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Title: Notes and Queries, Vol. V, Number 131, May 1, 1852 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. V, Number 131, May 1, 1852 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

[Transcriber's note: Original spelling variations have not been
standardized. Old English-style letters have been marked with braces, as
in {j}; characters with macrons have been marked in brackets with an
equal sign, as in [=e] for a letter e with a macron on top. Underscores
have been used to indicate _italic_ fonts. A list of volumes and pages
in "Notes and Queries" has been added at the end.]





"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

VOL. V.--No. 131. SATURDAY, MAY 1. 1852.

Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition, 5_d._




      Sterne at Sutton on the Forest, by the Rev. A. Gatty       409

      Readings in Shakspeare, No. IV.                            410

      Presentiment                                               411

      Curious Bill of Fare, and Storm, in 1739, by Edward
      Hawkins                                                    412

      Peculiar Attributes of the Seventh Son                     412

      Folk Lore:--Game-feathers protracting the Agony of
      Death--Charm for Ague--Old Shoes thrown for
      Luck--Folk Lore of the Kacouss People                      413

      Burials in Woollen, by the Rev. E. S. Taylor               414

      Minor Notes:--Unacknowledged Quotations from the
      Scriptures--Latin Hexameters on the Bible--Epigram on
      La Bruyère--Cock And Bull Story--Mary Queen of Scots; her
      Monument and Head                                          414


      The Book of Jasher                                         415

      Minor Queries:--Old China--Pagoda, Joss House,
      Fetiche--"And Eva stood and wept alone"--Hearne's
      Confirmation; Baxter's Heavy Shove; Old Ballad--Gunpowder
      Mills--Macfarlane of that Ilk--Armorial Bearings
      --Scologlandis and Scologi--Ednowain ap Bradwen--Mummy
      Wheat--The Trusty Servant at Winchester--Anecdote--St.
      Augustine--Ghost, Evidence of one not received--Roman and
      Saxon Cambridge--Queries on the Mistletoe--Portrait of
      Mesmer                                                     415

      MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--Saint Richard--"Coming Events
      cast their Shadows before"--St. Christopher--Cuddy, the
      Ass--Toady--Mother Shipton                                 418


      Ralph Winterton                                            419

      Meaning and Origin of "Era," by S. W. Singer               420

      Lady Arabella Stuart, by A. Grayan                         421

      Newton, Cicero, and Gravitation                            422

      Deferred Executions, by Ambrose Florence, &c.              422

      Duchess of Lancaster                                       423

      Surnames                                                   424

      Replies to Minor Queries:--Dyson's Collection of
      Proclamations--"Up, Guards, and at them!"--Bawderich,
      and Bells--Algernon Sydney--"History is Philosophy
      teaching by Examples"--On a Passage in Pope--Plague
      Stones--"Archæologia Cambrensis, Vol. I., 2nd Edit."--Town
      halls--Emaciated Monumental Elegies--Coleridge's
      "Friend"--Enigma on the Letter "I"--Mother Carey's
      Chickens--Burnomania--Cagots--Chantrey's Sleeping
      Children--Topography of Ashbourne--Arkwright--Pilgrimages
      to the Holy Land--"Merchant Adventurers"                   425


      Notes on Books, &c.                                        430

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted                               430

      Notices to Correspondents                                  431

      Advertisements                                             431



The following extracts from the Register Book of the parish of Sutton on
the Forest, Yorkshire, which are in the handwriting of Lawrence Sterne,
have come into my possession through the kindness of my friend
Archdeacon Creyke (of York), and I beg to offer them for insertion in
"N. & Q."

  "Lawrence Sterne, A. B., was inducted into ye Vicarage of Sutton
  August ye 25th, 1738.

  "Lawrence Sterne created Master of Arts at Cambridge, July, 1740.

  "L. Sterne, A. M., made Prebendary of York (Givendale) by Lancelot
  Arch-bishop in January, 1740; and in Jan. 1741 prefer'd by his
  Lords'p to the Prebend of N. Newbald.

  "Mem'd. That the Cherry Trees and Espalier Apple Hedge were
  planted in ye Gardens October ye 9, 1742. Nectarines and Peaches
  planted the same day. The Pails set up two months before.

  "I laid out in the Garden, in ye year 1742, the sum of 8_l._
  15_s._ 6_d._

      "L. Sterne."

  "Laid out in enclosing the Orchard, and in Apple Trees, &c., in ye
  year 1743, 5_l._

  "The Apple Trees, Pear and Plumb Trees, planted in ye Orchard ye
  28th day of October, 1743, by

      "L. Sterne."

  "Laid out in Sushing[1] the House, 12_l._, A. Dom. 1741.

      "In Stukbing[2] and Bricking    £ _s._ _d._
        the Hall                      4      16       0
      In Building the Chair House     5       0       0
      In Building the Par'r Chimney   3       0       0
      Little House                    2       3       0

      "L. Sterne,  Vicar.

  "Spent in shapeing the Rooms, plastering, Underdrawing, and
  Jobbing--God knows what."

  [Footnotes 1, 2: There are two words in Sterne's own memoranda
  which may puzzle other readers besides me; _Sushing_ and
  _Stukbing_. I have thought they might mean _sashing_, _i.e._ for
  windows, and _stuccoing_ the walls. Perhaps some contributor to
  "N. & Q." will kindly interpret them.]

       *       *       *       *       *

  "In May, 1745--

  "A dismal Storm of Hail fell upon this Town, and some other
  adjacent ones, w'ch did considerable damage both to the Windows
  and Corn. Many of the stones measured six inches in circumference.
  It broke almost all the South and West Windows both of this House
  and my Vicarage House at Stillington.

      "L. Sterne."

  "In the year 1741--

  "Hail fell in the midst of Summer as big as a Pidgeon's egg, w'ch
  unusual occurrence I thought fit to attest under my hand.

      "L. STERNE."

These two accounts of hailstorms are supposed to be only quizzes upon
prodigious entries of the same sort made by Vicar Walker in 1698. And
that this latter is so is evident, from the concluding words being the
same as in Walker's memorandum.

Sterne is characteristically exhibited in the subjoined account by the
successor of the "reverend joker":

  "In the year 1764, during the Incumbency of Mr. Lawrence Sterne,
  the Vicarage House was burnt down. Tho' frequently admonished and
  required to rebuild the Vicarage House, he found means to evade
  the performance of it. He continued Vicar till he died, in March,
  1768. Andrew Cheap was appointed his successor, and was advised to
  accept a composition for Dilapidations from the Widow. A Suit was
  instituted for Dilapidations, but after a time (the Widow being in
  indigent circumstances) sixty pounds were accepted.

  "In April, 1770, the New House was begun, and finished in May,

  "Total amount of Suit and Building the House, 576_l._ 13_s._ 5_d._

      "ANDREW CHEAP, Vicar."



      "Of government the properties to unfold,
      Would seem in me to affect speech and discourse;
      Since I am put to know, that your own science
      Exceeds, in that, the lists of all advice
      My strength can give you: Then, no more remains:
      But that, to your sufficiency as your worth, is able;
      And let them work. The nature of our people,
      Our city's institutions, and the terms
      For common justice, you are as pregnant in,
      As art and practice hath enriched any
      That we remember: There is our commission,
      From which we would not have you warp."

      Opening of _Measure for Measure_.

In Mr. Knight's edition, from which the foregoing passage is printed and
pointed, the following note is appended to it:

  "We encounter at the onset one of the obscure passages for which
  this play is remarkable. The text is usually pointed thus:--

                      "'Then no more remains
      But that to your sufficiency, as your worth is able,
      And let them work.'

  "It is certainly difficult to extract a clear meaning from this;
  and so Theobald and Hanmer assume that a line has dropped out,
  which they kindly restore to us, each in his own way."

After relating Steevens' attempt at elucidation, Mr. Knight proceeds to
explain the passage by a running interpretation parenthetically applied
to each expression; but I doubt very much whether any person would feel
much enlightened by it; or whether, amongst so many explanations, any
one of them could be pointed out less obscure than the rest.

Let us try, then, what a total change of interpretation will do.

In the sixth line of the Duke's speech, as quoted at the commencement,
we find the demonstrative pronoun _that_, which must have _some_ object.
Mr. Knight supposes that object to be "your science." I, on the
contrary, am of opinion that it refers to _the commission_ which the
Duke holds in his hand, and which he is in the act of presenting to

                      "Then no more remains,
      But--that, to your sufficiency, as your worth is able,
      And let them work."

By transposition, this sentence becomes "Then, as your worth is able, no
more remains, to your sufficiency, but _that_."

But _what_?


Have we not here the _mot_ to the enigma, the clue to the mystery? When
the Duke takes up the commission, he addresses Escalus to the following

  "It would be affectation in me to lecture you upon the art of
  government, since I must needs know that your own science exceeds,
  in that, the limits of all I could teach you. Therefore, since
  your worth is able, no more remains to your sufficiency,
  but--_that_, and let them work."

The _sufficiency_ here spoken of is twofold, ability to direct, and
_authority to enforce_. The first was personal to Escalus, consisting of
his own skill and knowledge; the second was conferred upon him _by
commission_: when both were united, he was to "let them work!"

Reading the passage in this way, there is no necessity for the
alteration of a single letter; and yet I will put it to any person of
sense and candour, whether the passage be not thereby relieved from all
real obscurity?

It must be borne in mind, that the presentation of the commission is the
_main object_ of the Duke's address: the presentation therefore is not a
_single act_, but rather a protracted action during the whole speech,
finally consummated with the concluding words--"there is our

This is so plain, that it scarcely needs confirmation; but, if it did
so, it would receive it, by analogy, in the similarly protracted
presentation to Angelo when it becomes his turn to receive _his_
commission. In that case the act of presentation commences with the word

      "Hold--therefore, Angelo!"

And finishes six lines lower down with:

      "Take thy commission."

And it is not a little singular, that this word "hold," having been at
first similarly misinterpreted, proved as great a stumbling block to
Tyrwhitt and others, who seemed to grope about in sheer perverseness,
catching at any meaning for it rather than the right, and certainly the
obvious one.

    A. E. B.



Seeing, in some of the former Numbers of the "N. & Q.", a collection of
instances of sudden _high spirits_ immediately preceding some great
calamity, it occurred to me that it would be not uninteresting to throw
together a few instances of sudden _low spirits_, or _illness_, attended
with a similar result. Here our only embarrassment is that of riches.

The first example I have selected is taken from the _Relation de la Mort
de MM. le Duc et le Cardinal de Guise_, by the Sieur Miron, physician to
King Henry III. He first narrates the preparations for the Duke's
assassination, and then proceeds as follows:--

  Et peu après que le Duc de Guise fut assis au conseil, 'J'ai
  froid, dit-il, le coeur me fait mal: que l'on fasse de feu,' et
  s'adressant au Sieur de Morfontaine, tresorier de l'épargne,
  'Monsieur de Morfontaine, je vous prie de dire à M. de St Prix,
  premier valet de chambre de roy, que je le prie de me donner des
  raisins de Darnas ou de la conserve de roses.' ... Le Duc de Guise
  met des prunes dans son drageoir, jette le demeurant sur le tapis.
  'Messieurs, dit-il, qui en veut?'--et se lève. Mais ainsi qu'il
  est à deux pas près de la porte de vieux cabinet, prend sa barbe
  avec la main droite, et tourne le corps et le feu à demi pour
  regarder ceux qui le suivoient, fut tout soudain saisi au bras par
  le Sieur de Montsery l'ainé, qui étoit près de la cheminée, sur
  l'opinion qu'il ait, que le duc voulut se reculer pour se mettre
  en défense."

The Sieurs des Effranats, de Saint Malines, and de Loignac hasten to
take part in this goodly piece of work, which the Sieur de Montsery the
elder has so gallantly begun. Having the Sieur des Effranats hanging on
his knees, the Sieur de Montsery the elder clinging to his arm, the
Sieur de Saint Malines' dagger sticking in his chest close to his
throat, and the Sieur de Loignac's sword run through his reins, the Duke
for some time drags them all four up and down the chamber; at last he
falls exhausted on the King's bed. Upon this the King--

  "Etant en son cabinet, leur ayant demandé s'ils avoient fait, en
  sortit et donna un coup de pied par le visage à ce pauvre mort."

Surely it was not without good cause that the Duke, a few minutes
before, felt "a chill at his heart."--

In the next instance I shall cite, the sudden illness forbodes, not any
calamity to the person affected by it, but to the companion of his
journey. It is taken from "Arden of Feversham, his true and lamentable
Tragedy," author unknown, 1592. Arden and his friend Franklin are
travelling by night to Arden's house at Feversham. Franklin is beguiling
the tediousness of the way with a tale. The rest the dramatist shall
relate in his own words:

        "_Arden._ Come, Master Franklin, onward with your tale.
        _Frank._ I'll assure you, Sir, you task me much:
      A heavy blood is gathered at my heart;
      And on the sudden is my wind so short,
      As hindereth the passage of my speech:
      So fierce a qualm ne'er yet assailed me.
        _Arden._ Come, Master Franklin, let us go on softly:
      The annoyance of the dust, or else some meat
      You ate at dinner, cannot brook with you.
      I have been often so, and soon amended.
        _Frank._ Do you remember where my tale did leave?
        _Arden._ Ay, where the gentleman did check his wife.
        _Frank._ She, being reprehended for the fact,
      Witness produced, that took her with the deed,
      Her glove brought in, which there she left behind,
      And many other assured arguments,
      Her husband asked her whether it were not so--
        _Arden._ Her answer then? I wonder how she looked,
      Having foresworn it with such vehement oaths,
      And at the instant so approved upon her.
        _Frank._ First she did cast her eyes down on the earth,
      Watching the drops that fell amain from thence:
      Then softly draws she out her handkercher,
      And modestly she wipes her tear stain'd face.
      Then hemm'd she out, to clear her voice it should seem,
      And with a majesty addrest herself
      To encounter all their accusations--
      Pardon me, Master Arden, I can no more;
      This fighting at my heart makes short my wind.
        _Arden._ Come, we are almost now at Raynham Down;
      Your pretty tale beguiles the weary way:
      I would you were in ease to tell it out."

Here they are set upon by ruffians, hired by Arden's wife and her
paramour. Arden is killed.--

In the two preceding instances an affection of the heart is the herald
of misfortune. In _Titus Andronicus_ (Act II., Sc. 4.), Quintus and
Martius are afflicted with a sudden _dulness of sight_, which seems at
once to be an omen of impending danger, and to facilitate their
succumbing to it.

            "SCENE. _A desert part of the forest._ _Enter_

              _Aaron._ Come on, my lords, the better foot before:
            Straight will I bring you to the loathsome pit,
            Where I espied the panther fast asleep.

              _Quin._ My sight is very dull, whate'er it bodes.

              _Mart._ And mine, I promise you: wer't not for shame,
            Well could I leave our sport to sleep awhile.

            [MARTIUS _falls into the pit_.]"

It is unnecessary to give in detail the horrors that ensue.

    X. Z.


I send you two morsels, copied from a small MS. volume of a very
miscellaneous character, consisting of poetical extracts, epigrams,
receipts, and family memoranda of the ancestors of the gentleman who has
kindly permitted me to send you the inclosed.

  "_A Bill of ffare at the Christning of Mr. Constable's Child,
  Rector of Cockley Cley in Norfolk, Jan. 2, 1682._

    "1. A whole hog's head, souc'd, with carrotts in the mouth and
    pendants in the ears, with guilded oranges thick sett.

    2. 2 ox.'s cheekes stewed, with 6 marrow bones.

    3. A leg of veal larded, with 6 pullets.

    4. A leg of mutton, with 6 rabbits.

    5. A chine of bief, chine of venison, chine of mutton, chine of
    veal, chine of pork, supported by 4 men.

    6. A venison pasty.

    7. A great minced pye, with 12 small ones about it.

    8. A gelt fat turkey, with 6 capons.

    9. A bustard, with 6 pluver.

    10. A pheasant, with 6 woodcocks.

    11. A great dish of tarts made all of sweetmeats.

    12. A Westphalia hamm, with 6 tongues.

    13. A jowle of sturgeon.

    14. A great charg'r of all sorts of sweetmeats, with wine and all
    sorts of liquors answerable.

  "The child, a girle; godfather, Mr. Green, a clergyman;
  godmothers, Mis Beddingfield of Sherson, and a sister-in-law of
  Mr. Constable's.

  "The guests, Mr. Green, Mr. Bagg and his daughter, and the

  "The parish'rs entertained at another house with rost and boil'd
  bief, geese, and turkeys. Soon after the child dy'd, and the
  funerall expenses came to 6_d._"

  "1739. Dec. 28, Friday, began a frost. Satterday and Sunday with
  the most severe sharp wind that ever was known. Monday and Tuesday
  fell a great deal of snow, w'ch continued upon the ground, with
  the most severe frost ever known, without intermission till
  Friday, Feb. 1st, then thaw'd in the day. Sharp frost at night.
  Thaw'd Satterday and Sunday, with rain and sleet of snow, cold air
  with frost, and continued till Sunday ye 10, when it thaw'd very
  fast with smal rain and wind: continued till Monday, when it
  changed into severe frost and a fall of snow, w'ch held till
  Sunday, then thaw'd, wind west, in the most gentle manner,
  insensibly wasting, no flood: extream dry, cold weather till ye 21
  of April: y't day a little rain, and on the 22 fell a great deal
  of snow with a severe north and north-east wind: a little wet and
  cold wind continued till the 5th of May, when there was hail and
  snow a foot thick in many places. Continued cold till ye 9th.
  Wheat 6_s._ 6_d._ a strike; barley 3_s._ 6_d._; mutton, in London,
  5-1/2_d._ and 6_d._ p'd, beife 5_d._; 3-1/2_d._ mutton in the
  country, beife 3_d._

  "No rain from the 21 April till the 7th of June, but continued
  cold east and north-east wind, with a frost. June 3d, bread cost
  at London, ye first sort at 11_s._ 8_d._ a strick, a little while.
  On the 7th of June, wind south-south-west, a charming rain fell
  every where, w'ch lowered ye exesive prises: after y't, a drought
  succeeding, corn kept a high price, wheat 6_s._, barley 4, till
  near harvest, and exportation stoped: grass burnt up all summer:
  very little hay: butter and cheese very dear: everything continued
  so. Ye 7 of Nov. fell a great snow and rain w'ch made a flood: ye
  10 begun a hard frost, w'ch continued with great severity, the
  ground covered with snow till ye 22: the 21 fell a great deal of
  snow, w'ch went away with some rain, and was a very great flood.
  During this frost the Thames was frose, and great calamitys feared
  from the want of hay and straw, w'ch the happy thaw prevented."



Allow me to offer a Note on that part of MR. COOPER'S communication
(Vol. iii., pp. 148, 149.) which relates to the alleged power of the
"seventh son" to cure the "king's evil". This superstition is still
extant in this part of Cornwall. I have recently been told of three
_seventh_ sons, and of one _ninth_ son, who has been in the habit of
touching (or, as it is here called, "_striking_," which seems to mean
nothing more than _stroking_) persons suffering from the disease above
referred to.

The _striker_ thrice gently stokes the part affected by the disorder,
and thrice blows on it, using some form of words. One of my informants,
who had been so "struck" when a child, has a charm, or rather an amulet,
which has just, for the first time, been opened at my instigation. It is
a small bag of black silk, and is found to contain an old worn shilling
of William III., bored and stitched through in a piece of canvas. This
was presented to the patient at the time of the operation, and was to be
kept carefully as a preservative against the malady.

In Bristol, about forty years ago, there lived a respectable tradesman
who was habitually known as _Dr._ Peter P----, with no better title to
his degree than that he was the seventh son of a seventh son.

Those who have read Mr. Carleton's tragic tale, _The Black Prophet_,
will remember that, in Ireland, the seventh son of the seventh son is
supposed to be--

      With gifts and knowledge, per'lous shrewd!"

And in Keightley's _Fairy Mythology_ (p. 411. _note_, ed. 1850) are
given some tradition of that gifted Welsh family, the "Jones' of
Muddfi," whose forefather had married the "Spirit of the Van Pool."

  "She left her children behind her, who became famous as doctors.
  Jones was their name, and they lived at a place called Muddfi. In
  them was said to have originated the tradition of the seventh son,
  or Septimus, being born for the healing art; as for many
  generations seven sons were regularly born in each family, the
  seventh of whom became the doctor, and wonderful in his
  profession. It is said, even now, that the Jones' of Muddfi are,
  or were until very recently, clever doctors."

I have heard this tradition of the Jones' of Muddfi corroborated by a
Welsh friend.

    H. G. T.



_Game-feathers protracting the Agony of Death._--In a recent Number this
singular superstition was stated to be prevalent in Sussex. In the
adjoining county of Surrey the notion appears to be deeply rooted in the
minds of the lower classes. A friend, residing in my parish
(Betchworth), has given me several examples, which have fallen under his
notice during the past winter.

"I was calling, a few weeks since, upon an old man whom I had left the
previous day apparently in a dying state. At the door I met an old
neighhour, and inquired if he was still living. 'Yes Sir,' she said; 'we
think he must change his bed.' 'Change his bed!' I replied. 'What do you
mean?' 'Why, Sir, we think he can't pass away while he lies in that bed.
The neighbours think there must be game-feathers in the bed.'
'Game-feathers! What do you mean?' 'Why, Sir, it is always thought a
poor soul can't pass away if he is lying on game-feathers.' 'Oh,' I
said, 'there is nothing in that; that is not the reason of his lingering
on.' 'No, Sir,' she replied, 'I think so too, for I know the bed well. I
was at the making of it, and the feathers were well picked over.'

"Not long after I looked in upon another aged man, who had been confined
to his bed upwards of four months, gently dropping into his grave
without any other apparent complaint than old age. He was a fine, hearty
old man, with a constitution which kept him lingering on beyond
expectation. 'Well,' I said, 'how are you this morning?' 'Oh, Sir, I
have had a sad night. I hoped, when you left me, I should drop asleep
and never wake more in this world.' 'Yes, poor fellow,' said his sister,
who stood by his bedside, 'he does not seem able to die; we think we
must move him to another bed.' 'Another bed! Why so?' 'Why, he does not
seem able to die, and we think there must be wild feathers in his bed.'
The old man evidently thought with his sister, that his bed had
something to do with the protraction of his life. He died, however, at
length without being moved. It is needless to remark, that the
superstition would no doubt have been confirmed, and the flickering lamp
of life might have been extinguished a few hours sooner, had they
carried into effect their proposal to drag him from one bed to another,
or to lay him upon the floor. The woman who helped to lay out the corpse
came to see me, and I took the occasion to ask if she knew the belief,
that a person could not die whilst lying upon game-feathers. She assured
me that she knew it to be the case, and that in two instances, when she
had attended persons who could not die, they had taken them out of their
beds, and they had expired immediately. I found all expostulation in
vain; no argument could shake so strong a conviction, and I have no
doubt that this strange notion is extensively entertained by the
peasantry in these southern counties."

I have since been informed that a similar belief exists in Cheshire, in
regard to pigeons' feathers.

In the part of Surrey where I reside another popular belief still
lingers, noticed elsewhere by writers on superstitions of this nature.
On the decease of the head of a family, where bees are kept, some person
forthwith goes to the hives and informs the bees of the event. Without
this precaution, it is affirmed that they would speedily desert the


_Charm for Ague._--Looking over some family papers lately, I found the
following charm to cure the ague in an old diary; the date on the paper
is 1751. In compliance with your motto I send it to you.

  "_Charm to cure the Ague._

  "When Jesus saw ye cross, whereon his body should be crucified,
  his body shook, and ye Jewes asked him had he the Ague? he
  answered and said, 'Whosoever keepeth this in mind or writing
  shall not be troubled with Fever or Ague; so, Lord, help thy
  servant trusting in thee. Then say the Lord's prayer.

  "This is to be read before it is folded, then knotted, and not
  opened after."


_Old Shoes thrown for Luck_ (Vol. ii., p. 196.).--I may be allowed to
quote, from Tennyson's _Lyrical Monologue_--

      "For this thou shalt from all things seek,
        Marrow of mirth and laughter;
      And wheresoe'er thou move, good luck
        Shall throw her old shoe after."

    W. FRASER.

_Folk Lore of the Kacouss People._--In _Blackwood_, January, 1852,
mention is made, in a review of a French Folk Lore book, of the Kacouss,
a sort of Breton parias formerly excluded from the society of
Christians, and rejected even by the church, which permitted them to
attend Divine service only at the door of the temple _under the bells_.
What does this _under the bells_ mean; and is anything more known of
them than what is stated in that work?


  Ashby de la Zouch.


On looking over the parish registers of Mautby, in the county of
Norfolk, a few days since, I found thirteen entries of certificates of
the enforced observance of this practice, of which the following is a

  "November the 8th, 1678. Was brought unto me an Affidavit for ye
  Burial of William the So[=n]e of John Turner in Woollen according
  to ye late act of Parliament for that purpose.--ANDREW CALL,

The reason is clear--to increase the consumption of wool; but I should
much wish to know the date of the aforesaid act of parliament, and to
how late a period it extended. I find a comparatively recent trace of it
in an original affidavit of the kind, in the varied collection of my
friend R. Rising, Esq., of Horsey, which I subjoin in full, as it may be
interesting to many readers of "N. &. Q."

  "Borough of Harwich in the County of Essex to Wit.

  "Sarah the Wife of Robert Lyon of the parish of Dovercourt in the
  Borough aforesaid, husbandman, and Deborah the Wife of Stephen
  Driver, of the same parish, husbandman (being two credible
  persons), do make oath that Deborah, the daughter of the said
  Stephen and Deborah, aged 18 weeks, who was on the 7th day of
  April instant interred in the parish Churchyard of Dovercourt, in
  the borough aforesaid, was not put in, wrapped, or wound up, or
  buried in any Shirt, Shift, Sheet, or Shroud, made or mingled with
  Flax, Hemp, Silk, Hair, Gold, or Silver, or other than what is
  made of Sheeps' Wool only; or in any Coffin lined or faced with
  any Cloth Stuff, or any other thing, whatsoever, made or mingled
  with Flax, Hemp, Silk, Hair, Gold or Silver, or any other material
  but Sheeps' Wool only.

  "Taken and sworn the fifteenth day of April 1769, before me, one
  of His Majesty's Justices of the Peace. G. DAVIES.

      "The mark of
      The mark of

      B. DIDIER."

    E. S. TAYLOR.

Minor Notes.

_Unacknowledged Quotations from the Scriptures._--As a compensation for
the passages which are often held to be in the Bible, but are not there,
it sometimes happens that others are taken from thence, and given to
profane authors. Among these is "Multi pertransibunt, et augebitur
scientia," which, Daniel xii. 4. notwithstanding, is the motto of the
first edition of Montucla's _History of Mathematics_, followed by
"--_Bacon._" I have also seen it given to Bacon elsewhere.


_Latin Hexameters on the Bible._--The doggerel Latin hexameters
subjoined were made by a Christmas party at Billingbear, eighty years
ago. Amongst the contributors I can only point out the names of my
father and Sir Thomas Frankland, the sixth baronet, who printed the
verses for distribution amongst his friends. I have often found them
useful, and they may be perhaps of service to others.

  MEMORIA TECHNICA _for the Books of the Bible, arranged in the
  order in which they occur_.

      "Genesis, Exo, Levi, Num, Deutero, Joshua, Judges,
      Ruth, Sam, Sam, King, King, Chron, Chron, Ezra, Nehemiah,
      Esther, Job, Psalmæ, Prov, Eccles, Song Solomonis,
      Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lament, Ezekiel, Danielque
      Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum,
      Habbakuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zachariah, Malachi,
      Matthæus, Marcus, Lucas, John, Acts of Apostles,
      Rom, Cor, Cor, Gal, Ephes, Phi, Co, Thess, Thess, Timothy, Tim, Tit,
      Phil, Heb, James, Pet, Pet, John, John, John, Jude, Revelations."


      "Esdras, Esdra, Tobit, Judith, Esth, Wisd., Ecclesiastes,
      Bar, Song, Susan, Idol, Manasses, Maccabe, Maccab."


_Epigram on La Bruyère._--The French Academy has been made the butt of
more sarcastic sallies than any other institution of equal distinction
and respectability. Some of these have been directed against it as a
body, such as Piron's epitaph on himself:

      "Ci-gît Piron qui ne fut rien,
      Pas même Académicien."

Others were levelled at the members individually. Of this sort are the
lines on La Bruyère:

      "Quand La Bruyère se présente,
        Pourquoi faut-il crier haro?
      Pour faire un nombre de quarante
        Ne fallait-il pas un zéro?"

Who was the author of the latter epigram? Since the days of La Bruyère
it has been used as a standing gibe against all newly elected
Academicians, whose names could be substituted for his, with a due
regard to rhythmical propriety.


  St. Lucia.

_Cock and Bull Story._--As the expression of a "_cock_ and _bull_ story"
has sometimes puzzled me, so it may have puzzled others, and I therefore
send the following Note, if worthy of notice:

  "I have used the expressive proverbial phrase _Cock-on-a-Bell_,
  familiarly corrupted into Cock-and-a-Bull, in its true and genuine
  application to the fabulous narratives of Popery. There is some
  measure of antiquarian curiosity attendant upon it, which may
  rival the singular metamorphosis of the _Pix und Ousel_ into the
  familiar sign of the _Pig and Whistle_. During the Middle Ages, as
  we learn incidentally from Reinerius, _Gallus-super-campanam_ was
  the ecclesiastical hieroglyphic of a _Romish Priest_: and as the
  gentlemen of that fraternity dealt somewhat copiously in legends
  rather marvellous than absolutely true, the contempt of Our
  English Protestantism soon learned proverbially to distinguish any
  idle figment by the burlesque name of a _Cock-on-a-Bell_ story,
  or, as we now say, a _Cock-and-a-Bull story_."--From _An Inquiry
  into the History and Theology of the Ancient Vallenses and
  Albigenses_, by George Stanley Faber, B.D., 1838, p. 76. n.

    J. R. R.

_Mary Queen of Scots--Her Monument and Head._--I find in Grose's
_Antiquarian Repertory_, 2nd edition, vol. iii. p. 388., an account of a
monument which was formerly to be seen in the Church of St. Andrew, at
Antwerp, to the memory of Mary Queen of Scots; and it is therein
related, on the authority of "an ancient MS.," shown to the author by "a
Flemish gentleman of consequence and learning," that two of Mary's
attendant ladies, named Barbara Mowbray and Elizabeth Curle, buried the
head of their unfortunate mistress there, having been permitted, on
leaving England after her execution, to carry her head with them.

Can any of your readers inform me whether this monument still exists,
and whether anything is known of a portrait of Mary said to have been
placed by these ladies near the monument? Also, whether there is any
truth whatever in the above strange story.

    C. E. D.



The inclosed cutting is from the _New Monthly Magazine_ for March 1829.
What has become of the translation of the "Book of Jasher" named
therein, and was it ever published as promised?

  "_Curious Literary Discovery._--The following is a singular
  discovery, said to be a translation from the original Hebrew
  manuscript of the Book of Jasher, referred to as a work of credit
  and reputation in Holy Scripture, first in Joshua x. 13. and again
  in 2 Sam. i. 18. This book was kept as a memorial of the great
  events which had happened from the beginning of time, especially
  to the family and descendants of Abraham, by the Kings of Judah.
  After the Babylonish captivity, it fell into the possession of the
  Persian Kings, and was preserved with great care in the city of
  Gazna: from whence a translation was procured by the great Alcuin,
  who flourished in the eighth century, at the cost of several bars
  of gold, presented to those who had the custody of it. He brought
  this translation to his own country, having employed, with his
  companions, seven years in pilgrimage; three of which were spent
  in Gazna, in order to his obtaining this important and interesting
  work. After his return to England he was made Abbot of Canterbury;
  and having lived in the highest honour, died in the year 804,
  leaving this, with other manuscripts, to his friend, a clergyman
  in Yorkshire. It appears to have been preserved with religious
  care for many centuries, until, about one hundred years since, it
  fell into the hands of a gentleman, who certifies that on its
  cover was the following testimony of our great reformer
  Wickliffe:--'I have read the Book of Jasher twice over, and I much
  approve of it as a piece of great antiquity and curiosity; but I
  cannot assent that it should be made a part of the Canon of
  Scripture.'--(Signed, Wickliffe.) This gentleman, who conceals his
  name, communicated it to a Noble Lord, who appears to have been
  high in office, when a rumour prevailed of a new translation of
  the Bible. His Lordship's opinion of it was that it should be
  published, as a work of great sincerity, plainness, and truth; and
  further, his Lordship added, 'it is my opinion the Book of Jasher
  ought to have been printed in the Holy Bible before the Book of
  Joshua.' From that period this invaluable work has lain concealed,
  until, by an accident, it fell into the hands of the present
  possessor, who purposes to publish it in a way worthy its
  excellence for truth, antiquity, and evident originality.--_Daily

    L. L. L.

  [Two editions of this work have been published: the first appeared
  in 1751, and the other in 1829; both in 4to. The title-page of the
  latter edition informs us that it was "translated into English
  from the Hebrew, by Flaccus Albinus Alcuinus of Britain, Abbot of
  Canterbury, who went a pilgrimage into the Holy Land and Persia,
  where he discovered this volume, in the city of Gazna." But it
  appears that this Alcuin of Britain was no other than Jacob Ilive;
  and, according to Rowe Mores, the whole of it is a palpable
  forgery. He states, that "the account given of the translation is
  full of glaring absurdities. Mr. Ilive, in the night-time, had
  constantly an Hebrew Bible before him, and cases in his closet. He
  produced the _Book of Jasher_; and it was composed in private, and
  the same worked off in the night-time in a private
  press-room."--Rowe Mores' _Diss. on Founders_, p. 64. See also
  Nichols' _Literary Anecdotes_, vol. i. p. 309.]

Minor Queries.

_Old China._--It was gratifying to see some inquiries respecting Dutch
china, which it is to be hoped will lead to a further pursuit of such
subjects. Some connoisseur would confer a benefit upon the community if
he would be kind enough to give a concise description of the various
styles and to point out the distinguishing marks of old china generally,
by which its beauties might be appreciated and its value estimated:
there is great difficulty in acquiring such information.

    C. T.

_Pagoda, Joss House, Fetiche._--No such word as _Pagoda_ is known in the
native languages: _Dewal_, according to Mr. Forbes (_Orient. Mem._ vol.
i. p. 25.), is the proper name. I have read somewhere or another that
_Pagoda_ is a name invented by the Portuguese from the Persian
"Pentgheda," meaning _a temple of idols_. _Joss_, applied to the Chinese
temples, seems to be the Spanish _Diós_ (Deus), as _diurnal_ becomes

  "The Fetiche of the African (says Mr. Milman) is the Manitou of
  the American Indian. The word _Fetiche_ was first, I believe,
  brought into general use in the curious volume of the President de
  Brosses' _Du Culte des Dieux Fétiches_. The word was formed by the
  traders to Africa from the Portuguese _Fetisso_, chose fée,
  enchantée, divinée, ou rendant des Oracles." De B. p.
  18.--_History of Christianity_ (3 vols. 1840), vol. i. p. 11.

Query, Is this word the same as a common word in Ireland (upon which
Banim founded a tale), ycleped _fetch_, which answers to the Scotch


"_And Eva stood and wept alone._"--A good many years ago I deciphered on
the marbled paper cover of one of my school-books the lines of which the
following are what I yet retain in memory:

      "And Eva stood, and wept alone,
      Awhile she paused, then woke a strain
      Of intermingled joy and pain.

      Yes, O my mother! thou art fled.
      And who on this lone heart will shed
      The healing dew of sympathy,
      That stills the bosom's deepest sigh?
      Yes! thou art fled, but if 'tis given
      To spirits in the courts of heaven
      To watch o'er those they love (for this
      Must heighten even angels' bliss),
      If blessing so refined and pure
      Our mortal frailty can endure,
      Oh! may my mother's spirit mild
      Watch over and protect her child."

I have never since, through a tolerably extensive course of reading, met
with the poem to which these lines belong, and have inquired of others,
without more success. Can any of your correspondents inform me of the
name of the poem, and of its author?

    S. S. WARDEN.

_Hearne's Confirmation.--Baxter's Heavy Shove.--Old Ballad._--In
_Narratives of Sorcery and Magic_, by Thomas Wright, Esq. (1851), vol.
ii. p. 163., mention is made of a work by the associate of the notorious
Hopkins, the "Witch-finder General," one John Hearne, entitled, _A
Confirmation and Discovery of Witchcraft_ (1648). I should esteem it a
great favour if any of the numerous readers of your valuable journal can
inform me where a copy of Hearne's work is to be found, as it appears to
be wanting in the British Museum, and several other of the public
libraries. I already happen to possess a copy of Matthew Hopkins's
_Discovery of Witches_, 4to. (1647), an extraordinary little work, which
Sir Walter Scott acknowledges he was acquainted with but by name.

There is a tract, too, by the celebrated author of the _Saints' Rest_,
which I never yet could put eyes on, though I have for some years
"collected" rather largely; I allude to Baxter's _Heavy Shove_,
mentioned at page 99. of Lackington's "Life," and in one or two other
works; but among a very large collection of old editions of Baxter's
works possessed by me, it is not to be discovered. If any of your
correspondents can enlighten me upon the subject I shall be much

Though I have collected rather extensively among the ballad lore of this
country, I am sorry to say I never could find out from what particular
ballad the annexed stanza is derived. It is to be found, as an epigraph,
in _Poetical Memoirs_, by the late James Bird, 8vo. (1823):

      "Brunette and fayre, my heart did share,
        As last a wyfe I tooke:
      Then all the wayes of my younge dayes,
        I noted in a booke!"

      _Old English Ballad._


  Great Totham Hall, Essex.

_Gunpowder Mills._--When and where were the first gunpowder mills
erected in this country? This Query was made in the _Gentleman's
Magazine_ for October, 1791, and does not appear to have been answered.
I think I have waited long enough for a reply, and almost fear the Query
must have been forgotten.


_Macfarlane of that Ilk._--Who is the present heir-male of this family?
The latest account of it that I have been able to discover is contained
in Douglas's _Baronage of Scotland_ (1798).

    E. N.

_Armorial Bearings._--In the _Court Manual of Dignity and Precedence_ it
is stated, that in the year 1798, when the subject of armorial bearings
was before Parliament, 9458 families in England, and 4000 in Scotland,
were _proved_ entitled to arms. Are any of the relative parliamentary
papers still in existence, and where are they to be found? I have been
unable to discover them in Hansard.

    E. N.

_Scologlandis and Scologi._--In the _Collections of the Shires of
Aberdeen and Banff_, published by the Spalding Club, and under the
heading "Ellon," p. 310., there is given an

  "Inquisicio facta super terris Ecclesie de Ellon. A.D. 1387,"

in which occur several times the two words _Scologlandis_ and _Scologi_.
Neither of these words are found in Ducange; the nearest approach to
either being _Scolanda_, which is considered to be equivalent to _Scrut
landa_, namely, lands the revenue of which is to be applied to the
providing of church vestments. I should be much obliged by any of your
correspondents favouring me with their opinion as to the meaning of
_Scologlandis_ and _Scologi_, which are used in the "Inquisicio" as

  "... Qui jurati deposuerunt quod terre Ecclesiastice de Ellon que
  dicuntur le _Scologlandis_....

  "... Item quod heres cujuslibet _Scologi_ defuncti intrare
  consuevit hereditatem suam."

    G. J. R. G.

_Ednowain ap Bradwen._--Can any of the readers of "N. & Q." give me
information respecting this person, or the family descended from him,
which is supposed to have lived in North Wales during the reign of Henry
VII.? His armorial badge is figured in p. 250. of Enderbie's _Cambria
Triumphans_, and is described as _Gules, three snakes braced, Arg._
There is an ancient font in our church, which, when restored to it in
the year 1841, after having been put to vile uses for many years, did
bear this badge, _but it does not bear it now_. The gentleman who
undertook the direction of the repair of the sculpture on the font, not
having been inspired by the Professor of History at Oxford with a due
reverence for antiquities, ordered Samuel Davies, a stone-mason (who is
still living in this town), to make the three snakes as much like one
dragon as he could. This he attempted to do by chiselling away the head
of one snake, inlaying in its place the head of a dragon; and making the
other heads and tails into legs with claws. The result of these
operations has been a dragon of a _very_ singular appearance. There is a
portcullis with chains sculptured on one of the eight sides of the font;
and it has been conjectured that the motive to the conversion of the
_three snakes, braced_, into a dragon, was to make it appear probable
that the font had been presented to the church by Henry VII.

    AP JOHN.


_Mummy Wheat._--As you have afforded space for a Query on "Wild Oats,"
you will not, I hope, deny me a corner for one on Mummy Wheat.

In the year 1840, a letter appeared in _The Times_, signed "Martin
Farquhar Tupper," which detailed minutely the sowing, growing, and
gathering of some mummy wheat. Mr. Tupper, it seems, had received the
grains of wheat from Mr. Pettigrew, who had them from Sir Gardner
Wilkinson, by whom they were found on opening an ancient tomb in the
Thebaid. Mr. Tupper took great pains to secure the identity of the seed,
and had no doubt that he had gathered the product of a grain preserved
since the time of the Pharaohs. The long vitality of seeds has been a
popular belief; I was therefore surprised to find that that interesting
fact is now pronounced to be no fact at all. It appears, in _The
Year-Book of Facts for 1852_, that Prof. Henslowe stated to the British
Association, that "the instances of plants growing from seeds found in
mummies were all erroneous." Can any one tell me how this has been

    H. W. G.


_The Trusty Servant at Winchester._--The singular emblematic picture of
a "Trusty Servant," in the vestibule of the kitchen of Winchester
College, is too well known to require a description. I remember once
hearing a gentleman refer to some author as giving a description of a
similar figure, and speaking of such representations as of great
antiquity. Unfortunately I took no _note_ of it at the time, and I now
hope to recover the reference by a _query_; and shall feel obliged to
any of your correspondents who may be able to furnish me with an answer:
"Who was the author referred to?"

    M. Y. R. W.

_Anecdote._--Can you tell me the names of the clergyman and noble lord
referred to in the following anecdote?

  "A noble lord distinguished for a total neglect of religion, and
  who, boasting the superior excellence of some water works which he
  had invented and constructed, added, that after having been so
  useful to mankind, he expected to be very _comfortable_ in the
  next world, notwithstanding his ridicule and disbelief of
  religion. 'Ah,' replied the clergyman, 'if you mean to be
  _comfortable_ there, you must take your _waterworks_ along with
  you.'"--Daniel's _Sports_, Supplement, p. 305.

    H. N. E.

_St. Augustine._--What is the best edition of his _Confessions_. Dupin
mentions his six Treatises on Man. Do these exist, and do they appear in
any edition of St. Augustine's works?

    E. A. H. L.

_Ghost--Evidence of one not received._--In Ackerman's _Repository_, Nov.
1820, is a short account of a remarkable instance of a person being
tried on the pretended evidence of a ghost. A farmer on his return from
the market at Southam, co. Warwick, was murdered. The next morning a man
called upon the farmer's wife, and related how on the previous night, as
he lay in bed, quite awake, her husband's ghost had appeared to him, and
after showing him several stabs on his body, had told him that he was
murdered by a certain person, and his corpse thrown into a certain
marl-pit. A search was instituted, the body found in the pit, and the
wounds on the body of the deceased were exactly in the parts described
by the pretended dreamer; the person who was mentioned was committed for
trial on violent suspicion of murder, and the trial came on at Warwick
before Lord Chief Justice Raymond. The jury would have convicted the
prisoner as rashly as the magistrate had committed him, but for the
interposition of the judge, who told them that he did not put any credit
in the pretended ghost story, since the prisoner was a man of
unblemished reputation, and no ill feeling had ever existed between
himself and the deceased. He said that he knew of no law which admitted
of the evidence of a ghost; and if any did, the ghost had not appeared.
The crier was then ordered to summon the ghost, which he did three
times, and the judge then acquitted the prisoner, and caused the accuser
to be detained, which was accordingly done, and his house searched, when
such strong proofs of guilt were discovered, that the man confessed the
crime, and was executed for murder at the following assizes.

Could any of your readers inform me when this remarkable trial took
place, and where I could meet with a more detailed account?


_Roman and Saxon Cambridge._--Dr. W. Warren, formerly Vice-Master of
Trinity Hall, Cambridge, wrote some papers to prove that the situation
of the Grantacæster of Bede was at the Castle end of Cambridge, not at
Granchester, and "demonstrated the thing as amply as a matter of that
sort is capable of." Brydges states (_Restituta_, iv. 388.) that his
brother, Dr. R. Warren, intended to publish this tract, which came into
his hands after the death of the vice-master, which happened in, or
shortly after, the year 1735. He left some MSS. to the college, but this
is not amongst them; and Dr. R. Warren did not, as far as I can learn,
ever carry his intention of publishing it into execution. What I want to
learn is, where this tract now is, if it still exists; or, if it has
been printed, where a printed copy is to be found.

    C. C. B.

_Queries on the Mistletoe_ (Vol. iv., p. 110.).--Will your correspondent
who some Numbers back stated, in a communication on the mistletoe, that
it was _not uncommon_ upon the oak in _Somersetshire_, kindly give _two
or three localities_ on his own knowledge? I fear some mistake has
arisen, for, as far as my experience goes, an arch-Druid might hunt long
enough in the present day for the "heaven-descended plant" among a
_grove of oaks_, ere he fortuitously alighted upon it. Some years ago a
friend assured me that he was credibly informed by a timber merchant
often in the Sussex forests, that _mistletoe_ was not uncommon upon oaks
there; but on a personal inspection it turned out that _ivy_, not
_mistletoe_, was intended. I suspect a similar mistake in Somersetshire,
unless two or three certain localities can be named as seen by a
competent observer.

I should also like to know from your Carolinian correspondent H. H. B.,
whether the mistletoe he mentions is our genuine "wintry mistletoe"--the
_Viscum album_ of Linnæus, or _another species_. The "varieties of the
oak" he speaks of as having mistletoe upon them, are, I presume, all
_American_ species, and not the European _Quercus robur_.

    A. F.


_Portrait of Mesmer._--I should be glad if you, or any of your readers
in England or in France, could inform me whether there is anywhere to be
found a portrait--drawing, painting, or engraving--of _Mesmer_?


Minor Queries Answered.

_Saint Richard_ (Vol. iv., p. 475.).--On what authority do the
particulars recorded of this personage in the _Lives of the Saints_
rest? I cannot help considering his very existence as rather apocryphal,
for these reasons:--1. Bede, who must have been his contemporary, and
whose _Ecclesiastical History_ was written several years after the date
assigned for Richard's death, never mentions his name. 2. When did his
alleged renunciation of the throne occur, and what historian of the
period mentions it? At the time of his death, and for thirty-five years
before, the kingdom of Wessex was under the sway of Ina, one of the
greatest and best of the West Saxon kings. 3. His name is not a Saxon
one, and I believe it is not to be found in English history till after
the Norman Conquest.

    S. S. WARDEN.

  [The _Britannia Sancta_, 4to. 1745, contains the following notice
  of St. Richard compiled from the collections of the
  Bollandists:--"St. Richard, whose name occurs on Feb. 7 in the
  Roman Martyrology, is styled there, as well as in divers other
  monuments, _King of the English_, though in the catalogues of our
  Saxon kings there is no one found of that name; the reason of
  which is, because the catalogues of the kings, during the
  Heptarchy, are very imperfect, as might be proved, if it were
  necessary, by several instances of kings whose names are there
  omitted. As for St. Richard, it is that he was one of those
  princes who, as we learn from St. Bede, lib. iv. ch. 12., ruled
  the West Saxons after the year 673, till they were forced to give
  way to King Ceadwall; which is the more probable, because he
  flourished about that time, and was of the province of the West
  Saxons, as appears from his being a kinsman to St. Winifred, or
  Boniface, born and brought up in those parts (at Crediton in
  Devonshire), and from his son Willibald's being brought up in a
  monastery of the same province, and from his own setting out upon
  his pilgrimage from Hamble Haven, which belonged to the West
  Saxons." Some account of St. Richard and his tomb at Lucca will be
  found in the _Gentleman's Magazine_, vol. lxix., pt. i. p. 14.]

"_Coming Events cast their Shadows before._"--Where does this couplet

      "'Tis the sunset of life gives me mystical lore,
      And coming events cast their shadows before."

    E. G.

  [This couplet is from Campbells "Lochiel's Warning."]

_St. Christopher._--Fosbroke says, "the Greek Christians represented
this saint with a dog's head, like Anubis, to show that he was of the
country of the Cynocephale; and in confirmation of this assertion he
quotes "_Winckelm. Stosch._ _cl._ i. _n._ 103." I have never heard
either of this fact, or of the authority from which Fosbroke derived it.
Can any of your readers give me any information about either?

    E. A. H. L.

  [The following is the passage quoted by Mr. Fosbroke, from
  Winckelmann's _Description des Pierres Graveés du feu Baron de
  Stosch_. 4to. Florence, 1760, p. 25.:--

  "_Jaspe rouge._ Anubis en pied. Je vais rémarquer ici en passant
  que les Chretiens Grecs du moyen âge ont figuré S. Christrophle
  avec tête de Chien, comme Anubis, pour signifier que ce Saint
  étoit du pays des Cynocéphales. (Pin. _Commentar. Vit. S.
  Christoph._, § 6. in _Act. SS. Ant. Ful._, vol. vi. p. 427.) Tel
  le voiton sur un ancien Ménologe peint sur bois, dans la
  Bibliothèque du Vatican; cette rare pièce y est entrée avec la
  bibliothèque du Marq. Capponi."]

_Cuddy, the Ass._--Your correspondents have alluded to the words
_Donkey_ and _Moke_ not appearing in any of our dictionaries. There is
another word for the same animal in general use in Northumberland and
the neighbouring counties, _Cuddy_, which likewise does not appear in
the dictionaries I have looked at,--Johnson's amongst the number. Can
any of your correspondents give the origin of this word?

    J. S. A.

  Old Broad Street.

  [This word is most probably of Oriental origin, and may have been
  imported by the gypsies, the ass being their favourite quadruped.
  Persian _gudda_ signifies an ass; and _ghudda_ has the same
  signification in Hindostanee.--Jamieson's _Scottish Dictionary_.]

_Toady._--Will any of your readers be kind enough to explain the origin
of this word, which is constantly used in conversation when speaking of
a sycophant?

    F. M.

  [_Toady_, or _Toad-eater_, a vulgar name for a fawning, obsequious
  sycophant, was first given to a gluttonous parasite, famous for
  his indiscriminate enjoyment and praise of all viands whatever set
  before him. To test his powers of stomach and complaisance, one of
  his patrons had a _toad_ cooked and set before him, which he both
  ate and praised in his usual way.--Ogilvie's _Imperial

_Mother Shipton._--We have all heard of Mother Shipton and her
prophecies. Was she a real character? If so, where did she live, and at
what period? Were her prophecies ever published? If so, I should like an
account of them?


  [Our correspondent is referred to the following works relating to
  this renowned personage:--1. _The Prophesies of Mother Shipton in
  the Raigne of King Henry VIII., foretelling the Death of Cardinal
  Wolsey, the Lord Percy, and others; as also what should happen in
  ensuing Times_: London, 1641, 4to. 2. _Two Strange Prophesies,
  predicting Wonderfull Events to betide this Yeare of Danger in
  this Climate, where some have already come to passe_, by Mother
  Shipton: London, 1642, 4to. (About 1642 several other tracts were
  published with the name of Shipton.) 3. _The Life and Death of
  Mother Shipton_: London, 1677, 4to. 4. _Mother Shipton's Life and
  Curious Prophecies_: London, 1797, 8vo. 5. _The History of Mother
  Shipton_: Newcastle, 4to. Nos. 1. and 4. are in the British



(Vol. v., p. 346.)

There appears to be a slight error in the Editor's reply to E. D.'s
Query respecting Ralph Winterton's translation of Gerard's _Meditations
and Prayers_. I have an earlier edition than that of 1631. It is dated
1627[3], printed at Cambridge by Thomas and John Bucke, and possesses no
less than four dedications, which throw some little, and rather curious
light on his history. The _first_, "To the Right Worsh. my most worthy
Friend and Benefactour, Mr. John Bowle, Doctor of Divinitie, and Deane
of Salisbury," in which he mentions "the fatherly care" he had
experienced from that divine, "when he was at Kensington, in the house
of that most vertuous and literate Lady, the Lady Coppen." "By your
indeficient liberalitie," he says, "all defects were supplyed, all
difficulties remooved, horses provided, a man appointed, and, _to
conclude_, by the grace of God, after many a troublesome and wearysome
step, to my rest I returned." The _second_ Dedication is, "To the Right
Worshipp. vertuous and learned Lady, the Lady Coppen, Mr R. Coppen, Mr
T. Coppen, her Sonnes; M'ris Elizabeth Coppen, her Daughter-in-Law, &c.,
Internall, Externall, Eternall Happiness." In this he records, that
"scarce had he entered her doores at Kensington, but he was saluted and
made welcome by a gentlewoman well deserving at his hands, whose name
must not be concealed, M'ris Francis Thorowgood, who hasted to carrie
news to your Ladyship. _Dixirat et dicto citius._ Hereupon your
Ladyship," he adds, "was pleased, out of hand, leaving all other
business, not to send to mee, but to descend yourself to mee; not so
much by the degrees of staires, as by a naturall inclination to show
your hospitality," &c.; and speaks of her as understanding "the
scholler's Languages as well as they that do profess them;" and as being
"highly honoured by Queene Elizabeth." The _third_ Dedication is "To the
Right Worship. my most munificent Friend, Sir John Hanburie, of Kelmash,
in Northamptonshire." The _fourth_, "To the Worsh. my very worthy
Friends, M'r William Bonham (of Paternoster Rowe, in London), and M'ris
Anne Bonham, his Wife, Mr. Nathaniell Henshawe, of Valence, in Essex;
M'r Benjamin Henshawe, of Cheapside, in London; and M'r Thomas Henshawe,
of Saffron Walden, in Essex." The _third_ Dedication is dated from
_Lutterworth_, in _Leicestershire_, May 10: the others from _King's
Coll._, June 12, 1627.

    C. W. B.

  [Footnote 3: [The edition of 1627 was unknown to Watt, and is not
  to be found in the libraries of the British Museum or the

_MS. Account of Fellows of King's, anno 1616._

  "Ralph Winterton of Lutterworth, Leicester, Bro. of Fran., who was
  Gent. of the Pr. Chamber to Hen. Maria, and served under D. of
  Hamilton in Germ., and was killed at Custrin, on the Borders of
  Silesia. See History of that Expedition.

  "M.D., Prof. Regi Med., Sept. 13, 1636, at which time all the Reg.
  Prof. were of K. C.

  "He was a great Physician & Scholar, insomuch that he was a
  Candidate to succeed Downes as Greek Prof. He translated Gerhard's
  _Sum of Xtian Doctri._, 1640, of which see Dedication. On his Bro.
  departing for Germany, he translated _Drescelius on Eternity_, and
  on another occasion returned to Gerhard. This was probably on some
  difficulty which was started to his Degree of M.D. by Provost
  Collins. He is said at one time to have suffered so, as for a time
  to have lost his senses. His Books are prefaced by recommendatory
  Verses from K. C. men, viz. D. Williamson, 1627; R. Newman, H.
  Whiston, and Thomas Page, 1627; Wym Carew, 1622; Tho. Bonham,
  1621; Edm. Sheafe, 1613; R. Williams, 1623; T. Yonge, 1624.

  "He published _Dionysius de Situ Orbis_, with a Dedication to Sir
  H. Wotton, and Hippocrates' _Aphorisms_ in Gr. Verse, 1633. Qu'e,
  if the Lat. Verses not written by Fryer, an eminent Physician at
  Camb. Qu'e, the _Poetæ Minores_."

See, too, a short account in Harwood's _Alumni Etonensis_, p. 218.

    J. H. L.


(Vol. iv., pp. 383. 454.; Vol. v., p. 106.)

Your correspondents do not seem to be aware that this _questio vexata_
has given rise to a volume in folio! In 1744 Don Gregorio Mayans y
Siscar published, at the expense of the Academy of Valencia, a volume
containing nearly 400 pages under the following title: _Obras
Chronologicas de Don Gaspar Ibañes, &c., Marquis de Mondejar, &c. &c._,
which is principally occupied by a discourse entitled, "Origen de LA ERA
ESPAÑOLA i su Diferencia con los años de Christo."[4] Prefixed to this
is a very able and learned Preface, by the editor, of nearly 100 pages;
and one would have thought that between these distinguished scholars the
subject in dispute would be set at rest.

  [Footnote 4: A re-impression of the Valencia edition was made at
  Madrid in the year 1795.]

Unfortunately, however, Spanish scholars and antiquaries have too much
neglected the Gothic element in their language, and they have
consequently missed the only source from whence, as it appears to me,
the true origin of _Era_ could be developed. The Marquis de Mondejar
indeed seems to have had a suspicion of the true source; for he has a
chapter thus entitled "Si puede ser _Gothica_ la voz ERA i aver
introducido los Godos su computo en España?" in which he thus expresses
his incapacity to answer his own question:

  "I assi contentandonos con aver expressado nuestra imaginacion con
  el mismo recelo que la discurrimos, _prohibendonos la ignorancia
  de la lengua Gothica antigua_, el que podamos justificar si pudo
  aver procedido de ella la voz ERA propria del computo de que

As long since as 1664 that eminent northern philologist Thomas Marshall,
in his notes on the Gothic Gospels, had thus expressed himself,
confirming, if not anticipating, Spelman:

  "{jER} proprie significat annum, sicque usurpatur in omnibus linguis
  Gothicæ cognatis; suâ scilicet cuique Dialecto asservatâ. Videant
  Hispani, nunquid eorum HERA vel ERA, quod _Ætatem_ et _tempus_
  dicitur interdum significare, debeat originationem suam Gothico
  {jER}, atque num forsan hinc quoque aliquid lucis affulserit
  indagantibus originem vexatissimi illius _Æra_, quatenus
  significat Epocham Chronologicam."

In the _Glossary_ the further development of the origin of the word is
ingenious, but not satisfactory:

  "Prisca interim Gothorum atque Anglo-Saxonum orthographiâ inducor
  ut credam {ger} vel {gear} esse à γυροῦν Gyrare, in orbem
  circumvolvere, juxta illud poetæ principis, _Georg_. II. 402.:

      'Atque in se sua per vestigia volvitur annus.'

  Unde et Annum idem poëta, _Æneid_. I. 273., Orbem dixit:

      'Triginta magnos volvendis mensibus orbes
      Imperio explebit,'

  ubi Servius: Annus dictus quasi Anus, id est Anulus; quod in se
  redeat, &c."

That the Roman word _Æra_ signified _number_ in earlier times, we learn
from Nonius Marcellus:

  "_Æra_ numeri nota, Lucilius lib. xxviiij. Hoc est ratio perversa,
  _æra_ summa, et subducta improbe."

Those who desire further confirmation will find it in that extraordinary
storehouse of erudition, the _Exercitationes Pliniana_ of Salmasius, p.
483., ed. 1689.

It is equally certain that, soon after the establishment of the Gothic
domination in Spain, it was applied in its present signification; but
that it also signified _time_ or period will be evident from the
following passage of the _Coronica General_, Zamora, 1541. fol.
CCC.XXVJ. Speaking of the numbers of the extraordinary armament
assembled by Don Alonzo, preparatory to the battle of Las Navas:

  "E para todo esto complir avia menester el rey Don Alfonso de cada
  dia doze mil maravedis _de aquella_ ERA, que era buena moneda."

That is to say, money _of that time_.

From our imperfect acquaintance with the early history of the Goths, it
is not easy to decide upon the reasons why they adopted their mode of
reckoning from thirty-eight years before the Christian epoch; but if we
accept the signification which we know it was not unusual to affix to
the word _Era_, namely, that of _year_, _time_, or _period_, the
solution is easy as to its origin. It was only the engrafting of their
own vernacular word into the barbarous Latin of the time, from whence
also it was adopted into the Romance, Castilian, or Spanish.

It may also be observed that Liutprand uses the word in this sense: in
speaking of the Mosque of San Sophia at Constantinople, and how the
course of the reign of its rulers was noted there, so as to be manifest
to all, he concludes:

  "Sic ÆRAM qui non viderunt intelligunt."

So Dudo, _De Actis Normannorum_, lib. v. p. 111.:

  "Transacta denique duarum _Herarum_ intercapedine, mirabilibusque
  incrementis augmentata profusus Ricardo Infante, coepit Dux
  Willelmus de Regni commodo salubriter tractare."

It is also remarkable that we find it in use only in those places under
the domination of the Goths, as in the southern provinces of
France,--the Council of Arles, for instance.--_V. Mansi Collect.
Concil._, t. xiv. col. 57.

The earliest inscription in which it has been found was at Lebrija, in
the kingdom of Seville, and the date corresponds with that of the year
465 from the birth of Christ. It runs thus:


It is possible there may be some error even here, for no other
inscription yet recorded is so early by eighty years.

Had it been in use at an earlier period, the Spaniard, Paulus Orosius,
whose _History_ ends with A.D. 417, would doubtless have used it;
whereas we find that he makes use of the _Anno Mundi_, of the Olympiads,
and of the _A.U.C._ of the Romans.

All circumstances, therefore, considered, we may safely conclude that in
the Spanish _Era_ we have nothing more than the adoption of the _jera_
of Ulfilas, by whom it is used for ἔτος and χρόνος.
The Gothic word being written with the consonant _j_ {j} will account
for the form in which, to mark the aspiration, _Era_ is often found with
the initial _H_. Whoever may desire to trace the etymology further will
do well to consult Dieffenbach's very valuable _Vergleichendes
Wörterbuch der Gothischen Sprache_.

    S. W. SINGER.


(Vol. i., pp. 10. 274.)

It may be interesting to some of the readers of "N. & Q." to peruse the
following observations made by the Venetian ambassador resident in
England in 1606, respecting that "child of woe" the Lady Arabella
Stuart, whose romantic history forms one of the most pleasing of
D'Israeli's _Curiosities of Literature_. The extract I send you is taken
from a little French work, which professes to be a translation from the
manuscript "Italian Relation of England" by Marc-Antonio Correr, the
Venetian ambassador, and was printed at Montbéliard in 1668. The Lady
Arabella is here spoken of as _Madame Isabelle_.

  "La personne la plus proche de sang de sa Majesté après ses
  enfans, est Madame Isabelle, laquelle descend, ainsi que le Roy,
  de Marguerite fille de Henry VII., estant née d'un frère naturel
  du père de S. M., par où elle luy est Cousine. Elle est âgée de 28
  ans; elle n'est pas bien belle, mais en recompense elle est ornée
  de mille belles vertus, car outre qu'elle est noble et dans ses
  actions et dans ses moeurs, elle possède plusieurs Langues en
  perfection, sçavoir le Latin, l'Italien, le François, et
  l'Espagnol; elle entend le Grec et l'Hebreu, et estudie sans
  cesse. Elle n'est pas beaucoup riche, car la Reyne deffunte
  prenant jalousie de tout le monde, et principalement de ceux qui
  avoient quelque pretention à la couronne, luy osta sous divers
  pretextes, la plus grand part de ses revenus; c'est pourquoy la
  pauvre Dame ne peut pas vivre dans la splendeur, et n'a pas le
  moyen de faire du bien à ceux qui la servent, comme elle voudroit.
  Le Roy témoigne avoir de l'affection et de l'estime pour elle, le
  laissant vivre en cour, ce que la Reyne deffunte ne luy voulut
  jamais permettre. Le Roy luy avoit promis de luy rendre ses biens
  et de luy donner un mary; elle est neantmoins encore privée et de
  l'un et de l'autre."

  _Relation d'Angleterre_, p. 82.

_Her Flight._--Phineas Pette, the shipwright at Chatham, received orders
to assist in the capture of the unfortunate lady; and it would appear,
from his manuscript Diary (_Harl. MS._ 6279.), that he did his best to
execute them. His statement is as follows:--

  "The 4th of June (1611), being Tuesday, being prepared to have
  gone to London the next day, about midnight one of the King's
  messengers was sent down to me from the Lord Treasurer to man the
  light horsemen [Query, what kind of boats were these?] with 20
  musquetteers, and to run out as low as the Noor Head to search all
  shipps, barks, and other vessells for the Lady Arabella that had
  then made a scape, and was bound over for France; which service I
  performed accordingly, and searched Queenborough, and other
  vessells I could meet withall; then went over to Lee, in Essex,
  and searched the Towne; and when we could hear no news of her went
  to Gravesend, and thence took post-horse to Greenwich, where his
  Majesty then lay, and delivered the account of my journey to the
  Lord Treasurer by his Maj'ties command, and soe was dismissed, and
  went that night to Ratcliffe," &c.

The messenger above alluded to, whose name was John Price, received
6_l._ for his pains in making "haste, post-haste," to Gravesend,
Rochester, and Queenborough. (See Devon's _Pell Records_.)

_And Capture._--This honour--or misfortune, rather, as it proved to
be--was reserved for Admiral Sir William Monson, who, in his _Naval
Memoirs_, p. 210., makes this self-satisfied remark:

  "Sir W. Monson had orders to pursue her, which he did with that
  celerity, that she was taken within four miles of Calais, shipped
  in a French bark of that town, whither she was bound."

    A. GRAYAN.


(Vol. v., p. 344.)

"When shall we three meet again?" Let no one smile at your
correspondent's question, for the common mode of stating Newton's claim
makes it natural enough to ask whether the ancients were aware that
bodies fall to the earth, and to produce proof that they had such
knowledge. But Cicero had more: he not only knew the fall of bodies, but
he had a _medius locus mundi_, or _centrum mundi_, as it was afterwards
called, to which bodies must fall. This was his law of gravitation, and
that of his time. Without describing the successive stages of the
existence of this centre, it may be enough here to state, that a part of
Newton's world-wide renown arises from his having cashiered this
immovable point from the solar system, and sent it on its travels in
search of the real centre of gravity of the whole universe. Newton
substituted, for the old law of gravitation _towards a centre_, his law
of _universal_ gravitation, namely, that _every_ particle gravitates
towards every other. There had been some idea of such a law in the minds
of speculative men: it was Newton who showed that one particular law,
namely, that of the inverse square of the distance, would entail upon a
system, all whose particles are subject to it, those very motions which
are observed in our system. Cicero would have been startled to know
that, when a body falls towards the earth, the earth rises towards it,
_medius locus_ and all: not quite so fast, it is true, nor so far. But
it must not be supposed that we could move our earth any distance in
course of time by continually dropping heavy weights upon it; for the
truth is, that when the weight is raised the earth is a little lowered,
or at least made to move the other way. Archimedes said that, with a
place to stand on, he could move the earth; not aware that he was doing
it at the time he spoke, by the motion of his arm.


May I ask your correspondent S. E. B. where he has discovered that the
_world-wide reputation_ of Newton was founded upon a notion of his being
the first person who pointed out that bodies are attracted, or seem to
be attracted, towards the centre of the earth? and, on the other hand,
what traces there are in Cicero of the _real_ "law of gravity," which
Newton _did_ discover, and with such immense labour demonstrate and
illustrate, namely, that attraction (that is, not to the centre of the
earth or world in particular, but between every particle of matter and
the rest) varies inversely as the square of the distance?

To come to a minor question; your correspondent reads the passage _qua
delata gravitate_--so I should read, decidedly. The whole sentence,
which is a long one, is a series of questions (which, by-the-bye, is an
additional reason against quoting it as an assertion).

  "Inde est indagatio nata ... unde essent omnia orta ... quæque
  cujusque generis ... origo quæ vita, ... quæque ex alio in aliud
  vicissitudo ... unde terra, et quibus librata ponderibus, quibus
  cavernis maria sustineantur; qua omnia, delata gravitate, medium
  mundi locum semper expetant."

It is _in qua_ in Ernesti, unnoticed. _In_ was inserted by those who
thought that _qua_ agreed with _terra_; which, if otherwise probable, is
negatived by the use of the word _mundi_ in the clause.

    C. B.

Sir Isaac Newton's discovery was the law of _universal_ gravitation,
viz. that the solar system is kept together by the gravity of the
heavenly bodies towards the sun. This was founded on _terrestrial_
gravitation, of which the falling apple _put him in mind_, applied first
to the moon, and then _universally_ to the universe. (See _Penny
Cyclopædia_, art. "Gravitation;" Biot, "Life of Newton," in the
_Biographie Universelle_; or the translation of it in the "Life of
Newton" in the _Library of Useful Knowledge_, p. 5.) This is very
different from Cicero's words; in which[5] (_sc._ the earth) all things
borne downwards by their weight ever seek to reach the middle point of
the universe, which is also the lowest point in the earth (qui est idem
infimus in rotundo).

  [Footnote 5: Moser's text has _in qua_, &c. terra.]


  Saffron Walden.


(Vol. iv., pp. 191. 243.)

Although your correspondent E. S. attempts to throw discredit on M. W.
B.'s narration of a deferred execution at Winchester, and carps at the
mention of a "warrant," as if that militated against the fact; yet
doubtless, in times when carelessness among official personages was not
uncommon, many deferred executions may have taken place.

It must be evident, that in the case of a convict _respited during
pleasure_, that _an order_ must at last be formally made for such
person's execution or commutation of punishment; during which interval
the prisoner would remain in custody of the gaoler. This in effect would
be tantamount to a warrant, and of course communicated to the
unfortunate delinquent.

A case somewhat similar to the Winchester one was told me by an old and
respectable inhabitant of Worcester, who was himself cognisant of the
circumstance, and had frequently seen the convict. It occurred in the
gaolership of the father of the present governor of the city gaol. A boy
of only thirteen or fourteen had been convicted of some capital offence,
but on account of his youth was respited indefinitely. He remained in
the gaol, was found to be a docile lad, and much liberty was accorded to
him; the authorities expecting that he would receive a pardon. Time flew
on, many months--I think my informant said nearly two years elapsed, and
his case seemed forgotten. If he was not actually sent on errands out of
the gaol, so loose was his captivity, that he might easily have slipt
away at any time, and been scarcely missed. In fact, he had the full run
of the prison, and was a great favourite with the debtors, whose sports
and amusements he joined in, for discipline was very lax in those days.
He was playing at ball one day in the yard with some debtors, full of
life and glee, when suddenly, to the utter astonishment of the gaoler,
and the awe of his associates, there came an order from London for his
execution. Why he had remained so long forgotten, or why such extreme
severity fell on him so unexpectedly at last, none could tell; but his
case was considered a very hard one, and was commiserated by the whole
city. My informant saw the poor boy conducted to execution. The old
citizen who gave me this account is dead, or I could have recovered the
date of its occurrence.



I observe that the substance of M. W. B.'s Note has been reprinted in a
mutilated form in several newspapers; his preliminary remark, and
concluding Query, being omitted! The effect of this is to circulate as a
_fact_ what your correspondent himself questions. My object however in
this communication, is not so much to draw attention to the injurious
effects of partial quotation, as to point out what, in my opinion,
renders the occurrence of an execution under the circumstances detailed
a manifest impossibility. I believe I am correct in stating that there
never was, nor is there now (out of London), such a thing as a _warrant_
for the _execution of a criminal_. At the close of each Assize, a fair
copy of the _Calendar_, with the sentences in the margin, is signed by
the Judges, and left with the sheriff; this is the _only authority_ he
has given him; and in the event of a sentence of death, he has no
alternative but carrying it into effect; unless he receives from the
Crown a pardon, a reprieve, or a warrant commuting the sentence.
_Blackstone_ observes upon this:

  "It may afford matter of speculation, that in civil causes there
  should be such a variety of writs of execution to recover a
  trifling debt, issued in the king's name, and under the seal of
  the court, without which the sheriff cannot legally stir one step;
  and yet that the _execution of a man_, the most important and
  terrible task of any, _should depend upon a marginal note_."

    J. B. COLMAN.



(Vol. v., p. 320.)

Your correspondent is alarmed lest the honour he claims for the
Lancastrians should be denied them, because it has been "discovered that
William III. never created himself Duke of Lancaster." Where is it
asserted that either he or any other of our sovereigns ever did? When
Henry of Bolingbroke merged the lesser name of duke in the greater name
of king, he was no more Duke of Lancaster than he was Earl of Derby or
Duke of Hereford; but the title of Duke of Lancaster he willed not to be
lost altogether as the others were, and therefore by an act of
parliament (1 Hen. IV., Art. 81.) it was enacted _Que le Prince porte le
nom de Duc de Lancastre_. The act, after reciting that "our said Lord
the King, considering how Almighty God of his great grace had placed him
in the honorable Estate of King, and nevertheless he cannot yet for
certain cause bear the name of Duke of Lancaster," then ordains that
"Henry his eldest son should have and bear the name of Duke of
Lancaster, and that he be named Prince of Wales, Duke of Aquitaine, of
Lancaster, and of Cornwall, and Earl of Chester." The fact is, that the
King or Queen of England cannot be Duke or Duchess in the realm of
England. Our kings have held inferior titles drawn from other kingdoms,
as Duke of Normandy and Earl of Anjou; but Lord Coke says the sovereign
cannot be _rex_ and _dux_ in the same realm. The Queen, as queen, holds
her palatinate of Lancaster, and the other duchy lands and franchises;
but she holds them _jure ducatus_, so distinguished from those estates
which she holds _jure coronæ_. She cannot however properly be styled
Duchess of Lancaster.

    W. H.

In your last Number (Vol. v., p. 320.) is an inquiry on the Duchess of
Lancaster. The best answer to this is to be found in a book, 8vo.,
entitled _Harrison on Crown Revenues, or a Memoir, &c. respecting the
Revenues of the Duchies of Cornwall and Lancaster_: no date or printer's
name. I purchased a copy at a sale a short time ago. Everything will be
ascertained here perhaps better than any where else.

    J. D.

Is Queen Victoria the possessor of this title? It would appear so. Sir
N. Harris Nicolas, in his _Synopsis of the Peerage_, speaking of the
dukedom, says:

  "1399. Henry Plantagenet, son and heir, ascended the throne 29th
  Sept. 1399; when this title, with all his other honours, became
  merged in the crown, in which it has ever since remained vested."

Your correspondent may be referred to _Blackstone_ (Introd. §4.), where
is a very interesting account of the Palatinate and Duchy of Lancaster.
We are there told that on his succession to the crown, Henry IV. was too
prudent to suffer his Duchy of Lancaster to be united to the crown, and
therefore he procured an act of parliament ordaining that this duchy and
his other hereditary estates--

  "Should remain to him and his heirs for ever, and should remain,
  descend, be administered, and governed in like manner as if he had
  never attained the regal dignity."

In the first of Edward IV., Henry VI. was attainted, and the Duchy of
Lancaster declared forfeited to the crown. At the same time an act was
passed to continue the county palatine, and to make the same part of the
duchy; and to vest the whole in King Edward IV. and his heirs, _kings of
England_, for ever. Blackstone then mentions that in the first Henry
VII. an act was passed vesting the Duchy of Lancaster in that king and
his heirs; and in a note examines the question whether the duchy vested
in the natural or political person of the king. He then says:

  "It seems to have been understood very early after the statute of
  Henry VII., that the Duchy of Lancaster was by no means thereby
  made a separate inheritance from the royal patrimony, since it
  descended, with the crown, to the half-blood in the instances of
  Queens Mary and Elizabeth; which it could not have done as the
  estate of a mere Duke of Lancaster in the common course of legal

If, in saying that William III. never created himself Duke of Lancaster,
your correspondent means that he caused no patent to issue granting
himself that dignity, he is, I doubt not, correct. But if, after the
above quotations, any doubt could remain on the subject, possibly the
following extract from the act 1 Will. & Mar. sess. 2. cap. 2. ("An Act
declaring the Rights and Liberties of the Subject, and settling the
Succession of the Crown") will sufficiently dispel it:--

  "And the said Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons seriously
  considering, &c., do hereby recognise, acknowledge, and declare,
  that King James II. having abdicated the Government, and their
  Majesties having accepted the Crown and Royal dignity as
  aforesaid, their said Majesties did become, were, and are, and of
  right ought to be, by the laws of this realm, our sovereign liege
  lord and lady the King and Queen of England, France, and Ireland,
  and the dominions thereunto belonging, in and to whose princely
  persons the Royal state, crown, and dignity of the said realms,
  with all _honours_, _styles_, _titles_, regalities, prerogatives,
  powers, jurisdictions, and authorities to the same belonging and
  appertaining, are most rightfully and entirely invested and
  incorporated, united and annexed."

In conclusion, will you allow me to ask some correspondent to set forth
at length the titles of our Sovereign Lady the Queen? In confessing that
I do not know, I fancy that I state the case as regards the majority of
the lieges of her Majesty. Indeed, a tale sometime ago went "the round
of the papers," to the effect that the "Duke of Rothsay" was one day
announced to his Royal Highness Prince Albert. The prince, who was not
aware of the existence of such a personage, at length ordered him to be
admitted, and was not a little astonished at beholding his eldest son!
This, though doubtless the coinage of some ingenious but hungry
penny-a-liner, pre-supposes so large an amount of general ignorance on
the subject, that I hope some well-informed individual will, through
your columns, enlighten the world on the point.

    TEE BEE.


(Vol. v., pp. 290. 326.)

Variations of surnames occur much later than the close of the fourteenth
century, the period cited by your correspondent COWGILL. I have seen a
document of the date of Charles I., which names one Agnes Wilson,
otherwise Randalson, widow of John, son of Randal Wilson; thus showing
that the patronymic was liable to vary in every generation, even in the
seventeenth century.

This is still the practice in the hill country of Lancashire, bordering
upon Yorkshire, where people are seldom known by a family name. The
individual is distinguished by the addition of the father's or mother's
Christian name, and sometimes by the further addition of those of
forefathers for a generation or two, as in the designation of Welshmen
in times past. The abode sometimes varies the style.

As an example, I may mention that a few years ago I sought an
heir-at-law in a town on the borders. I was referred to a man called
"Dick o' Jenny's;" he being the son of a second marriage, the mother's
name was used to distinguish him rather than his father's. Pursuing the
inquiry I found the first wife had been a "sister of ould Tommy at top
of th' huttock;" her daughter had married "John o' Bobby," and "John o'
Bobby's lad" was the man I wanted. When I had made him out, it was with
some difficulty that I ascertained (though amongst his kindred) that he
bore the family name of "Shepherd."

    W. L.

I perceive that your correspondents COWGILL and J. H. (p. 290.), and
MR. MARK ANTONY LOWER (p. 326.), make use of the word _surname_ to
signify "the permanent appellative of particular families."

Now, I have always considered that the English language, in this as in
many other instances, possessed two words which, though alike in sound,
were very different both in origin and meaning:--_surname_, i.e.
_sur-nom_, the name added to the common appellation, for the purpose of
distinguishing an individual; as Rufus, Coeur de Lion, Lackland, in the
case of our early kings: and _sir-name_, or _sire-name_, being that
which in recent times, and in most countries, every one born in wedlock
has inherited from his sire, and which is the subject of the articles in
"N. & Q."

As I do not suppose that your correspondents, the last of whom is of
considerable authority on this subject, have used the term unadvisedly,
I am anxious to know the grounds on which they would disallow my theory.

    E. H. Y.

I am glad to perceive that MR. LOWER has on the stocks a systematic
Dictionary of Surnames. For the reason stated by him, it is neither
desirable nor possible that it should include _all_ English surnames.
The majority derive their origin from places or districts of limited
dimensions, and to enumerate them would be an interminable and very
thankless task. MR. L. has therefore judiciously determined to exercise
his discretion on this class of cases. Nor are the names derived from
Christian names generally worth insertion, for every Christian name has,
in some form, been converted into a surname, either with or without
alteration. Those which originate in _extinct_ or _provincial_
employments and trades will supply an instructive and interesting
collection, such as Tucker, Challoner, Tozer, Crowder, Berner, &c.; and
will also afford scope for glossarial illustration.

I also trust that his etymological research will be successfully
exercised on such names as--

      Lammercraft, and other crafts (crofts?)
      Locock, and omne quod exit in cock, of which some forty or
      fifty are in use.

Let me also bring under his notice the singularly unattractive name of
_Suckbitch_. It is used by more than one branch of a respectable and
ancient family in the West of England, and I have traced its existence
for at least five centuries. Instead of availing themselves of the
recent opinions of some great lawyers, that a surname may be changed at
will, this family rather pride themselves on a name that can boast an
antiquity probably not surpassed by that of any family in England. The
shape of it has, however, deviated from the ancient form, so as to
become more significant, but certainly less graceful than it was; and
the change is probably an illustration of a familiar fact: viz. that we
are not generally the authors of our own surnames, but receive them from
our neighbours, and that, to a certain extent, they continue to have the
same character of instability which they originally possessed. The
earliest form of it known to me is _Sokespic_,--a word which seems to
indicate a Saxon origin. The _spic_, or bacon end of it has now
generally become _spitch_ in the names of places; as in Spitchwick, a
well-known seat in Devonshire. Whether the _soke_ or _suck_ end of it be
from _sucan_, and the whole name equivalent to the modern _Chawbacon_,
is a matter which I leave for the investigation of MR. LOWER. At all
events, the old form will be a warning to the etymologist not to search
for the origin of the name in any legend like that which ascribes the
nutrition of the infant founders of Rome to a she-wolf.

I have met with many modern instances of the mutability of surnames
among labouring people, and even in a class above them. In 1841 a person
named _Duke_ was on the list of voters for Penryn, in Cornwall. His
original name was _Rapson_; but the name being very common in his
neighbourhood, people long distinguished him by the name of _Duke_,
because he kept the "Duke of York's Arms:" and this last name has since
become the permanent recognised family name. This is a fact which I have
had satisfactory means of verifying.

    E. S.

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Dyson's Collection of Proclamations_ (Vol. v., p. 371.).--DR. RIMBAULT
will find, in the Grenville Collection in the British Museum, an
extraordinary volume of proclamations published during the reign of
Queen Elizabeth, "collected together by the industry of Humfrey Dyson,
of the City of London, Publique Notary. London, 1618." The volume is
fully described in _Bibliotheca Grenvilliana_, Part the Second, 1848,
pp. 368-373.

    H. F.

"_Up, Guards, and at them!_" (Vol. v., p. 396.).--I know not what your
correspondent A. A. D. may mean by asking "whether the battle of
Waterloo was not a myth!" but I am glad to be able to state, from the
very best authority, the circumstance of the celebrated order to the
Guards on that day. It was at all times the Duke of Wellington's habit
to cover as much as possible troops exposed to the fire of cannon, by
taking advantage of any irregularity of ground, and making them sit or
lie down, the better to cover them from fire till the moment of attack;
and the Duke's common practice was, just as the enemy came close, and
was on the point of attacking him, he attacked them. What he may have
said on this occasion, and _probably did say_, was, "_Stand up,
Guards_;" and then gave the commanding officers the order to attack. One
would not pledge oneself to the very syllables of such a command on such
an occasion; but what I have stated is the recollection of one who was
present, and it is _equivalent_ at least to the popular version of "_Up,
Guards, and at them!_"


  [Our correspondent's doubt, whether Waterloo itself is not a myth,
  was intended, we presume, as a hit at the historical scepticism of
  the present day.]

_Bawderich, and Bells_ (Vol. iii., pp. 328. 435. 503.).--May I be
allowed to call the attention of your readers who are curious in such
matters, to a _cut_ of the Bawderich and its Gear, engraved in the 13th
and 14th Numbers of Willis's _Current Notes_, about which there have
already been several notices in your interesting periodical?

I would also request any gentlemen who have access to old parish
records, to see what entries they can find relating to the _item_ in
question, and anything about the "_wheles_" of the _belles_. It is
desirable to find out by whom, and when, the present whole wheel was
introduced. Originally a half-wheel only was used, and such may still be
found in some towers. In Dorsetshire the half-wheel is common; and there
being no "_fillet_" nor "_ground truck_," "peals of changes" cannot be
rung as they are in other towers.

    H. T. E.

_Algernon Sydney_ (Vol. v., p. 318.).--MR. HEPWORTH DIXON invites your
readers to furnish him with references to any works which may throw
light on the history of Algernon Sydney. May I suggest to him to look at
the article on Macaulay's _History of England_ which appeared in the
_Quarterly Review_ two or three years ago, wherein there are statements,
from cited authorities, which seem to prove that that "illustrious
patriot" was no exception to the famous rule, that "every man has his

    C. E. D.

"_History is Philosophy teaching by Examples_" (Vol. v., p. 153.).--If
your correspondent T., who cannot find this passage in any of Lord
Bolingbroke's writings, will turn to the second letter of that nobleman,
"On the Study and Use of History," he will perceive that the sentence is
there quoted from Dionysius of Halicarnassus. The writer in the
_Encyclopædia Metropolitana_ evidently takes it at second-hand from this
work; and there can be no doubt that the currency of the quotation is
entirely attributable to Lord Bolingbroke's use of it. This sentence is
the text which he illustrates at much length in his historical essay.


_On a Passage in Pope_ (Vol. i., p. 201.).--P. C. S. S. has an inquiry
respecting the interpretation of these lines in Pope's Imitation of
Horace's "Epistle to Augustus:"

      "The hero William and the martyr Charles,
      One knighted Blackmore, and one pension'd Quarles;
      _Which made old Ben, and surly Dennis swear,
      'No Lord's Anointed, but a Russian bear!'_"

And C. having repeated this Query (Vol. iv., p. 59.), I am induced to
impart to them a "guess" which I made not long since. I must premise by
asking your correspondents whether the unctuous substance known as
"bear's grease" was in use at the period referred to; and if the reply
be in the affirmative, I would suggest the following interpretation of
the couplet.

King William and King Charles had shown so little wisdom and
discrimination in their knighting and pensioning of worthless poets,
that they must be supposed to have been anointed, at their coronation,
with bear's grease, instead of the holy ointment commonly used for such
purposes, and which is considered to possess the power of conferring on
the kingly office those very virtues in which William and Charles had
shown themselves so deficient. In this sense, Old Ben and Dennis, each
in reference to the sovereign of his time, might have exclaimed,--

      "No Lord's Anointed, but a Russian bear."

--the word "Russian" being obviously intended to describe bears in

It is not for me to say how far this guess about "bear's grease" may
suit the fancy of C. and P. C. S. S. They will probably look upon it as
"tiré par les cheveux." If so, let them produce a better solution.


  St. Lucia.

_Plague Stones_ (Vol. v., pp. 226. 333.).--Near Ravensworth Castle is a
stone column, concerning which there is a tradition that it was one of
the crosses erected to hold markets at during the great plague at
Newcastle in 1645, when the produce of the county was not allowed to be
exposed for sale at a less distance than three miles from that town.

    C. T.

There is another stone of this description on the boundary between Dent
and Widdal, in the West Riding of the county of York; it is near an old
road from Dent to Hawes, and is now called the "Cross upon Cross-hills."

    W. B. M.

  Dee Side.

"_Archæologia Cambrensis, Vol. I., 2nd Edit._"--In reply to the Queries
of R. H. (see No. 125. p. 274.), 1. "Why the reprinted pages of the 1st
volume of the _Archæologia Cambrensis_ do not agree with those in the
original copies?" and 2. Why "nearly a whole page of _interesting
matter_ has been omitted?"--it may be sufficient to state that the
introduction of two additional notes at pages 204. and 209. rendered the
first impossible: and, secondly, that the omission complained of was
anything but of interest, as it only related to a supposed irregularity
in the delivery of the early numbers, which subsequent inquiry proved to
be groundless, and therefore it was suppressed.

Besides the notes above-mentioned, the letter-press has been revised and
various typographical errors corrected, so as to render the second
edition in many respects superior to the first.


_Town-halls_ (Vol. v., p. 295.).--MR. PARKER is reminded of the very
curious Town-hall at Ashburton, in Devonshire, constructed entirely of

    M. Y. R. W.

_Emaciated Monumental Effigies_ (Vol. v., pp. 247. 301.
353.).--BURIENSIS has been furnished by several of your correspondents
with many examples of the representation of an emaciated corpse in
connexion with tombs, but no one has yet referred him to that very
remarkable instance at Tewkesbury. The tomb is usually assigned, I
believe, to Abbot Wakeman. If anything were needed to refute the absurd
notion of the forty days' fast, I think the figure on this tomb would
supply the clue to the true conception of the artist; and show that it
was intended, by such figures, to remind the passers-by of their own
mortality by representing the hollow cheek and sunken eyes, and
emaciated form, of a corpse from which life had only recently departed:
for, in the figure on this tomb, the idea of mortality is carried still
further, and the more humbling and revolting thought of corruption and
decay is suggested to the mind by the representation of noxious reptiles
and worms crawling over the lifeless form, and revelling in their
disgusting banquet.

    M. Y. R. W.

I have read somewhere that these monuments with emaciated figures were
erected during the lifetime of the individual as an act of humiliation,
and to remind himself as well as others of mortality and the instability
of human grandeur. If this cannot be disproved by facts, it affords a
satisfactory solution. There is a small chapel connected with Bishop
Fleming's in Lincoln Minster, and with others, where masses were said
for the repose of their souls; so it is probable that these were at
least designed during their lives, which would manifest their humility.

    C. T.

_Coleridge's "Friend"_ (Vol. v., p. 351.).--Mr. Crewe, the bookseller of
Newcastle-under-Lyne, has communicated to me some corrections upon my
last notice. The great potter's name was _Josiah_, not Joseph. This was
an accidental _lapsus memoriæ_ on my part. Wedgwood is spelt without the
_e_, though I believe it has been spelt both ways by the family. It
seems that Miss Sarah Wedgwood is still alive, and till lately resided
at Camphill, Maer; but the Maer estate has been sold to Mr. Wm.
Davenport, and she now resides near London. Mr. Crewe sends me the
following extract, which confirms the identity of the munificent
co-patron of Coleridge.

  "_Extract from a Letter from Coleridge to Wordsworth, dated
  Shrewsbury, January, 1798._

  "You know that I have accepted the munificent liberality of Josiah
  [Joshua?] and Thomas Wedgwood; I accepted it on the presumption
  that I had talents, honesty, and propensities to persevering
  effort."--_Memoirs of Wordsworth_, vol. i. p. 116.

    C. M. I.

_Enigma on the Letter "I"_ (Vol. v., p. 321.).--Having both Miss C.
Fanshawe's enigmas, I send you a copy of that on the letter "I," which
is inquired for by E. S. S. W., in case it should not reach you from any
other quarter. In an old scrap-book in my possession it stands thus:


      "I am not in youth, nor in manhood, nor age,
        But in infancy ever am known:
      I am stranger alike to the fool and the sage;
      And, though I'm distinguish'd in history's page,
        I always am greatest alone.

      "I am not in the earth, nor the sun, nor the moon:
        You may search all the sky, I'm not there;
      In the morning and evening, though not in the noon,
      You may plainly perceive me: for, like a balloon,
        I am always suspended in air.

      "I am always in riches; and yet, I am told,
        Wealth ne'er did my presence desire.
      I dwell with the miser, but not with his gold:
      And sometimes I stand in his chimney so cold,
        Though I serve as a part of the fire.

      "I often am met in political life:
        In my absence no kingdom can be.
      And they say there can neither be friendship nor strife,
      No one can live single, no one take a wife,
        Without interfering with me.

      "My brethren are many; and of my whole race
        Not one is more slender and tall:
      And, though not the oldest, I hold the first place;
      And ev'n in dishonour, despair, and disgrace,
        I boldly appear 'midst them all.

      "Though disease may possess me, and sickness, and pain,
        I am never in sorrow or gloom:
      Though in wit and in wisdom I equally reign,
      I'm the heart of all sin, and have long lived in vain,
        And ne'er shall be found in the tomb.


How came Miss Fanshawe's enigmas to be attributed to Lord Byron?

    J. SANSOM.


_Mother Carey's Chickens_ (Vol. v., p. 344.).--Navigators meet with the
Little Petrel, Storm Finch, or Stormy Petrel, the _Procellaria
pellagica_ of Linnæus, in every part of the ocean, diving, running on
foot, or skimming over the highest waves with the greatest ease. It
seems to foresee the coming storm long ere the seamen can discover any
signs of its approach; and they make this known by congregating together
under the wake of the vessel, as if to shelter themselves from it, and
they thus warn the mariner to guard against the coming danger. At night
they set up a piercing cry. This usefulness to the sailor is the obvious
cause of the latter having such an objection to their being killed. I am
unable to say who Mother Carey was; but I might venture a conjecture why
the bird who guards the seaman with such _care_ bears its familiar name.


The name of "Mother Carey's Chickens" is said to have been originally
bestowed upon Stormy Petrels by Captain Carteret's sailors, probably
from some celebrated ideal hag of that name. As these birds are supposed
to be seen only before stormy weather, they are not welcome visitors.


_Burnomania_ (Vol. v., p. 127.).--Your correspondent ELGINENSIS has got
the "Burnomania" of Dr. William Peebles, the minister of
Newton-upon-Ayr, himself one of the minor poets of Scotland by virtue of
his _Crisis, or the Progress of Revolutionary Principles_, Edinburgh,
1803 and 1804; and _Poems, consisting of Odes and Elegies_, Glasgow,
1810; all in my collection.

Like the transcendent powers of a living vocalist, the genius of Burns
could brook no rival, and for a long period, notwithstanding the futile
attempts of the smaller poetical _fry_ to arrest its progress by their
Lilliputian shafts, the "Ayrshire Ploughman" maintained a species of
monopoly of the public mind and attention.

Dr. Peebles, as a candidate for poetical fame, no doubt found this
"Burnomania" sufficiently annoying; he therefore put forth his puny arm,
in the publication alluded to by ELGINENSIS, to stem it, and,
considering that the poetry of Burns was then in the zenith of its
popularity, we need not add that the worthy Doctor's work proved but a
_turf_ to the _cataract_, and is only now known as a curiosity.

I may however notice, that Dr. Peebles had a deeper _grudge_ than
rivalry to settle with Burns, the satirical poet having aimed at him in
the "Holy Fair" and the "Kirk's Alarm;" and should your correspondent
seek to know more of the author of his book, he will find him noticed in
Paterson's _Contemporaries of Burns_, Edinburgh, 1830.

While upon the subject I may further note, that among many other carpers
at the "Burnomania" was James Maxwell, better known as the "Poet in
Paisley," who attacked Burns and his friend Lapraik in a _brochure_,
entitled "_Animadversions on some Poets and Poetasters of the present
Age, especially R----t B----s and J----n L----k, with a Contrast of some
of the former Age_: Paisley, Neilson, for the Author, 1788. In this
curious piece, which was unknown to Motherwell,--our pair of poets, with
all their patrons and friends,--among whom Maxwell is _shocked_ to find
both _ministers_ and _elders_,--

      "For some of our clergy his poems esteem,
      And some of our elders think no man like him,"--

all these, and such like, are severely censured by the moral poet for
admiring "this stupid blockhead," besides being menaced with a certain
place, to which their favourites are certainly doomed, should they
continue to support such arch-enemies of the Kirk and order. How
appropriate, then, is the remark of the Rev. Hamilton Paul, one of
Burns' warmest admirers and editors, when, _lumping_ all these envious
spirits together, he says,--

  "Some weak attempts have been made by narrow-minded men to expose
  to ridicule this 'Burnomania,' as they term it; but like self-love
  converted by the plastic power of the poet into social affection,
  it is spreading wider and wider every day."

      "Friends' kindred, neighbour, first it doth embrace;
      Our country next, and next all human race."

    J. O.

_Cagots_ (Vol. iv., pp. 190. 331. 387.).--THEOPHYLACT will find an
account of the _Cagots_ in the _Magasin Pittoresque_ for 1838, where
they are stated to be descended from the Goths, their name of _Cagots_
being derived from _caas Goth_ (_chien de Goth_), which corresponds with
the derivation given by Scaliger.

In Brittany they were known under the name of _Cacous_ and _Caqueux_: in
Guienne and Gascony under that of _Cahets_; in Navarre, _Caffos_; in the
mountains of Bearn, &c., as _Cagots_ or _Capots_.

The same work for 1840 contains an account of the _Cretins_; also
noticed by Kohl in his _Alpen-Reisen_ (reviewed in _Westminster Review_,
July, 1849).


_Chantrey's Sleeping Children_ (Vol. ii., pp. 70. 94.).--There is, in
Ashbourne Church in Derbyshire, a beautiful figure of a sleeping child
by Thomas Banks, R.A., from which it is generally said that Chantrey
took the idea of his celebrated monument in Lichfield Cathedral. It is a
tradition in Ashbourne, that Chantrey drew the sketch for his sleeping
children at an inn in the place, immediately after having seen Banks'
sculpture in the parish church. The monument at Ashbourne is to
Penelope, daughter of Sir Brooke Boothby, born April 11th, 1785, died
Nov. 12th, 1791, and on it there are inscriptions in four languages,
English, French, Latin, and Italian. The following description of it,
taken from _The History and Topography of Ashbourne_, may be acceptable
to some your readers, who may compare it with their recollections of
Chantrey's figures:--

  "It represents a child of delicate and amiable features, who has
  long suffered from slow and incurable disease, lightly, but rather
  carelessly, reclining on her right side. The position of the meek
  and lovely sufferer shows that she has just assumed it in order to
  seek temporary relief from pain, or from the weariness that a
  protracted repose, even on the softest materials, eventually
  causes. The little patient is extended, in the position just
  described, on a marble mattress and pillow, to which the hand of
  the sculptor has communicated the apparent texture of the softest
  down. The expression of the countenance is slightly indicative of
  pain, felt even in the intervals of slumber; and the little hands,
  lifted towards the countenance, plainly show that the sufferer has
  so placed them, in order that they and the arms may be in some
  measure a support to the body, and relieve it from the aching
  tenderness caused by long contact with the couch on which it
  rests. Around the head is bound, in loose folds, a handkerchief,
  which allows the artist greater scope to exhibit the child's
  features. The body-costume is a low-fronted frock with short
  sleeves, most gracefully sculptured. The whole of the drapery is
  in the most finished style, and the ease and softness of the folds
  are an admirable proof of the delicate chiselling of the artist.
  He has shown his natural and pure taste in the manner in which he
  has placed the feet. The entire position of the figure is
  faultless; and it represents, with refined fidelity to nature, the
  female infant form, patiently and slowly perishing beneath the
  steady undermining progress of irresistible decay."

    W. FRASER.

_Arkwright_ (Vol. v., p. 320.).--This surname would originally denote
the fabricator of such _arks_, or large chests made of strong oaken
planks, as are still to be found under that name in most old farmhouses,
at least in this neighbourhood, where they are chiefly used for storing
meal or flour. The fact of our translators of the Bible having called
the sacred chest in the Holy of Holies by this term seems to point to a
more general use of the word in their days than at present obtains. Mr.
Hunter (_Hallamsh. Gloss._, p. 5.) says that the strong boxes in which
the Jews kept their valuables were anciently called their arks
(_archas_), and that the word is so found in the _Foedera_, 45 Hen. III.
It occurs twice in the Church Accounts of this parish.

  "1527. Minatus [=e]. [=p]d. Will[=m]us browne _archas_ et cistas

  1744. pd. Wm. Yates for setting up _ark_."

Cf. also Lower's _Eng. Surnames_, 2nd ed., p. 92.; and the Latin _arca_,
a chest, coffer, or box.


  Ecclesfield, Sheffield.

It is rather curious that the word _wright_ for _carpenter_ is still
commonly used in Scotland, but that _Sievewright_ is the only _surname_
in which it appears in that country; while in England it is found in
several, although the word itself is there obsolete, unless it is still
to be found in the northern counties.

    C. E. D.

_Pilgrimages to the Holy Land_ (Vol. v., pp. 289. 290.).--Seeing a
notice in "N. & Q." of Breydenbach's _Opus Transmarinum_, and a
suggestion of Dr. Kitto that this work was written by Felix Faber, I am
induced to call attention to another work written by the latter, which
is still extant in his _own MS._, in the library at Ulm, bearing the
following title: _Fratris Felicis Fabri Evagatorium in Terræ Sanctæ,
Arabiæ et Ægypti Peregrinationem_, and which was printed for the first
time for the Literarische Verein at Stuttgart, a society established
there about ten years since, with objects somewhat similar to our Camden
Society. This was one of its earliest publications, and as the number of
copies printed was very small, the volumes are now rarely to be met
with. The author informs his brethren of the monastery of Ulm, for whose
especial benefit he professes to have written his book, that he composed
it soon after his return from his second journey, the interval between
the first and _second_ journey having been occupied in reading and
making notes from all the existing books on the same subject which he
could meet with (it is to be regretted that he has not given us a list
of these), "de quibus omnibus," he adds, "tuli quidquid deserviebat
proposito meo, ex qua collectura grande volumen comportavi." With this
collection of notes he appears to have set forth on his second
expedition, "_quia post hæc omnia in multis dubius remansi et incertus,
quia multa legeram et pauca videram_." Traversing Jerusalem, Arabia, and
Ægypt, "_conferens ea, quæ prius legeram et collegeram ad ipsa loca, et
concordantias sanctarum scripturarum cum locis, et loca cum scripturis
quantum potui, investigavi et signavi. Inter hæc nonnunquam de locis
sanctis etiam, in quibus non fui, exactam diligentiam feci, ut earum
dispositionem conscriberem, sed non nisi illo addito: ibi non fui, sed
auditu aut lectione didici._"

[The MS. is dated 1484.]

    F. N.

"_Merchant Adventurers_" (Vol. v., p. 276.).--C. I. P. will find an
account in _Mortimer_ under the head "Of Commerce," &c., vol. ii. p.
164. _et seq._ It refers to Cabot's scheme, as also Chancellor's: the
first charter of incorporation was granted 2 Phil. & Ma. (Feb. 6, 1554)
by the name of "The Merchants Adventurers for the Discoveries of Lands,
Countries, Isles, &c. not before known or frequented by the English,"
&c. In the year 1560, 2 Eliz., her charter confirmed all former charters
and privileges to "the Company of Merchant Adventurers of England," and
likewise granted them two ample charters, one in the sixth, the other in
the twenty-eighth of her reign. In the former of the latter they are
specially designated by Eliz. as "Merchant Adventurers."

[There are other particulars in connexion with them which I do not send
you, reference being easy of access.]

    J. EBFF.

  Bolt Court, Fleet Street.

Anderson's _History of the Origin of Commerce_, 2 vols., London, 1764,
contains some information on the subject of this Company, whose title
was that of "Merchant Adventurers," and whose trade was chiefly with the

In 1604, James I., after concluding a treaty of peace and commerce with
Spain, incorporated a company of merchants for an _exclusive_ trade to
Spain and Portugal; but this monopoly being found prejudicial to
commerce, in the following year the patent was revoked by act of

If C. I. P. has not access to Anderson, and will communicate his
address, I shall be happy to give him any information in my power on
this subject.


  Bury, Lancashire.



The steady progress which sound Archæology is making in this country is
shown, and the benefits which will accrue from such progress to those
who are desirous of investigating the early history of this island and
its inhabitants is rendered evident, by the fact, that discoverers of
primæval remains no longer endeavour to build upon those remains some
strange theories which have no foundation beyond the fancy of those who
pen them. On the contrary, Archæologists are now content to give us
plain and distinct particulars of the discoveries they make, and to
leave to future labourers the task of comparing the different objects,
and of evolving from such comparison those trustworthy illustrations of
our early history which are so highly to be prized. The truth of these
remarks will be seen by a glance at the interesting volume entitled
_Fairford Graves; a Record of Researches in an Anglo-Saxon Burial-place
in Gloucestershire_, in which Mr. Wylie narrates, with much clearness
and simplicity, the result of a very interesting series of excavations
made at Fairford, on the site of a Saxon necropolis, more particularly
of those made at the commencement of the past year. These discoveries
furnish some very valuable materials towards a more complete history of
the Anglo-Saxon civilisation than we yet possess; and Mr. Wylie deserves
the thanks of his brother antiquaries for his well-directed zeal on the
occasion, and for the judicious manner in which he has told his story.
The work is very profusely illustrated; and is one of the best
contributions which have recently been made to the history of our
primæval antiquities.

We have received, and read with great pleasure, _Two Introductory
Lectures upon Archæology, delivered in the University of Cambridge_, by
the Rev. J. H. Marsden. We are not sure that these lectures are not
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The people of Manchester will shortly commence their great experiment of
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thousand volumes, consisting of about twelve thousand books of reference
and eight thousand to form the library of circulation, which will be
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good for London, and for all other places where men do congregate.



FABRICII BIBLIOTHECA LATINA. Ed. Ernesti. Leipsig 1773. Vol. III.

THE ANACALYPSIS. By Godfrey Higgins. 2 Vols. 4to.



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and LI.








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and Judges. Small 4to.

KENT'S ANTHEMS. Vol. I. folio. Edited by Joseph Corfe.





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      [Transcriber's Note: List of volumes and content pages in "Notes
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      | Notes and Queries Vol. I.                                   |
      | Vol., No.     | Date, Year        | Pages     | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. I No.  1 | November  3, 1849 |   1 -  17 | PG #  8603  |
      | Vol. I No.  2 | November 10, 1849 |  18 -  32 | PG # 11265  |
      | Vol. I No.  3 | November 17, 1849 |  33 -  46 | PG # 11577  |
      | Vol. I No.  4 | November 24, 1849 |  49 -  63 | PG # 13513  |
      | Vol. I No.  5 | December  1, 1849 |  65 -  80 | PG # 11636  |
      | Vol. I No.  6 | December  8, 1849 |  81 -  95 | PG # 13550  |
      | Vol. I No.  7 | December 15, 1849 |  97 - 112 | PG # 11651  |
      | Vol. I No.  8 | December 22, 1849 | 113 - 128 | PG # 11652  |
      | Vol. I No.  9 | December 29, 1849 | 130 - 144 | PG # 13521  |
      | Vol. I No. 10 | January   5, 1850 | 145 - 160 | PG #        |
      | Vol. I No. 11 | January  12, 1850 | 161 - 176 | PG # 11653  |
      | Vol. I No. 12 | January  19, 1850 | 177 - 192 | PG # 11575  |
      | Vol. I No. 13 | January  26, 1850 | 193 - 208 | PG # 11707  |
      | Vol. I No. 14 | February  2, 1850 | 209 - 224 | PG # 13558  |
      | Vol. I No. 15 | February  9, 1850 | 225 - 238 | PG # 11929  |
      | Vol. I No. 16 | February 16, 1850 | 241 - 256 | PG # 16193  |
      | Vol. I No. 17 | February 23, 1850 | 257 - 271 | PG # 12018  |
      | Vol. I No. 18 | March     2, 1850 | 273 - 288 | PG # 13544  |
      | Vol. I No. 19 | March     9, 1850 | 289 - 309 | PG # 13638  |
      | Vol. I No. 20 | March    16, 1850 | 313 - 328 | PG # 16409  |
      | Vol. I No. 21 | March    23, 1850 | 329 - 343 | PG # 11958  |
      | Vol. I No. 22 | March    30, 1850 | 345 - 359 | PG # 12198  |
      | Vol. I No. 23 | April     6, 1850 | 361 - 376 | PG # 12505  |
      | Vol. I No. 24 | April    13, 1850 | 377 - 392 | PG # 13925  |
      | Vol. I No. 25 | April    20, 1850 | 393 - 408 | PG # 13747  |
      | Vol. I No. 26 | April    27, 1850 | 409 - 423 | PG # 13822  |
      | Vol. I No. 27 | May       4, 1850 | 425 - 447 | PG # 13712  |
      | Vol. I No. 28 | May      11, 1850 | 449 - 463 | PG # 13684  |
      | Vol. I No. 29 | May      18, 1850 | 465 - 479 | PG # 15197  |
      | Vol. I No. 30 | May      25, 1850 | 481 - 495 | PG # 13713  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. II.                                  |
      | Vol., No.      | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. II No. 31 | June  1, 1850      |   1- 15 | PG # 12589  |
      | Vol. II No. 32 | June  8, 1850      |  17- 32 | PG # 15996  |
      | Vol. II No. 33 | June 15, 1850      |  33- 48 | PG # 26121  |
      | Vol. II No. 34 | June 22, 1850      |  49- 64 | PG # 22127  |
      | Vol. II No. 35 | June 29, 1850      |  65- 79 | PG # 22126  |
      | Vol. II No. 36 | July  6, 1850      |  81- 96 | PG # 13361  |
      | Vol. II No. 37 | July 13, 1850      |  97-112 | PG # 13729  |
      | Vol. II No. 38 | July 20, 1850      | 113-128 | PG # 13362  |
      | Vol. II No. 39 | July 27, 1850      | 129-143 | PG # 13736  |
      | Vol. II No. 40 | August  3, 1850    | 145-159 | PG # 13389  |
      | Vol. II No. 41 | August 10, 1850    | 161-176 | PG # 13393  |
      | Vol. II No. 42 | August 17, 1850    | 177-191 | PG # 13411  |
      | Vol. II No. 43 | August 24, 1850    | 193-207 | PG # 13406  |
      | Vol. II No. 44 | August 31, 1850    | 209-223 | PG # 13426  |
      | Vol. II No. 45 | September  7, 1850 | 225-240 | PG # 13427  |
      | Vol. II No. 46 | September 14, 1850 | 241-256 | PG # 13462  |
      | Vol. II No. 47 | September 21, 1850 | 257-272 | PG # 13936  |
      | Vol. II No. 48 | September 28, 1850 | 273-288 | PG # 13463  |
      | Vol. II No. 49 | October  5, 1850   | 289-304 | PG # 13480  |
      | Vol. II No. 50 | October 12, 1850   | 305-320 | PG # 13551  |
      | Vol. II No. 51 | October 19, 1850   | 321-351 | PG # 15232  |
      | Vol. II No. 52 | October 26, 1850   | 353-367 | PG # 22624  |
      | Vol. II No. 53 | November  2, 1850  | 369-383 | PG # 13540  |
      | Vol. II No. 54 | November  9, 1850  | 385-399 | PG # 22138  |
      | Vol. II No. 55 | November 16, 1850  | 401-415 | PG # 15216  |
      | Vol. II No. 56 | November 23, 1850  | 417-431 | PG # 15354  |
      | Vol. II No. 57 | November 30, 1850  | 433-454 | PG # 15405  |
      | Vol. II No. 58 | December  7, 1850  | 457-470 | PG # 21503  |
      | Vol. II No. 59 | December 14, 1850  | 473-486 | PG # 15427  |
      | Vol. II No. 60 | December 21, 1850  | 489-502 | PG # 24803  |
      | Vol. II No. 61 | December 28, 1850  | 505-524 | PG # 16404  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. III.                                 |
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. III No. 62 | January  4, 1851  |   1- 15 | PG # 15638  |
      | Vol. III No. 63 | January 11, 1851  |  17- 31 | PG # 15639  |
      | Vol. III No. 64 | January 18, 1851  |  33- 47 | PG # 15640  |
      | Vol. III No. 65 | January 25, 1851  |  49- 78 | PG # 15641  |
      | Vol. III No. 66 | February  1, 1851 |  81- 95 | PG # 22339  |
      | Vol. III No. 67 | February  8, 1851 |  97-111 | PG # 22625  |
      | Vol. III No. 68 | February 15, 1851 | 113-127 | PG # 22639  |
      | Vol. III No. 69 | February 22, 1851 | 129-159 | PG # 23027  |
      | Vol. III No. 70 | March  1, 1851    | 161-174 | PG # 23204  |
      | Vol. III No. 71 | March  8, 1851    | 177-200 | PG # 23205  |
      | Vol. III No. 72 | March 15, 1851    | 201-215 | PG # 23212  |
      | Vol. III No. 73 | March 22, 1851    | 217-231 | PG # 23225  |
      | Vol. III No. 74 | March 29, 1851    | 233-255 | PG # 23282  |
      | Vol. III No. 75 | April  5, 1851    | 257-271 | PG # 23402  |
      | Vol. III No. 76 | April 12, 1851    | 273-294 | PG # 26896  |
      | Vol. III No. 77 | April 19, 1851    | 297-311 | PG # 26897  |
      | Vol. III No. 78 | April 26, 1851    | 313-342 | PG # 26898  |
      | Vol. III No. 79 | May  3, 1851      | 345-359 | PG # 26899  |
      | Vol. III No. 80 | May 10, 1851      | 361-382 | PG # 32495  |
      | Vol. III No. 81 | May 17, 1851      | 385-399 | PG # 29318  |
      | Vol. III No. 82 | May 24, 1851      | 401-415 | PG # 28311  |
      | Vol. III No. 83 | May 31, 1851      | 417-440 | PG # 36835  |
      | Vol. III No. 84 | June  7, 1851     | 441-472 | PG # 37379  |
      | Vol. III No. 85 | June 14, 1851     | 473-488 | PG # 37403  |
      | Vol. III No. 86 | June 21, 1851     | 489-511 | PG # 37496  |
      | Vol. III No. 87 | June 28, 1851     | 513-528 | PG # 37516  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. IV.                                  |
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx |
      | Vol. IV No.  88 | July  5, 1851      |   1- 15 | PG # 37548 |
      | Vol. IV No.  89 | July 12, 1851      |  17- 31 | PG # 37568 |
      | Vol. IV No.  90 | July 19, 1851      |  33- 47 | PG # 37593 |
      | Vol. IV No.  91 | July 26, 1851      |  49- 79 | PG # 37778 |
      | Vol. IV No.  92 | August  2, 1851    |  81- 94 | PG # 38324 |
      | Vol. IV No.  93 | August  9, 1851    |  97-112 | PG # 38337 |
      | Vol. IV No.  94 | August 16, 1851    | 113-127 | PG # 38350 |
      | Vol. IV No.  95 | August 23, 1851    | 129-144 | PG # 38386 |
      | Vol. IV No.  96 | August 30, 1851    | 145-167 | PG # 38405 |
      | Vol. IV No.  97 | Sept.  6, 1851     | 169-183 | PG # 38433 |
      | Vol. IV No.  98 | Sept. 13, 1851     | 185-200 | PG # 38491 |
      | Vol. IV No.  99 | Sept. 20, 1851     | 201-216 | PG # 38574 |
      | Vol. IV No. 100 | Sept. 27, 1851     | 217-246 | PG # 38656 |
      | Vol. IV No. 101 | Oct.  4, 1851      | 249-264 | PG # 38701 |
      | Vol. IV No. 102 | Oct. 11, 1851      | 265-287 | PG # 38773 |
      | Vol. IV No. 103 | Oct. 18, 1851      | 289-303 | PG # 38864 |
      | Vol. IV No. 104 | Oct. 25, 1851      | 305-333 | PG # 38926 |
      | Vol. IV No. 105 | Nov.  1, 1851      | 337-358 | PG # 39076 |
      | Vol. IV No. 106 | Nov.  8, 1851      | 361-374 | PG # 39091 |
      | Vol. IV No. 107 | Nov. 15, 1851      | 377-396 | PG # 39135 |
      | Vol. IV No. 108 | Nov. 22, 1851      | 401-414 | PG # 39197 |
      | Vol. IV No. 109 | Nov. 29, 1851      | 417-430 | PG # 39233 |
      | Vol. IV No. 110 | Dec.  6, 1851      | 433-460 | PG # 39338 |
      | Vol. IV No. 111 | Dec. 13, 1851      | 465-478 | PG # 39393 |
      | Vol. IV No. 112 | Dec. 20, 1851      | 481-494 | PG # 39438 |
      | Vol. IV No. 113 | Dec. 27, 1851      | 497-510 | PG # 39503 |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. V.                                   |
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         |  Pages  | PG # xxxxx |
      | Vol. V  No. 114 | January  3, 1852   |   1- 18 | PG # 40171 |
      | Vol. V  No. 115 | January 10, 1852   |  25- 45 | PG # 40582 |
      | Vol. V  No. 116 | January 17, 1852   |  49- 70 | PG # 40642 |
      | Vol. V  No. 117 | January 24, 1852   |  73- 94 | PG # 40678 |
      | Vol. V  No. 118 | January 31, 1852   |  97-118 | PG # 40716 |
      | Vol. V  No. 119 | February  7, 1852  | 121-142 | PG # 40742 |
      | Vol. V  No. 120 | February 14, 1852  | 145-167 | PG # 40743 |
      | Vol. V  No. 121 | February 21, 1852  | 170-191 | PG # 40773 |
      | Vol. V  No. 122 | February 28, 1852  | 193-215 | PG # 40779 |
      | Vol. V  No. 123 | March  6, 1852     | 217-239 | PG # 40804 |
      | Vol. V  No. 124 | March 13, 1852     | 241-263 | PG # 40843 |
      | Vol. V  No. 125 | March 20, 1852     | 265-287 | PG # 40910 |
      | Vol. V  No. 126 | March 27, 1852     | 289-310 | PG # 40987 |
      | Vol. V  No. 127 | April  3, 1852     | 313-335 | PG # 41138 |
      | Vol. V  No. 128 | April 10, 1852     | 337-358 | PG # 41171 |
      | Vol. V  No. 129 | April 17, 1852     | 361-383 | PG # 41205 |
      | Vol. V  No. 130 | April 24, 1852     | 385-407 | PG #41254  |
      | Vol I. Index. [Nov. 1849-May 1850]             | PG # 13536 |
      | INDEX TO THE SECOND VOLUME. MAY-DEC., 1850     | PG # 13571 |
      | INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. JAN.-JUNE, 1851     | PG # 26770 |
      | INDEX TO THE FOURTH VOLUME. JULY-DEC., 1851    | PG # 40166 |

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. V, Number 131, May 1, 1852 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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