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Title: Notes and Queries, Vol. V, Number 129, April 17, 1852 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. V, Number 129, April 17, 1852 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

[Transcriber's note: Original spelling varieties have not been
standardized. Characters with macrons have been marked in brackets with
an equal sign, as [=e] for a letter e with a macron on top. Underscores
have been used to indicate _italic_ fonts. A list of volumes and pages
in "Notes and Queries" has been added at the end.]





"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

VOL. V.--No. 129. SATURDAY, APRIL 17. 1852.

Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition, 5_d._




      An Epitaph in St. Giles's, Cripplegate, possibly by
      Milton, by Thomas H. Gill                                  361

      Liability to Error, by Bolton Corney                       362

      Baxter's Pulpit, by Cuthbert Bede, B.A.                    363

      Popular Stories of the English Peasantry, No. I. By
      T. Sternberg                                               363

      Folk Lore:--Body and Soul--Giving Cheese at a
      Birth--Sneezing--Marlborough 5th November Custom--Spectral
      Coach and Horses                                           364

      Antiquaries of the Time of Queen Elizabeth                 365

      The Tredescants and Elias Ashmole, by S. W. Singer         367

      Minor Notes:--Bothwell's Burial-place--Handel's
      "Oxford Manual of Monumental Brasses"--Milton's
      Rib-bone                                                   368


      The Danes in England, by J. J. A. Worsaae                  369

      Minor Queries:--Taylor Family--Analysis--Old
      Playing Cards--Canongate Marriages--Devil, Proper
      Name--Hendurucus du Booys; Helena Leonora de
      Sieveri--Can a Clergyman marry himself? &c.                370

      MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--Jacobite Toast--Rev.
      Barnabas Oley--Sweet-singers--"Philip Quarll"--Dedication
      of Middleton Church--Lunatic Asylum
      benefited by Dean Swift                                    372


      St. Christopher                                            372

      "Rehetour" and "Moke," two obscure Words used by
      Wycklyffe, A.D. 1384, by N. L. Benmohel, A.M.              373

      Plague Stones                                              374

      Rhymes on Places                                           374

      Archaic and Provincial Words                               375

      London Street Characters                                   376

      Stone Pillar Worship                                       377

      On a Passage in Hamlet, Act 1. Sc. 4.                      377

      "The Man in the Almanack," by S. W. Singer                 378

      Epigram on Dr. Fell                                        379

      Replies to Minor Queries:--Verses in Prose--Stops,
      when first introduced--Rev. Nathaniel Spinckes, &c.        379


      Notes on Books, &c.                                        382

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted                               383

      Notices to Correspondents                                  383

      Advertisements                                             383



The chief glory of the church of St. Giles, Cripplegate, is the
possession of Milton's dust. But this does not constitute its only
distinction. It boasts a magnificent organ, and the most beautiful
epitaph with which I am acquainted. As this last may be as much of a
stranger to many of your readers as it was to me, and may bestow upon
the curious in such matters some portion of the pleasure which its
discovery gave me, I venture to crave for it a nook in your columns.
Considerably to the right of the pulpit, at no great distance, if I
recollect aright, to the left of the main entrance, is a monument to
William Staples, a citizen of London, who died in 1650, whereon is
inscribed the following elegiac couplet:

      "Quod cum coelicolis habitus, pars altera nostri,
      Non dolet, hic tantûm me superesse dolet."

Which may be thus Englished:

      "That Heaven's thy home, I grieve not, soul most dear;
      I grieve but for myself, the lingerer here."

Below the inscription are the touching words--

      "Hoc posuit moestissima uxor, Sara."

Putting aside all partiality for one's own discovery, I confess that I
do not know the fellow of this epitaph. It realises one's ideal of an
epitaph, inasmuch as it combines exceeding brevity and beauty of
expression with exceeding fulness of thought and feeling. Love, sorrow,
and faith, bereaved affection and trustful piety, find most ample and
exquisite utterance in these two lines. It has scarcely won the fame to
which it is entitled: I have never met with it in any collection of
epitaphs. The authorship would have done no dishonour to Milton himself,
to whose place of sepulture it lends, if possible, an additional
consecration. Curiously enough, not merely its singular excellence, but
also its date, and one or two other circumstances, give some little
encouragement to the idea of Miltonic ownership. The monument bears the
date of 1650, when Milton was in the fulness of his powers and
reputation. He was especially connected with Cripplegate Church; more
than one of his many London abodes were in its neighbourhood. There, in
the earlier part of his London life, during his residence in Aldersgate
Street, he may have often worshipped; there his father lay; there he
meant his own sepulchre to be. He who honoured "the religious memory of
Mrs. Catharine Thomson, my Christian Friend," with his most glorious
sonnet, would not have disdained to bestow a couplet upon the grief of
another obscure friend. There are, then, certain presumptions in favour
of Cripplegate Church containing an epitaph by Milton. But it does not
appear in any collection of the works of one who was so careful of his
smallest and most juvenile productions. This fact, I must confess, is
quite strong enough to demolish a likely and pleasing fancy. The
epitaph, however, though it may not be Miltonic, has every possible
merit, and may find favour with such of your readers as delight in the
literature of tombstones.



As I always strive to be accurate when writing for the press, an
accidental error should not give me much compunction; nevertheless, a
touch of the feeling is sure to obtrude itself on such occasions. Even
the apprehension of having added to the mass of current errors gives me
a fit of uneasiness, and having just recovered from an attack of that
description it may not be amiss to report the case for the benefit of
future patients.

When I wrote a memorandum on James Wilson, in reply to the query of
professor DE MORGAN, I stated that the united libraries of Pemberton and
Wilson were sold in 1772. _It was guess-work._

I recollected that the two libraries were sold in conjunction, but could
not recollect the date. On consulting the printed _List of the original
catalogues_ of libraries sold by auction by Mr. Baker and his successors
in the years 1744-1828, which was issued by the firm in the latter year,
the date appeared to be 1757. With that evidence, I penned a short
comment on the remarkable circumstance of the two learned friends
resolving to dispose of their libraries at the same time, on their
surviving the separation from their beloved books for fourteen years,
and on their dying within about six months of each other.

Some undefinable suspicions arose in my mind at this point of the
inquiry. Now, the original sale catalogue is in existence, and
accessible on proper application. I examined it. The sale commenced on
_Monday, February the 24th_. The year 1757 is added in _manuscript_;
and, since Pemberton and Wilson are described as _lately deceased_, it
is an undoubted error. So I tore up my sentimental scrap, leaving the
fragments on the table for the benefit of autograph collectors, and
replaced it with the six lines which conclude my reply. On reaching
home, I turned to the _Chronology of history_: the dominical letter was
just what I wished it to be! The _Book of almanacs_ added to my
comfortable sensations.

On a re-examination of my notes, it appeared that the united libraries
were sold by Baker and Leigh. Now, according to the above-described
_List of catalogues_, the partnership between Baker and Leigh did not
take place till 1775. The phrase _lately deceased_, applied to Pemberton
and Wilson, is not very precise; the sale, however, must have been after
1774. Resolved to pursue the inquiry, I examined a copy of the catalogue
in the royal library in the British Museum. It is bound with the
catalogue of the library of Edward Stanley, Esq., secretary to the
customs, which was sold in February 1776, and follows it. The volume is
lettered 1776. As the libraries of Pemberton and Wilson were to be
_viewed on Monday the 17th_, I turned to that day in the Stanley sale;
it was _Monday the 17th_. This seemed to prove that the two collections
were sold in the same year. Chronology says otherwise: the _Monday the
17th_ of the Stanley catalogue is an error of the printer; and the
lettering, with regard to Pemberton and Wilson, is an error of the

Believing, on the evidence above stated, that the sale was after the
year 1774, I came to the conclusion that it was in 1777--in which year
the 24th February fell on Monday. On further search at home, I met with
the catalogue in question. It is in a volume which was successively in
the possession of Dent and Heber, and contains the rare Fairfax
catalogue; also, _A catalogue of the very valuable library of Phillip
Carteret Webb, Esq._, which was sold by _Baker and Leigh_ in 1771. It
now became evident that the libraries of Pemberton and Wilson might have
been sold by _Baker and Leigh_ in 1772; and on examining the _Public
advertiser_ for that year, I found the sale advertised on Thursday the
20th of February. So I was right by _chance_, and in spite of manuscript
and printed authorities. Here ends the case.

Another anecdote in connexion with this inquiry deserves to be recorded.
I had read the life of Pemberton in the _General biographical
dictionary_. Chalmers therein states that his course of lectures on
chemistry, "was published in 1771, by his friend Dr. James Wilson." I
applied for the volume at the British Museum. By a rare accident the
_Scheme for a course of chemistry_ was produced instead of the _Course
of chemistry_, and as the day was far advanced, and _copy_ due, I gave
up the pursuit. On examination, it turns out that the volume contains a
memoir of Pemberton in twenty-three pages. Chalmers cites Hutton and
Shaw as his authorities; and _Hutton_, as I conceive, gives the
substance of it as his own composition! Wilson, in this important
memoir, declares that his intimacy with Pemberton was the _greatest
felicity_ of his life. He dates it the 10th Aug. 1771. He died on the
29th of September in the same year.

Wilson remarks, in his previous work, that on the successful practice of
navigation "depends, in an especial manner, the flourishing state of our
country." To this remark no one can refuse assent. The _Dissertation_ on
the history of the art has fallen into oblivion, because it exists only
in a work which has been superseded by others; but I venture to express
my opinion that a separate edition of it, with such corrections and
additions as might be required, and a continuation to the present time,
would be a desirable addition to scientific literature; and that no one
would perform the task with more ability, or more conscientiously, than
professor DE MORGAN.



The pulpit formerly used at Kidderminster by Richard Baxter, the eminent
author of _The Saint's Rest_, is still preserved there. In his day it
stood on the north side of the nave of the parish church (St. Mary's),
against the second pillar from the east. But in 1786, the church was
"repaired, repewed, and beautified," in the style of those good old
times: when, it being thought advisable to have a new pulpit _built_ in
a central situation, Baxter's old pulpit was condemned, and, together
with other pieces of carved work, was offered for sale (!) by the then
churchwardens, as old and useless church furniture. The churchmen of
that day appear to have held the same opinions as their wardens; so the
pulpit (with the exception of its pedestal) was purchased by the
Unitarians of the place. Their successors have carefully preserved it,
and it now stands in a room adjacent to their chapel.

The pulpit is of oak: octagonal in its shape, and properly decorated
with flowers and architectural ornaments, in the well-known style of the
period. Gold letters, inserted in six of the panels, somewhat
ostentatiously informed the congregation that--


On the face of the pulpit, and immediately beneath the preacher's desk,
is the text:

      "PRAISE · THE · LORD."

And round the sounding-board are the words:


On the oak board at the back of the pulpit is the date:

      "ANNO · 1621."

surmounted by a projecting crown and cushion of bold workmanship. The
mariner's compass is painted on the underside of the sounding-board, and
the entire pulpit bears manifest traces of having once been adorned with
gold and colours.

The octagonal pillar and pedestal on which the pulpit once stood, now
serve to support the floor of a bookseller's shop in the High Street.

Within the room where the pulpit is now preserved is placed a folio copy
of Baxter's work in four volumes, and an engraving of "the reverend and
learned Mr. Richard Baxter," taken from the original picture in the
possession of Mr. Fawcett, formerly of Kidderminster. A handsomely
carved chair, formerly the property of Bishop Hall, is also placed near
to the pulpit.

Can any of your correspondents inform me, if any engraving of Baxter's
pulpit has been published? I have made many inquiries, but have never
met with or heard of one. Three years since, I etched on the copper a
correct representation of the present state of the pulpit; when, in
answer to my inquiries, I was told that no one had even sketched it for
many years.

A notice of "Richard Baxter," and his 168 publications, occurs in "N. &
Q.," Vol. iii., p. 370.

I inclose you an impression from the etching just referred to.



Only a few years before the advent of Ambrose Merton, it was the
sorrowful lament of Picken that he could find no legendary lore among
our English peasantry. The rapid progress of education, according to
him, had long ago banished our household traditions. Want of
acquaintance with the shy and reserved character of John Bull probably
proved a stumbling-block to our collector, for what a rich harvest has
been reaped since his day! Our mythic treasures, however, are far from
being exhausted; and if we wish to emulate our brethren of Deutschland,
we must do yet more. The popular tales and legends which abound among
our rural population, are still for the most part ungarnered. The
folk-tales of the sister kingdoms have been ably chronicled in the pages
of Croker and Chambers, but our own have been almost entirely neglected.
So much indeed is this the case, that we have had recourse to Germany in
order to recruit our exhausted nursery literature; and readers of _all_
sizes devour with avidity the charming versions of the Messieurs Taylor,
few of them suspecting that stories of like character form the sole
imaginative lore of their uneducated countrymen.

Some years ago while in the country I made a practice of noting down the
more curious traditionary stories which came under my notice; and, with
the kind permission of the Editor, will transfer a few portions of my
researches to the columns of "N. & Q.," in the hope of inducing some of
your rural correspondents to embark in a similar design. I am aware that
certain antiquaries of the old _régime_ still entertain doubts as to the
utility of these collections. As vestiges, however, of primitive
fiction, they will interest the philosophical inquirer; while their
value as contributions to ethnological and philological science has been
recognised by all writers on the subject.

Premising that these tales, however puerile, are not associated with any
such idea by the people among whom they were gathered, permit me to
introduce your readers to "Thoughtful Moll," in whom they will trace a
remarkable resemblance to _Die kluge Else_ of Grimm. It is from
Oxfordshire, and affords no bad specimen of the facetious class of
fables which often enliven the winter's evening hearth-talk. I have
endeavoured to preserve the narrators' style and dialect.

In a certain village there once lived a young woman so extremely noted
for prudence and forethought, that she was known among her neighbours as
"Thoughtful Moll." Now this young lady had a thirsty soul of a
sweetheart, who dearly loved a drop of October, and one day when he came
a-wooing to her: "O Moll," says he, "fill us a tot o'yeal, I be most
mortal dry." So Moll took a tot from the shelf and went down the cellar,
where she tarried so long that her father sent down her sister to see
what had come of her. When she got there she found her sister weeping
bitterly. "What ails thee, wench?" said she. "O!" sobbed Moll, "don't ye
see that stwon in the arch, that stands out from the mortar like? Now,
mayhaps, when I be married an have a bwoy, an he comes down here to draw
beer, that big stwon'll fall down on'm and crush'm." "Thoughtful Moll!"
said her admiring sister, and the two sat down and mingled their tears
together. The drink not being forthcoming, another sister is despatched,
and she also stops. Meantime Dob grew chafed at the delay, and went down
himself to look after his love and his beer. When he hears the cause of
the stoppage, he falls into a violent rage, and declares he won't have
Moll unless he can find three bigger fools than herself and sisters. It
is noonday when Dob sets out on his travels; and the first person he saw
was an old woman, who was running about and brandishing her bonnet in
the sunshine: "What bist at, Dame?" says Dob. "Why," said the old woman;
"I'm a ketchin' sunshine in this here bonnet to dry me carn as a' leased
in wet." "Mass!" quoth Dob, "that's one fool." And so on he went till he
came to another Gothanite, who was dragging about the corn-fields a huge
branch of oak. "What may ye be a-doin' wi' that, Measter?" says Dob.
"Kaint ye see?" says the man; "I'm a gettin' the crows to settle on this
branch, they've had a'most all me crop a'ready." "The devil you are!"
said Dob, as he went on his way. He meets no one else for a long time,
and almost despairs of completing his number, when at last he sees an
old woman trying all she could to get a cow to go up a ladder. "What are
ye arter there, Missus?" says he. "Dwunt ye see, young mon?" says she;
"I'm a drivin' this keow up the lather t'eat the grass aff the thack."
"Deary me!" says Dob, "one fool makes many." And so he turned back, and
married Moll; with whom he lived long and happily, if not wisely.[1]

  [Footnote 1: Glossary.--_Tot_, a mug; _yeal_, ale; _leased_,
  gleaned; _lather_, ladder; _thack_, thatch.]

Besides Grimm's version, we meet with a somewhat similar fable in
Ireland. Vide Gerald Griffin's _Collegians_, p. 139.

Another pretty numerous class of our popular stories consists of those
in which animals are made the actors. One of the most common of these
relates to the strife between the fox and the hedgehog, who, according
to the good people of Northamptonshire, are the two most astute animals
in creation. How a couple of these worthies once fell out as to which
was the swifter animal; and how, when they had put their speed to the
trial, the cunning urchin contrived to defeat Reynard by placing his
consort in the furrow which was to form the goal: so that when her mate
had made a pretence of starting, she might jump out and feign to be
himself just arrived. And how, after three desperate runs, the
broken-winded fox fell a victim to the deceit, and was compelled to
yield to his adversary; who, ever since that day, has been his most
inveterate enemy. This myth is curious on many accounts, for the
hedgehog has always been regarded as an emblem of subtlety. Grimm gives
a tale precisely similar, with the exception that it is a hare and not a
fox who is deceived by the ruse. Aldrovandus likewise tells us much on
the score of his craft; and it was probably some mythic connexion
between the animals which led Archilochus to class them together in the

      "Πολλ' οἶδ' ἀλώπηξ, ἀλλ' ἐχῖνος ἓν μέγα."

Your readers will also call to mind the fable of Ælian, lib. IV. cap.



_Body and Soul._--The other day, in a village in Huntingdonshire, an
unbaptized child was buried. A neighbour expressed great sorrow for the
mother because "no bell had been rung over the corpse." On asking why
this circumstance should be so peculiarly a cause of grief, she told me
that it was "because when any one died, the soul never left the body
until the church bell was rung." Is this superstition believed in
elsewhere? And does it arise from mistaken notions regarding "the
passing bell,"--the "one short peal" which the 67th canon orders to be
rung "after the party's death?"


_Giving Cheese at a Birth._--In the county of Northumberland, not far
from the Cheviots, I met with the following custom. When a woman's
confinement is near, a cheese is made, which, when the child is born, is
cut into pieces and distributed among all the houses (without exception)
in the vicinity. If the child is a boy, the pieces of cheese are sent to
the males; if a girl, to the females, each member of a family receiving
a portion. Visitors also come in for their share. Whence did this custom


_Sneezing._--"The custom of blessing persons when they sneeze," says
Brand, "has, without doubt, been derived to the Christian world, where
it generally prevails, from the time of heathenism." In addition to the
interesting notice of the prevalence of this custom in Europe, and many
remote parts of Asia and Africa, given by Brand, I find traces of it
amongst the American tribes at the period of the Spanish conquest. In
1542, when Hernando de Soto, the famous conquest-actor of Florida, had
an interview with the Cacique Guachoya, the following curious incident

  "In the midst of their conversation, the Cacique happened to
  sneeze. Upon this, all his attendants bowed their heads, opened
  and closed their arms; and making their signs of veneration,
  saluted their prince with various phrases of the same purport:
  'May the sun guard you,' 'may the sun be with you,' 'may the sun
  shine upon you,' 'defend you,' 'prosper you,' and the like; each
  uttered the phrase that came first to his mind, and for a short
  time there was a universal murmuring of these compliments."--_The
  Conquest of Florida under Hernando de Soto_, by Theodore Irving,
  vol. ii. p. 161.

Whence could the natives of the New World have derived a custom so
strikingly similar to that which the ancients record?

    R. S. F.


_Marlborough 5th November Custom._--At Marlborough, Wiltshire, on the
5th of November, two or three years ago, I noticed a peculiar custom the
rustics have at their bonfires, to which I could attach no meaning; and
I did not, at the time, inquire of any person there regarding it.

They form themselves into a ring of some dozen or more round the
bonfire, and follow each other round it, holding thick club-sticks over
their shoulders; while a few others, standing at distances outside this
moving ring, with the same sort of sticks, beat those the men hold over
their shoulders, as they pass round in succession, all shouting and
screaming loudly. This might last half an hour at a time, and be
continued at intervals till the fire died out. Can any correspondent
inform me whether this _has_ any meaning attached to it?

    J. S. A.

  Old Broad Street.

_Spectral Coach and Horses_ (Vol. iv., p. 195.).--A similar legend was
within a few years current near Bury St. Edmunds, in the same county,
where on Christmas Eve, at midnight, a coach drawn by four headless
horses, and driven by a headless coachman, might be seen to come in a
direction from the parish of Great Barton, across the fields, regardless
of fences, and proceed to a deep hole called "Phillis's Hole" near "the
two-mile spinney," in the parish of Rongham, and there find a
resting-place. A few years since, wishing to learn whether this sight
was among the things still looked for or believed in, I proceeded to the
locality at the time stated, but met with no one but a gamekeeper, whom
I found to be quite familiar with the legend. He said he had heard a
good deal in his younger days about the "coach," but had never seen it.
There was, however, an old woman then living who had seen it often, and
who declared that the coach was occupied by a gentleman and a lady, also
without heads, but he did not know what to say to it. All he knew was,
that when a man was out on dark nights, "he could draw anything into his
eye that he liked!"



I have a copy of Weever's _Ancient Funerall Monuments_, which once
belonged to William Burton, the historian of Leicestershire; on a
fly-leaf at the end of the volume is the following list in the autograph
of that celebrated antiquary, which, perhaps, may not be without its
interest to the readers of "N. & Q." I have appended some notes of
identification, which I have no doubt some of your correspondents could
easily render more complete.

      "Antiquarii temp. Eliz. Reg.

      "1. Recorder Fletewode, Wm.
      2. Mr. Atey.
      3. Mr. Lambard, Will[=m].
      4. Mr. Cope.
      5. Mr. Broughton ye Lawyer.
      6. Mr. Leigh.
      7. Mr. Bourgchier.
      8. Mr. Broughton ye Preacher.
      9. Mr. Holland, Joseph.
      10. Mr. Gartier.
      11. Mr. Cotton, Robt.
      12. Mr. Thinne, Francis.
      13. Jo. Stowe.
      14. -- Combes.
      15. -- Lloyd.
      16. -- Strangman.
      17. Hen. Spelman.
      18. Arthur Gregory.
      19. Anth. Cliffe.
      20. Tho. Talbot.
      21. Arthur Goulding.
      22. Arthur Agard.
      23. Will[=m] Camden.
      24. Merc. Patten.
      25. Samson Erdeswike.
      26. -- Josseline.
      27. Hen. Sacheverell.
      28. Wm. Nettleton de Knocesborough.
      29. John Ferne.
      30. Ro[=b]t. Bele.
      31. John Savile de Templo.
      32. Daniell Rogers.
      33. Tho. Saville.
      34. Henry Saville.
      35. Rog. Keymis.
      36. John Guillim.
      37. -- Dee.
      38. -- Heneage.
      39. Rich. Scarlet.
      40. -- Wodhall.
      41. Dent de B[=a]co Regis.
      42. -- Bowyer.
      43. Robt. Hare.
      44. -- Harrison, schoolemr.
      45. -- Harrison, ministr."

1. William Fleetwood, Recorder of London, "a learned man and good
antiquary," ob. 1593. (_Wood_, ed. Bliss, i. 598.)

2. Mr. Atey. Was this Arthur Atey, Principal of St. Alban Hall, and
Orator of the University of Oxford, who was secretary to the Earl of
Leicester, knighted by King James, and who died in 1604?

3. William Lambarde, the learned author of the _Perambulation of Kent_,
the first county history attempted in England, died in 1601.

4. Mr. Cope.

5. Mr. Broughton the Lawyer, _i.e._ Richard Broughton, Justice of North
Wales, called by Sir John Wynne, in the _History of the Gwedir Family_,
"the chief antiquary of England."

6. Mr. Leigh, probably James Leigh, author of several tracts on
heraldry, preserved in Hearne's _Curious Discoveries_.

7. Mr. Bourgchier. Query, Sir Henry Bouchier, afterwards Earl of Bett?
or Thomas Bouchier, the learned Roman Catholic divine, who died at Rome
about 1586?

8. Mr. Broughton the Preacher. Could this be the learned divine Hugh
Broughton, author of _The Consent of Scriptures_, born in 1549, ob.

9. Joseph Holland, a native of Devonshire, an excellent herald,
genealogist, and antiquary, of the Inner Temple, living in 1617.

10. Mr. Gartier. Sir Gilbert Dethick, Knight of the Garter, Principal
King-at-Arms, who was well skilled in antiquities, is perhaps intended.
He died in 1584, at eighty-one. Or more probably his son and successor,
Sir William Dethick, Knight, who was one of a select number of
antiquaries who entered into a society in 1593 (the cradle of the
present Society of Antiquaries). Sir William died in 1612.

11. Sir Robert Cotton, the founder of the Cottonian Library, died in

12. Francis Thynne, Esq., Lancaster Herald, died 1608. "An excellent
antiquary, and a gentleman painful and well deserving of his office
whilst he lived." (_Camden._)

13. John Stow, author of _The Chronicles of England_ and _The Survey of
London_; died in 1605.

14. -- Combes. Query, Thomas Combe, author of a _Book of Emblems_, reg.

15. -- Lloyd, Humphry Lluyd or Lloyd, "a most noted antiquary, and
person of great skill and knowledge in British affairs," ob. 1570.

16. Mr. James Strangeman, of Hedley Castle, Essex, cited by Salmon as an
Essex antiquary. (_Gough._)

17. The learned Sir Henry Spelman died in 1641.

18. Arthur Gregory, ancestor of the present Arthur Gregory, of
Styvichall in the county of Warwick, Esq., who possesses some valuable
MS. collections of his ancestor.

19. Anthony Cliffe. In Burke's _Dictionary of the Landed Gentry_, a
person of these names is mentioned as of the city of Westminster in the
Elizabethan period, ancestor of the present family of Cliffe of
Bellevue, co. Wexford.

20. Thomas Talbot, "an excellent genealogist, and well skilled in the
antiquities of his country." Vide Wood's _Athenæ_, ed. Bliss, i. 265.

21. Arthur Golding; the same, I suppose, who finished the translation of
a work concerning _The Trueness of Christian Religion against Atheists,
&c._, began by Sir Philip Sidney, and also published other translations.
(_Wood_ and _Gough_.)

22. Arthur Agard, styled by Camden "antiquarius insignis." He died in

23. William Camden, born 1551, ob. 1623.

24. Mercury Patten, Blue-mantle Pursuivant-at-Arms, had been patronised
by Lord Burleigh; was living in the second year of James I.

25. Samson Erdeswike, the historian of Staffordshire, died in 1603. "A
very great lover and diligent searcher of venerable antiquity."

26. -- Josseline, secretary to Archbishop Parker, was the author of a
short account of Corpus Christi or Ben'et College, Cambridge, to the
year 1569. (_Gough._)

27. Henry Sacheverell, of Ratcliffe-on-Sore, in the county of
Nottingham, Esq.?

28. William Nettleton de Knocesborough?

29. John Ferne, author of the _Blazon of Gentry_, died about 1610. He
was knighted by James I.

30. Robert Bele, secretary to the embassy of Sir Francis Walsingham at
Paris in 1571, Clerk of the Privy Council, &c.; ob. 1601.

31. Sir John Savile, of the Middle Temple, elder brother of Sir Henry
Savile, died in 1606-7. He was one of the Barons of the Exchequer.

32. Daniel Rogers, "excellently well learned; one that was especially
beloved by the famous antiquary and historian W. Camden;" ob. 1590.

33. Thomas Savile, younger brother to Sir Henry, called by Camden "his
right learned friend," ob. 1592.

34. Henry Savile. There were two Henry Saviles, who may either of them
be intended; Sir Henry Savile, Provost of Eton, who died in 1621-2, or
his kinsman of the same names, an eminent scholar in heraldry and
antiquities, and other branches of literature. He died in 1617.

35. Roger Keymis. See _MSS. Harleian_, 5803. and 16,120., for two of his
heraldical collections. The former is dated anno 1609.

36. John Gwillim, gent., the well-known herald, ob. 1621.

37. Dr. John Dee, the celebrated philosopher of Mortlake, died in 1608.

38. -- Heneage. Query, Sir Thomas Heneage, Knight?

39. Richard Scarlet, citizen and painter stainer, of London, temp.
Eliz., took some good notes of Christ Church, Canterbury (_Gough_), and
was the author of some heraldical collections now in the British Museum.
(_MSS. Harl._ 2021.)

40. -- Woodhall.

41. -- Dent de Banco Regis.

42. William Bowyer, author of _A perfecte Kellender of all the Recordes
remayninge in the office of Recordes at the Towere of Londone_. (_MS.
Harl._ 94. 4.)

43. Robert Hare, son of Sir Nicholas Hare, Master of the Rolls, 1553, of
Caius College, Cambridge, collected the charters and privileges of the
University in three volumes, with a fourth of those relating to the town
only. (_Gough._)

44. -- Harrison, schoolmaster. _John_ Harrison, _physician_, and _Vicar_
of Grantchester, about the middle of the sixteenth century, was a great
historian; many of his MS. collections relative to the University of
Cambridge still remain. (_Gough._)

45. -- Harrison, minister. William Harrison, author of "Historical
Description of the Island of Britain," prefixed to Holinshed's
_Chronicles_, living in 1587, is, I suppose, intended.



Dr. Hamel, of whose memoir of the elder Tredescant and his voyage to
Russia I gave some account in Vol. iii., p. 391., being again in England
last year, pursued with unremitting zeal his researches into the history
of the Tredescants, and has given the results in a short Memoir read
before the Imperial Academy of Sciences at Petersburg on the 5th of
December last. Having been favoured with a copy of the memoir, and a
flattering letter from the writer, I think it incumbent upon me to add
to my former communication a brief abstract of this interesting paper.

Dr. Hamel first directed his researches toward an endeavour to develope
the means by which Elias Ashmole became the possessor of the Tredescant
collection; and naturally expected that he should be able to trace the
document of 1659, upon which Ashmole rested his claim to the ownership;
but he could not find any such deed.

He was, however, fortunate enough to trace out the original Will of John
Tredescant the younger, bearing his seal and signature, made at a
subsequent date, and formally proved, after his death in 1662, by his
widow Hester. This important document throws much light upon the
transaction respecting the Museum, and its destination. Dr. Hamel was
naturally much pleased with this discovery, and rejoiced to see for the
first time the autograph of a man about whom he had so much interested
himself, but was somewhat surprised to find that the name which has been
usually written Tr_a_descant was uniformly spelt Tr_e_descant in the
body of the Will, as well as in the signature; the seal, bearing the
same coat of arms given on a plate in the Catalogue of the Museum, being
placed between the syllable _Tre_ and _descant_. This document runs


  "In the name of God, Amen.

  "The fourth day of April in the yeare of our Lord God one thousand
  six hundred sixtie-one, I, John Tredescant of South Lambeth in the
  Countie of Surrey, Gardiner, being at this present of perfect
  health, minde, and memorie, thanks be therefore given to Almightie
  God, and calling to minde the uncertaintie of death, and being
  desirous whilst I am in a Capacity to settle and dispose of such
  things as God of his goodnesse hath bestowed upon me, doe make and
  declare this my last Will and Testament as followeth. First and
  principally I commend and yield my soule into the hands of
  Almighty God my Creator, and my bodie to the Earth to be decently
  (according to the quality wherein I have liued) interred as neere
  as can be to my late deceased Father John Tredescant, and my sonne
  who lye buried in the parish Churchyard of Lambeth aforesaid, at
  the discretion of my Executrix hereafter named; hopeing by and
  through the merits, death, and passion of my onely Saviour and
  Redeemer Jesus Christ to have full remission of all my Sinnes, and
  to see my God in the Land of the Living; and for my temporall
  Estate I doe will, bequeath, and dispose thereof as followeth.
  That is to saie, I will that all such debts as shall be by me
  justly due and owing to anie person or persons whatsoever at the
  time of my decease (if anie such be) shall be truly paid and
  satisfied, and after my Funeral charges shall be defrayed, for the
  doeing whereof I appoint the summe of twenty pounds or thereabouts
  shall be expended by my Executrix but not more. Item, I giue and
  bequeath upon the condition hereafter mentioned to my daughter
  Frances Norman the summe of ten pounds of Lawfull money of
  England, which I will shall be paid unto her within six moneths
  after my decease, and likewise I doe forgive her the summe of
  fourscore pounds or thereabouts, Principall Money, besides the
  Interest thereof which I long since lent her late deceased husband
  Alexander Norman. Provided that shee and her husband, if she shall
  be then againe married, give my Executrix a generall release for
  the same. Item, I give and bequeath to my two namesakes Robert
  Tredescant and Thomas Tredescant, of Walberswick in the Countie of
  Suffolk, to eache of them the summe of five shillings apiece in
  remembrance of my loue, and to every childe or children of them
  the [said] Robert and Thomas that shall be liuing at the time of
  my decease the summe of two shillings and sixpence apiece. Item, I
  giue to Mris. Marie Edmonds, the daughter of my louing Friend
  Edward Harper, the summe of one hundred pounds, to be paid unto
  her after my wife's decease; and in case she die before my said
  wife, my will is and I doe hereby giue and bequeath the said summe
  of one hundred pounds, after my wife's decease, to my Foure
  God-children, vizt. Hester, John, Leonard, and Elizabeth Edmonds,
  sonnes and daughters of the said Mris. Mary Edmonds Equally to be
  diuided amongst them, share and share alike; and if either of them
  die before he, her, or they receiue their share or portion so to
  be diuided, then the said share or portion of him, her, or them so
  dying to goe and be giuen to the survivor and survivors of them,
  share and share alike. Item, I doe hereby giue, will, devise and
  bequeath to my Cosin Katharine King, widdow, after the decease of
  my wife, the Little House commonly called the Welshmans house
  situate in South Lambeth aforesaid, together with that Little
  Piece of Ground now enclosed thereunto adjoyning; and to her heirs
  and assignes for euer. Item, I giue, devize, and bequeath my
  Closet of Rarities to my dearly beloued wife Hester Tredescant
  during her naturall Life, and after her decease I giue and
  bequeath the same to the Universities of Oxford or Cambridge, to
  which of them shee shall think fitt at her decease. As for such
  other of my friends and kindred as I should nominate for Rings and
  small tokens of my Loue, I leaue that to the Care of my said wife
  to bestow how manie and to whome shee shall think deseruing. The
  rest and Residue of all my Estate Reall and personall whatsoeuer,
  I wholly giue, devize, and bequeath to my deare and louing wife
  Hester Tredescant, and to her heires and assignes for euer. And I
  doe hereby nominate, ordaine, constitute, and appoint my said
  Louing Wife Hester Tredescant full and sole Executrix of this my
  last will and Testament; and I doe desire Dr. Nurse and Mr. Mark
  Cottle to be Ouerseers of this my last Will and Testament, and I
  giue to each of them fortie shillings apiece. Lastly, I doe hereby
  revoke all Wills by me formerly made, and will that this onely
  shall stand and be my last will and Testament, and no other. In
  Wittnesse whereof I the said John Tredescant to this my present
  last will and testament haue set my hand and seale the daie and
  yeare aboue written.


  "Signed, sealed, published, and declared by the said John
  Tredescant the Testator, as and for his last Will and Testament,
  in the presence of John Seatewell, Foulk Bignall, Robert Thompson,
  Jun'ris, Ric. Newcourt, Jun'r, Richard Hoare, Notary Publique.

  "Probatum apud London coram venerabili viro D[=n]o Williamo
  Mericke milite Legum Doctore Commissario, etc., quinto die mensis
  May Anno Domini 1662, iuramento Hestore Tredescant, Relicte dicti
  defuncti et Executricis, etc."

It will be recollected that Ashmole, in his Diary, says--

  "Decem. 12, 1659. Mr. Tredescant and his wife told me they had
  been long considering upon whom to bestow their close of
  curiosities when they died, and at last resolved to give it unto

Two days afterwards (on the 14th) they had given their scrivener
instructions to prepare a deed of gift to that effect, which was
executed by Tredescant, his wife being a subscribing witness on the
16th, as Ashmole records with astrological minuteness, "5 hor. 30
minutes post meridian." On May 30th, 1662, little more than a month
after John Tredescant's death, he records--

  "This Easter term, I preferred a bill in Chancery against Mrs.
  Tredescant, for the rarities her husband had settled on me."

Dr. Hamel succeeded in finding the protocols in this suit among the
records of the Court of Chancery, in which Ashmole sets forth, that in
December, 1659, he visited the Tredescants in South Lambeth, and that he
was entertained by Tredescant and his wife with great professions of
kindness. That Mrs. Tredescant told him that her husband had come to the
determination to bequeath to him "the rarities and antiquities, bookes,
coynes, medalls, stones, pictures, and mechanicks contained in his
Closett of Raryties, knowing the great esteeme and value he put upon
it." That Tredescant himself had afterwards said to him, that in
acknowledgment of his (Ashmole's) previous trouble concerning the
preparation of the catalogue of his museum and gardens[2], he purposed
to do so, and that in effect Ashmole and Mrs. Tredescant, as long as she
lived, should enjoy it together. Ashmole also says, Tredescant had made
it a condition that he should, after Mrs. Tredescant's decease, pay a
certain Mary Edmonds, or her children, one hundred pounds sterling. That
he did then actually let a deed be prepared, by which he made over to
him his collection of every kind of curiosities of nature and art within
or near the house (Ashmole here cunningly includes the botanic garden);
Mrs. Tredescant was to have the joint proprietorship, and nothing was to
be abstracted from the collection.

  [Footnote 2: In the preface to the catalogue the assistance of two
  friends is mentioned; it appears that the other was Dr. Thomas

This deed Tredescant had, on the 16th of December (1659), confirmed
under his hand and seal. Mrs. Tredescant fetched a Queen Elizabeth's
milled shilling, which Tredescant handed over to him, together with the
conveyance, and thereby he came into possession of the collection.[3]

  [Footnote 3: Ashmole says, "It was not thought fit to clogge the
  deed with the payment of the said hundred pounds to Mrs. Edmonds
  or her children, to the end that the same might better appear to
  be a free and generous gift, and therefore the consideracion of
  the deed was expressed to be for the entire affeccion and singular
  esteeme the said John Tredescant had to him (Ashmole), who he did
  not doubt would preserve and augment the said rarities for
  posterity." He declares that he will pay the money; and in his
  Diary we find that after Mrs. Tredescant's death, in 1678, he pays
  to a Mrs. Lea, probably one of the daughters of Mrs. Edmonds, one
  hundred pounds.]

Mrs. Tredescant had signed the deed as witness; but, when Ashmole was
about to leave the house, she had requested him to leave it with her, as
she wished to ask some of her friends whether, by having signed it as
witness, her right as joint proprietress of the collection might not be
diminished. He left the document with her, in expectation that it would
soon be restored to him, but this was never done. Now, after the death
of Tredescant, she maintains that her husband never made such a
conveyance; but the truth is she has burnt or destroyed it in some other

Against this Mrs. Tredescant refers to her husband's last will and
testament of the 4th of May, 1661, by which all previous dispositions of
his property, of whatever kind, were declared invalid, and strongly
urges that the museum was expressly bequeathed to her and her alone,
with the stipulation that she should leave it either to the University
of Oxford or to that of Cambridge. And she adds, that she had determined
to leave it to the University of Oxford.

I must not now further trespass upon your space; you shall have the
sequel for your next Number.

    S. W. SINGER.

  Manor Place, So. Lambeth.

Minor Notes.

_Bothwell's Burial-place._--Bothwell was imprisoned in Seeland, in the
castle of Draxholm, now called Adelersborg, near the town of Holbek. He
died there, and was buried in the neighbouring village church of
Faareveile, where I in vain have searched for this tomb or coffin. An
old coffin, half opened, standing between several other old coffins in a
vault below the floor of the church, certainly was said, according to
tradition, to contain the body of Bothwell, but no inscriptions or other
signs proved the truth of it.

    J. J. A. WORSAAE.

_Handel's Organ at the Foundling Hospital._--It is generally understood
that the organ in the chapel of this Institution was the gift of Handel.
That great musician conducted a concert of sacred music upon the opening
of the chapel in 1749, and superintended the annual performance of his
oratorio, "The Messiah," from 1751 to 1759. In his will he left to the
charity "a fair copy of the score, and all its parts," of the same
oratorio; which score is still preserved, and has furnished the editor
of the new edition, lately produced by the Handel Society, with several
new and important readings.

Dr. Burney, in his "Sketch of the Life of Handel," prefixed to his
_Account of the Commemoration_, 4to., 1785, says, "The organ in the
chapel of this [_i.e._ the Foundling] hospital was a _present_ from
Handel." But how are we to reconcile this statement with the following,
which I find in the _European Magazine_ for February, 1799:

  "Handel _did not give_ the organ to the Foundling Hospital. It was
  built at the _expense_ of the charity, under the direction of Dr.
  Smith, the learned Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, who added
  demitones, &c., and some of the niceties not occurring in other


_Correction to the "Oxford Manual of Monumental Brasses."_--Permit me to
correct an error in the above carefully compiled and useful manual. On
p. 15. of the "Descriptive Catalogue" a brass is described, No. 32. of
their collection, to "Edward Peach, 1439;" no place is mentioned in
connexion with this brass. The notice should stand thus:

  "1839. Edward Peach, _S. Chad's (R.C.) Church, Birmingham_.


  "Hic jacet dmus Edwardus Peach quondam rector istius ecclesie
  qui obiit die Nativitatis _Beate_ Marie Virginis Anno Domini
  _milessimo_ _D_CCCXXXIX," &c.

The brass is so well _designed_ and _executed_, that it might easily
pass for an old example. By some error "s[=a]cte" has been printed for
"Beate," "millessimo" for "milessimo," and "CCCC" for "DCCC" in the
Oxford version of the inscription.


_Milton's Rib-bone._--In Vol. v., p. 275., mention is made of Cromwell's
skull; so it may not be out of place to tell you that I have handled one
of Milton's ribs. Cowper speaks indignantly of the desecration of our
divine poet's grave, on which shameful occurrence some of the bones were
clandestinely distributed. One fell to the lot of an old and esteemed
friend, and between forty-five and forty years ago, at his house, not
many miles from London, I have often examined the said rib-bone. That
friend is long since dead; but his son, now in the vale of years, lives,
and I doubt not, from the reverence felt to the great author of
_Paradise Lost_, that he has religiously preserved the precious relic.
It might not be agreeable to him to have his name published; but from
his tastes he, being a person of some distinction in literary pursuits,
is likely to be a reader of "N. & Q.," and if this should catch his eye,
_he_ may be induced to send you some particulars. I know he is able to
place the matter beyond a doubt.

    B. B.




Since I arrived in England my friend Mr. Thoms has called my attention
to the following Note by the "English Opium Eater" in the _London
Magazine_ for May, 1823, p. 556., on a subject of great interest to me
with reference to the views I have advanced in my recently published
volume, entitled _An Account of the Danes and Norwegians in England,
Scotland, and Ireland_.

  "I take this opportunity of mentioning a curious fact which I
  ascertained about twelve years ago, when studying the Danish. The
  English and Scotch philologists have generally asserted that the
  Danish invasions in the ninth and tenth centuries, and their
  settlements in various parts of the island (as Lincolnshire,
  Cumberland, &c.), had left little or no traces of themselves in
  the language. This opinion has been lately reasserted in Dr.
  Murray's work on the European languages. It is, however,
  inaccurate. For the remarkable dialect spoken amongst the lakes of
  Cumberland and Westmoreland, together with the names of the
  mountains, tarns, &c., most of which resist all attempts to unlock
  their meaning from the Anglo-Saxon, or any other form of the
  Teutonic, are pure Danish, generally intelligible from the modern
  Danish of this day, but in all cases from the elder form of the
  Danish. Whenever my Opera Omnia are collected, I shall reprint a
  little memoir on this subject, which I inserted about four years
  ago in a provincial newspaper: or possibly, before that event, for
  the amusement of the lake tourists, Mr. Wordsworth may do me the
  favour to accept it as an appendix to his work on the English

Can any reader of "N. & Q." refer me to the paper in which this "little
memoir" was inserted? (it was probably in a Cumberland or Westmoreland
paper somewhere about the year 1819;) or inform me whether it ever
appeared as an appendix to any work of Wordsworth's on the English

    J. J. A. WORSAAE.

Minor Queries.

_Taylor Family._--A great favour would be conferred by any
Worcestershire correspondent who could furnish any information as to the
family, arms, place of burial, of Samuel Taylor, who was Mayor of
Worcester in 1731-32, and again in 1737. Are any descendants or
connexions still resident in that neighbourhood? The information is
required for genealogical purposes.

    E. S. TAYLOR.

_Analysis._--Is algebra rightly termed analysis? Edgar Poe, a very queer
American author, maintains the negative: he also enters into the
question as to whether games of skill and chance are useful to the
analytical powers, and gives the preference to draughts over chess, and
to whist over either. But he seems to think the chief applications of
analysis are to the interpretation of cryptographies, the
disentanglement of police puzzles, and the solution of charades!

There is, however, plausibility in his theory that a good analyst must
be both poet and mathematician. This is Ruskin's "imagination
penetrative:" such a faculty belonged to the minds of Verulam and
Newton, of Kepler and Galileo. I do not, however, see the necessity of
Ruskin's threefold division of the "imaginative faculty." Would not
"imagination analytic and creative" suffice?


_Old Playing Cards._--In 1763 Dr. Stukeley exhibited to the Antiquarian
Society a singular pack of cards, dating before the year 1500. They were
purchased in 1776, by Mr. Tutet, and on his decease they were bought by
Mr. Gough. In 1816 they had passed into the possession of Mr. Triphook,
the bookseller. Query, where are they now?


_Canongate Marriages._--According to the _Newgate Calendar_, vol. ii. p.
269., there seems to have existed, about the year 1745, a sort of
_Gretna Green_ in the Canongate of Edinburgh. It is long since I read
that _famous_ work, but I made an excerpt at the time, which is as

  "It was customary for some of the ministers of the Church of
  Scotland, who were out of employment, to marry people at the
  ale-houses, in the same manner that the Fleet marriages were
  conducted in London. Sometimes people of fortune thought it
  prudent to apply to these marriage brokers; but, as their chief
  business lay among the lower ranks of people, they were deridingly
  called by the name of 'Buckle the Beggars.' Most of these
  marriages were solemnized at public-houses in the Canongate."

This statement "comes in such a questionable shape," and from so
"questionable" a quarter, that really one cannot be blamed for
questioning it. Surely the ministers referred to must have been men
deprived of their charges? Can any correspondent of "N. & Q." speak to
this subject? I am certain that the Scottish clergy of that age would
never have suffered any _Buckle the Beggars_ to rank with them as
regular preachers, though "out of employment."

    R. S. F.


_Devil, Proper Name._--Will any of your correspondents kindly inform me
whether there are any persons now existing of the name of Devil; or who
bear the devil on their coat of arms? In 1847 I saw upon the panel of a
carriage in London the _devil's head_ for a crest. To what family does
this belong? "Robin the Devil" is mentioned in _Rokeby_, cant. vi. st.
32. The following is from the _Monthly Mirror_, August, 1799:

  "Formerly there were many persons surnamed 'the Devil.' In an
  ancient book we read of one Rogerius Diabolus, Lord of Montresor."
  "An English monk, Willelmus, cognomento Diabolus. Again, Hughes le
  Diable, Lord of Lusignan. Robert, Duke of Normandy, son of William
  the Conqueror, was surnamed 'the Devil.' In Norway and Sweden
  there were two families of the name of 'Trolle,' in English,
  'Devil;' and every branch of these families had an emblem of the
  devil for their coat of arms. In Utrecht there was a family called
  'Teufel' (or Devil); and in Brittany there was a family of the
  name of 'Diable.'"


_Hendurucus du Booys; Helena Leonora de Sieveri._--Their portraits
engraved by Cornelius Vischer from paintings by Vandyke. Who were they?

    G. A. C.

_Can a Clergyman marry himself?_--If a clergyman were to perform the
marriage service in his own case, would it be valid? Has such an
occurrence ever been known?


_Ground Ice._--Has any satisfactory explanation been given of the mode
in which the peculiar substance termed _ground ice_ is formed in certain
rivers. I am most familiar with it as seen in the Wiltshire Avon. It is
seen in some rivers in Lincolnshire, where I am told it is called
_ground-gru_. One who has noticed it in the Teviot says, that the
inhabitants there call it "sludge."

The fact of ice being formed at the _bottom_ of streams, where we should
expect a higher temperature, is so curious an anomaly, that it would be
desirable to collect instances where and at what depths it is observed.

    J. C. E.

_Astrologer-Royal._--I remember, in a former volume of "N. & Q.," some
mention is made of Almanacks, Astrologers, &c. It escaped me at the time
to tell you that the ancient office of King's Astrologer happens not to
have been subjected to formal abolition, and, being hereditary, it is
now vested in the person of Mr. Gadbury, resident at Bristol. He is
auctioneer to the Court of Bankruptcy, and a very worthy man. He tells
me there is neither salary nor privilege attached to his nominal post.

    B. B.


_William, second Duke of Hamilton._--Can any of your numerous
correspondents inform me if there is any monumental inscription, or
other memorial, dedicated to the memory of William, second Duke of
Hamilton, who expired on the 12th of September, 1651, from the effects
of a wound received at the battle of Worcester on the 3rd of the same
month? He was interred before the high altar in Worcester Cathedral,
having died at the Commandery in that city; but there is neither

      "storied urn or animated bust"

as a record of his sepulture within that venerable pile.

In making an inspection of the Commandery, an old building, probably
once belonging to the Knights Templars, I was gravely told, and my
informant even showed me the very spot beneath the floor of one of the
rooms, in which, as tradition points out, he is said to have been


_The Ring Finger._--Having observed various remarks on the ring finger
in your last volume, I shall be much obliged if you can give me any
information on the subject. As a lady of my acquaintance has had the
misfortune to lose that finger, it has been said that she cannot be
legally married in the Church of England in consequence, and had better,
if ever solicited, cross the border to Scotland to make the marriage

    A RING.

_Bishop of London's Palace in Bishopsgate._--Historians agree that King
Henry VII., on his arrival in London after the battle of Bosworth, took
up his residence for a few days at the Bishop of London's palace, and
Bacon tells us[4] this palace was in Bishopsgate Street. Can any of your
readers inform me where it stood?

    J. G.

  [Footnote 4: [Where? Our correspondent should have given the

_Earls of Clare_ (Vol. v., p. 205.).--Can H. C. K., who appears to have
access to an old pedigree of this family, answer any of the following

1. Which was the Richard Earl of Clare whose daughter married William de
Braose, who was starved to death at Windsor in 1240?

2. Who was Isabel de Clare, who married William de Braose, grandson of
the above?

3. Who was Alice, daughter of Richard Earl of Clare, who married William
third Baron Percy?

4. Who was Mabel, daughter of an Earl of Clare, who married Nigel de
Mowbray, a baron at the coronation of Richard I.?

5. Who was ---- de Clare, treasurer of the church of York, living
between 1150 and 1200?

    E. H. Y.

_Lothian's Scottish Historical Maps._--

      Ptolemy's Scotland, A.D. 146.
      Richard's Ditto, A.D. 446.
      Roman Ditto, A.D. 80 to 446.
      Pictish Ditto, A.D. 446 to 843.
      Picts and Scots Ditto, A.D. 843 to 1071.
      Sheriffdoms, Earldoms, and Lordships of the 15th Century.
      Highlands in Clans, 1715-45. Track of Prince Charles Stuart.

I should be glad to hear where this progressive series, or any of them,
might be met with. I understand it was considered a very complete Atlas
of Scotland in the olden times; but on applying to my Edinburgh
bookseller, I was informed they were out of print. I think they bear
date 1834, and I should think the plates are still in existence. They
were said to be very accurate, and the price was under a pound. They
were published by John Lothian, formerly Geographer and Map Publisher,


_Sally Lunn._--Partial to my sweet tea-cake, I often think when eating
it of Sally Lunn, the pretty pastrycook of Bath, to whose inventive
genius we are said to be indebted for this farinaceous delicacy. Is
anything known of Sally Lunn? is she a personage or a myth?


"_Bough-House._"--At the late assizes for the county of Suffolk, the
witnesses in two separate cases spoke of a "bough-house," and the
explanation given was, that certain houses where beer, &c. was sold at
fair-time only had boughs outside to indicate their character. As an
illustration of the familiar proverb, "Good wine needs no _bush_," and
as the word does not occur in Forby's _Glossary of East Anglia_, it may
perhaps deserve a place.


_Dyson's Collection of Proclamations._--The curious collection of old
proclamations, &c., in the library of the Society of Antiquaries is
sometimes referred to as _Dyson's_, sometimes as _Ames's_. Was Dyson the
original collector? and, if so, when did he live?


"_The Hour and the Man._"--Can any of your correspondents inform me what
is the origin of this expression? It occurs in _Guy Mannering_, and
printed in Italics, but not within inverted commas. Is it a quotation?

    T. D.

Minor Queries Answered.

_Jacobite Toast._--

      "God bless the King, I mean the Faith's Defender.
      God bless--no harm in blessing--the Pretender;
      Who that Pretender is, and who is King,
      God bless us all--that's quite another thing."

Can any of your readers say who is the author of the above?

    G. M. B.

  [The above lines, "intended to allay the violence of party
  spirit!" were spoken extempore by the celebrated John Byrom, of
  Manchester, a Nonjuror, but better known as the inventor of the
  Universal Short Hand. They will be found in his _Miscellaneous
  Poems_, vol. i. p. 342. edit. 1773.]

_Rev. Barnabas Oley._--The part played by this active and loyal
clergyman, who was deprived of his vicarage of Great Gransden in
Huntingdonshire during the interregnum, is generally known to readers of
the early history of that period. Walker, who has a notice of him
(_Sufferings of the Clergy_, p. 141.), says he died in 1684, but does
not tell us whether he was married or not. I believe he was, and left
descendants; and the object of this Query is to ascertain what were the
names of his children, and with whom they intermarried.



  [We do not think Barnabas Oley was ever married, as his will,
  preserved among Bishop Kennett's Collections, does not mention
  either wife or children among the legacies to "his near kindred
  and blood." His will, with its codicils, are curious documents,
  and ought to be printed. See the _Lansdowne MSS._, No. 988. fol.

_Sweet-singers._--Swift says, in his _Abstract of Collins_, "Why should
not William Penn the Quaker, or any Anabaptist, Papist, Muggletonian,
Jew, or _Sweet-singer_, have liberty to come into St. Paul's church?"
Wanted, some historical notice of the Sweet-singers.

    A. N.

  [Timperley, in his _Dictionary of Printing_, has the following
  note respecting them: "May 27, 1681. The Sweet-singers of the city
  of Edinburgh renounce the _printed_ Bible at the Canongate
  tolbooth, and all unchaste thoughts, words, and actions, and burn
  all story books, ballads, romances, &c."]

"_Philip Quarll._"--Did a Mr. Bicknell write _Philip Quarll_? Was he the
author of any other books? Is there a recent edition of _Philip Quarll_?
and, if not, why not?

    E. C. R.


  [Lowndes states that this work has been "frequently reprinted."
  The only editions known to us are the first in 1727, and the one
  published in a series by Harrison and Co. in 1731. The editor's
  initials are P. L.]

_Dedication of Middleton Church._--What is the dedication of the little
church at Middleton, Essex (near Sudbury, Suffolk)? I cannot find it in
the _Liber Regis_, in Wright's _Essex_, nor in Lewis's _Topographical


  [The indefatigable Newcourt, in his _Repertorium_, vol. ii. p.
  418., was unable to give the dedication, and has left a blank for
  it to be supplied by some future antiquary.]

_Lunatic Asylum benefited by Dean Swift._--Which of the lunatic asylums
benefited by the "will" of Dean Swift; either founded or endowed by the
bulk of his property?--Vide _Memoirs_.


  169. Fleet Street.

  [St. Patrick's, or Swift's Hospital, for the reception of lunatics
  and idiots, situated near Dr. Steevens's Hospital, adjoining to
  James Street, Dublin. It was opened in 1757. For some account of
  it see Scott's "Memoir of Dean Swift," _Works_, vol. i. pp. 438.



(Vol. v., p. 295.)

Some years ago I remember meeting with the following explanation of the
beautiful legend of St. Christopher, and unfortunately forgot to take a
_Note_ of it. It recurred to my mind on lately reading Mr. Talbot's work
on English etymologies, the writer of which appears to take a similar
view of the allegorical meaning.

Part of the legend is founded on the meaning of the Greek
Χριστοφερων, coupled with a circumstance in the original legend,
which is of German origin, and is an allegorizing of our blessed Lord's
bearing the sins of the world, and _offering_ himself up on the altar of
the cross. In a Latin document of A.D. 1423, the name is abbreviated
into _X'poferus_; in an English one of the same date it is spelt
_Christopfore_; and in French, _Christopfre_. _Christopfer_ signifies
_Christ's sacrifice_: that is, the sacrifice of the cross continually
offered up in the sacrament of the altar, or the mass, the _messopfer_,
so named from the German _opfer_, a sacrifice; Welsh _offeiriad_, a
priest; _offrwm_, a sacrifice; _offeren_, the mass; Irish, _oifrionn_,
or _aifrionn_.

The perfection of our blessed Lord's humanity, His resistance of evil,
and mighty strength displayed in bearing the sins of the universe, are
shadowed out in the great stature and vast strength of the giant
Christopher. According to the legend, when he had succeeded in reaching
the shore, and had set down his burden, he said: "Chylde, thou hast put
me in grete peryll, thou wayest alle most as I had had the world upon
me; I might bere no greater burden;" and the child answered,
"Christopher, marvel thou nothing, for thou hast not only borne all the
world upon thee, but its sins likewise."

Mr. Talbot says, the name Christopher, _Christoffer_, may have been
given to children born on Good Friday, the day of the Great Sacrifice,
as those born on Christmas, Easter, and All Saints were named Pascal,
Noel, Toussaint.



(Vol. i., pp. 155. 278.)


  (See the _Three Treatises_, published by Dr. Todd, Dublin, 1851.
  Text, pages xxv, xxvi and lxv; Note on Rehetours, p. clxxi-ii.)

It is certain that Monastery and Minster were originally one word in
Latin; it is generally believed that Rhythm and Rhyme were one in Greek;
and it is possible that _Rehetour_ and _Caterer_ had one prototype in
Spanish: of this last pair only one survived; it is naturally that
which, by being equal to the other in sense, excels it in harmony with
the English tongue.

Convinced that the office assigned to the _Rehetours_ in the lordly
household could not have been filled by any such character as ascribed
to the _Rehâteur_, _Reheater_, or _Rehaiteur_; convinced, moreover, that
the Scottish _Rehator_, _Rehatoure_, and the English _Rehetour_ must be
either both restored to their common kindred, or else consigned to
common oblivion, I chose the former alternative; and after a careful
inquest held on these twin foundlings, together with _Rehete_,
_Reheting_, two other departed strangers of the same age, I venture to
pronounce the following verdict:--

1. A native of Spain, _Regatero_ (see Stephen's _Spanish Dictionary_,
1726, and all that is said about _Regaton_ in the _Diccionario_ of the
Academy, Madrid, 1737, folio), travelling in Great Britain, changed to
_Rehetour_, _Rehator_, &c.

2. By trade a retailer of provisions, huckster, or purveyor, his
character strongly partook of the nature of his commodities, so as to
become tainted; this appears from the quotations in Jamieson's _Etym.
Dictionary_, and is attested by the Spanish proverb, _Ni compres de
Regaton, ni te descuides en meson_: Wycklyffe in all three passages
expresses his apprehension of "harm." The French _regrattier_ from
_gratter_ (to scratch, scrape), and _Regatero_, _Regaton_, from _gato_
(a cat), whether they be, or be not, truly thus derived, bear equally
marks of a contemptible impression.

3. In Wycklyffe's simile the _Rehetours_ take care of the bodily, the
ecclesiastics of the spiritual food, the Pope being the steward of the
household. The Scottish _Rehatour_ we find no longer as an ordinary
plain dealer, but in a state of depravity, so as to be a mere byeword,
even in the sense of blackguard, which word itself, if we believe Nares
(see his _Glossary_) that it owes its existence to those menials of the
court, cannot have been barely "a jocular name," but their disposition
must have corresponded to their black exterior, otherwise the joke could
not have remained a lasting stigma. I believe, however, the word
_blackguard_, by inserting the _l_, merely simulates a vernacular
origin, it being properly _Beguards_ (see Boiste, _Dictionnaire
Universel_), from _Beghardus_ (see _Mediæval Glossaries_), once a German
participle _bek[=a]rt_ (now _bekehrt_), _converted_, applied to the
Frater _conversus_, secular begging monks who, increasing in number and
misdeeds, soon became universally notorious, and ultimately (mixed up
with impostors who assumed their dress) would serve in any capacity
rather than the honest and irreproachable.

4. If _Caterer_ proceeded from the Spanish, it arrived
thus--_Recatero_--_Recaterer_--_Caterer_; the _c_ for _g_ being either
the natural result from the accent which the majority of speakers
withdrew from the latter syllable of the word, or is accounted for by
"_Recatear lo mismo que regatear_:" the derivation from _re_ and
_cautus_, as given by Covarrubias, likewise protects the _c_.

5. It is possible that the primitive root _Kat_ or _Gat_, in the sense
of hollow, hole, cavity, cave, &c., whence _Gate_, _Cot_, _Cottage_,
_Cattegat_ (Sinus Codanus), probably also _Regatta_, was the first
element of both the Spanish and the English term; the spot or situation
where the eatables were originally exposed for sale thus causing them
first to be called _cates_ (a plural noun like wages), then the singular
_cate_, &c., the noun of agent having most probably preceded the verb
_cater_, which has come last. A similar derivation is certain with
regard to _huckster_, which, besides _huckeback_, joins the Swedish
_hökare_, German _Höker_, &c., from the bending, crooked, or squatting
position in some brook or crook or corner.

6. The verb _Rehete_ is aptly derived by Jamieson from _Rehaiter_; both
are extinct, yet their kindred _heiter_ (formerly _haiter_), with its
two verbs _erheitern_ and _aufheitern_, are still in full vigour among
the Germans, to whom they afford serenity of mind, mood, and weather.
The French compound word for wishing, _souhaiter_, refers its verb
_haiter_ to the Swedish _heta_, German _heissen_, Anglo-Saxon _hetan_,
as in _Ulf het aræran cyrice_, "ULF bid rear the church" (see Latham,
_Engl. Lang._ 1850, p. 99.): now if also from the _haiter_ of that
compound we may suppose a derivative _Rehaiter_, or at least one of the
kind to have served Chaucer in his participle _Reheting_, which has been
the puzzle of his commentators in the following passage from _Troilus_
(III. line 350.):

      "And all the reheting of his sikes (sighs) sore,
      At ones fled, he felt 'hem no more;"

we may easily understand thereby that, as it were, a rebidding, an
importunate insisting upon, the repetition of his sighs, ceased and
were at an end; so that in the time of Edward III. a person complaining
of a troublesome cough, headache, &c., might call it a reheting cough,


  (See the said _Three Treatises_, pages cxxxvii, and Notes, pages
  ccxx. ccxxiii-iv.)

Wyckliffe using the possessive "_their moke_," not the mere "a," as we
would say, I would not give "a pin," "a button," &c., together with the
evidence of the Irish _muc_, and the obsolete German _Mocke_, which has
been defined "Sus foeminea, quæ ob foetus alitur," hardly leaves a doubt
that he means that animal, which may be traced also in the words _muck_,
_mucky_, &c. The reader may judge for himself by the following

  "Crist gave his life for hise brether, and so rewled hise shepe;
  thei wolen not _gyue her moke_ to help _here_ nedy brethern, but
  leten _here shep_ perishen, and taken of hem."

In allusion to their not feeding their flock, but suffering their sheep
to perish, he prefers to mention an eatable object.

    N. L. BENMOHEL, A.M.

  2. Trinity College, Dublin.

  [MR. BENMOHEL is wrong in supposing the word _Beghard_ to signify
  _bekehrt_, conversus, and to be a name given to the Fratres
  Conversi of monasteries, who, by the way, were not "secular
  begging monks," nor necessarily monks at all. Any person, by a
  donation to a convent, could be enrolled amongst its _fratres_ or
  _sorores_, entitled to the prayers of the monks, and to a share of
  their superabundant merits; and, being clothed at his death in the
  habit of the order, was a _frater conversus_. Another class of
  _conversi_ were lay monks (not necessarily _begging_ monks), who
  attended on the other monks, and performed certain lay duties in
  monasteries. MR. BENMOHEL will see some account of them in Dr.
  Todd's _Introduction to the Book of Obits and Martyrol. of
  Christ's Church Cathedral, Dublin_, p. xxvii.

  The _Beghards_, on the other hand, were not, properly speaking,
  monks at all, inasmuch as they were not under any monastic vow.
  They professed poverty, and lived on alms generally; but in other
  respects their mode of life was various, and their orthodoxy and
  morality very doubtful. They are generally denounced by the
  ecclesiastical authorities; and, except in some few places and
  under certain regulations, were never recognised by the Church.
  The best account of them will be found in Mosheim's posthumous and
  unfinished treatise, _De Beghardis et Beguinis_. The name is
  evidently, as Mosheim shows, a compound of _beg_ (from the old
  Saxon _beggen_, mendicare) and _hard_, or _hart_, a servant,
  famulus, servus: the same word which we still use in the
  composition of such words as shepherd, cow-herd, swine-herd. So
  that _Beghard_ is not otherwise different from our word _beggar_,
  than in so far as it was formerly applied to a religious sect.

  MR. BENMOHEL'S explanation of _Rehetour_ is very ingenious, and
  may very possibly be true. His interpretation of _Muck_ is not so


(Vol. v., p. 226.)

At the bottom of a street leading from Bury St. Edmunds to the Newmarket
road, stands an octagonal stone of Petworth marble with a hole in it,
which is said to have been filled with water or vinegar in the time of
the small-pox in 1677, for people to dip their money in on leaving the
market. What truth may attach to the traditionary use of the stone I
know not; but the stone is the base of a cross called St. Peter's Cross,
and the hole is the socket for the shaft.


Are the stones mentioned by your correspondent J. J. S. as plague stones
anything more than the "holy stones" common at the meeting of old cross
roads in Lancashire, and perhaps other counties? The square hole in them
is surely nothing more than the socket in which the way-side cross was
formerly placed. Perhaps, however, he is speaking of a different and
less common kind of stone, in which case, if a list is made, it must be
by some competent person, able to distinguish the one from the other.

    P. P.

In compliance with the suggestion of J. J. S., I may note that what I
suppose (since reading his communication in "N. & Q.") to be a "plague
stone" is to be seen close to Gresford in Denbighshire. I met with it
last summer, and could not then imagine what it could be. It is a large
hexagonal (I think) stone, with a round cavity on the top, which
certainly was full of water when I passed it. This cavity is pretty
deep, and the stone must be nearly three feet high, by from two to three
across. I regret I made no measurements of it. It is situated about a
quarter of a mile from the town on the road to Wrexham, under a
wide-spreading tree, on an open space where three roads meet. Should
this be seen by any Gresfordite, perhaps he would send you a more
accurate description of this stone, with any legend that may be attached
to it.

    G. J. R. G.


(Vol. v., p. 293.)

Notwithstanding his name, which appears to indicate northern origin,
your correspondent W. FRASER may possibly be unacquainted with Robert
Chambers's amusing work, entitled _Popular Rhymes of Scotland_, which
contains numerous verses on both places and families, besides other
curious matter.

    E. N.

The following doggrel I have heard in Surrey:

      "Sutton for good mutton,
        Cheam for juicy beef,
      Croydon for a pretty girl,
        And Mitcham for a thief"

    A. A. D.

I beg to contribute the inclosed, which I have heard from a former
incumbent of the parish of Sutton Long in Somersetshire.

      "Sutton Long, Sutton Long, at every door a tump of dung.
      Some two; some three; it's the dirtiest place that ever you see."

It was an ancient saying in the parish, and I believe the word _tump_ is
Somersetshire for heap.

A village in Essex, called Ugley, possesses the unfortunate saying:

      "Ugly church, ugly steeple;
      Ugly parson, ugly people."

The first line is literally true; to give an opinion on the second would
descend too much into personalities.


A particularly appropriate rhyme is that of

      "Stow on the Wold (Would?)
      Where the wind blows cold."

    S. L. P.

  Oxford and Cambridge Club.


(Vol. v., pp. 173. 196. 250.)

_Provincial Words._--Though the Rev. Wm. Barnes has almost
perfectionated the catalogue of Dorset provincialisms in the Glossary to
his beautiful poems in the Dorset dialect, I still sometimes meet with a
stray omission, viz.:

_Blasty._ To feed a fire with the dust of furze, &c.

_Clean-sheaf._ Altogether, _e.g._ "I've clean-sheaf vargot."

_Crudelee._ To crow, as a baby does.

_Eickered._ Blotchy.

_Giblets._ The smaller pieces of a shirt.

_Scousse._ To barter.

_Snyche._ Eager; ready to snap at.

_Squeapity._ To squeak, as an ungreased wheel.

_Stump._ Disturbance.

_Treaden._ The sole of the foot.

    C. W. B.

In addition to the names already given, the following occur to my

      Spelling.      Pronunciation.

      Alwalton, Hunts      Allerton
      Caldicott, Hunts      Cawcott
      Overton, Hunts      Orton
      Brewood, Staffordshire      Brood
      Chaddesley, Worcestershire      Chaggeley.

In connexion with this inquiry, would it not be interesting to make out
a list of proper names of individuals, the pronunciation of which is
different from the spelling; and, if possible, to trace (for example)
how Trevelyan and St. John became _Trevethlan_ and _Sinjin_, and the
high-sounding Cholmondeley sank, in the bathos of pronunciation, to
plain Chumley?


_The Word "Pick."_--Presuming that the proposal at Vol. v., p. 173.,
involves the discussion and illustration of the words inserted, allow
me, as a Lancashire man, to express my belief that the word _pick_ has
invariably the sense of "to throw," and not "to push." It is in fact
another form of the verb "to pitch;" the two terminations being almost
convertible, especially in words formed from the Saxon, as "fetch" from
"feccean," "stitch" from "stician," "thatch" from "theccan," the earlier
form of the latter word being retained in the well-known lines of "Bessy
Bell and Mary Gray." _Pick_, in the sense of "throw," will be found in
Shakspeare's _Henry VIII._, Act V. Sc. 3.:

      "I'll _pick_ you o'er the pales."

And in _Coriolanus_, Act I. Sc. 1.:

    "As high as I could _pick_ my lance."

And see the notes of the various commentators on these passages. If the
subject be worth further illustration, I may mention that in the
district of the cotton manufacture, the instrument by which the shuttle
is _thrown_ across the loom is called a _picker_; and each thread of the
woven fabric, being the result of one throw of the shuttle, is, by using
the word in a secondary sense, called a _pick_. I have heard a story of
a worthy patron of the Arts, more noted for his wealth than his taste,
who, attributing certain freedom of touch in a picture, for which he had
given a commission, to a want of due pains in elaboration, expressed his
dissatisfaction by saying, "there were not the right number of _picks_
to the inch;" the threads of calico, when received from the weaver,
being usually counted under the microscope as a test of the goodness of
the work.

      J. F. M.

_North Lincolnshire Provincialisms_ (Vol. v., pp. 173. 250.).--I have
noted the following North Lincolnshire provincialisms since the
appearance of MR. RAWLINSON'S suggestion:--

_Beat._ A bundle of flax.

_Blower._ A winnowing machine.

_Bumble._ A rush used to make the seats of chairs.

_Bun._ The stalk of hemp.

_Casson._ Cow dung.

_Charking._ The wall lining a well.


_Huigh._} Words used in driving pigs.

_Connifolde._ To cheat; to deceive.

_Coul Rake._ An instrument used to scrape mud from roads.

_Dozel._ A toppen; a ball placed on the highest point of a corn-rick.

_Feat._ Clever.

_Fingers-and-toes._ Turnips are said to go to fingers and toes when
instead of forming bulbs they branch off into small knotty substances.

_Gizen._ To stare vacantly.

_Grave._ To dig turf.

_Gyme._ A breach in a bank.

_Hales._ The handles of a plough.

_Hethud._ A viper.

_Kedge._ Trash; rubbish.

_Kelp._ The handles of a pail.

_Ketlack._ Wild mustard.

_Kittlin._ A kitten.

_Lew._ A word used in driving geese.

_Livery._ Sad; heavy; said of freshly-ploughed soil.

_Mazzen._ To stupify; to make dizzy.

_Meant._ Meaning of.

_Nobut._ Only.

_Nout._ Nothing.

_Nozzel._ The spout of a pump.

_Rate._ To revile.

_Snail-shelley._ Cankered; said of wood.

_Tod._ Dung.

    K. P. D. E.


(Vol. v., p. 270.)

I believe more than one of the courts to be haunted by persons who may
have suggested Mr. Dickens's "Little Old Lady." More than twenty years
ago a female of about fifty was a constant attendant on the Court of
Queen's Bench in Banco: I never saw her at a Nisi Prius sitting. She was
meanly but tidily dressed, quiet and unobtrusive in manners, but much
gratified by notice from any barrister. It was said she had been ruined
by a suit, but I could not learn anything authentic about her; though I
several times spoke and listened to her, partly from curiosity and
partly from the pleasure which she showed at being spoken to. Her
thoughts seemed fixed upon the business of the day, and I never
extracted more than, "Will they take motions?--Will _it_ come on
next?--I hope he will bring it on to-day!" but who was "he," or what was
"it," I could not learn; and when I asked, she would pause as if to
think, and pointing to the bench, say, "That's Lord Tenterden." I have
seen her rise, as about to address the court, when the judges were going
out, and look mortified as if she felt neglected. I cannot say when she
disappeared, but I do not remember having seen her for the last eight

I have heard that an old woman frequented Doctors' Commons about seven
years ago. She appeared to listen to the arguments, but was reserved and
mopish, if spoken to. She often threw herself in the way of one of the
leading advocates, and always addressed him in the same words: "Dr.
----, I am _virgo intacta_."

The sailor-looking man described by Charles Lamb lasted a long time. I
remember him in Fleet Street and the Strand when I was boy, and also an
account which appeared in the newspapers of his vigorous resistance when
apprehended as a vagrant; but I cannot fix the dates. I think, however,
it was about 1822. His portrait is in Kirby's _Wonderful and Eccentric
Museum_, vol. i. p. 331. Below it is, "Samuel Horsey, aged fifty-five, a
singular beggar in the streets of London." The date of the engraving is
August 30, 1803. As the accompanying letter-press is not long, I copy

  "This person, who has so long past, that is to say, during
  nineteen years, attracted the notice of the public, by the
  severity of his misfortunes, in the loss of both his legs, and the
  singular means by which he removes himself from place to place, by
  the help of a wooden seat constructed in the manner of a
  rocking-horse, and assisted by a pair of crutches, first met with
  his calamity by the falling of a piece of timber from a house at
  the lower end of Bow Lane, Cheapside. He is now fifty-five years
  of age, and commonly called the King of the Beggars: and as he is
  very corpulent, the facility he moves with is very singular. From
  his general appearance and complexion, he seems to enjoy a state
  of health remarkably good. The frequent obtrusion of a man
  naturally stout and well made, but now so miserably mutilated as
  he is, having excited the curiosity of great numbers of people
  daily passing through the most crowded thoroughfares of the
  metropolis, has been the leading motive of this account, and the
  striking representation of his person here given."

The likeness is very good. Among the stories told of him, one was that
his ample earnings enabled him to keep two wives, and, what is more, to
keep them from quarrelling. He presided in the evenings at a "cadgers'
club," planted at the head of the table, with a wife on each side. Not
having been present at these meetings I do not ask anybody to believe
this report.

    H. B. C.

  U. U. Club.

I believe Mr. Dickens's sketch, in the _Bleak House_, of the woman who
haunts the various Inns of Court, to be a clever combination of
different real characters. It is principally taken from a stout painted
old woman, long since dead, and who I believe was really ruined by some
suit in Chancery, and went mad in consequence, and used to linger about
the Courts, expecting some judgment to be given in her favour. Mr.
Dickens seems to have combined this woman's painful history with the
person and appearance of the diminutive creature mentioned by MR. ALFRED
GATTY. This latter personage is the daughter of a man for many years
bedmaker in one of the Inns of Court (I think Gray's Inn), and much of
her eccentricity is assumed, as, when begging from the few lawyers who
are old enough to remember her father as their bedmaker, no one is more
rational and collected. Though this little woman is well known from her
singular appearance and demeanour, there is no romance about her
history, and her craziness (if it really exists) is not to be attributed
to the Court of Chancery,--at which, as it is in the position of the
dying lion in the fable, every donkey (I mean no disrespect to Mr.
Dickens) must have its fling.

If any correspondent really feels an interest in this little creature's
history, I can undertake, with very little trouble, to supply the
fullest particulars.

    B. N. C.


Although I have for many years ceased to be an inhabitant of the
metropolis, I am much gratified at the suggested record of these
worthies, and think it would be a most interesting book, were truthful
particulars got together concerning them, with good portraits--I mean
striking likenesses--of these beings, who, as ALFRED GATTY observes,
"come like shadows, so depart." I will inform him something about the
"half-giant," of whom Charles Lamb says, that he "was brought low during
the riots of London." I almost doubt this, for just about then he lived
in the parish of St. Mary-le-Strand; indeed, before then, my grandfather
was there overseer, or otherwise a parochial authority, and he had him
apprehended and imprisoned as a rogue and a vagabond. I have often heard
my father talk about him; indeed, he knew this man well, and I regret
that I have forgotten his name. He always spoke of him as having been _a
sailor_, and that he had his legs carried away by a cannon-ball. This
burly beggar had two daughters, to each of whom he is said to have given
500_l._ on her wedding; and it was also said he left a handsome sum of
money at his death. But, doubtless, some curious correspondent will be
able to forward the desideratum with farther information. I only tell
the little I know.

The old porter, John, at the King's printing-office, whom I remember as
quite a character, "N. & Q." have peculiar facilities to immortalise. We
sexagenarians all remember the blackee at the crossing by Waithman's in
Bridge Street. He was said to have died very rich, and reported to have
sold his "walk," when he retired from business, for 1000_l._

But other "characters" might amusingly be introduced, such as those two
or three last roses in summer who continue to wear pig-tails or
pantaloons. I would even not omit Baron Maseres, and such
peculiarities--the German with his Bible and beard, without a hat--_et
hoc genus omne_. There is a large work of the kind, exhibiting portraits
and biographies of these illustrious personages in Edinburgh; it is now
scarce and valuable. I remember spending a most interesting evening over
it with a Scotchman, who knew and described many of the characters

    B. B.



(Vol. v., p. 121.)

SIR J. EMERSON TENNENT has accumulated many interesting particulars, but
by no means exhausted the subject. O'Brien, in his _Essay on the Round
Towers_, advocates the opinion of their being idolatrous
objects--remnants of Buddhism. The _Lia fail_ is celebrated in Irish
history. The episcopal city of Elphin has its name from a celebrated
pillar stone, which remained erect until Charles II.'s time, when it
fell in accordance with an ancient prophecy. This is attested by the
cotemporary evidence of O'Flaherty. Clogher has its name from another
celebrated stone, designated "The Golden Stone," which I believe was
oracular. There was in the city of Dublin, until recently, a curious
remnant of this veneration for stones, and in which we could probably
trace the transition from the Pagan to the Christian usage. At the base
of the tower of St. Audoen's Church was a rude-looking stone, something
like a spud-post, let into the wall, but so as to abut upon the street.
On the upper part of this stone was carved a cross in very low relief.
The stone was designated "The Lucky Stone," and the lower classes of the
people, especially hawkers and itinerant vendors of small wares,
believed that their success in business depended on their making a daily
visit to this stone, which they kissed; and thus a portion of the stone
became perfectly smooth and polished. There was a tradition, too, that
whenever the stone was removed, it was miraculously conveyed back to its
place. Thus it was said to have been stolen away to Galway, but to have
been restored to its original site on the following day. However this
may be, it remained attached to the church tower until about the year
1828, when some alterations being made in the church, it disappeared
from its place. The belief was, that one of the churchwardens, a man in
trade, had removed the stone into his own place of business, with a view
of engrossing all the luck to himself. Whether he succeeded or not, I do
not know; but after an interval of twenty years the identical stone
reappeared in front of a large Roman Catholic chapel lately erected near
St. Audoen's Church. It remained there, a conspicuous and
well-remembered object, near the donation-box, which it perhaps
assisted; but about six months ago it again disappeared, having been
removed, I know not where.

    R. T.


(Vol. v., p. 169.)

Theobald long since observed--

  "I do not remember a passage throughout our poet's works more
  intricate and depraved in the text, of less meaning to outward
  appearance, or more likely to baffle the attempt of criticism in
  its aid."

He then proposes his reading:

                      "The dram of _base_
      Doth all the noble substance of _worth out_
      To his own scandal;"

observing that "the dram of base" means the _alloy_ of baseness or vice,
and that it is frequent with our poet to use the _adjective of quality_
instead of the substantive signifying the thing.

It would be tedious to enumerate all the hapless attempts at emendation
which have been subsequently made, but I must be allowed to refer to
that adopted by MR. SINGER as long since as the year 1826, when he
vindicated the original reading, _doubt_, from the unnecessary meddling
of Steevens and Malone. MR. SINGER thus printed the passage:

                      "The dram of _bale_
      Doth all the noble substance _often_ doubt,
      To his own scandal."

_Bale_ was most probably preferred to _base_ as more euphonous, and
nearer to the word _eale_ in the _first_ quarto; but MR. S. would now
perhaps adopt _base_, as suggested by the word _ease_, in the _second_
quarto, for the reasons given by Theobald and your correspondent A. E.

It is evident that _dout_ cannot have been the poet's word, for, as your
correspondent remarks, the meaning is obviously, that "the dram of base"
renders all the noble substance doubtful or suspicious, not that it
extinguishes it altogether. This will appear from what precedes:

      "Or by some habit that too much _o'erleavens_
      The form of plausive manners," &c.

Under present impressions, therefore, I should prefer, as the least
deviation from the old copies, to read:

                      "The dram of _base_
      Doth, all the noble substance _o'er_, a doubt,
      To his own scandal:"

i.e. _doth cast a doubt over_ all the noble substance, _bring into
suspect_ all the noble qualities by the leaven of one dram of baseness.
This, according to your correspondent's own showing, is the very sense
required by the context, "the base _doth_ doubt to the noble, i.e.
_imparts_ doubt to it, or renders it doubtful." And when we recollect
the frequent use of the elision _o'er_ for _over_ by the poet, and the
ease with which _of_ might be substituted for it by the compositor, I
cannot but think it conclusive. To me the proposed reading, "_offer_
doubt," does not convey a meaning quite so clear and unequivocal.

Conjectural emendation of the text of our great poet is always to be
made with extreme caution, and that reading which will afford a clear
sense, with the slightest deviation from the first editions, is always
to be preferred. The errors are chiefly typographical, and often clearly
perceptible, but but they are also not unfrequently perplexing.

That MR. COLLIER and MR. KNIGHT, who do not often sin in this way,
should on the present occasion have countenanced such a wide departure
from the old copies as to read _ill_ and _doubt_, may well have
surprised A. E. B., as it certainly did



(Vol. v., p. 320.)

Nat Lee's _Man i' th' Almanack stuck with Pins_ has no reference to
"pricking for fortunes;" but to the figure of a man surrounded by the
signs of the zodiac found in old almanacks, and intended to indicate the
favourable, adverse, or indifferent periods for bloodletting. From the
various signs are _lines_ drawn to various parts of the naked figure;
and these lines give it very much the appearance of being _stuck with

I have not ready access to any old English almanacks; but a German one
of the early part of the sixteenth century contained the figure as above
described, with this inscription:

      "In dieser Figur sihet man in welchem
      Zeichen güt, mittel, oder böss lassen sey."

Surrounding the frame, the words "güt," "mittel," or "böss" are placed
against each sign of the zodiac from which the lines are drawn; and
underneath the figure are the following verses:

      "Im Glentz und in des Sommers zeit,
      So lass du auff der rechten seyt,
      In Winters zeit, und in dem Herbst,
      Auff der lincken;--dass du nit sterbst."

Some former possessor has written on the margin:

      "Signa coeli sunt 12. sqr:

      "Quatuor _boni_: Aries, Libra, Sagittarius, et Aquarius.

      "Et etiam quatuor _medii_, sqr.: Cancro, Virgo,
      Scorpio, et Pisces.

      "Et quatuor _mali_: Geminij, Leo, Capricornus et

Similar figures no doubt occur in our old English almanacks. I will
merely add that the figure above described is pasted on the back of the
title-page of an edition of _Regimen Sanitatis_, with an interlineary
version in German verse, bearing the following imprint: "Impressum
Auguste per Johannem Froschauer, Anno D[=m] MDij." 4to.

The book also bears a German title which, as it mentions the subject of
bloodletting [lassen], I may as well transcribe: ¶ _Diss ist das
Regiment der Gesuntheyt durch all monat des ganzen iars, wie man sich
halten sol mit essen und trincken, und auch von lassen._ I presume that
the rules for bloodletting which accompany the old almanacks are chiefly
derived from this _Regimen Sanitatis_, which is founded upon that of the
school of Salerno, as they form a principal feature in its precepts.

This edition of the book does not appear to have been known to Sir
Alexander Croke: I will therefore give the general precepts for the
twelve months which are prefixed to it.

      "Januarius { Ante cibum vina
                 { tu sumas pro medicina.

      Februarius { Non minuas, non balnearis,
                 { Mala ne patiaris.

      Marcius    { Hic assature
                 { tibi sunt balnea quoque cure.

      Aprilis    { Ut vivas sane minuas venam
                 { Medicinam.

      Mayus      { Carnes arescentes
                 { non sume sed recentes.

      Junius     { Sanus eris totus
                 { si fons erit tibi potus.

      Julius     { Ut tua te vita
                 { non vitas balnea vita.

      Augustus   { Potio te lædit
                 { te quippe minutio sedat.

      September  { Tempore Septembris
                 { prodest agrimonia membris.

      October    { Sumere que potes
                 { et musti pocula potes.

                 { Hoc tibi scire datur
      November   { quod reuma Novembri curatur,
                 { Potio sit sana
                 { atque minutio bona.

      December   { Sit tepidus potus
                 { frigori contrarie totus."

Such were the popular dietetics, and the almanacks were made the vehicle
of communicating them. As late as the year 1659, Edmund Gayton, author
of the _Festivous Notes on Don Quixote_, put forth a book in verse
entitled _The Art of Longevity, or a Dietetical Institution_. He had
graduated in physic at Oxford, but in his book he plays the part of a
Merry Andrew more than that of a physician. The book, however, is
curious as well as rare.

    S. W. SINGER.


(Vol. v., pp. 296. 333.)

Your correspondent E. F. may very probably have been informed, by ladies
intimate with the Sheridan family, that Tom Sheridan composed the lines
on Dr. Fell, respecting whose author and subject inquiries were made by
a querist in page 296.; but it is nevertheless quite untrue. My memory
of those lines goes back to a date earlier than Tom Sheridan's capacity
for writing an epigram; and this on Dr. Fell may be found, if memory
does not deceive me, in the _Elegant Extracts in Verse_, of a date at
least as early as Tom Sheridan's work. The subject of the epigram was
Dr. Fell, who held the deanery of Christ Church with the bishopric of
Oxford, in the times of Charles II. and James II. Its author probably
put it into circulation anonymously, as is usual with such brief
specimens of personal satire.

As lodged in my memory, the third line was,--

      "But this I'm sure I know full well."

That Dr. Fell, with some learning and a character for loyalty, had
somewhat in him which a discerning observer could not like, is become
notorious since the publication of his correspondence with the
obsequious and unprincipled Earl of Sunderland respecting Locke, whom
James II. wished the Dean to deprive of the income he received as a
student of Christ Church. (See Appendix to _Fox's History of Early Part
of Reign of James II._) Dr. Fell there tells the Earl that he had long
watched Mr. Locke, and made "strict inquiries," but that no person had
ever heard him speak a word against the government. He adds, that
language disparaging Locke's political friends had frequently been used
for the treacherous purpose of provoking such replies as might have been
used to his ruin, but hitherto all in vain; and that, as he had
withdrawn to the Continent, some other plan must now be adopted. He
accordingly proposes a mode of ensnaring him, subjoining, that if the
King would simply order his expulsion, the mandate should be obeyed,
without asking for any proof of his deserving such a sentence. This was
accordingly done; but in two short years the circumstances of all the
parties were changed. The Bishop and Dean was gone to appear before Him
who has said, "Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgment;" the King had
withdrawn to the Continent, expelled by his own terrors, and deprived of
his inheritance; Locke was returning to his native land, to be counted
one of its chief ornaments; the Earl of Sunderland had betrayed his
master, and was desiring to be allowed to do any dirty work for another.

      H. W.

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Verses in Prose._--I consider the following _not_ to be an instance of
casual versification by prose authors:

   "Fides antiquitatis religione firmatur. Stato tempore in sylvam,

      "'Auguriis patrum et priscâ formidine sacram,'

   "omnes ejusdem sanguinis populi legationibus coëunt."

   _Tacit. Germ._ cap. 39.

But I consider it to be a quotation from some lost Roman poet. It is too
lofty and sonorous to be casual, though such quotations are unusual to
the historian.

    A. N.

_Stops, when first introduced_ (Vol. v., pp. 1. 133., &c.).--In order to
assist SIR HENRY ELLIS in his inquiry into the use of stops in the early
days of typography, I examined some of the earlier specimens of printing
which my library afforded, and made the following notes. P. T. had not
found the semicolon earlier than 1636, with the exception of Gerard's
_Herbal_, 1597. It is, however, probable that the communication of A. J.
H. (p. 164.), by which it appears that the semicolon was used in 1585,
may render my notes of no use. However, I send my contribution, such as
it is.

In an edition of Latimer's _Sermons_, small 4to., black letter, judged
to be the edition of 1584, the stop in question is not found. The note
of interrogation is very curiously formed,--a colon surmounted by a
comma, thus [,:] I might also observe that, to one of such limited
knowledge as myself, the paging is singular,--only one numeral on each

In _Caroli Sigonii de Republica Hebræorum_, libri vij, Hanoviæ, 1608, no
semicolon occurs. But in Purchas' _Pilgrimage_, 1613, all the four stops
are used. So also in _The Spanish Mandevile of Myracles_, 1618.

    S. S. S.

_Rev. Nathaniel Spinckes_ (Vol. v., p. 273.).--Anne Spinckes married
Anthony Cope, Esq., second son of Sir John Cope, fifth baronet, but had
_no issue_.--See Debrett's _Baronetage_.

    S. L. P.

  Oxford and Cambridge Club.

_"'Twas they," &c._ (Vol. v., p. 10.).--

      "'Twas they unsheath'd the ruthless blade,
      And Heaven shall ask the havock it has made."

AMICUS asks where this couplet is to be found. It appears to me that it
has been derived from an imperfect translation of the last two lines of
Martial's epigram, L. iv. Ep. 44., in which he describes the effects of
a recent eruption of Vesuvius:

      "Cuncta jacent flammis, et tristi mersa favillâ:
        Nec Superi vellent hoc licuisse sibi."

It is a _petit morçeau_ of heathen blasphemy, in supposing that the gods
ought to repent of what they have done.

    W. N. D.

_Madrigal, Meaning of_ (Vol. v., p. 104.).--NEMO will find all that I
could collect upon this subject in the introduction to my _Bibliotheca
Madrigaliana_, published by J. Russell Smith, 8vo., 1847.


_Absalom's Hair_ (Vol. iv., pp. 131. 243.).--In answer to P. P., who
says that "Absalom's long hair had nothing to do with his death, his
head itself, and not the hair upon it, having been caught in the boughs
of the tree," RT. refers to the "respectable antiquity" of the popular
tradition. In the Vulgate edition of the Bible (Venetiis, 1760, ex
Typographia Balleoniana) there is a rude woodcut, evidently of much
older date than 1760, in which Absalom is represented as hanging by his
hair. Perhaps some of your correspondents can mention similar woodcuts
of a far earlier date.

In a family Bible (black letter, 1634), I find the following MS. note on
2 Sam. xiv. 26.: "And when he polled his head ... he weighed the hair of
his head at two hundred shekels after the king's weight;" which suggests
a solution of the difficulty which has puzzled many commentators, who,
to make Absalom's hair of the full weight, have to suppose that it was
plastered with pomatum and sprinkled with gold dust:

  "Ye lesser shekel weighed a quarter of an ounce, ye greater half
  an ounce. We cannot therefore suppose yt ye loppings of Absalom's
  hair weighed either 50 or 100 oz. But yt wn it was cut off his
  serv'ts might have sold it for 12lb 10s or 25lb to ye Ladys of
  Jerusalem, who were ambitious of adorning yr heads wth ye Hair of
  ye beautifull Absalom: wth ye locks of ye Ks son...."

It is recorded that when Absalom was buried "they laid a very great heap
of stones on him." Was this in detestation and abhorrence (cf. Joshua
vii. 26., viii. 29.), or in honourable memory of a prince and chief? If
the former, did it give rise to the custom of flinging stones in the
graves of malefactors?


_Bowbell_ (Vol. v., pp. 28. 140. 212.).--Several of your correspondents
have pointed out instances of the use of the word _Bowbell_ as nearly
synonymous with _Cockney_. The following lines are, I believe, of
earlier date than any which have been quoted on this subject; but it is
not quite clear in what sense the word _Bowbell_ is there used.

They are from a satirical poem by John Skelton, who died in 1529; and
the subject of them is Sir Thomas More.

      "But now we have a knight
      That is a man of might,
      All armed for to fight,
      To put the truth to flight
      By _Bowbell_ policy."


_Quid est Episcopus?_ (Vol. v., p. 255.).--I know not to whom Bingham
may refer these words in the edition of 1843; but in that of 1840 he
expressly refers them to "the author of the _Questions upon the Old and
New Testament_, under the name of _St. Austin_." But, the spurious book
being part of the collection printed as _S. Augustini Opera_, the
reference "Aug.," &c. very properly occurs there "at the foot of the

    A. N.

_Nightingale and Thorn_ (Vol. iv., pp. 175. 242.).--As an addition to
the examples already adduced concerning this fable, I give the

      "Come, let us set our careful breasts,
        Like Philomel, against the thorn,
      To aggravate the inward grief
        That makes her accents so forlorn."

      Hood, _Ode to Melancholy_.


_The Article "An"_ (Vol. v., p. 297.).--"_Hospital_" is to be found with
the prefix "an" in Addison, and probably in the works of all other
writers who need the word and the prefix; but, as to there being only
_six_ words beginning with _h_ to which the case of the said prefix will
apply, I cannot assent to the assertion. Witness the following words,
which will form decided exceptions to a supposed rule of that
kind:--_Harangue_, _hereafter_, _historical_, _hour_, _hostler_,
_hyperbole_, _hypothesis_, _hysteric_. Can any one speak these words in
succession with the prefix "a" to each without impediment? I trow not.

    C. I. R.

The six words mentioned by NIL NEMINI, that begin with the letter _h_,
and have the article "an" prefixed, are not quite the same as those I
was taught at school. This is my list "_Heir_, _honest_, _honour_
(including _honourable_), _hour_, _herb_, and _hospital_."


_The Countess of Desmond_ (Vol. v., p. 323.).--Having succeeded in
eliciting notices of various pictures of Oliver Cromwell attributed to
Cooper, without discovering the original miniature bequeathed to Richard
Burke by Sir Joshua Reynolds, I am tempted to mention that I once saw a
portrait of the Countess of Desmond, hitherto not described by any of
her biographers, but very much resembling the Windsor picture and
Penant's engraved print, though evidently the work of an inferior
artist. The portrait in question was a short time in my father's
possession, soon after the year 1800, having been delivered to him by
the executor of Mrs. Elizabeth Berkeley, an eccentric old lady, well
known as a correspondent of the _Gentleman's Magazine_, who left the
picture, with many others, to Lord Braybrooke. But it was soon claimed
by a Mr. Grimston of Sculcoates, in Yorkshire, who seemed to be entitled
to a great portion of the collection, and my father was glad to be
allowed to retain two fine views of Venice, painted by Canaletti for
Berkeley, Bishop of Cloyne, who was the father of Mrs. Berkeley's
husband, and which are still at Audley End. Perhaps this statement made
from memory at the end of fifty years may be of no value, but it shows
the existence of another likeness of the person always described as the
Countess of Desmond, and as it came originally from the collection of an
Irish prelate, it probably, like the lady herself, belonged to the
Emerald Isle.


_Friday at Sea_ (Vol. v., pp. 200. 330.).--Stranger still to your
correspondent W. FRASER and the readers of "N. & Q." must the assurance
be that the "Birkenhead" troop-ship (whose disastrous loss was
accompanied by such a terrific sacrifice of life), sailed from
Portsmouth harbour on the _2nd January last--the identical day_ (_being
a Friday_) on which the lamented Capt. Symons in the "Amazon" left this
port, no more to return. Can we wonder that uneducated minds, usually
prone to superstitious observances, should at least _marvel_ at these
strange coincidences?

    H. W. S. TAYLOR.


_Marriage of Mrs. Claypole_ (Vol. v., p. 298.).--In an old annual
obituary for 1712, there is mention made of the Protector's family, and
of the marriage of Mrs. Claypole. I think it gives the date required by
B. N., but the phraseology is rather old-fashioned, and may be open to a
second interpretation. I send you the extract entire:--

  "Elizabeth (and not Mary, as stated in your note) became the wife
  of John Claypole, Esquire, of Northamptonshire, made Master of the
  Horse to the Protector, one of his House of Lords, a Knight and
  Baronet, on July 16th, 1657, he being then Clerk of the Hanaper;
  the said Elizabeth dyed August 7th, 1658, and was buried in Henry
  VII.'s chappel in a vault made on purpose."

There is no mention of the writer's name in the volume, but I have found
such of the details respecting the Cromwell family as I examined to
coincide with the received authorities.

    T. O'G.


_Rev. John Paget_ (Vol. iv., p. 133.; Vol. v., pp. 66. 280. 327.).--Will
the following facts, taken from Oldfield and Dyson's _History and
Antiquities of Tottenham_, 1790, pp. 48-50., be of any use to CRANMORE?
He is quite right as to the substitution of the baptismal name _James_
to the Baron of the Exchequer, instead of John, as Dugdale has it: for
he is called "James Pagitt, Esq.," in the inscription to his memory in
Tottenham Church. He was a baron from 1631 till his death in 1638.

The authors describe him as "son of Thomas of the Inner Temple, London,
son of Richard Crawford, in the county of Northampton, son of Thomas of
Barton Seagrave, &c., in the said county." He married three wives: 1.
Katherine, daughter of Dr. Lewin, Dean of the Arches; 2. Bridget,
daughter of Anthony Bowyer; and 3. Margaret, daughter of Robert Harris
of Lincoln's Inn. The latter we find, in Ashmole's _Antiquities of
Berks_, vol. iii. p. 88., had been married twice before, and that her
father was of Reading.

Baron Paget had no children by his last two wives; but by his first,
besides two daughters, he had two sons: Justinian of Hadley, Middlesex,
_custos brevium_ of the Court of King's Bench; and Thomas.

If Cranmore can communicate to me any details of his history, I shall
feel obliged by his doing so.


_Mary Queen of Scots and Bothwell's Confession_ (Vol. iv., p.
313.).--ÆGROTUS refers, I presume, to a document which he will find in a
little volume entitled, _Les Affaires du Comte de Bodnée_, published at
Edinburgh by the Bannatyne Club in 1829. The narrative was written in
the old French, at Copenhagen. The original is still preserved in the
Royal Library of the Castle of Drottningholm in Sweden. Bothwell wrote
it on "la vielle des Roys," 1568, and appears to have given it to the
Chevalier de Dauzay, the French ambassador, to be communicated to the
King of Denmark. Dauzay received it on the 13th of January, 1568, and
placed it before the ministers of the King on the 16th of January. M.
Mignet, in his history, throws discredit on this confession, styling it
"a very adroit narrative" (_L'Histoire de Marie Stuart_, vol. i.
appendix H.); though such a self-crimination, at such a time, would seem
to any impartial mind to weigh strongly in favour of the ill-fated young
queen, whose character it tends to exculpate.

    F. S. A.

_Introduction of Glass into England_ (Vol. v., p. 322.).--It is
impossible to determine at what period the use of glass utensils for
domestic purposes was first introduced into this country; but being
manufactured by the Egyptians and Phoenicians, we may very probably owe
the introduction of it to them. Window glass appears to have been used
in the churches of France as early as the sixth century; and according
to Bede, artificers skilled in the art of glass-making were invited into
England by Abbot Benedict in the seventh century; and the churches or
monasteries of Wearmouth and Garrow were glazed and adorned by his care.
Wilfrid, Bishop of Worcester, about the same time took similar steps for
substituting glass in lieu of the heavy shutters which were then in use;
and great astonishment was excited, and supernatural agency suspected,
when the moon and stars were seen through a material which excluded the
inclemency of the weather. York Cathedral was glazed about the same
time; and in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, when a great stimulus
was given to the erection of religious edifices, glass was generally
employed in the windows. It appears to have been used in domestic
architecture but very sparingly, till a much later period, when it came
to be gradually adopted in the residences of the wealthy. As late as the
middle of the sixteenth century it was recommended, in a survey of the
Duke of Northumberland's estates, that the glass in the windows should
be taken down, and laid by in safety during the absence of the Duke and
his family, and be replaced on his return; as this would be attended
with smaller cost than the repair rendered necessary by damage or decay.
In Ray's _Itinerary_ it is mentioned that in Scotland, even in 1661, the
windows of ordinary houses were not glazed, and those only of the
principal chambers of the King's palaces had glass; the lower ones being
supplied with shutters, to admit light and air at pleasure.

Plate glass for mirrors and coach windows was introduced into England by
the second Duke of Buckingham, who brought over workmen from Venice, and
established a manufactory at Lambeth, where the works were carried on
successfully according to the process in use at Venice.

The first manufactory for cast plate glass, according to the process
invented by Abraham Thévart, was established in 1773, at Prescot in
Lancashire, by a society of gentlemen, to whom a royal charter was
granted, under the name of the "British Plate Glass Company."

    D. M.

_Maps of Africa_ (Vol. v., p. 236.).--As your correspondent has no faith
in Spruner, but appears to have confidence in Kiepert, it may serve him
to be informed that there is a General Map of Africa by Kiepert
published in 1850, and that Drs. Barth and Overweg, the travellers in
Africa, have this map with them: also, that Kiepert published a map of
Algiers, Fez, and Morocco, Tunis, Tripoli, &c. There is also another map
by Kiepert, of the Roman Empire in the first centuries of the Christian
era, which includes the northern coast of Africa.

    S. W.

_Cromwell's Skull_ (Vol. v., p. 275.).--In answer to J. P., I beg to
inform him that the skull of Cromwell is in the possession of W. A.
Wilkinson, Esq., of Beckenham, Kent, at whose house a relation of mine
saw it. I have no doubt that Mr. Wilkinson would feel pleasure in
stating the arguments on which the genuineness of the interesting relic
is based.

    L. W.



The publication of _The Works of Sir Thomas Browne_, vol. iii.,
containing "Urn Burial," "Christian Morals," "Miscellanies,"
"Correspondence," &c., edited by Simon Wilkins, completes this important
contribution to Bohn's _Antiquarian Library_. We could have wished that
it had not been included in this series, for we fear that circumstance
may deter many from purchasing it; and the writings of Browne may still
be read by all with interest and advantage, for, "of the esteem of
posterity," said Johnson, "he will not easily be deprived, while
learning shall have any reverence among men; for there is no science in
which he does not discover some skill; and scarce any kind of knowledge,
profane or sacred, abstruse or elegant, which he does not appear to have
cultivated with success;" and these writings, with Mr. Wilkins's notes,
may now be placed upon our shelves for fifteen shillings!

If, when speaking of the discovery of electro-magnetism by Professor
Oersted, Sir John Herschel did not hesitate to declare "that the
Electric Telegraph, and other wonders of modern science, were but mere
effervescences from the surface of this deep recondite discovery which
Oersted had liberated, and which was yet to burst with all its mighty
force upon the world," he paid only a just compliment to the merits of
the great physicist--and he really did no more--it is obvious that Mr.
Bohn, in giving as a new volume of his _Scientific Library_, a
translation of _The Soul in Nature, with Supplementary Contributions_,
by Hans Christian Oersted, has rendered a great service to scientific
men. And it would seem, moreover, from the dedication of the
translators, that in executing their labour they have been fulfilling
Oersted's own wish, that a true representation of his views of nature
should be presented to the English public.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_The Honey Bee._ _Music, and the Art of Dress._ We have
thus, in two handsomely and legibly printed shilling numbers of Murray's
_Reading for the Rail_, three Essays from the Quarterly, which all who
have read them will be glad to read again, and which all will gladly
read who never read before.



THE ARCHÆOLOGICAL JOURNAL, the First Five Volumes, complete. Also the
Extra Volumes of Winchester, York, Norwich, and Lincoln; published by
the Archæological Society.

EDWIN AND EMMA. Tayler, 1776.

MALLET'S POEMS. Bell's edition.



and Judges. Small 4to.

KENT'S ANTHEMS. Vol. I. folio. Edited by Joseph Corfe.





L'HISTOIRE DE LA SAINCTE BIBLE, par Royaumonde: à Paris, 1701.

JOHNSON'S (DR. S.) WORKS, by MURPHY. Trade Edition of 1816, in 8vo. Vol.
XII. only.


FUSELI. London, 1765. 8vo.

INCLUDING THE YEAR 1707. London, folio.


BENTLEY'S MISCELLANY. The first two Volumes. In Numbers preferred.

MARVELL'S WORKS. 3 Vols. 4to.


KINGSTON-ON-HULL, any work upon.

EDWIN AND EMMA. Taylor, 1776. 5_s._ will be given for a perfect copy.


---- Vols. VIII. and IX. in Numbers.





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REPLIES RECEIVED.--_Tory--Sir B. Gerbier--Amyclæ--Nightingale and
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Taylor's Story of the Greek--Suicides--Tenor Bell at Margate--Maps
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      "Music has charms to soothe a savage breast,"

_is from Congreve's_ Mourning Bride, _Act I. Sc. 1.; and_

      "For fools rush in where angels fear to tread,"

_from Pope's_ Essay on Criticism.

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  Schools and Students; with a PARSING INDEX, containing the Words
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  _This Lexicon will be found to be the fullest and most
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  "Making use of the well-directed labour and well-earned fame of
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  himself buried in Lambeth Church, is now very nearly effaced. The
  restoration of that Church, now nearly finished, seems a fit
  occasion for repairing both these Monuments. It is therefore
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  of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Copenhagen. Translated and
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Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5 New
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      [Transcriber's Note: List of volumes and content pages in "Notes
      and Queries", Vol. I.-V.]

      | Notes and Queries Vol. I.                                   |
      | Vol., No.     | Date, Year        | Pages     | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. I No.  1 | November  3, 1849 |   1 -  17 | PG #  8603  |
      | Vol. I No.  2 | November 10, 1849 |  18 -  32 | PG # 11265  |
      | Vol. I No.  3 | November 17, 1849 |  33 -  46 | PG # 11577  |
      | Vol. I No.  4 | November 24, 1849 |  49 -  63 | PG # 13513  |
      | Vol. I No.  5 | December  1, 1849 |  65 -  80 | PG # 11636  |
      | Vol. I No.  6 | December  8, 1849 |  81 -  95 | PG # 13550  |
      | Vol. I No.  7 | December 15, 1849 |  97 - 112 | PG # 11651  |
      | Vol. I No.  8 | December 22, 1849 | 113 - 128 | PG # 11652  |
      | Vol. I No.  9 | December 29, 1849 | 130 - 144 | PG # 13521  |
      | Vol. I No. 10 | January   5, 1850 | 145 - 160 | PG #        |
      | Vol. I No. 11 | January  12, 1850 | 161 - 176 | PG # 11653  |
      | Vol. I No. 12 | January  19, 1850 | 177 - 192 | PG # 11575  |
      | Vol. I No. 13 | January  26, 1850 | 193 - 208 | PG # 11707  |
      | Vol. I No. 14 | February  2, 1850 | 209 - 224 | PG # 13558  |
      | Vol. I No. 15 | February  9, 1850 | 225 - 238 | PG # 11929  |
      | Vol. I No. 16 | February 16, 1850 | 241 - 256 | PG # 16193  |
      | Vol. I No. 17 | February 23, 1850 | 257 - 271 | PG # 12018  |
      | Vol. I No. 18 | March     2, 1850 | 273 - 288 | PG # 13544  |
      | Vol. I No. 19 | March     9, 1850 | 289 - 309 | PG # 13638  |
      | Vol. I No. 20 | March    16, 1850 | 313 - 328 | PG # 16409  |
      | Vol. I No. 21 | March    23, 1850 | 329 - 343 | PG # 11958  |
      | Vol. I No. 22 | March    30, 1850 | 345 - 359 | PG # 12198  |
      | Vol. I No. 23 | April     6, 1850 | 361 - 376 | PG # 12505  |
      | Vol. I No. 24 | April    13, 1850 | 377 - 392 | PG # 13925  |
      | Vol. I No. 25 | April    20, 1850 | 393 - 408 | PG # 13747  |
      | Vol. I No. 26 | April    27, 1850 | 409 - 423 | PG # 13822  |
      | Vol. I No. 27 | May       4, 1850 | 425 - 447 | PG # 13712  |
      | Vol. I No. 28 | May      11, 1850 | 449 - 463 | PG # 13684  |
      | Vol. I No. 29 | May      18, 1850 | 465 - 479 | PG # 15197  |
      | Vol. I No. 30 | May      25, 1850 | 481 - 495 | PG # 13713  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. II.                                  |
      | Vol., No.      | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. II No. 31 | June  1, 1850      |   1- 15 | PG # 12589  |
      | Vol. II No. 32 | June  8, 1850      |  17- 32 | PG # 15996  |
      | Vol. II No. 33 | June 15, 1850      |  33- 48 | PG # 26121  |
      | Vol. II No. 34 | June 22, 1850      |  49- 64 | PG # 22127  |
      | Vol. II No. 35 | June 29, 1850      |  65- 79 | PG # 22126  |
      | Vol. II No. 36 | July  6, 1850      |  81- 96 | PG # 13361  |
      | Vol. II No. 37 | July 13, 1850      |  97-112 | PG # 13729  |
      | Vol. II No. 38 | July 20, 1850      | 113-128 | PG # 13362  |
      | Vol. II No. 39 | July 27, 1850      | 129-143 | PG # 13736  |
      | Vol. II No. 40 | August  3, 1850    | 145-159 | PG # 13389  |
      | Vol. II No. 41 | August 10, 1850    | 161-176 | PG # 13393  |
      | Vol. II No. 42 | August 17, 1850    | 177-191 | PG # 13411  |
      | Vol. II No. 43 | August 24, 1850    | 193-207 | PG # 13406  |
      | Vol. II No. 44 | August 31, 1850    | 209-223 | PG # 13426  |
      | Vol. II No. 45 | September  7, 1850 | 225-240 | PG # 13427  |
      | Vol. II No. 46 | September 14, 1850 | 241-256 | PG # 13462  |
      | Vol. II No. 47 | September 21, 1850 | 257-272 | PG # 13936  |
      | Vol. II No. 48 | September 28, 1850 | 273-288 | PG # 13463  |
      | Vol. II No. 49 | October  5, 1850   | 289-304 | PG # 13480  |
      | Vol. II No. 50 | October 12, 1850   | 305-320 | PG # 13551  |
      | Vol. II No. 51 | October 19, 1850   | 321-351 | PG # 15232  |
      | Vol. II No. 52 | October 26, 1850   | 353-367 | PG # 22624  |
      | Vol. II No. 53 | November  2, 1850  | 369-383 | PG # 13540  |
      | Vol. II No. 54 | November  9, 1850  | 385-399 | PG # 22138  |
      | Vol. II No. 55 | November 16, 1850  | 401-415 | PG # 15216  |
      | Vol. II No. 56 | November 23, 1850  | 417-431 | PG # 15354  |
      | Vol. II No. 57 | November 30, 1850  | 433-454 | PG # 15405  |
      | Vol. II No. 58 | December  7, 1850  | 457-470 | PG # 21503  |
      | Vol. II No. 59 | December 14, 1850  | 473-486 | PG # 15427  |
      | Vol. II No. 60 | December 21, 1850  | 489-502 | PG # 24803  |
      | Vol. II No. 61 | December 28, 1850  | 505-524 | PG # 16404  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. III.                                 |
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. III No. 62 | January  4, 1851  |   1- 15 | PG # 15638  |
      | Vol. III No. 63 | January 11, 1851  |  17- 31 | PG # 15639  |
      | Vol. III No. 64 | January 18, 1851  |  33- 47 | PG # 15640  |
      | Vol. III No. 65 | January 25, 1851  |  49- 78 | PG # 15641  |
      | Vol. III No. 66 | February  1, 1851 |  81- 95 | PG # 22339  |
      | Vol. III No. 67 | February  8, 1851 |  97-111 | PG # 22625  |
      | Vol. III No. 68 | February 15, 1851 | 113-127 | PG # 22639  |
      | Vol. III No. 69 | February 22, 1851 | 129-159 | PG # 23027  |
      | Vol. III No. 70 | March  1, 1851    | 161-174 | PG # 23204  |
      | Vol. III No. 71 | March  8, 1851    | 177-200 | PG # 23205  |
      | Vol. III No. 72 | March 15, 1851    | 201-215 | PG # 23212  |
      | Vol. III No. 73 | March 22, 1851    | 217-231 | PG # 23225  |
      | Vol. III No. 74 | March 29, 1851    | 233-255 | PG # 23282  |
      | Vol. III No. 75 | April  5, 1851    | 257-271 | PG # 23402  |
      | Vol. III No. 76 | April 12, 1851    | 273-294 | PG # 26896  |
      | Vol. III No. 77 | April 19, 1851    | 297-311 | PG # 26897  |
      | Vol. III No. 78 | April 26, 1851    | 313-342 | PG # 26898  |
      | Vol. III No. 79 | May  3, 1851      | 345-359 | PG # 26899  |
      | Vol. III No. 80 | May 10, 1851      | 361-382 | PG # 32495  |
      | Vol. III No. 81 | May 17, 1851      | 385-399 | PG # 29318  |
      | Vol. III No. 82 | May 24, 1851      | 401-415 | PG # 28311  |
      | Vol. III No. 83 | May 31, 1851      | 417-440 | PG # 36835  |
      | Vol. III No. 84 | June  7, 1851     | 441-472 | PG # 37379  |
      | Vol. III No. 85 | June 14, 1851     | 473-488 | PG # 37403  |
      | Vol. III No. 86 | June 21, 1851     | 489-511 | PG # 37496  |
      | Vol. III No. 87 | June 28, 1851     | 513-528 | PG # 37516  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. IV.                                  |
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx |
      | Vol. IV No.  88 | July  5, 1851      |   1- 15 | PG # 37548 |
      | Vol. IV No.  89 | July 12, 1851      |  17- 31 | PG # 37568 |
      | Vol. IV No.  90 | July 19, 1851      |  33- 47 | PG # 37593 |
      | Vol. IV No.  91 | July 26, 1851      |  49- 79 | PG # 37778 |
      | Vol. IV No.  92 | August  2, 1851    |  81- 94 | PG # 38324 |
      | Vol. IV No.  93 | August  9, 1851    |  97-112 | PG # 38337 |
      | Vol. IV No.  94 | August 16, 1851    | 113-127 | PG # 38350 |
      | Vol. IV No.  95 | August 23, 1851    | 129-144 | PG # 38386 |
      | Vol. IV No.  96 | August 30, 1851    | 145-167 | PG # 38405 |
      | Vol. IV No.  97 | Sept.  6, 1851     | 169-183 | PG # 38433 |
      | Vol. IV No.  98 | Sept. 13, 1851     | 185-200 | PG # 38491 |
      | Vol. IV No.  99 | Sept. 20, 1851     | 201-216 | PG # 38574 |
      | Vol. IV No. 100 | Sept. 27, 1851     | 217-246 | PG # 38656 |
      | Vol. IV No. 101 | Oct.  4, 1851      | 249-264 | PG # 38701 |
      | Vol. IV No. 102 | Oct. 11, 1851      | 265-287 | PG # 38773 |
      | Vol. IV No. 103 | Oct. 18, 1851      | 289-303 | PG # 38864 |
      | Vol. IV No. 104 | Oct. 25, 1851      | 305-333 | PG # 38926 |
      | Vol. IV No. 105 | Nov.  1, 1851      | 337-358 | PG # 39076 |
      | Vol. IV No. 106 | Nov.  8, 1851      | 361-374 | PG # 39091 |
      | Vol. IV No. 107 | Nov. 15, 1851      | 377-396 | PG # 39135 |
      | Vol. IV No. 108 | Nov. 22, 1851      | 401-414 | PG # 39197 |
      | Vol. IV No. 109 | Nov. 29, 1851      | 417-430 | PG # 39233 |
      | Vol. IV No. 110 | Dec.  6, 1851      | 433-460 | PG # 39338 |
      | Vol. IV No. 111 | Dec. 13, 1851      | 465-478 | PG # 39393 |
      | Vol. IV No. 112 | Dec. 20, 1851      | 481-494 | PG # 39438 |
      | Vol. IV No. 113 | Dec. 27, 1851      | 497-510 | PG # 39503 |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. V.                                   |
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         |  Pages  | PG # xxxxx |
      | Vol. V  No. 114 | January  3, 1852   |   1- 18 | PG # 40171 |
      | Vol. V  No. 115 | January 10, 1852   |  25- 45 | PG # 40582 |
      | Vol. V  No. 116 | January 17, 1852   |  49- 70 | PG # 40642 |
      | Vol. V  No. 117 | January 24, 1852   |  73- 94 | PG # 40678 |
      | Vol. V  No. 118 | January 31, 1852   |  97-118 | PG # 40716 |
      | Vol. V  No. 119 | February  7, 1852  | 121-142 | PG # 40742 |
      | Vol. V  No. 120 | February 14, 1852  | 145-167 | PG # 40743 |
      | Vol. V  No. 121 | February 21, 1852  | 170-191 | PG # 40773 |
      | Vol. V  No. 122 | February 28, 1852  | 193-215 | PG # 40779 |
      | Vol. V  No. 123 | March  6, 1852     | 217-239 | PG # 40804 |
      | Vol. V  No. 124 | March 13, 1852     | 241-263 | PG # 40843 |
      | Vol. V  No. 125 | March 20, 1852     | 265-287 | PG # 40910 |
      | Vol. V  No. 126 | March 27, 1852     | 289-310 | PG # 40987 |
      | Vol. V  No. 127 | April  3, 1852     | 313-335 | PG # 41138 |
      | Vol. V  No. 128 | April 10, 1852     | 337-358 | PG # 41171 |
      | Vol I. Index. [Nov. 1849-May 1850]             | PG # 13536 |
      | INDEX TO THE SECOND VOLUME. MAY-DEC., 1850     | PG # 13571 |
      | INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. JAN.-JUNE, 1851     | PG # 26770 |
      | INDEX TO THE FOURTH VOLUME. JULY-DEC., 1851    | PG # 40166 |

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. V, Number 129, April 17, 1852 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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