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Title: A Guide to the Virginia Springs - giving, in addition to the routes and distances, a - description of the springs and also of the natural - curiosities of the state
Author: Moorman, John Jennings
Language: English
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A GUIDE TO THE VIRGINIA SPRINGS:

GIVING, IN ADDITION TO

The Routes and Distances,

A DESCRIPTION OF THE SPRINGS,

AND ALSO OF THE NATURAL CURIOSITIES OF THE STATE.


STAUNTON, VA.:
ROBERT COWAN.


PHILADELPHIA:
THOMAS, COWPERTHWAIT & CO.
1851.

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1851,
BY ROBERT COWAN,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the
Western District of Virginia.

C. SHERMAN, PRINTER.



PREFACE.


So frequent has been the demand for some Guide to the Virginia Springs,
of portable dimensions, and nothing of the kind having as yet appeared,
we have been induced to _compile_ the following little work, hoping to
meet, in some measure, the wants of visiters to these Watering-Places.
In giving the various routes, we have endeavoured to describe the
Springs, and also the Natural Curiosities, as we proceed.

Other matter than that for which we are indebted to the proprietors of
the Springs, has been gathered from various publications.

A number of books and pamphlets have been written about the Mineral
Waters of Virginia, but in _no single one_, we believe, has an account
been given of so many watering-places as in this.

There are many other Springs in the State whose waters, no doubt,
contain valuable medicinal qualities, perhaps even exceeding several of
which an account has been given in this work; but as we have not been
able to get information with regard to them,--not knowing, in fact,
even their localities,--we must, of course, much as we regret it, omit
them.

There are, doubtless, also, many other great natural curiosities beside
those of which we have given a description; but as we lay no claim to
authorship,--_merely being a compiler_,--and having no information
concerning them, we will have to leave them as we have done the Springs
referred to in our last paragraph.

February, 1851.



GUIDE TO THE SPRINGS.



ROUTES TO THE VIRGINIA SPRINGS.


From Washington City to the Virginia Springs there are two main leading
routes. One is down the Potomac River (passing in sight of Mount
Vernon) to Acquia Creek, forty-five miles; thence by railroad to
Fredericksburg, fourteen miles; to the Junction, thirty-seven miles; to
Louisa Court-House, thirty-seven miles; to Gordonsville, thirteen
miles; and to Charlottesville, twenty-one miles. One mile west of this
place is the University of Virginia, one of the most flourishing
institutions in the Union. The buildings are fine, and in full view
from the road.

Three miles southeast of Charlottesville is Monticello, the seat of
Thomas Jefferson. The railroad not having, as yet, been completed
beyond Charlottesville, we proceed thence by stage via Cox,
Brookesville, Rockfish Gap, Waynesboro, and Fishersville to Staunton,
thirty-eight miles. In this place are the Western Insane Asylum, and
the Institution for the Deaf and Dumb and Blind, two noble state
institutions. Staunton is much resorted to during the summer by persons
from the tide-water region of the state.

Stopping here, we have an opportunity of visiting WEYER'S CAVE
and the Chimneys, two natural curiosities of this county (Augusta).
Weyer's Cave, the most celebrated of these curiosities, is 17 miles
northeast of Staunton. "This is the most remarkable cavern at present
known, surpassing the Grotto of Antiparos, Fingal's Cave in Staffa, and
the far-famed Mammoth Cave of Kentucky, which are remarkable only for
dimensions.

"Weyer's Cave, for its extent and variety, the singularity of its
stalactitic concretions, the disposition of its festooning, the
fantastic displays of its drapery, and the sublimity and grandeur of
its scenery, is not surpassed by anything in nature.

"The Guide's House is situated about eight hundred yards from the
entrance to the Cave. In going from the house to the cave, you pass
near Madison's Cave, which is in the same ridge, and only three hundred
yards from it. Madison's Cave was known and visited as a curiosity long
before the discovery of Weyer's Cave, but is now passed by and
neglected, as being unworthy of notice, compared with its more imposing
rival, although it has had the pen of a Jefferson to describe its
beauties.

"Weyer's Cave is about 2500 feet in length, yet its exploration does
not in a direct line exceed 1800 feet. It is divided into several
apartments of various sizes, some of which have received the names of
'Washington's Hall,' 'Congress Hall,' 'Jefferson's Hall,' 'The Senate
Chamber,' 'Solomon's Temple,' &c. A distinguished Bostonian, in writing
of this Cave, says,--'I have twice visited the Caverns of Matlock and
Castleton, in Derbyshire, England, and have twice walked in the
subterranean streets of Herculaneum, in the Catacombs of Rome, the
tombs of the Scipios, and seen the subterranean wonders of the old
world; but must confess Weyer's Cave in Virginia exceeds them
_all_, in the beauty of its natural ornaments, and in its general
effect. It is as dry, as well graded, and as easy of access, as
European caverns. Washington's Hall, with its splendid hangings, its
well-wrought fretwork, and the wonderful freak of Nature in placing a
statue in the centre, is alone worth a pilgrimage to behold.'

    "'Veni vidi victus sum!'

"The temperature of the Cave is 54-1/2° of Fahrenheit, and never
changes. It is therefore apparently warm in winter, and cool in summer.

"Ladies should be provided with a light shawl, and thick shoes, in
visiting this Cave."

The other curiosity mentioned--the Cyclopean Towers, for many years
known by the name of "The Chimneys," is about 16 or 18 miles north of
Staunton. These summits or towers, of which there are seven, appear
like so many antique chimneys in the midst of a grove. They rise almost
perpendicularly from the bed of a stream, to the height of about 60 or
70 feet, with projections like Gothic cornices.



SPRINGS.


There are several Mineral Springs in this county, none of which are
much visited by persons from a distance. The most noted of these are
the Augusta Springs, (formerly called Stribling's Springs,) about 13
miles northeast from Staunton. "The water is strongly impregnated with
sulphuretted hydrogen, and is said to equal the celebrated Harrowgate,
in England."

Crawford's Springs, 17 miles west of Staunton, on what is called the
Free Turnpike, are also visited by persons from the neighbourhood, and
said to contain valuable medicinal qualities.

Union Spring is on the west side of the Blue Ridge, 20 miles east of
Staunton; and the Lebanon White Sulphur about 20 miles northwest of
Staunton, on the road leading from Harrisonburg to the Warm Springs.

From Staunton to the Springs in western Virginia the route is, via
Buffalo Gap 10 miles, Deerfield 12 miles, Cloverdale 8 miles, thence to
BATH ALUM SPRINGS, 15 miles.

"This new and elegant establishment is situated at the eastern base of
the Warm Spring Mountain, on the route through Virginia by way of the
Valley of the great Kanawha to Point Pleasant and Guyandotte on the
Ohio River. It is very pleasantly located both in point of climate and
scenery; the atmosphere is pure, bracing, and exhilarating; the
mountain scenery diversified and picturesque. To the west and northwest
is the Big Piney Mountain; on the southwest is Little Piney Mountain.
These ranges lie parallel with the Warm Spring Mountain, and nature
seems to have separated them for a road to the Far West. Through the
'gap' in these mountains the visiter enjoys a fine view of the
celebrated 'Flag Rock,' the gap in the Warm Spring Mountain, and of the
turnpike road (for about three-fourths of a mile) as it winds its way
along the sides and finally reaches the summit of the mountain.

"Eastward stretches McClung's Mountain, through which Thompson's Creek,
sparkling and rapid, forces its way, giving view to Mill Mountain in
the distance, whilst in the foreground rises Mayo's Hill, with its rich
and beautiful laurel groves.

"The buildings are situated on ground slightly undulating, of which 10
acres are enclosed and ornamented with shade trees, shrubbery, &c.; and
in the rear is an extensive forest reaching to the base of the
mountain. The houses are disposed in the form of a crescent, of which
the centre and principal is the Hotel. This is three stories high
besides the basement, 90 feet front by 50 deep, and contains a suite of
parlours, very handsomely furnished reception-room, reading-room, the
ball-room, and a number of double and single chambers.

"The front is ornamented with a very elegant and airy double portico of
'fretwork,' furnishing an agreeable promenade to ladies and gentlemen
above, and to the gentlemen below or on the first floor.

"This central edifice is flanked east and west by two buildings, one at
either end, corresponding with it in general appearance--but smaller in
size, being but two stories high exclusive of basement, and 63 feet
front by 40 deep. Each of these also has a portico of 'fretwork,'
proportioned to its size as compared with the main Hotel. These
buildings again are flanked at either extremity by four blocks of
cabins or cottages, one story high, having small lattice porches in
front, and harmonizing in general appearance with their larger and more
imposing neighbours. But that which is of the most importance to the
comfort of the sojourner is, that these chambers, besides being new,
airy, and well ventilated, are furnished with the best of hair
mattrasses. In this respect Bath Alum is probably not surpassed
anywhere in the mineral regions of Virginia. Running back from the
centre of the Hotel, in the rear of it, is the spacious dining-room 25
feet wide by 115 feet long, adapted for a double row of tables if
necessary. The tea and store-rooms, kitchen and baker's rooms are east
of the dining-room, and connected with it at the centre.

"These buildings are all of brick, of superior workmanship, and
handsomely furnished. Besides these, are provided in the background
comfortable rooms for servants; and across the creek ample stabling and
carriage room. Attached to the establishment are the plunge-baths, one
16 feet square, the other 12 feet square.

"Although these improvements are all new, and have been put up since
this property, two years ago, passed into the hands of its present
energetic and liberal proprietor (Mr. John W. Frazier), yet the _Alum
Springs_ themselves have long been known for their highly medicinal
qualities, and resorted to by people of this region of country, and
even from distant parts, in spite of the want of all accommodations for
visiters in the immediate vicinity.

"The Springs are formed by water percolating through a high slate bank
or bluff, and which thus becoming impregnated with its mineral
properties, is collected into basins or springs at the base of the
rock. These are six in number: three Alum Springs of different degrees
of strength, one Magnesia Spring, one Chalybeate, and one Sulphur;
sulphate of iron and alum, suiting themselves to most of the chronic
diseases to which the human system is subject. For all derangements of
the stomach, liver, and kidneys, chronic diarrhoea, chronic thrush,
and for delicate females, these waters enjoy a wide and rapidly-growing
reputation; while for diseases of the skin, or cutaneous affections of
whatever sort, they are invaluable, and perhaps not surpassed by any
mineral waters known.

"To beginners the Alum Water is unpalatable and even repulsive; but as
with the Sulphur, Saratoga and other mineral waters, so here, a longer
acquaintance makes better friends, insomuch that 'old stagers' long for
it as the toper for his bottle, and meeting with it in the cities would
not give it in exchange for the finest soda-water, or the best iced
lemonade."



WARM SPRINGS.


Five miles west of Bath Alum are the Warm Springs. This watering-place
is delightfully situated in a fertile valley, immediately at the
western base of the Warm Spring Mountain. The view from the top of the
Mountain is very beautiful and extensive. The accommodations at these
Springs are very good, and sufficient for about 100 persons.

The following analysis of the water is by Professor Rogers: "The bath
is an octagon, 38 feet in diameter, and 16 feet 9 inches wide--its area
is 1163.77 feet. The ordinary depth of water being 5 feet, the cubic
capacity is 5818.86 feet, or 43533.32 gallons. Notwithstanding _the
leaks_, this quantity of water will flow into the reservoir in one
hour. The average temperature of the bath is 98° Fahrenheit. The gas
which rises in the bath consists of nitrogen, with minute quantities of
_sulphuretted hydrogen_ and _carbonic acid_.

"Besides this gas, each gallon of water contains 45 cubic inches of
gas, consisting of nitrogen, 3.25 cubic inches: sulphuretted hydrogen,
0.25 cubic inches; carbonic acid 1.00 cubic inch. The saline contents
of one gallon of the water are as follows: muriate of lime, 3.968;
sulphate of magnesia, 9.984; carbonate of lime, 4.288; sulphate of
lime, 5.466; a trace of soda, no doubt in the state of muriate.

"While the Warm Springs afford the most luxurious bath in the world,
they contain neutral salts and various gases, which act as a gentle
aperient, diuretic, and sudorific, and give tone and vigour to the
human system. It is well ascertained in other countries, that waters of
a high temperature tend more to strengthen the digestive organs than
those of a low temperature; but it is found, by actual experiment, that
the water at the Warm Springs retains a considerable portion of its
useful qualities when bottled in the Spring, and then cooled by
immersing the bottles in cold water, or even ice; and this plan is
adopted by many of those who have a repugnance to the use of warm
water."

Twelve miles east of the Warm Springs is the BLOWING CAVE.



HOT SPRINGS.


The next watering-place is the justly celebrated Hot Springs, five
miles southwest of the former, and situated in the same beautiful
valley.

"There are six baths at this place, called Hot Spouts, each supplied
with water from a separate spring; their highest temperature is about
106°. These waters contain sulphate of lime, carbonate of lime,
sulphate of soda, magnesia, a minute portion of muriate of iron,
carbonic acid gas, a trace of sulphuretted hydrogen gas, and nitrogen
gas. Taken internally, they are anti-acid, mildly aperient, and freely
diuretic and diaphoretic. But when used as a general bath, their
effects are great. They equalize an unbalanced circulation, and thereby
restore the different important parts of the system when torpid; they
relax contracted tendons, excite the action of the absorbent system,
promote glandular secretion, exert a marked and salutary influence
over the whole biliary system, and often relieve in a short time,
excruciating pain caused by palpable and long-standing disease of some
vital organ.

"The beneficial effects of hot spouts, topically applied, are so
miraculous, in many painful and obstinate complaints, that words cannot
adequately describe them.

"The effect of this bath on rheumatic and gouty affections, and on old,
deep-seated, and chronic complaints, that medicine does not seem to
reach, is very beneficial. It restores the surface to a good condition,
and promotes the healthy action of the skin; and every person who
drinks the water of the various sulphur springs, should afterwards stop
here two or three weeks, and try the virtue of the boiler. There are,
near the hotel, a hot and a cold spring issuing so near each other,
that you can dip the thumb and fore-finger of the same hand into hot
and cold water at the same time.

"These Springs are owned by Dr. Goode, who resides on the premises, and
directs in the management. There are comfortable bathing houses for
the accommodation both of male and female patients, in each of which
suitable arrangements are made for taking the sweet or plunge bath; or
for receiving douche when required."

The Hotel is _well kept_, which with a number of comfortable cabins
affords accommodations for about 175 persons.

From the Hot Springs we proceed to Calahan's, 20 miles, from thence to
the WHITE SULPHUR, in Greenbrier County, 15 miles. This is the most
celebrated watering-place in Virginia. "It is situated on the western
declivity of the Alleghany Mountain, some 6 or 8 miles from the summit,
and 35 miles southwest of the Hot Springs, in an extensive and
beautiful valley. Nature has made this one of the most enchanting spots
in the mountains of Virginia. The lawn and walks cover perhaps 50
acres. A short distance from the Spring are the hotel, the dining-hall,
and the ball-room: the rest of the ground is principally occupied with
cabins and cottages. These are in rows, one story high, built of wood,
brick, and hewed logs. These beautiful rows of buildings are designated
South Carolina Row, Virginia Row, Alabama Row, Louisiana Row, Paradise
Row, Baltimore Row, &c.

"The principal spring yields about 18 gallons per minute; and it is a
remarkable fact that this quantity is not perceptibly increased or
diminished during the longest spells of wet or dry weather; while other
bold springs of the country have failed during the long droughts of the
summer, this has invariably observed the even tenor of its way. There
is no discoloration of the water during long wet spells, or other
evidences that it becomes blended with common water percolating through
the earth. The quantity and temperature of this spring being uniform
under all circumstances, gives a confidence, which experience in its
use has verified, of its uniform strength and efficiency.

"The present proprietor of this property came into possession of it in
the year 1808, but did not personally undertake its improvement until
the summer of 1818. Before this period, the buildings for the
accommodation of visiters, although sufficient for the number of
persons that then resorted to the place, were exceedingly rude, being
altogether small wooden huts. The interest and enterprise of the
proprietor, soon led him into a different and more appropriate system
of improvement, and from small beginnings he has gone on, progressing
in the rapid ratio of demand, until, from the 'tent' accommodations in
1779, and the 'log-cabin' in 1784, the place now, both in elegance and
extent, exhibits the appearance of a neat and flourishing village,
affording comfortable and convenient accommodations, (including the
surrounding hotels,) for from twelve to fifteen hundred persons." For a
full account of the White Sulphur Springs, we refer the reader to a
work written by Dr. Moorman, from which we have taken the liberty of
extracting one or two paragraphs. The White Sulphur Water has been
analyzed by Professor Rogers, and the result of his examination is as
follows:--

"Solid matter procured by evaporation from 100 cubic inches of White
Sulphur Water, weighed, after being dried at 212°; 65.54 grains.

    _Quantity of each solid ingredient in 100 cubic inches, estimated
    as perfectly free from water._

    Sulphate of lime,          31.680 grains.
    Sulphate of magnesia,       8.241   "
    Sulphate of soda,           4.050   "
    Carbonate of lime,          1.530   "
    Carbonate of magnesia,      0.506   "
    Chloride of magnesium,      0.071   "
    Chloride of calcium,        0.010   "
    Chloride of sodium,         0.226   "
    Protosulphate of iron,      0.069   "
    Sulphate of alumine,        0.012   "
    Earthy phosphates, a trace.
    Azotized organic matter blended
      with a large proportion of sulphur,
      about 5 grains.
    Iodine combined with sodium or magnesium.

    _Volume of each of the gases in a free state, contained in 100
    cubic inches._

    Sulphuretted hydrogen,   0.66 to 1.30 cubic inches.
    Nitrogen,                1.88           "      "
    Oxygen,                  0.19           "      "
    Carbonic acid,           3.67           "      "

"The White Sulphur Water is peculiarly adapted to chronic affections of
the organic system.

"It is highly beneficial in diseases of the stomach, liver, spleen,
kidneys, bladder,--some derangements of the nervous system,--female
disorders,--and scrofula, neuralgia, and rheumatism."

Nine miles west of the White Sulphur Springs is LEWISBURG, the
next place on our route. This is the county seat of Greenbrier, a
flourishing town, and the most important in this region of country. The
Court of Appeals holds its summer session in this place.



BLUE SULPHUR SPRINGS.


Thirteen miles west of Lewisburg and in the same county are the BLUE
SULPHUR SPRINGS; this is also a popular watering-place. There are
considerable improvements here, and the situation is one of great
natural beauty. The water tastes somewhat like that of the White
Sulphur. The analysis of this water, by Professor Rogers, is as
follows:--

    _Solid Ingredients._

    Sulphate of lime,
    Sulphate of magnesia,
    Sulphate of soda,
    Carbonate of lime,
    Carbonate of magnesia,
    Chloride of magnesium,
    Chloride of sodium,
    Chloride of calcium,
    Hydrosulphate of sodium and magnesium,
    Oxide of iron, existing as protosulphate,
    Iodine,
    Sulphur,
    Organic matters,
    Gaseous ingredients,
    Sulphuretted hydrogen,
    Carbonic acid,
    Oxygen,
    Nitrogen.

"The Spring is a bold one, furnishing fifteen gallons of water to the
minute. There is a great deal of red; white, black, and other deposit
from the water. In female diseases this water is superior to many
others."

Three hundred persons can be accommodated at the Blue Sulphur.



SWEET SPRINGS.


In the county of Monroe, in one of the most beautiful valleys _by
nature_ in Western Virginia, seventeen miles southeast of the White
Sulphur, are the Sweet Springs. The improvements here are extensive and
comfortable, but not so handsome as some of the other watering-places.

Dr. Bell, in his work on Baths and Mineral Waters, describes the
medicinal properties of these waters as follows:

"The water of the spring rises into a large cylindrical reservoir, from
opposite sides of which it flows out by small pipes; one conveying
water to the bath for the men, the other to that for the ladies. The
men's bath is of a quadrangular form, surrounded by a wall, and open at
the top. It is of tolerable extent and clear--the bottom being of
gravel, and the water constantly flowing in, and as constantly passing
out, after it reaches a certain height.

"The temperature of the Sweet Spring is 73° Fahrenheit, the same as
that which, in England, by a strange blunder, is called Bristol Hot
Well. There is considerable resemblance between the two in other
respects, as well in the evolution of carbonic acid, as in the earthy
and saline matters held in solution. In the Virginia Spring, however,
iron has been detected, whereas the Bristol Hot Well has none in its
composition.

"One quart of this water by Rowelle's analysis contains:--

    Saline substances in general,    12 to 15 grains,
    Earthy substances,               18  " 24    "
    Iron,                           1/2  "  1 grain.

"The saline substances are; sulphate of magnesia, muriate of soda, and
muriate of lime, with a little sulphate of lime. The earthy matters
consist of sulphate of lime, a small portion of carbonate of magnesia
and lime, with a small portion of silicious earth.

"This water is serviceable in dyspepsia, dysentery, diarrhoea, cough,
and all calculous and nephritic complaints."

The following is from a writer who describes a morning's ride from the
White Sulphur to the Sweet Springs: "We left the White Sulphur long
before the inhabitants of Paradise Row were stirring, and in a little
while our dapples were winding their way through some of the finest
scenery romance or poetry had ever pictured. Over a smooth beaten road,
which seemed to have been carved through the mountains, like the pass
of Mount Athos, we went on, with woodland steeps on each side of us,
and afar for many miles in front, we had a refreshing perspective in
the high green hills. Occasionally, in coming to a turn in the road,
some new wonder would open before us. At one time we were bordered on
each hand by a rocky palisade of some hundred feet in height. And
again, where the road was more narrow, we passed under natural arbours,
formed by the meeting of the tops of the bending trees from each side
of the way, and where the laurel was twining its own laurels on the
branches.

"A ride of ten miles brought us to Crow's, with a relish for breakfast,
or anything else that might be offered us.

"This is the place where so many excursions are made from the Springs,
for dinner parties and picnics. The tavern stands on the corner of the
road at the foot of a mountain, and the sign-board swings out in front,
after the manner of Nicholas Vedder of old, and many a Rip Van Winkle
can be found in the whereabouts, who knows the legends of the
neighbourhood." Leaving Crow's, he continues:--"We left the picturesque
behind us, and for the next six miles of our journey, we passed through
a more cultivated country, with many large fields of waving wheat tops
and corn blade. Within a mile or two of the Sweet, we came to what is
called the Red Spring, an old dilapidated building, gray with age, and
all its windows shattered.

"Before 12 o'clock we entered the smiling valley of the Sweet Springs.
Whoever comes to the mountains, should make a visit to the Sweet
Springs, if but for one day. Much of the scenery in the neighbourhood
is of the most beautiful and refreshing kind, and the whole place is
redolent of life and animation, particularly at a time when thronging
with company."

The accommodations at this place are sufficient for about 400 persons.



RED SPRINGS.


One mile nearer the White Sulphur are the Red Springs, or Sweet
Chalybeate. This place has of late years been acquiring considerable
notoriety.

About 200 persons can be comfortably accommodated here. "The waters are
said to be good in neuralgia, and in rheumatic complaints. There are
two springs here, the one near the hotel, essentially the same with the
Sweet Springs, the other containing a larger quantity of iron, which
being deposited about the spring in the form of red precipitate, has
given the name of Red Spring. Professor Rogers' analysis of this water
gives:--

"1st. Solid matter procured by evaporation from 100 cubic inches,
weighed, after being greatly dried at 112°, 40.76.

"A portion of this is combined water.

"2d. Quantity of each solid ingredient estimated as perfectly free from
water:--

                      In 100 cubic inches.

    Sulphate of lime,       14.233
    Sulphate of magnesia,    3.107
    Sulphate of soda,        1.400
    Carbonate of lime,       1.166
    Chloride of sodium,      0.037
    Chloride of magnesium,   0.680
    Chloride of calcium,     0.010
    Sesquioxide of iron,     0.320
    Organic matter in small quantities.
    Iodine, a mere trace.

"The iron is no doubt dissolved in the water as a carbonate.

"3d. Volume of each of the gases contained in a free state, in 100
cubic inches of water:--

    Carbonic acid,          46.10 cubic inches.
    Nitrogen,                2.57   "     "
    Oxygen,                   .20   "     "
    Sulphuretted hydrogen, a trace,
      too small to be mentioned.

"4th. Composition of 100 inches of the mixed gases rising in bubbles in
the Spring:--

    Nitrogen,               62.5
    Carbonic acid,          37.5

"The temperature of the Red Spring is from 77° to 80° Fahrenheit."



SALT SULPHUR SPRINGS.


In the County of Monroe, twenty-six miles southwest from the White
Sulphur, are the Salt Sulphur Springs; they are two miles from Union,
the county seat. From a pamphlet written by Dr. Mütter of Philadelphia,
we copy the following account of these Springs:

"The Salt Sulphur Springs, three in number, are situated in the
county of Monroe, in 37-1/2° north latitude, 5° longitude west of
Philadelphia, and at an elevation of about 1400 feet above tide water.
All the springs are situated on 'Indian Creek,' a small limestone
stream, which rises in a valley a few hundred yards above the Old or
Sweet Spring, and after pursuing its 'devious way' for about 23 miles
in a southwest direction, finally empties into New River, in Monroe
County. It derives its name from the circumstance of the Indians, who,
in former times were in the habit of entering the valley of Virginia
from Kentucky and Ohio, almost invariably making it their '_Camping
Stream_.' Their graves, along with other traces of their frequent
resort to this particular spot, are occasionally met with at the
present day.

"The Salt Sulphur is hemmed in on every side by mountains. To the south
and east, in full view, and about 10 miles distant, is Peters Mountain;
due north, and about 14 miles distant, is a low spur of the Alleghany;
and west, it is bounded by Swope's Mountain, at or near the base of
which, are the two principal springs.

"It appears from the statement of some of the 'oldest inhabitants,'
that the Old or Sweet Spring was discovered in 1802 or 1803 by
Alexander Hutchinson, Esq., who was engaged in boring for salt along
Indian Creek. For several years it enjoyed much celebrity, and was
annually the resort of a large company.

"The house occupied as the hotel, and several of the old cabins, are
still standing. The opening of the Salt Sulphur Spring, the medical
properties of which are so much more strongly marked, and the erection
of commodious buildings near it, soon destroyed the fame of the Sweet,
the water of which at the present time is used almost exclusively for
the baths, although there are some individuals who still prefer it to
that of either the Salt or New Spring. To gratify such, and at the same
time to test the value of the water, the enterprising proprietors, in
the summer of 1839, caused the spring to be deepened and thoroughly
repaired. At present it is enclosed in a white marble reservoir, two
feet square by two feet four inches in depth, over which is erected a
neat wooden edifice, of an order 'sui generis.' In taste, smell,
colour, and constituents, it closely resembles the Salt Spring, but is
much more feeble as a remedial agent, which is to be attributed to its
containing a smaller quantity of the active principles common to both.

"The second spring, or the Salt Sulphur proper, was discovered in 1805,
by Erwin Benson, Esq. He was induced to believe that either sulphur or
salt might be found in considerable quantities at the spot now occupied
by the spring, from the fact of its being the favourite 'lick,' of
immense herds of buffalo and deer. Under this impression he began
boring, and penetrated but a short distance below the surface, when he
struck the vein of sulphur water, now constituting the spring. Like the
old, this spring is enclosed in a marble reservoir, two feet square,
and about two feet ten inches deep, but from the boldness of its
sources, it is probable, that this spring will be enlarged. It is
protected from the influence of the weather; by a neat and appropriate
edifice, furnished with seats. The water possesses all the sensible
properties of the sulphur waters in general; its odour, for instance,
is very like that of a 'tolerable egg,' and may, in certain states of
the atmosphere, be perceived at some distance from the spring, and in
taste it is cousin-german to a strong solution of Epsom salts and
magnesia. In a short time, however, strange to say, these disagreeable
properties are either not observed, or become on the other hand,
attractive; indeed, there is hardly an instance of an individual's
retaining his original repugnance to them longer than three or four
days, and some there are, who become so excessively fond of the water,
as to give it the preference over any other liquid. Like most of the
sulphurous, this water is perfectly transparent, and deposits a whitish
sediment composed of its various saline ingredients mingled with
sulphur. It is also for the most part placid; occasionally, however, it
is disturbed by a bubble of gas which steals slowly to the surface,
where it either explodes with a timid and dimpling smack, or is eagerly
caught up by some careworn and almost world-weary invalid, as a gem
from the treasury of Hygeia!"


_Analysis of the Salt Sulphur Springs, by Professor Rogers_

"Temperature variable from 49° to 56°. Solid matter procured by
evaporation from 100 cubic inches, weighed after being dried at 212°,
81.41 grains.

_Quantity of each solid ingredient in 100 cubic inches, estimated as
perfectly free from water._

     1. Sulphate of lime,             36.755 grains.
     2. Sulphate of magnesia,          7.883   "
     3. Sulphate of soda,              9.682   "
     4. Carbonate of lime,             4.445   "
     5. Carbonate of magnesia,         1.434   "
     6. Chloride of magnesium,         0.116   "
     7. Chloride of sodium,            0.683   "
     8. Chloride of calcium,           0.025   "
     9. Peroxide of iron derived
          from protosulphate,          0.042   "
    10. An azotized organic matter
          blended with sulphur, about,  .004   "
    11. Earthy phosphates, a trace.
    12. Iodine, a trace.


_Volume of each of the gases, contained in a free state, 100 cubic
inches._

    Sulphuretted Hydrogen,  1.10 to 1.50 cubic inches.
    Nitrogen,               2.05           "     "
    Oxygen,                 0.27           "     "
    Carbonic acid,          5.75           "     "

"I enclose you a list of the ingredients in the Salt Sulphur water,
which applies to the New as well as the Old Spring; the former having
rather a smaller amount of saline matter in general, though in some
ingredients surpassing the other. It has been very minutely analyzed,
and is the first of all the waters in which I was able to detect traces
of iodine, which it contains in a larger amount than the Old Spring,
and, indeed, most of the other waters in which I have been so fortunate
as to discover this mineral.


_Diseases to which the Salt Sulphur is applicable._

    "Chronic diseases of the brain, neuralgia, nervous diseases,
    chronic diseases of the chest, disease of the heart, chronic
    diseases of the abdominal viscera, hepatic affections, chronic
    splenitis, chronic gastric irritation, gastralgia, or nervous
    dyspepsia, pyrosis, or water brash, chronic irritation of the
    bowels, constipation, hemorrhoids, chronic diseases of the urinary
    organs, chronic diseases of the genitals, chronic rheumatism and
    gout, mercurial rheumatism, periostitis and inflammation of the
    bones, chronic diseases of the skin, &c."



RED SULPHUR SPRINGS.


The Red Sulphur Springs are situated in the County of Monroe, 43 miles
southwest of the White Sulphur, and 17 miles west of the Salt Sulphur.

The improvements at this place are very handsome, and afford
accommodation for three hundred and fifty persons. The following is
from a pamphlet, written by Dr. Hunt of Washington City:

"The Red Sulphur Spring is situated in latitude 37° 37', about 20 miles
southwest of Union, which is the seat of justice for the county. The
approach to the village is beautifully romantic and picturesque.
Wending his way around a high mountain, the weary traveller is for a
moment charmed out of his fatigue by the sudden view of his
resting-place, some hundreds of feet immediately beneath him.
Continuing the circuitous descent, he at length reaches a ravine, which
conducts him, after a few rugged steps, to the entrance of a verdant
glen, surrounded on all sides by lofty mountains. The south end of this
enchanting vale, which is the widest portion of it, is about 200 feet
in width. Its course is nearly north for about 150 yards, when it
begins gradually to contract, and changes its direction to the
northwest and west, until it terminates in a narrow point. This
beautiful secluded _Tempe_ is the chosen site of the village. The
northwest portion is occupied by stables, carriage-houses, and shops of
various sorts; the southern portion, just at the base of the east and
west mountains, is that upon which stand the various edifices for the
accommodation of visiters.

"These buildings are spacious and conveniently arranged, the servants
are prompt and obedient, and the 'table d'hote' is abundantly supplied
with every variety of viands that can tempt the appetite. The
promenades, which are neatly enclosed by a white railing, are
beautifully embellished, and shaded from the midday sun by indigenies
of the forest,--the large, umbrageous sugar maple. The spring is
situated at the southwest point of the valley, and the water is
collected into two white marble fountains, over which is thrown a
substantial cover.

"At the distance of a few hundred yards from the Red Sulphur Spring, up
the south ravine, there is another spring, supposed to be a chalybeate,
of a singular character.

"In a conversation with Mr. Harvey, a plain, honest, and sensible man,
who was the former proprietor of the Red Sulphur Spring, I gathered the
following facts, which I give in his own words. He stated, 'That he had
lived at and about the place for upwards of forty-three years. The
spring was first visited by the neighbours for itch, sore legs, and
other inveterate diseases of the skin, which were always cured by
drinking the water, and rubbing the parts affected with the muddy
deposit. About thirty-six years ago, Dr. John Cabell, of Lynchburg,
Va., was the first person who visited the spring for a cough and
disease of the throat, attended with chills and fevers. He remained
here several weeks, and returned home much better. The next season
several other persons came, with cough and every appearance of
consumption. Afterwards, the number of visiters afflicted with this
disease increased every year. There are many persons now living, within
my knowledge (said Mr. Harvey), and enjoying excellent health, who
visited this spring many years ago, to all appearance in the last stage
of consumption. The visiters who were most benefited by the water
remained here five or six weeks, confined themselves to a diet of rye
mush and milk, and were industrious in rising early, drinking the
water, and taking exercise. Others, who indulged themselves in eating,
sleeping late in the morning, and lounging about during the day,
derived but little advantage from the use of the water; and generally
returned home dissatisfied. The cold plunging or shock bath, was used
in those days with decided advantage. I never knew a case injured by
the use of the cold bath. Many cases of dropsy visited the spring, and
I never knew an instance where they were not relieved by the use of the
water. One of my neighbours was cured many years ago by the use of this
water, and now enjoys excellent health. I have known many persons
affected with complaints of the liver and bowels, completely relieved
by the Red Sulphur water. From the first of May to the middle of
November is the proper time for using the water to advantage, but I
think it strongest, in its various virtues, during the months of
September and October.'

"The following was presented to me by Dr. Saunders, the resident
physician, as an analysis of the Red Sulphur water, made at the spring
by Professor Rogers, the geologist of Virginia; but it certainly does
not satisfactorily account for the wonderful effects of the water.

    Temperature of the Spring, 54° Fahr.

    _Gaseous contents in an imperial gallon._

    Sulphuretted hydrogen,  4.54 cubic inches.
    Carbonic acid,          8.75   "     "
    Nitrogen,               4.25   "     "

"Solid contents of 32 cubic inches of water, grains 1.25, consisting of
sulphate of soda, lime and magnesia, carbonate of lime, and muriate of
soda. Besides these ingredients the water contains, in considerable
quantity, a peculiar organic substance which, mingled with sulphur, is
deposited on the sides of the spring, and seems to increase by a
species of organic growth.

"The Red Sulphur water is decidedly sedative in its effects. It subdues
chronic inflammation, tranquillizes irritation, and reduces the
frequency of the pulse in the most astonishing manner.

"It is not uncommon for persons to arrive at the spring, who have not
been able to sleep during the night, even with the aid of opium, and
who, after drinking the water for a few days, find their nervous
irritation so soothed and allayed, that no other anodyne is required to
procure them full repose for the night.

"This water has been considered peculiarly adapted to the cure of
pulmonary diseases, and it is true that it has a most beneficial
influence in most cases of this disease; but its good effects equally
extend to all cases of subacute inflammation, whether seated in the
stomach, liver, spleen, intestines, kidneys, or bladder, and most
particularly in the mucous membrane. In fact, nature never yet gave to
man a remedy capable of more extensive application, nor better
calculated to relieve a larger class of diseases.

"The late venerable Dr. R. H. Bradford, of Virginia, who practised
medicine for many years at the Red Sulphur, in a communication on the
subject of the water, remarks--'The effect of this water in reducing
the frequency of the pulse, is one of the numerous, singular, and
powerful properties belonging to it. It lessens arterial action to such
a degree, that it seldom fails to remove fever, difficulty of
breathing, and pain in the chest. When the patient is restricted to a
proper regimen, this water may be taken with greater advantage in all
pulmonary cases, than any other remedy I have ever employed for that
purpose. It is also an important remedy in enlarged liver and spleen,
and in diseases of the mucous membrane generally.'

"The water of the Red Sulphur seems to act by soothing irritation,
lessening the frequency of the pulse, and by subduing the inflammation
of the tissues in contact with the tubercles, and thereby rendering the
tubercles harmless; and also by suspending that tendency of the system
to generate or deposit tuberculous matter.

"The Red Sulphur water may be used with the most decided benefit in
obstinate cases of bowel complaint, gleet, leucorrhoea, catarrh of
the bladder, and uterine derangement."



ROUTE TO THE VIRGINIA SPRINGS.


The other route from Washington City to the Virginia Springs is by
railroad to Harper's Ferry, 104 miles. Stopping at this place, the
traveller has an opportunity of viewing the "Passage of the Potomac
through the Blue Ridge," which, says Mr. Jefferson, "is one of the most
stupendous scenes in nature. You stand on a very high point of land; on
your right up comes the Shenandoah, having ranged along the foot of the
mountain a hundred miles to seek a vent. On your left approaches the
Potomac, in quest of a passage also; in the moment of their junction
they rush together against the mountain, rend it asunder, and pass off
to the sea. The first glance of this scene hurries our senses into the
opinion that this earth has been created in time; that the mountains
were formed first; that the rivers began to flow afterwards; that in
this place particularly, they have been dammed up by the Blue Ridge
Mountains, and have formed an ocean which filled the whole valley;
that, continuing to rise, they have at length broken over at this spot,
and have torn the mountain down from its summit to its base. The piles
of rock on each hand, particularly on the Shenandoah, the evident marks
of their disrupture and avulsion from their beds by the most powerful
agents of nature, corroborate the impression. But the distant finishing
which Nature has given to the picture is of a very different character;
it is a true contrast to the foreground; it is as placid and delightful
as that is wild and tremendous; for the mountain being cloven asunder,
she presents to your eye, through the clefts, a small catch of smooth
blue horizon, at an infinite distance in the plain country, inviting
you, as it were, from the riot and tumult warring around, to pass
through the breach and participate of the calm below. There the eye
ultimately composes itself, and that way, too, the road happens
actually to lead. You cross the Potomac above the junction, pass along
its side through the base of the mountain for three miles, its terrible
precipices hanging in fragments over you, and within about twenty miles
reach Fredericktown, and the fine country round that. The scene is
worth a voyage across the Atlantic, yet here, as in the neighbourhood
of the Natural Bridge, are people who have passed their lives within
half a dozen miles, and have never been to survey these monuments of a
war between rivers and mountains, which must have shaken the earth
itself to its centre.'

"From Harper's Ferry, we take the cars to Charlestown, 10 miles.
Leaving the cars at this place, an opportunity is afforded of visiting



SHANNONDALE SPRINGS,


"Another of the celebrated watering-places of Virginia.

"They are in Jefferson County, five miles south from Charlestown, on an
eminence of the Shenandoah; in a healthy and delightful region. The
reputation of the water is so well established, that it is deemed
scarcely necessary to mention its qualities. It is sent for and taken
to New York, Charleston, and other distant places. The analysis of the
late Dr. De Butts, in 1821, classed the principal fountain with the
_saline chalybeates_,--a combination of the most valuable description
in the whole range of mineral waters, and closely resembling those of
the celebrated Bedford, in composition, operation, and efficacy. There
is also a highly valuable sulphur spring in the vicinity. Apart from
the merits of the waters, Shannondale is remarkable for the sublime and
beautiful natural scenery, which is said to surpass Bath and Bristol in
England, and that of Saratoga and Ballston in New York."

Returning to Charlestown, we again take the cars for Winchester, 22
miles. This is a very flourishing town, and the largest in the valley
of Virginia. Here ends railroad travelling on this route. Twenty-two
miles west from this place, in Hampshire County, are



CAPON SPRINGS.


The following account of these springs is copied from an advertisement
of June, 1850.

"The high reputation of the waters of the 'Capon Spring' is not
permanently established, but is yearly increasing, particularly in
cases of dyspepsia, general debility, &c.

"Its convenience of access renders it an available point for invalids,
or persons who are not disposed to undergo the fatigues of a long
journey, over rough and dusty roads, in the heat of summer. Being near
the route to the White Sulphur, in Greenbrier, it will be a delightful
resting-place for persons visiting those celebrated springs. The
well-attested, cool, dry mountain atmosphere of 'Capon;' the fine
sulphur and chalybeate waters in its immediate vicinity; its
neighbouring trout streams and river fishing; its shaded walks and
drives, (now being constructed,) with the usual amusements of a
mountain watering-place, impart to it some of its attractions and
claims on the public, and fully establishes it as one of the most
agreeable as well as accessible summer retreats in this country, either
for the seekers of health or pleasure."

This watering-place not being on the main valley route, we return to
Winchester. Six miles north of this place are



JORDAN'S WHITE SULPHUR SPRINGS.


This watering-place has lately come into notice, and is growing in
popular favour. The water is said to resemble the celebrated White
Sulphur Spring of Greenbrier. Again returning to Winchester, we proceed
on our way upon the macadamized road up the beautiful valley of
Virginia to Newtown, 8 miles, Strasburg, 10 miles, Woodstock, 11-1/2
miles. Eighteen miles from this, in Shenandoah County, are the



ORKNEY, OR YELLOW SPRINGS.


"These waters are composed of several lively springs, and are strongly
chalybeate. Everything the water passes through, or over, is
beautifully lined with a bright yellow fringe or moss. The use of this
water is found beneficial for the cure of several complaints. A free
use of this water acts as a most powerful cathartic, as does also a
small quantity of the fringe, or moss mixed with common water."

Returning to Woodstock, we once more take the macadamized road, to
Mount Jackson, 13 miles, Newmarket, 7 miles, Spartapolis, 6-1/2 miles,
Harrisonburg, 11 miles. Twelve miles from this place is



RAWLEY'S SPRING.


The following account of this watering-place is given by Dr. Moorman,
in his work on the White Sulphur Springs.

"Rawley's Spring is situated on the southern slope of the North
Mountain, in the county of Rockingham, 12 miles northwest from
Harrisonburg, and about 120 miles northeast from the White Sulphur. The
Rawley water is a strong and pure _chalybeate_, and well adapted to
cases requiring such a tonic.

"The writer has had some experience in the use of this water, and for
many years has been in the habit of occasionally directing its use in
cases to which it is applicable. As a pure iron tonic, it deserves to
stand at the very head of that class of remedies.

"In that class of female affections, dependent upon debility or want of
tone in the uterine system, this water is an exceedingly valuable
remedy. Its salutary effects in cases of this description are often as
remarkable as they are gratifying, restoring the functions of the
debilitated organ, and imparting vigour and health to the whole
system."

From Harrisonburg we proceed to Mount Crawford, 8 miles, Mount Sidney,
7 miles, thence to Staunton, 10 miles.

Leaving the macadamized road at Harrisonburg, visiters to the springs
frequently travel, via the Augusta Springs, to the Warm Springs, 60
miles, thereby shortening the distance about 14 miles.

Another route, via Staunton, to the springs, is to LEXINGTON, 35 miles.
This is the prettiest town in the valley of Virginia. Here are located
Washington College and the "Virginia Military Institute," both
flourishing institutions. The Natural Bridge is 15 miles southwest of
Lexington; and 17 miles west of Lexington are the



ROCKBRIDGE ALUM SPRINGS.


On the stage road to the Bath Alum and the Warm Springs, in Bath
County. The improvements here are new and comfortable, sufficient to
accommodate about one hundred persons.

"This water contains a rare and valuable combination of materials; the
principal are iodine, sulphates of iron and alum, magnesia, and
sulphuric acid. The water is tonic, increasing the appetite and
promoting digestion; it is alterative, exciting the secretions of the
glandular system generally, and particularly of the liver and kidneys;
it is cathartic, producing copious bilious evacuations; and it also
effects a determination to the surface, increasing the perspiration.

"From the efficacy of these waters in purifying the blood, they are
invaluable in the cure of all diseases of the skin; and all indolent
sores, not disposed to a healthy action. In the use of them for such
diseases, if the disease of the skin appears to be irritated at first,
or if the ulcers become more inflamed, and discharge more freely, let
not this circumstance alarm any one, or deter him from persevering in
their use. These are the evidences of the good effects of the waters,
in expelling the vitiated humours from the blood to the surface, and,
until the blood is purified, such diseases cannot be cured. In
scrofulous ulcers, the use of these waters invariably causes them to
discharge more freely, and in a short time of a more healthy
appearance. They are a very useful remedy in cholera infantum, or the
summer bowel complaint in children. They immediately give a good
appetite, promote digestion, and will effectually correct and cure
acidity of the stomach. In amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, and leucorrhoea,
the waters are peculiarly efficacious. Most obstinate cases of
scrofula, erysipelas, and dyspepsia, have been cured by these waters,
which preserve their medicinal qualities when sent away in barrels."



ROUTES FROM RICHMOND.


From Richmond the routes to the Springs are, railroad to the junction,
27 miles, and from thence to Charlottesville as already given; or by
James River Canal to Scottsville, 79 miles, and from thence by stage to
Brooksville, 25 miles; or continuing on the canal to Lynchburg, 67
miles, and thence by stage to the NATURAL BRIDGE, 38 miles.

This celebrated curiosity is in the county of Rockbridge. It crosses a
small stream called "Cedar Creek." Howe, in his Sketches of Virginia,
has the following eloquent description, which was published originally
in Europe.

"This famous bridge is on the head of a fine limestone hill, which has
the appearance of having been rent asunder by some terrible convulsion
in nature. The fissure thus made is about 90 feet; and over it the
bridge runs, so needful to the spot, and so unlikely to have survived
the great fracture, as to seem the work of man; so simple, so grand, so
great, as to assure you that it is only the work of God. The span of
the arch runs from 45 to 60 feet wide; and its height, to the underline
is about 200 feet, and to the head about 240! The form of the arch
approaches to the elliptical, and it is carried over a diagonal line,
the very line of all others so difficult to the architect to realize,
and yet so calculated to enhance the picturesque beauty of the object.

"There are chiefly three points of sight. You naturally make your way
to the head of the bridge first, and as it is a continuation of the
common road, with its sides covered with fine shrubs and trees, you may
be on it before you are aware; but the moment you approach through the
foliage to the side you are filled with apprehension. It has, indeed, a
natural parapet, but few persons can stand forward and look over. You
instinctively seek to reduce your height, that you may gaze on what you
admire with security. Even then it agitates you with dizzy sensations.
You then make your way some fifty feet down the bosom of the hill, and
are supplied with some admirable standings on the projecting rockwork,
to see the bridge and all its rich accompaniments. There is, 200 feet
below you, the Cedar Creek, apparently motionless, except where it
flashes with light as it cuts its way through the broken rocks. Mark
the trees of every variety, but especially the fir, how they diminish
as they stand on the margin of its bed; and how they ascend, step by
step, on the noble rockwork, till they overshadow you, still preserving
such delicacy of form and growth, as if they would not do an injury
while they lend a grace. Observe those hills, gathering all around you
in their fairest forms and richest verdure, as if to do honour to a
scene of surpassing excellence. Now look at the bridge itself,
springing from this bed of verdant loveliness, distinct, one, complete!
It is before you in its most picturesque form; you just see through the
arch, and the internal face of the further pier is perfectly revealed.
Did you ever see such a pier, such an arch? Is it not most illusive?
Look at that masonry. Is it not most like the perfection of art, and
yet what art could never reach? Look at that colouring. Does it not
appear like the painter's highest skill, and yet unspeakably transcend
it? This is exquisite; still, you have no just conception of this
masterpiece until you get below. You go some little distance for this
purpose, as in the vicinity of the bridge the rocks are far too
precipitous. A hot and brilliant day is, of all others, the time to
enjoy this object. To escape from a sun which scorches you, into these
verdant and cool bottoms, is a luxury of itself, which disposes you to
relish everything else. When down, I was careful of the first
impression, and did not venture to look steadily on the objects about
me till I had selected my station. At length I placed myself about 100
feet from the bridge, on some masses of rock, which were washed by the
running waters, and ornamented by the slender trees which were
springing from its fissures. At my feet was the soothing melody of the
rippling, gushing waters; behind me, and in the distance, the creek and
the hills were expanding themselves to the light and splendour of day;
before me, and all around, everything was reposing in the most
delightful shade, set off by the streaming rays of the sun, which shot
across the head of the picture far above you, and sweetened the
solitude below. On the right and left, the majestic rocks arose, with
the decision of a wall, but without its uniformity, massive, broken,
beautiful, and supplying a most admirable foreground; and, everywhere,
the most delicate stems were planted in their crevices, and waving
their heads in the soft breeze, which occasionally came over them. The
eye now ran through the bridge, and was gratified with a lovely vista.
The Blue Mountains stood out in the background; beneath them, the hills
and woods gathered together, so as to enclose the dell below; while the
creek, which was coursing away from them, seemed to have its well-head
hidden in their recesses. Then there is the arch distinct from
everything, and above everything. Massive as it is, it is light and
beautiful by its height, and the fine trees on its summit seem now only
like a garland of evergreens; and, elevated as it is, its apparent
elevation is wonderfully increased by the narrowness of its piers, and
by its outline being drawn on the blue sky, which appears beneath and
above it! Oh, it is sublime--so strong, and yet so elegant--springing
from the earth, and bathing its head in heaven! But it is the sublime
not allied to the terrific, as at Niagara; it is the sublime associated
with the pleasing. I sat and gazed in wonder and astonishment. That
afternoon was the shortest I ever remember. I had quickly, too quickly,
to leave the spot for ever; but the music of those waters, the luxury
of those shades, the form and colour of those rocks, and that
arch--that arch--rising over all, and seeming to offer a passage to the
skies--O, they will never leave me!"

Leaving the Natural Bridge, we proceed to



DIBRELL'S SPRING,


In Botetourt County, 19 miles. "This watering-place is 43 miles from
the White Sulphur. The buildings here are very neat and comfortable,
and sufficient for the accommodation of about 200 persons."

The following analysis of the water is by Professor Rogers:

    _Solid Ingredients._

    Carbonate of soda,
    Sulphate of soda,
    Chloride of sodium,
    Carbonate of magnesia,
    Peroxide of iron,
    Silicia dissolved.

"Organic matter containing chloride of potassium, nitrogen, carbonate
of lime, and carbonate of ammonia.

    _Gaseous Ingredients._

    Carbonic acid,
    Oxygen,
    Sulphuretted hydrogen,
    Nitrogen.

"The water of Dibrell's Spring partakes of all the general characteristics
of the other sulphur waters, and may be used with good effects in all
cases to which such waters are adapted. In certain dyspeptic
depravities, especially, it deserves a high rank among our mineral
waters."

From Dibrell's Spring the road leads by Clifton Forge, 10 miles,--the
scenery at this place is very fine,--Covington, 13 miles, and to
Calahan's, 5 miles.

Another route from Lynchburg is by stage to New London, 10 miles, to
Liberty, 15 miles. Here we would advise the traveller to leave the
stage, and make a visit to the Peaks of Otter. They are about 7 miles
northwest from this place. The following description of them is from
the Southern Literary Messenger:

"After riding about a mile and a quarter, we came to the point beyond
which horses cannot be taken, and, dismounting our steeds, commenced
ascending on foot. The way was very steep, and the day so warm, that we
had to halt often to take breath. As we approached the summit, the
trees were all of a dwarfish growth, and twisted and gnarled by the
storms of that high region. There were, also, a few blackberry bushes,
bearing their fruit long after the season had passed below. A few
minutes longer brought us to where the trees ceased to grow; but a huge
mass of rocks, piled wildly on the top of each other, finished the
termination of the peak. Our path lay for some distance around the base
of it, and under the overhanging battlements; and rather descending for
a while, until it led to a part of the pile which could with some
effort be scaled. There was no ladder, nor any artificial steps, and
the only means of ascent was by climbing over the successive rocks. We
soon stood upon the wild platform of one of nature's most magnificent
observatories, isolated and apparently above all things else
terrestrial, and looking down upon and over a beautiful, variegated,
and at the same time grand, wild, wonderful, and almost boundless
panorama. Indeed, it was literally boundless; for there was a
considerable haze resting upon some parts of 'the world below;' so
that, in the distant horizon, the earth and sky seemed insensibly to
mingle with each other. I had been there before. I remember when a boy
of little more than ten years old, to have been taken to that spot, and
how my unpractised nerves forsook me at the sublimity of the scene. On
this day it was as new as ever; as wild, wonderful, and sublime, as if
I had never before looked from those isolated rocks, or stood on that
awful summit. On one side, towards Eastern Virginia, lay a
comparatively level country, in the distance bearing strong resemblance
to the ocean; on the other hand were ranges of high mountains,
interspersed with cultivated spots, and then terminating in piles of
mountains, following in successive ranges, until they were lost also in
the haze. Above and below, the Blue Ridge and Alleghanies ran off in
long lines; sometimes relieved by knolls and peaks, and in one place
above us making a graceful curve, and then again running off in a
different line of direction. Very near us stood the rounded top of the
other peak, looking like a sullen sentinel for its neighbour. We paused
in silence for a time. We were there almost cut off from the world
below, standing where it was fearful even to look down. It was more
hazy than at the time of my last visit, but not too much so to destroy
the interest of the scene.

"There was almost a sense of pain, at the stillness which seemed to
reign. We could hear the flapping of the wings of the hawks and
buzzards, as they seemed to be gathering a new impetus after sailing
through one of their circles in the air below us. North of us, and on
the other side of the Valley of Virginia, were the mountains near
Lexington, just as seen from that beautiful village,--the Jump, North,
and House Mountains succeeding each other; they were familiar with a
thousand associations of our childhood, seeming mysteriously, when away
from the spot, to bring my early home before me--not in imagination,
such as had often haunted me when I first left to find another in the
world, but in substantial reality.

"Further on down the valley, and at a great distance, was the top of a
large mountain, which was thought to be the Great North Mountain, away
down in Shenandoah County--I am afraid to say how far off. Intermediate
between these mountains, and extending opposite and far above us, was
the Valley of Virginia, with its numerous and highly cultivated farms.
Across this valley, and in the distance, lay the remote ranges of the
Alleghany and mountains about, and, I suppose, beyond the White Sulphur
Springs. Nearer us, and separating Eastern and Western Virginia, was
the Blue Ridge, more than ever showing the propriety of its cognomen of
the 'backbone;' and on which we could distinctly see two zigzag
turnpikes, the one leading to Fincastle, and the other to Buchanan; and
over which latter we had travelled a few days before. With the
spy-glass we could distinguish the houses in the village of Fincastle,
some 25 or 30 miles off, and the road leading to the town.

"Turning towards the direction of our morning's ride, we had beneath us
Bedford County, with its smaller mountains, farms, and farm-houses--the
beautiful village of Liberty, the county roads, and occasionally a
mill-pond, reflecting the sun like a sheet of polished silver. The
houses on the hill at Lynchburg, 25 or 30 miles distant, are distinctly
visible on a clear day, and also Willis' Mountain, away down in
Buckingham County.

"I had often visited Bedford, and had been more or less familiar with
it from childhood, but at our elevation, distances were so annihilated,
and appearances so changed, that we could scarcely recognise the most
familiar object. After some difficulty, we at length made out the
residence of Dr. M., we had that morning left, and at that moment
rendered more than usually interesting by containing, in addition to
the other very dear relatives, two certain ladies, who sustained a very
interesting connexion with the Doctor and myself, and one of whom had
scarcely laid aside the blushes on her bridal hour.

"A little beyond this, I recognised the former residence of a beloved
sister, now living in a far distant southern state. It was the same
steep hill ascending to the gate, the same grove around the house, as
when she lived there, and the same as when I played there in my
boyhood. And it was the first time I had seen it since the change of
owners. I then saw it from the Peaks of Otter: but it touched a
thousand tender chords; and I almost wept when I thought that those I
once there loved were far away, and that the scenes of my youthful days
could not return.

"Myself and companions had, some time before, gotten on different
rocks, that we might not interrupt each other in our contemplations. I
could not refrain, however, from saying to one of them, 'What little
things we are! how factitious our ideas of what is extensive in
territory and distance!' A splendid estate was about the size I could
step over; and I could stand and look at the very house whence I used
to start in days gone by, and follow with my eye my day's journey to
the spot where, wearied and worn, I dismounted with the setting sun.
Yet I could look over what seemed so great a space, with a single
glance. I could also look away down the Valley of Virginia, and trace
the country, and, in imagination, the stage coach, as it slowly wound
its way, day and night for successive days, to reach the termination of
what I could throw my eye over in a moment. I was impressively reminded
of the extreme littleness with which these things of earth would all
appear, when the tie of life which binds us here is broken, and we
shall all be able to look back and down upon them from another world.
The scene and place are well calculated to excite such thoughts.

"It is said that John Randolph once spent the night on these elevated
rocks, attended by no one but his servant; and that, when in the
morning he had witnessed the sun rising over the majestic scene, he
turned to his servant, having no other to whom he could express his
thoughts, and charged him, 'Never from that time to believe any who
told him there was no God.'

"I confess, also, that my mind was most forcibly carried to the
judgment day; and I could but call the attention of my companions to
what would, probably, then be the sublime terror of the scene we now
beheld, when the mountains we saw and stood upon, should all be melted
down like wax; when the flames should be driving over the immense
expanse before us; when the heavens over us should be 'passing away
with a great noise;' and when the air beneath and around us should be
filled with the very inhabitants now dwelling, and busied in that world
beneath us."

After the traveller has gratified his curiosity beholding the Peaks of
Otter, he may resume the stage at Liberty, and proceed on his route to
the springs, via Bufort's, 14 miles; Fincastle, 14 miles; Sweet
Springs, 32 miles; Red Sweet, 1 mile; and White Sulphur, 16 miles.

Visiters to the Virginia Springs from the south or west by the Ohio
River, generally leave the river at Guyandotte, taking the stage to
Charleston, 48 miles. This beautiful town is in the rich valley of the
Kanawha, immediately on the banks of the river. About five miles from
this place are the Salines, where are to be seen the Gas-Wells. The
following interesting account of these is from the Lexington Gazette of
1843:

"These wonderful wells have been so lately discovered, that as yet only
a brief and imperfect notice of them has appeared in the newspapers.
But they are a phenomenon so very curious and interesting, that a more
complete description will doubtless be acceptable to the public.

"They are, in fact, a new thing under the sun; for in all the history
of the world, it does not appear that a fountain of strong brine was
ever before known to be mingled with a fountain of inflammable gas,
sufficient to pump it out in a constant stream, and then by its
combustion, to evaporate the whole into salt of the best quality.

"We shall introduce our account of these wells by some remarks on the
geological structure of the country at the Kanawha Salt Works, and on
the manner in which the salt water is obtained.

"The country is mountainous, and the low grounds along the river are
altogether alluvial, the whole space of a mile in width, having been at
some time the bed of the river. The rocks are chiefly sandstone of
various qualities, lying in beds, or strata, from two inches to several
feet in thickness. These strata are nearly horizontal, but dipping a
little, as in other parts of the country, towards the northwest. At the
Salt Works they have somehow been heaved up into a swell above the line
of general direction, so as to raise the deep strata nigher to the
surface, and thus to bring those in which the salt water is found
within striking distance.

"Among the sand-rocks are found layers of slate and coal; this latter
being also, by the same upheaving, made more conveniently accessible
than in most other parts of the country.

"The salt water is obtained by sinking a tight curb, or gum, at the
edge of the river, down about twenty feet, to the rock which underlies
the river, and then boring into the rock. At first the borings did not
exceed 200 feet in depth, but the upper strata of water being
exhausted, the wells were gradually deepened, the water of the lower
strata being generally stronger than the upper had ever been. Until
1842, none of the wells exceeded 6 or 700 feet in depth. Mr. Tompkins,
an enterprising salt-maker, was the first to extend his borings to a
thousand feet, or more. His experiment was attended with a most
unexpected result. He had somewhat exceeded a thousand feet, when he
struck a crevice in the rock, and forth gushed a powerful stream of
mingled gas and salt water. Generally, the salt water in the wells was
obtained in rock merely porous, and rose by hydrostatic pressure to the
level of the river. To obtain the strong water of the lower strata,
unmixed with the weak water above, it is the practice to insert a
copper tube into the hole, making it fit tightly below by means of
wrapping on the outside, and attaching the upper end to the pump, by
which the water is drawn up to the furnaces on the river bank.

"When Mr. Tompkins inserted his tube, the water gushed out so forcibly,
that instead of applying the pump, he only lengthened his tube above
the well. The stream followed it with undiminished velocity to his
water cistern, 60 feet above the level of the river.

"In the next place, he inserted the end of the spout from which the
water and gas flowed, into a large hogshead, making a hole in the
bottom to let out the water into the cistern. Thus the light gas was
caught in the upper part of the hogshead, and thence conducted by pipes
to the furnace, where it mingled with the blaze of the coal fire. It so
increased the heat as to make very little coal necessary; and if the
furnace were adapted to the economical use of this gaseous fuel, it
would evaporate all the water of the well, though the quantity is
sufficient to make five hundred bushels of salt per day. The same
gentleman has since obtained a second gas-well near the former, and in
all respects similar to it. Other proprietors of wells have also struck
gas-fountains by deep boring. In one of these wells the gas forces the
water up violently, but by fits, the gush continuing for some two or
three hours, and then ceasing for about the same length of time. In
another of these wells there has been very recently struck, a
gas-fountain that acts with such prodigious violence as to make the
tubing of the well in the usual way impossible; when the copper tube
was forced down through the rushing stream of brine and gas, it was
immediately flattened by the pressure; and the auger-hole must be
enlarged to admit a tube sufficiently strong and capacious to give vent
to the stream without being crushed. In another well, a mile and a half
from any gas-well, a powerful stream of gas has been recently struck.
It forces up the water with great power; but, unfortunately for the
proprietor, the water is too weak to be profitably worked. It appears
from this fact, that the gas is not inseparably connected with strong
brine. When struck before good salt water is reached, it will operate
injuriously, for no water obtained below it can rise at all, unless the
pressure of the gas be taken off by means of a strong tube extending
below it.

"Several wells have been bored to a depth equal to that of the
gas-wells, without striking the gas; the source of which seems to lie
below, perhaps far below, the depth of the wells. This light elastic
substance, wheresoever and howsoever generated, naturally presses
upwards for a vent, urging its way through every pore and crevice of
the superincumbent rocks; and the well-borer's auger must find it in
one of the narrow routes of its upward passage, or penetrate to its
native coal-bed before it will burst forth by the artificial vent.

"The opinion just intimated, that the gas originates in deep coal beds,
is founded on the fact that it is the same sort of gas that constitutes
the dangerous _fire-damp_ of coal-pits, and the same that is
manufactured out of bituminous coal for illuminating our cities. It is
a mixture of carburetted and sulphuretted hydrogen. Philosophers tell
us that bituminous coal becomes anthracite by the conversion of its
bitumen and sulphur into this gas, and that water acts a necessary part
in the process. Whether the presence of salt water causes a more rapid
evolution of the gas, the present writer will not undertake to say; but
somehow, the quantity generated in the salt region of Kanawha is most
extraordinary.

"It finds in this region innumerable small natural vents. It is seen in
many places bubbling up through the sand at the bottom of the river,
and probably brings up salt water with it, as in the gas-wells, but in
small quantity. The celebrated burning spring is the only one of its
natural vents apparent on dry land. This stream of gas, unaccompanied
by water, has forced its way from the rocks below, through 70 or 80
feet of alluvial ground, and within 80 yards of the river bank. It is
near this burning spring where the principal gas-wells have been found;
but, twenty-five years ago, or more, a gas-fountain was struck in a
well 200 feet deep, near Charleston, 7 miles below the burning spring.
This blew up, by fits, a jet of weak salt water 20 or 30 feet high. On
a torch being applied to it one night, brilliant flames played and
flashed about the watery column in the most wonderful manner."

Leaving the Salines, we pass on to the Falls of Kanawha, 30 miles; to
Gauley Bridge, 5 miles; and to the HAWK'S NEST, 8 miles.

MARSHALL'S PILLAR, or the HAWK'S NEST, as it is more generally called,
is in Fayette County, on New River, within a few yards of the Kanawha
Turnpike. This rocky precipice rises perpendicularly above the river,
to the height of about 1000 feet. The following account of this great
curiosity, given by a foreign traveller, is from Howe's Sketches of
Virginia, to which work we are indebted for most of the matter
respecting the curiosities of the state.

"You leave the road by a little by-path, and after pursuing it for a
short distance, the whole scene suddenly breaks upon you. But how shall
we describe it? The great charm of the whole is connected with the
point of sight, which is the finest imaginable. You come suddenly to a
spot which is called the Hawk's Nest. It projects on the scene, and is
so small as to give standing to only some half dozen persons. It has on
its head an old picturesque pine; and it breaks away at your feet,
abruptly and in perpendicular lines, to a depth of more than 1000 feet.
On this standing, which, by its elevated and detached character,
affects you like the monument, the forest rises above and around you.
Beneath, and before you, is spread a lovely valley. A peaceful river
glides down it, reflecting, like a mirror, all the lights of
heaven--washes the foot of the rocks on which you are standing--and
then winds away into another valley at your right. The trees of the
wood, in all their variety, stand out on the verdant bottoms, with
their heads in the sun, and casting their shadows at their feet; but so
diminished, as to look more like the pictures of the things than the
things themselves. The green hills rise on either hand and all around,
and give completeness and beauty to the scene; and beyond these appears
the gray outline of the more distant mountains, bestowing grandeur to
what was supremely beautiful. It is exquisite. It conveys to you the
idea of perfect solitude. The hand of man, the foot of man, seem never
to have touched that valley. To you, though placed in the midst of it,
it seems altogether inaccessible. You long to stroll along the margin
of those sweet waters, and repose under the shadows of those beautiful
trees; but it looks impossible. It is solitude, but of a most soothing,
not of an appalling character--where sorrow might learn to forget her
griefs, and folly begin to be wise and happy."

From the Hawk's Nest, the route is via Locust Lane, 2 miles; Blue
Sulphur, 40 miles; Lewisburg, 13 miles; and to the White Sulphur, 9
miles.



BERKELEY SPRINGS.


Having described all the springs, of which we have any information,
immediately on the main routes from the city of Washington to the White
Sulphur, we will now give an account of all other watering-places
within our knowledge. The following account of the Berkeley Springs has
been furnished us; and although it is longer than the description of
any other watering-place given in this work, we have been induced in
consequence of their antiquity to insert the whole.

"Berkeley Springs are situated in the town of Bath, Morgan County,
Virginia, 2-1/2 miles from Sir John's Depot, a point on the Baltimore
and Ohio Railroad, 130 miles west of Baltimore, and 49 miles east of
Cumberland, Maryland. A good mountain road connects with the railroad,
and during the bathing season, which lasts from the 1st of June until
the 1st of October, fine coaches are always in attendance at the depot.
Three large springs, and a number of inferior ones, gush out from the
foot of the Warm Spring Ridge, all within the distance of 70 or 80
yards, forming a bold and beautiful stream, which in its course down
the valley supplies several mills and factories, and empties into the
Potomac opposite Hancock, Maryland, 6 miles distant. The water of all
these fountains is of the same character, light, sparkling, and
tasteless, their temperatures ranging from 72° to 74° Fahrenheit, and
their character and volume being in no way affected by variations of
the weather or changes of the seasons. The gentlemen's bath-house, a
substantial brick building, contains ten large bathing-rooms. The baths
are of cement, 12 feet long, 5 feet wide, and 4-1/2 deep, filled from a
reservoir by a four inch pipe, and contain about 1600 gallons each. The
luxury of these capacious plunges can only be appreciated by those who
have tried them. The ladies' bath-house, on the opposite side of the
grove, contains nine baths of similar dimensions, and adjoining this is
an establishment for shower, spout, and artificial warm baths. The
whole is enclosed by a beautiful grove several acres in extent, and
handsomely improved.

"The ownership of these springs is vested in a body of trustees,
appointed originally by the Legislature of Virginia, and the
improvements are made and kept up by means of the revenue derived from
the annual visiters. The charges for the use of the baths are as
follows:--Single bath, 25 cents; season ticket, $2 50. Children and
servants half the above rates. Life ticket, $15 00. A season ticket
entitles the purchaser to the use of the bath during the whole bathing
season. A life ticket entitles the purchaser and his immediate family
to the use of the bath during the life of such purchaser, with the
additional fee of 50 cents per annum from each individual to the
bath-keeper. Arrangements are making for extending and improving the
bathing accommodation, so as to give the public the full benefit of a
restorative and luxury so copiously supplied by nature. It has been
estimated that these springs furnish water at the rate of 800 or 1000
gallons per minute.

"Bath is the county town of Morgan, has a daily mail, and contains
about 250 inhabitants. The scenery in the neighbourhood is wild and
picturesque, and the view from Capon Mountain, showing the junction of
the Capon and Potomac Rivers, is quite celebrated. There are also, in
the immediate vicinity, a number of fine sulphur and chalybeate
springs.

"Although these waters possess considerable medicinal virtue when taken
internally, yet it is to their external use that they chiefly owe their
celebrity; their delightful medium temperature, in connexion with other
properties, adapting them to a wide range of diseases, and giving them
a decided advantage over most other waters known in this country. They
have never been accurately analyzed, but the presence of purgative and
diuretic salts has been ascertained, though the impregnation is not
strong, and the amount uncertain.

"This water is tasteless, insipid from its warmth, and is so light in
its character, that very large quantities may be taken into the stomach
without producing oppression or uneasiness. Persons generally become
fond of it after a time, and when cooled it is a delightful beverage.
It is beneficial in a class of chronic and subacute disorders, such as
derangements of the stomach, with impaired appetite and feeble
digestion, and chronic diseases of the abdominal viscera not connected
with a high degree of organic disease. Their salutary effects in these
cases would seem to depend upon the exceedingly light character of the
waters, aided by their gentle alkaline properties, neutralizing
acidity, and then invigorating and soothing the viscera.

"In the early stages of calculous diseases, attended with irritable
bladder, their free use internally and externally is frequently of
great benefit.

"Externally used, these waters are beneficial in the whole class of
nervous disorders, especially in those irregular anomalous diseases
more frequently met with in females when not connected with a full
habit or _extreme debility_. They are useful in all uterine diseases
when active inflammation is not present. In cases of relaxed habit and
debility, when sufficient power of reaction exists in the system, their
tonic and bracing properties are very decided. Persons suffering from a
residence in warm, low, and damp climates, and subject to nervous
affections, will generally find them a complete restorative. They are
very useful in chronic diseases of the mucous membrane, such as
leucorrhoea, gonorrhoea, &c., and certain forms of bronchial disease
arising from a relaxed condition of the membrane; also in local
paralytic affections unconnected with congestion of the brain.

"In chronic rheumatism these baths have been pronounced a specific. Of
their mode of action little is known with certainty, but the results
are undeniable and admirable. The most obstinate, complicated, and
troublesome cases invariably yield to a patient and judicious use of
the remedy. The milder cases generally yield in ten days or two weeks,
those of longer standing require a longer time for their eradication.

"It is to be regretted that the results of a careful analysis, and a
more extended medical notice, cannot now be given to the public; but
probably practical experience is after all the best test to which a
mineral water can be subjected, and this test Berkeley has stood for
more than eighty years with increasing reputation.

"Strother's is the principal hotel in the place. It adjoins the grove,
and will accommodate comfortably about 400 persons. It is built of
wood, on three sides of a quadrangle, 168 feet front by 197. The front
building is four stories high, has a portico 130 feet long by 16 wide;
a dining and ball-room 106 feet by 30, three large public parlours, and
a bar-room. The wings are respectively two and three stories high. A
basement of stone, fire proof, roomy, and well ventilated, contains the
kitchen department and wine cellar. The court yard, about 100 feet
square, is tastefully ornamented with trees, flowers, and shrubbery.
Besides the ordinary single and double chambers, this house contains
about thirty suites of apartments, of two, three, and four chambers,
for the accommodation of families. The main building, with several
out-houses, contains 200 lodging rooms, all neat, well ventilated, and
conveniently arranged. In conducting this establishment essential
comfort is generally preferred to external appearance, although the
latter is by no means neglected. The furniture is neat, new, and
simple, while the beds and bedding are costly and of the finest
quality. The mattresses are of curled hair, and made by the best
upholsterers of Baltimore, the table is admirably served, and the
ice-houses capacious and unfailing.

"Attached to the hotel, are a fine band of music, billiard tables,
pistol gallery, and ten-pin alleys. Riding horses, buggies, and
carriages, are furnished for pleasure excursions.

"O'Ferrall's hotel is conveniently situated, well kept, and will
accommodate about 100 persons. Other accommodation for 150 persons may
be found in the place."



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF BERKELEY SPRINGS.


"These springs were resorted to by invalids at a very early period, and
had great celebrity throughout the colonies. Hundreds annually flocked
thither from all quarters, and traditional accounts of the
accommodations and amusements of these primitive times are calculated
to excite both the mirth and envy of the present age. Rude log huts,
board and canvass tents, and even covered wagons, served as
lodging-rooms, while every family brought its own substantial provision
of flour, meal, and bacon, trusting for lighter articles of diet to the
good will of the 'Hill Folk,' or the success of their own foragers.

"A large hollow scooped in the sand, surrounded by a screen of pine
boards, was the only bathing-house, and this was used alternately by
ladies and gentlemen. The time set apart for the ladies was announced
by a blast on a long tin horn, at which signal all of the opposite sex
retired to a prescribed distance from the rustic bath-house, and woe to
any unlucky wight who might afterward be found within the magic circle.
The whole scene is said to have resembled a camp-meeting in appearance,
but only in appearance. Here day and night passed in a round of eating,
drinking, bathing, fiddling, dancing, and revelling; gaming was carried
to great excess, and horse-racing was a daily amusement.

"Dated October, 1776, in the first year of the commonwealth, we find
the following in the statute-book of Virginia.

    "'_An Act for establishing a Town at the Warm Springs, in the
    County of Berkeley._

    "'Whereas, it hath been represented to the General Assembly, that
    the laying off fifty acres of land in lots and streets, for a town
    at the Warm Springs, in the County of Berkeley, will be of great
    utility, by encouraging the purchasers thereof to build convenient
    houses for accommodating numbers of infirm, who frequent those
    springs yearly for the recovery of their health.

    "'Be it therefore enacted by the General Assembly of the
    Commonwealth of Virginia, that fifty acres of land adjoining the
    said springs, being part of a larger tract of land the property of
    the Right Honourable Thomas, Lord Fairfax, or other person or
    persons holding the same by a grant or conveyance from him, be and
    the same is hereby invested in Bryan Fairfax, Thomas Bryan Martin,
    Warner Washington, Rev. Charles M. Thurston, Robert Rutherford,
    Thomas Rutherford, Alexander White, Philip Pendleton, Samuel
    Washington, William Elbzey, Van Swearengen, Thomas Hite, James
    Edmondson, James Nourse, gentlemen trustees, to be by them, or any
    seven of them, laid out into lots of quarter of an acre each, with
    convenient streets, which shall be, and the same is, hereby
    established a town by the name of Bath,' &c., &c., &c.--(See
    Herring's Statutes at Large.)

"The town was consequently laid off, and a sale of lots made in August,
1777. Among the purchasers were Charles Carroll, of Carrollton, Horatio
Gates, Gen. George Washington, and many others of note and distinction.

"In the schedule to Gen. Washington's will we find this clause,--


    "'_Bath, or Warm Springs._

    "'Two well-situated and handsome buildings to the amount of
    £150--$800.'

"And this note of the property appended to the schedule,--


    "'BATH.

    "'The lots in Bath (two adjoining) cost me, to the best of my
    recollection, between fifty and sixty pounds twenty years ago.
    Whether property there has increased or decreased in its value, and
    in what condition the houses are, I am ignorant, but suppose they
    are not valued too high.'

"The sites of these houses are still pointed out. In the Memoirs of the
Baroness de Reidesel (wife of the German General who was taken prisoner
at the surrender of Burgoyne), she speaks of having passed part of the
summer of 1779 at these springs with her invalid husband, and mentions
having made the acquaintance of Gen. Washington's family there. She
devotes a page or two of her most interesting work to the narration of
quaint and pleasant incidents, illustrating their mode of life at the
springs, and at the same time illustrating (though unintentionally) the
excellent and amiable character of the authoress.

"After the revolutionary war, the accommodations at the springs were
greatly improved and extended; but as the States progressed in
population and prosperity a host of other bathing-places and mineral
springs were discovered and improved. Saratoga at the north, and the
great White Sulphur at the south, began to rival Berkeley in the race
for public favour; and from the superior spirit and enterprise shown in
their improvement soon left her far behind. Her register of thousands
was reduced to some five or six hundred per annum, and her hotels and
bath-houses seemed destined to decay. In 1844 a fire accomplished in
one night what time was doing gradually. Fourteen buildings, including
the court-house and half the hotel accommodations, were destroyed.
Colonel John Strother, lessee of this property, made immediate
preparation for the erection of a hotel on his own ground, and by the
next season (1845) the west wing, two stories high, was ready for
company. The year following the east wing, three stories high, and part
of the front was erected, and in 1848 the whole building was completed.
The erection of this hotel, and the completion of the Baltimore and
Ohio Railroad to Cumberland, have restored Berkeley almost to her
former prosperity, and from twelve to fifteen hundred persons annually
register their names there, and enjoy the unrivalled luxury of her
baths.

"Prior to the year 1772 these springs were called the Frederick
Springs, from Frederick County, and frequently the 'Warm Springs;' but
after the creation of Berkeley County, in 1772, and the discovery of
the Warm Springs in Bath County, they were called the Berkeley Springs.
In 1820, Morgan County was created from Berkeley, including the
springs, but the post-office still retains the old name, and letters
should be directed to Berkeley Springs, Morgan County, Virginia."



FAUQUIER WHITE SULPHUR SPRINGS.


This very celebrated watering-place is in Fauquier County, 6 miles
southwest of Warrenton. The improvements are very extensive, and the
grounds beautifully adorned. The accommodations are perhaps sufficient
to entertain as many visiters as almost any other watering-place in the
State. Had it been in our power, we should have given a fuller account
of these springs, together with an analysis of the water.

Beside these springs, there are numerous others of less note scattered
through the State, among which are



GRAYSON WHITE SULPHUR SPRINGS,


Formerly in Grayson County, but now within the limits of Carroll.

"They are located immediately on the west side of the Blue Ridge, on
the bank of New River, about 20 miles south of Wytheville, in the midst
of scenery of a remarkably wild and romantic character, similar to that
of Harper's Ferry, in a region perhaps as healthy as any in our
country; abounding with fish and a variety of game. The analysis of
this water, by Professors Rogers and Aiken, is as follows:

"Carbonate of soda, 4-1/2; carbonate of magnesia, 3; carbonate of lime,
8; sulphate of lime, 2; sulphate of magnesia, 3; chloride of sodium, 2;
chloride of calcium, 3; chloride of magnesium, 1-3/4; sulphate of soda,
4-1/2; sulphuretted hydrogen, carbonic acid gases.

"The waters are said to be efficacious in dyspepsia and rheumatism."

The Hygeian Springs, in Giles County, are highly spoken of.

Botetourt Springs, in Roanoke, 12 miles from Fincastle, were formerly
quite popular.



CURIOSITIES.


Among some of the natural curiosities, not immediately on the route to
the Springs, we find in Hampshire County, within reach of visiters to
the Capon Springs, the "ICE MOUNTAIN."

"It rises from the eastern bank of the North River, a branch of the
Capon, and is 26 miles southwest from Winchester, and 16 miles east of
Romney. It is about 400 or 500 feet high.

"The west side of the mountain, for about a quarter of a mile, is
covered with a mass of loose stone, of light colour, which reaches down
to the bank of the river. By removing the loose stone, pure crystal ice
can always be found in the warmest days of summer. It has been
discovered even as late as the 15th of September; but never in October,
although it may exist through the entire year, and be found, if the
rocks were excavated to a sufficient depth. The body of rocks where ice
is found is subject to the full rays of the sun from nine o'clock in
the morning until sunset. The sun does not have the effect of melting
the ice as much as continual rains. At the base of the mountain is a
spring of water, colder by many degrees than spring water generally
is." There are several other natural curiosities in this county.

"CAUDY'S CASTLE, the fragment of a mountain in the shape of a half
cone, with a very narrow base, which rises from the banks of the Capon
to the height of about 500 feet, presents a sublime and majestic
appearance. The 'TEA TABLE' is about 10 miles below Caudy's Castle, in
a deep ragged glen, 3 or 4 miles east of the Capon. This table is a
solid rock, and presents the form of a man's hat standing on its crown.
It is about 4 feet in height and the same in diameter. From the top
issues a clear stream of water, which flows over the brim on all sides,
and forms a fountain of exquisite beauty. The HANGING ROCKS are about 4
miles north of Romney. There the Wappatomka River has cut its way
through a mountain of about 500 feet in height. The boldness of the
rocks, and the wildness of the scene, excite awe in the beholder."



THE NATURAL TUNNEL.


This great curiosity is in Scott County, about 12 miles west of
Estillville, the county seat. The following description of it is from
the "American Journal of Geology."

"To form an adequate idea of this remarkable and truly sublime object,
we have only to imagine the creek, to which it gives a passage,
meandering through a deep narrow valley, here and there bounded on both
sides by walls or revêtements, rising to the height of two or three
hundred feet above the stream; and that a portion of one of these
chasms, instead of presenting an open thorough cut from the summit to
the base of the high grounds, is intercepted by a continuous, unbroken
ridge, more than three hundred feet high, extending entirely across the
valley, and perforated transversely at its base, after the manner of an
artificial tunnel, and thus affording a spacious subterranean channel
for the passage of the stream.

"The entrance to the Natural Tunnel, on the upper side of the ridge, is
imposing and picturesque, in a high degree; but on the lower side, the
grandeur of the scene is greatly heightened by the superior magnitude
of the cliffs, which exceed in loftiness, and which rise
perpendicularly--and in some instances in an impending manner--more
than three hundred feet; and by which the entrance on this side is
almost environed, as it were, by an amphitheatre of rude and frightful
precipices.

"The observer, standing on the brink of the stream, at the distance of
about one hundred yards below the debouchure of the Natural Tunnel,
has, in front, a view of its arched entrance, rising seventy or eighty
feet above the water, and surmounted by horizontal stratifications of
yellowish, white, and gray rocks, in depth nearly twice the height of
the arch. On his left, a view of the same mural precipice, deflected
from the springing of the arch in a manner to pass in a continuous
curve quite to his rear, and towering in a very impressive manner above
his head. On his right, a sapling growth of buckeye, poplar, lindens,
&c., skirting the margin of the creek, and extending obliquely to the
right, and upwards through a narrow, abrupt ravine, to the summit of
the ridge, which is here, and elsewhere, crowned with a timber-growth
of pines, cedar, oaks, and shrubbery of various kinds. On his extreme
right is a gigantic cliff, lifting itself up perpendicularly from the
water's edge, to the height of about three hundred feet, and
accompanied by an insulated cliff, called The Chimney, of about the
same altitude, rising in the form of a turret, at least sixty feet
above its basement, which is a portion of the imposing cliff just
before mentioned."



THE BUFFALO KNOB.


"This is a very lofty eminence, in Floyd County, from the top of which
the view is sublime. On the north, east, and west, the beholder is
amazed at the boundless succession of mountains rising beyond
mountains--while far away to the south, the plain seems to stretch to
an interminable length. On the east, The Knob is accessible on
horseback, being two miles in height from the beginning of the ascent
to the highest point; on the west it breaks off precipitately, and
presents the shape of the animal whose name it bears. This mountain is
seen sixty or eighty miles, towering above all others. On the highest
point is a space of about thirty acres, which is so elevated that not
any trees grow there; and in the warmest days of summer, the visitor
requires thick clothing to protect him from the cold. The spot is
covered with fine grass, strawberry-vines, and gooseberry and
currant-bushes. The fruit upon them is of superior flavour, but it does
not ripen until two or three months later than upon the low-lands."



THE MAMMOTH MOUND.


This curiosity is in Marshall County, about a quarter of a mile from
the Ohio; it is 69 feet high, and 900 feet in circumference at the
base, and has a flat top about 50 feet in diameter.

"A few years since a white oak, of about 70 feet in height, stood on
the summit of the mound, which appeared to die of age. On carefully
cutting the trunk transversely, the number of concentric circles showed
that it was about 500 years old."



CAVES.


Besides Weyer's, there are other caves in the State, which are great
curiosities, two of which are said to be nearly equal to Weyer's. One
of them is in Page County, about a mile west of Luray, and the other in
Warren County, about three miles south of Front Royal.



POWELL'S FORT VALLEY.


This curiosity is in Page County; and Kercheval gives the following
account of it:

"The grandeur and sublimity of this extraordinary work of nature,
consists in its tremendous height and singular formation. On entering
the mouth of the fort, we are struck with the awful height of the
mountains on each side, probably not less than a thousand feet. Through
a very narrow passage, a bold and beautiful stream of water rushes,
called Passage Creek, which a short distance below works several fine
merchant mills. After travelling two or three miles, the valley
gradually widens, and for upwards of twenty miles furnishes arable
land, and affords settlement for eighty or ninety families, several of
whom own very valuable farms. The two mountains run parallel 24 or 25
miles, and are called East and West Fort Mountains, and then are merged
into one, anciently Mesinetto, now Masinutton Mountain. The Masinutton
Mountain continues its course about 35 or 36 miles southerly, and
abruptly terminates opposite Keisletown, in the County of Rockingham.
This range of mountains divides the two branches of the Shenandoah
River, called the South and North Forks. This mountain, upon the whole,
presents to the eye something of the shape of the letter Y, or perhaps
more the shape of the hounds and tongue of a wagon.

"A few miles above Luray, on the west side of the river, there are
three large INDIAN GRAVES, ranged nearly side by side, 30 or 40 feet in
length, 12 or 14 feet wide, and 5 or 6 feet high. Around them, in a
circular form, are a number of single graves. The whole covers an area
of little less than a quarter of an acre. They present to the eye a
very ancient appearance, and are covered over with pine and other
forest growth. The excavation of the ground around them is plainly to
be seen. The three first-mentioned graves are in oblong form; probably
contain many hundreds of human bodies, and were doubtless the work of
ages.



PEAK KNOB, AND THE GLASS WINDOWS.


These two curiosities, in Pulaski County, are thus described by Howe:

"Peak Knob, 4 miles south of Newbern, is a prominent projection in
Draper's Mountain, rising about 1,000 feet, and presenting from its
summit a delightful and extensive landscape. Iron ore exists in
abundance in this mountain, and also coal of a good quality. In its
vicinity are mineral springs, supposed to possess valuable medicinal
qualities.

"On the north bank of New River, near Newbern, there is a bluff called
THE GLASS WINDOWS, consisting of vertical rocks nearly 500 feet high,
and forming the immediate bank of the stream for a distance of four
miles. They are considered a great curiosity. The face of these rocks
is perforated by a vast number of cavities, which no doubt lead to
caves or cells within the mountain. Some of the cells have been
explored, and found to contain saltpetre, stalactites, and other
concretions."

Howe tells us, that in Washington County, "westerly from Abingdon,
between Three Springs and the North Fork of Holston, on Abram's Creek,
in a narrow, gloomy ravine, bounded by a high perpendicular ledge, is a
large waterfall, which in one single leap descends perpendicularly 60
feet, and then falls about 40 feet more ere it reaches the bottom. The
stream is about 20 feet wide."



DISTANCES.


FROM WASHINGTON CITY TO THE VIRGINIA SPRINGS.

ROUTE NO. 1.

                                             Miles from
                                     Miles.  Washington.

    From Washington to Acquia
      Creek Landing,                  45
    To Fredericksburg,                14          59
    "  Junction,                      37          96
    "  Louisa, C. H.,                 37         133
    "  Gordonsville,                  13         146
    "  Charlottesville,               21         167
    "  M'Ghee's,                       7-1/2     174-1/2
    "  Cox's,                          7         181-1/2
    "  Brooksville,                    4-1/2     186
    "  Mountain Top,                   4         190
    "  Waynesboro,                     4         194
    "  Staunton,                      11         205
    "  Buffalo Gap,                   10         215
    "  Oakland House,                 10         225
    "  Deerfield,                      2         227
    "  Lange's,                        2         229
    "  Cloverdale Hotel,               6         235
    "  Bath Alum Springs,             15         250
    "  Warm Springs,                   5         255
    "  Hot Springs,                    5         260
    "  Callahan's,                    20         280
    "  White Sulphur Springs,         15         295
    "  Lewisburg,                      9         304
    "  Blue Sulphur Springs,          13         317


ROUTE NO. 2.

                                             Miles from
                                     Miles.  Washington.

    Baltimore to Harper's Ferry,      82
    Washington to Harper's Ferry,    104
    To Charlestown,                   10         114
    "  Winchester,                    22         136
    "  Newtown,                        8         144
    "  Strasburg,                     10         154
    "  Woodstock,                     11-1/2     165-1/2
    "  Mt. Jackson,                   13         178-1/2
    "  New Market,                     7         185-1/2
    "  Spartapolis,                    6-1/2     192
    "  Harrisonburg,                  11         203
    "  Mt. Crawford,                   8         211
    "  Mt. Sidney,                     7         218
    "  Staunton,                      10         228
    Thence as in No. 1, to the White Sulphur, &c.
    Or from Harrisonburg, via   Augusta Springs,
      to the Warm Springs,            60


ROUTE NO. 3.

RICHMOND VIA CENTRAL RAILROAD.

                                             Miles from
                                     Miles.  Richmond.

    To Atley's,                        9
    "  Peak's,                         6          15
    "  Hanover Court-House,            3          18
    "  Wickham's,                      2          20
    "  Junction,                       7          27
    "  Noel's,                         5          32
    "  Hewlett's,                      4          36
    "  Beaver-dam,                     4          40
    "  Bumpass's,                      6          46
    "  Frederick Hall,                 5          51
    "  Tolersville,                    6          57
    "  Louisa Court-House,             6          63
    "  Trevilian's,                    5          68
    "  Gordonsville,                   9          77
    "  Lindsay's,                      5          82
    "  Cobham,                         2          84
    "  Campbell's,                     3          87
    "  Keswick,                        4          91
    "  Shadwell,                       3          94
    "  Charlottesville,                4          98
    Thence as in No. 1 by stage to White Sulphur.


ROUTE NO. 4.

FROM RICHMOND, VIA JAMES RIVER CANAL, TO LYNCHBURG, THENCE BY STAGE
VIA THE NATURAL BRIDGE, DIBBREL'S SPRINGS, AND COVINGTON, TO THE
WHITE SULPHUR SPRINGS.

                                             Miles from
                                     Miles.  Richmond.

    To Manakintown,                   17
    "  Jude's Ferry,                   5          22
    "  Michaux's,                      9          31
    "  Cedar Point,                    2          33
    "  Jefferson,                      6          39
    "  Cartersville,                   8          47
    "  Columbia,                      10          57
    "  New Canton,                     9          66
    "  Scottsville,                   13          79
    "  Rockfish,                      12          91
    "  Warminster,                     8          99
    "  Hardwicksville,                 4         103
    "  Tye River,                      5         108
    "  Bent Creek,                     9         117
    "  Staple's Mills,                12         129
    "  Lynchburg,                     17         146
    "  Natural Bridge,                38         184
    "  Dibbrel's Springs,             18         202
    "  Clifton Forge,                 10         212
    "  Covington,                     13         225
    "  Callahan's,                     5         230
    "  White Sulphur,                 15         245


ROUTE NO. 5.

LYNCHBURG TO WHITE SULPHUR.

                                             Miles from
                                     Miles.  Lynchburg.

    To New London,                    10
    "  Liberty,                       15          25
    "  Buford's,                      14          39
    "  Fincastle,                     14          53
    "  Scott's,                       18          71
    "  Mountain House,                 7          78
    "  Sweet Springs,                  9          87
    "  Red Sweet,                      1          88
    "  White Sulphur,                 16         104


ROUTE NO. 6.

FROM STAUNTON TO ROCKBRIDGE ALUM SPRINGS, VIA LEXINGTON.

                                             Miles from
                                     Miles.  Staunton.

    There are two routes, one
      of which is to Greenville,      12
    To Fairfield,                     11
    "  Lexington,                     12          35
    The other is to Middlebrook,      11
    To Brownsburg,                    12
    "  Lexington,                     12          35
    "  Rockbridge Alum,               17          52
    From Rockbridge Alum to
     Bath Alum Springs,               17


ROUTE NO. 7.

FROM GUYANDOTTE TO WHITE SULPHUR.

                                             Miles from
                                     Miles.  Guyandotte.

    To Charleston,                    48
    "  Salines,                        5          53
    "  Falls of Kanawha,              30          83
    "  Gauley Bridge,                  5          88
    "  Hawk's Nest,                    8          96
    "  Locust Lane,                    2          98
    "  Blue Sulphur,                  40         138
    "  Lewisburg,                     13         151
    "  White Sulphur,                  9         160
    From White Sulphur to Salt
      Sulphur,                        26
    From White Sulphur to Red
      Sulphur,                        43
    From Red Sulphur to Blue
      Sulphur,                        33
    From Scottsville to Brooksville,  25
      To Staunton,                    19          44
    From Waynesboro to Greenville,    17
    From Winchester to Jordan's
      White Sulphur Springs,           6
    From Winchester to Capon Springs, 22
    From Lexington to Covington,      41
    From Winchester to Romney,        43
    To Clarksburg,                   111         154
    "  Parkersburg,                   83         237
    From Fredericksburg to Richmond,  62
    From Richmond to Petersburg       22
    From Staunton to Parkersburg,    234



CENSUS OF VIRGINIA FOR 1850.


TRANS-ALLEGHANY DISTRICT.

  -------------------+---------+----------+---------+--------
                     |         |          |         |
      COUNTIES.      | Whites. |  Free    | Slaves. | Total.
                     |         | Negroes. |         |
  -------------------+---------+----------+---------+--------
                     |         |          |         |
  Barbour,           |    8671 |      221 |     113 |    9005
  Braxton,           |    4123 |          |      89 |    4212
  Boone,             |    3054 |          |     183 |    3237
  Brooke,            |    4923 |      100 |      31 |    5054
  Cabell,            |    5904 |        6 |     389 |    6299
  Carroll,           |    5726 |       29 |     154 |    5909
  Doddridge,         |    2639 |       80 |      31 |    2750
  Fayette,           |    3782 |       17 |     156 |    3955
  Floyd,             |    6000 |       15 |     443 |    6458
  Grayson,           |    6142 |       36 |     499 |    6677
  Greenbrier,        |    8549 |      156 |    1317 |   10022
  Giles,             |    5859 |       54 |     657 |    6570
  Gilmer,            |    3403 |          |      72 |    3475
  Hancock,           |    4040 |        7 |       3 |    4050
  Harrison,          |   11214 |       26 |     488 |   11728
  Jackson,           |    6480 |       11 |      53 |    6544
  Kanawha,           |   12002 |      211 |    3140 |   15353
  Lee,               |    9440 |       40 |     787 |   10267
  Lewis,             |    9621 |       42 |     368 |   10031
  Logan,             |    3533 |          |      87 |    3620
  Marion,            |   10438 |       20 |      94 |   10552
  Marshall,          |   10050 |       39 |      49 |   10138
  Mason,             |    6843 |       49 |     647 |    7539
  Mercer,            |    4018 |       27 |     177 |    4222
  Monongalia,        |   12092 |      119 |     176 |   12387
  Monroe,            |    9062 |       81 |    1061 |   10204
  Montgomery,        |    6822 |       66 |    1471 |    8359
  Nicholas,          |    3889 |        1 |      73 |    3963
  Ohio,              |   17609 |      235 |     164 |   18008
  Preston,           |   11574 |       47 |      87 |   11708
  Pocahontas,        |    3308 |       23 |     267 |    3598
  Pulaski,           |    3613 |       34 |    1471 |    5118
  Putnam,            |    4693 |       10 |     632 |    5335
  Raleigh,           |    1735 |        7 |      23 |    1765
  Randolph,          |    5003 |       39 |     201 |    5243
  Ritchie,           |    3886 |          |      16 |    3902
  Russell,           |   10867 |       70 |     982 |   11919
  Scott,             |    9325 |       31 |     473 |    9829
  Smyth,             |    6901 |      197 |    1064 |    8162
  Taylor,            |    5130 |       69 |     168 |    5367
  Tazewell,          |    8807 |       75 |    1060 |    9942
  Tyler,             |    5456 |        4 |      38 |    5498
  Washington,        |   12372 |      109 |    2131 |   14612
  Wayne,             |    4564 |        7 |     189 |    4760
  Wetzel,            |    4261 |        6 |      17 |    4284
  Wirt,              |    3319 |        2 |      32 |    3353
  Wood,              |    9008 |       69 |     373 |    9450
  Wyoming,           |    1583 |        1 |      61 |    1645
  Wythe,             |    9618 |      221 |    2185 |   12024
                     +---------+----------+---------+--------
                     | 330,951 |    2,709 |  24,442 | 358,102
                     +---------+----------+---------+--------


VALLEY DISTRICT.

  -------------------+---------+----------+---------+--------
                     |         |          |         |
      COUNTIES.      | Whites. |  Free    | Slaves. | Total.
                     |         | Negroes. |         |
  -------------------+---------+----------+---------+--------
                     |         |          |         |
  Alleghany,         |    2763 |       58 |     694 |    3515
  Augusta,           |   19024 |      533 |    5053 |   24610
  Bath,              |    2436 |       43 |     947 |    3426
  Berkeley,          |    9566 |      249 |    1956 |   11771
  Botetourt,         |   10749 |      423 |    3736 |   14908
  Clarke,            |    3615 |      123 |    3614 |    7352
  Frederick,         |   12769 |      912 |    2294 |   15975
  Hampshire,         |   12389 |      214 |    1433 |   14036
  Hardy,             |    7930 |      353 |    1260 |    9543
  Highland,          |    2853 |       10 |     364 |    3227
  Jefferson,         |   10476 |      540 |    4341 |   15357
  Morgan,            |    3431 |        3 |     123 |    3557
  Page,              |    6332 |      311 |     957 |    7600
  Pendleton,         |    5443 |       30 |     322 |    5795
  Roanoke,           |    5813 |      154 |    2510 |    8477
  Rockbridge,        |   11484 |      364 |    4197 |   16045
  Rockingham,        |   17498 |      465 |    2331 |   20294
  Shenandoah,        |   12595 |      262 |     911 |   13768
  Warren,            |    4492 |      367 |    1748 |    6607
                     +---------+----------+---------+--------
                     | 161,658 |     5414 |  38,791 | 205,863
                     +---------+----------+---------+--------


PIEDMONT DISTRICT.

  -------------------+---------+----------+---------+--------
                     |         |          |         |
      COUNTIES.      | Whites. |  Free    | Slaves. | Total.
                     |         | Negroes. |         |
  -------------------+---------+----------+---------+--------
                     |         |          |         |
  Albemarle,         |   11876 |      586 |   13338 |   25800
  Amelia,            |    2794 |      157 |    6819 |    9770
  Amherst,           |    6353 |      393 |    5953 |   12699
  Appomattox,        |    4210 |      184 |    4799 |    9193
  Bedford,           |   13556 |      463 |   10061 |   24080
  Brunswick,         |    4895 |      543 |    8456 |   13894
  Buckingham,        |    5426 |      250 |    8161 |   13837
  Campbell,          |   11538 |      841 |   10866 |   23245
  Charlotte,         |    4605 |      362 |    8988 |   13955
  Culpeper,          |    5111 |      488 |    6683 |   12282
  Cumberland,        |    3083 |      339 |    6329 |    9751
  Dinwiddie,         |   10985 |     3253 |   11468 |   25706
  Faquier,           |    9875 |      643 |   10350 |   20868
  Franklin,          |   11638 |       66 |    5726 |   17430
  Fluvanna,          |    4533 |      217 |    4737 |    9487
  Greene,            |    2667 |       34 |    1699 |    4400
  Goochland,         |    3854 |      653 |    5845 |   10352
  Halifax,           |   11006 |      504 |   14462 |   25972
  Henry,             |    5324 |      208 |    3340 |    8872
  Loudon,            |   15081 |     1354 |    5641 |   22076
  Louisa,            |    6423 |      404 |    9864 |   16691
  Lunenburg,         |    4310 |      195 |    7187 |   11692
  Madison,           |    4458 |      149 |    4724 |    9331
  Mecklenburg,       |    7256 |      912 |   12429 |   20597
  Nelson,            |    6478 |      138 |    6142 |   12758
  Nottoway,          |    2251 |      136 |    6050 |    8437
  Orange,            |    3962 |      184 |    5921 |   10067
  Patrick,           |    7197 |       88 |    2324 |    9609
  Pittsylvania,      |   15263 |      735 |   12798 |   28796
  Prince Edward,     |    4177 |      488 |    7192 |   11857
  Powhatan,          |    2532 |      364 |    5282 |    8178
  Rappahannock,      |    5642 |      296 |    3844 |    9782
                     +---------+----------+---------+----------
                     | 218,359 |   15,627 | 237,478 | 471,464
                     +---------+----------+---------+----------


TIDE-WATER DISTRICT.

  -------------------+---------+----------+---------+--------
                     |         |          |         |
      COUNTIES.      | Whites. |  Free    | Slaves. | Total.
                     |         | Negroes. |         |
  -------------------+---------+----------+---------+--------
                     |         |          |         |
  Alexandria,        |    7218 |     1408 |    1382 |  10008
  Accomack,          |    9742 |     3161 |    4987 |  17890
  Charles City,      |    1664 |      772 |    2764 |   5200
  Caroline,          |    6892 |      903 |   10661 |  18456
  Chesterfield,      |    8402 |      468 |    8616 |  17486
  Essex,             |    3025 |      419 |    6762 |  10206
  Elizabeth City,    |    2341 |       97 |    2148 |   4586
  Fairfax,           |    6835 |      597 |    3250 |  10682
  Greensville,       |    1731 |      123 |    3785 |   5639
  Gloucester,        |    4290 |      680 |    5557 |  10527
  Hanover,           |    6541 |      219 |    8393 |  15153
  Henrico,           |   23732 |     3663 |   16042 |  43437
  Isle of Wight,     |    4724 |     1234 |    3395 |   9353
  James City,        |    1489 |      663 |    1868 |   4020
  King George,       |    2303 |      265 |    3403 |   5971
  King & Queen,      |    4094 |      461 |    5764 |  10319
  King William,      |    2702 |      346 |    5731 |   8779
  Lancaster,         |    1805 |      263 |    2640 |   4708
  Mathews,           |    3644 |      147 |    2923 |   6714
  Middlesex,         |    1903 |      149 |    2342 |   4394
  Nansemond,         |    5425 |     2143 |    4715 |  12283
  New Kent,          |    2221 |      433 |    3410 |   6064
  Norfolk,           |    4907 |      823 |    4354 |  10084
  Northumberland,    |    3072 |      519 |    3755 |   7346
  Northampton,       |    3105 |      745 |    3648 |   7498
  Princess Anne,     |    4280 |      259 |    3130 |   7669
  Prince George,     |    2670 |      518 |    4408 |   7596
  Prince William,    |    5081 |      550 |    2498 |   8129
  Richmond,          |    3462 |      709 |    2277 |   6448
  Stafford,          |    4415 |      318 |    3311 |   8044
  Southampton,       |    5971 |     1795 |    5755 |  13521
  Spottsylvania,     |    6903 |      527 |    7481 |  14911
  Surry,             |    2215 |      985 |    2479 |   5679
  Sussex,            |    3086 |      742 |    5992 |   9820
  Warwick,           |     598 |       43 |     905 |   1546
  Westmoreland,      |    3410 |     1113 |    3557 |   8080
  York,              |    1825 |      454 |    2181 |   4460
  Norfolk City,      |    9113 |      912 |    4295 |  14320
  Petersburg City,   |      "  |       "  |      "  |     "
  Portsmouth City,   |    6345 |      530 |    1751 |   8626
  Richmond City,     |      "  |       "  |      "  |     "
                     +---------+----------+---------+--------
                     | 183,181 |   30,156 | 172,315 | 385,652
                     +---------+----------+---------+--------


  -----------------------------+---------+---------+---------+----------
                               |         |         |         |
          DISTRICTS.           | Whites. |  Free   | Slaves. | Total.
                               |         | Negroes.|         |
  -----------------------------+---------+---------+---------+----------
                               |         |         |         |
  Total of Tide-water Dist.,   |  183181 |   30156 |  172315 |    385652
  Total of Piedmont Dist.,     |  218359 |   15627 |  237478 |    471464
  Total of Valley Dist.,       |  161658 |    5414 |   38791 |    205863
  Total of Trans-Alleg. Dist., |  330951 |    2709 |   24442 |    358102
                               +---------+---------+---------+----------
  Grand Total,                 | 894,149 |  53,906 | 473,026 | 1,421,081
                               +---------+---------+---------+----------



NOTE.


During the latter part of the session of the Legislature of 1851, three
new counties were formed, one of which to be called Craig, out of parts
of the counties of Botetourt, Giles, Monroe, and Roanoke; one to be
called Upshur, out of parts of the counties of Randolph, Barbour, and
Lewis; and the other to be called Pleasants, out of parts of the
counties of Wood, Tyler, and Ritchie.



WESLEYAN FEMALE INSTITUTE, STAUNTON, VA.


This school is under the patronage and control of the Baltimore
Conference of the M. E. Church. It is designed to furnish, at a cheap
rate, facilities for a thorough education, equal to those of the best
schools. The several departments are in the charge of competent
teachers. Diplomas are given to those who complete the prescribed
course of study. The building is commodious, and is in all respects
arranged for the convenience and comfort of pupils.



VIRGINIA FEMALE INSTITUTE, STAUNTON, VA.


Rev. R. H. Phillips, A.M., Principal.

Rev. J. C. Wheat, A.M., Vice Principal.

_Assistants._--Rev. T. T. Castleman, Prof. C. Roux, Prof. Engelbrecht,
Miss Hilleary, Miss Coleman.

_Matron._--Miss Nelson.

_Trustees._--Rt. Rev. Wm. Meade, D.D., President.

Rev. T. T. Castleman, Vice President.

William Kinney, Esq., T. J. Michie, Esq., Doct. T. T. Stribling, Doct.
E. Berkeley, B. Crawford, Esq., Robt. S. Brooke, Esq., James Points,
Esq.

N. K. Trout, Esq., Secretary.

Number of pupils present session, ninety-one.

Next session will commence on Wednesday, August 27th.

Board and tuition in the English course per session of ten months,
$160.

Music.--Harp, piano, organ, and guitar, extra charges.

Languages.--Latin, French, Italian, and Spanish, each $20.

Drawing and painting, different styles, extra charges.

For circulars, &c., address the principal.

    Staunton, April 22d, 1851.



FARISH & CO.'S STAGE ROUTES.


William P. Farish & Co.'s Stage Lines offer great inducements to the
travelling public. There is, perhaps, no Stage Company in the United
States prepared to accommodate with so much comfort, safety, and
convenience to the traveller, as Farish & Co.'s. Their coaches are new,
handsome, and elegantly fitted up; their horses are well broken, and
for appearance and speed unsurpassed; their agents are polite and
accommodating, and their drivers are experienced, capable, and
cautious. They have the means to accommodate the public, and will on no
occasion spare them. The following is a schedule of their respective
routes:


FROM CHARLOTTESVILLE TO STAUNTON.

Leaves Charlottesville daily at 2 P.M., arrives at Staunton (the night
stand) at 9 P.M.


WINCHESTER TO STAUNTON.

_Mail Line._--Leaves Winchester daily--except Sundays--at 4 P.M.,
arrives at Staunton next day at 8 A.M.

Daylight Line of Omnibusses.--Leaves Winchester Tuesdays, Thursdays,
and Saturdays, at 4 A.M., and arrives at Staunton same days at 6 P.M.


FROM STAUNTON TO WHITE SULPHUR SPRINGS.

Leaves Staunton Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays (daily from June to
Oct.,) at 9-1/2 A.M., arrives at Cloverdale same days at 6 P.M. Leaves
Cloverdale Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, at 4 A.M., and arrives
at White Sulphur at 7 P.M. same days.


FROM LYNCHBURG TO WHITE SULPHUR SPRINGS.

Leaves Lynchburg Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, at 4 A.M., arrives
at Fincastle same days at 7 P.M. Leaves Fincastle Tuesdays, Thursdays,
and Saturdays, at 4 A.M., and arrives at White Sulphur at 7 P.M. same
days.


LYNCHBURG TO SALEM.

Leaves Lynchburg Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, at 4 A.M., and
arrives at Salem at 7 P.M. same days; connecting with the Staunton and
Wytheville line at that point.


FROM STAUNTON TO WYTHEVILLE.

Leaves Staunton Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, at 9-1/2 A.M., and
arrives at Lexington same days at 6 P.M. (daily in summer), and leaves
Lexington Wednesdays, Fridays, and Sundays, at 3-1/2 A.M., breakfasts
at the Natural Bridge, and arrives at Salem at 7 P.M. same days. Leaves
Salem Thursdays, Saturdays, and Mondays, at 4 A.M., and arrives at
Wytheville same days at 6 P.M. Leaves Wytheville Fridays, Sundays, and
Tuesdays, at 2 A.M., and arrives at Bluntsville, Tenn., same days at 10
P.M. Leaves Bluntsville Saturdays, Mondays, and Wednesdays, at 4 A.M.,
and arrives at Knoxville, Tenn., same days at 10 P.M.


STAUNTON TO RICHMOND VIA SCOTTSVILLE.

Leaves Staunton Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, at 4 A.M., via
Scottsville to Richmond by packet-boats, and arrives next day at 7 A.M.
in Richmond.


STAUNTON VIA CHARLOTTESVILLE TO RICHMOND.

Leaves Staunton daily, at 10 A.M., arrives at Charlottesville at 6
P.M., and next morning to Richmond by railroad, to early dinner.


WHITE SULPHUR TO GUYANDOTTE.

Leaves White Sulphur Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, arrives at
Charleston next days at 6 P.M., and the following days to Guyandotte to
dinner.

Extra coaches furnished at all points, and a liberal amount of baggage
allowed each passenger.

    WM. P. FARISH & CO.

    February, 1851.



ROBERT COWAN,

BOOKSELLER AND STATIONER,


Has for sale a large assortment of Miscellaneous, Medical, Law,
Theological, School and Blank Books, and a general variety of English,
French, and American Stationery of the best quality, including Letter,
Cap, Note, and other papers, at wholesale and retail.

He has on hand, or can supply at short notice, all or any of the books
and maps named in the following pages.

All orders will be answered with promptness and despatch.

    Staunton, Va., May 1, 1851.



VALUABLE SCHOOL BOOKS,

PUBLISHED BY

THOMAS, COWPERTHWAIT & CO.,

PHILADELPHIA,

AND FOR SALE BY BOOKSELLERS GENERALLY THROUGH OUT THE UNITED STATES.


MITCHELL'S AMERICAN SYSTEM OF STANDARD SCHOOL GEOGRAPHY,

IN A SERIES; ADAPTED TO THE PROGRESSIVELY DEVELOPING CAPACITIES OF
YOUTH.

Mitchell's School Series has been wholly or partly introduced into the
Public and Private Schools of the principal Cities and Towns of the
United States.

Mitchell's Primary Geography.

    An easy Introduction to the Study of Geography; designed for the
    Instruction of Children in Schools and Families; Illustrated by 120
    Engravings and 14 coloured Maps. By _S. Augustus Mitchell_.
    Price, 38 cents.

    This work has been introduced into the Public Schools of Boston,
    New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, New Orleans, St. Louis,
    Louisville, Cincinnati, Pittsburg, and many other cities and towns
    in the United States, and is in general use in the Private Schools
    throughout the whole country.

Mitchell's Intermediate or Secondary Geography.

    In this work, the maps and the entire reading matter are printed
    together, and form one convenient quarto volume.

    The whole is so arranged, that the maps, the description of each
    country, and the questions dependent on them, are placed generally
    on the same page, or on pages directly opposite, enabling pupils to
    refer readily from one to the other, rendering the use of two
    separate books unnecessary, and affording the required amount of
    instruction in a more portable and convenient form.

    This publication corresponds, in style of embellishment, colouring,
    arrangement of lessons, and general scope of composition, to the
    other Geographical Works of Mr. Mitchell, so as to form a
    connecting link in the Series in progress, of which the Primary
    Geography, the School Geography and Atlas, and the Ancient
    Geography and Atlas, already published, form a part. Price, 75
    cents.

Mitchell's School Geography.

    A System of Modern Geography; comprising a Description of the
    present State of the World, and its five great Divisions.
    Embellished with numerous Engravings, and illustrated by an Atlas
    of 28 Maps, drawn and engraved for the work. Second revised
    edition. By _S. Augustus Mitchell_. Price, $1 12-1/2.

    _From the Teachers of Public Schools in the City of New York._

    We have examined "Mitchell's School Geography," and the Atlas that
    accompanies it, with considerable care, and must give it the
    preference to any work of the kind with which we are acquainted.
    Its merits are numerous,--the definitions are remarkably plain and
    concise,--the exercises are copious and important, and the
    descriptive department is luminous and correct. The divisions of
    the American Continent are represented and described as they really
    exist at the present time, and the gross mis-statements generally
    found in school Geographies are corrected. The typographical
    execution is uncommonly neat and distinct. Indeed the Atlas is a
    model of the kind, and actually teems with information. The
    Geography is embellished with some hundreds of neat and
    well-executed engravings, which illustrate and greatly enhance the
    value of the work.

    DAVID PATTERSON, M.D., Prin. Public School No. 3.
    WILLIAM BELDEN, A.M., Prin. Public School No. 2.
    JNO. W. KETCHUM, Principal of Public School No. 7.
    LEONARD HAZELTINE, Prin. of Public School No. 14.
    JOHN PATTERSON, Public School No. 4.
    WM. A. WALKER, Public School No. 15.
    ABM. K. VAN NECK, Public School No. 16.
    WM. FORREST, Principal of Collegiate School.

    CITY OF PHILADELPHIA.

    _Board of Controllers of Public Schools, 1st School District of
    Pennsylvania._

    At a meeting of the Board, the Committee of Supplies offered the
    following resolution:

    _Resolved_, That "Mitchell's School Geography and Atlas,"--last
    edition--be introduced as a class-book into the Public Schools of
    the First School District.

    The above resolution was agreed to.

    From the minutes.

    R. PENN SMITH, _Secretary_.

    _The following Teachers have recommended the Geographical Works in
    strong terms._

    JOHN FROST, Professor of the High School.
    WM. VOGDES, Professor of the High School.
    WM. ROBERTS, Principal Teacher in the Moyamensing Public School.
    ANN DOLBY, Principal Teacher in the Moyamensing Public School for Girls.
    JOHN M. COLEMAN, Principal of the New Market Street Public School.
    W. W. WOOD, Principal of the South-West Public School for Boys.
    JAMES RHOADS, Principal of North-West Grammar School.
    JANE MITCHELL, Principal of North-West School for Girls.
    WM. S. CLEAVENGER, Principal of the Locust Street Public School.
    W. H. PILE, Principal of the North-Eastern Public School.
    LYDIA E. SMITH, Principal S.W. School for Females.
    A. C. HUTTON, Principal of Lombard Street School.
    BELINDA TAYLOR, Principal of the N.E. Girls' School.
    LEONARD BLISS, Jr., Professor of Belles-Lettres and History, Louisville College, Ky.
    FRANCIS E. GODDARD, Louisville, Ky.
    JOHN FREEMAN CLARKE, Agent of City Schools, Louisville, Ky.
    D. M. GAZLAY, Louisville, Ky.
    B. B. SMITH, Super. of Public Instruction for the Commonwealth of Ky.
    CHARLES CRANE, Principal Prep. Dep. Trans. University, Ky.
    EDWARD WINTHROP, Prof. of Sacred Literature in the Theo. Sem. of Ky.
    JOSIAH GAVER, Principal of the City Public Schools, Lexington, Ky.



SWAN'S SCHOOL READERS.


The Primary School Reader, Part I.,

    Which is intended for beginners. It contains a lesson upon each of
    the Elementary Sounds in the language, Exercises in Syllabication,
    and a few simple, interesting Stories for Children; and is designed
    to aid the teacher in laying the foundation for an accurate and
    distinct articulation. Price, 12 cents.

The Primary School Reader, Part II.,

    Contains Exercises in Articulation, arranged in connection with
    easy Reading Lessons. The utility of this arrangement will be
    obvious to every experienced teacher, as it will tend to secure
    daily attention to this important subject. Price, 20 cents.

The Primary School Reader, Part III.,

    Is designed for the First Class in Primary Schools, and for the
    Lowest Class in Grammar Schools--thus enabling the pupil to review
    his studies after entering the Grammar School. Price, 30 cents.

The Grammar School Reader

    Is designed for the Middle Classes in Grammar Schools. It contains
    Exercises in Articulation, arranged in connection with Reading
    Lessons. Price, 45 cents.

The District School Reader

    Is designed for the Highest Classes in Public and Private Schools.
    It contains Exercises in Articulation, Pauses, Inflections of the
    Voice, &c., with such Rules and Suggestions as are deemed useful to
    the learner. It also contains a complete Glossary of the classical
    allusions which occur in the Reading Lessons. Price, 80 cents.

The Instructive Reader,

    A Course of Reading in Natural History, Science, and Literature.

Introduction to the Instructive Reader,

    Designed for Primary and Intermediate Schools.

The Young Ladies' Reader,

    Containing Rules, Observations, and Exercises in Articulation,
    Pauses, Inflections, and Emphasis; also, Exercises in Reading in
    Prose and Poetry.

    This popular series of books was compiled by _Mr. William D. Swan_,
    the well-known Principal of the Mayhew School, Boston. From the
    very general and rapid introduction into schools they have obtained
    throughout the principal cities and towns of the United States, it
    is believed that they are better adapted to the wants of schools
    than any others.

    Numerous recommendations, from teachers and friends of education,
    are in the hands of the Publishers, among which are letters from
    the following distinguished teachers:

    THOMAS SHERWIN, A.M., Principal of the English High School,
      Boston.
    BARNUM FIELD, Principal of the Franklin High School, Boston.
    D. P. PAGE, Principal of the New York State Normal School, Albany.
    P. H. SWEETSER,     do.      Harvard School, Charlestown.
    ELBRIDGE SMITH,     do.      Classical and English High School,
      Cambridge.
    C. C. DAME,         do.      English High School, Newburyport.
    GEORGE NEWCOMB, Teacher of Quincy Grammar School.
    E. WYMAN, Principal of the English and Classical High School,
      St. Louis, Mo.
    CHARLES A. LORD, A.M., late Professor in Marion College, Ohio.
    D. C. HOLMES, Principal of the Sixth Ward School, Pittsburg,
      Penn.



JARVIS' PHYSIOLOGY,


Practical Physiology,

    For the use of Schools and Families. By _Edward Jarvis, M.D._
    Price, 88 cents.

    This popular work has attracted much attention, and has already
    been very extensively introduced into Schools and Academies
    throughout the country. It has been favourably received by the
    press, and numerous letters of recommendation from some of our most
    celebrated Physicians and Teachers are in the hands of the
    Publishers.

Primary Physiology, &c.

    By _Edward Jarvis, M.D._ Half roan. Price, 50 cents.

    School Committees and Teachers are invited to examine these popular
    books.

A MANUAL OF CHEMISTRY,

    On the basis of Dr. Turner's Elements of Chemistry, containing, in
    a condensed form, all the most important Facts and Principles of
    the Science. Designed as a Text Book in Colleges and other
    Seminaries of learning. A new edition. By _John Johnston, A.M._,
    Professor of Natural Science in Wesleyan University. Price, $1 25.

Johnston's Turner's Elementary Chemistry,

    For the use of Common Schools. 1 vol. 18mo. Price, 75 cts.

Johnston's Natural Philosophy.

    A Manual of Natural Philosophy, compiled from various sources, and
    designed as a Text Book in High Schools and Academies. By _John
    Johnston, A.M._, Professor of Natural Science in the Wesleyan
    University. Price, 88 cts.

    The above excellent works of Professor Johnston are being rapidly
    introduced into both Public Schools and Private Seminaries
    throughout the country.

SMITH'S MATHEMATICAL SERIES,

American Statistical Arithmetic,

    Designed for Academies and Schools. By _Francis H. Smith, A.M._,
    Superintendent and Professor of Mathematics in the Virginia
    Military Institute; late Professor of Mathematics in Hampden-Sydney
    College and formerly Assistant Professor in the United States'
    Military Academy, West Point, and _R. T. W. Duke_, Assistant
    Professor of Mathematics in Virginia Military Institute. Third
    edition. Price, 38 cents.

Introduction to Smith and Duke's Arithmetic.

    By _Francis H. Smith, A.M._ Price 20 cents.

Key to Smith and Duke's American Statistical Arithmetic.

    Prepared by _William Forbes_, Assistant Professor of Mathematics in
    the Virginia Military Institute. Price, 33 cts.

Smith's Elementary Algebra.

    Price, 56 cents.

Smith's Algebra.

    Price, 88 cents.

Smith's Biot.

    An Elementary Treatise on Analytical Geometry. Translated from the
    French of J. B. Biot. By _Francis H. Smith, A.M._ Revised edition.
    Price, $1 25.

Mitchell's Ancient Geography.

    An Ancient, Classical and Sacred Geography; embellished with
    Engravings of Remarkable Events, Views of Ancient Cities, and
    various interesting Antique Remains; and illustrated by an Ancient
    Atlas. By _S. Augustus Mitchell_. Price, $1 25 cts.

    A good system of Ancient Geography, in the English language, drawn
    from authentic sources, with cuts illustrative of Ancient customs,
    places, temples, and other buildings and remarkable events,
    accompanied with a complete set of Maps of the World as known to
    the ancients; Asia Minor, Greece, Italy, the Roman Empire; the
    world as known to the Israelites, a Map of Canaan, with part of
    Egypt, and the route of the Israelites through the Desert; plans of
    Ancient Rome, Jerusalem, &c., was very much wanted by teachers of
    Sabbath Schools, and the members of Bible Classes; and such a one,
    so far as we are able to judge, we are happy to say, is now
    presented to the public in a very attractive form. The cuts in the
    Geography are exceedingly well done, and the Maps in the Atlas are
    equally well engraved, and equally well printed.--_New York
    Christian Advocate._

Mitchell's Biblical and Sabbath School Geography.

    This work, with appropriate Maps and embellishments, is now in
    progress, and will be published early in the ensuing season. Though
    hitherto greatly needed, no book of the kind proposed, suitable for
    the instruction of younger pupils in families and sabbath schools,
    has yet appeared. The attention of the publishers has been recently
    called to the subject, by the suggestions of gentlemen deeply
    interested in price and dimensions, illustrating the geography of
    the Holy Land, together with that of the other regions mentioned in
    Scripture, specially adapted to the end proposed, should be
    published.

    For the basis of the proposed work, Part Second of Mitchell's
    Ancient Geography, to which it is similar in scope and design, will
    be adopted. As in that treatise, besides the requisite geographical
    notices proper to the subject, such historical incidents connected
    therewith will be interwoven with the narrative, as will render the
    local descriptions more interesting, and an examination of the
    various texts referred to will doubtless enable pupils to acquire a
    more distinct understanding of the geography and history of the
    sacred volume.

Mitchell's Atlas of Outline Maps.

    An accompaniment to the School Atlas. Possessing all the advantages
    to be derived from Map-drawing, with a great saving of time. Price,
    34 cents.

Mitchell's Key.

    To the Study of Maps, comprising his Atlas, in a series of Lessons
    for beginners in Geography. Price, 17 cents.

Mitchell's High School Geography,

    With an Atlas, (preparing,) will contain about 800 pages, and
    comprise a complete system of Mathematical, Physical, Political,
    Statistical and Descriptive Modern Geography, together with a
    Compendium of Ancient Geography, illustrated by Engravings executed
    by the first Artists of the country. The Atlas to accompany the
    above will contain not less than 30 Maps, constructed particularly
    for the work, and designed to correspond with and illustrate it in
    the most precise manner.

A Complete Key to Mitchell's School Geography,

BY J. E. CARROLL,

    Containing full answers to all the Questions on Maps, with much
    additional information from the most recent and authentic sources.
    12mo. half roan, $1 00.

A new and greatly Improved Edition of Mitchell's Universal Atlas.

    Comprised in seventy-five imperial quarto sheets, on which are
    engraved, in the very first style of the graphic art one hundred
    and twenty-two Maps, Plans, and Sections. The MAPS represent all
    the known countries on the globe; the PLANS, the must prominent
    cities in the United States; and the SECTIONAL MAPS, the vicinities
    of the chief cities of Europe.

    The results of the latest geographical and nautical discoveries are
    to be found on the Maps including those of the most recent date by
    Wilkes, Nicollet, and Frémont. The geography of the different
    divisions of the Western Hemisphere is exhibited, with a fullness
    and completeness of detail, not to be found in any other work of
    the kind hitherto published in this country or elsewhere. Besides
    authentic delineations of all the States and Territories of the
    Union, in Counties, the Atlas contains correct Maps of the British
    North American Provinces, as well as of all the other North and
    South American States and Colonies; separate Maps of the Empires,
    Kingdoms, Republics, and smaller divisions of Europe; and of the
    principal Countries of Asia; also of Africa and Oceanica, the
    latter including the great insular divisions of Malaysia,
    Australasia, and Polynesia; besides a well engraved and coloured
    representation of the Heights of the principal Mountains in the
    world.

Mitchell's new revised large Map of the United States,

    Containing the Counties in the States, distinctly defined,
    Railroads and Canals; handsomely coloured, and mounted on rollers.

Mitchell's new revised Map of the World, on Mercator's Projection,

    Handsomely coloured, and mounted on rollers.

Mitchell's Counting-House Map of the United States,

    On rollers and in pocket-book form, containing Railroads, Canals,
    &c.

Mitchell's celebrated Pocket Maps

    Of each State in the Union, of England, and of North and South
    America.

Mitchell's View of the Heavens,

    One volume, quarto, illustrated. (In preparation.)

Mitchell's new Traveller's Guide through the United States,

    Containing the principal Cities, Towns, &c., alphabetically
    arranged; together with the Railroad Stage, Steamboat, and Canal
    Routes, with the distances, in miles, from place to place.
    Illustrated by an accurate Map of the United States.

    [Symbol: asterism] _Mitchell's Maps, throughout the United States,
    are well known to be the most accurate, and the best executed, of
    any published in this country._

URCULLU'S SPANISH GRAMMAR.

    A Grammar of the Spanish Language, based on the system of _D. Jose
    de Urcullu_; also with reference to the Publications of the Academy
    of Spain, the Works of Hernandez and Josse, and the Compendium of
    Don Augustin Munoz Alvarez, of the College of Seville. According to
    the seventh Paris edition of Urcullu's Works, by _Fayette
    Robinson_. Price, $1.

    Gramatica Inglesa, reducida a Veinte y dos Lecciones, por _D. Jose
    de Urcullu_. Edicion primera Americana de la Septima de Paris.
    Aumentada y Revista por _Fayette Robinson_. Price, $1.

PICOT'S SERIES OF FRENCH SCHOOL BOOKS.

    No. 1. FIRST LESSONS IN FRENCH. Price, 50 cents.

    No. 2. FRENCH STUDENT'S ASSISTANT. Price, 25 cents.

    No. 3. INTERESTING NARRATIONS IN FRENCH. Price, 60 cents.

    No. 4. HISTORICAL NARRATIONS IN FRENCH. Price, 67 cents.

    No. 5. SCIENTIFIC, LITERARY, AND OTHER NARRATIONS. Price, 75 cents.

    No. 6. FLEURS DU PARNASSE FRANCAIS, or Elegant Extracts from the
      best French Poets. Price, 67 cents.

    No. 7. BEAUTIES OF THE FRENCH DRAMA. Price, 75 cents.

    PICOT'S FRENCH PHRASES. (In preparation.)

    PICOT'S SPANISH PHRASES.       do.

Porney's Syllabaire Francais,

    Or French Spelling-Book. Eleventh edition. Price, 34 cents.

Bridge's Algebra,

    Revised and corrected from the eighth London edition. Price, 67
    cents.

F. A. Adams' First Book in Arithmetic.

    Comprising Lessons in Number and Form. For Primary and Common
    Schools.

F. A. Adams' Common and High School Arithmetic.

    Containing advanced Lessons in Mental Arithmetic, and Rules and
    Examples for practice in Written Arithmetic.

Swan and Leach's Primary School Arithmetic.

Swan and Leach's Theoretical and Practical
Arithmetic.

Guy and Keith.

    GUY ON ASTRONOMY and KEITH ON THE GLOBES. Thirtieth American
    edition.

Scott's Lessons,

    Revised, edited, and enlarged, by _James D. Johnson, A.M._ 12mo.
    Half roan. Price, 75 cents.

PARLEY'S SERIES.

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