |B.C.  |                  |  B.C. +------+  100, |B.C. 6,|
   |       |1095, |                  |  975, |      |       |       |
   |11,000 |6,000 |                  | 9,400 |3,400 |11,000 |12,000 |
   |Sq. M. |Sq. M.|                  |Sq. M. |Sq. M.|Sq. M. |Sq. M. |
   +-------+------+------------------+-------+------+-------+-------+

[Illustration: THE ORIENTAL WORLD IN THE TIME OF DAVID.]

IV. =The Calamities of David's Reign.= (2 Sam. 12-20, 24.) Three great
troubles befell David and his kingdom as the result of his sins.

1. The first and greatest was the _Rebellion of Absalom_. We can only
mention the places referred to in the history, not relate its events.
Geshur, where Absalom was in exile, was a small kingdom under the rule
of Absalom's maternal grandfather. Tekoa, whence came the "wise woman,"
was near Bethlehem. The places near Jerusalem named in David's flight,
may be seen on the map of the Environs of Jerusalem, page 83. David's
resting place was at Mahanaim, east of the Jordan, and south of the
Hieromax. Absalom was defeated and killed at "the wood of Ephraim," a
locality not in the tribe of that name, but east of the Jordan, perhaps
where the Ephraimites sustained a great defeat from Jephthah. (Judges
12.)

2. The second calamity was the _Rebellion of Sheba_, following soon
after Absalom's, and arising from the same disaffection. It was ended at
Abel-beth-maachah, in the extreme north, by the death of Sheba. (2 Sam.
20.)

3. The third calamity was the _Pestilence_, after the numbering of the
people, an enumeration with a view either to heavy levies of assessment,
or to foreign conquest; either of which was contrary to the spirit of
the Hebrew constitution. (2 Sam. 24.) The places named will be found
upon the map, except the inexplicable Tahtim-hodshi, which may mean "the
land newly inhabited," but whose location is unknown. The sacrifice of
David at Araunah's threshing-floor gave the location to the great altar
of the Temple, probably the rude rock which now rises from the floor of
the Mosque of Omar, in Jerusalem.

V. =The Close of David's Reign= (1 Kings 1, 2; 1 Chron. 22-29) was
occupied in the organization of his empire, and in preparation for the
building of the Temple. There are but few localities named with this
period, and they may be easily found upon the maps, those near Jerusalem
being upon the map of its Environs.

VI. =The Reign of Solomon= was a period of peace, with few incidents to
mark its even tenor. Its principal event was the building of the Temple.
We insert here a plan of Solomon's Temple, largely conjectural, as
neither of the descriptions is sufficiently exact for a complete
knowledge. The Temple, as it afterward stood in the time of Christ, may
be found described on page 139.

[Illustration: PLAN OF SOLOMON'S TEMPLE.]

Upon the map are noted most of the battle-fields, which may be
enumerated as follows: 1. At Gibeon, the victory over Abner and the
adherents of Ishbosheth. 2. At Jerusalem, its capture from the
Jebusites. 3, 4. Near Jerusalem, not indicated upon the map; two
decisive victories over the Philistines. 5. Gath, the capture of the
Philistine capital. 6. The victory over the Moabites, probably near Ar.
7. The conquest of Zobah, north of Damascus. 8. The conquest of Damascus
and its dependent places. 9. The conquest of Edom, near Sela. 10. The
victory at Medeba, over the Ammonites. 11. The victory at Helam, near
the Euphrates, over the Syrian allies of the Ammonites. 12. The siege
and capture of Rabbah. 13. The defeat of Absalom's army in the wood of
Ephraim, east of the Jordan.


OUTLINE FOR TEACHING AND REVIEW.

I. Draw a rough map of the country from the Red Sea to the Euphrates, as
in the map of the kingdom of David and Solomon, and locate upon it the
land of Israel proper, showing the dominion of Saul.

II. Draw the boundary line to show the kingdom of David at Hebron, and
that of Ishbosheth at Mahanaim; mention and locate the battle of Gibeon.

III. Show in order the conquests of David, writing upon the board the
names of the lands conquered in order, and indicating the battles by
flags.

IV. Show the dimensions of David's kingdom, by another map of the
Oriental World in the time of David. Locate and drill upon the leading
lands and capitals.

V. Give an account of the calamities in David's reign, show the flight
of David, and locate the battle with Absalom.

[Illustration: CHURCH OF NATIVITY, BETHLEHEM.]

[Illustration: ANCIENT JERUSALEM, IN THE NEW TESTAMENT PERIOD.]



ANCIENT JERUSALEM.


I. =Names.= The city of Jerusalem has been known by a different name
during each of the most important periods of its varied history. 1. In
the patriarchal age it was the seat of Melchizedek's priestly kingdom,
and was known as SALEM, properly pronounced _Shalem_. (Gen. 14:18; Psa.
76:2.) 2. During the Jebusite period it was known as JEBUS. (Judges
19:10.) Probably at this time the full name was _Jebus-shalem_. 3. After
the capture by David it received the name JERUSALEM, properly
_Jeru-shalaim_. The earliest instance of this name is in Judges 1:7, 8,
where it may have been used by anticipation; or there may have been a
change, for euphony, from Jebus-shalem to _Jeru-shalem_. The word means
"possession of peace." The Greek form of this word is Hierosolyma. 4. It
is called by the prophets by the poetical name of ARIEL, "the lion of
God." (Isa. 29:1.) 5. More than once in the Bible it is called "the holy
city." (Matt. 4:5; 27:53.) 6. After its destruction by Titus, it was
rebuilt by the emperor Ælius Hadrianus, A.D. 135, and named ÆLIA, or, in
full, ÆLIA CAPITOLINA, a name that it held until the year 536 A.D.,
when the ancient name Jerusalem again became prevalent. 7. It is now
known to the Arabs as EL KHUDS, "the holy."

[Illustration: DAVID'S TOMB.]

II. =Location.= The city of Jerusalem stands in latitude 31° 46´ 45´´
north, and longitude 35° 13´ 25´´ east of Greenwich, the observations
being taken from the dome of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. This may
have been outside the ancient wall, but was certainly near it. The city
is 32 miles from the Mediterranean, 18 from the Dead Sea, 20 from
Hebron, and 36 from Samaria; and its general elevation is about 2,500
feet above the level of the ocean.

III. =Geologic Formation.= "The vicinity of Jerusalem consists of strata
of the Eocene and chalk formations, having a general dip down the
watershed of about 10° east-southeast. The action of denudation has left
patches of the various strata; but, generally speaking, the oldest are
on the west. The upper part of the Olivet chain consists of a soft white
limestone, with fossils and flint bands belonging to the Upper Chalk;
beneath this are, first, a hard silicious chalk, with flint bands;
second, a soft white limestone, much used in the ancient buildings of
the city; third, a hard chalk, often pink and white in color, and then
known as Santa Croce marble. The underlying beds belonging to the period
of the Greensand are not visible, the lowest strata in the Kedron
precipices belonging to the Lower Chalk epoch." (_Encyclo. Britan._)

IV. =Valleys.= The peculiar natural features of Jerusalem, and much of
its history, are due to the arrangement of its three valleys. These
unite near the southeastern corner of the city. 1. _The Valley of the
Kedron_, called also "the Valley of Jehoshaphat" (perhaps referred to in
Joel 3:2, 12); and "the king's dale" (Gen. 14:17; 2 Sam. 18:18). This
lies on the east of the city, between Mount Moriah and the Mount of
Olives. During the summer it is dry; but in the rainy season it is the
bed of a brook, from which it receives its name. 2. _The Valley of the
Tyropoeon_ (a word supposed to mean "cheesemongers," though the meaning
and derivation are questioned) branches from the Kedron Valley at the
southern end of Mount Moriah, and extends in a northwesterly direction.
The principal ravine curves in crescent form around Mount Zion, but a
shallower and less noticeable branch extends further to the north. This
valley is now almost obliterated by the accumulation of debris, but its
ancient course has been established by recent soundings. 3. _The Valley
of Hinnom_, called also, "the valley of the son of Hinnom" (Josh. 15:8),
forms the western and southern border of the city, and unites with the
Kedron Valley near its junction with the Tyropoeon. Its lower portion,
near the Kedron, was called Tophet, or "place of fire" (Jer. 7:31), and
Gehenna (Ge-Hinnom). It was at one time the seat of idolatrous worship
to Molech, and afterward became a cesspool, and place where the offal of
the city was burned. Gihon (1 Kings 1:33) is located by most in the
upper portion of this valley; but, by Conder and a few others, in the
lower portion of the Kedron Valley, at the spring en Rogel.

V. =Mountains.= Jerusalem is and has ever been emphatically a place of
mountains; as it stood anciently upon four distinct hills, with others
around its walls on every side. The names of these hills are well known,
but the identification of them is neither easy nor unanimous among
investigators. We name the locations as given by the largest number of
leading scholars.

1. _Mount Zion_ is the largest and highest of the four hills within the
city. It lies on the southwestern section, between the Valleys of the
Tyropoeon on the east and north, and Hinnom on the south and west. Its
crown is 2,540 feet high. Upon it, probably, stood the Jebusite fortress
which so long defied the Israelites, but was finally taken by David.

2. _Acra_ is a little east of north from Zion, and is an irregularly
shaped eminence, now 2,490 feet high, but anciently higher, as its crest
was cut down by the Maccabean princes, in order to bring it nearer to
the level of the Temple-hill. It is surrounded upon the south, east and
north by the two arms of the Tyropoeon Valley. On this may have stood
the castle, or Millo. (2 Sam. 5:9.)

3. On the eastern side of the city is _Mount Moriah_, the place once
occupied by the Temple, and now by the Dome of the Rock, mistakenly
called the Mosque of Omar. It lies between the two valleys of the Kedron
on the east and the Tyropoeon on the west, and is 2,432 feet high. Its
southern end is a steep declivity, called Ophel (in Josephus, Ophlas),
running southward to the junction of the valleys.

4. _Bezetha_ is a little west of north from Mount Moriah, and separated
from it by a slight depression. It lies between the Kedron Valley and
the northern branch of the Tyropoeon. Only in the later age of New
Testament history was it within the walls of the city. Its height is a
little over 2,500 feet.

These four mountains are all that are named as within the ancient walls.
Calvary was not a mountain, but merely a place outside the city where
the crucifixion of Jesus took place; so that it is not to be counted in
the list. But we must notice, in addition, the most important of the
"mountains round about Jerusalem."

5. _The Mount of Olives_ lies east of the Kedron Valley, and is a range
of hills having several summits, which are a little under 3,000 feet in
height. (1.) The northern peak, called _Scopus_, lies northeast of the
wall, and is supposed to be the point from which Titus obtained his
first view of the doomed city. (2.) The second is called _Viri Galilæi_,
"men of Galilee," from a tradition that the angels, at the time of
Christ's ascension, appeared upon it. (Acts 1:11.) (3.) The central
summit is the _Mount of Ascension_, 2,665 feet high, and directly east
of the Temple. It is probable that the true place of the ascension is to
be found on the eastern slope of this hill, near Bethany, and not in
sight of Jerusalem. (4.) The next peak southward is called "_The
Prophets_," from a tradition that some of the prophets were buried upon
its side near the Kedron. (5.) The southern peak is called the _Mount of
Offense_, from the idol worship which Solomon established upon it. (1
Kings 11:7.)

6. South of the Valley of Hinnom, and directly opposite to Mount Zion,
is an eminence known as the _Hill of Evil Counsel_, where Judas is said
to have bargained for the betrayal of his Lord. Upon the slope of this
hill is the traditional Aceldama, "the field of blood." (Matt. 27:7, 8.)

VI. =Walls.= Of these, three are named by the early historians and
mentioned in the Bible. 1. The first wall was built by David and
Solomon, and surrounded what was known as "the city of David." It
included Zion, Moriah, Ophel, and the southern portion of the Tyropoeon
Valley. The lines of this wall may still be traced and the ancient
foundations shown in various places. 2. The second wall, including Acra,
extended in a curved line from the tower Antonia, north of the Temple,
to a point not yet marked with certainty, on the northern border of
Mount Zion. The location of Calvary and the place of the Saviour's
burial depend upon the question, whether this wall ran outside or inside
of the place where now stands the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. For, as
these were "outside the gate," if the wall include the traditional
localities, they are wrongly located, and the true places must be sought
elsewhere, perhaps near the so-called Grotto of Jeremiah, north of the
city. We indicate both localities, but regard the northern as
preferable. 3. The third wall was not built until after the time of
Christ, but was begun by Herod Agrippa, and was completed not long
before the Roman siege. This section was called "the new city," and
included Mount Bezetha, and the region north and northwest of Mount
Zion. Only a small portion of the wall can be located with certainty.

VII. =History of Jerusalem.= This may be briefly noticed under seven
periods.

1. _The Patriarchal Period_ (B.C. 2000-1300). The earliest mention of
Jerusalem is that in Gen. 14:18, which, taken with Psa. 76:2, seems to
indicate the place, though the identity is questioned by some scholars.
In the time of Abraham, B.C. 1918, according to the common chronology,
Jerusalem was the seat of a kingdom under the priest Melchizedek, who
received homage and tithes, as God's representative, from the patriarch.
At that time it was a centre, not only of political power, but of a
religious worship which was recognized by Abraham as divine and
spiritual.

2. _The Jebusite Period_ (B.C. 1300-1003). The next reference to
Jerusalem (and the earliest certain account) is at the time of the
conquest, B.C. 1210. At that period it was held by the Jebusites, a
race of Canaanite origin, small in numbers, but of indomitable courage
and resolution, since they were able to hold their city for four
centuries against all the power of Israel. Their king, Adoni-zedek
(Josh. 10:1), may have been a descendant of the pious Melchi-zedek, as
the names are similar; but the ancient purity of the people's worship
had been lost in the idolatry of the surrounding races. The little city
of Jebus, as it was then called, formed a confederation with the other
clans of the south to resist Joshua's invading host. But in the decisive
battle of Beth-horon the Canaanites were routed, their five kings were
slain (among them the king of Jerusalem), and the alliance was broken
up. For the present, Jerusalem was not attacked, but its territory was
assigned to the tribe of Benjamin. (Josh. 18:28.) Soon after the death
of Joshua, however, it was besieged by the united tribes of Judah and
Simeon, as dangerous to the northern frontier of the former. From Judges
1:8, and the history of Josephus, we learn that the lower city (perhaps
on Acra) was taken and burned; but the fortress was found impregnable
"by reason of its walls and also of the nature of the place."
(Josephus.) The city was soon rebuilt (Judges 19:11), and remained in
Jebusite hands through all the age of the Judges and the reign of Saul.

3. _The Royal Period_ (B.C. 1003-587). With the accession of David a new
era began in Israel, and every part of the kingdom soon felt the strong
hand of its new master. He was not one to brook a foreign fortress in
the centre of his realm, and in the first year of his reign over united
Israel he marched against it, and demanded its surrender. Trusting to
their strong situation, the Jebusites refused, and, as an insult, placed
"the blind and the lame" on its walls in mockery of his attempt. But,
under the valiant Joab, the height was scaled, the fortress was taken,
and Jerusalem was thenceforth "the city of David." (2 Sam. 5.) David
made it his capital, brought thither the ark of the covenant, and
surrounded it with a new wall. Solomon enriched it with treasures, and
with its greatest glory, the Temple on Mount Moriah. After the division
it remained the capital of Judah, though close to the border of the Ten
Tribes. It was taken without resistance from Rehoboam, by Shishak, the
king of Egypt, and robbed of its wealth, 930 B.C. In the reign of
Jehoshaphat it was restored to something like its former prosperity; but
under his son Jehoram, B.C. 840, it was taken by a sudden attack of the
Philistines and Arabians, and again plundered. Under Athaliah it became
a shrine of abominable Baal worship, but was reformed by Jehoiada in the
earlier days of the reign of Joash. Joash, however, in his later years
allowed the people to relapse into idolatry, with the usual result; for,
about B.C. 800, the powerful Hazael, king of Syria, overran the
Shefelah, defeated the Judaites, and was only kept from entering the
city by a gift of its treasures. Amaziah, the next king, elated by a
victory, offered battle at Beth-shemesh to Joash, king of Israel, then
the most powerful state between Egypt and Assyria. He was defeated; and,
as a result, Jerusalem was entered by the Israelites, its wall was
thrown down, and it was again plundered. The city suffered during the
wicked reign of Ahaz, but was restored and divinely protected from its
Assyrian besiegers in the good reign of Hezekiah. After the death of
Josiah it was entered by the Egyptians under Necho; but its final
destruction was wrought by Nebuchadnezzar, of the Babylonian empire.
Twice he visited it with a heavy hand, setting up one king after
another; and, when his vassal Zedekiah again rebelled, he besieged it
for more than a year, with some intermissions, and at last, in B.C. 587,
made a breach in its walls and took it by storm. Then, for the first
time, the city was absolutely destroyed, and made a heap of ruins, while
its people were carried into captivity.

[Illustration: NATURAL FEATURES OF JERUSALEM.]

4. _The Period of Restoration_ (B.C. 587-70 A.D.). After lying desolate
for 50 years, the city was again occupied under Zerubbabel, by the
decree of Cyrus, B.C. 536. For nearly a century it remained unwalled and
was thinly inhabited, until its wall was rebuilt by Nehemiah, B.C. 445.
Thenceforward it grew rapidly, and soon became again the metropolis as
well as the capital of the Jewish state. Alexander the Great visited it,
B.C. 332, and gave the Jews certain privileges in his empire. The city
was taken by Ptolemy Soter, king of Egypt, B.C. 320, because the Jews
would not fight on the Sabbath. In B.C. 203 it was taken by Antiochus,
the king of Syria, and, after a revolt, again by his son, Antiochus
Epiphanes, in B.C. 170 and B.C. 168. The latter capture was followed by
a bitter persecution of the Jewish religion, in which thousands of
lives were sacrificed. But a deliverer arose, in the family of the
priest Mattathias, whose son, Judas Maccabeus, rescued the city and
restored the worship in the Temple. Under the Maccabean princes
Jerusalem was generally prosperous, though with occasional reverses. The
Romans first besieged and took the city under Pompey, B.C. 65. Herod the
Great beautified the city, erected many buildings, and rebuilt the
Temple throughout. But the most terrible of all scenes in Jerusalem's
annals, were those which took place in the revolt of the Jews against
the Roman empire, and the destruction of the city by Titus, A.D. 70. For
years it was the arena of riot, of the bloody strife of factions, and of
massacre, which scarcely ceased during the final siege. At last the city
and Temple were taken by Titus, demolished and burned, and for a second
time Jerusalem was left an utter desolation.

5. _The Roman Period_ (A.D. 70-637). For fifty years after its
destruction Jerusalem is not mentioned, and probably remained
uninhabited. But, after the attempt of the false Messiah Bar-cocheba to
rebuild the city and Temple, and restore the independence of the
Jews,--an attempt which was only quelled by calling forth all the power
of the empire,--the emperor Hadrian resolved to establish a heathen city
upon its site. He named it Ælia Capitolina, built on Moriah a temple to
Jupiter, and allowed no Jews to enter the walls, a prohibition which
remained until the empire became Christian. Constantine, the first
Christian emperor, restored the ancient name; and his mother, Helena,
made a pilgrimage to the city, A.D. 326, which now began to be regarded
as a sacred place by Christians. At this time the first Church of the
Holy Sepulchre was built, over the place where Helena discovered the
tomb of Jesus. The emperor Julian, A.D. 362, out of hatred to the
Christians, undertook to rebuild the Temple, and make it once more a
Jewish centre; but was defeated in his plans by earthquakes and the
leaping forth of subterranean fires, as is related by Ammianus
Marcellinus, himself a heathen, the friend and companion in arms of the
emperor. He states: "Horrible balls of fire, breaking out near the
foundations, with frequent and reiterated attacks, rendered the place
from time to time inaccessible to the scorched and blasted workmen; and,
the victorious element continuing in this, obstinately and resolutely
bent, as it were, to drive them to a distance, the undertaking was
abandoned." In 529 A.D. the emperor Justinian founded a church upon the
site where now is the Mosque el Aksa, and a tide of pilgrims, increasing
with each generation, began to pour upon the holy places. In 614 A.D.
the city was taken by the Persian king, Chosroes II., the churches were
destroyed, and multitudes of priests and monks were slain; but 14 years
afterward it was retaken by the emperor Heraclius, and held, though but
for a short time, by the Christians.

6. _The Mediæval Period_ (A.D. 637-1517). In 637 Palestine and Jerusalem
passed under the dominion of the Moslems, then ruled by the Caliph Omar;
but the holy places were respected, and the Christians were allowed to
retain their churches. Under the Fatimite caliphs of Cairo the
Christians were persecuted, and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre was
several times destroyed and rebuilt. The pilgrims from Europe brought
trade and tribute, so that the city flourished, in spite of frequent
pillagings and captures by various Arab and Turkish hordes. On July 15,
1099, it was taken by the Crusaders, after a terrible assault, and for
88 years was the seat of a Christian kingdom. Saladin reconquered it in
1187; and various changes in its government and several sieges followed,
until 1517, when it finally passed under the rule of the Turks, who have
since been its masters.

7. _The Modern Period_, from A.D. 1517 until the present, has witnessed
comparatively few changes in the city's condition. The present wall was
built by the sultan Suleiman in 1542. In 1832 it was seized by Mohammed
Ali, Pasha of Egypt, but was again restored to the sultan, through the
interference of the European powers. It is now a city of a population
variously estimated at from twenty to fifty thousand.


OUTLINE FOR TEACHING AND REVIEW.

Have two blackboards (or a large one), and use one for the outline of
the lesson, the other for the map.

I. Teach the _Names_. Salem, Jebus, Jerusalem, Ariel, Ælia Capitolina,
El Khuds.

II. _Location._ 1. Latitude. 2. Longitude. 3. Distances. 4. Elevation.

III. _Geologic Formation._

IV. _Valleys._ Draw a rough map showing the valleys, and name them,
indicating them by initial letters on the map. 1. Kedron. 2. Tyropoeon.
3. Hinnom.

V. _Mountains._ Describe each, and indicate by initial letter. 1. Zion.
2. Acra. 3. Moriah. 4. Bezetha. 5. Olives. Peaks: (1.) Scopus. (2.)
"Viri Galilæi." (3.) Ascension. (4.) Prophets. (5.) Offense. (6.) Evil
Counsel.

VI. _Walls._ Draw them on the board, describe and name. First. (David.)
Second. Third. (Agrippa.)

VII. _History._ 1. Patriarchal. (Melchizedek.) 2. Jebusite.
(Adoni-zedek.) 3. Royal. (David, Jehoshaphat, etc.) 4. Restoration.
(Zerubbabel, Alexander, Ptolemy, Antiochus, Judas Maccabeus, Pompey,
Herod, Titus.) 5. Roman. (Bar-cocheba, Hadrian, Constantine, Julian,
Justinian, Chosroes.) 6. Mediæval. (Omar, Crusaders, Saladin.) 7.
Modern. (Suleiman, Mohammed Ali, etc.)

[Illustration: PANORAMA OF JERUSALEM, FROM THE MOUNT OF OLIVES.]

  Rosel Minaret                                            A 44
  El Kala'a (Citadel)                                      A 45
  Hippicus (Tower of David)                                A 46
  Greek Monastery                                          A 57
  Russian Colony                                        A 75-87
  Hospital                                                 A 77
  Church                                                A 81-82
  Talitha Kumi                                             A 85
  German Hospital for Children                             A 92
  Watchtower on the Road to Yafa                           A 97
  Wely Rimr Monument                                       A 98
  Mosque and Tombs of David                                B 23
  Buildings and Gardens of the Armenian Monastery       B 27-36
  Armenian Seminary                                        B 28
  St. James Church of the Armenians                        B 35
  English Protestant Church                                B 42
  Girl's School of the English Mission                     B 43
  Muristan                                                 B 47
  Mar Hanna (Greek Church)                                 B 47
  Yafa Gate                                                B 48
  Latin Patriarchate                                       B 56
  Church of the Sepulchre                                  B 57
  Kaukab Minaret                                           B 60
  Latin Monastery of St. Salvador                       B 65-66
  Hospice of St. John, and German School                   B 62
  Mulawieh Minaret                                         B 78
  Russian Consulate                                        B 81
  Pilgrims' Houses                                         B 84
  Arabian Protestant Church                                B 91
  Jebel Abu Tôr (Hill of Evil Counsel)                    C 7-9
  Tree of Judas                                            C 8
  Road to Bethlehem                                        C 13
  Mount Zion                                            C 19-29
  Suburb of Neby Daud                                   C 20-24
  Gate of Zion                                             C 25
  Synagogues of the Ashkenasim                    C 28 and B 32
  Hamra Minaret                                            C 72
  Damascus Gate                                            C 79
  Hill of the Grotto of Jeremiah                           C 95
  Place where Peter Wept                                   D 17
  Dwellings for Pilgrims of the Ashkenasim                 D 21
  Gate of Herod                                            D 89
  Mosque el Aksa                                        E 16-22
  Dung Gate                                                E 19
  Moghreb Minaret                                          E 20
  Rothschilds' Hospital                                    E 22
  Kubbet es Sakhra (Dome of the Rock)                   E 31-36
  New Convent of the Roman Catholic Sisters of Zion     E 62-63
  Barracks (Castle of Antonia)                          F 55-56
  Haram esh Sherif (Site of the Temple)                 G 15-39
  Former Serai                                             G 52
  Valley of Hinnom (Wady er Rababi)                    I 1-E 14
  Golden Gate                                           I 30-31
  Gate of St. Stephen (Bab Sitti Mariam)                   I 56
  Moslem Tombs                                    J 27 and J 70
  Road to Gethsemane                               J 55 to N 53
  Road from the Valley of Kedron to the Gate of Zion K 2 to N 4
  Slope toward the Wady Sitti Mariam
      (Valley of Kedron or Jehoshaphat)              Foreground


DESCRIPTION OF MODERN JERUSALEM.

I. =Location.= The modern city of Jerusalem stands upon the ruins of the
ancient, but does not include much of Mount Zion, which was the most
important part in Bible history. It occupies the northern part of Zion,
the hills Acra, Moriah, and part of Bezetha, embracing within its walls
an area of about 210 acres. Its population has been variously estimated,
but is supposed to number about 22,000, of which 12,000 are Jews, 5,000
Moslems, and 5,000 Christians. The view represents it from the eastern
side, having in the foreground the Valley of the Kedron, or of
Jehoshaphat, called by Mohammedans _Wady Sitti Mariam_, "The Valley of
our Lady Mary." On the south, or left of the picture, is the Valley of
Hinnom (_Wady er Rababi_), and beyond it the Hill of Evil Counsel
(_Jebel Abu Tôr_), the traditional place where Judas made the agreement
to betray his Lord. On the northwest, outside the wall, is the extensive
Russian establishment for pilgrims of the Greek Church, containing the
consulate, houses, and a large church. Near it is a Protestant mission
church. North of the wall, on the right of the picture, is a cave called
the Grotto of Jeremiah, supposed by some to represent the place of the
crucifixion and burial of Jesus. The roads running out of the city, and
the places adjoining them, will be described in connection with the map
of the Environs of Jerusalem, page 82.

II. =Walls.= The present walls were built by the Sultan Suleiman, in
1542, on the site of a mediæval wall. Though imposing in appearance,
affording a fine view of the city, and sufficiently strong to protect it
from marauders of the desert, they would be of little avail against
modern methods of warfare. They are in most places 38 feet high, and
contain 34 towers. They form an irregular quadrangle, which may be
roughly described as 3,930 feet long on the north, 2,754 feet on the
east (the front of the engraving), 3,245 feet on the south, and 2,086
feet on the west, making the entire wall 12,015 feet, or 2.292 miles
long.

III. =Gates.= Of these there are seven, two of which are closed. 1. The
Jaffa or Yafa Gate, called by Moslems, _Bab el Khalil_, "Hebron Gate,"
is in the western wall, near the Citadel of David. Through this gate
most travelers enter the city. 2. The Damascus Gate (_Bab el Amud_,
"Gate of the Column,") is in the middle of the northern wall (right of
the picture), and leads to the northward road, over Scopus, past the
(so-called) Tombs of the Kings, to Samaria and Damascus. 3. The Gate of
Herod (_Bab es Zahireh_) is in the northern wall (right of the picture),
but is kept closed during most of the year. 4. The Gate of St. Stephen
(_Bab es Sitti Mariam_, "Gate of our Lady Mary,") is in the eastern wall
(foreground of the picture), and is supposed by some to be the place of
Stephen's martyrdom. The road leads from it past the Garden of
Gethsemane, over Mount Olivet, and through Bethany. 5. The Golden Gate,
walled up, is in the eastern wall, and is shown in the picture in front
of the Dome of the Rock. Its Moslem names are _Bab el Taubeh_, "Gate of
Repentance," and _Bab ed Dahariyeh_, "Eternal Gate." 6. The Dung Gate,
called also the Moorish Gate (_Bab ed Mugharibeh_), is a small portal in
the southern wall, leading to the village of Siloam, but usually closed.
It is shown on the left of the picture. 7. The Zion Gate (_Bab en Neby
Daud_, "Gate of the Prophet David,") is in the southern wall, opening on
Mount Zion, indicated on the picture in the background on the left.

IV. =Quarters.= These are four in number, given to the different
religions; but to them may be added the Temple Enclosure, which forms a
separate section of the city. Their boundaries cannot be traced upon the
picture, but may be seen on the map of Modern Jerusalem, page 81. Two
important streets, crossing each other nearly at right angles, divide
the city into the four unequal sections called quarters. The streets are
David Street, running eastward from the Jaffa (Yafa) Gate, and Damascus
Street, southward from the Damascus Gate; though both have different
names in some places.

1. The Mohammedan Quarter occupies the northeastern half of the city,
and is the foreground of our view. Its principal objects of interest
are, the Church of St. Mary Magdalene, the Church of St. Anne, two
convents, two mosques, a building known as Pilate's Hall, and the narrow
and crooked street known as the Via Dolorosa, "The Sorrowful Way,"
through which Christ is (traditionally) said to have carried his cross;
a street crowded with places commemorating different events in the
passion of our Lord.

2. The Temple Enclosure, called by Moslems _Haram esh Sherif_, "The
Noble Sanctuary," is in the southeastern part of the Mohammedan Quarter
(on the left foreground of the picture). It occupies the site of the
Temple, and probably a part also of the Tower of Antonia. (See map and
description of Ancient Jerusalem, page 72.) It is now a quadrangle of
1,042 feet on the north, 1,530 east (along the front wall in the
picture), 922 south, and 1,601 west, embracing about 35 acres. Its most
prominent building is the _Kubbet es Sakhra_, "The Dome of the Rock,"
often called, but incorrectly, the Mosque of Omar. This is an octagonal
building, each of its sides being 67 feet long, 170 in height, and
surmounted by a dome. Directly under the dome rises a rough native rock,
standing at present nearly 5 feet above the pavement. Some regard this
as the place where the Ark of the Covenant rested in Solomon's Temple;
but most authorities consider it the site of the Altar of Burnt
Offering, and of Araunah's threshing-floor. (2 Sam. 24:18.) In the
southeast corner of the Enclosure stands the Mosque el Aksa (left of the
picture), adjoining the southern wall.

3. The Jewish Quarter is west of the Temple Enclosure. In the picture,
beyond the trees in the Enclosure, may be seen the steep side of the
Tyropoeon Valley. The Jews' Wailing Place, adjoining the Temple
Enclosure, is hidden in the picture by the Mosque el Aksa, but may be
located upon the map. Here the wall contains large blocks of stone,
which may have belonged to the foundations of the court of the ancient
Temple; and at this place a Jewish service of lamentation is held every
week, over the destruction of the Temple and the city. Two domed
buildings may be noticed on the hill beyond the Tyropoeon Valley, the
two synagogues of the Ashkenasim Jews. This quarter, once filthy and
mean, has been greatly improved by the liberality of Sir Moses
Montefiore.

4. The Armenian Quarter is west of the Jewish, in the southwestern
corner of the city. Its most prominent building is the Citadel of David
(_el Kabaa_), an irregular, castellated edifice, containing a lofty
tower. This _may_ occupy the site of the castle built by David, where a
Jebusite fortress had stood before, but the identification is not
certain. Two other buildings in this quarter are named upon the
panoramic view, the Church of St. James, and a seminary.

5. The Christian Quarter is in the northwestern part of the city,
between the Jaffa and Damascus Gates, in the picture. Its most important
locality is the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, where tradition has fixed
the scenes of the crucifixion and resurrection. The church is a group of
buildings, crowned with a dome, and erected at various periods. The Holy
Sepulchre itself is a marble shrine within the cathedral, 26 feet long,
by 18 broad, and 20 feet high. If the ancient wall can be certainly
shown not to have been _outside_ of this place, then the identity of the
holy places may be deemed measurably sure, since the cross and the
sepulchre were undoubtedly near the wall, but without it. Another place
of interest is the Muristan, a ruined castle, which was the headquarters
of the Knights Hospitallers during the Crusades.

V. =Fountains and Pools.= Most of these are without the walls, and only
one is shown in the picture. The identification of the ancient pools is
not easy, and explorers are not agreed with regard to their position and
modern name. 1. The _Birket Mamilla_, supposed by many to represent the
Upper Pool of Gihon (2 Kings 18:17; Isa. 7:3), lies 2,000 feet west of
the Jaffa Gate, and is now 240 feet long by 144 wide, but anciently much
larger. 2. The _Birket es Sultan_, supposed to be the Lower Pool of
Gihon, where Solomon was crowned (1 Kings 1:38), lies just outside the
southwestern corner of the wall, in the Valley of Hinnom. It is narrow,
but 500 feet long. 3. The _Birket es Silwan_, or Pool of Siloam (John
9:7), is in the Tyropoeon Valley, near its junction with the Kedron
Valley, just outside the limit of the picture, on the left. It is 52
feet long, and 18 wide. 4. The _Birket el Hamra_ ("red pond") lies south
of the Pool of Siloam, still further outside of the picture, and is
larger, but now nearly filled up, and without water. Some think that
this is the pool dug by Hezekiah. (2 Chron. 32:30.) 5. The spring
_En-rogel_, called by Christians the Fountain of the Virgin, and by
Moslems _'Ain Umm ed Deraj_ ("the spring the mother of steps," from the
28 steps leading down to it), is the only natural fountain near the
city. It lies in the narrowest part of the Kedron Valley, opposite the
stone Zoheleth. (1 Kings 1:9.) Its action is intermittent, rising and
falling suddenly, sometimes oftener than once a day. From this fact,
some have thought it to be the Pool of Bethesda. (John 5:2-9.) 6. But
most of the explorers regard the Pool of Bethesda as identical with
the _Birket Israel_, which may be found on the picture just within the
eastern (foreground) wall, between the gate of St. Stephen and the
northern wall of the Temple Enclosure, just behind the little domed
building by the wall, to the left of St. Stephen's Gate. This is 360
feet long, by 120 feet wide, and 80 feet deep, but half filled with
rubbish. 7. The _Birket Hamman_ ("Pool of the Bath"), generally known as
the Pool of Hezekiah, is within the wall, adjoining the Muristan on the
west, and hidden by it in the picture. It is supplied with water by an
underground conduit, from the _Birket Mamilla_. 8. To this list we might
add the vast covered reservoirs under the Temple, on Mount Moriah. These
aggregated in their capacity five million gallons, and furnished an
abundant supply of water for the Temple services.

VI. =Outside the Walls.= Some of the important places without the wall
have been already noticed. The Tomb of David (traditional) is on Mount
Zion, near the Gate of Zion; and just a little to the left of it, where
several small domes are seen, is the Coenaculum, or traditional place
where the Last Supper was held. Mount Zion is now, fulfilling prophecy,
"a plowed field," and has but few buildings. On nearly all sides of the
city, outside the wall, are Moslem graves. Northwest of the city, toward
the Russian Colony, is the place where the Assyrian messengers encamped
in the time of Hezekiah. (2 Kings 18.)

[Illustration: MODERN JERUSALEM.]

[Illustration: ENVIRONS OF JERUSALEM.]



THE ENVIRONS OF JERUSALEM.


THE city of Jerusalem occupies a prominent place, not only in the
history but also in the topography of the Holy Land. It is one of the
most elevated sites in a land whose important places were among the
mountains. There are many peaks higher than Mount Zion, on which the
city stands; but few cities in Palestine are built upon a site so lofty.
This fact explains many of the allusions in the Psalms. "Beautiful for
situation," "I will look unto the hills," etc.

There are six roads leading to Jerusalem from different parts of the
land. Starting from the city by each one of these roads, let us notice
the important places upon either side of it.

[Illustration: DEFILE BETWEEN JERUSALEM AND JERICHO.]

I. =The Northern Road.= This starts from the Damascus Gate and leads
almost due north through the centre of the mountain region, toward
Shechem and Damascus, passing more of the historic localities than any
other. Explorers, however, are not agreed upon the identification of all
the places; and our space permits us only to give conclusions without
naming reasons or authorities for the opinion in all cases.

1. About a mile north of Jerusalem, on the west of the path, we find
_Scopus_, the eminence from which Titus, the Roman conqueror, obtained
his first view of the doomed city. According to some authorities this
was also the location of _Mizpeh_, the place of assembly for Israel
during the time of the Judges. But later investigators place Mizpeh at
_Neby Samwil_, on the northwestern road, and we have accepted their
conclusions. (See next page.) Both the location of Mizpeh and that of
Ramah are uncertain. One word means "watch-tower," the other "height,"
so they may be identical, though the references seem to point to
different localities.

2. A mile further, and on the west of the path, is _Nob_ (_el
Isawiyeh_), named as a city of the priests. At this place the Tabernacle
was kept during the reign of Saul; David visited the high-priest and
received the sword of Goliath; and the priest and 70 of his associates
were slain by command of Saul. (1 Sam. 21:1-9; 22:9-19.)

3. _Gibeah_ (_Tuleil el Ful_), "hill of beans," lies on the east of the
road, 2-1/2 miles from the city. The place is first mentioned in the
painful story of the Levite (Judges 19); but its principal interest is
in the fact that it was the home and court of King Saul. "It is now
dreary and desolate, with scarce any ruins save a confused mass of
stones, which form a sort of cairn on the top."--_Tristram._

4. _Anathoth_ (_Anata_), the birthplace of the prophet Jeremiah, and a
priestly city, is 3 miles northeast of Jerusalem, upon a path branching
out of the main road. It is now a village of about 20 houses.

5. Some locate _Ramah_, the home of Samuel, at _Er Ram_, on the east of
the road; but others favor the place at _Neby Samwil_, to be noticed
below.

6. _Michmash_, the scene of Jonathan's daring exploit, lies on a hill
adjoining a ravine, 7 miles northeast of the city; and a mile away, in
plain sight, lies _Geba_, the camping place of Saul's army at the time
of the battle. (1 Sam. 13.) It is now called _Mukmas_.

7. _Ai_--the place where Joshua's army was repulsed by the Canaanites,
on account of the crime of Achan (Josh. 7), and which, after his
punishment, was taken and destroyed by the Israelites--is 9 miles from
the city; a desolate heap, known as _el Tell_.

8. _Beeroth_ (wells), now _el Bireh_, 10 miles north, was one of the
Gibeonite cities which made peace with Israel. (Josh. 9:17.) According
to tradition, this is the place where Joseph and Mary, returning from
Jerusalem, first missed the boy Jesus (Luke 2:44); and it is now the
halting place of caravans going north.

9. _Bethel_, "the house of God" (now _Beitin_), 10 miles north, is a
place of many Scriptural associations. Here Abraham pitched his tent and
built his altar, on his entrance upon the Land of Promise (Gen 12:8);
here Jacob lay down to rest and saw the glorious vision of the heavenly
ladder (Gen. 28:11-22), and on his return from Syria again consecrated
the place to God's service. (Gen. 35:6-15.) During the period of the Ten
Tribes it was a sanctuary of idols, but also the seat of a prophetic
school. (1 Kings 12:29-33; 2 Kings 2:2, 3.) It is now an uninhabited
ruin.

10. East of Bethel, and 11 miles north of Jerusalem, is the rock
_Rimmon_ (now _Rummon_), where the remnant of the tribe of Benjamin
found a refuge after the civil war. (Judges 20, 21.)

11. Two miles north of Rimmon is the site of _Ophrah_, in the New
Testament _Ephraim_, the retreat of Jesus after the raising of Lazarus.
(John 11:54.) It is in a wilderness, on the edge of the Jordan Valley,
and outside the line of travel; now called _et Taiyibeh_.

[Illustration: SOLOMON'S POOLS.]

II. =The Eastern Road= from Jerusalem leads through a barren region of
crags and ravines, almost without inhabitants, except the robbers who
have haunted it since the days when "a certain man went down from
Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell among thieves." (Luke 10:30.) The road is
a continual descent from a height of 2,700 feet above the sea to 1,300
feet below it, in 20 miles.

The only place passed on the route is _Bethany_ (now _el Azariyeh_), the
home of Mary and Martha, the place where Lazarus was raised from death,
and near which Jesus ascended. (Luke 24:50.) It is on the eastern slope
of the Mount of Olives, and about a mile and a quarter from Jerusalem.
Beyond this place the road grows more steep, descending toward the
Jordan Valley.

III. =The Southern Road=, leading along the crest of the hill country
toward Hebron, also passes few places of historical interest.

1. Just south of the city is the _Plain of the Rephaim_, where, after
the capture of Jerusalem, David twice met and vanquished the
Philistines. (2 Sam. 5:18-25.) The name may be a reminiscence of the
most ancient people who inhabited the mountain region of Palestine,
before the Amorites were in the land.

2. Four miles from the city the traveler passes _Rachel's Tomb_. This
may represent the place where Jacob, while journeying southward, lost
his beloved wife Rachel, the mother of Joseph and Benjamin. (Gen.
35:16-20.) The monument now standing is of comparatively recent date;
but it may occupy the site of one more ancient.

3. Six miles southeast of the city we come to _Bethlehem_, a small town,
yet having the deepest interest as the birthplace of David, and of
David's greatest descendant, the Saviour of the world. It lies upon the
side and summit of a steep hill, and contains now about 2,000
inhabitants. Many places connected with the birth of Jesus are shown;
but there is no authority for their precise location except tradition.
In a cave near this village Jerome wrote most of his translation of the
Bible, the Vulgate version, recognized as the standard Bible by the
Roman Catholic Church.

4. A little beyond Bethlehem is the head of the _Valley of Elah_, in
which, but at a distance to the west, David fought with Goliath, and
gained his earliest honors before Israel. (1 Sam. 17.)

5. There are no more places of interest to the Bible reader until we
reach _Hebron_, 18 miles from Jerusalem. This is one of the most ancient
towns in the world, occupied before the time of Abraham; the burial
place of the Patriarchs, the capital of David's kingdom of Judah, and
the place where Absalom's rebellion was begun. It is still a large town,
inhabited by intolerant Mohammedans, who closely guard the sanctity of
the Mosque which covers the graves of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. It is
now called _el Khalil_, "the Friend," _i. e._, Abraham, "the friend of
God."

6. The region between Hebron and the Dead Sea is wild and desolate, with
but few inhabitants. It was called _Jeshimon_, "the waste," and is the
place generally recognized as "the wilderness of Judæa," where David
wandered during his exile when he was persecuted by Saul, and in
constant danger of his life, and where Christ was tempted after his long
fast of forty days.

IV. =The Southwestern Road= is that "that goeth down from Jerusalem unto
Gaza, which is desert." (Acts 8:26.) It passes through ravines and among
mountains, descending through successive plateaus, from the mountain
region to the Shefelah, or low hills, and thence to the plain by the
Mediterranean. It is "desert," in the sense that no towns lie along the
route. The fountain where Philip baptized the Ethiopian treasurer is
shown at _Ain Haniyeh_, 4 miles southwest of Jerusalem; but it has only
tradition in support of its claim.

V. =The Western Road= leads to Joppa, descending from the mountains to
the sea.

1. Four miles from Jerusalem it passes _Emmaus_ (_Kuloniyeh_), the place
to which the two disciples were walking when they were joined by the
risen Christ. (Luke 24:13.) The place, however, is disputed. Dr. Thomson
locates it at _Kuriet el Enab_, further from Jerusalem; and others at
_el Kubeibeh_, 7 miles northwest of the city.

2. _Kirjath-jearim_, or _Baalah_, is 7 miles from Jerusalem, at _Kuriet
el Enab_, named above. Here the Ark of the Covenant was brought from
Beth-shemesh, after its return from the Philistines, and remained until
it was removed by David to Jerusalem. (1 Sam. 6:21; 2 Sam. 6:2.) It is
now a small village, with ruins and a church.

VI. =The Northwestern Road= branches from the Northern Road just beyond
Gibeah, and winds down the mountains to the sea-shore at Joppa. Among
its places of interest are the following:

1. _Mizpeh_, "watch-tower," is probably the hill known as _Neby Samwil_,
4 miles northwest of Jerusalem. Here Samuel gathered the people for
reformation, and won his great victory over the Philistines. This may
also have been _Ramah_, the birthplace and burial-place of Samuel.

2. _Gibeon_ is at _el Jib_, a hill 6 miles from Jerusalem. This was the
head of the Hivite league of cities which made peace with Israel and
were spared by Joshua at the time of the conquest (Josh. 9:17); which
led to the battle of Beth-horon, the decisive event of the war. Here a
skirmish took place between the soldiers of David and of Abner (while
David was reigning over Judah), and Asahel, the brother of Joab, was
killed. (2 Sam. 2:12-24.) At this place the Tabernacle was standing
during David's reign, while the ark was at Zion; here was "the great
high place" where Solomon offered sacrifice at the opening of his reign;
and here Solomon had a vision, and made his choice of wisdom. (1 Kings
3:4-14.)

3. Five miles beyond Gibeon is _Beth-horon_, celebrated as the place
where was fought the great battle of the conquest, which, measured by
its results, was the most important battle in the history of the world,
since upon it was staked the world's religion. If ever the sun might
stand still, it was then, when earth's destiny was in the balance.
(Josh. 10:9-14.) The "upper Beth-horon" is at _Beit ur el Foka_, and the
lower at _Beit ur et Tahta_, two miles beyond it.

In this brief view we have compassed the most important places upon the
map within 15 miles around the city of Jerusalem.


OUTLINE FOR TEACHING AND REVIEW.


SUGGESTIONS FOR TEACHING.

1. Locate upon the blackboard Jerusalem as a centre, and in presence of
the class draw the general direction of the roads leading from it. It is
scarcely necessary to draw the valleys and mountains, as they are but
rarely referred to by name. The teacher may mark the line of the road in
French chalk or common slate-pencil upon the blackboard, in advance of
the lesson, making a faint line, which can be followed with the crayon
afterward.

2. Then take each road in order, going out from Jerusalem, and indicate
the places near it, stating the events of Bible History in connection
with each place.

3. It would be a good plan to write on slips of paper the references to
texts, distribute them among the class, and have each text read by a
student as its event is named.


REVIEW.

I. _Northern Road._ 1. Scopus. (Titus.) 2. Nob. (Slaughter of priests.)
3. Gibeah. (Saul's court.) 4. Anathoth. (Jeremiah.) 5. Ramah.(?)
(Samuel.) 6. Michmash. (Jonathan's exploit.) 7. Ai. (Achan.) 8. Beeroth.
(Gibeonites; Jesus lost in Temple.) 9. Bethel. (Jacob's ladder.) 10.
Rimmon. (Benjamin.) 11. Ephraim. (Christ's retirement.)

II. _Eastern Road._ 1. Bethany. (Lazarus.) 2. Steep descent. 3. Jericho.

III. _Southern Road._ 1. Plain of Rephaim. (David's victory.) 2.
Rachel's Tomb. 3. Bethlehem. (David, Jesus.) 4. Valley of Elah. (David
and Goliath.) 5. Hebron. (Abraham's sepulchre.) 6. Jeshimon
(Wilderness).

IV. _Southwestern Road._ "Jerusalem to Gaza." (Philip.)

V. _Western Road._ 1. Emmaus. (Risen Christ.) 2. Kirjath-jearim.
(Removal of ark.)

VI. _Northwestern Road._ 1. Mizpeh. (Samuel.) 2. Gibeon. (Solomon's
choice.) 3. Beth-horon. (Joshua's victory.)

[Illustration: GETHSEMANE.]

[Illustration: THE DIVISION OF SOLOMON'S EMPIRE.]



THE DIVISION OF SOLOMON'S EMPIRE.


ON the death of Solomon, B.C. 935, the empire which had been won by the
sword and consolidated by the statesmanship of David, fell asunder, and
five kingdoms took the place of one. These were:

1. The portion of Solomon's empire north of Mount Hermon and extending
to the Euphrates revolted, and formed the =Kingdom of Syria=, having
Damascus for its capital. This kingdom, at first small, soon rose to
power, and at its height, under Hazael, was the leading nation in Asia,
west of the Euphrates. It fell, about B.C. 750, under the power of
Assyria.

[Illustration: CHRONOLOGICAL CHART OF KINGS OF ISRAEL AND JUDAH.]

2. South of Syria was the =Kingdom of Israel=, or the Ten Tribes,
founded by Jeroboam, B.C. 935, soon after the death of Solomon. This
included by far the larger portion of Palestine Proper, having 9,400
square miles, while the rival kingdom of Judah had but 3,400. It
received the allegiance of all the tribes on the east of the Jordan. The
boundary line between the two kingdoms ran south of Jericho, Bethel and
Joppa. This line was, however, very variable, being moved northward or
southward, according to the relative power of the kingdoms. Over this
kingdom reigned nineteen kings, representing several dynasties, with
intervals of anarchy and frequent change. Its capital was at first
Shechem, then Tirzah, until Omri, the founder of the third dynasty,
chose a permanent location at SAMARIA, which soon became to Israel all
that Jerusalem was to Judah, and in time gave its name to the entire
province. Its two religious sanctuaries were at Dan on the north, and at
Bethel on the south, where the national worship to Jehovah, was
maintained under the form of a calf or young ox.

3. =The Kingdom of Judah= included the tribe of that name, a portion of
Benjamin, and perhaps of Simeon also, though the southern boundary was
always uncertain. The Shefelah, or low hills, and the sea-coast, were
probably controlled by the Philistines, though nominally belonging to
Judah. This kingdom remained loyal to the house of David during all its
history, and was ruled by twenty-one kings, all of one family. It was
destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar, B.C. 587.

4. =Moab= lay east of the Dead Sea, between the brooks Arnon and Zered.
It was nominally subject to Israel (the northern kingdom); but, from the
indications of the history and of the Moabite Stone (a monument of
Mesha, the king of Moab, erected in the time of Elisha the prophet), it
may be inferred that it had its own government, and only occasionally
paid tribute to the Ten Tribes. Strong kings, like Omri, Ahab and
Jeroboam II., may have held power over it; but during most of the time
it was practically independent.

5. =Edom=, south of the Dead Sea, had been conquered by David, and
remained subject during the reign of Solomon. After the disruption it
held to Judah about the same relation that Moab held to Israel,
dependent and tributary, but not annexed as a part of the realm. There
was a king of Edom during the reign of Jehoshaphat (2 Kings 3:9), but
evidently subject to Judah. The Edomites finally gained their
independence during the reign of Jehoram, the son of Jehoshaphat (2
Kings 8:16-22), despite a defeat which they suffered at Zair (probably
Seir, or Sela). Like all the kingdoms around it, this kingdom fell under
the rule of Nebuchadnezzar.

These five provinces or kingdoms are represented upon the map according
to their general boundaries during most of the time from the age of
Solomon to that of Nebuchadnezzar, when all the East was united under
one mighty sceptre. Historically, the epoch requires the consideration
of several periods, as follows:

1. =The Period of Division= (B.C. 935-842), during which three
kingdoms--Syria, Israel and Judah--strove for supremacy. This extends
from the reign of Jeroboam to that of Jehu in the north; and from
Rehoboam to Joash in Judah. During the first half-century of this
period, wars were constant between Israel and Judah. During the latter
half-century the growing power of Syria compelled an alliance between
the rival kingdoms, and nearly all the battles were between Israel and
Syria. The leading events of this period were: (1.) The accession of
Rehoboam, followed by the disruption of the kingdom, and the breaking up
of Solomon's empire. (2.) The invasion of Judah by Shishak, king of
Egypt, and the loss of all the treasures of David and Solomon (2 Chron.
12), which permanently crippled the kingdom. (3.) The wars of Jeroboam
with Judah, culminating in the battle of Zemaraim, near Bethel, a signal
defeat for Israel. (2 Chron. 13.) (4.) The invasion of Judah by the
Ethiopians under Zerah, and the victory of Asa at Mareshah. (2 Chron.
14.) (5.) The introduction of the worship of Baal into Israel, by Ahab,
and with it the appearance of the prophet Elijah. (1 Kings 16-19.) (6.)
The wars with Syria, with the victory of Israel at Aphek, and the defeat
at Ramoth-gilead. (1 Kings 20-22.) (7.) The invasion of Judah, in the
reign of Jehoshaphat, by the allied forces of Ammon, Moab and Edom, and
their slaughter at Berachah. (2 Chron. 20.) (8.) The allied war of
Israel and Judah with Moab, and the battle of Kir-haraseth, commemorated
by the Moabite Stone, recently discovered. (2 Kings 3.) (9.) The revolt
of Edom from Judah, in the reign of Jehoram. Jehoram gained a victory at
Zair (probably Sela, or Petra), but could not retain supremacy over the
Edomites.

[Illustration: MOABITE STONE.]

[Illustration: THE SYRIAN PERIOD, B.C. 884-840.]

2. =The Syrian Period=, B.C. 842-799, began with revolutions in the same
year in Damascus, Samaria, and Jerusalem; by which Hazael mounted the
throne of Syria, Jehu of Israel, and Athaliah, the queen-mother, usurped
the throne of Judah. Hazael established a powerful kingdom. (2 Kings
8:7-15.) He conquered all of Israel east of the Jordan (2 Kings 10:32,
33), reduced Israel under Jehoahaz to a condition of vassalage (2 Kings
13:1-8), took Gath from Judah, and was only withheld from besieging
Jerusalem by the payment of a heavy tribute. (2 Kings 12:17, 18; 2
Chron. 24:23, 24.) We insert an outline map of his kingdom and
conquests.

The principal events of this period were as follows: (1.) The accession
of Hazael in Syria, Jehu in Israel, and Athaliah in Judah, B.C. 842.
(2.) The destruction of Baal worship in Israel. (2 Kings 10.) (3.) The
conquests of Hazael on the east of Jordan. (2 Kings 10:32, 33.) (4.) The
slaughter of Athaliah, and accession of Jehoash in Judah. (2 Kings 11.)
(5.) The repairs of the Temple by Jehoiada. (2 Kings 12.) (6.) The
prophecies of Jonah and Joel. (7.) The subjection of Israel under
Hazael. (8.) Hazael's campaign against Judah, and capture of Gath. (9.)
The death of Hazael.

3. =The Restoration of Israel=, B.C. 779-742. The Syrian conqueror,
Hazael, left as his successor a weak prince, Ben-hadad III., who was
unable to hold his dominions against the ability of the third king of
the house of Jehu in Israel, Jehoash, or Joash, and his greater son,
Jeroboam II. Under these two able rulers the kingdom of the Ten Tribes
arose to its culmination, the territory lost was regained, nearly all
Syria was conquered, Judah was made tributary, and Samaria gave laws to
a large part of Solomon's empire. This period was marked as the era of
two great prophets, Jonah and Joel; and, from its brilliant but brief
prosperity, has been called "the Indian Summer of Israel." At the
opening of this epoch, Amaziah reigned in Judah. He won a victory in
Edom, but, venturing to attack Israel, was routed at Beth-shemesh; and,
for the only time in Judah's history, the army of the Ten Tribes entered
Jerusalem as victors. (2 Kings 14.) Uzziah, his successor, was more
successful, and held his kingdom in security both against Israel and the
enemies on the south. The outline map represents the kingdoms during the
reign of Jeroboam II., about B.C. 800.

4. =The Fall of Israel=, B.C. 742-721. The decline of Israel after the
reign of Jeroboam II. was rapid. A succession of usurpers seized the
throne, the foreign conquests melted away, and anarchy prevailed. The
cause of these sudden changes was the growth of the Assyrian power under
a succession of warlike kings, who made Nineveh the capital of the
Eastern world. Syria fell before their arms, and Israel soon followed.
In the reign of Menahem, Israel became tributary to Assyria; and in that
of Pekah, B.C. 735, the portion of Israel on the north, including the
tribe of Naphtali, was carried into captivity by Tiglath-pileser. (2
Kings 15:29.) In the reign of Hoshea, Samaria itself was taken (B.C.
721) by Sargon (having been besieged by Shalmaneser); and the Ten Tribes
were finally carried into captivity to Halah and Habor. (2 Kings 17.)
This period belongs to the map of the Assyrian Empire.

5. =The Fall of Judah=, B.C. 721-587. The kingdom of Judah lasted more
than a hundred years after that of Israel, though most of the time as a
subject-nation to the "great king" of Assyria, to whom Ahaz and most of
the kings of Judah after him paid tribute. The most important events of
this period were: (1.) The reforms of King Hezekiah, and the deliverance
of Jerusalem from the Assyrians under Sennacherib. (2 Chron. 30-32.)
(2.) The captivity of King Manasseh among the Assyrians, and his return.
(2 Chron. 33.) (3.) The attempt at reformation by King Josiah, and his
death at the battle of Megiddo. (2 Chron. 34, 35.) (4.) The rise of the
power of Babylon, and Nebuchadnezzar's first invasion of Judah, in the
reign of Jehoiakim, B.C. 606. From this date Judah was subject to
Babylon, and the "seventy years' captivity" began. (5.) The rebellion of
Zedekiah, the last king, against Nebuchadnezzar, the siege of Jerusalem,
the destruction of the kingdom, and the final carrying of Judah into
captivity to Babylon, B.C. 587.

[Illustration: THE RESTORATION OF ISRAEL, B.C. 800.]

We notice the most important wars, sieges and battles of this period,
indicated upon the map of the Division of Solomon's Empire, by flags.

1. The battle of =Zemaraim=, near Bethel, fought between Jeroboam and
Abijah, the second king of Judah, B.C. 917, and resulting in the defeat
of Israel, and the ruin of Jeroboam's plans of ambition. (2 Chron. 13.)

2. The battle of =Mareshah=, in Judah, on the border of the mountain
region, in which King Asa defeated Zerah, the Ethiopian king of Egypt,
and an immense host, B.C. 900. (2 Chron. 14.)

3. The siege of =Samaria=, by Ben-hadad, king of Syria, in the reign of
Ahab, who was able to repel the invaders. (1 Kings 20.) We notice, that
from this time, for a century, the principal wars of Israel are with
Syria.

4. The victory at =Aphek=, won by Ahab over Ben-hadad and the Syrians.
Ahab, however, allowed the fruits of the victory to be lost, when he
might have made it decisive in its results. (1 Kings 20:26-43.)

5. The battle of =Ramoth-gilead=, in which the Syrians, under Ben-hadad,
were victorious over allied Israel and Judah, and Ahab was slain. (1
Kings 22.)

6. The slaughter of the allied Moabites, Ammonites and Edomites, at
=Berachah=, "the valley of blessing," in the reign of Jehoshaphat, king
of Judah. (2 Chron. 20.)

7. The war of Israel, Judah and Edom, against the Moabites, in which a
great battle took place at =Kir-haraseth=, in the land of Moab, when the
king of Moab offered his own son as a sacrifice in presence of the
contending armies. (2 Kings 3.) This was during the reign of Jehoshaphat
in Judah, and of Jehoram in Israel.

8. A second siege of =Samaria=, by the Syrians, under Ben-hadad, in the
reign of Jehoram; and a miraculous deliverance. (2 Kings 6, 7.)

9. A battle at =Zair= (probably Sela, or Petra), in Edom, in which
Jehoram was surrounded by the revolting Edomites, and won a victory, yet
could not prevent the Edomites from gaining their liberty. (2 Kings
8:21, 22.)

10. The capture of =Gath=, by the Syrians, under Hazael, in the reign of
Jehoash, king of Judah. (2 Kings 12:17.)

11. The victory of King Jehoash, of Israel, over the Syrians, at
=Aphek=, foretold by Elisha. (2 Kings 13:17-25.)

12. The battle of =Beth-shemesh=, a victory of Israel over Judah,
resulting in an Israelite army entering Jerusalem, in the reign of
Amaziah. (2 Kings 14.)

13. The final capture of =Samaria= by the Assyrians, and the extinction
of the kingdom of the Ten Tribes. (2 Kings 17:1-6.)

14. The battle of =Megiddo=, in which King Josiah, of Judah, lost his
life while resisting the invasion of Pharaoh-necho, the king of Egypt.
(2 Kings 23:29.)

15. Two battles at =Carchemish=, near the Euphrates, in the first of
which, Pharaoh-necho, of Egypt, was victorious (B.C. 608) over the
Assyrians, and in the second (B.C. 606) was thoroughly defeated by
Nebuchadnezzar, and compelled to relinquish all his conquests in Asia.
(2 Chron. 35:20.)

16. The destruction of =Jerusalem= by Nebuchadnezzar, and the extinction
of the kingdom of Judah. (2 Kings 25.)


OUTLINE FOR TEACHING.

1. Draw on the blackboard the map of _Solomon's Empire_, as already
given, showing its boundaries, and placing on it the city of Jerusalem,
the river Jordan, etc.

2. Divide the map into the _five kingdoms_ of _Syria_, _Israel_,
_Judah_, _Moab_ and _Edom_, and show their capitals and political
relations.

3. Drill the class upon the leading events of the _five historical
periods_ named in the above description, placing upon the map the
localities named in the history.

4. Name the _battles_ of the periods, and state the circumstances of
each battle, placing them upon the map in their historical order.

5. Through all the work let the class draw their own maps, following
that upon the board, and at the close carefully review all the work.
This subject might require several lessons in a normal class.

[Illustration: MOSQUE EL AKSA.]



THE GREAT ORIENTAL EMPIRES.


THE history of the Bible is so interwoven with that of the East, that a
view of its great empires is necessary. All the lands between the
Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean were united at different periods
under one government, and formed an empire which was constantly changing
according to the power or weakness of its dominant state; for in the
Oriental world there never has existed anything like a confederation of
states on an equality. At different periods Ur, Babylon or Nineveh
conquered all the surrounding lands; or at other periods a single race,
as the Medes and Persians, obtained supremacy. The empire thus arose and
fell, to be succeeded by a similar empire with another centre. During
the Old Testament history, between the days of Abraham and of Ezra, more
than 1,500 years, four successive empires appeared in the East. These
were:

I. The Early Babylonian Empire. B.C. 2280-1120.

II. The Assyrian Empire. B.C. 1120-626.

III. The Babylonian Empire. B.C. 606-538.

IV. The Persian Empire. B.C. 538-330.

I. =The Early Babylonian Empire= began about 3000 B.C., with several
states, each having a city as its capital. Among these were Ur
(_Mugheir_), Lagesh (Shirpurta), and Isin. These separate kingdoms were
united in an empire, of which Babylon was the capital, in the reign of
Hammurabi (the Amraphel of Gen. 14:1), about 2280 B.C. It lasted, with
varying fortunes, for 1,000 years. A map of this empire, in the time of
Abraham, is given on page 34.

[Illustration: AN ASSYRIAN PALACE.]

II. =The Assyrian Empire= arose from the small country Asshur, about 25
square miles in extent, lying east of the Tigris and north of the lower
Zab. Its capital was the city Asshur, now called _Kileh Sherghat_, 60
miles south of Nineveh. The city rose to power in the 14th century B.C.,
when, under Tukulti-ninib, Babylon was captured and the Babylonian
empire became the Assyrian. Afterward _Nimrud_, 20 miles south of
Nineveh, became the capital. Not until 702 was NINEVEH made by
Sennacherib the royal residence. It soon surpassed the earlier capitals
in size and magnificence, and became one of the largest cities of the
East. It then included four cities, surrounded by one wall, and forming
a parallelogram, as shown on the plan on page 96. The greatest kings of
this empire were: Shalmaneser, who made war on Samaria, and erected the
"Black Obelisk," which now stands in the British Museum, and by its
inscriptions furnishes the best record of the kingdom down to its own
age; Sargon, who completed the conquest of Samaria, and otherwise added
to the empire; Sennacherib, who enlarged and beautified Nineveh, warred
from Babylon to Egypt, and extorted tribute from Hezekiah, king of
Judah; and Esar-haddon, son of the preceding, who saw the empire at its
height, embracing, besides Assyria, Armenia, Media, Babylonia, Elam,
Mesopotamia, Syria, Israel, Judah, and the northern portion of Egypt.
These lands, however, for the most part retained their own rulers,
customs and government, but recognized themselves as vassals to the
"Great King," as he is styled in the inscriptions. Esar-haddon took
Manasseh, king of Judah, captive to Babylon, and repopulated Samaria
with colonists from other lands. His son, Asshur-bani-pal, witnessed his
kingdom declining, and was the last of the great kings, though he built
a vast palace at Nineveh. There was no coherence or unity in the empire,
whose provinces were held together only by the strong arm of the king;
and, on the death of Asshur-bani-pal, a general revolt took place among
the subject nations, his son perished, and Nineveh was utterly
destroyed, never again to appear in history.

The boundaries of the Assyrian empire are given upon the map according
to the best authorities. On the north they were the Armenian Mountains,
the river Cyrus (now called the _Kur_), north of the Araxes, and the
northern range of Mount Taurus; on the east, the Caspian Sea and the
great salt desert; on the south, the Persian Gulf, the Arabian desert
and Upper Egypt; on the west, the Mediterranean and the river Halys.

[Illustration: THE ASSYRIAN EMPIRE.]

[Illustration: THE BABYLONIAN EMPIRE AND ITS SURROUNDINGS.]

III. =The Babylonian Empire=, B.C. 606-538. This period has been more
correctly termed that of the "four kingdoms," since the East was not
then, as during the Assyrian period, under one government. The
destruction of Nineveh had been wrought by the union of the Medes and
Babylonians, under their kings, Cyaxares and Nabopolassar, and these
peoples succeeded to most, but not all, of the conquests of Assyria.

1. Media won its own independence, and obtained possession of Armenia,
Assyria Proper (north of the Tigris), and Elam. Persia had already been
conquered, so that the largest, though less important, portion of the
Assyrian empire now belonged to Media.

2. Babylonia obtained Chaldea, Mesopotamia, Syria and Palestine. Most of
these countries had claimed their independence on the fall of Assyria;
and their conquest occupied the reign of Nabopolassar, and his greater
son, Nebuchadnezzar. Thus the important parts of the Bible world were
nearly all under the rule of Babylon.

3. A new kingdom arose in Asia Minor, that of Lydia, embracing all the
lands between the Ægean Sea and the river Halys; destined, however, to a
short history, for it formed one of the earliest conquests of Cyrus the
Great.

4. Cilicia also appears for the first time upon the map, being situated
between the Euphrates and Lydia, north of Syria, and south of the Halys
river, and retained its independence until the close of the Babylonian
period, when it was annexed to Persia, though even then it retained its
own kings.

5. To these might be added Egypt, though outside of the Asiatic world.
It soon shook off the yoke of Assyria, and resumed its independence;
but, endeavoring to contest with Babylon the empire of the East, was
defeated at Carchemish by Nebuchadnezzar, and compelled to retire from
Asia. Some suppose that it was conquered by Babylon; and it is possible
that for a few years Egypt may have recognized the supremacy of
Nebuchadnezzar by paying tribute, but it was never a part of his empire.

[Illustration: BLACK OBELISK.]

The map of the Oriental world, as thus reconstructed, lasted about a
century, though with varying boundary lines; as, for instance, Elam, or
Susiana, sometimes formed a part of Babylonia, and at other times of
Media. During this period BABYLON was the metropolis of the East. It was
raised to greatness by Nebuchadnezzar, who finished the Tower of Belus,
raised the Hanging Gardens, and built great palaces. Two-thirds of the
bricks unearthed in the ruins of Babylon bear his name. The city formed
a square, on both sides of the Euphrates, covering an area of 130 miles,
about that of the city and county of Philadelphia. It was surrounded
with double walls, one of which is said to have been 300 feet high, and
so wide that six chariots could be driven abreast along its summit. The
greatness of the city was short-lived. It was taken by the Medes and
Persians, B.C. 536, and soon began to decline, though it remained, in a
decaying condition, for nearly 1,000 years afterward.

[Illustration: BABYLON.]

[Illustration: COMPARATIVE AREAS OF THE GREAT EMPIRES--ASSYRIAN,
BABYLONIAN, PERSIAN.]

[Illustration: THE PERSIAN EMPIRE.]

[Illustration: DIVISION OF ALEXANDER'S EMPIRE.]

IV. =The Persian Empire=, B.C. 538-330. As the Babylonian power arose
with Nebuchadnezzar, the Persian began with Cyrus the Great. He was the
hereditary king of the Persians, and headed a revolt against the Medes,
which resulted in reversing the relations of the two races, so that the
Persians became dominant. He then led his united people westward, and
conquered Croesus, the king of Lydia, thus extending his dominion from
the Persian Gulf to the Ægean Sea. The power of Babylon began to fall on
the death of Nebuchadnezzar, whose successors were weaklings, and in
B.C. 538 Cyrus took the city of Babylon. His dominions were now larger
than those of the old Assyrian empire; and under his successors the
conquests of Persia were pushed both eastward and westward, until, under
Darius the Great, they embraced all the lands from the Indus to the
Nile. The map represents the empire of Persia at this period, with the
twenty satrapies, or provinces, into which it was divided by Darius.
This empire lasted for 200 years, until its conquest by Alexander the
Great, B.C. 330, when the sceptre of the East passed into European
hands, and Greece gave law to Asia. In the extent of its territory, in
the strength of its dominion, and in the consolidation of its conquests,
Persia was far greater than either Assyria or Babylon. It will be
observed that the scale of all the maps of the Assyrian, Babylonian and
Persian Empires, is the same, so that their relative proportions may be
seen.

The map of the Persian Empire represents the political state of the
Oriental world at the conclusion of the Old Testament period. When Ezra
and Nehemiah were at Jerusalem, and Haggai and Malachi were the prophets
of Judah, all the lands were under the dominion of Persia, and were
governed from "Shushan the palace," or Susa.

[Illustration: BABYLON.]


PERIOD OF RESTORATION 536 B.C.-70 A.D.

The closing portion of Old Testament history, from the edict of Cyrus
the Great, B.C. 536, permitting the captive Jews to return to Palestine,
is known as the Period of Restoration. From that time until the end of
the Jewish history, the land was under foreign rule. The Period of
Restoration, from the return from captivity to the birth of Christ, may
be divided as follows:

1. =The Persian Supremacy=, B.C. 538-330. During the 200 years of the
Persian empire, the Jews were kindly treated by their sovereigns, and
permitted to regulate their own affairs. Under Darius the Great, who
reigned B.C. 521-486, the second Temple was completed. Under Xerxes, the
next monarch, called in the Bible, Ahasuerus, occurred the romantic
events of Esther's deliverance, and the downfall of Haman. Under his
successor, Artaxerxes Longimanus, B.C. 465-425, the Jewish state was
reformed by Ezra, and the walls of Jerusalem were built by Nehemiah.
Soon after this occurred the separation of the Samaritans, and a rival
temple was built on Mount Gerizim.

2. =The Macedonian Supremacy=, B.C. 330-321, though brief, brought to
pass vast results. Alexander the Great, in a brilliant series of
battles, subjugated the entire Persian empire, and became the master of
the Oriental world. He dealt kindly with the Jews, notwithstanding their
loyalty to the Persian throne, and permitted them to enjoy freedom of
worship and of government. We do not give a map of Alexander's empire,
as its boundaries in Asia varied but little from those of Persia, and it
has no direct relation to Bible history. Soon after Alexander's death,
his generals formed a compact for the government of his empire; but it
was soon broken, and out of his conquests four kingdoms arose, of which
the most important were those of Seleucus in Asia, and of Ptolemy in
Africa. In the first division, B.C. 323, Palestine became a part of
Syria.

3. =The Egyptian Supremacy=, B.C. 321-198. Palestine was taken from
Syria by Ptolemy Soter, the ruler of Egypt; and his successors, the
Greek kings of Egypt, all named Ptolemy, held the Holy Land for 120
years. During this time the Jews were governed, under the king of Egypt,
by their high-priests. The most important event of this epoch was the
Septuagint translation of the Old Testament, made at Alexandria about
285 B.C. The map of the Division of Alexander's Empire represents the
Oriental world at this period, after the lands had settled down into
something like order under stable governments.

Omitting the minor states and free cities, the kingdoms of that epoch
were as follows:

1. _The kingdom of the Seleucidæ_, sometimes known as Syria, was founded
by Seleucus, B.C. 312. It included the largest portion of Alexander's
conquests, embracing most of Asia Minor, and those provinces of the
Bible world known as Syria, Mesopotamia, Babylonia, Persia Proper,
Southern Media, and far beyond them eastward to the Indus. Throughout
its history of 250 years, it remained a Greek government, though in
Asia, and introduced the Greek language and literature to all the lands
of the Orient.

2. _The kingdom of the Ptolemies_ included Egypt, Libya, Palestine,
Phoenicia, and the southern provinces of Asia Minor. It was ruled by a
succession of Greek monarchs, descended from Ptolemy Soter, and, with
changing boundaries, endured until the death of its last queen, the
famous Cleopatra, when it became a part of the Roman empire.

3. There were other kingdoms in Asia at this time, appearing upon the
map. _Pontus_ and _Cappadocia_ intervened between the two sections of
the empire of the Seleucidæ. Southwest of the Caspian, and near the sea,
_Media Atropatene_ had gained its independence, and on the southeast
_Parthia_ was rising to power; while beyond, on the east, was
_Bactriana_. Other lands of less importance might also be named; but
these are all that are necessary to the reader of the history.

During this epoch of 125 years, Palestine remained under the control of
Egypt.

[Illustration: NINEVEH AND VICINITY.]

4. =The Syrian Supremacy=, B.C. 198-166. By the battle of Mount Panium,
Antiochus of the Seleucid line wrested Palestine from Egypt. The Syrian
domination, though short, brought to the Jews greater trials than any
previous period in their history. Jerusalem was twice taken and sacked,
the Temple was desecrated and closed, the Jewish religion was forbidden,
and those who remained steadfast to it were subjected to a cruel
persecution. The trials named in Heb. 11:35-87, belonged to this
period, when every attempt was made by Antiochus Epiphanes to destroy
the worship of Jehovah, and introduce Greek customs and religion among
the Jewish people. But the very violence of the tyranny reacted, and led
to a complete deliverance and a more thorough devotion.

5. =The Maccabean Independence=, B.C. 166-40. A priest named Mattathias
raised the banner of revolt; and, after his death, his five sons in
succession led the efforts of the Jews for freedom. The greatest of
them, though all were heroes, was Judas, called Maccabeus, "the hammer."
In B.C. 165 he took possession of Jerusalem; and, after his death, his
brother Simon won the recognition of the freedom of Palestine. Other
Maccabean princes extended the boundaries of the land over Edom, Samaria
and Galilee. Under a succession of these rulers, also called Asmonean
kings, Palestine was virtually independent, though nominally subordinate
to either Syria or Egypt.

[Illustration: PALESTINE UNDER THE MACCABEES.

B.C. 100.]

6. =The Roman Supremacy=, B.C. 40-A.D. 70. Perhaps this period should
begin with B.C. 63, when the Roman general Pompey entered Jerusalem, and
the Romans began to exercise a controlling influence. But the
representatives of the Maccabean line were allowed to reign until B.C.
40, when they were set aside, and Herod the Great, an Idumean (Edomite),
was made king by the Romans. It was in the closing portion of his reign
that JESUS CHRIST was born. The last 70 years of the Roman period belong
to New Testament history, and will be considered in connection with the
maps of that period.



THE ROMAN EMPIRE.


THE last of the Old World empires was that having its capital on the
seven hills of ROME. Like most of the others, it was the dominion of a
single city; but, unlike others, it represented the conquests, not of a
single conquering king, as Nebuchadnezzar or Cyrus, but of a
self-governing and conquering people; and, unlike its predecessors, it
was not a loose aggregation of states, ready to fall apart as soon as
the hand that fettered them was removed, but an empire, carefully welded
together, building up in every land its own civilization, and developing
a national unity which held its possessions together for a thousand
years.

[Illustration: THE COLOSSEUM AT ROME.]

At the close of the Old Testament period, the Persian empire stood in
all its power. Four hundred years later, at the opening of the New
Testament epoch, the Persian empire had given place to that of
Alexander; that had broken up into many fragments; and most of these in
turn had been united under the eagles of Rome. The world's capital had
moved westward, and the Mediterranean was now a Roman lake. The
principal provinces of this empire, omitting minor subdivisions, were:

I. =European Provinces.= 1. Italy. 2. Hispania, now known as Spain,
subdivided into three provinces. 3. Gallia, now France, including also
parts of Germany and the Netherlands, embracing five provinces. 4. The
Danubian provinces of Rhætia, Noricum, Pannonia, and Moesia, to which
Dacia was afterward added by the emperor Trajan. 5. The Grecian
provinces of Thracia, Macedonia, Achaia, and Illyricum.

II. =The Insular Provinces= were: 1. Britannia. 2. Sicilia. 3. Sardinia
and Corsica, united. 4. Cyprus. The other islands were attached, either
to these, or to governments upon the mainland.

III. =The Asiatic Provinces= were: 1. Asia, a term referring only to the
western end of Asia Minor. 2. Pontus and Bithynia, united. 3. Galatia.
4. Pamphylia and Lycia. 5. Cilicia. 6. Syria, of which Palestine was a
part. To these were added, after the New Testament period, Armenia,
Mesopotamia, and Arabia Petræa; but they were soon lost to the empire.

IV. =The African Provinces= were: 1. Ægyptus, or Egypt. 2. Cyrenaica,
called, in Acts 2:10, "parts of Libya about Cyrene." 3. Africa, the
district around Carthage. 4. Mauritania, now Morocco.

This empire was the most thoroughly organized and the longest in
duration of any in ancient history. It lasted until Rome fell under the
attacks of barbarians from the North, A.D. 476. Even after this, the
eastern division of the empire remained with almost unbroken power for
centuries, and was not finally extinguished until 1453, the close of the
Middle Ages.

[Illustration: THE ROMAN EMPIRE IN THE NEW TESTAMENT PERIOD.]


OUTLINE FOR TEACHING AND REVIEW.

THE ANCIENT EMPIRES.

It is desirable to let the class see the comparative area and location
of the Four Oriental Empires; hence they should be presented upon the
same map. Each of these may form a separate lesson.

I. _The Early Chaldean Empire._ 1. Draw in the centre of the blackboard
the outlines of the map of Chedorlaomer's Empire, on page 34, reserving
space enough around it to embrace all the lands of the maps on page 92.
2. Draw the four important rivers: the _Tigris_, _Euphrates_, _Jordan_
and _Nile_. 3. Show the _boundaries_ of Chedorlaomer's empire, and its
principal places: _Babylon_, _Ur_, _Nineveh_, _Haran_, _Damascus_,
_Hebron_. 4. State briefly the _history_ of the empire. 5. Review the
lesson, and let the class state all the information given.

N. B. The outlines may be drawn in advance with slate pencil or
soapstone, and then traced with chalk in the presence of the class.
Also, the initial letters only of places or rivers should be written, as
a hint to the memory; afterward the initial letters should be erased,
and the class be called upon to name the places as located by the
pointer.

II. _The Assyrian Empire._ 1. After erasing the boundaries of the first
empire, leaving the general outline of sea-coast and lands the same,
show the location of the conquering province, _Assyria_, and its
capital, Nineveh. 2. Draw the _boundaries_ of the Assyrian empire,
explain them to the class, and have them repeated in concert. 3. Locate
and name the subject provinces: _Armenia_, _Media_, _Mesopotamia_,
_Susiana_, _Babylonia_, _Syria_, _Palestine_. 4. Name its most important
kings: _Tiglath-adar_, _Shalmaneser_, _Sargon_, _Sennacherib_,
_Esar-haddon_, _Asshur-bani-pal_. With each king should be named the
events associated with his reign. 5. Review the outline as before.

III. _The Babylonian Empire._ This may be given upon the same map as the
two preceding. 1. Show the location and relations of the four kingdoms:
_Babylonia_, _Media_, _Lydia_, _Cilicia_. 2. Give an account of Babylon,
and its fall.

IV. _The Persian Empire._ Leaving the coast-line of the former maps on
the board, add to it the lines in all points of the compass requisite to
show the boundaries of Persia. The provinces, or satrapies, need not be
specified (unless detailed knowledge is desired), for they do not relate
to Bible history. Name the leading monarchs, Cyrus, Darius, Xerxes,
Artaxerxes Longimanus, and give an account of the fall of the empire.

V. _The Empire of Alexander._ 1. This may be shown in outline; and its
history be given. 2. The division of the empire and its leading kingdoms
should be mentioned.

VI. _The Roman Empire._ This will require a new map. Draw in outline the
lands around the Mediterranean Sea, and enumerate the provinces:
European, Asiatic, African.

[Illustration: GROTTO OF JEREMIAH (UNDER MOUNT CALVARY).]

[Illustration: THE KINGDOM OF HEROD THE GREAT.]



NEW TESTAMENT PALESTINE.


THE political geography of Palestine, during the seventy years of New
Testament history, is somewhat complicated, from the two facts, that new
provinces are named in the annals, and also that the government was
changed from regal to provincial, and from provincial to regal, oftener
than once in a generation.


I. THE PROVINCES OF PALESTINE.

These were, on the west of the Jordan, Judæa, Samaria and Galilee; and
on the east, Peræa, and a group of minor principalities, popularly, but
not accurately, called Decapolis. They are indicated upon the map of the
Kingdom of Herod the Great.

1. =Judæa= was the largest province in Palestine. It embraced the
territory anciently belonging to the four tribes, Judah, Benjamin, Dan,
and Simeon. On the east its boundary was the Dead Sea; on the south, the
desert; on the west, the Mediterranean. The northern line, separating it
from Samaria, is less definitely known; but we have adopted the boundary
as given by Conder in "A Handbook to the Bible," where the evidences in
its favor are shown. The southern portion was properly Idumaea, or
western Edom. The Philistine plain, and the Negeb, or "South Country,"
were both known as Daroma.

2. =Samaria= was the central province, between Judæa and the Carmel
range of mountains. Its share of the plain by the sea was known as
Sarona (Sharon), and was occupied almost entirely by Gentiles; while its
mountain region was held by the Samaritans, a people of mingled origin,
partly descended from the remnant of the Ten Tribes after the captivity,
and partly from heathen peoples deported to the territory, of which an
account is contained in 2 Kings 17. They separated from (or rather, were
disfellowshiped by) the Jews in the times of Nehemiah, and built a
temple on Mount Gerizim, B.C. 400. A small remnant still remain in the
ancient city of Shechem, and maintain their ancient worship.

3. =Galilee= was the northern province, extending from Mount Carmel to
Lebanon, and from the Sea of Tiberias to the Mediterranean and
Phoenicia. Its people were Jews, and profoundly attached to the law, but
less superstitious than those of Jerusalem. In this province most of the
ministry of Jesus Christ was accomplished.

[Illustration: TIBERIAS.]

4. =Peræa= extended from the Jordan and the Dead Sea on the west to the
Syrian desert on the east, and from the river Arnon on the south to the
town of Pella on the north; nearly corresponding to the location of the
tribes of Reuben and Gad. The word means "beyond"; and the country was
sometimes called (Mark 10:1) "Judæa by the farther side of Jordan." It
was inhabited during the New Testament period by Jews, among whom were
established many villages of Gentiles.

5. The remaining province has no correct geographical name. It is
sometimes called =Decapolis=; but the term is not precise, and strictly
refers to ten cities, not all of which were in the province. It embraced
no less than five sections, as may be seen upon the map. (1.)
Gaulanitis, the ancient Golan, now _Jaulan_, east of the Jordan,
Tiberias, and Lake Merom, which was then called Samachonitis. (2.)
Auranitis, now _Hauran_, the flat country of Bashan. (3.) Trachonitis,
"rugged," the mountainous district of Bashan, now known as _el Ledja_.
(4.) Iturea, now called _Jedur_, between Mount Hermon and the _Ledja_,
on the north. (5.) Batanea, an Aramaic form of the Hebrew word Bashan,
south of the Hieromax.

Decapolis was "the land of the ten cities." These were ten confederated
Gentile cities standing in Palestine; and, though surrounded by a Jewish
population, preserving their heathen character, and protected by the
Roman government. Their names, as given by different historians, do not
entirely agree; but the best list is: (1.) Scythopolis (Beth-shean).
(2.) Gadara. (3.) Gerasa. (4.) Canatha. (5.) Abila. (6.) Raphana. (7.)
Hippos. (8.) Dion. (9.) Pella. (10.) Capitolias. To these may be added:
(11.) Philadelphia (Rabbath Ammon). (12.) Damascus. As far as
identified, they are named upon the map in red letters. Many of these
cities were destroyed, and their inhabitants massacred, by the Jews, in
the beginning of the final war before the destruction of Jerusalem by
Titus.

[Illustration: PALESTINE DURING THE MINISTRY of JESUS.

A.D. 26.]


II. THE POLITICAL HISTORY OF PALESTINE, B.C. 4-A.D. 70.

1. =The Kingdom of Herod the Great= included all the provinces indicated
upon the map, and described above. This organization came to an end B.C.
4, when Herod died.

2. =The Tetrarchy=, B.C. 4-A.D. 41. The word means "a government of
four," and points to the division of the kingdom after Herod's death,
when Archelaus was made tetrarch of Judæa and Samaria; Antipas (called
in the New Testament "Herod the tetrarch"), of Galilee and Peræa; and
Philip, of the fifth province, east of the Sea of Tiberias. The fourth
tetrarch was Lysanias, who ruled over the small district of Abilene,
between Mount Hermon and Damascus, a separate dominion from that of
Herod. In A.D. 6 Archelaus was deposed, and Judæa and Samaria were
annexed directly to the empire, and governed by a series of procurators,
of whom Pontius Pilate was the sixth. This was the political arrangement
of Palestine during the ministry of Jesus, of which a map is given.

3. =The Kingdom of Herod Agrippa=, A.D. 41-44. Herod Agrippa was a
grandson of Herod the Great, and an intimate friend of the emperor
Caligula, from whom he received the title of king, and all the dominions
of Herod the Great, with Abilene added; so that he reigned over more
territory than any Jewish king after Solomon. He was the "Herod the
king" who slew the apostle James, imprisoned Peter, and died by the
judgment of God at Cæsarea. (Acts 12.)

4. =The Two Provinces=, A.D. 44-70. On the death of Herod Agrippa, his
son, Herod Agrippa II., was a youth of 17. The emperor Claudius gave him
only the tetrarchies formerly held by Philip and Lysanias, "the fifth
province" of Palestine, and Abilene. Over these he reigned until the
final extinction of the Jewish state by Titus, A.D. 70, when he retired
to a private station at Rome. This was the "King Agrippa" before whom
the apostle Paul bore testimony. (Acts 25, 26.) During his reign, Judæa,
Samaria, Galilee and Peræa formed the province of Judæa, under Roman
procurators, having their headquarters at Cæsarea. When the last
rebellion of the Jews had been quelled by the destruction of Jerusalem,
the entire country was annexed to the province of Syria, and the history
of Judæa ended.

[Illustration: THE TWO PROVINCES.

A.D. 44-70.]



THE LIFE OF CHRIST.


AS THE life of Jesus Christ on earth is the most important not only in
all Bible history, but in all human history as well, it is desirable
that the Bible student, and especially the Bible teacher, should obtain
a clear understanding of its leading events, associate them with the
places where they occurred, and arrange them in chronological order. Of
the 150 principal events, about 100 are fixed as to their chronological
order by the common consent of the leading harmonists; about 25 are
agreed upon by the majority; while the remaining 25 are altogether
uncertain. In the outline here given, the authorities most relied upon
are Andrews, Robinson, Geikie, and Strong, yet no one of them is
exclusively followed. We divide the earthly life of Jesus into nine
periods, to each of which is given a separate map, so that the student
may not be confused among the various lines of the Saviour's journeying.

[Illustration: THE POOL OF SILOAM.]

The periods are as follows:

I. Period of Preparation, 30 years, from the Birth to the Baptism of
Jesus.

II. Period of Inauguration, 15 months, from the Baptism to the Rejection
at Nazareth.

III. Period of Early Galilean Ministry, 4 months, from the Rejection at
Nazareth to the Sermon on the Mount.

IV. Period of Later Galilean Ministry, 10 months, from the Sermon on the
Mount to the Feeding of the Five Thousand.

V. Period of Retirement, 6 months, from the Feeding of the Five Thousand
to the Feast of Tabernacles.

VI. Period of Judæan Ministry, 3 months, from the Feast of Tabernacles
to the Feast of Dedication.

VII. Period of Peræan Ministry, 4 months, from the Feast of Dedication
to the Anointing at Bethany.

VIII. Period of the Passion, 8 days, from the Anointing at Bethany to
the Resurrection.

IX. Period of the Resurrection, 40 days, from the Resurrection to the
Ascension.


I. PERIOD OF PREPARATION.

This includes the events of 30 years, from the Birth of Jesus to his
Baptism, and though the longest, contains the fewest recorded incidents
of any. Upon the map are indicated by red lines four journeys of Jesus.

1. =The Presentation in the Temple.= (From Bethlehem to Jerusalem and
return.) From Bethlehem, his birthplace, the infant Jesus, at the age of
40 days, was taken to Jerusalem, to be presented before the Lord in the
Temple. Here he was recognized as the Messiah of Israel, by Simeon and
Anna, and then was taken back to Bethlehem. (Luke 2:22-38.)

2. =The Flight into Egypt.= (From Bethlehem to Egypt.) After the visit
of the Wise Men, the Saviour, still an infant, was taken down to Egypt,
in order to escape the jealousy of Herod the Great. (Matt. 2:1-18.)

3. =The Settlement at Nazareth.= (From Egypt to Nazareth.) After the
death of Herod, Jesus was taken from Egypt to Galilee, to the village of
Nazareth, the early home of Joseph and Mary. Here he spent his youth.
(Matt. 2:19-23.)

4. =The Visit to the Temple.= (From Nazareth to Jerusalem and return.)
The only recorded event of the Saviour's youth, is his journey to
Jerusalem, at the age of 12 years, to attend the Passover. On the return
journey, he was lost by his parents, and after three days, found in the
Temple (probably in the Court of the Women), conversing with the doctors
of the law. He returned with Joseph and Mary to Nazareth (Luke 2:40-52),
and thenceforth no events in his life for 18 years are related.

The places in this period are: (1.) Bethlehem, a village six miles
southwest of Jerusalem, now _Beit-lahm_. (2.) The Temple in Jerusalem.
(See plan on page 138.) (3.) Nazareth, a village on the border of the
Plain of Esdraelon, in Galilee, now _en Nasireh_, a place of 6,000
population.

[Illustration: THE LIFE OF CHRIST

MAP 1.

PERIOD OF PREPARATION, FROM THE BIRTH TO THE BAPTISM.]


OUTLINE REVIEW OF JOURNEYS--FIRST PERIOD.

PERIOD OF PREPARATION.

          1. _Presentation in the Temple._ (Bethlehem to
          Jerusalem and return.) Recognized by Simeon and
          Anna.

          2. _Flight into Egypt._ (Bethlehem to Egypt.)
          Escape from Herod.

          3. _Settlement at Nazareth._ (Egypt to Nazareth.)
          Childhood and youth.

          4. _Visit to the Temple._ (Nazareth to Jerusalem
          and return.) Found among the doctors.


II. PERIOD OF INAUGURATION.

This embraces 15 months, from the Baptism of Jesus to the Rejection at
Nazareth, and contains the record of five journeys. Its places are as
follows: 1. Nazareth, already located. 2. Bethabara was formerly
supposed to be the ancient Beth-Nimrah, now _Nimrin_, on a small stream
east of the Jordan, not far from the Dead Sea. But Conder locates it at
_Abarah_, a ford of the Jordan above Beth-shean, and near the Sea of
Galilee. 3. "The Wilderness" is probably the uninhabited region of Judæa
near the Dead Sea, though it may have been the desert far to the south.
4. Cana is located at _Kefr Kenna_, northeast of Nazareth, though Dr.
Robinson places it at _Kana el Jelil_, 9 miles north of Nazareth. 5.
Capernaum was probably at _Khan Minyeh_, on the west of the Sea of
Galilee, though long located at _Tell Hum_, on the north. 6. Jerusalem.
7. Sychar, the ancient Shechem, now _Nablus_, beside Mount Gerizim. The
journeys of this period are named, each from its leading event.

1. =The Baptism.= (From Nazareth to Bethabara.) Near the close of John
the Baptist's ministry, Jesus left his carpenter shop at Nazareth, and
journeyed down the Jordan Valley to Bethabara. There he was baptized by
John, and received from heaven the testimony of his sonship. (Matt.
3:13-17.)

2. =The Temptation.= (From Bethabara to the Wilderness and return.) (1.)
Immediately after his baptism, Jesus was led by the Spirit into the
Wilderness, where he fasted 40 days, and overcame the temptations of
Satan. (Matt. 4:1-11.) (2.) Returning to Bethabara, he received the
testimony of John the Baptist, and met his earliest followers, Andrew
and Peter, John, Philip, and Nathanael. (John 1:37-50.)

[Illustration: THE LIFE OF CHRIST

MAP 2.

PERIOD OF INAUGURATION, FROM THE BAPTISM TO THE REJECTION AT NAZARETH.]

3. =The Marriage at Cana.= (Bethabara to Cana and Capernaum.) (1.) Jesus
left Bethabara, journeyed up the Jordan Valley to Galilee, and over the
mountains to Cana, near Nazareth. Here he was present at a wedding, and
wrought his first miracle, turning the water into wine. (2.) Thence,
with his mother and brothers, he went down to Capernaum, by the Sea of
Galilee, and remained a few days. (John 2:1-12.)

4. =The First Passover.= (Capernaum to Jerusalem.) (1.) Soon after the
wedding feast Jesus went up to Jerusalem, probably by way of the Jordan
Valley, to attend the first Passover of his ministry. (John 2:13.) (2.)
At Jerusalem he asserted his authority by cleansing the Temple from the
traders. (John 2:14-22.) (3.) He held the conversation with Nicodemus
concerning the new birth, and remained for a time in Judæa, gathering a
few disciples, yet not making his ministry prominent, while his
forerunner was still preaching. (John 3:1-36.)

5. =The Return to Galilee.= (Jerusalem to Sychar and Cana.) (1.) As soon
as the teaching of John the Baptist was ended by his imprisonment, Jesus
left Judæa to open his own public ministry. (2.) He went through
Samaria, and paused at Jacob's well for the conversation with the
Samaritan woman, and then remained at Sychar, the ancient Shechem, two
days. (3.) At Cana, the place of his earlier miracle, he spoke the word
of healing for a nobleman's son, who was sick at Capernaum. (John
4:1-54.)


OUTLINE REVIEW OF JOURNEYS--SECOND PERIOD.

PERIOD OF INAUGURATION.

          1. _Baptism._ (Nazareth to Bethabara.)

          2. _Temptation._ (Bethabara to Wilderness and
          return.) (1.) The temptation. (2.) The first
          followers.

          3. _Marriage at Cana._ (Bethabara to Cana and
          Capernaum.) (1.) The first miracle. (2.) The visit
          to Capernaum.

          4. _First Passover._ (Capernaum to Jerusalem.)
          (1.) The Passover. (2.) Cleansing the Temple. (3.)
          Discourse with Nicodemus.

          5. _Return to Galilee._ (Jerusalem to Sychar and
          Cana.) (1.) The departure. (2.) The woman of
          Samaria. (3.) The nobleman's son.

[Illustration: BETHLEHEM.]


III. PERIOD OF EARLY GALILEAN MINISTRY.

This is a period of about four months, from the Rejection at Nazareth to
the Sermon on the Mount. It brings to notice six places, most of which
have been already noticed. 1. Cana. 2. Nazareth. 3. Capernaum. 4.
Eastern Galilee, the region on the shore of the Sea of Galilee. 5.
Jerusalem. 6. The mountain of the sermon. This was probably _Kurûn
Hattin_, "the horns of Hattin," a mountain with a double peak, a few
miles from the Sea of Galilee. The journeys of this period are four in
number.

1. =The Opening of the Ministry.= (From Cana to Nazareth and Capernaum.)
(1.) He came (perhaps from Cana) to Nazareth, with the intention of
commencing his ministry in his own home. But his towns-people rejected
his message, and would have slain him if he had not escaped from their
hands. (Luke 4:16-31.) (2.) Rejected in his own city, he removed to
Capernaum, which thenceforward was the centre of his ministry for more
than a year. (Luke 4:31.) (3.) Here he called from their work at the
seaside his four earliest disciples, Simon and Andrew, James and John.
They had known him before, but now left all to follow him. (Luke
5:1-11.) (4.) In the synagogue, on the sabbath, he cast out an evil
spirit (Luke 4:33-36), and healed the mother of Peter's wife. (Luke
4:38-40.)

2. =The Tour in Eastern Galilee.= (From Capernaum through Eastern
Galilee and return.) (1.) This journey was probably near the Sea of
Galilee, and may not have occupied more than a few weeks. (2.) During
its progress he healed a leper, whose testimony led such multitudes to
come seeking miracles that Jesus was compelled to go into retirement.
(3.) On his return to Capernaum he healed a paralytic let down through
the roof, and (4.) called the publican Matthew to be one of his
disciples. (Luke 5:17-28.)

3. =The Second Passover.= (From Capernaum to Jerusalem and return.) (1.)
In the spring of the second year of his ministry he went up to the feast
at the capital, and while there healed a cripple at the Pool of
Bethesda. (John 5:1-47.) (2.) On his return, while walking through the
wheat fields, he asserted his authority as "Lord of the sabbath." (Luke
6:1-5.) (3.) On a sabbath soon after, he healed in the synagogue a man
with a withered hand. (Luke 6:6-11.)

4. =The Sermon on the Mount.= (From Capernaum to the mountain.) (1.) The
opposition of the Pharisees caused Jesus to leave Capernaum and instruct
the people by the sea-shore. (Mark 3:7-12.) (2.) He ascended a mountain,
probably _Kurûn Hattin_, and, after a night in prayer, appointed the
Twelve Apostles. (Luke 6:12-16.) (3.) To the disciples and the multitude
he preached the Sermon on the Mount. (Matt. 5-7.)


OUTLINE REVIEW OF JOURNEYS--THIRD PERIOD.

PERIOD OF EARLY GALILEAN MINISTRY.

1. _Opening of the Ministry._ (Cana to Nazareth and Capernaum.) (1.)
Rejection at Nazareth. (2.) Settlement at Capernaum. (3.) Calling of
Simon and Andrew, James and John. (4.) Demoniac healed, and Peter's
wife's mother healed.

2. _Tour in Eastern Galilee._ (Capernaum to Eastern Galilee and return.)
(1.) Preaching in Galilee. (2.) Leper healed. (3.) Paralytic healed.
(4.) Matthew called.

3. _Second Passover._ (Capernaum to Jerusalem and return.) (1.) The
cripple at Bethesda. (2.) Through the wheat fields. (3.) Withered hand
healed.

4. _Sermon on the Mount._ (Capernaum to the mountain.) (1.) By the sea.
(2.) Calling the Twelve. (3.) The sermon.

[Illustration: THE LIFE OF CHRIST

MAP 3.

EARLY GALILEAN MINISTRY FROM THE REJECTION AT NAZARETH TO THE SERMON ON
THE MOUNT.]


IV. THE LATER GALILEAN MINISTRY.

This period of ten months, from the Sermon on the Mount to the Feeding
of the Five Thousand, was a time of opposition on the part of the ruling
classes, but continued popularity among the people. The places which
Jesus visited at this time were: 1. Capernaum, already noticed, and
still the headquarters of his ministry. 2. Nain, now called _Nein_, on
the northwestern edge of Little Hermon, six miles southeast of Nazareth,
in full view of Mount Tabor. 3. "The country of the Gadarenes" (Mark
5:1); called by Matthew (8:28) "the country of the Gergesenes." Gadara
was the largest city of the region, situated south of the Sea of
Galilee, and giving its name to the district; Gergesa, the little
village east of the Sea of Galilee, now called _Khersa_. 4. Nazareth,
already noticed under Period I. 5. Bethsaida, a city at the head of the
Sea of Galilee, supposed by some to have been on both sides of the
Jordan, by others on the east side. 6. The plain of Gennesaret, near to
Capernaum. We arrange the events of this period under four journeys.

1. =The Tour in Southern Galilee.= (From Capernaum to Nain and return.)
The following events belong to this tour: (1.) At Capernaum, before
starting, Jesus healed the slave of a believing centurion. (Luke
7:1-10.) (2.) On the next day he led his disciples southward to Nain,
where he raised to life the widow's son, about to be buried. (Luke
7:11-17.) (3.) Perhaps at the same time and place he received the
messengers and answered the questions of John the Baptist. (Luke
7:18-35.) (4.) During the journey he was entertained by a Pharisee, at
whose house "a woman who was a sinner" washed his feet. (Luke 7:36-50.)
(5.) On his return the healing of a dumb demoniac occasioned the
Pharisees to assume an open opposition, and to declare that his miracles
were wrought by the power of the evil spirit. (Luke 11:14-26.) (6.) At
the same time occurred the interference of his mother and brethren,
desiring to restrain him. (Luke 8:19-21.)

2. =The Gadarene Voyage.= (Capernaum to Gergesa and return.) With this
journey are associated four events. (1.) The opposition of the enemies
caused Jesus to leave the city, and to teach in parables by the sea.
(Matt. 13:1-53.) (2.) From the shore, near Capernaum, he set sail for
the country of the Gadarenes, east of the Sea of Galilee, and on the
voyage stilled a sudden tempest. (Mark 4:35-41.) (3.) At the eastern
shore, near the village of Gergesa, he restored two demoniacs, permitted
the demons to enter a herd of swine, and as a result was besought by the
people to leave their coasts. (4.) Returning across the sea to
Capernaum, he raised to life the daughter of Jairus the ruler. (Luke
8:41-56.)

3. =The Tour in Central Galilee.= (From Capernaum to Nazareth and
return.) (1.) Starting from Capernaum with his disciples, he visited
Nazareth a second time, but was again rejected by its people. (Mark
6:1-6.) (2.) He then gave the Twelve a charge, and sent them out to
preach. (Matt. 10:5-42.) (3.) While they were absent upon their mission,
Jesus himself also journeyed preaching through Central Galilee. (Mark
6:6.) This was his third tour in Galilee. (4.) On his return to
Capernaum, he received the report of the Twelve, and the news of John
the Baptist's murder by Herod Antipas. (Mark 6:14-30.)

4. =The Retirement to Bethsaida.= (1.) The multitudes following him led
Jesus to leave Capernaum by sea for a retired place near Bethsaida.
(Mark 6:31, 32.) (2.) The people hastened after Jesus, and met him as he
landed, so that he was compelled to teach them all day, and wrought in
the afternoon the miracle of the Five Loaves. (Mark 6:32-44.) (3.) After
the miracle he sent the disciples out upon the sea, and at midnight
walked to them upon the water. (Mark 6:45-51.) (4.) In the morning they
landed at the plain of Gennesaret, near Capernaum, where Jesus wrought
many miracles (Mark 6:52-56), and then returned to Capernaum. (5.) Here
he completed his Galilean ministry by a discourse in the synagogue on
the "Bread of Life." (John 6:25-59.)

[Illustration: THE LIFE OF CHRIST

MAP 4.

LATER GALILEAN MINISTRY

A.D. 28-29.]


OUTLINE REVIEW OF JOURNEYS--FOURTH PERIOD.

PERIOD OF LATER GALILEAN MINISTRY.

1. _Tour in Southern Galilee._ (Capernaum to Nain and return.) (1.)
Centurion's servant healed. (2.) Widow's son at Nain raised. (3.)
Messengers from John. (4.) Washing the Saviour's feet. (5.) Dumb
demoniac, and opposition of Pharisees. (6.) Interference of relatives.

2. _Gadarene Voyage._ (Capernaum to Gergesa and return.) (1.) Parables
by the sea. (2.) Stilling the tempest. (3.) Gadarene demoniacs. (4.)
Jairus' daughter raised.

3. _Tour in Central Galilee._ (Capernaum to Nazareth and return.) (1.)
Second rejection at Nazareth. (2.) Mission of the Twelve. (3.) Third
tour in Galilee. (4.) Report of the Twelve, and death of John the
Baptist.

4. _Retirement to Bethsaida._ (Capernaum to Bethsaida and return.) (1.)
Seeking retirement. (2.) Feeding the five thousand. (3.) Walking on the
sea. (4.) Miracles at Gennesaret. (5.) Discourse on the "Bread of Life."


V. PERIOD OF RETIREMENT.

During most of the six months, from the Feeding of the Five Thousand to
the Feast of Tabernacles, in the fall before Christ's crucifixion, he
remained in retirement, engaged in instructing his disciples in the
deeper truths of the gospel. The places visited at this time were: 1.
Phoenicia, "the coasts of Tyre and Sidon," probably only the borders
near Galilee, not the cities themselves. 2. Decapolis, the region of the
"ten cities," southeast of the Sea of Galilee; a country mainly
inhabited by a heathen population. 3. Dalmanutha, a village on the
western shore of the Sea of Galilee, not certainly identified, but
perhaps at _Ain el Barideh_, two miles from Tiberias. 4. Bethsaida,
already noticed under Period IV. 5. Cæsarea Philippi, at the foot of
Mount Hermon, now _Banias_. 6. Capernaum, already noticed under Period
II.

1. =The Journey to Phoenicia.= (From Capernaum to the borders of Tyre
and Sidon.) (1.) The discourse in the synagogue, showing the spiritual
nature of Christ's kingdom, led to the defection of the multitude, and
the retirement of Jesus and the Twelve. (John 6:60-71.) (2.) At the
"coasts," or frontiers, of Tyre and Sidon, he restored the demoniac
daughter of a Syrophoenician woman. (Mark 7:24-30.)

[Illustration: THE LIFE OF CHRIST

MAP 5.

PERIOD OF RETIREMENT,

A.D. 29.]

2. =The Journey to Decapolis.= (From the borders of Tyre and Sidon to
Decapolis.) (1.) The crowds gathering around Jesus in Phoenicia, he
crossed Galilee, and sought seclusion in Decapolis, southeast of the Sea
of Galilee. (Mark 7:31.) (2.) Here he wrought two miracles, healing a
deaf stammerer, and feeding the four thousand. (Mark 7:31-37; 8:1-9.)

3. =The Journey to Cæsarea Philippi.= (From Decapolis to Dalmanutha,
Bethsaida and Cæsarea Philippi.) (1.) He sailed across the lake to
Dalmanutha, but was met by the Pharisees with unbelieving demands for a
sign, so took ship again. (Mark 8:10-13.) (2.) He sailed northward to
Bethsaida, where he healed a blind man, who saw "men as trees walking."
(Mark 8:22-26.) (3.) Pursuing his way up the Jordan, he came to Cæsarea
Philippi, at the foot of Mount Hermon, where he remained several days.
(4.) Here occurred Peter's confession, "Thou art the Christ," the
transfiguration, and the restoration of the demoniac boy. (Luke
9:18-45.)

4. =The Last Return to Capernaum.= (From Cæsarea Philippi to Capernaum.)
He probably went down the Jordan to Bethsaida, and thence by the shore
of the sea to Capernaum. Here he kept in seclusion, and gave his
disciples a lesson in humility, from "the child in the midst." (Mark
9:30-50.)


OUTLINE REVIEW OF JOURNEYS--FIFTH PERIOD.

PERIOD OF RETIREMENT.

1. _To Phoenicia._ (Capernaum to coasts of Tyre and Sidon.) (1.)
Defection of the multitude. (2.) Syrophoenician woman.

2. _To Decapolis._ (Phoenicia to Decapolis.) (1.) Journey to Decapolis.
(2.) Healing the stammerer, and feeding the four thousand.

3. _To Cæsarea Philippi._ (Decapolis to Dalmanutha, Bethsaida and
Cæsarea Philippi.) (1.) Dalmanutha: a sign demanded. (2.) Bethsaida:
blind man healed. (3.) Cæsarea Philippi. (4.) Transfiguration.

4. _To Capernaum._ (Cæsarea Philippi to Capernaum.) The child in the
midst.


VI. PERIOD OF JUDÆAN MINISTRY.

This includes the events of about three months, from the Feast of
Tabernacles to the Feast of Dedication. The following places are
referred to during this period: 1. Capernaum, noticed under Period II.
2. The "village of the Samaritans" where Jesus was inhospitably treated,
has been traditionally located at En-gannim, on the border of Galilee
and Samaria. 3. Bethany, a small village on the Mount of Olives, east of
Jerusalem, the home of Mary and Martha, now _el Nasiriyeh_. 4.
Jerusalem. (See description on page 73.) 5. Bethabara, on the east of
Jordan, referred to as the place of the baptism, in Period II.

This period embraces but two journeys, at its beginning and ending; the
one before the Feast of Tabernacles, the other after the Feast of
Dedication.

1. =From Galilee to Jerusalem.= (1.) Bidding farewell to Galilee, Jesus
left Capernaum for the last time, and journeyed through Galilee toward
Jerusalem. While starting he conversed with "the three aspirants" (Luke
9:57-62), and showed the duty of full devotion to his work. (2.) On the
border of Samaria, perhaps at the village of En-gannim, he was rejected
by the Samaritans, but refused to allow his disciples to call down fire
from heaven, "as Elias did." (Luke 9:52-56.) (3.) While in Samaria he
healed the ten lepers, of whom but one turned back to give him thanks.
(Luke 17:11-19). (4.) He found a home at Bethany, with Lazarus and his
two sisters, and reminded Martha of her needless care, while Mary was
seeking "the good part." (Luke 10:38-42.) (5.) He came to Jerusalem
during the Feast of Tabernacles, and gave the teachings embodied in John
7-10. (6.) While here he healed the blind man at the Pool of Siloam.
(John 9:1-41.)

2. =From Jerusalem to Bethabara.= (1.) At the Feast of Dedication the
teachings of Christ created such an opposition that he left the city.
(2.) He went to Bethabara beyond Jordan, the place of the baptism, and
there prepared for his tour in Peræa.

[Illustration: THE LIFE OF CHRIST

MAP 6.

PERIOD OF JUDÆAN MINISTRY,

A.D. 29.

TO THE FEAST OF TABERNACLES FROM THE FEAST OF DEDICATION.]


OUTLINE REVIEW OF JOURNEYS--SIXTH PERIOD.

PERIOD OF JUDÆAN MINISTRY.

1. _From Galilee to Jerusalem._ (1.) Three aspirants. (2.) Rejected by
Samaritans. (3.) Ten lepers. (4.) Mary and Martha. (5.) Feast of
Tabernacles. (6.) Blind man at Pool of Siloam.

2. _From Jerusalem to Bethabara._ (1.) Departure from Jerusalem. (2.) At
Bethabara.


VII. PERIOD OF PERÆAN MINISTRY.

This extends through four months, from the events immediately succeeding
the Feast of Dedication, to the Anointing at Bethany, six days before
the crucifixion. Its places are as follows: 1. Bethabara, already
noticed in Period II. 2. Bethany. (See Period VI.) 3. Ephraim. This was
probably the village in a wild region northeast of Bethel, in the Old
Testament called Ophrah, now _et Taiyibeh_. 4. Peræa was the province on
the east of Jordan, and south of the Hieromax river. It was governed by
Herod Antipas, the slayer of John the Baptist, and was inhabited by a
mixed population. No towns are named as visited by the Saviour; but we
have conjectured a route through most of the province, as shown on the
map. 5. Jericho, at that time the largest city in the Jordan Valley, and
recently beautified by Herod. It is now a miserable village, called _er
Riha_. This period includes four journeys.

[Illustration: THE LIFE OF CHRIST

MAP 7.

PERIOD OF PERÆAN MINISTRY,

A.D. 30.

FROM FEAST OF DEDICATION TO ANOINTING AT BETHANY.]

1. =From Bethabara to Bethany.= (1.) While at Bethabara Jesus sent out
the Seventy, to proclaim his coming in the Peræan villages. (Luke
10:1-16.) (2.) Hearing of the sickness of Lazarus, after some delay, he
went to Bethany, and raised him from the dead, a miracle which caused
the Jewish leaders to formally resolve upon putting Jesus to death.
(John 11.)

2. =The Retirement to Ephraim.= The hour had not yet come for Jesus to
die, and he therefore secluded himself from the rulers, in the village
of Ephraim, in a wilderness north of Jerusalem, on the mountains
overlooking the Jordan Valley. Here he remained several weeks, probably
instructing the Twelve.

3. =The Journey in Peræa.= Descending the mountains, Jesus crossed the
Jordan Valley, and entered the province of Peræa. His ministry, during
this journey, was of teaching rather than miracle, and is mainly related
by Luke. Its events were: (1.) The miracles of healing the woman bent
together by an infirmity, and the man with the dropsy. (Luke 13:10-17,
and 14:1-6.) (2.) The seven great parables, among them that of the
Prodigal Son. (Luke 14-16.) (3.) Blessing the little children. (Luke
18:15-17.) (4.) The rich young ruler's question, and Jesus' answer,
"Sell all that thou hast," etc. (Luke 18:18-30.) (5.) The ambitious
request of James and John, for the first places in the kingdom of
Christ. (Matt. 20:20-28.)

4. =From Jericho to Bethany.= Jesus had now reached Jericho, on his last
journey to Jerusalem, and from this point we notice the following
events: (1.) The healing of Bartimeus at the gate of Jericho. (Luke
18:35-43.) (2.) The visit of Jesus at the house of Zaccheus the
publican. (Luke 19:1-10.) (3.) At the end of his journey, the anointing
by Mary at Bethany, on the Saturday evening before the Passover. (John
12:1-8.)


OUTLINE REVIEW OF JOURNEYS--SEVENTH PERIOD.

PERIOD OF PERÆAN MINISTRY.

1. _Bethabara to Bethany._ (1.) Sending the Seventy. (2.) Raising of
Lazarus.

2. _Retirement to Ephraim._

3. _Journey in Peræa._ (1.) Two miracles (infirm woman, and dropsy).
(2.) Seven parables. (3.) Blessing little children. (4.) Rich young
ruler. (5.) Request of James and John.

4. _Jericho to Bethany._ (1.) Bartimeus. (2.) Zaccheus. (3.) Anointing
by Mary.

[Illustration: MAP 8. THE LIFE OF CHRIST.

PERIOD OF THE PASSION, FROM THE ANOINTING TO THE RESURRECTION.]


VIII. PERIOD OF THE PASSION.

Although this period embraces only the week from the Anointing by Mary
to the Death of Jesus on the cross, its events are so minutely related
by the Evangelists as to occupy one-third of the Gospels. If the entire
life of Jesus were as fully written out, it would fill nearly 80 volumes
as large as the Bible. The events of the Passion-Week took place in and
near Jerusalem. The locations on the map are those of tradition only,
and are largely conjectural, while the lines of the journeyings are
entirely unknown. The map is intended merely as a guide to the student
in presenting the order of events, and must not be regarded as fixing
the places with any authority. We arrange the events under nine short
journeys.

[Illustration: NAZARETH.]

1, 2, 3. =From Bethany to the Temple and Return.= These three journeys
took place on successive days, and were marked by distinctive events.
(1.) The First Journey, on Sunday, was the triumphal entry into the city
and the Temple, after which Jesus returned for the night to Bethany.
(Matt. 21:1-11.) (2.) The Second Journey, on Monday, was marked by the
cleansing of the Temple, when for the second time the Saviour drove out
of the Court of the Gentiles those who made it a place of trade. (3.)
The Third Journey, on Tuesday, was made memorable by the last teachings
of Jesus, to the people and rulers in the Temple, and to the Twelve on
the Mount of Olives, looking down upon the city. (Matt. 21-25.) At the
close of each of these three days Jesus returned to Bethany, where he
remained in seclusion on Wednesday, no event of that day being left on
record.

4. =From Bethany to the Supper.= The traditional place of the
_Coenaculum_, or supper-room, is on Mount Zion, where Jesus came with
his disciples on Thursday evening. Here took place the Last Supper, and
the farewell conversation of Jesus with his disciples. (John 13-17.)

5. =From the Supper to Gethsemane.= Near midnight of Thursday, Jesus and
his disciples (Judas being absent) left the supper-room, and walked up
the Valley of Jehoshaphat to the Garden of Gethsemane. Here Jesus
endured the agony, and here he was arrested by the officers of the Jews,
led by Judas. (Matt. 26:36-56.)

6. =From Gethsemane to the House of Caiaphas.= The fettered Jesus was
dragged by the crowd, first to the house of Annas (John 18:13-15), for a
brief examination, thence to the house of Caiaphas for the formal trial
before the Sanhedrim. This place is traditionally located on Mount Zion,
near the house of the Last Supper. Here he was condemned by the rulers,
and mocked by their servants. (John 18:16-28.)

7. =From Caiaphas to Pilate.= Jesus was brought before the Roman
procurator at his _prætorium_, or place of judgment. We are inclined to
think that this was the castle built by Herod the Great on Mount Zion;
but we give on the map the traditional location at the Tower Antonia,
north of the Temple. Here Jesus was examined by Pilate, who vainly
sought to deliver him, being convinced of his innocence. (John
18:28-38.)

8. =From Pilate to Herod and Return.= Wishing to avoid the
responsibility of condemning Jesus, Pilate sent him to Herod Antipas,
who was then in the city, probably in the palace of the Asmonean
(Maccabean) kings. But Herod only mocked Jesus, and returned him to
Pilate. (Luke 23:8-12.)

9. =From Pilate to Calvary.= At last Pilate gave orders for the
crucifixion of Jesus. He was now led forth, bearing his cross, perhaps
by the street called Via Dolorosa, "the Sorrowful Way," to the place
Golgotha, or CALVARY, outside the wall, where three crosses were
erected, and the Saviour of the world was crucified. As two locations of
Calvary are now given, both are indicated, and a journey from Pilate's
castle to each. The route to the northern locality is indicated by
dotted lines.


OUTLINE REVIEW OF JOURNEYS--EIGHTH PERIOD.

PERIOD OF THE PASSION.

1. _Bethany to Temple and Return._ Triumphal entry.

2. _Bethany to Temple and Return._ Cleansing the Temple.

3. _Bethany to Temple and Return._ Last discourses.

4. _Bethany to Supper._ Last Supper.

5. _Supper to Gethsemane._ (1.) Agony. (2.) Arrest.

6. _Gethsemane to Caiaphas._ (1.) To Annas. (2.) To Caiaphas.

7. _Caiaphas to Pilate._

8. _Pilate to Herod and Return._

9. _Pilate to Calvary._ (1.) Crucifixion. (2.) Death. (3.) Burial.


IX. PERIOD OF THE RESURRECTION.

The events of the forty days between the Resurrection and the Ascension
of Jesus cannot be arranged as journeys, since his resurrection body
moved from place to place by the will of his spirit. The student may
therefore consult the Map of Palestine during the ministry of Jesus for
the places referred to in the account of this period. Of the ten
recorded appearances, five were on the day of the resurrection, the
first Easter Sunday.

1. =At Jerusalem=, on Easter morning, to Mary Magdalene, after the other
women had received from the angels the news that he was alive. (John
20:1-18.)

2. =At Jerusalem=, soon afterward, to the other women, when Jesus
greeted them with the words "All hail!" (Matt. 28:1-10.)

3. =Near Emmaus=, on Easter afternoon, to two disciples, not apostles,
to whom he unfolded the Scriptures concerning himself. (Luke 24:13-33.)
Various locations have been proposed for Emmaus, of which we prefer
_Kulonieyeh_, four miles west of Jerusalem.

4. =At Jerusalem=, on the afternoon of the same day, to Simon Peter.
(Luke 24:34.) No account of this appearance, more than the mention of
the fact, has been preserved.

5. =At Jerusalem=, on Easter evening, to the ten disciples, Thomas being
absent. (John 20:19-25.)

6. =At Jerusalem=, a week after the resurrection, to the eleven
apostles, when Thomas received a tender rebuke for the slowness of his
faith. (John 20:26-29.) Perhaps these last two appearances were at the
place of the Supper, on Mount Zion.

7. =Near the Sea of Galilee=, to seven apostles, when Peter received a
new commission. (John 21:1-23.)

8. =On a Mountain in Galilee=, perhaps _Kurûn Hattin_, the place of the
Sermon on the Mount. Here were gathered 500 disciples, and the final
commands of Christ were given. (Matt. 28:16-20; 1 Cor. 15:6.)

9. =At Jerusalem= (?). To James, the Lord's brother. Only a mention of
this appearance is left on record. (1 Cor. 15:7.)

10. =Near Bethany.= Forty days after the resurrection, Jesus appeared to
the eleven apostles, gave them his last charges, and ascended to heaven,
from whence he has promised to come once more to earth. (Acts 1:9-12.)

[Illustration: THE VIA DOLOROSA.]


OUTLINE REVIEW OF NINTH PERIOD.

PERIOD OF THE RESURRECTION.

_The Ten Appearances of the Risen Christ:_

1. _Jerusalem._ Mary Magdalene.

2. _Jerusalem._ Other women.

3. _Emmaus._ Two disciples.

4. _Jerusalem._ Peter.

5. _Jerusalem._ Ten apostles.

6. _Jerusalem._ Eleven apostles.

7. _Sea of Galilee._ Seven apostles.

8. _Mountain in Galilee._ Five hundred disciples.

9. _Jerusalem(?)._ James.

10. _Bethany._ Apostles. [Ascension.]


OUTLINE FOR TEACHING AND REVIEW.

1. Let each period be given as a separate lesson.

2. Draw the map for the period on the blackboard, and show each place
named in the period.

3. Let each scholar also draw the map, and locate the places upon it.

4. Draw the lines of the journeys in the period in colored chalk, naming
the places and events of the journeys, and writing only initials or
catch-syllables.

5. Review carefully and thoroughly each period, each journey under it,
and each event of the journey.

6. Erase the map, and call upon the scholars to draw its different parts
in turn; one the outlines, another the places, a third the journeys, a
fourth the events, etc.

7. Review with each lesson the leading points in all the previous
lessons, until the whole series is thoroughly understood and
remembered.

[Illustration: EARLY APOSTOLIC HISTORY.

PHILIP'S JOURNEY.

PETER'S JOURNEY.]



EARLY APOSTOLIC HISTORY.


DURING the seven years following the ascension of the Saviour, the
Christian church was entirely Jewish in its membership, and, so far as
we can learn, limited to the city of Jerusalem and the surrounding
villages. There was at that time no thought of the gospel for the
Gentiles, and the conception of the apostles was that the only door into
the church lay through the profession of Judaism and the rite of
circumcision. Probably the first to attain to wider views of the gospel
was Stephen, and the persecution in which he became the first martyr
arose from the tendency of his teachings toward extending among the
Gentiles the privileges of the new kingdom. This state of affairs was
suddenly ended by the death of Stephen, and the scattering of the church
at Jerusalem. The more liberally inclined of its members, when driven
abroad, were led to preach the gospel, first to Samaritans; then to
believers in the Jewish faith who had not yet submitted to circumcision,
and hence were called "Proselytes of the Gate"; and at last to the
general Gentile world. The period from the death of Stephen, A.D. 37, to
the first missionary journey of the Apostle Paul, A.D. 45, may,
therefore, be regarded as an age of transition from Jewish to Gentile
Christianity.

This period requires us to notice two provinces, Palestine and Syria.
Palestine appears at this time under several forms of government in
frequent succession. During the public life of Christ, Judæa and Samaria
were under the direct rule of Rome, governed by a procurator, while
Galilee and Peræa belonged to Herod Antipas, and the region north and
east of the Sea of Galilee, anciently called Bashan, was held by Herod
Philip, both of these having the title of _tetrarch_, "ruler of a fourth
part." In A.D. 37 Herod Agrippa received Philip's tetrarchy, and in 41
he was made king of all Palestine. ("Herod the king," Acts 12.) In A.D.
44 he died, and his dominions were divided. Judæa, Samaria, Galilee and
Peræa again became a procuratorship, under a succession of Roman rulers,
until the final destruction of the Jewish state, A.D. 70. The
principality of Bashan was given to Herod Agrippa II. in A.D. 53, and
held by him until A.D. 70. Syria, the great region north of Palestine,
extending from Damascus to Antioch, was, during this time, a province of
the Roman empire, governed by a prefect.

[Illustration: DAMASCUS.]

The events of this period gather around seven cities. 1. =Jerusalem.=
This place has been already described. (See page 73.) 2. =Samaria= (Acts
8:5-25), the field of Philip's early ministry, was the ancient capital
of the Ten Tribes (see page 87), located 30 miles north of Jerusalem,
and 6 miles northwest of Shechem. It had been rebuilt by Herod the
Great, and named Sebaste, in honor of Augustus. It is now a village
called _Sebastiyeh_. 3. =Cæsarea= (Acts 10:1), the place where the
Gentile Cornelius became a disciple, was the Roman capital of Palestine,
and the residence of the procurators. It was called Cæsarea Stratonis,
to distinguish it from Cæsarea Philippi, under Mount Hermon; and was
located on the sea-coast, 47 miles northwest of Jerusalem; and is now a
desolate, uninhabited ruin, called _Kaisarieyeh_. 4. =Joppa=, where
Dorcas was raised to life, and Peter received a vision (Acts 9:36-43;
10:11), is one of the most ancient towns in the world, in all ages the
principal seaport of Palestine. It lies 30 miles south of Cæsarea, and
35 miles northwest of Jerusalem; and is now a flourishing city called
_Yafa_, or _Jaffa_. 5. =Damascus=, the place where Saul was converted
(Acts 9:1-25), is an ancient and famous city of Syria, 133 miles
northeast of Jerusalem, beautifully situated in a plain at the foot of
the Anti-Lebanon mountains. Recently it had a population of 150,000, but
is rapidly decaying from the diversion of the Eastern trade through the
Suez Canal. Its modern name is _el Shams_. 6. =Antioch=, seat of the
first missionary church (Acts 11:19-30), was the metropolis of northern
Syria, situated on the river Orontes, 16-1/2 miles from the
Mediterranean, and 300 miles north of Jerusalem, in a deep pass between
the Taurus and Lebanon ranges of mountains. It is now a mean village of
6,000 people, called _Antakia_. 7. =Tarsus=, the home of the apostle
Paul, was the capital of Cilicia, in Asia Minor, and one of the leading
cities of the Roman world. It was 12 miles from the Mediterranean, the
same distance from Mount Taurus, and about 80 miles northwest of
Antioch, across an arm of the sea. It is now a place of 30,000
inhabitants, called _Tersous_.

[Illustration: PLAN OF ANCIENT ANTIOCH.]

The most important events of this period may be arranged under five
journeys, which are indicated upon the map.

I. =Philip's Journey.= (Acts 8:5-40.) Philip, one of the "seven" (Acts
6:3-5), was compelled to leave Jerusalem in the persecution that arose
on account of Stephen. He went first to Samaria, the city known by the
Greeks as Sebaste, now _Sebastiyeh_, 6 miles northwest of Shechem, or
Sychar, and there began to preach the gospel. This was a step outside of
narrow Judaism, as the Samaritans were considered at least semi-Gentile
by the Jews. After planting a church here, he was sent by the Spirit
southward "unto the way that goeth down from Jerusalem unto Gaza, which
is desert" (Acts 8:26); that is, by the less frequented road. There he
met a nobleman from Ethiopia (the kingdom of Meroë, in Nubia), whom he
instructed in the gospel, and baptized as a believer. Suddenly caught
away by the Spirit, Philip next appeared at Azotus, the ancient Ashdod,
now _Asdud_. He followed the line of the coast northward, preaching in
the cities of the maritime plain. These cities were mostly inhabited by
heathen, though in all of them there were many Jews. We find in the
after-history the results of his preaching, in churches at Joppa, at
Lydda, and at Cæsarea, where he made his home for 20 years, and was met
by the apostle Paul, who, long before, as Saul the persecutor, had
driven him from Jerusalem. Philip's journey is indicated by a line of
red color on the small map.

II. =Saul's Journey.= (Acts 9:1-30.) The destroyer of the Jerusalem
church now began a journey for persecution, which was ended in his own
flight, as a Christian, from persecutors. 1. He went to Damascus,
expecting to bind others, but was himself bound by the cords of the
gospel, and preached the truth he had sought to destroy. 2. From
Damascus, as a disciple, he went into Arabia, a name which may refer to
almost any region from the Euphrates to the Indian Ocean, but probably
here indicating the desert lands on the border of Syria, and not
necessarily distant from Damascus, to which he returned after a stay of
from one to three years. (Gal. 1:17.) 3. Escaping from Damascus by being
let down over the wall in a basket, he returned to Jerusalem, where he
was introduced to the church by Barnabas, and received by the apostles
Peter and James. 4. After a fortnight's visit at Jerusalem, he left the
city by divine direction in a vision (Acts 22:17-21), and, aided by the
disciples, descended to the seaport of Cæsarea, where in after years he
was destined to spend two years in imprisonment. 5. From Cæsarea he
sailed to his birthplace, Tarsus, in Cilicia, where he spent several
years in retirement, preparing for the great work which was to open
before him. This journey is shown by a red line on the large map.

[Illustration: DAMASCUS AND VICINITY.]

III. =Peter's Journey.= (Acts 9:32-11:18.) This was the journey in which
the door of faith was finally opened to the Gentiles. During the "rest"
which the churches enjoyed after Saul's conversion, and while the Jewish
leaders were too busy with the alarming state of their relations with
Rome to disturb the disciples, Peter went forth to visit the churches.
1. He came down to Lydda, now _Ludd_, on the border of the Shefelah, and
restored to health Æneas, a paralytic. (Acts 9:32, 33.) 2. From Lydda he
was summoned to Joppa, the principal seaport of Palestine, where
Tabitha, or Dorcas, "the gazelle," had died. She was restored to the
weeping church, and Peter remained in Joppa "many days." (Acts 9:43.)
3. He was called to Cæsarea by the Roman centurion, Cornelius, who,
under Peter's ministry, accepted Christ, received the endowment of the
Holy Spirit, and was baptized into the church by the apostle, without
reference to Jewish requirements (Acts 10); thus marking an era in the
history of the church. 4. Peter returned to Jerusalem, and there met the
complaints of the Judaistic element in the church, by showing that God's
hand had led in the conversion of Cornelius and the reception of
Gentiles into the church. (Acts 11:1-18.) This journey is indicated by a
red line on the small map, lower right-hand corner.

IV. =Barnabas' Journey.= (Acts 11:19-30.) After the death of Stephen,
certain disciples, driven from Jerusalem, traveled along the coast past
Tyre and Sidon, as far as Antioch, and at the latter place began
preaching the gospel, at first to the Jews only, but after a while to
the Gentiles also. As a result, a church arose at Antioch (on the
Orontes, near its mouth, now _Antakia_), the first where Jews and
Gentiles became one, the first to receive the name Christian, and the
first to send out missionaries to the heathen world. When the news of
this work came to Jerusalem, there was some alarm lest it might cause a
division in the church. Barnabas was dispatched by the apostles to visit
Antioch. He came, gave the work his hearty indorsement, and remained to
direct it. Soon feeling the need of a co-worker, he went to Tarsus, a
short voyage across the northeastern corner of the Mediterranean. Here
he found Saul, and thenceforward the two were united in labors for many
years, until parted forever by an unhappy difference. This journey of
Barnabas is shown on the map by a broken red line.

V. =Barnabas and Saul's Journey.= (Acts 11:26-30; 12:25.) 1. Starting
from Tarsus the two gospel workers sailed across the narrow sea to
Seleucia, the seaport, and thence journeyed up the river Orontes to
Antioch. Here they labored together for a year, and aided in
establishing a church, which became one of the most important in the
early age of Christianity. 2. Learning by revelation of coming famine,
the church at Antioch prepared a contribution for the poorer disciples
in Judæa, and sent it by the hands of Barnabas and Saul. 3. About the
time of the death of Herod Agrippa, the two evangelists returned, from
their charitable errand, to Antioch, where they remained until the next
great event, the first missionary journey.


OUTLINE FOR TEACHING AND REVIEW.

Let the teacher draw on the blackboard the outline of the map, including
the borders of the Mediterranean Sea, and the two provinces of Palestine
and Syria. Then locate the seven important places. 1. _Jerusalem._ 2.
_Samaria._ 3. _Cæsarea._ 4. _Joppa._ 5. _Damascus._ 6. _Antioch._ 7.
_Tarsus._ Next draw the five lines representing the journeys, relating
the events connected with them. If the journeys can be given in chalk of
different colors, it will make them more distinct.

I. _Philip's Journey._ Jerusalem, Samaria, Azotus, Lydda, Joppa,
Cæsarea.

II. _Saul's Journey._ Jerusalem, Damascus, Arabia, Damascus, Jerusalem,
Cæsarea, Tarsus.

III. _Peter's Journey._ Jerusalem, Lydda, Joppa, Cæsarea, Jerusalem.

IV. _Barnabas' Journey._ Jerusalem, Antioch, Tarsus.

V. _Barnabas and Saul's Journey._ Tarsus, Antioch, Jerusalem, Antioch.

[Illustration: MOUNT ZION.]

[Illustration: PAUL'S FIRST MISSIONARY JOURNEY.]



JOURNEYS OF THE APOSTLE PAUL.


DURING the twenty years between A.D. 45 and 65, of which the events of
church history are recorded in Acts 13-28, the most important personage
is the apostle Paul. While the work of the original Twelve is scarcely
referred to, the journeys of the last apostle are related with
considerable detail. The probable reason for this is, that Paul was the
leader in the great movement by which the church of Christ was broadened
from an inconsiderable Jewish sect, scarcely known out of Jerusalem, to
a religion for all the world. This distinction from the other apostles
is considered of so much importance that he is called, almost
universally, by the descriptive title he gave himself--the Apostle of
the Gentiles. The localities and events of this period are represented
upon four maps, three of Paul's Missionary Journeys, and the last of his
Voyage to Rome.


THE PROVINCES OF ASIA MINOR.

As the first missionary journey was mainly in Asia Minor, a brief
description of that peninsula is necessary. It embraces about 156,000
square miles, or about two-thirds the size of Texas, and was located
between the Black, Ægean, and Mediterranean Seas on the north, west and
south, and bounded on the east by the provinces of Armenia, Mesopotamia
and Syria. The provinces which it contained at the New Testament epoch
may be variously stated, since in their political, racial and
geographical relations they were different. The map of the Roman Empire,
on page 98, gives them according to their political arrangement, which
united two or more under one government, and gave to some new names.
Thus there were four districts united under the name ASIA, which in the
New Testament never denotes the whole continent, nor yet the whole
peninsula, but the seaboard provinces of Caria, Lydia, Mysia, and the
interior land of Phrygia. So, too, Bithynia and Pontus formed one
government, Lycaonia was included in Galatia, and Lycia and Pisidia in
Pamphylia. We can best arrange these provinces of Asia Minor, according
to territorial relations, in four groups. 1. The three northern
provinces, on the Black Sea: Pontus, Paphlagonia, Bithynia. 2. The three
western provinces, on the Ægean Sea: Mysia, Lydia, Caria. 3. The three
southern provinces, on the Mediterranean Sea: Lycia, Pamphylia, Cilicia.
4. The five interior provinces: on the north, Galatia; on the east,
Cappadocia; on the south, Lycaonia and Pisidia; and on the west,
Phrygia. All of these fourteen provinces, except four, are named in the
New Testament.

1. =The Provinces on the Black Sea.= (1.) _Pontus_ (Acts 2:9; 18:2; 1
Pet. 1:1) was the northeastern province, between Paphlagonia and
Armenia, and having Cappadocia on the south; now represented by
_Trebizond_ in the Turkish empire. Some of its Jewish inhabitants were
present in Jerusalem on the Day of Pentecost; Aquila, a helper of Paul,
was a native of this region; and its Christian Jews were among those
addressed in Peter's first Epistle. (2.) _Paphlagonia_, not mentioned in
the New Testament, lay between Pontus and Bithynia, and north of
Galatia. (3.) _Bithynia_ (Acts 16:7; 1 Pet. 1:1) was the northwestern
province, having the Propontis (now called the _Sea of Marmora_) on the
west, and Mysia and Phrygia on the south, from which it was separated by
Mount Olympus. Though the region is only incidentally named in the New
Testament, two of its cities, Nicæa and Nicomedia, were prominent in the
history of the Greek church.

[Illustration: ANTIOCH IN SYRIA.]

2. =The Provinces on the Ægean Sea.= These are all included under the
name Asia, by which the western portion of the peninsula was known to
the Romans. (1.) _Mysia_ (Acts 16:7, 8) was separated from Europe by
the Hellespont and the Propontis, and had Bithynia on the north, Phrygia
on the east, and Mysia on the west. It contained Troas, on the ruins of
ancient Troy, whence Paul could dimly see the hills of Europe on the
west, and where the vision of "the man of Macedonia" led to the voyage
for the evangelization of Europe. (2.) _Lydia_, once the centre of the
great empire of Croesus, extended along the Ægean Sea from Mysia to
Caria, and eastward to Phrygia. Its principal city was Ephesus, the
metropolis of Asia Minor, and one of Paul's most important fields of
labor; and Sardis, Thyatira and Philadelphia were also large places and
seats of churches addressed in the Apocalypse. (3.) _Caria_ was the
southwestern province, not named in the New Testament, though its
cities, Cnidus and Miletus, are referred to; the latter as the place
where Paul parted from the Ephesian elders. (Acts 20:15.)

[Illustration: MAP GIVING COMPARATIVE SIZE OF ASIA MINOR AND TEXAS,
U. S.]

3. =The Provinces on the Mediterranean.= (1.) _Lycia_ (Acts 27:5) lay
south of Mount Taurus, and opposite to the island of Rhodes. Two of its
cities, Patara and Myra, were visited by the apostle Paul. (Acts 21:1;
27:5.) (2.) _Pamphylia_ (Acts 13:13) was a small province between Lycia
and Cilicia, and also between Mount Taurus and the sea. Its capital,
Perga, was the first city in Asia Minor visited by Paul on his first
missionary journey. On his return, he preached in its seaport, Attalia.
(Acts 13:13; 14:24, 25.) (3.) _Cilicia_ (Acts 6:9) is a long and narrow
province, also lying between Mount Taurus and the sea, and separated
from Syria by the Syrian Gates, a pass in the mountains. Its capital,
Tarsus, was one of the leading cities of the Roman empire, and the
birthplace of Paul.

4. =The Provinces in the Interior.= (1.) On the north was _Galatia_, a
land of uncertain and varying boundaries, but located between Bithynia,
Cappadocia, Lycaonia and Phrygia. It received its name from a race of
Gauls, who conquered it about 300 B.C., was twice visited by Paul, and
its Christian population was addressed in the Epistle to the Galatians.
(Acts 16:6; 18:23; Gal. 1:2.) (2.) _Cappadocia_ lay on the southeast of
Galatia, and south of Pontus. It was the largest province in Asia Minor.
Some of its people were in Jerusalem at the Feast of Pentecost (Acts
2:9); and its churches were among those addressed in 1 Peter. (3.)
_Lycaonia_ (Acts 14:1-23) was not a political division, but a district
in southern Galatia. It was west of Cappadocia and east of Phrygia, and
separated by the Taurus range from Cilicia. Its principal places were
Iconium, Derbe and Lystra, in all of which Paul preached the gospel and
suffered persecution. (4.) _Pisidia_ was politically connected with
Pamphylia, but lay north of the Taurus, between Lycaonia and Phrygia.
Its principal city was Antioch (to be distinguished from Antioch in
Syria), twice, at least, visited by the apostle Paul. (Acts 13:14;
14:21.) (5.) _Phrygia_ varied greatly at different periods, and in
Paul's time had no separate existence as a province. In the earlier
days, when Galatia was a part of it, it was said to touch in some way
every other land in Asia Minor. In its southern section lay the three
cities of Laodicea, Hierapolis and Colosse, all named in Paul's letters.


THE FIRST MISSIONARY JOURNEY.

1. Paul and Barnabas, with John Mark as their assistant, set forth upon
the first missionary journey from _Antioch_, the metropolis of Syria
(Acts 13:1), already described on page 107.

2. They descended the mountains to _Seleucia_ (Acts 13:4), the seaport
of Antioch, 16 miles from the city, named from its founder, Seleucus
Nicator, B.C. 280. It is now a small village known as _el Kalusi_,
having among its ruins an ancient gateway, still standing, through which
Paul and Barnabas may have passed.

3. Setting sail, they crossed over the arm of the Mediterranean to the
island of _Cyprus_ (Acts 13:4-13), the early home of Barnabas, 60 miles
west of Syria, and 40 miles south of Asia Minor; of irregular shape, 140
miles long and 50 wide; then thickly inhabited, and governed by a Roman
proconsul, now under the rule of Great Britain.

4. Their first stopping place was at _Salamis_ (Acts 13:5), on its
eastern shore, on the river Pediæsus, where they found a Jewish
synagogue. The city is now desolate, and its unoccupied site is known as
_Old Famagousta_.

5. They crossed the island from east to west, preaching on their way,
and came to _Paphos_ (Acts 13:6), the capital, and residence of the
proconsul. This city contained a famous shrine of Venus, to whose
worship, with all its immoralities, its people were devoted. There was
an old and a new city, of which the former was the one visited by Paul
and Barnabas. It is now called _Baffa_.

6. Sailing in a northwesterly direction a distance of 170 miles, they
reached Asia Minor, in the province of Pamphylia. Passing by Attalia for
the present, they ascended the river Cestrus, and landed at _Perga_
(Acts 13:13), 7-1/2 miles from the sea. This was a Greek city, devoted
to the worship of Diana: now in ruins, and called _Eski Kalessi_. Here
their young assistant, Mark, left the two missionaries to prosecute the
hardest part of the journey without his help.

7. Their next field of labor was _Antioch in Pisidia_, a city east of
Ephesus, and northwest of Tarsus, now known as _Yalobatch_. Here Paul
preached in the synagogue a discourse reported more at length than any
other in his ministry, and here a church was founded. (Acts 13:14-52.)

8. Driven out of Antioch by the persecution of the Jews, they went on 60
miles eastward to _Iconium_, a large city, still in existence as
_Konieh_, and in the Middle Ages the capital of a powerful Mohammedan
kingdom. This region, in the apostle's time, was independent of the
Roman empire. (Acts 14:1-5.)

9. Again compelled to endure persecution, they traveled to _Lystra_, a
heathen city in the district of Lycaonia, where a miracle wrought by
Paul led the superstitious people to offer worship to the two apostles
as the gods Jupiter and Mercury (in Greek, Zeus and Hermes). There is
reason to suppose that Lystra was at the place now known as _Bin bir
Kilisseh_, "the thousand and one churches," a mass of ruins in the _Kara
Dagh_, or Black Mountain.

[Illustration: MAP OF THE ISLAND OF CYPRUS.]

10. Paul having been stoned at Lystra, the apostles went on to _Derbe_,
20 miles distant, but in the same province, where they were suffered to
labor in peace. It is supposed to be represented by the modern village
of _Divle_. This marked the furthest place reached by the evangelists.
They were now quite near the pass in Mount Taurus, known as the Cilician
Gates, and could easily have reached Tarsus, and thence taken a short
voyage home.

[Illustration: REVIEW CHART OF PAUL'S FIRST JOURNEY.]

11. But they preferred to return by the same route, perilous as the
journey was from the enmities excited by their preaching; and revisited
Lystra, Iconium and Antioch, confirming the churches which they had
planted, and establishing new ones in other neighboring places in
Pisidia and Pamphylia, as in _Attalia_, a seaport on the river
Katarrhaktes, 16 miles from Perga, now known as _Adalia_, where they
took ship once more, and thence sailed over the Cilician section of the
Mediterranean, north of Cyprus, to Antioch in Syria, where they were
gladly received by the church which had sent them forth.


OUTLINE FOR TEACHING AND REVIEW.

1. Draw on the blackboard the subjoined Review Chart of Asia Minor, and
let the class also draw the same on slates or paper, in a rough sketch.
Then insert the provinces, and drill the class upon their names,
reviewing from the beginning after each group is given.

   _Black Sea._ Pontus, Paphlagonia, Bithynia.
   _Ægean Sea._ Mysia, Lydia, Caria.
   _Mediterranean Sea._ Lycia, Pamphylia, Cilicia.
   _Interior._ Galatia, Cappadocia, Lycaonia, Pisidia, Phrygia.

2. Draw in colored chalk the line representing _Paul's travel_, calling
attention to the places and events; and frequently review the list, as a
new name is presented. (1.) Antioch in Syria. (2.) Seleucia. (3.) Island
of Cyprus. (4.) Salamis. (5.) Paphos. (6.) Perga. (7.) Antioch in
Pisidia. (8.) Iconium. (9.) Lystra. (10.) Derbe. (11.) Return, and
Attalia.


THE SECOND MISSIONARY JOURNEY.

The map presents the field of the apostle Paul's labor during four of
the most active years of his life, according to Alford's chronology,
from A.D. 50 to 54. To this period belong two journeys: a journey from
Antioch to Jerusalem and return, and the second missionary journey,
through Asia Minor, Macedonia and Greece.

[Illustration: PAUL'S SECOND MISSIONARY JOURNEY.]

The journey to Jerusalem, not indicated upon the map, was Paul's third
visit to that city after his conversion. His first visit was in A.D. 40,
when Barnabas introduced him to Peter and James (Acts 9:26-30); his
second was in A.D. 45, when with Barnabas he brought the gifts of the
church at Antioch (Acts 11:30); his third was in A.D. 50, when, again
accompanied by Barnabas, he attended the council in Jerusalem, called to
establish the principle upon which Gentiles were to be received into the
Christian church. (Acts 15:1-30.)

The second missionary journey began with an unfortunate disagreement
between Paul and Barnabas, which resulted in their separation, Barnabas
going to the island of Cyprus, and Paul to the mainland. (Acts
15:36-40.) The apostle chose as his companion Silas, or Silvanus, and
was afterward joined by Timothy, and Luke, the author of the third
Gospel and the Acts. We may subdivide this journey into three sections,
as follows:

I. The Stations in Asia, seven in number.

II. The Stations in Europe, eight in number.

III. The Stations of the Return, four in number.

I. =The Asiatic Stations.= These are mostly the names of provinces in
Asia Minor already described in connection with a previous map.

1. Starting from Antioch, Paul first traveled through _Syria_, visiting
the churches. (Acts 15:41.) This tour was probably through northern
Syria only, in the region around Antioch; and the general direction was
toward Asia Minor, which he probably entered through the Syrian Gates,
now the Beilan Pass in Mount Amanus. No cities are named in this region
as visited by the apostle; but the principal places were Issus and
Alexandria, both of which lay along the route of his journey.

2. The next province visited was _Cilicia_ (Acts 15:41), the land of
Paul's birth. As everywhere he made the chief cities his stations of
labor, we may suppose that he passed through Mopsuestia and Adana, on
his way to Tarsus, the metropolis of the province. From Tarsus he
journeyed westward toward Mount Taurus, the northern boundary of the
province, and crossed the range through the Cilician Gates, from which
he emerged upon the great Lycaonian plain.

3. We read of a station at _Derbe_, where he had planted a church on the
first journey, and which was now strengthened by his second visit. (Acts
16:1.)

4. Next, at _Lystra_, where in other days he had been first worshiped
and then stoned. Here he found a church, the result of his early labors,
and was joined by his life-long companion, Timothy. (Acts 16:1-4.)

5. We read of Paul and Silas as having next "gone throughout _Phrygia_."
Probably this refers to a tour among the churches at Iconium and Antioch
in Pisidia, the fields of former labors. There is no indication in the
Acts or Epistles that he preached in any new places in this district.

6. From Antioch he turned northward and entered for the first time the
province of _Galatia_. (Acts 16:6.) But W. M. Ramsay has shown that
Lycaonia itself was only a district in the political province of
Galatia, and that the Galatian journey (and also the Galatian epistle)
may refer to the region of Derbe, Lystra, and Iconium, not to the entire
province. In that case the dotted red line on the map may indicate
Paul's journey, and the line through Pessinus, Ancyra, and Tavium should
be omitted.

These conclusions are not, as yet, generally accepted.

7. Paul's desire was to preach the word throughout the Roman proconsular
province of Asia, which comprised Phrygia, and the maritime districts of
Mysia, Lydia and Caria. But divine influences closed up his path, both
in this direction and northward toward Bithynia; so he journeyed
westward across Phrygia and Mysia, and at last reached the shore of the
Ægean Sea at _Troas_. (Acts 16:6-8.) This was the site of ancient Troy,
the scene of Homer's Iliad, and has been the place of great discoveries
in modern times. There was a city near the ancient site in Paul's time;
and it is probable that in it he founded a church, for there he was
joined by Luke, the historian of the Acts and author of the third
Gospel, and in a later journey met "the disciples" of the place. (Acts
20:7.) Here the vision of the "man of Macedonia" summoned Paul from Asia
to Europe (Acts 16:9, 10), and opened a new chapter in the history of
Christianity.

[Illustration: THE ACROPOLIS AT ATHENS. (AREOPAGUS ON THE LEFT.)]

II. =The European Stations.= All the places named as visited by the
apostle in this journey were included in the two provinces of Macedonia
and Greece, of which the Roman name was Achaia.

_Macedonia_ was the province north of Greece, and famous in history from
its conquering kings, Philip, and his greater son, Alexander. Its
boundaries were: on the north, the Hæmus or Balkan Mountains; on the
east, Thrace and the Ægean Sea; on the south, Achaia (Greece); on the
west, the Pindus Mountains, separating it from Epirus and Illyricum. It
consists of two great plains, watered respectively by the Axius, near
Thessalonica, and the Strymon, near Apollonia. Between these two rivers
projects a peninsula, having three points, like a hand of three fingers,
across the palm of which, in Paul's time, ran the great Roman road known
as the Ignatian Way. It was divided by the Romans into four districts,
of which the capitals were Amphipolis, Thessalonica (the residence of
the provincial proconsul), Pella (the birthplace of Alexander the
Great), and Pelagonia. Of these, Amphipolis had become less important
than the rival city of Philippi, in the same district.

_Achaia_ was the Roman name of the little land of Greece, whose fame has
filled all history. In the later period of its independence, its ruling
state had been Achaia, which gave its name to the entire province when
annexed to the Roman empire. In the apostolic age, Corinth was its
metropolis and political capital, though Athens still retained its fame
as a centre of art and literature.

The apostle Paul and his companions sailed across the Ægean Sea from
Troas, in a northwesterly direction, passing the storied isles of
Tenedos and Imbros; anchored for the first night off Samothracia, "the
Thracian Samos," a rocky island near the coast of Thrace; and the next
day passed northward of Thasos, and anchored in the harbor of Neapolis,
on the border of Thrace. They did not remain at the seaport, but pressed
inland to the larger city, which was to be memorable as the first
foothold of the gospel in Europe. In the European part of the second
missionary journey we notice eight places visited by the apostle.

1. _Philippi_ (Acts 16:12-40). This was an ancient town, enlarged and
renamed by Philip, the father of Alexander the Great. Near it was fought
the great battle between Augustus and Antony on one side, and Brutus and
Cassius on the other, in which the hope of a Roman republic perished,
and the empire was ushered in. It had been made a _colony_; that is, a
branch of Rome itself, and enjoyed certain privileges of
self-government, so that its magistrates bore Roman titles, as noticed
by Luke. Here Lydia, the first convert in Europe, was baptized, and a
church was planted; Paul and Silas were scourged and imprisoned, and set
free by divine power; the jailer was brought to Christ; and the
officials of the city were made to tremble at having inflicted violence
upon citizens of Rome.

2. _Amphipolis_ was 33 miles southwest of Philippi, and 3 miles from the
Ægean Sea. It was a town of ancient fame; but, in Paul's time, decayed
in population; and, having no synagogue or Jewish population, was not
yet made a field of his labors. After a delay of only a day, he
journeyed on still further westward. (Acts 17:1.)

3. _Apollonia_ was 30 miles from Amphipolis, and an important city; but
for some reason Paul did not choose to labor in its vicinity, and
remained there but a day. (Acts 17:1.)

4. _Thessalonica_ (Acts 17:1-9) was the capital of the entire province,
and 40 miles from the preceding station. It was named after a sister of
Alexander the Great, and had many historic associations. An arch is
still standing, and was doubtless seen by the apostle, which
commemorated the victory at Philippi. There was a large Jewish
population, and a synagogue, in which Paul preached for three sabbaths.
He succeeded in founding a church, mostly of Gentiles, to which he soon
after wrote his two earliest epistles, First and Second Thessalonians.
But the Jews excited a riot, and the apostles were compelled to leave
the city by night. Thessalonica, now called _Saloniki_, is still the
second city of European Turkey, and contains 80,000 inhabitants.

5. _Berea_ (Acts 17:10-13) was a small city, chosen by the apostle on
account of its retired situation. It lay on the eastern side of Mount
Olympus. Its people were generous in hearing the truth, and candid in
examination of its claims; so that many of them believed, and "the
Bereans" have furnished a name for earnest students of the Bible in all
lands. The place is now called _Verria_, and has a population of about
6,000.

[Illustration: PLAN OF ATHENS.]

6. _Athens_ (Acts 17:15-34) was one of the most famous cities of the
world. It was situated 5 miles northeast of the Saronic Gulf, between
the two little streams Cephissus and Ilissus, and connected by long
walls with its two seaports, the Piræus and the Phaleric Gulf, where
probably Paul landed. Around it stand mountains noted in history, and
within its walls rise four important hills: the Acropolis, surmounted
by the Parthenon, the most perfect specimen of Greek architecture; the
Areopagus, northwest of the Acropolis, where Paul delivered his
memorable discourse; the Pnyx, still further west; and, on the south,
the Museum. In Paul's time Athens was no longer the political capital,
but was still the literary centre, not only of Greece, but of the
civilized world. Paul's discourse before its philosophers was not
attended with immediate results, as no church appears to have been
founded; but, four centuries afterward, the Parthenon became a Christian
church, and the Athenians were among the most bitter foes of image
worship. After many changes of fortune--at times being without
inhabitants--Athens is now the growing capital of the kingdom of modern
Greece, and the seat of a university.

7. _Corinth_ (Acts 18:1-18), the next station of the apostle, was 40
miles west of Athens, on the isthmus between Hellas and Peloponnesus,
which is here 10 miles wide. In Paul's time it was the commercial and
political metropolis of Greece, being the residence of the Roman
proconsul. It was, however, a most wicked city, and a by-word for
corruption and licentiousness. Paul preached in Corinth for a year and a
half, working meanwhile at his trade as a tent-maker, and during his
stay wrote the two Epistles to the Thessalonians. After leaving, he
wrote to the Corinthian Christians two of his longest Epistles, First
and Second Corinthians. The site of the city is now desolate, except for
a small and wretched village, named _Gortho_.

[Illustration: CORINTH AND VICINITY.]

8. _Cenchrea_ (Acts 18:18), more accurately Cenchreæ, is named merely as
the place from which Paul set forth on his return journey, and where he
performed the Levitical service of cutting off his hair in token of a
vow. We know, however, that he had, directly or indirectly, planted a
church here, as its deaconess, Phebe, is named. (Rom. 16:1, 2.) This was
the eastern harbor of Corinth, on the Saronic Gulf, 9 miles from the
city. It is now called _Kekhries_.

III. =The Return Stations= of the apostle, in his journey from Corinth
to Antioch, are given as four in number, though the journey was more
than a thousand miles in length.

1. Sailing eastward across the Ægean Sea, and passing many celebrated
islands, after a voyage of 250 miles, he reached _Ephesus_. (Acts
18:19-21.) He had been hindered from preaching in this region before,
and now remained but a few weeks, though urged by the Jews to remain
longer. He left behind him his friends Aquila and Priscilla, by whose
labors the brilliant young Apollos of Alexandria was led into the
church, and the way was prepared for Paul's labor on his second visit,
in connection with which Ephesus will be noticed again.

2. A voyage around the southwestern border of Asia Minor, thence past
the isle of Rhodes in a southeasterly direction, leaving Cyprus on the
northeast, brought the apostle to _Cæsarea_. (Acts 18:22.) This was the
Roman capital of Palestine, and a harbor. Here Paul debarked from the
vessel on which he had sailed 600 miles, and entered once more the Holy
Land. (For an account of Cæsarea, see page 113.)

3. _Jerusalem._ (Acts 18:22.) The apostle climbed the mountains, and for
the fourth time since his conversion entered the Holy City. He stayed
only to salute the church, and perhaps leave the gifts of the Gentile
Christians to the poorer saints of Judæa, and then left once more.

4. He traveled, overland most probably, to _Antioch_, his home, if any
place might be so named; for here were his nearest friends, here he had
begun his missionary journey, and here he doubtless received a glad
welcome from the church. He brought with him, on his return, not only
Silas, who had set out as his companion, but Timothy, and perhaps also
Aristarchus, Gaius and Erastus, whose names we find associated with
Paul's soon after.


OUTLINE FOR REVIEW.

          I. Draw the map of Asia Minor, and review the
          names of its provinces as already given.

          II. Notice the _Stations in Asia_, and the events
          of the journey associated with them. 1. Syria. 2.
          Cilicia. 3. Derbe. 4. Lystra. 5. Phrygia. 6.
          Galatia. 7. Troas.

          III. Notice the _Stations in Europe_. 1. Philippi.
          2. Amphipolis. 3. Apollonia. 4. Thessalonica. 5.
          Berea. 6. Athens. 7. Corinth. 8. Cenchrea.

          IV. Notice the _Stations of the Return Journey_.
          1. Ephesus. 2. Cæsarea. 3. Jerusalem. 4. Antioch.


THE THIRD MISSIONARY JOURNEY.

This journey of the apostle, beginning at Antioch, led him as far west
as Corinth, and then as far east as Jerusalem. It probably occupied
about four years, from A.D. 54 to 58, and may be subdivided into two
stages. I. The Outward Journey, from Antioch to Corinth, including seven
stations. II. The Return Journey, from Corinth to Jerusalem, with
fifteen stations. More than half of this period was spent at Ephesus,
where Paul preached for nearly three years.

[Illustration: PAUL'S THIRD MISSIONARY JOURNEY.]

I. =The Outward Journey.= (Acts 18:23-20:3.)

1. We note _Antioch_, the starting point for each of Paul's three
missionary journeys. This place has been already described, on page 113,
in connection with the map of the Early Apostolic History.

2. His westward course lay through _Galatia_ (Acts 18:23), where he
visited the churches planted upon his former tour. But as before, this
may refer to the part of Galatia embraced in Lycaonia; and we have thus
indicated upon the map by a dotted line. (See page 121.)

3. Still journeying westward toward the coast, Paul passed through
_Phrygia_ (Acts 18:23), already described on page 118. No events of this
part of the journey are related.

4. He came from the highlands of the interior to _Ephesus_, where he had
touched on his previous journey, and was now to remain longer than at
any other place during his active ministry. (Acts 19:1-20:1.) Ephesus
was the metropolis of Proconsular Asia, and may be regarded as the third
capital of Christianity, as Jerusalem had been its birthplace, and
Antioch the centre of its foreign missions. It stood a mile from the
Ægean Sea, fronting an artificial harbor, in which met the ships of all
lands, and above which rose the Temple of Artemis (Diana), celebrated as
the most magnificent building in Asia Minor, though the image which it
enshrined was only a shapeless block. Its population was principally
Greek, though with a large Oriental mixture. Here a preparation for
Paul's labor had been made by Apollos, who had instructed a small
company of Jews up to the twilight of John the Baptist's teachings
concerning the Messiah. From Paul's friends, Aquila and Priscilla, he
had learned the gospel of Christ; and, just before the apostle's
arrival, had gone to Corinth. For three months Paul labored in the
synagogue with the Jews and inquiring Gentiles; but, when the Jewish
opposition endangered the work, he took the step (at this time first in
the history of Christianity) of calling the believers in Christ out of
the synagogue. Paul remained at Ephesus in all more than two years,
working at his trade through the week, while preaching on the Jewish
Sabbath. Through his endeavors most of "the Seven Churches," addressed
long afterward by John, were founded at this time. Just before Paul's
departure a riot arose, and a tumultuous mob occupied the theatre, whose
ruins may still be seen. Ephesus is now an utter desolation, haunted by
wild beasts. Near its ruins is a small Turkish village, called
_Ayasalouk_. Near the close of his stay at Ephesus, Paul wrote the First
Epistle to the Corinthians.

[Illustration: PLAN OF EPHESUS.]

5. The next stopping place of the apostle was at _Troas_. (2 Cor. 2:12,
13.) This is mentioned, not in the Acts, but in the Epistle written soon
afterward. Here he had expected to meet his companion Titus, with news
from the church at Corinth. While waiting, he found an opportunity for
preaching, and success in winning souls. But, as the expected tidings
did not come, Paul again took ship, and sailed once more (see the
previous journey) from Asia to Europe.

6. His next station is named as _Macedonia_ (Acts 20:2); but it may be
inferred that he visited Philippi, Thessalonica and Berea, the places of
former labors, already described in the account of the second journey.
Perhaps it was at this time that he journeyed "round about unto
Illyricum," which was a province on the Adriatic Sea, west of Macedonia.
(Rom. 15:19.) While in Macedonia, perhaps at Philippi, Paul wrote the
Second Epistle to the Corinthians.

7. The last place in Paul's outward journey is mentioned as _Greece_,
the province elsewhere called Achaia. (Acts 20:2, 3; 18:27.) His
principal errand was to Corinth (already described on page 123), where
troubles in the church required his attention. While here he wrote the
Epistle to the Galatians, and his great statement of Christian doctrine,
the Epistle to the Romans.

II. =The Return Journey.= (Acts 20:6-21:6.) This was undertaken with the
desire of reaching Jerusalem in time for the Feast of Pentecost, A.D.
58. For some reason, probably on account of a Jewish plot to murder him,
Paul did not take the direct route, but went around the Ægean Sea by way
of Philippi and Troas, and was accompanied by a number of friends.

1. From Corinth, Paul and his friends journeyed overland, through Greece
and Macedonia, to _Philippi_ (Acts 20:3-6), a place now visited for the
third time. Here Paul was rejoined by Luke the Evangelist, who
henceforth shared his dangers to the end of his life.

2. Most of Paul's company sailed from Philippi across the Ægean Sea to
_Troas_, in advance of the apostle, but were soon followed by Paul and
Luke. (Acts 20:5-13.) At Troas they remained for a week with the church;
and here Eutychus was restored to life by the apostle.

[Illustration: PAUL'S VOYAGE TO ROME.]

3. From Philippi, most of the company set sail for Palestine, but Paul
went on foot as far as _Assos_, where he was taken on board. (Acts
20:13, 14.) This place was situated 19 miles from Troas, and is now
marked by extensive ruins.

4. _Mitylene._ This was on the island of Lesbos, famed as the home of
Sappho, the Greek poetess. Here they anchored for the night, as the
channel was not easy to follow among the islands. (Acts 20:14.) This and
the succeeding stations in the Ægean Sea may be noticed on the map of
the islands and coasts of Asia Minor, on page 132.

5. _Chios._ (Acts 20:15.) This is an island 32 miles long, and 5 miles
from Asia; said to have been the birthplace of Homer; and now called
_Scio_. Here Paul's ship anchored only for a night.

6. _Samos._ (Acts 20:15.) This is an island near the mainland, 42 miles
southwest of Smyrna; and 27 miles long. It was the birthplace of the
philosopher Pythagoras. They barely touched at the island, and then
sailed across to the shore of Asia Minor.

7. _Trogyllium_ (Acts 20:15) is a town and cape on the coast of Asia
Minor, at the foot of Mount Mycale. The place at which they anchored for
the night is still called _St. Paul's Port_. On the next day they sailed
past the harbor of Ephesus without stopping, for Paul's stations were
controlled by the movements of the ship and its masters.

8. _Miletus._ (Acts 20:16-38.) This was at the mouth of the river
Mæander, 36 miles south of Ephesus; and at that time on the shore,
though now ten miles inland, by the changes in the coast. Here, while
the ship was delayed, Paul sent for the elders of the church at Ephesus,
and gave to them a farewell address of deep tenderness. This place is
now a small village, called _Melas_.

9. _Coos_, or Cos (Acts 21:1), where they next anchored, is a small
island, northwest of Rhodes; now called _Stanchio_.

10. _Rhodes_ (Acts 21:1) is an island of note in both ancient and modern
history, 13 miles from Asia Minor, 46 miles long, and 18 wide. Upon it
had stood the Colossus, a figure over 100 feet high, but overthrown by
an earthquake, B.C. 224, and prostrate at the time of Paul's visit.

11. _Patara_ (Acts 21:1) was a seaport in the province of Lycia, in Asia
Minor, opposite Rhodes. Here the vessel ended its voyage, and the
apostolic company found another, which was bound for Phoenicia. The
place is now a ruin, and buried in the encroaching sand.

12. The disciples took another ship at Patara, and sailed in a
southeasterly direction for Phoenicia, passing by Cyprus without
stopping. The vessel paused for a week at _Tyre_ to unlade its burden,
and here Paul found a church, perhaps planted by Philip the evangelist.
Tyre had once been the great commercial metropolis of the Mediterranean,
known as "the strong city" as early as the time of Joshua. It was the
capital of Phoenicia, and in Old Testament times held friendly relations
with Israel, but was idolatrous and abominably wicked. It was besieged
by Nebuchadnezzar for 13 years, was destroyed by Alexander the Great,
rebuilt by the Seleucidæ, and, in Paul's time, was still a large city.
It is now a miserable village, called _Sur_, and, in the fulfillment of
prophecy, "a place for the spreading of nets." (Ezek. 26:14.)

13. Taking ship once more, for the last time, they sailed southward
along the coast of Palestine to _Ptolemais_. (Acts 21:7.) This was the
Old Testament Accho, in the tribe of Asher, but never possessed. It was
8 miles north of Mount Carmel. In mediæval history it sustained a siege
by the Crusaders, and was known as _St. Jean d'Acre_. Here Paul spent a
day with the church, and then journeyed with his friends southward over
the Plain of Esdraelon and Mount Carmel.

14. At _Cæsarea_, the next station, they were entertained by Philip,
who, years before, had been driven out of Jerusalem by Saul of Tarsus.
(See Philip's Journey, page 112.) Cæsarea was the Roman capital of
Palestine, and was in all respects a heathen city, though containing
many Jews. Here Paul received a message from the aged prophet Agabus,
warning him not to go to Jerusalem; but he persisted in his purpose.

15. For the fifth time in his life as a Christian, and for the last
time, Paul entered the city of JERUSALEM, from which he was soon to go
forth "the prisoner of the Lord."


OUTLINE FOR REVIEW.

          I. _Outward Journey._ 1. Antioch. 2. Galatia. 3.
          Phrygia. 4. Ephesus. 5. Troas. 6. Macedonia.
          (Philippi.) 7. Greece. (Corinth.)

          II. _Return Journey._ 1. Philippi. 2. Troas. 3.
          Assos. 4. Mitylene. 5. Chios. 6. Samos. 7.
          Trogyllium. 8. Miletus. 9. Coos. 10. Rhodes. 11.
          Patara. 12. Tyre. 13. Ptolemais. 14. Cæsarea. 15.
          Jerusalem.


THE VOYAGE TO ROME.

The last of Paul's recorded journeys was that which he took as a
prisoner under Roman power. He was seized by a Jewish mob in the Court
of the Women in the Temple (see plan of the Temple on page 141), in or
near the room set apart for the ceremonies of a Nazarite's vow. Dragged
by the crowd into the Court of the Gentiles, he would have been slain
but for the arrival of a company of Roman soldiers from the Tower of
Antonia. He made an address to the throng from the stairs leading from
the Court of the Gentiles to the Tower, and was then taken to the prison
in the tower.

1. From _Jerusalem_ he began his journey, as a prisoner. The immediate
cause of his departure from the city was the information received by the
Roman officer in charge of the Tower of Antonia, that a band of Jews had
formed a plan to slay Paul. That night he was sent, under a strong
escort, out of the reach of his enemies.

2. The guard paused at _Antipatris_ (Acts 23:31, 32), beyond which the
soldiers were not needed, so they were sent back, and Paul journeyed the
rest of the way under an escort of cavalry. Antipatris was built by
Herod the Great, and named for his father, Antipater. It was 26 miles
southeast of Cæsarea, on the direct road from Jerusalem, and 16 miles
northeast of Joppa. Its location is not identified with certainty, but
is probably to be found at a ruin known as _Ras el' Ain_.

3. The apostle was taken to _Cæsarea_ (Acts 23:33), where he was
remanded to prison. Here he remained for more than two years, was tried
by Felix, and made his memorable defense before the younger Herod
Agrippa. (Acts 24-26.) Having appealed, as a Roman citizen, to the
supreme court of the emperor at Rome, he was sent on shipboard for the
voyage with a company of prisoners, and a guard commanded by the
centurion Julius. Luke and Aristarchus were with Paul on the vessel.
(Acts 27:1, 2.)

4. The day after starting from Cæsarea, the vessel touched at _Zidon_,
and Paul was permitted to go on shore with the soldier to whom he was
chained. (Acts 27:3.) Zidon was one of the most ancient towns in
history, and the mother city of Tyre, which was 20 miles south of it. It
lay in the limits of the tribe of Asher, but was never possessed by
Israel. Its commerce was extensive, but early superseded by that of
Tyre. It was a battle ground more than once during the Crusades, and
changed masters frequently. Its site is now occupied by a small fishing
village, called _Saida_.

5. The wind being unfavorable, the vessel was carried to the north of
Cyprus, and sailed over waters traversed by Paul more than once, in the
northeastern corner of the Mediterranean, past his church home at
Antioch, and his birthplace, Tarsus, to the harbor of _Myra_, a city in
the province of Lycia, in Asia Minor. (Acts 27:4-6.) This city stood at
the entrance to a gorge in Mount Taurus, two miles from the sea. Its
port, where Paul landed to be transferred to another vessel, was called
Andriadice. It is now in ruins.

6. The next station was to have been Cnidus, 100 miles from Myra, on the
coast of Caria; but the vessel only reached it with difficulty, and was
unable to enter, on account of contrary winds: so the prow was turned
southward toward the island of _Crete_. This lies at the entrance to the
Ægean Sea, and is 140 miles long by 35 wide. They rounded Cape Salmone,
at the eastern point of the island, and anchored for a time at a place
then known, and still known, as _Fair Havens_, on the southern coast,
about midway between the two extremes of the island. Here they were
delayed for some time, and Paul urged the centurion to remain during the
winter, and escape impending dangers. But it was resolved to follow
along the shore still further westward, to the more commodious harbor of
Phenice. But in this they were disappointed; for they were driven out to
sea, and to the final result predicted by the apostle. (Acts 27:7-13.)

7. Soon after leaving Fair Havens, the storm set in. It was of the kind
then called Euroclydon (Revised Version, Euro aquilo, "east-northeaster"),
now known as "a Levanter." They were able to run under the lee of the
little island of Clauda, 23 miles from Fair Havens, where they
strengthened the vessel for the gale by "frapping," or winding ropes
around the hull. Thence for fourteen days and nights they were driven
before the wind in a westward direction, until hope perished in every
heart save Paul's. They were driven 476 miles, upon the island of
_Melita_, which is 62 miles south of Sicily, and is 17 miles long by 8
or 9 wide. It is of irregular oval shape, and its coast is indented by
many bays. The one in which the apostle was shipwrecked is on the
northeastern side of the island, and is known as St. Paul's Bay. A close
investigation of the locality, its surroundings, and the soundings of
the sea approaching it, show the remarkable accuracy of Luke's
statements. The island is now known as _Malta_, and is under British
rule. Some years ago an ancient inscription was found on the island,
giving to its ruler the same title, _protos_, "first or chief man" (Acts
28:7), given by Luke.

[Illustration: ST. PAUL'S BAY, MALTA, ENLARGED.

MALTESE ISLANDS.]

8. After wintering in the island of Melita, Paul and the other prisoners
were placed on board an Alexandrian ship which was bound toward Rome.
The first stopping place in this part of the voyage was at the historic
city of _Syracuse_, on the eastern shore of Sicily. (Acts 28:12.) Here
they paused for three days, and then continued their voyage.

9. The next station was at _Rhegium_, where they lay, awaiting a
favorable wind, for one day. (Acts 28:13.) This is at the "toe" of the
Italian boot, opposite Sicily, from which it is separated by a strait,
only 6 miles wide. It is now a flourishing town, called _Rheggio_.

10. The vessel ended its voyage, and Paul and his fellow-prisoners
disembarked, at _Puteoli_, near Naples. This was one of the leading
ports of Italy, being to Rome what Liverpool is to London. Here Paul
found a Christian church, and was permitted to remain for a week before
going onward to the capital, 141 miles distant. The city is now called
_Pozzuoli_.

[Illustration: PLAN OF ANCIENT ROME.]

11. At a place called _Appii Forum_, "the forum of Appius," a village on
the Appian Way, 43 miles from Rome, and again at the "Three Taverns," 10
miles nearer, Paul was met by some Christians, who had heard of his
coming, and came to give him a welcome, which rejoiced his heart.

12. At last great ROME was reached, and the apostle was at the end of
his long journey. For two years he dwelt as a prisoner at large, chained
to a Roman soldier, but in "his own hired house." At this point ends all
that is positively known of the journeys of the apostle.

The city of Rome stands on the river Tiber. In the period of its
greatness it occupied ten hills, with the valleys between them, and a
plain near the river. The apostle lived near the Pretorian Camp, on the
northeastern border of the city, and at the opposite end of the city
from the Jewish quarter, which was on the west of the Tiber. At the time
of Paul's imprisonment, Rome contained about 1,200,000 inhabitants.
One-half of the population were slaves, and two-thirds of the rest were
paupers, supported in idleness by the free distribution of food. During
the two years of Paul's imprisonment he wrote at least four
Epistles--Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, and Philemon. After about
two years of imprisonment, Paul was released and spent two or more years
at liberty.


OUTLINE FOR REVIEW.

          1. Jerusalem. 2. Antipatris. 3. Cæsarea. 4. Zidon.
          5. Myra. 6. Crete. (Fair Havens.) 7. Melita. 8.
          Syracuse. 9. Rhegium. 10. Puteoli. 11. Appii Forum
          and Three Taverns. 12. Rome.


THE LAST JOURNEYS OF PAUL.

[Illustration: PAUL'S LAST JOURNEYS.]

The definite history of the apostle Paul ends with the last verse of the
Acts of the Apostles; but, from the later Epistles and the dim light of
early tradition, we may gather a few facts, and perhaps can indicate a
few more journeys. From Philippians and Philemon, it is clear that
Paul expected an acquittal and release; from 1 Timothy and Titus, it is
evident, that after his imprisonment there were two years, perhaps more,
of liberty. Combining the allusions in the Epistles, we offer a
conjectural outline of the apostle's journeys during that year,
following mainly the order of Canon Farrar.

1. Near the close of his imprisonment he expressed an expectation of
speedily visiting the churches of Proconsular Asia, especially that at
_Colosse_ (Philem. 1:22), and desired a lodging to be prepared for him
at the house of Philemon. We may take for granted that this purpose was
accomplished, and that _Ephesus_, as well as Colosse, was visited at
this time. Ephesus has been already described. (See page 125.) Colosse,
called also Colassæ, was a city on the Lycus, near Hierapolis and
Laodicea, and on the great caravan road from Ephesus to the Euphrates.
At one time it was a large and flourishing place, but declined as other
cities gained its Eastern trade. Paul had never before visited this
city, and its church had been founded by Epaphras. Yet Paul was well
acquainted with several of its members, and addressed to it, during his
imprisonment, the Epistle to the Colossians; and to one of its members
the Epistle to Philemon. The site of the ancient city is near the modern
village of _Chonas_.

2. Just before his release, Paul dispatched Timothy to Philippi,
expecting soon to follow him. (Phil. 2:19-24.) Timothy fulfilled his
mission, and came to Ephesus, where Paul left him in charge of the
church, and himself went to _Macedonia_. (1 Tim. 1:3.) Here he doubtless
visited the churches which he had planted in Philippi, Thessalonica and
Berea, and probably journeyed as far south as Corinth.

3. We judge that to this time belongs his visit to _Crete_. (Titus 1:5.)
He had touched at this island during his voyage to Rome, and may have
gone on shore at Fair Havens; but now he organized the church, and left
it under the care of Titus, who had accompanied him to the island.

4. We find that after this Paul was at _Nicopolis_, a place not
previously mentioned in his history. (Titus 3:12.) There were no less
than ten cities of this name in the ancient world; but it must have been
one of three among them: Nicopolis of Thrace, of Cilicia, or of Epirus.
The latter has been generally accepted as the one where Paul "determined
to winter." It was in the Roman province of Achaia, near the Adriatic
Sea and the Ionian Isles; and was built by Augustus to commemorate his
victory at Actium. The place is now called _Paleo-prevesa_, "old
Prevesa," and contains extensive ruins, among which is a building said
to have been Paul's place of prayer. Some think that Paul was arrested
here before his final imprisonment; but there is no certainty concerning
it.

5. _Troas._ (2 Tim. 4:13.) It is evident that Paul passed through this
place, and stopped with a certain person named Carpus, where he left his
mantle for winter wear, and some manuscripts. Farrar is of the opinion
that he was here arrested, and in such haste that he could not obtain
these articles. He may have come from Nicopolis by way of Macedonia,
passing through Philippi, and sailing across the Ægean Sea.

6. An allusion in 2 Tim. 4:20 hints at another place visited by the
apostle, perhaps as a prisoner. If arrested at Troas, he would probably
be sent to _Ephesus_, the residence of the proconsul, for trial. And at
Miletus, near that city, we find that he left his companion, Trophimus,
who had been with him at the time of his former arrest in Jerusalem. It
is a slight confirmation of this view, that there is among the ruins of
Ephesus a place pointed out as the prison of Paul.

7. From Ephesus he may have set sail once more as a prisoner for _Rome_.
He was accompanied by several friends, as Titus, who had left Crete once
more to follow him; Luke the physician, his companion to the last; and
Tychicus. We know nothing concerning the voyage, and therefore represent
it on the map by the most direct route from Ephesus. At Rome we know
only that his imprisonment was short; that his friends were few, for the
church had been scattered by the terrible persecution of Nero; that Paul
was left alone at his first hearing, his friends having gone in various
directions, some on errands of duty, and others in fear of the world;
that he wrote earnestly to Timothy to come, bringing Mark with him (2
Tim. 4:9, 11); and we infer from his own expectations and the tradition
of the church, that his martyrdom was not long delayed.

The traditional place of his execution is shown at Aquæ Salvæ, now _Tre
Fontane_, three miles from Rome, near the road to Ostia.


OUTLINE FOR REVIEW.

          1. Colosse and Ephesus. 2. Macedonia. (Philippi,
          Thessalonica, Berea, Corinth.) 3. Crete. 4.
          Nicopolis. 5. Troas. (Arrest?) 6. Ephesus. 7.
          Rome. (Martyrdom.)

[Illustration: THE ISLES OF GREECE AND THE SEVEN CHURCHES.]



THE ISLES OF GREECE AND THE SEVEN CHURCHES.


I. AS THE islands of the Ægean Sea are often referred to in the Acts,
especially in the account of Paul's voyage to Phoenicia, in his third
missionary journey, we present a map representing them upon a larger
scale, with those portions of Asia and Europe adjoining them. Such of
the islands as are mentioned in the history have been already described.
One of the smallest is brought to our notice in the book of Revelation,
=Patmos=, to which the apostle John was banished. This lies 20 miles
south of the island of Samos, 24 miles west of Asia Minor, and about 70
miles southwest of Ephesus. It is about 20 miles in circumference, and
is rocky and barren. Its loneliness and seclusion made it a suitable
place for the banishment of criminals; and to it the apostle John was
banished by the emperor Domitian, near the close of the first Christian
century: though some scholars give an earlier date, under the emperor
Nero. A narrow isthmus divides the island into two parts, north and
south. On a hill in the southern part is a monastery named after the
apostle John, and near it is the cave where it is said by tradition that
he received the vision of the Apocalypse. In the Middle Ages the island
was called Patmosa, and it is now known as _Patmo_.

II. The term =Asia= was used by the ancients in varied extent of
meaning. 1. Its earliest use in Homer refers only to a meadow near Troy
(Troas), which was called the "Asian meadow." 2. The lands of Mysia,
Lydia, Caria, and a part of Phrygia, were known as Proconsular Asia, as
they formed the province of Asia under the Roman government. This was
originally the dominion of the last king of Pergamos, whose title was
"king of Asia"; and was by him bequeathed to the Romans. 3. Asia Minor,
as a whole, was sometimes called by the name Asia, though not often. 4.
The entire Asiatic continent was known by this name in ancient times;
but this use of the word is not found in Scripture.

[Illustration: LAODICEA FROM HIERAPOLIS.]

III. =The Seven Churches of Asia= were all located in Proconsular Asia,
in the immediate neighborhood of Ephesus. There were other churches
besides these, as Hierapolis and Colosse, both near Laodicea, and
referred to in the Pauline Epistles; but these are named as the most
important, and a group of seven is the arrangement most frequently found
in the Bible, especially in its symbolical writings. To these Seven
Churches were sent the messages in the opening chapters of the
Revelation.

1. _Ephesus_ (Rev. 2:1) was the most important city of the district, its
church was the largest, and it was the first addressed. (A description
and plan of this city may be found on page 125.)

2. _Smyrna_ (Rev. 2:8) is north of Ephesus, about 40 miles in a direct
line, though longer by the route of travel. It is on the Ægean Sea, at
the head of the Hermæan Gulf, at the foot of Mount Pagus. The earliest
city was built B.C. 1500, by the Greeks, and destroyed and rebuilt
several times. From the time of Alexander the Great, who was one of its
builders, it became an important city. Its earliest mention in Christian
history is in the Revelation. Polycarp, a pupil of John, was martyred
here A.D. 155. His grave is still shown on a hill near the city. Despite
fires, earthquakes and wars, it has retained its importance, and is now
the largest city on the Asiatic side of the Ægean Sea, having a
population of nearly 200,000 people. The modern city is about two miles
from the ancient site.

3. _Pergamos_ (Rev. 2:12), more properly Pergamum, was 60 miles
northeast of Smyrna, in the district of Mysia, 3 miles north of the
little river Caicus, and 20 miles from the Ægean Sea. It was the capital
of a small but wealthy kingdom, which arose in the breaking up of
Alexander's empire. It was celebrated for its large library, which at
one time contained 200,000 manuscripts, but was by Mark Antony presented
to Cleopatra, and removed to Alexandria. The city was devoted to the
worship of Æsculapius, the patron divinity of medicine; and was, like
most idolatrous places, corrupt in its morals. It is now a city of
25,000 inhabitants, called _Pergama_.

[Illustration: ISLE of PATMOS.]

4. _Thyatira_ (Rev. 2:18) was a city in the province of Lydia, on the
road from Pergamos to Sardis. It was founded by Alexander the Great, who
planted it with people from Macedonia, which may account for the fact
that "Lydia of Thyatira" was found by Paul at Philippi, in Macedonia. It
was a prosperous manufacturing town, but never a great city, and its
scarlet cloth still has a reputation throughout the Orient. It is now a
place with a population of from 17,000 to 20,000, and is called _ak
Hissar_, "white castle."

5. _Sardis_ (Rev. 3:1) lay 30 miles south of Thyatira, between the river
Hermus and Mount Tmolus. It was the capital of Croesus, the wealthy king
of Lydia, whose empire was overthrown by Cyrus the Great. After the time
of Alexander it belonged to the kingdom of Pergamos, until its
absorption into the Roman empire. It was a place of extensive commerce,
which led to prosperity, and the worldliness of the Christian church,
rebuked in the message of the Revelation. It is now a miasmatic region,
with scarcely an inhabitant, and bears the name _Sert Kalessi_.

6. _Philadelphia_ (Rev. 3:7) was about 25 miles southeast of Sardis, on
the river Cogamus, a branch of the Hermus. It was built and named by
Attalus Philadelphus, king of Pergamos, and was the centre of a rich
farming region, which has kept it inhabited through all the vicissitudes
of the centuries. It was destroyed by an earthquake A.D. 17, but
rebuilt. Its population is now about 10,000, and its modern name is
_Allah Shehr_, "city of God."

7. _Laodicea_ (Rev. 3:14) was the capital of Phrygia, and was 50 or 60
miles from Philadelphia, according to route. It was on the bank of the
Lycus, near Hierapolis and Colosse. Its ancient name was Diospolis, but
was changed by the Syrian king, Seleucus II., in honor of his wife,
Laodice. In A.D. 62 it was destroyed by an earthquake; but its people
were sufficiently rich to decline the aid of the Romans in rebuilding
their city. Its worldly prosperity was reflected in its church, which
received the sharpest rebukes of the Revelator. The Mohammedans
destroyed the city, which is now a mass of ruins, surrounding a village
called _Eski-hissar_.

It will be noticed, that, in the order of the Revelation, the Seven
Churches are arranged in a circuit, as one would find them, starting
from Ephesus, and traveling north to Smyrna and Pergamus, then southeast
to Thyatira, Sardis and Philadelphia, until the southern and eastern
limit is reached at Laodicea.


OUTLINE FOR REVIEW.

          I. Let the teacher draw the outlines of the coast
          of both Europe and Asia, and call attention to the
          lands as already noticed under other maps. Then
          locate and name the principal _Islands_,
          especially those referred to in Paul's voyage to
          Palestine (map on page 122), and _Patmos_.

          II. Explain the four meanings of the name Asia, as
          used by the ancients.

          III. Locate and name the _Seven Churches_, as
          given in Revelation. _Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamos,
          Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, Laodicea._



THE TABERNACLE.

[Illustration: THE TABERNACLE, ACCORDING TO FERGUSSON.]


I. =Its Origin.= The Tabernacle was the tent in which the emblems for
divine worship were kept from the time of Moses to that of Solomon, 400
years. It represented the idea of God dwelling among his people, in the
centre of the camp of Israel. The earliest institution for worship was
the Altar, built wherever the patriarchs pitched their tents. Next we
find a place consecrated and kept for the house of God, as Jacob's
pillar at Bethel, to which the patriarch returned as to a sanctuary in
after years. The Tabernacle arose when Israel was no longer a family,
but a nation, needing a centralizing power and a system of worship as
the uniting element among the tribes. It was erected under the direction
of Moses, by divine command, while the Israelites were encamped at Mount
Sinai.

II. =Its History.= During all the journeys of the Israelites through the
wilderness, the Tabernacle stood in the centre of their camp, or, while
on the march, was taken apart and carried by the Levites. At the time of
the conquest, it remained at Gilgal, the fortified camp of Israel, near
Jericho. After the war it was established at Shiloh, in the tribe of
Ephraim, where it continued until the great defeat of Israel at Ebenezer
(1 Sam. 4:1-11), when the ark was taken, and probably Shiloh was
ravaged. The Tabernacle was removed to Nob, in the tribe of Benjamin,
where it remained until Saul's slaughter of the priests. (1 Sam. 21:1-6;
22:18, 19.) It seems to have been at Gibeon, while the ark was in
seclusion at Kirjath-jearim. (2 Chron. 1:4.) There is no mention of the
Tabernacle after the building of the Temple; but a Jewish tradition is
that its curtains were rolled up and laid away in one of the rooms
connected with the Temple.

III. =The Departments of the Tabernacle.= This will require us to
notice: 1. The Court. 2. The Altar. 3. The Laver. 4. The Tent. 5. The
Holy Place. 6. The Holy of Holies. The dimensions of these are given in
cubits; and, as the authorities differ as to the length of the cubit, we
will consider it here as being about a foot and a half, or 18 inches,
the length generally given.

1. _The Court_ was 150 feet long by 75 wide. It was separated from the
camp by a curtain of fine linen, supported by 60 pillars, of which 20
were on each side, and 10 on each end. The pillars were probably of wood
covered with brass. (There is strong reason for believing that the word
"brass" in the Old Testament refers to copper.) They were fastened
together by cords, and rested upon bases of brass, which were fastened
to the ground, perhaps by spikes from the bottom. Each pillar was 7-1/2
feet (5 cubits) high, and was covered with a silver cap. The curtain was
made of linen, in sections, extending from pillar to pillar, a distance
of about 8 feet, and was fastened to the pillars by hooks of silver. The
entrance was on the end toward the east, 30 feet wide, and consisted of
an embroidered hanging, which could be raised or lowered at pleasure.
None but the priests and Levites were allowed within the court; and the
worshipers presented their offerings without at the entrance. (Review.
1. Dimensions. 2. Pillars. 3. Curtain. 4. Entrance. 5. Priests.)

2. _The Altar_ stood within the court, in front of the entrance, in the
most prominent situation of the camp, and was the largest article of the
tabernacle furniture. It was a plain structure, 7-1/2 feet square and
4-1/2 feet high, hollow within, and made of acacia wood, to avoid
excessive weight; but covered with plates of brass, as it was exposed to
the fire. Upon each corner projected a horn from the top, upon which the
blood of the victim was sometimes sprinkled, and to which suppliants
sometimes fled. Around the altar, midway between the top and bottom, was
a "compass" (Exod. 27:5), or ledge, upon which the priest stood while
sacrificing. There is mention also of "a grate" (Exod. 27:4), which was
formerly supposed to have been placed inside the altar, so that the fire
might be built upon it, and the ashes fall through it; but this is now
by the best scholars considered to have been upright, and under the
"compass," and not a grate, but a lattice-work of brass, surrounding the
altar. It is believed that at each encampment the altar was filled with
earth, and that upon this the fire was kindled, according to Exod.
20:24, 25. At each corner was a brass ring, and through the pair of
rings on each side a rod was passed, by which the altar was carried
from place to place during the marches of Israel. The fire upon the
altar was kindled miraculously (Lev. 9:24), and was never suffered to go
out, but was kept alive even on the march by live coals in a vessel.
Twice each day the high-priest offered the general sacrifice for the
people, besides the individual offerings of worshipers. In officiating,
the priest approached the altar by an ascent of earth, as steps were
forbidden (Exod. 20:26), and he stood upon either the north or south
side, as the ashes were thrown out on the east side. (Lev. 1:16.) The
utensils of the altar were five, all of brass. 1. _Pans_, used to convey
the ashes outside the camp. (Lev. 6:10, 11.) 2. _Shovels_, for taking
off coals of fire to put in the censers. 3. _Basins_, for receiving and
carrying the blood of offerings. 4. _Flesh-hooks_, for placing the
sacrifice on the fire. 5. _Fire-pans_, for carrying the fire while on
the march. (Note for Review. 1. Situation. 2. Dimensions. 3. Horns. 4.
Compass. 5. Grate. 6. Earth contents. 7. Rings. 8. Fire. 9. Sacrifices.
10. Approach. 11. Utensils.)

[Illustration: THE TABLE OF SHEW-BREAD.]

3. _The Laver_ is less minutely described than the altar. It was a large
tank for holding water, an abundance of which was needed in the
sacrifices, and was made out of the metallic "looking-glasses" of the
women who worshiped at the Tabernacle. (Exod. 38:8.) It stood at the
door of the Tabernacle, and west of the altar. (Exod. 30:18.) With it is
mentioned "its foot," which was probably a lower basin, into which the
water ran from above, made to prevent the earth around from becoming
saturated with water. Its size and form are not stated in the account.
(Review. 1. Purpose. 2. Material. 3. Place. 4. Foot.)

4. _The Tent._ This was the Tabernacle proper, to which the court was
the adjunct. It stood as the representation of God's house, wherein he
dwelt in the midst of his own chosen people. It was 15 feet wide and
high, and 45 feet long, divided into two rooms by a curtain, or vail.
Though many details are given, yet it is not possible to give certain
conclusions either concerning its plan of construction, or even its
general appearance. For example: some authorities conclude that the
curtained roof was flat, or even sagging downward in the middle, while
others are sure that it was pointed, by means of a ridge-pole, as
represented in our engraving. We consider neither as certain, but
incline to the latter opinion. The walls and rear end of the tent were
made of upright boards, covered with gold, each 15 feet high, and 2 feet
3 inches wide; of which there were 20 boards on each side, and 10 in the
rear, while the front was open. Upon each board were rings of gold, so
arranged that, when the walls were erected, the rings were in three
rows, and through them long poles were passed to hold the structure
together. Each board was furnished at its lower end with two tenons,
which fitted into mortises in bases of solid silver, each weighing
nearly 100 pounds. These bases stood side by side, forming a firm and
continuous foundation, and protecting the lower ends of the boards from
decay. The roof of the tent was supported by pillars, of which there
seem to have been five in the front (Exod. 36:38), and probably as many
in the rear. These were covered with gold, and rested upon bases of
brass. The covering of the Tabernacle consisted of four curtains, one
over another. 1. A covering called the "tabernacle cloth," of linen,
woven in various colors, and embroidered with figures of cherubim. 2.
Over this was stretched a covering of cloth made from goat's hair,
larger than the other, and therefore extending beyond it. 3. Next came a
covering of "rams' skins dyed red." 4. Over all was spread a covering
skin, called in the Hebrew, _tachash_, translated "badgers' skins," but
supposed by many to mean _seal skin_, taken from animals found in the
Red Sea, and intended to preserve the roof from the effects of the
weather. The front, on the eastern end, was protected by a hanging of
fine linen, embroidered in blue, purple and scarlet, and resting upon
the five pillars named above. (Review. 1. Purpose. 2. Dimensions. 3.
Form. 4. Walls. 5. Rings. 6. Bases. 7. Pillars. 8. Coverings. 9. Front.)

5. _The Holy Place._ This was the larger of the two rooms, and was
separated from the smaller room within by the _Vail_, which was an
embroidered curtain hanging upon four pillars. Its dimensions were 15
feet in width and 30 feet in length, with walls 15 feet high. There is
no mention of a floor, and probably there was none. It contained three
articles of furniture. On the right of a person entering, midway between
the two ends of the room, stood the _Table_, made of shittim wood
(acacia), covered with gold; it was 3 feet long, a foot and a half wide,
2 feet 3 inches high, and surrounded with a "crown," or ornamental band,
of gold. On the corners were rings, through which rods were passed, to
carry it from place to place. On this table were kept 12 loaves of
unleavened bread, which were renewed every Sabbath. On the left,
opposite to the table, was the _Lamp-stand_, generally called the
Candlestick, but incorrectly, as it contained lamps, not candles. This
was a tree of gold, probably 40 inches high, having three branches on
each side of the central trunk, so arranged that the seven summits, each
holding a lamp, stood in a horizontal line. It is uncertain whether the
lamps were kept burning at all times, or only during the night. Directly
in front of the vail, at the western end of the Holy Place, stood the
_Altar of Incense_. This was of acacia wood, overlaid with gold, whence
it was frequently called "the golden altar." It was a foot and a half
square, and three feet high. It had horns on its corners, and rings for
carrying, and an opening in the top, wherein was placed daily a censer
full of incense, which was lighted by live coals from the altar of burnt
offering in the court. The lighting of the incense with common fire was
the crime for which the two elder sons of Aaron "died before the Lord."
(Lev. 10:1, 2.) Into the Holy Place the priests entered daily, to trim
and refill the lamps, and offer the incense. (Review. 1. Vail. 2.
Dimensions. 3. Table. 4. Lamp-stand. 5. Altar of Incense. 6. Daily
uses.)

6. _The Holy of Holies._ This was the inner room, at the western end of
the building, entered only on one day in the year, the Day of Atonement,
and only by the high priest. Its dimensions were those of a cube, 15
feet in breadth, length and height. It contained the most sacred _Ark of
the Covenant_, which was a chest, the receptacle for the stone tablets
of the Law, given by the Lord to Moses. It was of shittim or acacia
wood, covered without and within with gold, 3 feet 9 inches long, by 2
feet 3 inches wide and deep; furnished on the side with rings, that it
might be carried. The lid was made of gold, and was called the
_propitiatory_,--in our version, "mercy seat." Upon it stood golden
figures of the cherubim, and between them was believed to dwell the
cloud which denoted God's presence. (Review. 1. Uses. 2. Dimensions. 3.
Ark.)

[Illustration: THE BRAZEN ALTAR.]


OUTLINE FOR TEACHING AND REVIEW.

          1. Draw upon the blackboard a diagram representing
          the ground-plan of the Court of the Tabernacle,
          and, within it, the Tabernacle itself. Tell the
          class its origin and history.

          2. Locate upon the diagram each of the parts
          referred to, and describe them, following the
          outline given at the end of each paragraph.

          3. Review the facts given, frequently during the
          lesson, and finally at the close.

[Illustration: THE BRAZEN ALTAR, ACCORDING TO MEYER.]

[Illustration: THE TEMPLE IN THE TIME OF CHRIST (HEROD'S).]



THE TEMPLE.


THE Temple was the centre of Jewish thought, not only in Palestine, but
also throughout the world. Even when it lay in ruins, Daniel, in the
land of captivity, opened his window toward its site when he prayed; and
the front of every synagogue looked toward it. It stood on Mount Moriah,
which was originally outside the wall of the city, east of Mount Zion.
In order to give room for all its courts, the surface of the hill was
increased by building out from its sides on successive platforms,
supported by immense substructions of brick and stone, so that the
entire mountain is honeycombed with artificial caves.

There were three successive Temples. 1. _Solomon's Temple_ dedicated
about 950 B.C. The accounts of this building are so meager, and the text
is so uncertain, that it is impossible to construct its plan with any
satisfaction. A conjectural ground plan is given on page 71. This temple
stood until 587 B.C., when it was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar. 2. After
a period of desolation of 50 years, _Zerubbabel's Temple_ was begun, 536
B.C., and finished 20 years after. Still less is known of its
architecture; but it was probably on the same general plan as Solomon's,
though less magnificent. It passed through many sieges, was desecrated
by enemies, and reconsecrated by the Jews, but stood until 30 years
before the birth of Christ. 3. _Herod's Temple_ was a restoration,
enlargement, and improvement upon Zerubbabel's. It was built by Herod
the Great, in sections, taking down the old and building the new part by
part, so that it occupied many years, and was not completed until after
Herod's death, and less than ten years before its final destruction.
This was the Temple standing in the time of Christ, and referred to in
the allusions of the New Testament. It was destroyed by the Romans under
Titus, A.D. 70, and was never rebuilt by the Jews, though its
restoration was more than once attempted. Its site is now occupied by
the Mohammedan "Dome of the Rock," often, but erroneously, called the
Mosque of Omar.

[Illustration: THE DOME OF THE ROCK.]

The Temple of Herod is the one usually described in works on the
subject. The authorities are: 1. The Scriptures, from which we gather
references to this Temple, and analogies from the description of the
Tabernacle, of which the Temple was an enlarged copy. 2. The description
given by Josephus, which was written 20 years after its fall, and gives
general impressions rather than accurate details. 3. The tract Middoth
"measures," in the Talmud, which gives precise measurements, but not
complete information. 4. The allusions in ancient Jewish literature, of
more or less value and authority. 5. The results of recent explorations
under the Temple area, which are very valuable. Different investigators
have come to very different conclusions concerning the Temple and its
courts. We present in this description those of Dr. James Strong, in
McClintock & Strong's Cyclopedia, from which our diagram is taken, by
permission. From the uncertainty of many dimensions, and especially the
difference of opinion with regard to the length of the Jewish cubit, in
which all the ancient measurements are given, most of our figures must
be regarded as general estimates, rather than precise statements.

The Temple consisted of a building called "the House of God," surrounded
by a number of open courts, the outer ones including the inner. On the
north of it was the Tower of Antonia; east, Valley of the Kedron;
south, Ophel; west, Valley of the Tyropoeon; and beyond, Mount Zion.

I. =The Court of the Gentiles= was the largest, and the first entered by
a visitor from without. It was so named because it was the only part of
the building in which foreigners were allowed; hence not regarded as
sacred by the Jews. Speaking roughly, it was an open square, of about
1,000 feet on each side; more precisely, a quadrangle, whose inside
measurements were 990 feet on the north, 1,000 on the east, 910 on the
south, 1,060 on the west. On two sides there was a covered corridor;
Solomon's Porch on the east, Herod's Porch on the south. It was entered
on the north, east and south, by a single gate in each wall: north, the
Gate Tedi, a staircase leading up to the Tower Antonia, from which Paul
made his speech to the Jewish mob (Acts 22); east, the Gate Shushan,
directly opposite to the altar, and leading to the Valley of the Kedron;
south, the Gate Huldah, a subterranean passage through the floor of the
court, which was here much higher than the ground outside the wall;
west, four gates: the southern, near the angle of the wall, the Gate
Shalleketh, or Kiponos, opening to a bridge over the Tyropoeon; next,
Gate Parbar; then, the South Gate of Asuppim; and near the northern
corner of the wall, the North Gate of Asuppim. On the floor of this
court was a market for the sale of sacrificial meats, with "tables of
the money changers"; twice broken up by Jesus in his ministry. (John
2:14-16; Matt. 21:12, 13.) [Notice, in this account: 1. Name. 2.
Dimensions. 3. Porches. 4. Gates. 5. Market.]

[Illustration: SECTION THROUGH THE MIDDLE OF THE TEMPLE FROM EAST TO
WEST.]

II. =The Sacred Enclosure= was an elevated section in the northwestern
part of the Court of the Gentiles, containing the sacred buildings. It
was called by the Jews the _Chel_ (pronounced _Kel_). It stood 8 feet
higher than the level of the surrounding court; and its outside
measurement was 630 feet on the north and south, by 300 east and west.
Its outer wall was a lattice wrought in stone, called Soreg,
"interwoven," 4-1/2 feet high, containing inscriptions in many
languages, warning all foreigners not to enter it, under penalty of
death. A fragment of this wall, with its inscription, was recently
discovered in Jerusalem. Within this wall was a corridor 24 feet wide,
containing an ascent of steps 8 feet high; and above them the inner
wall, which was like that of a castle, very thick, from 40 to 60 feet
high, and more than once used as a fortress by the Jews. Through both
the outer lattice and the inner wall were nine gates, four each on the
north and south; one on the east, opposite to the altar; but none on the
west. Though most of the worshipers came from that side, the rear of the
Temple stood toward it, and the front faced the east. The Chel, then,
was a terrace of 24 feet, between two walls, an outer lattice and an
inner castle. Paul was arrested under a false report of his having led
Gentiles into this Sacred Enclosure. (Acts 21:28, 29.)

[Illustration: PLAN OF THE SACRED ENCLOSURE (HEROD'S TEMPLE).]

III. =The Court of the Women=, often called "The Treasury," occupied a
square in the eastern end of the Sacred Enclosure. Passing through the
thick wall, the Jewish visitor (for none other was allowed to enter)
found himself in an open court, about 240 feet square, surrounded by
high walls, and 3 feet higher than the platform of the Chel. To this led
four gates, or rather doors, in the middle of the wall on each side;
that on the east, probably, being the Beautiful Gate (Acts 3:2), and
that on the west the Gate of Nicanor, because the head of Nicanor, a
Syrian enemy of the Jews, had once been hung upon it. In each corner of
the court was a room, open overhead, 60 feet square. That in the
southeast was used for the ceremonies of the Nazarite's vow, and was the
one where Paul was seized by the Jews (Acts 21:26); in the northeast,
for the preparation of wood for the altar; in the northwest, for the
ceremonies of cleansing for lepers; in the southwest, for the storage of
sacrificial oil. Between these rooms were galleried cloisters, of which
the upper story was set apart for women, who were not allowed to
penetrate further into the Temple, but from the gallery over the Gate of
Nicanor could witness the sacrifices. Around the wall were fastened 13
treasure-chests, for gifts of the worshipers, from which came the name
"Treasury." (Mark 12:41, 42; John 8:20.) Under the floor of this court
was a subterranean passage from the Tower of Antonia, by which soldiers
were sent to quell riots among the Jews, the opening being by the Gate
Beautiful, over which was a guard-room. Through this passage the
soldiers came who rescued Paul from the Jewish mob. (Acts 21:31, 32.)
Under the steps leading up to the Gate Nicanor were two rooms in which
musical instruments were stored for use at the festivals. [Review. 1.
Names. 2. Dimensions. 3. Doors. 4. Rooms. 5. Galleries. 6.
Treasure-chests. 7. Underground passage. 8. Music-rooms. 9. Scripture
allusions.]

IV. =The Court of Israel=, or Court of the Men, occupied the western end
of the Sacred Enclosure, and was a narrow corridor surrounding the Court
of the Priests. It was 10 feet higher than the Court of the Women; 320
feet east and west, by 240 north and south. The width of the corridor on
the north and south was 16 feet, and on the east and west 24 feet. It
was the place where the men of Israel stood to view the sacrifices. On
the outside of it rose the high inner wall of the Sacred Enclosure; on
the inside, a low balustrade sufficed to separate it from the space set
apart for the priests. Three gates led up to it on the north; as many on
the south; and one, the Gate of Nicanor, on the east. In the wall on the
north were chambers used severally for treasuries, guard, the storage of
salt, the storage of hides and of earthenware. On the south, at its
eastern corner, was the session-room of the Sanhedrim, called the Hall
Gazith, and beyond it rooms in the wall for guard, storage, etc. In the
Hall Gazith, the elders sat on seats of stone arranged in semicircular
form. [Review. 1. Name. 2. Location. 3. Dimensions. 4. Purpose. 5.
Walls. 6. Gates. 7. Rooms.]

V. =The Court of the Priests= was a raised platform within the Court of
Israel, and standing 3 feet above it. It was about 275 feet long, by 200
feet wide. It was mainly occupied by the House of God, in front of which
stood the great Altar of Burnt Offering, built upon the stone which now
rises under the Dome of the Rock. The altar was a rude structure of
rough stone, whitewashed, and 15 feet high. From its southwestern corner
an underground drain passed beneath all the courts to the brook Kedron.
Opposite, also, to the southwestern corner, was the Laver, supplying
water for the services and washings. Around the altar were marble tables
for various uses in the sacrifices, and in the pavement were rings for
securing the animals to be slain. [Review. 1. Name. 2. Dimensions. 3.
Altar. 4. Drain. 5. Laver. 6. Tables, rings, etc.]

VI. =The House of God=, or Temple Proper, occupied more than half the
space in the Court of the Priests. Its floor was 8 feet above the level
of the surrounding court; and it had four parts. 1. The Porch, or
Vestibule, extended across the front: it was 120 feet high, and
consisted of several stories. Its roof was steep, and covered with
golden spikes to keep birds from settling upon and defiling it. It was
built of marble, and richly ornamented. 2. The Chambers were on each
side of the house, but separate from it, and not attached to its wall.
They were three stories high, and entered from the north and south by
winding stairs. Their use was to furnish homes for the priests during
their two weeks of service each year. 3. The Holy Place was 30 feet wide
and 60 feet long, double the dimensions of the same room in the
Tabernacle. It was entered from the vestibule by double doors plated
with gold; and both floor and ceiling were covered with gold. On the
right side of one entering was the Table, on which 12 loaves of
unleavened bread were kept standing; on the left was the Lamp-stand,
generally called (but incorrectly) the Golden Candlestick, for it held
seven lamps, not candles; and at its further end was the golden Altar of
Incense, lighted each day by coals from the Altar of Burnt Offering. In
this room Zacharias received the promise of the birth of John the
Baptist. (Luke 1.) 4. The Holy of Holies was a cube, each dimension
being 30 feet. It was separated from the Holy Place by a vail, said to
be 8 inches thick (but probably consisting of two vails 8 inches apart),
which was rent from top to bottom at the hour of the Saviour's death on
the cross. (Mark 15:38.) In the first Temple this room contained the Ark
of the Covenant; but in the second and third Temples the place of the
lost ark was taken by a marble stone, upon which the high priest laid
the censer on the Day of Atonement, the only day in the year when the
Holy of Holies was entered. The Roman conqueror, Pompey, insisted upon
entering it, expecting to see some object of worship, and perhaps
treasure, but was surprised to find nothing within the vail. [Review. 1.
Porch. 2. Chambers. 3. Holy Place and contents. 4. Holy of Holies.]


OUTLINE FOR TEACHING AND REVIEW.

          I. Let the teacher relate the history of the
          Temple, with its three periods of building, under
          Solomon, Zerubbabel and Herod, and review the
          class on the names and events.

          II. Draw the elevations of the several courts and
          buildings, showing how they successively rose one
          above another, and, as each is indicated, give its
          name, and its elevation above the preceding. 1.
          Court of Gentiles. 2. Sacred Enclosure, 8 feet
          elevation. 3. Court of Women, 3 feet higher. 4.
          Court of Israel, 10 feet. 5. Court of the Priests,
          3 feet. 6. House of God, 8 feet.

          III. Draw next the ground plan of the six
          departments as given, and describe each, following
          the order given in the description above.
          Frequently review the class upon the names,
          dimensions and facts.

          IV. Number the Scripture references given in the
          description, write them on slips of paper,
          distribute to the class, and call for them in
          connection with the parts of the Temple to which
          they refer. At the close call upon the class to
          name the Scripture incidents connected with each
          department.



LESSONS IN THE GEOGRAPHY OF PALESTINE.


MORE than two-thirds of the events of Bible history are associated with
the land of Palestine, and a knowledge of that country and its principal
places is needed by every Sunday School scholar and Bible student. Any
Superintendent who will take ten minutes of the Sunday School session
for the purpose or teaching Bible Geography, can in less than three
months give to his school a sufficient knowledge of Palestine for the
general needs of Bible study. The requisites are: a blackboard; some
crayons (of various colors, if possible to obtain them); a clear idea on
the part of the instructor of what he proposes to teach; precise
statements of the things taught, in as few words as possible; giving
nothing except the important facts which are to be remembered; and
frequent reviews, from the beginning, of all the facts acquired. The
lessons here given have been taught many times in Sunday Schools and
children's classes at Assemblies, and are now published in the hope that
they may be made generally useful.

[Illustration: LESSON I.]


LESSON I. LINES AND WATERS.

I. Draw in presence of the class, in white chalk, the =two lines=, one
representing the Coast Line, the other, the Jordan Line. Notice that the
cape on the Coast Line is one-third the distance from the top of the
map; that the second of the three lakes is directly opposite to the
cape; and that the distance between the second and third lakes is just
six times that between the first and the second. The teacher may draw
the lines in advance of the lesson, with a soapstone slate pencil, which
will make a faint mark, not distinguishable at a distance, but seen by
the teacher, and easily traced in presence of the class with white
crayon. Let the class repeat the names of the two lines. 1. Coast Line.
2. Jordan Line.

II. Locate the different =Bodies of Water=, indicating their names by
initial letters. 1. The Mediterranean Sea, on the west, called in the
Bible "the Great Sea." 2. The river Jordan, flowing from north to south.
3. Lake Merom, on the north. 4. The Sea of Galilee. 5. The Dead Sea,
into which the Jordan flows. Show the class that this sea lies so low,
that, if a canal were cut to the Mediterranean, the ocean would run in,
instead of the Dead Sea running out. Drill the class on: 1. Lines. 2.
Bodies of Water.


LESSON II. NAMES AND DISTANCES.

Draw the same map as in Lesson I., but omit the lettering, and review
the Lines and Waters.

I. State and drill upon the =Names= by which the land has been known in
different times. 1. In the earliest ages it was called _Canaan_, because
its best-known people were the Canaanites. 2. After the Israelites
conquered it, it was known as the _Land of Israel_. 3. In the time of
Christ it was generally called _Judæa_ because the Jews were its
inhabitants. 4. Its name is now _Palestine_. [Write an initial or
syllable of each name, and recall it from the class.]

II. Give the =Distances=. 1. Begin with the country best known, and
state first the distance from America to Palestine, 7,800 miles. [Write
on the board A. P. 7,800.] 2. The Coast Line, from a point opposite the
source of the Jordan to a point opposite the lower end of the Dead Sea,
180 miles. [Write C. L. 180.] 3. The Jordan Line, from its source to the
lower end of the Dead Sea, 180 miles. [J. L. 180.] 4. From the Jordan to
the Mediterranean, on the north, 30 miles. [J. M. 30.] 5. From the Dead
Sea, at its southern end, to the Mediterranean, 90 miles. [D. S. M. 90.]
6. The most northern town in Palestine was Dan [mark D. on the map]; the
most southern was Beersheba [mark B.]. Hence, to show the extent of the
land, they said "from Dan to Beersheba," which was 150 miles in a
straight line. [Write D. B. 150.] 7. Palestine, between the Jordan and
the sea, includes about 6,600 square miles, which is a little smaller
than Massachusetts. [Write S. M. 6,600.] Review the facts already given
from the beginning. 1. Lines. 2. Waters. 3. Distances.

[Illustration: LESSON II.]

[Illustration: LESSON III.]


LESSON III. NATURAL DIVISIONS.

Draw, as before, the outline of the map, and review all the facts
already taught. 1. Lines. 2. Waters. 3. Names. 4. Distances. Test the
memory of the class on these without giving the initials.

There are four Natural Divisions to Palestine; that is, four sections in
the country, lying parallel with each other. Indicate them on the map in
brown chalk, not making them very prominent.

1. We find the =Sea-Coast Plain= [S. C. P.] extending along the Coast
from north to south, narrow at the north, and wider at the south.

2. Further inland, we come to the =Mountain Region= [M. R.], the
backbone of the country, a section of hills and mountains, and the home
of the Israelitish people.

3. Passing over the mountains, we find the =Jordan Valley=, a deep
gorge, and deeper the further we travel southward, until, at the Dead
Sea, it is more than 1,300 feet lower than the Mediterranean.

4. Still further eastward, we climb the steep mountains again, and reach
the =Eastern Table-Land=, a lofty plain sloping gradually to the great
desert beyond it.

Review, as before. 1. Lines. 2. Waters. 3. Names. 4. Distances. 5.
Natural Divisions.


LESSON IV. MOUNTAINS.

[Illustration: LESSON IV.]

Review, as usual, from the beginning, before commencing the advance
lesson. The events of the Bible are often associated with =Mountains=,
of which there are many in Palestine. We select eight of the most
important, group them in pairs, and state with each the fact which gives
it interest.

On the north of the country, near the source of the Jordan, we find two
mountains, nearly opposite to each other. 1. _Mount Hermon_, on the
east, the highest mountain in Palestine, and the place where the Saviour
was transfigured. 2. _Mount Lebanon_, on the west, famous for its
cedars.

Next, we find two mountains nearly in line with the Sea of Galilee, one
directly west and the other southwest of it. 3. _Mount Carmel_, by the
Mediterranean, where Elijah called down fire from heaven upon the altar.
4. _Mount Gilboa_, where King Saul fell in battle with the Philistines.

In the centre of the country we find two mountains, where Joshua read
the law to the Israelites. 5. On the north, _Mount Ebal_, the mount of
cursing. 6. On the south, _Mount Gerizim_, the mount of blessing.

In the south, directly in line with the northern end of the Dead Sea,
are two mountains. 7. On the west, _Mount Olivet_, or the Mount of
Olives, where Jesus ascended. 8. On the east, _Mount Nebo_, where Moses
died.

With each of these mountains the event associated might be briefly
related. At the close, review as before. 1. Lines. 2. Waters. 3. Names.
4. Distances. 5. Divisions. 6. Mountains. Be sure that the class can
name the event with each mountain.


LESSON V. PLACES.

This lesson may well be divided into from two to four sections,
according to the time which can be given to it. Draw the map, as usual,
from the beginning; and, as each subject is presented upon it, review
the pupils, until all their past lessons are clearly fixed in mind. 1.
Lines. 2. Waters. 3. Names. 4. Distances. 5. Natural Divisions. 6.
Mountains. See that with each mountain, as it is located, the event
connected with it is named.

We have now to fix the most important =Places= in Palestine. We locate
them by their arrangement in the Natural Divisions, and name an event
for which each place is remembered.

I. =Places in the Sea-Coast Plain.= [These may constitute one lesson, if
desired.] 1. _Gaza_, where Samson pulled down the idol temple upon the
Philistines and himself. This lies on the Mediterranean, directly in
line west of the middle point of the Dead Sea. 2. _Joppa_, the seaport
of Palestine, from which the prophet Jonah started on his voyage. This
lies nearly half way between Gaza and Mount Carmel. 3. _Cæsarea_, where
Paul made his defense before King Agrippa, and was a prisoner for two
years. This is a little more than half way between Joppa and Mount
Carmel. 4. _Tyre_, the city which sent ships to all lands; a little
further north of Mount Carmel than Cæsarea is south of it. As each place
is named, locate it on the board, and mark it by an initial letter.

II. Another lesson may include the most important =Places in the
Mountain Region=. 1. _Beersheba_, the home of Abraham; opposite the
lower bay of the Dead Sea. 2. _Hebron_, where the patriarchs were
buried; opposite the middle of the Dead Sea, and in line with Gaza. 3.
_Bethlehem_, where David and Jesus were born, 6 miles south of
Jerusalem. 4. _Jerusalem_, the capital of Palestine, where David
reigned, and where Jesus was crucified; directly in line with the
northern end of the Dead Sea. 5. _Bethel_, 10 miles north of Jerusalem,
where Jacob saw the vision of the heavenly ladder. 6. _Shechem_, between
the twin mountains of Ebal and Gerizim, where Jesus talked with the
woman of Samaria. 7. _Nazareth_, where Jesus spent his boyhood; directly
in line with the southern end of the Sea of Galilee.

[Illustration: LESSON V.]

III. =Places in the Jordan Valley.= Two of these are near the northern
end of the Dead Sea. 1. _Jericho_, west of the Jordan, where the walls
fell down before the Israelites. 2. _Bethabara_, east of the Jordan,
where Jesus was baptized. Two more are near the northern shore of the
Sea of Galilee. 3. _Capernaum_, where Jesus lived during his ministry,
and wrought many miracles; on the northwestern shore of the sea. 4.
_Bethsaida_, where Jesus fed the five thousand with five loaves; on the
north of the sea. 5. The last is at the source of the river Jordan,
_Dan_, the most northerly town in Palestine.

[Illustration: LESSON VI.]

IV. =Places in the Eastern Table-Land.= There are not many in this
section, because few events of Bible history took place there. 1.
_Machærus_, where John the Baptist was imprisoned and beheaded; opposite
the northern part of the Dead Sea. 2. _Penuel_, on the brook Jabbok,
where Jacob wrestled with the angel. This is about midway between the
Dead Sea and the Sea of Galilee. 3. _Mahanaim_, where David wept over
Absalom's death. This is about half way between Penuel and the Sea of
Galilee. 4. _Cæsarea Philippi_, at the foot of Mount Hermon, where Jesus
taught his disciples.

It may be desirable not to give these places in a single lesson, but to
divide it into two, or even four sections, and give one at a session. In
that case, with each lesson all the places already located should be
reviewed, together with the events associated with them. If the places
can be marked upon the board in bright red chalk, they will be
prominent.


LESSON VI. PROVINCES.

Review from the beginning, as usual. 1. Lines. 2. Waters. 3. Names. 4.
Distances. 5. Natural Divisions. 6. Mountains. 7. Places.

In this lesson we are to learn the Provinces, or parts of the country,
in the time of Christ. We do not take the division by tribes; as that is
more difficult to learn, and not often referred to in history. At the
time when Christ was among men, Palestine was divided into five
Provinces, though two of these were under one ruler.

I. Draw the boundary line of =Judæa=, and write its initial, J. This was
the southern province, and the largest. [Review the names of the places
contained in it.] Its people were the Jews, or men of the tribe of
Judah, and its principal city was Jerusalem.

II. North of Judæa was the province known as =Samaria=, having Shechem
as its principal city. Its people were the Samaritans, with whom the
Jews had no dealings. In Christ's day Judæa and Samaria were under one
government. It contained the twin mountains Ebal and Gerizim.

III. North of Samaria was =Galilee=, where Jesus lived during most of
his life. Its people were also Jews, but were called "Galileans" by the
Jews in Jerusalem; and in Christ's time it was under the rule of Herod,
who slew John the Baptist. Notice the mountains and towns situated in
it. Mountains: Lebanon and Gilboa; towns: Nazareth, Capernaum and Dan.

IV. On the east of the Jordan, and south of the Sea of Galilee, was the
province of =Peræa=, a word which means "beyond"; so named, because it
is "beyond Jordan." Here Jesus taught at one time during his ministry,
and blessed the little children. The places which we have noticed in it
are Machærus, Bethabara, Penuel and Mahanaim; and its mountain, Nebo.
This province, in Christ's day, was also ruled by King Herod.

V. The province north of Peræa and east of the Sea of Galilee is not
named in the New Testament. We will call it by its Old Testament name,
=Bashan=, a word meaning "woodland." It was ruled by a brother of Herod,
named Philip, whose title was "tetrarch"; hence it is sometimes called
"Philip's Tetrarchy." The mountain we have noticed in it is Hermon, and
the two places, Bethsaida, and Cæsarea Philippi, or "Philip's Cæsarea,"
to distinguish it from the other Cæsarea, by the sea-shore.

At the close of the lesson, review once more from the very beginning of
the series; then erase the map, and, pointing to the places on an
"invisible map," call for their names from the class. There can scarcely
be too much reviewing of these leading facts, in order to impress them
on the scholar's memory.

[Illustration: ARCHES IN THE TEMPLE AREA.]



THE MEASURES OF THE BIBLE.


THE student of the Bible meets with some difficulty in adapting the
names of weights, measures and coins, to the standards now in use, and
finds that the authorities are not agreed upon the precise signification
of the Bible terms used in relation to these subjects. These
difficulties and discrepancies arise from three facts: 1. The Oriental
mind has never been accustomed to the exactness of our systems of
measurement. Among eight cubit measures found on the Egyptian monuments,
no two were precisely alike. 2. The models or standards of weights and
measures referred to in Hebrew history were long ago lost, and it is not
easy to reproduce them. 3. The Jews adopted the measurements of peoples
among whom they were dispersed, yet often retained the names of such of
their own as were nearest to them in amount, so that at different
periods in Bible history the standard was different. The same word may
refer to different measurements at different times. We have adopted in
this section the measurements of F. R. and C. R. Conder in "The Hand
Book of the Bible," except where other authorities are specified.

[Illustration: SMALLER MEASURES OF LENGTH.]

I. =Smaller Measures of Length.= 1. The lowest dimension, as in our own
table of linear measure, was the Barleycorn. 2. Two barleycorns laid
endways made the Finger-breadth (Hebrew, Atzbah), two-thirds of an inch.
3. Four finger-breadths made the Palm (Heb., Tupah), 2-2/3 inches. 4.
Sometimes the Hand-breadth and Palm are the same; elsewhere, the
hand-breadth (Heb., Zereth) is double the palm, or 5-1/3 inches. 5.
Three palms made the Span (Heb., Sit), 8 inches, the width of the
outspread hand, from the end of the thumb to that of the little finger.
6. Four palms made the Foot (Heb., Regal), 10-2/3 inches. 7. Six palms
made the Cubit (Heb., Ameh), 16 inches (Conder), or the distance from
the elbow to the tip of the middle finger, when held in a straight line.
The cubit, however, varied (just as the pound with us varies in troy and
avoirdupois weight), as indicated in the expressions "the cubit of a
man" (Deut. 3:11), "a great cubit" (Ezek. 41:8), etc. In the length of
the cubit, authorities vary from 15 to 21 inches. We have adopted the
general opinion, and place it, conjecturally, at a foot and a half, or
18 inches.

II. =Larger Measures of Length.= The cubit (reckoned more precisely at
16 inches) is here regarded as the unit of measurement. 1. The Fathom
was 6 or 6-1/2 feet. 2. The Reed (Heb., Keneh; compare our word _cane_)
was 4 cubits, according to Conder, but 6 cubits according to other
authorities, thus varying between 5-1/3 feet and 8 feet. 3. The Furlong
(named only in the New Testament) was a Greek measurement (Stadium), of
606-3/4 feet, or 53-1/4 feet less than our furlong. 4. The Mile (Matt.
5:41) was 1,618 yards. The Hebrew mile is not referred to in the Bible,
but was of two kinds, "the small mile" (Heb., Mil), being about 1,000
cubits, or about a quarter of our mile; and "the long mile," twice as
far. 5. The Sabbath Day's Journey is stated by Conder at 2,000 cubits,
or half an English mile; but by most other writers at seven-eighths of
our mile. 6. The Day's Journey was variable, from 10 to 30 miles;
generally about 20 miles. So most authorities decide, but Conder gives
it at 4-3/4 miles.

III. =Dry Measures of Capacity.= 1. The Cab (2 Kings 6:25), 96 cubic
inches, or 675 thousandths of a quart. 2. The Omer (Exod. 16:36)
contained 172-8/10 cubic inches, or about 2-1/2 quarts. 3. The Seah (in
Greek, Modios) was the ordinary household measure of quantity,
translated, generally, "measure" in our Bibles, but in Matt. 5:15
"bushel." It contained six times as much as the cab, or a little over a
peck; according to Conder, 1.012 pecks; according to the Revised Version
(Matt. 13:33, marginal note), a peck and a half. 4. The Ephah (Exod.
16:36) contained 3 seahs, or 10 omers; about three-quarters of a bushel.
5. The Cor contained 10 ephahs, or 7-1/2 bushels. The cor is also called
"the homer" (Isa. 5:10), which is to be carefully distinguished from the
omer, which contained one-hundredth of its quantity. The two words are
not alike in the Hebrew. It will be noticed that the omer, the ephah and
the cor (or homer) formed a decimal scale of measurement.

[Illustration: DRY MEASURES.]

IV. =Liquid Measures of Capacity.= 1. The Auphauk (not named in the
Bible) was the smallest, containing 6 cubic inches, or 675 thousandths
of a gill. 2. The Log (Lev. 14:10), four times as large as the auphauk,
was "six egg-shells full," 24 cubic inches, or a little more than half a
pint (675 thousandths). 3. The Hin (Exod. 29:40) contained 12 logs, or a
little over a gallon. 4. The Seah (see above, under Dry Measures)
contained twice as much as the hin. 5. The Bath, containing 3 seahs or 6
hins, contained 1,728 cubic inches, or 6.036 gallons. Besides these, the
New Testament names two Greek measures, the Metretes (John 2:6,
"firkins"), equivalent to 10-1/3 gallons; and the Choenix (Rev. 6:6,
"measure"), about a pint and a half.

[Illustration: LIQUID MEASURES.]

V. =Measures of Weight.= (From the Oxford Teacher's Bible.) 1. The
Gerah, "a bean," weighed a little less than half of a dram avoirdupois
(.439 dram). 2. The Bekah, 10 gerahs, weighed about a quarter of an
ounce (4.39 drams). The word means "half," _i. e._, of a shekel. 3. The
Shekel, "weight," used as a silver coin, 2 bekahs, weighed 8.9 drams. 4.
The Maneh (Greek, Mina), 60 shekels (Conder says 50 shekels, which would
agree with paragraph VI., below), 2 lbs. 1 oz. 5. The Talent, "circle,"
meaning "an aggregate sum," 50 manehs, weighing 102 lbs. 14 ozs. The
weights are of lower degree than those in common use at present, because
in the early times money was weighed, and not counted, and exact
weighing was necessary with gold and silver.

VI. =Measures of Value.= Two systems of money are referred to in the
Bible: the Hebrew, or that in use in Old Testament times and lands; and
the Roman, which was used during the New Testament period. In the Hebrew
system the weights referred to in paragraph V. were used in silver as
measures of value. 1. The Gerah (Exod. 30:13) was the lowest, and was
worth 2-3/4 cents. 2. The Bekah, 10 gerahs (Exod. 38:26), was worth
27-37/100 cents, or about 2 cents more than our quarter of a dollar. 3.
The Shekel, 2 bekahs, was worth 54-3/4 cents, or about 5 cents more than
half a dollar. 4. The Maneh, or Mina, 50 shekels (Luke 19:13, "pound"),
$27.37-1/2. 5. The Talent of Silver, 60 manehs, $1,642.50. 6. The Talent
of Gold was nearly twenty times as valuable, being estimated at $26,280.
7. So the Shekel of Gold was worth, in the same proportion of weight
with the ordinary shekel of silver, $8.75. It is to be remembered that a
given amount of coin in those times would purchase ten times as much as
now.

[Illustration: This is a copper coin, a quarter-gerah, worth about half
a cent; was made about the time of Alexander the Great, B.C. 325.]

[Illustration: A silver coin, three-quarters of a shekel, called a
_righia_, used especially for paying the temple tax. It was worth about
40 cents.]

The Greek and Roman coins are chiefly referred to in the New Testament.
The smallest was the Lepton (Mark 12:42, "mite"), worth a fifth of a
cent. 2. The Quadrans (Mark 12:42, "farthing"), 2 mites, or less than
half a cent. 3. The Assarion (Matt, 10:29, "farthing"), four times the
quadrans, or 1-3/5 cents. Notice that two coins, one worth four times as
much as the other, are both translated "farthing" in our version. 4. The
Denarius (Matt, 22:19, "penny"), 10 times the assarion, or 16 cents. It
was the latter which in Christ's time bore the face of the Roman
emperor.

[Illustration: No. 1

The smallest copper coin in use among the Jews, the _lepton_, called in
Hebrew _chalcous_, "copper money." The widow's mite was of this coin.]

[Illustration: No. 2

The denarius, or penny, bearing the face of the emperor Tiberius.]

[Illustration: BETHANY.]



INDEX TO MAP OF PALESTINE.

(SURROUNDING COUNTRY INCLUDED.)


          EXPLANATION.--The letter and number following each
          name show its location on the map. The name will
          be found at or near the intersection of a vertical
          line drawn between the letters top and bottom and
          a horizontal line between the figures on either
          side.

  Abama                      R-11
  Abbin                      M-20
  Abdon                      G-15
  Abil                       J-13
  Abilin                     G-17
  Abud                       G-23
  Acco Ptolemais             F-16
  Acrabi                     H-23
  Acre                       F-16
  Acre                       O-15
  Adlan                      H-12
  Adonis                      J-7
  Adrha                      R-11
  Afka                        L-7
  Ahiry                      Q-16
  Ai                         H-24
  Ain Ata                     N-6
  Ain Barada                 N-10
  Ain Burdai                  O-8
  Ain Feshkhah               I-26
  Ain Haudh                  E-18
  Ain Jiddy                  I-28
  Ain Yebrud                 H-24
  Aithy                      M-10
  Ajalon                     F-25
  Ajlan                      D-27
  Ajlun                      L-21
  Ajiltun                     K-8
  Akir                       D-25
  Akka                       F-16
  Akka, Plain of             G-16
  Akkaba                     I-21
  Akobar                     P-10
  Akrabeh                    H-23
  Akurah                      L-7
  Allan                      L-22
  Alleikah                   K-15
  Alma                       J-15
  Amaad                      K-19
  Amaleh                     K-18
  Amateh                     K-21
  Amathus                    K-21
  Amkah                      G-16
  Amman                      N-24
  Ammik                      L-10
  Ammonites                  M-25
  Amshir                      J-6
  Amwas                      E-25
  Amyan                       L-5
  Anab                       F-28
  Anat                       J-11
  Anathoth                   H-25
  Anti-Lebanon                R-6
  Antipatris                 E-22
  Anz                        T-20
  Apollonia                  D-22
  Ar (Rabbath Moab)          L-29
  Araba                      I-17
  Arad                       G-29
  Arair                      L-28
  Arak el Emir               M-24
  Aramun                      J-9
  Arar                       O-18
  Ararah                     F-30
  Arbela                     N-19
  Arbin                      P-11
  Ard Asjerah                K-16
  Ard el Huleh               J-14
  Areiya                      K-9
  Areopolis                  L-29
  Arnau                       K-6
  Arnon                      L-28
  Arnun                      I-13
  Arny                       M-13
  Aroer                      F-30
  Aroer                      L-28
  Arrabeh                    G-20
  Arrabeh                    I-17
  Arsuf                      D-22
  Ary                        R-19
  Ascalon                    B-26
  Ashdod                     C-26
  Asher                      I-21
  Askulan                    B-26
  Ashkut                      L-8
  Astifa                     F-18
  Ataibeh                    R-11
  Atara                      G-21
  Ataroth                    K-27
  Athlit                     E-18
  Atil                       R-17
  Atny                        S-8
  Attil                      F-21
  Attir                      F-29
  Atuf                       I-22
  Aulam                      J-18
  Auranitis                  P-18
  Aurney                     M-13
  Ayun ed Dura                P-9
  Ayun el Alak                S-5
  Azzun                      F-22
  Baalbek                     O-7
  Baal Meor                  L-26
  Babda                       J-9
  Bahret Bala                T-14
  Bahret el Ateibeh          T-12
  Bahret el Hijaneh          S-13
  Bahr Tubariyeh             K-17
  Bakah                      F-20
  Bala                       Q-11
  Balin                      D-26
  Banias                     K-14
  Bar Elias                   M-9
  Bashan                     O-17
  Batanæa                    T-16
  Bathaniyeh                 S-17
  Bathaniyeh                 T-16
  Batneh                     K-23
  Batruny                    N-10
  Bechar                     F-21
  Beeroth                    G-24
  Beer Sheba                 D-29
  Beer Sheba, Desert of      D-30
  Beirut                      I-8
  Beit Auwa                  E-28
  Beit Dejan                 D-24
  Beit Dirdis                B-27
  Beit er Ras                M-19
  Beit Far                   E-25
  Beit Idis                  K-20
  Beit Imrim                 H-21
  Beitin                     G-24
  Beit Jala                  G-26
  Beit Jenn                  M-13
  Beit Jibrin                E-27
  Beit Kurm                  K-29
  Beit Lahm                  G-18
  Beit Lahm                  G-26
  Beit Lid                   F-22
  Beit Luna                  I-11
  Beit Nebala                E-24
  Beit Ur Tahta              G-25
  Beka                       S-20
  Belat                      I-10
  Belateh                    N-25
  Belfort                    J-13
  Bereikut                   G-26
  Bereitan                    O-8
  Berkha                      O-6
  Berya                      I-10
  Berytus                     I-8
  Beshara                    I-14
  Besum                      J-18
  Bethany                    H-25
  Bethar                     F-21
  Beth Dagon                 D-24
  Bethel                     G-24
  Beth Gamul                 P-21
  Beth Hogla                 J-25
  Bethhoron                  G-24
  Beth Jesimoth              K-25
  Bethlehem                  G-26
  Beth Nimrah                K-24
  Bethshean                  J-20
  Beth Shemesh               F-26
  Beth Tappuah               F-27
  Bethzur                    F-27
  Bilhas                      L-7
  Bireh                      G-24
  Bir es Seba                D-29
  Birweh                     G-16
  Bir Zeit                   G-24
  Bisri                      J-11
  Biut Jebeil                I-15
  Blabura                     L-6
  Bludan                     N-10
  Botal Meon                 L-26
  Botrys                      J-6
  Bozrah                     R-19
  Brummana                    J-8
  Bsherreh                    M-6
  Budeih                      N-7
  Bukfeiya                    K-8
  Bukha                       R-8
  Burak                      Q-14
  Burd                       S-19
  Burka                      C-25
  Burmeh                     M-22
  Busrah                     R-19
  Byblus                      J-7
  Bziza                       L-5
  Cabul                      H-17
  Cæsarea                    D-20
  Cæsarea Philippi           K-14
  Callirhoe                  J-27
  Cana                       H-18
  Capercotia                 H-20
  Carmel                     G-28
  Castellum Peregrinorum     D-18
  Chesalloth                 I-18
  Chorazin                   K-16
  Conna                       Q-5
  Convent                    E-17
  Coreæ                      H-23
  Daberath                   I-18
  Dahr el Ahmar              L-11
  Damascus                   P-11
  Damascus                    R-9
  Damet el Alyah             Q-16
  Dan                        K-13
  Dareiya                    O-12
  Dead Sea                   J-28
  Decapolis                  Q-16
  Deir Aly                   P-14
  Deir el Ahmar               N-7
  Deir el Kamr               J-10
  Denna                      J-19
  Derat                      O-18
  Dhekir                     R-15
  Dhiban                     L-27
  Dibbin                     M-21
  Dibon                      L-28
  Dilly                      O-16
  Dimas                      N-11
  Dinneh                     B-27
  Dimesk                     P-12
  Dimonah                    F-31
  Doroa                      P-17
  Draa                       J-30
  Dulbeh                     R-12
  Duma                        L-6
  Duma                       P-11
  Dumah                      F-28
  Dummar                     O-11
  Dura                       F-27
  Duris                       N-8
  Eaumia                     I-28
  Ecdippi Achzib             F-15
  Ed Dur                     P-17
  Edhra                      O-17
  Eglon                      D-27
  Ehden                       M-5
  Eib                         P-5
  Eidum                      M-20
  Ejlil                      D-22
  Ekron                      D-25
  El al                      L-25
  El Batrum                   J-5
  El Belka                   K-26
  El Bellan                  N-12
  El Bukaa                   M-10
  El Bukeia                  I-16
  El Burj                    E-28
  El Burj                    I-13
  El Daumeh                  F-28
  El Dekwa                   T-12
  Elealeh                    L-25
  Eleutheropolis             E-27
  El Fejjeh                  E-23
  El Fuhais                  L-24
  El Fuleh                   H-19
  El Fureidis                J-10
  El Futian                  N-27
  El Ghor                    J-23
  El Ghor                    J-31
  El Ghuzlaniyeh             Q-12
  El Hadeth                   J-9
  El Hadeth                   N-8
  El Hather                  L-13
  El Herath                  K-22
  El Hish                    L-15
  El Husm                    M-19
  El Jisr                     K-7
  El Kana                     N-8
  El Kerak                    M-8
  El Khulil                  G-27
  El Kireh                   G-19
  El Kuds                    G-25
  El Kusein                  F-30
  Ellar                      G-21
  El Latron                  E-25
  El Lisan                   J-29
  El Mejdel                  C-26
  El Merj                     L-9
  El Mezzeh                  O-11
  El Mokhrah                  O-7
  El Mukhtarah               J-10
  Er-Riha                    L-28
  El Tell                    K-16
  Elusa                      D-31
  Endor                      I-18
  En-gannim                  I-20
  En-gedi                    I-28
  Ephraim, Mountains of      F-23
  Eriha                      J-25
  Er Ram                     H-25
  Er Remtheh                 N-19
  Esdraelon, Plain of        H-19
  Esdud                      C-26
  Eshmiskin                  O-17
  Es Salt                    L-23
  Es Samieh                  I-24
  Es Sawafir                 C-26
  Es Semuy                   J-16

[Illustration: MAP OF PALESTINE AND SURROUNDING COUNTRY.]

  Es Sendiyaneh              F-19
  Es Sgheir                  P-20
  Es Sheikh                  F-18
  Es Zib                     F-15
  Et-Tih, Desert of          B-30
  Et Tireh                   E-18
  Et Tireh                   E-24
  Et Tireh                   J-19
  Eyat                        O-7
  Ez Zumleh                  O-19
  Farah                      K-21
  Fawara                     K-19
  Ferata                     G-22
  Fedar                       K-6
  Ferkha                     G-23
  Fijeh                      N-11
  Fik Apheca                 L-17
  Fikeh                       Q-6
  Frank                      H-26
  Furzul                      L-8
  Fusail                     J-23
  Gaba                       H-21
  Gabara                     H-16
  Gabata                     H-19
  Gadara                     L-19
  Gadda                      O-23
  Galilee                    H-17
  Gamala                     L-18
  Gath                       D-26
  Gaulanitis                 L-17
  Gaza                       B-28
  Gebal                       J-7
  Gedor                      F-26
  Gennesaret                 J-17
  Gerada                      S-9
  Gerar                      B-29
  Gerasa                     M-22
  Gergasa                    K-17
  Gharz                      O-19
  Ghasuleh                   R-12
  Ghautha                    R-18
  Ghazir                      K-7
  Ghederah                   D-25
  Ghusam                     Q-19
  Ghuzzeh                    A-28
  Gibeah                     G-25
  Gibeah                     G-26
  Gibeon                     G-25
  Gilboa                     I-20
  Gilead                     L-20
  Gilead, Mountains of       L-24
  Gilgal                     F-23
  Gilgal                     G-23
  Gilgal                     I-25
  Gimzo                      E-24
  Ginæa                      I-20
  Giscala                    J-15
  Gophna                     G-24
  Hadar                      R-15
  Hafir                      Q-10
  Haifa                      F-17
  Halbun                     O-10
  Halhul                     G-27
  Halwy                      M-11
  Hamul                      G-15
  Harran                     Q-16
  Harran                     R-11
  Hanin                      I-15
  Haris                      I-14
  Hasbeiya                   K-12
  Hauran                     Q-17
  Hawara                     H-23
  Hazor                      D-25
  Hazor                      H-24
  Hebras                     M-19
  Hebron                     G-27
  Helaweh                    K-20
  Heldua                      I-9
  Heliopolis                  O-8
  Hepha                      F-17
  Herodion                   G-26
  Hesban el Kusur            L-26
  Hesbon                     L-26
  Hieromax                   L-18
  Hijaneh                    R-12
  Hippos                     K-18
  Hit                        S-16
  Homeis                      M-5
  Hormah                     C-31
  Huj                        C-27
  Hukkok                     I-17
  Huleh Lake                 K-15
  Hunin                      J-14
  Idhna                      F-27
  Ijon                       J-12
  Iksim                      E-19
  Irbid                      J-17
  Irbid                      N-19
  Iron                       I-15
  Ituræa                     N-15
  Jaarah                     F-19
  Jabesh                     K-21
  Jabneh                     C-25
  Jabbok                     L-22
  Jacob's Well               H-22
  Jaezer                     M-24
  Jaffa                      D-23
  Jaj                         L-6
  Jambruda                    R-8
  Jamnia                     C-25
  Janohah                    I-23
  Japhia                     H-18
  Japho                      C-23
  Jarmuth                    F-26
  Jasem                      N-16
  Jattir                     F-29
  Jaulan                     L-16
  Jeba                       H-21
  Jebaa                      J-11
  Jebatha                    H-18
  Jebeil                      J-6
  Jebel Ajlun                M-20
  Jebel Ameto                 N-6
  Jebel Bludih                O-9
  Jebel Duhy                 I-19
  Jebel el Mania             O-13
  Jebel esh Sheikh           M-12
  Jebel esh Sherky            P-9
  Jebel Fureidis             H-26
  Jebel Hauran               T-17
  Jebel Jelad                L-23
  Jebel Jermuk               I-15
  Jebel Libna                 L-9
  Jebel Shihan               K-28
  Jebel Sunnin                M-8
  Jedal                      Q-16
  Jedur                      F-26
  Jedur                      N-15
  Jefat                      H-17
  Jehab                      P-15
  Jelbon                     I-20
  Jenin                      H-20
  Jerash                     M-22
  Jericho                    I-25
  Jerjua                     I-12
  Jerud                       S-9
  Jerusalem                  G-25
  Jezreel                    I-19
  Jezzin                     J-11
  Jib Jenin                  L-11
  Jibin                      L-17
  Jifna                      G-24
  Jiljilia                   G-23
  Jiljuliah                  F-22
  Jimzu                      E-24
  Jish                       J-15
  Jisr Benat Yakub           K-15
  Jisr Damieh                J-23
  Jiyeh                      C-27
  Jobar                      P-11
  Jokneam                    F-18
  Joppa                      D-23
  Jordan                     J-21
  Jotapata                   H-17
  Jubb Adin                   Q-9
  Judah, Desert of           H-28
  Judah, Mountains of        F-27
  Judea                      G-27
  Julias                     K-16
  Julis                      C-26
  Juneh                       K-8
  Kab Elias                   L-9
  Kabul                      H-17
  Kadisha                     L-5
  Kahn Jubb Yusef            J-16
  Kaisariyeh                 D-19
  Kakon                      E-21
  Kallaat                    J-13
  Kamid el Loz               L-10
  Kana                       H-14
  Kanah                      D-20
  Kara Comochara              S-6
  Karobin                     M-6
  Katarna                    O-12
  Kattin                     J-11
  Kaukab                     O-12
  Kedes                      J-14
  Kedron                     H-26
  Keffin                      K-7
  Kefr Abil                  K-20
  Kefr Birim                 I-15
  Kefr Hajla                 J-25
  Kefr Hata                   L-5
  Kefr Kannir                E-20
  Kefr Kenna                 H-18
  Kefr Kud                   H-20
  Kefr Kuk                   M-11
  Kefr Malik                 H-24
  Kefr Rahta                 L-19
  Kefr Saba                  E-22
  Kefr Sabt                  I-18
  Kefr Zebad                  M-9
  Keftun                      K-5
  Kenath                     S-17
  Kerak                      J-18
  Kerak                      L-30
  Kerak                      Q-18
  Kerazeh                    K-16
  Kereimbeh                  M-14
  Kereitein                  G-29
  Kerun                      K-11
  Kes Sumrah                 K-18
  Kesweh                     O-13
  Ketherabba                 K-31
  Khan                       J-19
  Khan Arus                   S-8
  Khan El Khulda              I-9
  Khan el Tujjar             I-18
  Khan Yunas                 A-29
  Khanzireh                  K-31
  Khersa                     K-17
  Khertin                     K-7
  Khisbet es Suk             K-23
  Khirbet Silim              I-13
  Khubab                     P-15
  Khulasah                   D-30
  Khuldeh                    M-24
  Khureb                     Q-20
  Kilkilia                   F-22
  Kiratah                    P-16
  Kirjath-arba (see El
    Khulil)                  G-27
  Kirjath-jearim             F-25
  Kir Moab                   L-30
  Kishon                     F-17
  Kubbet el Baul             G-30
  Kudna                      E-26
  Kufr                       S-18
  Kulat                      J-17
  Kulat el Husn              K-18
  Kulat Zerka                O-23
  Kulmon                     E-17
  Kunawat                    S-17
  Kuneitirah                 L-14
  Kurahta                    P-12
  Kurawa                     F-23
  Kureim                     P-15
  Kureiyat                   K-27
  Kureiyeh                   R-19
  Kuriut                     H-23
  Kuriyet es Suk             N-25
  Kurmul                     G-28
  Kurn Hattin                I-17
  Kurnub                     G-31
  Kustul                      S-8
  Kuteibeh                   O-16
  Kuteifeh                    R-9
  Kutraneh                   N-30
  Lachish                    C-27
  Lahfit                      L-6
  Lala                       L-11
  Lebweh                      P-6
  Leja                       Q-15
  Lejjun                     G-19
  Lejum                      N-27
  Leontes                    I-13
  Little Hermon              I-19
  Lubban                     F-23
  Lubick                     J-17
  Ludd                       E-24
  Lybo                        P-6
  Lycus                       J-8
  Lydda, Diospolis           E-24
  Maad                        K-6
  Macatha                    M-18
  Madeba                     L-26
  Magdala                    J-17
  Mahajjeh                   P-16
  Main                       L-26
  Maksura                    S-10
  Malatha                    F-30
  Malia                      H-15
  Malula                      Q-8
  Marabun                     O-9
  Mar Elias                  G-25
  Maresa                     E-27
  Mar Saba                   H-26
  Masada                     I-29
  Mashita                    N-25
  Mateh Burak                Q-14
  Medaba                     L-26
  Megiddo                    G-19
  Meifuk                      K-6
  Meiron                     I-16
  Meis                       J-14
  Mejdel                     F-23
  Mejdel                     G-17
  Mejdel                     I-17
  Mejdel                     L-13
  Mejdel Keram               H-16
  Mejellun                   I-11
  Menarah                    J-14
  Meneh                      O-21
  Menin                      P-10
  Menjah                     M-25
  Merjaneh                   Q-13
  Meshghara                  K-11
  Mezarib                    N-18
  Mezraah                     P-9
  Mezraatesh Shuf            J-10
  Mirkib                     G-31
  Misiliya                   H-21
  Mizpah                     G-25
  Mkaur                      K-27
  Moab, Mountains of         K-26
  Moabites                   M-29
  Moharfer                   I-25
  Mount Carmel               F-18
  Mount Ebal                 G-22
  Mount Gerizim              G-22
  Mount Gilboa               I-20
  Mount Hermon               M-12
  Mount Nebo                 K-26
  Mount of Olives            H-25
  Mount Tabor                J-18
  Mukam                      B-28
  Mukhalid                   E-21
  Mukhmas                    H-25
  Murduk                     S-17
  Nabatiyeh                  I-12
  Nabulus                    G-22
  Naby Shaib                 K-24
  Nahr Abu Zabura            D-21
  Nahr Amman                 N-24
  Nahr Barada                O-11
  Nahr ed Damur              I-10
  Nahr el Asy                 P-5
  Nahr el Aujeh              D-23
  Nahr el Auwaly             I-11
  Nahr el Falaik             D-21
  Nahr el Jazeh               L-6
  Nahr el Kasimiyeh          G-13
  Nahr el Kelb                K-8
  Nahr es Sikal              R-11
  Nahr es Zaherani           H-11
  Nahr Litany                K-12
  Nahr Rubin                 C-24
  Nahr Yarmuk                K-18
  Nahr Zurka                 E-19
  Nain                       H-19
  Nakbel Jurd                 L-8
  Nasar                      H-12
  Nawa                       N-16
  Nazareth                   H-18
  Neapolis                   R-17
  Nebha                       O-6
  Nebk                        S-7
  Neby Samwil                G-25
  Neby Sufa                  L-11
  Neby Zatur                  M-9
  Nein                       H-19
  Nejha                      P-13
  Nejran                     Q-17
  Nemariyeh                  I-12
  Nezib                      F-27
  Nicopolis                  E-25
  Niha                       J-11
  Nimrim                     J-31
  Nimrin                     K-24
  Nmeireh                    J-30
  Nob                        H-25
  Noleh                      Q-12
  Nujein                     P-16
  Ophra                      I-24
  Orak                       K-31
  Orman                      T-19
  Palæ Tyrus                 G-14
  Pelod                      F-17
  Pharpar                    Q-13
  Phiala                     L-13
  Philadelphia               O-24
  Philippopolis              T-19
  Philistia, Plain of        D-25
  Philistines, Country of
    the                      D-26
  Phoeneutus                 P-14
  Phoenicia                  H-13
  Pirathon                   G-22
  Rabba                      L-29
  Rabbath Ammon              O-24
  Rachel's Tomb              G-26
  Ragaba                     K-21
  Raha                       S-18
  Rajib                      K-21
  Ramah                      F-27
  Ramah                      H-14
  Ramah                      H-16
  Ramah                      H-25
  Rameh                      F-16
  Rameh                      G-27
  Rameh                      H-21
  Ramleh                     E-24
  Ramoth Gilead              L-23
  Ras Baalbek                 Q-5
  Rasheiya                   L-11
  Rasheiyet                  K-13
  Rehob                      J-20
  Rehoboth                   D-31
  Renthieh                   E-23
  Reyak                       N-9
  Rhamdun                     K-9
  Ridgah                     J-20
  Rihan                      Q-11
  Rimeh                      R-17
  Rimmon                     H-24
  Rimmon                     I-17
  Ruheiba                    D-31
  Ruheim Selameh             G-29
  Rukhleh                    M-11
  Rum                        J-11
  Rumaneh                    I-17
  Rumeish                    H-15
  Rumin                      I-12
  Rummaneh                   H-19
  Rummon                     H-24
  Sabha                      R-21
  Saccoea                    S-16
  Safed                      J-16
  Safriyeh                   E-24
  Sahmur                     K-11
  Sahr                       Q-15
  Sahwet el Kamh             Q-19
  Saida                      H-11
  Saidnaya                   P-10
  Sair                       G-27
  Salameh                    E-23
  Salcah                     T-20
  Saleh                      T-18
  Salim                      H-22
  Samaria                    G-22
  Samaria                    H-21
  Sansannah                  C-29
  Sanur                      H-21
  Saphir                     C-26
  Sardak                      M-7
  Sasa                       I-15
  Sasa                       N-13
  Saufin                     F-22
  Sawanieh                   E-19
  Sawiet                     H-23
  Sbeta                      C-30
  Scopus                     G-25
  Scythopolis                J-20
  Sea of the Plains          J-28
  Sea of Tiberias            K-17
  Sebaste                    G-22
  Sebata                     C-31
  Sebbeh                     I-29
  Sefurieh                   H-17
  Seilun                     H-23
  Selakhid                   R-16
  Semakh                     K-18
  Semme                      P-19
  Semunieh                   G-18
  Sepphoris                  G-18
  Serepta                    H-12
  Seweh                      S-19
  Shabat                      O-8
  Shalem                     H-22
  Sharon, Plain of           D-22
  Shebaa                     P-12
  Shebruh                     L-7
  Shefa Omar                 G-17
  Shehim                     I-10
  Sheikh Abret               G-18
  Shelifa                     N-7
  Sheriat el Kebir           J-24
  Shihon                     K-28
  Shiloh                     H-23
  Shukah                     S-16
  Shumlan                     J-9
  Shunem                     H-19
  Shuttah                    I-19
  Shuweikeh                  E-26
  Shuweikeh                  F-28
  Sidon                      H-11
  Sihil                       S-7
  Sijn                       R-17
  Siloam                     H-25
  Sinjil                     H-23
  Sir                        H-21
  Solomon's Pools            G-26
  Subhiyeh                   R-20
  Subbarin                   F-19
  Succoth                    J-21
  Suf                        M-21
  Suffa                      F-24
  Suk                        N-11
  Suleim                     R-17
  Sulima                      K-9
  Sulkhad                    T-20
  Sunamein                   O-15
  Sur                        G-13
  Surafend                   E-18
  Surafend                   H-12
  Surah                      F-25
  Suwaret el Kebir           R-14
  Suweideh                   R-18
  Taanach                    H-20
  Taanuck                    H-20
  Taiyibeh                   H-24
  Tantura                    E-19
  Tanurin el Fokhar           M-6
  Tappoah                    I-22
  Tarichæa                   J-18
  Teffuh                     F-27
  Tekoa                      H-27
  Tekua                      H-26
  Tell Arad                  G-29
  Tell Dothan                H-20
  Tell el Kamon              F-18
  Tell es Saffoyeh           D-26
  Tell Habeish               G-14
  Tell Hazor                 H-16
  Tell Hum                   J-16
  Tell Lukiyeh               E-29
  Tell Main                  G-28
  Tell Milh                  F-30
  Tell Sheriah               D-29
  Telseæ                     T-10
  Temnin                      M-8
  Terbikha                   H-15
  Tershiha                   H-15
  Teyasir                    I-21
  Thebez                     I-21
  Thimnoth                   F-24
  Tiberias                   J-17
  Tibneh                     F-24
  Tibneh                     E-26
  Tibnin                     I-14
  Tibny                      L-20
  Tibny                      P-15
  Tima                       E-26
  Timnath                    E-26
  Tireh                      E-23
  Tireh                      G-17
  Tirzah                     H-22
  Trachonitis                R-16
  Tubakat Fahel              K-20
  Tubakoh                    C-27
  Tubariyeh                  J-17
  Tubas                      I-21
  Tufs                       N-18
  Tuliel el Ful              H-25
  Tura                       H-13
  Turah                      I-17
  Turkumieh                  F-27
  Tyre                       G-13
  Tyrus                      G-13
  Um el Fahm                 G-20
  Um el Jemal                P-20
  Um el Jemal                P-21
  Um el Jerar                B-29
  Um er Rusas                O-27
  Um Jaujy                   M-24
  Um Keis                    L-19
  Um Lakhis                  C-27
  Umm el Kuten               S-21
  Umm es Surab               P-20
  Umm Wulad                  Q-18
  Um Rasas                   M-27
  Um Tail                    J-23
  Unkhul                     O-15
  Urniebeh                   N-26
  Urtas                      G-26
  Wady Ain Feranjy           M-30
  Wady Allan                 M-16
  Wady Awaj                  Q-13
  Wady Belat                 F-23
  Wady Benillamed            K-29
  Wady Debr                  I-25
  Wady ed Dan                P-18
  Wady el Abiad              J-24
  Wady el Akib               R-20
  Wady el Azziyeh            G-14
  Wady el Butm               S-20
  Wady el Ghar               P-17
  Wady el Harram             O-16
  Wady el Hasy               B-27
  Wady el Jerayeh            R-14
  Wady el Kady               I-10
  Wady el Keis               D-28
  Wady el Mahanwait          H-30
  Wady el Mojib              K-28
  Wady Enkeileh              M-28
  Wady en Nar                I-26
  Wady esh Shahrur            I-9
  Wady es Sunam              L-16
  Wady es Suny               B-29
  Wady Ezrak                 L-24
  Wady Fedar                  K-7
  Wady Fikreh                I-31
  Wady Fusal                 J-23
  Wady Harir                 L-10
  Wady Hrer                  O-17
  Wady Husasah               I-27
  Wady Kell                  J-25
  Wady Kerak                 K-30
  Wady Kerkera               G-15
  Wady Khuberah              C-30
  Wady Khusneh               I-20
  Wady Kunawat               R-17
  Wady Kurawa                F-23
  Wady Kurn                  G-15
  Wady Luia                  R-15
  Wady Mukubrit              S-10
  Wady Nawaimeh              J-24
  Wady Satar                  Q-1
  Wady Seir                  K-25
  Wady Seiyal                H-29
  Wady Sheriah               C-29
  Wady Surar                 E-25
  Wady Tallit                P-18
  Wady Teim                  K-12
  Wady Tufileh               J-31
  Wady Um Baghek             H-30
  Wady Umm Dubeb             S-13
  Wady Waleh                 L-27
  Wady Yabis                 K-20
  Wady Zakur                 E-23
  Wady Zedi                  P-19
  Wady Zerka                 K-22
  Waters of Merom            K-15
  Welgha                     R-18
  Yabrud                      R-7
  Yabud                      G-20
  Yafa                       H-18
  Yafilfeh                    O-9
  Yakak                      I-17
  Yalu                       F-25
  Yanuk                      H-16
  Yanun                      I-23
  Yarmuk                     F-26
  Yaron                      I-15
  Yarun                      I-13
  Yatir                      I-14
  Yazur                      D-25
  Yazur                      E-23
  Yebna                      C-25
  Yelda                      P-12
  Yerka                      G-16
  Yesir                      H-13
  Yosela                     J-23
  Yunin                       P-7
  Yutta                      G-28
  Zahleh                      M-9
  Zarephath                  G-12
  Zebdany                    N-10
  Zebdeh                     G-20
  Zebdin                     I-12
  Zebireh                    Q-16
  Zeila                      F-21
  Zeita                      I-11
  Zelah                      G-26
  Zerarieh                   H-13
  Zerin                      H-19
  Zifteh                     I-12
  Ziph                       G-28
  Ziph                       G-31
  Ziza                       N-26
  Zoar                       J-30
  Zora                       O-17
  Zorah                      F-25
  Zuk                         J-8
  Zuweirah                   H-30



INDEX TO MAP OF OLD TESTAMENT WORLD,

GIVING ONLY BIBLE AND MODERN NAMES.

(_See Map, pages 18, 19._)

         EXPLANATION.--The letter and number following each
         name show its location on the map. The name will be
         found at or near the intersection of a vertical
         line drawn between the letters top and bottom and a
         horizontal line between the figures on either side.
         The italics designate modern names.

          Abronas, _Nahr Ibrahim_, R.          L-12
          Accad, _Nisibin_                     G-23
          Accho                                N-11
          Ahava, _Hit_                         N-24
          Ain, _Ain el Azy_                    L-14
          Ammon                                Q-14
          Antioch                              H-14
          Aphek, _Afka_                        L-13
          Aphek                                O-13
          Arad                                 R-11
          Aram                                 L-15
          Aram Naharaim                        N-26
          Ararat                               B-31
          Ararat, Mt.                          A-29
          Argob                                N-14
          Armenia                              B-24
          Arnon, R.                            R-13
          Arvad, _Ruad_, I.                    K-13
          Asia Minor                           D-10
          Asshur                               J-30
          Asshur, _Kileh Sherghat_             J-27
          Assyria                              K-30
          Ava, _Hit_                           N-26
          Baal Zephon                           T-6
          Babylon, _Hillah_                    P-29
          Bashan                               O-14
          Beersheba                            R-11
          Berea, _Aleppo_                      H-16
          Berothah                             M-12
          Bethel                               Q-11
          Bethlehem                            Q-11
          Beth-shemesh, _Ain Shems_             S-5
          Bozrah                               S-12
          Calah                                I-26
          Calah(?), _Holwan_                  L-32
          Calneh                               P-31
          Carchemish                           G-17
          Carmel, Mt.                          O-11
          Chaldea                              Q-32
          Charran(?), _Harran_                G-21
          Chittim, _Cyprus_                     J-9
          Chun                                 M-13
          Damascus                             N-14
          Dan                                  N-13
          Daphne, _Beit el Mâá_                H-14
          Dor                                  O-11
          Ecbatana, North, _Takht-i-Suleiman_  H-34
          Ecbatana, South, _Hamalan_           K 37
          Edom                                 T-12
          Egypt                                 S-3
          Egypt, Stream of, _Wady el Arish_     S-8
          Elam                                 O-34
          Elath                                U-11
          Elim                                  V-7
          Ellasar, _Senkereh_                  Q-32
          Ephraim, Mt.                         P-12
          Erech, _Warka_                       R-31
          Etham                                 S-6
          Euphrates, _el Frat_, R.             L-25
          Ezion-geber                          U-10
          Galilee                              O-12
          Gaza                                 Q-10
          Gebal, _Jebail_                      L-12
          Gilead                               P-13
          Gilgal                               P-11
          Gozan                                H-22
          Great, _el Frat_, R.                 K-22
          Habor, _Khabour_, R.                 J-22
          Halah                                I-26
          Halah, _Holwan_                      L-33
          Halak, Mt.                           T-10
          Ham, Land of                          U-3
          Hamath                               K-15
          Hamath, _Hamah_                      J-15
          Hara(?), _Harran_                    G-20
          Hara, _Zarnath_                      M-32
          Haran(?), _Harran_                   G-20
          Haran, _Harran el Awamid_            N-15
          Hazar-enan, _Kuryetein_              L-16
          Hebron                               Q-11
          Helbon                               M-14
          Hena, _Anah_                         L-24
          Hermon, Mt.                          N-13
          Heshbon                              Q-13
          Hiddekel, _Tigris_, R.               O-31
          Hor, Mt.                             L-14
          Horeb, Mt.                            W-9
          Israel                               O-13
          Ivah, _Hit_                          N-25
          Javan, _Cyprus_                       J-8
          Jerusalem                            Q-12
          Jezreel                              O-12
          Joppa                                P-10
          Jordan, R.                           P-12
          Judah                                Q-11
          Kedesh                               N-13
          Kedar                                S-22
          Kir Haraseth                         R-13
          Luristan                             N-36
          Mahanaim                             P-13
          Marah                                 U-7
          Media                                K-44
          Memphis                               T-4
          Mesopotamia, _El Jezireh_            J-24
          Migdol, _Tel el Her_                  R-6
          Minni                                C-31
          Moab                                 R-13
          Nebaioth                             T-13
          Nineveh                              H-27
          Noph                                  T-4
          On, _Ain Shems_                       T-6
          Padan-aram                           J-22
          Paran                                 W-9
          Paran, Wilderness of                  U-9
          Pebsia                               T-45
          Philistines                          Q-10
          Phoenicia                            M-13
          Pibeseth                              S-4
          Pi-hahiroth                           T-7
          Rabbath Ammon                        P-13
          Rahab                                 W-3
          Rameses                               S-5
          Red Sea                              Y-10
          Rehob, _Ruheibeh_                    M-15
          Rehoboth                              R-9
          Rehoboth, _Rahabeh_                  J-21
          Rephidim                              W-8
          Resen, _Selamyeh_                    H-27
          Rezpeh                               J-19
          Riblah                               L-14
          Salcah                               P-15
          Samaria                              P-11
          Sea of the Plain                     R-12
          Sela                                 T-12
          Sepharvaim, _Mosaib_                 O-28
          Shihor, the River of Egypt, _Nile_    U-3
          Shinar                               P-30
          Shur, Wilderness of                   S-8
          Shushan, _Sus_                       P-37
          Side                                  G-6
          Sin, _El Farma_                       R-7
          Sin, Wilderness of, _El Kâ'a_         X-8
          Sinai, Mt.                            W-9
          Sinai, Wilderness of Mt.              W-9
          Sippara, _Mosaib_                    O-27
          Solomon, Kingdom of                  O-15
          South Country, The, _Negeb_          R-10
          Syria                                I-16
          Syrian Desert                        K-18
          Taberah                               V-9
          Tadmor                               K-18
          Tiphsah, _Suriyeh_                   I-18
          Togarmah                             C-25
          Tripolis, Tarablous                  L-12
          Tyre                                 N-12
          Ur, _Mugheir_                        S-33
          Uz, Land of                          Q-22
          Zarephath                            M-12
          Zephath                              S-10
          Zidon                                M-12
          Zin, Wilderness of                   S-12
          Zoan                                  R-4
          Zobah                                M-14



INDEX TO DESCRIPTIVE MATTER.

                      PAGE
  Abel-beth-maachah, 57, 71
  Abel-meholah, 62
  Abel-mizraim, 35
  Abila, 102
  Accad, 91
  Achaia, 122
  Acra, 74
  Admah, 38
  Adullam, Cave of, 66
  Ai, 52, 54, 83
  Aijalon, 62, 63
  Akaba, Gulf of, 43
  Alexandria, 42
  Alexander's Empire, 95
  Amalekites, 40
  Amalekite War, 65
  Ammon, 70
  Ammonite, 62
  Ammonites, 39, 40
  Amorites, 39
  Amphipolis, 122
  Anakim, 38
  Anamim, 25
  Anathoth, 83
  Antioch, 113
  Antioch in Pisidia, 119
  Antipatris, 127
  Aphek, 56, 88, 90
  Apollonia, 122
  Appii Forum, 129
  Ar, 71
  Arad, 56
  Aram, 26
  Ariel, 73
  Arkites, 40
  Arnon, 31
  Aroer, 55, 62, 63
  Arphaxad, 26
  Arvadites, 40
  Ashdod, 63, 114
  Asher, 57
  Ashkelon, 63
  Ashkenaz, 23
  Ashtaroth, 56
  Ashteroth Karnaim, 37
  Asia, 133
  Asia Minor, 117
  Asshur 26, 91
  Assyrian Empire, 91
  Ataroth, 55
  Athens, 122
  Attalia, 119
  Auranitis, 101
  Avim, 38
  Azotus, 114

  Baalah, 85
  Babylon, 91, 93
  Babylonia, 93
  Babylonian Empire, 91, 92
  Bashan, 32, 51
  Batanea, 101
  Beer-lahai-roi, 34
  Beeroth, 83
  Beersheba, 34, 35, 54, 56, 63
  Benjamin, 56
  Berachah, 88, 90
  Berea, 122
  Besor, 31
  Bethabara, 104
  Bethany, 84, 108, 111
  Beth-barah, 62, 63
  Bethel, 33, 35, 56, 62, 63, 83
  Beth-hoglah, 35
  Beth-horon, 52, 57, 85
  Bethlehem, 56, 57, 62, 84, 103, 104
  Beth-nimrah, 56
  Beth-rehob, 57
  Bethsaida, 106
  Beth-shean, 57, 62, 63, 102
  Beth-shemesh, 57, 59, 89, 90
  Bezek, 53, 61, 63, 65
  Bezer, 55, 59
  Bezetha, 74
  Bithynia, 117

  Cæsarea, 113
  Cæsarea Philippi, 107
  Camon, 62
  Cana, 57, 104
  Canaan, 26, 29
  Canaanite, 62
  Canaanites, 38
  Canatha, 102
  Capernaum, 104
  Caphtorim, 25
  Capitolias, 102
  Cappadocia, 118
  Carchemish, 90
  Caria, 118
  Carmel, 56
  Casluhim, 25
  Cenchrea, 123
  Chaldean, 21
  Cherith, 31
  Chios, 127
  Chittim, 25
  Cilicia, 93, 118
  Colosse, 131
  Coos, 127
  Corinth, 123
  Crete, 38, 128
  Cush, 25
  Cyprus, 118

  Daberath, 57
  Dalmanutha, 107
  Damascus, 70, 71, 102, 113
  Dan, 33, 54, 57, 59, 61
  Danite, 63
  Debir, 53, 56, 61, 63
  Decapolis, 101, 107
  Dedan, 25
  Derbe, 119
  Dibon, 55
  Dion, 102
  Dodanim, 25
  Dor, 57
  Dothan, 57

  Ebal, 32
  Ebenezer, 63
  Edom, 45, 70, 71, 87
  Edomites, 40
  Edomite War, 65
  Edrei, 51, 54, 56
  Egypt, 33, 41, 93, 103
  Egypt, River of, 29, 43
  Ekron, 63
  Elah, 66
  Elah, Valley of, 84
  Elam, 26
  Elim, 46
  Elishah, 25
  Emim, 38
  Emmaus, 84, 111
  Endor, 67
  En-gannim, 57, 108
  En-gedi, 33, 56, 66
  Enon, 31
  Ephes-dammim, 66
  Ephesus, 125
  Ephraim, 57, 84, 108
  Ephraim, The Wood of, 71
  Ephrath, 35
  Erech, 91
  Esdraelon, Plain of, 32
  Eshtaol, 57
  Etham, 46
  Etham, Wilderness of, 43

  Fair Havens, 128
  Farah, 31

  Gad, 55
  Gadara, 56, 102
  Gadarenes, Country of the, 106
  Galatia, 118
  Galilee, 101
  Gath, 63, 66, 69, 71, 88, 90
  Gath-hepher, 57
  Gaulanitis, 101
  Gaza, 63
  Geba, 57, 62, 65
  Gehenna, 74
  Gerar, 34, 56
  Gerasa, 102
  Gerizim, 32
  Geshur, 70
  Gether, 26
  Gibeah, 56, 61, 63, 65, 66, 83
  Gibeon, 52, 56, 71, 85
  Gihon, 74
  Gilead, 51
  Gilgal, 52, 56, 63, 65
  Girgashites, 39
  Golan, 56, 59
  Gomer, 23
  Gomorrah, 33, 34, 38
  Goshen, 41

  Hadad-rimmon, 63
  Ham, 37
  Hamathites, 40
  Haphraim, 57
  Haran, 33, 35
  Hareth, 66
  Harosheth, 62, 63
  Hauran, 32
  Havilah, 25
  Hazerim, 38
  Hazeroth, 46
  Hazezon-tamar, 33
  Hazor, 53, 54, 57, 62
  Hebron, 33, 38, 56, 59, 61, 63, 67, 84
  Helam, 70, 71
  Heliopolis, 42
  Heshbon, 54, 55
  Hieromax, 31
  Hill of Evil Counsel, 74
  Hinnom, Valley of, 73
  Hippos, 102
  Hittites, 39
  Hivites, 39, 40
  Hobah, 33
  Horim, 38
  Hormah, 56
  Hul, 26

  Iconium, 119
  Iturea, 101

  Jabbok, 31
  Jabesh-gilead, 56, 65
  Jahaz, 54
  Japheth, 23
  Jarmuth, 57
  Javan, 25
  Jazer, 56
  Jebel Jermuk, 29
  Jebel Mukhmeel, 32
  Jebus, 63, 69
  Jebusites, 39
  Jericho, 54, 56, 61, 63, 109
  Jerusalem, 56, 69, 71, 73, 90
  Jeshimon, 56, 84
  Joppa, 113, 114
  Jordan, Fords of, 62
  Jordan, Plain of, 32
  Judæa, 101
  Judah, 56

  Kadesh-barnea, 46, 47
  Karkor, 62, 63
  Kedemoth, 55
  Kedesh, 57, 59
  Kedron, Valley of the, 73
  Keilah, 66
  Kenath, 56
  Kenites, 40
  Kibroth-hattaavah, 46
  Kingdom of Israel, 87
  Kingdom of Judah, 87
  Kir-haraseth, 88, 90
  Kiriathaim, 55
  Kirjath-jearim, 54, 56, 63, 85
  Kirjath-sepher, 38, 53
  Kishon, 31, 62
  Kittim, 25
  Kurûn Hattin, 32

  Laish, 33, 54, 57, 61, 63
  Laodicea, 134
  Lehabim, 25
  Lehi, 63
  Leontes, 31
  Leshem, 54
  Levi, 59
  Libnah, 56
  Little Hermon, 32
  Lubim, 25
  Lud, 26
  Ludim, 25
  Lycaonia, 118
  Lycia, 118
  Lydda, 114, 118
  Lydia, 93, 118
  Lystra, 119

  Maachah, 70
  Macedonia, 122
  Madai, 25
  Magog, 23
  Mahanaim, 35, 56, 70
  Manasseh, 56, 57
  Maon, 56, 66
  Marah, 46
  Mareshah, 89
  Mash, 26
  Medeba, 55, 70, 71
  Media, 93
  Megiddo, 57, 63, 90
  Melita, 128
  Memphis, 42
  Meshech, 25, 26
  Michmash, 56, 65, 83
  Midian, 51
  Midianite, 62
  Miletus, 127
  Minnith, 62
  Mitylene, 127
  Mizpah, 35
  Mizpeh, 56, 63, 83
  Mizpeh of Gilead, 62
  Mizpeh of Moab, 66
  Mizraim, 25
  Moab, 70, 87
  Moab, Fords of, 62,, 63
  Moabite, 61
  Moabites, 39, 61
  Moabite War, 65
  Moreh, Hill of, 32, 57, 62, 63
  Moriah, 34
  Mount Carmel, 32
  Mount Ephraim, 29
  Mount Gilboa, 32, 62, 67
  Mount Gilead, 32
  Mount Hebron, 32
  Mount Hermon, 32
  Mount Hor, 45, 47, 49
  Mount Lebanon, 32
  Mount Moriah, 74
  Mount Nebo, 32, 55
  Mount of Offense, 74
  Mount of Olives, 74
  Mount Pisgah, 32
  Mount Seir, 45
  Mount Tabor, 32, 62, 63
  Mount Zion, 32, 74
  Myra, 128
  Mysia, 118

  Nain, 57, 106
  Naphtali, 57
  Naphtuhim, 25
  Nazareth, 57, 103, 104
  Negeb, 32
  Nicopolis, 131
  Nimrod, 25
  Nimrud, 91
  Nile, 41
  Nob, 66, 83

  Ophrah, 62

  Palestine, 29
  Pamphylia, 118
  Paphlagonia, 117
  Paphos, 118
  Paran, Wilderness of, 43
  Patara, 127
  Pathrusim, 25
  Patmos, 133
  Pella, 102
  Pelusium, 42
  Peniel, 35
  Penuel, 56, 62
  Peræa, 101, 108
  Perga, 119
  Pergamos, 133
  Perizzites, 39
  Persian Empire, 93
  Philadelphia, 102, 134
  Philippi, 122
  Philistia, 32
  Philistine, 62
  Philistines, 38
  Phoenicia, 32, 107
  Phrygia, 118
  Phut, 26
  Pirathon, 62
  Pisidia, 118
  Pontus, 117
  Ptolemais, 127
  Puteoli, 128

  Raamah, 25
  Rabbah, 70, 71
  Rabbath Ammon, 55
  Rachel's Tomb, 84
  Ramah, 63, 65, 66, 83, 85
  Rameses, 42, 46
  Ramoth-gilead, 56, 59, 88, 90
  Raphana, 102
  Rehob, 70
  Rehoboth, 34
  Rephaim, 37, 69
  Rephaim, Plain of, 84
  Reuben, 55
  Rhegium, 128
  Rhodes, 127
  Rimmon, 84
  Riphath, 23
  Rodanim, 25
  Rome, 129
  Roman Empire, 97

  Sabtah, 25
  Sabtechah, 25
  Salamis, 118
  Samaria, 57, 87, 89, 90, 101, 113
  Samos, 127
  Sardis, 134
  Scopus, 74
  Scythopolis, 102
  Seba, 25
  Seleucia, 118
  Shalem, 35
  Shalisha, 65
  Shamir, 62
  Sharon, 32
  Sheba, 25
  Shechem, 33, 52, 57, 59, 62, 63
  Shefelah, The, 29
  Shiloh, 57
  Shochoh, 66
  Shunem, 57
  Shur, Wilderness of, 43
  Simeon, 56
  Sin, Wilderness of, 43
  Sinaitic Mountains, 43
  Sinites, 40
  Smyrna, 133
  Sodom, 33, 34, 38
  Succoth, 35, 46, 56, 62
  Sychar, 104
  Syracuse, 128
  Syria, 87

  Taanach, 57, 63
  Tabbath, 62
  Tarshish, 25
  Tarsus, 114
  Tekoa, 70
  Telaim, 65
  Tetrarchy, 102
  Thebes, 42
  Thebez, 62, 63
  Thessalonica, 122
  Thyatira, 134
  Timnath, 57, 63
  Tiras, 25
  Tob, 62, 70
  Togarmah, 23
  Tophet, 74
  Trachonitis, 101
  Troas, 121
  Trogyllium, 127
  Tubal, 25
  Tyre, 127
  Tyropoeon, Valley of the, 73

  Ur, 33, 91
  Uz, 26

  Viri Galilæi, 74

  Wilderness, 104
  Wilderness of the Wandering, 42

  Zair, 88, 90
  Zamzummim, 37
  Zeboim, 38
  Zebulon, 57
  Zemaraim, 88, 89
  Zephath, 61, 63
  Zidon, 128
  Zidonians, 38
  Ziklag, 56, 66
  Zin, Wilderness of, 43
  Ziph, 66
  Zoar, 38
  Zobah, 65, 70, 71
  Zorah, 57, 63
  Zuph, 65
  Zuzim, 37

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes:

Obvious punctuation errors repaired. Italic text is set apart by
_underscores_ and bold text by =equal signs=.

To prevent them being split over two lines all spaces in B. C. and A. D.
were removed.

Page xi, "Aske" changed to "Aska" (Mosque El Aska)

Page 14, "tentativey" changed to "tentatively" (are given tentatively)

Page 14, XII changed to XVII (B.C., Dynasties XVII. to XXVII)

Page 15, "Shalmameser" changed to "Shalmaneser" (860-825--Shalmaneser
II)

Page 27, Review Chart of the Nations, "Aeolians" changed to "Æolians"
(_Æolians_)

Page 27, Review Chart of the Nations, "Meroe" changed to "Meroë"
(_Meroë_)

Page 31, "plain" changed to "Plain" (watering the Plain of Esdraelon)

Page 35, "7" changed to "8" (8. Burial of Sarah)

Page 46, "Hawarah" changed to "Hawârah" (_Ain Hawârah_)

Page 56, Comparitive Size table, Ephraim, "S." changed to "Sq." (600 Sq.
M.)

Page 62, "route" changed to "rout" (the rout that followed)

Page 75, "Melchizedek" was hyphenated as "Melchi-zedek" on this page in
the original text to show its similarity to "Adoni-zedek". This was
retained.

Page 78, "Tor" changed to "Tôr" (Jebel Abu Tôr (Hill of Evil Counsel))

Page 79, "1." added to text. (1. The _Birket Mamilla_)

Page 79, "rred" changed to "red" ("red pond")

Page 79, bold text changed to italic to match the rest of the pattern
(5. _En-rogel_, called)

Page 79, word "the" moved to from before "most" to after "of" (most of
the explorers) Original read (the most of explorers)

Page 115, "Cæesarea" changed to "Cæsarea" (3. _Cæsarea._)

Page 137, "tables" changed to "tablets" (for the stone tablets of)

Page 144, "160" changed to "180" (Dead Sea, 180 miles)

Page 148, the text defines a "cab" as being "96 cubic inches, or 675
thousandths of a quart". This does not seem possible but the transcriber
could not ascertain what was meant. An earlier version of this text uses
this same definition.

Pages 151-154, entries in this index match the map but not always the
text. For example, the text refers to Beth Jesimoth which the index and
map names as Beth-jeshimoth. It is Dhibân in the text but Dhiban on the
map and the map's index. Names in the map index were not always in
alphabetical order. This was retained.

Page 157, "Keilah" moved to alphabetical placement. Originally listed
after "Kenites."

Page 157, "Miletus" moved to alphabetical placement. Originally listed
after "Michmash."

Page 157, "Misraim" changed to "Mizraim" (Mizraim, 25) This entry was
also moved to reflect its corrected spelling.

The original table of contents seems to have been taken from an earlier edition
without the printers updating the chart section. This only affects the Chart of
Bible History. The rest of the Table of Contents is identical.

                                                 PAGE
  CHART OF BIBLE HISTORY                        13-16

     I. GENERAL PERIODS.
    II. SUBDIVISIONS.
   III. PERSONS AND RULERS.
    IV. EVENTS OF BIBLE HISTORY.
  -------------------------------------
    Actual text of book contains these headings:
         (V. THE HISTORY OF EYGPT)
         (VI. THE KINGDOMS OF THE EAST)
         (VII. THE ORIENTAL EMPIRES)
         (VIII. THE WORLD IN GENERAL)
  -------------------------------------
    Actual text of table of contents has these headings instead:
     V. BATTLES OF BIBLE HISTORY.
    VI. EVENTS OF RELIGIOUS PROGRESS.
   VII. THE BOOKS OF THE BIBLE.
  VIII. GREAT ORIENTAL EMPIRES.
    IX. EVENTS OF SECULAR HISTORY.
  --------------------------------------





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