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Title: Notes and Queries, Vol. V, Number 134, May 22, 1852 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. V, Number 134, May 22, 1852 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



[Transcriber's note: Original spelling variations have not been
standardized. Characters with macrons have been marked in brackets with
an equal sign, as [=e] for a letter e with a macron on top; [p=] shows a
letter p with a stroke through the descender. {Old English style}
letters have been shown in {braces}. Underscores have been used to
indicate _italic_ fonts. A list of volumes and pages in "Notes and
Queries" has been added at the end.]



NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION

FOR

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

VOL. V.--No. 134. SATURDAY, MAY 22. 1852.

Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition, 5_d._



CONTENTS.

                                                                Page


      NOTES:--

      A few Things about Richard Baxter, by H. M. Bealby         481

      Latin Song by Andrew Boorde, by Dr. E. F. Rimbault         482

      Shakspeare Notes                                           483

      Publications of the Stuttgart Society, by F. Norgate       484

      Manuscript Shakspeare Emendations, by J. O. Halliwell      484

      The Grave-stone of Joe Miller                              485

      Folk Lore:--Swearing on a Skull--New Moon--Rust            485

      Minor Notes:--Epitaph at Low Moor--Sir Thomas Overbury's
      Epitaph--Bibliotheca Literaria--Inscription at Dundrah
      Castle--Derivation of Charing                              486

      QUERIES:--

      Poem by Nicholas Breton                                    487

      The Virtuosi, or St. Luke's Club                           487

      The Rabbit as a Symbol                                     487

      Is Wyld's Great Globe a Plagiarism from Molenax? by
      John Petheram                                              488

      Minor Queries:--Poem on the Burning of the Houses of
      Parliament--Newton's Library--Meaning of Royd--The
      Cromwell Family--Sir John Darnell, Knt.--Royal
      "We"--Gondomar--Wallington's Journal--Epistola
      Lucifera, &c.--Cambrian Literature--"VCRIMDR" on
      Coins of Vabalathus--Lines on Woman--Penkenol--Fairfax
      Family Mansion--Postman and Tubman in the Court of
      Exchequer--Second Exhumation of King Arthur's Remains,
      &c.                                                        488

      MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--Welsh Women's Hats--Pancakes
      on Shrove Tuesday--Shakspeare, Tennyson, and Claudian      491

      REPLIES:--

      The Ring Finger                                            492

      The Moravian Hymns                                         492

      Cagots                                                     493

      Sheriffs and Lords Lieutenant                              494

      St. Christopher                                            494

      General Pardons: Sir John Trenchard, by E. S. Taylor       496

      Replies to Minor Queries:--Dayesman--Bull; Dun--Algernon
      Sidney--Age of Trees--Emaciated Monumental Effigies--Bee
      Park--Sally Lunn--Baxter's Pulpit--Lothian's Scottish
      Historical Maps--British Ambassadors--Knollys
      Family--'Prentice Pillars; 'Prentice Windows--St.
      Bartholomew--Sun-dial Inscription--History of
      Faction--Barnacles--Family Likenesses--Merchant
      Adventurers to Spain--Exeter Controversy--Corrupted
      Names of Places--Poison--Vikingr Skotar--Rhymes on
      Places--"We three"--Burning Fern brings Rain--Plague
      Stones--Sneezing--Abbot of Croyland's Motto--Derivation
      of the Word "Azores"--Scologlandis and Scologi             497

      MISCELLANEOUS:--

      Notes on Books, &c.                                        501

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted                               502

      Notices to Correspondents                                  502

      Advertisements                                             503



Notes.


A FEW THINGS ABOUT RICHARD BAXTER.

In the year 1836, I visited Kidderminster for the purpose of seeing the
place where Richard Baxter spent fourteen of the most valuable years of
his life; and of ascertaining if any relics were to be found connected
with the history of this remarkable man. Baxter thought much of
Kidderminster, for with strong feeling he says, respecting this place,
in his poem on "Love breathing Thanks and Praise" (_Poetical Fragments_,
1st edit. 1681):--

      "But among all, none did so much abound,
      With fruitful mercies, as that barren ground,
      Where I did make my best and longest stay,
      And bore the heat and burden of the day;
      Mercies grew thicker there than summer flowers:
      They over-numbered my daies and hours.
      There was my dearest flock, and special charge,
      Our hearts in mutual love thou didst enlarge:
      'Twas there that mercy did my labours bless,
      With the most great and wonderful success."

While prosecuting my inquiries, I was shown the house in which he is
said to have resided. It is situated in the High Street, and was, at the
time of my visit, inhabited by a grocer; but I had my doubts, from a
difference of opinion I heard stated as to this being the actual house.
After looking at this house, I visited the vestry of the Unitarian
Chapel, and examined the pulpit; the description of which given by your
correspondent is very correct. He omits to mention Job Orton's chair,
which was shown me, as well as that of Bishop Hall. From all I could
learn at the time, and since, I should say that there is not the
slightest probability of any engraving having been published of this
pulpit. Sketches may have been made by private hands, but nothing I
believe in this way has ever been given to the public. I have long taken
a deep interest in everything, pertaining to Richard Baxter. I some
years ago collected ninety-seven out of the one hundred and sixty-eight
works which he wrote, most of them the original editions, and
principally on controversial subjects. After they had served the purpose
for which I purchased them, I parted with them, reserving to myself the
first editions of the choicest of his practical writings. The folio
edition of his works contains only his practical treatises. One of the
most remarkable facts connected with the history of Baxter, is the
prodigious amount of mechanical drudgery to which he must have patiently
submitted in the production of his varied publications. He had a very
delicate frame: he was continually unwell, and often greatly afflicted.
To this constant ailment of body he refers in a very affecting note in
his _Paraphrase on the New Testament_ under the fifth verse in the fifth
chapter of the Gospel of St. John. The reference is to the impotent man
at the pool of Bethesda, who had an infirmity thirty and eight years.

  _Note._ "How great a mercy is it, to live eight and thirty years
  under God's wholesome discipline? How inexcusable was this man, if
  he had been proud, or worldly, or careless of his everlasting
  state? O my God! I thank thee for the like discipline of eight and
  fifty years. How safe a life is this, in comparison of full
  prosperity and pleasure."

His ministerial duties were of an arduous nature, and yet he found time
to write largely on theological subjects, and to plunge perpetually into
theological controversy. The _Saint's Rest_, by which his fame will ever
be perpetuated, was published in 1619, 4to. It is in four parts, and
dedicated respectively to the inhabitants of Kidderminster, Bridgenorth,
Coventry, and Shrewsbury. It was the first book he wrote, and the second
he published (_The Aphorisms of Justification_ being the first
published): it was written under the daily expectation of dying. The
names of Brook, Hampden, and Pym, which have a place in the first
edition, are, singularly enough, omitted in the later ones. Fifty years
after the appearance of the _Saint's Rest_, and a few months only before
his death, he published the strangest of all his productions; it is--

  "The Certainty of the World of Spirits, fully evinced by
  unquestionable Histories of Apparitions and Witchcrafts,
  Operations, Voices, &c. Proving the Immortality of Souls, the
  Malice and Misery of Devils and the Damned, and the Blessedness of
  the Justified. Written for the Conviction of Sadducees and
  Infidels."

  12mo. 1691.

His _Reliquiæ Baxterianæ_, folio, 1686, is the text-book for the actual
every-day life of this eminent divine.

    H. M. BEALBY.

  North Brixton.


LATIN SONG BY ANDREW BOORDE.

The life of this "progenitor of Merry Andrew," as he is termed, would,
if minutely examined, doubtless prove a curious piece of biography. Wood
furnishes many particulars, but some of his statements want
confirmation. He tells us that Boorde was borne at Pevensey in Sussex;
but Hearne corrects him, and says it was at Bounds Hill in the same
county. It then becomes a question whether he was educated at Winchester
school. Certain it is that he was of Oxford, although he left without
taking a degree, and became a brother of the Carthusian order in London.
We next find him studying physic in his old university, and subsequently
travelling through most parts of Europe, and even of Africa. On his
return to England, he settled at Winchester, and practised as a
physician. Afterwards we find him in London occupying a tenement in the
parish of St. Giles-in-the-Fields. This appears to have been the period
when, in his professional capacity, King Henry VIII. is said to have
consulted him. How long he remained in London is uncertain, but in 1541
he was living at Montpelier in France, where he is supposed to have
taken the degree of doctor in physic, in which he was afterwards
incorporated at Oxford. He subsequently lived at Pevensey, and again at
Winchester. At last we find him a prisoner in the Fleet--the cause has
yet to be learned,--at which place he died in April, 1549. The following
curious relic is transcribed from the flyleaf of a copy of _The Breviary
of Health_, 4to., London, 1547. It is signed "Andrew Boord," and if not
the handwriting of the facetious author himself, is certainly that of
some one of his cotemporaries:

      "Nos vagabunduli,
      Læti, jucunduli,
              Tara, tantara teino.
      Edimus libere,
      Canimus lepide,
              Tara, &c.
      Risu dissolvimur,
      Pannis obvolvimur,
              Tara, &c.
      Multum in joculis,
      Crebro in poculis,
              Tara, &c.
      Dolo consuimus,
      Nihil metuimus,
              Tara, &c.
      Pennus non deficit,
      Præda nos reficit,
              Tara, &c.
      Frater Catholice,
      Vir apostolice,
              Tara, &c.
      Dic quæ volueris
      Fient quæ jusseris,
              Tara, &c.
      Omnes metuite
      Partes gramaticæ,
              Tara, &c.
      Quadruplex nebulo
      Adest, et spolio,
              Tara, &c.
      Data licencia,
      Crescit amentia,
              Tara, &c.
      Papa sic præcipit
      Frater non decipit
              Tara, &c.
      Chare fratercule,
      Vale et tempore,
              Tara, &c.
      Quando revititur,
      Congratulabimur,
              Tara, &c.
      Nosmet respicimus,
      Et vale dicimus,
              Tara, &c.
      Corporum noxibus
      Cordium amplexibus,
              Tara tantara teino."

Andrew Boorde's printed works are as follows:

1. _A Book of the Introduction to Knowledge_, 4to., London, 1542.

2. _A Compendious Regiment or Dietary of Health, made at Mountpyller_,
8vo., 1542.

3. _The Breviary of Health_, 4to., London, 1547.

4. _The Princyples of Astronomye_, 12mo., R. Copland, London, n. d.

Wood tells us he wrote "a book on prognosticks," and another "of
urines." _The Merry Tales of the Wise Men of Gotham_ are also ascribed
to him, as well as _A Right Pleasant and Merry History of the Mylner of
Abington_, &c.

The origin of the _Merry Tales_ is pointed out by Horsfield, in his
_History of Lewes_, vol. i. p. 239.:--

  "At a _last_, holden at Pevensey, Oct. 3, 24 Hen. VIII., for the
  purpose of preventing unauthorised persons 'from setting nettes,
  pottes, or innyances,' or anywise taking fish within the
  privileges of the Marsh of Pevensey, the king's commission was
  directed to John, Prior of Lewes; Richard, Abbot of Begham; John,
  Prior of Mychillym; Thomas, Lord Dacre, and others ... Dr. Boorde
  (the original Merry Andrew) founds his tale of the 'Wise Men of
  Gotham' upon the proceedings of this meeting, Gotham being the
  property of Lord Dacre, and near his residence."

The inhabitants of Gotham in Nottinghamshire have hitherto been
considered the "biggest fools in christendom;" but if the above extract
is to be depended upon, the _Gothamites_ of Sussex have a fair claim to
a share of this honourable distinction.

The quotation from the _History of Lewes_ was first pointed out by your
learned correspondent, MR. M. A. LOWER, in a communication to Mr.
Halliwell's _Archæologist_, 1842, p. 129. The investigation of the
origin of this popular collection of old _Joe Millerisms_ is of some
importance, because upon them rests Dr. Boorde's title to be the
"progenitor of Merry Andrew."

    EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.


SHAKSPEARE NOTES.

Who was the editor of _The Poems and Plays of William Shakspeare_, eight
vols. 8vo., published by Scott and Webster in 1833?

In that edition the following passage from _The Merchant of Venice_, Act
III. Sc. 2., is _pointed_ in this way:--

      "Thus ornament is but the guiled shore
      To a most dangerous sea; the beauteous scarf
      Veiling an Indian; beauty's, in a word,
      The seeming truth which cunning times put on
      To entrap the wisest."

To which the anonymous editor appends the following note:--

  "I have deviated slightly from the folio--the ordinary reading
  represents ornament as '_the beauteous scarf veiling an Indian
  beauty_,' a sentence which by no means serves to illustrate the
  reflexion which Bassanio wishes to enforce. Sir Thomas Hanmer
  proposed to read _dowdy_ for beauty!"

My object in this quotation is not that of commending the emendation,
but of affording an opportunity of recording the following reasons which
induce me to reject it; not only as no improvement to the sense, but as
a positive injury to it.

1st. The argument of Bassanio is directed against the deceptiveness of
ornament in general, of which seeming beauty is only one of the
subordinate illustrations. These illustrations are drawn from _law_,
_religion_, _valour_, and _beauty_; all of which are finally summed up
in the passage in question, beginning "_Thus ornament_," &c. and still
further concentrated in the phrase "_in a word_." Therefore this summing
up cannot refer singly to _beauty_, no more than to any other of the
subordinate illustrations, but it must have general reference to
adventitious ornament, against which _the collected argument_ is
directed.

2ndly. The word _beauty_ is necessarily attached to Indian as
designative _of sex_: "an Indian," unqualified by any other distinction,
would imply a male; but an "Indian beauty" is at once understood to be a
female.

3rdly. The repetition, or rather _the opposition_, of "_beauteous_" and
"_beauty_," cannot seriously be objected to by any one conversant with
the phraseology of Shakspeare. Were it at all necessary, many similar
examples might be cited. How the anonymous annotator, already quoted,
could say that the sentence, as it stands in the folio, "_by no means
serves to illustrate Bassanio's reflexion_," I cannot conceive. "The
beauteous scarf" is the deceptive ornament which leads to the
expectation of something beneath it _better_ than an _Indian_ beauty!
Indian is used adjectively, in the sense of wild, savage, hideous--just
as we, at the present day, might say a Hottentot beauty; or as
Shakspeare himself in other places uses the word "Ethiop:"

      "Thou for whom Jove would swear
      Juno but an Ethiop were."

"_Her mother was her painting._"--_Cymbeline_, Act III. Sc. 4.--I have
read Mr. Halliwell's pamphlet upon this expression, noticed in "N. & Q."
of the 10th of April (p. 358.) I would beg to suggest to that gentleman
that he has overlooked one text in Shakspeare that would tell more for
his argument than the whole of those he has cited. All his examples are
drawn from the word _father_, metaphorically applied in the sense of
_creator_ to inanimate objects; and the same sense he extends, by
analogy, to _mother_. But in the following lines from _As You Like It_
(Act III. Sc. 5.), _mother_ is directly used as a sort of warranty of
female beauty! Rosalind is reproving Phebe for her contempt of her
lover, and in derision of her beauty, she asks:

              "Who might be your mother?
      That you insult, exult, and all at once,
      Over the wretched?"

Now if Phebe had been one who _smothered her in painting_, an
appropriate answer to Rosalind's question might have been--her mother
was _her painting_!

Most certainly, this latter phrase is the more graceful mode of
expressing the idea--far more in unison with the language one would
expect from the refined, the delicate, the bewitching Imogen--from her
who wished to set "_that parting kiss betwixt two charming words_."

    A. E. B.

  Leeds.


PUBLICATIONS OF THE STUTTGART SOCIETY.

The following is a list of the works which have appeared under the
auspices of the Stuttgart Society, referred to in my Note respecting
Felix Faber:--

I. 1. Closener's Strassburgische Chronik.

2. Des Ritters Georg von Ehingen Reisen.

(_a_). Nach der Ritterschaft.

(_b_). Æneas Sylvius Piccolomineus de Viris illustribus.

(_c_). Ott Ruland's Handlungsbuch.

(_d_). Codex Hirsaugiensis.

II.-IV. Fratris Felicis Fabri Evagatorium, 3 vols.

V. (_a_). Die Weingartner Liederhandschrift.

(_b_). Italiänische Lieder des Hohenstaufischen Hofes in Sicilien.

VI. Briefe der Prinzessin Elisabeth Charlotte v. Orleans an die
Raugräfin Louise (1676-1722).

VII. (_a_). Des Böhmischen Herrn Leo's von Rozmital Reise durch die
Abendländer in den Jahren 1465, 1466, und 1467.

(_b_). Die Livländische Reimchronik.

VIII. Chronik des Edlen En Ramon Muntaner.

IX. (_a_). Bruchstück über den Kreuzzug Friederichs I.

(_b_). Ein Buch von guter Speise.

(_c_). Die alte Heidelberger Liederhandschrift.

X. Urkunden, Briefe und Actenstücke zur Geschichte Maximilians I. und
seiner Zeit.

XI. Staatspapiere zur Geschichte des Kaisers Karl V.

XII. Das Ambraser Liederbuch vom Jahre 1582.

XIII. Li Romans d'Alixandre par Lambert, Li Tors et Alexandre de Bernay.

XIV. Urkunden zur Geschichte des Schwäbischen Bundes (1488-1533), Erster
Theil, 1488-1506.

XV. Cancionero Geral I.

XVI. (_a_). Carmina Burana (from a MS. of thirteenth century).

(_b_). Albert v. Beham u. Regerten Papst Innocenz IV.

XVII. Cancionero Geral II.

XVIII. Konrads von Weinsberg Einnahmen- und Ausgaben-Register.

XIX. Das Habsburg.-Oesterreichische Urbarbuch.

XX. Hadamars v. Laber Jagd.

XXI. Meister Altswert.

XXII. Meinauer Naturlehre (_circa_ 1300).

XXIII. Der Ring, von Heinrich Wittenweiler.

XXV. Ludolfi de Itinere terræ sanctæ liber (_circa_ 1350).

Vol. XXIV. is in the press.

    F. NORGATE.


MANUSCRIPT SHAKSPEARE EMENDATIONS.

Your able correspondent MR. S. W. SINGER, in Vol. v., p. 436., gives his
positive adhesion to MR. COLLIER'S emendation of the corruption "bosom
multiplied" in _Coriolanus_, Act III. Sc. 1. Agreeing with MR. SINGER in
his opinion of the value of this emendation, there is yet an importance
attached to it which I feel sure MR. COLLIER will not object to have
pointed out, although doubtlessly all the argument respecting the
_sources_ of his early MS. corrections will be carefully considered in
the volume he so liberally intends presenting to the Shakspeare Society.
Shakspearian criticism is a field so open to varied opinions, and is a
subject on which so few can be brought exactly to agree, it is a mere
chance if, in addressing these few lines, I in any degree anticipate MR.
COLLIER'S conclusions.

MR. COLLIER'S discovery was, perhaps, of even greater interest to myself
than to others, not merely on account of its being an important evidence
for the state of the text, _but because I had long since had the
opportunity of using a volume of precisely similar character_, namely,
the copy of the third folio, with numerous MS. emendations in a coeval
hand, mentioned by Lowndes, p. 1646., as having some years since sold
for 65_l._, on account of those MS. emendations. This volume contains
several hundred very curious and important corrections, amongst which I
may mention an entirely new reading of the difficult passage at the
commencement of _Measure for Measure_, which carries conviction with it,
and shows, what might have been reasonably expected, that _that to_ is a
misprint _for a verb_. There are numerous other corrections of equal
importance, but I forbear at present to notice them, under the
conviction it is not safe to adopt MS. corrections, unless we know on
what authority they are made. It was on this account I ventured to
indicate the extreme danger of adopting any of the MS. readings of MR.
COLLIER'S second folio, without a most rigid examination, or until their
authority was unquestionably ascertained. Now, in MR. COLLIER'S first
two communications to the _Athenæum_ there was scarcely a single example
which indicated it was derived from an authentic source, but many, on
the other hand, which could be well believed to be mere guess-work; and
it was rather alarming to see the readiness with which they were
received, threatening the loss of Shakspeare's genuine text.

A ray of light, however, at length appears in the new reading in
_Coriolanus_. This, more than any other, gives hopes of important
results; and it does something more than this: it opens a reasonable
expectation that the MS. corrector had, in some cases, recollection of
the passages as they were delivered in representation. Once establish a
probability of this, and although many of the corrections must still be
looked upon as conjectural, the volume will be of high value. The
correction "_bisson multitude_" seems to me to be clearly one of those
alterations that no conjectural ingenuity could have suggested. The
volume has evidently been used for stage purposes; and it may be taken
as almost beyond a doubt that that particular correction was made on
authority. We can scarcely imagine that authority to be a MS. of the
play, and are therefore thrown on the supposition the corrector
sometimes altered from memory, and sometimes from conjecture, writing as
he thought Shakspeare _ought_ to have written, even if he did not.

It is scarcely necessary to say these observations are grounded solely
on what is already before the public. The appearance of MR. COLLIER'S
volume may modify their effect either one way or the other; and perhaps
I am committing a literary trespass on my friend's manor in thus
prematurely entering into an argument on the subject. But MR. COLLIER,
with his usual liberality, has invited rather than deprecated
discussion; and having expressed in print opinions grounded on his first
two communications, it would be uncandid in me not to acknowledge they
are in some degree modified by the very important correction since
published.

    J. O. HALLIWELL.


THE GRAVE-STONE OF JOE MILLER.

In consequence of the disfranchisement of St. Clement's burial-ground,
Portugal Street, Clare Market, the last memorial of "honest Jo" is
condemned for removal; and this being the case, I have forwarded for "N.
& Q." a copy of the inscription. The epitaph written by Stephen Duck,
and the stone itself, were, about the beginning of the present century,
in jeopardy of obliteration, but for the compassion of Mr. Bulgen, the
grave-digger; and being still in a very bad condition, Mr. Buck a few
years afterwards repaired it. The following is the inscription:

              "Here Lye the Remains of
                 honest Jo. Miller
                      who was
                 a tender Husband,
                 a sincere Friend,
               a facetious Companion,
             and an excellent Comedian.
         He departed this Life the 15th day of
             August 1738, aged 54 years.

      If humour, wit, and honesty could save
      The humorous, witty, honest from the grave,
      The grave had not so soon this tenant found,
      Whom honesty, and wit, and humour crowned;
      Could but esteem and love preserve our breath,
      And guard us longer from this stroke of death,
      The stroke of death on him had later fell,
      Whom all mankind esteemed and loved so well.

                      S. DUCK.

              From respect to social worth,
      mirthful qualities, and histrionic excellence,
        commemorated by poetic talent, humble life,
            the above inscription, which Time
        had nearly obliterated, has been restored
        and transferred to this stone by order of

          MR. JARVIS BUCK, Churchwarden.

                    A.D. 1816."

    UNICORN.


FOLK LORE.

_Swearing on a Skull._--In April, 1851, a man was committed to Mayo
prison for cutting off the head of a corpse but a few days interred. His
object in severing the head was that of clearing himself of some imputed
crime by swearing on a skull, a superstition said to be very common in
that part of Ireland.

    PHILIP S. KING.

_New Moon._--If, when you look at the new moon for the first time, you
think of one particular thing which you greatly desire to have, or to
have accomplished, your wishes on that same point will be realised
before the close of the year.

    R. VINCENT.

_Rust._--If, without any neglect on your part, but even with care,
articles of steel belonging to you, such as keys, knives, &c.,
continually become rusty, some kindhearted person is laying up money for
_your_ benefit.

This superstitious notion is very prevalent in Wales.

    R. VINCENT.


Minor Notes.

_Epitaph at Low Moor._--The following curious epitaph is on a tombstone
in the Low Moor churchyard, near this town:--

  "In Memory of Christopher Barlow, Blacksmith, of Raw Nook, who
  died Oct. 9th, 1824, aged 56.

      "My stithy and my hammer I reclin'd;
      My bellows, too, have lost their wind;
      My fire's extinguish'd, and my forge decay'd,
      And in the silent dust my vice is laid.
      My coal is spent, my stock of iron's gone,
      My last nail driven, and my work is done."

    C. WILLIAMS.

  Bradford, Yorkshire.

_Sir Thomas Overbury's Epitaph._--I do not think that the epitaph of the
unfortunate Sir Thomas Overbury, poisoned by Carr, Earl of Somerset, in
1613-14, has ever been published. I send it to you, copied from a
manuscript on a blank leaf of a black-letter copy of Howe's _Abridgement
of Stow's Chronicle_ in my possession.

                        "1614.
            SR. THOMAS OVERBURY HIS EPITAPH.

      "The Span of my daies measured, heare I rest
      That is my body, but my Soule his Guest
      Is hence assended whither neither Tyme
      Nor Fayth nor Hope: but only Love can Clyme.
      Wheare beinge nowe enlightned Shee doeth knowe
      The trueth of all men argue of belowe.
      Only this Dust doeth heare in pawne remaine,
      That when the Worlde dissolves, Shee com againe.
                    THOMAS OVERBURY,
                        1614."

    RICHARD F. LITTLEDALE.

  Dublin.

_Bibliotheca Literaria._--I possess a copy of the _Bibliotheca
Literaria_, 1722-4, in which the names of some of the authors are
appended in manuscript to various papers, as follows:

In No. 4., Dr. Brett's name is appended to the first paper.

In No. 5., the first paper, concerning the pillar of fire and cloud, has
the name "Sam. Jebb."

In No. 6., the third paper has the name of Dr. Brett; also, the first in

No. 7., continuation of it.

In No. 8., the first and third papers have "Carol. Ashton;" the second,
Dr. Brett.

In No. 9. the first and second papers have "Thos. Wagstaffe."

Finally, the second in No. 10. has the name of Dr. Brett.

In the hope that this may be of some utility, I send it, on the chance
that these names may not have been published already, which I have not
time to ascertain.

    W. H. S.

  Edinburgh.

  [All the above contributors to this valuable literary journal were
  Nonjurors. It may not be generally known that the principal editor
  was Samuel Jebb, M.D., of Peter House, Cambridge, who subsequently
  attached himself to the Nonjurors, and accepted the office of
  librarian to the celebrated Jeremy Collier. Dr. Jebb was also
  assisted by Mr. Wasse, Dr. Wotton, Dr. Jortin, Dr. Pearce, and
  others.--ED.]

_Inscription at Dundrah Castle._--In the course of a summer spent in
Argyleshire, I paid a visit to old Dundrah, or Dundarrow Castle, which
stands between Inverary and Cairndhu, on the southwest. It is now a
small farm-house. The tenant refused me admission under half-a-crown, so
I contented myself with a survey of the exterior. Over the doorway I
found the following inscription carved in the stone:

      "I ' MAN ' BEHALD ' THE ' END ' DE ' NOCHT '
      VISER ' NOR ' HEIEST ' HOIP ' IN ' GOD."

The meaning is evident, though what connexion it has with the old castle
I am not able to say. I send it you, as I have not seen it noted in any
book.

    C. M. I.

_Derivation of Charing._--Mr. Peter Cunningham, in his most entertaining
work, _The Handbook of London_, tells us that the origin of _Charing
Cross_ has never been discovered.

It lies buried in the venerable pages of Somner and Skinner. It was
first propounded by the former in his Notes on Lipsius, appended to
Meric Causaubon's _Commentatio de Quatuor Linguis_, in v. SCURGI. The
A.-S. _cyrrung_ (from _cyrran_, avertere) is, as he tells us, _aversio_:

  "Atque hinc, a viarum (scil.) et platearum diverticulis, ut in
  compitis, pluribus apud nostrates locis hoc nomen olim inditum,
  quod postea in _Cerring_ mutatum, tandem transiit (ut nunc dierum)
  in _Charing_; quomodo quadrivium sive compitum illud nuncupatur in
  suburbiis Londinensibus, ab occidente, prope Westmonasterium,
  _Charing Crosse_, vulgo dictum; _Crosse_ addito, ob crucem ibidem,
  ut in compitis solitum, olim erectam."

    Q.



Queries.


POEM BY NICHOLAS BRETON.

I have recently purchased a small manuscript in quarto, containing
fifteen leaves, written about the year 1590, which consists of a poem in
six cantos, without title or name of the author, but which, I feel
convinced, from the style, is one of the numerous works of Nicholas
Breton. In the hope that some of your correspondents may be able to
identify the poem, which may possibly be printed in some of Breton's
very rare works, I subjoin the commencing stanzas:

      "Where should I finde that melancholy muse,
        That never hard of any thinge but mone,
      And reade the passiones that her pen doth use,
        When she and sorrow sadlye sitt alone
      To tell the world more then the world can tell
      What fits indeed most fitlye figure hell.

      "Lett me not thinke once of the smalest thought
        May speake of less then of the greatest gref,
      Wher every sence with sorrowes overwrought
        Lives but in death, dispayring of relef,
      While thus the harte with torments torne asunder
      Maye of the worlde be cal'd the wofull wonder."

These two stanzas are by no means favourable specimens of the entire
poem, but I prefer to give them, because the work itself may be printed.
If it appears, on inquiry, to be still inedited, I may venture to submit
a few other extracts from it of a more illustrative character. Our
bibliographers would be more useful guides, were they always to give the
first lines of old poems. I have a tolerably good library, but can find
no work sufficiently descriptive of Breton's works to enable me to trace
the above.

    H.


THE VIRTUOSI, OR ST. LUKE'S CLUB.

Where is to be found that intensely interesting MS. Lot 120., Sixth
Day's Sale, at Strawberry Hill, a _folio tract_ entitled _The
"Virtuosi," or St. Luke's Club, held at the Rose Tavern, first
established by Sir Anthony Vandyke; with Autographs of all the eminent
Artists of the day_?

Such is the account of Mr. George Robins, to the sound of whose hammer
it fell, let us hope, into worthy hands.

By the aid of a note made whilst the several precious contents of that
"Gothic Vatican of Greece and Rome," as I think Pope described it, were
on view, I hope to whet the appetite of some of our literary vultures:

  "Rose Tavern, Mar. 5. 1697.

  "An order for raising an annual fund for pictures; with twenty
  names of stewards."

What say you, Mr. Editor, to such subscribing parties as, among others,
"Grinling Gibbons, Michael Dahl, J. Closterman, and Christopher Wren?" I
cannot remember more, but I think "Alex. Verrio" was among them.

Mem. the second: as entries in a sort of journal:

  "That our steward, John Chicheley, Esquire, gave us this day a
  Westphalia Ham, which had been omitted in his entertainment on St.
  Luke's day."

Again:

      "Paid and spent at Spring Gardens, by Knightsbridge, forfeiture
      £3 15_shgs._"

Why, Mr. Editor, here are the new Roxburgh Revels of the Knights of the
Brush and Palette. And now that the Chancellor of the Exchequer of the
day is expected to take out his diploma, and the ex-Premier is to be the
new Professor of Perspective, _vice_ the author of the _Fallacies of
Hope_, it becomes a question of prevailing interest, which I commend to
the research of your dilettanti querists. It may be a thread of
connexion with those stores of precious materials obtained by Walpole
from the widow of that persevering investigator George Virtue.

    J. H. A.


THE RABBIT AS A SYMBOL.

The 29th vol. of the _Archæologia_ contains an interesting "description
of a monumental effigy of Richard Coeur de Lion, recently discovered in
the cathedral of Notre Dame at Rouen," by Alfred Way, Esq., who, with
his usual precision, has noticed what he very properly calls "some
singular details" beneath the figure of the lion crouching at the king's
feet; among these details is "the head of _a rabbit_[1] peeping out of
its burrow, and, a little above, a dog warily watching the mouth of the
hole." Mr. Way adds:

  "I have met with nothing among the accessory ornaments of
  monumental sculpture analogous to this; and though convinced that
  what in itself may appear a trifling detail, _was not placed here
  without design_, I am quite at a loss to conjecture what could
  have been its import."

  [Footnote 1: Mr. Way says _a hare_ or rabbit, forgetting that the
  hare does not burrow.]

The same symbol or device, well known to all lovers of ancient
wood-engraving, appears in some of the earliest specimens of that art.
It is found in an impression of one of the oldest known playing-cards,
representing the knave of diamonds, now in the print-room of the British
Museum, of which a fac-simile is inserted at p. 214. of Chatto's
_History of Playing Cards_. Another instance of this device occurs
(without the dog) in an old woodcut, dated 1418, discovered a few years
ago at Malines, of which a copy appeared in the _Athenæum_ of Oct. 4,
1845. And a third example is contained in that celebrated and unique
woodcut of St. Christopher, dated 1423, in the possession of Earl
Spencer, copies of which may be found in Janson's _Essai sur l'Origine
de la Gravure_, and in Ottley's work. Being as fully convinced as Mr.
Way that the symbols he observed on the effigy of Richard at Rouen were
_never introduced without design_, but that they were meant to convey
some esoteric signification, I have for many years consulted both books
and friends to obtain an explanation of this allegorical device, but
without success. As a last resource, I address myself to the "N. & Q.,"
in hopes, from their having now obtained so wide a circulation, that I
may receive through their medium, and the kindness of a more learned
correspondent, a solution of this enigma.

P.S.--In addition to the above _four_ instances of the device of _a
rabbit_ occurring in ancient sculpture and wood-engraving, a French
writer, M. Th. Gautier, in the feuilleton of _La Presse_ of the 27th
September, 1851, describes the Madonna of Albert Durer as being "presque
toujours accompagnée _d'un lapin_," derived (in his opinion) from a
"vague ressouvenir du panthéisme Germanique."

    SYMBOL.


IS WYLD'S GREAT GLOBE A PLAGIARISM FROM MOLENAX?

(Vol. v., p. 467.)

Some time ago I made the following Notes, which, though they throw some
light on the subject of Molineux's globe, yet they do not bear out MR.
EASTWOOD'S conjecture. The first is from Richard Hakluyt's Address to
the Reader in _The Principal Navigations, Voiages, and Discoveries of
the English Nation_, folio, 1589:

  "Nowe, because peraduenture it would bee expected as necessarie,
  that the descriptions of so many parts of the world would farre
  more easily be conceiued of the Reader, by adding Geographicall
  and Hydrographicall tables thereunto, thou art by the way to be
  admonished that I haue contented myselfe with inserting into the
  worke one of the best generall mappes of the world onely, vntill
  the comming out of a very large and most exact terrestriall Globe,
  collected and reformed according to the newest, secretest, and
  latest discoueries, both Spanish, Portugall, and English, composed
  by M. _Emmerie Mollineux_ of Lambeth, a rare Gentleman in his
  profession, being therein for divers yeeres greatly supported by
  the purse and liberalitie of the worshipfull marchant M. _William
  Sanderson_."

My second Note is from the rare little volume by John Davis, entitled,
_The Worlde's Hydrographical Discription_, 12mo., London, 1595:

  "The cause why I vse this particular relation of all my
  proceedinges for this discouery, is to stay this obiection, why
  hath not _Dauis_ discouered this passage [the North-west] being
  thrise that waies imploied, and how far I proceeded, and in what
  fourme this discouery lyeth, doth appeare vpon the Globe which
  Master _Sanderson_ to his verye great charge hath published, whose
  labouring indevour for the good of his countrie deserueth great
  fauour and commendations, made by Master _Emery Mullineux_, a man
  wel qualited, of a good iudgement and verye expert in many
  excellent practises, in myselfe being the onely meane with Master
  _Sanderson_ to imploy Master Mullineux therein, whereby he is nowe
  growne to a most exquisite perfection."

  P. 25.

And here a Query may not be out of place. Whose account of Iceland does
Nash refer to?

In the writings of our early navigators, there is frequent allusion to
terrestrial globes. This of Mollineux's, for instance, contains Davis's
own discoveries, and should therefore be of some importance. In the
tract just quoted, Davis says:

  "It is wel knowne that we haue globes in the most excellent
  perfection of arte, and haue the vse of them in as exquisite sort,
  as Master _Robert Hues_ in his book of the globes vse, lately
  published, hath at large made known."

  P. 41.

And in an unpublished MS. relating to Sir Thomas Button's voyage,
addressed to King James I. in 1610, the writer says:

  "I haue left wth Mr. Wright in yor librarie att St James, _a hand
  globe terrestriall_ for demonstra[=c]on of these."

Do any of the globes exist, and where?

As I am about to reprint Davis's tract with additional illustrations,
including the MS. above referred to, I shall be glad to receive any
particulars of the life of Davis, and of his connexion with that great
patron of discovery, William Sanderson; of his death, any reference to
his autograph, and to any authentic portrait of him.

    JOHN PETHERAM.


Minor Queries.

_Poem on the Burning of the Houses of Parliament._--On the 17th of
October, 1834, the houses of parliament were burnt down, and I believe
you will recollect that very soon afterwards a long serio-comic poem was
published, detailing the event; the following stray morsels of which
just occur to me:

      "And poor Mrs. Wright,
      Was in a great fright,
      For she swore that night,
      She saw a great light."

Again--

      "She felt a great heat
      Come thro' to her feet,
      As she sat herself down
      In the black rod seat."

I wish very much to find out this poem, or whatever else it may be
called; can you assist me? I am told it was published in one of the
weekly papers at the time, probably the _Sunday Times_ or _Dispatch_.

    T. B.

  Exeter.


_Newton's Library._--In 1813, Leigh and Sotheby sold the books of Mrs.
Anne Newton, professing to contain the collection of Newton's own books.
As it is fully believed that no _personal_ property of Newton descended
to any relatives of his name, how is this pretension explained? The
statement is copied from Sotheby's catalogue of sales into Hartwell
Horne's _Bibliography_, and will be credited at a future time, if not
now called in question.

    M.

_Meaning of Royd._--What is the meaning of the word _Royd_, which is
attached to the names of so many persons and places in Yorkshire, as
Ackroyd, Learoyd, Brownroyd, and Boltonroyd?

    C. W.

_The Cromwell Family._--I have in my possession a document, which shows
that my great-grandfather, "William Cromwell of London," mason, was
admitted into

  "The freedom aforesaid, and sworn in the Mayoralty of Thomas
  Wright, Esq., Mayor, and John Wilkes, Esq., Chamberlain; and is
  entered in the book signed with the letter A., relating to the
  purchasing of freedom and the admission of freemen, (to wit) the
  4th day of April, in the 26th year of the reign of King George the
  Third, and in the year of our Lord 1786. In witness whereof," &c.

The parchment bears the initials "J. W."

I am anxious to learn, from some of your numerous correspondents,
whether this person once lived near Bath, and then at Hammersmith? and,
secondly, whether he was descended from the Protector?

    J. G. C.

_Sir John Darnell, Knt._--Who was Sir John Darnell, whom did he marry,
who were his father and mother, and what arms did he bear? His daughter
Mary was married to the Hon. Robert Ord, Lord Chief Baron of Scotland
(alive in 1773). Any other particulars regarding his family will be
gratefully received by

    E. N.

_Royal "We."_--Can you inform me when, and under what circumstances, the
use by royalty in Europe sprung up, of using the plural "we" instead of
"I," the first person singular?

    FRANCIS J. GRUBB.

_Gondomar._--Mr. Macaulay, in one of his "Essays," remarks,

  "The skill of the Spanish diplomatists was renowned throughout
  Europe. In England the name of Gondomar is still remembered."

True, oft have I heard of thee, Count Gondomar, and have read from time
to time divers anecdotes of thy wit and wisdom, quips and quiddities.
But is it not passing strange that this man, this Spanish Don, who, as
is well known, exercised such a powerful influence over the weak-minded
"Solomon of Whitehall," and who, moreover, bore so large a share in the
murder of the brave and highly gifted Raleigh, should be excluded from a
niche in the biographical temple; for such I am told is the case. Having
deputed a friend to make search for me in the several biographical
dictionaries, he reports that the name of Gondomar is _not_ to be found
in the best book of the kind, the _Biographie Universelle_, nor in the
dictionaries of Rose and Chalmers. This desideratum will, I confidently
hope, ere long be supplied through the medium of "N. & Q.," by some of
its learned contributors.

    W. STANLEY SIMMONDS.

_Wallington's Journal._--At the sale of the library of Mr. Joseph
Gulston, 1784, was sold a Journal of Mr. Nehemiah Wallington, a Puritan
divine, written in the year 1630. This volume probably contains some
curious matters respecting the Puritans of the day; and, as it is much
desired, should any person know of its whereabouts, I should feel much
obliged by a note of it.

    R.

_Epistola Luciferi, &c._--Nicolas Oresmius, or d'Oresme, bishop of
Lisieux, who died in 1382, wrote _Epistola Luciferi ad prælatos
Ecclesiæ_, afterwards printed, Magd. 1549, 8vo., and in Wolf's _Lect.
Memor._, vol. i. p. 654. So far Fabricius. Who was Lucifer? I mean, was
he the potentate who goes by the opposite name of the Prince of
Darkness? And what is the tenor of his letter? The bishop was a quiet
man, of orthodox fame, and tutor to a king of France.

    M.

_Cambrian Literature._--Being a collector of works on Druidical remains
and Cambrian history, I shall feel greatly favoured if any of your
numerous readers will answer me the following questions, viz.:--

1st. The name of the first book or commentary _printed_ in any language
abroad, _previous_ to the introduction of printing into England,
actually written by a _Cambrian_?

2nd. The first book _printed_ in the English language, _actually
written_ by a Cambrian then living?

3rd. The first and second books _printed_ in England in the _Welsh_
language?

4th. The first book printed in the Welsh language abroad?

5th. The first book printed in the Welsh language in Wales?

6th. The most _ancient author_ in MSS. and in print who mentions
Stonehenge and Aubury; also the monument called Cromlêch?

7th. Who has on sale the most extensive collection of Welsh books, and
those relating to British history?

    P. B. W

  7. Harrington Street, Regent's Park.

"VCRIMDR" _on Coins of Vabalathus_ (Vol. v., p. 148.).--As no professed
Oriental scholar has directed any attention to this word yet, and as,
although root in the words Karimat and Akram appears the same, the
analogy to VCRIMDR is not very obvious, I may mention that on searching
further I have found the adjective _Ucr_, with the various meanings,
_weighty_, _precious_, _esteemed_, _honourable_. I leave it to
Orientalists to tell us if VCRIMDR is a compound or an inflexion of
_Ucr_. I regret that owing to a peculiarity in my handwriting, De Gauley
was twice substituted for De Sauley in my last note, Vol. v., p. 149.

    W. H. S.

  Edinburgh.

_Lines on Woman._--

      "Oh, woman! thou wert born to bless
      The heart of restless man; to chase his care;
      To charm existence by thy loveliness,
      Bright as a sunbeam--as the morning fair.
      If but thy foot trample on a wilderness,
      Flowers spring up and shed their roseate blossoms there."

Will any of your readers be kind enough to favour me with the completion
of the above stanza, as well as to state who is the author of the same?

    J. T.

_Penkenol._--John Aubrey, the antiquary, in his _Collections for North
Wilts_, Part I. p. 51. (Sir Thomas Phillips's edition), describing the
stained glass in Dauntsey Church, uses the following expression:

  "Memorandum. The crescents in these coats: Therefore Sir John
  [Danvers] was not the _penkenol_."

The word is correctly printed from the original MS. Can any of your
readers explain its meaning?

    J. E. J.

_Fairfax Family Mansion._--On the right-hand side of the road between
Tadcaster and Thorpe Arch, Yorkshire, extends the domain of the Fairfax
family. The mansion, a comfortable old fashioned red-brick Tudor-looking
structure, stands some two hundred yards back in the grounds through
which, from the road to the front door of the house, extends a fine
avenue of chestnuts, terminated at the roadside by a pair of venerable,
rusty, and decaying iron gates _which are kept closed_; the entrance to
the park being by a sort of side gateway of insignificant and field-like
appearance further on. Can any of your readers give me the facts, or the
local tradition which accounts for this peculiarity? I believe it is a
family incident of somewhat historical interest, and a subject on which
I am desirous of information.

    G. W.

_Postman and Tubman in the Court of Exchequer._--In the _Legal Observer_
of the 24th April, I find the following:

  "LAW PROMOTION.--Mr. James Wilde has been appointed to the office
  of _Postman_, in the Court of Exchequer. The _Postman_ is the
  senior counsel without the bar attending the court, and has
  pre-audience of the attorney and solicitor-general in making the
  first motion upon the opening of the court. The _Tubman_ is the
  next senior counsel without the bar. The _Postman_ and _Tubman_
  have particular places assigned them by the Chief Baron in open
  court."

My Query is, from whence and at what date these two offices sprang into
existence, with a list of the persons who have occupied them. And it
would be as well to inquire what their duties are: for although
Stephen's _Blackstone_ derives the names from the _places_ in which the
individuals themselves _sit_, still the explanation hardly conveys
sufficient to gather what their duties are.

    JOHN NURSE CHADWICK.

_Second Exhumation of King Arthur's Remains._--What chronicle narrates
the circumstances of the _second_ disinterment of King Arthur's bones in
Glastonbury, temp. Edw. I. (A.D. 1298)?

    H. G. T.

_Stukeley the Antiquary, and Boston._--In _Anecdotes of British
Topography, &c._ (Lond. 1768), occurs the following, speaking of
Boston:--

  "The Churchwardens' account from 1453 to 1597, and the town-book,
  wrote by Mr. John Stukeley, 1676, one of his (Dr. Stukeley's)
  ancestors, are in the hands of the Doctor's son-in-law, Mr.
  Fleming."

Query, into whose hands have the above records fallen? Did Stukeley
leave a family?

The name of "Wm. Stukeley" is appended to sundry parish records, anno
1713, at Boston. I believe he practised here for some years.

    THOMAS COLLIS.

_Letters of Arthur Lord Balmerino._--Can any one inform me if there are
any letters extant of Arthur, seventh Lord Balmerino, and where they are
deposited?

    W. PELHAM A.

  Rochester.

_Portrait of Thomas Percy, Earl of Northumberland._--Is any portrait
known of Thomas Percy, Earl of Northumberland, who was beheaded at York,
A.D. 1572, for the part he took in the "Rising in the North?"

    E. PEACOCK, Jr.

_Newtonian System._--Is it known who was the author of a satirical
pamphlet against Newton: _The Theology and Philosophy in Cicero's
"Somnium Scipionis" explained_, London, 1751, 8vo.? And has an absurd
story which it contains, relative to Newton, Locke, and Lord Pembroke
visiting Patrick, the barometer-maker, to be shown that the mercurial
vacuum was not a perfect one, ever been told elsewhere?

    M.

_Antiquity of Vanes._--We are informed by Baron Maseres, as quoted by
Lingard, that the Danes, in the last invasion by Sweyn, 1013, had vanes
in the shape of birds or dragons fixed on their masts, to point out the
direction of the wind. Is there any record of an earlier adoption of
this method of ascertaining the way of the wind?

    B. B.

_Richard of Cirencester de Situ Britanniæ._--Is this work a forgery or
not? Charles Julius Bertram, Professor of English in the Royal Marine
Academy at Copenhagen, wrote to Dr. Stukeley in 1747 that such a
manuscript was in the hands of a friend of his. It was not until some
time had elapsed, and after Dr. Stukeley was presented to St. George's
Church, Queen Square, that he "pressed Mr. Bertram to get the manuscript
into his own hands, if possible; which, at length, with some difficulty,
he accomplished;" and sent to Dr. Stukeley, in letters, a transcript of
the whole. Authors go on quoting from this work as genuine authority,
and therefore are perhaps misleading themselves and their readers; and
it would be conferring a great boon if "N. & Q." could clear up the
doubt as to its authenticity.

Mr. Worsaae, the eminent Danish author, or his English translator, are
exactly in the position to render this further service to antiquarian
literature; and, as relating to the subject of Roman Britain, the
question is of so much interest that a little trouble would not,
probably, be deemed uselessly expended in the inquiry.

    G. I.

_Spanish Vessels wrecked on the Irish Coast._--Is it true that sixteen
Spanish vessels, with 5300 men on board, were wrecked on the coast of
Ireland in 1589, and all put to the sword or hanged by the executioner,
at the command of the Lord Deputy; who found that they had saved and got
on shore a good deal of their treasure which he wanted to secure for
himself. Where is any account of it to be found? How came Spanish ships
so far north?

    CYRUS REDDING.

_Analysis of Newton's Principia._--In the _Journal des Savants_ for
April of this year, the celebrated mathematician Biot, in a review of
the _Correspondence of Sir Isaac Newton and Cotes_ (Cambridge, 1850),
makes mention, with the highest praise, of an analysis of Sir Isaac's
_Principia_ contained in the _Acta Eruditorum_ for 1688. Mons. Biot says
that at that time there were only two men who could have written such an
analysis, Halley and Newton himself; but adds, that the style is not
Halley's, being too concise and simple for him. His admiration could not
have been contained within such bounds. M. Biot firmly believes that the
writer of this analysis was no other than Newton himself (_ex ungue
Leonem_), and earnestly calls on the learned of England and Germany to
assist in discovering the origin of the analysis; should there perhaps
be any means left for doing so in the literary depôts of the two
countries. Permit a contributor to "N. & Q." to repeat M. Biot's inquiry
through the medium of a publication far more extensively circulated in
England than the _Journal des Savants_.

    J. M.


Minor Queries Answered.

_Welsh Women's Hats._--What was the origin of the peculiar hat so
universally worn by women of the lower orders in Wales; and at what
period did it come into use?

    TREBOR.

  [A gentleman who has resided for the last half century in the
  Principality, and to whom we submitted our correspondent's Query,
  has kindly forwarded the following reply:--"I have consulted
  bards, Welsh scholars, &c., and am sorry that I cannot forward any
  satisfactory account of the custom alluded to by TREBOR. Some say,
  we remember the time when the women wore ordinary _felt_ hats
  manufactured from their own wool: one or two travelling hatters
  occasionally settled at Bangor, who made and sold _beaver_ hats.
  We do not think that the women here intended to adopt any
  particular costume; but retained the hat as agreeing with the
  peculiar close cap, and _projecting_ border, which it leaves in
  view, and in _possession of its own uprightness_! The fashion is
  going out; all our young people adopt the English bonnet with the
  English language. The flat hat, with a broad brim, is still
  retained in the mountain regions."]

_Pancakes on Shrove Tuesday._--Perhaps some of your readers will kindly
inform the Pancake Eating Public as to the period "when," and the reason
"why" such a custom grew into existence?

I have frequently heard the question mooted upon this anniversary,
without ever hearing, or being able to give, a satisfactory elucidation
of it; but it is to be hoped that "N. & Q." will supply the desideratum
ere long, and confer a favour on

    A LOVER OF PANCAKES AND AN UPHOLDER OF ANCIENT CUSTOMS.

  Temple, Shrove Tuesday, 1852.

  [Fosbrooke, in his _Encyclopædia of Antiquities_, vol. ii. p.
  572., informs us that "Pancakes, the Norman _Crispellæ_, are taken
  from the Fornacalia, on Feb. 18, in memory of the practice in use
  before the goddess Fornax invented ovens." The Saxons called
  February "Solmonath," which Dr. Frank Sayers, in his
  _Disquisitions_, says is explained by Bede "Mensis placentarum,"
  and rendered by Spelman, in an inedited manuscript, "Pancake
  Month," because in the course of it cakes were offered by the
  Pagan Saxons to the sun. So much for the "when:" now for the
  reason "why" the custom was adopted by the Christian church.

  Shrove Tuesday, or Pancake Tuesday, as it is sometimes called,
  from being the vigil of Ash Wednesday, was a day when every one
  was bound to confess, and be shrove or shriven. That none might
  plead forgetfulness of this duty, the great bell was rung at an
  early hour in every parish, called the Pancake Bell, for the
  following reasons given by Taylor, the Water Poet, in his
  _Jacke-a-Lent_ (_Works_, p. 115. fol. 1630). He tells us, "On
  Shrove Tuesday there is a bell rung, called the Pancake Bell, the
  sound whereof makes thousands of people distracted, and forgetful
  either of manner or humanitie. Then there is a thinge called
  wheaten floure, which the sulphory, necromanticke cookes doe
  mingle with water, egges, spice, and other tragicall, magicall
  inchantments, and then they put it by little and little into a
  frying-pan of boyling suet, where it makes a confused dismal
  hissing, like the Lernean snakes in the reeds of Acheron, Stix, or
  Phlegeton, until at last by the skill of the cooke it is
  transformed into the forme of a _Flap-Jack_, which in our
  translation is called a _Pancake_, which ominous incantation the
  ignorant people doe devoure very greedily, having for the most
  part well dined before; but they have no sooner swallowed that
  sweet-candied baite, but straight their wits forsake them, and
  they runne starke mad, assembling in routs and throngs numberlesse
  of ungovernable numbers, with uncivill civill commotions." In the
  "Forme of Cury," published with other cookery in Warner's
  _Antiquitates Culinariæ_, p. 33., and written in 1390, we find a
  kind of fried cakes called "comadore," composed of figs, raisins,
  and other fruits, steeped in wine, and folded up in paste, to be
  fried in oil. This suggests another savoury Query, Whether this is
  not an improvement on our apple fritters?]

_Shakspeare, Tennyson, and Claudian._--

                    "Lay her i' the earth,
      And from her fair and unpolluted flesh
      May violets spring!"

      Hamlet_, Act V. Sc. 1.

      "'Tis well; 'tis something we may stand
        Where he in English earth is laid,
        And from his ashes may be made
      The violet of his native land."

      _In Memoriam_, XVIII.

I remember having seen quoted, _à propos_ of the lines of Shakspeare, a
passage from some Latin poet (Claudian, I think) which contained the
same idea. Can you, or any of your correspondents, favour me with it; as
also where they are to be found? And can they give me the origin and
reason of the idea.

    H. JOHNSTON.

  Liverpool.

  [The passage to which our correspondent refers is most probably
  that already quoted by Steevens, from Persius, _Sat._ I.

        "---- e tumulo, fortunataque favilla
      Nascentur violæ?"]



Replies.


THE RING FINGER.

(Vol. v., pp. 114. 371.)

My subsequent reading has not only confirmed, but added to the
information conveyed in the reference quoted. I there surmised that the
third was the ring finger, because the thumb and first two fingers have
always been reserved as symbols of the blessed Trinity, and consequently
the third was the first vacant finger. Both the Greek and Latin church
agree in this, that the thumb and first two fingers signify the blessed
Trinity. And whilst these three fingers signify the Trinity, the third
and fourth fingers are emblematic of the two natures of Christ, the
human and divine. As then the third finger served to symbolise the human
nature, and marriage was instituted to propagate the human race, that
was made the wedding finger. The right hand is the hand of power: hence
the wife wears the ring on the ring finger of the _left hand_. The
Greeks make each of the first three fingers, _i.e._ the thumb and two
fingers, symbolise one of the divine persons. M. Didron informs us that,
during his visit to Greece in 1839, the Archbishop of Mistra--

  "Whom I interrogated on the subject, informed me that the thumb,
  from its strength, indicated the Creator, the Father Eternal, the
  Almighty; that the middle finger was dedicated to Jesus Christ,
  who redeemed us; and that the forefinger, between the thumb and
  middle finger, figured the Holy Ghost, who proceeds from the
  Father and the Son, and in representations of the blessed Trinity
  is placed between those two persons."

A bishop's ring is emblematic of the gifts of the Holy Ghost: and
formerly bishops wore their ring on the forefinger of the right hand.

    CEYREP.

  "And the priest, taking the ring, shall deliver it unto the man,
  to put it upon _the fourth finger_ of the woman's left-hand."

  _Rubric, Marriage Service._

Pray let the lady be comforted! Surely the most punctilious Rubrician
will make no impertinent inquiries about the missing finger, so long as
_a fourth_ remains. But even if all be wanting, I will engage to find
her a priest whose conscience will not be hurt at allowing the stump to
pass muster.

    DIGITALIS.


THE MORAVIAN HYMNS.

(Vol. v., pp. 30. 474.)

Having followed with interest the late discussion in your pages upon the
earlier specimens of those strange productions, the Moravian Hymns, it
seems to me, that although much that is curious has been elicited, the
Query of P. H., touching the genuineness of the extraordinary sample
reproduced by him from the _Oxford Magazine_ for 1769, remains
unanswered. It is therefore with a view to supply some information
directly to this point, that I now beg to introduce to your readers _my_
earliest edition, which looks very like the _editio princeps_ of Part
III.: at all events it takes precedence of that described by H. C. B.
Its title is, _A Collection of Hymns, consisting chiefly of Translations
from the German Hymn-book of the Moravian Brethren_. Part III. Small
8vo. pp. 168. London, printed for James Hutton, 1748.

At first sight there would appear to be no difference between H. C. B.'s
volume and mine, beyond the latter being the earlier by one year; that
year, however, seems to have been the exact period when the Brethren
deemed it advisable, to avoid scandal, to revise and prune their
hymn-book.

"In this part (especially) of our hymn-book," says the Preface, "a good
deal of liberty has been taken in dispensing with what otherwise is
customary and ornamental: and that for different reasons." Then follow
these three reasons: the hymns being printed in prose, to save room; the
retention of German diminutives which, although scarcely known in the
English tongue, "have a certain elegance and effect" in the former
language; and the use of "more antique, prosaic, and less polished
diction, out of tenderness for the main point, the expressing more
faithfully the doctrines of the congregation, rather than seek better at
the expense of the sense."

"So much," continues the Preface, "seemed proper to mention to exempt
this Book (which though calculated for our own congregation, will no
doubt come into the hands of strangers) from the imputation of a
needless singularity. Now we only wish that every Reader may also feel
something of that solid and happy Bottom, from whence these free,
familiar, and perhaps abrupt Aspirations, both in the composing and
using of them, do sparkle forth: And so we commit this _Third Part_ of
our Hymn-book to the Providence and Blessing of that dear Redeemer, who
with his Ever-blessed Atonement, is everywhere the subject thereof."

As to the hymns themselves, I need say little more to describe them than
to observe that the present edition contains not only the one quoted by
P. H. from the _Oxford Magazine_, but all the others which are there to
be found, and which have raised doubt in your correspondent's mind
whether they are not rather the fabrications of Anti-Moravians than
genuine productions, and at the periods in use among the Brethren. Here,
too, is to be found the "Chicken Blessed" of Anstey: in his _Bath Guide_
he correctly quotes it as "No. 33. in Count Zinzendorf's
Hymn-book,"--that being its position in the present volume. The satirist
has, however, given only half of "the learned Moravian's ode," but that
faithfully. Besides these there are some of the hymns enumerated by
Rimius in his _Candid Narrative of the Herrnhuters_ (London, 1753), in
support of his charges against them.

Probably your readers are content with the specimens which have already
appeared in your columns. Had it been otherwise, this curious volume
would have supplied some of a singular character: as it is, I cannot
resist extracting No. 77. and a part of No. 110.; the former relating an
adventure between the Arch-Enemy and Saint Martin; the latter,
"Concerning the happy little Birds in the Cross's-air, or in the
Atmosphere of the Corpse of Jesus:"

      "Once on a time a man there was,
      A saint whose name was Martin,
      Concerning whom, Severus says,
      Satan came to him darting
      As Lightning quick and bright array'd;
      'I am thy Jesus dear,' he said,
        'Me thou wilt surely worship.'

      "Martin looks straight towards his side,
      No Side-hole met his vision:
      'Let me,' says he, 'in Peace abide,
      Thou hast no side's Incision;
      Thou art the Devil, my Good Friend!
      The place where Jesus' sign does stand
        Blindfold I could discover.'

      "The same's the case ev'n at this Day
      With Jesu's congregation:
      For Larks who round his Body play,
      Have of his wounds sensation;
      Because our dear incarnate God,
      Will with his wounds as man be view'd,
        Be felt, and so believ'd on."

      "How does a cross-air Bird behave,
      When of the Tent it will take leave?
      The Body grows a little sick,
      The soul may find it long or quick
      Till she the Bridegroom see;
      There stands he presently.
      She views the Side, Hands, Feet, each Part;
      The Lamb upon her weary Heart
        A kiss then gives her:
      This kiss Extracts the soul quite out,
      And on his dear Mouth home 'tis brought,
      The Kiss's Print the Body shews,
      Which to its Fining-place then goes;
      When done the Soul does fetch it,
      And to the wound-hole snatch it."

Parts I. and II. of these hymns I have never seen; but besides the above
described, I have the following editions: _A Collection of Hymns of the
Children of God, in all Ages from the beginning till now: in Two Parts.
Designed chiefly for the use of the Congregations in union with the
Brethren's Church._ Thick 8vo. London, printed in the year 1754: this is
the larger hymn-book alluded to by SIGMA. _A Collection of Hymns,
chiefly extracted from the larger Hymn-book of the Brethren's
Congregation_: London, printed and sold at the Brethren's chapels,
1769,--noticed by H. C. B. These are both extraordinary productions, but
yield to the edition of 1748: it having already been observed of these
hymns, that the later impression is always the _tamer_.

    J. O.


CAGOTS.

(Vol. iv., p. 190.)

I arrive at the conclusion, that the Cacosi of Latin writers, Cacous, or
Cagous, represent the true name from which Cagots, the _t_ being mute,
is but a slight deviation; while some other forms have scarcely retained
more than the initial _Ca_. The etymology from the Goths (most absurd
_in substance_, and worthy of the days when Languedoc was fetched from
_Land-got_, Land of the Goths,) has reference only to one of the French
spellings.

_Cacosus_, meaning a leper, as well as a Cacous or Cagot, was from
κακὸν, κάκωσις, in Greek; and from it came
_cacosomium_, contracted for _cacoso-comium_, not a mere _noso-comium_,
but an asylum for lepers. See Ducange.

But the Cacous in question were not only lepers, but families in which
leprosy was considered hereditary. For this reason they are called
Giezites, les Gézits, les Gesitains, from Giezi, servant of Elisha and
his posterity. (See Michel, vol. i. pp. 56. 148. 238. &c.) A simple
leper was Lazarius or ladre. The latter were, like Lazarus, merely
afflicted; but the former were deemed to be under an abiding curse, like
Giezi.

But those who were Giezites by condition, as inheriting and transmitting
the disease, were by many of the vulgar imagined to be Giezites by
blood, and the real posterity of Elisha's servant, "Cagots de Chanaan."
By an equally natural result, persons actually free from disease were
shunned as Cacous; since the stigma attached to the race, not to the
individual. Indeed, the wearing out of the malady has created the whole
obscurity of the case.

Their most curious title, Crestiaas or Christians, was not given them in
direct affirmation, but in denial of a negative, "not non-christian."
Because, being considered of Giezi's lineage, not only Jews, but Jews
under a curse, many would be disposed to repell them from communion. See
Dom Lepelletier's _Dict. Bretonne_, in CACOUS.

Whether hereditary lepra was rightly thought to exist, or whether the
negligence of the more abject and squalid families in communicating it
to each other falsely raised that idea, is a separate question, which I
must leave to physicians.

    A. N.


SHERIFFS AND LORDS LIEUTENANT.

(Vol. v., p. 394.)

Dalton saith:

  "Vice comites have the same authority that the antient comites
  had; and at this day there are some relicts of that dignity, for
  he hath _album baculum_, and the grant of the office is commisimus
  vobis [comitatum]. And also he takes place of every nobleman
  during the time that he is in office."

The Writ of Assistance ran thus:

  "To archbishops, bishops, dukes, earls, barons, knights,
  freeholders, and all others of our county of C. Whereas we have
  committed to our well-beloved A. B. the custody of our said
  county, with the appurtenances, during our pleasure, We command
  you that ye be aiding, answering, and assisting to the said A. B.
  as our sheriff of our said county in all things which appertain to
  the said office."

This form was abolished in 1833. The Lord Lieutenant is a military
officer, who appears to have grown into permanence under the Tudors. The
office of Custos Rotulorum, which, though quite distinct, is usually
joined with it, is much more ancient; its duties are to keep the records
of the sessions, which involve the appointment of the clerk of the
peace, and the power of recommending to the Great Seal of persons to be
inserted in the commission of the peace.

As for instances of such precedence being _claimed_, it is not easy to
recollect what is usually taken as a thing so much of course. Perhaps
the instance of a Duke, who had been Lord Lieutenant forty years,
apologising to a Sheriff for having inadvertently taken precedence, may
serve.

    VICE. COM. DEPUTAT.

In answer to L. J.'s inquiry, upon what authority the precedency of the
Sheriff over the Lord Lieutenant is maintained; may it not partly be
founded on the office of Sheriff being of greater antiquity, and on this
officer having the command over, and the power of summoning all the
people of the county above the age of fifteen, and under the degree of a
peer? The office of Lord Lieutenant was first created in the third year
of King Edward VI., to suppress, as Strype tells us, "the routs and
uproars" in most of the counties. We might suppose that the Sheriff
already possessed sufficient power for this purpose: the means then
adopted to promote tranquillity were not well calculated to be popular
among the people. No drum or pipe was to be struck or sounded. Plays
were forbidden. In the churches of Devonshire and Cornwall, Lord Russell
was to take down every bell in a steeple but one, so as to prevent a
peal being rung.

The precedency in question is acted upon to the present hour; and a Lord
Lieutenant, however high his rank in the peerage, gives place to the
Sheriff as a matter of course. But do not both these officers yield
precedence to her Majesty's justices of assize, when actually engaged on
the circuit?

    J. H. M.


ST. CHRISTOPHER.

(Vol. v., pp. 295. 334. 372.)

Two questions are asked by E. A. H. L. concerning St. Christopher: 1.
_Are there any known representations of St. Christopher in painted
glass?_ There is a very interesting example in a window in _St. Neot's
Church, Cornwall_. It represents St. Christopher with the child Jesus on
his back, and below has the legend: "Sante Christophere, ora pro me."
This ancient window was presented to the church by three members of the
Borlase family. Their benefaction is recorded in the inscription along
the cill of the window:

  "Orate pro animabus Catherine Burlas, Nicolai Burlas, et Johannis
  Vyvian, qui istam fenestram fieri fecerunt."

Another example of St. Christopher, bearing the divine infant, is in one
of the lights of the three-light window over the altar of _All Saints'
Church, North Street, York_. It is the work of the fifteenth century.

In the same city, _St. John's Church, Micklegate_, has two
representations of St. Christopher in glass. One is the window north of
the altar, but it is only a portion of the figure; the other is in the
window south of the altar, and of perpendicular character. In _St.
Martin-le-Grand, Coney Street_, in the sixth or eastern window of the
north aisle, is a figure of St. Christopher, of date about 1450. _St.
Michael-le-Belfroy_, in the same city, has two figures of the saint:
one, of perpendicular character, in the window north of the altar; the
other, a fragment, in the fourth window from the east end on the south
side, of date between 1540 and 1550. _Holy Trinity Church, Goodramgate_,
possesses a very beautiful figure of the saint. It forms the fifth of a
series of five large figures in the east window of the church, and seems
to bear the date 1470.

The second question is, "What is the real meaning of the representations
of St. Christopher that are so frequently found on the north walls of
churches?" I cannot agree with MR. J. EASTWOOD in thinking that the
explanation he gives from _Sacred and Legendary Art is sufficiently
satisfactory_. It appears to me that the figures of St. Christopher were
meant to symbolise the privilege enjoyed by the faithful of receiving
the body and blood of Christ, and thus becoming _Christo-feri_. The
emblem may have had its origin in the earliest ages, when the
_disciplina arcani_ was carried out. This opinion receives strength from
the circumstance, that Christopher was a name assumed by the saint, and
not his baptismal name. The extraordinary powers of cure spoken of in
verses often inscribed below the figures of this saint, were understood
by the faithful to allude to the efficacy of the Holy Communion, that
made them _Christopher's_, i.e. persons bearing their blessed Saviour,
not on their shoulders, but within their breasts. His figures in
sculpture and painting are always represented as colossal, to signify
that this heavenly food makes each of the faithful "as a giant to run
the way" (Ps. xix. 5.) This explanation will probably satisfy E. A. H.
L. that the important position occupied by St. Christopher in the
iconography of the mediæval church is to be solved by its symbolical
signification.

In addition to the representations of this saint in painted glass
mentioned above, E. A. H. L. will find mention of another specimen in
the last number of the _Archæological Journal_. It is in private hands,
being the property of Mr. Lucas, who purchased a collection of specimens
of old glass some years since at Guildford, said to have come from an
old mansion in Surrey. The specimen in question is described as "St.
Christopher carrying our Saviour--an octagonal piece of glass."--P. 101.

He will also find, in the same place, that a mural painting of St.
Christopher has been lately discovered in the chancel of Gawsworth
Church, Cheshire, of which a description is given in p. 103.

    CEYREP.

E. A. H. L. asks if there is any known representation of St. Christopher
in painted glass. There is one in All Saints, York, engraved in Weale's
_Papers_; and there is a small one on a brass in Tattershall Church.

    C. T.

For information on this subject, I would refer E. A. H. L. to Warton,
_Poetry_, vol. i. p. 451.; Coryatt's _Crudities_, vol. i. p. 29.;
Rudder's _Gloucestershire_, p. 286.; Gage's _Hengrave_, p. 64.;
_Winckelm. Stosch_, ch. i. n. 103.

On a loose print of "Painted Glass at Leicester," Throsby del. 1788, now
before me, is a representation of him who was once Psychicus the savage,
but now the holy Saint Christopher, figured, as usual, under the
likeness of a man of gigantic stature, carrying on his shoulder the
little child Jesus, through the broad and deep waters of a turbulent
river, and steadying his steps with an uprooted palm-tree laden with
fruit, which he bears in his hands by way of staff. He is here exhibited
in more seemly habiliments, and as a personage of much more dignified
and venerable appearance, than in the well-known picture on the walls of
Wotton Church. The latter, however, is a portraiture of superior
antiquarian interest, on account of its accessories, wherein St.
Christopher's especial office, as patron of field sports, is, with much
rudeness it is true, but most efficiently and fully illustrated.

In the extract given by J. EASTWOOD from _Sacred and Legendary Art_, we
have merely the supposititious conclusions of an ingenious imagination,
introduced to supply a void which the accomplished writer was unable
otherwise to fill up. There is a pretty little work published by Burns,
and entitled _St. Christopher; a Painting in Fordholme Church_, which
contains, much too much, however, in the suspicious form of a modern
religious allegory, what professes to be the authentic "Legend" of this
saint.

    COWGILL.

E. A. H. L. makes the inquiry whether "there are any known
representations of St. Christopher in _painted glass_; if so, where?"
This I am unable to answer; but your learned correspondent JARLTZBERG
having sent you one version of the legend attached to this saint, may I
venture to remind you of another? This is the one attached to the
celebrated picture, "The Descent from the Cross," by Rubens, in the
cathedral of Antwerp, in which the painter, adopting the Greek
derivation of the name as given by JARLTZBERG, represents the saint
supporting Christ on his removal from the crucifix. The picture was
painted for the Arquebusiers of Antwerp, whose patron was St.
Christopher; but they were dissatisfied with it, and refused Rubens his
promised reward, a piece of land in their possession contiguous to his
own, for which he had accomplished this, certainly one of his most
beautiful paintings.

    T. W. P.


GENERAL PARDONS--SIR JOHN TRENCHARD.

(Vol. iii., p. 279.)

I am not aware of any general pardon under the great seal having been
printed; but the following transcript of one (the original with the seal
attached is in the collection of my friend, R. Rising, Esq., of Horsey)
is very much at J. G. N.'s service, and is especially interesting, as
being one of the last acts of James II. before he quitted England for
ever.

  "{Jacobus Secundus Dei grati:} Anglie, Scocie, ffrancie &
  hib[=n]ie Rex, fidei defensor, &c. {Omnibus} ad quos p'sentes he
  n're [p=]veniu't sa[=lt]em. Sciatis q[=d] Nos pietate moti, ac
  gr'a n'ra sp'iali ac ex certa scientia & mero motu n'ris
  {Pardonabimus} relaxavims et remisims ac [p=] p'sentes [p=] Nobis
  heredibus, & successoribus n'ris, Pardonams relaxams et remittims
  Jo[=h]i Trenchard nu[p=] de medio Templo Londin' armigero seu
  quocunque alio nomine vel cognomine artis, misterii, loci vel
  locor' idem Jo[=h]es Trenchard sciatr censeatr vocetr vel
  nuncupetr aut nup' sciebatr, censebatr, vocabatr seu nuncupa batr
  omn' et omni'od' Prodic'ones crimina lese maiestatis, mispris'ones
  Prodic'onis, Conspirac'ones, Sedic'ones, Insurrecc'ones,
  Concelament' Bellor', gestiones Bellor', machinac'ones,
  Imaginac'ones, et attempt' Illicit', convinc'ones verbor',
  p'palac'ones ac om'ia & singula ffelon', et al' malefi'a crimina
  Transgressiones, contempt' et offens' quecunq: [p=] ip'um Jo[=h]em
  Trenchard [p=] se solum sive cum aliqua alia p'sona, seu aliquib'
  aliis [p=]'sonis qualicunq:, quandocunq:, seu ubicunq: antehac
  contra [p=]sonam n'ram Regal' vel Gub'nac'onem n'ram, vel contra
  Person' D[=n]i Caroli s[=e]di nu[p=] Regis Anglie preclarissimi
  ffratris n'ri vel Regimen suu' vel leges & statut' regni n'ri
  Anglie fact' co[=m]iss' sive [p=]petrat'.--Necnon fugam & fugas
  su[p=]inde fact'. Et licet p'fat' Jo[=h]es Trenchard [p=]inde
  arrestat', ind'cat', impetit', utlagat', rectat' appellat'
  condemnat' convict' attinct' seu adiudicat' existit vel non
  existit aut inde arrestari, adiudicari, impetiri, utlagari
  rectari, appellari, condemnari, convinci, attingi seu adiudicari
  contigerit in futuro. Ac om'ia & singula Jud'camenta,
  convic'cones, judicia, condempnac'onas attinctur', execuc'ones
  imprisonamenta, Penas mortis, Penas corporales, fforisfutur',
  punic'ones & om'es al' Penas ac penalitates quascunq: de, [p=],
  sive concernen' [p=]'missa, vel aliqua [p=]'missor' insu[p=] vel
  versus [p=]'fat Jo[=h]em Trenchard habit' fact' reddit' sive
  adiudicat' vel imposter' h'end' f'iend' reddend', sive adiudicand'
  aut que nos versus ip'um Jo[=h]em Trenchard [p=] p'missis vel
  aliquo p'missor' h'uimus h'emus seu imposter' h'ere poterimus, ac
  heredes seu successores n'ri ullo modo he're poterint in futuro.
  Necnon omnes et singul' utlagar' versus p'fat' Jo[=h]em Trenchard
  rac'one seu occac'one [p=]missor' seu eor' alicuius [p=]mulgat'
  seu imposter' [p=]'mulgand' At om'es & om'iod' sect', Querel',
  fforisfutur' impetic'ones & Demand' quecunq: que nos versus
  [p=]'fat' Jo[=h]em Trenchard [p=] p'missis vel aliquo [p=]'missor'
  h'uim' h'emus seu infuturo h'ere poterimus. Sectamq: pacis n're
  que ad nos versus [p=]'fat Jo[=h]em Trenchard [p=]tinet seu
  [p=]tinere poterit, rac'one seu occac'one [p=]'missor' seu eor'
  alicui. Et firmam pacem n'ram ei inde dam' et concedim' [p=]
  p'sentes. {Nolentes} q'd ip'e idem Jo[=h]es Trenchard [p=]
  Justitiar' Vice Comites Mariscallos Escaetor', Coronator',
  Ballivos seu aliquos al' ministros n're heredum vel successor'
  n'ror' quoscunq: rac'onib' seu occac'onib' p'd'tis seu eor' aliqu'
  molestetr [p=]'turbetr seu in aliquo gravetr {Volentes} q'd he
  l're n're patentes quoad om'ia singul' p'missa su[p=]ind
  menc'onat' bene, firme, valide, sufficien' et effectual' in lege
  erunt et existent licet Prodic'ones, crimina lese maiestatis,
  misprisiones Prodic'onis, conspirac'ones, sedic'ones,
  Insurecc'ones, concelament' Bellor', Gestion' Bellor',
  machinac'ones, Imaginac'ones, vel attempt' Illicit', convinc'ones
  verbor', Propalac'ones & ffelon' crimina, & offens' p'dict', minus
  certe specificat' existim't. Q'dq: hec Pardonaco' n'ra in om'ib'
  curiis n'ris et alibi interpretetr et adiudicetr in
  beneficentissimo sensu [p=] firmiore exonerac'one relaxac'one &
  Pardonac'one [p=]'fat' Jo[=h]is Trenchard ac etiam p'litetr
  allocetr in om'ib: Curiis n'ris absq: aliquo Brevi de Allocac'one
  mea parte pr'm's obtent' sive obtinend'. Et non obstante aliqua
  def'tu vel aliquib' def'tibus in his l'ris n'ris patentib'
  content' aut aliquo statuto, acto, ordinac'one provisione seu
  Restricc'one aut aliqua al' re, causa, vel materia quacunq: in
  contrar' inde ullo modo non obstante.

  In Cuius rei testimoniu' has l'ras n'ras fier' fecimus Patentes.

  Teste me ip'o apud West' decimo sept'o die Decembris anno regni
  n'ri tertio.

      Per Breve de p'rato Sigillo
      BARKER."

This was in the year 1688, just seven days after, according to Macaulay,
that he had fled secretly from the kingdom, having previously thrown the
great seal into the Thames, whence it was dredged up some months after
by a fisherman. Being driven back by stress of weather, he returned to
London, and on the 17th Pepys states,

  "That night was a council; his Ma'ty refuses to assent to all the
  proposals, goes away again to Rochester."

and _on that very night_ was this pardon granted, James probably
endeavouring to prop up his tottering cause by attaching as many as
possible to his own party. There were several documents in the
collection of the late Josiah Trench, Esq., of Windsor (1648-1652)
signed by John Trenchard, among the other regicides. Ewing, in his
_Norfolk Lists_, states that a portrait of him is in existence, and that
he was a serjeant-at-law, and at this date (1688) M. P. for Thetford,
being at that date merely an esquire. In 1692, according to the same
authority, Sir John Trenchard was Secretary of State; and his death took
place in 1694. I should be glad to add to these scanty notices,
especially as regards the reason which rendered a pardon necessary at
this time.

    E. S. TAYLOR.


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Dayesman_ (Vol. i., p. 189.).--Bishop Jewell writes:

  "M. Harding would have had us put God's word to _daying_ (i.e. to
  _trial_), and none otherwise to be obedient to Christ's
  commandment, than if a few bishops gathered at Trident shall allow
  it."

  _Replie to Harding_, _Works_, vol. ii. p. 424. (Dr. Jelf's edit.)

      "The _Ger._ TAGEN, to appoint a day.
      The _D._ DAGHEN, to cite or summon on a day appointed."

  (Wachter and Kilian.)

And _Dayesman_ is he, the man, "who fixes the _day_, who is present, or
sits as judge, arbiter, or umpire on the _day_ fixed or appointed."

It is evident that Richardson made much use of Jewell; but this word
"daying" has escaped him: his explanation of _dayesman_ accords well
with it.

    Q.

_Bull_; _Dun_ (Vol. ii., p. 143.).--We certainly do not want the aid of
Obadiah Bull and Joe Dun to account for these words. Milton writes, "I
affirm it to be a _bull_, taking away the essence of that, which it
calls itself." And a _bull_ is, "that which expresses something in
opposition to what is intended, wished, or felt;" and so named "from the
contrast of humble profession with despotic commands of Papal bulls."

"A _dun_ is one who has _dinned_ another for money or anything."--See
Tooke, vol. ii. p. 305.

    Q.

_Algernon Sidney_ (Vol. v., p. 447.).--I do not intend to enter the
lists in defence of this "illustrious patriot." The pages of "N. & Q."
are not a fit battle ground. But I request you to insert the whole
quotation, that your readers may judge with what amount of fairness C.
has made his note from Macaulay's _History_.

  "Communications were opened between Barillon, the ambassador of
  Lewis, and those English politicians who had always professed, and
  who indeed sincerely felt, the greatest dread and dislike of the
  French ascendancy. The most upright member of the country party,
  William Lord Russell, son of the Earl of Bedford, did not scruple
  to concert with a foreign mission schemes for embarrassing his own
  sovereign. This was the whole extent of Russell's offence. His
  principles and his fortune alike raised him above all temptations
  of a sordid kind: but there is too much reason to believe that
  some of his associates were less scrupulous. It would be unjust to
  impute to them the extreme wickedness of taking bribes to injure
  their country. On the contrary, they meant to serve her: but it is
  impossible to deny that they were mean and indelicate enough to
  let a foreign prince pay them for serving her. Among those who
  cannot be acquitted of this degrading charge was one man who is
  popularly considered as the personification of public spirit, and
  who, in spite of some great moral and intellectual faults, has a
  just claim to be called a hero, a philosopher, and a patriot. It
  is impossible to see without pain such a name in the list of the
  pensioners of France. Yet it is some consolation to reflect that
  in our own time a public man would be thought lost to all sense of
  duty and shame who should not spurn from him a temptation which
  conquered the virtue and the pride of Algernon Sidney."

  _History of England_, vol. i. p. 228.

    ALGERNON HOLT WHITE.

  Brighton.

_Age of Trees_ (Vol. iv., pp. 401. 488.).--At Neustadt, in Wirtemberg,
there is a prodigious lime-tree, which gives its name to the town, which
is called _Neustadt an der Linden_. The age of this tree is said to be
1000 years. According to a German writer, it required the support of
sixty pillars in the year 1392, and attained its present size in 1541.
It now rests, says the same authority, on above one hundred props, and
spreads out so far that a market can be held under its shade. It is of
this tree that Evelyn says it was--

  "Set about with divers columns and monuments of stone (eighty-two
  in number, and formerly above one hundred more), which several
  princes and nobles have adorned, and which as so many pillars
  serve likewise to support the umbrageous and venerable boughs; and
  that even the tree had been much ampler the ruins and distances of
  the columns declare, which the rude soldiers have greatly
  impaired."

There is another colossal specimen of the same species in the churchyard
of the village of Cadiz, near Dresden. The circumference of the trunk is
forty feet. Singularly, though it is completely hollow through age, its
inner surface is coated with a fresh and healthy bark.

    UNICORN.

_Emaciated Monumental Effigies_ (Vol. v., p. 427.).--In reference to
your correspondents' observations on skeleton monuments, I may mention
that there is one inserted in the wall of the yard of St. Peter's
Church, Drogheda. It is in high relief, cut in a dark stone and the
skeleton figure half shrouded by grave clothes is a sufficiently
appalling object. Beside it stands another figure still "in the flesh."
It is many years since I saw the monument, and whether there be any
inscription legible upon it, or whether it be generally known to whom it
belongs, I cannot inform you.

    URSULA.

There is a very good instance of an "altar tomb," bearing on it an
ordinary effigy, and containing within it a skeleton figure, visible
through pierced panel work, in Fyfield Church, Berks. It is the monument
of Sir John Golafre, temp. Hen. V. Another fine instance I remember to
have seen (I believe) in the parish church of Ewelme, Oxon.

    HENRY G. TOMKINS.

  Weston-super-Mare.

_Bee Park_ (Vol. v., p. 322.).--In this neighbourhood is an ancient
farm-house called Bee Hall, where I doubt not that bees were kept in
great quantities in bygone ages; and am the more led to believe this
because they always flourish best upon thyme, which grows here as freely
and luxuriantly as I ever elsewhere observed it. About four miles from
said Bee Hall, the other day, I was looking over a genteel residence,
and noticing a shady enclosure, asked the gardener what it was for. He
told me, to protect the bees from the sun: it was upon a much larger
scale than we generally now see, indicating that the soil, &c. suit
apiaries. Looking to the frequent mention of _honey_, and its vast
consumption formerly, as you instance in royal inventories, to which may
be added documents in cathedral archives, &c., is it not remarkable that
we should witness so few memorials of the ancient management of this
interesting insect? I certainly remember one well-built "bee-house," at
the edge of Lord Portsmouth's park, Hurstbourne, Hants, large enough for
a good cottage, now deserted. While on the subject I will solicit
information on a custom well known to those resident in the country,
viz. of making a great noise with a house key, or other small knocker,
against a metal dish or kettle while bees are swarming? Of course
farmers' wives, peasants, &c., who do not reason, adopt this because
their fathers before them did so. It is urged by intelligent naturalists
that it is utterly useless, as bees have no sense of hearing. What does
the clamour mean,--whence derived?

    B. B.

  Pembroke.

_Sally Lunn_ (Vol. v., p. 371.).--In reply to the Query, "Is anything
known of Sally Lunn? is she a personage or a myth?" I refer your
inquirer to Hone's _Every-day Book_, vol. ii. p. 1561.:

  "The bun so fashionable, called the _Sally Lunn_, originated with
  a young woman of that name at Bath, about thirty years ago." [This
  was written in 1826.] "She first cried them in a basket, with a
  white cloth over it, morning and evening. Dalmer, a respectable
  baker and musician, noticed her, bought her business, and made a
  song and set it to music in behalf of Sally Lunn. This composition
  became the street favourite, barrows were made to distribute the
  nice cakes, Dalmer profited thereby and retired, and to this day
  the _Sally Lunn Cake_ claims pre-eminence in all the cities of
  England."

    J. R. W.

  Bristol.

_Baxter's Pulpit_ (Vol. v., p. 363.).--An engraving of Baxter's pulpit
will be found in a work entitled _Footsteps of our Forefathers: what
they suffered and what they sought_. By James G. Miall, 1851, p. 232.

    J. R. W.

  Bristol.

_Lothian's Scottish Historical Maps_ (Vol. v., p. 371.).--Although this
work is now out of print, and thereby scarce, your correspondent
ELGINENSIS will, I have no doubt, on application to Stevenson, the
"well-known" antiquarian and historical bookseller in Edinburgh, be put
in possession of a copy for 12_s._

    T. G. P.

  Edinburgh.

_British Ambassadors_ (Vol. iv., pp. 442. 477.).--Some time ago a
correspondent asked where he could obtain a list or lists of the
ambassadors sent from this court. I do not recollect that an answer has
appeared in your columns, nor do I know how far the following may suit
his purpose:

  "12. An Alphabetical Index of the Names and Dates of Employment of
  English Ambassadors and Diplomatic Agents resident in Foreign
  Courts, from the Reign of King Henry VIII. to that of Queen Anne
  inclusive. One volume, folio."

This is extracted from the letter of the Right Hon. H. Hobhouse, keeper
of His Majesty's State Papers, in reply to the Secretary of the
Commissioners of Public Records, dated "State Paper Office, Sept. 19,
1832." (See the Appendix to the _Commissioners' Report_, 1837, p. 78.)

    TEE BEE.

_Knollys Family_ (Vol. v., p. 397.).--Lt.-General William Knollys,
eighth Earl of Banbury, married Charlotte Martha, second daughter of the
Ebenezer Blackwell, Esq., banker, of Lombard Street, and Lewisham, Kent.

The present Col. Knollys, of the Fusileer Guards, is his representative.

A. Blackwell, sister or daughter of John Blackwell, the father of
Ebenezer, married an Etheridge.

    W. BLACKWELL, Curate of Mells.

_'Prentice Pillars--'Prentice Windows_ (Vol. v., p. 395.).--I am
reminded of a similar story connected with the two rose windows in the
transept of the beautiful cathedral of Rouen. They were described to me
by the old Swiss in charge, as the work of two artists, master and
pupil; and he also pointed out the spot where the master killed the
pupil, from jealousy of the splendid production of the _north_ window by
the latter: and, as the _Guide Book_ truly says, "La rose du nord est
plus belle que celle du midi"--the master's work.

    BENBOW.

  Birmingham.

_St. Bartholomew_ (Vol. v., p. 129.).--Thanking you for the information
given, may I further inquire if any of your correspondents are aware of
the existence of any copy or print from the picture in the Church of
Notre Dame, at Paris, of St. Bartholomew healing the Princess of Armenia
(see Jameson's _Sacred and Legendary Art_); and where such may be seen?

    REGEDONUM.

_Sun-dial Inscription_ (Vol. v., p. 79.).--The following inscription is
painted in huge letters over the sun-dial in front of an old farm-house
near Farnworth in Lancashire:

      "Horas non numero nisi serenas."

Where are these words to be found?

    Y.

_History of Faction_ (Vol. v., p. 225.).--In my copy of this work,
published in 1705, 8vo., formerly Isaac Reed's, he attributes it to
Colonel Sackville Tufton. I observe also that Wilson (_Life of De Foe_,
vol. ii. p. 335.) states, that in his copy it is ascribed, in an old
handwriting, to the same author.

    JAS. CROSSLEY.

_Barnacles_ (Vol. v., p. 13.).--May not the use of this word in the
sense of _spectacles_ be a corruption of _binoculis_; and has not
_binnacle_ (part of a ship) a similar origin?

    J. S. WARDEN.

_Family Likenesses_ (Vol. v., p. 7.).--Any one who mixed in the society
of the Scottish metropolis a few years ago must have met with two very
handsome and accomplished brothers, who generally wore the Highland
dress, and were known by the name of "The Princes." I do not mean to
enter into the question as to whether or not they were the true
representatives of "Bonnie Prince Charlie," which most persons consider
to have been conclusively settled in the negative by an article which
appeared in the _Quarterly Review_: but most assuredly a very strong
point of evidence in favour of their having the royal blood of Scotland
in their veins, was the remarkable resemblance which they
bore--especially the younger brother--to various portraits of the Stuart
family, and, among the rest, to those of the "Merry Monarch," as well as
of his father Charles I.

    E. N.

_Merchant Adventurers to Spain_ (Vol. v., p. 276.).--C.J.P. may possibly
be assisted in his inquiries by referring to De Castros' _Jews in
Spain_, translated by Kirwan, pp. 190-196. This interesting work was
published by G. Bell, 186. Fleet Street, London, 1851.

    W. W.

  La Valetta, Malta.

_Exeter Controversy_ (Vol. v., p. 126.).--This controversy was one of
the many discussions relating to the Trinity which have engaged the
theological activity of England during the last two hundred years. It
arose in consequence of the imputed Arianism of some Presbyterian
ministers of Exeter, the most conspicuous of whom were James Peirce and
Joseph Hallet. It began in 1717, and terminated in 1719, when these two
ministers were ejected from their pulpits. Your correspondent who put
the question will find some account of this controversy in Murch's
_History of the Presbyterian Churches in the West of England_,--a work
well worth the attention of those who take interest in the antiquities
of Non-conformity.

    T. H. GILL.

_Corrupted Names of Places_ (Vol. v., p. 375.).--When my father was at
one time engaged in collecting the numbers drawn for the Sussex militia,
he began by calling out for those men who belonged to the hundred of
_Mayfield_; and though he three times repeated his call, not a single
man came forward. A person standing by suggested that he should say "the
hundred of _Mearvel_," and give it as broad a twang as possible. He did
so; when _nineteen_ out of _twenty-three_ present answered to the
summons. _Hurstmonceaux_ is commonly pronounced _Harsmouncy_; and I have
heard _Sompting_ called _Summut_.

    G. BLINK.

_Poison_ (Vol. v., p. 394.).--Junius, Bailey, and Johnson seem all to
agree that our word _poison_ comes from the French _poison_. I am
inclined to think, with the two first-mentioned lexicographers, that the
etymon is πόσις, or _potio_. Junius adds, that "Ita Belgis
venenum dicitur _gift_, donum;" and it is curious that in Icelandic
_eitr_ means both poison and gift. In the _Antiquitates Celto-Scandicæ_
(p. 13.), I find the following expressions:--"Sva er sagt, at Froda væri
gefinn banadryckr." "Mixta portioni veneno sublatum e vivis tradunt
Frotonem." Should it not be _potioni_, inasmuch as "bana," in Icelandic,
signifies to kill, if I do not err, and "dryckr" is drink? Certainly, in
Anglo-Saxon, "bana" (whence our _bane_) and "drycian" have similar
significations.

    C. I. R.

Is there any possible doubt that _poison_ is _potion_? Menage quotes
Suetonius, that Caligula was _potionatus_ by his wife. It is a French
word undoubtedly.

    C. B.

_Vikingr Skotar_ (Vol. v., p. 394.).--In the _Antiquitates
Celto-Scandicæ_ it is stated (p. 5.), that after the death of Guthormr,
and subsequently to the departure of Harald (Harfagr) from the Hebrides,
"Sidan settug i löndin vikingar margir Danir oc Nordmenn. Posthac sedes
ibi occupant piratæ plurimi, Dani æqua ac Normanni." The word
_vikingar_, the true Icelandic word for pirate, often occurs in the same
saga, but not combined with _skotar_, though this latter term is
repeated, signifying "the Scotch," and also in composition with
_konungr_, &c.

    C. I. R.

_Rhymes on Places_ (Vol. v., pp. 293. 374.).--A complete collection of
local rhymes would certainly be both curious and interesting. Those
cited by Chambers in his amusing work are exclusively Scotch; for a
collection relating to English towns, I would refer your Querist MR.
FRASER to Grose's _Provincial Glossary_, where, interspersed among the
"Local Proverbs," he will find an extensive gathering of characteristic
rhymes. I conclude with appending a few not to be found in either of
these works:

      "RICHMOND.

      "Nomen habes _mundi_, nec erit sine jure, secundi,
      Namque situs titulum comprobat ipse tuum.
      From thy rich mound thy appellation came,
      And thy rich seat proves it a proper name."

      _Drunken Barnaby's Journal._

      "Anglia, mons, fons, pons, ecclesia, foemina, lana.
      England amongst all nations is most full,
      Of hills, wells, bridges, churches, women, wool."

      _Ibid._

      "Cornwall swab-pie, and Devon white-pot brings,
      And Leicester beans, and bacon fit for kings."

      Dr. King's _Art of Cookery_. See _Spectator_.

In Belgium I am perhaps beyond bounds, but may cite in conclusion:

      "Nobilibus Bruxella viris, Antverpia nummis,
      Gandavum laqueis, formosis Burga puellis,
      Lovanium doctis, gaudet Mechlinia stultis."

    WILLIAM BATES.

You may perhaps think the accompanying, "Rhymes on Places" worthy of
insertion, on the districts of the county of Ayr, viz.:

      "Carrick for a man,
      Kyle for a cou,
      Cunninghame for butter and cheese,
      And Galloway for woo."

    F. J. H.

_"We three"_ (Vol. v., p. 338.).--It may interest your correspondent to
learn that a public-house exists in London with the sign he mentions. It
is situate in Virginia Row, Bethnal Green, is styled "The Three
Loggerheads," and has a signboard ornamented with a couple of busts: one
of somewhat Cæsarian aspect, laureated; the other a formidable-looking
personage with something on his head, probably intended for the dog-skin
helmet of the ancient Greeks,--but as the style of art strongly reminds
one of that adopted for the figure-heads of ships, I confess my doubts
on the subject. Under each bust appears the distich:

      "WE THREE
      LOGGERHEADS BE."

The sign appears a "notability" in the neighbourhood, as I have more
than once in passing seen some apparent new comer set to guess its
meaning; and when he confessed his inability, informed, in language more
forcible than elegant, that he made the third Loggerhead.

    W. E. F.

_Burning Fern brings Rain_ (Vol. v., p. 242.).--In some parts of
America, but more particularly in the New England States, there was a
popular belief, in former times, that immediately after a large fire in
a town, or of wood in a forest, there would be a "fall of rain." Whether
this opinion exists among the people at present, or whether it was
entertained by John Winthrop, the first governor of the colony of
Massachusetts Bay, and the Pilgrim Fathers, on their landing at
Plymouth, as they most unfortunately did, their superstitious belief in
witchcraft, and some other "strange notions," may be a subject of future
inquiry.

    W. W.

  La Valetta, Malta.

_Plague Stones_ (Vol. v., pp. 226. 374.).--I have often seen the stone
which G. J. R. G. mentions as "to be seen close to Gresford, in
Denbighshire, about a quarter of a mile from the town, on the road to
Wrexham, under a wide-spreading tree, on an open space, where three
roads meet." It is, I conjecture, the base of a cross. This stone may be
the remnant of the last of a succession of crosses, the first of which
may have given its Welsh name, _Croes ffordd_, the way of the cross, to
the village. There is no tradition of any visitation of the plague at
Gresford; but there is reason to suppose that it once prevailed at
Wrexham, which is about three miles distant. Near that town, and on the
side of a hill near the footpath leading from Wrexham vechan to
Marchwiel Hall, there is a field called _Bryn y cabanau_, the brow of
the cabins; the tradition respecting which is, that, during the
prevalence of the plague in Wrexham, the inhabitants constructed wooden
huts in this place for their temporary residences.

      A QUONDAM GRESFORDITE.

I do not think the "Plague Stone" a mile or two out of Hereford has been
mentioned in the Notes on that subject. If my memory is correct, there
is a good deal of ornament, and it is surrounded by a short flight of
stone steps.

    F. J. H.

_Sneezing_ (Vol. v., p. 364.).--Having occasion to look at the first
edition of the _Golden Legend_, printed by Caxton, I met with the
following passage, which may perhaps prove interesting to your
correspondent, as showing that the custom of blessing persons when they
sneeze "endured" in the fifteenth century. The institution of the
"Litany the more and the lasse," we are told, was justified,--

  "For a right grete and grevous maladye: for as the Romayns had in
  the lenton lyued sobrely and in contynence, and after at Ester had
  receyud theyr Sauyour; after they disordered them in etyng, in
  drynkyng, in playes, and in lecherye. And therfore our Lord was
  meuyed ayenst them and sente them a grete pestelence, which was
  called the Botche of impedymye, and that was cruell and sodayne,
  and caused peple to dye in goyng by the waye, in pleying, in
  leeyng atte table, and in spekyng one with another sodeynly they
  deyed. In this manere somtyme snesyng they deyed; so that whan any
  persone was herd snesyng, anone they that were by said to hym, God
  helpe you, or Cryst helpe, _and yet endureth the custome_. And
  also when he sneseth or gapeth he maketh to fore his face the
  signe of the crosse and blessith hym. And yet endureth this
  custome."

  _Golden Legende_, edit. 1483, fo. xxi. b.

    F. SOMNER MERRYWEATHER.

  Kentish Town.

_Abbot of Croyland's Motto_ (Vol. v., p. 395.).--MR. FORBES is quite
correct with regard to the motto of Abbot Wells, which should be
"Benedicite Fontes Domin_o_." The sentence, "Bless the Wells, O Lord!"
which is placed in so awkward a juxtaposition with it, is really a
distinct motto for the name of Wells, and, so far from being a
translation of the abbot's, is almost an inversion of it; and this
should, as MR. FORBES justly remarks, have had "some editorial notice"
from me.

    M. A. LOWER.

_Derivation of the Word "Azores"_ (Vol. v., p. 439.).--The group of
islands called the _Azores_, first discovered in 1439, by Joshua
Vanderburg, a merchant of Bruges, and taken possession of by the
Portuguese in 1448, were so named by Martin Behem, from the Portuguese
word _Açor_, a hawk; Behem observing a great number of hawks there. The
three species most frequently seen now are the Kestril, called
_Francelho_; the Sparrowhawk, _Furobardo_; and the Buzzard, _Manta_; but
whether very numerous or not, I am unable to state. From the
geographical position of these islands, correct lists of the birds and
fishes would be of great interest, and, as far as I am aware, are yet
wanting.

Martin Behem found one of these islands covered with beech-trees, and
called it therefore _Fayal_, from the Portuguese word _Faya_, a
beech-tree. Another island, abounding in sweet flowers, he called
_Flores_, from the Portuguese, _Flor_, a flower. _Terceira_, one of the
nine islands forming the group, is said to have been so called, because,
in the order of succession, it was the third island discovered (from
_Ter_ and _ceira_, a bank). _Graciosa_, as a name, was conferred upon
one of peculiar beauty, a sort of paradise. _Pico_ derived its name from
its sugar-loaf form. The raven found at Madeira and the Canary Islands
is probably also a native of the Azores, and might have suggested the
Portuguese name of _Corvo_ for one of the nine. St. Mary, St. Michael,
and St. George complete the names of the group, of which St. Michael is
the largest and Corvo the smallest.

    WM. YARRELL.

  Rider Street.

_Scologlandis and Scologi_ (Vol. v., p. 416.).--As these names occur in
a Celtic country, we are justified in seeking their explanation in the
Celtic language. I therefore write to inform G. J. R. G. that the word
_scolog_ is a living word in the Irish language, and that it signifies a
_farmer_ or _husbandman_. It is the word used in the Irish Bible at
Matt. xxi. 33., "he let it out to _husbandmen_"--tug se do _scologaibh_
ar chios i.

I may also mention that the name _Mac Scoloige_ is very common in the
co. Fermanagh in Ireland, where it is very generally anglicised
_Farmer_, according to a usual practice of the Irish. Thus it is not
uncommon even now to find a man known by the name of John or Thomas
_Farmer_, whose father or grandfather is John or Thomas Mac Scoloige,
the name Mac Scoloige signifying "son of a farmer."

The _Scologlandis_, in the documents quoted by G. J. R. G., must
therefore have taken their name from the _scologs_ or farmers, by whom
they were cultivated, unless we suppose that they were anciently the
patrimony of some branch of the family of Mac Scoloige, whose remains
are now settled in Fermanagh.

In Scotland the word is now usually written _sgalag_, and is explained
by Armstrong in his _Gaelic Dictionary_ "a farm servant." And the word
does certainly seem to have been used in ancient Irish to denote a
_servant_ or menial attendant, although the notion of a _farm_ servant
seems to have grown out of its other significations. Thus in a very
ancient historical romance (probably as old as the ninth or tenth
century), which is preserved in the curious volume called _Leabhar
breac_, or _Speckled Book_, in the library of the Royal Irish Academy,
the word _scolog_ is used to designate _the servant_ of the Abbot of St.
Finbar's, Cork.

    J. H. T.



Miscellaneous.


NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC.

If there be any one class of documents from which, more than from any
other, we may hope to draw evidence of the accuracy of Byron's
assertion, that "Truth is strange, stranger than fiction!" they are
surely the records of judicial proceedings both in civil and criminal
matters; while, as Mr. Burton well observes in the preface to the two
volumes which have called forth this remark, _Narratives from Criminal
Trials in Scotland_, "there can be no source of information more
fruitful in incidents which have the attraction of picturesqueness,
along with the usefulness of truth." In submitting therefore to the
public the materials of this nature--some drawn from manuscript
authorities, some again from those works which, being printed for
Subscription Clubs, may be considered as privately printed, and
inaccessible to the majority of readers--which had accumulated on his
hands while in the pursuit of other inquiries connected with the history
of Scotland, Mr. Burton has produced two volumes which will be read
with the deepest interest. The narratives are of the most varied
character; and while some give us strange glimpses of the workings of
the human heart, and show us how truly the Prophet spoke when he
described it as being "deceitful above all things, and desperately
wicked;" and some exhibit humiliating pictures of the fallibility of
human judgment, others derive their chief interest from revealing
collaterally "the social secrets of the day,--from the state mysteries,
guarded by the etiquette and policy of courts, down to those
characteristics of humble life which are removed from ordinary notice by
their native obscurity." Greater dramatic power on the part of Mr.
Burton might have given additional attraction to his narratives; but
though the want of this power is obvious, they form two volumes which
will be perused with great curiosity and interest even by the most
passionless of readers.

Speaking of the use of Records reminds us that our valued cotemporary
_The Athenæum_ has anticipated us in a purpose we have long entertained,
of calling the attention of historical inquirers to the vast amount of
new material for illustrating English history to be found in Sir F.
Palgrave's _Calendar of the "Baga de Secretis,"_ printed by him in
several of his Reports, as Deputy Keeper of the Records. As _The
Athenæum_ has however entered upon the subject, we cannot do better than
refer our readers to its columns.

_Letter addressed to Lord Viscount Mahon, M.P., President of the Society
of Antiquaries, on the Propriety of Reconsidering the Resolutions of
that Society which regulate the Payments from the Fellows_: by John
Bruce, Esq., Treas. S.A.--is the title of a temperate and well-argued
endeavour on the part of the Treasurer, to persuade the Society of
Antiquaries to return to that scale of subscription, &c. which prevailed
at the moment when unquestionably the Society was at its highest point
of reputation and usefulness. Originally addressed to the President, and
then communicated to the Council, it has now been submitted to the
Fellows, that they may see some of the grounds on which the Council have
recommended, and on which they are invited to ballot on Thursday next,
in favour of a reversal of the Resolution of 1807. Looking to the
general state and prosperity of the Society as exhibited in this
pamphlet, and comparing the payments to it with those to the numerous
Archæological Societies which have sprung up of late years, the proposal
seems to be well-timed, and deserving to be adopted by the Fellows as
obviously calculated to extend the usefulness and raise the character of
the Society. We hope that when the ballot is taken, some of those old
friends of the Society to whose former exertions, in connexion with its
financial arrangements, the Society owes so much, and who are understood
_now_ to be doubtful as to the measure, will put in their white balls in
favour of a step which ought clearly to lead to increased exertions on
the part of all persons connected with the Society; and which may well
be advocated on the ground, that it must lead to such a result.

The lovers of elaborate and highly finished drawings of antiquarian
objects are recommended to inspect some specimens of Mr. Shaw's artistic
skill, comprising portraits of Mary Queen of Scots, Mary of England, the
Pall of the Fishmongers' Company, which will be on view to-day and
Monday at Sotheby and Wilkinson's Rooms, previous to their sale by
auction on Tuesday next.


BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES

WANTED TO PURCHASE.

BIBLIA SACRA, Vulg. Edit., cum Commentar. Menochii. Alost and Ghent,
1826. Vol. I.

BARANTE, DUCS DE BOURGOGNE. Vols. I. and II. 1st, 2nd, or 3rd Edit.
Paris Ladvocat, 1825.

BIOGRAPHIA AMERICANA, by a Gentleman of Philadelphia.

POTGIESERI DE CONDITIONE SERVORUM APUD GERMANOS. 8vo. Col. Agrip.

THE BRITISH POETS. Whittingham's edition in 100 Vols., with plates.

REPOSITORY OF PATENTS AND INVENTIONS. Vol. XLV. 2nd Series. 1824.

  ---- Vol. V. 3rd Series 1827.

NICHOLSON'S PHILOSOPHICAL JOURNAL. Vols. XIV. XV. 1806.

JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL INSTITUTION OF GREAT BRITAIN. No. XI. 2nd Series.

SOROCOLD'S BOOK OF DEVOTIONS.

WORKS OF ISAAC BARROW, D.D., late Master of Trinity College, Cambridge.
London, 1683. Vol. I. Folio.

LINGARD'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Vols. VI. VII. VIII. IX. XII. XIII.,
Cloth.

FABRICII BIBLIOTHECA LATINA. Ed. Ernesti. Leipsig, 1773. Vol. III.

THE ANACALYPSIS. By Godfrey Higgins. 2 Vols. 4to.

CODEX DIPLOMATICUS ÆVI SAXONICI, opera J. M. Kemble. Vols. I. and II.
8vo.

ECKHEL, DOCTRINA NUMORUM. Vol. VIII.

BROUGHAM'S MEN OF LETTERS. 2nd Series, royal 8vo., boards. Original
edition.

KNIGHT'S PICTORIAL SHAKSPEARE. Royal 8vo. Parts XLII. XLIII. XLIV. L.
and LI.

CONDER'S ANALYTICAL VIEW OF ALL RELIGIONS. 8vo.

HALLIWELL ON THE DIALECTS OF SOMERSETSHIRE.

SCLOPETARIA, or REMARKS ON RIFLES, &c.

  [Star symbol] Letters, stating particulars and lowest price,
  _carriage free_, to be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND
  QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.


Notices to Correspondents.

REPLIES RECEIVED.--_Eagles' Feathers--Many
Children--Longevity--Oasis--Newton, Cicero, and Gravitation--Burial of
Suicides--Warwickshire Ballad--Algernon Sydney--Mother Damnable--Passage
in Henry IV.--Moon and her Influences--Emaciated Monumental
Effigies--Cane Decane--Hoax on Sir Walter Scott--Poison--Whipping
Boys--Monument of Mary Queen of Scots--Portrait of Earl of
Peterborough--Can Bishops vacate their Sees, &c.--Burials in Fields--The
Three Estates of the Realm--Bawdricks for Bells--The Sclaters--St.
Christopher--Arms of Thompson--Wyned--Lines on Crawfurd of
Kilbirnie--Silent Woman--A Man his own Grandfather--Palæologus--Lines on
a Bed--Inveni Portum, &c., and many others, which we will acknowledge in
our next Number._

A. B., _who asks the meaning of_ MOSAIC, _is referred to our_ 3rd Vol.,
pp. 389. 469. 521.

C. C. G., _who asks the origin of "God tempers the wind," is referred to
our_ 1st Vol., pp. 211. 236. 325. 357. 418., _where he will find that it
is derived from the French proverb quoted by Gruter in 1611, "A brebis
pres tondue, Dieu luy mesure le vent"_.

POLYNESIAN LANGUAGES. _If_ EBLANENSIS _will call on the_ Assistant
Foreign Secretary _of the Bible Society, he will be assisted in
procuring the Samoan text, and such others as have been published. The
Feejeean is just about to be reprinted, the first edition being out of
print._

KESEPH'S BIBLE. _The Query on this subject from_ "The Editor of the
Chronological New Table" _has been accidentally omitted. It shall be
inserted in our next Number._

J. M. G. C. _is thanked. His suggestions and communication shall not be
lost sight of._

BALLIOLENSIS _is requested to say how a letter may be addressed to him._



SPECIMENS OF TILE PAVEMENTS.

      DRAWN FROM EXISTING AUTHORITIES
      BY
      HENRY SHAW, F.S.A.

  Although some few examples of the original designs, and many
  separate patterns taken from the scattered remains of these most
  interesting Pavements, are figured in divers Architectural and
  Archæological Publications; it is presumed, that if a series of
  specimens of the many varieties of general arrangement to be found
  in those still existing, together with a selection of the
  particular Tiles of each period, the most remarkable for the
  elegance and beauty of the foliage and other devices impressed
  upon them, were classed chronologically, and brought within the
  compass of a single volume, it would prove highly valuable as a
  work of reference; not only to architects, but to all who are
  engaged in furnishing designs for any kind of material where
  symmetrical arrangements or tasteful diaperings are required.

  The present work is intended to supply such a desideratum. It will
  be completed in Ten Monthly Parts. Each Part to contain Five
  Plates, royal 4to. printed in Colours. Price 5_s._

  A Preface and Description of the various Pavements will be given
  with the last Number.

  No. I. was published on the 1st of May, 1852.

  Works by Mr. Shaw.

  DRESSES AND DECORATIONS OF THE MIDDLE AGES. In 2 vols. coloured,
  imperial 8vo. price 7_l._ 7_s._; or on imperial 4to. the plates
  more highly finished and heightened with gold, price 18_l._

  ILLUMINATED ORNAMENTS. From the sixth to the seventeenth century.
  Selected from Manuscripts and early printed books, carefully
  coloured from the Originals, with descriptions by Sir Frederick
  Madden, K.H. In 1 vol. 4to. 5_l._ 5_s._; or on large paper, highly
  finished with opaque colours, and heightened with gold, imperial
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  ALPHABETS, NUMERALS, and DEVICES of the MIDDLE AGES. Containing 48
  Plates, on imperial 8vo. price 2_l._ 2_s._; or on imperial 4to.
  price 4_l._ 4_s._

  SPECIMENS OF ANCIENT FURNITURE. Drawn from existing authorities,
  with descriptions by Sir Samuel R. Meyrick, K.H. In 1 vol.
  containing 75 Plates, medium 4to. plain, 2_l._ 2_s._; with
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  SPECIMENS OF ORNAMENTAL METAL WORK. With 50 Plates, 4to. price
  2_l._ 2_s._

  SPECIMENS of the DETAILS of ELIZABETHAN ARCHITECTURE. In 1 vol.
  4to. containing 60 Plates, price 3_l._ 3_s._; or imperial 4to.
  India paper, 6_l._ 6_s._

  THE ENCYCLOPÆDIA OF ORNAMENT. In 1 vol. medium 4to. price 1_l._
  10_s_; or on imperial 4to. coloured Plates, price 3_l._

  A BOOKE OF SUNDRY DRAUGHTES, principally serving the Glaziers: and
  not impertinent for Plasterers and Gardeners, besides sundry other
  Professions. By Walter Gidde. A new edition, with additions. 1
  vol. 8vo. containing 117 Plates, 16_s._

  THE DECORATIVE ARTS of the MIDDLE AGES. In 1 vol. imperial 8vo.
  price 2_l._ 2_s._; in imperial 4to. price 4_l._ 4_s._; or with the
  whole of the Plates and Woodcuts highly coloured and the initial
  letters carefully illuminated, price 8_l._ 8_s._

  London: WILLIAM PICKERING.


ALLSOPP'S PALE AND BITTER ALES.--The recent disquisitions on the
components of "Pale Ale or Bitter Beer" have given occasion to a renewal
from all quarters of those recommendations of the Faculty which
originally gave the start to its great popularity in this country. A
registry of certificates from the most eminent Physicians, as well as
the list of agents authorised for the sale of Allsopp's Pale Ales (so as
to preclude the possibility of adulteration, and insure a constant
supply of this celebrated beverage) may be obtained from the Brewery,
Burton-on-Trent; and the various branch offices of Messrs. Allsopp and
Sons, in

      LONDON, at 61. King William Street, City.
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WESTERN LIFE ASSURANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY, 3. PARLIAMENT STREET,
LONDON.

  Founded A.D. 1842.

      _Directors._
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      _Consulting Counsel._--Sir Wm. P. Wood. M.P.
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  VALUABLE PRIVILEGE.

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      Age      £    _s._   _d._
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  Now ready, price 10_s._ 6_d._, Second Edition, with material
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MOURNING.--COURT, FAMILY, and COMPLIMENTARY.--The Proprietor of THE
LONDON GENERAL MOURNING WAREHOUSE begs respectfully to remind families
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  ESTIMATES FOR SERVANTS' MOURNING, affording a great saving to
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CIGARS OF THE CHOICEST IMPORTATIONS at GREATLY REDUCED PRICES for CASH.
The First Class Brands. "Ptarga," "Flor Cabana," &c., 28_s._ per pound.
British Cigars from 8_s._ 6_d._ per pound. Lord Byron's 14_s._ 6_d._,
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aroma. Every Description of Eastern and American Tobaccos. Meerschaum
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In the press, and speedily will be published, at a cost not exceeding
7_s._ 6_d._ (Non-subscriber's price 10_s._), in a volume of about 220
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  BIBLIOTHECA DEVONIENSIS; or, a Catalogue of the Printed Books
  (upwards of 1,300) relating to the County of Devon, with
  occasional Notes and Memoranda, and full Indexes to the Names of
  Persons and Places. By JAMES DAVIDSON, Esq., of Secktor House,
  Axminster, Devon.

  The Places where the Rarer Books are deposited will be mentioned.

  N.B. Two-thirds of the whole impression are already subscribed
  for.

  Subscribers' names are received by Mr. WM. ROBERTS, the Publisher,
  197. High Street, Exeter.


PROVIDENT LIFE OFFICE,

      50. REGENT STREET.
      CITY BRANCH: 2. ROYAL EXCHANGE BUILDINGS.
      Established 1806.

      Policy Holders' Capital, 1,192,818_l._
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      Bonuses Declared, 743,000_l._
      Claims paid since the Establishment of the Office, 2,001,450_l._

      _President._
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      _Directors._
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      --------+----------+------------------+--------------------
              |          |                  |      Bonuses
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       Policy.|          |                  |     increased
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      --------+----------+------------------+--------------------
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AN ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE HEBREW TEXT OF THE BOOK
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  NOTES, THOUGHTS, AND INQUIRIES. By CHARLES CHALMERS. Part I. Notes
  on Social Economy, in order to a right and permanent adjustment
  between the Population and the Food of the Population. Part II.
  Thoughts and Inquiries bearing directly or indirectly on Man's
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  JOHN CHURCHILL, Princes Street, Soho.



Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, May 22, 1852.



      [Transcriber's Note: List of volumes and content pages in "Notes
      and Queries", Vol. I.-V.]

      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. I.                                   |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.     | Date, Year        | Pages     | PG # xxxxx  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  1 | November  3, 1849 |   1 -  17 | PG #  8603  |
      | Vol. I No.  2 | November 10, 1849 |  18 -  32 | PG # 11265  |
      | Vol. I No.  3 | November 17, 1849 |  33 -  46 | PG # 11577  |
      | Vol. I No.  4 | November 24, 1849 |  49 -  63 | PG # 13513  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No.  5 | December  1, 1849 |  65 -  80 | PG # 11636  |
      | Vol. I No.  6 | December  8, 1849 |  81 -  95 | PG # 13550  |
      | Vol. I No.  7 | December 15, 1849 |  97 - 112 | PG # 11651  |
      | Vol. I No.  8 | December 22, 1849 | 113 - 128 | PG # 11652  |
      | Vol. I No.  9 | December 29, 1849 | 130 - 144 | PG # 13521  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 10 | January   5, 1850 | 145 - 160 | PG #        |
      | Vol. I No. 11 | January  12, 1850 | 161 - 176 | PG # 11653  |
      | Vol. I No. 12 | January  19, 1850 | 177 - 192 | PG # 11575  |
      | Vol. I No. 13 | January  26, 1850 | 193 - 208 | PG # 11707  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 14 | February  2, 1850 | 209 - 224 | PG # 13558  |
      | Vol. I No. 15 | February  9, 1850 | 225 - 238 | PG # 11929  |
      | Vol. I No. 16 | February 16, 1850 | 241 - 256 | PG # 16193  |
      | Vol. I No. 17 | February 23, 1850 | 257 - 271 | PG # 12018  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 18 | March     2, 1850 | 273 - 288 | PG # 13544  |
      | Vol. I No. 19 | March     9, 1850 | 289 - 309 | PG # 13638  |
      | Vol. I No. 20 | March    16, 1850 | 313 - 328 | PG # 16409  |
      | Vol. I No. 21 | March    23, 1850 | 329 - 343 | PG # 11958  |
      | Vol. I No. 22 | March    30, 1850 | 345 - 359 | PG # 12198  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 23 | April     6, 1850 | 361 - 376 | PG # 12505  |
      | Vol. I No. 24 | April    13, 1850 | 377 - 392 | PG # 13925  |
      | Vol. I No. 25 | April    20, 1850 | 393 - 408 | PG # 13747  |
      | Vol. I No. 26 | April    27, 1850 | 409 - 423 | PG # 13822  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Vol. I No. 27 | May       4, 1850 | 425 - 447 | PG # 13712  |
      | Vol. I No. 28 | May      11, 1850 | 449 - 463 | PG # 13684  |
      | Vol. I No. 29 | May      18, 1850 | 465 - 479 | PG # 15197  |
      | Vol. I No. 30 | May      25, 1850 | 481 - 495 | PG # 13713  |
      +---------------+-------------------+-----------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. II.                                  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.      | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 31 | June  1, 1850      |   1- 15 | PG # 12589  |
      | Vol. II No. 32 | June  8, 1850      |  17- 32 | PG # 15996  |
      | Vol. II No. 33 | June 15, 1850      |  33- 48 | PG # 26121  |
      | Vol. II No. 34 | June 22, 1850      |  49- 64 | PG # 22127  |
      | Vol. II No. 35 | June 29, 1850      |  65- 79 | PG # 22126  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 36 | July  6, 1850      |  81- 96 | PG # 13361  |
      | Vol. II No. 37 | July 13, 1850      |  97-112 | PG # 13729  |
      | Vol. II No. 38 | July 20, 1850      | 113-128 | PG # 13362  |
      | Vol. II No. 39 | July 27, 1850      | 129-143 | PG # 13736  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 40 | August  3, 1850    | 145-159 | PG # 13389  |
      | Vol. II No. 41 | August 10, 1850    | 161-176 | PG # 13393  |
      | Vol. II No. 42 | August 17, 1850    | 177-191 | PG # 13411  |
      | Vol. II No. 43 | August 24, 1850    | 193-207 | PG # 13406  |
      | Vol. II No. 44 | August 31, 1850    | 209-223 | PG # 13426  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 45 | September  7, 1850 | 225-240 | PG # 13427  |
      | Vol. II No. 46 | September 14, 1850 | 241-256 | PG # 13462  |
      | Vol. II No. 47 | September 21, 1850 | 257-272 | PG # 13936  |
      | Vol. II No. 48 | September 28, 1850 | 273-288 | PG # 13463  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 49 | October  5, 1850   | 289-304 | PG # 13480  |
      | Vol. II No. 50 | October 12, 1850   | 305-320 | PG # 13551  |
      | Vol. II No. 51 | October 19, 1850   | 321-351 | PG # 15232  |
      | Vol. II No. 52 | October 26, 1850   | 353-367 | PG # 22624  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 53 | November  2, 1850  | 369-383 | PG # 13540  |
      | Vol. II No. 54 | November  9, 1850  | 385-399 | PG # 22138  |
      | Vol. II No. 55 | November 16, 1850  | 401-415 | PG # 15216  |
      | Vol. II No. 56 | November 23, 1850  | 417-431 | PG # 15354  |
      | Vol. II No. 57 | November 30, 1850  | 433-454 | PG # 15405  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. II No. 58 | December  7, 1850  | 457-470 | PG # 21503  |
      | Vol. II No. 59 | December 14, 1850  | 473-486 | PG # 15427  |
      | Vol. II No. 60 | December 21, 1850  | 489-502 | PG # 24803  |
      | Vol. II No. 61 | December 28, 1850  | 505-524 | PG # 16404  |
      +----------------+--------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. III.                                 |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 62 | January  4, 1851  |   1- 15 | PG # 15638  |
      | Vol. III No. 63 | January 11, 1851  |  17- 31 | PG # 15639  |
      | Vol. III No. 64 | January 18, 1851  |  33- 47 | PG # 15640  |
      | Vol. III No. 65 | January 25, 1851  |  49- 78 | PG # 15641  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 66 | February  1, 1851 |  81- 95 | PG # 22339  |
      | Vol. III No. 67 | February  8, 1851 |  97-111 | PG # 22625  |
      | Vol. III No. 68 | February 15, 1851 | 113-127 | PG # 22639  |
      | Vol. III No. 69 | February 22, 1851 | 129-159 | PG # 23027  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 70 | March  1, 1851    | 161-174 | PG # 23204  |
      | Vol. III No. 71 | March  8, 1851    | 177-200 | PG # 23205  |
      | Vol. III No. 72 | March 15, 1851    | 201-215 | PG # 23212  |
      | Vol. III No. 73 | March 22, 1851    | 217-231 | PG # 23225  |
      | Vol. III No. 74 | March 29, 1851    | 233-255 | PG # 23282  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 75 | April  5, 1851    | 257-271 | PG # 23402  |
      | Vol. III No. 76 | April 12, 1851    | 273-294 | PG # 26896  |
      | Vol. III No. 77 | April 19, 1851    | 297-311 | PG # 26897  |
      | Vol. III No. 78 | April 26, 1851    | 313-342 | PG # 26898  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 79 | May  3, 1851      | 345-359 | PG # 26899  |
      | Vol. III No. 80 | May 10, 1851      | 361-382 | PG # 32495  |
      | Vol. III No. 81 | May 17, 1851      | 385-399 | PG # 29318  |
      | Vol. III No. 82 | May 24, 1851      | 401-415 | PG # 28311  |
      | Vol. III No. 83 | May 31, 1851      | 417-440 | PG # 36835  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Vol. III No. 84 | June  7, 1851     | 441-472 | PG # 37379  |
      | Vol. III No. 85 | June 14, 1851     | 473-488 | PG # 37403  |
      | Vol. III No. 86 | June 21, 1851     | 489-511 | PG # 37496  |
      | Vol. III No. 87 | June 28, 1851     | 513-528 | PG # 37516  |
      +-----------------+-------------------+---------+-------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. IV.                                  |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No.  88 | July  5, 1851      |   1- 15 | PG # 37548 |
      | Vol. IV No.  89 | July 12, 1851      |  17- 31 | PG # 37568 |
      | Vol. IV No.  90 | July 19, 1851      |  33- 47 | PG # 37593 |
      | Vol. IV No.  91 | July 26, 1851      |  49- 79 | PG # 37778 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No.  92 | August  2, 1851    |  81- 94 | PG # 38324 |
      | Vol. IV No.  93 | August  9, 1851    |  97-112 | PG # 38337 |
      | Vol. IV No.  94 | August 16, 1851    | 113-127 | PG # 38350 |
      | Vol. IV No.  95 | August 23, 1851    | 129-144 | PG # 38386 |
      | Vol. IV No.  96 | August 30, 1851    | 145-167 | PG # 38405 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No.  97 | Sept.  6, 1851     | 169-183 | PG # 38433 |
      | Vol. IV No.  98 | Sept. 13, 1851     | 185-200 | PG # 38491 |
      | Vol. IV No.  99 | Sept. 20, 1851     | 201-216 | PG # 38574 |
      | Vol. IV No. 100 | Sept. 27, 1851     | 217-246 | PG # 38656 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 101 | Oct.  4, 1851      | 249-264 | PG # 38701 |
      | Vol. IV No. 102 | Oct. 11, 1851      | 265-287 | PG # 38773 |
      | Vol. IV No. 103 | Oct. 18, 1851      | 289-303 | PG # 38864 |
      | Vol. IV No. 104 | Oct. 25, 1851      | 305-333 | PG # 38926 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 105 | Nov.  1, 1851      | 337-358 | PG # 39076 |
      | Vol. IV No. 106 | Nov.  8, 1851      | 361-374 | PG # 39091 |
      | Vol. IV No. 107 | Nov. 15, 1851      | 377-396 | PG # 39135 |
      | Vol. IV No. 108 | Nov. 22, 1851      | 401-414 | PG # 39197 |
      | Vol. IV No. 109 | Nov. 29, 1851      | 417-430 | PG # 39233 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. IV No. 110 | Dec.  6, 1851      | 433-460 | PG # 39338 |
      | Vol. IV No. 111 | Dec. 13, 1851      | 465-478 | PG # 39393 |
      | Vol. IV No. 112 | Dec. 20, 1851      | 481-494 | PG # 39438 |
      | Vol. IV No. 113 | Dec. 27, 1851      | 497-510 | PG # 39503 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Notes and Queries Vol. V.                                   |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year         |  Pages  | PG # xxxxx |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. V  No. 114 | January  3, 1852   |   1- 18 | PG # 40171 |
      | Vol. V  No. 115 | January 10, 1852   |  25- 45 | PG # 40582 |
      | Vol. V  No. 116 | January 17, 1852   |  49- 70 | PG # 40642 |
      | Vol. V  No. 117 | January 24, 1852   |  73- 94 | PG # 40678 |
      | Vol. V  No. 118 | January 31, 1852   |  97-118 | PG # 40716 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. V  No. 119 | February  7, 1852  | 121-142 | PG # 40742 |
      | Vol. V  No. 120 | February 14, 1852  | 145-167 | PG # 40743 |
      | Vol. V  No. 121 | February 21, 1852  | 170-191 | PG # 40773 |
      | Vol. V  No. 122 | February 28, 1852  | 193-215 | PG # 40779 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. V  No. 123 | March  6, 1852     | 217-239 | PG # 40804 |
      | Vol. V  No. 124 | March 13, 1852     | 241-263 | PG # 40843 |
      | Vol. V  No. 125 | March 20, 1852     | 265-287 | PG # 40910 |
      | Vol. V  No. 126 | March 27, 1852     | 289-310 | PG # 40987 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. V  No. 127 | April  3, 1852     | 313-335 | PG # 41138 |
      | Vol. V  No. 128 | April 10, 1852     | 337-358 | PG # 41171 |
      | Vol. V  No. 129 | April 17, 1852     | 361-383 | PG # 41205 |
      | Vol. V  No. 130 | April 24, 1852     | 385-407 | PG #41254  |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol. V  No. 131 | May  1, 1852       | 409-431 | PG # 41295 |
      | Vol. V  No. 132 | May  8, 1852       | 433-455 | PG # 41419 |
      | Vol. V  No. 133 | May 15, 1852       | 457-479 | PG # 41465 |
      +-----------------+--------------------+---------+------------+
      | Vol I. Index. [Nov. 1849-May 1850]             | PG # 13536 |
      | INDEX TO THE SECOND VOLUME. MAY-DEC., 1850     | PG # 13571 |
      | INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. JAN.-JUNE, 1851     | PG # 26770 |
      | INDEX TO THE FOURTH VOLUME. JULY-DEC., 1851    | PG # 40166 |
      +------------------------------------------------+------------+





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