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Title: Notes and Queries, Vol. V, Number 128, April 10, 1852 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. V, Number 128, April 10, 1852 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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[Transcriber's note: Original spelling varieties have not been
standardized. Old English-style letters have been marked with braces as
in {grinian}. Underscores have been used to indicate _italic_ fonts. A
list of volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries" has been added at the
end.]


NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION

FOR

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

VOL. V.--No. 128. SATURDAY, APRIL 10. 1852.

Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition, 5_d._



CONTENTS.

                                                                Page


      NOTES:--

      Unpublished Song by Thomas Otway, by Dr. Rimbault          337

      Shakspeare's "We three," by the Rev. Arthur Hussey         338

      Cowley's Prose Works                                       339

      Note on Coleridge's Christabel                             339

      Convertibility of the Words "Grin" and "Gin"               340

      Folk Lore:--Game Feathers--Isle of Man Folk Lore           341

      Minor Notes:--Epitaph at King Stanley--Monuments
      of De la Beche Family--Cousinship--Borrowing
      Days--Monumental Plate at Lewes Castle--Junius and
      the Quarterly Review--Handwriting                          341

      QUERIES:--

      Dutch Manufactories of Porcelain                           343

      Salmon Fisheries                                           343

      Thomas Crawford                                            344

      Minor Queries:--The Chronologic Institute--Mother Carey's
      Chickens--Suwich Priory--Anthony Babington--Sir Isaac
      Newton, Cicero, and Gravitation--Diotrophes--Grisly
      --Birthplace of St. Patrick--Motto on Chimney-piece
      --Curious Bequest--Wilkie's Blind Fiddler--Lode--Ballad
      quoted by Sir Walter Scott--Ann Stewart, Wife of
      Christopher Hall--Moveable Organs and Pulpits--Nobleman
      alluded to by Bishop Berkeley--Chelwoldesbury--Swallows'
      Nests--Quotation from Arthur Hopton--Group at Prague--Cards
      prohibited to Apprentices--Cursitor Barons--Phelps's
      Gloucestershire Collections--Huant Le Puisné--Arms of
      Roberson                                                   344

      MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--Winterton--Emblems of a
      Saint--Quack--Dr. Hieron Mercurialis--The Book of Sports   346

      REPLIES:--

      Meaning of Groom                                           347

      Ballad of Lord Delaware, by Dr. Rimbault                   348

      Family Likenesses                                          349

      Earl of Erroll                                             350

      The Bowyer Bible                                           350

      Replies to Minor Queries:--Exeter Controversy--Coleridge's
      "Friend"--Praying to the Devil--The Word "shunt"--St.
      Paul's Quotation of Heathen Writers--Rex Lucifer--Sir
      Edward Seaward's Narrative--Spanish Verses on the Invasion
      of England--Templars--Story of the Greek referred to by
      Jeremy Taylor--Emaciated Monumental Effigies--Deaths
      from Fasting--London Genealogical Society--Martinique--"The
      Delicate Investigation"--Miserrimus--Cynthia's
      Dragon-yoke--Cromwell's Skull--Almas-Cliffe--Artificial
      Memory--Punishment of Boiling to Death--Barnard's Church
      Music--Portrait of Baskerville--Autograph Music by
      Handel--Dr. Fell--Fern-seed--Longevity and Rejuvenescency
      --Indignities on the Bodies of Suicides--Large Families:
      Twenty-seven Children--The last of the Palæologi           351

      MISCELLANEOUS:--

      Notes on books, &c.                                        357

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted                               358

      Notices to Correspondents                                  358

      Advertisements                                             358



Notes.


UNPUBLISHED SONG BY THOMAS OTWAY.

In turning over a quantity of miscellaneous papers in MS. (some
originals and some copies) of the latter half of the seventeenth century
(which chance lately threw in my way), I stumbled upon the following
song by the unfortunate author of _Venice Preserved_. It may, possibly,
have been printed in one, or more, of the numerous volumes of
"miscellany poems" which teemed from the press at the end of the
seventeenth and the beginning of the following century; but in looking
over a tolerable assemblage which time has accumulated on my shelves, I
have not been able to discover it. The MS. does not appear to be an
original, although the handwriting is of the author's period. The
punctuation is as I found it:--

      "Health breeds care; love, hope and fear;
      What does love or bus'ness here?
      While Bacchus merry does appear,
        Fight on and fear no sinking:
      Charge it briskly to the brim,
      Till the flying topsails swim:
      We owe the great discovery to him
        Of this new world of drinking.

      "Grave cabals that states refine,
      Mingle their debates with wine;
      _Ceres_ and the god o' th' vine
        Makes ev'ry great commander.
      Let sober sots small-beer subdue,
      The wise and valiant wine does woe;
      The _Stagyrite_ had the honour to
        Be drunk with _Alexander_.

      "Stand to your arms, and now advance,
      A health to the _English_ King of France;
      On to the next, a _bon speranze_,
        By Bacchus and Apollo.
      Thus in state I lead the van,
      Fall in your place by your right-hand man;
      Beat drum! now march! dub a dub, ran dan;
        He's a Whigg that will not follow.

      "T. Otway."

That poor Otway was a lover of the "juice of the grape," is too well
known; and it seems from his biography in Cibber's _Lives of the Poets_,
that he was for some time a soldier, and served in Flanders. The
half-bacchanalian, half-military character of this song, seems to
identify it with the poet. The popular story, that Otway died for want
at an ale-house on Tower Hill, is, it is to be hoped, not strictly true.
Dennis, the critic (as he is called), tells us that--

  "Otway had an intimate friend (one Blackstone), who was shot; the
  murderer fled towards Dover, and Otway pursued him. In his return
  he drank water when violently heated, and so got a fever, which
  was the death of him."

This story is creditable to the warmth of Otway's friendship, and I
should be glad to meet with any additional authority to give it
confirmation.

    EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.


SHAKSPEARE'S "WE THREE."

In Shakspeare's _Twelfth Night_, a passage occurs upon which some
observations may be bestowed in the way of illustration, because, as it
is usually printed, no signification seems attributed to it, whereas in
reality it is a scrap of satire very appropriate to the character in
whose mouth it is placed. In Act II. Sc. 2., the clown, entering to the
two drunken knights, Sir Toby Belch and Sir Andrew Ague-cheek,
exclaims,--

      "How now, my hearts? Did you never see the picture
          of we three?"

Of the innumerable editions of Shakspeare, I have examined only twelve,
my own and my neighbours', all which, without exception, present the
last two words of the quotation as above, without the slightest
difference from the remainder of the sentence; and, when annotations are
given, without any explanatory remark save in three instances, which
will hereafter be noticed. From this circumstance and this coincidence
it may be inferred, that the editors generally did not imagine the words
in question to contain any special meaning, but possibly understood them
as merely an illiterate blunder for "_us_ three." Any such idea,
however, would be a misapprehension. For although the clown is
introduced as an allowed fool, and so entitled, it is evident he was
designed to represent a person not totally devoid of at least some
smattering of learning, as well as to be, what one of his brethren is
styled, "a shrewd knave;" as such, being manifestly quite capable of
duly appreciating his two knightly patrons. Which knowledge on the part
of the clown increases the probability that such an "all licensed"
personage should, under the disguise of a jest, insinuate the contempt
he really felt, and which the others so richly deserve; for this, it
will speedily appear, is the sense now contended for of the passage
above cited. Secondly, if the words are to stand as already read, "Did
you never see the picture of we three?" intimating no allusion to any
idea, hinted at but not expressed, they are simply an inquiry respecting
a painting of the knights and the clown, to the existence of which there
is not another reference throughout the entire play, neither does the
story require or suggest that the notion of any such painting should
ever have entered the author's mind.

In Theobald's _Shakspeare_, the sentence we are considering is
unnoticed, but, as previously stated, that is not the case in three of
the twelve editions consulted. In one, a single volume with glossary,
&c., by Nicholas Rowe, to the words "we three," a foot note is appended,
supplying, as the conclusion of the phrase, "loggerheads be." The same
note is similarly given in another copy in nine volumes. The third
instance is an edition in two volumes, with explanatory notes at the
end, among which we find this respecting _Twelfth Night_:--"_Did you
never see the picture of we three?_ an allusion to an old print
frequently pasted on alehouse walls, representing _two_, but under which
the spectator reads, _We three are asses_;" the name of Malone being
added as the authority for this interpretation.[1] Without denying that
Malone may have possessed sufficient grounds for his statement, it may
be permitted to deliver an opinion, and to subjoin the following remarks
as a reason for thinking that Rowe's explanation is the better of the
two.

In the town of Tonbridge in Kent, south of the bridge over the Medway,
on the western side of the street, stands (or did recently) a
public-house, the sign of which I have long believed to illustrate the
passage before us. When first I observed the sign, from forty-five to
fifty years ago, and for long afterwards, one side, if not both,
presented _two_ grotesque heads, the painting being not modern, so far
as my (rather vivid) recollection serves, with the legend "We _three_
Loggerheads be." The sign having been renovated, the old painting is
obliterated: but whatever may have replaced it, _the old name_, the
Loggerheads, most probably is still used; and inasmuch as the aspect of
the house was venerable when I first remember it, we may, without a
violent stretch of imagination, carry back the use of the
above-described conceit of the three loggerheads, as an alehouse sign,
at least a considerable portion of the period intervening between our
time and that of Shakspeare. Whether more examples, besides that at
Tonbridge, of this sign may still exist, is unknown, but I do not
recollect seeing a second in any part of the kingdom. Possibly others
might be discovered, though they cannot be common; and perhaps the
suggestion will be admitted, that the above-mentioned little
public-house is not altogether unworthy of consideration, as assisting,
in however slight a degree, in illustrating the language of our great
national dramatist.

    ARTHUR HUSSEY.

  Rottingdean.

  [Footnote 1: [Had our correspondent had the opportunity of
  consulting Malone's own edition, he would have found that after
  what is here quoted Malone proceeds: "I believe Shakspeare had in
  his thoughts a common sign, in which two wooden heads are
  exhibited, with the inscription under it, '_We three_ Loggerheads
  be:' the spectator or reader is supposed to make the third." Our
  correspondent therefore agrees with Malone, and confirms his
  note.]]


COWLEY'S PROSE WORKS.

As Cowley's name has been brought before the public in the disquisition
on his monument by MR. H. CAMPKIN ("N. & Q." Vol. v., pp. 267-8.), may I
be allowed, now that his character and merits are revived, to direct
attention to his prose works in preference to his poetical; although, as
MR. CAMPKIN remarks, "his beautiful lyrics in praise of a country life
will always keep his name before us."

Miss Mitford, in her recent publication, _Recollections of a Literary
Life_, has done good service to Cowley's character, and her criticisms
will doubtless direct attention, as they have done to the septuagenarian
who is now writing, to a _re-perusal_ of his prose works. With my
school-fellow Charles Lamb, and his sister, Cowley's prose essays were
always especial favourites, and were esteemed by them as some of the
best specimens of the "well of English undefiled." A tyro in literature
could not, I am persuaded, form a better style of composition, than by
taking Cowley's prose essays for his model. I consider the prose
writings both of Cowley and Dryden master-pieces. "Praised in his day as
a great poet, the head of the school of poets called metaphysical,
Cowley will now be chiefly known," says Miss Mitford, "by those prose
essays, all too short and all too few, which, whether for thought or for
expression, have rarely been excelled by any writer in any language.
They are eminently distinguished for the grace, the finish, and the
clearness which his verse too often wants." "His thoughts," also says
Dr. Johnson, "are natural; and his style has a smooth and placid
equability, _which has never yet obtained its due commendation_."

As the columns of "N. & Q." do not admit of long quotations, I would
respectfully direct attention to the beautiful essays, "Of Obscurity,"
"The Garden," "Of Solitude," and "Of Liberty." Southey and Cobbett, as
writers of pure English, are, in my opinion, the only two modern authors
who can be compared with Cowley.

    J. M. G.

  Worcester.


NOTE ON COLERIDGE'S CHRISTABEL.

Should the English language ever become after the lapse of years a dead
language, it is a curious question, whether the works of our poets and
prose writers would present such difficulties to students at that remote
period, as the pages of the Greek and Roman authors present to
ourselves. Our text, it is to be hoped, would not prove so corrupt as
theirs, or afford so much scope to the ingenuity of scholars; but the
lax phraseology now in vogue would amply supply its place. As to
downright inherent obscurity, I think it is not at all clear that we are
a whit behind the ancients. More than one, even of our living poets,
would require a Delphin interpretation. As a fair sample of what English
poetry is able to offer in the way of difficulty, I would refer to the
"conclusion" of Coleridge's unfinished poem of Christabel.

The few lines, of which this conclusion consists, form an unquestionably
difficult passage. How many persons, and they of no mean abilities, read
it over and over again, and, after all, confess they can make nothing of
it! How many are there, who have come to regard it in the light of a
quaint enigma, and "give it up!" The passage certainly seems to possess
one property of the enigma, inasmuch as it requires a key to elucidate
it; but, as soon as this is obtained it becomes not only perfectly
plain, but, I think, forces an acknowledgment from the reader, that it
could hardly have been more clearly or more justly expressed.

To say that this conclusion is the most beautiful and the most valuable
portion of the poem of Christabel, may appear to savour a little of
extravagance; still, I cannot but think that it is, and that the author
intended to convey by it far more than is usually contained in the
common-place "moral." In support of this opinion I will briefly discuss
these two-and-twenty lines.

Of the first six lines I will only remark, where shall we find, in the
whole range of English poetry, a more exquisite picture than is here
contained in this small compass?

      "A little child, a limber elf,
      Singing, dancing to itself,
      A fairy thing with red round cheeks,
      _That always finds, and never seeks_,
      Makes such a vision to the sight,
      As fills a father's eyes with light."

The poet then proceeds to unite in a manner true in nature and in fact,
yet equally strange and startling, two opposite and contending feelings:

      "And pleasures flow in so thick and fast
      Upon his heart, that he at last
      Must needs express his love's excess,
      With words of unmeant bitterness."

The habit, if it may be so called, alluded to in these lines, must be
more or less familiar to most persons as an anomaly in our nature; the
habit, I mean, ridiculous as it may appear, of applying evil, though
"unmeant" names to children in a transport of affection. This is a trait
in the human character which, slight, and faint, and trifling as it may
seem, the acute mind of Coleridge has seized, and analysed, and
exhibited in its legitimate development. Whether the propensity, thus
delicately described, be really innocent in itself, or whether it be
only the παρεκβασις, or excess, which the poet held to be the
guilty state, it is hardly worth while stopping to inquire; still we
cannot avoid his own startling suggestion,

      "What, if in a world of sin
      (O sorrow and shame should this be true!)
      Such giddiness of heart and brain"

springs generally from some evil source, implies the existence of some
evil principle. Familiar as this habit, this instance of "giddiness of
heart and brain," is to most of us, I am not aware that it has ever been
expressed in poetry, or even in prose, by any other writer; if so, this
passage is a rarity, similar to those four stanzas in Gray's Elegy,
beginning, "Yet e'en these bones," &c., of which Dr. Johnson says, "they
are to me original; I have never seen the notions in any other place;
yet he that reads them here persuades himself that he has always felt
them."

The author then endeavours to offer some explanation of this phenomenon,
and carries out the germ of ill to its full extent, as exemplified in
Sir Leoline:

      "Perhaps 'tis pretty to force together
      Thoughts so all unlike each other;
      To mutter and mock a broken charm,
      To dally with wrong that does no harm;
      Perhaps 'tis tender too and pretty,
      _At each wild word to feel within_
      _A sweet recoil of love and pity_."

It appears to me that the third line in this passage, from its being
introduced too early (if I may venture to say so), on this account
unnecessarily increases the difficulty; it occurs before the idea has
been sufficiently developed; while it belongs rather to the result of
this evil leaven than to the explanation of it, with which the poet is
here engaged. The "charm" to which he alludes is, of course, the tie
that binds us to the object of affection, and which forbids us to speak
any but words of love and tenderness.

The poet, then, from the aspect of this strange anomaly, as exemplified
in Sir Leoline, is forced to the following conclusion:

      "And what, if in a world of sin
      (O sorrow and shame should this be true!)
      Such giddiness of heart and brain
      Comes seldom save from rage and pain,
      So talks as it's most used to do."

If we turn now to the last two paragraphs of the poem, we find all this
illustrated; in these two paragraphs the poet has

                    "Forced together
      Thoughts so all unlike each other."

In the former are enumerated all those memorials which could move the
Baron to "love and pity;" in the latter we are told of the "rage and
pain" of his heart; and on this strange union the poet soliloquises in
the conclusion.

A full discussion of this subject would be perhaps unsuited to the pages
of "N. & Q.;" for, various as are the subjects to which they are open,
ethics can hardly be reckoned one of them. I will conclude, therefore,
with the following suggestion, viz. that the delicacy, the acuteness,
and the truth evinced in this last scene of Christabel and its
conclusion, tell of a deeper mind than has, perhaps, fallen to the lot
of any English poet since the days of William Shakspeare.

    H. C. K.

  ---- Rectory, Hereford.


CONVERTIBILITY OF THE WORDS "GRIN" AND "GIN".

Will some more learned readers than your present querist be so good as
to tell us how it came to pass that the word _grin_ became changed in
our modern Bibles for _gin_ (sometimes spelled _ginn_), with which it
would seem there can be no cognation? In the sense of a trap or snare
_grin_ occurs in Job xviii. 9., Ps. cxl. 5., and Ps. cxli. 9., in two
Bibles which I have, viz., one "printed at London by Robert Barker,
printer to the King's most excellent Majestie, 1640," and the other
"printed by John Hayes, printer to the University of Cambridge, 1677."

In Cruden's _Concordance_, 1737, 1761, and 1769, it is given as _grin_
in these instances; neither in the modern editions of that valuable book
have they noticed the word _gin_ as now used in the said three texts
which would indicate that it is only within some eighty years, at any
rate, that the change was adopted by the king's printer, and Oxford and
Cambridge. Singularly enough, in these old editions of 1640 and 1677,
while _grin_ is used in Job and Psalms, _gin_ is given in the side-note
of Job xl. 24., in the text of Isa. viii. 14., and Amos iii. 5.

Now to _grin_ (from the Saxon {grinian}) means, according to
philologists, to show the teeth set together; the act of closing the
teeth; so that we may suppose an allusion to the barbarous instrument
called a _man-trap_, unless the idea is negatived by the side-note Job
xl. 24., on the impossibility of boring Behemoth's nose with a _gin_,
which would hardly be the word adopted to convey the idea of boring; an
awl or gimlet better suiting the conditions of the case. Some
commentators read _ring_--this may be illustrated by the ring we see
even now frequently in the noses of our bulls. Be this as it may, the
reasonable conjecture is, that the same word, conveying the same
meaning, is appropriate in all the six places quoted.

It is therefore asked, 1. Why, in the sacred volume, a century ago it
should have been spelled _grin_ in the three first-mentioned passages,
and _gin_ in the three others? and 2. Why it should have been altered in
the three first-quoted verses from _grin_ to _gin_? In short, if they
are cognate words (which the separate use of them in various editions
formerly seems to render doubtful), what advantage resulted from
changing the word which more familiarly explains itself by the action of
the teeth for a much less forcible term?

    B. B.


FOLK LORE.

_Game Feathers._--I do not see that any of your numerous correspondents
have mentioned the common belief among the poor in this county (Sussex),
that a person cannot die if his bed is stuffed with _game feathers_. A
friend of mine a little time back was talking to a labourer on the
absurdity of such a belief; but he failed to convince the good man, who,
as a _proof_ of the correctness of his belief brought forward the case
of a poor man who had lately died after a lingering illness. "Look at
poor Muster S----, how hard he were a dying; poor soul, he could not die
ony way, till neighbour Puttick found out how it wer,--'Muster S----,'
says he, 'ye be lying on geame feathers, mon, surely;' and so he wer. So
we took'n out o'bed, and laid'n on the floore, and he _pretty soon died
then_!"

    NEDLAM.

_Isle of Man Folk Lore._--A young person from Castletown tells me as
follows:--

A woman walking over Barrule met two fairy armies going to battle, which
was to begin on the ringing of a bell; she pulled the bell, and in
consequence both armies attacked her, and kept her prisoner for three
years, when she escaped.

A little girl, walking over a bridge, was offered by three little men
(one after the other) a farthing, which she persevered in refusing;
knowing that, if accepted, she would have been carried off.

A labouring man, passing by a house which is said to be haunted by
soldiers, saw a soldier from Castletown sitting on a stile; and, on
going up to tell him that the bugle had sounded, the soldier vanished
into air, and the man saw a ball of fire before him all the way home.

A white lady walked through a room one evening when the doors were
bolted and barred, and could not be found anywhere; a murder was once
committed in a room of this house, and, although the boards have been
moved, blood will come again.

At Peel, a witch with a basin of water said that the herring fleet would
never return; every ship was lost, and she was put in a barrel with
spikes, and rolled down the hill, the grass never having grown since;
"and I saw the mark all down."

Women are turned into hares, and can only be shot with a silver
sixpence.

A white lady was seen every night after dark; and one night, when all
were in bed, a servant heard a knock at the door, put her head out of
window, and saw a little doll hop round the house and knock three times;
she was so frightened that she could not get her head in, till others
pulled her. The house was then suddenly illuminated, and, when quite
dark again, the bed-clothes pulled off.

The fairies are seen to hop from trees: a man took one home for a doll,
and became very ill; but on the advice of a woman, he returned it where
found, and then quite recovered.

Fairies change children; a woman had one for eighteen years, and could
not make it walk or speak. A woman, shearing corn, laid her child down;
a man saw a fairy come and change it: the fairy-child screamed, and the
woman, going to take it up, was prevented by the man. The fairy seeing
that no one touched it, returned the woman's child.

People are pulled off horses by black dogs. Three stone coffins were
lately dug up, and the place not since haunted.

Our woman servant told me that her father (who used to drink), and
others, chased a black dog, which kept howling and screaming round the
town, up as far as the gallows post; but did not dare to go beyond, and
came back as fast as they could.

A tradesman told me that lying on a sofa at an inn, a white lady
whispered and told him where some money was to be found; he fell off the
sofa, was ill for six months, and has been lame ever since. The owner of
the house would give him half if he tells; but he will not tell, or the
white lady would haunt him.

They say that fairies are the fallen angels.

    A. C.


Minor Notes.

_Epitaph at King Stanley._--Epitaph engraved on brass let into a large
flagstone in King Stanley churchyard, Gloucestershire. Copied 15th July,
1846.

  "ANN COLLINS, died 11 Sept. 1804, ætatis 49.

      "'Twas as she tript from cask to cask,
        In at a bunghole quickly fell,
      Suffocation was her task,
        She had no time to say farewell."

    E. D.

_Monuments of De la Beche Family._--Among the interesting communications
relating to monuments and trees, I see no mention made of some fine
effigies of the De la Beche family, in an old church near which are the
largest yew-trees I ever saw, on the edge of the Downs, about four
miles above the road which runs from Reading in Berkshire to
Wallingford, through Pangbourne and Streatley. I quite forget the name
of this remote village, but it is above Basildon Park and Streatley; and
a trip there would repay an archæologist for the time and outlay.

    ÆGROTUS.

_Cousinship._--There appear to be various ways of computing
relationship. The following is the mode which I have usually adopted,
and I should be glad to know whether or not it is strictly correct:

           James
             |
        +----+----+
        |         |
      John     William
        |         |
      David     George
        |         |
      Thomas    Henry
        |         |
      Edward    Robert

In the above pedigree Thomas and Henry are _second_ cousins; Edward and
Robert _third_ cousins; and so on. If I am asked what relation Henry is
to David, I reply they are _first_ and _second_ cousins; or else I
_invert_ the answer, and say that David is Henry's _first_ cousin once
removed: on the principle of making the relationship as near as possible
by stating the degree of the older ascendant: in other words, I do not
say that Henry is David's _second_ cousin once removed. In like manner,
David and Robert are _first_ and _third_ cousins; or David is Robert's
_first_ cousin twice removed.

    E. N.

_Borrowing Days._--In a communication in "N. & Q." (Vol. v., p. 278.)
regarding Sir Alexander Cumming, there occurs the following statement:

  "The last three days of March are called the 'Borrowing Days' in
  Scotland, on account of their being generally attended with very
  blustering weather, which inclines people to say that they would
  wish to _borrow_ three days from the month of April in exchange
  for those last three days of the month of March."

I remember to have heard, when a child, in the north of Ireland, a far
more poetical, if not a more rational, explanation of what is
undoubtedly a very common interchange of character between March and
April, for a few successive days towards the close of the former, and
commencement of the latter, month. "Give me (says March) three days of
warmth and sunshine for my poor young lambs whilst they are yet too
tender to bear the roughness of my wind and rain, and you shall have
them repaid when the wool is grown." An attentive observer of the
weather will seldom find the recurrence of this accommodation loan to
fail. This day (the 24th) and the two last days have been of a
temperature very unusual so early in the year, and I have little doubt
that before the 1st of May there will be a _per contrà_ of three
successive days of cold and bluster carried to the _credit_ side of
April's account with Æolus and Co.

    MCC.

  March 24.

_Monumental Plate at Lewes Castle._--The following is an exact copy of
an inscription in raised characters on a plate now at Lewes Castle:--

      HER : LIETH : ANE : BORST
      R : DAV{G}HTER : AND :
      HEYR : TO : THOMAS
      GAYNSLORD : ESQVIER
      DECEASED : XVIII : OE :
      IANVARI : 1591 : LEAVIN{G}
      BEHIND : HER : II : SONES :
      AND : V : DAV{G}HTERS.

The size of the plate is three feet by two feet Can any of the readers
of "N. & Q." inform me whence this plate was taken, and what occasioned
its removal?

    A. W.

_Junius and the Quarterly Review._--The writer in the _Quarterly Review_
who has attributed the _Letters of Junius_ to Thomas Lyttelton, seems to
have overlooked that passage in the _Lyttelton Letters_ in which the
writer confesses his deficiency in the _principal_ "rhetorical figure,"
which at once rendered "the style of Junius" so popular:

  "_Irony_ is not my talent, and B---- says I have too much
  impudence to make use of it. It is a fine rhetorical figure; and
  if there were a chance of attaining the manner in which Junius has
  employed it, its cultivation will be worth my attention."--_Letter
  36._ p. 131.

In my researches to "set this question at rest," I have found the
_Discoverers of Junius_ invariably inclined to withhold some fact or
circumstance, which, if published with the _proofs_, must have
overthrown their hypotheses. This may be good policy in an advocate
pleading before a jury, or in an orator addressing a popular assembly,
where an object may be attained by "making out a good case." On the
question of _Junius_ it is not only disingenuous, but highly
reprehensible, since it proves that the writer thinks more of gratifying
his own vanity, than in satisfying the public.

    W. CRAMP.

_Handwriting._--In my last communication (Vol. v., p. 235.), in
consecutive lines, _when_ was printed _where_, and _second_ was printed
_record_. This is not wholly the printer's fault: in the common current
hands, _n_ and _re_ are much alike; and _n_ and _r_, _s_ and _r_, are
like enough to cause mistake. I have more than once got as far as a
second proof, containing what might, if it had been printed, have been
interpreted as a reflection on the dimensions of the clergy, which was
far from my intention; namely, allusion to the area of a circular
_rector_, in which the first _r_ should have been _s_. What I want to
make a note on, is this: no _current_ hand is taught at schools: the
so-called _small_ hand is nothing but the larger hand written smaller.
If any one would publish some specimens of current hand, in which all
the letters are perfectly distinguishable from each other, he would do
good service. And the (?) might go the length of a woodcut (which
imitates writing better than copper): for no persons write so badly as
writers. The task should not be undertaken by a writing-master: for
there are few who will go through thick and thin in their calligraphy.
What is wanted is a good _skewer-hand_, in which there are none of those
upstrokes and downstrokes which, in former days, used to subject boys to
certain other upstrokes and downstrokes, of which it can only be said
that the former were more bearable than the latter.

    M.



Queries.


DUTCH MANUFACTORIES OF PORCELAIN.

What manufactories of _porcelain_ were established in Holland?

When, by whom, and at what places were they established, and when did
they cease to exist?

What marks were used to indicate the different manufactories, and had
the manufactures any distinctive character?

The mark M. O. L. is frequently found on Dutch porcelain, and
occasionally the word Amstel; what is the meaning of these marks, and
when were they employed?

A stork is also found as a mark on Dutch porcelain, which is said to
have been made at the Hague. Is this correct? and if so, what is the
history of the manufactory?

Was any porcelain made at Arnheim? and if so, what was the
distinguishing mark?

    O. M.

  [We beg to recommend these Queries to the especial attention of
  our Dutch contemporary DE NAVORSCHER; and we have little doubt
  that some of the learned contributors to that Journal will be able
  to throw light upon what is at present a very obscure portion in
  any history of manufactures which we possess in this
  country.--ED.]


SALMON FISHERIES.

Grievous complaints are now making of the scarcity of salmon, and
consequently of the depressed state of the salmon fisheries, both in
Scotland and Ireland. As the statistics of the produce of the principal
rivers of those countries for some years past are known, it would be
curious to contrast their returns in the present century with any
accounts which may exist of their produce in former times.

For example, the Earl of Strafford wrote, in 1638, that the fishery at
Derry produced to the crown that year 240 tons of salmon, which sold at
15_l._ per ton. In 1845 the seven years average of the Foyle (Derry) was
140 tons, and the price ranged at about 100_l._ per ton. Pennant states
that as much as 320 tons were taken in the Bann in 1760; and Stanihurst,
writing about the year 1584, declares that the fishermen of Lough Neagh,
and of the "noble northerne river, the Banne, complain more often for
bursting of their nets with the over great take of fish, than for anie
want," so that the Irish grievance of that day lay in the very glut of
the commodity.

The famous "salmon-leap" at Ballyshannon, on the Erne, was formerly very
productive. It belonged to the O'Donels, Lords of Tyrconnel. Sir George
Carew, in a MS. pedigree of that family, observes that

  "O'Donell is the best lorde of fishe in Ireland, and exchangeth
  fishe allwayes with foreign merchants for wyne, by which his call
  in other countryes the kinge of fishe."

In Roman Catholic times our national salmon fisheries were of much
value, for they supplied an article of food which was necessary for fast
days; there are, accordingly, many ancient acts of parliament in the
statute books for the preservation of the salmon, and still more in the
Scotch statutes, in one of which, indeed, a jubilee was ordained for the
benefit of the finny tribe, by making it penal to take any salmon for
the space of three years. Not only did private and religious houses rely
upon a supply of salted fish for fast days, and for the winter's
consumption, but armies at that time could not be marched or subsisted
without them. There is in Rymer an order of Edward II. to provide 3000
dried salmon for this very purpose.

All our mouths water at hearing of "kippered salmon," especially at
breakfast-time; but it seems from old Izaak Walton's use of the word
that the origin of the delicacy is not the very best, for he uses the
word as expressive of a "sprat," or spawned cock-salmon, _out of
season_, and it is verily to be believed that the dainty is produced by
preserving the fish when in a state that it could not be eaten if fresh.

Travellers in the colder latitudes of the new and old world, agree in
representing the rivers of those countries as literally swarming with
noble salmon. The increase of man, and the advances of civilisation,
have led to the decrease of salmon in the British Islands, and this fish
will probably, in a century or so more, rank among other exterminated
animals, as the bustard, &c.

Any of your readers would oblige me by reference to authorities in which
statements may be found as to the ancient productiveness of the salmon
fisheries of Great Britain and Ireland; in fact, to any information or
curious details on the subject.

    H. T. H.

  Wexford.


THOMAS CRAWFURD.

Can any of your readers inform me when Mr. Thomas Crawfurd was the
Professor of Philosophy in the University of Edinburgh? In a _Scotch
Peerage_, by Mr. George Crawfurd, published in 1716, there is a Latin
epigram by him on the armorial bearings of the Crawfurds of Kilbirny in
Ayrshire, one of whom was created Viscount Garnock by Queen Anne, in the
second year of her reign. The description of the armorial bearings is as
follows in the same peerage, under the head Crawfurd, Viscount of
Garnock--

  "Quarterly 1st and 4th gules, a fess ermine. 2nd and 3rd azure, a
  Cheveron betwixt three Cross Patées Or, supported by two
  Grayhounds. Crest, an ermine Argent. Motto, 'Sine labe nota.'"

The author then adds,--

  "A learned gentleman of this name[2] paraphrased this coat of arms
  in these fine elegiacs--

      "Sanguineum scutum præcingit balteus albens,
        Quem variant nigræ sed sine labe notæ.
      Sic labem ut vitet, mustela Armenica strictum
        In ferrum et structos non timet ire rogos.
      Martia vis animi, vacuum formidine pectus,
        Cana fides, nulla labe notatus honos.
      Hæc Crafurdiacæ gentilia symbola stirpis,
        Artibus his veteres emicuere patres."

  [Footnote 2: Mr. Thomas Crawfurd, Professor of Philosophy in the
  University of Edinburgh.]

I subjoin the following translation:

      "A blood-red scutcheon with a white belt bound,
      Which black spots chequer, though no stain is found:
      Thus will the ermine strive a soil to shun,
      On steel unsheath'd, and 'mid the flames will run:
      Great strength of mind, a breast that knows not fear,
      Fair Faith, and honour from all blemish clear:
      These kindred qualities the Crawfurds own,--
      In arts like these of yore their sires have shone."

    C. S. T. P.

  Oxford.


Minor Queries.

_The Chronologic Institute._--Should not this society, as a preliminary,
protest against the architectural anachronisms of these days--the
building churches, for instance, in every, any, or no style of
architecture? In one parish the priest erects an Early English church,
copied from the _Oxford Glossary_; in the next, something very like a
conventicle, with no chancel and no chimes, is built by subscription; in
another, the architect is a disciple of Ruskin, and tries the Byzantine
style, with a tower like St. Mark's of Venice;--a nice Gordian knot for
coming chronologists!

    MORTIMER COLLINS.

_Mother Carey's Chickens._--In Hawkesworth's _Voyages_ there occurs the
following passage: "The petrels, to which sailors have given the name of
Mother Carey's chickens." Who was "Mother Carey;" why was her name given
to the petrel; and why have sailors so great an objection to their being
killed?

    W. B. M.

  Dee Side.

_Suwich Priory._--What is known of the Priory of Suwich in Hampshire, of
which a handsome seal records the former prosperity?

    E. A. S.

_Anthony Babington._--Can any of your correspondents inform me whether
William Kempe's _Dutiful Invective against the moste Haynous Treasons of
Ballard and Babington_, &c. &c., has been reprinted in any collection of
rare tracts, or otherwise? and also whether his _Censure of a loyall
Subiect upon certaine noted Speeches and Behaviour of those 14 notable
Traitors_ (Ballard, Babington, &c.), has also been reprinted?

I should also be glad of references to any other tracts or ballads
referring to Babington and his conspiracy.

    L. J.

_Sir Isaac Newton, Cicero, and Gravitation._--How is it that Sir Isaac
Newton has obtained so world-wide a renown for his discovery of the law
of gravitation, when the following passage in the _Tusculan
Disputations_ proves it to have been well known to Cicero?

  "Qua omnia delata gravitate medium mundi locum semper
  expetant."--See lib. v. cap. 24.

    S. E. B.

  Trinity College, Oxford.

_Diotrophes._--Can any of your readers say, on what authority the Abbé
Masscot calls Diotrophes, mentioned in 3 St. John, ver. 9., Bishop of
Corinth. The Abbé has left the Roman Church, and joined the branch of
Mr. Henry Drummond's Church in France, and is the editor of _Le Recueil
Catholique_, to advocate the cause of the new church. The passage to
which I refer is in the October Number, p. 208., and is given as a proof
of his theory: "L'Apostolat supplanté, absorbé par l'Episcopat;" this
first order of ministry in the Christian Church having been in abeyance,
till it was revived in the person of Mr. Drummond and the other eleven
apostles of that Church! In Mant and D'Oyley's Bible it is said that
Diotrophes is unknown; and Grotius and Doddridge entertain different
opinions about him, but neither speak of him as being a bishop.

    ER.

_Grisly._--Can any of your readers inform me why a person in a fretful
state is said to be _grisly_? the far-famed Guzzle being a pattern of
meekness and patience. I am aware that Johnson gives the
meaning--_fearfully_, _horribly_; but this does not seem satisfactory.
Infants are often said by their nurses to be "very _grisly_."

    RUBY.

_Birthplace of St. Patrick._--Can the disputed question of the
birthplace of St. Patrick be settled? Some writers assign Scotland,
others England, and others France, as his fatherland. He himself informs
us (_Confess. sub init._) that he was born at _Bonavem-Taberniæ_. This
locality has been supposed by some writers to be _Kilpatrick_, on the
mouth of the Clyde, and by others _Boulogne-sur-Mer_.

    CEYREP.

_Motto on Chimney-piece._--There is a carved oak chimney-piece
in my possession, of the time of James I., from a mansion at
Newcastle-upon-Tyne occupied as the Turk's Head Inn, and taken down
about fifteen years ago. In the central compartment is a shield, but the
crest is wanting. The quarterings are three stags' heads, and checky;
and as the motto has puzzled wiser heads than mine, I beg leave to
produce it. One or two of the letters are doubtful, but there is no
omission:

      "VITATRANOVULAESTOLIM."

I should feel much obliged to any one for deciphering the motto, and
still more for discovering the original possessor of this interesting
piece of antiquity.

Another motto, under a coat of arms on some old china, cannot meet with
an interpreter:

      "VE DAL AM DARO."

    C. T.

_Curious Bequest._--In the parish of Eardisland in Herefordshire, I am
informed that some charitable person, whose name I could not ascertain,
left to certain poor persons, parishioners, the following singular
bequest, viz., to each poor person--

      13 bushels of wheat
      13 red herrings
      13 tennis balls
      13 pepper corns
      13 pence.

This was to be distributed on Maunday Thursday. Can any of your
correspondents throw light upon this, or mention similar instances of
such singular bequests?

    H. C. K.

_Wilkie's Blind Fiddler._--I should be much obliged if you, or any of
your correspondents, could give me some information respecting Sir David
Wilkie's picture of "The Blind Fiddler." I believe he painted as many as
four, if not more, copies of the original, and that the first picture
was finished by him in the year 1807; that in the National Gallery is
dated, as I am informed, 1808. What I wish to ascertain is, the real
number of the pictures of this subject that Wilkie painted, _with their
dates_; and if possible, in whose hands they are at present.

    H. C. K.

  ---- Rectory, Hereford.

_Lode._--It seems to be a provincial word, according to Forby, and means
"an artificial water-course," from A.-S. _lodian_, _haurire_; he also
adduces the instance I have named, and also a water-course in Fincham,
called in old writings "the Lode ditch." It would be interesting to know
if it is used elsewhere than in Norfolk, and it may be Suffolk; but, at
all events, I should much like to come at the real meaning.

    J. N. C.

_Ballad quoted by Sir Walter Scott._--Effie Deans, in the _Heart of
Mid-Lothian_, sings this stanza of a ballad:

      "The elfin knight sate on the brae,
        The broom grows bonnie, the broom grows fair,
      And by there cam' lilting a lady so gay,
        And we daurna' gang down to the broom nae mair."

There is a traditional ballad, very similar, of which the following is
the only stanza preserved:

      "Ae kings dochter said to anither,
        Broom blooms bonnie, an' grows sae fair,
      We'll gae ride like sister and brither,
        But we'll never gae down to the broom nae mair."

Sir Walter Scott delighted in preserving scraps of old ballads; and
perhaps the two fragments above quoted may be part and parcel of the
same original. Some friend in the "north countrie" may perhaps settle
this point.

    EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

_Ann Stewart, Wife of Christopher Hall._--Can any of your readers inform
me, by referring to an old work called _Stewart's History of the
Stewarts_, page 156., whether Ann Stewart therein mentioned, who married
Christopher Hall, was a descendant of the daughter of Henry VII.?

    JOHN OF GAUNT.

_Moveable Organs and Pulpits._--In looking over a small pamphlet,
entitled _The Temple Church, an Account of its Restoration and Repairs_,
by William Burge, Esq. (8vo. 1843, Pickering), I met with the following
passage, which serves me for a peg on which to hang a Query:

  "Mr Etty justly observes that 'in St. Peter's at the present day,
  the organ is a very small one comparatively to the building, and
  is wheeled about, like the ancient pulpits, to different parts of
  the church!'"--P. 34.

Are movable organs common in Italy or elsewhere? With regard to pulpits,
the chapel of King's College, Cambridge, has two at the present time,
placed in one of the small chapels on the north side. They are moved
into the choir when required. Besides these, the neighbouring church at
Grantchester has a large pulpit, which, tradition says, also once
belonged to the same noble edifice. Can any of your correspondents
mention other examples of churches or chapels so well supplied?

    W. SPARROW SIMPSON, B.A.

_Nobleman alluded to by Bishop Berkeley._--Bishop Berkeley, in his
_Minute Philosopher_ (Dialogue II. vol. i.), makes mention of "an
English nobleman who in the prime of life professeth a liberal art, and
is the first man of his profession in the world." Who was this nobleman?

    J. M.

_Chelwoldesbury._--I shall be glad to have the opinion of your readers
on the derivation of the name of a village, which in early records is
spelt "Chalwoldesbury," "Chelwardesbury," "Chilwardesbury,"
"Chedwoldesby," &c. It is partly on the site of a British or Danish
encampment, in a good state of preservation. The soil is chalky, and the
country for some short distance round may have been open, but more
probably the woods closely surrounded the camp. These particulars may
assist in arriving at the derivation of the name, now corrupted into
Cholesbury.

    W. H. K.

_Swallows' Nests._--

      "... That wond'rous stone, which the swallow,
      Brings from the shore of the sea to restore the sight of its
          fledglings;
      Lucky was he who found that stone in the nest of the swallow!"

      Longfellow's _Evangeline_, Part I. i.

May I ask for information respecting the allusion contained in these
lines?

    W. S. T.

_Quotation from Arthur Hopton._--Arthur Hopton (_Baculum Geodæticum_,
1610, preface) says:

  "If this hold, it is time to ... take the globe out of the king
  Ptolomies hand, and there place a poore Siquis, such as forlorne
  forreiners use to have in Paul's Church."

What does this mean?

    M.

_Group at Prague._--I have in my possession a print representing Mercury
in a flying attitude, bearing a female figure in his arms: the latter
figure carries a cyathus in her right hand.

The inscription at the bottom of the print is--

      "IVSSV RVDOLPHI · II · CÆSARIS AVGVSTI,
      ADRIANVS DE VRIES HAGIENSIS FACIEBAT. PRAGUÆ.
      OPVS ALTITVDINIS PEDVM OCTO EX ÆRE. 1.5.9.3."

I apply to "N. & Q." in hopes that this "Q." may meet the eye of some
erudite correspondent, and draw forth a satisfactory "N."

Was Prague ever decorated with such a group? If the group in question be
not a myth, what is the meaning of it? Who is meant by the first line of
the inscription?

    TECEDE.

_Cards prohibited to Apprentices._--When was the prohibition to play at
cards or dice first introduced into apprentices' indentures? It occurs
in the form of an indenture for an apprentice in _A Book of Presidents_,
printed about 1566, and compiled by Thomas Phaer, who describes himself
as "Solicitour to the King and Queenes Majesties."

    EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

_Cursitor Barons._--Can any of your correspondents guide me to a list of
the Cursitor Barons, or refer me to any account of their origin and
history? I find no such officer named up to the reign of Henry VIII.,
beyond which I have not yet inquired; nor does any notice occur of them
in Madox's _History of the Exchequer_.

    EDWARD FOSS.

_Phelps's Gloucestershire Collections._--The late John Delafield Phelps,
Esq., who died in December, 1842, was well known among the literati as
an ardent _bibliophile_, and a great investigator and accumulator of
antiquities. He was one of the original members of the Roxburghe Club,
established nearly forty years ago, and had devoted a long life to his
favourite pursuits. Having been a native of Gloucestershire, he felt a
particular interest in everything which regarded that county, and had in
his lifetime collected a great mass of materials for the elucidation of
its history, antiquities, &c., in every respect. It is understood that
an ample catalogue (_raisonné_ perhaps) was printed under his direction
for circulation among his particular friends, giving great evidence of
his assiduity and talents, and of the value of the collection.
Participating to a great extent the interest which actuated Mr. Phelps
to ascertain a local knowledge of Gloucestershire, I should feel obliged
if any reader of the "N. & Q." could inform me what has become of Mr.
Phelps's collection; if it remains entire, and if it be accessible by
any recommendation to the present possessor?

      Δ. (2).

_Huant Le Puisné._--I have in my possession a small gold _bonbonnière_
exquisitely enamelled with portraits and landscapes, and bearing the
following inscription:

      "Huant Le puisné pinxit à Berlin."

Can any of your readers refer me to a work where I shall find any
account of this painter?

    A. O. O. D.

_Arms of Roberson._--What is the meaning of a man, chained hand and
foot, placed horizontally beneath the arms of Roberson?

    R. S. B.


Minor Queries Answered.

_Winterton._--Information is requested of John [Ralph] Winterton, Fellow
of King's College, Cambridge, who translated, revised, and published
Gerard's _Meditations and Prayers_, Cambridge, 1674, dedicated to John
(Dolben), Lord Bishop of Rochester: the second part is called on the
title-page the tenth edition. This book measures only four by two
inches, and one inch in thickness, and contains 560 pages.

    E. D.

  [Ralph Winterton, in 1632, translated the _Considerations of
  Drexelius upon Eternity_, in the Preface to which he says, "I left
  the temple of Hippocrates and the Muses, and betook myself into
  the sanctuary, to learn of David divine arithmetic, which
  consisteth in the due numbering of the days of this short life, by
  comparing them with the years of eternity; and so I fell upon
  translating this book of eternity. And this I found, by daily
  experience, to be the best hypnoticon that ever I used; for it
  brought me to my rest better than if had taken diacodion." In 1634
  he was nominated Professor of Physic in the University of
  Cambridge; and in 1635 published an edition of the minor Greek
  poets. The first edition of his translation of Gerard's
  _Meditations and Prayers_ was published in 1631, and in 1640 he
  translated Gerard's _Summe of Christian Doctrine_, 8vo. There is a
  Latin distich by Winterton among the Additional MSS. in the
  British Museum, No. 5955.]

_Emblems of a Saint._--At the sale of the late Mr. Cottingham's Museum
of medieval art was sold on the seventh day "a corbel with a figure of a
saint with a basket of birds in one hand, in the other a staff." Will
you allow me to inquire, through your valuable columns, the name of this
saint?

    BURIENSIS.

  [Joachim, the Father of Mary, is sometimes represented as holding
  in his hand a basket with two turtle doves in it.--See _Die
  Attribute der Heiligen_, &c., Hanover, 1843.]

_Quack._--Why are certain members of the medical profession so called? I
have seen "in print" that the Egyptian hieroglyphic for a doctor was a
_duck_. Does this afford a clue?

    A. A. D.

  [Our English _Quack_, or _Quacksalver_ as it was originally
  written, is from the German _Quacksalber_, or rather the Dutch
  _Kwaksalver_; which Bilderdijk, in his _Geslachtlijst der
  Naamwoorden_, states should be more properly _Kwabzalver_
  (Iatroliptes), from _Kwab_, a wen, and _zalver_, to salve or
  anoint.]

_Dr. Hieron Mercurialis._--Who was Dr. Hieron Mercurialis, the author of
a book having the following title: _Medicina Practica, seu de
cognoscendis, discernendis, et curandis, omnibus humani corporis
affectibus, earumque causis indagandis_?

    W. S.

  [Hieron Mercurialis, an eminent and learned physician, was born at
  Forli, in Romagna, in 1530. During a sojourn of seven years at
  Rome, he paid great attention to classical literature and the
  monuments of antiquity, and composed the learned and elegant work
  which first rendered him celebrated in the literary world, _De
  Arte Gymnastica Libr. sex_, printed in 1567. After filling the
  Professor's chair at Padua for eighteen years, he removed, in
  1587, to Bologna, and subsequently to Pisa. He died in his native
  place in 1606. See Rose's _Biographical Dict._]

_The Book of Sports._--This celebrated royal indulgence of
Sabbath-breaking was first issued in 1617, and again in 1633. On its
first promulgation, Archbishop Abbott forbad the reading of it in the
parish church of Croydon; but in 1637 many clergymen were deprived of
their livings for not complying with the royal ordinance. In that year,
at least, Lawrence Snelling, Rector of Paul's Cray, was for that offence
excommunicated and then deprived.

In 1643 it was ordered by the Lords and Commons that this book should be
burnt by the common hangman in Cheapside and other usual places. The
Sheriffs of London and Middlesex were required "to assist effectually"
in the execution of the order; and all persons were required forthwith
to deliver up all copies to the sheriff. The 10th of May was the day
fixed for putting this order into execution. Was it complied with
generally? I cannot find that any penalty was attached to disobedience.
Is the book now scarce? I presume it is accessible in public libraries.

    S. S. S.

  [The earlier editions of _The Book of Sports_ are now scarce, but
  may be seen in most public libraries. It was reprinted in 1709,
  with the following title: _The Book of Sports, set forth by James
  I. and Charles I._, with remarks upon the same in vindication of
  Charles I. 4to. It was also reprinted in the _Harleian
  Miscellany_, and in _The Phoenix_, vol. i.]



Replies.


MEANING OF GROOM.

(Vol. v., p. 57.)

Several of the recent articles of the "N. & Q." having had relation to
the word _groom_, I may be allowed to submit to you a most ludicrous
misconception of the duties attributed by our continental neighbours to
our court-office of "Groom of the Stole," which struck me some years
ago. One of the most laborious, and, from his extensive historical
knowledge, one of the most competent editors of French memoirs, is M. F.
Barrière, whose introductory discourses have been used so frequently by
the writers on French subjects in the _Quarterly Review_, though not
always with frank avowal of the obligation. In 1828 he published _Les
Mémoires du Comte de Brienne_, a distinguished public man during the
minority and early reign of Louis XIV., and there, at p. 372. of the
second volume, referring to Brienne's father's _Mémoires_, tome i. p.
407. (Amsterdam, 1719, 8vo.), produces the following singular
misapprehension of our habits and language. In 1624 the elder of these
noblemen, it seems, was deputed by Louis XIII. to adjust the preparatory
arrangements of our Charles I.'s marriage with Henrietta Maria, the
French monarch's sister, who, it was stipulated, should be attended
equally by French and English ladies. Among the former are named the
Duchess of Chevreuse, the Maréchale de Thémines (wife of the Marshal),
and Madame de Saint-Georges, who had been the princess's governess and
lady of honour,--a title unknown, it is said, at the English court, but
for which the Duke of Buckingham, the representative of Charles,
proposed as an equivalent, that of Groom of the _Stool_ (sic) "qui
revient assez bien à ce qu'on appelerait dans notre langue, le
gentilhomme, ou la dame de _la chaise-percée_. Cette charge est très
considérable; elle fait jouir de très grands privilèges," &c. A natural
expression of surprise follows this portraiture of a high and regular
functionary, whose attributes not even majesty could ennoble or strip of
indignity. The transposition of the name and duties of Groom of the
Stole has caused this most ridiculous blunder--a double one, indeed, for
the office does not belong to female majesty, though it may, as of
course at present, form part of a royal consort's household. The living
editor of De Brienne, who dwells on these "étranges usages de nos
voisins d'outremer," tells us, and it is confirmed by De Brienne
himself, that this nobleman felt proud and honoured at the familiarity
and confidence of Louis XIV., who often conferred with him on state
affairs, enthroned "sur sa chaise-percée." The Duchess of Burgundy,
mother of Louis XV., it is known, never hesitated to administer to
herself a relieving remedy, not to be pronounced by name in English
society, in presence of Louis XIV. and his attendant courtiers; so that
these violations of decorum, falsely imputed to our court, were of
historical truth at Versailles.

    J. R. (Cork).

May not _groom_ be the _literal_ English of the French _écuyer_, and
have in the places quoted the same meaning as _esquire_, which is
evidently the Anglicised French?

    W. C. TREVELYAN.

  Wallington.


BALLAD OF LORD DELAWARE.

(Vol. ii., pp. 104. 158.; Vol. v., p. 243.)

As I have reason to believe that several of your readers are interested
in this old ballad, I send you an exact transcript of the oral version
contained in Mr. Lyle's (not _Lyte's_, as incorrectly printed in my
former communication) now rare little volume.

Your correspondent C. W. G. thinks that it relates to some transaction
much later than 1622; and possibly he may be right. It may be as well,
however, to mention that Mr. J. H. Dixon, who inserted the ballad in his
_Ancient Poems, Ballads, and Songs of the Peasantry of England_ (Percy
Society, No. LXII.), thinks otherwise, and, indeed, claims for it an
antiquity as high as the reign of Edward III., A.D. 1377. He suggests
that for De la Ware we should read De la Mare, and believes Sir Thomas
De la Mare, Speaker of the House of Commons, to have been the hero. Mr.
Dixon says:

  "All historians are agreed in representing him as a person using
  'great freedom of speech,' and which, indeed, he carried to such
  an extent as to endanger his personal liberty. As bearing somewhat
  upon the subject of the ballad, it may be observed that De la Mare
  was a great advocate of popular rights, and particularly protested
  against the inhabitants of England being subject to 'purveyance;'
  asserting that 'if the royal revenue was faithfully administered,
  there could be no necessity for laying burdens on the people.'"

The title of the "Welsh lord, the brave Duke of Devonshire," offers some
opposition to Mr. Dixon's hypothesis, as no _Duke_ of Devonshire was
created before 1694; but, as Sir Walter Scott observed, upon a friend
pointing out an inaccuracy in his "Bonnets of bonnie Dundee," "We cannot
always be particular in a ballad." Possibly the name of some other
country or place should be substituted for that of "Devonshire." Indeed
I remember, some ten years ago, hearing a version of this ballad sung at
a village in Staffordshire, where the "minstrel" (for he was a true
descendant of the wandering tribe) used _Hereford_ in the place of
Devonshire.

There is an old ballad in Deloney's _Garland of Good Will_, upon the
quarrel between the two Dukes of Hereford and Norfolk, in the reign of
Richard II. See Hume's _Hist. of Eng._, chap. xvii., A.D. 1398, for a
full account of the transaction. There seems to be some "relationship"
between this "combat" and that of the Lord Delaware. At any rate, the
following ballad smacks wonderfully (allowing for the march of time, and
Mr. Lyle's "smoothing down") of the style of the "ballading
silk-weaver," and his cotemporary poetasters.

      "LORD DELAWARE.

      "In the Parliament House, a great rout has been there,
      Betwixt our good King and the Lord Delaware:
      Says Lord Delaware to his Majesty full soon,
      Will it please you, my Liege, to grant me a boon?

      "What's your boon, says the King, now let me understand?
      It's, give me all the poor men we've starving in this land;
      And without delay, I'll hie me to Lincolnshire,
      To sow hemp seed and flax seed, and hang them all there.

      "For with hempen cord it's better to stop each poor man's breath,
      Than with famine you should see your subjects starve to death.
      Up starts a Dutch Lord, who to Delaware did say,
      Thou deservest to be stabb'd! then he turned himself away:

      "Thou deservest to be stabb'd, and the dogs have thine ears,
      For insulting our King in this Parliament of peers;
      Up sprang a Welsh Lord, the brave Duke of Devonshire,
      In young Delaware's defence, I'll fight this Dutch Lord, my sire.

      "For he is in the right, and I'll make it so appear:
      Him I dare to single combat, for insulting Delaware.
      A stage was soon erected, and to combat they went,
      For to kill, or to be kill'd, it was either's full intent.

      "But the very first flourish, when the heralds gave command,
      The sword of brave Devonshire bent backward on his hand;
      In suspense he paused awhile, scann'd his foe before he strake,
      Then against the King's armour, his bent sword he brake.

      "Then he sprang from the stage, to a soldier in the ring,
      Saying, Lend your sword, that to an end this tragedy we bring:
      Though he's fighting me in armour, while I am fighting bare,
      Even more than this I'd venture, for young Lord Delaware.

      "Leaping back on the stage, sword to buckler now resounds,
      Till he left the Dutch Lord a-bleeding in his wounds:
      This seeing, cries the King to his guards without delay,
      Call Devonshire down: take the dead man away!

      "No, says brave Devonshire, I've fought him as a man,
      Since he's dead, I will keep the trophies I have won;
      For he fought me in your armour, while I fought him bare,
      And the same you must win back, my Liege, if ever you them wear.

      "God bless the Church of England, may it prosper on each hand,
      And also every poor man now starving in this land;
      And while I pray success may crown our King upon his throne,
      I'll wish that every poor man may long enjoy his own."

    EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.


FAMILY LIKENESSES.

(Vol. v., p. 260.)

To most persons the discovery by VOKAROS of a family likeness existing
between the face on the brass of the Abbess of Elstow, and the portrait
of the Marquis of Bristol, after a lapse of three centuries, would
probably seem moderately far-fetched; but when this is adduced as
"valuable evidence on the disputed point, whether portraits were
attempted in sepulchral brasses," a very great demand indeed is made
upon our credulity. I have not the means now of referring to the works
of Fisher and Rokewode; but I have before me a rubbing of the Elstow
brass. Any person tolerably familiar with the subject will at once see
that the face of the lady is identical with that which is repeatedly to
be found on numerous brass effigies of persons of both sexes at the
beginning of the sixteenth century; in fact, it is not very dissimilar
to that of the fellow brass of the Abbot at Dorchester, Oxon. If,
therefore, we might judge by the likeness, very many brazen-faced gentry
of olden time might claim the honour of being ancestors of the noble
lord. And so far from its being a disputed point, whether the faces on
brasses are attempted likenesses, no one, I think, who has at all
studied our monumental brasses, can fail to have come to the conclusion
that they were _not_ intended to be portraits. The great proof of this
lies in the obvious similarity in the faces of cotemporary figures which
have been produced by the same artists, who, probably from their
residing in London, and perhaps in a few other places, very rarely had
an opportunity of seeing the persons to be commemorated. The
instructions forwarded to the engravers would seem to have been confined
to the inscription and other details, chiefly the costume, at least if
we may judge from the large brasses at Digswell, Herts, and other
similar figures. The ready adoption of unaltered palimpsest effigies may
also be cited as an additional proof of the likeness being entirely a
matter of indifference; and it is not improbable that many brasses were
kept ready made, half-length figures of priests for instance; and files
of children, all bearing a strong family likeness, may have been
engraved, ready to be cut off on the shortest notice, and laid down at
so much per foot. The only approach towards a likeness, if it may be
termed such, seems to be the distinction between youth and age, and even
that was almost wholly neglected in the fifteenth and earlier half of
the sixteenth centuries. The foregoing remarks apply chiefly to brasses
before the latter end of the sixteenth century; after that period
portraits were evidently not unfrequently attempted. Very rare
instances, however, before this time, _may_ be found. I may specify the
effigy of Nich. Canteys, 1431, Margate, Kent.

Mr. Doyle, in his able painting of _Caxton submitting his proof-sheet to
Abbot Estney_ (noticed in "N. & Q." No. 54. p. 398.) has taken the
likeness of the Abbot from his brass in Westminster Abbey, which is, I
suppose, as good a likeness of the original as any other that can be
found; but the members of Queen's College, Oxford, have not been so
fortunate. Several years ago, while hunting up a likeness of their
founder (Robt. Egglesfield, 1340), they stumbled upon an old brass in
the College Chapel, from which a painting and engraving was made
purporting to be that of the founder. Recent researches have
unfortunately fatally dispelled this illusion, as the effigy in
question undoubtedly commemorates Dr. Robt. Langton, who deceased 1518.

    H. H.


EARL OF ERROLL.

(Vol. v., p. 297.)

According to Burke's _Peerage_ for 1850, the present Lord Erroll is "the
twenty-second High Constable of Scotland; and as such is, by birth, the
first subject in Scotland after the blood-royal, having a right to take
place of every hereditary honour, which was granted to his lordship's
father on the visit of George IV. to North Britain" (in 1822).

In a small treatise, _De Jure Prelationis Nobilium Scotiæ_, printed by
the Bannatyne Club in 1827, from a manuscript in the Advocates' Library,
with a preface and numerous additions by Sir Alexander Seton, Lord
Pitmedden, I find the following remark, under the head of "Comes de
Erroll":--

  "The Earle of Erroll claims precedency of all the nobilitie of
  Scotland nixt to the Chancellour, though of ane ancienter creation
  than himself, be vertue of his office of Constabulary, of the
  which that precedency is a priviledge; and to instruct that it is
  a priviledge, he produces a Report of a Commission that was
  granted be the King under the Great Seal anno 1631, to take tryall
  of the priviledges of the Constable; which Report, in the second
  article thereof, bears that the precedency is due to the Constable
  next to the Chancellor, _but he has never been in possession of
  it, but only takes place by his antiquity as Earle_."

The report here referred to is given in Nisbet's _Heraldry_, vol. ii. p.
67. In the eighth chapter of Sir George Mackenzie's treatise on
"Precedency" (p. 534. of the second volume of his works), your
correspondent will find some interesting information regarding the
ancient office of High Constable. In the course of his remarks the
learned author says:

  "Next to these (_i.e._ the Chancellor, Justice-General,
  Chamberlain, High Steward, Panetarius, and Buttelarius) are named,
  in the laws of King Malcolm Canmore (1057-1093), the Constable and
  Marishal; but now the Constable and Marishal take not place as
  officers of the Crown, but according to their creation as Earls:
  the reason thereof I conceive to be, because of old offices did
  not prefer those who possessed them, but they took place according
  to their creation; whereas now the Privy Seal precedes all Dukes,
  and the Secretary takes place before all of his own rank; but the
  Constable and Marishal, being now the only two officers of the
  Crown that are heritable in Scotland, continue to possess as they
  did formerly. But in France, England, and all other places, the
  Constable and Marishal take place as officers of the Crown; and it
  seems very strange that these, who ride upon the King's right and
  left hand when he returns from his Parliaments, and who guard the
  Parliament itself, and the honours, should have no precedency by
  their offices; and yet I cannot deny, but that of old other Earls
  were placed before them; for in the former Charter granted by King
  Alexander, Malcolm Earl of Fife is placed before them. And I
  conceive their precedency has not risen of late to the same
  proportion with others, because, of late, our armies have been
  commanded by other officers, and so there was little use for the
  Constable and Marishal."

    E. N.


THE BOWYER BIBLE.

(Vol. v., pp. 248. 309.)

Seeing a fresh notice of this great book in No. 124. of "N. & Q.," I
venture to forward a few particulars concerning Bowyer, who was an old
friend, even of between thirty and forty years' standing. He is long
since gone to his rest; he has left neither widow nor child, scarcely a
distant relative, so that the following can neither "give offence nor
grieve." He has often told me particulars of his early career. Being a
poor youth in search of employment, and withal moody enough at his
prospects, he was one day walking down Newgate Street, and pausing to
look at a print or two in a shop-window, it struck him he could take a
likeness; so he went home to his indifferent lodging, having procured
implements suitable, seated himself before a glass, and took his own
portrait, which he considered was as successful as a first effort could
be. Encouraged thereby, he was soon employed to paint others, and such
note did he acquire that his miniatures were carried into court-circles,
so that he became a sort of celebrity in that line, and Queen Charlotte
appointed him her official miniature-painter--if such be the proper
term.

He soon struck out much more important occupation, planning various
publications, the most promising of which was his large edition of
Hume's _History of England_; and this was so ponderous an undertaking
that it was only at last disposed of by a lottery. His fondness for
taking portraits never left him, and a very few years before his death
he gratified my family by volunteering to paint a miniature of my
father, and a capital likeness it was. He was much pleased with one of
his successes, of which he has more than once told me with great glee.
Just before George III. was secluded finally from public view, he and
another artist, an old acquaintance, went one Sunday together to the
Chapel-Royal at Windsor, and during the service each sketched the King
on _one of his nails_: they adjourned to an inn, and while the
impression was yet fresh, transferred to a sheet of paper the likeness
of the venerable monarch. On returning with it to London, Bowyer sent it
for the inspection of the Prince Regent, who was so pleased with this
rough pencil-drawing, that he sent word back he would never part with
it, and begged to know Bowyer's price. The latter said 105_l._, which
the Prince Regent immediately forwarded.

I once found Bowyer drawing at a table, a wig placed on a stick before
him, and he was taking the likeness of a very old friend, who was dead
and gone, from memory. In this attempt he entirely succeeded, even to
the surprise of all who knew the deceased.

About ten years ago a little book, called _Henry VIII. and his
Contemporaries_, by B. Bensley, contained, concerning the earlier
impressions of the Bible, the following note:--

  "I trust to be pardoned for introducing a little anecdote relative
  to the Bible, exactly three hundred years after the period about
  which I am writing, that is not the less appropriate for being
  likewise illustrative of _episcopal shrewdness_. [The text is
  recording an instance of the then Bishop of London being bitten in
  an arrangement with a bookseller.] The most splendid Bible ever
  issued was that published by Macklin, printed by my late father,
  and the execution of which even his son may say, would alone hand
  down his name to posterity. _Bowyer_, publisher of another great
  national work--the folio edition of Hume's _History of England_,
  also a splendid specimen of my father's typography--had a copy of
  Macklin's Bible, which he employed his leisure during many years
  to illustrate, having the best opportunities, from his pursuits as
  an artist, publisher of prints, &c. On the completion of his
  labours, he valued the massy product, consisting of an immense
  number of prints, at 2500_l._; and, after unsuccessful efforts to
  procure a purchaser, he put it up to be raffled for, issuing
  proposals to the nobility and gentry, &c. Among others, an aged
  _bishop_ sent his name as a subscriber to this kind of lottery,
  and shortly after called at the rooms in Pall Mall to pay the two
  guineas; but, before he did so, he drew Mr. Bowyer apart, and
  gravely told him he could not quite make out how, by paying that
  sum, he could _ensure_ possession of the great work. Upon its
  being explained to his lordship, that he could only take a chance
  with 1249 others, he expressed surprise and vexation, and declined
  to pay two guineas for the chance, which he _then_, probably, saw
  was objectionable in a moral point of view, as a species of
  gambling! The parties are all long since dead."

    B. B.

  Pembroke.


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Exeter Controversy_ (Vol. v., p. 126.).--Your correspondent A. N. will
find, probably, that the "Exeter Controversy," to which Gifford alludes,
was that between John Agate, of St. Mary Arches Church, in Exeter, and
John Withers, a Presbyterian. The controversy commenced in 1707, and was
carried on with great violence till 1715. The tracts are numerous, but
many very scarce. Agate's chief tract was entitled _Plain Truth_, and is
in three parts, Exon, 1708. Withers replied in a work of three parts
also: _Truth Try'd, or Mr. Agate's pretended Plain Truth proved an
Untruth_, Exon, 1708-9-10. This of course called forth a rejoinder, and
so on. Although carried on with great personalities, the controversy
shows considerable ability on both sides. I possess almost all the
tracts, and shall be happy to send a list to A. N., if required.
Withers, Trosse, and Pierce are all well-known Dissenting names in the
history of Exeter at the beginning of last century, when that city was
the stronghold of Arianism.

    RICHARD HOOPER.

_Coleridge's "Friend"_ (Vol. v., p. 297.).--The passage quoted by your
correspondent J. M. can refer to one man only, viz. Thomas Wedgewood.
His introduction to that gentleman, and his brother Josiah, is related
by Cottle. (_Recollections of Coleridge_, 1837, vol. i. p. 305.)
Coleridge might well call the former his "munificent co-patron;" for we
learn from Cottle that these brothers, soon after making the poet's
acquaintance, settled upon him 150_l._ per annum, in order to prevent
him sinking the man of letters in the Unitarian minister. Cottle adds:

  "Mr. C. was oppressed with grateful emotions to these his liberal
  benefactors. He always spoke, in particular, of the late Mr.
  Thomas Wedgewood as being one of the best talkers, and as
  possessing one of the acutest minds of any man he had known."

The following details, which J. M. will not find in any book, may be
interesting, to him:--Joseph Wedgewood, the illustrious potter, lived at
_Etruria_, in Staffordshire; for such was the appropriate name of the
house he built for himself. He had six children,--three sons, John,
Thomas, and Josiah; and three daughters, Sarah, Catherine, and ****.
John married a Miss Allen (one of four Devonshire lasses), who was
accounted one of the most accomplished and excellent ladies in the
county. Joshua married another of the sisters. Thomas never married. He
was indisposed, both from ill health and taste, towards the pottery
business, and took to philosophy. He was endowed with a rare genius, and
enjoyed the society of the first _literati_ of his day. But he died
while he was still a man of _promise_.

Of his sisters, Sarah was an accomplished lady with a strong intellect,
which captivated Basil Montagu, without reciprocity. Catherine was a
first-rate horse-woman. The third daughter married the celebrated Dr.
Darwin, of Shrewsbury. All of them, I believe, are dead.

    C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY.

  Birmingham.

_Praying to the Devil_ (Vol. v., p. 273.).--Bishop Hall, in his _Cases
of Conscience_ (Decade iii. Case 2. Lond. 1654), alludes to the fact of
Satanic compacts, as indeed do many others of our old divines. The
master work on the subject is, I believe, that entitled _Disquisitiones
Magicæ_ by Martinus Delrio. Let me particularly refer your correspondent
R. S. F. to Lib. ii. of said volume, Quæst. 4. pp. 99., &c., and to Lib.
v. sect. xvi. pp. 759., &c. (_Coloniæ Agrippinæ_, 1633, 4to.)

In turning over the leaves fortuitously, I stumbled upon the name of
Catherine de Medicis, and perhaps in a connexion that will render the
legend of the steel box not incredible:

  "Sic ille ipse, Bodino non ignotus, faciebat Italus Parisiis, tam
  carus Catharinæ Mediceæ, qui chirothecis, globulis, vel pulveribus
  suave fragrantibus, alios solo necabat odore illæsus ipse, et hoc
  pacto à se interfectam Navarræ Reginam Albretham, veneni vi per
  nares in cerebrum penetrante, gloriabatur. Vera causa est, hæc ex
  pacto fieri per dæmonem," &c.--Lib. iii. pars i. quæst. 3. sect.
  2. p. 394.

    RT.

  Warmington.

_The Word "shunt"_ (Vol. iii., p. 204.).--I can confirm what MR. WAY
says on this word. I have looked for the word in all the dictionaries
and glossaries I could lay my hands upon, both in this country and
abroad, but in vain. Singular enough, however, I have found it in the
small edition of Bailey, and in Dr. Ash's _Dictionary_.

In reading the other day Victor Hugo's _Notre Dame_, I met with the word
_Pignon_, which has exactly the same signification as the Welsh word
_Piniwn, the gable or pine end of a house_. Is the French word derived
from the Welsh, or the Welsh from the French? or is the coincidence in
sound and sense purely accidental? Perhaps some of your Welsh
correspondents can explain this.

    E. JONES.

  Aberayron, Cardiganshire.

_St. Paul's Quotation of Heathen Writers_ (Vol. v., p. 278.).--Acts xiv.
17. Ὑετὸς does not occur, according to the Indexes, in
Sophocles, Euripides, or Pindar.

The style of the Hellenizing Jews was sometimes very poetical, as in the
Wisdom of Solomon: but in one of the most inflated passages in that
book, it does not go so far as οὐρανόθεν. It says only
ἀπ' οὐρανῶν. Nor does Wetstein quote οὐρανόθεν from any author
but Homer. Hesiod might have been added (Passow), but that is the same
thing. It seems a word unfit for prose.

Καιρὸς καρποφόρος is quoted by Wetstein from _Achmet_.

    C. B.

_Rex Lucifer._--It would be a most horrid barbarism to impute to such a
Latin poet as Milton the use of this word for the devil; although in his
theological poem he may have adopted that popular and discreditable
gloss upon Isaiah xiv. The palace of the light-bringing king is no other
than that known to our earliest school-days, in Ovid 1. ad fin. 2. ad
init. Phaëthon passes the "positos sub ignibus Indos," and then "patrios
adit impiger ortus," where

      "Regia Solis erat sublimibus alta columnis," &c.

Milton uses the word as an adjective, as in Ovid, "luciferos, Luna
regebat equos." Otherwise it would necessarily signify the Planet Venus,
or morning star.

    A. N.

_Sir Edward Seaward's Narrative_ (Vol. v., p. 185.).--Miss Porter's
letter speaks of the piety and domestic concord of the Seawards. Your
readers may be amused to know that this piety affords one proof of the
fiction of the narrative. They sometimes give the dates both of the day
of month and week, and derive together much comfort from the singular
applicability of passages in the lessons for the day. When I was reading
the book, the days of the month and week fell the same as in the
narrative, and as it happened to be at the same time of year too, I made
the unpalatable discovery, that, however suitable the passages might be,
they were not as they professed to be, at least not always, from the
lesson of the day.

    P. P.

_Spanish Verses on the Invasion of England_ (Vol. v., p. 294.).--L. H.
J. T. will find the Spanish verses which form the subject of his Query
in Southey's _Quarterly Review_ article on Lord Holland's _Life and
Writings of Lope de Vega_ (_Quarterly Review_, vol. xviii. p. 6.),
together with the following lively version:

      "My brother Don John
      To England is gone,
      To kill the Drake,
      And the Queen to take,
      And the heretics all to destroy;
      And he will give me,
      When he comes back,
      A Lutheran boy
      With a chain round his neck;
      And Grandmamma
      From his share shall have
      A Lutheran maid
      To be her slave."

Southey's reference is, _Romancero General_. _Medina del Campo_, 1602,
ff. 35. The lines form part of "a child's poem, or, more properly, a
poem written in the character of a child (a species of playful
composition at that time popular among the Spaniards)," and are quoted
by Southey, together with an Ode by Luis de Gongora, to show the
exultant anticipation with which the success of the Armada, in which
expedition Lope de Vega had entered himself as a volunteer, was expected
by the Spaniards.

    E. V.

In the second volume of Mr. Ticknor's admirable _History of Spanish
Literature_ will be found an English translation of the Spanish ballad
referred to by your correspondent L. H. J. T. I am not quite sure
whether the Spanish ballad is given by Mr. Ticknor or not; but the
following is a part of the English translation:--

      "And Bartolo, my brother,
        To England forth is gone,
      Where the Drake he means to kill;
       And the Lutherans every one,
      Excommunicate from God.
        Their Queen among the first
      He will capture and bring back,
        Like heretics accurs'd:
      And he promises, moreover,
        Amongst his spoils and gains,
      A heretic young serving-boy
        To give me, bound in chains;
      And for my lady grandmamma,
        Whose years such waiting crave,
      A little handy Lutheran,
        To be her maiden slave."

These stanzas are cited by Mr. Ticknor to illustrate the state of public
feeling which prevailed in Spain respecting Sir Francis Drake and his
countrymen. Lope de Vega was also, it will be remembered, the author of
a poem on Drake's last expedition and death, entitled _La Dragontea_.

    F. L.

  Temple.

_Templars_ (Vol. v., p. 295.).--With respect to the somewhat modern
imposture of the Paris Templars, E. A. H. L. had better consult Thilo's
_Codex Apocryphus_. In the generality of foreign masonic books he will
find the derivation of the Freemasons from the Templars asserted as
being their tradition. As to "the succession of Grand Masters kept up"
by them, I question whether that is asserted by them, or elsewhere than
in the Parisian imposture. The masonic formularies called _Thuileur_,
and M. de Bonneville's _Maçonnerie Ecossaise_, may be consulted. But the
history of the order subsequent to that worthy, Jacques de Molai, will
not there, or elsewhere, be traced. The facts of common external history
which relate to the abolition of that order, such as the foundation of
the Portuguese Order of Christ, will all be found in Wilke's _German
History of the Temple Order_.

    A. N.

E. A. H. L. will find a valuable Note, with reference to the principal
authorities, in Hallam's _Supplemental Notes_, p. 48. ff. See also
Mill's _History of Chivalry_. The Grand Masters, since the suppression,
seem to have been principally Frenchmen. The chief authority is, I
believe, the _Manuel des Templiers_, which is only sold to members of
the society.

    E. S. JACKSON.

  Saffron-Walden.

_Story of the Greek referred to by Jeremy Taylor_ (Vol. iv., pp. 208.
262. 326.).--It may interest those correspondents of "N. & Q." who, in
answer to my Query on the above point, have given references to similar
stories in _Don Quixote_, and the life of St. Nicholas in the _Legenda
Aurea_, to learn that I have lately traced the story to its real source,
on which probably the parallel versions in question were based. The name
of the Greek was Archetimus of Erythræa; that of the victim of the
artifice Cydias of Tenedos. The story is given at length in the _Loci
Communes J. Stobæi, Antonii Melissæ, et Maximi Monachi_, cura Gesner,
Serm. cxvi. p. 362. ed. fol. Francof. 1581.

    ALEXANDER TAYLOR.

_Emaciated Monumental Effigies_ (Vol. v., p. 247.).--The legend repeated
to me whilst viewing the tomb of John Baret, some few years since, is
somewhat different from that related by your correspondent BURIENSIS. A
portion of the roof over the tomb is elaborately diapered with stars of
lead gilt, collars of SS., and a monogram of the letters I.B., together
with the motto, "Grace me governe." (A specimen of the diaper is given
in Collings' _Gothic Ornaments_, 4to., London, 1848.) The sexton
informed me that the person commemorated by the emaciated figure had
undertaken to diaper the whole roof of the church in a manner similar to
the work above his tomb; but, on discovering that his life would be
insufficient for the task, was so affected that he starved himself to
death. I presume that Ba_n_t is a misprint for Ba_re_t, in p. 247. of
your present volume.

The tradition alluded to by your correspondent has been, I believe,
attached by some to the emaciated figure at St. Saviour's, Southwark. A
good example of this kind of memorial is found in the ante-chapel of St.
John's College Chapel, Cambridge.

What foundation is there for the account, that the superb roof of St.
Mary's, Bury St. Edmund's, was constructed in France, and put together
after it was brought to England?

    W. SPARROW SIMPSON.

_Deaths from Fasting_ (Vol. v., pp. 247. 301.).--In the _Oxford Manual
of Sepulchral Brasses_, pp. 168-175., will be found a curious list of
monumental representations of skeletons and emaciated figures in shrouds
(1472-1598), which may, perhaps, prove interesting to BURIENSIS. It is
by no means improbable that some of the examples are intended to
commemorate persons whose deaths occurred in consequence of fasting.

    E. N.

_London Genealogical Society_ (Vol. v., p. 297.).--I presume your
correspondent W. P. A. refers to the Heraldic and Genealogical Society
of Great Britain and Ireland for the Elucidation of Family Antiquity,
which issued a prospectus a few years ago; but whether or not it is
still in existence I am unable to say. Gentlemen desirous of joining the
society were requested to transmit their names to the secretary,
"William Downing Bruce, Esq., K.C.J., F.S.A., United Service
Institution, Whitehall, London," _to whom all communications respecting
it were to be addressed_.

    E. N.

Shortly after its establishment, I was appointed corresponding member to
the London Genealogical Society, but on going to their rooms one
morning, found the concern had "vanished into thin air."

    METAOUO.

_Martinique_ (Vol. v., p. 11.).--There must be some inaccuracy in the
reply of MR. PHILIP S. KING (p. 165.) to the Query of your correspondent
W. J. C.

A reference to the few authorities to which I have access leads me to
suppose that the period of the actual discovery of this island is
involved in some obscurity. Washington Irving assumes its identity with
the island called by its inhabitants "Mantinino," and that it was the
first land made by Columbus on his fourth voyage to the West Indies in
1502. Mr. Major, in his Introduction to the _Select Letters of
Columbus_, published for the Hakluyt Society, inclines to the same
opinion. It is extremely probable that Columbus had heard reports of
this island when he was among the group of the Caribbees in 1493, but he
does not appear to have been then further south than the latitude of
Dominica. Peter Martyr, however, alludes to Mantinino, an island of
Amazons, as having been passed by the admiral to the _north_ of
Guadaloupe, when on his course to Hispaniola. Assuming this to be an
error of position, and that the discovery of the island did not really
take place until the year 1502, the period at which Columbus was there
(June) could have had no influence on its new name, since the days of
the two Saints Martin are in November.

I am inclined to think that the name "Martinico" may have been conferred
by the Spaniards at some subsequent period; and, supposing it to be a
diminutive of _Martin_, in honour of the lesser St. Martin, pope and
martyr, and not him of Tours. _Martinique_ is, of course, the same word
Gallicised.

    R. W. C.

_"The Delicate Investigation," &c._ (Vol. v., p. 201.).--In answer to
the Query of ELGINENSIS, as to the book which he calls _The Trial of the
Princess of Wales_, meaning, I presume, the book generally known at the
time by the name of _The Delicate Investigation_, I beg to inform him,
that several years ago I was present when the sum of five hundred pounds
was paid for a copy of it by an officer high in the service of the then
government.

    H. B.

_Miserrimus_ (Vol. iv., p. 37.).--It may be interesting to your
correspondent F. R. A. to learn that there is a notice of the demise of
the Rev. Thomas _Maurice_, not _Morris_, in the _Gentleman's Magazine_
for 1748; but whether this is a typographical error of our old friend
Sylvanus Urban or not I am unable to discover, although I have made
every research in my power. The celebrated Wordsworth, with other minor
poets, have drawn fanciful pictures of the old divine; but, from what
little may be learned of his history in the paragraph of his decease
above referred to, it is quite evident that all are very far from
depicting the real character of the individual who chose such an
eccentric epitaph as the sole word

    "MISERRIMUS;"

for he is there said to have been "a gentleman very charitable to the
poor, and much esteemed."

The original stone which covered his remains, having the word
"Miserrimus" spelt with a single _r_, being nearly obliterated, was
renewed many years since by, I believe, one of the gentlemen connected
with the cathedral. Your correspondent is correct in stating the work
alluded to as being written by the late F. M. Reynolds. I should feel
obliged if any one could furnish further particulars of this individual.

    J. B. WHITBORNE.

_Cynthia's Dragon-yoke_ (Vol. v., p. 297.).--For the satisfaction of
your Boston correspondent H. T. P., I have been unable to find anything
but the following note from Bishop Newton's edition of Milton's works:--

  "Dragon-yoke.--This office is attributed to dragons on account of
  their watchfulness."

So Shakspeare, in _Cymbeline_, Act II. Sc. 2.:

      "Swift, swift, you _dragons_ of the night."

And in _Troilus and Cressida_, Act V. Sc. 14.:

      "The _dragon_ wing of night o'erspreads the earth."

Milton has somewhat of the same thought again in his Latin poem, _In
Obitum Præsulis Eliensis_:

        "Longeque sub pedibus deam
      Vidi triformem, dum coercebat suos
        Frænis _dracones_ aureis."

    TYRO.

  Dublin.

I apprehend that Cynthia's Dragon-team is given to her as the reward of
her concern in magical rites; of which especially she is the goddess,
and the dragon the beast of burden and locomotion.

    SAX.

_Cromwell's Skull_ (Vol. v., p. 275.).--I believe that, by inquiry at
Mr. Donovan's the phrenologist, in or near the Strand, something may be
heard of Cromwell's skull. I saw, sometime ago, a drawing of it in his
window, in a serial publication on phrenology with which he was
concerned.

    SAX.

_Almas-Cliffe_ (Vol. v., p. 296.).--In the parish of Innerwick, East
Lothian, is a farm named Aimlescleugh, supposed to be a corruption of
_Elms_-cleugh, which may possibly have a common origin with the locality
referred to by your Harrowgate correspondent. Strange to say, the first
meaning of the word _cleugh_, or _cleuch_, as given in Jamieson's
_Dictionary_, is "a precipice, or rugged ascent."

    E. N.

_Artificial Memory_ (Vol. v., p. 305.).--The hexameters on English
counties given by C. S. P. remind me of the following verses, which used
to assist the oblivious student at Oxford when preparing for an
examination on Scripture history. It will be observed that the prosody
is not strictly correct.

1. _The five Cities of the Philistines._ (Josh. xiii. 3.)

      Askelon, Azotus, Gath, Gazæque additur Ekron.
        (Azotus is the same as _Ashdod_.)

2. _The six Cities of Refuge._ (Josh. xx. 7-9.)

      Bezer, Golan, Gilead, urbes _oriente_ locatæ;
        _Solis ab occasu_, Kadesh, Hebronque, Shechem.

3. _The seven Deacons._ (Acts vi. 5.)

      Diaconi Septem, Stephanus, Philipque, Nicanor,
        Parmenas et Prochorus, Nicholas atque Timon.

4. _The seven Churches of Asia._ (Rev. i. 11.)

      Septem Smyrna, Ephesus, Philadelphia, Laodicea;
        Pergamos et Sardis, nec Thyatira deest.

    E. N.

_Punishment of Boiling to Death_ (Vol. v., pp. 32. 112. 184.).--It may
not be uninteresting to adduce an instance in this town:

  "1531. _This year here was a maid boiled to death in the
  Market-place for poisoning her mistress._"

    J. N. C.

  King's Lynn.

_Barnard's Church Music_ (Vol. v., p. 176.).--In addition to the "odd
parts" mentioned by your correspondent AMANUENSIS, may be included a
tenor, and a counter-tenor part, in my possession.

MR. BERIAH BOTFIELD, in his _Notes on the Cathedral Libraries of
England_, p. 439., mentioning the music-books in the Library of the Dean
and Chapter of Westminster, says:

  "I may here notice Day's _Service Book_, 1565, with music; the
  tenor, _Morning and Evening Prayer_, imperfect, but of which only
  three or four copies are known; Barnard's _Cathedral Music_, only
  found elsewhere at Berlin; and several English Music Books of
  great rarity."

I am tolerably well acquainted with the contents of the Westminster
Library, but have not been fortunate enough to discover the copy here
mentioned. Perhaps AMANUENSIS may be more lucky. At present I am under
the impression that MR. BOTFIELD is in error as to the existence of a
copy of _Barnard_ at Westminster.

    EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

_Portrait of Baskerville_ (Vol. iv., p. 211.).--For the information of
your correspondent W. CORNISH, I am enabled to inform him that there is
a beautiful portrait of that celebrated typographist Baskerville in the
possession of the Messrs. Longman of Paternoster Row, and painted too by
that most exquisite of English artists, Gainsborough. Of this portrait
there is also a private plate (copper), from which I happen to possess,
through the kindness of a very old friend, an impression to add to a
collection of Worcestershire portraits.

A former correspondent, Vol. iv., p. 40., states that Mr. Merridew
assured him there was no portrait of Baskerville; but Mr. M., in his
catalogue of _Engraved Warwickshire Portraits_, p. 4., notices a
"woodcut" from an original picture in the possession of the late Thomas
Knott, Esq.

    J. B. WHITBORNE.

_Autograph Music by Handel_ (Vol. v., p. 247.).--I have the pleasure to
inform the Rev. W. SPARROW SIMPSON, that the duet mentioned by him:

      "Và, và, speme infida pur va non ti credo,"

forms the Fifth Number of Handel's celebrated _Chamber Duets_, and was
first printed, I believe, by the late Dr. Samuel Arnold, in his noble
edition of the _Works of Handel_.

The circumstances attending the composition of these chamber duets are
thus alluded to in the anonymous _Memoirs of Handel_, 8vo., 1759, p.
85.:

  "Soon after his [Handel's] return to Hanover [in the year 1711],
  he made twelve Chamber Duettos, for the practice of the late
  Queen, then Electoral Princess. The character of these is well
  known to the judges in music. The words for them were written by
  the Abbate Mauro Hortensio, who had not disdained on other
  occasions to minister to the masters of harmony."

I must, however, beg leave to express my opinion that MR. SPARROW's MS.
is _not_ an _autograph_ of the great composer, on the ground that the
_original_ MSS. of the _Chamber Duets_ are preserved in the Queen's
library at Buckingham Palace. Handel used not to make more than one copy
of his various pieces, unless (as was seldom the case) he made additions
or alterations.

I should mention that a new edition of the _Chamber Duets_ is now in the
course of publication by the Handel Society.

    EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

_Dr. Fell_ (Vol. v., p. 296.).--Your correspondent, who inquires about
the lines of which the above is the subject, may find some answer to his
question in _Life of Canning_, by R. Bell, p. 193., where, after
describing the various attempts of the Pitt party to get Addington to
resign the premiership, it is said: "In vain Sheridan exhausted his wit
upon Addington, and threw the House into convulsions by his parody on
Martial:

      "'I do not like thee, Doctor Fell,' &c."

    E. B.

The author of the lines is Tom Brown, the witty and facetious writer of
_Dialogues of the Dead, in imitation of Lucian_, &c., who being about
to be expelled the University of Oxford for some fault, was pardoned by
the Dean of Christchurch on the condition that he should translate
extempore the epigram from Martial, xxxiii.:

      "Non amo te, Zabidi, nec possum dicere quare;
      Hoc tantum possum dicere, non amo te;"

which he instantly rendered:

      "I do not love thee, Dr. Fell," &c.

    R. I. S.

  [We are indebted to BOSQUECILLIO VIEGO, and other correspondents,
  for similar replies.]

_Fernseed_ (Vol. v., p. 172.).--This was considered a charm of the
highest potency. It not only preserved the fortunate possessor against
the malignant influences of demon, witch, and sorcerer, but enabled him
to render himself invisible at pleasure:

      "We have the receipt of fern-seed, we walk invisible,"

quoth _honest_ Gadshill (_Henry IV._, Part I. Act II. Sc. 1.). The
difficulty and danger with which it could only be obtained, apparently
tended much to enhance its magical value in the estimation of the
cabalist. It was to be gathered, after solemn fasting, and the
performance of mystic ceremonies now unknown, on Midsummer Eve, at the
very instant in which the Baptist's birth took place. The spiritual
world was arrayed in fierce hostility against the daring gatherer. The
fairies used every effort to preserve it from human possession, with an
inveteracy which showed what high value they put upon it. As to the
danger resulting from their hostility, Richard Bovet, in his
_Pandæmonium_ (p. 217., London, 1684), gives curious evidence:--

  "Much discourse hath been about gathering of fern-seed (which is
  looked upon as a magical herb) on the night of Midsummer Eve; and
  I remember I was told of one who went to gather it, and the
  spirits whisk't by his ears like bullets, and sometimes struck his
  hat, and other parts of his body; in fine, though he apprehended
  he had gotten a quantity of it, and secured it in papers, and a
  box besides, when he came home he found all empty. But, most
  probable, this appointing of times and hours is of the devil's own
  institution, as well as the fast; that having once ensnared people
  to an obedience to his rules, he may with more facility oblige
  them to stricter vassalage."

The fern-seed charm is amply discussed in Brand's _Popular Antiquities_,
vol. i. p. 314. (Bohn's edition.)

    R. S. F.

  Perth.

Any of your readers who have access to an amusing book called _The
Radical_, by Samuel Bamford, may see most appalling account of an
adventure connected with the gathering of fern-seed, and other
superstitions.

    P. P.

_Longevity and Rejuvenescency_ (Vol. v., p. 276.).--I beg to refer your
sceptical correspondent to Fuller's _Worthies_ (county of
Northumberland) for a remarkable instance of longevity; viz. Patrick
Machell Vivan, Vicar of Lesbury, near Alnwick. Percival Stockdale, in
his _Memoirs_, gives some further particulars respecting his
predecessor; and I extract from that work (vol. i. p. 149.) a letter
written by the venerable old man, wherein he gives an account of
himself. It is dated Oct. 9, 1657, and addressed to one William Lialkus,
a citizen of Antwerp.

  "Whereas you desired a true and faithful messenger should be sent
  from Newcastle to the parish of Lesbury, to inquire concerning
  John Maklin; I gave you to understand that no such man was known
  ever to be, or hath lived there for these fifty years past, during
  which time I, Patrick Makel Wian, have been minister of that
  parish, wherein I have all that time been present, taught, and do
  yet continue to teach there. But that I may give you some
  satisfaction, you shall understand that I was born in Galloway in
  Scotland, in the year 1546, bred up in the University of
  Edinburgh, where I commenced Master of Arts, whence, travelling
  into England, I kept school, and sometimes preached, till in the
  first of King James I was inducted into the church of Lesbury,
  where I now live. As to what concerns the change of my body, it is
  now the third year since I had two new teeth, one in my upper, the
  other in my nether jaw, as is apparent to the touch. My sight,
  much decayed many years ago, is now, about the 110th year of my
  age, become clearer; hair adorns me heretofore bald skull. I was
  never of a fat, but a slender mean habit of body. My diet has ever
  been moderate, nor was I ever accustomed to feasting and tippling:
  hunger is the best sauce; nor did I ever use to feed to satiety.
  All this is most certain and true, which I have seriously, though
  overhastily, confirmed to you, under the hand of PATRICK MAKEL
  WIAN, Minister of Lesbury."

Mr. Stockdale adds, that there is a tradition that when the Plague
visited Lesbury, in the reign of Charles II., those who were infected
were removed to tents on the neighbouring moor, where the venerable
pastor attended them with great assiduity, ministering to their wants
temporal and spiritual. The date of his death is unknown.

    E. H. A.

_Indignities on the Bodies of Suicides_ (Vol. v., p. 272.).--I much
doubt whether burying in cross roads was originally meant as an
indignity. I think this is nearly connected with my still unanswered
Query, _What is a Tye?_ Vol. iii., p. 263. I suspect suicides were
buried in a cross road, because that was a place where a cross or
crucifix stood, and only second in sanctity to the churchyard; and the
stake driven through the body was perhaps first intended not as an
insult, but to keep the ghost of the suicide from walking on the earth
again.

I would willingly believe our ancestors were not always such savages as
R. S. F. shows us the Scotch once were in this respect. I fear at that
time we were not much better.

    A. HOLT WHITE.

To my previous Note, I beg leave to append a passage from Arnot's
_Criminal Trials_ (p. 368.), which may tend to throw some light on this
subject. In speaking of the witch prosecutions in Scotland, this writer
says:

  "If an unfortunate woman, trembling at a citation for witchcraft,
  ended her sufferings by her own hand, she was dragged from her
  house at a horse's tail, and buried under the gallows."

    R. S. F.

  Perth.

_Large Families_ (Vol. v., pp. 204. 304.).--To the instances of
unusually large numbers of children by one mother given in "N. & Q." may
be added that of a Lady Elphinstone, who is said, by tradition, to have
had no less than thirty-six children, of whom twenty-seven were living
at one time.

There is a story told of this lady and her husband, Lord Elphinstone,
which seems to corroborate the tradition; it is, that they once asked a
new and somewhat bashful acquaintance to visit them, telling him that he
should meet no one but their family circle. Their guest arrived shortly
before dinner, and, being shown through the dining-hall on his way to
the drawing-room, was much disconcerted at seeing a long table laid for
about twenty people. On remonstrating with his host and hostess for
having taken him in, as he thought, he was quietly informed that he had
been told no more than the truth, for that their family party, when all
assembled, only fell short of _thirty_ by _one_.

I believe that John eighth Lord Elphinstone and his lady, a daughter of
the Earl of Lauderdale, who lived in the latter part of the seventeenth
and beginning of the eighteenth centuries, are the pair to whom this
story refers; and, though the Scotch peerages make no mention of any
such phenomenon in the Elphinstone family, yet I am strongly inclined,
from the goodness of the authority from which I derive the tradition, to
believe it to be true; the more so, as it is now acknowledged that the
Scotch peerages, not excepting Douglas's, which has hitherto been the
chief book of reference respecting the noble families of Scotland, are
so full of errors and omissions, that very little reliance can be placed
on them.

Can any of your readers inform me whether any documentary evidence
exists that a lady Elphinstone had this extraordinary number of
children?

    C. E. D.

_Twenty-seven Children, &c._--About fifty years ago, Mrs. Edwards,
residing in Quickset Row, New Road, had her twenty-eighth child, each a
single birth; they were all born alive, and all lived several months,
but she never had more than ten living at a time.

A former pupil of mine knew a lady, of whom he wrote to me, that she had
borne thirty children, all single births; seven only of them arrived at
the age of manhood. He says, "This statement may be relied upon with the
utmost confidence as a fact."

    S. M.

_The last of the Palæologi_ (Vol. v., p. 280.).--This is a most
interesting subject; I beg to refer your readers to _Archæologia_, vol.
xviii. p. 93., and to Burn's _History of Foreign Refugees_, p. 230.

    J. S. B.



Miscellaneous.


NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC.

The readers of "N. & Q." who are lovers of Folk Lore are, we well know,
very numerous; those who take an interest in that subject, and are at
the same time acquainted with the great philological acquirements of the
learned editor of the _Ancient Laws and Institutes of England_, we have
no doubt shared our satisfaction at the announcement that Mr. Thorpe had
undertaken a work, comprehensive yet not too voluminous, in which he
would exhibit the ancient mythology and principal mythologic traditions
of Scandinavia and the North of Germany. The book is now before us; and
in three small volumes, entitled _Northern Mythology, comprising the
principal popular Traditions and Superstitions of Scandinavia, North
Germany, and the Netherlands_, Mr. Thorpe has presented us with such an
amount of information illustrative of the intimate connexion subsisting
between the heathenism of the Germanic nations of the Continent and that
of our Saxon forefathers, gathered from the writings of the best
scholars of Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and the Low Countries, as was
never before within the reach of the mere English student, and, in so
doing, has produced a book which the general reader will devour for the
sake of the amusement to be found in it, the philosopher for the view of
the human mind which it presents, and the antiquary for the abundance of
new light which it throws upon many of the most obscure points in the
Folk Lore of Merry England. We shall probably often have occasion to
refer to it, in illustration of communications upon a subject which is
yet far from exhausted.

We were reminded, by the excellent explanation of the word _Bigot_,
quoted by a correspondent in our last Number (p. 331.) from the Rev. R.
Chevenix Trench's Lectures _On the Study of Words_, of a duty we owed to
our readers, namely, that of calling their attention more directly to
this admirable little volume. The Lectures, which are "On the Morality
in Words," "On the History in Words," "On the Rise of New Words," "On
the Distinction of Words," and "The Schoolmaster's Use of Words," may be
said to be a continuous and well-digested series of proofs of the truth
of the remark, that "there are cases in which more knowledge of more
value may be conveyed by the history of a word, than by the history of
a campaign." The book is, indeed, altogether a delightful one,
calculated not only to delight the understanding, but do so in such a
spirit as shall leave the reader a better as well as a wiser man.

_Fraser's Magazine_ for the present month opens with an article on a
subject which will doubtless interest many of our readers. It is
entitled _The Colleges of Oxford_, and exhibits, with much clearness, a
sketch of their origin and history, and is obviously introductory to the
consideration of their future policy.

_The Afghans, the Ten Tribes, and the Kings of the East. The Druses, the
Moabites_, by the Right Hon. Sir G. H. Rose, is, as the ample title
shows, an endeavour to establish the identity of the Afghans with the
Ten Tribes, and of the Druses with the Moabites; and the argument is
carried on in a manner which reflects the highest credit upon the
learning and reverent spirit of the writer.

_The Orations of Marcus Tullius Cicero literally translated_, by C. D.
Yonge, vol. iii., is the new volume of Bohn's _Classical Library_, and
contains the orations for his house, Plancius, Sextius, Cælius, Milo,
Ligarius, &c.

_A few Remarks on the Emendation "Who Smothers her with Painting," in
the Play of Cymbeline, discovered by Mr. Collier in a corrected Copy of
the Second Edition of Shakspeare_, by J. O. Halliwell. A pamphlet in
which Mr. Halliwell defends the old reading,

      "Whose mother was her painting,"

against the ingenious suggestion of the anonymous emendator of Mr.
Collier's second folio.


BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES

WANTED TO PURCHASE.

BACK'S VOYAGE OF THE TERROR, 8vo.

BACK'S OVERLAND JOURNEY IN THE ARCTIC REGIONS, 8vo.

L'HISTOIRE DE LA SAINCTE BIBLE, par ROYAUMONDE: à Paris, 1701.

JOHNSON'S (DR. S.) WORKS, by MURPHY. Trade Edition of 1816, in 8vo. Vol.
XII. only.

SCOTT'S CONTINUATION OF MILNER'S CHURCH HISTORY. Vol. II. Part II. 8vo.

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Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, April 10, 1852.



      [Transcriber's Note: List of volumes and content pages in "Notes
      and Queries", Vol. I.-V.]

      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. I.                                   |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.     | Date, Year        | Pages     | PG # xxxxx  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  1 | November  3, 1849 |   1 -  17 | PG #  8603  |
      | Vol. I No.  2 | November 10, 1849 |  18 -  32 | PG # 11265  |
      | Vol. I No.  3 | November 17, 1849 |  33 -  46 | PG # 11577  |
      | Vol. I No.  4 | November 24, 1849 |  49 -  63 | PG # 13513  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  5 | December  1, 1849 |  65 -  80 | PG # 11636  |
      | Vol. I No.  6 | December  8, 1849 |  81 -  95 | PG # 13550  |
      | Vol. I No.  7 | December 15, 1849 |  97 - 112 | PG # 11651  |
      | Vol. I No.  8 | December 22, 1849 | 113 - 128 | PG # 11652  |
      | Vol. I No.  9 | December 29, 1849 | 130 - 144 | PG # 13521  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 10 | January   5, 1850 | 145 - 160 | PG #        |
      | Vol. I No. 11 | January  12, 1850 | 161 - 176 | PG # 11653  |
      | Vol. I No. 12 | January  19, 1850 | 177 - 192 | PG # 11575  |
      | Vol. I No. 13 | January  26, 1850 | 193 - 208 | PG # 11707  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 14 | February  2, 1850 | 209 - 224 | PG # 13558  |
      | Vol. I No. 15 | February  9, 1850 | 225 - 238 | PG # 11929  |
      | Vol. I No. 16 | February 16, 1850 | 241 - 256 | PG # 16193  |
      | Vol. I No. 17 | February 23, 1850 | 257 - 271 | PG # 12018  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 18 | March     2, 1850 | 273 - 288 | PG # 13544  |
      | Vol. I No. 19 | March     9, 1850 | 289 - 309 | PG # 13638  |
      | Vol. I No. 20 | March    16, 1850 | 313 - 328 | PG # 16409  |
      | Vol. I No. 21 | March    23, 1850 | 329 - 343 | PG # 11958  |
      | Vol. I No. 22 | March    30, 1850 | 345 - 359 | PG # 12198  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 23 | April     6, 1850 | 361 - 376 | PG # 12505  |
      | Vol. I No. 24 | April    13, 1850 | 377 - 392 | PG # 13925  |
      | Vol. I No. 25 | April    20, 1850 | 393 - 408 | PG # 13747  |
      | Vol. I No. 26 | April    27, 1850 | 409 - 423 | PG # 13822  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 27 | May       4, 1850 | 425 - 447 | PG # 13712  |
      | Vol. I No. 28 | May      11, 1850 | 449 - 463 | PG # 13684  |
      | Vol. I No. 29 | May      18, 1850 | 465 - 479 | PG # 15197  |
      | Vol. I No. 30 | May      25, 1850 | 481 - 495 | PG # 13713  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. II.                                  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.      | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 31 | June  1, 1850      |   1- 15 | PG # 12589  |
      | Vol. II No. 32 | June  8, 1850      |  17- 32 | PG # 15996  |
      | Vol. II No. 33 | June 15, 1850      |  33- 48 | PG # 26121  |
      | Vol. II No. 34 | June 22, 1850      |  49- 64 | PG # 22127  |
      | Vol. II No. 35 | June 29, 1850      |  65- 79 | PG # 22126  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 36 | July  6, 1850      |  81- 96 | PG # 13361  |
      | Vol. II No. 37 | July 13, 1850      |  97-112 | PG # 13729  |
      | Vol. II No. 38 | July 20, 1850      | 113-128 | PG # 13362  |
      | Vol. II No. 39 | July 27, 1850      | 129-143 | PG # 13736  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 40 | August  3, 1850    | 145-159 | PG # 13389  |
      | Vol. II No. 41 | August 10, 1850    | 161-176 | PG # 13393  |
      | Vol. II No. 42 | August 17, 1850    | 177-191 | PG # 13411  |
      | Vol. II No. 43 | August 24, 1850    | 193-207 | PG # 13406  |
      | Vol. II No. 44 | August 31, 1850    | 209-223 | PG # 13426  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 45 | September  7, 1850 | 225-240 | PG # 13427  |
      | Vol. II No. 46 | September 14, 1850 | 241-256 | PG # 13462  |
      | Vol. II No. 47 | September 21, 1850 | 257-272 | PG # 13936  |
      | Vol. II No. 48 | September 28, 1850 | 273-288 | PG # 13463  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 49 | October  5, 1850   | 289-304 | PG # 13480  |
      | Vol. II No. 50 | October 12, 1850   | 305-320 | PG # 13551  |
      | Vol. II No. 51 | October 19, 1850   | 321-351 | PG # 15232  |
      | Vol. II No. 52 | October 26, 1850   | 353-367 | PG # 22624  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 53 | November  2, 1850  | 369-383 | PG # 13540  |
      | Vol. II No. 54 | November  9, 1850  | 385-399 | PG # 22138  |
      | Vol. II No. 55 | November 16, 1850  | 401-415 | PG # 15216  |
      | Vol. II No. 56 | November 23, 1850  | 417-431 | PG # 15354  |
      | Vol. II No. 57 | November 30, 1850  | 433-454 | PG # 15405  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 58 | December  7, 1850  | 457-470 | PG # 21503  |
      | Vol. II No. 59 | December 14, 1850  | 473-486 | PG # 15427  |
      | Vol. II No. 60 | December 21, 1850  | 489-502 | PG # 24803  |
      | Vol. II No. 61 | December 28, 1850  | 505-524 | PG # 16404  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. III.                                 |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 62 | January  4, 1851  |   1- 15 | PG # 15638  |
      | Vol. III No. 63 | January 11, 1851  |  17- 31 | PG # 15639  |
      | Vol. III No. 64 | January 18, 1851  |  33- 47 | PG # 15640  |
      | Vol. III No. 65 | January 25, 1851  |  49- 78 | PG # 15641  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 66 | February  1, 1851 |  81- 95 | PG # 22339  |
      | Vol. III No. 67 | February  8, 1851 |  97-111 | PG # 22625  |
      | Vol. III No. 68 | February 15, 1851 | 113-127 | PG # 22639  |
      | Vol. III No. 69 | February 22, 1851 | 129-159 | PG # 23027  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 70 | March  1, 1851    | 161-174 | PG # 23204  |
      | Vol. III No. 71 | March  8, 1851    | 177-200 | PG # 23205  |
      | Vol. III No. 72 | March 15, 1851    | 201-215 | PG # 23212  |
      | Vol. III No. 73 | March 22, 1851    | 217-231 | PG # 23225  |
      | Vol. III No. 74 | March 29, 1851    | 233-255 | PG # 23282  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 75 | April  5, 1851    | 257-271 | PG # 23402  |
      | Vol. III No. 76 | April 12, 1851    | 273-294 | PG # 26896  |
      | Vol. III No. 77 | April 19, 1851    | 297-311 | PG # 26897  |
      | Vol. III No. 78 | April 26, 1851    | 313-342 | PG # 26898  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 79 | May  3, 1851      | 345-359 | PG # 26899  |
      | Vol. III No. 80 | May 10, 1851      | 361-382 | PG # 32495  |
      | Vol. III No. 81 | May 17, 1851      | 385-399 | PG # 29318  |
      | Vol. III No. 82 | May 24, 1851      | 401-415 | PG # 28311  |
      | Vol. III No. 83 | May 31, 1851      | 417-440 | PG # 36835  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 84 | June  7, 1851     | 441-472 | PG # 37379  |
      | Vol. III No. 85 | June 14, 1851     | 473-488 | PG # 37403  |
      | Vol. III No. 86 | June 21, 1851     | 489-511 | PG # 37496  |
      | Vol. III No. 87 | June 28, 1851     | 513-528 | PG # 37516  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. IV.                                  |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No.  88 | July  5, 1851      |   1- 15 | PG # 37548 |
      | Vol. IV No.  89 | July 12, 1851      |  17- 31 | PG # 37568 |
      | Vol. IV No.  90 | July 19, 1851      |  33- 47 | PG # 37593 |
      | Vol. IV No.  91 | July 26, 1851      |  49- 79 | PG # 37778 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No.  92 | August  2, 1851    |  81- 94 | PG # 38324 |
      | Vol. IV No.  93 | August  9, 1851    |  97-112 | PG # 38337 |
      | Vol. IV No.  94 | August 16, 1851    | 113-127 | PG # 38350 |
      | Vol. IV No.  95 | August 23, 1851    | 129-144 | PG # 38386 |
      | Vol. IV No.  96 | August 30, 1851    | 145-167 | PG # 38405 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No.  97 | Sept.  6, 1851     | 169-183 | PG # 38433 |
      | Vol. IV No.  98 | Sept. 13, 1851     | 185-200 | PG # 38491 |
      | Vol. IV No.  99 | Sept. 20, 1851     | 201-216 | PG # 38574 |
      | Vol. IV No. 100 | Sept. 27, 1851     | 217-246 | PG # 38656 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 101 | Oct.  4, 1851      | 249-264 | PG # 38701 |
      | Vol. IV No. 102 | Oct. 11, 1851      | 265-287 | PG # 38773 |
      | Vol. IV No. 103 | Oct. 18, 1851      | 289-303 | PG # 38864 |
      | Vol. IV No. 104 | Oct. 25, 1851      | 305-333 | PG # 38926 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 105 | Nov.  1, 1851      | 337-358 | PG # 39076 |
      | Vol. IV No. 106 | Nov.  8, 1851      | 361-374 | PG # 39091 |
      | Vol. IV No. 107 | Nov. 15, 1851      | 377-396 | PG # 39135 |
      | Vol. IV No. 108 | Nov. 22, 1851      | 401-414 | PG # 39197 |
      | Vol. IV No. 109 | Nov. 29, 1851      | 417-430 | PG # 39233 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 110 | Dec.  6, 1851      | 433-460 | PG # 39338 |
      | Vol. IV No. 111 | Dec. 13, 1851      | 465-478 | PG # 39393 |
      | Vol. IV No. 112 | Dec. 20, 1851      | 481-494 | PG # 39438 |
      | Vol. IV No. 113 | Dec. 27, 1851      | 497-510 | PG # 39503 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. V.                                   |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         |  Pages  | PG # xxxxx |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. V  No. 114 | January  3, 1852   |   1- 18 | PG # 40171 |
      | Vol. V  No. 115 | January 10, 1852   |  25- 45 | PG # 40582 |
      | Vol. V  No. 116 | January 17, 1852   |  49- 70 | PG # 40642 |
      | Vol. V  No. 117 | January 24, 1852   |  73- 94 | PG # 40678 |
      | Vol. V  No. 118 | January 31, 1852   |  97-118 | PG # 40716 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. V  No. 119 | February  7, 1852  | 121-142 | PG # 40742 |
      | Vol. V  No. 120 | February 14, 1852  | 145-167 | PG # 40743 |
      | Vol. V  No. 121 | February 21, 1852  | 170-191 | PG # 40773 |
      | Vol. V  No. 122 | February 28, 1852  | 193-215 | PG # 40779 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. V  No. 123 | March  6, 1852     | 217-239 | PG # 40804 |
      | Vol. V  No. 124 | March 13, 1852     | 241-263 | PG # 40843 |
      | Vol. V  No. 125 | March 20, 1852     | 265-287 | PG # 40910 |
      | Vol. V  No. 126 | March 27, 1852     | 289-310 | PG # 40987 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. V  No. 127 | April 3, 1852      | 313-335 | PG # 41138 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol I. Index. [Nov. 1849-May 1850]             | PG # 13536 |
      | INDEX TO THE SECOND VOLUME. MAY-DEC., 1850     | PG # 13571 |
      | INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. JAN.-JUNE, 1851     | PG # 26770 |
      | INDEX TO THE FOURTH VOLUME. JULY-DEC., 1851    | PG # 40166 |
      +------------------------------------------------+------------+





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