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Title: Notes and Queries, Vol. V, Number 132, May 8, 1852 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. V, Number 132, May 8, 1852 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

[Transcriber's note: Original spelling variations have not been
standardized. Characters with macrons have been marked in brackets with
an equal sign, as [=e] for a letter e with a macron on top; [)u] shows a
character with breve. Underscores have been used to indicate _italic_
fonts. A list of volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries" has been added
at the end.]





"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

VOL. V.--No. 132. SATURDAY, MAY 8. 1852.

Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition, 5_d._



      On Sir Robert Peel, and his Claims to be remembered
      by the Literary Men of England                             433


      Sitting in Bede's Chair, by Cuthbert Bede                  434

      Inedited Poetry, by W. Sparrow Simpson                     435

      On a Passage in "Measure for Measure," Act I. Sc. 1.,
      by S. W. Singer                                            435

      Folk Lore:--Sites of Buildings mysteriously
      changed--Burning the Bush--Essex Superstition              436

      Old Song, "Not long ago I drank a full Pot"                437

      Minor Notes:--Boston and Bunker's Hill--Snooks--Last
      Slave sold in England--Hoax on Sir Walter Scott            438


      Irish Queries                                              439

      Minor Queries:--The Azores--Johnny Crapaud--Poems
      in the "Spectator"--Old John Harries, "Bishop of
      Wales"--University Hood--Black Rood in Scotland; Cross
      Neytz--Crown Jewels once kept at Holt Castle--"Cane
      Decane," &c.--Rev. John Meekins, D.D.--Finsbury
      Manor--Frebord--The Stature of Queen Elizabeth--Portrait
      of Charles Mordaunt, Earl of Peterborough--Inscription
      by Luther--"O Juvenis frustra," &c.--All-fours--Richard,
      second Son of the Conqueror--Francis Walkinghame--Optical
      Phenomenon                                                 439

      MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--Abraham-men--Author of "Le Blason
      des Couleurs"--Banyan-day--General Urmston--Works of
      Alexander Neville--Lindisfarne--Index to the Critical
      Review--"No great shakes" Translation of Richard de
      Bury--Life of Ken--Wedding Rings--Monasteries, &c.
      dissolved--Bishops at the Hampton Court Controversy        442


      Scottish Regalia                                           443

      Gospel Oaks, by Professor Theodore Goedes                  444

      Mitigation of Capital Punishment to a Forger               444

      Lords Marchers of Wales, by E. Smirke                      445

      Doctrine of the Resurrection                               446

      Can a Clergyman marry himself?                             446

      Replies to Minor Queries:--Algernon Sydney--Cock-and-Bull
      Stories--Thomas Crawford--Longevity--Theological
      Tract: The Huntyng of the Romish Fox--Moke--Ground
      Ice--Nobleman alluded to by Bishop Berkeley--House at
      Welling--Constable of Scotland--The Iron Plate in Lewes
      Castle--Chelwoldesbury--"The King's Booke"--Key
      Experiments--Rhymes on Places--Old Scots March,
      &c.--Ecclesiastical Geography--"Please the Pigs"--The Word
      Shunt--Plato's Lines in "Antho. Palat."--Abigail--Nuremberg
      Token--Meaning of Lode--Mother Damnable--Monuments
      of De la Beche Family--Coke and Cowper--Monumental
      Portraits--Motto on Chimney-piece--"Ve dâl am
      daro"--White-livered--Enigmatical Epitaphs--Pelican in
      her Piety, &c.                                             447


      Notes on Books, &c.                                        454

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted                               454

      Notices to Correspondents                                  454

      Advertisements                                             455


One of the most interesting of the recently published parts of Murray's
_Reading for the Rail_ is unquestionably _Theodore Hook, a Sketch_,
which has been reprinted from the _Quarterly Review_, with some
additional notes. Of these there is one (at p. 62.) which presents us
with the following honorable and characteristic anecdote of the late Sir
Robert Peel:--

  "The writer of this sketch, now that Sir R. Peel is no more among
  us, takes this, perhaps his only opportunity of mentioning the
  generosity of that statesman's conduct towards Maginn. The Doctor
  having always retained the strong feelings of an Irish Orangeman,
  was one of those who condemned with severity Sir Robert's
  pro-Catholic policy of 1829; nor, perhaps was there any one writer
  of the time by whom the personal motives of the minister were more
  unmercifully dealt with. The Doctor assailed them with unwearied
  pertinacity, in various newspapers and magazines; but especially
  in rhymes only less galling than the fiercest of Swift's. He had
  never been personally acquainted with Peel, who could have known
  nothing about him so distinctly as this hostility. Yet when, a few
  years before Maginn's death, some of his friends were privately
  making a subscription to relieve him from some pressing
  difficulties, Sir Robert, casually hearing of it, immediately sent
  through the writer of this sketch, with a stipulation for secrecy,
  the sum of 100_l._ as a contribution to the fund. The writer
  believes that Sir Robert on various subsequent occasions
  interfered on the Doctor's behalf in a manner not less liberal,
  and with the same delicate precautions. At all events, when the
  doctor was near his end, Sir Robert forwarded for his use a
  similar benefaction of 100_l._ The writer has no reason to suppose
  that Maginn was ever aware of any of these kind deeds. It remains
  to be added that, some years after Dr. Maginn's death, his only
  son, on attaining the requisite age, received a cadetship in the
  East Indies from Sir Robert Peel's last government."--(1852.)

The perusal of this interesting passage has reminded us of a desire
which we felt most strongly at the time when the country lost the
distinguished man to whom it relates; and which we should then have
given expression to, but for the fear that in the multitude of projects
for doing honour to his memory then floating before the public eye,
what we had to propose might not be received in the way which his merits

Sir Robert Peel was pre-eminently a patron of English Literature and
literary men; and we hoped, and do still hope, to see a recognition of
his great claims in that special character on the part of the men of
letters in this country. The most appropriate that occurs to us would be
the erection of his bust or statue in the vestibule of that national
establishment, in the welfare and management of which he always took so
great an interest--we mean the British Museum.

The minister who, in terms alike honorable to himself and to the man of
letters to whom the dignity was offered, tendered a baronetcy to
Southey, and conferred upon him a pension of 300_l._ a year--who gave
the same amount to Wordsworth--who gave to James Montgomery 150_l._ a
year, and to Tytler, to Tennyson, and to M'Culloch, each 200_l._ a
year--who bestowed a pension upon Frances Brown, and gave a 100_l._ a
year to the widow of Thomas Hood--who gave the first appointment of his
first administration to a son of Allan Cunningham, and placed the sons
of Mrs. Hemans in the service of the Crown,--Sir Robert Peel, the man
and the minister who could thus recognise the claims of Literature[1],
and not, like ministers of old, stipulate for a return in the political
support of those whom he so distinguished, was surely a person whose
memory the men of letters in this country should not be slow to honour.

  [Footnote 1: We have confined our remarks to Sir Robert Peel's
  patronage of Literature; but that patronage was as liberally
  bestowed upon Science and Art. To him Mrs. Somerville and Sir M.
  Faraday were indebted for their pensions; and while his friendship
  with Lawrence, Wilkie, and Chantrey, and his patronage of Collins,
  Roberts, Stansfield, &c., cannot be forgotten, his prompt and most
  kind response to poor Haydon's application for assistance, though
  addressed to him at a moment when plunged in the fiercest
  political struggle in which he was ever engaged, can never be

Let us hope that the moment has arrived when they will do justice to him
who was so ready to recognise their claims. Let Lord Mahon or Mr.
Hallam, who enjoyed the friendship of Sir Robert Peel, step forward and
begin the good work. An appeal from either of them would arouse a host.
They would be supported by all who love Literature, from the highest to
the humblest. Who can doubt that the author of _Coningsby_ and the
author of _Don Carlos_ would rejoice at the opportunity, which would
thus be afforded them, of uniting to do honour to the memory of a
political opponent, in that character in which he deservedly won the
applause of all men--as the judicious and munificent PATRON OF THE



One of the most interesting antiquities of Jarrow Church,
Northumberland, is the chair of the Venerable Bede. It is preserved in
the vestry of the church, whither all brides repair as soon as the
marriage service is over, to seat themselves upon it. This, according to
the popular belief, will make them the joyful mothers of children; and
the expectant mothers (as I have been informed) would not consider the
marriage ceremony complete, until they had been enthroned in the
Venerable Bede's chair. The chair is very rude and substantial; made of
oak; in height, four feet ten inches; having an upright back, and sides
that slope off for the arms. According to the barbarous English fashion,
it is carved over with the nomenclature of all the vulgar obscurities of
the neighbourhood, whose sacrilegious penknives, together with the
wanton depredations of relic-hunters, have so "shorn" the chair of its
"fair proportions," that soon nothing but its attenuated form, "small by
degrees, and beautifully less," will be left for the future Childe
Harold to address with--

                          "Can it be,
      That this is all remains of thee?"

Every foreigner who has visited our churches and cathedrals cannot fail
to remark how the English love of popularity glares forth in its most
sickly form in this barbarous custom of writing and carving names upon
monuments, or other works of art. Every observant person, too, when he
sees John Smith's name and full address, scratched with painful and
elaborate accuracy upon the stern but noseless face of some alabaster
knight, while he wonders at the gratuitous trouble which John Smith has
taken, must deplore the want of education thus so lamentably evinced.
Happily, this vulgar taste (so far as our churches are concerned) is now
under some control; but, nevertheless, it is still sad to see--at
Lichfield, for example--that control obliged to take the visible shape
of railings, to prevent Messrs. Smith, Brown, Jones, and Robinson from
handing their names down to posterity on the life-like marble of
Chantrey's "Sleeping Children." I have heard that this mode of defacing
monuments took its rise in the time of the Protectorate; and I would
wish to put this in the form of a _Query_: Whether it was so, or no?
With the impression that it _was_ the case, I have for many years past
examined the dates that accompanied names scratched upon monuments, and
never found a date earlier than the Protectorate. The subject seems
worth the inquiry.

To return to Bede's chair. It has often been engraved: but the best
representation of it that I know, is that by Mr. W. B. Scott, in his
_Antiquarian Gleanings of the North of England_. Besides his careful
etching of the present state of the chair, he also gives a suggestive
woodcut of its restoration. The ornamental portion he confines to the
front of the seat, and the head of the chair.


_Dedication Stone at Jarrow Church._--While on the subject of Bede's
chair at Jarrow, it may not prove altogether useless to transcribe you a
faithful copy of the dedication stone of Jarrow Church, which is now
placed against the tower-arch of the nave:





The _first_ piece in the volume of MS. poetry referred to in my
communication in Vol. v., p. 387., may perhaps be deemed of sufficient
interest to occupy a place in your columns. It is entitled "A Ballad,"
and appears to me worthy of notice from its quaintness both in style and

      "A BALLAD.

      "Sure glorious Modesty again will rise,
      Since she can conquer in bright Marcia's eyes.
      Each look of hers creates a lambent fire,
      And youth and age concur her virtue to admire.
      Hence flow these lines from an unpolish'd hand,
      Which thinks her Marcia should the world command.
      Go, lovely maid, and let each virgin see
      How graceful modesty appears in thee.
      That they may all thy imitators be,
      And give example to posterity.


      "View Marcia's native charms,
        She's graceful in behaviour,
      By wise advice she steers,
        And with all the world's in favour.
      No foolish talk slides from her tongue,
        Her eyes ne'er wanton seem,
      Regards her friends, respects the great,
        And is humble to the mean.


      "How gentle is her voice,
        Not loud with foul detraction,
      Good sense guides all her words,
        And prudence every action.
      Not stiff in dress, or careless she,
        But in the graceful mean,
      What e'er she wears she still appears
        Like some majestic queen.


      "Her mind and thoughts still tends [sic]
        How to perform her duty;
      To her parents' laws she bends,
        Which adds more to her beauty.
      In conduct she a matron is
        With cheerful air and mein, [sic]
      The steddiness of sixty years, [sic]
        In look she's scarce fifteen.


      "In friendship most sincere,
        As well as in devotion,
      To herself alone severe,
        And guards her every motion.
      Her conquering eyes give her no pride,
        Her charms she will not know,
      Nor meaner beautys does deride [sic],
        Tho' they their envy show.


      "How lovely is that face
        Where modesty's adorning,
      And Marcia with that grace
        Is improving every morning.
      She like the glorious sun in spring
        Is encreasing every day,
      For her Apollo's harp he'll string,
        And the Muses sing their lay.


      "How happy is this nymph,
        Whose noble inclination,
      All subtle arts contemns
        And sligh made assignation: [sic]
      Whose hours are spent in useful works,
        Or reading tracts divine,
      The young, the grave, the wise, the brave,
        Pay homage at her shrine.
              And so does
                    Her humble slave,

                    "JUBA ISSHAM."

I hope that some of your readers will be able to explain this signature,
which is to me inexplicable.



Dr. Johnson long since observed that "there is perhaps not one of
Shakspeare's plays more darkened than this by the peculiarities of its
author, and the unskilfulness of its editors, by distortions of phrase,
or negligence of transcription."

Under these circumstances we cannot be surprised that we are favoured
with three pages of notes on the following passage, which occurs in the
opening scene:

      "_Duke._ Escalus.

      "_Escal._          My lord.

      "_Duke._ Of government the properties to unfold,
      Would seem in me to affect speech and discourse:
      Since I am put to know, that your own science
      Exceeds, in that, the lists of all advice
      My strength can give you: Then no more remains
      But that to your sufficiency, as your worth is able,
      And let them work."

I must refer those who are desirous of seeing the various attempts to
extract a meaning from this passage to the Variorum Edition, and content
myself with those of the two latest editors, Mr. Collier and Mr. Knight.

Mr. Collier says:

  "This passage is evidently corrupt, as is shown both by the metre
  and the sense. The latter will be cleared by the omission of the
  preposition 'to:' 'then no more remains [to be said], but that
  your sufficiency, as your worth is able, and let them work.' This
  change, however, will only partially cure the defective measure;
  and even were we to omit 'that,' as well as 'to,' the line would
  not be perfect without reducing 'sufficiency' to a trisyllable. It
  has been thought best, therefore, to leave the text as it stands
  in the first folio. 'Sufficiency' is adequate authority."

Mr. Knight says:

  "We encounter at the onset one of the obscure passages for which
  this play is remarkable. The text is usually printed thus:

                      "'Then no more remains
      But that to your sufficiency, as your worth is able,
      And let them work.'

  "It is certainly difficult to extract a clear meaning from this;
  and so Theobald and Hanmer assume that a line has dropped out,
  which they kindly restore to us, each in his own way. The
  emendation which Steevens proposes is much less forced: 'Then'
  (says the Duke), 'no more remains to say,

      "'But your sufficiency as your worth is able,
      And let them work.'

  "It is not our purpose to remove obscurities by additions or
  omissions, and therefore we leave the passage as in the original,
  excepting a slight alteration in the punctuation. We believe it
  may be read thus, without much difficulty. '_Then no more remains_
  (to say on government) _But that_, (your science) _to your
  sufficiency_, (joined to your authority) _as your worth_ (as well
  as your virtue) _is able_ (equal to the duty), _and let them work_
  (call them into action).'"

I cannot say that this exposition (paraphrastic as it is) is clear to
me; and I feel confident that our great poet never wrote the words "But
that," following as they do "Exceeds in that." What does "But that"
refer to? It cannot refer to "science," as Mr. Knight imagines. The
remedy lies in a very trifling correction of the press. In the MS. from
which the play was printed, the words "But thrto" were thus written, and
the compositor mistook "thr" for "tht;" there is no comma after _that_
in the old copies. Replace "thereto" and the passage is perfectly clear
as to sense.

                    "Then no more remains
      But _thereto_ your sufficiency, as your worth is able,
      And let them work."

It may be necessary to show that the word I propose would be used by the
poet just in the sense required here. The following passage from the
_Winter's Tale_, Act I. Sc. 2., will, I think, place it beyond doubt:

      As you are certainly a gentleman, _thereto_
      Clerk-like experienc'd, which no less adorns
      Our gentry, than our parents' noble names,
      In whose success we are gentle," &c.

I take the sense of the whole passage thus: "Since I must acknowledge
that you are better skilled in the nature of _government_ than I am, it
would be idle in me to lecture you on the subject. Then nothing more is
wanting but _thereto_ your sufficient authority (_i.e._ to govern), as
you have the ability, and let them (your skill and authority) come into

_Sufficiency_, as Warburton long ago observed, is _authority_, but may
possibly be here used in the Latin sense of _substitution_. Escalus is
to be Vice-gerent. The very slight change necessary, and the great
probability of the occurrence of the error, strongly recommend this
simple emendation.

Daily experience is manifesting how large a portion of the difficult
passages are errors of the printer of the first folio, the two happy
corrections lately given in _The Athenæum_, for instance: who can doubt
that in _Coriolanus_, Act III. Sc. 1., "Bosome-multi_p_lied" should be
"Bissom-multitude:" or that, in _All's Well that Ends Well_, Act V. Sc.
3., "infuite comming" should be "infinite cunning?" A glance at the
passages as they stand in the old print of the first folio would
convince the most sceptical. A list of mere printer's errors in that
book would be not a little astounding.

    S. W. SINGER.

  [It may be proper to observe, that this Note by MR. SINGER had
  been in the Editor's possession at least a fortnight previous to
  the appearance of that by our esteemed correspondent at Leeds in
  our last Number.]


_Sites of Buildings mysteriously changed._--It may be amusing to the
readers of "N. & Q.," and attended with some useful result, to record a
few popular traditions respecting the mysterious opposition to the
building of certain edifices on the spots originally designed for them
by their founders. I will introduce the subject with the local
traditions about the building of three churches well known to myself.

1. The church of Breedon, in Leicestershire, stands alone on a high
hill, the village being at its foot. The hill is so steep on the side
towards the village, that a carriage can only ascend by taking a very
circuitous course; and even the footpath winds considerably, and in some
parts ascends by steps formed in the turf. The inconvenience of such a
situation for the church is obvious, and the stranger, of course,
wonders at the folly of those who selected a site for a church which
would necessarily preclude the aged and infirm from attending public
worship. But the initiated parishioner soon steps forward to enlighten
him on the subject, and assures him the pious founder consulted the
convenience of the village, and assigned a central spot for the site of
the church. There the foundation was dug, and there the builders began
to rear the fabric; but all they built in the course of the day was
carried away by _doves_ in the night, and skilfully built in the same
manner on the hill where the church now stands. Both founder and
workmen, awed by this extraordinary interference, agreed to finish the
edifice thus begun by doves.

2. The parish church of Wendover, in Buckinghamshire, stands nearly half
a mile from the town. The church was to have been placed on a field
adjoining the town, and there the building of it was begun; but the
materials were all carried away in the night by witches, or, as some
relate the tradition, by fairies, and deposited where the church now
stands. The field in which the church was to have been built is still
called "Witches' Meadow."

3. The parish church of Winwick, Lancashire, stands near that
miracle-working spot where St. Oswald, king of the Northumbrians, was
killed. The founder had destined a different site for it, but his
intention was overruled by a singular personage, whose will he never
dreamed of consulting. It must here be noticed that Winwick had then not
even received its name; the church, as not uncommon in those days, being
one of the earliest erections in the parish. The foundation of the
church, then, was laid where the founder had directed, and the close of
the first day's labour showed the workmen had not been idle, by the
progress made in the building. But the approach of night brought to pass
an event which utterly destroyed the repose of the few inhabitants
around the spot. A pig was seen running hastily to the site of the new
church; and as he ran he was heard to cry or scream aloud "We-ee-wick,
We-ee-wick, We-ee-wick!" Then, taking up a stone in his mouth, he
carried it to the spot sanctified by the death of St. Oswald, and thus
employing himself through the whole night, succeeded in removing all the
stones which had been laid by the builders. The founder, feeling himself
justly reproved for not having chosen that sacred spot for the site of
his church, unhesitatingly yielded to the wise counsel of the pig. Thus
the pig not only decided the site of the church, but gave a name to the

In support of this tradition, there is the figure of a pig sculptured on
the tower of the church, just above the western entrance; and also the
following Latin doggerel:

      "Hic locus, Oswalde, quondam placuit tibi valde;
      Northanhumbrorum fueras Rex, nuncque Polorum
      Regna tenes, loco passus Marcelde vocato."

May not the phrase "Please the pigs" have originated in the above
tradition, since the founder of Winwick Church was obliged to succumb to
the pleasure of his porkish majesty?

Instances of equally marvellous changes in the sites of buildings are
recorded in Bede, and other monkish writers. Perhaps it would not be
difficult to unravel the mystery of such changes.

    W. H. K.

_Burning the Bush._--While in Herefordshire last spring, I noticed a
singular custom in the agricultural districts. When the wheat is just
springing out of the ground, the farmer's servants rise before daybreak,
and cut a branch of thorn of a particular kind. They then make a large
fire in the field, in which they burn a portion of it; the remaining
part is afterwards hung up in the house. They do this to prevent the
smut, or mildew, affecting the wheat.



_Essex Superstition._--An uncle of mine, who has a large farm near
Ilford, tells me, that observing a horse-shoe nailed to the door of one
of his cow-houses, he asked the cow-keeper why he had fixed it there.
The lad gravely replied, "Why, to keep the wild-horse away, to be sure."
This is, to me, a new reason for the practice.

I have learned that the superstition about the bees deserting their
hives on the death of one of their owner's family, is common in the same
county. A lady tells me, that calling upon some poor people who lived at
Hyde Green, near Ingatestone, she inquired after the bees. The old woman
of the house replied, "They have all gone away since the death of poor
Dick; for we forgot to knock at the hives, and tell them he was gone



I send another old song; and, as in the case of the "Cuckold's Cap," I
would ask is it known?

      Not long ago I drank a full pot,
        Full of sack up to the brim,
      I drank to my friend, and he drank his pot,
        Thus we put about the whim.
      Six bottles at a draught he pour'd down his throat;
        But what are such puny sips as these?
      I laid me all along, with my mouth unto the bung,
        And I drank up a hogshead to the lees.

      I have heard of one who drank whole tankards,
        And styl'd himself the Prince of Sots;
      But what are such poor puny drunkards?
        Melt their tankards, break their pots.
      My friend and I did join for a cellar full of wine,
        We drank the vintner out of door,
      We drank it ev'ry drop, one morning at the tap,
        And we greedily star'd about for more.

      My friend then to me made this motion,
        Don't let's part thus with dry lips;
      With that we sail'd upon the ocean,
        Where we met with a fleet of ships;
      All laden with wine which was superfine,
        The merchants they had ten thousand tun,
      We drank it all at sea, before they reach'd the quay,
        And the merchants swore they were all undone.

      My friend not having quench'd his thirst,
        Said, to the vineyard let us haste;
      There we seized the canary first,
        That yielded to us but a taste:
      From thence unto the Rhine, where we drank up all their wine;
        Till Bacchus cried "Hold, hold! 'ere I die!"
      He swore he never found, in the universe around,
        Two such thirsty souls as my friend and I.

      "Pooh!" says one, "what a beast he makes himself,
        He can neither stand nor go!"
      "Sir," said I, "that's a grand mistake of yours,
        For when did you ever know a beast drink so?
      'Tis when we drink the least, we drink the most like beasts;
        'Tis when we carouse with six in hand;
      'Tis then and only then, we drink about like men,
        When we drink 'till we neither can go nor stand."

    J. R. R.

Minor Notes.

_Boston and Bunker's Hill._--In the plan of Boston, among the maps of
the Useful Knowledge Society, is to be found, near Charleston, and on
Breed's Hill (the real site of the battle usually misnamed as of
Bunker's Hill), the following notice, "Defeat of the British, 1775." My
first idea was, that, _Liberal_ though the Society might be, it was
being rather too liberal to give away in this manner a victory which,
however bloody and fruitless, was indubitably ours: but, on second
thoughts, it seemed that the whole fault arose from copying too
implicitly an American map. Now I am well aware that a very large part
of the Americans, from continually vaunting (and with good reason) the
valour they displayed, and the honour they acquired, on that occasion,
have gradually worked themselves into the belief that they were the
victors, even though their own historians tell a different tale; and
they have even placed inscriptions on the monuments standing on the site
of the intrenchments from which they were forced by the British; which
inscriptions also assert a similar claim. This would be of no great
consequence had it been confined to themselves; but its being
transferred to an English publication not only tends to mislead many
persons on this side, but enables the Americans to refer with confidence
to it, as an admission of _their_ victory on the part of the British;
and no one who remembers the use they made, on the Oregon Question, of a
similarly occasioned error in one of the Society's globes, can doubt
that our Transatlantic friends would make the most of this trifling
affair in confirmation of their claims to the victory.

    J. S. WARDEN.

_Snooks._--This name, so generally associated with vulgarity, is only a
corruption, or rather a contraction, of the more dignified name of
_Sevenoaks_. This town is generally called _Se'noaks_ in Kent; and the
further contraction, coupled with the phonetic spelling of former days,
easily passed into _S'nooks_. This is no imaginary conclusion, for I am
told by a trustworthy friend that Messrs. Sharp and Harrison,
solicitors, Southampton, have recently had in their possession a series
of deeds in which all the modes of spelling occur from _Sevenokes_ down
to _S'nokes_, in connexion with a family now known as _Snooks_.

    G. W. J.

_Last Slave sold in England._--Can any of your correspondents tell me
the date of the last public slave sale in England? Till the
establishment of Granville Sharpe's great principle, in 1772,
announcements of these are by no means uncommon. The following, from the
_Public Ledger_ of Dec. 31, 1761, grates harshly upon the feelings of
the present generation:--


  "A healthy negro girl, aged about fifteen years; speaks good
  English, works at her needle, washes well, does household work,
  and has had the small-pox."


_Hoax on Sir Walter Scott._--The following passage occurs in one of Sir
W. Scott's letters to Southey, written in September, 1810:

  "A witty rogue, the other day, who sent me a letter subscribed
  'Detector,' proved me guilty of stealing a passage from one of
  Vida's Latin poems, which I had never seen or heard of; yet there
  was so strong a general resemblance as fairly to authorise
  'Detector's' suspicion."

Lockhart remarks thereupon:

  "The lines of Vida which 'Detector' had enclosed to Scott, as the
  obvious original of the address to 'Woman' in _Marmion_, closing

      "'When pain and anguish wring the brow,
      A ministering angel thou!'

   "end as follows: and it must be owned that if Vida had really
   written them, a more extraordinary example of casual coincidence
   could never have been pointed out.

      "'Cum dolor atque supercilio gravis imminet angor,
            Fungeris angelico sola ministerio.'

   "'Detector's' reference is Vida _ad Eranen_, El. ii. v. 21.; but
   it is almost needless to add there are no such lines, and no
   piece bearing such a title in Vida's works. 'Detector' was, no
   doubt, some young college wag; for his letter has a Cambridge

It may interest to know that the author of this clever hoax was Henry I.
T. Drury, then, I think, of King's College, Cambridge, and afterwards
one of the Masters at Harrow. The lines will be found in the _Arundines

    W. T. M.

  Hong Kong.



1. O'Donovan, in his edition of the _Post-Invasion Annals of the IV.
Masters_, vol. iii. p. 2091. note, says that he "intends to publish a
review of Spenser's _View of the State of Ireland_, in which he will
give him full credit for his discernment of abuses, and expose all his
intentional figments." Query, Has this review since appeared in any
Irish periodical, or other publication?

2. What is the relationship (or may it possibly be the _identity_?)
between Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, who married a daughter of
William, Earl Marshal, the famous Protector, during Henry III.'s
minority, and Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, who married a
daughter of King Edward I.?

3. The inquirer will consider himself extremely indebted to any one who
will inform him of the existence of a set of Middle-Age Maps of the
countries of Europe, of 8vo. or small 4to. size, published in England,
_France_, or _Germany_, in print, or easily to be had second-hand, _more
or less accurate_.

Koch's _Révolutions de l'Europe_, tome iii., Paris, 1814, gives seven
maps of the whole continent and its adjacent islands, at the following
periods of Middle-Age history:

      (1.) Avant l'Invasion des Barbares;
      (2.) Vers la Fin du Ve Siècle;
      (3.) Sous l'Empire de Charlemagne;
      (4.) Vers la Fin du IXe Siecle;
      (5.) Vers 1074;
      (6.) Vers 1300:
      (7.) A l'An 1453;

which contain, of course, but few names of places. Were Europe divided
into five unequal parts, say, 1. The Northern Countries; 2. The British
Isles; 3. The Germanic Countries, Hungary, &c.; 4. France and Spain; 5.
Italy, Turkey, &c.; and maps of these five parts given, the Northern
Countries at three periods, the British Isles at four ditto, and the
others at seven periods, as above, we should require twenty-eight maps
(not too great a number, as the King's College _Modern Atlas_, of a
convenient size, has twenty-five), which if they contained names of
places as closely packed as the King's College _Atlas_, and laid down
from Spruner, or some other trustworthy authority, would soon, it may be
said without much foresight, be in the hands of so many readers of
history, as to answer thoroughly to any bookseller undertaking to bring
them out.

4. A copy of O'Brien's _Irish-English Dictionary_, _first_ edition,
4to., old, half-calf, margins a little water-stained, otherwise perfect
and clean, lately priced at 25_s._, to be exchanged for a clean copy of
the edition of 1832 (inferior in value but more portable), and a clean
copy of Thady Connellan's elementary _Irish Dictionary_, published by
Wall, Temple Bar; Hatchard, and Rivingtons: or the latter will be
purchased at a moderate price, without exchange.

Any one desiring to report the books wanted, to be so kind as to do so
in "N. & Q."


Minor Queries.

_The Azores._--In a note in _Our Village_ (vol. v.), Miss Mitford says
that this name was given to these islands collectively, on account of
the number of hawks and falcons found on them. Is the name Spanish; and
does the Natural History of the islands at the present time confirm the

    J. O'G.

_Johnny Crapaud._--In one of Queen Elizabeth's Wardrobe books is the
following entry of a trinket, devised at the period of the Duke of
Alençon's courting her Majesty:

  "Item, one little Flower of gold, with a _Frog_ thereon; and
  therein mounseer his physnomie, and a little Pearl pendant."

  "'Query,' says Miss Strickland (_Queens_, vol. vi. p. 471., 1st
  edit.), 'was this whimsical conceit a love-token, from the Duke of
  Alençon to his royal _belle amie_, and the frog designed, not as a
  ridiculous, but a sentimental allusion to his country?'"

To which Query I would add another: When was the term of _Johnny
Crapaud_ first applied to the French people, and on what occasion? I am
aware of the notion of its being on account of their said partiality for
eating frogs; which, by the bye, having tasted, I can pronounce to be
very good: _mais chacun à son goût_. Is the frog introduced in the arms
of Anjou or Alençon?


_Poems in the "Spectator."_--The fine moral poems which first appeared
in the _Spectator_, e.g. that commencing "When all thy mercies, O my
God;" the version of the Twenty-third Psalm, "The Lord my pasture shall
prepare;" "The spacious firmament on high," &c., are, as most of our
readers are aware, commonly ascribed to Addison. In a recent collection
of poetical pieces, however, I have seen them attributed to Andrew
Marvell. Can any of your readers certify either of these contradictory

    J. G. F.

_Old John Harries, "Bishop of Wales."_--I have "An Elegy to the Memory
of the late worthy and pious Mr. John Harries of Amleston, in
Pembrokeshire, Preacher of the Gospel;" from which it appears that,
after devoting himself to preaching for forty-six years, through both
North and South Wales, and more particularly in "Roose, Castlemartin,
Pembroke, Haverfordwest, Narberth, Woodstockslop, and Amleston," he died
at Newport on the 7th of March, 1788. Will you allow me to ask your
numerous correspondents whether any of them can assist me in tracing his
pedigree? One of his sons, a minor canon of Bristol, bore the arms of
Owen Gwynedd, viz. "vert, three eagles displayed on a fesse, or," on his
book-plate. He was often called the "Bishop of Wales," from the large
district through which he _overlooked_ the progress of the Gospel.

    I. J. H. H.

  St. Asaph.

_University Hood._--What is the origin of wearing hoods to indicate a
man's University degree; and how old is the practice?

    J. G. F.

_Black Rood in Scotland--Cross Neytz._--Observing that in Vol. ii. of
"N. & Q." pp. 308. 409., and in Vol. iii., p. 104., there is a
discussion about the "Black Rood of Scotland," which does not seem to be
very satisfactorily concluded, I am tempted to send you a passage from
Madox's _Baronia Anglica_, p. 268., &c., which seems to bear upon the
point in question, but I am not competent to say how far it may serve to
throw any light upon the obscurities of the case.

It there appears that 13th Oct. 1306, James Steward of Scotland swore
fealty to King Edw. I.:

  "By his corporal oath, taken upon the consecrated body of Christ;
  and upon _the two holy crosses_, to wit, the _cross Neytz_, and
  the _Blakerode Descoce_, and other holy reliques."

  "In the priory of Lanrecost, in the diocese of Carlisle, before W.
  Bp. of Lichfield and Coventry, the King's Chancellor; and in the
  presence of Adomar de Valence."

I perceive in one of your communications, there is mention of the
_English Cross, the Cross Nigth_, which in Madox is called "the Cross
Neytz." Perhaps some of your antiquarian correspondents will favour us
with some explanation of this cross.

I should wish moreover to elicit some further particulars of _Thomas
Madox, the Historiographer Royal_, who has so well deserved of all
lovers of ancient English history by the four books in folio which he
has left us: especially his _Formulare Anglicanum_, and that work of
prodigious industry and research, his _History of the Exchequer_. There
is some account in Nichols' _Lit. Anecdotes_, but I should wish to see
some more particulars of his life and studies, and a more exact critique
upon his several works.

    J. T. A.

_Crown Jewels once kept at Holt Castle._--I remember reading many years
since (I have forgotten both the title and the subject of the work) that
the _crown jewels_ were once deposited in Holt Castle, about five miles
from Worcester, for greater safety. Can any of your kind correspondents
inform me when and upon what turbulent occasion it was thought necessary
to forward them to the above stronghold on the banks of the Severn, and
who resided there at the time?


_"Cane Decane," &c._--I should like to know, if you can inform me, where
the following couplet is to be found, upon an ecclesiastic singing a
hunting song:

      "Cane Decane canis; sed ne cane, cane Decane,
      De cane, de canis, cane Decane, cane."

Which may be thus freely translated:

      "Hoary Deacon, sing; but then,
      Not of dogs, but hoary men."

    W. W. E. T.

  Warwick Square, Belgravia.

_Rev. John Meekins, D.D._--Are there any letters of the Rev. Jno.
Meekins, D.D., Oxon., chaplain to George, Prince of Denmark, the royal
consort of Queen Anne, extant? and in what year did he die?


_Finsbury Manor._--Will some of your correspondents kindly inform me
where I can meet with an authority to prove the Lord Mayor of London is
styled _mayor_ by virtue of crown charters, and lord as _lord_ of the
manor of Finsbury? I have seen such a statement, but cannot bring to
mind the work in which it occurred.


_Frebord._--I want information on this matter, and consider "N. & Q."
peculiarly the place wherein to seek it, because it is a matter mainly
dependent on local custom. All the notice of Frebord that I have been
able to discover in books is derived from Dugdale. For instance, in
Jacob's _Law Dictionary_, ed. 1807, I read--

  "Frebord, _Franchordus_, ground claimed in some places more or
  less, beyond, or without the fence. It is said to contain two foot
  and a half."

  _Mon. Ang._, tom. ii. p. 141.

I heard, the other day, of a Warwickshire gentleman who claimed ten or
twelve feet; but the immediate reason for my Query is a claim at present
under the notice of a friend of mine is for sixty-six feet freebord! Is
not such a claim preposterous?

    P. M. M.

_The Stature of Queen Elizabeth._--In a book entitled
_Physico-Theology_, being the substance of sixteen sermons preached in
St. Mary-le-Bone Church, London, at the Honourable Mr. Boyle's lectures
in 1711 and 1712, with notes, &c., by the Rev. W. Derham (a _second
edition_, with additions, published in 1714), the authors, in treating
of the stature and size of man's body, says there is great reason to
think the size of man was always the same from the Creation; and in a
note at page 330., after quoting Dr. Hakewill's _Apolog._ and other
authorities, concludes with these words:--

  "Nay, besides all this probable, we have some more certain
  evidence. Augustus was five foot nine inches high, which was the
  just measure of our famous Queen Elizabeth, who exceeded his
  height two inches, if proper allowance be made for the difference
  between the Roman and our foot."--Vide Hakewill, _Apolog._, p.

Probably some of your learned correspondents may give additional
information on this interesting subject.

    J. F. ALLEN.


_Portrait of Charles Mordaunt, Earl of Peterborough._--Can any of your
readers inform me if there exists an original picture of Charles
Mordaunt, the famous Earl of Peterborough, and where such can be seen?


_Inscription by Luther._--In looking at some of the old books in the
library of the British Museum, I observed, on the fly-leaf of an old
Bible, an inscription by Martin Luther, the meaning of which was the

  "Elijah the prophet said, the world had existed 2000 years before
  the law (from Adam to Moses); would exist 2000 years under the
  Mosaic dispensation (from Moses to Christ), and 2000 years under
  the Christian dispensation; and then the world would be burnt."

The manuscript was in German and very much effaced, so that I am not
able to remember the words, though I very well remember the meaning.

Could any reader inform me in what part of the Bible this prophecy of
Elijah's is to be found? for I have searched for it in vain.

    C. H. M.

_"O Juvenis frustra," &c._--I should be glad to be informed, through
your publication, where I may find this line,--

      "O Juvenis frustra est tua Doctrina Plebs amat Remedia."

    J. W. V.

_All-fours._--In Macaulay's essay on Southey's edition of _The Pilgrim's
Progress_ (Longman & Co., p. 184.) occurs a curious use of this

  "The types are often inconsistent with each other; and sometimes
  the allegorical disguise is altogether thrown off.... It is not
  easy to make a simile go on all-fours. But we believe that no
  human ingenuity could produce such a centipede as a long allegory
  in which the correspondence between the outward sign and the thing
  signified should be exactly preserved. Certainly no writer ancient
  or modern has achieved the adventure."

This meaning I cannot find in Bailey's _Dictionary_, and it has escaped
the curious vigilance of Blakie's compilers. The saying, however, is a
very old one. Sir Edward Coke employs it (_Coke upon Littleton_, lib. i.
c. 1. sect. 1. p. 3. _a._):

  "But no simile holds in everything; according to the ancient
  saying, _Nullum simile quatuor pedibus currit_."

There is a marginal reference here to 1 Hen. VII. 16.

Perhaps some of your philological correspondents can throw some light on
the origin of the phrase, or at least give me some other examples of its
use. Is the expression "To be on all-fours with" good English?


_Richard, second Son of the Conqueror_, is said by Hume, and by some
minor writers after him, to have been killed by a stag in the New
Forest; but William of Malmesbury and Roger of Wendover both say that he
died of fever, consequent on malaria, which struck him while hunting
there. This is well known to be of frequent occurrence in the
neighbourhood of desolated human dwellings; and thus seems to involve
even a more striking instance of retributive justice than the fate which
Hume assigns to him. The fatality attending most of this name in our
history is singular. Of nine princes (three of them kings) who have
borne the name of Richard, seven, or, if Hume is right, eight, have died
violent deaths, including four successive generations of the House of

    J. S. WARDEN.

_Francis Walkinghame._--Your correspondent's mention of my _Arithmetical
Books_ (Vol. v., p. 392.) reminds me of a Query which I made in it, and
which has never obtained the slightest answer--Who was Francis
Walkinghame, and when was his work on arithmetic first published? The
earliest edition I know of is the twenty-third, in 1787; but I am told,
on good authority, that Mr. Douce had the sixteenth edition of 1779.


_Optical Phenomenon._--I shall be much obliged to anybody who will
explain a phenomenon which I have observed.

Suppose 1. A street from twenty to thirty feet broad.

2. At the open window of a house on one side stands a man looking at the
corresponding window of the house on the opposite side; that is, he
looks at what was a window, but is now filled up with a large board that
is covered with an inscription of short lines, black on white; in short,
just such a board as one sees at a turnpike gate.

3. From shortness, or defect, of sight (I cannot say which), the man is
unable to read the inscription as he stands at his window.

4. He sits down on a low seat, so as to bring his eye almost close to,
and just on a level with, the sill of his own window. He then slowly
raises and depresses his head. As he does this, it of course appears to
him as if his own window-sill travelled up and down the board opposite.

5. In doing so it comes successively under each line of the inscription.

6. As it does so, that one line becomes perfectly legible.

    N. B.

Minor Queries Answered.

_Abraham-Men._--Although I cannot find it in your former volumes, nor in
your Index, I think there was an inquiry in one of your past Numbers as
to the meaning of the phrase "_To sham Abraham_."

If there has been any reply, will you be good enough to refer me to it?
as it may explain the passage in Burton's _Anatomy of Melancholy_, that
"every village almost will yield dummerers _Abraham-men_," &c. (Part I.
sec. 2., vol. i. p. 360.)

    W. W. E. T.

  Warwick Square, Belgravia.

  ["To sham Abraham" is a cant expression, having reference to the
  practices of a class of vagabonds and cheats once common in this
  country. In Decker's _English Villanies_ there are many curious
  particulars of the habits of this class of impostors. "She's all
  Abram," that is, quite naked. "What an Abram!" an exclamation for
  a ragged fellow. "An Abraham-man" was an impostor who personated a
  poor lunatic called Tom of Bedlam: one of this class is described
  by Shakspeare in his _Lear_, Act II. Sc. 3.:

      "The basest and most poorest shape,
      That every penury, in contempt of man,
      Brought near to beast."

  Among sailors, "An Abram" is being unwell, or out of sorts. When
  Abraham Newland was Cashier of the Bank of England, it was sung--

            "I have heard people say,
            That sham Abraham you may,
      But you must not sham Abraham Newland."]

_Author of "Le Blason des Couleurs."_--Can you give me the date of, or
any account of the author of a small black-letter French work on
heraldry entitled, _Le Blason des Couleurs en Armes_, &c. The author
introduces himself as "Je Sicille Herault a tres puissant roy Alph[=o]se
Darragon: de Sicilie: de Vallence de Maillaque: de Corseique et
Sardeigne: Conte de Barselonne," &c.; and at the end of the first part
it is said to be "compose par Sicille Herault du roy Alph[=o]se

    H. N. E.

  [See Brunet, _Manuel du Libraire_, vol. i. p. 279., ed. Bruxelles,
  1838, 8vo.]

_Banyan-day._--Can any of your correspondents inform me of the meaning
and origin of the term "Banyan-day," which is frequently used by

    W. B. M.

  Dee Side.

  [A marine term for those days in which the sailors have no flesh
  meat; and is probably derived from the practice of the Banians, a
  caste of Hindoos, who entirely abstained from all animal food.]

_General Urmston._--Can any of your correspondents inform me whether a
General Edward Urmston, who married in 1752 Leonora daughter of the
first Earl Bathurst, had any children; or whether he was himself an only
son or child: also when he was born, or when he died? His wife died in
1798 (I believe).

    E. B.

  [Lieutenant-General Edward Urmston, some time in the 1st regiment
  of Foot Guards, and afterwards, 10th November, 1770, Colonel of
  the 65th Regiment of Foot. He married in 1752 Leonora Bathurst;
  died 21st December, 1778, aged 59, and there is an altar tomb to
  his memory in the churchyard of Harrow, co. Middlesex. She died

_Works of Alexander Neville._--Can any of your readers inform me where I
can find a collection of the works of Alexander Neville, the poetical
writer, born anno 1544, second son of Sir Alex. [Richard] Neville of
South Leverton, Notts, by Ann, fourth daughter of Sir Edw. [Walter]
Mantle; he died anno 1614? Any particulars or references concerning him
would be acceptable. Was he the Alexander Neville who sate for
Christchurch, Hants, 1585, and for Saltash 1601.

    J. K.

  [There is no edition of the collected works of Alexander Nevile or
  Nevyle; the following will be found in the British Museum under
  the word _Nevyllus_:--1. _De Furoribus Norfolciensium, Ketto
  Duce_, 4to., 1575. According to Hearne, there are two editions of
  this date of 1575; the first, without the passage displeasing to
  the Welshmen, dedicated only to Abp. Parker; the other, with two
  dedications, viz. that to Abp. Parker, and a new one to Abp.
  Grindall. The offensive passage is at p. 132. "Sed enim Kettiani
  rati," &c., to "Nam præter quam quod," &c., p. 133. 2. The same
  work in English, _Norfolk Furies and their Foyle, under Kett and
  their accursed Captaine; with a Description of the famous Citye of
  Norwich_, by Richard Woods, 4to., 1615, 1623. 3. _Academiæ
  Cantabrigiensis Lachrymæ, Tumulo Nobilissimi Equitis D. Philippi
  Sidneij Sacratæ_, 4 to., 1587. A biographical notice of Alexander
  Nevile is given in Chalmers' _Biog. Dict._, which does not mention
  that he ever had a seat in parliament. He died in 1614, and was
  buried in Canterbury Cathedral.]

_Lindisfarne._--What is the meaning or origin of the word "Lindisfarne?"

    K. N. P.

  [Holy Island was called Lindisfarne from the Lindis, a rivulet
  which empties itself into the sea from the opposite shore:
  _farne_, the concluding syllable, is a corruption of the Celtic
  word _fahren_, a recess.]

_Index to the Critical Review._--Was there ever a general index
published to the whole or any portion of the _Critical Review_, which
commenced in 1756, and I believe ended in 1816? If so, where can it be

    W. J. B.

  [There were five series of the _Critical Review_ between the years
  1756 and 1817. No general index has been published.]

"_No great shakes._"--Can any of your readers state the origin of the
expression "no great shakes," which has obtained an almost universal
use, and is employed under a great variety of circumstances? No doubt a
knowledge of its derivation would interest many subscribers to "N. & Q."
as well as

    I. J. H. H.

  [_Shakes_, as used in the following passage by Byron, is a
  vulgarism, which probably may be traced to the custom of _shaking_
  hands, the _shake_ being estimated according to the value set upon
  the person giving it, and hence applied to the person. Byron
  writing to Murray, Sept. 28, 1820, says, "I had my hands full, and
  my head too just then (when he wrote _Marino Faliero_), so it can
  be no great _shakes_."--See Richardson's _Dict._ _s.v._]

_Translation of Richard de Bury._--Is the translation of Richard de
Bury's _Philobiblon_, "with a memoir of the illustrious bishop,"
promised by W. S. G., Vol. ii. p. 203., yet published?

    L. S.

  [Our correspondent should remember, that "church work is slow
  work," as Addison facetiously makes Sir Roger de Coverley
  complain. From a prospectus recently issued, we learn that the
  _Philobiblon_ is still preparing for publication; and that
  gentlemen who may wish to have copies are requested by the author
  to transmit their names to Mr. R. Robinson, Pilgrim Street,

_Life of Ken._--Who is the author of the _Life of Bishop Ken_, by a
Layman, published a year or two since?

    E. G.


  [J. L. Anderson, Esq., author of _The River Dove_, &c., and editor
  of Bishop Ken's _Approach to the Holy Altar_.]

_Wedding Rings._--Can any of your informants give me the origin of the
wedding ring, by whom it was introduced, and what it was meant to
signify, and does now signify?


  [Wheatly, in his _Rational Illustration of the Book of Common
  Prayer_, ch. x. sect. 5., has ably discussed the origin of the
  marriage ring, accompanied with numerous references to early and
  later writers on this visible pledge of fidelity.]

_Monasteries, &c. dissolved._--Will any of your correspondents kindly
inform me where I can find an _authentic_ account of the hospitals,
monasteries, and religious houses pillaged and destroyed, consequent on
the commission of inquiry issued by Henry VIII.?

    T. DYSON.


  [The most authentic account of English monasteries, &c. will be
  found in Dugdale's _Monasticon_, edited by Cayley and Ellis;
  Tanner's _Notitia_, edit. 1744; and Stevens's _Additions to
  Dugdale_. In Dodd's _Church History_, by Tierney, vol. i. p. 458.,
  will be found "A List of the Abbots, Priors, and other Superiors
  of the Principal Religious Houses in England, from the Foundation
  to their Suppression." And for a list of all the mitred abbots and
  priors of England, who are known to have been mitred, or to have
  sat in parliament subsequent to the beginning of the reign of
  Edward III., see _Glossary of Heraldry_, pp. xxix. xxx.]

_Bishops at the Hampton Court Controversy._--Can you inform me who were
the nine bishops who attended the Hampton Court conference in 1603-4?

    C. H. D.

  [Archbishop of Canterbury, John Whitgift; London, Richard
  Bancroft; Durham, Tobias Matthew; Winchester, Thomas Bilson;
  Worcester, Gervase Babington; St. David's, Anthony Rudd;
  Chichester, Anthony Watson; Carlisle, Henry Robinson;
  Peterborough, Thomas Dove.]



(Vol. iv., p. 208.)

The story referred to by Jeremy Taylor reminds me of a somewhat similar
instance of dishonest astuteness I lately heard of in Scotland, from an
old Highlander; the which, though courtesy forbade me to dispute, I at
the time received "cum grano," and have since been unable to verify. It
was as follows:

The custodians (whether rightful or not, I know not, as no date was
assigned to the action of the narrative) of the Scottish regalia being
bound by an oath to deliver it to the Governor of Carlisle, as the
nearest representative of the English sovereign, by a certain day,
determined upon a plan for performing (!), and at the same time evading,
their promise. Having selected the most able steed in Scotland, a
suitable deputation escorted the regalia _and the horse_ to the
appointed place of tradition. The embassy carrying with them the more
valuable and portable of their treasures--the jewels, not the horse, of
which hereafter,--were duly admitted to an audience with the governor,
who received them in the presence of the principal inhabitants of
Carlisle: and having produced and surrendered the regalia (and doubtless
taken an acquittance!), surreptitiously, and with gipsey adroitness,
regained possession of it, and conveying it from the audience chamber,
immediately delivered it to an expectant messenger; who, mounted on the
before-mentioned horse, awaited its return outside the hall; and who,
_ventre à terre_, pursued his eager flight across the border, nor once
drew rein until his precious burden was again deposited in the custody
of Scottish tenure. Whether the deputation was dismissed, and escaped
before the discovery of its chicanery, or whether the conspirators
received the well-merited punishment of their audacious dissimulation,
my informant knew not. And although the story tells more in favour of
the astuteness than the honesty of his countrymen (if true), he
narrated it with considerable unction, and declared that it was
generally believed and admired in Scotland; the patriotism displayed,
the dangerous nature of the enterprise, and the success which attended
it, palliating any stigma which might attach to the want of faith,
double dealing, and casuistry which marked the transaction.

The method by which the horse's title to be considered the ablest in
Scotland was ascertained, was ingenious. The horses the most renowned
for fleetness and endurance were secretly collected, and having been
deprived of water for a considerable time, were presently, one by one,
permitted to bury their heads in the grateful bucket, and the duration
of each draught was scrupulously watched and recorded; the animal that
retained its nostrils for the longest time immersed being selected for
the honour of rescuing the royal treasure, as having given proofs of its
superior wind and bottom.

Is any credit to be attached to the story: and if historical, can any
reader inform me where it is recorded?

    C. A.

  St. John's Wood.


(Vol. v., pp. 157. 209.)

The replies of FABER, EXON., and P. T. to the inquiry of STEPHEN,
concerning the origin of Gospel Oaks, are not very explanatory.

The oak was consecrated to the god of thunder--Ang.-Sax., _Thunor_;
Gallic, _Taranis_; Irish, _Toran_; Anc. N. _Thorr_--as being more
generally struck by lightning than any other tree; and the acorn was
called by the Romans _Jovis glans_, the fruit of the supreme god.

  "Quercus Jovi placuit."--_Phædrus_, III. 17.

  "Magna Jovis antiquo robore quercus."--Virg. _Georg._ III. 332.

At Dodona stood the δρῦς ὑψίκομος Διός.--_Od._ XIV. 327.

Woods, groves, and trees were the temples and sacred emblems of the
Deity among the greater part of the Pagans, but especially among the
Teutonic and Celtic tribes. Maximus Tyrius, an author of the second
century, informs us, concerning the worship of the Celts:

  "Κελτοὶ σέβουσι μὲν Δία, ἄγαλμα δὲ Διὸς Κελτικὸν ὑψηλὴ δρῦς."

And Tacitus gives us the oldest testimonies concerning the Germans,
_Germ._ 9.:

  "Ceterum, nec cohibere parietibus Deos, neque in ullam humani oris
  speciem assimulare, ex magnitudine coelestium arbitrantur. _Lucos
  ac nemora consecrant_, Deorumque nominibus appellant secretum
  illud, quod sola reverentia vident."

  Vid. _Germ._ 39. cap. 40. cap. 43., &c.

Also, a passage of the later Claudian is to the same purpose:

      Ut procul Hercyniæ per vasta silentia silvæ
      Venari tuto liceat, lucosque vetusta
      Religione truces, et _robora Numinis instar
      Barbarici_, nostræ feriant impune bipennes.

      _Cons. Stilich._ I. 288.

From these passages it will be seen that the gods dwelt in these groves,
and that sacred vessels and altars were placed there, but no images;
neither were temples erected.[2] The practice of worshipping the gods in
woods and trees continued for many centuries, till the introduction of
Christianity (Vid. Willibald, A.D. 786, _in Vita Bonifacii_), and the
converters did not disdain to adopt every means to raise Christian
cultus to higher authority than that of Paganism, by acting upon the
senses of the heathen, _e.g._ using white robes for those baptized,
lighting of candles, burning of incense, &c.; and they erected the
Christian churches, for the most part, upon the site of Pagan _tree_ or
temple; Sulp. _Severus_ (ed. Amst. 1665), p. 485.:

  "Nam ubi fana destruxerat (Martinus), _statim ibi aut ecclesias
  aut monasteria construebat_."

Dietm. _V. Merseb._, 7. 52., p. 859.:

  "Fana idolorum destruens incendit, et mare dæmonibus cultum
  inmissis quatuor lapidibus, sacro Chrismate perunctis et aqua
  purgans benedicta, novam Domino ... plantationem eduxit."

  [Footnote 2: Brissonius _De Regno Pers._ II. 28.: "Persæ diis suis
  nulla templa vel altaria constituunt, nulla simulacra."]

The heathen gods were represented as impotent, in opposition to the true
God, though not as powerless in themselves, and were converted into
inimical evil powers, which must submit, but could nevertheless exercise
a certain hurtful influence.

Some heathen traditions and superstitions remained, their names only
being altered into those of Christ, Maria, and the saints. In this
manner they spared the assuefactions of the people, and made them
believe that the sacredness of the place was not lost, but henceforth
depended on the presence of the true God.

The above facts will perhaps sufficiently explain the origin of the
Gospel Oak.


  Hampden House, Reading.

There is a tree called by this name a few miles from Winchester, in the
parish of Tichborne or Cheriton,--I _think_ the latter, but have no
means of ascertaining at the present moment. Mention of it is made in
Duthy's _Sketches of Hampshire_.

    L. G.


(Vol. iv., p. 434.)

The case related by MR. GATTY is interesting, but requires sifting.
Perhaps he will be good enough to do it, or to put me on the trail. As
the energetic sister may be a reader of "N. & Q.," I do not wish to
annoy her by printing the forger's name, but I shall be glad to have the
place and date of the conviction.

About twenty years ago, the rule of hanging for forgery was broken in
the case of Fry, a school-master, who was sentenced to death without any
hope of mercy, and not reprieved till he had heard the "condemned
sermon"--I think, not till the day before that which was fixed for his
execution. He showed great fear; rolled upon the chapel floor, and
delivered to the sheriffs a well-written protest against the right to
inflict capital punishment. His being spared caused much surprise; and
between that event and the abolition of the punishment of death for
forgery, few, if any, were executed for that crime.

The sister, falling, at the feet of Baron G----, who "was notorious for
his unflinching obduracy," is a melo-dramatic event which, I think,
would have found its way to the newspapers. But the most extraordinary
thing is the conclusion:

  "The forger was placed in the hulks prior to transportation; and
  before this took place he had forged a pass or order from the Home
  Secretary's office for his own liberation, which procured his
  release, and he was never afterwards heard of."

Letters to convicts in the hulks are opened by the officers before being
delivered to the prisoners. It is not usual for the Home Secretary to
write to a convict enclosing "a pass or order." On the contrary, a
pardon is attended with a good number of formalities, and without one I
do not think that any convict would have been allowed to quit the
vessel. In that class of prisoners, leave of absence on parole, or a
"day rule," would have been something peculiar enough to make the
turnkey ask, "Where did you get this?" In short, a convict who made his
escape as described must be as extraordinary a person as the strong
American, who could sit in a basket and lift himself upon a table by the

  "She returned to the city at which the assizes had been held just
  as they were concluded. The two judges were in the act of
  descending the cathedral nave, after partaking of the Holy
  Sacrament, when," &c.

It is usual for the judges to attend divine service on the
commission-day if they arrive soon enough, or the day after if they do
not. If a Sunday occur during the sitting of the commission, they also
attend; but I never knew, and on inquiring I cannot hear, that they ever
so attended at the close of the assizes, when they are always glad to
get on to the next town, if the circuit is not concluded, and away
altogether if it is.

    H. B. C.

  U. U. Club.


(Vol. v., pp. 30. 135. 189.)

Allow me to call upon your correspondent I. J. H. H., who dates from St.
Asaph, to explain what he means by a Lordship Marcher; and what proof he
possesses that his friend Mr. Lloyd is the "only Lord Marcher now extant
in the kingdom?" The most authentic single record which we possess of
the number, names, and situation of these lordships is the statute 27
Hen. VIII. ch. 26. The writs issued to the Lords Marchers, at various
times before that statute, would perhaps furnish materials for a more
exact enumeration of them; but the above Act was unquestionably intended
to include all of them; and the only reason why the information conveyed
by it is not complete is, that some of the names specified in it may
perhaps be those of townships, or other districts within, or parcel of,
some Lordship Marcher, and that other lordships seem to be comprehended
under a general description, such as "all lordships lying between
Chepstow Bridge and Gloucestershire." Hence, the number of real
Lordships Marchers may, _perhaps_, be fewer or more than are there
mentioned. Herbert, in his _History of Henry VIII._, says that there
were 141 Lordships Marchers. (Kennett's _Compl. Hist._, vol. ii. p.

The lordship of Kemes is not, I think, specified in the Act; but I
presume that it is comprehended within some of the descriptions of
lordships in it. Probably it is included in sect. 16. In old writs of
summons to attend the King in his wars, Kemes is associated with Dyvett
or with Llandovery.

The statute referred to did, in fact, extinguish the most characteristic
privileges of a Lordship Marcher, and reduced it nearly to the level of
an ordinary lordship, with such royalties only as have often been
granted, and are still enjoyed, by Lords of Manors, or honours in other
parts of England and Wales. The franchises left to them are enumerated
in sections 25. and 30., explained by the later statute 1 & 2 Phil. &
Mary, ch. 15. The palatine jurisdiction which they once possessed, and
the exemption from ordinary process, exist no longer; and the various
local customs prevailing in each lordship, which were repugnant to the
common law of England, must have been almost wholly abolished by the
operation of that Act. The lordships themselves remain in name, and in
little more than in name.

Hence I am afraid that I. J. H. H.'s friend must be prepared to
surrender the distinction of being the sole surviving Lord Marcher. In
the strict and original sense of the term, there is now no such lordship
in existence. In the sense in which alone the title can now be assumed,
he shares the honour with many others; among others, with the Duke of
Beaufort, who holds the very extensive and important Marcher Seignory of
Gower and Kilvey.

Probably the number of private lordships of this kind is not now great;
for, at the passing of the above statute, the majority were in the
Crown; and if any have since been re-granted, it is most likely that
their franchises and tenure would be so modified as to leave no vestige
of the Marcher privileges in them.

The statement of your correspondent suggests to me another doubt. How
could any Lordship Marcher be "erected by Martin of Tours?" Every such
lordship must be of the creation of the Crown, either shown or presumed.
The date of the establishment of these marcherships is so ancient that,
perhaps, no one may have actually seen any document to prove them but
charters of confirmation and inquisitions post-mortem; still the _law_
refers their origin to specific Crown grants, and not to the act or
authority of a mere subject. If, therefore, Martin, who was a tenant in
capite of the Crown, founded the lordship of Kemes, he must have
done--as the military invaders of Ireland in a subsequent reign
did--conquered the territory with his own arms, and obtained palatine
jurisdiction over it, with the assent and by the authority of the King.

Let me add, that the MS. treatise in the Harleian Collection (referred
to _ante_, p. 135.) is printed in Pennant's _Wales_, and, more
correctly, in vol. ii. of the _Transactions of the Cymmrodorion
Society_. It is much to be lamented that the treatise on the Lordships
Marchers, bequeathed by Sir Matthew Hale to the Society of Lincoln's
Inn, is not to be found in that library. If the work was composed by
that eminent judge himself, it must be one of the highest value and
authority. Does any one possess it, or a copy of it?

    E. SMIRKE.


(Vol. iii., p. 374.)

"Can any of your readers inform me of any traces of the doctrine of the
resurrection before the Christian era?" I shall endeavour as briefly as
possible to do justice to this important subject by giving extracts
from, and references to, various authors, especially Hody in his work
_The Resurrection of the (Same) Body Asserted from the Traditions of the
Heathens, &c._ The arguments derived from this source are as follow:--

1. "The gross notions of the heathens concerning the soul in its state
of separation, that it has all the same parts as the body has."

Confer Farmer on the _Worship of Human Spirits in the Ancient Heathen
Nations_, p. 419. _et seq._; _Æschyli Persæ_, v. 616.; and Blomfield's
note; _Nicolaus de Sepulchris Hebræorum, &c._, cap. ix. and xiv.

2. "Their opinion concerning the transmigration of souls." Confer Vossii
_Idololat._, lib. i. c. x.

3. "Their opinion concerning the duration of the soul as long as the
body lasted, and its adherence to the body after death," v. Cicero,
_Tuscul. Quæst._, lib. i.; _Lucret._, lib. iii. Concerning the opinion
of the Egyptians, v. _Greenham on Embalming_.

4. "The belief that some men have ascended up into heaven in their
bodies, there to remain for ever," v. Hody.

5. "That others have done so even after death upon a re-union of their
souls and bodies." (H.) "There were not only certain persons under the
law and among the Jews who were raised to life; but there were also
histories among the Gentiles of several who rose the third day; and
Plato mentioneth another who revived the twelfth day after death, _Plato
de Rep._, lib. x.; _Plin._ lib. vii. 52., "De his qui elati revixerunt;"
_Philostrat._ lib. iii. c. xiii."--_Pearson on the Creed._ There are
histories of this description in _Bonifacii Hist. Ludiceæ_, p. 561. _et

6. "The opinion of the Pythagoreans and Platonists, &c., concerning the
restitution of our bodies, and of all other things in the world to their
former state, after the revolution of many ages, by a new birth or
production." On the Platonic year confer Gale's _Court of the Gentiles_,
book iii. c. 7.; on the Phoenix cycle of the Egyptians, Rev. Edw.
Greswell's _Fasti Catholici and Origines Calendariæ_. By some this
restitution is considered as merely astronomical, _v._ Costard's _Hist.
of Astronomy_, p. 131. "The opinion of some of the Genethliacal writers,
that the soul returns and is united to the same body in the space of 440
years."--_Varro ap Aug. de Civit._ xxii. 28.; Jackson's _Works_, vol.
iii. p. 424. "The opinion of the Stoics concerning the reproduction of
all the same men, &c., after the general conflagration," v. _Eusebii
Praep. Evang._, lib. xv.; _M. Antonin. Imp._, lib. xi. The resurrection
was asserted by the Persian Magi, the Indian Brachmans, and other
philosophers both oriental and western. "Thus we have demonstrated what
evident notices the heathens had of the last conflagration, with the
ensuing judgment, and man's immortal state; and all from sacred oracles
and traditions."--Gale, _ut suprà_.



(Vol. v., p. 370.)

A Query has been put respecting a clergyman marrying himself. Such a
thing did once occur in the case of the Rev. J. D. T. M. F----g, curate
of the parish of S----n M----t, Somersetshire. The parish register
informs us that--

  "On three several Sundays, namely, on the 22nd and 29th days of
  July, and the 5th August in the year 1787, banns of marriage were
  published in the parish church between J. D. T. M. F----g and H.
  V. B----t; and after the third publication, no impediment being
  alleged, the said J. D. T. M. F----g and H. V. B----t were
  _immediately_ married in the face of the congregation, on the 5th
  of August, 1787, by J----n F----g curate."

The parties' names are appended to the form "This marriage was
solemnised between us;" and then follows, "in the presence of" two
witnesses who signed their names, one of them being the "clark," as he
spelt the word. The event occurred "on a Sacrament Sunday." An aged
parishioner, who was about seventy-four or seventy-five years of age
when my informant wrote, perfectly remembered the ceremony; and added,
that previously to Mr. F.'s return from the Lord's Table to the reading
desk, in order to continue the service, from the Second Lesson, he
exchanged a kiss with his blushing bride! It appears that, owing to
several persons having disputed the _validity_ of this marriage, the
said parties were re-married by the Rev. W. N----s, officiating
minister, on the 9th October in the same year.

I have heard that Mr. F. was always regarded as an eccentric man, if not
deranged. I think I have heard that the bride was a milk girl, with whom
the reverend gentleman fell in love because "she reminded him of his
first love!" The marriage was decidedly opposed by his relatives and
friends, which led to the above-mentioned singular occurrence. I
believe, before performing the ceremony himself, Mr. F. publicly
inquired "whether there was any one provided to marry him?" As there was
not, he proceeded to the performance of the ceremony himself.

I have heard also of some such case of a clergyman marrying himself in
Ireland. But the marriage was, I believe, pronounced null and void, and
the clergyman deposed from the ministry.

Connected with this subject, I would relate another circumstance related
to me as a fact by a clergyman, now a surrogate, who for very many years
was curate of the parish adjoining that in which it occurred. He related
it to justify and to explain his own somewhat unusual practice of using
the _surnames_ as well as Christian names of the parties throughout the
Marriage Service, saying that in the parish of B----y, Gloucestershire,
the not doing so led to the _wrong couple being married_, owing to the
stupidity of the parties and their friends! The rector, Rev. Mr. M----d,
on discovering the mistake, formally pronounced the whole proceeding
null and void, and then married the right couple!

A correspondent lately inquired whether a person could be buried in a
garden! In N----h, Gloucestershire, such a thing occurred about sixteen
years ago. An eccentric old gentleman built a kind of summer-house in
his garden, and prepared his own tomb in it, and was there buried
according to his directions. I rather think the funeral service was
read, under the express sanction of the bishop, by the rector of an
adjoining parish, who was a friend of the deceased.

    E. W. D.

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Algernon Sydney_ (Vol. v., pp. 318. 426.).--I can hardly suppose that
MR. H. DIXON can have made any progress in his inquiries as to Algernon
Sydney, without having met with the "authorities" mentioned by your
correspondent C. E. D.; and yet it is certainly strange that, if MR.
DIXON had seen these authorities, he could have called Sydney "an
_illustrious patriot_." It may be therefore as well to state that the
specific evidence which destroys Sydney's claim to the title not merely
of an "_illustrious patriot_," but even of _an honest man_, and shows
him to have been a corrupt traitor of the worst class, is to be found in
the Appendix to Sir John Dalrymple's _Memoirs_, vol. i. pp. 339. 386.
(8vo edit. 1790), where are transcribed the secret despatches of the
French ambassador, Barillon, to Louis XIV., detailing the _bribes_ by
which he engaged Algernon Sydney to that factious and traitorous
opposition which had, for a hundred years prior to Dalrymple's
publication, passed off for _patriotism_. I shall be very curious indeed
to see what light MR. H. DIXON may be able to throw on this curious and
infamous case; of which the best that even Mr. Macaulay can say is, that
Barillon's _louis d'ors_ were "a temptation which conquered the virtue
and the pride of Algernon Sydney."--_History of England_, vol. i. p.


_Cock-and-Bull Stories_ (Vol. v., p. 414.).--It may be doubted whether
Mr. Faber will thank J. R. R. for republishing his absurd blunder. It
must not, however, be allowed to gain a settlement in "N. & Q.," or to
pass for a real explanation, while it is in reality one of the most
unfortunate "cock-and-bull" stories that ever was invented. The truth
is, that Reinerius, a writer of the Middle Ages, lays it to the charge
of the Waldenses that they did not hold the traditions of the Church
and, by way of instance, he specifies that they did _not_ believe (as,
he took for granted, all his orthodox readers _did_) that the cock on
the church steeple was symbolical of a doctor or teacher. Reinerius did
not think of adding a word of explanation about its overlooking the
parish from its elevated position, or of its prescriptive right from the
days of St. Peter to do a pastor's office by reminding men of the duty
of repentance, or of any of the things which writers on symbolism had
said, or might say. He nakedly states, "Item, mysticum sensum in divinis
scripturis refutant: præcipue in dictis et actis ab Ecclesia traditis:
ut quod gallus super campanile significat Doctorem." Mr. Faber, who was
somewhat out of his way in dealing with the thoughts and language of
mediæval writers, catching a sight of this passage, blundered between a
_bell_ and a _belfry_, put _campanum_ for _campanile_, and thus got an
idea of a "cock-on-a-bell," and that this symbol meant a doctor.
Whereupon it occurred to him to set the world right with the wonderful
discovery which J. R. R. has revived for the amusement of your readers.


_Thomas Crawford_ (Vol. v., p. 344.).--In the seventeenth century there
were four professors of philosophy in every university in Scotland.
Thomas Crawford was one of the professors in the University of Edinburgh
from 1640 to 1662.

Thomas Crawford, educated at St. Leonard's College, St. Andrew's,
graduated A.M. 1621. Succeeded Mr. Samuel Rutherford as Professor of
Humanity in the University of Edinburgh, 1625. Appointed Rector of the
High School of Edinburgh in 1630. Elected Professor of Philosophy (or
Regent) in the University of Edinburgh, 1640, and continued in that
office till his death, in 1662.

He was the author of _A Short History of the University of Edinburgh,
from 1582 to 1646_, first printed in 1808; and of _Notes and
Observations on G. Buchanan's History of Scotland_: Edinb. 1708, 8vo.
pp. 187.

Both these posthumous publications are very meagre.

    J. L.

  Coll. Edinburgh.

_Longevity_ (Vol. v., pp. 296. 401.).--In the church of Abbey Dore,
Herefordshire, is the following inscription on a slab in the floor:--

  "In memory of Elizabeth, ye Daughter of Thomas Lewis, who departed
  this life the 31st day of May, 1715, aged 141 years."

I was assured that the age of the deceased, as here stated, is confirmed
by the parish register.



_Theological Tract--The Huntyng of the Romish Fox_ (Vol. iii., p.
61.).--Perhaps the following tract is one of those about which S. G.

  "The Huntyng and Fyndyng out of the Romish Fox: whiche more than
  seven yeares hath bene hyd among the Byshoppes of England, after
  that the Kynges Hyghnes Henry VIII. had commanded hym to be dryven
  out of hys Realme. Written by Wyllyam Turner, Doctour of Physicke,
  and formerly Fellow of Pembroke College in Cambridge. Basyl,

This tract has just been reprinted, with some curtailments and
amendments, and with a short memoir of the author prefixed, by my
friend, Robert Potts, Esq., M.A. Trin. Coll., Cam.; and was published by
J. W. Parker, London. The copy from which this reprint has been made is
in the library of Trinity College.


_Moke_ (Vol. v., p. 374).--With the Editor of "N. & Q." I think the
interpretation of "muck" for the old word used by Wyckliffe is "not
satisfactory:" I therefore suggest another, perhaps equally
questionable. Every rustic in grazing districts knows, that in the hot
season of the year sheep are liable to be fearfully flyblown in their
living flesh; and that the maggots thence resulting are called _mokes_,
or mawks. Is not the preacher's allusion in the text to certain
shepherds, or rather sheep of Christ's flock, who, rather than give one
of their _mokes_ to help one of their "needy brethren," will allow
themselves to "perish" and "be taken of" these maggots? The term in
question is, or was formerly, in provincial use as a metonym for
lendiculosity in a figurative sense--a tetchy, whimsical individual,
being said to be "maggoty," _vulgo_, _mokey_. Lendix has not, however,
in all cases been treated with abhorrence; for one of the elder Wesleys
not only printed a book of rhymes with the title of _Maggots_, but
prefixed to it his portrait, with one of these _animi impetu concitari_
represented as creeping on the forehead!


_Ground Ice_ (Vol. v., p. 370.).--J. C. E. will find a very elaborate
and interesting paper "On the Ice formed, under peculiar Circumstances,
at the bottom of Running Waters," by the Rev. J. Farquharson, in the
_Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society for 1835_, Part II. p.

    J. H.


_Nobleman alluded to by Bishop Berkeley_ (Vol. v., p. 345.).--I beg to
suggest to your correspondent J. M., that this nobleman was Richard
Boyle, third Earl of Burlington, and fourth Earl of Cork, who had a
passion for architecture, and was the architect of numerous buildings in
the metropolis and other parts of the kingdom. He repaired Inigo Jones's
church of St. Paul, Covent Garden. He built the front of Burlington
House in Piccadilly; the dormitory at Westminster School; the Assembly
Rooms at York; and several villas and mansions in various parts of the
country, besides publishing some architectural works. Bishop Berkeley
was introduced to him by Pope about the year 1722, and I believe derived
some benefit from his patronage. His architectural pursuits are alluded
to by Pope in the epistle on the use of riches, which was addressed to

    G. R. J.

_House at Welling_ (Vol. v., p. 368.).--Inquiry is made about one of our
old English poets, who is said to have lived at the old house in
_Welling_, where there is a _high yew hedge_.

I am the owner of the house referred to, and have lived here since 1811.
I have never heard the report, but I think that it may have arisen from
the fact, that about eighty years ago a Major _Denham_ possessed the
house. It is possible that he may have been mistaken for his namesake,
_Denham_ the poet.


_Constable of Scotland_ (Vol. v., pp. 297. 350.).--In vol. i. p. 175. of
the _Analecta Scotica_ (Edinburgh, 1834) will be found some curious
"fragments relative to the office of Great Constable of Scotland," more
particularly before it became heritable in the noble family of Erroll.

    E. N.

_The Iron Plate in Lewes Castle_ (Vol. v., p. 342.).--In answer to A. W.
I beg to say that the iron plate was taken from the ruins of a cottage
which was burnt down on the estate of Sir Henry Shiffner some time
since; it formed the fire-back of the kitchen: the inscription was
turned to the wall, and therefore not visible.

This inscription is a fac-simile of the iron plate placed to the memory
of Ann Forster in the church of Crowhurst in Surrey, and it would appear
that the founder cast several plates similar to that in Lewes Castle,
which are known to exist and be used as fire-backs. See Brayley and
Britton's _History of Surrey_, vol. iv. p. 131., and note at foot of the
same page.



The monumental (cast iron?) plate in Lewes castle, referred to by A. W.,
probably came from the church of Crowhurst in Surrey, where there are
several monuments to members of the family of Gaynsford, and there were
(in Sept. 1847, when I visited the building) more than one iron plate in
the pavement with inscriptions of the exact character of that at Lewes,
and with the letters similarly inverted and reversed. My impression is
that I saw the memorial in question in the church; but I cannot now
discover the notes I made on the subject at the time, nor a rubbing
which I took of another iron plate of a more ornate though not less rude
character. I remember, in passing within sight of the church on the
Dover Railway, since 1847, to have noticed scaffolding about the tower;
possibly the plate now at Lewes may have been removed at that time.

    R. C. H.

The plate was presented to the Antiquarian Museum in Lewes Castle by Sir
H. Shiffner, Bart., about two years ago, when he rescued it from a
farm-house burnt down on his property near Lewes. It has been traced to
a cottage where it previously served the same purpose as at the
farm-house, as back to the fire-place; but no further record of its
former history can be discovered. It is not unusual, however, to find
monumental plates thus desecrated.

    E. A. S.

_Chelwoldesbury_ (Vol. v., p. 346.).--Allow me to suggest to your
correspondent W. H. K. the possibility that the name in question may
originally have been Ceolwoldsburh or Ceolweardesburh, i.e. _the burgh_
or _castle of Ceolwold_ or _Ceolweard_, analogously with Brihthelmstûn,
now contracted into _Brighton_. The A.-S. _ce_ has constantly been
corrupted into _che_.


"_The King's Booke_" (Vol. v., p. 389.).--The printer's account supplied
by MR. BURTT does not relate, except possibly to a very trifling extent,
to the _Basilicon Doron_; but it is evidently Robert Barker's bill,
mainly in the matter of King James's _Apologie for the Oath of

    R. G.

_Key Experiments_ (Vol v., pp. 152. 293.).--In an edition of _Hudibras_
of 1704 appears the following "annotation" to the line "As Friar Bacon's
noddle was:"--

  "The tradition of Friar Bacon and the Brazen-head is very commonly
  known, and considering the times he lived in, is not much more
  strange than what another great philosopher of his name has since
  deliver'd of a ring that, being ty'd in a string, and held like a
  pendulum in the middle of a silver bowl, will vibrate of itself,
  and tell exactly against the sides of the divining-cup the same
  thing with, Time is, Time was, &c."

I have tried this experiment with the ring, and find the oscillation
takes place as described by AGMOND with the shilling. If, however, the
thread is tightly pressed between the finger and thumb, the vibration
ceases. This latter circumstance appears to support AGMOND'S idea, that
the motive power is due to the pulse, the circulation of the blood
ceasing by pressure.

    C. N. S.

_Rhymes on Places_ (Vol. v., p. 404.).--The places mentioned in the
following lines are all within about four miles of each other in the
county of Gloucester, and twenty years ago the adjectives exactly
described the condition of the people; but the great civiliser, the
steam-engine, has now taken away the force of the description; and
although the first and third lines may be as true as ever, the second
and fourth are not:--

      "Beggarly Bisley,
      Strutting Stroud,
      Hampton poor,
      And Painswick proud."

    W. H. BAXTER.

_Old Scots March, &c._ (Vol. v., pp. 280. 331.).--I have to thank both
MR. CROSSLEY and DR. RIMBAULT for their information regarding the
_Ports_, of which I have willingly availed myself by consulting the
various works to which they refer; and I have been fortunate enough to
see a _translation_ of the greater portion of the Straloch lute-book.
Hitherto, however, I have failed in my endeavours to discover two of the
_ports_ mentioned by MR. TYTLER namely, Port _Gordon_ and Port _Seton_,
both of which I am anxious to obtain.

    E. N.

_Ecclesiastical Geography_ (Vol. v., p. 276.).--Allow me to add to the
list of books on this subject, _Atlas sacer sive ecclesiasticus_,
Wiltsch, published at Gotha in 1843.

    W. S.

"_Please the Pigs_" (Vol. v., p. 13.).--I am inclined to think that this
phrase has more to do with the animate than the inanimate. It is a
common saying in Devonshire "please the _pixies_," or _fairies_, and
this reference is much more likely; as our ancestors were most
particular in their superstitious attentions to the requirements of this
most mischievous fraternity.

    C. R.

_The Word Shunt_ (Vol. v., p. 352.) is quite common in the North of
England; in Lancashire it is perhaps especially so. It signifies to
shift, to move, to give way: as, speaking of a thing, a wall or
foundation, which has moved from its position, we should say, "it has
shunted;" or of a thing which requires moving, "Shunt it a little that
way," "Shunt it at the other end." _Shunt_, to move, to slip, to give
way; _shuntu_, they move; _shuntut_, they moved.--See Bamford's
_Lancashire Dialect_: Smith, Soho Square.

The word _grin_, in the same county, signifies a noose to catch hares or
other game, as well as the act of grinning with the teeth. The word
_gin_ is seldom used, except to express a horse gin-wheel, or the
_blue-ruin_ of the Pandemoniums.

    P. D.

_Plato's Lines in "Antho. Palat."_ (Vol. v., p. 317.).--

      "Star of my soul! thine ardent eyes are bent
      On the bright orbs that gem the firmament:
      Would that I were the heaven, that I might be
      All full of love-lit eyes to gaze on thee."

      "You look upon the stars, my star! would I might be
      Yon heaven, to look with many eyes on thee."


_Abigail_ (Vol. iv., p. 424.; Vol. v., pp. 38. 94.).--As your
correspondents have not thrown much light upon this subject, I will here
mention that the use of this name in the sense alluded to has probably
originated from a "waiting gentlewoman" who figures in Beaumont and
Fletcher's comedy of _The Scornful Lady_. As this play appears from
Pepys's _Diary_ to have been a great favourite after the Restoration, it
was then most probably that the term came into use.

    J. S. WARDEN.

_Nuremberg Token, or Counter_ (Vol. v., pp. 201. 260.).--G. H. K.
appears to consider the object of H. C. K.'s Query a tradesman's token.
This is by no means the case. It is a jetton, or counter, such as was
formerly much in use for casting accounts, on a principle very similar
to that of the abacus. They are found in vast numbers in England, but
were principally manufactured at Nuremberg, where a large trade in them
must have been carried on. The greatest manufacturers of the
"Rechenpfennige" were the members of the families of Schultz, Laufer,
and Krauwinckel. Of the three Krauwinckels, the productions of Hans are
most numerous. Many of them have legends of a moral or religious
character, as "Gottes Segen macht reich," God's blessing maketh rich;
"Gott allein die Ehre sey," To God alone be the glory; "Heut rodt,
Morgen todt," To-day _red_, to-morrow dead, &c. The date 1601 occurs on
several of those of Hans K., with mythological devices.--See Snelling's
_Treatise on Jettons, or Counters_.

    J. E.

The legend on the counter described signifies

      "John Kravwinckel in Nuremberg."
      Rx "God's kingdom remains always."

I know not the signification of the solitary E. Snelling (_Treatise on
Abbey Pieces, &c._) has engraved and described many of these counters,
and to him I must refer H. C. K. Hans means John, and has no reference
to the Hanseatic League.

    W. H. S.


_Meaning of Lode_ (Vol. v., p. 345.).--_Lode_ and _load_, in Cornwall,
is the name given to the vein that _leads_ in the mine; or, the
_leading_ vein. The word _lode_ is also in common use in Cambridgeshire,
having similar reference to the watercourses by which the fens are

_Lodestar._ The pole-star; the _leading_ star, by which mariners are
guided. The magnet is _load-stone_, that is, leading, or guiding stone.
(Nares' _Glossary_.)

            "O, happy fair!
      Your eyes are _lode_-stars----."

      _Midsummer Night's Dream._


  Rider Street.

_Lode_ (Vol. v., p. 345.).--Lode seems to have been anciently used as
signifying merely a ditch to carry off water. (See "Inquisition, 21
Henry VIII." in Wells's _Hist. of Bedford Level_, vol. ii. pp. 8-17.)
Lode means to carry. (_Promptorium Parvulorum_, ed. Way, p. 310.) The
term _lode_ is now used to signify a navigable ditch. In Cambridgeshire
we have Soham Lode, Burwell Lode, Reach Lode, Swaffham Lode, and
Bottisham Lode.

    C. H. COOPER.


_Mother Damnable_ (Vol. v., p. 151.).--Your correspondent S. WISWOULD
will find some slight information respecting this worthy in Daniel's
_Merrie England in the Olden Time_ (Bentley, 1842), vol. i. p. 217.

It appears that Mr. Bindley had an unique engraving of her, and that a
well-known alehouse at Holloway (of which a token is extant, with the
date 1667) was sacred to her memory as Mother Redcap, as well as that in
the Hampstead Road.


_Monuments of De la Beche Family_ (Vol. v., p. 341.).--The monuments
referred to by ÆGROTUS are in the church of Aldworth: the effigies are
certainly remarkable, especially one for its size and attitude. Another
noticeable circumstance is that most of the figures are of older date
than the tombs on which they lie, or than the church which contains
them. The building consists of a nave and south aisle; and, at the time
of its original construction, three canopied recessed tombs were
introduced in each of the side walls to receive the effigies which must
have existed in the older church. The style of the architecture belongs
to the age of Edward III. There are nine figures altogether, some of
them greatly mutilated. They are not entirely unknown to archæologists.

I may take this opportunity of calling attention to another very fine
monumental effigy, of which I believe no moderately good representation
has been published, at Tilton in Leicestershire. There are two figures
in the church of as early dates as those at Aldworth, one an armed male,
and the other a female. The former is in "edgering" mail, and is of good
character; but the latter is of superior design, and very well executed,
though unfortunately in a coarse material. The right arm is bent, and
the hand brought up to the breast; the left hangs naturally by the side,
and has the fore-arm and (bare) hand exposed from among the folds of the
drapery. Slight traces of colour are discoverable.

    R. C. H.

The village of Aldworth, in Berkshire, where the effigies of the De la
Beche family are to be seen, is about five miles from the Goring
Station, on the Great Western Railway, _viâ_ Streatley. Hewett's
_Hundred of Compton_ furnishes a very interesting account of the ten
monumental effigies which represent various members of the ancient
family of De la Beche in that church, and will be read with no small



_Coke and Cowper_ (Vol. iv., pp. 24. 76. 93. 244. 300.).--However
affected it may appear, these words have been more generally pronounced
_Cook_ and _Cooper_.

J. H. L. (Vol. iv., p. 76.) adduces the instance of _Cowper_ being made
to rhime to _Trooper_. And I have just stumbled upon a passage in
_Cowley_ where _Coke_ is the answering word to _Took_.

            "May he
      Be by his father in his study _took_
      At Shakspear's plays instead of my Lord _Coke_."

      "Sylva; a Poetical Revenge," p. 44.,
      _Works_, Part II., London, 1700, fol.



_Monumental Portraits_ (Vol. v., p. 349.).--Fully agreeing with my
friend H. H. in his opinion of the brass of the Abbess of Elstow,
considered as a portrait, I should yet be glad if your correspondents
would send to "N. & Q." the names of any effigies which may appear to
them exceptions to the rule of conventional portraiture, especially if
of earlier date than the latter half of the sixteenth century. H. H. has
mentioned one, Nicholas Canteys, 1431, at Margate: and I am inclined to
add another in the well-executed little brass of Robert de Brentingham
at East Horsley, Surrey; this is about the date of 1380. The artists of
that time, in brasses as well as in painted glass, wood-carving, &c.,
may have sometimes desired to produce a portrait, but certainly they
seldom succeeded: a religious severity of expression atoned for the
deficiency. In English coins it is well known that there is no
appearance of a portrait before the reign of Henry VII.

The particular _costume_, however, of the deceased was more attended to
in monumental effigies; and it is this fact which renders the study of
them so serviceable towards a knowledge of the manners and habits of our
ancestors. Care was even taken not to omit any peculiarity which may
have distinguished the deceased; of which the long beard of Sir Wm.
Tendring, at Stoke, by Layland, is perhaps an instance, and many others
might be quoted. If any decided portraits are known in _stone effigies_,
it would I think be desirable to communicate such to the pages of "N. &

    C. R. M.

_Motto on Chimney-piece_ (Vol. v., p. 345.)--It does not appear to me
that the mottoes sent by your inquirer C. T. are very difficult to
solve. The first is Latin:


He says he is not certain as to one or two letters. I suspect the first
O should be Q, and the V should be I. It will then read:

      "Vita tranquila est olim."

      "Life is henceforth tranquil."

A very proper motto for a fire-side.

The second is Italian:

      "VE DAL AM DARO."

I suspect the R should be T. It will then read:

      "Ve da'l amico dato."

      "Given to you by the friend."

If the word is _daro_, it will be--

      "I will give it to you from the friend."



The arms given by your correspondent C. T. are those of Cavendish
(quartering Clifford), one of that family having been created Earl of
Newcastle in 1610. Becoming shortly after extinct, John Holles, Earl of
Clare (who had married the heiress of Cavendish), was created by King
William III. in 1694 Marquis of Clare and Duke of Newcastle.

Might not the chimney-piece have adorned a mansion of the Cavendish
family, who probably resided in Newcastle during the period above
alluded to?

The motto underneath (which is _not_ the family motto of Cavendish)
certainly at first sight looks puzzling enough; will the following
solution suffice, which I merely throw out as a first thought that may
lead to a better elucidation?

      "Vita: tran: ovula: est: olim."

Presuming "ovula" to be the diminutive of _ovum_ (I am not sure if I am
correct), and "tran" (if correctly transcribed) to be a component part
of one of the numerous compounds of _trans_ (say _transitorius_), may
not the passage be _freely_ translated: "(Our) transitory life (was)
once (as mysterious, or hidden, or minute as) is (the germ of vitality)
in an egg?"

If C. T. could give a description of the second coat, some connecting
link may possibly be supplied toward unravelling the motto.



"_Ve dâl am daro_" (Vol. v., p. 325.).--One of the mottoes which puzzle
your correspondent C. T. is Welsh, and means that _retribution will
follow violence_: "he will pay (_i.e._ suffer) for striking."


_White-livered_ (Vol. v., pp. 127. 403.).--Bishop Ridley, in his
conference with Bishop Latimer, whilst they were confined in the Tower,
makes use of the expression: "For surely, except the Lord assist me with
His gracious aid in the time of His service, I know I shall play but the
part of a _white-livered knight_."


_Enigmatical Epitaphs_ (Vol. v., p. 179.).--The brasses of John
Killyngworth, 1412, formerly in Eddlesborough Church, now in Pitson
Church, Bucks; and of a priest at St. Peter's, near St. Alban's, have
this inscription upon them:

  "Ecce quod expendi habui, quod donavi habeo, quod negavi punior,
  quod servavi perdidi."

That at St. Alban's has an English translation:

      "Lo, all that ever I spent, that sometime had I;
      All that I gave in good intent, that now have I;
      That I never gave, nor lent, that now aby[3] I;
      That I kept till I went, that lost I."

  [Footnote 3: So in my authority.]

The same inscription is on a brass as late as 1584, at St. Olave's, Hart
Street, London. (See _Oxford Architectural Society's Manual of
Monumental Brasses_.)


_Pelican in her Piety_ (Vol. v., p. 59.).--In Warner's _Glastonbury_,
plate 18, fig. E., is a very _early_ representation of the pelican
feeding her young with her own blood: an emblem of Christ's love for His
church. The stone was dug out of the ruins of the Abbey.

In Parker's _Glossary_ the symbol is explained by a quotation from
_Ortus Vocabulorum_:

  "Fertur, si verum est, eam occidere natos suos, eosque per triduum
  lugere, deinde seipsum vulnerare, et aspercione sui sanguinis
  vivos facere filios suos."

    H. F. E.

_Names of Places, Provincial Dialect_ (Vol. v., pp. 250. 375.).--In
accordance with the suggestion of E. P. M., I forward you a few
instances of a change between the spelling, and pronunciation:

      Spelling.                 Pronunciation.

      Chadwell                  Caudle.
      Wymondham (Norf.)         Wyndham.
      ---- (Leicestersh.)       W[)u]mundham.
      Swavesey                  Swaysey.
      Lolworth                  Lolo.
      Whitwick                  Whittick.
      Scarford                  Scawford.
      Croxton Kerrial           Cr[=o]son, the _o_ long,
                                and Kerrial entirely

      R. J. S.

Examples of these are more numerous to the north of the Tweed than C.
appears to imagine. The following list, which includes a few surnames,
is the result of rather a hurried search:

      Spelling.                 Pronunciation.

      Anstruther                Anster.
      Athelstaneford            Elstanfurd.
      Bethune                   Beaton.
      Cassilis                  Cassils.
      Charteris                 Charters.
      Cockburn                  Coburn.
      Cockburnspath             Coppersmith
      Colquhoun                 Cohoon.
      Crichton                  Cryton.
      Dalziel or Dalyell        Dee-ell.
      Farquhar                  Farkar.
      Halket                    Hacket.
      Inglis                    Ingils.
      Kemback                   Kemmick.
      Kilconquhar               Kinnenchar.
      Macleod                   Macloud.
      Marjoribanks              Marchbanks.
      Menzies                   Meengis.
      Methven                   Meffen.
      Monzie                    Monee.
      Restalrig                 Lastalrik.
      Rutherglen                Ruglen.
      Ruthven                   Rivven.
      Sciennes                  Sheens.
      Sanquhar                  Sankar.
      Urquhart                  Urcart.
      Wemyss                    Weems.

Arbroath is a corruption of Aberbrothok, Gretna of Gretenhow, and
Meiklam of M'Ilquham: but probably one of the most remarkable
transformations in Scotland is to be found in the name of a small
village, a few miles to the south of Edinburgh, where _Burdiehouse_ has
usurped the place of Bordeaux.

    E. N.

_The Term "Milesian"_ (Vol. iv., p. 175.).--I beg to direct your
attention to the accompanying extract, which furnishes a reply to MR.
FRASER'S Query:--

  "Whoever is acquainted with Irish history, or whoever has had
  opportunities of mixing with the natives of that country, cannot
  be ignorant that they claim a descent from a long race of Milesian
  kings, who reigned over them for thirteen centuries before the
  Christian æra. The stock from which this long line of monarchs
  emanated is traced to a pretended Milesian colony, supposed to
  have emigrated from Spain into Ireland under the conduct of
  Heremon and Heber. The most rational inquirers, however, into the
  subject consider it as nothing more than a tissue of imaginary
  events, originating in the fertile fancies of their bards. A very
  brief and general abstract of this contested part of Irish history
  shall be given in the words of Mr. Plowden:

  "'About 140 years after the Deluge, Ireland was discovered by one
  Adhua, who had been sent from Asia to explore new countries by a
  grandson of Belus: he plucked some of the luxuriant grass as a
  specimen of the fertility of the soil, and returned to his master.
  After that the island remained unoccupied for 140 years; and about
  300 years after the Flood, one Partholan, originally a Scythian,
  and a descendant from Japhet in the sixth generation, sailed from
  Greece with his family and 1000 soldiers, and took possession of
  the island. They all died off, and left the island desolate of
  human beings for the space of thirty years. Afterwards different
  sets of emigrant adventurers occupied and peopled the island at
  different periods. About 1080 years after the Deluge, and 1300
  B.C., Niul (the son of Phenius, a wise Scythian prince), who had
  married a daughter of Pharaoh, inhabited with his people a
  district given to him by his father-in-law on the Red Sea, when
  Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt. The descendants of that
  Phenius (called more generally Feniusa Farsa) were afterwards
  expelled by Pharaoh's successors on account of their ancestors
  having favoured the escape of the Israelites through the Red Sea.
  They then emigrated and settled in Spain, whence, under the
  command of Milesius, a colony of them sailed from Brigantia in
  Galicia to Ireland, gained the ascendancy over the inhabitants,
  and gave laws and a race of monarchs to the island. The Milesian
  dynasty continued to govern Ireland without interruption till
  about the year 1168, when it ceased in the person of Roger
  O'Connor, and the sovereignty was assumed by our Henry II. Of this
  race of kings the first 110 were Pagan, the rest Christian.'"

  Barlow's _Hist. of Ireland_, vol. i. pp. 22-4.


  Queen's Coll., Birmingham.

_Title of D.D._ (Vol. ii., p. 13.).--The remark of your correspondent
EYE-SNUFF, "that any lay scholar of adequate attainments in theology is
competent to receive this distinction, and any university to bestow it
upon him," is incorrect in two ways, as far as the university of which I
am a member is concerned. A reference to the Oxford University Calendar,
or to the Statutes of the University, will show him that no one can take
the degree of B.D., or D.D., without first exhibiting his letters of
priest's orders: and the theological attainments represented by the
degree D.D. are next to nothing; the exercise required for B.D. used to
be a mere form, and I believe is little more now; a certain number of
terms kept in the university, and payment of certain fees, being all
that is necessary for proceeding D.D. The case is the same, I imagine,
at Cambridge.

    W. FRASER.

_Lass of Richmond Hill_ (Vol. ii., p. 103.).--I have heard it said, of
course with little regard to probability, that this once popular song
was written by George IV. when Prince of Wales.

    W. FRASER.

_A Bull_ (Vol. ii., p. 441.).--I have heard it argued that the word
_bull_, meaning an incoherent blunder, was derived from the Pope's
Bulls, the tyrannical contents and imperious tone of which often made so
odd a contrast with the humility of the subscription, "Servus servorum
Dei," that the name _bull_ was applied to anything that seemed absurdly
inconsistent or self-contradictory.

    W. FRASER.

_Remains of Horses and Sheep in Churches_ (Vol. v., p. 274.).--We have
good evidence that the Saxons used the places of sepulture which they
found in England; and it is well known that Anglo-Saxon remains have
often been discovered in the vicinity of churches, a fact which leads to
the supposition that churches occupied the sites of Pagan temples. The
bones of animals have often been found on and near the sites of our
London churches.

    J. Y. A.

_Fern Seed_ (Vol. v., pp. 172. 356.).--I am led to think there is an
error in the notice of your correspondent R. S. F. on the above subject.
The seed of St. John's Fearn cannot be gathered on Midsummer Eve,
inasmuch as at that time it is in a merely embryotic state. The seed
attains perfection late in autumn, and it remains attached to the dry
brown stem until shaken off by the autumnal and winter blasts. The
taking of it, therefore, is not, according to those versed in such
mysteries, the easy task of a Midsummer twilight, but must be performed
amid the darkness of a winter's night. On the midnight of Saint John the
Evangelist, to whom the seed and plant are dedicated, must it be shaken,
not pulled, from its stem. Very probably mystic virtues were imputed to
the seed before the introduction of Christianity. And it were not
perhaps hazarding too much to suppose that the old superstitious monks
assigned it to Saint John from an idea that the potency of the seed
might have influenced the wondrous revelations with which he, more than
any other of the disciples, or all the disciples, was favoured.




The Camden Society, of which the fourteenth Annual Meeting on Monday
last passed off most successfully, has just issued to its Members _The
Chronicle of The Grey Friars of London_, edited from a MS. in the
Cottonian Library in the British Museum. This very interesting document,
which altogether escaped the research of the industrious and voluminous
Strype, though it had passed through the hands of Stowe, who had either
the possession or the loan of the original MS., was written by one of
the Grey Friars, who appears to have watched narrowly, and recorded
carefully, the religious changes of the times, more particularly, those
which occurred within the sphere of his personal observation in the city
of London, and the metropolitan church of St. Paul. As he retained
possession of his register, and continued his labours after the
dissolution of his house, and the dismissal of the rest of his
fraternity, he has preserved to us many particulars of great historical
value; and his work has this additional claim to attention, that,
whereas the majority of the existing documents are records of the
Reforming party, this comes from one of the Reformed, and presents us
accordingly with the other side of the case. The work is edited by Mr.
J. G. Nichols, whose name is a sufficient guarantee for the fidelity
with which the document is printed, and the learning and care bestowed
upon its illustration.

_The Publications of the Antiquarian Etching Club._--Part III., 1851,
presents us with no less than thirty-three etchings by Members of the
Club (of course of various degrees of merit), of objects of antiquarian
interest, comprising Ecclesiastical, Military, and Domestic Edifices,
Fonts, Sepulchral Monuments, Portraits, Fac-similes, copies of rare
prints, and numerous other vestiges of antiquity calculated at once to
instruct the archæologist, and preserve in a pictorial form a record of
much which, but for the _burins_ of the members of this useful little
Society, might have been lost for ever.

It is but a few weeks since we noticed the admirable second volume of
the _Catalogue of the London Library_, by Mr. J. G. Cochrane. We have
now to record the death of that gentleman on Tuesday last. He was a most
worthy man, and a good scholar; and possessed a vast fund of
bibliographical knowledge. His death therefore will be felt, not only by
his own immediate friends, but also by the institution which he had
served so ably and so zealously ever since its formation.

It would be treason to the Brothers Grimm, and to our own love of the
literature of the people, if we did not notice and (as it deserves it)
say a good word of a new and complete translation of the world-renowned
_Kinder und Haus Mährchen_, which Messrs. Addey have commenced
publishing under the title of Grimm's _Household Stories_. They are very
faithfully translated from the last edition; and we specify this because
the little _Almaine 4to._ first edition of 1819 has long been one of our
household books, and finding that the translation did not agree with the
versions there given, we have compared it with the edition of 1843, and
so discovered, first, that the translator has used the later edition;
and secondly, what we were not till now aware of, namely, that these
great scholars, Wilhelm and Jacob Grimm, amid their more learned
labours, have not disdained to revise and enlarge their collection of
nursery stories, which have been the delight of the children of all
Europe. What a justification is this for the attention which is bestowed
in "N. & Q." on our own English Folk Lore!



FABRICII BIBLIOTHECA LATINA. Ed. Ernesti. Leipsig, 1773. Vol. III.

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and LI.







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      [Transcriber's Note: List of volumes and content pages in "Notes
      and Queries", Vol. I.-V.]

      | Notes and Queries Vol. I.                                   |
      | Vol., No.     | Date, Year        | Pages     | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. I No.  1 | November  3, 1849 |   1 -  17 | PG #  8603  |
      | Vol. I No.  2 | November 10, 1849 |  18 -  32 | PG # 11265  |
      | Vol. I No.  3 | November 17, 1849 |  33 -  46 | PG # 11577  |
      | Vol. I No.  4 | November 24, 1849 |  49 -  63 | PG # 13513  |
      | Vol. I No.  5 | December  1, 1849 |  65 -  80 | PG # 11636  |
      | Vol. I No.  6 | December  8, 1849 |  81 -  95 | PG # 13550  |
      | Vol. I No.  7 | December 15, 1849 |  97 - 112 | PG # 11651  |
      | Vol. I No.  8 | December 22, 1849 | 113 - 128 | PG # 11652  |
      | Vol. I No.  9 | December 29, 1849 | 130 - 144 | PG # 13521  |
      | Vol. I No. 10 | January   5, 1850 | 145 - 160 | PG #        |
      | Vol. I No. 11 | January  12, 1850 | 161 - 176 | PG # 11653  |
      | Vol. I No. 12 | January  19, 1850 | 177 - 192 | PG # 11575  |
      | Vol. I No. 13 | January  26, 1850 | 193 - 208 | PG # 11707  |
      | Vol. I No. 14 | February  2, 1850 | 209 - 224 | PG # 13558  |
      | Vol. I No. 15 | February  9, 1850 | 225 - 238 | PG # 11929  |
      | Vol. I No. 16 | February 16, 1850 | 241 - 256 | PG # 16193  |
      | Vol. I No. 17 | February 23, 1850 | 257 - 271 | PG # 12018  |
      | Vol. I No. 18 | March     2, 1850 | 273 - 288 | PG # 13544  |
      | Vol. I No. 19 | March     9, 1850 | 289 - 309 | PG # 13638  |
      | Vol. I No. 20 | March    16, 1850 | 313 - 328 | PG # 16409  |
      | Vol. I No. 21 | March    23, 1850 | 329 - 343 | PG # 11958  |
      | Vol. I No. 22 | March    30, 1850 | 345 - 359 | PG # 12198  |
      | Vol. I No. 23 | April     6, 1850 | 361 - 376 | PG # 12505  |
      | Vol. I No. 24 | April    13, 1850 | 377 - 392 | PG # 13925  |
      | Vol. I No. 25 | April    20, 1850 | 393 - 408 | PG # 13747  |
      | Vol. I No. 26 | April    27, 1850 | 409 - 423 | PG # 13822  |
      | Vol. I No. 27 | May       4, 1850 | 425 - 447 | PG # 13712  |
      | Vol. I No. 28 | May      11, 1850 | 449 - 463 | PG # 13684  |
      | Vol. I No. 29 | May      18, 1850 | 465 - 479 | PG # 15197  |
      | Vol. I No. 30 | May      25, 1850 | 481 - 495 | PG # 13713  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. II.                                  |
      | Vol., No.      | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. II No. 31 | June  1, 1850      |   1- 15 | PG # 12589  |
      | Vol. II No. 32 | June  8, 1850      |  17- 32 | PG # 15996  |
      | Vol. II No. 33 | June 15, 1850      |  33- 48 | PG # 26121  |
      | Vol. II No. 34 | June 22, 1850      |  49- 64 | PG # 22127  |
      | Vol. II No. 35 | June 29, 1850      |  65- 79 | PG # 22126  |
      | Vol. II No. 36 | July  6, 1850      |  81- 96 | PG # 13361  |
      | Vol. II No. 37 | July 13, 1850      |  97-112 | PG # 13729  |
      | Vol. II No. 38 | July 20, 1850      | 113-128 | PG # 13362  |
      | Vol. II No. 39 | July 27, 1850      | 129-143 | PG # 13736  |
      | Vol. II No. 40 | August  3, 1850    | 145-159 | PG # 13389  |
      | Vol. II No. 41 | August 10, 1850    | 161-176 | PG # 13393  |
      | Vol. II No. 42 | August 17, 1850    | 177-191 | PG # 13411  |
      | Vol. II No. 43 | August 24, 1850    | 193-207 | PG # 13406  |
      | Vol. II No. 44 | August 31, 1850    | 209-223 | PG # 13426  |
      | Vol. II No. 45 | September  7, 1850 | 225-240 | PG # 13427  |
      | Vol. II No. 46 | September 14, 1850 | 241-256 | PG # 13462  |
      | Vol. II No. 47 | September 21, 1850 | 257-272 | PG # 13936  |
      | Vol. II No. 48 | September 28, 1850 | 273-288 | PG # 13463  |
      | Vol. II No. 49 | October  5, 1850   | 289-304 | PG # 13480  |
      | Vol. II No. 50 | October 12, 1850   | 305-320 | PG # 13551  |
      | Vol. II No. 51 | October 19, 1850   | 321-351 | PG # 15232  |
      | Vol. II No. 52 | October 26, 1850   | 353-367 | PG # 22624  |
      | Vol. II No. 53 | November  2, 1850  | 369-383 | PG # 13540  |
      | Vol. II No. 54 | November  9, 1850  | 385-399 | PG # 22138  |
      | Vol. II No. 55 | November 16, 1850  | 401-415 | PG # 15216  |
      | Vol. II No. 56 | November 23, 1850  | 417-431 | PG # 15354  |
      | Vol. II No. 57 | November 30, 1850  | 433-454 | PG # 15405  |
      | Vol. II No. 58 | December  7, 1850  | 457-470 | PG # 21503  |
      | Vol. II No. 59 | December 14, 1850  | 473-486 | PG # 15427  |
      | Vol. II No. 60 | December 21, 1850  | 489-502 | PG # 24803  |
      | Vol. II No. 61 | December 28, 1850  | 505-524 | PG # 16404  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. III.                                 |
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. III No. 62 | January  4, 1851  |   1- 15 | PG # 15638  |
      | Vol. III No. 63 | January 11, 1851  |  17- 31 | PG # 15639  |
      | Vol. III No. 64 | January 18, 1851  |  33- 47 | PG # 15640  |
      | Vol. III No. 65 | January 25, 1851  |  49- 78 | PG # 15641  |
      | Vol. III No. 66 | February  1, 1851 |  81- 95 | PG # 22339  |
      | Vol. III No. 67 | February  8, 1851 |  97-111 | PG # 22625  |
      | Vol. III No. 68 | February 15, 1851 | 113-127 | PG # 22639  |
      | Vol. III No. 69 | February 22, 1851 | 129-159 | PG # 23027  |
      | Vol. III No. 70 | March  1, 1851    | 161-174 | PG # 23204  |
      | Vol. III No. 71 | March  8, 1851    | 177-200 | PG # 23205  |
      | Vol. III No. 72 | March 15, 1851    | 201-215 | PG # 23212  |
      | Vol. III No. 73 | March 22, 1851    | 217-231 | PG # 23225  |
      | Vol. III No. 74 | March 29, 1851    | 233-255 | PG # 23282  |
      | Vol. III No. 75 | April  5, 1851    | 257-271 | PG # 23402  |
      | Vol. III No. 76 | April 12, 1851    | 273-294 | PG # 26896  |
      | Vol. III No. 77 | April 19, 1851    | 297-311 | PG # 26897  |
      | Vol. III No. 78 | April 26, 1851    | 313-342 | PG # 26898  |
      | Vol. III No. 79 | May  3, 1851      | 345-359 | PG # 26899  |
      | Vol. III No. 80 | May 10, 1851      | 361-382 | PG # 32495  |
      | Vol. III No. 81 | May 17, 1851      | 385-399 | PG # 29318  |
      | Vol. III No. 82 | May 24, 1851      | 401-415 | PG # 28311  |
      | Vol. III No. 83 | May 31, 1851      | 417-440 | PG # 36835  |
      | Vol. III No. 84 | June  7, 1851     | 441-472 | PG # 37379  |
      | Vol. III No. 85 | June 14, 1851     | 473-488 | PG # 37403  |
      | Vol. III No. 86 | June 21, 1851     | 489-511 | PG # 37496  |
      | Vol. III No. 87 | June 28, 1851     | 513-528 | PG # 37516  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. IV.                                  |
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx |
      | Vol. IV No.  88 | July  5, 1851      |   1- 15 | PG # 37548 |
      | Vol. IV No.  89 | July 12, 1851      |  17- 31 | PG # 37568 |
      | Vol. IV No.  90 | July 19, 1851      |  33- 47 | PG # 37593 |
      | Vol. IV No.  91 | July 26, 1851      |  49- 79 | PG # 37778 |
      | Vol. IV No.  92 | August  2, 1851    |  81- 94 | PG # 38324 |
      | Vol. IV No.  93 | August  9, 1851    |  97-112 | PG # 38337 |
      | Vol. IV No.  94 | August 16, 1851    | 113-127 | PG # 38350 |
      | Vol. IV No.  95 | August 23, 1851    | 129-144 | PG # 38386 |
      | Vol. IV No.  96 | August 30, 1851    | 145-167 | PG # 38405 |
      | Vol. IV No.  97 | Sept.  6, 1851     | 169-183 | PG # 38433 |
      | Vol. IV No.  98 | Sept. 13, 1851     | 185-200 | PG # 38491 |
      | Vol. IV No.  99 | Sept. 20, 1851     | 201-216 | PG # 38574 |
      | Vol. IV No. 100 | Sept. 27, 1851     | 217-246 | PG # 38656 |
      | Vol. IV No. 101 | Oct.  4, 1851      | 249-264 | PG # 38701 |
      | Vol. IV No. 102 | Oct. 11, 1851      | 265-287 | PG # 38773 |
      | Vol. IV No. 103 | Oct. 18, 1851      | 289-303 | PG # 38864 |
      | Vol. IV No. 104 | Oct. 25, 1851      | 305-333 | PG # 38926 |
      | Vol. IV No. 105 | Nov.  1, 1851      | 337-358 | PG # 39076 |
      | Vol. IV No. 106 | Nov.  8, 1851      | 361-374 | PG # 39091 |
      | Vol. IV No. 107 | Nov. 15, 1851      | 377-396 | PG # 39135 |
      | Vol. IV No. 108 | Nov. 22, 1851      | 401-414 | PG # 39197 |
      | Vol. IV No. 109 | Nov. 29, 1851      | 417-430 | PG # 39233 |
      | Vol. IV No. 110 | Dec.  6, 1851      | 433-460 | PG # 39338 |
      | Vol. IV No. 111 | Dec. 13, 1851      | 465-478 | PG # 39393 |
      | Vol. IV No. 112 | Dec. 20, 1851      | 481-494 | PG # 39438 |
      | Vol. IV No. 113 | Dec. 27, 1851      | 497-510 | PG # 39503 |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. V.                                   |
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         |  Pages  | PG # xxxxx |
      | Vol. V  No. 114 | January  3, 1852   |   1- 18 | PG # 40171 |
      | Vol. V  No. 115 | January 10, 1852   |  25- 45 | PG # 40582 |
      | Vol. V  No. 116 | January 17, 1852   |  49- 70 | PG # 40642 |
      | Vol. V  No. 117 | January 24, 1852   |  73- 94 | PG # 40678 |
      | Vol. V  No. 118 | January 31, 1852   |  97-118 | PG # 40716 |
      | Vol. V  No. 119 | February  7, 1852  | 121-142 | PG # 40742 |
      | Vol. V  No. 120 | February 14, 1852  | 145-167 | PG # 40743 |
      | Vol. V  No. 121 | February 21, 1852  | 170-191 | PG # 40773 |
      | Vol. V  No. 122 | February 28, 1852  | 193-215 | PG # 40779 |
      | Vol. V  No. 123 | March  6, 1852     | 217-239 | PG # 40804 |
      | Vol. V  No. 124 | March 13, 1852     | 241-263 | PG # 40843 |
      | Vol. V  No. 125 | March 20, 1852     | 265-287 | PG # 40910 |
      | Vol. V  No. 126 | March 27, 1852     | 289-310 | PG # 40987 |
      | Vol. V  No. 127 | April  3, 1852     | 313-335 | PG # 41138 |
      | Vol. V  No. 128 | April 10, 1852     | 337-358 | PG # 41171 |
      | Vol. V  No. 129 | April 17, 1852     | 361-383 | PG # 41205 |
      | Vol. V  No. 130 | April 24, 1852     | 385-407 | PG #41254  |
      | Vol. V  No. 131 | May  1, 1852       | 409-431 | PG # 41295 |
      | Vol I. Index. [Nov. 1849-May 1850]             | PG # 13536 |
      | INDEX TO THE SECOND VOLUME. MAY-DEC., 1850     | PG # 13571 |
      | INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. JAN.-JUNE, 1851     | PG # 26770 |
      | INDEX TO THE FOURTH VOLUME. JULY-DEC., 1851    | PG # 40166 |

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. V, Number 132, May 8, 1852 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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