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Title: The Theory and Practice of Archery
Author: Ford, Horace, Butt, W.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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  ARCHERY


  PRINTED BY
  SPOTTISWOODE AND CO., NEW-STREET SQUARE
  LONDON


[Illustration: Your's truly

Horace A. Ford]



  THE
  THEORY AND PRACTICE
  OF
  ARCHERY

  BY THE LATE
  HORACE FORD

  CHAMPION ARCHER OF ENGLAND FOR THE YEARS 1850 TO 1859 AND 1867


  _NEW EDITION_

  _THOROUGHLY REVISED AND RE-WRITTEN_

  BY
  W. BUTT, M.A.

  FOR MANY YEARS HON. SECRETARY OF THE ROYAL TOXOPHILITE SOCIETY


  LONDON
  LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.
  1887

  _All rights reserved_



PREFACE.


No excuse need be offered to archers for presenting to them a new
edition of the late Mr. Horace A. Ford's work on the Theory and Practice
of Archery. It first appeared as a series of articles in the columns of
the 'Field,' which were republished in book form in 1856; a second
edition was published in 1859, which has been long out of print, and no
book on the subject has since appeared. Except, therefore, for a few
copies of this book, which from time to time may be obtained from the
secondhand booksellers, no guide is obtainable by which the young archer
can learn the principles of his art. On hearing that it was in
contemplation to reprint the second edition of Mr. Ford's book, it
seemed to me a pity that this should be done without revision, and
without bringing it up to the level of the knowledge of the present day.
I therefore purchased the copyright of the work from Mr. Ford's
representatives, and succeeded in inducing Mr. Butt, who was for many
years the secretary of the Royal Toxophilite Society, to undertake the
revision.

A difficulty occurred at the outset as to the form in which this
revision should be carried out. If it had been possible, there would
have been advantages in printing Mr. Ford's text untouched, and in
giving Mr. Butt's comments in the form of notes. This course would,
however, have involved printing much matter that has become entirely
obsolete, and, moreover, not only would the bulk of the book have been
increased to a greater extent even than has actually been found
necessary, but also Mr. Butt's portion of the work, which contains the
information of the latest date, and is therefore of highest practical
value to young archers, would have been relegated to a secondary and
somewhat inconvenient position. Mr. Butt has therefore rewritten the
book, and it would hardly perhaps be giving him too much credit to
describe the present work as a Treatise on the Theory and Practice of
Archery by him, based on the work of the late Horace A. Ford.

In writing his book, Mr. Ford committed to paper the principles by means
of which he secured his unrivalled position as an archer. After
displaying a clever trick, it is the practice of some conjurers to
pretend to take the spectators into their confidence, and to show them
'how it is done.' In such cases the audience, as a rule, is not much the
wiser; but a more satisfactory result has followed from Mr. Ford's
instructions.

Mr. Ford was the founder of modern scientific archery. First by example,
and then by precept, he changed what before was 'playing at bows and
arrows' into a scientific pastime. He held the Champion's medal for
eleven years in succession--from 1849 to 1859. He also won it again in
1867. After this time, although he was seen occasionally in the archery
field, his powers began to wane. He died in the year 1880. His best
scores, whether at public matches or in private practice, have never
been surpassed. But, although no one has risen who can claim that on him
has fallen the mantle of Mr. Ford, his work was not in vain. Thanks to
the more scientific and rational principles laid down by this great
archer, any active lad nowadays can, with a few months' practice, make
scores which would have been thought fabulous when George III. was king.

The Annual Grand National Archery Meetings were started in the year 1844
at York, and at the second meeting, in 1845, held also at York, when the
Double York Round was shot for the first time, Mr. Muir obtained the
championship, with 135 hits, and a score of 537. Several years elapsed
before the championship was won with a score of over 700. Nowadays, a
man who cannot make 700 is seldom in the first ten, and, moreover, the
general level both among ladies and gentlemen continues to rise. We have
not yet, however, found any individual archer capable of beating in
public the marvellous record of 245 hits and 1,251 score, made by Mr.
Ford at Cheltenham in 1857.

One chief cause of the improvement Mr. Ford effected was due to his
recognising the fallacy in the time-honoured saying that the archer
should draw to the ear. When drawn to the ear, part of the arrow must
necessarily lie outside the direct line of sight from the eye to the
gold. Consequently, if the arrow points apparently to the gold, it must
fly to the left of the target when loosed, and in order to hit the
target, the archer who draws to the ear must aim at some point to the
right. Mr. Ford laid down the principle that the arrow must be drawn
directly beneath the aiming eye, and lie in its whole length in the same
vertical plane as the line between the eye and the object aimed at.

It is true that in many representations of ancient archers the arrow is
depicted as being drawn beyond the eye, and consequently outside the
line of sight. No doubt for war purposes it was a matter of importance
to shoot a long heavy arrow, and if an arrow of a standard yard long or
anything like it was used, it would be necessary for a man to draw it
beyond his eye, unless he had very long arms indeed. But in war, the
force of the blow was of more importance than accuracy of aim, and Mr.
Ford saw that in a pastime where accuracy of aim was the main object,
this old rule no longer held good. This was only one of many
improvements effected by Mr. Ford; but it is a fact that this discovery,
which seems obvious enough now that it is stated, was the main cause of
the marvellous improvement which has taken place in shooting.

The second chapter in Mr. Ford's book, entitled 'A Glance at the Career
of the English Long-Bow,' has been omitted. It contained no original
matter, being compiled chiefly from the well-known works of Roberts,
Moseley, and Hansard. The scope of the present work is practical, not
historical; and to deal with the history of the English long-bow in a
satisfactory manner would require a bulky volume. An adequate history of
the bow in all ages and in all countries has yet to be written.

In the chapters on the bow, the arrow, and the rest of the paraphernalia
of archery, much that Mr. Ford wrote, partly as the result of the
practice and experiments of himself and others, and partly as drawn from
the works of previous writers on the subject, still holds good; but
improvements have been effected since his time, and Mr. Butt has been
able to add a great deal of useful information gathered from the long
experience of himself and his contemporaries.

The chapters which deal with Ascham's well-known five points of
archery--standing, nocking, drawing, holding, and loosing--contain the
most valuable part of Mr. Ford's teaching, and Mr. Butt has endeavoured
to develope further the principles laid down by Mr. Ford. The chapters
on ancient and modern archery practice have been brought up to date, and
Mr. Butt has given in full the best scores made by ladies or gentlemen
at every public meeting which has been held since the establishment of
the Grand National Archery Society down to 1886.

The chapter on Robin Hood has been omitted for the same reasons which
determined the omission of the chapter on the career of the English
long-bow, and the rules for the formation of archery societies, which
are cumbrous and old-fashioned, have also been left out.

The portrait of Major C. H. Fisher, champion archer for the years
1871-2-3-4, is reproduced from a photograph taken by Mr. C. E. Nesham,
the present holder of the champion's medal.

In conclusion, it is hoped that the publication of this book may help to
increase the popularity of archery in this country. It is a pastime
which can never die out. The love of the bow and arrow seems almost
universally planted in the human heart. But its popularity fluctuates,
and though it is now more popular than at some periods, it is by no
means so universally practised as archers would desire. One of its
greatest charms is that it is an exercise which is not confined to men.
Ladies have attained a great and increasing amount of skill with the
bow, and there is no doubt that it is more suited to the fairer sex than
some of the more violent forms of athletics now popular. Archery has
perhaps suffered to some extent from comparison with the rifle. The
rifleman may claim for his weapon that its range is greater and that it
shoots more accurately than the bow. The first position may be granted
freely, the second only with reserve. Given, a well-made weapon of
Spanish or Italian yew, and arrows of the best modern make, and the
accuracy of the bow is measured only by the skill of the shooter. If he
can loose his arrow truly, it will hit the mark; more than that can be
said of no weapon. That a rifleman will shoot more accurately at ranges
well within the power of the bow than an archer of similar skill is
certain; but the reason is that the bow is the more difficult, and
perhaps to some minds on that account the more fascinating, weapon. The
reason why it is more difficult is obvious, and in stating it we see one
of the many charms of archery. The rifleman has but to aim straight and
to hold steady, and he will hit the bull's-eye. But the archer has also
to supply the motive force which propels his arrow. As he watches the
graceful flight of a well-shot shaft, he can feel a pride in its
swiftness and strength which a rifleman cannot share. And few pastimes
can furnish a more beautiful sight than an arrow speeding swiftly and
steadily from the bow, till with a rapturous thud it strikes the gold at
a hundred yards.

    C. J. LONGMAN.



CONTENTS.


    CHAPTER                                                    PAGE

       I.  OF THE ENGLISH LONG-BOW                                1

      II.  HOW TO CHOOSE A BOW, AND HOW TO USE AND PRESERVE
               IT WHEN CHOSEN                                    17

     III.  OF THE ARROW                                          27

      IV.  OF THE STRING, BRACER, AND SHOOTING-GLOVE             44

       V.  OF THE GREASE-BOX, TASSEL, BELT, ETC.                 67

      VI.  OF BRACING, OR STRINGING, AND NOCKING                 78

     VII.  OF ASCHAM'S FIVE POINTS, POSITION STANDING, ETC.      83

    VIII.  DRAWING                                               94

      IX.  AIMING                                               107

       X.  OF HOLDING AND LOOSING                               122

      XI.  OF DISTANCE SHOOTING, AND DIFFERENT ROUNDS           132

     XII.  ARCHERY SOCIETIES, 'RECORDS,' ETC.                   140

    XIII.  THE PUBLIC ARCHERY MEETINGS AND THE DOUBLE
               YORK AND OTHER ROUNDS                            148

     XIV.  CLUB SHOOTING AND PRIVATE PRACTICE                   279


_PLATES._

    PORTRAIT OF MR. FORD                             _Frontispiece_

    PORTRAIT OF MAJOR C. H. FISHER                 _To face p. 122_



ARCHERY



CHAPTER I.

_OF THE ENGLISH LONG-BOW_


Of the various implements of archery, the bow demands the first
consideration. It has at one period or another formed one of the chief
weapons of war and the chase in almost every nation, and is, indeed, at
the present day in use for both these purposes in various parts of the
world. It has differed as much in form as in material, having been made
curved, angular, and straight; of wood, metal, horn, cane, whalebone, of
wood and horn, or of wood and the entrails and sinews of animals and
fish combined: sometimes of the rudest workmanship, sometimes finished
with the highest perfection of art.

No work exists which aims at giving an exhaustive description of the
various forms of bows which have been used by different nations in
ancient and modern times, and such an undertaking would be far beyond
the scope of the present work. The only form of the bow with which we
are now concerned is the _English long-bow_, and especially with the
English long-bow as now used for target-shooting as opposed to the more
powerful weapon used by our forefathers for the purposes of war. The
cross-bow never took a very strong hold on the English nation as
compared with the long-bow, and, as it has never been much employed for
recreation, it need not be here described.

It is a matter of surprise and regret that so few genuine specimens of
the _old_ English long-bow should remain in existence at the present
day. One in the possession of the late Mr. Peter Muir of Edinburgh is
said to have been used in the battle of Flodden in 1513: it is of
self-yew, a single stave, apparently of English growth, and very roughly
made. Its strength has been supposed to be between 80 and 90 lbs.; but
as it could not be tested without great risk of breaking it, its actual
strength remains a matter of conjecture only. This bow was presented to
Mr. P. Muir by Colonel J. Ferguson, who obtained it from a border house
contiguous to Flodden Field, where it had remained for many generations,
with the reputation of having been used at that battle.

There are likewise in the Tower two bows that were taken out of the
'Mary Rose,' a vessel sunk in the reign of Henry VIII. They are
unfinished weapons, made out of single staves of magnificent yew,
probably of foreign growth, quite round from end to end, tapered from
the middle to each end, and without horns. It is difficult to estimate
their strength, but it probably does not exceed from 65 to 70 lbs.
Another weapon now in the Museum of the United Service Institution came
from the same vessel. Probably the oldest specimen extant of the English
long-bow is in the possession of Mr. C. J. Longman. It was dug out of
the peat near Cambridge, and is unfortunately in very bad condition. It
can never have been a very powerful weapon. Geologists say that it
cannot be more recent than the twelfth or thirteenth century, and may be
much more ancient. Indeed, from its appearance it is more probable that
it is a relic of the weaker archery of the Saxons than that it is a
weapon made after the Normans had introduced their more robust shooting
into this country.

Before the discussion of the practical points connected with the bow is
commenced, it must be borne in mind that these pages profess to give
the result of actual experience, and nothing that is advanced is mere
theory or opinion unsupported by proof, but the result only of long,
patient, and practical investigation and of constant and untiring
experiment. Whenever, therefore, one kind of wood, or one shape of bow,
or one mode or principle of shooting, &c., is spoken of as being better
than another, or the best of all, it is asserted to be so simply
because, after a full and fair trial of every other, the result of such
investigation bore out that assertion. No doubt some of the points
contended for were in Mr. Ford's time in opposition to the then
prevailing opinions and practice, and were considered innovations. The
value of theory, however, is just in proportion as it can be borne out
by practical results; and in appealing to the success of his own
practice as a proof of the correctness of the opinions and principles
upon which it was based, he professed to be moved by no feeling of
conceit or vanity, but wholly and solely by a desire to give as much
force as possible to the recommendations put forth, and to obtain a fair
and impartial trial of them.

The English bows now in use may be divided primarily into two
classes--the _self-bow_ and the _backed bow_; and, to save space and
confusion, the attention must first be confined to the self-bow,
reserving what has to be said respecting the backed bow. Much, however,
that is said of the one applies equally to the other.

The self-bow of a single stave is the real old English weapon--the one
with which the mighty deeds that rendered this country renowned in
bygone times were performed; for until the decline and disappearance of
archery in war, as a consequence of the superiority of firearms, and the
consequent cessation of the importation of bow-staves, backed bows were
unknown. Ascham, who wrote in the sixteenth century, when archery had
already degenerated into little else than an amusement, mentions none
other than self-bows; and it may therefore be concluded that such only
existed in his day. Of the woods for self-bows, yew beyond all question
carries off the palm. Other woods have been, and still are, in use, such
as lance, cocus, Washaba, rose, snake, laburnum, and others; but they
may be summarily dismissed (with the exception of lance, of which more
hereafter) with the remark that self-bows made of these woods are all so
radically bad, heavy in hand, apt to jar, dull in cast, liable to
chrysal, and otherwise prone to break, that no archer should use them so
long as a self-yew or a good backed bow is within reach.

The only wood, then, for self-bows is yew, and the best yew is of
foreign growth (Spanish or Italian), though occasionally staves of
English wood are met with which almost rival those of foreign growth.
This, however, is the exception; as a rule, the foreign wood is the
best: it is straighter, and finer in grain, freer from pins, stiffer and
denser in quality, and requires less bulk in proportion to the strength
of the bow.

The great bane of yew is its liability to knots and _pins_, and rare
indeed it is to find a six-feet stave without one or more of these
undesirable companions. Where, however, a pin occurs, it may easily be
rendered comparatively harmless by the simple plan of raising it--i.e.
by leaving a little more wood than elsewhere round the pin in the belly
and back of the bow. This strengthens the particular point, and
diminishes the danger of a chrysal or splinter. A pin resembles a small
piece of wire, is very hard and troublesome to the bowmaker's tools,
runs right through the bow-stave from belly to back, and is very
frequently the point at which a chrysal starts. This chrysal (also
called by old writers a 'pinch') is a sort of disease which attacks the
belly of a bow. At first it nearly resembles a scratch or crack in the
varnish. Its direction is always diagonal to the line of the bow, and it
gradually eats deeply into the bow and makes it appear as if it had been
attacked with a chopper. If many small chrysals appear, much danger need
not be feared, though their progress should be watched; but if one
chrysal becomes deeply rooted, the bow should be sent to the bowmaker
for a new belly. A chrysal usually occurs in new bows, and mostly arises
from the wood being imperfectly seasoned; but it occasionally will occur
in a well-seasoned bow that has been lent to a friend who uses a longer
draw and dwells longer on the point of aim, thus using the weapon beyond
its wont. Another danger to the life of a bow arises from splinters in
the back. These mostly occur in wet weather, when the damp, through
failure of the varnish, has been able to get into the wood. Directly the
rising of a splinter is observed, that part of the bow should be
effectually glued and wrapped before it is again used. After this
treatment the bow will be none the worse, except in appearance. Yew and
hickory only should be used for the backs of bows. Canadian elm, which
is occasionally used for backs, is particularly liable to splinter. It
is obvious whenever a bow is broken the commencement of the fracture has
been in a splinter or a chrysal, according as the first failure was in
the back or the belly; therefore in the diagnosis of these disorders
archers have to be thankful for small mercies. The grain of the wood
should be as even and fine as possible, with the feathers running quite
straight, and as nearly as possible consecutively from the handle to the
horn in each limb, and without curls; also, care should be taken, in the
manufacture of a bow, that the sap or back be of even depth, and not in
some places reduced to the level of the belly. The feathering of a yew
bow means the gradual disappearance of some of the grain as the
substance of the bow is reduced between the handle and horn. A curl is
caused by a sudden turn in the grain of the wood, so that this
feathering is abruptly interrupted and reversed before it reappears.
This is a great source of weakness in a bow, both in belly and back.
There should be nothing of the nature of feathering in the back of a
bow, and it is believed that the best back is that in which nothing but
the bark has been removed from the stave. Any interruption of the grain
of the back is a source of weakness and a hotbed of splinters. A bow
that follows the string should never be straightened, for the same
reason that anything of the nature of a carriage-spring should on no
account be reversed in application. The wood should be thoroughly well
seasoned and of a good sound hard quality. The finest and closest dark
grain is undoubtedly the most beautiful and uncommon; but the open or
less close-grained wood, and wood of paler complexion, are nearly, if
not quite, as good for use.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--A GOOD BOW UNSTRUNG.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--A GOOD BOW WHEN STRUNG.]

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--A BADLY REFLEXED BOW THAT BENDS IN THE HAND.]

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--A GOOD SHAPE FOR A NEW BOW.]

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--A BOW THAT FOLLOWS STRING: STRUNG AND UNSTRUNG.]

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--A REFLEX BOW: STRUNG AND UNSTRUNG.

(Figs. 5 and 6 show the different distances which the limbs of
well-shaped and of reflex bows have to go to their rest when unstrung.)]

[Illustration: FIG. 7.

_Doublefish_ _Singlefish_]

The self-yew bow may be a single-stave--that is to say, made of a
single piece of wood, or may be made of two pieces dovetailed or united
in the handle by what is called a fish. In a single-stave bow the
quality of the wood will not be quite the same in the two limbs, the
wood of the lower growth being denser than that of the upper; whilst in
the grafted bow, made of the same piece of wood, cut or split apart, and
re-united in the handle, the two limbs will be exactly of the same
nature. The joint, or _fishing_ (fig. 7), should be double, not single.
The difference, however, between these two sorts of self-yew bows is so
slight as to be immaterial. In any unusually damp or variable climate
single staves should be prepared; and in the grafted bows care should be
taken in ascertaining that they be firmly put together in the middle. A
single-stave bow has usually a somewhat shorter handle, as it becomes
unnecessary to cover so much of the centre of the bow when the covering
is not used as a cover to the joint, but for the purpose of holding the
bow only.

In shape all bows should be full and inflexible in the centre, tapering
gradually to each horn. They should never bend in the handle, as bows of
this shape (i.e. a continuous curve from horn to horn) always jar most
disagreeably in the hand. A perfectly graduated bend, from a stiff
unbending centre of at least nine inches, towards each horn is the best.
Some self-yew bows are naturally reflexed, others are straight, and some
follow the string more or less. The slightly reflexed bows are perhaps
more pleasing to the eye, as one cannot quite shake off the belief that
the shape of Cupid's bow is agreeable. Bows which follow the string
somewhat are perhaps the most pleasant to use.

The handle of the bow, which in size should be regulated to the grasp of
each archer, should be in such a position that the upper part of it may
be from an inch to an inch and a quarter above the _true centre_ of the
bow, or the point in the handle whereon the bow will balance. If this
centre be lower down in the handle, as is usual in bows of Scotch
manufacture, the cast of the bow may be somewhat improved, but at the
cost of a tendency to that unpleasant feeling of kicking and jarring in
the hand. Again, if the true centre be higher, or, as is the case in the
old unaltered Flemish bows, at the point where the arrow lies on the
hand, the cast will be found to suffer disadvantageously. If the handle
be properly grasped (inattention to which will endanger the bow's being
pulled out of shape), the fulcrum, in drawing, will be about the true
balancing centre, and the root of the thumb will be placed thereon.
Considering a bow to consist of three members--a handle and two
limbs--the upper limb, being somewhat longer, must of necessity bend a
trifle more, and this it should do. The most usual covering for the
handle is plush; but woollen binding-cloth, leather, and india-rubber
are also in constant use.

The piece of mother-of-pearl, ivory, or other hard substance usually
inserted in the handle of the bow, at the point where the arrow lies, is
intended to prevent the wearing away of the bow by the friction of the
arrow; but this precaution overreaches itself, as in the course of an
unusually long life the most hard-working bow will scarcely lose as much
by this friction as must, to start with, be cut away for this insertion.

The length of the bow, which is calculated from nock to nock--and this
length will vary a little from the actual length, according as it may be
said to hold itself upright or stoop, i.e. follow the string--should be
regulated by its strength and the length of the arrow to be used with
it. It may be taken as a safe rule that the stronger the bow the greater
its length should be; and so also the longer the arrow the longer should
be the bow. For those who use arrows of the usual length of from 27 to
28 inches, with bows of the strength of from 45 lbs. to 55 lbs., a
useful and safe length will be not less than 5 ft. 10 in. If this length
of arrow or weight of bow be increased or diminished, the length of bow
may be proportionally increased or diminished, taking as the two
extremes 5 ft. 8 in. and 6 feet. No bow need be much outside either of
these measurements. It may be admitted that a short bow will cast
somewhat farther than a longer one of the same weight, but this extra
cast can only be gained by a greater risk of breakage. As bows are
usually weighed and marked by the bowmakers for a 28-inch arrow fully
drawn up, a greater or less pull will take more or less out of them, and
the archer's calculations must be made accordingly.

To increase or diminish the power of a bow, it is usual to shorten it in
the former case, and to reduce the bulk in the latter; but to shorten a
bow will probably shorten its life too, and mayhap spoil it, unless it
be certain that it is superfluously long or sufficiently strong in the
handle. On the other hand, to reduce a bow judiciously, if it need to be
weaker, can do it no harm; but the reduction should not be carried quite
up to the handle. It is a good plan to choose a bow by quality,
regardless of strength, and have the best bow that can be procured
reduced to the strength suitable. In all cases the horns should be well
and truly set on, and the nocks should be of sufficient bulk to enclose
safely the extremities of the limbs of the bow running up into them, and
the edges of the nocks should be made most carefully smooth. If the edge
of the nock be sharp and rough, the string must be frayed, and in
consequence break sooner or later, and endanger the safety of the bow.
The lower nock is not unfrequently put on or manufactured a trifle
sideways as to its groove on the belly side. This is done with a view to
compensate the irregularity of the loop: but this is a mistake, as it is
quite unnecessary in the case of a loop, and must be liable to put the
string out of position when there is a second eye to the string--and
this second eye every archer who pays due regard to the preservation of
his bows and strings should be most anxious to adopt as soon as
possible.

From all that can be learned respecting the backed bow, it would appear
that its use was not adopted in this country until archery was in its
last stage of decline as a weapon of war, when, the bow degenerating
into an instrument of amusement, the laws relating to the importation of
yew staves from foreign countries were evaded, and the supply
consequently ceased. It was then that the bowyers hit upon the plan of
uniting a tough to an elastic wood, and so managed to make a very
efficient weapon out of very inferior materials. This cannot fairly be
claimed as an invention of the English bowyers, but is an adaptation of
the plan which had long been in use amongst the Turks, Persians,
Tartars, Chinese, and many other nations, including Laplanders, whose
bows were made of two pieces of wood united with isinglass. As far as
regards the English backed bow (this child of necessity), the end of the
sixteenth century is given as the period of its introduction, and the
Kensals of Manchester are named as the first makers--bows of whose make
may be still in existence and use--and these were generally made of yew
backed with hickory or wych-elm. At the time of the revival of
archery--at the close of the last century, and again fifty years
ago--all backed bows were held in great contempt by any that could
afford self-yews, and were always slightingly spoken of as 'tea-caddy'
bows; meaning that they were made of materials fit for nothing but
ornamental joinery, Tunbridge ware, &c.

The backed bows of the present day are made of two or more strips of the
same or different woods securely glued, and compressed together as
firmly as possible, in frames fitted with powerful screws, which frames
are capable of being set to any shape. Various woods are used, most of
which, though of different quality, make serviceable bows. For the backs
we have the sap of yew, hickory, American, Canadian, or wych-elm,
hornbeam, &c.; and for the bellies, yew, lance, fustic, snake, Washaba,
and letter-wood, which is the straight grained part of snake, and some
others. Of all these combinations Mr. Ford gave the strongest preference
to bows of yew backed with yew. These he considered the only possible
rivals of the self-yew. Next in rank he classed bows of yew backed with
hickory. Bows made of lance backed with hickory, when the woods used are
well seasoned and of choice quality, are very steady and trustworthy,
but not silky and pleasant in drawing like bows made of yew. One
advantage of this combination of bow is that both these woods can be had
of sufficient length to avoid the trouble in making and insecurity in
use of the joint in the handle. Of bows into which more than two woods
are introduced, the combination of yew for the belly, fustic or other
good hard wood for the centre, and hickory for the back cannot well be
improved upon, and such bows have been credited with excellent scores.
There is also a three-wooded modification of the lance and hickory bow.
In this a tapering strip of hard wood is introduced between the back and
belly; this strip passes through the handle and disappears at about a
foot from the horn in each limb. The lancewood bows are the cheapest,
and next to these follow the lance-and-hickory bows, and then those of
the description last mentioned. On this account beginners who do not
wish to go to much expense whilst they are, as it were, testing their
capacity for the successful prosecution of this sport, would do well to
make a start with a bow of one or other of these descriptions. It will
often be useful to lend to another beginner, or to a friend, to whom it
might not be wise to lend a more valuable bow; or it may even be of use
to the owner at a pinch. Bows have often been made of many more than
three pieces; but nothing is gained by further complications, unless it
be necessary in the way of repair.

Next in importance to the consideration of the material of which backed
bows should be made comes the treatment of their shape. Judging from
such specimens of backed bows, made by Waring and others, before the
publication of Mr. H. A. Ford's articles on archery in the 'Field,' as
have survived to the present day, and whose survival may be chiefly
attributed to the fact that they were so utterly harsh and disagreeable
in use that it was but little use they ever got, the author was
probably right in saying that they all bent in the handle more or less
when drawn, and were too much reflexed. There is but little doubt
that--as the joint in the handle, necessitating extra bulk and strength,
could be dispensed with in these bows--the makers considered it an
excellent opportunity to give their goods what (however erroneously) was
then considered the best shape (when drawn), namely, the perfect arc;
and this harmonious shape they obtained most successfully by making the
bows comparatively weak in the handle and unnecessarily strong towards
the horns; with the result that these 'tea-caddy bows' met the
contemptuous fate they well deserved. Modern archers have to be thankful
to Mr. Ford for the vast improvement in backed bows (even more than in
the case of self-bows), which are now perfectly steady in hand, and
taper gradually, and as much as is compatible with the safety of the
limbs, and this in spite of their being still made somewhat more reflex
when new than appears necessary in the manufacture of self-yew bows. Yet
Mr. Ford was perfectly right to condemn all reflexity that does not
result in a bow becoming either straight or somewhat to follow the
string after it has been in use sufficiently long for its necessary
training to its owner's style. The first quality of a bow is steadiness.
Now this quality is put in peril either by a want of exact balance
between the two limbs--when the recoil of one limb is quicker than that
of the other--or by undue reflexity. These causes of unsteadiness occur
in self-bows as well as in backed bows, and are felt in the shape of a
jar or kick in the hand when loosed. This unsteadiness from want of
balance in the limbs may be cured by a visit of the bow to the maker for
such fresh tillering (as it is called) as will correct the fault of one
or other limb. If the unsteadiness arise from excessive reflexity, which
cannot be reduced by use, a further tapering of the limbs must be
adopted. No bow of any sort that cannot be completely cured of kicking
should be kept, as no steady shooting can be expected from such a bow.
A bow that is much reflexed will be more liable to chrysals and
splinters, as the belly has to be more compressed and the back more
strained than in a bow of proper shape; also, such a bow is much more
destructive to strings, as a greater strain is put upon the strings by
the recoil of the limbs than is the case with a bow that follows the
string or bends inwards naturally. It is the uneven or excessive strain
upon the string after the discharge of the arrow that causes the kicking
of the bow.

When the question arises, 'Which is the best sort of bow?' it is found
that the solution has only been rendered more complicated since 1859 by
the great improvement in the manufacture of various sorts of backed
bows: as the following remarks, then applied to the comparison between
the self-yew and the yew-backed yew only, must now be extended to all
the best specimens of backed bows of different sorts. The advocates of
the self-yew affirm that good specimens of their pet weapon are the
sweetest in use, the steadiest in hand, the most certain in cast, and
the most beautiful to the eye; and in all these points, with the
exception of certainty of cast, they are borne out by the fact. This
being the state of the case, how is it, then, that a doubt can still
remain as to which it is most profitable for an archer to use? Here are
three out of four points (two of which are most important) in which it
is admitted that the self-yew is superior; and yet, after much practical
and experimental testing of all sorts, it must be left to the taste and
judgment of each man to decide for himself. The fact undoubtedly is,
that the self-yew is the most perfect weapon. But it is equally an
undoubted fact that it requires more delicate handling; since, its cast
lying very much in the last three or four inches of its pull, any
variation in this respect, or difference in quickness or otherwise of
loose, varies the elevation of the arrow to a much greater extent than
the same variation of pull or loose in the others, whose cast is more
uniform throughout. Now, were a man perfect in his physical powers, or
always in first-rate shooting condition, there would be no doubt as to
which bow he should use, as he would in this case be able to attain to
the difficult nicety required in the management of the self-yew; but as
this constant perfection never can be maintained, the superior merits of
this bow are partially counteracted by the extreme difficulty of doing
justice to them; and the degree of harshness of pull and unsteadiness in
hand of the others being but trifling, the greater certainty with which
they accomplish the elevation counterbalances, upon average results,
their inferiority in other respects. Another advantage the self-yew
possesses is, that it is not so liable to injury from damp as are the
backed bows; but then the latter are much less costly, and, with common
care, need cause no fear of harm from damp, as an inch of lapping at
either end covering the junction with the horns will preserve them from
this danger. As regards chrysals, and breakage from other causes than
damp, bows of all sorts of wood are about equally liable to failure. The
main results of the comparison, then, resolve themselves into these two
prominent features: namely, that the self-yew bow, from its steadiness,
sweetness, and absence of vibration, ensures the straightness of the
shot better than backed bows; whilst the latter, owing to the regularity
of their cast not being confined quite to a hair's breadth of pull,
carry off the palm for greater certainty in the elevation of the shot.

It is almost unnecessary to say that there are bad bows of all sorts,
many being made of materials that are fit for nothing but firewood; and
yet the bowmakers seem to be almost justified in making up such
materials by the fact that occasionally the most ungainly bow will prove
itself almost invaluable in use, while a perfect beauty in appearance
may turn out a useless slug.

Though it may be no easy matter to decide which particular sort of bow
an individual archer should adopt, yet, when that individual has once
ascertained the description of bow that appears to suit him best, he
will be wise to confine his attention to that same sort in his future
acquisition of bows. An archer who shoots much will find his bowmaker's
account a serious annual matter if he keep none but the best self-yew
bows; and therefore any who find it necessary to count the cost of this
sport should do their best to adapt themselves to the cheaper though not
much inferior backed bows. This also may be further said of the
difference between self-yews and backed bows--namely, that there appears
to be a sort of individuality attached to each self-yew bow, apart from
the peculiarities of its class, which makes it difficult (not regarding
the cost) to remedy the loss of a favourite self-yew bow. It is very
much easier to replace any specimen of the other sorts of bows, as there
is much less variation of character in each class.

The 'carriage bow' is made to divide into two pieces by means of a metal
socket in the handle, after the fashion of the joint of a fishing-rod.
The object of this make of bow is to render it more convenient as a
travelling-companion; but, as the result is a bow heavy in hand and
unpleasant in use, the remedy appears to be worse than the disease.

It is often asserted that the best bows should be made of steel, as
superior in elasticity to wood; but this is not borne out by the results
of experiment. The late Hon. R. Hely-Hutchinson, a member of the R. Tox.
Soc., took a great deal of pains to have long-bows manufactured of steel
both in England and in Belgium. The best of these, weighing about 50
lbs. for the 28-inch draw, with the aim and elevation which with a good
wooden bow would carry an arrow 100 yards, scarcely carried its shaft as
far as 60 yards, so deadly slow appeared the recoil; and besides this,
the actual weight in the hand of the implement was so considerable that
it would be a most serious addition to the toil of the day, on account
of its being so frequently held out at arm's length, to say nothing of
its having to be carried about all day.



CHAPTER II.

_HOW TO CHOOSE A BOW, AND HOW TO USE AND PRESERVE IT WHEN CHOSEN_


The next point to be considered is the strength of the bow to be chosen;
and respecting this, in the first place, the bow must be completely
under the shooter's command--within it, but not much below it. One of
the greatest mistakes young archers (and many old ones too) commit is
that they _will_ use bows that are too strong for them. In fact, there
are but few to whom, at one or other period of their archery career,
this remark has not applied. The desire to be considered strong appears
to be the moving agent to this curious hallucination; as if a man did
not rather expose his weakness by straining at a bow evidently beyond
his strength, thereby calling attention to that weakness, than by using
a lighter one with grace and ease, which always give the idea of force,
vigour, and power. Another incentive to the use of strong bows is the
passion for sending down the arrows sharp and low, and the consequent
employment of powerful bows to accomplish this; the which is perhaps a
greater mistake than the other, for it is not so much the strength of
the bow as the perfect command of it that enables the archer to obtain
this desideratum. The question is not so much what a man can pull as
what he can loose; and he will without doubt obtain a lower flight of
arrow by a lighter power of bow under his command, than he will by a
stronger one beyond his proper management. This mania for strong bows
has destroyed many a promising archer, in an archery sense of the term.
Not only did one of the best shots of his day, a winner of the second
and first prizes at successive Grand National Meetings, dwindle beneath
mediocrity in accuracy through this infatuation, but another brought
himself to death's door by a dangerous illness of about a year's
duration, by injury to his physical powers, brought on by the same
failing, only carried to a much greater excess. And, after all, the
thing so desired is not always thus attained.

Let the reader attend any Grand National Archery Meeting, and let him
observe some fifty or so picked shots of the country arranged at the
targets, and contending with all their might for the prizes of honour
and skill. Whose arrows fly down the sharpest, steadiest, and keenest?
Are they those of the archers who use the strongest bows? Not at
all. Behold that archer from an Eastern county just stepping so
unpretendingly forward to deliver his shafts. See! with what grace and
ease the whole thing is done!--no straining, no contortions there! Mark
the flight of his arrows--how keen, and low, and to the mark they fly!
None fly sharper, few so sharp. And what is the strength of that
beautiful self-yew bow which he holds in his hand? Scarce 50 lbs.! And
yet the pace of his shaft is unsurpassed by any; and it is close upon
five shillings in weight too. There is another. Mark his strength and
muscular power! Possibly a bow of 80 lbs. would be within his pull; yet
he knows better than to use any such, when the prizes are awarded to
skill, not brute force. The bow he employs is but 48 lbs.; yet how
steady and true is the flight of his arrow! And so on all through the
meeting: it will be found that it is not the strongest bows, but those
that are under the perfect command of their owners, that do their work
the best.

Inasmuch, then, as the proper flight of an arrow from any bow depends
almost entirely upon the way in which it is loosed, the strength of the
bow must not be regulated by the mere muscular powers of the individual
archer; for he may be able to draw even a 29-inch arrow to the head in
a very powerful bow without being able during a match to loose steadily
a bow of more than 50 lbs. Not the power of drawing, but of loosing
steadily, must therefore be the guide here. The bow must be within this
loosing power, but also well up to it; for it is almost as bad to be
_under_- as _over_-bowed. The evils attendant upon being over-bowed are
various: the left (bow) arm, wrist, and elbow, the fingers of the right
(loosing) hand and its wrist, are strained and rendered unsteady; the
pull becomes uncertain and wavering, and is never twice alike; the whole
system is overworked and wearied; and, besides this, the mind is
depressed by ill-success; the entire result is disappointment and
failure. On the other hand, care must be taken not to fall into the
opposite extreme of being under-bowed, as in this case the loose becomes
difficult, and generally unsteady and unequal. The weight of the bows
now in general use varies from 45 lbs. to 54 lbs., stronger ones forming
the exception; and the lowest of these weights is ample for the
distances now usually shot. Each archer must therefore find out how much
he can draw with ease and loose with steadiness throughout a day's
shooting, and choose accordingly. If a beginner, 50 lbs. is probably the
outside weight with which he should commence; a few pounds less, in most
cases, would even be better for the starting-point. As lately as twenty
years ago bows were very carelessly marked in the indication of their
strength, many bows being marked as much as 10 lbs. above their actual
measure; but in the present day all the bowmakers incline towards the
custom of marking a new bow to weigh rather less, perhaps by 3 lbs.,
than its actual weight. The reason of this is that in the opinion of the
marker the bow will arrive at the strength marked in the course of use.
It is indeed a very rare case when a new bow does not with use get
somewhat weaker.

Besides keeping the bows for his own use mostly of the same description,
every archer should also keep them of just about the same weight; and
if he shoot much he should possess at the fewest three, as much alike as
possible, and use them alternately. This will prove an economy in the
end, as each will have time to recover its elasticity, and will thus
last a much longer time. It is an agreeable feature in bows that they
have considerable facility in recovery from the effects of hard work.
This fact may be easily tested by weighing a bow on a steelyard before
and after shooting a single York round with it, when a difference of one
pound or more will be found in the strength of it, more particularly if
the day be hot; but with a few days' rest this lost power will be
regained by the bow.

In the choice of a bow a beginner should secure the assistance of an
experienced friend, or content himself with an unambitious investment in
a cheap specimen of backed-bow or a self-lance, on which he may safely
expend his inexperience. When an archer is sufficiently advanced to know
the sort and weight of bow that best suits him, let him go to the maker
he prefers, and name the price he can afford to give--the prices of
trustworthy self-yews vary from twenty to five guineas, of yew-backed
yews from five to three guineas, and of other backed bows from three
guineas to thirty shillings; whilst self-lance bows may be procured for
as little as twelve shillings--and he will soon find what choice there
is for him. If there appears one likely to suit, let him first examine
the bow to see that there be no _knots_, _curls_, _pins_, _splinters_,
_chrysals_, or other objectionable flaws; then let him string it, and,
placing the lower end on the ground in such a position that the whole of
the string shall be under his eye and uppermost, let him notice whether
the bow be perfectly straight. If it be so, the bow, so balanced between
the ground at the lower and a finger at the upper end, will appear
symmetrically divided by the string into two parts. Should there appear
to be more on one side of the string than on the other in either limb,
the bow is not straight, and should be rejected. A bow is said to have a
_cast_ when it is tilted in its back out of the perpendicular to the
plane passing through the string and the longitudinal centre of the bow.
Any bow that has this fault should also be rejected. This fault, if it
should happen to exist, will be easily detected by reversing the
position of the bow just previously described, i.e. by holding the bow
as before, but with the back upwards. The next step is to watch the bow
as it is drawn up, so as to be able to judge whether it bend evenly in
both its limbs and show no sign of weakness in any particular point. The
upper limb, as before stated, being the longest, should appear to bend a
trifle the most, so that the whole may be symmetrical, when considered
as bending from the real centre. It may next be tested, to ascertain
whether it be a kicker; thus the string must be drawn up six inches or
so and then loosed (of course without an arrow). If the bow have the
fault of kicking ever so little, experience will easily detect it by the
jolt in the hand. But on no account in this experiment should the string
(without an arrow) be fully drawn and loosed. Care should be taken that
the bow be sufficiently long for its strength. What has hitherto been
said applies to all bows; but in self-bows attention must be paid to the
straightness of the feathering of the wood. As a general rule, the
lightest wood in a yew-bow will have the quickest cast, and the heaviest
will make the most lasting implement. Between two bows of the same
strength and length, the one being slight and the other bulky, there
will be about the same difference as between a thoroughbred and a
cart-horse. Therefore the preference should be given to bows that are
light and slight for their strength. Light-coloured and dark yew make
equally good bows, though most prefer the dark colour for choice. Fine
and more open grain in yew are also equally good, but the finer is more
scarce. If there be no bow suitable--i.e. none of the right weight--let
the choice fall upon the best bow of greater power, and let it be
reduced. Failing this, the purchaser may select an unfinished stave and
have it made to his own pattern; but it is not easy to foretell how a
stave will make up.

There remains one point about a bow, hitherto unnoticed, and this is its
section, as to shape. This may vary, being broad and flat across its
back, or the contrary--deep and pointed in the belly. Here again
extremes should be avoided--the bow should in shape be neither too flat
nor too deep. If it be an inch or so across the back just above the
handle, it should also have about the same measurement through from back
to belly. This much being granted, it is further declared that the back
should be almost as flat and angular as possible, showing that it has
been reduced as little as may be after the removal of the bark; but the
belly should be rounded; and as the back should not be reduced in its
depth towards the horns, and should not get too narrow across, it will
follow that the chief reduction, to arrive at the proper curvature when
the bow is drawn, must be in the belly, and therefore towards the horn.
A well-shaped bow will in measurement become somewhat shallower from
back to belly than it is across the back as it advances towards the
horns.

Bows are broken from several causes: by means of neglected chrysals in
the belly, or splinters in the back; by a jerking, uneven, or crooked
style of drawing; by dwelling over-long on the point of aim after the
arrow is fully drawn; by the breaking of the string; by damp, and
oftentimes by carelessness; and even by thoughtlessness. Bows, moreover,
may be broken on the steelyard in the weighing of them. A few years ago,
when the Americans first took up archery very keenly, one of their
novices wrote to a prominent English archer saying that he had broken
nearly seventy bows in a couple of years, and asking the reason. He was
told that he must either keep his bows in a damp place or the bows must
be very bad ones, or else (to which view the writer inclined) he must be
in the habit of stringing them the reverse way with the belly outwards.
This would certainly have a fatal effect, but it is true that the
Americans bought a number of very bad bows about that time from inferior
makers in England. Whenever chrysals appear they must be carefully
watched, and, as has already been said, if they become serious, a new
belly must be added. This will not be a serious disfigurement, even to a
self-yew bow. A splinter should be glued and lapped at once, but no one
nowadays seems to care to have the covering patch painted as formerly,
to represent as nearly as possible the colours of the different parts of
the bow. Care should be taken not to stab the belly of the bow with the
point of the arrow when nocking it; and the dents in the back of the bow
made with the arrow as it is carelessly pulled out of the target should
be avoided. A glove-button will often injure the back of the bow whilst
it is being strung. As other ornaments--buttons, buckles, &c.--may also
inflict disfigurements, it is better to avoid their presence as far as
possible. Breakages from a bad style of drawing, or from dwelling too
long on the aim, can only be avoided by adopting a better and more
rational method. In order to avoid fracture through the breaking of
strings, any string that shows signs of failure from too much wear or
otherwise should be discarded; and strings that are too stiff, too hard,
and too thin should be avoided. If a string break when the arrow is
fully or almost drawn, there is but little hope for the bow; but if it
break in the recoil after the arrow is shot, which fortunately is more
frequently the case, the bow will seldom suffer. Yet if after the bow is
strung the archer should observe that the string is no longer
trustworthy, and decide to discard it, he should on no account cut it
whilst the bow is braced, as the result of so doing will be an almost
certain fracture. If the string be looped at both ends and the loop at
either end be made too large, so that it slip off the nock in stringing,
the bow may break, so that an archer who makes his own loops at the
lower end of the string must be careful not to make them too loose.
Breakage from damp is little to be feared in self-bows, except in
localities where it is exceptionally moist, or, after long neglect,
when damp has taken possession of the joint in the handle. In these
cases single staves only are safe. Amongst backed bows there is much
mortality from this cause. Commonly, it will be the lower limb that will
fail, as that is most exposed to damp, arising either from the ground
whilst shooting, or from the floor when put away. If the bow has been
used in damp weather it should be carefully dried and rubbed with waxed
flannel or cloth. A waterproof case, an 'Ascham' raised an inch or so
above the floor in a dry room, and the bow hung up, not resting on its
lower horn, are the best-known precautions. Half an inch of lapping,
glued and varnished, above and below the joint of the horn is also a
safe precaution against damp; also an occasional narrow lap in the
course of the limb will assist to 'fast bind, fast find.' As regards the
danger of carelessness, bows have been broken through attempts to string
them the wrong way, or by using them upside down; and thoughtlessness
will lead the inexperienced to attempt to bring a bow that follows the
string upright, to its infinite peril. In such cases the verdict of
'Serve him right' should be brought against the offender if he be the
owner. In weighing a bow on the steelyard care must be taken to see that
the peg indicating the length to be drawn be at the right point;
otherwise a lady's bow, for instance, may be destroyed in the mistaken
attempt to pull it up twenty-eight inches, or three inches too much.

It has already been stated that a belly much injured by chrysals may be
replaced by a new belly; any incurable failure of the back may also be
cured by its renewal. A weak bow or limb may also be strengthened by
these means. Also, if either limb be broken or irretrievably damaged,
and the remaining one be sound, and worth the expense, another limb may
be successfully grafted on to the old one. If possible, let this be an
old limb also, as the combination of new and old wood is not always
satisfactory; the former (though well seasoned, being unseasoned by
use), being more yielding, is apt after a little use to lose its
relative strength, and so spoil the proper balance of the bow. This
grafting of one broken limb upon another may be carried to the length of
grafting together two limbs of different sorts. Mr. P. Muir, who was as
good a bowyer as he was an accurate shot, had a favourite bow, that did
him good service in 1865 at Clifton, when he took the third place at the
Grand National Archery Meeting. This bow in one limb was yew-backed yew,
and in the other lance backed with hickory. A bow that is weak in the
centre, and not sufficiently strong to allow of the ends being further
reduced, may be brought to the required shape, and strengthened by the
addition of a short belly.

With regard to unstringing the bow during the shooting, say, of a York
Round of 144 arrows, at the three distances, a good bow will not need
it, if the shooting be moderately quick, excepting at the end of each of
the distances. If there happen to be many shooters, or very slow ones,
it may be unstrung after every three or four double ends; and of course
it should be unstrung whenever an interruption of the shooting may occur
from rain, or any other cause; but it certainly appears unnecessary to
unstring the bow after each three shots, as this is an equally
uncalled-for strain upon the muscles of the archer and relief to the
grain of the wood. In a discussion on this subject, however, between Mr.
James Spedding and Mr. P. Muir, the latter maintained that to be
unstrung at each end was as agreeable to the bow as to rest on a
camp-stool was to the archer. Some archers contend that it is better to
have the bow strung some few minutes before the commencement of the
shooting.

All that has been said respecting men's bows, with the exception of
strength and length, applies equally to those used by ladies. The usual
strength of these latter varies from 24 lbs. to 30 lbs. In length they
should not be less than five feet. The usual length of a lady's arrow
being twenty-five inches, whilst that of a gentleman is twenty-eight
inches, it appears that, when fully drawn, a lady's bow must be bent
more in proportion to its length than that of a gentleman. The
proportion between the bows being as 5 to 6, whilst that of the arrows
is as 6-1/4 to 7; yet ladies' bows appear to be quite capable of bearing
this extra strain safely.

As bows of three pieces are seldom to be met with manufactured for the
use of ladies, their choice of weapons is limited to self-yews,
yew-backed yews, yew backed with hickory, and lance backed with hickory;
also self-lance bows for beginners, &c. Ladies' bows of snake and other
hard woods are still to be met with; but they are so vastly inferior to
those above-mentioned that it is scarcely necessary to refer to them.

It is too common a practice amongst archers to throw the consequences of
their own faults upon the bowmakers, accusing the weapon of being the
cause of their failures, instead of blaming their own carelessness or
want of skill. But, before this can be justly done, let each be quite
certain that he has chosen his bow with care, and kept it with care; if
otherwise, any accidents occurring are, ten to one, more likely to be
the result of his own fault than that of the bowmaker.



CHAPTER III.

_OF THE ARROW_


The arrow is perhaps the most important of all the implements of the
archer, and requires the greatest nicety of make and excellence of
materials; for, though he may get on without absolute failure with an
inferior bow or other tackle, unless the arrow be of the best Robin Hood
himself would have aimed in vain. Two things are essential to a good
arrow, namely, perfect straightness, and a stiffness or rigidity
sufficient to stand in the bow, i.e. to receive the force of the bow as
delivered by the string without flirting or gadding; for a weak or
supple is even worse than a crooked arrow--and it need hardly be said
how little conducive to shooting straight is the latter. The
straightness of the arrow is easily tested by the following simple
process. Place the extremities of the nails of the thumb and middle
finger of the left hand so as just to touch each other, and with the
thumb and same finger of the right hand spin the arrow upon the nails at
about the arrow's balancing-point; if it revolve truly and steadily,
keeping in close and smooth contact with the nails, it is straight; but
if it jump in the very least the contrary is the case. In order to test
its strength or stiffness the arrow must be held by the nock, with its
pile placed on some solid substance. The hand at liberty should now be
pressed downwards on the middle of the arrow. A very little experience
as to whether the arrow offer efficient resistance to this pressure will
suffice to satisfy the archer about its stiffness. An arrow that is
weaker on one side than on the other should also be rejected.

Arrows are either _selfs_ or _footed_; the former being made of a single
piece of wood (these are now seldom in use, except for children), and
the latter have a piece of different and harder wood joined on to them
at the pile end. 'A shaft,' says old Roger Ascham,' hath three principal
parts--the _stele_, the _feather_, and the _head_.' The stele, or wooden
body of the arrow, used to be, and still is occasionally, made of
different sorts of wood; but for target use, and indeed for any other
description of modern shooting, all may be now discarded save one--red
deal, which when clean, straight of grain, and well seasoned, whether
for selfs or footed shafts, is incomparably superior to all others. For
the footing any hard wood will do; and if this be solid for one inch
below the pile it will be amply sufficient. Lance and Washaba are
perhaps the best woods for this purpose; the latter is the toughest, but
the former Mr. Ford preferred, as he thought the darkness of the Washaba
had a tendency to attract the eye. The darker woods, however, are now
mostly in use. This footing has three recommendations: the first, that
it enables the arrow to fly more steadily and get through the wind
better; the second, that, being of a substance harder than deal, it is
not so easily worn by the friction it unavoidably meets with on entering
the target or the ground; and the third, that this same hardness saves
the point from being broken off should it happen to strike against any
hard substance--such, for instance, as a stone in the ground or the iron
leg of a target-stand. Before the shooting is commenced, and after it is
finished, the arrows should be rubbed with a piece of oiled flannel.
This will prevent the paint of the target from adhering to them. If in
spite of this precaution any paint should adhere to them, sandpaper
should on no account be used to clean them: this is most objectionable,
as it will wear away the wood of the footing. Turpentine should be
applied, or the blunt back of a knife.

Before entering upon the subject of the best shape for the 'stele' of
the arrow for practical use, it is necessary to say a few words upon a
point where the theory and practice of archery apparently clash.

If the arrow be placed on the bowstring as if for shooting, the bow
drawn, and an aim taken at an object, and if the bow be then slowly
relaxed, the arrow being held until it returns to the position of
rest--i.e. if the passage of the arrow over the bow be slow and
gradual--it will be found, if the bow be held quite firmly during this
action, that the arrow does not finally point to the object aimed at,
but in a direction deviating considerably to the left of it--in fact,
that its direction has been constantly deviating more and more from the
point of aim at each point during its return to the position of rest.
This is, of course, due to the half-breadth of the bow, the nock of the
arrow being carried on the string, in a plane passing through the string
and the axis of the bow's length; and this deviation will be greater if
the arrow be chested (i.e. slighter at the pile than at the nock), and
less if it be bobtailed (i.e. slighter at the nock than at the pile)
than if the arrow be cylindrical throughout. If the same arrow, when
drawn to the head, be loosed at the object aimed at--i.e. if the passage
of the arrow over the bow be impulsive and instantaneous--it will go
straight to the object aimed at, the shooting being in all respects
perfect.

How, then, is the difference of the final direction of the arrow in the
two cases to be explained?

It must be observed that the nock of the arrow being constrained to
move, as it does move in the last case, causes a pressure of the arrow
upon the bow (owing to its slanting position on the bow, and its
simultaneous rapidity of passage), and therefore a reacting pressure of
the bow upon the arrow. This makes the bow have quite a different effect
upon the deviation from what it had in the first case, when the arrow
moved slowly and gradually upon the bow (being held by the nock), the
obstacle presented by the half-breadth of the bow then causing a
deviation _wholly_ to the left. The pressure now considered, however,
has a tendency to cause deviation to the left only during the first part
of the arrow's passage upon the bow, whilst during the second part it
causes a deviation to the right; or, more correctly speaking, the
pressure of the bow upon the arrow has a tendency to cause a deviation
to the left _so long as the centre of gravity of the arrow is within the
bow, and vice versâ_. So that, if this were the only force acting upon
the arrow, its centre of gravity (this is, of course, the point upon
which the arrow, balanced horizontally, will poise) should lie midway in
that part of the arrow which is in contact with the bow during the bow's
recoil. There is another force which contributes towards this acting and
reacting pressure between the arrow and the bow at the loose if the
nocking-place of the string be properly fitted to the arrow, but not
otherwise. As the fingers are disengaged from the string they
communicate a tendency to spin to the string, and this spin immediately
applies the arrow to the bow if it should happen to be off the bow
through side-wind or that troublesome failing of beginners and others of
a crooked pinch between the fingers upon the nock of the arrow. It will
be observed that if the nocking-place be too small to fill the nock of
the arrow this tendency to spin in the string will not affect the
replacement of the arrow; but if the nocking-place be a good fit to the
nock, the former must be a trifle flattened, and so communicate the spin
of the string to the arrow in the shape of a blow upon the bow. It is
not pretended that no arrow will fly straight unless the nocking-place
fit the arrow. If the string be home in the nock the shot will still be
correctly delivered, because the very close and violent pressure of the
string on the nock will arrest the spin and so apply the arrow; but if
the string be not home in the nock at the delivery of the loose, there
is great danger that the nock will be broken, either from the
nocking-place being too small, or from the other fault of its being too
big. It is this spin given to the string as the arrow is loosed that
necessitates the delivery of the arrow from the other side of the bow
when the thumb-loose of the Oriental archer is employed, because this
loose communicates the same spin, but reversed, to the string.

The struggle of these forces is clearly indicated by the appearance of
the arrow where it comes in contact with the bow when it leaves the
string. It is here that the arrow always shows most wear. It is also
shown by the deep groove that gets worn by the arrow in a bow that has
seen much service.

The nature of the dynamical action may be thus briefly explained. The
first impulse given to the arrow, being instantaneous and very great
(sufficient, as has been seen, to break the arrow if the string be not
home in the nock) in proportion to any other forces which act upon it,
impresses a very high initial velocity in the direction of the aim, and
this direction the arrow recovers notwithstanding the slight deviations
caused by the mutual action between the arrow and bow before
explained--these in fact, as has been shown, counteracting each other.

[Illustration: FIG. 8.--BOBTAILED ARROW.

A, section of bow. B, string in nock. C, arrow nocked but not drawn. D,
arrow drawn 27 inches.]

[Illustration: FIG. 9.--CHESTED ARROW.]

[Illustration: FIG. 10.--STRAIGHT CYLINDRICAL ARROW.]

The recoil of the bow, besides the motion in the direction of aim,
impresses a rotary motion upon the arrow about its centre of gravity.
This tendency to rotate, however, about an axis through its centre of
gravity is counteracted by the feathers. For, suppose the arrow to be
shot off with a slight rotary motion about a vertical axis, in a short
time its point will deviate to the left of the plane of projection, and
the centre of gravity will be the only point which continues in that
plane. The feathers of the arrow will now be turned to the right of the
same plane, and, through the velocity of the arrow, will cause a
considerable resistance of the air against them. This resistance will
twist the arrow until its point comes to the right of the plane of
projection, when it will begin to turn the arrow the contrary way. Thus,
through the agency of the feathers, the deviation of the point of the
arrow from the plane of projection is confined within very narrow
limits. Any rotation of the arrow about a horizontal axis will be
counteracted in the same way by the action of the feathers. Both these
tendencies may be distinctly observed in the actual initial motion of
the arrow. In the discussion of these rotations of the arrow about
vertical and horizontal axes the bow is supposed to be held in a
vertical position.

If the foregoing reasoning be carefully considered, it will be seen how
prejudicial to the correct flight of the arrow in the direction of the
aim any variation in the shape of that part of it which is in contact
with the bow must necessarily be; for by this means an additional force
is introduced into the elements of its flight. Take for example the
chested arrow, which is smallest at the point and largest at the
feathers: here there is during its whole passage over the bow a constant
and increasing deviation to the left of the direction of aim, caused by
the arrow's shape, independent of, and in addition to, a deviation in
the like direction caused by the retention of the nock upon the string.
Thus this description of arrow has greater difficulty in recovering its
initial direction, the forces opposed to its doing so being so much
increased. Accordingly, in practice, the chested arrow has always a
tendency to fly to the left. These chested arrows are mostly
_flight-arrows_, made very light, for long-distance shooting, and they
are made of this shape to prevent their being too weak-waisted to bear
steadily the recoil of very strong bows.

As regards the _bobtailed arrow_, which is largest at the point and
smallest at the feathers, the converse is true to the extent that this
description of arrow will deviate towards the left less than either the
straight or chested arrow; moreover, any considerable bobtailedness
would render an arrow so weak-waisted that it would be useless.

There is another arrow, known as the _barrelled arrow_, which is largest
in the middle, and tapers thence towards each end. The quickest flight
may be obtained with this sort of arrow, as to it may be applied a
lighter pile without bringing on either the fault of a chested arrow or
the weak-waistedness of a bobtailed arrow.

If the tapering be of equal amount at each end of the arrow, the
pressure will act and react in precisely the same manner as in the case
of the cylindrical arrow, with the result that this arrow will fly
straight in the direction in which it is aimed. The cylindrical and
the barrelled shapes are therefore recommended as the best for
target-shooting. And as the barrelled is necessarily stronger in the
waist and less likely to flirt, even if a light arrow be used with a
strong bow, this shape is perhaps better than the cylindrical.

[Illustration: FIG. 11. _a_, different balancing points of thin arrows.

bobtail chested barrelled straight]

The _feathering_ of the arrow is about the most delicate part of the
fletcher's craft, and it requires the utmost care and experience to
effect it thoroughly well. It seems difficult now to realise why the
feathering of the arrow came to have grown to the size in use during Mr.
Ford's time, when the feather occupied the whole distance between the
archer's fingers and the place on the bow where the arrow lies when it
is nocked previous to shooting--i.e. the length of the feather was
upwards of five inches. Mr. H. Elliott was the first archer who, about
fifteen years ago, reduced the dimensions of the feathers of his arrows
by cutting off the three inches of each feather furthest from the nock.
He found this reduction enabled the arrow to fly further. Others soon
followed his example, and in the course of about twelve months all the
arrow-makers had supplied their customers with arrows of the new
pattern, which, however, cannot be called a new pattern, as Oriental
arrows, and many flight-arrows, were much less heavily feathered. The
long feathering is now scarcely ever seen, except occasionally when it
is erroneously used to diminish the difficulty of shooting at sixty
yards. Mr. Ford recommended rather full-sized feathers 'as giving a
steadiness to the flight.' With the reduced feathers arrows fly as
steadily, and certainly more keenly towards the mark. A fair amount of
rib should be left on the feather, for if the rib be pared too fine the
lasting quality of the feather will be diminished. The three feathers of
an arrow should be from the same wing, right or left; and as none but a
raw beginner will find any difficulty in nocking his arrow the right
way--i.e. with what is known as the cock feather upwards, or at right
angles to the line of the nock--without having this cock feather of a
different colour, it is advisable to have the three feathers all alike.
Perhaps the brown feathers of the peacock's wing are the best of all,
but the black turkey-feathers are also highly satisfactory. The white
turkey-feathers are also equally good, but had better be avoided, as
they too readily get soiled, and are not to be easily distinguished from
white goose-feathers. These last, as well as those of the grey goose,
though highly thought of by our forefathers, are now in no repute, and
it is probable that our ancestors, if they had had the same plentiful
supply of peafowls and turkeys as ourselves, would have had less respect
for the wings of geese. The reason why the three feathers must be from
the same wing is that every feather is outwardly convex and inwardly
concave. When the feathers are correctly applied, all three alike, this
their peculiarity of form rifles the arrow or causes it to rotate on its
own axis. This may be tested by shooting an arrow through a pane of
glass, when it will be found that the scraping against the arrow of the
sharp edges of the fracture passes along the arrow spirally. Some years
ago a very unnecessary patent was taken out for rifling an arrow by
putting on the feathers spirally, over-doing what was already
sufficient. As regards the position of the feather, it should be brought
as near as possible to the nock. Some consider an inch in length of
feather quite sufficient. It is certain that any length between two
inches and one inch will do; so each individual may please himself and
suit the length of the feathering to the length and weight of his
arrows. The two shapes in use are the triangular and the parabolic or
balloon-shaped. Of these both are good--the former having the advantage
of carrying the steerage further back, whilst the latter is a trifle
stiffer.

[Illustration: FIG. 12, FIG. 13.]

The feathers are preserved from damp by a coat of oil paint laid on
between them and for one-eighth of an inch above and below them. This
should afterwards be varnished, and the rib of the feather should be
carefully covered, but care must be taken to avoid injuring the
suppleness of the feather with the varnish. Feathers laid down or
ruffled by wet may be restored by spinning the arrow before a warm fire
carefully.

[Illustration: FIG. 14.]

The _pile_, or point, is an important part of the arrow. Of the
different shapes that have been used, the best for target-shooting--now
almost the only survivor--is the square-shouldered parallel pile. Its
greatest advantage is, that if the arrow be overdrawn so that the pile
be brought on to the bow, the aim will not be injured, as must be the
case with all conical piles so drawn. (Very light flight-arrows, for
which the piles provided for ladies are considered too heavy, must still
be furnished with the conical piles used for children's arrows.) This
parallel pile is mostly made in two pieces--a pointed cone for its
point, which is soldered on to the cylindrical part, which itself is
made of a flat piece of metal soldered into this form. This same-shaped
pile has occasionally been made turned out of solid metal; but this pile
is liable to be so heavy as to be unsuitable for any but the heaviest
arrows, and the fletchers aver that it is difficult to fix it on firmly
owing to the grease used in its manufacture. Great care should be taken,
in the manufacture of arrows, that the footing exactly fits the pile,
so as to fill entirely the inside of it; unless the footing of the arrow
reach the bottom of the pile, the pile will either crumple up or be
driven down the stele when the pile comes in contact with a hard
substance. It is, of course, fixed on with glue; and to prevent its
coming off from damp, a blow, or the adhesiveness of stiff clay, it is
well to indent it on each side with a sharp hard-pointed punch fitted
for the purpose with a groove, in which the arrow is placed whilst the
necessary pressure is applied. This instrument may be procured of Hill &
Son, cutlers, 4 Haymarket.

The _nock_ should be strong, and very carefully finished, so that no
injury may be done by the string or to the string. Of course the nock
must be of the same size in section as the stele of the arrow; and this
furnishes an additional argument against the bobtailed arrow, which is
smallest at this end. The notch or groove in which the string acts
should be about one-eighth of an inch wide and about three-sixteenths of
an inch deep. The bottom of this notch will be much improved by the
application of a round file of the right gauge, i.e. quite a trifle more
than the eighth of an inch in diameter; but great care must be taken to
apply this uniformly, and the nock must not be unduly weakened. This
application will enable the archer to put thicker, and therefore safer,
lapping to the nocking-place of the string, and the danger of the string
being loose in the nock will be lessened. It is possible that this
additional grooving of the nock may to a very trifling extent impede the
escape of the arrow from the string. Mr. Ford recommended the
application of a copper rivet through the nock near to the bottom of the
notch to provide against the danger of splitting the nock. But it is so
doubtful whether any rivet fine enough for safe application would be
strong enough to guard against this danger, that the better plan will be
to avoid the different sorts of carelessness that lead towards this
accident.

As regards the _length_ of the arrow no arbitrary rule can be laid
down. The arrow most generally in use is twenty-eight inches in length
from the point of the pile to the bottom of the groove of the nock. This
arrow may be easily drawn up by any man of average height--the
twenty-seven inches, or the clothyard length of the old English archer,
leaving the inch of pile undrawn. A taller man may venture to draw the
pile. An arrow of twenty-nine inches may be adopted by those who have
very long arms or are unusually tall. Those who are short of stature or
short in limb may adopt the shorter arrow of twenty-seven inches.
Shorter arrows than this will be found to fly unsteadily, and the longer
arrows, if thoroughly drawn up, are very trying to the bows. The shorter
arrows of twenty-seven inches in length have been in much more frequent
use since about 1862, when the late T. L. Coulson adopted them, and
advocated that it was better to draw up a shorter arrow than to leave a
longer one undrawn. The fault of drawing not far enough is so much more
frequent than that of overdrawing, that archers are strongly recommended
to avoid shortening their arrow unadvisedly, and rather to draw the
longer ones as far as they reasonably can. The fault of overdrawing is
so dangerous to the archer, his tackle, and others, that, though an
unfrequent fault, a caution against it must not be omitted. Whatever be
the length of the arrow, it should always be drawn up to exactly the
same point.

The _weight_ of the arrow must to a certain extent be regulated by its
length and by the strength of the bow with which it is to be used; for
if an arrow be a long one it must have bulk sufficient to ensure its
stiffness, and stiffness also in proportion to the strength of the bow.
4_s._ for the lowest, and 5_s._ 6_d._ for the highest weight, are the
two extremes within which every length of arrow and strength of bow may
be properly fitted, so far as gentlemen are concerned. For ladies, 2_s._
6_d._ and 3_s._ 6_d._ should be about the limits. It should be borne in
mind that light arrows, unless dictated by physical weakness, are a
mistake in target-shooting. For flight-shooting very light-chested
arrows may be procured stiff enough for any strength of bow; but in this
style of shooting distance to be covered is of more importance than
accuracy of aim. It would be much better if the arrow-makers, instead of
selling their arrows in sets, progressing by three silver pennyweights,
would sell them also weighed to the intermediate pennyweights. As the
matter stands now, supposing the archer's favourite weight to be 4_s._
9_d._, he may have at one time a set weighing rather less than 4_s._
8_d._, and at another time rather more than 4_s._ 10_d._ As all the
intermediate weights of arrows are manufactured, there can be no
sufficient reason why the lighter set should not be marked and sold as
4_s._ 8_d._, and the heavier as 4_s._ 10_d._ A careful archer should
attend also to the balance of his arrows. By this is meant that the same
centre of gravity should pervade the whole set. Longer or shorter,
lighter or heavier footing will vary this balancing-point, as also any
variation in the weight of the piles.

As the variation of elevation, or distance to be shot, should not be
managed by a change of weight in arrows, it is decidedly advisable to
keep arrows all of the same weight, &c. Indeed it is a great mistake to
change any part of the tackle, bow or arrow, during the shooting, except
in unavoidable cases. The scoring will seldom be bettered by such means.

Formerly only two arrows were shot at each end, and three were carried,
and called an 'archer's pair,' including the spare one. Now it is the
almost universal custom to shoot three arrows at each end. Some spare
ones should, of course, be at hand in case of accidents. It must be
remembered that if the slightest variation in shape or weight occurs
amongst those in use, the line or elevation is sure to be affected, to
the serious detriment of accurate hitting; therefore too much care
cannot be taken in their choice.

Whether it be for store or for daily use, the arrow should be kept in a
quiver or case made on such a plan that each shall have its separate
cell, and they should be kept upright when possible, and so be insured
from warping, or from having their feathers crushed. It is too much the
custom to squeeze a quantity of arrows into a small quiver. Let not any
archer who values his tackle be guilty of this folly. An arrow that has
had one of its feathers crumpled from this cause will, maybe, wobble and
stagger all the rest of its life, though in all other respects it be in
perfect repair. Arrows will be found to wear out quite speedily enough
without being subjected to ill-usage or neglect to hurry them through
their short lives.

It appears to be well authenticated that if a light-chested flight-arrow
be feathered at each end, with the feathers trimmed lower at the nock
than at the pile end, when shot against the wind it will return back
again like a boomerang. And if the same-shaped arrow be feathered in the
middle only, it will in its flight make a right angle, and no power of
bow can send it any considerable distance.

Mr. R. Hely-Hutchinson, already mentioned as having made experiments in
modern times with steel bows, had another peculiarity. On the back of
his bow he had a flat piece of hard wood or metal fixed at right angles
to the length of his bow. An upright piece of the same material was
fitted into a groove in this, whose outside distance was about an inch
from the place where the arrow usually touches the bow above the handle.
He used always to shoot with his arrow resting, not on the bow, or on
his hand, but in the outside angle between this projection and the
upright piece of it. He aimed as other archers do, and has been seen to
make excellent hitting at the distance of one hundred yards, even when
far advanced in years. In this case the axis of the arrow, or the line
of aim, was distant from the plane through the string and the axis of
the bow an inch in addition to the usual half-width of the arrow and
half-width of the bow. Yet the arrow appeared to fly quite steadily and
truly. It is not known why he adopted this peculiarity, and it is
unnecessary to inquire; but it will serve as a useful peg whereon to
hang a further consideration of the difficulties an arrow has to contend
with in getting straight to the point of aim, and its determined
resolution to overcome these difficulties. In addition to the forces
already discussed as acting upon the arrow, there is also the force of
gravity, the resistance of the air, and the interference of the wind;
but these forces affect in the same way all arrows, however shot. The
same may be said of all the other forces implicated, until there is an
artificially increased impediment interposed in addition to the natural
one of the half-bow and half-arrow. Now, supposing the distance of the
nock from the centre of the bow be such when the arrow is drawn that a
perpendicular let fall from the centre of the bow to the line of aim
will mark off twenty-seven inches of draw, the resolution of the force
acting in the line from the nock to the centre of the bow will be
correctly represented by twenty-seven in the direction of the point of
aim and three-eighths at right angles to that direction; or the relation
between the straight part of the whole force and its remainder will be
as 216 to 5.

But when Mr. Hutchinson's peculiar method of shooting is compared with
this natural way, it will appear that the relation between these same
resolved forces will be as 216 to 13; showing that the obstruction in
this latter case has been considerably more than doubled--the keenness
of flight will be diminished, and increased _friction_ will be shown
between the arrow and its resting-place at the instant of the loose.

Besides the spin given to the string at the loose, there is also a push,
at right angles to the direction delivered, by the more or less
unavoidable obstruction of the fingers as they liberate the string; but
this push, occurring before the liberation of the string, is the final
difficulty of the aim and loose.

Immediately the string is loosed the arrow has, as it were, the
nocking-place between its teeth in the nock, and contributes to the
direction of its course to the point of rest; and it is highly probable
that the path of the nocking-place from the loose to rest is not
confined to the plane of the string and axis of the bow.

Greater or diminished friction between the bow and arrow would be
another way of representing greater or less obstruction to the aim of
the arrow. As the arrow deepens the groove made by its passage over the
bow the obstruction will be diminished, but the surface exposed to this
friction will be increased.

If a bow could be so constructed that an arrow could be shot through it
just above the handle, the opening must be large enough to admit free
passage for the feathering as well, and the opening must be contrived so
that the 'stele,' true to the point of aim throughout its passage
through the bow, shall never swerve from the right side of the opening.



CHAPTER IV.

_OF THE STRING, BRACER, AND SHOOTING-GLOVE_


The best bowstrings are all of Belgian make, and cannot be considered of
such good quality as they used to be twenty-five years ago. Then the
best bowstrings were obtained from a maker at Liège, by name Meeles, the
last of his race, who, with his wife, kept most jealously the secret of
the manufacture, which had been transmitted through many generations in
the one family, and they died childless without communicating it to
anyone. Their residence was kept with the windows on the street side
constantly barred up, so as to make sure that they could not be
overlooked, and they depended entirely for the air and light necessary
for their labour on the private garden at the back of the house.

In the choice of a string see that it has three, not two, strands; and
care must be taken to avoid those that are too hard and stiff, as they
are liable to be brittle and to break very soon. The next thing to be
attended to is that the string is smooth and round throughout, and
sufficiently increased in bulk at the ends where are the eye and loop.
It cannot be doubted that a quicker cast may be obtained from a _thin
string_ than from a _very thick one_; but it will be better to choose
strings strong enough in proportion to the strength of the bows to
ensure their (i.e. the bows') safety rather than to pay too much regard
to this quickness of cast. When the string is chosen its eye must be
fitted into the groove of the lower horn of the bow. In order to make
_the loop_ at the other end the string must now be applied to the back
of the unbent bow, and the first rounded turn of the loop must be made
at about three inches from the groove of the upper horn, or two and a
half inches in the case of a lady's bow. At about the distance of one
inch and a quarter beyond--and one inch in the case of a lady's
string--the crown of this rounded turn the string must be sharply bent
back, and this sharp bend applied round the string on the other side of
the rounded turn. Slip the sharp turn a little further down the string
towards the eye, and twist the remaining reversed end of the string
three times round the looped part of the string, beginning inwards. The
sharp turn must then be pushed back into the first bent position. The
eye must now be passed over the upper horn, and passed far enough down
the bow to allow the loop to be passed over the lower horn and into its
groove, and the loop should be so applied into this groove that the
waste end of string shall lie between the sharp turn and the horn (see
fig. 16). If the waste end of the string be then knotted firmly, and the
remainder cut off, the loop will be finished, and, if successfully
managed, will never shift or stretch when it has once reached its
bearings. The virtue in this loop is that it is quite fast and tight
when in use, and yet it can be very readily slipped off and opened for
readjustment on the same bow, or for application to another bow of
different length. By far the neatest finish to a bowstring is the
addition of a _second eye_ instead of the _loop_, and this is now very
readily done by the bowmakers for their customers at a small additional
charge; but every handy archer should learn how to make this second eye
for himself. The following method is recommended. When the loop has been
correctly adjusted, so that the string, when the bow is braced, is at a
suitable distance from the bow (i.e. six inches or so for a man's bow,
or five and a half inches for a lady's bow) mark with ink the crown of
the rounded turn before mentioned (i.e. the point of the string, not of
the waste twisted round the string in the loop nearest to the upper
horn). Now unbrace the bow and take off the string. Undo the loop and
straighten out the string (see fig. 15). At the distance of one inch
and a quarter (one inch is sufficient for a lady's string) from the
ink-mark, and on each side of it, tie tight round the string a small
piece of fine waxed thread; cut off the waste end of the string at the
knot made in finishing the loop. Keep the part of the string between the
two ties well wound up during the whole of the succeeding stages of the
manufacture of this part into an eye so as to correct the necessary
unwindings. Unwind up to C, fig. 17, completely separate, and straighten
out the three strands (1), (2), (3), fig. 17, of the remaining portion
of the waste end of the string up to its tie at C. Pass a small
marlinespike or stiletto between each of the three strands of the
string, just beyond the other tie at B, and as close to it as possible.
Flatten out the three unwound strands of the waste end fingerwise (fig.
17). Bend (keeping it wound up) the part of the string between the two
ties B and C, so as to bring these two ties exactly together, with the
separated strands (1), (2), (3) lying across the string at right angles
to its worm (see fig. 18). Now insert the middle strand (1), fig. 19
(taking care to cross the worm of the string), with the help of the
marlinespike under that strand of the string across which it lay in fig.
18.

[Illustration: FIG. 15, FIG. 16, FIG. 17.]

[Illustration: FIG. 18.]

[Illustration: FIG. 19, FIG. 20.]

Give the commenced eye a quarter turn to the left (see fig. 20), so that
it is seen edgewise, tie C being now out of sight.

Strand (2) now lies across the strand of the string under which strand
(1) has just been passed, and the next strand of the string. Insert it
(2) under this latter strand, and give the eye another quarter turn,
showing strand (2) inserted (see fig. 21).

[Illustration: FIG. 21.]

Strand (3) as shown in fig. 21 must now be bent to the left across the
central upright strand of the string, and passed under that strand and
brought out and back towards the right again (see fig. 22).

[Illustration: FIG. 22.]

The loop will now be an _eye_, as soon as the two ties B and C have been
brought close together again, and the three strands, loosened by
constant manipulation, have been carefully waxed and wound up again.

From this point there are two methods of proceeding: the one, which will
complete the eye so as to resemble the manufactured eye, by winding each
waste strand round and round its own corresponding strand; and for this
method the waste strands should now be _tapered_ before they are wound
in. By the other method each waste strand in turn should be passed over
the next strand and under the next but one. The waste strands will again
occupy alternate positions between the other strands. Wind up and wax
the waste strands again carefully. Enough has now been done to secure
the safety of the _eye-splice_; but it will be best to splice in once
again each of the waste strands; then bind tightly over the waste for
about half an inch down the string, and cut off the remaining waste
strands.

In order to taper the waste strands, divide each into two equal parts,
lengthwise, after the position shown in fig. 22 has been completed, and
with a blunt knife fine down each of the two parts gradually till each
tapers to nothing at the length of about two and a half inches from the
string; now work in as much wax as possible, flattening each of the
divided portions in so doing; readjust the divided portions, and wind
them carefully together again. The waste ends may then be wound round
and round the appropriate strands until they disappear; or the first
method of splicing may be continued till they fade off and disappear, so
that the finishing process of binding and cutting off the waste ends
may be dispensed with. Don't bind the eye with string, leather, or any
other material. If the string was originally sufficiently thicker at
this part, its final failure is very unlikely to occur at either of the
eyes, and there is a general belief that any _unnecessary clothing_ of
the eye interferes with the cast of the string. If the waste strands,
_untapered_, be spliced in and in very frequently, the string will be
somewhat shortened. A string that is too short--i.e. too far from the
bow when braced--cannot be lengthened without altering the loop or
remaking the eye, but a string that is slightly too long--i.e. not
giving sufficient distance between the string and bow when braced--can
be shortened by spinning it up tighter; but care must be taken not to
attempt this operation with a hard-cemented, new string, as it will
almost certainly prove fatal to the string, which will snap in two at
the loose; and no string should be much spun up.

The next thing to be considered is the _necessary clothing_ of the
string, called its _lapping_. Without doubt the best _lapping_ of all is
a thin strip of _whalebone_, of the width of about one-eighth of an
inch. This may be fastened on to the string at about two inches and a
half from its (the string's) centre (this is calculated for the case of
a bow whose centre or fulcrum is one inch below the top of the handle:
if the centre be at the top of the handle, as in old Flemish bows, the
lapping need not be so long, and if the centre be lower down than one
inch, as in the Scotch make of bows, the lapping must be still longer)
with very fine string, waxed thread, or silk, so that the whalebone
lapping may be wrapped closely round the string in the reversed
direction to the grain or worm of the string.

Let an arrow be now applied, resting on the top of the bow hand as if
the hand holds the handle of the bow in shooting, and exactly at right
angles to the braced string. This exact right angle must be carefully
attended to, because, if the upper angle be an acute angle between the
arrow and string, cast or force will be lost in the force of the cast
being resolved, as shown previously in the case of an increased
impediment, acting as an obstruction to the right line of force: the
arrow will beat itself wastefully on the top of the hand in overcoming
the unnecessary impediment; and, if this upper angle be an obtuse angle,
the difference between the lower and upper portions of the string will
be increased, to the manifest injury of the pre-arranged balance of the
limbs of the bow. Mark carefully on the lapping the exact position of
the centre of the nock of the arrow, and overlap with two or three
strands of waxed filoselle very tightly for about one-third of an inch,
with the mark under its centre. This is the nocking-place. The whalebone
lapping must be carried down to the length of five inches in order to
save the string from being frayed against the sleeve, armguard, &c.; and
it will be found that this length of lapping will be sufficient for
another nocking-place if the string, already provided with two eyes, be
turned over. The occasional use of the second nocking-place will be
found to lengthen the life of the string by changing the position of the
wear and tear. A narrow strip of vellum used frequently to be used for
lapping, and was applied in the same way as the whalebone. Long strips
of the smooth hard covering of the rib of the peacock's tail-feathers
were also in high favour as lapping at one time, but were found to be
too frail. The lapping usually applied to the strings, as bought in the
shops, is three strands, bound on together, of waxed twine, about the
substance used for chemists' parcels, and the three strands are applied
together, not so much in order to finish the lapping more quickly, as to
safeguard the bow from breaking should the string snap. The dangerous
recoil is then caught up by the triple strength of lapping twine well
secured upon the string. This, of course, is supposing that the string
has broken at or near the nocking-place. It is probable that every
possible sort of twine has been at different times tried for
lapping--from the softest floss silk to the most wiry fishing-guts,
which actually help to cut the string when in use.

[Illustration: FIG. 23.]

After all, the best lapping is that which will give a good loose, and at
the same time will be lasting and be easily and quickly repaired should
it fail during the shooting. Now all the lappings already mentioned are
liable to get loose in use, and it takes time to refasten them. The
following somewhat tedious process, the result of more than twenty years
of experience, is recommended. Take a naked string with two eyes, and
make a pencil-mark on it for the exact central position of each of the
two nocking-places. Wax the string well. Wrap two strands nine inches
long of waxed (yellow) filoselle tightly upon the string at each
nocking-place for the third of an inch, with the pencil-mark under the
centre of this third. Fasten off so that the waste ends shall come out
close to these centres. Do not cut off the waste ends. Now take three
strands of waxed filoselle of another colour (red), and in length from
one yard to four feet. Wrap this tightly round the string, commencing
from one and a quarter inch above the one nocking-place, and ending at
the same distance below the other. Apply this wrapping the contrary way
to the worm of the string, and let the waste ends of the previous
wrapping (it does not signify which way this is applied) pass out
between the wraps as they occur. Now take other three strands of (green)
waxed filoselle, of the same length, and wrap them tightly on over all
the last wrapping of red; but this time wrap the same way as the worm of
the string. Again let the first ends of the yellow wrapping pass out.
The principal wrapping is now complete, and the waste ends of (yellow)
filoselle are ready in place to complete the necessary thickening for
the nocking-places. This lapping is very firm and lasting. It cannot get
loose in use, and it is in every part capable of almost instantaneous
repair, and the archer has no need to carry about him any other
materials than a few pieces of filoselle, some wax, and a knife.

The most convenient position for lapping a string is assumed by passing
the left leg through between the braced bow and its string and sitting
down with the string uppermost and the bow stave under the thigh. This
description of the operation of lapping will be incomplete without
instructions for fastening off, for the benefit of beginners.

[Illustration: FIG. 24.]

In the commencement of lapping the end is passed under, and the wrapping
is tightly bound over it five or six times, till it is considered
sufficiently secure. To finish off, the same operation is reversed,
thus: arrest the lapping by passing the filoselle, or whatever the
material in use may be, over the thumb of the left hand, interposed
between the lapping-material and the string. Wrap the lapping material
upon the string the reverse way to that in which it has been previously
wrapped about five or six times (see fig. 22). Keep the material _a b_
tight-drawn with the left thumb whilst this is being done. Now draw the
end _c_ (fig. 24) close to the string, and along its length, so that it
may lie close between part _a_ and the string. Now take the piece _a b_
from off the left thumb, and draw the part _a_ up to the lapping already
applied. Bind part _a_ on to the string. This binding will unwind the
part _b_. Continue this till all _b_ is unwound from the string and
wound on again. Now hold tight the remainder unwound of _a b_ with the
left hand. Draw it through under the lapping with the right hand; but
the surplus portion of _a b_ to be drawn through must be kept tight to
the last by the insertion of the left little finger to prevent kinking
and cockling, which would spoil the finish. With the same object in
view, keep the waste part _a b_ as short as possible. Filoselle, being a
loosely wound material, easily passes through this finish, but the
kinking of some of the other tight-wound materials renders this finish
troublesome if it have to be drawn under many wraps.


THE BRACER OR ARMGUARD.

The object of the _armguard_ or _bracer_ is to protect the left arm and
wrist from the blow of the string _in the event of_ this striking upon
it when loosed. The expression 'in the event of' is especially meant to
imply that in most cases no need exists for the string's striking the
arm at all; but if the bow be low-strung--or follow the string, as it is
called--it is impossible to avoid an occasional smart blow in the
neighbourhood of the left wrist, and this must be guarded against. For
this purpose a short armguard, covering the wrist and that half of the
forearm, will be all-sufficient. As regards the blow of the string upon
this limited sort of armguard, it may be observed that it cannot
injuriously affect the flight of the arrow, as it occurs most probably
after the arrow has left the string. This protection for the wrist
should extend up the arm, but very little beyond the point where the
bowstring would touch the arm when the properly-braced bow is extended
at arm's length. For this armguard a piece of thin leather, laced
closely at the back of the forearm, answers very well. Should this be
too thin to save the arm from the blow of the string, let a piece of
stiff card be slipped between the sleeve and the wrist. The sleeve about
the wrist should be made to fit as closely as possible, and all other
materials--cuffs, shirt-sleeves, &c.--discarded, or rolled up above the
elbow. Care must also be taken to avoid all wrinkles and folds in the
sleeve between the guard and the elbow. This can be best managed by
having the sleeve no atom too long, and drawing it as far down the hand
as possible whilst the guard is being fixed. It is unfortunate that the
seam along the inside of almost every sleeve occurs just where it helps
to manufacture folds and projections ready to act as impediments to the
passage of the string. Some archers use stout elastic webbing, and
others wrap round the wrist strong braid, &c. The main object of all
these guards is to avoid the blow of the string until the string shall
have advanced so far in its course to rest as to be unable to interfere
with the direction of a properly aimed arrow. Some archers, shooting
with the bow in the left hand, aim with the left (not with the right)
eye, and this peculiarity makes it rather more difficult to avoid
hitting the forearm at some point between the elbow and the short
guard. With others, when the left arm, holding the bow, is extended
straight out, and stiffened at the elbow, it will be found to bend
inwards--knock-kneed, as it were. In such cases it would probably be
better to widen the handle of the bow, so as to remove the inner
outline of the arm farther from the plane in which the string acts, than
to increase the certainty of an aim-disturbing blow by adding the
thickness of an armguard to the already existing impediment; or--but
this is only mentioned as an alternative, not recommended for general
adoption--the arm may be slightly bent outwards at the elbow. Some try
to avoid this unnecessary hitting of the arm by keeping their bows very
high-strung; but this should be avoided, as it is very trying to both
the bow and the string, and it is generally believed that by keeping a
bow high-strung some of its cast is lost.

The old-fashioned bracer, of which there are still many modern
representatives--although Mr. Ford, in his book, successfully demolished
the 'armguard-hitting theory,' which was upheld by most previous writers
on the subject--was, and is, certainly admirably calculated to be hit as
much as possible, being often made of very thick leather, and lined and
padded as well. If something of this sort, failing other expedients to
avoid hurting the arm, must be used, let it be as thin and close-fitting
as possible, and in particular close-fitting for the four inches or so
next to the wrist, where the reckless old armguards used to project as
much as half an inch, ready to welcome the blow of the string several
inches sooner than need be. And, to avoid the worst blow of all--that
delivered upon the top of the armguard where it is shaped to the bend of
the elbow--let the upper strap be carried round above the elbow so that
it draws the front of the guard tight as the arm is straightened. In
spite of all that has been said above, it cannot be denied that, such
is the persistent determination of arrows well aimed and well loosed
to reach the target, they will certainly very often succeed,
notwithstanding frequent interruptions from an armguard in addition to
the natural difficulties. Too much care cannot be taken to see that when
fastened no edge or corner of the armguard protrudes that can by
possibility obstruct the free passage of the string. In spite of good
old Ascham's statement that 'the string, gliding quickly and sharply off
it' [the bracer], 'may make a sharper shoot' (he also advised that the
bow be high-strung, so that this hitting may be avoided), the guard
should be made of moderately soft and yielding but perfectly smooth
leather, and not of any hard material. The silver armguard, which may be
fitting enough as a trophy for the Field Captain of the Royal
Toxophilite Society, would be about as much out of place during the
shooting of the York Round as the ancient Scorton arrow would be amongst
the shafts in use during one of the annual Yorkshire meetings.


THE SHOOTING-GLOVE, AND OTHER PROTECTIONS FOR THE FINGERS.

The old-fashioned archer's glove--still in use in Scotland, and perhaps
occasionally elsewhere--resembles a boxing-glove, being made of thick
buckskin, and calculated to protect the hand from some of the accidents
of war. It was provided with a pocket for extra strings, wax, and other
necessaries on its back; and no doubt owned a companion glove for the
bow hand, also calculated to protect _it_ from injury. This glove has
pieces of hard leather sewn on to the ends of the fingers as a further
protection against the string; and leather straps, passing round the
roots of the fingers and along the back of the hand, are tied tightly
round the wrist to prevent the finger-guards from being dragged forward
out of place at the loose.

[Illustration: FIG. 25.]

The protection for the fingers, which is probably best known to
beginners and old-fashioned archers, consists of three conical tips or
thimbles of leather, each sewn up at the back of the finger, and
attached--also at the back--to long strips of leather, connected at the
back of the hand so as to form one piece, which is fixed upon a strap
which passes round the wrist and is fastened securely by a buckle (fig.
25). There is nothing to be said against this description of
shooting-glove if a thimble can be got to fit each of the fingers
accurately; but, as it can seldom happen that in a ready-made article a
perfect fit can be found, this form of finger-guard has become
unfashionable, and has gone out of favour. It was probably never made
with the thimbles of the right sort of leather (horse-butt), as the
softer and more pliable sorts of leather would be more suitable to fit
all comers. It effectually obviates one of the difficulties which occurs
to most beginners--that of recovering their tips when they have been
scattered all over the shooting-lawn.

[Illustration: FIG. 26.]

The 'tab' (see fig. 26) is probably one of the most ancient of
finger-guards, and it has so many merits that it can never be altogether
discarded. Any archer may quickly manufacture it out of almost any sort
of leather, and it is very readily altered or replaced, and it is no
impediment to the free use of the fingers for other purposes than
loosing an arrow. The whole of the first finger of the right hand is
passed right through the opening A from the side not seen, and the tip
of the finger is placed on _a_. The third finger is similarly passed
through B, and its tip lies on [Greek: b]. The middle finger is now
placed on _b_. It will be found that the 'tab' is now securely fastened
for use, the string being applied to the side not seen. The tab can be
readily turned down into the palm of the hand whilst the arrow is
applied to the string. The tab is then replaced on the tips of the
fingers and applied to the string, with the arrow at the bottom of the
opening between the parts _a_ and _b_. The one drawback to this
description of finger-guard is that the arrow comes into actual contact
with the sides of the first and second fingers, and beginners are
specially perplexed with the difficulty of keeping the arrow applied to
the proper place on the side of the bow during the operation of pulling
up, owing to too tight a pinch between the fingers, given by the bent
string. This same difficulty occurs also with other guards, but the
results are not so painful, as the corner of the nail is protected by
leather from the nock of the arrow. The tab is not, therefore, to be
recommended for the use of beginners. Should any archers be tempted to
use it when the first difficulties are overcome, it will be found that
the insertion of a piece of cork or leather between the first and second
fingers will overcome the trouble caused by this pinch. The tab, as
before mentioned, may be made of one piece of leather; but it is better
to have it made of two pieces sewn together, as shown in the sketch (see
fig. 26), the part applied to the string being made of 'horse-butt,'
which is a brittle sort of leather, the part through which the fingers
are passed being made of some more supple leather.

Before the more elaborate and scientific finger-stall or guards come to
be considered the remaining simple and old-fashioned ones must be
completed.

Next in order comes an ordinary glove, which has lately come prominently
to the front, because the constant use of a good thick dogskin glove has
enabled the Champion of 1884 to keep his place in 1885 and 1886. To this
may be applied the dogmatic words of Mr. Ford (slightly altered) with
reference to the tab: 'This does not, however, alter my opinion as to
its being decidedly an inferior method, as who shall say how much more
[he] might have excelled had [he] adopted a different and [less]
rational one?'

A well-fitting glove may be improved by sewing small pieces of pigskin
or other smooth sound leather over the tips of the fingers (see fig.
27).

[Illustration: FIG. 27.]

Constant practice on the harp has been known to enable a lady to
dispense with any artificial protection, and to make three golds at one
end at one of the Leamington meetings.

Another method of preparing the fingers for naked application to the
bowstring is to use them industriously as pipe-stoppers; but as some
archers do not smoke, and it might not be easy for a non-smoker to get
employment as a pipe-stopper to others who do, a more convenient way of
hardening the fingers would be by dropping on hot sealing-wax, and then
dipping the finger into salt.

It is undeniable that permanently successful shooting depends mostly
upon an even, certain, and unvarying loose, and such a loose can only be
attained by the help of the most suitable glove, tips, tab, or other
protection for the fingers. The archer must have the perfect command of
the string, and of the exact 'how' and 'when' it shall be allowed to
quit the fingers. If the glove &c. be too loose or too tight, this
necessary command is lost. In the first case, the feeling of insecurity
gives a hesitating uncertainty to the loose; and in the second, the
power of the fingers is so cramped that a sensation of distortion
cripples their best efforts. Further, too thick a glove &c. interferes
with the proper 'feel' of the string; whilst one that is too thin, by
hurting the fingers, causes them to flinch from the proper degree of
crisp sharpness requisite for a perfect loose. Still further, with too
hard a substance--metal, for instance: finger-tips have been
occasionally made of silver--the string cannot be with certainty
retained till the proper instant of loosing, whilst with leather that is
too soft and sodden, the string cannot be quitted without a jerk that
staggers the bow-arm.

It will be seen, therefore, that positive rules cannot be laid down as
to either the size, make, shape, or material of the finger-guards; as
each individual must be suited according to the peculiar nature of his
own fingers, be they callous or tender, strong or weak, clumsy or
dexterous.

In 1859 it may have been good advice to archers to manufacture their own
finger-guards, though Mr. Ford candidly confessed 'that the endeavours
of ten years have hardly succeeded in producing finger-stalls perfectly
to my satisfaction.' It may be safely asserted, however, that it is
better to use the thinner leather (provided it be thick enough to
protect the fingers from pain), and the stalls must be constructed so as
to confine the hand and cramp the knuckles as little as possible.

The 'Mason' finger-stall, described by Mr. Ford, consisted of a piece of
leather partly surrounding the tip of the finger, and connected over the
nail with vulcanised india-rubber, and kept in place by a ring, also of
india-rubber, or preferably of silver, passing over both joints of the
finger, and connected inside the hand with the stall by means of a thin
tongue of india-rubber about an inch or an inch and a half long; a guard
or stop is placed upon each stall, about half an inch from the top, by
which (stop) the line of the fingers and position of the string is
regulated, &c. A very similar finger-guard, produced by Mr. Buchanan of
215 Piccadilly, was made, closed at the finger-end, so as to protect the
top of the finger from possible injury.

In these finger-guards the stop or catch of leather on the inside of the
finger first makes its public appearance, but the contrivance in its
entirety has completely gone out of favour--probably owing to the
untrustworthiness of india-rubber, even though it be vulcanised. The
connecting ring removed the objection to these separate tips that,
unless they were glued on or too tight (both undesirable), they were
sadly liable to slip off at the loose. Also the connecting tongue of
india-rubber might enable the lower part of the finger to contribute
some trifle of support to the tip of the finger at its fullest strain,
and certainly it would assist to catch the finger-tip back from the
sprawled position (much objected to by some instructors in this craft)
sometimes assumed after a dead loose.

[Illustration: FIG. 28.]

Mr. James Spedding and Mr. H. C. Mules, about the same time that Mr. H.
A. Ford and others were making experiments in the construction of their
own finger-tips, contrived a little brass nutted screw-bolt for securing
the finger-tips safely upon the fingers without the uncertain action of
india-rubber, or in any way cramping the action of the finger-joints.
This little contrivance is three-quarters of an inch long. The nut A is
fixed, but the nut B can be moved to any position on the screw-bolt.

[Illustration: FIG. 29.]

This contrivance is passed through the holes at _a_ and _b_ (see fig.
29) of a finger-tip shaped thus. Of course the end of the screw-bolt
over which the nut B is passed after the screw-bolt has been passed
through _a_ and _b_ must be clinched afterwards to prevent nut B coming
off again. The lacing together of the six corresponding holes on each
side of the guard at the back of the finger over the nail can be tight
or loose, according to taste; but it should be laced with fine strong
cord, not elastic, as generally supplied by the makers. The brass bolt
passes over the top joint of the finger when the guard is put on the
finger, and may then be tightened so as to keep the guard in its place
and to prevent it escaping at the loose. Leather catches may easily be
added of any shape or in any position that is preferred.

[Illustration: FIG. 30.]

[Illustration: FIG. 31.]

The elementary tip, that anybody may cut out of a piece of pigskin (fig.
30), further sophisticated, became the tip registered by Messrs. Aldred
in 1868 (fig. 31) as the 'Paragon,' with the Mules-Spedding contrivance
added, and also a catch, and a strap over the nail, for keeping it in
position.

[Illustration: FIG. 32.]

The _parrot-beak_ (fig. 32) is a further development of the
Mules-Spedding tip, with the brass bolt omitted. This is not an
improvement, as the sewing, if it suddenly failed, could not be readily
replaced.

Mr. J. Spedding had a further contrivance which brought the little
finger in to the assistance of the third finger. This was managed by
securing a loop to the guard for the third finger. This loop was passed
over the little finger, which was tightly curled up towards the palm of
the hand, thus supporting the third during the strain of the aim. The
little finger was, of course, uncurled at the instant of loose.

Soon after 1859 Mr. H. A. Ford began to lose the almost perfect command
which he had, during about ten years, possessed over the bow. Whether
this failure arose from the use of bows that were too strong, causing
actual physical injury to some of the muscles engaged in the action of
pulling up or loosing; or whether it arose from shooting too much; or
whether it arose from loss of nerve and confidence, through over-anxiety
to excel, and keep in front of all the opponents who, profiting by his
instruction, began to tread close upon his heels, will never be known;
but certain it is that before he reappeared as Champion at Brighton in
1867, with his fourth best Grand National score of 1,037 (his better
scores being, 1,251 at Cheltenham in 1857, 1,076 at Exeter in 1858, and
1,074 at Shrewsbury in 1854), he had taken to weak bows and light
arrows, and had tried several different combinations of fingers for
loosing. Thus he contrived a finger-tip for the little finger, to the
back of which he attached the third finger, so that these two might
combine to do the work of one finger. This did not prove successful; but
he was satisfied with his final experiment, which consisted of a tip for
the first finger, on to the back of which his second finger was also
applied; and he has been heard to declare his belief that if he could
have tried this loose in his best days he might have improved upon his
best scores.

Occasionally the second and third fingers are furnished with a
double-cell tip for the parallel action of these two fingers; but as
contrivances of this sort are but the playthings of broken-down
archers--of whom, alas, there are too many--they are not mentioned with
any view of recommending them until, after patient trial, the other
simpler finger-guards have failed.

A piece of strong quill is sometimes sewn upon the inside of the tip
with the leather catch so as to prevent the string from getting embedded
in the leather, and to quicken the loose; but its interference with the
'feel' of the string argues against its employment.

It is even doubtful whether anything but the most cautious use of the
leather catch to the finger-tip may not be most dangerous. Many of the
best shots do not use it; and though no doubt the certainty of the one
best position for the string on the fingers, when the archer is at his
best, will produce most excellent results, yet, the possibility that a
permanent breakdown may be the result of the use of the same catch when
the archer is out of condition or practice, or perhaps tired, should
make every archer careful to avoid the loss of liberty of hold that may
be found advisable under varying circumstances.



CHAPTER V.

_OF THE GREASE-BOX, TASSEL, BELT, ETC_


THE GREASE BOX.

_The grease-box_ was, no doubt, an important part of an archer's
equipment when prepared for battle, as he had to be out in all weathers,
and the grease it contained could alone help him to avoid the ill
consequences of moisture about his shooting-glove. The modern archer is
seldom called upon to shoot more than, possibly, one end in a sudden
shower; and many now never carry a grease-box at all. Yet there is no
objection to its use. It should contain vaseline, which may be
occasionally applied to the finger-guards, and to the lapping where in
contact with the fingers; also, the arrows about the footing may be
greased to prevent the paint from the target-faces adhering to them.


THE TASSEL.

He must be a good archer indeed who can dispense with this necessary
addition to his equipment. The tassel is usually made of green worsted,
and its primary use is to remove any dirt that may adhere to the arrow
when it is drawn from the ground, but the head of it may be used for
carrying a few pins, and concealed within the outer fringe may be kept a
small piece of oiled flannel, to be applied to the arrow occasionally,
so as to prevent the paint from sticking on to the shaft. The tassel
should be of moderate dimensions--in fact, the smaller the better,
provided it be big enough for use. It is usually hung on to a button of
a gentleman's coat, but ladies usually wear it attached to their
girdles.


THE BELT, QUIVER, ETC.

In former days a leather belt was considered absolutely necessary, and
some have been known to consider themselves more fully dressed for an
archery contest with the green baize bag for the bow surrounding the
waist. It was certainly useful, and kept together the various things
then in use, namely, the glove, the quiver, the tassel, the grease-box,
the tablets for scoring, the pricker for the same purpose, the armguard,
&c. A well-appointed archer of the present day devotes a coat
specially for the purposes of archery, and this is fitted with a long
leather-lined pocket let into the back of the coat, to the left of the
left back-button. This pocket holds his arrows, and becomes his quiver.
The tassel is attached to a front button. Any suitable note-book with a
pencil goes into a pocket, taking the place of the tablet and pricker.
As a belt is not the most convenient receptacle for the rest of his
equipment, no belt is carried. As ladies are not yet so well provided
with pockets as gentlemen, they still find it almost absolutely
necessary to carry a belt for their various requisites, and some will
even voluntarily (or perhaps involuntarily, in the case of the
Championess of the West) handicap themselves by carrying the whole
apparatus in solid silver.


THE SCORING APPARATUS.

[Illustration: FIG. 33. Mr. Ford shot another dozen arrows at 60 yards,
scoring 80, and shows his score in the St. George's Hound to be 654 from
104 hits.]

Any ordinary note-book fitted with a pencil is by far the best thing for
keeping the correct record of an archer's score. Very convenient
scoring-books are to be bought at the archery shops, and these contain
usually the forms for York Rounds for gentlemen, and National Rounds for
ladies, to be filled up with plain figures entered in the right places
as the scores are made. The objection to these books is that the rounds
shot are not invariably York and National rounds. That the ingenious may
be saved the trouble of re-inventing the best scoring-apparatus of past
times it is here described. A card 3-1/2 inches by 2-1/2 inches was
slipped into a silver frame, which was much like the contrivance used
for direction cards for luggage in travelling. Between the card and the
back of the silver frame was a leather pad of the same size as the card.
A pricker was used to record the score on the card, and the leather pad
protected the point of the pricker from the silver back. The card had
engraved upon it the form of the round usually shot. The form for a York
Round is here given. The figures on the left-hand side indicate the
twelve double ends of six arrows each--72 arrows shot at 100 yards; the
middle figures indicate the eight double ends of six arrows each--48
arrows at 80 yards; and the figures on the right-hand side indicate the
four double ends at 60 yards--24 arrows. This form is now filled up with
the best York Round that Mr. H. A. Ford ever made, as recorded by
himself, and here given in facsimile. It is believed that the wonderful
score here recorded of 809, from 137 hits, in the York Round, was made
at Cheltenham about September 4, 1855; but, through an unaccountable
want of courtesy on the part of the Ford family, the accurate date of
this score cannot be given as a fact. It is not entered in the way
invented by the Rev. J. Bramhall, which indicates not only the hits
made, but also the order in which the arrows were shot. Thus (see p. 69)
say the first arrow, shot at 100 yards, hit the red; the second was a
gold, and the third a miss; the fourth arrow was a red; the fifth was a
black, and the sixth a gold. Each set of vertical spaces for whites,
blacks, blues, reds, and golds is allotted to a double end of six
arrows. The result of the first arrow is marked on the left-hand side at
the top, the second on the left-hand side in the middle, and the third
on the left-hand side at the bottom. The same is done with the next
three arrows on the right-hand side. Of course, when an arrow misses the
target, no mark is made, and the order of the misses is shown by the
hits.

[Illustration]

A translation into the modern method of Mr. Ford's best score is here
given.

          _100 Yards_    Hits  Score
     97  973  971  731 =  11    63
    753  755  711  973 =  12    60
    753   75  973   53 =  10    54
     75  751  953   97 =  10    58
    731   73  977  775 =  11    63
    551  553  733  531 =  12    46
                          --    --  Hits  Score
           _80 Yards_                66    344  Totals
    977   97  955  973 =  11    77
    953  993  975  975 =  12    80
    975  973  755  755 =  12    74
    951  775  953  955 =  12    70
                          --    --
           _60 Yards_                47    301  Totals
    995  997  995  775 =  12    90
    977  753  775  773 =  12    74
                          --    --   24    164  Totals
                                     --    ---
                      Grand totals  137    809

The incurable fault of this method of scoring by prick-marks is that it
is impossible to correct a mistake or to verify the accuracy of scores
as recorded. (Is there not the Hibernian story of the archer who, in
perfect good faith, believed that he made seventy-three hits with
seventy-two arrows at sixty yards?) So much that was unpleasant
transpired after the Crystal Palace Meeting in 1871, that in 1872 the
system of scoring at the public meetings by means of these prick-marks
in the different colours was finally abandoned, and the scoring by the
figures 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 introduced instead. This scoring by figures had
then already been for some years in vogue amongst the West Kent archers,
introduced by the hon. secretary, Mr. R. B. Martin, and the members of
the Royal Toxophilite Society had mostly, for many years previously,
kept their private scores in plain figures.

In this method no attempt is ever made to record the order in which the
hits at any end fall; neither is it considered advisable to do so,
though it would be equally easy to enter the figures in the same order,
when known, as the hits are made; but this is a matter of no importance.


THE REGISTER.

Every archer is most strongly recommended to keep a careful and accurate
record of all the shooting he does, not only by entering in a
scoring-book every arrow shot during the day (which will act as a check
to irregular and careless practice), but also by keeping a register, or
book of record, in which the results of each day's shooting should be
entered. Those who have not been in the habit of booking all their
successes and shortcomings have no idea of the great interest with which
this record invests the most solitary practice, and how conducive it is
to its steady and persevering continuance. It begets a great desire to
improve: for no man likes to have evidence before his eyes of his pains
and exertions being of no avail, and of himself at a standstill in any
pursuit he takes an interest in; it ensures a due carefulness in the
shooting of every arrow, since without it the score will be bad, and
therefore disagreeable to chronicle; it excites emulation, by enabling
the average of one man's shooting to be compared with that of another,
and restrains by its sternly demonstrating figures those flights of
imagination occasionally indulged in by the owners of inaccurate
memories as to feats performed and scores achieved. By taking note also
in this register of the causes of failure at different times, a lessened
chance will exist of their occurring again, as it will keep the same
always in view, and the necessity of their avoidance prominently before
the attention. In short, the archer will find the little trouble the
keeping of it occasions him so abundantly repaid in a variety of ways,
that when it is once commenced he will never afterwards be induced to
abandon its use.

Whilst the subject of register is under consideration the beginner's
attention should be called to the 'Archer's Register,' edited by Mr. J.
Sharpe, which is issued annually, and gives a full account of all the
public archery meetings of the previous year, and of the doings of all
the principal societies in the kingdom.


THE 'ASCHAM.'

This term is applied to an upright narrow cupboard, contrived for the
purpose of holding all the implements of archery. It is constructed so
that the bows may stand or hang upright in the back part, and in the
front each individual arrow may stand, also upright, and sufficiently
apart from its neighbour to avoid the possibility of any injury to the
feathers. In height this _Ascham_ should be upwards of six feet, so that
there may be sufficient room for the longest bows, and the bows should
all, if standing, be on a bottom raised some few inches above the floor
of the apartment, as an additional security against damp, which is a
most fatal enemy to the bow. In damp situations, and particularly at the
seaside, great care must be taken to keep out all moisture. Also, as far
as possible, a tolerably even temperature should be maintained. The long
box in which an archer keeps his stock of bows, arrows, &c., when
travelling, is also called an _Ascham_.


THE TARGETS.

The backing of the _target_ is made of thrashed or unthrashed straw
(rye-straw is the best) firmly bound together whilst wet with strong
tarred string, and in construction is somewhat similar to the make of
beehive, only it is made flat. It is circular, and the front of this
straw _boss_ (as it is called), intended for the canvas facing, is
worked up with a flat surface, so that the facing may lie upon it more
evenly than it could upon the other side. The canvas facing must also be
circular, and exactly four feet in diameter; of course the straw _boss_
should also be as nearly as possible of the same size, but on no account
less. The canvas facing is divided into a central circle of gold,
surrounded by concentric rings of red, blue, black, and white, arranged
in this order of colour from the centre outwards. The radius of the
golden centre and the breadth of each of the surrounding rings should be
the same, namely, one-fifth of four feet, i.e. four inches and
four-fifths of an inch. Each hit in these colours is valued as follows:
nine in the gold, seven in the red (formerly called scarlet), five in
the blue (still occasionally known as inner white), three in the black,
and one in the white. These figures, however, do not correctly represent
the value of the rings according to their respective areas. The area of
a circle is proportional to the square of its radius. Therefore the area
of the circle containing the gold and red together is four times as
large as the area of the gold circle alone; and it follows that if the
gold circle be removed from this larger circle the remaining red ring
will be three times the size of the gold circle. In the same manner, the
circle containing the gold, red, and blue will in area be nine times as
large as the gold circle alone; and if the combined gold and red circle
be removed the remaining area of the blue ring will be five times as
large as the gold. Again, the area of the circle containing the gold,
red, blue, and black will be sixteen times larger than the gold; and if
the gold, red, and blue be removed, an area seven times as large as the
gold will be left for the black ring. Finally, the entire face of the
target contains an area twenty-five times at large as the gold, and the
white ring is nine times as large as the gold. Thus we get the target
divided into twenty-five parts, of which one part is gold, three parts
are red, five are blue, seven are black, and nine are white. But it does
not correctly follow that, nine being taken to represent the value of a
hit in the gold, and one as the value of a hit in the white (because the
white ring is nine times larger than the gold circle), a hit in the red
ring should count as seven, a hit in the blue as five, and a hit in the
black as three. The proportion of the areas between the white and black
rings is as nine to seven, giving the value of 1-2/7 for each hit in the
black, or 1.28571 in decimals. Similarly, the proportion of area between
the white and blue rings is as nine to five, giving the value of 1-4/5,
or 1.8, as the value of each hit in the blue circle. The proportion of
the area between the white and the red rings is as nine to three, giving
the value of three for each hit in the red ring.

It may be taken that these values of 9, 7, 5, 3, 1, representing the
hits in gold, red, blue, black, and white, are the best that can be
adopted, and in their sum represent the twenty-five parts, the size of
the gold, into which the target may be supposed to be divided.

There appears to be no exaggeration of the value of the gold as compared
with the white, and the exaggerated value of the other colours very
properly rewards superior skill, as shown by central hitting of the
target.[1]

In the days when handicapping was done by taking off rings instead of
percentages it might have been better to reduce the values of these
reds, blues, and blacks when made by the more skilful.

The old exploded custom of adding hits to score was only a roundabout
method of reducing the values of the hits from 9, 7, 5, 3, 1 to 5, 4, 3,
2, 1.

Targets are now all made of the same size, as already mentioned; but for
many years after the revival of archery in 1781 four-feet targets were
only used at the long distances of 120, 100, and 90 yards, whilst
targets of three feet and two feet in diameter were used at the shorter
distances and by ladies. In still older times our modern target-practice
was represented by what was called the _Paper Game_, from paper being
employed instead of the oil-painted canvas now in use.

It was an old fashion to score in money, thus: a gold was 2_s._ 6_d._, a
scarlet 2_s._, an inner white 1_s._ 6_d._, a black 1_s._, and a white
6_d._; and this is still the custom with the Woodmen of Arden, whose
members still receive in cash at the end of a prize meeting the total
value of their scores. The same custom also prevails at the Annual
Scorton Arrow Meeting, except that each archer pays 6_d._ into the pool
for every hit he makes in the white.

Formerly, unless an arrow was entirely in one colour, it was counted as
a hit in the inferior of the two colours between which its position was
divided; but now, except with the Woodmen of Arden, the contrary custom
prevails, and the arrow will count as a hit in the superior colour,
unless it be quite surrounded by the inferior colour. It is right that
the archer should have the benefit of any doubt in this matter.

The purchasers of targets should ascertain that they have well-painted
and well-seasoned facings. The American-cloth facings sometimes to be
met with are most unsatisfactory, and occasionally there is too much of
a sticky compound laid on the facings previous to the paint, which
adheres to the arrow, and helps to denude the target of colour.

It is not generally acknowledged that the colours of the target at
present in use are well adapted for most accurate shooting. They are too
bright and glaring, confusing to the eye, and drawing the attention
away from the centre, so that it is most difficult to avoid aiming at
the target generally, rather than the gold. Now that the scoring is kept
in figures, and no longer in colours, there would be no difficulty in
substituting other colours that would assist to concentrate the aim, if
only a general agreement about the nature of the change could be arrived
at.

The usual custom of fixing targets is, that the centre of the gold shall
be four feet from the ground, and as the target is always sloped with
its lower part advanced towards the shooter, it follows that the correct
distance of the bottom of the target from the ground is a trifle more
than two feet and one inch.


THE TARGET-STANDS.

The most usual _target-stands_ are of iron, in three pieces, each of
about six feet in length, hinged together at the top, and painted green,
forming a tripod for the support of the target, which is caught on to it
by a hooked spike at the top of the stand, and kept from shifting its
position thereon by a spike about half way up each of the front legs.
These stands are so destructive to any arrows that hit them, even
through the targets, that, for home use, they should be padded in front
with a strip of thick felt, secured with strong twine, and then
carefully wrapped with strong binding and painted.

The late Mr. James Spedding first invented this method of covering the
stands which he had made for the Royal Toxophilite Society, of three
long ash poles, united together at the top with iron nutted screw-bolts.
When the stand is so treated it is almost impossible that an arrow can
be injured by contact with the stand, and the extra expense (which is,
however, considerable) is soon saved by the saving in arrows at 2_s._
6_d._ apiece.

The Meyler stand, a very expensive machine, was a strong iron arm,
fitted into a metal socket fixed in the ground, and at the upper end
provided with three prongs, upon which the target was fixed; but it
possessed the same incurable fault as the old earthen butts, in that it
was immovable (except to the places where the necessary sockets were).


THE QUIVER.

The tin _quiver_, made in different sizes to contain six, a dozen, or
more arrows, with sometimes a receptacle at the top for spare strings,
wax, thread, silk, file, &c., is too handy an article to be ever
altogether discarded, though the arrows in it do occasionally suffer by
being indiscriminately jumbled together. The arrow-boxes of wood now
made to hold different quantities of arrows are, of course, to be
preferred. But the best receptacle for arrows on a journey is a properly
fitted compartment in the bow-box, and the method invented by the Rev.
J. M. Croker is the best of all. This is fitted with a hinge, so that
any arrow in it can be removed without shifting any of the others.


FOOTNOTE:

[1] See Sir John F. W. Herschel's _Familiar Lectures on Scientific
Subjects_, 'Estimation of Skill in Target-shooting,' p. 495.



CHAPTER VI.

_OF BRACING, OR STRINGING, AND NOCKING_


In the previous chapters such plain directions have been given
concerning the various implements of archery as will enable each archer
to provide himself with the best of the kind that his inclinations or
means may lead him to adopt, and to enable him to avoid such as are in
themselves radically bad, or likely to add to the difficulties he is
sure to meet with before arriving at any great or satisfactory
proficiency in the art. Having been thus enabled to form a choice as to
his weapons, he must now be guided in their use; and, in the first
place, there are a few minor matters that cannot be altogether passed
over in silence. The first of these is the _bracing_ or _stringing_ of a
bow, which may be considered as the first preliminary operation to
actual shooting. This is the act of _bending_ the bow, when unstrung,
sufficiently to enable the archer to slip the upper _eye_ of the string
into the _nock_ of the upper horn. To effect this, the usual method is
to set the lower horn of the bow (its back being turned towards the
archer) on the ground, against the inside of the right foot, this being
turned a little inward so as to prevent the horn from slipping out of
place. Then, the handle being firmly grasped with the right hand, and
the lower or wrist-part of the left hand being rested upon the upper
limb of the bow a few inches below the upper eye of the string, a strong
steady pull must be applied with the right hand at the handle (the left
hand and right foot forming the _points d'appui_) so that the bow may be
bent, whilst the thumb and second joint of the first finger, or
preferably the tips of the first and second fingers of the left hand,
carry the eye of the string into the nock. Novices must be particularly
careful that they do not get either of the fingers entangled between the
string and the bow.

In stringing the bow, it is quite unimportant whether it be held in the
right or left hand; but if the finger-tips be worn on the right hand, it
is better to use this hand for the purpose of grasping the bow, rather
than for helping the eye of the string into its place.

To unstring the bow, the action is the same as in the final position of
stringing it, except that the eye of the string is slipped out of the
horn.

To string and unstring a bow gracefully and without apparent effort is
an affair rather of knack than of much strength or force, and is
therefore only to be learnt with a certain amount of practice. The
archer must keep, as far as possible, an upright position, as to crouch
over the operation is ungainly, and interferes with the satisfactory
application of the necessary amount of effort.

The bow being now strung, two things must be carefully noted: first,
that the bend of the bow be neither too much nor too little; and
secondly, that the string starts from both horns exactly at the centre
of each--i.e. no atom either to the right or left, but dividing the bow
precisely in half from end to end. If this latter caution be not
observed the grain of the bow runs considerable risk of being
unnaturally strained, and the bow itself of being pulled away and out of
its proper shape, and sooner or later breaking in consequence. It is
even possible that the correct cast itself may be more or less
disadvantageously affected by any carelessness on this point. This is
one of the many minutiæ of archery, which is of more importance than may
at first sight appear, and should always be attended to before the bow
is allowed to discharge a single arrow. During the shooting, too,
attention should be occasionally directed to the string, to observe
whether the loop may not have slipped a little away, as it may sometimes
unavoidably do. If a second eye has been added to the string in the
place of the loop, the string will be much more easily adjusted, and
then there will be no fear of its getting away during the shooting. As
regards the first point--namely, the amount of bend in a bow when
strung--it has been already stated that in a man's bow the distance of
the inside of the handle from the string should scarcely ever be less
than six inches. The advantages of having the bow low-strung are that
the bow casts quicker and farther (owing to the greater length the arrow
is acted upon by the string), and that the bow, and also the string, are
less strained, and consequently in less danger of breaking; but to be
balanced against these advantages is the fact that the danger of
striking the armguard before the extreme point of the string's recoil
(already shown to be fatal to accurate shooting) is greater, and the
cast may be somewhat less steady.

It has been immemorially customary to ascertain the amount of the bend
of the bow when strung, by placing the fist upright upon the inside of
the handle (at the centre of the bow), at the same time raising up the
thumb towards the string; if the string then just touches the extremity
of the thumb the bracing is supposed to be tolerably correct. This is
not, however, an infallible test, as the size of hands of different
individuals varies considerably; but each archer can ascertain how far
his own hand, placed in the above way, varies from the old-fashioned
measure of six inches, known as a _fistmele_, and, bearing this
constantly in mind, may ascertain the bracing of his bow as accurately
as if his own fistmele were the exact six inches.

The _nocking_ of the arrow must now be considered. This is the
application of the nock of the arrow to its proper place on the string.
Simple as this operation may at first sight appear, yet there is a right
way and a wrong way of doing it; and as the wrong way leads to the
injury and disfigurement of the bow, let the beginner acquire the right
method at first, as follows:--

The bow being held somewhat downwards by the handle with the left hand,
with the string upwards, let the arrow be placed with the right hand
_over_ the string (not on any account _under_ the string, as this latter
method of nocking is sure to lead sooner or later to the disfigurement
of the belly of the bow, by numerous stabs inflicted upon it by the
sharp point of the arrow) upon that part of the bow (close to the
forefinger of the left hand) upon which it is to lie; the thumb of the
left hand (not the forefinger) being then gently placed over it will
serve to hold it perfectly under command, whilst the forefinger and
thumb of the right hand take hold of the nock end of the arrow, and
manipulate with perfect ease the application of the _nock_ to the proper
_nocking-place_ on the string. Five minutes' practice will suffice to
render this method of nocking easy and familiar. But if the archer be
afraid of unsteadying his hold upon the handle of the bow by shifting
his left thumb on to the arrow, as above described, let him hold the
arrow with his right hand just above the feathers, and so apply the nock
to the string without assistance from the left thumb. This method is,
however, somewhat more awkward-looking.

The centre of the nocking-place should be exactly upon that point of the
string which is opposite to the spot on the bow over which the arrow
will pass when shot--i.e. the arrow when nocked must be precisely
perpendicular to the string. If the arrow be nocked at a lower point, it
will beat itself against the forefinger of the left hand, and thereby
waste some of the energy that should be applied to its flight. On the
other hand, if the arrow be nocked at a higher point, the drawing will
be commenced from a point not contemplated in the manufacture of the bow
when the compensated strength of the upper and lower limbs is arranged
for a fulcrum not exactly central. Care must be taken that the
nocking-part of the string exactly fits or fills the nock of the arrow.
The hold of the nock upon the string must be neither too tight nor too
loose; if the first, the nock may, and probably will, be split; and if
the second, the shaft is apt to slip whilst in the act of being drawn,
and the nock will be broken, or the correct elevation and proper flight
of the arrow will be lost.

A word of warning must be added for the young archer against attempting
to alter the range of his arrow by varying the nocking-place. For the
reasons above given, a worse system could not be adopted.



CHAPTER VII.

_OF ASCHAM'S FIVE POINTS, POSITION STANDING, ETC._


The various implements of archery having been now described, the proper
use of these by the archer claims attention.

Roger Ascham stated in 1545 that 'fayre shootynge came of these thynges:
of standynge, nockynge, drawynge, howldynge, and lowsynge'; and these
his well-known _five points of archery_ have been followed by most other
writers on the subject in this same order. He has set out so well 'all
the discommodities whiche ill custome hath grafted in archers' that 'can
neyther be quycklye poulled out, nor yet sone reckened of me, they be so
manye,' that it will be excusable to quote them for the benefit of
beginners, for their avoidance before they have been acquired.

'Some shooteth his head forwarde, as though he woulde byte the marke; an
other stareth wyth hys eyes, as though they shoulde flye out; another
winketh with one eye, and looketh with the other. Some make a face with
writhing theyr mouthe and countenance so; another blereth out his tonge;
another byteth his lyppes; another holdeth his neck a wrye. In drawynge
some set suche a compasse, as thoughe they woulde tourne about and
blysse all the feelde; other heaue theyr hand nowe vp, nowe downe, that
a man cannot decerne wherat they wolde shote; another waggeth the vpper
ende of his bow one way, the neyther ende an other waye. An other wil
stand poyntinge his shafte at the marke a good whyle, and by-and-by he
wyll gyue a whip, and awaye, or a man wite. An other maketh suche a
wrestling with his gere, as thoughe he were able to shoote no more as
longe as he lyued. Another draweth softly to ye middes, and by-and-by it
is gon, you cannot knowe howe.

'Another draweth his shafte lowe at the breaste, as thoughe he woulde
shoote at a rouynge marke, and by-and-by he lifteth his arme vp pricke
heyghte. Another maketh a wrynching with hys back as though a manne
pynched hym behynde.

'Another coureth downe, as though he shoulde shoote at crowes.

'Another setteth forwarde hys lefte legge, and draweth backe with head
and showlders, as though he pouled at a rope, or els were afrayed of the
marke. Another draweth his shafte well vntyll wythin ii fyngers of the
head, and then stayeth to looke at hys marke, and that done pouleth it
vp to the head, and lowseth; whiche waye, although summe excellent
shoters do use, yet surely it is a faulte, and good mennes faultes are
not to be followed.[2]

'Summe men drawe to farre, summe to shorte, summe to slowlye, summe to
quickely, summe holde over longe, summe let go over sone.

'Summe sette theyr shafte on the grounde, and fetcheth him vpwarde.
Another poynteth vp towarde the skye, and so bryngeth hym downewardes.

'Ones I sawe a manne whyche used a brasar on his cheke, or elles he had
scratched all the skynne of the one syde of his face with his drawynge
hand.

'An other I sawe, whiche at everye shoote, after the loose, lyfteth vp
his ryght legge so far that he was ever in ieopardye of faulyng.

'Summe stampe forwarde, and summe leape backwarde. All these faultes be
eyther in the drawynge or at the loose; with many other mo, whiche you
may easelye perseyue, and so go about to auoyde them.

'Now afterwardes, when the shafte is gone, men haue manye faultes, which
euell custome hath broughte them to, and specially in cryinge after the
shafte and speakynge woordes scarce honest for suche an honest pastyme.

'And besyde those whiche must nedes have theyr tongue thus walkynge,
other men vse other fautes: as some will take theyr bowe and writhe and
wrinche it, to poule in his shafte when it flyeth wyde, as yf he draue a
carte. Some wyll gyue two or iii strydes forwarde, daunsing and hoppynge
after his shafte, as long as it flyeth, as though he were a madman. Some
which feare to be to farre gone, runne backewarde as it were to poule
his shafte backe. Another runneth forwarde when he feareth to be short,
heauynge after his armes, as though he woulde helpe his shafte to flye.
An other writhes or runneth a syde to poule in his shafte strayght. One
lifteth up his heele, and so holdeth his foote still, as longe as his
shafte flyeth. Another casteth his arme backewarde after the lowse. An
other swynges his bowe aboute hym, as if it were a man with a staffe to
make roume in a game place. And manye other faultes there be, whiche
nowe come not to my remembraunce. Thus, as you have hearde, manye
archers wyth marrynge theyr face and countenaunce wyth other partes of
theyr bodye, as it were menne that shoulde daunce antiques, be farre
from the comelye porte in shootynge whiche he that woulde be excellent
muste looke for.'

He then frankly confesses that, though teaching others 'of these
faultes, I have verie manye my selfe; but I talk not of my shootynge,
but of the generall nature of shootyng. Now ymagin an archer that is
clean, wythout all these faultes, and I am sure euerye man woulde be
delyghted to se hym shoote.'

Another will suddenly crouch down on his hams, as though he were
marking a bird's flight to pluck it down, or it were out of sight.

'Another will call himself uncomely names, whilst another casteth away
his bow as though he would break it for faultes that are his own; and
yet another will treat himself at faulte with such harsh usage that he
shall scarce shoot again without black eyes for manye a daie.'

As the term _standing_ seems insufficient to include all that has to be
said respecting the attitude and general bearing of the archer whilst in
the act of shooting, the expression _position_ is adopted instead, as
more applicable and comprehensive, and under _position_ will be
included, not only the footing or standing, but also the manner in which
the hand should grasp the bow, and therefore, as well, the exact
position of the bow itself.

In an endeavour to lay down such plain directions as may prevent the
assumption of attitudes inimical to good shooting, and as may also
assist in the avoidance of such other attitudes as do violence to
gracefulness and are repulsive to the looker-on, it would be venturing
too far to assert that but _one_ position is good, or even that any
particular _one_ is the best; yet some general rules can with sufficient
confidence be laid down for the purpose of controlling mannerisms and of
confining them within harmless limits.

As regards the footing or standing and the attitudes of archers, it may
be safely asserted that there are as many varieties as there are archers
to call them into existence; that no two are exactly alike in all
particulars; and that no one archer has yet been seen to combine all the
excellences that might be centred in a perfect archer.

That an archer's general position may be a good one it must possess
three qualities--firmness, elasticity, and grace: _firmness_, to resist
the strain and the recoil of the bow--for if there be any wavering or
unsteadiness the shot will probably prove a failure; _elasticity_, to
give free play to the muscles, and the needful command over them--which
cannot be the case should the position be too rigid and stiff; and
_grace_, to render the archer and his performance agreeable, and not
ludicrous, to the spectator. It so far, fortunately, happens that the
third requirement--that of grace--is almost a necessary consequence of
the possession of the other two: as the best position for practical
results is, in fact, the most graceful one. Experience proves that an
awkward ungainly style of shooting is very seldom successful. All these
three requisites must be kept constantly in mind in every endeavour to
arrive at the best position for combining them.

To the first part of position--that of _footing_, or _standing_--but
little can be added to what has already been recommended in other books
on the subject.

The heels should be, not close together, but about six or eight inches
apart--thus avoiding the position that gives too little steadfastness in
a wind in the one extreme, and an ungainly straddle in the other. The
feet must be firmly planted on the ground, symmetrically, so as to form
an angle of from 45° to 60° by the joining of the lines passing through
the feet behind the heels. As regards the position of the heels with
reference to the target to be shot at, undoubtedly the best position is
that in which a line through the centres of the heels points to the
centre of the target (fig. 34); but as many good shots have modified
this position in the one or other direction, it may be allowed that any
position of the feet--varying from that in which a line through the left
or forward foot is at right angles to the line from the shooter's eye to
the centre of the target (fig. 35) to that in which the line through the
right foot is at right angles to the same line towards the target (fig.
36) (an extreme variation of 60°)--may be adopted without extreme
violence to either freedom of action or grace. The fault of tipping
forward towards the target shot at, caused by throwing the balance
unduly upon the forward foot, may be cured by raising the heel of that
foot. This is by no means an uncommon fault, and should be carefully
guarded against as very fatal to shooting, and liable to result in most
ridiculous developments. As the opposite fault has almost overtaken some
of the best shots, it may be classed amongst exaggerated virtues, and is
little likely to embarrass beginners. The legs should be perfectly
straightened at the knees, and not on any account bent forward; and yet
the knees should not be so rigidly locked back as to interfere with the
elasticity of the position.

[Illustration: FIG. 34, FIG. 35, FIG. 36.]

It will be observed that in fig. 34 only, the left and right shoulders,
at points A and B respectively, come naturally into the best position
for shooting at the target; but by adopting the position shown in fig.
36, a full-bodied archer may be enabled to draw a trifle further before
the bowstring comes in contact with the chest; whilst in the position
shown in fig. 35 an archer of supple figure can easily get the
shoulders into the best position in the course of drawing up.

The body should be naturally upright, but not stiff; the whole person
well balanced; and the face turned round so as to be nearly fronting the
target.

During the brief period of time between the nocking of the arrow
(already described in pp. 80-2) and the loosing of it, some slight
alteration of the body's attitude, as arranged when the archer assumes
his footing, will take place, as in the combined act of drawing and
aiming, the right shoulder will be brought a little forward, and the
left shoulder will be taken a little backward, before the shoulders
resume their former relative positions previous to the loose, which in
that position only can be most advantageously executed. The slightest
possible inclination forward should be given to the head and chest, that
the arrow may be brought directly under the right or aiming eye, without
bringing the line of aim so close to the line through the left shoulder
and bow as to make it impossible that the string can clear the forearm
at the loose.

Many archers bend the body considerably forward from the waist, and
quote the following passage from Bishop Latimer's sixth sermon--My
father 'taught me how to drawe, how to lay my bodye in my bowe, and not
to drawe with strength of armes, as other nacions do, but with strength
of bodye'--in justification of this practice. Here, laying the body in
the bow means taking up the best position for shooting. An archer in
olden times was said to shoot _in_ a bow, not _with_ a bow.

'Not stooping, nor yet standing straight upright,' as Nicholl's 'London
Artillery' hath it, expresses the right position correctly.

The second part of _position_ which is most, important also, is the
manner in which the hand should grasp the bow, and the attitude of the
bow itself--i.e. whether this should be vertical, or more or less
oblique.

It may be stated at once that the most natural and easy method of
grasping the bow is also the best; in fact this remark is applicable to
almost every point connected with archery, and cannot be too much or too
often insisted upon. If the wrist and hand be in any way unnaturally
employed bad results immediately follow. For instance, if the grasp be
such as to throw the fulcrum much below the centre of the bow, its lower
limb runs great risk of being pulled away and out of shape, which sooner
or later will cause it to chrysal or break. Again, the Waring method,
which used to be in high favour, 'of turning the wrist in as much
possible,' causes the left arm to be held in such a straightened
position, that it will not only present a constantly recurring obstacle
and diverting influence to the free passage of the string, but will also
be the cause of an increased strain and additional effort to the
shooter, besides taking the spring and elasticity out of that
all-important member the bow-arm. If the reverse of this method be
adopted, and the wrist be turned intentionally and unnaturally outwards,
it will be found that in avoiding Scylla Charybdis is at hand, and,
though the string is well clear of the armguard, the wrist cannot
sustain either the strain of the bow at full stretch or its recoil at
the loose. Thus, as in every other instance, the extremes are bad, and
the correct position will be found at the balancing-point between them.

When the _footing_ has been taken, with the arrow nocked, let the bow
lie easily and lightly in the left hand, the wrist being turned neither
inwards nor outwards, but allowed to remain in the position most easy
and natural for it; as the drawing of the bow commences, the grasp will
intuitively tighten, and by the time the arrow is drawn to the head the
position of the hand and wrist will be such as to be easiest for the
shooter and best for the success of his shot.

[Illustration: FIG. 37.--WRONG POSITION.]

[Illustration: FIG. 39.--WRONG POSITION.]

[Illustration: FIG. 38.--RIGHT POSITION.]

It will be observed in the three figures giving the correct and wrong
positions of the hand on the bow-handle, that the upper part of the bow
hand, including the whole of the thumb and first finger, is above the
upper line of the wrist (line AB), whilst the fulcrum, or working centre
of the bow, is also above that line, or even in such bows as have their
centres in the middle of the handle but little below that line. It is
pretty clear that if the hand had been originally constructed solely
with a view to its application to the bow, or even as a weapon in the
noble art of self-defence, it might have been constructed so as to be a
more evenly-balanced hammer at the end of its handle, the arm, than it
is at present. Possibly its narrow escape from being another foot has
interfered with its proper development from an archer's point of view.
However this may be, it would be better, as a mechanical contrivance,
for drawing a bow, if the strain applied by the loosing hand could pass
directly along the line through the centre of the arm, with centre or
fulcrum of the bow in the same line--i.e. in line _a b_ (fig. 38).

The nearest approach to this condition of a perfect archer's hand was
possessed by Mr. G. Edwards, the first archer to displace Mr. H. A. Ford
from the position of Champion, in 1860, who, though he may never have
made the extraordinary scores credited to Mr. Ford, was an excellent
shot, and, when at his best, had the steadiest bow-arm and the firmest
grip ever seen on a bow. Through a gun accident, he lost entirely his
left thumb, and held his bow with his four fingers, pressing it against
a leather pad inserted between the bow and his wrist, much in the
position the thumb would occupy if it could be placed downwards across
the palm of the hand. This altered formation shifted the position of his
arm so that the line through the fulcrum of the bow was well below the
upper line of his wrist.

Some archers acquire the habit of extending the thumb upwards along the
belly of the bow. This method of grasping the bow tends to weaken and
unsteady the drawing power, but as a point of drill for the acquisition
of such a grasp of the bow with the fingers, before the thumb is placed
in position to assist, as will enable the archer to clear his armguard,
its trial is strongly recommended. A steadier hold of the bow is in the
end obtained by keeping the upper part of the thumb off the bow, so that
the hold is between the root of the thumb and the fingers. As the first
finger is often used to assist in adjusting the position of the arrow on
the bow, care must be taken to replace it at the commencement of the
draw. Unless the bow be held firmly between the four fingers and the
thumb and heel of the hand, at the loose and recoil an unpleasant jar
will be felt, with the further ill-consequence of blisters, &c. The
position of the bow should be straight across the palm of the hand, so
that the fingers when closed in position to hold it lie as nearly as
possible at right angles to the axis of the bow.

A lateral projection on the left side of the handle of the bow is
sometimes added, if the archer's hand be hollow, and this contrivance
assists the bowstring to avoid the armguard.

Before the consideration of the final position of the bow at the loose,
as to whether it should be vertical or oblique, a glance must be taken
at the horizontal position which should be adopted by all those who
disbelieve in the possibility of aiming with bow and arrow whilst the
arrow is discharged from the side of the bow, because in that position
the arrow cannot be thrown to the left of the mark aimed at. This
position is so cramped and awkward as to be practically useless for
shooting at a horizontal aim, when a full-length arrow cannot be drawn
up, as the string comes too soon in contact with the left side. Yet
archers have been known to make successful scores in this style, using
weak bows and light arrows.

The vertical position of the bow (but not as sometimes adopted, when the
bow is thus set up at the end of a horizontal arm to be hauled at until
the beginner's arrow is discharged) is an assistance in clearing the
bowstring from the chest when a full-length arrow is fully drawn; and a
tendency towards this position at the instant of loose will correct the
curious habit many archers acquire of throwing the upper limb of the bow
down and the lower limb up after the loose, as if part of the loosing or
drawing action had been a mutually antagonistic screw between the
holding and loosing hands.

The chief advantage of the oblique position is that the arrow is not so
likely to be blown away from its contact with the bow by a high wind
from the bow side.


FOOTNOTE:

[2] It should seem possible that Roger Ascham's condemnation of this
style may be insincere, as he speaks of it as 'the waye of summe
excellent shoters,' and further as good 'mennes faultes.' May it not be
hoped that he refers to this as his own style when he says (see further
on) 'of these faultes I have verye manye myself,' modestly classing his
own excellence as possibly faulty. See Mulcaster, who says he (R. A.)
'hath showed himself a cunning Archer,' but this refers to his capacity
for 'trayning the Archer to his bowe.'



CHAPTER VIII.

_DRAWING_


Ascham seems to be right in declaring that 'Drawyne _well_ is the best
parte of shootyng'; and, as it is in the course of this part of the act
of shooting that all the ridiculous antics already quoted may be
exhibited, and without drawing well it is almost impossible to _take
aim_ or _loose_ with any chance of success, every archer must pay the
utmost attention to the acquisition of the best and easiest method of
drawing. Yet it is not pretended that there is but one best method of
drawing.

Here two things have to be previously considered, namely, the strength
of the bow to be used, and the length of the arrow, or rather how much
of its length must be drawn up. First, as regards the strength of bow to
be used, it should be observed that when, in modern times, the practice
of shooting isolated arrows was discontinued in favour of three arrows
shot by each archer consecutively at each end throughout a York Round,
the possibility of making the delivery of each arrow a supreme effort
became impossible, and the more frequent repetition of an effort, which,
though considerable (as it should always be), is not quite a _tour de
force_, is now accepted as more likely to exhibit grace in the execution
and accuracy in the result, with the natural consequence that the
average strength of bows now in use is scarcely so great as it used to
be; though it must not be lost sight of that bows now are more
accurately weighed, than they were before the invention of the York and
National Rounds; and also that now a large proportion of archers pull
their arrows well up, hold, and aim with them, whereas none did so in
the old times when no archer had so much as dreamed that it was possible
to take an aim with bows and arrows. Yet still at any public archery
meeting it is easy to observe, in one or other of the many varieties of
style of drawing represented, the germs of all possible contortions; but
in nearly all these cases of contortion it will be found that the 'very
head and front of the offending' is in the archer's vain attempt to
employ a bow that is beyond his control; whilst, if the weapon be well
within his control, it is as needless to distort even a muscle of the
face as it is for a short-sighted person to make a grimace when fixing
the glass in his eye. Still it will also be a mistake to be under-bowed
with a plaything, as wasting part of the power of covering distance and
overcoming wind, &c. Whilst bows varying in measure from 40 lbs. to 56
lbs. and arrows varying in weight from 4_s._ to 5_s._ can be easily
procured, every archer's weakness or strength can be appropriately
suited. For ladies there is the range in strength of bows from 20 lbs.
to 35 lbs., and in weight of arrows from 2_s._ 6_d._ to 3_s._ 6_d._

Next as regards the length of arrow to be drawn at each discharge. The
variation in the arrows themselves may be only from 26 to 29 inches in
those of men, and from 24 to 26 inches in those of ladies; but there is
a much wider variation in the part of the arrow drawn up by different
archers. There appears to be a widespread belief that in olden times the
archer soldiers used arrows a yard long; but only a few archers
participate in this belief, and join in treating this as a proof of the
degeneracy of modern archers. Ascham, in his treatment of the subject of
arrows, mentions them of many different lengths and thicknesses, without
any precision, and no doubt they were much more various in his time than
now. The 'clothyard' or the 'clothier's yard,' not the standard yard, is
almost always mentioned by old writers when treating of the length of
draw employed by English archers; and many considerations (supposing
positive proof to be altogether wanting) point to the conclusion that
this 'clothyard' was the length of 27 inches. In the absence of any
representative surviving war-arrow the evidence of an ancient model may
be taken, and such a model exists in the possession of the Royal
Toxophilite Society, described thus in 'A History of the Royal
Toxophilite Society 1870.' 'The most ancient piece of plate possessed by
the Society is an arrow, 28-1/4 inches long, the "stele" being of iron
very thickly plated with silver, and the barbed pile (1-1/4 inch long),
of solid silver. The three feathers are also of solid silver. On the
"stele" are these inscriptions:

        SIR REGINALD FOSTER, Kt. and Bart.
        WARWICK LEDGINGHAM, Esq.

                _Stewards in Finsbury._
    Anno Dom. 1663.

This arrow was presented to the Society by Mr. Philip Constable.' This
Mr. Philip Constable is mentioned as one of the oldest Finsbury archers
in Dailies Barrington's essay on Archery in the seventh volume of
'Archæologia.' The ancient Scorton arrow (1672) is of no greater length,
but has been broken and repaired and has no date on it. There is an act
of Parliament (Irish?) 5 Edward IV. ch. 4, which provides that every
Englishman, and Irishman dwelling with Englishmen, and speaking English,
being between sixteen and sixty years of age, shall have an English bow
of his own length, and a fistmele at least between the nocks, and
_twelve shafts of the length of three-quarters of the standard_. This
points to the length of 27 inches as the regulation length for the stele
of an arrow. The danger of breaking a bow increases the further it is
drawn up, and there is no scarcity of bows that are broken at even a
shorter draw than 27 or 28 inches. How many more broken bows would there
have been then if the usual length of arrows drawn were 36 inches; and
this in the course of a battle, when a broken bow meant an archer
temporarily disabled, as an archer? The material used in the
manufacture of bows, the wood, must have been the same as now, and, from
the specimens extant, their length does not appear to have been much
beyond those now in use. In fact, the length of a bow must always be
limited so as to be within the reach of the archer who strings it, and
the average stature of the human race does not appear to have
diminished.

It is not pretended that no arrows were longer than 27 inches. Doubtless
long and light arrows were employed to annoy an enemy whilst still at a
distance; but for a war-arrow, with a heavy barbed pile, to be an
effective missile, it must have been provided with a strong and stiff
stele, and this cannot also have been unusually long.

As dictionaries seem to avoid the compound words _clothyard_ and
_clothier's yard_, no better evidence can be found than the statement
that the 27 inches constitute a Flemish yard, and that Flemish bows,
arrows, and strings were always in high repute. So the dispute must
still be left for further consideration.

Hansard, in 'The Book of Archery,' 1840, treats the matter as fully as
possible perhaps, and apparently leans towards the belief that the
tallest and most stalwart archers may have drawn up huge bows a full
yard of the standard; yet, as he contends, at p. 191, that 'great
numbers of Welsh served at Crecy and Poictiers, and it is somewhere said
that a considerable portion consisted of archers,' it seems unlikely
that at the same time the average archer at those battles was of
gigantic stature. Ascham might have settled the matter, but he ventures
no further than the statement (p. 87 of Arber's reprint) that 'at the
battel of Agincourt with vii thousand fyghtynge men, and yet many of
them sycke, beynge suche archers, _as the Cronycle_ sayeth, that mooste
parte of them drewe a yarde,' &c.

Apart from the historical consideration of what used to be the average
draw of the old English archers, it must be admitted that modern
archers err on the side of not pulling up enough rather than on the side
of overdrawing. Therefore it is strongly recommended to every archer to
employ as long an arrow as he can conveniently use, and to bear in mind
that the portion of it to be drawn up at each loose should bear some
reasonable proportion to the length of arm, &c., in each individual
case. It may be safely stated that no archer will find that he can
conveniently draw fully up and loose evenly an _arrow of greater length_
than the space between the left centre joint of the collarbone and the
knuckle of the left-hand index-finger when the bow-arm is fully
extended.

But few experienced archers now extend the bow-arm fully and take their
aim before they commence drawing at all. Neither can this method be
commended, as it has an awkward appearance, from the necessity that
exists of stretching the other arm so far across the body in order to
reach the string, and it materially increases the exertion necessary to
pull the bow. Yet this method is not without its use as a preliminary
drill for a beginner, that he may learn the necessity and the difficulty
of drawing his arrow up, whilst keeping it constantly and exactly on the
line which the arrow is afterwards to follow towards the object to be
hit when it is loosed; at the same time not yet attending to the second
and equally great difficulty of a beginner, namely, that of shooting the
exact length as well; also that he may learn how to cover different
lengths by higher and lower positions of the bow-hand.

Much diversity of opinion exists as to the best method of getting the
bow-hand into position for the aim and loose, as to whether, in the
course of drawing up, the arrow shall be brought into the line of aim
from below or from above, or from the right to the left; and here it
would seem that to make the motion of drawing from the right to the left
and upwards at the same time is the simplest and most direct plan,
since, after the nocking of the arrow, the drawing commences most
naturally from beneath and to the right of the object to be hit.

There seem to be three successful methods of drawing--namely, first, to
draw the arrow home[3] at once, loosing when it has been aimed, without
any further draw; secondly, to draw the arrow within an inch or a little
more of home,[3] aiming then, and loosing after the completion of the
draw; and thirdly, the method of combining the operations of drawing and
aiming so continuously that the loose is the uninterrupted completion of
the draw. It is unnecessary to consider the distinct method of drawing
up and letting out again before the loose, or the uncertain method of
fraying up and down, or playing as it were at fast-and-loose a bit
before the loose, as no archer would adopt any such uncertain style as a
matter of choice; though such stuttering and hiccoughing performances
may occasionally bring back an erring arrow to its duty, or may arise
from the loss of nerve and the departure of the crisp finish from what
was once steady and unhesitating. Any movement of the bow-hand in
drawing up from the left towards the right should be avoided, as that
movement tends to contract instead of expanding the chest; therefore
great care should be taken, when lateral movement is used in drawing up,
to avoid passing the line of aim in moving the bow-hand towards the
left.

Though the theory and practice of aiming will be fully treated in
another chapter, some reference must here be made to _aiming_, although
it may lead to apparently unnecessary repetition. Reference has already,
somewhat prematurely, been made to the _line of aim_, and also to the
_length_ to be shot. Now it is clear that the success of a scientific
shot must be the result of the exact combinations of the _right line of
aim_, and the correct _level_ of the bow- and loosing-hands by which to
attain the _length_. In drawing, the process by which the _line of aim_
and the _level_ are arrived at must be associated in _practice_, but may
be _considered_ separately. Advice has already been given to avoid--as
soon as possible after the beginner has got through the first
elements--the setting-up of the bow-hand with the arrow already on the
line of aim to be then hauled at, and this for reasons already given.
But now comes in the apparently contradictory advice, to get it planted
there to be hauled at in good time before the conclusion of the
operation of drawing, so that _that conclusion_ may be certainly in the
right line of aim. And the further advice at this stage of drawing is
that the loosing-hand be kept well back, and never allowed to advance
between the archer's face and the object aimed at. In previous editions
of this book it was laid down that 'the arrow shall be at least
three-fourths drawn when brought upon the [line of] aim.' But this is
far from sufficient at this point of the process. About nine-tenths of
drawing should be by that time accomplished, or the archer will be in a
still worse position for applying his strength to the loose with
advantage should there be any pause at this stage of drawing to combine
the _level_ with the _line of aim_. Next come the considerations whether
the arrow should be held quiescent for a short time, whilst the perfect
aim is found, or whether the entire drawing should be one continuous act
from the first moment of pulling and raising the bow to the loose.
Neither of these methods appears to have much advantage over the other,
if well executed. The former will be a little more trying to the bow,
and, if the finish be imperfect, may lead to letting the arrow out,
which is known as a _creeping-loose_. The latter may lead to an arrow
being occasionally imperfectly drawn; but the bow will have no cause of
complaint, and full advantage will always be taken of all the work that
is done.

The method of drawing the arrow home at once, which has still to be
considered, has this point apparently in its favour--that it ensures the
arrow's being always drawn to the same point. But it is very trying to
the bow, the arms, and the fingers, and, ending in what is called a
_dead-loose_, at the best scarcely produces results commensurate with
the labour undoubtedly taken, and whenever it is imperfectly finished a
creeping-loose results.

Ascham, quoting Procopius, says that 'Leo, the Emperoure, would have hys
souldyers drawe quycklye in warre, for that maketh a shaft flie a pace.
In shootynge at pryckes, hasty and quicke drawing is neyther sure nor
cumlye. Therefore, to draw easely and uniformely ... is best both for
profit and semelinesse.' The modern style of shooting the York Round,
&c., is the same as used in his days to be called shooting at pricks,
and his advice as to the manner of drawing cannot be much improved.

A few lines before the passage above quoted he says, 'And one thynge
commeth into my remembrance nowe, when I speake of drawynge, that I
never red of other kynde of shootynge, than drawing wyth a mans hand
either to the breste or eare.' This he says when referring to the
invention of cross-bows. But it is curious that to no writer on the
subject of archery it occurred that 'under the eye' might possibly be a
better direction for 'drawing' than either to the _breste_ or to the
_eare_. Yet so it is that until the first appearance of Mr. H. A. Ford's
'Theory and Practice of Archery' in 1855 there existed no intermediate
styles between the one, that was too low, and the other, which, though
in the opposite extreme, was then so highly regarded as the grand old
English style, that the author, though annually Champion since 1849,
must have been a bold man to give the first indication of the new, and
now almost universally admitted, best style for target-practice of
drawing '_to such a distance that the wrist of the right hand come to
about the level of the chin_,' and the level of the arrow shall be a
shade lower than that of the chin; its nock being in the vertical line
dropped from the right eye.

One of the main features of good _drawing_ is that the distance pulled
be precisely the same every time; that is to say, the same length of the
arrow must be drawn identically, whether this length be to the pile, or
any shorter distance. Unless this be unerringly accomplished with every
shot the _length_ must be more or less uncertain, since the power taken
out of the bow will be greater or less according to the longer or
shorter draw.

A great many devices have been tried and practised to make this exact
similarity in the distance drawn a matter of certainty, such as by
notching the end of the arrow, so that the left hand may feel it when
the right length of draw has been reached; or by touching some point of
the face, neck, or chin, collar, button, or other fixed point with some
part of the drawing hand. But it will be found infinitely better to
arrive at an exact repetition of the same action by careful practice
rather than by dodges, which may, however, be useful as experiments.
These mechanical devices are unlikely to have a beneficial result when
constantly in use, as, when the eye and mind are fixed and concentrated
(as they should be) on the aim, if anything occurs to distract either,
the loose is almost sure to become unequal.

The pile of the arrow should not be drawn on to the bow. It is far
better that no arrow be drawn further than exactly to the pile; and
every arrow should be longer, by at least as much as the pile, than the
archer's actual draw. The danger of overdrawing, in that the arrow at
the loose gets set inside the bow, to its own certain destruction and to
the bow's and the archer's infinite risk, is very considerable. Nothing
can be gained by the violation of this rule. In cases where a beginner
may be likely to overdraw, a string of the correct length to be drawn
may be tied between the bow string and the handle of the bow, which will
effectually prevent such an occurrence.

It is believed that all archers, good, bad, and indifferent, are (more
or less) constantly subject to one failing, namely, that in completing
the draw, after the aim is taken, a slightly different line to that
occupied by the arrow (if correctly aimed) is taken, instead of making
the line of finish (as they should do) an exact continuation of the
arrow's axis, dropping the right hand, or letting it incline to the
right, or both; the effect being to cast the arrow out of the direction
it had indicated, and by means of which the aim had been calculated.
Here nothing but the most minute attention and constant practice will
save the archer; but he must be prepared for participation in this
common failing, and it is one of which he will be often quite
unconscious, though the cause of his frequently missing the target. The
very best archer needs to bear constantly in mind the necessary
avoidance of this fault; for, however skilful he may be, however
experienced and practised a shot, he may be quite sure that it is one
into which he will be constantly in danger of falling. Failure in wind
is frequently caused more by this failing than by the effect of the wind
itself; for instance, the aim, perhaps, is designedly taken so as to
make some allowance for a side-wind, and then the loose is delivered as
if no allowance had been made. The difficulty all experience in shooting
correctly on a ground where the distant level is not horizontal is more
or less connected with this dangerous failing. Here, though the archer
be perfectly aware that the distance slopes, however slightly, one way
or the other to the correct horizon, yet at the instant of the loose he
will unconsciously overlook this, and expect to have his unfortunate
arrow travel in a plane vertical to the mock horizon instead of in a
really vertical plane such as it must travel in, unless diverted from it
by wind. Another way of accounting for this universal failing is that
there is an unconscious detection of error at the last moment, and a
convulsive attempt to correct this error before the completion of the
loose by altering the line of the loose. Every archer is strongly
advised, when he detects an error in the aim at the last moment that
cannot be corrected before the discharge except in the action of the
loose, to take down his arrow and begin the shooting of it afresh. The
capacity to do this, when needful, is an excellent test of nerve.

As far as possible the right hand must always be drawn identically to
the same point for all kinds of target-practice, whatever the distance
to be shot may be. To the left arm alone should be left the delicate
task of the elevation or depression necessary when a longer or a shorter
distance from the target is adopted. It will be obvious that when the
left hand is, according to this rule, higher or lower for the purpose of
shooting a longer or shorter distance the relative positions of the two
hands must vary from a greater to a less divergence from an horizontal
level between them, and this leads to a most important consideration in
the action of drawing, namely, the position of the right elbow. This,
being necessarily out of the archer's sight whilst aiming, is too
frequently forgotten, and a faulty weak position of the elbow is much
more easily contracted than cured. Treated as a mechanical contrivance
for drawing up an arrow, the only correct position of the right elbow
with reference to the arrow is that the arrow's axis should pass through
the point of the bent elbow, and in this position only can the archer
apply his full strength. Yet, probably from the fact that the elbow must
pass through positions of less advantage in the course of drawing before
the full draw is reached, it will be observed that many archers at the
loose have the elbow below the level of the arrow's axis; and not a few
have the elbow projecting forwards from the same axis. These faults are
believed to be the causes of the constant and otherwise unaccountable,
but most frequent, downfall of successful archers, generally attributed
to the failure of nerve. Yet the nerves cannot certainly be altogether
at fault, for the same archer, whose arrow takes its flight into its own
hands, when applied to target practice, can steadily draw and hold the
same arrow when it is not to be shot. It can doubtless be observed that
in such cases the arrow in the one case is drawn up with a faulty
wavering of the elbow, whilst in the other the elbow is brought steadily
into correct position. When a position of the elbow higher than the axis
of the arrow comes to be considered, it appears to partake of the
nature of an exaggerated virtue rather than a fault; is an assistance in
the earlier processes of drawing; and, when in excess though not
graceful, will probably cure itself. Much the same may be said of the
much less frequent fault of drawing the right elbow into a position
further back than the axis of the arrow. This can only be brought about
by overdrawing, and is seldom observable except in beginners who are
anxious 'to do all they know' with too long an arrow.

The treatment of the elbow of the bow-arm remains to be considered. Here
trouble is more likely to arise with beginners than in an archer's
after-career. If a beginner, in obedience to the instructions of Waring
and the older masters of the craft, hold out the bow-arm 'as straight as
possible' i.e. locked tight at the elbow, a sprain difficult to cure may
not unlikely be the result, and, at any rate, a vast deal of unnecessary
arm or armguard thrashing. On the other hand, a bent bow-arm, such as
may appear to be recommended in the earlier editions of this work, will
lead to but poor results if a bow equal to the archer's power be used.
Here again the best advice that can be given is to hit off the happy
mean between the too rigid arm and that which is too slack. Let the
bow-arm be straightened naturally as the strain of the loosing hand is
applied to it, and by careful drill each archer will arrive at a method
of rendering the recoil of the bow string harmless to the course of the
arrow as well as to a naked wrist, which, it is now almost universally
admitted, need not be brought into contact with the armguard.

A marked variation of the method of drawing has occasionally been
adopted, with considerable success, with weapons of light calibre. The
nocked arrow is placed horizontally a little below the shoulder-level.
The draw then commences with the extension of the bow-arm, whilst the
right hand and elbow take the position for loosing, the arrow being kept
all the time on the line of aim.

One not altogether uncommon distortion must be mentioned for careful
avoidance. This consists of a stiffening of the right wrist, with the
hand bent backwards, at the time the fingers are applied to the
bowstring. This antic of course cripples considerably the draw. The
action of the wrist should be quite free and unconstrained until the
commencement of the draw, and during the draw the back of the hand
should be kept as nearly as possible in the same line as the forearm.

The left shoulder requires most careful attention. It must not be
allowed to rise too high when the bow is drawn, nor to shrink inwards,
as it will sometimes do with beginners when using bows that are too
strong. Moreover, this shoulder must be kept so close to the line
between the bow and the right shoulder that it shall project neither
before nor behind that line.


FOOTNOTE:

[3] By 'drawing the arrow home' the full length of the arrow is not
necessarily intended, but so much of its length as each archer _should_
draw.



CHAPTER IX.

_AIMING_


The _aim_ is undoubtedly the most abstruse and scientific point
connected with the practice of archery. It is at the same time the most
difficult to teach and the most difficult to learn; and yet, of all
points, it is the most necessary to be taught. Upon the acquisition of a
correct method of aiming depends all permanently successful practice;
yet respecting this important point the most sublime ignorance prevails
amongst the uninitiated.

Unless the archer acquires a perfect understanding of the science of
aiming, an almost impassable barrier is presented to his progressing a
single step beyond the commonest mediocrity, whilst his interest in his
practice is increased tenfold as soon as he has discovered that hitting
or missing the object he aims at may be removed from the mysterious
condition of an unaccountable sympathy between the hand and eye to the
safer ground of positive knowledge.

It is perhaps quite natural that most beginners should assume that at
any rate as regards the application of their eyes to the shooting of
arrows they can have nothing to learn. Have they not had the full and
constant use of their eyes from their earliest infancy? and have not
these been with sufficient frequency applied in such a manner as must
secure the necessary qualifications for such a simple task as aiming
with bows and arrows? There cannot, surely, be any science wanted in the
use of weapons that any child can not only use but even make? Was it
ever necessary to take lessons in order to secure accuracy in throwing
stones? or can any amount of abstract study of optics contribute the
smallest improvement or finish to a bowler? So it is in this matter of
aiming that beginners, and still more those who are more advanced in
practice, seem most to resent interference and advice; partly because
they object to being told that they are making a wrong or incomplete use
of their own eyes--looking upon it as a direct accusation of folly--when
they feel that they must surely know better than their adviser all about
those useful members, which, though almost constantly in employ, have
never given any trouble, and have never even seemed to require any
training or education; and partly with the more advanced, who have met
with considerable success in hitting with their purblind (as it may be
called) method of aiming, because they fear to weaken their not wholly
complete _faith_[4] in their own system by admitting even the
possibility of a better. Thus in this matter of aiming it will be better
that the inexperienced archer should be referred to written instruction;
and whilst on the subject of instruction it should be thoroughly well
enforced that nothing is more unpleasant than the unsolicited
interference and advice of the officious busybody, and--particularly at
an archery meeting--no unasked advice or instruction should ever be
offered.

It need now be no matter of surprise that before the first appearance of
this work, in 1855, no writer on archery had been able to grapple
intelligently with the subject of aiming. When firearms first took the
place of bows and arrows as weapons of war and the chase, the firearms
themselves were so inaccurate that chance went almost, if not quite, as
far as science in the use of them. Their improvement was but slow and
gradual; and for the firing of them the invention of percussion instead
of flint and steel, which in its turn had displaced the original fuse,
belongs to quite modern times. The neglected bows and arrows naturally
gained no improvement; yet, until the invention of rifling firearms,
bows and arrows, except for the greater inherent difficulty in the use
of them, might have had a better chance to hold their own against Brown
Bess and the bullet (it was commonly believed that it cost the
expenditure of about a ton of lead to kill a single enemy in battle) had
aiming with them been well understood. It cannot be doubted that many an
archer (besides those who converted their knuckles into pincushions, and
resorted to other dodges) must have hit upon an intelligent method of
aiming for himself in early times; but such early experts must have
resorted to the expedient of getting the arrow under the eye by pulling
low, and would have to bear the withering scorn of all their brethren,
who blindly upheld that the grand old English style of aiming from the
ear was alone worthy of a man; and such despised experts would be most
likely to keep their better knowledge to themselves for the same selfish
but valid reason that Kentfield the inventor of the side-stroke in
billiards, kept his own counsel as long as he could; and also because
any crusade having as its object the deposition of the pull to the ear
in favour of the pull to the breast must always have proved quixotic. So
it came about that Mr. H. A. Ford was the first who, after five or six
years of successful practice and many diligent and careful experiments
conducted in combination with Mr. J. Bramhall, braved the danger of
being anathematised as a heretic for daring to impugn the dear old
legend of the 'pull to the ear,' and preached in favour of a style of
shooting that brought the arrow as directly under the archer's eye as is
the barrel of a rifle in the hands of a marksman, without resorting to
the justly condemned style of pulling as low as the breast.

Much about the same time great improvements were effected in firearms,
which brought the accuracy of rifles much closer to perfection. The
Volunteer movement, followed by the establishment of the annual
Wimbledon rifle meeting, at which a Ross (then an illustrious name) was
the first Queen's Prizeman in 1860, brought the scientific practice of
aiming to a pitch of perfection that had never previously been dreamed
of. Thus it will be seen that archery was not behind firearms in
scientific advancement.

It is stated in 'Scloppetaria'--a scarce book on the rifle, published by
Colonel Beaufoy in 1812--that 'as the deflection from the original line
of flight was an inconvenience from which arrows were not found so
liable as bodies projected from firearms, it naturally led to an inquiry
how that could arise. The prominent feature of an arrow's flight is to
spin with considerable velocity all the time of its flight, and
therefore attention was directed towards attaining the same advantage
for firearms'; and it is not without interest to notice that the modern
rifle is thus directly derived from the clothyard shaft.

The improvement of the conical bullet is a later offspring of the same
ancient missile.

An archer holds an intermediate position between a sportsman, who, in
his attacks upon moving game, must waste no time in taking aim, and a
rifleman, who, even in a standing position, can use the utmost
deliberation. If he be as quick as the sportsman he will increase the
difficulty of reproducing with each discharge exactly the same accuracy
of pull and position. He must not be too hesitatingly slow, or he will
spoil his bows and involve himself in unnecessary toil. Further, the
rifleman has plenty of leisure to close the eye with which he does not
aim; and such closing assists, and in no way hinders, his taking his
aim, by bringing the bead at the end of his weapon and the mechanical
sight by which the 'length' (distance from the target) is compassed to
bear upon the centre of the target, or such other point at some trifling
distance from it as the conditions of wind or weather may command;
whilst the sportsman, whose weapon cannot be sighted for all the
different distances at which the game he fires at may be from himself,
must keep both eyes open, so that he may be better able to calculate
distances and attend to such other surrounding circumstances as with the
then more perfect indirect vision he will be able to do, taking in a
much wider field than can be obtained when one eye only is open.

In the cases of the comparatively few archers who have but one eye, or
where, from the natural but not unfrequent difference in the two eyes,
one only is habitually used in aiming, the following considerations of
binocular vision can have but an abstract interest. The binocular
difficulties, moreover, will not occur to those archers who have
acquired the habit of closing one eye whilst aiming. But the habitual
closing of the non-aiming eye is not recommended, for the reason that
any archer in full use of both eyes can much more readily and clearly
watch the flight of his arrow towards the mark with both eyes open.
There is as much enjoyment to be obtained by following the course of a
well-shot arrow as there is necessity for watching the errors of those
that fly amiss that the causes of such errors may if possible be
avoided.

But before the demonstration of the true and only scientific mode of
aiming can be proceeded with, a few words must be said on the subject of
_direct_ and _indirect vision_.

When both eyes are directed upon the observation of any single
object--say the centre of the gold of the target at 100 yards--the axes
of the eyes meet at that point, and all parts of the eyes having perfect
correspondence as regards that point, the sensation of perfect vision is
given, i.e. the best and most accurate image that can be obtained on the
retinæ of the point to which the entire attention of both eyes is
directed. But at the same time there are images formed on the retinæ, of
other objects nearer (those more distant need not be considered) than
this point, and to the right and left of it, as well as above and below
it; and all such objects are included within the attention of indirect
vision. The exact correspondence of the images formed on the two retinæ
applies only to the point of direct vision, and the images of all other
objects--i.e. the objects of indirect vision--are differently portrayed
on each retina. Any object embraced in this indirect vision will be seen
less or more distinctly according to its remoteness or otherwise from
one or other of the axes in any part of its length; and it will be, or
at any rate naturally should be, clearest to the indirect vision of that
eye to the axis of which it most approximates.

Now, in aiming with an arrow, to arrive at anything like certainty,
it is necessary to have in view three things, namely, the mark to be
hit (the gold of the target); the arrow, as far as possible in its
whole line and length (otherwise its real future course cannot be
appreciated); and the point of aim.

It may be well to explain here that by the _point of aim_ is meant the
spot which the point of the arrow appears to cover. This spot, with the
bow, is seldom identical with the centre of the gold, or if it be so
with any individual archer at one particular distance, it will not be so
at other distances, because the arrow has no adjusting sights such as
are provided to assist the aim with a rifle. As an example, let it be
supposed that an archer is shooting in a side-wind, say at 80 yards, and
that this distance is to him that particular one where, in calm weather,
the point of his arrow and the gold are identical for the purposes of
aiming. It is clear that, if he _now_ treat them so, the effect of the
wind will carry his arrow to the right or left of the mark according to
the side from which it blows. He is therefore obliged to aim on one side
of his mark, and the point of his arrow consequently covers a spot other
than the target's centre. And this other spot in this instance is to him
his _point of aim_. Under the parallel circumstances of a long range
and a side-wind the rifle will be found subject to the same rule.

Now it will be understood that it is necessary for the archer to embrace
within his vision the gold, the point of aim, and the true line in which
the arrow is directed.

_Direct vision_ can only be applied to one object at a time, and as
direct vision should be applied as little as possible to the arrow
during the aim, it has to be shown in what way the arrow must be held in
order that the archer may, by means of his _indirect vision_, clearly
appreciate the _true line_ in which it points at the time of aiming. The
discussion as to whether the gold or the point of aim shall be the
object of direct vision may be postponed for the present.

Now it may be positively asserted as an incontrovertible axiom in
archery that this true line cannot be correctly appreciated by the
shooter unless the arrow lie, in its whole length, directly beneath the
axis of the aiming eye. This is most confidently maintained, in spite of
the fact that the strongest, the most deliberate, and the most
successful archer of the present day systematically keeps his arrow a
trifle outside his right eye. It must be remembered that Ascham ordains
that '_good mennes faultes are not to be followed_.'

The indirect vision of both eyes can never be used here, for if it were,
according to the law of optics, two arrows would be seen; but this is
never the case with the habitual shooter--though both his eyes be open,
habit, and the wonderful adapting power of the eye, preventing such an
untoward effect equally well as (nay, better than) if the second eye be
closed. To state this more correctly: an expert archer with both eyes
open is in the same condition with two similar eyes as a person who,
with imperfect sight, habitually wears a spy-glass to improve the sight
of the one eye, with which improved eye alone he sees, to the complete
neglect of all that is taken in by the other eye, though constantly
open. Those who have shot both right- and left-handed--and there are
not a few such--can answer for it that, though a different indirect
vision of the arrow is observed with each eye, either can at will be
used without any inconvenience arising from the unnecessary presence of
the other. Another unusual exception may here be mentioned of a style of
aiming which, though eminently successful through a good many years in
the case of a Championess, cannot be recommended for imitation.

She kept her direct vision only on the point of her arrow, thus seeing
the nock end of the arrow gradually diverging from its point towards
each eye by indirect vision, and also by indirect vision seeing two
targets, or two sets of targets, from which she had to select the
correct one to secure the right direction for the loose. Many archers
close the non-aiming eye, and it will be well for all beginners to do so
to avoid a very possible trouble, in the case of an archer whose
non-aiming eye is the best and most used of the two, of this better eye
officiously interfering to do wrong what its neighbour only can do
right.

But to return to the statement that the arrow in its whole length must
lie directly beneath the axis of the aiming eye, which is now assumed to
be the right eye, as it is so in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred.
From fig. 40 it will appear that it must be so, because otherwise the
shooter will be deceived as to the true line it has to take; for so long
as the point of the arrow touches the axis of the aiming eye, the arrow
may appear to that eye to be pointing in a straight line to the object
looked at, though really directed far away to the right or left of it,
as shown in fig. 41; where the arrow CB, though really pointing in the
directions _b_CE, may, through touching the axis of the eye from B to D
at C, falsely appear to the archer to be aimed at the object D.

(In figs. 40 to 43 the distances between A and B are supposed to
represent the possible two inches or so between the two eyes, and the
distances between A and D and B and D to be not less than fifty yards.)

[Illustration: FIG. 40, FIG. 41.

    A B, the two eyes.
    B, the aiming eye.
    C, the arrow.
    D, the object _directly_ looked at.
    A D and B D, the axes of the eyes.
    E, false point of aim.]

[Illustration: FIG. 42, FIG. 43.

    A B, the two eyes.
    A, the aiming eye.
    C, the arrow.
    D, the object directly looked at.
    A D and B D, the axes of the eyes.
    E, false point of aim.]

For instance: suppose the archer to be shooting at such a distance that
his point of aim is included in the gold; he of course will bring the
point of his arrow to bear upon it, just as a rifleman would his sights;
that is, the point will touch the axis of the aiming eye. But if the
arrow itself be inclined, say to the right of the axis (as in the pull
to the ear it would be), it will fly away some distance to the left of
the object looked at. And the converse of this will be true also; for if
it incline to the left of the axis it will then fly off to the right;
the archer in these cases being in the position of a marksman who
instead of keeping his foresight in a line with his backsight has
deliberately adjusted the aperture of his backsight to the right or left
of the bead at the muzzle of his weapon with reference to the object
aimed at.

An example that came within Mr. Ford's personal knowledge will afford a
perfect illustration, and will be useful for the possible solution of
similar cases. An archer had shot for many years, but invariably found
that if ever his arrow pointed (as it seemed to him) in a straight line
with the centre of the target it persistently flew off to the left of it
five or six yards, even at the short distances (see fig. 43, where the
arrow BC, though pointing in the direction BE, appeared to the shooter
to be aimed at D). He was therefore obliged to make an allowance and to
point his arrow that much to the right (see fig. 42, where the arrow BC,
though pointed straight to D, appeared to the archer to be pointing in
the direction AE). In vain he sought a solution of this anomaly. All
could tell him that there was something faulty; but, as everything in
his style and mode of action appeared correct, that something remained a
mystery, until it was ultimately discovered that, though the arrow was
held directly beneath the axis of the _right_ eye (this being also
open), this archer actually used his _left_ eye to aim with. It will be
readily seen why the discrepancy existed between his aim and the flight
of his arrow, the fact being that the arrow did not appear to the
shooter to be pointing towards the object at D until it touched the
axis of his left eye, and consequently not until its direction pointed
far away to the left of the mark (see fig. 43). On closing the left eye
the direction of the arrow's flight and the aim coincided, because the
eye beneath whose axis the arrow lay became the eye with which the aim
was taken.

As to whether the _direct_ vision should be applied to the mark to be
hit or to the _point of aim_, the argument is all in favour of the
latter. For the point of aim must of necessity be in relation to the
mark--either in the same vertical line with it or outside that line. If
outside, then the direct vision must certainly be upon the point of aim;
otherwise the arrow cannot lie directly beneath the axis of the aiming
eye, which has already been shown to be necessary. Therefore the only
question remaining to be decided is, When the _mark_ falls in the same
vertical line with the _point of aim_, which of the two should be
_directly_ looked at? Here again an argument can be adduced to determine
the choice in favour of the latter; for when the point of aim is above
the mark the latter will be hidden from the right or aiming eye by the
necessary raising of the left or bow hand, as may be easily proved by
the closing of the left eye; therefore the direct vision cannot be
applied to the mark, though it may be applied to the point of aim. There
now remains but one case, namely, when the point of aim falls below the
mark, but in the same vertical line with it; and here (though either of
them may in this case be regarded with the direct vision) as no
reasoning or argument can be adduced for violating or departing from the
rule shown to be necessary in the other cases; and as it is easier to
view the point of aim directly and the mark indirectly than the
contrary, because the point of aim will necessarily lie between the mark
and the arrow's axis; and as uniformity of practice is highly desirable,
the application of direct vision to the point of aim in every case is
most strongly recommended. This teaching was quite contrary to that
taught by all the old-fashioned writers, who maintained that the eye, or
eyes, should be kept always intently fixed upon the mark to be hit. It
is probable that even those archers who imagine that they regard
directly the mark only, do so only in the case when the mark and the
point of aim coincide (which with each archer may be called his
_point-blank_[5] range); and this is analogous to all rifle practice,
where from any cause allowance must be made.

It must be borne in mind that all these remarks apply only to target
lengths. As regards aiming at very long distances, when the mark and the
point of aim are too far apart to be sufficiently seen in conjunction,
no scientific principle can be laid down for the guidance of an archer.
Practice alone will give him a knowledge of the power of his bow, and
the angle of elevation required to throw up the arrow as far as the
mark. If the distance to be shot be a known and a fixed one-for
instance, two hundred yards--the necessary calculations are more or less
attainable; but the great distance renders the result so uncertain as to
prevent anything approaching to the accuracy of aim attainable at the
customary target distances. If the mark be a varying and uncertain one,
as in Roving, the archer is entirely dependent upon his judgment of
distances. This sort of shooting, though very interesting, must be
attended with a great amount of uncertainty; but, as in every other
case, the more judicious practice be applied the greater will be the
success.

No hard-and-fast rules can be laid down for deciding where the point of
aim ought to be at any particular distance, as this is dependent upon a
great variety of circumstances--as strength of bows, and the sharpness
and dulness of their cast, heavy or light arrows, a quick or sluggish
loose, and the varying force of different winds. One archer will find
his point-blank range at 120 yards, whilst another can get a point-blank
aim on the target, at 60 yards even, by raising his loosing hand so
high that the angle between the axis of his aiming eye and the axis
of the arrow is very small. It is now many years ago since two
toxophilites, using bows of about fifty pounds in weight, with
five-shilling arrows of the old-fashioned manner of feathering, and
employing the same position (about three inches below the chin) of the
right hand for the loose at each of the three usual distances of 100,
80, and 60 yards, found that the point of aim at 100 yards was about the
target's diameter (4 feet) above the target, whilst the point of aim at
80 yards was about the same measure below the target, and the point of
aim at 60 yards was at a spot about fifteen paces from the shooter.

It would have been highly interesting if Mr. H. A. Ford, who was always
most faithful to his own dogma that the loosing hand must be brought to
the same position at the loose, had published some account of his own
points of aim, which must have had a very wide range of variation from
those of his best period, when he was using 56 lb. bows, and arrows 29
inches in length, up to the time of his last appearance as Champion, in
1867 at Brighton, when, with weak bows and light arrows, his score was
1,037, with 215 hits.

The late ingenious Mr. James Spedding, who always touched some button on
his coat-collar with his loosing hand, contrived a '_sight_' upon his
bow, which obviated the necessity of a point of aim. This was a bright
metal bead such as is at the muzzle of a gun. This at the upper end of a
slight metal rod (in fact, a bright-headed pin), and fitted into a
groove added to the back of the bow (in which it could at will be
lowered or raised), gave him a point of aim on the centre of the target
at distances where his natural (may it be called?) point of aim would
have been beneath the target. With this contrivance, the slightest
variation in the slope of the bow distorted the aim.

The American contrivance of the _peep-sight_ is a very minute
instrument, with a still smaller aperture. This is shifted up and down
the bowstring, and, when correctly adjusted, the aiming eye should just
catch sight of the centre of the target through the aperture. This
instrument is confessedly useless except for very weak bows, and the
smallest trembling even would put it off the aim, and blind, as it were,
the aiming eye.

An Irish shot, the late Captain Whitla, succeeded in getting his aim on
the target at all the three distances by varying the strength and cast
of his bows, using his best and strongest at 100 yards, then one that
was slower and weaker at 80 yards, and trusting himself to a slug like a
broomstick at 60 yards.

Another archer (with the same bow at all distances) got his aim upon the
target when shooting at 100 yards by touching with the thumb of his
right hand about the position of the right collar-bone. When shooting at
80 yards he got his aim again on the target by raising his hand so high
that his thumb, now coiled up and close to the root of the first finger,
with its top joint touched beneath the chin. And at 60 yards he still
obtained an aim on the target by raising the loosing hand higher, so
that the same point of the thumb touched the right corner of his mouth.
It is believed that in this case the gradual contraction of the angle
between the axis of the eye and of the arrow led to a shorter draw at
the nearer distances.

One class of archers, though implied in previous discussions, should
also be treated separately, as they may be more in number than is
generally supposed, namely, those who, because the left eye is the best
of the two, or, from constant and incurable habit, aim with the left
eye, though shooting, as it is called, right-handed, i.e. holding the
bow in the left hand. Such archers should, if the peculiarity be
detected in time, be recommended to shoot with the bow in the right
hand. Possibly more than one most promising archer has been kept on the
top rung but one of the ladder of fame by trying to force his weaker
right eye to do the work that might have been much better done by the
left one. It has also been already explained that, where physical
peculiarities admit it, this right-handed shooting with the left eye
gives the archer a slight mechanical advantage, as the divergence from
the line of force may be thus contracted.

To conclude the subject of aiming, it is not pretended that shutting one
eye and aiming with the other is wrong, but that it is better, though
occasionally closing one eye for experiments, to use the other eye for
aiming with, the one being diligently trained to keep in the background,
attending solely to its own subordinate functions.


FOOTNOTES:

[4] It must have been from the absence of this complete faith that the
celebrated archer mentioned by Montaigne in his seventeenth chapter was
constrained to decline the offer made to him when condemned to die, that
'to save his life he should exhibit some notable proof of his art; but
he refused to try, fearing lest the too great contention of his will
should make him shoot wide, and that, instead of saving his life, he
should also lose the reputation he had got of being a good marksman.'
And again in the case of Tell the same scarcity of faith became apparent
from his securing in his quiver that second quasi-historical arrow.

[5] 'Point-blank' can have no other meaning in Archery.



CHAPTER X.

_OF HOLDING AND LOOSING_


HOLDING.

By _holding_ is meant keeping the arrow fully drawn before it is loosed.
Ascham has made this his fourth point of archery; and but little can be
added to what he has said on the subject. 'Holding,' he says, 'must not
be longe, for it bothe putteth a bowe in ieopardy, and also marreth a
man's shoote; it must be so lytle yat it may be perceyued better in a
man's mynde when it is done, than scene with a man's eyes when it is in
doyng.' This represents so exactly what holding, at its best, should be,
that it needs only be added that this almost imperceptible pause before
the act of loosing serves to steady the arm and perfect the aim, and is
a great assistance to the obtaining of a certain and even loose. It is
therefore, in company with the other points of archery, most necessary
to be cultivated if successful hitting is to be the result. But let no
archer think to arrive at this perfection of holding by grasping his bow
as tight as he possibly can from first to last. The grasp should be
gradually tightened as the strain of the draw is increased; otherwise
too much toil is given to the bow-hand, and it will fail in the loose.
One very successful shot had so many faults that his success was always
a surprise; yet he had this invariable virtue, that, though it was
obvious that he held his bow quite loosely during the draw, at the final
pause his grasp was visibly tightened most firmly.

Mention should not be omitted of the sadly false conception many
archers have of holding when fully drawn. This they exhibit by
constantly letting the arrow creep out whilst they appear to be taking
aim, as though they were quite incapable of checking its impatience to
be off. This is a most dangerous fault, and must be most carefully
guarded against.

[Illustration: MAJOR C. H. FISHER, CHAMPION ARCHER FOR THE YEARS
1871-2-3-4.]


LOOSING.

After the bow has been drawn up to its proper extent, and the aim
correctly taken, there still remains one more point which the archer
must achieve successfully before he can ensure the correct and desired
flight of his arrow to its mark; and this is the point of _loosing_,
which term is applied to the act of quitting or freeing the string from
the fingers of the right hand which retain it. It is the last of
Ascham's famous 'Quintette,' wherein, though he does not say much, yet
what he does say is so much to the point that it may well be quoted. 'It
must be so quycke and hard yet it be wyth oute all guides, so softe and
gentle that the shafte flye not as it were sente out of a bow case. The
meane betwixt bothe, whyche is the perfyte lowsynge, is not so hard to
be folowed in shootynge as it is to be descrybed in the teachyng. For
cleane lowsynge you must take hede of hyttynge anythynge aboute you. And
for the same purpose Leo the Emperour would haue al archers in war to
haue both theyr heades pouled and there berdes shauen, lest the heare of
theyr heades should stop the syght of the eye, the heere of theyr berdes
hinder the course of the strynge.'

This loosing is the archer's crowning difficulty; for no matter how
correct and perfect may be all the rest of his performance, the result
will infallibly prove a failure, and end in disappointment, unless the
loose also be successfully mastered. Upon this the flight of the arrow
mainly depends, and to how great an extent this may be affected by it
may be gathered from the fact that the same bow with a like weight of
arrow and length of pull will cast many yards further in the hands of
one man than it will in those of another, owing solely and entirely to
the different manner in which the string shall have been quitted.

No arguments are necessary to prove how delicate an operation it is in
archery to loose well, and to accomplish, with the evenness, smoothness,
and unvarying similarity necessary for accurate hitting, the
consummating effort, including as it does on the one side of an instant
the greatest exertion of muscles that on the other side of that instant
are in perfect repose. But considerable misapprehension exists amongst
archers as to what is a good loose, it being often thought that if an
extreme sharpness of flight be communicated to the arrow, it is
conclusive evidence as to the goodness of the loose, without reference
to the consideration that this extreme sharpness of loose seldom
produces steadily successful hitting at any distance, and still less
frequently is effective at all the distances. A thoroughly good loose
cannot exist unless accuracy of hitting as well as keenness of flight be
the combined result; and if the two cannot be obtained together, a
slower flight with accuracy rises immeasurably superior to the rapid
flight with uncertainty.

The flight of an arrow keenly loosed is as fair to view as that of any
bird, whilst the flight of an arrow that is badly loosed is as
uninteresting as the staggerings of a drunken man. This is quite apart
from the consideration of hitting the object aimed at; but when the
question resolves itself into this practical form--'Is it possible for
the same mode of loosing to give the utmost rapidity of flight and at
the same time certainty of line and elevation?'--the consensus of
experience should be in the negative. There is no denying that a few
successive arrows may be shot accurately in this way, but during any
prolonged period the inaccuracy of flight is sure to be such as to
render the average shooting inferior. The difficulty, amounting almost
to an impossibility, of obtaining a loose which shall combine great
sharpness and accuracy of flight at the same time arises from the fact
that such a loose requires, to obtain that sharpness, that the fingers
of the right hand be snatched away from the string with such suddenness
and rapidity as to compromise the second quality of accuracy--such a
sudden jerk of the string endangering the steadiness of the left arm at
the final moment, and, by its unavoidable irregularity, not only having
a tendency to drag the string and consequently the arrow out of the
proper line of flight, but also simultaneously to vary the elevation.
Excepting for long-distance shooting, then, a very sharp loose cannot be
recommended; nevertheless, in case he may be at any time engaged
therein, the archer perfect at all points should have it under his
command.

The different looses may now be divided into the _slashing_ loose, which
may degenerate into the snatch or may be improved into the steady
_continuous_ loose. The chief contrast to this is the _dead_ loose,
which in strong hands is very useful. This consists of the simple
opening of the fingers for the escape of the string, and is liable to
degenerate into the _creeping_ loose, which need not be further referred
to except for the purpose of again urging its avoidance. Another loose,
which may be called an _active_ loose, is an appreciable improvement
upon the dead loose in that the fingers at the loosing instant are
withdrawn from the string, though without any further draw, and will be
found, after the escape of the string, to have resumed their previous
position--i.e. curled up instead of being sprawled out straight as is
the case in the dead loose. The only remaining loose may be called the
_lively_ loose, and consists of a short and quick additional draw, after
the aim has been taken, of say from half an inch to three inches, and
finished with an _active_ loose, and care must be taken to prevent the
degeneration of this into a snatch.

Before the final treatment of the loose be entered upon, it will be
useful to consider how the different sorts of shooting-gloves and
finger-tips affect this intricate operation. Doubtless in the times when
the English archer was in such high repute in battle, the only loose
suitable to the old glove was the _slash_, as the only method of
quitting the string, which, with the strongest bow each individual could
use, must, for the longest pull on such bow, have been gripped as close
as possible to the inside of the knuckles of the last joints of the two
or three fingers used. No other loose could be employed with any chance
of obtaining full results from the work done, and it is evident from the
Acts of Parliament on the subject that in the archer's drill none but
long-distance shooting was countenanced. The comparatively modern
finger-tips or thimbles connected by straps at the back of the hand and
buckled on round the wrist must have been used with the same slashing
sort of loose. But, with the old tab made of horse-butt leather, and all
the different neatly-fitting tips with catches that have been invented
long since the commencement of the public meetings at which York Rounds
are shot, a much steadier and quieter loose may be obtained without
wasting any of the work done; but, it must be admitted, with the general
result that there is some slight decrease in the average strength of the
bows that are used now. Moreover, it has been found that in the
closely-contested matches of the present times the slashing sort of
loose stands at a positive disadvantage at the shorter ranges.

[Illustration: FIG. 46.]

With the glove and tab and tips without catches the best loose may be
obtained with the fingers extended as far as is compatible with the
retention of the string; and, by applying the fingers almost diagonally
to the string, a very firm grip is secured combined with much facility
of liberation (fig. 46, p. 128). With the help of catches on the tips
the string can be taught to rest at any intermediate point on the last
joint or third phalanx of either of the fingers--it will be found more
convenient here to use the word _phalanx_ for each part of the finger,
each finger having three phalanges, first, second, and third--and the
most entirely different hold on the string to the one previously
described is that where the fingers are almost completely curled up
(fig. 45); with an _active_ or _lively_ loose the string may be very
sharply quitted with this hold, but it is more liable to strain the
fingers, unless the bow be weak, and the high-set catch, though more
popular twenty years ago, is now very little used. With a strong common
glove and all four fingers on the string, this extreme position has been
known to contribute to first-rate scores at all the distances, and it is
probably the necessary position when four fingers are used.

[Illustration: FIG. 45.]

The intermediate position between these two extremes will probably be
found the best, and this may be thus described.

The third phalanx of the middle finger should be as nearly as possible
at right angles with the line of the drawn-up arrow.

The second phalanx will make an obtuse angle with the third, and the
first about the same obtuse angle with the second; and these obtuse
angles will vary in individual instances according to the stiffness or
suppleness of the finger-joints.

The back of the hand will incline slightly away from the line through
the forearm, so that the line from the elbow through the wrist may be
quite straight with the same line continued through the wrist to the
position of the string on the fingers at A. The positions of the
phalanges of the first and third fingers will vary from those of the
second finger, as shown in fig. 44.

[Illustration: FIG. 44.]

This position of the string across the fingers should be neither too
near to nor too far from the tips, as too great a grip necessitates a
drag or a jerk to free the fingers, besides exposing more surface to the
friction of the string in passing over it; whilst an insufficient hold
of the string weakens the shooter's command over it, and renders the
giving way of the finger a constant occurrence. It is therefore
recommended that the string be placed as nearly as possible midway
between the tips and first joints of the fingers.

Now a good loose may be described as possessing the characteristic that
the fingers do not go forward one hair's breadth with the string, but
their action is, as it were, a continuance of the draw rather than an
independent movement, yet accompanied with just enough additional
muscular action in a direction away from the bow and simultaneous
expansion of the last joints of the fingers at the final instant of
quitting the string as to admit of its instantaneous freedom from all
and each of them at the same identical moment of time; for should one
finger linger on the string but the minutest moment longer than its
fellows, or should all or any of them follow forward with the string in
the slightest degree, the loose will be faulty and the shot a probable
failure. So slight, however, is this muscular movement that, though a
distinct and appreciable fact to the mind of the shooter, it is hardly
if at all perceptible to the lookers-on, as in a good loose the fingers
should instantly recover their holding position, but will be at a slight
though appreciable distance further from the bow consequent upon the
combined effect of the removal of the pulling weight of the bow and the
loosing effort. A passage out of Mr. Townsend's article, 'How should the
String be Loosed,' in the 'Archer's Register for 1866-7,' may here be
quoted. 'The string of the bow having been pulled to the fullest extent
intended, and the pause having been felt or made, next comes the loose;
and, as this _must be effected by an opening of the fingers_, the
tendency of the string would be to run forward, if ever so little,
during the opening; and, as the whole spring [cast] of the bow is not
given to the string [and arrow] until it is altogether freed from the
fingers, so, to prevent [the] loss of power, the pulling hand and arm
are drawn so much further back, as the opening of the fingers would
allow the string to run forward before it is altogether released. Thus
the string in reality remains stationary or nearly so [quite so] during
the loose; and the fingers are freed without going one hair's breadth
forward with the string.'

As an assistance towards this instantaneous recovery of the loosing
fingers, some archers wore silver rings round the first phalanges of
their three fingers, and these rings were connected by india-rubber
straps with the finger-tips, thus compelling the first and third
phalanges to approximate, as described in the _Mason_ tips.

Mr. Townsend's 'india-rubber practising apparatus' has not been seen for
many years, though of great assistance in experiments and in correcting
faults and general improvement of drawing and loosing.

Some archers use only the first and second fingers, and the loose thus
obtained possesses the advantage that the string when quitting the
fingers has less surface in contact with it.

Mr. Ford's own latest loose was from the first and third fingers, with
the second finger packed upon the back of the first finger for its
support; and he has been heard to declare that this arrangement of the
fingers gives the best loose possible, as already described.

One of the commonest faults at the present day is the habit of making
the third finger do more than its fair share of work. Evidence of this
failing may be found in the fact that blisters are far more common on
the third finger than on either of the others, and a frequent result is
that the muscles of the third finger get strained and even partially
torn from their attachments. This is one of the most frequent causes of
the breakdown of archers who practise much. This may be avoided and the
loose much improved by turning the backs of the fingers while drawing
slightly upwards, and inwards, and thus exerting more pressure with the
forefinger. An example of what is meant may be seen in the picture (opp.
p. 122) of Major Fisher, whose loose is remarkably good. Here it will be
seen that the line of the knuckles is not perpendicular, but slopes
outwards and downwards from the knuckle of the forefinger to that of the
fourth.

The utility of catches on the finger-tips has already been explained in
a previous chapter, but may be further mentioned in connection with the
loose as contributing by an invariable hold on the string to a constant
repetition of exactly the same loose.

Especial care must be taken that, whilst loosing, the left arm must
maintain its position firmly and unwaveringly, and must not give way at
the final moment in the slightest degree in the direction towards the
right hand, as arrows constantly dropping short are the certain
consequence of any such shrinking of the bow-arm--the same injurious
effect being produced on their flight as when the fingers of the right
hand are allowed to go forward with the string. This yielding of the
left arm is of more constant occurrence than archers will generally
admit, and is the cause of many an arrow, otherwise correctly treated,
missing its mark. This failing is not unfrequently the result of too
much practice. All must be firm to the last, and the attention of the
shooter should never be relaxed for a single instant until the arrow has
actually left the bow. But, though this firmness be necessary for the
shooting of an arrow it is not necessary, however satisfactory the
result or good the attitude, to remain for some seconds in rivalry with
the Apollo Belvedere; the bow-arm should, if possible, be instantly and
quietly moved to the left whilst the next arrow is procured from the
quiver or whilst the shooting station is given up to the next in order;
and this leftward motion of the left arm will correct the very general
tendency there is to throw the upper horn of the bow to the right and
downwards convulsively, which is a very frequent and unsightly antic.
Many of the other objectionable antics already referred to are brought
to perfection at this instant, and should also be most carefully
avoided.



CHAPTER XI.

_OF DISTANCE SHOOTING, AND DIFFERENT ROUNDS_.


The attention may now be turned to the results obtained by the use of
the bow and arrow.

The best notion of the old practice of archery may be gained from a
review of the ancient butts or shooting-fields of our ancestors. These
shooting-grounds were evidently attached to every town (if not also
village) in the kingdom, as may be gathered from the universal survival
of the local name of Butts. There is extant 'A plan of all the marks
belonging to the Honourable Artillery Company in the fields near
Finsbury, with the true distance as they stood, Anno 1737, for the use
of long-bows, cross-bows, hand guns, and artillery.' These marks all
have different appellations, and there is but one single instance of a
repetition of the same distance between one of these marks and the
other.

The ground on which these marks were situated appears to extend from a
mark called _Castle_[6] to _Islington Common_, and there were two sets
of actual butts at the Islington end. The distance between the one pair
of these butts is given as six score and ten yards--i.e. 130 yards. The
distance between the other pair is not given in the plan, but it appears
to be less than half of the other, and is probably about sixty yards.
The whole length of these shooting-fields appears to be about one mile
on the plan; and this is about the actual distance between the Artillery
Ground and the 'Angel,' Islington. The longest distance between any of
the two marks is thirteen score and five yards--i.e. 265 yards--between
Turk's Whale and Absoly. Here follow the names of the marks; and these
may possibly be still traced in the neighbourhood in some instances. The
distances are also given.

The start is made from 'Castle.'

  +-------------------------------------------+-------------+-------+
  |                                           | Score yards | Yards |
  +-------------------------------------------+-------------+-------+
  | From Castle to Gard stone                 |     9·5     |  185  |
  |   "  Gard stone to Arnold                 |    10·0     |  200  |
  |   "  Arnold to Turk's Whale               |     8·4     |  164  |
  |   "  Turk's Whale to Lambeth              |     3·13    |   73  |
  |   "  Lambeth to Westminster Hall          |    11·7     |  227  |
  |   "  Westminster Hall to White Hall       |    11·2     |  222  |
  |   "  White Hall to Pitfield               |     7·17    |  157  |
  |   "  Pitfield[7] to Nevil's House or      |             |       |
  |               'Rosemary Branch'           |     9·17    |  197  |
  |                                           +-------------+-------+
  |                     Total yards           |             | 1425  |
  +-------------------------------------------+-------------+-------+

At 'Nevil's House' there appears to be a break in the marks, but they
are taken up again at the 'Levant.'

  +-------------------------------------------+-------------+-------+
  |                                           | Score yards | Yards |
  +-------------------------------------------+-------------+-------+
  | From the Levant to Welch Hall             |     8·18    |  178  |
  |   "  Welch Hall to Butt (1)               |    11·11    |  231  |
  |   "  Butt(1) to Butt(2) on Islington      |             |       |
  |          Common                           |     6·18    |  138  |
  | And, on going back to Welch Hall,         |             |       |
  |          from Welch Hall to Egg-Pye       |    10·10    |  210  |
  |                                           +-------------+-------+
  |                     Total yards           |             |  757  |
  +-------------------------------------------+-------------+-------+

Here there is another break.

To continue the round of the marks on the return journey without going
over the same distance twice, return to Pitfield.

  +-------------------------------------------+-------------+-------+
  |                                           | Score yards | Yards |
  +-------------------------------------------+-------------+-------+
  | From Pitfield to Bob Peek                 |    11·3     |  223  |
  |   "  Bob Peek to Old Absoly               |     8·12    |  172  |
  |   "  Old Absoly to Pitfield               |    10·16    |  216  |
  |   "  Pitfield to Edw. Gold                |     6·11    |  131  |
  |   "  Edw. Gold to Jehu                    |     9·9     |  189  |
  |   "  Jehu to Old Absoly                   |     8·17    |  177  |
  |   "  Old Absoly to Scarlet                |     9·11    |  191  |
  |   "  Scarlet to Edw. Gold                 |     7·2     |  142  |
  |   "  Edw. Gold to White Hall              |    12·2     |  242  |
  |   "  White Hall to Scarlet                |    12·2     |  242  |
  |   "  Scarlet to Jehu                      |     4·2     |   82  |
  |   "  Jehu to Blackwell Hall               |     9·18    |  198  |
  |   "  Blackwell Hall to Scarlet            |     9·6     |  186  |
  |   "  Scarlet to Star or Dial              |     9·14    |  194  |
  |   "  Star or Dial to White Hall           |     7·0     |  140  |
  |                                           +-------------+-------+
  |                     Total yards           |             | 2725  |
  +-------------------------------------------+-------------+-------+

Returning to Star or Dial:--

  +-------------------------------------------+-------------+-------+
  |                                           | Score yards | Yards |
  +-------------------------------------------+-------------+-------+
  | From Star or Dial to Westminster Hall     |     8·8     |  168  |
  |   "  Westminster Hall to Dial or Monument |     8·4     |  164  |
  |   "  Dial or Monument to Star or Dial     |     9·9     |  189  |
  |   "  Star or Dial to Blackwell Hall       |    13·5     |  185  |
  |   "  Blackwell Hall to Old Speering       |     9·1     |  129  |
  |   "  Old Speering to Star or Dial         |     9·16    |  196  |
  |                                           +-------------+-------+
  |                     Total yards           |             | 1031  |
  +-------------------------------------------+-------------+-------+

Returning to Blackwell Hall:--

  +-------------------------------------------+-------------+-------+
  |                                           | Score yards | Yards |
  +-------------------------------------------+-------------+-------+
  | From Blackwell Hall to Dial or Monument   |    10·16    |  216  |
  |   "  Dial or Monument to Lambeth          |     6·10    |  130  |
  |   "  Lambeth to Old Speering              |    10·8     |  208  |
  |                                           +-------------+-------+
  |                     Total yards           |             |  554  |
  +-------------------------------------------+-------------+-------+

Returning to Lambeth:--

  +-------------------------------------------+-------------+-------+
  |                                           | Score yards | Yards |
  +-------------------------------------------+-------------+-------+
  | From Lambeth to Day's Deed                |     8·14    |  174  |
  |   "  Day's Deed to Turk's Whale           |     9·12    |  192  |
  |   "  Turk's Whale to Absoly (longest)     |    13·5     |  265  |
  |   "  Absoly to Arnold                     |     9·1     |  181  |
  |   "  Arnold to Blood House Bridge         |     7·14    |  154  |
  |                                           +-------------+-------+
  |                     Total yards           |             |  966  |
  +-------------------------------------------+-------------+-------+

Returning to Day's Deed:--

  +-------------------------------------------+-------------+-------+
  |                                           | Score yards | Yards |
  +-------------------------------------------+-------------+-------+
  | From Day's Deed to Absoly                 |     9·11    |  191  |
  |   "  Absoly to Gard stone                 |     9·15    |  195  |
  |                                           +-------------+-------+
  |                     Total yards           |             |  386  |
  +-------------------------------------------+-------------+-------+

The sum of all these distances amounts to about 4-1/2 miles, being
actually 4 miles and 804 yards. There is a pathway extending the whole
distance from Blood House Bridge to Islington Common. There are boggy
places set down as lying between Turk's Whale and Absoly, and Turk's
Whale and Day's Deed. There is also a bog located between the two
nearest butts, which must have been inconvenient; also a pond on one
side, and another bog on the other side of them.

Two other measurements are given--namely, fifteen score and eight yards,
or 308 yards, for the length of a garden wall lying some yards to the
right of the White Hall and Pitfield marks; and sixteen score and two
yards, or 322 yards, in the same neighbourhood, close by the pathway,
and indicating about the distance between Star or Dial and Edw. Gold.

The widest part of these shooting-fields seems to be at about this same
part--viz. from White Hall to Scarlet 242 yards, and on to Jehu 82
yards, a total width of 324 yards; and the narrowest part extends from
Nevil's House to Islington Common, in which narrow part are both the
sets of butts.

There appear to be some eight or ten fields included in the plan, with
hedges indicated, but there is no appearance of either a road or a
pathway crossing them.

These marks, giving a great variety of distances, from the shortest of
73 yards between Turk's Whale and Lambeth to the longest of 265 already
particularised, seem admirably calculated for the training of the old
English archer and the teaching him readily to calculate the various
distances at any time between himself and his enemy; and it is worthy of
observation that all these distances are well within the belief of
modern archers as such distances as--bearing in mind that there is no
evidence of general deterioration--our ancestors could easily compass,
seeing that there are well-authenticated instances of lengths somewhat
beyond 300 yards having been attained in modern times without any
lengthened special training.

In these fields no doubt was seen the _clout shooting_, which is still
kept up by the Woodmen of Arden, at Meriden in Warwickshire, and by the
archers of the Scottish Bodyguard at Edinburgh.

This style of shooting is so called from the aim having been taken at
any white mark (cloth, etc.), placed at a fixed distance; but the clout
in use now is a white target with a black centre, set slantwise on the
ground. The distances vary from 180 to 240 yards, and this latter
distance may be taken as about the extreme range of this style of
shooting in olden times; as Shakespeare mentions (2 Henry IV. iii. 2)
that 'old Double,' who 'drew a good bow,' and 'shot a fine shoot,'
'would have clapped i' the clout at twelve score, and carried you a
forehand shaft a fourteen and fourteen and a half, that it would have
done a man's heart good to see.' As the clout is but rarely hit, the
arrow nearest to it at each end, if within three bows' lengths (about
eighteen feet) of it, counts as in bowls and quoits.

When the Grand National Archery Meeting was held at Edinburgh in 1850,
some of this shooting was introduced, with the result that, out of 2,268
shots at 180 yards, there were 10 hits, and out of 888 shots at 200
yards there were 5 hits.

At the meetings at Meriden stands a marker right in front of this clout,
whose duty it is to signal back to each archer, when he has shot,
whether his arrow fall short, or go too far, or wide, and--to avoid
being hit himself.

The ordinary target arrows may be used in this practice up to the
distance of 200 yards, but beyond this distance much stronger bows or
flight arrows must be employed.

In these fields, too, would be kept up the practice of _roving_, or
taking, as the object to be aimed at, not these or any known mark, but
some stray or accidental mark. This practice must have been valuable in
olden times in testing the knowledge of distances acquired at the
different fixed marks, and it would still be interesting as an
amusement, but it is not now so easy to find grounds sufficiently open
for the purpose. Where there is sufficient space for golf links, roving
might still be practised, and already the golfer's ball and the archer's
arrow have been matched together between hole and hole.

Of _flight-shooting_, or shooting with _flight_ or light arrows, it may
be said that such practice was probably in vogue in old times for the
purpose of annoying the enemy whilst at a distance, or in such a ruse as
is described by Hall in his account of the battle of Towton in 1461,
when 'The Lord Fawconbridge, which led the forward of King Edwardes
battail, beinge a man of great Polyce, and of much experience in
Marciall feates, caused every archer under his standard to shoot one
flight (which before he caused them to provyde), and then made them to
stand still. The Northern men, felyng the shoot, but by reason of the
snow not wel vewyng the distaunce betwene them and their enemies, like
hardy men shot their schefe arrowes as fast as they might, but al their
shot was lost and their labor vayn, for thei came not nere the Southern
men by xl. tailors' yerdes.'

Flight-shooting has also been used in experiments to determine the
extreme casts of different weights and kinds of bows, and the greatest
range attainable by the power and skill of individual archers. As a
result of such experiments, it may be stated that very few archers can
cover more, or even as much as, 300 yards. To attain this range, a bow
of at least sixty-two or sixty-three pounds must not only be used but
thoroughly mastered, not merely as regards the drawing, but in respect
of quickness and sharpness of loose also.

The only remaining style of shooting in vogue in old times--that at the
butts or mounds of earth--was known as _prick-shooting_, a small mark
being fixed upon the butt and shot at from various distances. This style
of shooting was probably popular even then, as many of the Acts of
Parliament are levelled against it, on account of its interfering with
the more robust practice of the long distances necessary for the purpose
of war. This prick-shooting next became known as the _paper game_, when
cardboard, and paper stretched on canvas, were placed on the butts. It
is not very clear when such targets as are now in use came into fashion,
with their gaudy heraldic faces. The distances employed for this
butt-shooting appear to have been differently calculated from the
lengths in the longer-distance shooting, an obsolete measure of 7-1/2
yards, known as an _archer's rood_, having been employed; and the
butt-shooting in vogue at the revival of archery in 1781 was at the
distances of 4, 8, 12, and 16 roods, or 30, 60, 90, and 120 yards; and
the modern distances of 60 yards, 80 yards, and 100 yards do not seem to
have come into use until they were mentioned towards the end of the last
century as _Princes' lengths_ at the annual contests held in the grounds
of the Royal Toxophilite Society, for the possession of the silver
bugles presented by their patron, George IV., then Prince of Wales.

About the date of the Introduction of the _York Round_ in 1844, two
other rounds were in use amongst archers and in archery clubs. These
were the _St. Leonard's Round_, which first consisted of 75 arrows at 60
yards only, but afterwards of 36 arrows at 80 yards, and 39 arrows at 60
yards; and the _St. George's Round_, consisting of 36 arrows at each of
the distances of 100 yards, 80 yards, and 60 yards, the round of the St.
George's Archers, who occupied grounds in St. John's Wood, near London.

The _York Round_, having been now firmly established for more than forty
years as the round appointed to be shot at all the public archery
meetings, has become the acknowledged test of excellence in bow
practice, and all other rounds have dropped out of use with the
exception of the round known as the _National Round_, which is practised
by ladies at the public meetings, and consists of 48 arrows at 60 yards
and 24 arrows at 50 yards; and of 48 arrows at 80 yards and 24 arrows at
60 yards, as practised by gentlemen at meetings where the 100 yards
shooting is omitted.


FOOTNOTES:

[6] Possibly now the 'Castle' publichouse, 9 Finsbury Pavement.

[7] The 'Rosemary Branch' publichouse, 2 Shepperton Road, Islington, N.,
is perhaps too far off the line to be identical. The same may be said of
Pitfield Street, Hoxton.



CHAPTER XII.

_ARCHERY SOCIETIES, 'RECORDS,' ETC._

Prince Arthur, the elder brother of King Henry VIII., enjoys the
reputation of having been an expert archer, and it is believed that in
his honour a good shot was named after him; but as he was born in 1486
and died in 1502, his skill in the craft cannot have had time to arrive
at maturity, though even in modern times a stripling has occasionally
snatched the palm of success from the more mature experts.

That King Henry VIII. took a deep interest in archery as necessary for
the safety and glory of his kingdom is quite certain, and the various
Acts of Parliament passed in the course of his reign (3 Henry VIII. ch.
3, 4, 13; 6 Henry VIII. ch. 2, 11, 13; 14 & 15 Henry VIII. ch. 7; 25
Henry VIII. ch. 17; and 33 Henry VIII. 6 & 9) sufficiently prove his
determination to stimulate the more frequent use of the long bow. But,
apart from his public encouragement of archery, he took personal
interest in it himself, and, being a famous athlete, he was no doubt as
successful with his bow as his natural impatience would allow. The
following extracts from the accounts of his privy purse for the year
1531, when he was forty-one years of age, may be taken as the nearest
approach to his actual scores that can be reached. The late Lord
Dudley's score at 60 yards, when shooting with one of the best shots at
that distance, at one guinea per arrow, must have shown an equally
unfavourable balance:--

'20 March.--Paied to George Coton for vij shottes loste by the Kinges
Grace unto him at Totehill at vj_s._ viij_d._ the shotte xlvj_s._
viij_d._

'29 March.--Paied to George Gifford for so moche money he wanne of the
Kinges Grace unto him at Totehill at shoting xij_s._ vj_d._

'13 May.--Paied to George Coton for that he wanne of the Kinges Grace at
the Roundes the laste day of April iij_l._

'3 June.--Paied to George Coton for so moche money by him wonne of the
Kinges Grace at bettes in shoting vij_l._ ii_s._'

And again on the last day of June there were 'paied to the iii Cotons
for three settes which the King had lost to them in Greenwich Park
xx_l._ and vj_s._ viij_d._ more to one of them for one up shotte.'

This George Coton (Cotton) is probably the same person who was governor
to the Duke of Richmond, the King's natural son.

On January 31, 1531, 'paied to Byrde Yoeman of the Kinges bowes for
making the Roundes at Totehill by the Kinges commandment xij_s._
viij_d._'

The musters, or what we should now call reviews, were at this time held
in the Tothill Fields.

Sir W. Cavendish, the historian of Cardinal Wolsey, thus speaks of his
interview with the King in 1530, when he was the bearer of the news of
the death[8] of Wolsey to the King, then staying at Hampton Court. (See
Cavendish's 'Wolsey,' 1827, p. 396.)

'Upon the morrow (of St. Nicholas Eve, 1530) I was sent for by the King
to come to his grace; and being in Master Kingston's chamber in the
Court (Hampton Court), had knowledge thereof, and repairing to the King,
found him shooting at the rounds in the park, on the backside of the
garden.

'And perceiving him occupied in shooting, thought it not my duty to
trouble him: but leaned to a tree, intending to stand there, and to
attend his gracious pleasure. Being in a great study, at last the King
came suddenly behind me, where I stood, and clapped his hand upon my
shoulder; and, when I perceived him, I fell upon my knee. To whom he
said, calling me by name, "I will," quoth he, "make an end of my game,
and then will I talk with you," and so he departed to his mark, whereat
the game was ended.

'Then the King delivered his bow unto the yeoman of his bows, and went
his way inward to the palace, whom I followed.'

Sir Thos. Elyot, the first edition of whose book, the 'Governour,' was
printed in 1531, devoted chapter xxvii. to the praise of the long bow,
and was the earliest writer on the subject of archery, unless the
unknown author of the 'Book of King Modus,' which is said by Hansard
('Book of Archery,' 1840, p. 210) to be 'preserved in the royal library
at Paris,' wrote about two centuries and a half before the 'Toxophilus,'
by Roger Ascham, was printed in 1545.

Neither Elyot nor Ascham makes any mention of the societies of archers
known as the Fraternities of St. George and of Prince Arthur, but
something of the kind is plainly indicated by Richard Mulcaster in his
book, the 'Positions,' published in 1581, where he quaintly says, 'This
exercise' (archery) 'I do like best generally of any rounde stirring
without the dores, upon the causes before alleaged: which, if I did not
that worthy man our late learned countriman Maister Askam, would be
halfe angrie with me though he were of milde disposition, who both for
the trayning of the Archer to his bowe and the scholler to his booke,
hath showed himselfe a cunning archer and a skilful maister.

'In the middest of so many earnest matters I may be allowed to
intermingle one which hath a relice of mirthe: for in praysing of
Archerie as a principall exercise to the preseruing of health how can I
but prayse them who profess it thoroughly and maintain it nobly, the
friendly and franke fellowship of Prince Arthur's knights in and about
the Citie of London which of late yeares have so reuiued the exercise,
so countenaunced the artificers, so inflamed emulation, as in themselues
for friendly meting, in workmen for good gayning, in companies for
earnest comparing, it is almost growne to an orderly discipline, to
cherishe louing society, to enriche labouring pouerty, to maintaine
honest actiuitie, which their so encouraging the under trauellours, and
so increasing the healthfull traine, if I had sacred to silence would
not my good friend in the Citie, Maister Heugh Offley, and the same my
noble fellow in that order, Syr Launcelot, at our next meeting haue
giuen me a sowre nodde, being the chief furtherer of the fact, which I
commend, and the famousest knight of the fellowship, which I am of? Nay,
would not even Prince Arthur himself, Maister Thomas Smith, and the
whole table of those wel known knights, and most actiue Archers haue
layd in their challeng against their fellow knight, if, speaking of
their pastime, I should haue spared their names? Whereunto I am easily
led bycause the exercise deseruing suche prayse, they that loue so
prayseworthy a thing, neither can themselues, neither ought at my hande
to be hudled up in silence.'

In 'the Auncient order Societie and unitie laudable of Prince Arthure
and his Knightly Armory of the Round Table London, 1583,' Richard
Robinson says, 'King Henry VIII. not onely ... proceeded with what his
Father had begun,' by keeping up a body guard of archers, 'but also
added greater dignity ... by his gracious charter confirmed unto the
worshipful citizens (of London) ... this your now famous Order of
Knights of Prince Arthure's Round Table or Society.'

But when the practice of archery was enforced by Act of Parliament, and
there were shooting butts and fields at hand almost everywhere for the
use of those who took a genuine interest in the exercise, there could be
but little reason for the introduction of archery societies and clubs.
The meetings for the exhibition of skill would be the regular musters.

How different the position of archery would have been if, instead of
clamouring for and getting passed irksome Acts of Parliament, compelling
all to shoot, archers, bowmakers, fletchers and others had started a
National Long-Bow Association with State sanction and encouragement for
the promotion of this exercise and the reward of the most successful
shots!

As in early times there were great musters or reviews of companies of
archers, of whom the sole actual survivor is the Royal Body-Guard of
Scotland (the Archers Company of the Honourable Artillery Company,
itself originally a body of archers, was revived late in the last
century, and is now represented by the Royal Toxophilite Society) for
military display; and local festivities, and wardmotes, as still
maintained by the Woodmen of Arden (revived in 1785) and the Scorton
Arrow Meetings (dating back to 1673), for the glorification of the best
local shots; and the daily use of the long-bow for exercise and sport,
i.e. killing of game; so now there are the meetings of the Grand
National Archery Society, established for the peaceable purpose of
annually rewarding the champion and championess and other illustrious
archers, as hereafter set out in the full account of these meetings, and
also the local public meetings of similar character also given; and in
addition to these there are the meetings of the numerous archery
societies and clubs in different localities, and the constant private
practice either at home or on club grounds.

Nothing is now to be gained by insisting upon the marked inferiority of
the 'incomparable archers' who flourished towards the close of the
eighteenth and in the first half of the present centuries, as compared
with the many strong and accurate shots who have displayed their skill
since the establishment of the Grand National Archery Meetings. Mr. H.
A. Ford seems to have been unable to find any records of shooting at 100
yards where more than one-half of the shots were hits, though he says
(p. 112), 'I have seen a letter as late as 1845, from good old Mr.
Roberts' (the author of the 'English Bowman,' 1801), 'who was well
acquainted with the powers of all the best archers of the preceding
half-century, in which he states "he never knew but one man that could
accomplish it."' This one man was probably Mr. Augustus L. Marsh, Royal
Toxophilite Society, who owned, and was able to use, the magnificent
self-yew bow of 85 lbs. now in the possession of Mr. Buchanan, of 215
Piccadilly, as may be seen from the following records of his best scores
in 1837:--

    1837                                               Hits  Score

    June  1 at 4 ft. targets, 100 shots at 100 yards    61    233
      "  27             "           "           "       59    235
      "  29             "           "           "       52    214
    July  6             "           "           "       54    204
      "  11             "           "           "       58    246
      "  20             "           "           "       58    204
      "  21             "           "           "       51    197

These would be considered even respectable performances now when hits in
the _petticoat_ count, and all hits between the colours count in that of
higher value, also when three arrows are shot consecutively, instead of
two separately, at each end. Competitive examinations had not then been
brought to their more recent perfection, and standards of excellence in
athletics were as yet unrecorded. Professor John Wilson's ('Christopher
North') wonderful long jump remained as unsurpassable as the 'Douglas
cast,' unless it were, perhaps, beaten or preceded by the deeds of the
wondrous athlete who could clear a full-sized billiard-table lengthwise,
though in his first attempt to do so he failed through knocking the back
of his head against the far side of the table.

Mr. Frederick Townsend, in 1865, made the best 'record' of shooting at
100 yards, at a wardmote of the Woodmen of Arden, when all the old
customs just referred to were still, as now, in vogue, his score being
322 from 80 hits out of 150 shots.

There is now left for consideration the subject of 'record,' or standard
of highest excellence at the public meetings, and it appears that Mr. A.
P. Moore's performance at Derby in 1849 of 747, when, however, Mr. H. A.
Ford became champion by the points, was the earliest notable score. Mr.
H. A. Ford improved upon this in the next year at Edinburgh by scoring
899, and in 1854, at Shrewsbury, he made an advance to 1,074. In 1857,
at Cheltenham, he took the record on to 1,251 score with 245 hits, and
there it now remains.

The first eminent score by a championess was 634, made by Miss H.
Chetwynd at Cheltenham, also in 1857. Mrs. Horniblow took the record on
to 660 at Worcester in 1862, Miss Betham next advanced it, at the
Alexandra Park Meeting in 1864, to 693. At Bath, in 1870, Mrs. Horniblow
took it further to 700, and also still further to 764, with 142 hits, in
1873 at Leamington, and at that point it now remains, though very
closely approached by Miss Legh's score of 763 at Sutton Coldfield in
1881.

Miss Legh's still better score of 840, with all the 144 hits, was made
at the Grand Western Meeting at Bath in 1881; and Mrs. Piers F. Legh
outstripped this 'record' by scoring 864 with 142 hits at the Leamington
and Midland meeting in 1885; 33 of the hits on this occasion were golds.

The best 'record' of target practice at 120 yards is to be found amongst
the doings of the Royal Toxophilites. Mr. H. O'H. Moore, in 1872, on the
Norton prize-day, shooting 144 arrows, scored 213 with 43 hits, and Mr.
G. E. S. Fryer, on the similar occasion in 1873, scored 273 with 67
hits.

In the shooting at 100 yards of the same society, on the Crunden day in
1854, shooting 144 arrows, Mr. H. A. Ford scored 362 with 88 hits. This
score remained unbeaten, though surpassed in hits by Mr. G. E. S. Fryer
in 1873 (361 score, 91 hits), until it was fairly outstripped by Mr. C.
E. Nesham, who scored 478 with 104 hits in 1883. He also made 435 score
with 95 hits in 1886.

In 1866 Mr. T. Dawson, Royal Toxophilite Society, presented a challenge
medal for the reward of excellence in shooting at 80 yards, 144 arrows
being shot, and in the first year this medal was taken by Mr. T. Boulton
with 501 score from 113 hits. This record he took on further in 1875,
with 591 score from 125 hits. This has been nearly approached only by
Mr. C. E. Nesham in 1886, with 576 score from 124 hits.

The record for the 60 yards (144 arrows being shot) medal, presented by
the same gentleman in 1866, was also started in that same year by Mr. T.
Boulton, with 824 score from 142 hits. This record was surpassed by Mr.
W. Rimington in 1872, his score being 840 from the same number of hits.

A good record for best shooting at 100 yards at the annual West Berks
meeting, when 216 arrows are shot at that distance, was first reached by
Major C. H. Fisher in 1871, when he made 140 hits with 556 score. In
1877 he carried the record on to 572 score with 136 hits. Mr. C. H.
Everett made a still further advance with 155 hits and 633 score in
1880; and in 1881 Mr. H. H. Palairet made 153 with 623 score.

To Mrs. Butt (then Miss S. Dawson) still belongs the best 'record' for
the 'Ladies' Day' of the Royal Toxophilite Society, the largest annual
gathering of ladies, when the single National Round of 48 arrows at 60
and 24 arrows at 50 yards is shot. She made 70 hits with 406 score in
1867; in 1875 she scored 401 with 69 hits; and in 1885 Mrs. P. F. Legh
made 70 hits with 400 score.


FOOTNOTE:

[8] Wolsey died November 30, 1530



CHAPTER XIII.

_THE PUBLIC ARCHERY MEETINGS AND THE DOUBLE YORK AND OTHER ROUNDS._


In 1791, ten years after the revival of archery by the establishment of
the Royal Toxophilite Society, a public meeting of all the Archery
Societies, which had already become very numerous in the United Kingdom,
was held on Blackheath, and this meeting was followed by other similar
meetings in 1792 and 1793. Here ended this series of National Archery
Meetings, and in the early part of the present century the use of the
bow appears to have languished.

The records of the Scorton Arrow Meetings go back, in an almost
uninterrupted succession of annual meetings, to the year 1673. These
meetings, though originally confined to a limited locality--'six miles
from Eriholme-upon-Tees,' near Richmond, in Yorkshire--were open to all
comers. In 1842 and 1843 these meetings were held at Thirsk, in
Yorkshire, and to those present thereat the establishment of an annual
Grand National Archery Meeting is certainly owing.

The first Grand National Archery Meeting was held at York on August 1
and 2, 1844, the Scorton Arrow Meeting having been again held at Thirsk
on July 30 in the same year. It was originally intended that the meeting
should occupy one day only, but the weather proved so unfavourable on
the first day that the Round had to be finished on the second day. To
the enterprising archers of Yorkshire is also due the invention of the
York Round, which has since become the almost universally acknowledged
test of the comparative excellence of all archers. This Round--which
is now always shot on each of the two days of a public archery
meeting--consisting of six dozen arrows at 100 yards, four dozen arrows
at 80 yards, and two dozen arrows at 60 yards, was so arranged in the
belief that about the same scores would then be made at each distance;
and this has been proved tolerably correct as regards the average of
archers, though not so as regards Mr. H. A. Ford, Major C. H. Fisher,
Mr. H. H. Palairet, Mr. C. E. Nesham, and some others, when shooting in
their best form, as it would be clearly impossible for them to score, in
four dozen arrows at 60 yards, the 495 which Mr. H. A. Ford made in
twelve dozen arrows at 100 yards at Cheltenham in 1857, or the 466 which
he made on the same occasion in eight dozen arrows at 80 yards. Efforts
have occasionally been made to reduce the quantity of shooting at 100
yards, for the benefit of those who look upon 80 yards as a long
distance; and it has also been suggested that a few arrows might be
taken from 80 yards and added to 60 yards; but it is generally
acknowledged that the York Round cannot well be mended.

The Ladies' National Round of four dozen arrows at 60 yards, and two
dozen arrows at 50 yards, shot on each of two days, did not become the
established Round until 1851, and then the only reason of its adoption
was that it corresponded in quantities with the shooting of the
gentlemen at 80 yards and 60 yards.

In the year after the Third Leamington Grand National Archery
Meeting--i.e. in 1854--the Leamington Meeting was started, and has ever
since been an annual institution, except in those years when the Grand
National Meeting has been again held at Leamington.

The first Crystal Palace Archery Meeting was held in 1859, and has since
been repeated annually.

The Grand Western Archery Meeting was started at Taunton in 1861, and
has been repeated annually at different places, except in 1865, when the
Grand National Meeting was held at Clifton, and in 1867, when no Grand
Western Archery Meeting was held. In 1886 this meeting was combined with
the Grand National Archery Meeting when held at Bath.

Occasionally an extra public meeting has occurred--as at Aston Park,
Birmingham, in 1858 and in 1868; at the Alexandra Park, Muswell Hill, in
1863, and again in 1873 and 1882; also at Hastings, in 1867.

The first of a series of Grand Northern Meetings was established in
1879. This meeting has since been repeated annually.

In 1881 the Royal Toxophilite Society, in celebration of their
centenary, gave a Double York Round meeting, which, though not strictly
speaking a public meeting, was so well attended that it cannot be
omitted from the records of the York Round. This meeting has also been
repeated annually ever since 1881.

Almost the largest attendance of gentlemen at a public Archery Meeting
consisted of one hundred and ten at York in 1845, when there were only
eleven ladies shooting. At Cheltenham, in 1856, there were seventy-two
ladies and one hundred and twelve gentlemen shooting. The best attended
meeting was in 1860, at Bath, when there were one hundred and nine
gentlemen and ninety-nine ladies. This was just before the beginning of
the Grand Western Meetings, and there was a full meeting of ninety
gentlemen and ninety-three ladies in 1865, in which year no Grand
Western Meeting was held.

With the exception of the Seventh Grand National Archery Meeting, which
was held in Edinburgh in 1850, all the Grand National Archery Meetings
have occurred in England.

Two Double York Round Scottish National Meetings were held in Scotland
in the years 1865 and 1866; but they were not largely attended.

In Ireland, in the course of the years 1862 to 1866, Irish National and
other public meetings were held, mostly in the grounds of the Dublin
Exhibition; but though the Double York Round was shot, and some good
shooting was done by the Irish and also by English visitors, the
meetings were mostly small, and there seems but little probability of
their revival.

A few words should be said about the scoring at public meetings. The
original plan was for the Captain at each target to mark, with a pricker
made on purpose, the hits made by each shooter in a space representing
each of the colours of the target--gold, red, blue, black, and white. In
1872 an improved plan was adopted of keeping a proper space for the hits
made at each end, in which is entered each hit in the figure
representing its value, as 9, 7, 5, 3, or 1. When no hit is made at any
end, this fact should also be recorded; and thus the progress of the
shooting is always kept accurately noted, and the possibility of
mistakes in the scores is very much diminished.

Mr. H. A. Ford often mentions the St. George and St. Leonard's
Rounds--the former being three dozen arrows at each of the distances of
100, 80, and 60 yards, and the latter (originally 75 arrows at 60 yards
only) being three dozen arrows at 80 yards, and three dozen and three at
60 yards. The practice of these Rounds has now entirely disappeared from
amongst archers.

During the whole of the period from 1844 to 1886 inclusive the appointed
Round has been completed (except at the Leamington Meeting in 1862, when
the weather rendered it quite impossible); and this says a great deal
for the steadfastness of archers, as they have frequently had to submit
to the ill-treatment of pitiless downpourings of rain and arrow-breaking
storms of wind in order to get the Round finished.

No approach has been made to Mr. H. A. Ford's best public score of
1,251, made at Cheltenham in 1857, or to his second best record of 1,162
at Leamington in 1856; but his other scores of over 1,000 are easily
counted--namely, 1,076 at Exeter in 1858, 1,014 at Leamington in 1861,
1,037 at Brighton in 1867, 1,087 at Leamington in 1868, and 1,032 at
Leamington in 1869. Major C. H. Fisher made 1,060 at Sherborne in 1872.
Mr. Palairet made 1,025 at the Crystal Palace in 1882, and 1,062 in the
Regent's Park in 1881. Mr. C. E. Nesham made 1,010 in the Regent's Park
in 1883, and 1022 at Bath in 1886. No other archers have reached 1,000
at a public match.

Miss Legh's score at Bath in 1881 of 840, when she made all the 144
hits, stood foremost amongst ladies' achievements until it was beaten by
Mrs. Legh's score of 864 with 142 hits at Leamington in 1885. Miss Legh
in 1882, at the Crystal Palace, scored 792, and in 1885 809 with 143
hits. Mrs. Butt's score of 785 at Leamington in 1870 ranks next. Then
come Mrs. Horniblow's scores of 768 at Leamington in 1871, and of
764--also at Leamington--in 1872. Mrs. Piers F. Legh scored 763 at
Sutton Coldfield in 1881. Mrs. V. Forbes scored 752 at the Crystal
Palace in 1870. Mrs. Marshall scored 744 at the Crystal Palace in 1884.
Miss Betham's best score was 743 at Leamington in 1867. Mrs. P. Pinckney
scored 729 at the Crystal Palace in 1873; and Mrs. Pond scored 700 in
1874, also at the Crystal Palace. No other ladies appear to have made as
much as 700.

Other scores of 700 and upwards have been--

    MRS. HORNIBLOW | MISS BETHAM |  MRS. BUTT  | MRS. P. F. LEGH
                   |             |             |
     1871    746   | 1864    735 | 1876    752 |   1882    750
     1873    733   | 1867    733 | 1879    744 |   1879    743
     1873    719   | 1866    701 | 1876    730 |   1881    723
     1872    712   |      --     | 1870    722 |   1883    712
     1863    706   |      --     | 1877    718 |   1884    701
     1870    700   |      --     | 1871    713 |        --
          --       |      --     | 1877    707 |        --

The summary of Public Meetings is--

     43 Grand National Archery Meetings.
     31 Leamington Archery Meetings.
     28 Crystal Palace Archery Meetings.
     24 Grand Western Archery Meetings.
      7 Grand Northern Archery Meetings.
      2 Alexandra Park Archery Meetings.
      1 Hastings Archery Meeting.
      2 Aston Park Archery Meetings.
      6 Royal Toxophilite Society's Archery Meetings.
    ----
    144 Meetings.

When attention is turned towards the meetings at which most gentlemen
have made more than 600, and most ladies have made over 500, it is found
that in 1860, at Bath, seventeen gentlemen reached or passed the score
of 600, but at the same time only two ladies passed 500. This still
remains the largest meeting which has yet been held, two hundred and
eight shooters having been present. At the Alexandra Park Meeting in
1864, sixteen gentlemen and six ladies attained the same amount of
excellence. At Brighton, in 1867, seventeen gentlemen and seven ladies
passed the same levels. But, in 1882, at the Crystal Palace, the
corresponding numbers were ten gentlemen and nineteen ladies, and at
Leamington in the same year, fourteen gentlemen and sixteen ladies;
whilst in 1883, at Cheltenham, nineteen gentlemen passed 600 and
fourteen ladies passed 500, though the shooters competing at this
meeting were only one hundred and thirty-one. At Windsor in 1884,
thirteen ladies scored more than 500, and twelve gentlemen more than
600. This shows clearly that, although the number of attendances has
diminished since the extraordinary start given to archery by Mr. H. A.
Ford's book (and this is possibly due to the multiplication of public
matches), yet the average of excellence, particularly amongst the
ladies, has made considerable progress. This is a most encouraging
symptom for the future of archery.

The First Grand National Archery Meeting was held on August 1 and 2,
1844, at Knavesmire, near York.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Rev. J. Higginson       | 18 |  66 | 21 |  93 | 14 |  62 |  53 | 221 |
  | Rev. E. Meyrick         | 15 |  65 | 24 |  76 | 19 |  77 |  58 | 218 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Sixty-five gentlemen shot, and no ladies appeared at the targets.

The single _York Round_ (72 arrows at 100 yards, 48 arrows at 80 yards,
and 24 arrows at 60 yards) was shot first on this occasion.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Second Grand National Archery Meeting was held on June 25 and 26,
1845, at the same place.

  +-----------------------+----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+
  | Miss Thelwall         | 48 | 186 |
  | Miss Townshend        | 45 | 163 |
  | Miss Emma Wylde       | 33 | 161 |
  | Miss Jane Forster     | 40 | 152 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+

Eleven ladies shot 96 arrows, all at 60 yards.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. Peter Muir          | 53 | 185 | 46 | 182 | 36 | 170 | 135 | 537 |
  | Mr. J. Jones            | 28 | 110 | 63 | 243 | 38 | 146 | 129 | 499 |
  | Rev. E. Meyrick         | 42 | 150 | 42 | 146 | 32 | 150 | 116 | 446 |
  | Mr. Blackley            | 27 | 113 | 44 | 176 | 30 | 128 | 101 | 417 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

One hundred and ten gentlemen shot at this meeting, and the York Round,
as before described, was shot on each day and at all the following
meetings.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Third Grand National Archery Meeting was held on July 29 and 30,
1846, at the same place.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. R. G. Hubbock       | 41 | 175 | 47 | 209 | 29 | 135 | 117 | 519 |
  | Rev. E. Meyrick         | 40 | 174 | 47 | 211 | 30 | 132 | 117 | 517 |
  | Rev. T. Meyler          | 35 | 135 | 51 | 179 | 30 | 154 | 116 | 476 |
  | Mr. Glasgow             | 27 |  97 | 56 | 228 | 33 | 127 | 116 | 452 |
  | Mr. C. Garnett          | 35 | 125 | 40 | 166 | 36 | 150 | 111 | 441 |
  | Mr. J. P. Marsh         | 44 | 178 | 40 | 144 | 27 | 119 | 111 | 441 |
  | Rev. J. Higginson       | 24 |  90 | 51 | 201 | 29 | 149 | 110 | 422 |
  | Mr. A. Radcliff         | 36 | 124 | 44 | 162 | 34 | 136 | 114 | 422 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Eighty-three gentlemen shot at this meeting, but no ladies appeared.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Fourth Grand National Archery Meeting was held on July 28 and 29,
1847, at Derby.

  +-----------------------+----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards |
  |      ----             +----------+
  |                       |Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+
  | Miss Wylde            | 65 | 245 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+

The ladies, who numbered only six, again shot--at 60 yards only--the
same number of arrows as in 1845, namely, 96.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. Peter Muir          | 63 | 217 | 53 | 229 | 37 | 185 | 153 | 631 |
  | Mr. Hutchons            | 33 | 125 | 55 | 267 | 41 | 211 | 129 | 603 |
  | Mr. E. Maitland         | 38 | 144 | 51 | 197 | 42 | 208 | 131 | 549 |
  | Mr. E. Marr             | 44 | 182 | 40 | 146 | 39 | 177 | 123 | 505 |
  | Rev. J. Bramhall        | 34 | 132 | 52 | 198 | 39 | 165 | 125 | 495 |
  | Mr. C. Garnett          | 44 | 146 | 40 | 158 | 38 | 164 | 122 | 488 |
  | Rev. T. Meyler          | 44 | 164 | 45 | 169 | 32 | 146 | 121 | 479 |
  | Mr. G. Attwood          | 44 | 142 | 39 | 141 | 37 | 129 | 120 | 412 |
  | Rev. E. Meyrick         | 30 | 114 | 47 | 145 | 33 | 141 | 110 | 410 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Fifty-eight gentlemen shot at this meeting, and on the following
day--July 30--half a York Round was shot for a bow (Buchanan's) and two
other prizes.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        ----             +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Rev. J. Bramhall        |    |     |    |     |    |     |     |     |
  |     won the bow         | 18 | 58  | 16 | 74  |  9 | 41  |  43 | 173 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

       *       *       *       *       *

The Fifth Grand National Archery Meeting was held on July 19 and 20,
1848, at the same place.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss J. Barrow        | 14 |  54 | 33 | 113 |  47 | 167 |
  | Miss Temple           | 18 |  80 | 26 |  80 |  44 | 160 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Only five ladies shot, and they shot 72 arrows at 60 yards, and 72 at 50
yards.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. E. Maitland         | 55 | 245 | 44 | 206 | 36 | 130 | 135 | 581 |
  | Rev. J. Bramhall        | 45 | 145 | 52 | 218 | 35 | 151 | 132 | 514 |
  | Mr. C. Wilkinson        | 45 | 161 | 40 | 150 | 28 | 134 | 113 | 445 |
  | Mr. E. Marr             | 42 | 170 | 47 | 167 | 29 |  99 | 118 | 436 |
  | Mr. Willis              | 35 | 117 | 38 | 156 | 34 | 146 | 107 | 419 |
  | Mr. J. Wilson           | 42 | 152 | 41 | 141 | 29 | 109 | 108 | 402 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Seventy-four gentlemen shot at this meeting. Horace A. Ford here made
his first public appearance, scoring--

  +----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | 31 |  81 | 38 | 142 | 32 | 118 | 101 | 341 |
  +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

He stood fifteenth in the list.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Sixth Grand National Archery Meeting was held on July 18 and 19,
1849--again at Derby.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Temple           | 36 | 122 | 19 |  67 |  55 | 189 |
  | Miss Mackay           | 24 |  98 | 19 |  65 |  43 | 163 |
  | Miss Billing          | 25 |  89 | 14 |  62 |  39 | 151 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Eight ladies attended this meeting, and the _National Round_ (96 arrows
at 60 yards, and 48 arrows at 50 yards), equally divided between the two
days, was shot now for the first time, and has been ever since shot by
the ladies, except at the next meeting at Edinburgh.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. A. P. Moore         | 62 | 238 | 68 | 318 | 43 | 191 | 173 | 747 |
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 69 | 231 | 63 | 264 | 44 | 208 | 176 | 703 |
  | Mr. G. Attwood          | 65 | 255 | 49 | 235 | 35 | 125 | 149 | 615 |
  | Mr. E. Meyrick          | 52 | 196 | 41 | 183 | 29 | 161 | 122 | 540 |
  | Mr. G. Ollier           | 38 | 130 | 49 | 187 | 41 | 199 | 128 | 516 |
  | Mr. J. Wilson           | 30 | 108 | 58 | 218 | 37 | 177 | 125 | 503 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Forty-six gentlemen shot at this meeting, and the Champion's medal was
first awarded on this occasion, and won by Mr. H. A. Ford, who won most
points[9] (5), Mr. Moore having won 4--namely, hits and score at 80
yards, and gross score--and Mr. Attwood won the points for score at 100
yards.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Seventh Grand National Archery Meeting was held on July 24, 25, and
26, 1850, at Edinburgh, in Warrender Park.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Calvert          | 27 |  89 | 20 |  72 |  47 | 161 |
  | Miss E. Forster       | 29 | 113 | 13 |  43 |  42 | 156 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Eight ladies shot at this meeting, and the round, which, owing to the
condition of the weather, was all shot on the third day, consisted of 72
arrows at 60 yards, and 36 arrows at 50 yards.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 79 | 343 | 70 | 314 | 44 | 242 | 193 | 899 |
  | Mr. C. Garnett          | 65 | 249 | 61 | 221 | 40 | 168 | 166 | 638 |
  | Rev. G. Mallory         | 59 | 197 | 55 | 235 | 30 | 150 | 144 | 582 |
  | Mr. G. W. Willis        | 45 | 175 | 46 | 184 | 39 | 181 | 130 | 540 |
  | Mr. J. Wilson           | 50 | 192 | 49 | 203 | 36 | 140 | 135 | 535 |
  | Mr. O. K. Prescot       | 58 | 224 | 41 | 165 | 35 | 125 | 134 | 514 |
  | Mr. J. Turner           | 50 | 208 | 44 | 196 | 31 | 101 | 125 | 505 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Eighty-three gentlemen shot, and the Champion's medal was won by Mr. H.
A. Ford, who made all the points.

At this meeting there was also some shooting at 200 yards, 180 yards,
and at 100 feet, in addition to the usual double York Round.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Eighth Grand National Archery Meeting was held on July 25 and 26,
1851, on Wisden's Cricket-ground at Leamington. At this meeting
thirty-three ladies shot the National Round.

Mr. H. A. Ford won all the points for the Champion medal except that for
score at 80 yards, which was won by Mr. K. T. Heath.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |         ----          +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Villers,         |    |     |    |     |     |     |
  |   afterwards          | 73 | 323 | 35 | 181 | 108 | 504 |
  |   Mrs. Davison        |    |     |    |     |     |     |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Miss Villers's score showed a rapid stride in advance amongst the
ladies, as she was more than 100 points ahead of the second lady, Miss
Eaton--73 hits, 297 score--and the third, Mrs. Thursfield--75 hits, 293
score.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 76 | 308 | 72 | 324 | 45 | 229 | 193 | 861 |
  | Mr. K. T. Heath         | 61 | 235 | 67 | 327 | 40 | 214 | 168 | 776 |
  | Rev. J. Bramhall        | 65 | 283 | 71 | 273 | 42 | 204 | 178 | 760 |
  | Mr. P. Muir             | 67 | 243 | 51 | 197 | 41 | 228 | 160 | 668 |
  | Mr. H. Garnett          | 61 | 257 | 52 | 186 | 35 | 163 | 148 | 606 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Ninety gentlemen shot at this meeting.

On the 27th a handicap sweepstake match was shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Ninth Grand National Archery Meeting was held on July 7 and 8, 1852,
at the same place, in Leamington.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Brindley         | 45 | 155 | 39 | 181 |  84 | 336 |
  | Miss M. Peel          | 51 | 217 | 33 | 113 |  84 | 330 |
  | Miss Villers          | 49 | 197 | 30 | 132 |  79 | 329 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

At this meeting thirty-six ladies and seventy-eight gentlemen shot.

Mr. H. A. Ford won the Champion's medal with 6 points, Mr. Bramhall
having won 2 points for hits and score at 100 yards, and Mr. J. Wilson 2
points for hits and score at 60 yards.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 72 | 306 | 74 | 282 | 42 | 200 | 188 | 788 |
  | Rev. J. Bramhall        | 84 | 352 | 61 | 249 | 39 | 177 | 184 | 778 |
  | Mr. J. Wilson           | 68 | 238 | 55 | 207 | 44 | 204 | 167 | 649 |
  | Mr. H. Garnett          | 68 | 230 | 59 | 229 | 34 | 152 | 161 | 611 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

This match had a most exciting finale. When the last three arrows alone
remained to be shot, Mr. Bramhall was 2 points ahead in score. It was
then a simple question of nerve, and Mr. Ford's proved the best, as he
scored 14 to his opponent's 2. The two gentlemen were placed at
adjoining targets, and Mr. Bramhall's nerve was further disturbed by his
hearing some one noisily offer to bet heavily in favour of Mr. Ford. Mr.
Ford shot first at his target, and Mr. Bramhall second at his.

Mr. Ford's score on July 9, in the handicap match, amounted to 485.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Tenth Grand National Archery Meeting was held on July 6 and 7,
1853--again at Leamington.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 54 | 230 | 35 | 135 |  89 | 365 |
  | Miss M. Peel          | 44 | 180 | 40 | 184 |  84 | 364 |
  | Miss Clay             | 46 | 192 | 35 | 145 |  79 | 337 |
  | Mrs. Tennant          | 48 | 190 | 31 | 129 |  79 | 319 |
  |   (_née_ Temple)      |    |     |    |     |     |     |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

The silver bracer for the Lady Championess, presented by the Norfolk
Bowmen, was first competed for at this meeting, and won by Mrs.
Horniblow, who won 6 of the 8 points, Miss M. Peel having secured the 2
points for hits and score at 50 yards.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 78 | 322 | 77 | 367 | 47 | 245 | 202 | 934 |
  | Rev. J. Bramhall        | 56 | 212 | 66 | 300 | 45 | 221 | 167 | 733 |
  | Mr. C. Garnett          | 55 | 197 | 57 | 251 | 39 | 157 | 151 | 605 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mr. Ford won all the Champion's points, and now first began to show his
marked superiority.

Fifty ladies and eighty-two gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Eleventh Grand National Archery Meeting was held on July 5 and 6,
1854, on the racecourse at Shrewsbury.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 100 Yards| 80 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Davison          | 68 | 318 | 41 | 171 | 109 | 489 |
  |  (_née_ Villers)      |    |     |    |     |     |     |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 56 | 212 | 40 | 186 |  96 | 398 |
  | Miss Baker            | 61 | 245 | 34 | 152 |  95 | 397 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mrs. Davison won the silver bracer with 7 points, Mrs. Horniblow, who
made a score of 325 on the handicap day, having secured the eighth point
with the highest score at fifty yards.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          |101 | 411 | 87 | 415 | 46 | 248 | 234 |1,074|
  | Rev. J. Bramhall        | 62 | 270 | 77 | 329 | 37 | 149 | 176 | 748 |
  | Mr. H. Hilton           | 62 | 230 | 66 | 260 | 39 | 175 | 175 | 667 |
  | Mr. H. Garnett          | 54 | 214 | 61 | 249 | 41 | 205 | 156 | 668 |
  | Mr. P. Muir             | 67 | 229 | 52 | 206 | 41 | 197 | 160 | 632 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mr. Ford won all the points of the Champion's medal, and made a further
stride in front of all other competitors, making over 1,000.

Sixty-six ladies and ninety-four gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The First Grand Leamington and Midland Archery Meeting was held in the
Jephson Gardens, on July 19 and 20, 1854.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 73 | 361 | 36 | 146 | 109 | 507 |
  | Miss Baker            | 71 | 277 | 42 | 198 | 113 | 475 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Colonel Clowes          | 57 | 197 | 57 | 237 | 36 | 156 | 150 | 590 |
  | Mr. R. Garnett          | 42 | 162 | 44 | 212 | 32 | 134 | 118 | 508 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

       *       *       *       *       *

The Second Grand Leamington and Midland Archery Meeting was held on June
20 and 21, 1855.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 67 | 265 | 39 | 161 | 106 | 426 |
  | Miss H. Chetwynd      | 54 | 210 | 38 | 162 |  92 | 362 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 82 | 270 | 79 | 323 | 46 | 268 | 207 | 861 |
  | Mr. T. G. Golightly     | 63 | 231 | 55 | 205 | 35 | 151 | 153 | 587 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twelfth Grand National Archery Meeting was held on August 1 and 2,
1855--again at Shrewsbury.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Davison          | 70 | 278 | 45 | 213 | 115 | 491 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 67 | 277 | 36 | 160 | 103 | 437 |
  | Miss Clay             | 64 | 282 | 36 | 146 | 100 | 428 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mrs. Davison won 7 points, and again secured the silver bracer.

Miss Clay won 1 point for score at 60 yards.

Miss H. Chetwynd made 296 on the handicap day.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 69 | 281 | 65 | 285 | 45 | 243 | 179 | 809 |
  | Rev. J. Bramhall        | 68 | 242 | 63 | 261 | 44 | 206 | 175 | 709 |
  | Mr. P. Muir             | 59 | 251 | 57 | 217 | 39 | 159 | 155 | 627 |
  | Mr. J. Wilson           | 50 | 164 | 59 | 253 | 45 | 197 | 154 | 614 |
  | Mr. H. Hilton           | 53 | 195 | 64 | 258 | 34 | 160 | 151 | 613 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mr. Ford won the Champion's medal, having won all the points except that
there was a tie between him and Mr. Wilson for hits at 60 yards.

The weather was unfavourable at this meeting, which helps to account for
the apparent falling off in the scores.

Fifty-five ladies and eighty-three gentlemen shot.

The series of eighteen articles, out of which this book was afterwards
formed, began to appear in the 'Field' on October 6 in this year.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Third Grand Leamington and Midland Archery Meeting was held on June
18 and 19, 1856.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 74 | 338 | 41 | 203 | 115 | 541 |
  | Miss H. Chetwynd      | 67 | 299 | 41 | 209 | 108 | 508 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          |105 | 447 | 91 | 431 | 48 | 284 | 244 |1162 |
  | Mr. G. Mallory          | 65 | 241 | 58 | 220 | 40 | 176 | 163 | 637 |
  | Colonel Phillipps       | 47 | 185 | 59 | 247 | 44 | 202 | 150 | 634 |
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 61 | 251 | 53 | 221 | 40 | 148 | 154 | 620 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

       *       *       *       *       *

The Thirteenth Grand National Archery Meeting was held on July 2 and 3,
1856, on the College Cricket-ground, at Cheltenham.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 68 | 294 | 41 | 193 | 109 | 487 |
  | Mrs. Davison[10]      | 68 | 312 | 35 | 149 | 103 | 461 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  [10] Did not shoot the last six arrows at 50 yards, being prevented by
  indisposition.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 81 | 299 | 87 | 439 | 45 | 247 | 213 | 985 |
  | Rev. J. Bramhall        | 82 | 346 | 69 | 271 | 40 | 168 | 191 | 785 |
  | Mr. P. Muir             | 65 | 289 | 65 | 253 | 34 | 146 | 164 | 688 |
  | Mr. C. Garnett          | 68 | 260 | 51 | 211 | 39 | 189 | 158 | 660 |
  | Mr. W. Peters           | 57 | 189 | 57 | 235 | 32 | 160 | 146 | 584 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mrs. Horniblow won the silver bracer with six points, Mrs. Davison
having won the point for score at 60 yards, and having made the same
number of hits as Mrs. Horniblow at that distance. Miss H. Chetwynd made
the same number of hits at 50 yards as Mrs. Horniblow.

Mr. Ford again secured the Champion's medal with eight points, his old
opponent Mr. Bramhall having won the points for hits and score at 100
yards.

Seventy-two ladies and 112 gentlemen shot at this meeting.

The first edition of 'The Theory and Practice of Archery' was published
in the course of this year.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Fourth Grand Leamington and Midland Archery Meeting was held on June
10 and 11, 1857.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 66 | 276 | 41 | 183 | 107 | 459 |
  | Mrs. Litchfield       | 58 | 230 | 38 | 158 |  96 | 388 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 97 | 387 | 88 | 398 | 45 | 241 | 230 |1026 |
  | Mr. C. H. Fisher        | 59 | 231 | 62 | 212 | 44 | 172 | 165 | 615 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

       *       *       *       *       *

The Fourteenth Grand National Archery Meeting was held on July 1 and 2,
1857--again at Cheltenham.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss H. Chetwynd      | 82 | 390 | 46 | 244 | 128 | 634 |
  | Mrs. Davison          | 73 | 339 | 41 | 209 | 114 | 548 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 80 | 346 | 42 | 194 | 122 | 540 |
  | Mrs. R. Blaker        | 69 | 325 | 39 | 171 | 108 | 496 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Miss H. Chetwynd won the silver bracer with all the points, and exceeded
all the previous performances of ladies in match shooting.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          |107 | 495 | 90 | 466 | 48 | 290 | 245 |1251 |
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 69 | 255 | 76 | 322 | 43 | 209 | 188 | 786 |
  | Mr. W. J. W. Baynes     | 65 | 245 | 74 | 314 | 44 | 212 | 183 | 771 |
  | Mr. P. Muir             | 69 | 261 | 57 | 315 | 39 | 201 | 165 | 777 |
  | Mr. J. Bramhall         | 67 | 233 | 58 | 254 | 46 | 234 | 171 | 721 |
  | Mr. H. C. Mules         | 66 | 254 | 58 | 260 | 40 | 206 | 164 | 720 |
  | Mr. E. Mason            | 57 | 215 | 65 | 279 | 41 | 197 | 163 | 691 |
  | Mr. H. Garnett          | 61 | 235 | 67 | 263 | 35 | 169 | 163 | 667 |
  | Mr. H. Hilton           | 55 | 243 | 59 | 243 | 37 | 183 | 151 | 669 |
  | Mr. J. Wilson           | 62 | 260 | 57 | 237 | 35 | 161 | 154 | 658 |
  | Mr. C. H. Fisher        | 40 | 122 | 54 | 248 | 42 | 194 | 136 | 564 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mr. Ford again secured all the points for the Champion's medal, and made
the finest score ever yet made in public.

The average of the shooting of all showed a marked improvement at this
meeting; and it was gratifying to Mr. Ford to be able to state that
several of the leading archers attributed their high positions in the
prize-list to their careful following out of the principles and
directions laid down in his book.

Sixty-one ladies and ninety-seven gentlemen shot.

Mr. H. C. Mules scored 389 on the handicap day.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Fifth Grand Leamington and Midland Archery Meeting was held on June
23 and 24, 1858.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss H. Chetwynd      | 74 | 344 | 41 | 191 | 115 | 535 |
  | Miss Dixon            | 62 | 270 | 39 | 179 | 101 | 449 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          |100 | 424 | 87 | 463 | 43 | 241 | 230 |1128 |
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 77 | 303 | 64 | 298 | 45 | 263 | 186 | 864 |
  | Mr. H. Walters          | 58 | 256 | 66 | 276 | 43 | 225 | 167 | 757 |
  | Mr. W. J. W. Baynes     | 60 | 260 | 63 | 239 | 45 | 213 | 168 | 712 |
  | Mr. H. C. Mules         | 56 | 256 | 55 | 225 | 45 | 209 | 156 | 690 |
  | Mr. S. Mason            | 53 | 197 | 59 | 267 | 38 | 172 | 150 | 636 |
  | Colonel Clowes          | 44 | 202 | 49 | 211 | 42 | 214 | 135 | 627 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Twenty-nine ladies and twenty-nine gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Fifteenth Grand National Archery Meeting was held on July 21 and 22,
1858, at Exeter.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 58 | 256 | 43 | 201 | 101 | 457 |
  | Mrs. St. George       | 58 | 254 | 36 | 174 |  94 | 428 |
  | Miss H. Chetwynd      | 56 | 204 | 43 | 219 |  99 | 423 |
  | Mrs. R. Blaker        | 54 | 228 | 38 | 184 |  92 | 412 |
  | Lady Edwardes         | 54 | 262 | 31 | 139 |  85 | 401 |
  | Miss Turner           | 59 | 255 | 34 | 136 |  93 | 391 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 87 | 399 | 81 | 385 | 46 | 292 | 214 |1076 |
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 73 | 267 | 70 | 324 | 44 | 226 | 187 | 817 |
  | Mr. J. T. George        | 59 | 217 | 63 | 311 | 40 | 212 | 162 | 740 |
  | Mr. W. J. W. Baynes     | 57 | 229 | 60 | 254 | 43 | 219 | 160 | 702 |
  | Mr. J. Spedding         | 48 | 184 | 71 | 299 | 44 | 212 | 163 | 695 |
  | Mr. E. Mason            | 52 | 172 | 66 | 292 | 42 | 176 | 160 | 640 |
  | Mr. H. C. Mules         | 56 | 176 | 59 | 255 | 44 | 210 | 159 | 641 |
  | Mr. P. Muir             | 48 | 176 | 60 | 250 | 39 | 209 | 147 | 635 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mrs. Horniblow won the silver bracer with 4-1/2 points. Miss Turner won
the point for hits at 60 yards, Lady Edwardes the point for score at 60
yards, and Miss H. Chetwynd won the point for score at 50 yards and
divided the point for hits at this distance with Mrs. Horniblow.

Mr. Ford, having won all the ten points, became Champion for the tenth
time. He accounted for the apparent falling off in the shooting at this
meeting as compared with the previous one by the fact that the weather
was rough and the ground difficult.

Eighty-four ladies and eighty-six gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

A Grand Archery Meeting was held in the grounds of Aston Park, near
Birmingham, on September 8 and 9, 1858.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 87 | 339 | 73 | 343 | 48 | 294 | 208 | 976 |
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 63 | 277 | 65 | 255 | 46 | 250 | 174 | 782 |
  | Mr. H. Walters          | 55 | 231 | 53 | 253 | 37 | 193 | 145 | 677 |
  | Mr. H. Elliott          | 60 | 242 | 63 | 247 | 39 | 185 | 162 | 674 |
  | Mr. G. L. Aston         | 35 | 141 | 57 | 243 | 40 | 164 | 132 | 548 |
  | Mr. W. J. W. Baynes     | 49 | 185 | 47 | 175 | 41 | 185 | 137 | 545 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 75 | 317 | 42 | 218 | 117 | 535 |
  | Miss H. Chetwynd      | 65 | 287 | 39 | 187 | 104 | 474 |
  | Miss Aston            | 67 | 251 | 41 | 175 | 108 | 426 |
  | Lady Edwardes         | 61 | 267 | 32 | 142 |  93 | 409 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

It was intended, and advertised, that this meeting should be repeated in
1859; but, from insufficient support, it was abandoned, and the first of
the series of annual archery meetings held in the grounds of the Crystal
Palace was substituted for it.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Sixth Grand Leamington and Midland Archery Meeting was held on June
15 and 16, 1859.

Thirty ladies and thirty-three gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 70 | 282 | 48 | 262 | 118 | 544 |
  | Miss H. Chetwynd      | 67 | 313 | 39 | 179 | 106 | 492 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 93 | 355 | 76 | 350 | 47 | 257 | 216 | 962 |
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 75 | 327 | 82 | 382 | 43 | 213 | 200 | 922 |
  | Mr. E. Mason            | 55 | 217 | 67 | 297 | 42 | 240 | 164 | 754 |
  | Mr. G. L. Aston         | 56 | 254 | 56 | 244 | 41 | 205 | 153 | 703 |
  | Mr. H. C. Mules         | 52 | 214 | 65 | 257 | 37 | 185 | 154 | 656 |
  | Mr. H. Walters          | 44 | 170 | 63 | 253 | 40 | 200 | 147 | 623 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

       *       *       *       *       *

The Sixteenth Grand National Archery Meeting was held on July 6 and 7,
1859--again at Exeter.

Miss Turner won the silver bracer with 5 points, Miss H. Chetwynd having
won 2 points for gross hits and 1 point for hits at 60 yards.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Turner           | 77 | 385 | 45 | 245 | 122 | 630 |
  | Miss H. Chetwynd      | 82 | 370 | 43 | 215 | 125 | 585 |
  | Mrs. G. Atkinson      | 76 | 334 | 42 | 207 | 119 | 541 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 74 | 356 | 38 | 160 | 112 | 536 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

The Champion's medal for the eleventh consecutive time was won by Mr.
Ford with 8 points, Mr. Edwards having won the points for hits and score
at 80 yards.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 85 | 357 | 72 | 312 | 48 | 282 | 205 | 951 |
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 65 | 269 | 74 | 370 | 45 | 249 | 184 | 888 |
  | Rev. W. J. Richardson   | 70 | 298 | 68 | 332 | 40 | 182 | 178 | 812 |
  | Mr. A. Edmondstone      | 78 | 300 | 66 | 250 | 41 | 231 | 185 | 781 |
  | Mr. H. C. Mules         | 58 | 218 | 61 | 255 | 37 | 215 | 156 | 688 |
  | Mr. E. Meyrick          | 70 | 252 | 50 | 198 | 40 | 184 | 160 | 634 |
  | Mr. J. Rimington        | 54 | 238 | 56 | 244 | 44 | 204 | 154 | 686 |
  | Mr. J. T. George        | 49 | 205 | 67 | 285 | 39 | 173 | 155 | 663 |
  | Mr. T. Boulton          | 57 | 237 | 56 | 204 | 41 | 171 | 154 | 612 |
  | Mr. H. Walters          | 49 | 165 | 60 | 266 | 40 | 188 | 149 | 619 |
  | Mr. H. B. Hare          | 47 | 219 | 53 | 225 | 37 | 183 | 137 | 627 |
  | Mr. W. Swire            | 57 | 213 | 47 | 223 | 42 | 176 | 146 | 612 |
  | Mr. C. H. Fisher        | 55 | 253 | 49 | 187 | 34 | 146 | 138 | 586 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Eighty-six ladies and eighty-four gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The second edition of Mr. Ford's book was issued in this year, and the
account of this Grand National Archery Meeting was not included in it.

       *       *       *       *       *

A Grand Archery Meeting, under the management of Mr. Merridew, was
proposed to be held in the grounds of Aston Park, Birmingham, on July 27
and 28, 1859, as mentioned by Mr. H. A. Ford at page 124; but at the
Leamington meeting of the same year it was decided that this proposed
meeting should be transferred to the grounds of the Crystal Palace at
Sydenham, and thus commenced the annual Crystal Palace Archery Meetings.

       *       *       *       *       *

The First Grand Annual Crystal Palace Archery Meeting was held on July
27 and 28, 1859, on the Cricket-ground.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Turner           | 66 | 272 | 41 | 203 | 107 | 475 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 50 | 226 | 40 | 198 |  90 | 424 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 78 | 314 | 80 | 380 | 48 | 252 | 206 | 946 |
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 64 | 264 | 66 | 252 | 45 | 259 | 175 | 775 |
  | Mr. H. C. Mules         | 67 | 257 | 57 | 285 | 41 | 179 | 165 | 721 |
  | Mr. H. Walters          | 54 | 186 | 73 | 311 | 42 | 202 | 169 | 699 |
  | Mr. T. Boulton          | 54 | 226 | 47 | 181 | 42 | 216 | 143 | 623 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Twenty ladies and forty-one gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Seventh Grand Leamington and Midland Archery Meeting was held on
June 13 and 14, 1860.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 72 | 336 | 45 | 197 | 117 | 533 |
  | Mrs. Litchfield       | 72 | 324 | 39 | 163 | 111 | 487 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 66 | 238 | 46 | 202 | 112 | 440 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 82 | 336 | 80 | 406 | 47 | 255 | 209 | 997 |
  | Mr. E. Mason            | 70 | 268 | 64 | 266 | 46 | 226 | 180 | 760 |
  | Mr. T. G. Golightly     | 54 | 228 | 67 | 277 | 44 | 204 | 165 | 709 |
  | Mr. T. Boulton          | 49 | 197 | 66 | 284 | 39 | 197 | 154 | 678 |
  | Mr. H. Walters          | 57 | 217 | 61 | 249 | 43 | 207 | 161 | 673 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Thirty-two ladies and thirty-six gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Seventeenth Grand National Archery Meeting was held on July 4 and 5,
1860, at Bath.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 69 | 337 | 43 | 213 | 112 | 550 |
  | Mrs. G. Atkinson      | 79 | 341 | 42 | 190 | 121 | 531 |
  | Mrs. Rogers           | 66 | 306 | 38 | 188 | 104 | 494 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 71 | 277 | 71 | 337 | 46 | 272 | 188 | 886 |
  | Mr. P. Muir             | 68 | 276 | 70 | 322 | 45 | 257 | 181 | 855 |
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 70 | 260 | 74 | 294 | 47 | 253 | 191 | 807 |
  | Mr. H. C. Mules         | 57 | 243 | 66 | 312 | 40 | 202 | 163 | 757 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 58 | 244 | 61 | 273 | 41 | 223 | 160 | 740 |
  | Mr. E. Mason            | 59 | 211 | 68 | 304 | 42 | 210 | 169 | 725 |
  | Rev. W. J. Richardson   | 61 | 235 | 66 | 264 | 40 | 202 | 167 | 701 |
  | Mr. H. Walters          | 57 | 223 | 64 | 276 | 43 | 201 | 164 | 700 |
  | Mr. H. B. Hare          | 61 | 221 | 60 | 254 | 46 | 224 | 167 | 699 |
  | Mr. G. T. Golightly     | 55 | 233 | 62 | 228 | 45 | 221 | 162 | 682 |
  | Mr. J. Spedding         | 61 | 261 | 55 | 257 | 34 | 152 | 150 | 670 |
  | Mr. J. Wilson           | 47 | 203 | 59 | 259 | 39 | 197 | 145 | 659 |
  | Mr. T. Boulton          | 55 | 197 | 59 | 257 | 38 | 182 | 152 | 636 |
  | Mr. C. H. Fisher        | 43 | 169 | 60 | 250 | 42 | 216 | 145 | 635 |
  | Mr. J. Turner           | 62 | 230 | 53 | 211 | 35 | 183 | 150 | 624 |
  | Col. Clowes             | 51 | 189 | 52 | 230 | 42 | 204 | 145 | 623 |
  | Mr. E. Meyrick          | 58 | 248 | 45 | 189 | 37 | 183 | 140 | 620 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mrs. Lister won the first score prize, but Mrs. Atkinson won the silver
bracer with 4 points.

Mrs. Lister won 2 points for gross score.

Mrs. Horniblow won the point for score at 50 yards, and Mrs. Litchfield
won the point for hits at 50 yards.

At this meeting Mr. Edwards won the Champion's medal with 6 points, Mr.
Ford, who took third rank, having won 4 points--namely, 2 for gross hits
and those for hits at 80 yards and hits at 60 yards.

Ninety-nine ladies and 109 gentlemen shot.

The influence of hits as affecting the position of the winners of the
best prizes was now entirely abandoned, and the order of the prizes
taken from the gross score only, except when two had a tie in score. In
this case the difference (if any) in hits was considered.

Want of space prevents the introduction of all the winners of best
prizes, who vary in number at the different meetings from six to twelve,
according to the numbers present; but it should be mentioned that at the
earliest meetings the second prize was allotted to the maker of most
gross hits. This rule prevailed up to 1851. In 1852, 1853, and 1854 the
order of prize-winners was in accordance with the order of the gross
scores. From that date the first prizes were named 'first, second,
third, &c. gross score, and hits,' and the rule by which the order of
the prize list was obtained was that the number of each shooter's
position in hits was taken and added to the number representing his
position in score. The lowest total won the first score and hits prize,
and the next lowest the second, and so on. In cases where the totals of
two were the same, the highest score would win. The application of this
rule may be observed in 1859, when Mr. Richardson made the third score
(812), but won the fourth prize; whilst Mr. Edmondstone, who made the
fourth score, won the third prize. Mr. Edmondstone was second in hits
and fourth in score (total, 6); Mr. Richardson was third in score and
fourth in hits (total, 7).

       *       *       *       *       *

The Second Grand Annual Crystal Palace Archery Meeting was held on July
18 and 19, 1860.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 65 | 271 | 39 | 179 | 104 | 450 |
  | Miss Turner           | 58 | 258 | 34 | 132 |  92 | 390 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 67 | 247 | 77 | 359 | 46 | 224 | 190 | 830 |
  | Mr. H. Walters          | 66 | 258 | 72 | 306 | 46 | 220 | 184 | 784 |
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 63 | 289 | 64 | 258 | 46 | 226 | 173 | 773 |
  | Mr. Bradford            | 66 | 256 | 64 | 256 | 42 | 218 | 172 | 730 |
  | Mr. H. C. Mules         | 60 | 254 | 63 | 257 | 42 | 200 | 165 | 711 |
  | Mr. T. Boulton          | 57 | 247 | 57 | 243 | 31 | 133 | 145 | 623 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Twenty-six ladies and forty-three gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Eighth Grand Leamington and Midland Archery Meeting was held in the
Jephson Gardens on June 12 and 13, 1861.

Twenty-six ladies and thirty-four gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 78 | 366 | 46 | 230 | 124 | 596 |
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 69 | 315 | 44 | 236 | 113 | 551 |
  | Mrs. Litchfield       | 79 | 351 | 39 | 159 | 118 | 510 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 83 | 321 | 83 | 419 | 46 | 274 | 212 |1014 |
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 52 | 238 | 76 | 354 | 47 | 279 | 175 | 871 |
  | Mr. T. G. Golightly     | 69 | 255 | 68 | 346 | 41 | 223 | 178 | 824 |
  | Mr. M. Knapp            | 77 | 309 | 55 | 257 | 32 | 164 | 164 | 730 |
  | Mr. H. C. Mules         | 65 | 263 | 67 | 273 | 37 | 179 | 169 | 715 |
  | Mr. W. Ford             | 60 | 218 | 59 | 259 | 39 | 177 | 158 | 654 |
  | Mr. G. Mallory          | 57 | 217 | 49 | 213 | 43 | 211 | 149 | 641 |
  | Mr. W. Swire            | 52 | 208 | 58 | 232 | 39 | 177 | 149 | 617 |
  | Mr. J. Spedding         | 60 | 224 | 54 | 244 | 39 | 137 | 153 | 605 |
  | Mr. T. L. Coulson       | 46 | 174 | 57 | 231 | 40 | 196 | 143 | 601 |
  | Mr. H. B. Hare          | 50 | 186 | 53 | 205 | 39 | 209 | 142 | 600 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

       *       *       *       *       *

The Eighteenth Grand National Archery Meeting was held on the Racecourse
at Aintree, near Liverpool, on July 17 and 18, 1861.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. G. Atkinson      | 73 | 367 | 40 | 208 | 113 | 575 |
  | Miss Turner           | 65 | 291 | 42 | 214 | 107 | 505 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 67 | 265 | 42 | 212 | 109 | 477 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mrs. Atkinson won the silver bracer with 6 points. Miss Turner won the
point for score at 50 yards, and Mrs. E. Lister the point for hits (44)
at 50 yards.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 68 | 288 | 63 | 235 | 44 | 222 | 175 | 745 |
  | Mr. T. G. Golightly     | 60 | 250 | 58 | 270 | 41 | 205 | 159 | 725 |
  | Mr. P. Muir             | 49 | 175 | 62 | 266 | 43 | 221 | 154 | 662 |
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 54 | 220 | 56 | 200 | 45 | 241 | 155 | 661 |
  | Mr. T. Boulton          | 54 | 178 | 58 | 268 | 40 | 196 | 152 | 638 |
  | Mr. J. Wilson           | 46 | 220 | 56 | 212 | 36 | 164 | 138 | 596 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

The Champion's medal was again won by Mr. G. Edwards with 7 points. Mr.
Golightly won the point for score at 80 yards, and Mr. H. A. Ford won
two points for score and hits at 60 yards.

The wind at this meeting--on an exposed ground--was tremendous.

Sixty-four ladies and eighty-nine gentlemen shot.

Some better scores--Mr. E. Mason (446), Mr. F. Townsend (374), and Mr.
H. C. Mules (365)--were made on July 19 in the handicap match.

The Grand National Archery Society was first established at a meeting of
archers held at the Adelphi Hotel in Liverpool on July 19, 1861.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Third Annual Crystal Palace Archery Meeting was held on July 30-31
and August 1, 1861.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Turner           | 77 | 345 | 45 | 255 | 122 | 600 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 66 | 336 | 44 | 216 | 110 | 552 |
  | Miss H. Chetwynd      | 72 | 326 | 42 | 200 | 114 | 526 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 80 | 314 | 75 | 319 | 43 | 211 | 198 | 844 |
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 50 | 206 | 79 | 361 | 47 | 251 | 176 | 818 |
  | Mr. H. Hilton           | 54 | 236 | 51 | 219 | 36 | 142 | 141 | 597 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

No other shooter made as much as 600.

Twenty-two ladies and thirty-seven gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The First Grand Western Archery Meeting was held at Bishop's Hull, near
Taunton, on August 7 and 8, 1861, when fifty-three ladies and forty-two
gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Turner           | 80 | 386 | 45 | 259 | 125 | 645 |
  | Miss Mignon           | 66 | 276 | 41 | 197 | 107 | 473 |
  | Miss H. Chetwynd      | 56 | 236 | 40 | 228 |  96 | 464 |
  | Miss James            | 59 | 271 | 37 | 165 |  96 | 436 |
  | Mrs. A. Malet         | 62 | 256 | 34 | 142 |  96 | 398 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 59 | 263 | 85 | 381 | 45 | 253 | 189 | 897 |
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 65 | 235 | 73 | 319 | 47 | 275 | 185 | 829 |
  | Colonel Clowes          | 53 | 215 | 62 | 272 | 39 | 189 | 154 | 676 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 53 | 207 | 58 | 272 | 39 | 191 | 150 | 670 |
  | Mr. H. B. Hare          | 58 | 226 | 56 | 232 | 41 | 205 | 155 | 663 |
  | Mr. W. Swire            | 57 | 205 | 57 | 251 | 36 | 180 | 150 | 636 |
  | Mr. H. Walters          | 42 | 140 | 57 | 257 | 41 | 223 | 140 | 620 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

       *       *       *       *       *

The Fourth Annual Crystal Palace Archery Meeting was held on May 29 and
30, 1862.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 76 | 328 | 44 | 220 | 120 | 548 |
  | Mrs. H. Walters       | 73 | 329 | 41 | 209 | 114 | 538 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. F. Townsend         | 75 | 299 | 72 | 344 | 41 | 223 | 188 | 866 |
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 77 | 319 | 67 | 291 | 43 | 201 | 187 | 811 |
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 58 | 252 | 70 | 312 | 47 | 241 | 175 | 805 |
  | Mr. H. B. Hare          | 54 | 238 | 61 | 305 | 37 | 145 | 152 | 688 |
  | Mr. W. Swire            | 56 | 238 | 64 | 254 | 39 | 189 | 159 | 681 |
  | Mr. T. Boulton          | 62 | 220 | 58 | 238 | 39 | 179 | 159 | 637 |
  | Mr. J. H. Chance        | 38 | 144 | 55 | 233 | 44 | 234 | 137 | 611 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Twenty-six ladies and forty gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Ninth Grand Leamington and Midland Archery Meeting was held in the
Jephson Gardens on June 11 and 12, 1862.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |         ----          +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        |  ? | 191 | 23 | 143 |   ? | 334 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

This was Mrs. Horniblow's score on the first day. The round on the
second day was not completed on account of the bad weather.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          |  ? | 186 |  ? | 184 | 23 | 137 |   ? | 507 |
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 29 | 131 | 41 | 169 | 24 | 144 |  94 | 444 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

This was the best shooting of the first day. On the second day only 48
arrows at 100 yards were shot.

Thirty-three ladies and twenty-eight gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Nineteenth Grand National Archery Society's Meeting was held at
Worcester, on July 17 and 18, 1862.

Sixty-five ladies and eighty-eight gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 80 | 384 | 48 | 276 | 128 | 660 |
  | Mrs. G. Atkinson      | 76 | 334 | 40 | 208 | 116 | 542 |
  | Miss Jarrett          | 68 | 296 | 43 | 229 | 111 | 525 |
  | Miss H. Chetwynd      | 65 | 313 | 40 | 176 | 105 | 489 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mrs. Horniblow won the silver bracer with all the 8 points.

Mr. G. Edwards secured the Champion's medal with 7 points. Mr. H. A.
Ford won the point for score at 80 yards, and the points for score and
hits at 60 yards.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 71 | 297 | 78 | 366 | 45 | 239 | 194 | 902 |
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 67 | 245 | 76 | 376 | 47 | 275 | 190 | 896 |
  | Mr. E. Mason            | 65 | 239 | 71 | 339 | 42 | 210 | 178 | 788 |
  | Mr. T. Boulton          | 63 | 279 | 56 | 230 | 42 | 156 | 161 | 665 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 52 | 204 | 62 | 230 | 41 | 199 | 155 | 633 |
  | Mr. H. B. Hare          | 65 | 249 | 51 | 177 | 40 | 200 | 156 | 626 |
  | Mr. H. Walters          | 48 | 194 | 61 | 235 | 40 | 194 | 149 | 623 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Some good scores--Mr. H. A. Ford (479), Mr. G. Edwards (447), and Mr. H.
B. Hare (386)--were made on July 19 in the handicap match.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Second Grand Western Archery Meeting was held at West Harnham, near
Salisbury, on July 9 and 10, 1862, when sixty-four ladies and fifty-one
gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss H. Chetwynd      | 65 | 309 | 36 | 154 | 101 | 463 |
  | Mrs. A. Malet         | 60 | 264 | 37 | 163 |  97 | 427 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 51 | 189 | 61 | 255 | 45 | 275 | 157 | 719 |
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 57 | 235 | 63 | 283 | 42 | 188 | 162 | 706 |
  | Mr. H. B. Hare          | 50 | 190 | 64 | 244 | 39 | 171 | 153 | 605 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mrs. A. Malet and Mr. H. B. Hare became respectively the Championess and
Champion of the West.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Fifth Grand Annual Crystal Palace Archery Meeting was held on June
11 and 12, 1863.

Thirty-four ladies and forty-six gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 78 | 364 | 43 | 237 | 121 | 601 |
  | Mrs. Blaker           | 61 | 275 | 36 | 188 |  97 | 463 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 59 | 221 | 72 | 326 | 44 | 244 | 175 | 791 |
  | Mr. F. Townsend         | 58 | 196 | 68 | 284 | 41 | 195 | 167 | 675 |
  | Mr. T. L. Coulson       | 53 | 233 | 65 | 281 | 34 | 142 | 152 | 656 |
  | Mr. MacNamara           | 49 | 169 | 64 | 292 | 42 | 192 | 155 | 653 |
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 49 | 185 | 64 | 264 | 42 | 188 | 155 | 637 |
  | Mr. A. R. Tawney        | 59 | 245 | 55 | 209 | 26 | 156 | 140 | 610 |
  | Colonel Clowes          | 45 | 173 | 57 | 245 | 36 | 190 | 138 | 608 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

       *       *       *       *       *

The Tenth Grand Leamington and Midland Archery Meeting was held in the
Jephson Gardens on June 25 and 26, 1863.

Twenty-eight ladies and thirty-two gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 90 | 442 | 44 | 264 | 134 | 706 |
  | Miss B. Edwards       | 73 | 305 | 47 | 229 | 120 | 534 |
  | Miss Waller           | 74 | 322 | 42 | 206 | 116 | 528 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 73 | 295 | 65 | 291 | 41 | 227 | 179 | 813 |
  | Mr. McNamara            | 58 | 266 | 65 | 265 | 46 | 246 | 169 | 777 |
  | Captain Betham          | 59 | 227 | 69 | 317 | 37 | 201 | 165 | 745 |
  | Mr. T. L. Coulson       | 74 | 324 | 63 | 237 | 40 | 152 | 177 | 713 |
  | Mr. H. B. Hare          | 64 | 246 | 61 | 295 | 33 | 133 | 158 | 674 |
  | Colonel Clowes          | 57 | 197 | 63 | 277 | 36 | 180 | 156 | 654 |
  | Mr. H. Walters          | 54 | 204 | 66 | 254 | 39 | 179 | 159 | 637 |
  | Mr. J. Spedding         | 49 | 209 | 58 | 246 | 33 | 159 | 140 | 614 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twentieth Grand National Archery Society's Meeting was held on the
Christ Church Cricket-ground at Oxford on July 1 and 2, 1863.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 73 | 285 | 43 | 193 | 116 | 478 |
  | Miss H. Chetwynd      | 61 | 281 | 39 | 189 | 100 | 468 |
  | Miss B. Edwards       | 60 | 258 | 38 | 192 |  98 | 450 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mrs. Horniblow won the silver bracer with all the 8 points.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. P. Muir             | 72 | 292 | 65 | 295 | 44 | 258 | 179 | 845 |
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 62 | 242 | 70 | 290 | 44 | 248 | 176 | 780 |
  | Mr. T. L. Coulson       | 59 | 219 | 58 | 240 | 41 | 223 | 158 | 682 |
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 54 | 206 | 59 | 245 | 42 | 218 | 155 | 669 |
  | Mr. H. Walters          | 38 | 160 | 64 | 290 | 45 | 209 | 147 | 659 |
  | Mr. F. Townsend         | 55 | 211 | 50 | 200 | 43 | 207 | 148 | 618 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

The weather was very rough.

Mr. P. Muir won the Champion's medal with 8 points; Mr. H. A. Ford won
the point for hits at 80 yards; and Messrs. H. Walters and E. W.
Atkinson divided the point for hits at 60 yards (45).

Fifty-four ladies and ninety-six gentlemen shot.

Mr. T. L. Coulson (452) shot well on July 3 in the handicap match.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Third Grand Western Archery Meeting was held at Weymouth on July 15
and 16, 1863, when fifty-nine ladies and sixty-four gentlemen shot.

There was a tie between Miss L. Turner and Miss S. Dawson in points; and
on drawing lots (not a fair way of deciding the tie) Miss S. Dawson won,
and became Championess.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss L. Turner        | 69 | 331 | 42 | 200 | 111 | 531 |
  | Miss S. Dawson        | 71 | 295 | 42 | 200 | 113 | 495 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 65 | 243 | 77 | 341 | 44 | 242 | 186 | 826 |
  | Mr. T. L. Coulson       | 70 | 258 | 57 | 277 | 42 | 236 | 169 | 771 |
  | Captain Betham          | 50 | 194 | 76 | 322 | 43 | 219 | 169 | 735 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 64 | 234 | 67 | 249 | 43 | 207 | 174 | 690 |
  | Colonel Clowes          | 56 | 208 | 59 | 243 | 34 | 176 | 149 | 627 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mr. H. B. Hare (148 hits, 594 score) became Champion of the West.

       *       *       *       *       *

A Grand Inaugural Archery Fete was held in the Alexandra Park, Muswell
Hill, on July 23 and 24, 1863.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 78 | 370 | 47 | 269 | 125 | 639 |
  | Miss H. Chetwynd      | 76 | 354 | 40 | 188 | 116 | 542 |
  | Mrs. Hare             | 74 | 328 | 43 | 177 | 117 | 505 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 64 | 234 | 71 | 293 | 47 | 279 | 182 | 806 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 70 | 264 | 66 | 266 | 43 | 225 | 179 | 755 |
  | Mr. T. L. Coulson       | 59 | 257 | 62 | 264 | 41 | 193 | 162 | 714 |
  | Mr. H. Walters          | 60 | 212 | 60 | 254 | 45 | 247 | 165 | 713 |
  | Colonel Clowes          | 64 | 236 | 58 | 232 | 39 | 193 | 161 | 661 |
  | Mr. T. Boulton          | 52 | 198 | 67 | 267 | 38 | 192 | 157 | 657 |
  | Mr. J. Rogers           | 50 | 180 | 65 | 263 | 44 | 196 | 159 | 639 |
  | Captain Betham          | 50 | 174 | 58 | 224 | 40 | 200 | 148 | 598 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mr. J. Buchanan acted as manager of this meeting.

Nineteen ladies and forty-one gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Eleventh Grand Leamington and Midland Archery Meeting was held in
the Jephson Gardens on June 15 and 16, 1864.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Betham           | 88 | 464 | 47 | 271 | 135 | 735 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 86 | 396 | 46 | 234 | 132 | 630 |
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 67 | 313 | 38 | 184 | 105 | 597 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 57 | 239 | 82 | 346 | 46 | 258 | 185 | 843 |
  | Mr. H. Walters          | 55 | 199 | 54 | 284 | 43 | 239 | 152 | 722 |
  | Captain Betham          | 54 | 212 | 63 | 231 | 47 | 251 | 164 | 694 |
  | Mr. G. L. Aston         | 56 | 208 | 65 | 269 | 41 | 215 | 162 | 692 |
  | Mr. T. L. Coulson       | 61 | 207 | 58 | 248 | 42 | 230 | 161 | 685 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 68 | 232 | 58 | 238 | 40 | 194 | 166 | 664 |
  | Mr. McNamara            | 50 | 176 | 60 | 242 | 41 | 185 | 151 | 603 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Thirty-five ladies and thirty-three gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Sixth Grand Annual Crystal Palace Archery Meeting was held on June
30 and July 1, 1864.

Thirty-eight ladies and forty-four gentlemen shot.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 66 | 276 | 68 | 274 | 47 | 269 | 181 | 819 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 63 | 249 | 59 | 275 | 46 | 232 | 168 | 756 |
  | Mr. H. Walters          | 57 | 207 | 71 | 287 | 43 | 211 | 171 | 705 |
  | Captain Betham          | 57 | 209 | 62 | 246 | 45 | 215 | 164 | 670 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 57 | 219 | 58 | 236 | 42 | 194 | 157 | 649 |
  | Mr. James Spedding      | 55 | 189 | 61 | 229 | 43 | 207 | 159 | 625 |
  | Mr. H. B. Hare          | 55 | 205 | 56 | 232 | 38 | 182 | 149 | 619 |
  | Mr. J. Rogers           | 69 | 245 | 54 | 192 | 39 | 179 | 162 | 616 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Betham           | 76 | 350 | 41 | 253 | 117 | 603 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 73 | 343 | 45 | 221 | 118 | 564 |
  | Miss Turner           | 72 | 296 | 41 | 225 | 113 | 521 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-first Grand National Archery Society's Meeting was held in
the Alexandra Park, Muswell Hill, near London, on July 6 and 7, 1864.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Betham           | 83 | 429 | 46 | 264 | 129 | 693 |
  | Mrs. G. Atkinson      | 74 | 392 | 43 | 243 | 117 | 635 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 76 | 314 | 45 | 227 | 121 | 541 |
  | Miss A. S. Butt       | 79 | 339 | 46 | 200 | 125 | 539 |
  | Miss Quin             | 68 | 320 | 44 | 208 | 112 | 528 |
  | Miss Turner           | 66 | 300 | 41 | 211 | 107 | 511 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Miss Betham won the silver bracer with 7-1/2 points. Miss A. S. Butt
divided the point for hits at 50 yards with her.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 63 | 205 | 80 | 418 | 46 | 274 | 189 | 897 |
  | Mr. P. Muir             | 81 | 325 | 63 | 269 | 45 | 227 | 189 | 821 |
  | Mr. H. Walters          | 53 | 179 | 68 | 318 | 46 | 240 | 167 | 737 |
  | Mr. W. R. Atkinson      | 60 | 230 | 61 | 237 | 43 | 249 | 164 | 716 |
  | Captain Betham          | 57 | 247 | 60 | 246 | 41 | 213 | 158 | 706 |
  | Mr. James Spedding      | 62 | 246 | 67 | 287 | 35 | 169 | 164 | 702 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 44 | 180 | 77 | 329 | 42 | 188 | 163 | 697 |
  | Mr. T. L. Coulson       | 60 | 242 | 55 | 269 | 41 | 175 | 156 | 686 |
  | Mr. St. J. Coventry     | 68 | 260 | 55 | 219 | 37 | 177 | 160 | 656 |
  | Mr. A. R. Tawney        | 64 | 242 | 54 | 214 | 39 | 179 | 157 | 645 |
  | Captain C. H. Fisher    | 65 | 267 | 57 | 193 | 39 | 183 | 161 | 643 |
  | Mr. H. B. Hare          | 62 | 238 | 64 | 260 | 32 | 134 | 158 | 632 |
  | Mr. J. Wilson           | 55 | 231 | 59 | 201 | 40 | 190 | 154 | 622 |
  | Mr. H. Elliott          | 47 | 201 | 51 | 215 | 39 | 199 | 137 | 615 |
  | Mr. McNamara            | 52 | 200 | 55 | 215 | 41 | 193 | 148 | 608 |
  | Mr. H. Garnett          | 51 | 227 | 53 | 217 | 37 | 161 | 141 | 605 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mr. G. Edwards secured the Champion's medal with 6-1/2 points. Mr. P.
Muir won 2 points for hits and score at 100 yards, and Mr. H. Walters
divided the point for hits at 60 yards with Mr. G. Edwards.

Eighty-two ladies and eighty-six gentlemen shot.

Good scores appear to have been made in the handicap match on July
8--namely, 356 by Miss Betham, 334 by Mrs. G. Atkinson, and 321 by Miss
Turner; 463 by Mr. G. Edwards, 420 by Mr. W. R. Atkinson, and 394 by Mr.
W. Rimington.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Fourth Grand Western Archery Meeting was held at Exeter on August 3
and 4, 1864, when one hundred and seventeen ladies and fifty-eight
gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss S. Dawson        | 86 | 416 | 46 | 252 | 132 | 668 |
  | Mrs. C. H. Everett    | 68 | 330 | 43 | 223 | 111 | 553 |
  | Miss Quin             | 75 | 347 | 42 | 188 | 117 | 535 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. G. L. Aston         | 72 | 280 | 74 | 336 | 44 | 220 | 190 | 836 |
  | Captain C. H. Fisher    | 80 | 340 | 64 | 250 | 37 | 195 | 181 | 785 |
  | Mr. H. B. Hare          | 53 | 225 | 65 | 251 | 35 | 169 | 153 | 645 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 50 | 174 | 45 | 207 | 40 | 204 | 135 | 585 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Miss S. Dawson and Mr. H. B. Hare became Championess and Champion of the
West.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twelfth Grand Leamington and Midland Archery Meeting was held on
June 14 and 15, 1865, in the Jephson Gardens.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Betham           | 86 | 412 | 47 | 259 | 133 | 671 |
  | Miss S. Dawson        | 84 | 404 | 45 | 241 | 129 | 645 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 86 | 384 | 46 | 240 | 132 | 624 |
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 69 | 311 | 40 | 198 | 109 | 509 |
  | Miss A. S. Butt       | 74 | 300 | 40 | 206 | 114 | 506 |
  | Miss Waller           | 70 | 310 | 40 | 192 | 110 | 502 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 78 | 338 | 76 | 352 | 44 | 218 | 198 | 908 |
  | Mr. T. L. Coulson       | 64 | 282 | 64 | 278 | 42 | 202 | 170 | 762 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 55 | 231 | 65 | 281 | 47 | 241 | 167 | 753 |
  | Mr. H. Walters          | 68 | 210 | 73 | 301 | 46 | 208 | 187 | 719 |
  | Captain Betham          | 69 | 261 | 73 | 267 | 35 | 175 | 177 | 703 |
  | Mr. Chance              | 70 | 304 | 64 | 240 | 38 | 154 | 172 | 698 |
  | Mr. H. Elliott          | 47 | 175 | 59 | 249 | 43 | 219 | 149 | 643 |
  | Mr. A. R. Tawney        | 55 | 207 | 59 | 235 | 37 | 161 | 151 | 603 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Thirty-two ladies and forty gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Seventh Grand Annual Crystal Palace Archery Meeting was held on July
6 and 7, 1865.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Betham           | 70 | 352 | 46 | 246 | 116 | 598 |
  | Miss E. K. Fenton     | 67 | 307 | 38 | 178 | 105 | 485 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 70 | 304 | 38 | 176 | 108 | 480 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. E. A. Holmes        | 71 | 267 | 67 | 263 | 39 | 181 | 177 | 711 |
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 50 | 162 | 63 | 265 | 44 | 246 | 157 | 673 |
  | Mr. H. Elliott          | 45 | 181 | 59 | 255 | 40 | 194 | 144 | 630 |
  | Mr. H. Walters          | 30 | 100 | 65 | 269 | 43 | 225 | 132 | 594 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Miss H. Chetwynd (afterwards Mrs. Christie) had the management of this
meeting, and of the previous one in 1864.

Forty ladies and forty-nine gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-second Grand National Archery Society's Meeting was held at
Clifton, near Bristol, on College Cricket-ground, on July 26 and 27,
1865.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Betham           | 79 | 385 | 45 | 221 | 124 | 606 |
  | Miss S. Dawson        | 76 | 376 | 45 | 205 | 121 | 581 |
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 74 | 362 | 42 | 218 | 116 | 580 |
  | Mrs. P. Becher        | 71 | 323 | 40 | 212 | 111 | 535 |
  | Mrs. FitzGerald       | 73 | 337 | 37 | 185 | 110 | 522 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 67 | 281 | 43 | 213 | 110 | 494 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Miss Betham won the silver bracer with 6-1/2 points. Miss L. J. Butt won
the point for score at 50 yards (222); and Miss S. Dawson divided the
point for hits at 50 yards with Miss Betham.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. E. A. Holmes        | 60 | 254 | 73 | 297 | 41 | 237 | 174 | 788 |
  | Mr. T. Boulton          | 68 | 272 | 64 | 288 | 41 | 205 | 173 | 765 |
  | Mr. P. Muir             | 71 | 289 | 60 | 250 | 38 | 180 | 169 | 719 |
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 54 | 192 | 65 | 301 | 46 | 226 | 165 | 719 |
  | Mr. R. W. Atkinson      | 54 | 196 | 58 | 256 | 44 | 260 | 156 | 712 |
  | Mr. H. Walters          | 42 | 154 | 63 | 191 | 46 | 222 | 151 | 667 |
  | Mr. E. Mason            | 53 | 199 | 64 | 268 | 40 | 184 | 157 | 651 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 52 | 188 | 66 | 274 | 40 | 176 | 158 | 638 |
  | Mr. T. L. Coulson       | 62 | 218 | 59 | 255 | 35 | 135 | 156 | 608 |
  | Mr. G. L. Aston         | 47 | 177 | 56 | 258 | 36 | 166 | 139 | 601 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mr. E. A. Holmes became the Champion, having won most points (5). Mr. P.
Muir won 2 points for hits and score at 100 yards; Mr. G. Edwards won
the point for score at 80 yards; and Mr. R. W. Atkinson won the point
for score at 60 yards. Messrs. G. Edwards and H. Walters divided the
point for hits at 60 yards.

Ninety-three ladies and ninety gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

No Grand Western Archery Meeting was held this year.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Thirteenth Grand Leamington and Midland Archery Meeting was held in
the Jephson Gardens on June 13 and 14, 1866.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Betham           | 82 | 444 | 45 | 257 | 127 | 701 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 83 | 423 | 46 | 276 | 129 | 699 |
  | Miss S. Dawson        | 91 | 459 | 43 | 187 | 134 | 646 |
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 78 | 374 | 42 | 218 | 120 | 592 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 71 | 287 | 71 | 333 | 42 | 226 | 184 | 846 |
  | Mr. T. L. Coulson       | 70 | 290 | 76 | 362 | 40 | 180 | 186 | 832 |
  | Mr. T. Boulton          | 74 | 274 | 64 | 266 | 43 | 205 | 181 | 745 |
  | Mr. O. K. Prescot       | 51 | 205 | 64 | 288 | 43 | 229 | 158 | 722 |
  | Mr. H. Elliott          | 64 | 232 | 63 | 279 | 42 | 194 | 169 | 705 |
  | Mr. Golightly           | 56 | 244 | 65 | 271 | 42 | 188 | 163 | 703 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 65 | 267 | 64 | 264 | 44 | 168 | 173 | 699 |
  | Captain Betham          | 52 | 198 | 68 | 262 | 41 | 193 | 161 | 653 |
  | Mr. H. Walters          | 41 | 185 | 58 | 222 | 42 | 194 | 141 | 601 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mr. Golightly scored 405 on June 15 in the handicap match.

Thirty-one ladies and thirty-six gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Eighth Grand Annual Crystal Palace Archery Meeting was held on June
28 and 29, 1866.

Twenty-nine ladies and forty-five gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Betham           | 81 | 389 | 44 | 244 | 125 | 633 |
  | Mrs. Hosken           | 78 | 346 | 46 | 234 | 124 | 580 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 82 | 348 | 44 | 222 | 126 | 570 |
  | Miss A. S. Butt       | 68 | 338 | 41 | 201 | 109 | 539 |
  | Mrs. P. Becher        | 72 | 332 | 42 | 194 | 114 | 526 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. Elliott          | 55 | 253 | 67 | 317 | 40 | 194 | 162 | 764 |
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 71 | 285 | 55 | 261 | 41 | 213 | 167 | 759 |
  | Mr. T. Boulton          | 55 | 243 | 69 | 321 | 41 | 195 | 165 | 759 |
  | Mr. E. A. Holmes        | 67 | 275 | 74 | 296 | 40 | 184 | 181 | 755 |
  | Mr. T. L. Coulson       | 67 | 301 | 64 | 258 | 39 | 189 | 170 | 748 |
  | Mr. R. W. Atkinson      | 48 | 174 | 68 | 278 | 46 | 226 | 162 | 678 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 52 | 234 | 55 | 243 | 41 | 199 | 148 | 676 |
  | Mr. F. Townsend         | 55 | 237 | 64 | 242 | 38 | 188 | 167 | 667 |
  | Captain C. H. Fisher    | 56 | 238 | 57 | 243 | 41 | 177 | 154 | 658 |
  | Captain Whitla          | 55 | 227 | 59 | 251 | 37 | 147 | 151 | 625 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

       *       *       *       *       *

The Fifth Grand Western Archery Meeting was held at Weymouth on July 18
and 19, 1866, when seventy-seven ladies and fifty-nine gentlemen shot.

Miss S. Dawson and Mr. H. Walrond became respectively Championess and
Champion of the West.

During these five Grand Western Archery Meetings Mr. T. Dawson acted as
Hon. Secretary. No meeting was held in 1865, when the Grand National
Archery Meeting was held at Clifton; and none was held in 1867.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Betham           | 76 | 384 | 46 | 262 | 122 | 646 |
  | Miss S. Dawson        | 82 | 414 | 41 | 195 | 123 | 609 |
  | Miss A. S. Butt       | 66 | 296 | 42 | 221 | 108 | 517 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. Walrond          | 44 | 180 | 66 | 320 | 40 | 198 | 150 | 698 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 53 | 191 | 62 | 268 | 43 | 223 | 158 | 682 |
  | Mr. T. G. Golightly     | 51 | 205 | 56 | 254 | 38 | 202 | 145 | 661 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 47 | 177 | 65 | 255 | 39 | 183 | 151 | 615 |
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 45 | 123 | 61 | 275 | 45 | 215 | 151 | 613 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-third Grand National Archery Society's Meeting was held in
the grounds of Sir R. Harvey, Bart., at Crown Point, near Norwich, on
July 25 and 26, 1866.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Betham           | 85 | 405 | 45 | 257 | 130 | 662 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 86 | 428 | 42 | 212 | 128 | 640 |
  | Miss L. J. Butt       | 72 | 316 | 43 | 189 | 115 | 505 |
  | Miss A. S. Butt       | 60 | 262 | 44 | 228 | 104 | 490 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Miss Betham won the silver bracer with 6 points. Mrs. Horniblow won the
2 points for hits and score at 60 yards.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 66 | 280 | 79 | 345 | 47 | 275 | 192 | 900 |
  | Mr. E. A. Holmes        | 65 | 247 | 69 | 297 | 46 | 246 | 180 | 790 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 59 | 255 | 65 | 251 | 44 | 224 | 168 | 730 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 60 | 200 | 74 | 288 | 44 | 194 | 178 | 682 |
  | Mr. R. W. Atkinson      | 58 | 198 | 68 | 282 | 42 | 202 | 168 | 682 |
  | Mr. F. Townsend         | 57 | 217 | 64 | 274 | 42 | 188 | 163 | 679 |
  | Mr. T. L. Coulson       | 61 | 229 | 65 | 251 | 40 | 188 | 166 | 668 |
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 59 | 191 | 63 | 255 | 40 | 220 | 162 | 666 |
  | Captain Whitla          | 65 | 241 | 65 | 239 | 36 | 184 | 166 | 664 |
  | Mr. O. K. Prescot       | 49 | 179 | 72 | 280 | 43 | 197 | 164 | 656 |
  | Captain C. H. Fisher    | 71 | 255 | 59 | 195 | 42 | 192 | 172 | 642 |
  | Mr. C. C. Ellison       | 52 | 198 | 49 | 203 | 41 | 219 | 142 | 620 |
  | Mr. F. Partridge        | 63 | 227 | 50 | 226 | 36 | 166 | 149 | 619 |
  | Mr. Chance              | 61 | 283 | 56 | 200 | 34 | 116 | 151 | 599 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mr. G. Edwards won all the points, and became the Champion.

Seventy-four ladies and seventy-five gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Fourteenth Grand Leamington and Midland Archery Meeting was held in
the Jephson Gardens on June 12 and 13, 1867.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Betham           | 86 | 466 | 47 | 277 | 133 | 743 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 85 | 423 | 37 | 217 | 122 | 640 |
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 84 | 394 | 45 | 237 | 129 | 631 |
  | Mrs. Litchfield       | 65 | 337 | 31 | 169 |  96 | 506 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 94 | 416 | 78 | 322 | 47 | 257 | 219 | 995 |
  | Mr. O. K. Prescot       | 83 | 317 | 76 | 362 | 43 | 245 | 202 | 924 |
  | Mr. R. Caldwell         | 65 | 281 | 69 | 327 | 41 | 225 | 175 | 833 |
  | Mr. H. Elliott          | 69 | 271 | 64 | 272 | 42 | 246 | 175 | 789 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 61 | 259 | 59 | 245 | 38 | 192 | 158 | 696 |
  | Mr. T. L. Coulson       | 51 | 181 | 59 | 255 | 40 | 182 | 150 | 618 |
  | Mr. W. Butt             | 51 | 193 | 62 | 230 | 39 | 193 | 152 | 616 |
  | Mr. Spottiswoode        | 65 | 213 | 61 | 225 | 38 | 170 | 164 | 608 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mr. R. Caldwell scored 423 on June 14 in the handicap match.

Twenty-five ladies and forty-one gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Ninth Grand Annual Crystal Palace Archery Meeting was held on July
18 and 19, 1867.

Mr. O. K. Prescot scored 451 on July 20 in the handicap match.

Forty-nine ladies and sixty-six gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss S. Dawson        | 84 | 378 | 44 | 248 | 128 | 626 |
  | Miss Ripley           | 70 | 320 | 43 | 201 | 113 | 521 |
  | Miss Betham           | 69 | 281 | 42 | 218 | 111 | 499 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +----------------------+----------+----------+----------+----------+
  |                      |100 Yards | 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS  |
  |      GENTLEMEN       +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+
  |                      |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score|
  +----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+
  | Mr. H. A. Ford       | 62 | 224 | 73 | 325 | 47 | 239 | 182| 788 |
  | Mr. O. K. Prescot    | 54 | 186 | 72 | 350 | 44 | 210 | 170| 746 |
  | Mr. Spottiswoode     | 69 | 247 | 66 | 268 | 43 | 209 | 178| 724 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington     | 68 | 248 | 55 | 215 | 45 | 215 | 168| 678 |
  | Mr. E. A. Holmes     | 63 | 219 | 69 | 259 | 38 | 198 | 170| 676 |
  | Mr. H. Elliott       | 41 | 173 | 67 | 291 | 44 | 206 | 152| 670 |
  | Mr. Betham           | 39 | 131 | 60 | 272 | 43 | 239 | 142| 642 |
  | Captain C. H. Fisher | 45 | 173 | 64 | 276 | 40 | 186 | 149| 635 |
  | Mr. J. M. Croker     | 52 | 186 | 61 | 259 | 41 | 181 | 154| 626 |
  | Mr. R. W. Atkinson   | 47 | 153 | 59 | 235 | 43 | 217 | 149| 605 |
  | Admiral Lowe         | 44 | 156 | 67 | 297 | 33 | 151 | 144| 604 |
  | Mr. St. J. Coventry  | 44 | 182 | 55 | 205 | 43 | 217 | 142| 604 |
  +----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-fourth Grand National Archery Society's Meeting was held at
Preston, near Brighton, on July 24 and 25, 1867.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 86 | 454 | 42 | 236 | 130 | 690 |
  | Miss Betham           | 82 | 366 | 47 | 281 | 129 | 647 |
  | Miss S. Dawson        | 88 | 404 | 44 | 242 | 132 | 646 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 88 | 450 | 42 | 196 | 130 | 646 |
  | Miss Stephenson       | 70 | 310 | 41 | 233 | 111 | 543 |
  | Mrs. J. R. Thomson    | 75 | 361 | 35 | 169 | 110 | 530 |
  | Miss A. S. Butt       | 69 | 319 | 41 | 191 | 110 | 510 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mrs. E. Lister won the silver bracer of the Championess with 3 points.
Miss S. Dawson won the 2 points for most hits, and divided the point
for hits at 60 yards with Mrs. Horniblow. Miss Betham won 2 points for
hits and score at 50 yards.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 94 | 396 | 74 | 364 | 47 | 277 | 215 |1037 |
  | Mr. E. A. Holmes        | 88 | 412 | 73 | 345 | 42 | 216 | 203 | 973 |
  | Mr. Spottiswoode        | 90 | 350 | 71 | 293 | 41 | 205 | 202 | 848 |
  | Mr. O. K. Prescot       | 67 | 285 | 77 | 313 | 45 | 235 | 189 | 833 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 74 | 254 | 72 | 316 | 46 | 232 | 192 | 802 |
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 60 | 230 | 75 | 361 | 39 | 197 | 174 | 788 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 58 | 242 | 62 | 290 | 45 | 233 | 165 | 765 |
  | Mr. P. Muir             | 75 | 281 | 50 | 236 | 44 | 212 | 169 | 729 |
  | Mr. R. Caldwell         | 59 | 189 | 74 | 314 | 41 | 221 | 174 | 724 |
  | Admiral Lowe            | 55 | 221 | 58 | 266 | 45 | 221 | 158 | 708 |
  | Mr. H. Elliott          | 58 | 198 | 61 | 255 | 44 | 232 | 163 | 685 |
  | Captain C. H. Fisher    | 76 | 290 | 59 | 223 | 38 | 170 | 173 | 683 |
  | Mr. R. W. Atkinson      | 56 | 208 | 57 | 245 | 45 | 229 | 158 | 682 |
  | Mr. T. Boulton          | 46 | 154 | 66 | 312 | 44 | 208 | 156 | 674 |
  | Mr. C. Ellison          | 45 | 193 | 63 | 263 | 38 | 194 | 146 | 650 |
  | Mr. T. L. Coulson       | 61 | 215 | 58 | 242 | 39 | 175 | 158 | 632 |
  | Mr. G. Holmes           | 58 | 198 | 57 | 219 | 41 | 205 | 156 | 622 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mr. H. A. Ford became the Champion for the twelfth and last time. He won
8 points, Mr. E. A. Holmes having won the point for score at 100 yards,
and Mr. O. K. Prescot that for score at 80 yards. Mr. E. A. Holmes was
unwell during the shooting at 60 yards on the second day, when he made
only 89 at that distance. The average value of the first ten on this
occasion, all over 700, was 820·7; and this still remains the highest
average ever yet attained. Mr. H. A. Ford on this occasion was using
very weak bows, not much more than forty pounds in weight, and light
arrows.

Seventy-two ladies and eighty-six gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

A Grand Archery Meeting was held, in the Public Recreation Ground at
Hastings, on July 31 and August 1, 1867.

Thirty-three ladies and twenty-seven gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Betham           | 88 | 458 | 47 | 275 | 135 | 733 |
  | Miss A. Betham        | 76 | 324 | 48 | 238 | 124 | 562 |
  | Mrs. P. Becher        | 78 | 336 | 39 | 207 | 117 | 543 |
  | Miss L. J. Butt       | 70 | 294 | 43 | 227 | 113 | 521 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 82 | 302 | 76 | 298 | 40 | 230 | 198 | 830 |
  | Mr. O. K. Prescot       | 83 | 331 | 72 | 302 | 39 | 165 | 194 | 798 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 76 | 304 | 63 | 235 | 44 | 210 | 183 | 749 |
  | Mr. W. Butt             | 66 | 246 | 53 | 191 | 43 | 231 | 162 | 668 |
  | Admiral Lowe            | 60 | 266 | 48 | 196 | 40 | 206 | 148 | 668 |
  | Mr. T. Boulton          | 49 | 225 | 58 | 244 | 37 | 179 | 144 | 648 |
  | Captain C. H. Fisher    | 50 | 190 | 63 | 291 | 37 | 165 | 150 | 646 |
  | Captain Betham          | 57 | 197 | 50 | 230 | 41 | 189 | 148 | 616 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

In the handicap match shot in the Archery Ground, St. Leonards-on-Sea,
on the next day--August 2--Captain C. H. Fisher scored 472 and Mr. H. A.
Ford 471.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Fifteenth Grand Leamington and Midland Archery Meeting was held in
the Jephson Gardens on June 10 and 11, 1868.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 90 | 474 | 45 | 245 | 135 | 719 |
  | Miss Ripley           | 80 | 412 | 48 | 244 | 128 | 656 |
  | Miss Betham           | 79 | 411 | 44 | 220 | 123 | 631 |
  | Mrs. W. Butt          | 83 | 401 | 43 | 225 | 126 | 626 |
  |   (Miss S. Dawson)    |    |     |    |     |     |     |
  | Mrs. A. Knox          | 77 | 385 | 46 | 226 | 123 | 611 |
  |   (Miss E. A. Betham) |    |     |    |     |     |     |
  | Mrs. P. Becher        | 70 | 344 | 42 | 222 | 112 | 566 |
  | Miss Stephenson       | 72 | 306 | 44 | 230 | 116 | 536 |
  | Mrs. W. S. Miller     | 71 | 317 | 43 | 209 | 114 | 526 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 75 | 325 | 44 | 194 | 119 | 519 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 89 | 419 | 83 | 405 | 47 | 263 | 219 |1087 |
  | Mr. O. K. Prescot       | 76 | 262 | 78 | 334 | 45 | 231 | 199 | 827 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 74 | 290 | 66 | 282 | 43 | 225 | 183 | 797 |
  | Captain C. H. Fisher    | 69 | 241 | 63 | 291 | 45 | 239 | 177 | 771 |
  | Mr. R. Caldwell         | 61 | 201 | 72 | 310 | 45 | 217 | 178 | 728 |
  | Mr. H. Elliott          | 52 | 186 | 71 | 313 | 42 | 208 | 165 | 707 |
  | Mr. W. Butt             | 57 | 187 | 70 | 266 | 38 | 192 | 165 | 645 |
  | Mr. Coker               | 52 | 200 | 66 | 268 | 31 | 137 | 149 | 605 |
  | Mr. Jenner-Fust         | 47 | 171 | 64 | 250 | 41 | 181 | 152 | 602 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Thirty ladies and forty-one gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

A Grand Archery Meeting was held in the Lower Ground, Aston Park,
Birmingham, on June 16 and 17, 1868.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Ripley           | 82 | 444 | 45 | 249 | 127 | 693 |
  | Mrs. W. Butt          | 84 | 422 | 44 | 232 | 128 | 654 |
  | Miss Betham           | 80 | 342 | 47 | 253 | 127 | 595 |
  | Mrs. P. Becher        | 83 | 373 | 41 | 191 | 124 | 564 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 83 | 391 | 38 | 172 | 121 | 563 |
  | Mrs. A. Knox          | 84 | 358 | 44 | 180 | 128 | 538 |
  |   (Miss A. Betham)    |    |     |    |     |     |     |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 82 | 338 | 80 | 410 | 46 | 248 | 208 | 996 |
  | Captain C. H. Fisher    | 93 | 397 | 66 | 258 | 41 | 207 | 200 | 862 |
  | Mr. W. Butt             | 54 | 256 | 58 | 258 | 43 | 215 | 155 | 729 |
  | Mr. O. K. Prescot       | 64 | 232 | 62 | 250 | 43 | 227 | 169 | 709 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 67 | 245 | 58 | 236 | 40 | 202 | 165 | 683 |
  | Mr. H. Elliott          | 51 | 189 | 71 | 299 | 41 | 195 | 163 | 683 |
  | Mr. R. Caldwell         | 50 | 202 | 64 | 264 | 46 | 190 | 160 | 656 |
  | Mr. Coker               | 59 | 225 | 58 | 246 | 32 | 144 | 149 | 615 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Twenty-two ladies and thirty gentlemen shot.

This meeting was managed by Mr. N. Merridew for Mr. Quilter.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Tenth Grand Annual Crystal Palace Archery Meeting was held on July 2
and 3, 1868.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. W. Butt          | 87 | 443 | 43 | 217 | 130 | 660 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 86 | 424 | 44 | 230 | 130 | 654 |
  | Miss Betham           | 83 | 421 | 42 | 230 | 125 | 651 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 86 | 408 | 39 | 193 | 125 | 619 |
  | Miss Ripley           | 80 | 368 | 46 | 228 | 126 | 596 |
  | Miss Ellis            | 68 | 280 | 43 | 235 | 111 | 515 |
  | Miss Adams            | 66 | 308 | 41 | 207 | 107 | 515 |
  | Mrs. A. Knox          | 81 | 345 | 38 | 168 | 119 | 513 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +----------------------+----------+----------+----------+----------+
  |                      |100 Yards | 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS  |
  |      GENTLEMEN       +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+
  |                      |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score|
  +----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+
  | Mr. E. A. Holmes     | 77 | 339 | 79 | 355 | 40 | 208 | 196| 902 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington     | 84 | 338 | 78 | 296 | 42 | 228 | 204| 862 |
  | Mr. H. A. Ford       | 81 | 315 | 75 | 313 | 39 | 157 | 195| 785 |
  | Mr. Spottiswoode     | 62 | 234 | 66 | 302 | 43 | 219 | 171| 755 |
  | Mr. E. N. Snow       | 49 | 195 | 58 | 258 | 44 | 224 | 151| 677 |
  | Mr. F. Townsend      | 52 | 200 | 69 | 299 | 36 | 172 | 157| 671 |
  | Mr. J. M. Croker     | 40 | 162 | 68 | 292 | 42 | 214 | 150| 668 |
  | Mr. Betham           | 44 | 160 | 67 | 295 | 41 | 195 | 152| 650 |
  | Mr. Jenner-Fust      | 53 | 209 | 67 | 243 | 40 | 196 | 160| 648 |
  | Captain C. H. Fisher | 68 | 272 | 47 | 185 | 43 | 189 | 158| 646 |
  | Mr. H. Elliott       | 54 | 172 | 60 | 262 | 39 | 171 | 153| 605 |
  +----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+

Thirty-seven ladies and fifty gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-fifth Grand National Archery Society's Meeting was held at
Hereford, on the Racecourse, on July 29 and 30, 1868.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Betham           | 80 | 382 | 48 | 290 | 128 | 672 |
  | Mrs. W. Butt          | 87 | 359 | 47 | 265 | 134 | 624 |
  | Mrs. P. Becher        | 79 | 401 | 41 | 193 | 120 | 594 |
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 72 | 346 | 43 | 247 | 115 | 593 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 82 | 364 | 44 | 222 | 126 | 586 |
  | Miss Ripley           | 70 | 330 | 42 | 214 | 112 | 544 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Miss Betham won the silver bracer with 4 points. Mrs. W. Butt won 2
points for most hits and another point for hits at 60 yards. Mrs. P.
Becher won the point for score at 60 yards.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 77 | 299 | 68 | 288 | 42 | 220 | 187 | 807 |
  | Mr. O. K. Prescot       | 69 | 281 | 63 | 315 | 39 | 191 | 171 | 787 |
  | Captain C. H. Fisher    | 78 | 312 | 57 | 235 | 40 | 208 | 175 | 755 |
  | Mr. E. A. Holmes        | 62 | 242 | 66 | 290 | 42 | 208 | 170 | 740 |
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 66 | 230 | 65 | 291 | 42 | 214 | 173 | 735 |
  | Colonel M. F. Ward      | 51 | 197 | 64 | 302 | 43 | 223 | 158 | 722 |
  | Mr. J. M. Croker        | 51 | 191 | 65 | 263 | 44 | 242 | 160 | 696 |
  | Mr. H. Elliott          | 64 | 258 | 61 | 267 | 35 | 157 | 160 | 682 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 56 | 210 | 57 | 239 | 41 | 219 | 154 | 668 |
  | Mr. H. Walrond          | 48 | 192 | 62 | 286 | 41 | 187 | 151 | 665 |
  | Mr. Jenner-Fust         | 45 | 173 | 67 | 295 | 40 | 190 | 152 | 658 |
  | Mr. W. Butt             | 49 | 211 | 53 | 289 | 43 | 199 | 145 | 649 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mr. W. Rimington became the Champion with 5 points. Captain C. H. Fisher
won 2 points for hits and score at 100 yards. Mr. O. K. Prescot won the
point for score at 80 yards; and Mr. J. M. Croker won the points for
score and hits at 60 yards.

Sixty-three ladies and sixty-nine gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

Mr. W. Rimington scored 433 on July 31 in the handicap match.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Sixth Grand Western Archery Meeting was held at Bitton, near
Teignmouth, on September 9 and 10, 1868.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 83 | 453 | 44 | 238 | 127 | 691 |
  | Miss Ripley           | 85 | 397 | 45 | 219 | 130 | 616 |
  | Miss Rowlett          | 62 | 268 | 43 | 201 | 105 | 469 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 70 | 300 | 76 | 364 | 44 | 260 | 190 | 924 |
  | Colonel M. F. Ward      | 67 | 299 | 68 | 320 | 39 | 217 | 174 | 836 |
  | Mr. H. B. Hare          | 53 | 199 | 73 | 325 | 30 | 198 | 156 | 722 |
  | Mr. E. N. Snow          | 48 | 192 | 63 | 275 | 43 | 237 | 154 | 704 |
  | Admiral A. Lowe         | 69 | 283 | 56 | 242 | 34 | 160 | 159 | 685 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 63 | 221 | 56 | 212 | 37 | 189 | 156 | 622 |
  | Mr. H. Walrond          | 58 | 206 | 47 | 207 | 42 | 188 | 147 | 601 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Miss Ripley became Championess, and Colonel Ward Champion of the West.

Fifty-six ladies and thirty-eight gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Sixteenth Grand Leamington and Midland Archery Meeting was held on
June 9 and 10, 1869, in the Jephson Gardens.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Betham           | 70 | 344 | 47 | 251 | 117 | 595 |
  | Mrs. Kinahan          | 80 | 344 | 45 | 233 | 125 | 577 |
  | Mrs. P. Becher        | 79 | 349 | 43 | 227 | 122 | 576 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 78 | 352 | 43 | 221 | 121 | 573 |
  | Miss Peel             | 75 | 353 | 43 | 203 | 118 | 556 |
  | Miss Stephenson       | 73 | 315 | 42 | 204 | 115 | 519 |
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 67 | 311 | 38 | 202 | 105 | 513 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 74 | 328 | 44 | 178 | 118 | 506 |
  | Miss F. Flight        | 67 | 333 | 36 | 166 | 103 | 499 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 95 | 403 | 77 | 369 | 48 | 260 | 220 |1032 |
  | Captain C. H. Fisher    | 60 | 250 | 74 | 312 | 43 | 205 | 177 | 767 |
  | Mr. O. K. Prescot       | 79 | 281 | 65 | 291 | 37 | 161 | 181 | 733 |
  | Mr. H. Elliott          | 74 | 286 | 69 | 247 | 39 | 145 | 182 | 678 |
  | Mr. T. L. Coulson       | 56 | 236 | 59 | 231 | 40 | 164 | 155 | 631 |
  | Mr. Walford             | 50 | 198 | 52 | 210 | 44 | 220 | 146 | 628 |
  | Mr. W. Ford             | 49 | 195 | 60 | 238 | 35 | 179 | 144 | 612 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Twenty-one ladies and thirty-nine gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Eleventh Grand Annual Crystal Palace Archery Meeting was held on
July 8 and 9, 1869.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 88 | 410 | 48 | 266 | 136 | 676 |
  | Miss Ripley           | 81 | 369 | 46 | 278 | 127 | 647 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 68 | 308 | 41 | 243 | 109 | 551 |
  | Miss Stephenson       | 74 | 336 | 40 | 200 | 114 | 536 |
  | Mrs. P. Becher        | 69 | 305 | 43 | 229 | 112 | 534 |
  | Mrs. Kinahan          | 74 | 344 | 40 | 184 | 114 | 528 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 80 | 334 | 73 | 347 | 44 | 236 | 197 | 917 |
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 66 | 258 | 76 | 362 | 47 | 269 | 189 | 889 |
  | Captain C. H. Fisher    | 77 | 313 | 71 | 319 | 42 | 210 | 190 | 842 |
  | Mr. H. Elliott          | 60 | 234 | 80 | 380 | 40 | 204 | 180 | 818 |
  | Mr. E. A. Holmes        | 68 | 258 | 66 | 250 | 45 | 241 | 179 | 749 |
  | Mr. Walford             | 38 | 156 | 63 | 287 | 47 | 237 | 148 | 680 |
  | Mr. Horlock             | 54 | 210 | 60 | 262 | 41 | 193 | 155 | 665 |
  | Mr. W. L. Selfe         | 63 | 223 | 56 | 222 | 42 | 218 | 161 | 663 |
  | Mr. J. M. Croker        | 49 | 209 | 57 | 217 | 45 | 233 | 151 | 659 |
  | Admiral Lowe            | 57 | 207 | 59 | 233 | 40 | 192 | 156 | 632 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 57 | 213 | 48 | 176 | 40 | 212 | 145 | 601 |
  | Mr. Lea                 | 48 | 198 | 47 | 193 | 41 | 209 | 136 | 600 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Forty-two ladies and fifty-seven gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-sixth Grand National Archery Society's Meeting was held in
the Aston Park Grounds, near Birmingham, on July 28 and 29, 1869.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 78 | 402 | 45 | 227 | 123 | 629 |
  | Mrs. Kinahan          | 83 | 409 | 40 | 198 | 123 | 607 |
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 65 | 299 | 45 | 219 | 110 | 518 |
  | Miss Betham           | 61 | 247 | 43 | 239 | 104 | 486 |
  | Miss Stephenson       | 62 | 276 | 41 | 201 | 103 | 477 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 73 | 321 | 35 | 155 | 108 | 476 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mrs. Horniblow won the silver bracer with the highest score, as there
was a tie between her and Mrs. Kinahan in points. This was said to be
the case at the time, but it does not appear to have been so from the
published scores, as Mrs. Horniblow had the advantage by one-half a
point. Mrs. Horniblow appears to have won 2 points for gross score, 1
point for a tie with Mrs. Kinahan for total hits, and one-half a point
for a tie with Mrs. E. Lister for hits at 50 yards--total, 3-1/2 points.
Mrs. Kinahan won 2 points for hits and score at 60 yards, and 1 point
for the tie in total hits--her total being only 3 points. Miss Betham
won 1 point for score at 50 yards. The annual report of this meeting was
never issued by the Hon. Secretary, the Rev. O. Luard, so the actual
state of the case cannot now be made certain. Of course there may have
been an error in the unofficial accounts published.

Mr. W. Rimington won the Champion's gold medal with the highest score,
as there was a tie in points between him and Captain C. H. Fisher, each
having won 4 points. Mr. W. Rimington won 1 point for score at 100
yards, 1 point for score at 60 yards, and 2 points for gross score.
Captain C. H. Fisher won 2 points for score and hits at 80 yards, and 2
for most total hits. Mr. E. A. Holmes won 1 point for hits at 60 yards,
and Mr. O. K. Prescot one point for hits at 100 yards.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 71 | 335 | 75 | 311 | 45 | 263 | 191 | 909 |
  | Mr. E. A. Holmes        | 66 | 274 | 74 | 356 | 47 | 253 | 187 | 883 |
  | Captain C. H. Fisher    | 73 | 279 | 77 | 369 | 42 | 212 | 192 | 860 |
  | Mr. H. A. Ford          | 65 | 247 | 67 | 343 | 44 | 224 | 176 | 814 |
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 54 | 216 | 70 | 324 | 46 | 232 | 170 | 772 |
  | Mr. O. K. Prescot       | 76 | 298 | 62 | 270 | 44 | 198 | 182 | 766 |
  | Mr. H. Elliott          | 69 | 237 | 63 | 277 | 37 | 193 | 169 | 707 |
  | Mr. H. Walrond          | 55 | 213 | 68 | 300 | 41 | 187 | 164 | 700 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 69 | 237 | 60 | 294 | 38 | 142 | 167 | 673 |
  | Captain Lewin, R. E.    | 51 | 201 | 60 | 218 | 38 | 198 | 149 | 617 |
  | Mr. H. B. Hare          | 54 | 214 | 65 | 265 | 33 | 135 | 152 | 614 |
  | Mr. T. L. Coulson       | 59 | 211 | 51 | 221 | 35 | 175 | 145 | 607 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

On this occasion it was decided by the Committee that in future the
Champion honours at their meetings should be decided by gross score and
not by points. A handsome silver cup, value 50 guineas, collected by
small subscriptions from numerous archers, was presented on July 29 to
Mr. C. M. Caldecott, of Holbrooke Grange, near Rugby, who had acted for
many years as judge at these meetings.

Only thirty-six ladies and sixty-nine gentlemen shot at this meeting.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Seventh Grand Western Archery Meeting was held in Mr. Parson's
grounds at Bitton, near Teignmouth, on August 4 and 5, 1869.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Ripley           | 76 | 390 | 46 | 270 | 122 | 660 |
  | Mrs. Kinahan          | 86 | 412 | 36 | 176 | 122 | 588 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 59 | 227 | 74 | 310 | 39 | 175 | 172 | 712 |
  | Mr. R. Price            | 51 | 211 | 63 | 279 | 40 | 194 | 154 | 684 |
  | Mr. H. Walrond          | 45 | 157 | 64 | 296 | 38 | 186 | 147 | 639 |
  | Mr. Jenner-Fust         | 53 | 233 | 55 | 193 | 40 | 212 | 148 | 638 |
  | Colonel M. F. Ward      | 56 | 182 | 60 | 266 | 40 | 180 | 158 | 628 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Miss Ripley and Mr. R. Price became Championess and Champion of the
West.

Sixty-two ladies and thirty-nine gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Seventeenth Grand Leamington and Midland Archery Meeting was held in
the Jephson Gardens on June 15 and 16, 1870.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. W. Butt          | 93 | 525 | 44 | 260 | 137 | 785 |
  | Mrs. Villiers Forbes  | 86 | 454 | 43 | 227 | 129 | 681 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 83 | 403 | 44 | 232 | 127 | 635 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 83 | 389 | 44 | 236 | 127 | 625 |
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 83 | 365 | 44 | 232 | 127 | 597 |
  | Miss Joan Ley         | 76 | 326 | 41 | 223 | 117 | 539 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. Elliott          | 83 | 359 | 69 | 283 | 44 | 248 | 196 | 890 |
  | Mr. Jenner-Fust         | 67 | 245 | 69 | 295 | 46 | 240 | 182 | 780 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 61 | 243 | 69 | 295 | 40 | 212 | 170 | 750 |
  | Mr. O. K. Prescot       | 62 | 242 | 79 | 311 | 40 | 194 | 181 | 747 |
  | Colonel M. F. Ward      | 59 | 211 | 63 | 323 | 37 | 179 | 159 | 713 |
  | Mr. W. F. Heideman      | 50 | 168 | 64 | 286 | 42 | 214 | 156 | 668 |
  | Captain Lewin, R. E.    | 66 | 224 | 57 | 239 | 38 | 166 | 161 | 629 |
  | Mr. W. Butt             | 43 | 159 | 48 | 214 | 45 | 233 | 136 | 606 |
  | Mr. T. L. Coulson       | 58 | 196 | 64 | 246 | 41 | 163 | 163 | 605 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Twenty-five ladies and forty gentlemen shot.

Mr. O. K. Prescot scored 400 on June 17 in the handicap match.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twelfth Grand Annual Crystal Palace Archery Meeting was held on July
7 and 8, 1870.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. V. Forbes        | 93 | 479 | 45 | 273 | 138 | 752 |
  | Mrs. W. Butt          | 86 | 442 | 46 | 280 | 132 | 722 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 78 | 392 | 45 | 241 | 123 | 633 |
  | Mrs. Kinahan          | 79 | 377 | 41 | 231 | 120 | 608 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 78 | 332 | 46 | 252 | 124 | 584 |
  | Miss Joan Ley         | 66 | 338 | 47 | 207 | 113 | 545 |
  | Miss H. Holmes        | 75 | 307 | 42 | 224 | 117 | 531 |
  | Mrs. Hosken           | 68 | 302 | 45 | 219 | 113 | 521 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. E. A. Holmes        | 74 | 284 | 79 | 365 | 46 | 248 | 199 | 897 |
  | Mr. H. Elliott          | 73 | 263 | 72 | 338 | 41 | 193 | 186 | 794 |
  | Captain C. H. Fisher    | 86 | 336 | 60 | 264 | 40 | 184 | 186 | 784 |
  | Mr. Jenner-Fust         | 42 | 168 | 72 | 342 | 46 | 212 | 160 | 722 |
  | Mr. H. Walrond          | 52 | 214 | 63 | 297 | 41 | 207 | 156 | 718 |
  | Mr. Walford             | 58 | 206 | 60 | 286 | 41 | 169 | 159 | 661 |
  | Mr. W. Butt             | 49 | 201 | 60 | 258 | 40 | 180 | 149 | 639 |
  | Colonel A. Robertson    | 47 | 181 | 56 | 236 | 41 | 195 | 144 | 612 |
  | Mr. T. Boulton          | 48 | 186 | 58 | 240 | 36 | 182 | 142 | 608 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Forty-eight ladies and thirty-nine gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-seventh Grand National Archery Society's Meeting was held on
July 21 and 22, 1870, at Weston, near Bath.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 86 | 412 | 48 | 288 | 134 | 700 |
  | Mrs. V. Forbes        | 87 | 405 | 47 | 279 | 134 | 684 |
  | Mrs. W. Butt          | 90 | 424 | 46 | 232 | 136 | 656 |
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 81 | 395 | 44 | 218 | 125 | 613 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 82 | 364 | 44 | 232 | 126 | 596 |
  | Mrs. P. Pinckney      | 74 | 350 | 44 | 246 | 118 | 596 |
  | Miss Hulme            | 75 | 359 | 46 | 234 | 121 | 593 |
  | Miss Joan Ley         | 69 | 337 | 41 | 183 | 110 | 520 |
  | Miss Ripley[11]       | 45 | 191 | 47 | 285 |  92 | 476 |
  | Mrs. J. R. Thomson    | 60 | 254 | 46 | 214 | 106 | 468 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  [11] Shot only 15 arrows at 60 yards the first day.

Mrs. Horniblow became the Championess by highest gross score. The points
happened to be equally divided between her and Mrs. W. Butt.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. E. A. Holmes        | 66 | 258 | 72 | 302 | 45 | 247 | 183 | 807 |
  | Captain C. H. Fisher    | 77 | 349 | 64 | 270 | 42 | 178 | 183 | 797 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 86 | 348 | 72 | 284 | 36 | 146 | 194 | 778 |
  | Mr. Walford             | 70 | 274 | 64 | 286 | 44 | 206 | 178 | 766 |
  | Mr. H. Elliott          | 75 | 313 | 67 | 267 | 42 | 184 | 184 | 764 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 66 | 192 | 58 | 236 | 45 | 215 | 169 | 743 |
  | Mr. W. Butt             | 45 | 185 | 64 | 318 | 43 | 223 | 152 | 726 |
  | Mr. E. Ley              | 51 | 205 | 69 | 333 | 38 | 186 | 158 | 724 |
  | Mr. O. K. Prescot       | 63 | 287 | 58 | 220 | 38 | 202 | 159 | 709 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 51 | 207 | 66 | 266 | 42 | 228 | 159 | 701 |
  | Colonel M. F. Ward      | 52 | 192 | 61 | 263 | 45 | 237 | 158 | 692 |
  | Mr. W. F. Heideman      | 43 | 149 | 72 | 334 | 39 | 189 | 154 | 672 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mr. E. A. Holmes became the Champion with the highest score under the
rule passed in 1869 abolishing points. He would have become champion by
one-third of a point.

The average of the shooting at this meeting was unusually good amongst
the gentlemen, being 751·5 for the first ten.

Mr. H. A. Ford was present, but did not shoot.

The weather was excessively hot.

Eighty-three ladies and seventy-nine gentlemen shot.

Good scores were made by Mr. E. A. Holmes (490), Captain C. H. Fisher
(443), and Mr. Walford (411), on July 23, in the handicap match.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Eighth Grand Western Archery Meeting was held in the grounds at
Bitton, near Teignmouth, on July 27 and 28, 1870.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss M. Lockyer       | 91 | 463 | 45 | 235 | 136 | 698 |
  | Mrs. V. Forbes        | 81 | 407 | 47 | 275 | 128 | 682 |
  | Mrs. P. Pinckney      | 85 | 403 | 45 | 249 | 130 | 652 |
  | Miss J. Ley           | 85 | 387 | 45 | 263 | 130 | 650 |
  | Miss Ripley           | 78 | 362 | 47 | 283 | 125 | 645 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 78 | 320 | 45 | 249 | 123 | 569 |
  | Mrs. J. R. Thomson    | 83 | 343 | 39 | 205 | 122 | 548 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Captain C. H. Fisher    | 91 | 375 | 88 | 424 | 46 | 234 | 225 |1033 |
  | Mr. H. Walrond          | 50 | 216 | 71 | 331 | 44 | 246 | 165 | 793 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 52 | 250 | 68 | 302 | 40 | 192 | 160 | 744 |
  | Mr. O. K. Prescot       | 57 | 215 | 64 | 282 | 42 | 208 | 163 | 705 |
  | Mr. E. N. Snow          | 65 | 277 | 50 | 226 | 42 | 200 | 157 | 703 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 54 | 198 | 57 | 223 | 42 | 242 | 153 | 663 |
  | Mr. Price               | 35 | 137 | 71 | 323 | 36 | 160 | 142 | 620 |
  | Colonel M. F. Ward      | 53 | 179 | 57 | 239 | 41 | 189 | 151 | 607 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Miss M. Lockyer and Mr. Walrond became Championess and Champion of the
West.

Sixty-three ladies and forty-three gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Eighteenth Grand Leamington and Midland Archery Meeting was held in
the Jephson Gardens on June 14 and 15, 1871.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 89 | 503 | 47 | 265 | 136 | 768 |
  | Mrs. V. Forbes        | 77 | 431 | 48 | 268 | 125 | 699 |
  | Mrs. W. Butt          | 83 | 403 | 44 | 240 | 127 | 643 |
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 76 | 368 | 45 | 221 | 121 | 589 |
  | Miss Joan Ley         | 76 | 348 | 46 | 218 | 122 | 566 |
  | Mrs. P. Becher        | 71 | 329 | 42 | 176 | 113 | 505 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Captain C. H. Fisher    | 88 | 356 | 72 | 340 | 45 | 221 | 205 | 917 |
  | Mr. T. L. Coulson       | 76 | 296 | 74 | 294 | 45 | 225 | 195 | 815 |
  | Mr. Jenner-Fust         | 58 | 228 | 71 | 305 | 44 | 222 | 173 | 755 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 61 | 227 | 63 | 259 | 40 | 210 | 164 | 696 |
  | Mr. G. L. Aston         | 69 | 287 | 54 | 206 | 38 | 194 | 161 | 687 |
  | Mr. F. Townsend         | 59 | 209 | 66 | 284 | 35 | 167 | 160 | 660 |
  | Mr. W. Butt             | 47 | 157 | 66 | 290 | 41 | 197 | 154 | 644 |
  | Mr. H. Elliott          | 49 | 193 | 61 | 231 | 44 | 204 | 154 | 628 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Twenty-three ladies and thirty-six gentlemen shot.

During all these eighteen Leamington meetings Mr. N. Merridew acted as
Secretary and Manager, and Mr. C. M. Caldecott as Judge.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-eighth Grand National Archery Society's Meeting was held on
the College Cricket-ground, at Cheltenham, on June 28 and 29, 1871.

At this meeting the system of points for the selection of the Champion
and Championess was reintroduced, and Mrs. Horniblow became the
Championess with all the points, except that Mrs. V. Forbes and Mrs.
Eyre W. Hussey tied her in hits at 50 yards, with 47 hits. This score of
746 was the best yet made, Mrs. Horniblow's own score of 700 at Bath in
1870 being the next best.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 91 | 467 | 47 | 279 | 138 | 746 |
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 90 | 434 | 44 | 230 | 134 | 664 |
  | Mrs. W. Butt          | 79 | 391 | 45 | 261 | 124 | 652 |
  | Mrs. V. Forbes        | 80 | 358 | 47 | 269 | 127 | 627 |
  | Mrs. Eyre W. Hussey   | 75 | 365 | 47 | 231 | 122 | 596 |
  | Mrs. J. E. Thomson    | 73 | 325 | 46 | 258 | 119 | 583 |
  | Miss Betham           | 75 | 315 | 45 | 249 | 120 | 564 |
  | Miss Joan Ley         | 70 | 308 | 41 | 205 | 111 | 513 |
  | Miss Hulme            | 68 | 300 | 43 | 211 | 111 | 511 |
  | Miss F. Flight        | 63 | 269 | 45 | 237 | 108 | 506 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Captain C. H. Fisher    | 80 | 338 | 80 | 358 | 45 | 259 | 205 | 955 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 66 | 232 | 68 | 330 | 47 | 233 | 181 | 795 |
  | Mr. H. Walrond          | 58 | 242 | 67 | 337 | 42 | 210 | 167 | 789 |
  | Mr. Jenner-Fust         | 56 | 250 | 62 | 268 | 46 | 220 | 164 | 738 |
  | Mr. T. L. Coulson       | 52 | 180 | 62 | 260 | 41 | 221 | 155 | 663 |
  | Mr. Walford             | 49 | 213 | 56 | 240 | 41 | 199 | 146 | 652 |
  | Mr. H. Elliott          | 58 | 212 | 56 | 230 | 43 | 197 | 157 | 639 |
  | Mr. P. Muir             | 44 | 194 | 57 | 263 | 40 | 180 | 141 | 637 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Captain C. H. Fisher won the Championship with all the points, except
that for hits at 60 yards, which was won by Mr. W. Rimington (47). This
955 was the best score yet made by anybody except Mr. H. A. Ford, and
Mr. Holmes, whose score was 973 at Brighton in 1867.

Fifty-nine ladies and sixty-eight gentlemen shot at this meeting.

On the next day--June 30--Mr. Aston made 389, Miss Hulme 388, and Mrs.
W. Butt 380.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Thirteenth Grand Annual Crystal Palace Archery Meeting was held on
July 12 and 13, 1871.

Twenty-three ladies and thirty-seven gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. W. Butt          | 86 | 438 | 47 | 275 | 133 | 713 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 80 | 396 | 46 | 256 | 126 | 652 |
  | Mrs. Eyre W. Hussey   | 80 | 392 | 46 | 248 | 126 | 640 |
  | Miss Ripley           | 75 | 335 | 47 | 251 | 122 | 586 |
  | Miss Betham           | 76 | 340 | 43 | 217 | 119 | 557 |
  | Mrs. V. Forbes        | 79 | 349 | 40 | 188 | 119 | 537 |
  | Mrs. J. R. Thomson    | 69 | 315 | 38 | 208 | 107 | 523 |
  | Mrs. Kinahan          | 70 | 288 | 43 | 223 | 113 | 501 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Captain C. H. Fisher    | 87 | 349 | 81 | 337 | 46 | 274 | 214 | 960 |
  | Mr. H. Elliott          | 70 | 276 | 70 | 328 | 44 | 226 | 184 | 830 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 56 | 254 | 63 | 287 | 42 | 194 | 161 | 735 |
  | Mr. H. Walrond          | 56 | 232 | 64 | 310 | 41 | 185 | 161 | 727 |
  | Mr. T. L. Coulson       | 53 | 203 | 66 | 284 | 40 | 182 | 159 | 669 |
  | Captain Lewin, R. E.    | 72 | 254 | 62 | 258 | 35 | 153 | 169 | 665 |
  | Mr. Walford             | 49 | 159 | 66 | 290 | 43 | 211 | 158 | 660 |
  | Mr. B. P. Gregson       | 53 | 227 | 64 | 240 | 37 | 173 | 154 | 640 |
  | Mr. Jenner-Fust         | 39 | 141 | 57 | 229 | 44 | 224 | 140 | 594 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mr. R. Butt acted as Hon. Secretary to these meetings from 1867 to 1871
inclusive.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Ninth Grand Western Archery Meeting was held at Bitton, near
Teignmouth, on August 2 and 3, 1871, when fifty-four ladies and
thirty-five gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Ripley           | 86 | 434 | 45 | 265 | 131 | 699 |
  | Mrs. V. Forbes        | 75 | 337 | 44 | 248 | 119 | 585 |
  | Mrs. Letts            | 68 | 342 | 39 | 177 | 107 | 519 |
  | Mrs. P. Pinckney      | 70 | 318 | 37 | 177 | 107 | 495 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. Walrond          | 66 | 296 | 68 | 328 | 45 | 227 | 179 | 851 |
  | Admiral A. Lowe         | 79 | 353 | 59 | 265 | 36 | 180 | 174 | 798 |
  | Mr. R. Price            | 73 | 283 | 68 | 288 | 42 | 226 | 183 | 797 |
  | Captain C. H. Fisher    | 73 | 293 | 66 | 302 | 39 | 171 | 178 | 766 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 58 | 256 | 57 | 243 | 38 | 236 | 153 | 735 |
  | Mr. T. L. Coulson       | 70 | 268 | 56 | 208 | 38 | 164 | 164 | 640 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Miss Ripley and Mr. Walrond became Championess and Champion of the West.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Nineteenth Grand Leamington and Midland Archery Meeting was held in
the Jephson Gardens, on June 12 and 13, 1872.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 88 | 470 | 46 | 242 | 134 | 712 |
  | Mrs. Kinahan          | 90 | 434 | 43 | 237 | 133 | 671 |
  | Mrs. V. Forbes        | 82 | 390 | 48 | 276 | 130 | 666 |
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 81 | 381 | 46 | 226 | 127 | 607 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Captain C. H. Fisher    | 88 | 358 | 73 | 267 | 39 | 179 | 200 | 804 |
  | Mr. H. Sagar            | 65 | 241 | 70 | 284 | 40 | 210 | 175 | 735 |
  | Mr. G. E. S. Fryer      | 64 | 242 | 73 | 273 | 42 | 206 | 179 | 721 |
  | Mr. G. L. Aston         | 54 | 226 | 48 | 266 | 41 | 213 | 143 | 705 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 61 | 259 | 58 | 222 | 44 | 206 | 163 | 687 |
  | Mr. W. Ford             | 59 | 219 | 71 | 263 | 40 | 198 | 170 | 680 |
  | Mr. H. Elliott          | 51 | 201 | 61 | 281 | 38 | 184 | 150 | 666 |
  | Mr. T. L. Coulson       | 68 | 242 | 58 | 262 | 34 | 150 | 160 | 654 |
  | Mr. B. P. Gregson       | 70 | 264 | 51 | 191 | 42 | 190 | 163 | 645 |
  | Captain Lewin, R. E.    | 65 | 241 | 66 | 258 | 34 | 134 | 165 | 633 |
  | Mr. O. K. Prescot       | 66 | 246 | 50 | 196 | 39 | 189 | 155 | 631 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Eighteen ladies and thirty-two gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Fourteenth Grand Annual Crystal Palace Archery Meeting was held on
July 11 and 12, 1872.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. J. R. Thomson    | 81 | 343 | 47 | 261 | 128 | 604 |
  | Mrs. P. Pinckney      | 72 | 328 | 46 | 208 | 118 | 536 |
  | Miss Ripley           | 69 | 299 | 40 | 200 | 109 | 499 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. Sagar            | 52 | 214 | 73 | 335 | 41 | 197 | 166 | 746 |
  | Captain C. H. Fisher    | 74 | 258 | 67 | 211 | 45 | 225 | 186 | 694 |
  | Mr. G. E. S. Fryer      | 59 | 195 | 63 | 289 | 41 | 201 | 163 | 685 |
  | Mr. H. Elliott          | 55 | 207 | 56 | 222 | 41 | 193 | 152 | 622 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Thirty-six ladies and thirty-three gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-ninth Grand National Archery Society's Meeting was held, in
the grounds of the College at Cheltenham, on June 26 and 27, 1872.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 88 | 394 | 48 | 266 | 136 | 660 |
  | Mrs. J. R. Thomson    | 80 | 372 | 45 | 233 | 125 | 605 |
  | Mrs. Kinahan          | 75 | 365 | 46 | 216 | 121 | 581 |
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 75 | 327 | 41 | 243 | 116 | 570 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 72 | 320 | 45 | 239 | 117 | 559 |
  | Mrs. Acklom           | 73 | 317 | 41 | 201 | 114 | 518 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mrs. Horniblow won the silver bracer, having secured all the points.

Captain C. H. Fisher became Champion with highest gross score, as he was
a tie with Mr. Betham for points, each having 4--Captain Fisher having
hits and score at 80 yards and gross score, and Mr. Betham hits and
score at 100 yards and gross hits. Mr. Sagar won the 2 points for hits
and score at 60 yards.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Captain C. H. Fisher    | 64 | 242 | 75 | 347 | 36 | 182 | 175 | 771 |
  | Mr. Jenner-Fust         | 68 | 250 | 65 | 291 | 43 | 207 | 176 | 748 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 71 | 269 | 67 | 267 | 40 | 176 | 178 | 712 |
  | Mr. G. E. S. Fryer      | 63 | 259 | 50 | 216 | 43 | 209 | 156 | 684 |
  | Mr. H. Sagar            | 37 | 139 | 58 | 250 | 47 | 227 | 142 | 616 |
  | Mr. H. Elliott          | 56 | 188 | 59 | 233 | 42 | 194 | 157 | 615 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Fifty-five ladies and fifty-eight gentlemen shot at this meeting.

Mrs. Thomson made a score of 345 on the following day--June 28--in the
handicap match.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Tenth Grand Western Archery Meeting was held at Sherborne, in Mr.
Digby's grounds, on August 7 and 8, 1872, when fifty-four ladies and
forty-four gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. P. Pinckney      | 85 | 401 | 47 | 249 | 132 | 650 |
  | Miss Lockyer          | 72 | 334 | 43 | 223 | 115 | 557 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Captain C. H. Fisher    | 95 | 429 | 76 | 370 | 47 | 261 | 218 |1060 |
  | Mr. G. E. S. Fryer      | 68 | 256 | 65 | 299 | 46 | 262 | 179 | 817 |
  | Mr. R. Price            | 58 | 234 | 59 | 261 | 41 | 211 | 158 | 706 |
  | Mr. H. Walrond          | 52 | 206 | 58 | 256 | 47 | 221 | 157 | 683 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 55 | 229 | 53 | 199 | 40 | 188 | 148 | 616 |
  | Mr. T. Boulton          | 53 | 211 | 60 | 264 | 33 | 141 | 146 | 616 |
  | Mr. Jenner-Fust         | 66 | 244 | 55 | 217 | 31 | 149 | 152 | 610 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mrs. P. Pinckney and Mr. Price became Championess and Champion of the
West.

       *       *       *       *       *

No Leamington Archery Meeting was held in 1873, as the Grand National
Archery Society's Meeting was held in Leamington in the course of the
year.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Fifteenth Grand Annual Crystal Palace Archery Meeting was held on
July 9 and 10, 1873.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. P. Pinckney      | 88 | 468 | 47 | 261 | 135 | 729 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 89 | 477 | 46 | 242 | 135 | 719 |
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 84 | 398 | 46 | 244 | 130 | 642 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 73 | 317 | 46 | 234 | 119 | 551 |
  | Miss Ripley           | 77 | 329 | 39 | 221 | 116 | 550 |
  | Mrs. Mayhew           | 79 | 345 | 35 | 179 | 114 | 524 |
  | Mrs. M. Barnard       | 78 | 334 | 38 | 172 | 116 | 506 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 76 | 340 | 78 | 316 | 38 | 192 | 192 | 848 |
  | Mr. G. E. S. Fryer      | 69 | 265 | 66 | 288 | 45 | 241 | 180 | 794 |
  | Mr. H. H. Palairet      | 68 | 278 | 71 | 325 | 42 | 182 | 181 | 785 |
  | Mr. H. Sagar            | 43 | 195 | 64 | 308 | 46 | 228 | 153 | 731 |
  | Mr. T. Boulton          | 63 | 251 | 65 | 241 | 41 | 213 | 169 | 705 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 62 | 214 | 62 | 284 | 44 | 188 | 168 | 686 |
  | Mr. B. P. Gregson       | 59 | 247 | 64 | 258 | 35 | 151 | 158 | 656 |
  | Mr. T. L. Coulson       | 50 | 172 | 60 | 266 | 35 | 181 | 145 | 619 |
  | Mr. A. Henty            | 51 | 181 | 57 | 235 | 38 | 180 | 146 | 596 |
  | Dr. R. Harris           | 45 | 167 | 61 | 263 | 36 | 166 | 142 | 596 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Forty-four ladies and twenty-seven gentlemen shot.

Major Lewin acted as Hon. Secretary to these meetings in 1872 and 1873.

       *       *       *       *       *

A Grand Archery Meeting was held on the Cricket-ground of the Alexandra
Park Company, Muswell Hill, near Hornsey, on July 17 and 18, 1873.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 90 | 460 | 47 | 273 | 137 | 733 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 77 | 343 | 45 | 239 | 122 | 582 |
  | Mrs. P. Pinckney      | 73 | 321 | 47 | 253 | 120 | 574 |
  | Miss Betham           | 73 | 365 | 40 | 198 | 113 | 563 |
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 76 | 330 | 44 | 228 | 120 | 558 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. H. Palairet      | 62 | 266 | 77 | 309 | 46 | 242 | 185 | 817 |
  | Major C. H. Fisher      | 84 | 298 | 65 | 285 | 42 | 194 | 191 | 777 |
  | Mr. G. E. S. Fryer      | 72 | 262 | 65 | 289 | 44 | 220 | 181 | 771 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 60 | 252 | 72 | 310 | 39 | 169 | 171 | 731 |
  | Mr. H. Sagar            | 62 | 250 | 66 | 292 | 39 | 183 | 167 | 725 |
  | Admiral A. Lowe         | 49 | 219 | 71 | 303 | 43 | 195 | 163 | 717 |
  | Mr. T. Boulton          | 59 | 215 | 56 | 216 | 43 | 217 | 158 | 648 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 48 | 176 | 62 | 222 | 43 | 209 | 153 | 607 |
  | Mr. G. L. Aston         | 54 | 188 | 53 | 237 | 33 | 161 | 140 | 586 |
  | Mr. R. Braithwaite      | 42 | 152 | 56 | 258 | 34 | 176 | 132 | 586 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mr. T. Aldred had the management of this meeting.

Thirty-seven ladies and thirty-four gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Thirtieth Grand National Archery Society's Meeting was held at
Leamington, in Mrs. Wise's grounds, Shrublands, on July 23 and 24, 1873.

Mrs. Horniblow again won the silver bracer with 6 points. Mrs. P.
Pinckney won the points for hits and score at 50 yards.

Major Fisher became Champion with 8-1/2 points. Mr. A. Henty won the
point for hits at 60 yards, and Mr. Fust tied Major Fisher for the point
for score at 60 yards.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 95 | 521 | 47 | 243 | 142 | 764 |
  | Miss Ripley           | 86 | 414 | 44 | 240 | 130 | 654 |
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 82 | 396 | 45 | 243 | 127 | 639 |
  | Mrs. P. Pinckney      | 81 | 351 | 48 | 272 | 129 | 623 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 81 | 405 | 40 | 210 | 121 | 615 |
  | Miss Betham           | 76 | 338 | 45 | 225 | 121 | 563 |
  | Mrs. Villiers Forbes  | 75 | 331 | 44 | 230 | 119 | 561 |
  | Mrs. Hornby           | 77 | 359 | 44 | 200 | 121 | 559 |
  | Mrs. Letts            | 87 | 305 | 42 | 208 | 129 | 513 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Major C. H. Fisher      | 75 | 291 | 81 | 373 | 42 | 234 | 198 | 898 |
  | Mr. H. H. Palairet      | 67 | 243 | 75 | 305 | 44 | 226 | 186 | 774 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 52 | 216 | 73 | 329 | 39 | 205 | 164 | 750 |
  | Mr. T. Boulton          | 64 | 262 | 68 | 266 | 37 | 185 | 169 | 713 |
  | Mr. Jenner-Fust         | 69 | 261 | 58 | 216 | 42 | 234 | 169 | 711 |
  | Admiral A. Lowe         | 61 | 259 | 56 | 220 | 42 | 190 | 159 | 669 |
  | Mr. O. K. Prescot       | 59 | 227 | 66 | 276 | 39 | 165 | 164 | 668 |
  | Mr. G. E. S. Fryer      | 66 | 276 | 56 | 202 | 37 | 175 | 159 | 653 |
  | Mr. E. N. Snow          | 58 | 250 | 60 | 230 | 39 | 153 | 157 | 633 |
  | Mr P. Muir              | 58 | 214 | 54 | 234 | 36 | 182 | 148 | 630 |
  | Mr. A. Henty            | 47 | 145 | 57 | 247 | 45 | 219 | 149 | 611 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

In the handicap match on the next day--July 25--Miss Hutchinson scored
350, Mrs. Hornby 312, Major Fisher 462, Mr. Everett 439, and Mr. Fryer
360.

Sixty-three ladies and seventy-six gentlemen shot at this meeting.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Eleventh Grand Western Archery Meeting was held in Mr. Parson's
grounds at Bitton, near Teignmouth, on August 27 and 28, 1873, when
fifty-three ladies and thirty-nine gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. P. Pinckney      | 83 | 375 | 45 | 273 | 128 | 648 |
  | Miss Ripley           | 80 | 362 | 47 | 285 | 127 | 647 |
  | Mrs. Kinahan          | 70 | 308 | 45 | 233 | 115 | 541 |
  | Mrs. Letts            | 64 | 290 | 40 | 206 | 104 | 496 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 60 | 264 | 73 | 323 | 40 | 182 | 173 | 769 |
  | Mr. O. K. Prescot       | 58 | 264 | 63 | 269 | 38 | 170 | 159 | 703 |
  | Mr. H. Walrond          | 47 | 171 | 68 | 294 | 42 | 216 | 157 | 681 |
  | Captain C. H. Garnett   | 64 | 266 | 60 | 258 | 35 | 151 | 159 | 675 |
  | Mr. T. L. Coulson       | 57 | 203 | 65 | 273 | 35 | 167 | 157 | 643 |
  | Major C. H. Fisher      | 40 | 158 | 64 | 256 | 41 | 197 | 145 | 611 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mrs. Pinckney and Mr. Walrond became Championess and Champion of the
West.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twentieth Grand Leamington and Midland Archery Meeting was held on
June 24 and 25, 1874.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 83 | 441 | 44 | 250 | 127 | 691 |
  | Mrs. V. Forbes        | 83 | 381 | 47 | 275 | 130 | 656 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 78 | 344 | 45 | 263 | 123 | 607 |
  | Mrs. Pond             | 74 | 322 | 47 | 261 | 121 | 583 |
  | Mrs. Hornby           | 77 | 345 | 47 | 235 | 124 | 580 |
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 75 | 271 | 47 | 261 | 122 | 532 |
  | Mrs. Mayhew           | 69 | 329 | 42 | 202 | 111 | 531 |
  | Miss M. A. Hollins    | 76 | 336 | 42 | 190 | 118 | 526 |
  | Mrs. J. F. Stilwell   | 67 | 301 | 38 | 196 | 105 | 497 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. O. K. Prescot       | 90 | 350 | 65 | 279 | 43 | 195 | 198 | 824 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 61 | 261 | 71 | 325 | 45 | 217 | 177 | 803 |
  | Mr. G. E. S. Fryer      | 74 | 288 | 63 | 225 | 44 | 228 | 181 | 741 |
  | Mr. G. L. Aston         | 57 | 211 | 57 | 223 | 41 | 199 | 155 | 633 |
  | Mr. H. Sagar            | 56 | 244 | 50 | 196 | 38 | 188 | 144 | 628 |
  | Captain C. H. Garnett   | 39 | 149 | 68 | 296 | 39 | 177 | 146 | 622 |
  | Colonel Norbury         | 44 | 140 | 65 | 279 | 45 | 201 | 154 | 620 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Twenty-four ladies and thirty-eight gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Sixteenth Grand Annual Crystal Palace Archery Meeting was held on
July 8 and 9, 1874.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Pond             | 83 | 421 | 47 | 279 | 130 | 700 |
  | Miss Croker           | 74 | 382 | 42 | 230 | 116 | 612 |
  | Mrs. Mayhew           | 77 | 339 | 48 | 266 | 125 | 605 |
  | Mrs. J. F. Stilwell   | 75 | 357 | 44 | 236 | 119 | 593 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 71 | 323 | 44 | 244 | 115 | 567 |
  | Mrs. Marshall         | 83 | 375 | 37 | 189 | 120 | 564 |
  | Mrs. P. Pinckney      | 69 | 311 | 46 | 240 | 115 | 551 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 73 | 329 | 78 | 334 | 46 | 250 | 197 | 913 |
  | Major C. H. Fisher      | 80 | 326 | 74 | 354 | 42 | 206 | 196 | 886 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 67 | 283 | 70 | 304 | 38 | 176 | 175 | 763 |
  | Mr. H. Sagar            | 61 | 229 | 68 | 310 | 43 | 197 | 172 | 736 |
  | Mr. A. Henty            | 56 | 222 | 68 | 288 | 42 | 160 | 166 | 670 |
  | Major Lewin, R. E.      | 53 | 195 | 57 | 277 | 35 | 161 | 145 | 633 |
  | Mr. G. E. S. Fryer      | 46 | 214 | 55 | 221 | 39 | 183 | 140 | 618 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Thirty-nine ladies and forty-three gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twelfth Grand Western Archery Meeting was held at Weymouth on July
29 and 30, 1874, when fifty-two ladies and thirty-six gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Pond             | 75 | 327 | 41 | 187 | 116 | 514 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 72 | 304 | 44 | 200 | 116 | 504 |
  | Mrs. C. Betham        | 68 | 304 | 41 | 191 | 109 | 495 |
  | Miss Betham           | 60 | 270 | 44 | 212 | 104 | 482 |
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 73 | 289 | 43 | 191 | 116 | 480 |
  | Miss Lowe             | 66 | 306 | 37 | 169 | 103 | 475 |
  | Mrs. P. Pinckney      | 64 | 244 | 44 | 230 | 108 | 474 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Major C. H. Fisher      | 72 | 246 | 65 | 267 | 42 | 244 | 179 | 757 |
  | Mr. H. Walrond          | 55 | 243 | 56 | 286 | 35 | 133 | 146 | 662 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 65 | 233 | 60 | 244 | 38 | 156 | 163 | 633 |
  | Mr. T. L. Coulson       | 49 | 195 | 63 | 297 | 34 | 122 | 146 | 614 |
  | Mr. O. K. Prescot       | 63 | 239 | 57 | 217 | 34 | 148 | 154 | 604 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Miss Lowe and Mr. H. Walrond became Championess and Champion of the
West.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Thirty-first Grand National Archery Society's Meeting was held on
August 5 and 6, 1874, on the College Cricket-ground, at Winchester.

Mrs. Pond won the silver bracer with 6 points. Mrs. P. F. Legh won the
point for score at 50 yards; and Mrs. P. Pinckney and Mrs. Horniblow
divided the point for hits at 50 yards.

Major C. H. Fisher became Champion, having secured all the points.

Eighty-two ladies and sixty-four gentlemen shot at this meeting.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Pond             | 87 | 431 | 45 | 213 | 132 | 644 |
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 77 | 369 | 46 | 272 | 123 | 641 |
  | Mrs. P. Pinckney      | 82 | 362 | 47 | 271 | 129 | 633 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 76 | 352 | 47 | 269 | 123 | 621 |
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 76 | 330 | 46 | 252 | 122 | 582 |
  | Miss Milne            | 76 | 384 | 46 | 196 | 122 | 580 |
  | Miss Betham           | 73 | 351 | 44 | 204 | 117 | 555 |
  | Miss E. Martin        | 73 | 333 | 42 | 208 | 115 | 541 |
  | Mrs. Mayhew           | 64 | 280 | 46 | 250 | 110 | 530 |
  | Mrs. Holland          | 68 | 308 | 46 | 220 | 114 | 528 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Major C. H. Fisher      | 71 | 289 | 75 | 331 | 47 | 253 | 193 | 873 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 63 | 225 | 58 | 254 | 43 | 233 | 164 | 712 |
  | Mr. G. E. S. Fryer      | 55 | 213 | 65 | 291 | 41 | 205 | 161 | 709 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 60 | 234 | 62 | 248 | 41 | 221 | 163 | 703 |
  | Mr. H. Walrond          | 48 | 180 | 64 | 266 | 44 | 248 | 156 | 694 |
  | Mr. O. K. Prescot       | 58 | 224 | 63 | 271 | 37 | 153 | 158 | 648 |
  | Mr. B. P. Gregson       | 58 | 216 | 55 | 215 | 42 | 188 | 155 | 619 |
  | Mr. A. Henty            | 54 | 184 | 60 | 244 | 40 | 184 | 154 | 612 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 57 | 179 | 61 | 241 | 41 | 191 | 159 | 611 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

In the handicap match on August 7, Mrs. E. Lister scored 356, Mrs. Piers
F. Legh 333, and Mrs. Horniblow 319; Major C. H. Fisher 443, and Mr.
Betham 418.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-first Grand Leamington and Midland Archery Meeting was held
in the Jephson Gardens, on June 23 and 24, 1875.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. W. Butt          | 86 | 422 | 43 | 235 | 129 | 657 |
  | Mrs. Pond             | 82 | 366 | 44 | 258 | 126 | 624 |
  | Miss M. A. Hollins    | 80 | 360 | 48 | 262 | 128 | 622 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 82 | 328 | 41 | 181 | 123 | 509 |
  | Mrs. Hornby           | 74 | 326 | 37 | 181 | 111 | 507 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. C. H. Rimington     | 74 | 280 | 73 | 339 | 44 | 238 | 191 | 857 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 82 | 310 | 71 | 265 | 45 | 215 | 198 | 790 |
  | Mr. H. H. Palairet      | 62 | 256 | 66 | 276 | 47 | 227 | 175 | 759 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 58 | 244 | 63 | 253 | 44 | 196 | 165 | 693 |
  | Mr. W. Porter           | 47 | 185 | 70 | 300 | 33 | 165 | 150 | 650 |
  | Mr. H. Elliott          | 55 | 213 | 60 | 238 | 40 | 166 | 155 | 617 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Twenty-four ladies and forty gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Seventeenth Annual Crystal Palace Archery Meeting was held on July
28 and 29, 1875.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 84 | 394 | 48 | 280 | 132 | 674 |
  | Mrs. Pond             | 82 | 374 | 46 | 250 | 128 | 624 |
  | Mrs. Kinahan          | 76 | 310 | 48 | 258 | 124 | 568 |
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 80 | 350 | 43 | 195 | 123 | 545 |
  | Miss Legh             | 75 | 313 | 40 | 184 | 115 | 497 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Major C. H. Fiher       | 83 | 315 | 80 | 360 | 43 | 213 | 206 | 888 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 59 | 199 | 80 | 310 | 44 | 258 | 183 | 767 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 61 | 211 | 68 | 278 | 43 | 233 | 172 | 722 |
  | Mr. Piers F. Legh       | 49 | 171 | 67 | 289 | 45 | 225 | 161 | 685 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 66 | 262 | 61 | 261 | 38 | 150 | 165 | 673 |
  | Mr. H. Walrond          | 62 | 218 | 47 | 209 | 45 | 231 | 154 | 658 |
  | Mr. H. H. Palairet      | 50 | 228 | 60 | 240 | 33 | 171 | 143 | 639 |
  | Mr. G. E. S. Fryer      | 52 | 194 | 64 | 256 | 39 | 185 | 155 | 635 |
  | Mr. W. Ford             | 60 | 226 | 58 | 228 | 36 | 148 | 154 | 602 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Forty ladies and fifty-seven gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Thirty-second Grand National Archery Society's Meeting was held on
August 4 and 5, 1875, in the Deer-park at Richmond, Surrey.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss M. A. Hollins    | 88 | 430 | 45 | 263 | 133 | 693 |
  | Miss Horniblow        | 71 | 311 | 43 | 229 | 114 | 540 |
  | Mrs. P. Pinckney      | 69 | 307 | 44 | 228 | 113 | 535 |
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 74 | 304 | 45 | 223 | 119 | 527 |
  | Mrs. Marshall         | 68 | 304 | 42 | 220 | 110 | 524 |
  | Mrs. Pond             | 61 | 287 | 42 | 210 | 103 | 497 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 70 | 302 | 43 | 185 | 113 | 487 |
  | Miss Milne            | 76 | 334 | 35 | 151 | 111 | 485 |
  | Mrs. C. E. Hornby     | 59 | 255 | 43 | 219 | 102 | 474 |
  | Miss Benwell          | 70 | 272 | 41 | 193 | 111 | 465 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Miss Hollins won the silver bracer with 7-1/2 points, as she divided the
point for hits at 50 yards with Mrs. Lister.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. G. E. S. Fryer      | 77 | 279 | 75 | 361 | 46 | 236 | 198 | 876 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 78 | 358 | 66 | 308 | 42 | 196 | 186 | 862 |
  | Major C. H. Fisher      | 69 | 275 | 71 | 341 | 45 | 233 | 185 | 849 |
  | Mr. B. P. Gregson       | 71 | 277 | 63 | 279 | 44 | 200 | 178 | 756 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 59 | 233 | 63 | 269 | 48 | 238 | 170 | 740 |
  | Mr. H. H. Palairet      | 55 | 217 | 72 | 326 | 36 | 190 | 163 | 733 |
  | Mr. Piers F. Legh       | 61 | 259 | 64 | 296 | 40 | 168 | 165 | 723 |
  | Mr. A. T. D. Berrington | 52 | 232 | 59 | 259 | 39 | 181 | 150 | 672 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 63 | 237 | 60 | 272 | 34 | 144 | 157 | 653 |
  | Mr. H. Walrond          | 54 | 226 | 44 | 180 | 45 | 241 | 143 | 647 |
  | Mr. W. Butt             | 32 | 122 | 64 | 246 | 42 | 250 | 138 | 618 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mr. Fryer became Champion with 6 points. Mr. Rimington won the point for
hits and score at 100 yards; Mr. Betham the point for hits at 60 yards;
and Mr. Butt the point for score at 60 yards.

Eighty-four ladies and seventy-two gentlemen shot at this meeting.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Thirteenth Grand Western Archery Meeting was held at Bitton, near
Teignmouth, on August 11 and 12, 1875, when forty-seven ladies and
twenty-seven gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |         ----          +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Hosken           | 69 | 313 | 39 | 193 | 108 | 506 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 74 | 286 | 81 | 381 | 47 | 259 | 202 | 926 |
  | Major C. H. Fisher      | 77 | 289 | 77 | 341 | 40 | 206 | 194 | 836 |
  | Mr. G. E. S. Fryer      | 72 | 290 | 63 | 297 | 38 | 190 | 173 | 777 |
  | Mr. H. Walrond          | 64 | 274 | 65 | 275 | 40 | 198 | 169 | 747 |
  | Mr. H. H. Palairet      | 60 | 236 | 68 | 316 | 34 | 150 | 162 | 702 |
  | Mr. H. Sagar            | 65 | 253 | 56 | 242 | 37 | 169 | 158 | 664 |
  | Mr. Grant Dalton        | 45 | 171 | 59 | 257 | 43 | 203 | 147 | 631 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mrs. Hosken and Mr. Walrond became Championess and Champion of the West.

Major Fisher scored 442, and Mr. Palairet 424, in the handicap match on
the following day--August 13.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-second Grand Leamington and Midland Archery Meeting was held
on June 21 and 22, 1876.

Twenty-nine ladies and thirty-four gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. W. Butt          | 91 | 463 | 47 | 267 | 138 | 730 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 83 | 383 | 47 | 249 | 130 | 632 |
  | Mrs. Pond             | 79 | 373 | 42 | 218 | 121 | 591 |
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 73 | 321 | 47 | 269 | 120 | 590 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 75 | 379 | 39 | 199 | 112 | 578 |
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 80 | 366 | 41 | 205 | 121 | 571 |
  | Miss M. A. Hollins    | 74 | 324 | 46 | 244 | 120 | 568 |
  | Mrs. Hornby           | 74 | 322 | 43 | 233 | 117 | 555 |
  | Mrs. Kinahan          | 77 | 355 | 39 | 191 | 116 | 546 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 94 | 364 | 70 | 348 | 39 | 185 | 203 | 897 |
  | Mr. G. L. Aston         | 65 | 243 | 66 | 288 | 45 | 209 | 176 | 740 |
  | Mr. W. Ford             | 66 | 230 | 71 | 313 | 41 | 185 | 178 | 728 |
  | Mr. W. Butt             | 42 | 174 | 64 | 276 | 46 | 240 | 152 | 690 |
  | Mr. W. Porter           | 52 | 204 | 51 | 191 | 44 | 208 | 147 | 603 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mr. C. H. Everett scored 451 on June 23 in the handicap match.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Eighteenth Grand Annual Crystal Palace Archery Meeting was held on
June 28 and 29, 1876.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. W. Butt          | 89 | 447 | 44 | 248 | 133 | 695 |
  | Mrs. Kinahan          | 82 | 368 | 48 | 250 | 130 | 618 |
  | Mrs. Marshall         | 82 | 376 | 44 | 226 | 126 | 602 |
  | Mrs. Pond             | 74 | 338 | 45 | 233 | 119 | 571 |
  | Miss Berens           | 68 | 316 | 44 | 236 | 112 | 552 |
  | Miss Croker           | 70 | 302 | 45 | 231 | 115 | 533 |
  | Mrs. D. Ainsworth     | 70 | 298 | 44 | 224 | 114 | 522 |
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 81 | 319 | 43 | 199 | 124 | 518 |
  | Miss Follett          | 71 | 331 | 40 | 170 | 111 | 501 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 77 | 333 | 69 | 283 | 45 | 209 | 191 | 825 |
  | Major C. H. Fisher      | 65 | 291 | 66 | 294 | 40 | 176 | 171 | 761 |
  | Mr. J. Rogers           | 67 | 229 | 66 | 264 | 43 | 213 | 176 | 706 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 69 | 259 | 72 | 274 | 34 | 140 | 175 | 673 |
  | Mr. Eyre W. Hussey      | 46 | 178 | 56 | 240 | 41 | 207 | 153 | 625 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Thirty-nine ladies and thirty-five gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Thirty-third Grand National Archery Society's Meeting was held on
July 5 and 6, 1876, at Sandown Park, near Esher, Surrey.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. W. Butt          | 91 | 483 | 47 | 269 | 138 | 752 |
  | Mrs. Marshall         | 87 | 409 | 44 | 202 | 131 | 611 |
  | Mrs. Kinahan          | 69 | 325 | 44 | 246 | 113 | 571 |
  | Miss M. A. Hollins    | 75 | 303 | 44 | 246 | 119 | 549 |
  | Mrs. Kane             | 74 | 330 | 39 | 201 | 113 | 531 |
  | Miss Croker           | 75 | 331 | 35 | 195 | 110 | 526 |
  | Mrs. D. Ainsworth     | 67 | 307 | 43 | 207 | 110 | 514 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 70 | 304 | 44 | 202 | 114 | 506 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 65 | 283 | 43 | 217 | 108 | 500 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mrs. Butt won the silver bracer with all the points.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. H. Palairet      | 59 | 233 | 77 | 313 | 45 | 227 | 181 | 773 |
  | Major C. H. Fisher      | 78 | 358 | 60 | 208 | 42 | 204 | 180 | 770 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 70 | 248 | 56 | 232 | 39 | 203 | 165 | 683 |
  | Mr. Rogers              | 51 | 201 | 54 | 240 | 43 | 225 | 148 | 666 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 61 | 235 | 59 | 231 | 39 | 163 | 159 | 629 |
  | Mr. G. E. S. Fryer      | 53 | 195 | 63 | 225 | 38 | 184 | 154 | 604 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mr. H. H. Palairet became the Champion with 8 points after a very close
contest during the shooting of the last 3 arrows at 60 yards with Major
Fisher, who won the 2 points for hits and score at 100 yards.

In the handicap match on the next day Mrs. Horniblow made 340, and Mr.
Everett 427.

Sixty-three ladies and fifty-three gentlemen shot at this meeting.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Fourteenth Grand Western Archery Meeting was held at Salisbury on
August 2 and 3, 1876, when fifty-three ladies and forty gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 86 | 368 | 46 | 266 | 132 | 634 |
  | Miss E. Pinckney      | 81 | 345 | 45 | 213 | 126 | 558 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 78 | 316 | 45 | 223 | 123 | 539 |
  | Mrs. Kane             | 65 | 289 | 47 | 233 | 112 | 522 |
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 63 | 271 | 40 | 216 | 103 | 487 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. H. Palairet      | 64 | 234 | 64 | 302 | 45 | 229 | 173 | 765 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 69 | 271 | 59 | 229 | 44 | 204 | 172 | 704 |
  | Mr. H. Walrond          | 55 | 201 | 62 | 250 | 46 | 236 | 163 | 687 |
  | Mr. J. Penrose          | 56 | 210 | 63 | 259 | 44 | 198 | 163 | 667 |
  | Mr. H. B. Hare          | 44 | 160 | 65 | 285 | 36 | 172 | 145 | 617 |
  | Mr. P. F. Legh          | 49 | 169 | 57 | 231 | 39 | 193 | 145 | 593 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Miss E. Pinckney and Mr. Palairet became Championess and Champion of the
West.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-third Grand Leamington and Midland Archery Meeting was held
on June 27 and 28, 1877. Forty ladies and twenty-seven gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. W. Butt          | 88 | 432 | 45 | 275 | 133 | 707 |
  | Miss M. A. Hollins    | 85 | 413 | 45 | 287 | 130 | 700 |
  | Mrs. Kinahan          | 87 | 383 | 46 | 248 | 133 | 631 |
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 86 | 370 | 46 | 260 | 132 | 630 |
  | Miss Legh             | 80 | 378 | 47 | 249 | 127 | 627 |
  | Mrs. D. Ainsworth     | 81 | 353 | 40 | 202 | 121 | 555 |
  | Mrs. Acklom           | 77 | 361 | 46 | 188 | 123 | 549 |
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 73 | 313 | 38 | 214 | 111 | 527 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 75 | 327 | 42 | 196 | 117 | 523 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. H. Palairet      | 66 | 262 | 77 | 363 | 41 | 213 | 184 | 838 |
  | Major C. H. Fisher      | 77 | 299 | 72 | 286 | 44 | 242 | 193 | 827 |
  | Mr. H. Elliott          | 58 | 220 | 59 | 247 | 37 | 185 | 154 | 652 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mrs. W. Butt scored 365 on June 29 in the handicap match.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Nineteenth Grand Annual Crystal Palace Archery Meeting was held on
July 12 and 13, 1877. Forty-six ladies and forty gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. W. Butt          | 91 | 477 | 45 | 241 | 136 | 718 |
  | Mrs. Kinahan          | 87 | 439 | 45 | 221 | 132 | 660 |
  | Miss Legh             | 84 | 372 | 48 | 266 | 132 | 638 |
  | Mrs. Marshall         | 83 | 359 | 45 | 261 | 128 | 620 |
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 80 | 356 | 47 | 251 | 127 | 607 |
  | Mrs. P. Pinckney      | 77 | 317 | 44 | 266 | 121 | 583 |
  | Mrs. Kane             | 79 | 385 | 40 | 198 | 119 | 583 |
  | Mrs. Hulse            | 65 | 297 | 43 | 221 | 108 | 518 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Major C. H. Fisher      | 95 | 389 | 72 | 330 | 43 | 213 | 210 | 932 |
  | Mr. P. Pinckney         | 73 | 307 | 69 | 313 | 47 | 243 | 189 | 863 |
  | Mr. H. H. Palairet      | 67 | 269 | 75 | 341 | 43 | 213 | 185 | 823 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 77 | 301 | 70 | 288 | 36 | 154 | 183 | 743 |
  | Mr. E. N. Snow          | 47 | 173 | 66 | 268 | 43 | 199 | 156 | 640 |
  | Mr. H. Sagar            | 64 | 242 | 59 | 205 | 37 | 189 | 150 | 636 |
  | Mr. H. Walrond          | 51 | 185 | 60 | 244 | 38 | 180 | 149 | 609 |
  | Mr. J. Rogers           | 62 | 198 | 60 | 246 | 36 | 164 | 158 | 608 |
  | Major Lewin, R. E.      | 46 | 204 | 58 | 218 | 42 | 186 | 146 | 608 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

       *       *       *       *       *

The Thirty-fourth Grand National Archery Society's Meeting was held at
Doncaster, on the Racecourse, on August 8 and 9, 1877.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. W. Butt          | 80 | 414 | 46 | 262 | 126 | 676 |
  | Miss M. A. Hollins    | 84 | 376 | 42 | 220 | 126 | 596 |
  | Mrs. D. Ainsworth     | 73 | 327 | 45 | 253 | 118 | 580 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 72 | 316 | 46 | 244 | 118 | 560 |
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 70 | 320 | 42 | 216 | 112 | 516 |
  | Mrs. Marshall         | 75 | 319 | 46 | 188 | 121 | 507 |
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 73 | 311 | 44 | 196 | 117 | 507 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mrs. Butt won the silver bracer with 5-1/2 points. Miss Hollins won the
point for hits at 60 yards, and made an equal number of gross hits with
Mrs. Butt; and Mrs. Horniblow made the same number of hits at 50 yards
as Mrs. Butt.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 55 | 227 | 70 | 290 | 38 | 186 | 163 | 703 |
  | Mr. H. H. Palairet      | 46 | 170 | 61 | 259 | 40 | 220 | 147 | 649 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 54 | 242 | 54 | 206 | 41 | 179 | 149 | 627 |
  | Mr. G. E. S. Fryer      | 58 | 222 | 53 | 229 | 39 | 159 | 150 | 610 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mr. W. Rimington became Champion with 7 points. Mr. Betham won the 2
points for score at 100 yards and hits at 60 yards; Mr. Fryer the point
for hits at 100 yards; and Mr. Palairet the point for score at 60 yards.

In the handicap match on the next day--August 10--Mrs. Butt scored 44
hits, 280 sc. and 24 hits, 154 sc. = 68 hits, 434 sc., and Miss Hollins
362. Mr. Palairet scored 400.

The weather on the two first days at this meeting was most unsuitable.

Forty-four ladies and fifty-four gentlemen attended this meeting.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Fifteenth Grand Western Archery Meeting was held at Bitton, near
Teignmouth, on August 29 and 30, 1877, when forty-nine ladies and thirty
gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. C. E. Nesham     | 74 | 360 | 44 | 240 | 118 | 600 |
  | Miss E. Pinckney      | 75 | 327 | 46 | 240 | 121 | 567 |
  | Miss C. Radford       | 82 | 392 | 41 | 173 | 123 | 565 |
  | Mrs. V. Forbes        | 71 | 329 | 40 | 202 | 111 | 531 |
  | Mrs. Gataker          | 71 | 301 | 44 | 214 | 115 | 515 |
  | Miss Follett          | 68 | 302 | 41 | 201 | 109 | 503 |
  | Miss E. Matthews      | 64 | 294 | 40 | 206 | 104 | 500 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Major C. H. Fisher      | 91 | 357 | 66 | 292 | 41 | 201 | 198 | 850 |
  | Mr. P. Pinckney         | 73 | 251 | 67 | 307 | 42 | 228 | 182 | 786 |
  | Mr. H. H. Palairet      | 67 | 263 | 70 | 288 | 44 | 198 | 181 | 749 |
  | Mr. O. L. Clare         | 75 | 285 | 48 | 186 | 43 | 205 | 166 | 676 |
  | Mr. H. Walrond          | 57 | 219 | 65 | 255 | 43 | 195 | 165 | 669 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Miss E. Pinckney and Mr. P. Pinckney--sister and brother--became
Championess and Champion of the West.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-fourth Grand Leamington and Midland Archery Meeting was held
on June 26 and 27, 1878.

Thirty-one ladies and twenty-nine gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 89 | 399 | 46 | 260 | 135 | 659 |
  | Miss M. A. Hollins    | 80 | 412 | 44 | 206 | 124 | 618 |
  | Miss Legh             | 81 | 375 | 43 | 219 | 124 | 594 |
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 81 | 331 | 45 | 249 | 126 | 580 |
  | Mrs. W. Betham        | 71 | 311 | 41 | 213 | 112 | 524 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Major C. H. Fisher      | 83 | 359 | 73 | 307 | 41 | 183 | 197 | 849 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 82 | 298 | 68 | 310 | 44 | 202 | 194 | 810 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 70 | 278 | 61 | 277 | 29 | 161 | 160 | 716 |
  | Mr. G. L. Aston         | 55 | 199 | 65 | 231 | 44 | 214 | 164 | 644 |
  | Mr. W. Yates Foot       | 37 | 163 | 61 | 223 | 43 | 223 | 141 | 609 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

On June 28, in the handicap match, Miss Hollins scored 387, and Mr. C.
H. Everett 460.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twentieth Grand Annual Crystal Palace Archery Meeting was held on
July 10 and 11, 1878.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Marshall         | 90 | 482 | 43 | 217 | 133 | 699 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 86 | 418 | 47 | 241 | 133 | 659 |
  | Mrs. D. Ainsworth     | 84 | 370 | 43 | 241 | 127 | 611 |
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 78 | 354 | 46 | 244 | 124 | 598 |
  | Miss M. Protheroe     | 71 | 347 | 42 | 180 | 113 | 527 |
  | Miss Ellis            | 69 | 317 | 38 | 200 | 107 | 517 |
  | Mrs. Berens           | 71 | 321 | 40 | 188 | 111 | 509 |
  | Miss Benwell          | 68 | 298 | 46 | 204 | 114 | 502 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. H. Palairet      | 75 | 299 | 76 | 382 | 47 | 247 | 198 | 928 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 67 | 305 | 73 | 329 | 44 | 216 | 184 | 850 |
  | Major C. H. Fisher      | 78 | 308 | 56 | 218 | 46 | 244 | 180 | 770 |
  | Mr. Walrond             | 58 | 198 | 57 | 261 | 44 | 234 | 159 | 693 |
  | Mr. G. W. Chapman       | 46 | 176 | 67 | 305 | 39 | 203 | 152 | 684 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 57 | 219 | 65 | 251 | 36 | 210 | 158 | 680 |
  | Mr. O. K. Prescot       | 75 | 301 | 55 | 227 | 35 | 131 | 165 | 659 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 64 | 244 | 57 | 253 | 34 | 162 | 155 | 659 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Thirty-seven ladies and thirty-four gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Thirty-fifth Grand National Archery Society's Meeting was held on
July 24 and 25, 1878, at Tunbridge Wells, on the Cricket-ground.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Marshall         | 87 | 425 | 45 | 267 | 132 | 692 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 86 | 406 | 46 | 226 | 132 | 632 |
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 85 | 367 | 44 | 246 | 129 | 613 |
  | Miss Legh             | 79 | 369 | 42 | 186 | 121 | 555 |
  | Miss M. A. Hollins    | 78 | 344 | 42 | 190 | 120 | 534 |
  | Mrs. D. Ainsworth     | 79 | 319 | 42 | 196 | 121 | 515 |
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 71 | 297 | 39 | 199 | 110 | 496 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mrs. Marshall won the silver bracer with 6 points; Mrs. Horniblow having
won the point for hits at 50 yards, and tied with Mrs. Marshall for
gross hits.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. H. Palairet      | 83 | 335 | 72 | 360 | 47 | 237 | 202 | 932 |
  | Mr. O. Leigh Clare      | 74 | 286 | 77 | 371 | 39 | 183 | 190 | 840 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 56 | 234 | 66 | 286 | 48 | 286 | 170 | 806 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 64 | 246 | 60 | 282 | 38 | 194 | 162 | 722 |
  | Major C. H. Fisher      | 63 | 259 | 53 | 247 | 40 | 208 | 156 | 714 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 62 | 270 | 56 | 240 | 41 | 167 | 159 | 677 |
  | Mr. Eyre W. Hussey      | 58 | 268 | 59 | 217 | 42 | 170 | 159 | 655 |
  | Mr. Walrond             | 55 | 191 | 56 | 248 | 40 | 196 | 151 | 635 |
  | Mr. A. Henty            | 54 | 194 | 58 | 226 | 42 | 192 | 154 | 612 |
  | Mr. G. E. S. Fryer      | 54 | 208 | 55 | 235 | 36 | 162 | 145 | 605 |
  | Mr. G. W. Chapman       | 44 | 150 | 58 | 262 | 39 | 191 | 141 | 603 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mr. Palairet became Champion, having won 7 points. Mr. Clare won the
point for hits at 80 yards, and Mr. Rimington won the points for hits
and score at 60 yards.

In the handicap match on the next day--July 26--Mrs. Piers F. Legh
scored 360, and Mr. Rimington 401.

Sixty-two ladies and fifty-six gentlemen shot at this meeting.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Sixteenth Grand Western Archery Society's Meeting was held at
Weymouth, on August 7 and 8, 1878, on the ground of the Weymouth Archery
Society.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 74 | 348 | 44 | 244 | 118 | 592 |
  | Mrs. C. E. Nesham     | 68 | 336 | 41 | 215 | 109 | 551 |
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 79 | 315 | 43 | 227 | 122 | 542 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. Walrond             | 56 | 228 | 73 | 327 | 46 | 260 | 175 | 815 |
  | Mr. H. H. Palairet      | 70 | 278 | 76 | 328 | 42 | 180 | 188 | 786 |
  | Mr. A. Meyrick          | 45 | 165 | 63 | 261 | 44 | 216 | 152 | 642 |
  | Mr. Piers F. Legh       | 55 | 219 | 58 | 242 | 39 | 175 | 152 | 636 |
  | Mr. E. N. Snow          | 54 | 200 | 57 | 223 | 38 | 210 | 149 | 633 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 68 | 254 | 53 | 193 | 39 | 175 | 160 | 622 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

On August 9, in the handicap match, Mrs. Piers F. Legh made 315 and Mrs.
Horniblow 314.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-fifth Grand Leamington and Midland Archery Meeting was held
in the Jephson Gardens on June 25 and 26, 1879.

Thirty ladies and twenty-five gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 89 | 455 | 48 | 288 | 137 | 743 |
  | Miss M. A. Hollins    | 84 | 408 | 43 | 207 | 127 | 615 |
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 74 | 356 | 44 | 208 | 118 | 564 |
  | Mrs. Hulse            | 77 | 327 | 40 | 208 | 117 | 535 |
  | Miss E. D. Pryce      | 60 | 282 | 42 | 222 | 102 | 504 |
  | Mrs. Butt[12]         | 45 | 245 | 23 | 119 |  68 | 364 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  [12] Mrs. Butt shot only on the first day of the meeting one-half the
  National Round.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        | 68 | 268 | 63 | 269 | 34 | 156 | 165 | 693 |
  | Mr. Piers F. Legh       | 66 | 258 | 62 | 240 | 42 | 190 | 170 | 688 |
  | Mr. H. Sagar            | 61 | 251 | 55 | 241 | 36 | 152 | 152 | 644 |
  | Mr. E. N. Snow          | 56 | 218 | 53 | 207 | 42 | 206 | 151 | 631 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 60 | 210 | 48 | 222 | 39 | 197 | 147 | 629 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Miss Hollins, on June 27, in the handicap match, scored 353.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-first Grand Annual Crystal Palace Archery Meeting was held on
July 10 and 11, 1879.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Marshall         | 86 | 428 | 46 | 248 | 132 | 676 |
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 89 | 397 | 45 | 269 | 134 | 666 |
  | Mrs. C. H. Everett    | 84 | 382 | 42 | 258 | 126 | 640 |
  | Mrs. Butt             | 81 | 411 | 44 | 218 | 125 | 629 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 76 | 328 | 47 | 241 | 123 | 569 |
  | Mrs. C. E. Nesham     | 78 | 352 | 41 | 183 | 119 | 535 |
  | Mrs. Hulse            | 75 | 325 | 42 | 194 | 117 | 519 |
  | Miss E. D. Pryce      | 69 | 337 | 38 | 176 | 107 | 513 |
  | Miss C. Radford       | 75 | 291 | 40 | 220 | 115 | 511 |
  | Miss F. Shuter        | 74 | 356 | 37 | 145 | 111 | 501 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 83 | 327 | 85 | 379 | 46 | 260 | 214 | 966 |
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        | 66 | 214 | 66 | 308 | 45 | 267 | 177 | 789 |
  | Mr. E. N. Snow          | 65 | 261 | 70 | 314 | 42 | 186 | 177 | 761 |
  | Mr. H. Sagar            | 60 | 268 | 61 | 249 | 42 | 208 | 163 | 725 |
  | Mr. Walrond             | 54 | 190 | 68 | 326 | 43 | 207 | 165 | 723 |
  | Mr. A. T. D. Berrington | 59 | 227 | 64 | 248 | 43 | 185 | 166 | 660 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 58 | 250 | 56 | 232 | 36 | 166 | 150 | 648 |
  | Mr. H. Elliott          | 57 | 229 | 53 | 217 | 40 | 184 | 150 | 630 |
  | Mr. Eyre W. Hussey      | 49 | 199 | 56 | 246 | 34 | 156 | 139 | 601 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Forty-eight ladies and thirty gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Thirty-sixth Grand National Archery Society's Meeting was held on
August 6 and 7, 1879, at Cheltenham, on the College Cricket-ground.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Marshall         | 84 | 462 | 46 | 246 | 130 | 708 |
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 86 | 424 | 46 | 264 | 132 | 688 |
  | Mrs. Butt             | 89 | 437 | 47 | 235 | 136 | 672 |
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 67 | 379 | 48 | 268 | 115 | 647 |
  | Miss M. A. Hollins    | 72 | 304 | 43 | 241 | 115 | 545 |
  | Mrs. Hulse            | 66 | 314 | 44 | 224 | 110 | 538 |
  | Mrs. C. E. Nesham     | 77 | 331 | 43 | 197 | 120 | 528 |
  | Mrs. Hornby           | 71 | 303 | 41 | 223 | 112 | 526 |
  | Miss E. Matthews      | 74 | 344 | 33 | 181 | 107 | 525 |
  | Miss I. Carter        | 67 | 337 | 38 | 182 | 105 | 519 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 68 | 318 | 44 | 196 | 112 | 514 |
  | Lady Harberton        | 77 | 341 | 33 | 159 | 110 | 500 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

On this occasion Mrs. Marshall won the silver bracer with the highest
score, as she and Mrs. Butt each had 3 points--the former for gross
score and for score at 60 yards, and the latter for gross hits and for
hits at 60 yards. Mrs. Legh won the points for hits and score at 50
yards.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 58 | 244 | 64 | 304 | 43 | 251 | 165 | 799 |
  | Mr. E. Walters          | 70 | 256 | 70 | 254 | 47 | 219 | 187 | 729 |
  | Mr. P. S. Nevile        | 65 | 249 | 61 | 261 | 43 | 183 | 169 | 693 |
  | Mr. Walrond             | 53 | 201 | 73 | 265 | 44 | 212 | 170 | 678 |
  | Mr. A. T. D. Berrington | 59 | 223 | 56 | 236 | 43 | 203 | 158 | 662 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 66 | 256 | 47 | 187 | 41 | 201 | 154 | 644 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 54 | 230 | 58 | 212 | 35 | 159 | 147 | 601 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mr. Walters became Champion with 4-1/2 points--gross hits, hits at 100
yards and at 60 yards, and a tie with Mr. Betham for score at 100 yards.
Mr. Rimington won 3 points, for gross score and for score at 80 yards;
and Mr. Walrond won the point for hits at 80 yards.

Eighty-three ladies and sixty-one gentlemen shot.

Mrs. Butt scored 381, and Mrs. Piers F. Legh 370; Mr. Walters 458, Mr.
Berrington 430, and Mr. Rimington 414, in the handicap match on August
8.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Sixteenth Grand Western Archery Meeting was held at Teignmouth, in
Mr. Parson's grounds, on August 13 and 14, 1879.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Butt             | 89 | 445 | 47 | 299 | 136 | 744 |
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 89 | 469 | 45 | 231 | 134 | 700 |
  | Miss Isabel Carter    | 84 | 402 | 44 | 234 | 128 | 636 |
  | Miss K. Lowe          | 77 | 343 | 42 | 220 | 119 | 563 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 79 | 327 | 76 | 372 | 45 | 221 | 200 | 920 |
  | Mr. Walrond             | 48 | 166 | 72 | 308 | 45 | 235 | 165 | 709 |
  | Mr. Piers F. Legh       | 53 | 225 | 59 | 251 | 39 | 207 | 151 | 683 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 71 | 273 | 63 | 249 | 36 | 152 | 170 | 674 |
  | Mr. E. N. Snow          | 52 | 202 | 59 | 221 | 40 | 210 | 151 | 633 |
  | Mr. W. Yates Foot       | 57 | 205 | 61 | 275 | 33 | 151 | 151 | 631 |
  | Mr. H. Kendall          | 58 | 216 | 59 | 247 | 40 | 166 | 157 | 629 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Forty-six ladies and twenty-seven gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-sixth Grand Leamington and Midland Archery Meeting was held
in the Jephson Gardens on June 23 and 24, 1880.

Thirty-seven ladies and thirty-three gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Butt             | 80 | 378 | 46 | 282 | 126 | 660 |
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 84 | 404 | 45 | 249 | 129 | 653 |
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 86 | 388 | 47 | 243 | 133 | 631 |
  | Miss Legh             | 78 | 360 | 42 | 246 | 130 | 606 |
  | Miss M. A. Hollins    | 73 | 355 | 39 | 175 | 112 | 530 |
  | Miss M. Allen         | 72 | 338 | 40 | 174 | 112 | 512 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 79 | 325 | 70 | 314 | 47 | 249 | 196 | 888 |
  | Mr. R. Walters          | 71 | 251 | 64 | 318 | 39 | 177 | 174 | 746 |
  | Mr. J. H. Bridges       | 64 | 228 | 66 | 298 | 41 | 213 | 171 | 739 |
  | Mr. Piers F. Legh       | 64 | 256 | 57 | 223 | 39 | 187 | 160 | 666 |
  | Mr. G. L. Aston         | 51 | 195 | 64 | 298 | 31 | 143 | 146 | 636 |
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        | 74 | 296 | 50 | 190 | 35 | 149 | 159 | 635 |
  | Mr. G. O. Pardoe        | 46 | 184 | 64 | 276 | 37 | 169 | 147 | 629 |
  | Mr. Eyre W. Hussey      | 62 | 232 | 54 | 212 | 39 | 163 | 155 | 607 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

In the handicap match on June 25 Mrs. Piers F. Legh, Mrs. E. Lister, and
Mrs. Butt scored 367, 364, and 337 respectively, and Mr. C. E. Nesham
and Mr. J. H. Bridges 421 and 409.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-second Grand Annual Crystal Palace Archery Meeting was held
on July 1 and 2, 1880.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 88 | 350 | 71 | 319 | 40 | 194 | 199 | 863 |
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        | 68 | 262 | 64 | 272 | 37 | 169 | 169 | 703 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 75 | 281 | 54 | 236 | 40 | 174 | 169 | 691 |
  | Mr. R. Walters          | 70 | 248 | 63 | 243 | 38 | 196 | 171 | 687 |
  | Mr. H. Kendall          | 41 | 149 | 67 | 325 | 42 | 200 | 150 | 674 |
  | Mr. G. O. Pardoe        | 54 | 200 | 58 | 266 | 38 | 182 | 150 | 648 |
  | Mr. Eyre W. Hussey      | 53 | 197 | 57 | 249 | 40 | 188 | 150 | 634 |
  | Mr. G. G. Phillips      | 60 | 218 | 57 | 271 | 33 | 141 | 150 | 630 |
  | Mr. P. S. Nevile        | 37 | 141 | 67 | 273 | 42 | 204 | 146 | 618 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 82 | 408 | 45 | 235 | 127 | 643 |
  | Mrs. Marshall         | 85 | 393 | 44 | 246 | 129 | 639 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 81 | 393 | 42 | 246 | 123 | 639 |
  | Mrs. Butt             | 77 | 367 | 45 | 255 | 122 | 622 |
  | Mrs. Kinahan          | 85 | 415 | 41 | 191 | 126 | 606 |
  | Miss F. Shuter        | 83 | 399 | 40 | 198 | 123 | 597 |
  | Miss M. Norton        | 84 | 390 | 38 | 184 | 122 | 574 |
  | Miss Ellis            | 76 | 356 | 41 | 211 | 117 | 567 |
  | Miss C. Radford       | 69 | 281 | 44 | 238 | 113 | 519 |
  | Miss I. Carter        | 65 | 275 | 46 | 244 | 111 | 519 |
  | Mrs. C. E. Nesham     | 71 | 305 | 41 | 197 | 112 | 502 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Fifty-four ladies and twenty-six gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Thirty-seventh Grand National Archery Society's Meeting was held on
July 28 and 29, 1880, at Shrewsbury.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 78 | 346 | 46 | 254 | 124 | 600 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 86 | 372 | 47 | 221 | 133 | 593 |
  | Mrs. Butt             | 77 | 351 | 48 | 238 | 125 | 589 |
  | Mrs. Marshall         | 75 | 343 | 44 | 226 | 119 | 569 |
  | Mrs. C. H. Everett    | 76 | 352 | 41 | 187 | 117 | 539 |
  | Mrs. D. Ainsworth     | 69 | 311 | 41 | 185 | 110 | 496 |
  | Miss Legh             | 72 | 308 | 43 | 181 | 115 | 489 |
  | Mrs. Eyre W. Hussey   | 66 | 302 | 38 | 180 | 104 | 382 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mrs. Horniblow, with the second score, won the silver bracer with 4
points--namely, 2 for most hits and 2 for score and hits at 60 yards.
Mrs. Legh had 3 points, 2 for highest gross score and 1 for score at 60
yards. Mrs. Butt had 1 point for hits at 50 yards. A very close contest
between the three first ladies.

Mr. Palairet became Champion with 9 points.

Mr. Rimington won the point for score at 60 yards.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. H. Palairet      | 68 | 272 | 81 | 401 | 46 | 224 | 195 | 897 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 62 | 248 | 71 | 287 | 43 | 227 | 176 | 762 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 57 | 201 | 54 | 192 | 43 | 239 | 154 | 632 |
  | Captain M. Allen        | 43 | 179 | 58 | 226 | 45 | 227 | 146 | 632 |
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        | 48 | 164 | 50 | 204 | 40 | 208 | 138 | 576 |
  | Mr. G. G. Phillips      | 54 | 194 | 52 | 204 | 41 | 177 | 147 | 575 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Sixty-nine ladies and fifty-seven gentlemen shot at this meeting. The
weather and the ground were anything but good.

In the handicap match on the next day--July 30--Mrs. Butt's score was--

   60 Yards     50 Yards      TOTALS
  Hits Score   Hits Score   Hits Score
   47   289    24    132  =  71   421

Mr. Everett's score was 471.

This meeting was made memorable by the retirement of the Rev. O. Luard
from the office of Hon. Secretary of the Grand National Archery Society,
after having acted as Secretary at thirty-six meetings--in fact, at
every meeting hitherto, except the first in 1844. He was presented with
a complimentary scroll, setting out the universal appreciation of his
services, and with a purse containing 200 guineas. Mr. Palairet was
elected to succeed Mr. Luard as Hon. Secretary.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Seventeenth Grand Western Archery Meeting was held at Sherborne on
August 11 and 12, 1880.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Ripley           | 79 | 389 | 43 | 245 | 122 | 634 |
  | Mrs. D. Ainsworth     | 77 | 337 | 43 | 223 | 120 | 560 |
  | Miss I. Carter        | 75 | 325 | 42 | 232 | 117 | 557 |
  | Miss E. M. Farrington | 80 | 362 | 35 | 179 | 115 | 541 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. H. Palairet      | 77 | 319 | 79 | 403 | 47 | 221 | 203 | 943 |
  | Mr. Walrond             | 69 | 307 | 61 | 265 | 42 | 196 | 172 | 768 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 82 | 322 | 60 | 240 | 41 | 199 | 183 | 761 |
  | Mr. O. K. Prescot       | 61 | 243 | 63 | 249 | 34 | 152 | 158 | 644 |
  | Mr. H. P. Okeden        | 41 | 185 | 56 | 242 | 39 | 191 | 136 | 618 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Miss I. Carter and Mr. Palairet became Championess and Champion of the
West.

Fifty-four ladies and thirty-two gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The First Grand Northern Archery Meeting was held at York on September 1
and 2, 1880.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 82 | 402 | 45 | 239 | 127 | 641 |
  | Mrs. C. E. Nesham     | 76 | 360 | 44 | 216 | 120 | 576 |
  | Mrs. H. Clarke        | 75 | 321 | 48 | 254 | 123 | 575 |
  | Mrs. Eyre W. Hussey   | 81 | 349 | 44 | 202 | 125 | 551 |
  | Mrs. W. Yates Foot    | 81 | 367 | 41 | 183 | 122 | 550 |
  | Mrs. D. Ainsworth     | 70 | 284 | 48 | 266 | 118 | 550 |
  | Mrs. W. C. Booth      | 72 | 256 | 40 | 188 | 112 | 544 |
  | Mrs. Kinahan          | 82 | 374 | 35 | 169 | 117 | 543 |
  | Miss M. A. Hollins    | 85 | 363 | 39 | 147 | 124 | 510 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 65 | 243 | 79 | 361 | 45 | 231 | 189 | 835 |
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        | 66 | 250 | 70 | 300 | 41 | 209 | 177 | 759 |
  | Mr. J. H. Bridges       | 60 | 220 | 68 | 282 | 47 | 221 | 175 | 723 |
  | Mr. P. S. Nevile        | 61 | 257 | 63 | 263 | 43 | 201 | 167 | 721 |
  | Mr. G. L. Aston         | 57 | 211 | 61 | 277 | 41 | 223 | 159 | 711 |
  | Mr. G. G. Hulme         | 44 | 186 | 62 | 248 | 45 | 231 | 151 | 665 |
  | Mr. G. G. Phillips      | 65 | 279 | 51 | 183 | 44 | 188 | 160 | 650 |
  | Mr. Eyre W. Hussey      | 54 | 220 | 64 | 266 | 33 | 157 | 151 | 643 |
  | Mr. G. O. Pardoe        | 63 | 239 | 57 | 231 | 32 | 140 | 152 | 610 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mrs. H. Clarke and Mr. P. S. Nevile became Championess and Champion of
the North.

Fifty-seven ladies and thirty-seven gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-seventh Grand Leamington and Midland Archery Meeting was held
on June 22 and 23, 1881.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 87 | 471 | 48 | 252 | 135 | 723 |
  | Miss Legh             | 90 | 436 | 46 | 260 | 136 | 696 |
  | Mrs. Butt             | 87 | 441 | 45 | 225 | 132 | 666 |
  | Miss M. A. Hollins    | 81 | 367 | 46 | 240 | 127 | 607 |
  | Mrs. Hulse            | 71 | 313 | 40 | 216 | 111 | 529 |
  | Mrs. W. Yates Foot    | 68 | 324 | 36 | 184 | 104 | 508 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 57 | 297 | 38 | 206 |  95 | 503 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 79 | 327 | 55 | 235 | 43 | 207 | 177 | 769 |
  | Mr. P. F. Legh          | 70 | 292 | 70 | 302 | 36 | 164 | 176 | 758 |
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        | 74 | 268 | 71 | 309 | 41 | 171 | 186 | 748 |
  | Mr. E. N. Snow          | 50 | 190 | 64 | 252 | 39 | 221 | 153 | 663 |
  | Mr. G. O. Pardoe        | 49 | 207 | 61 | 225 | 44 | 216 | 154 | 648 |
  | Mr. O. K. Prescot       | 55 | 197 | 61 | 265 | 40 | 156 | 156 | 618 |
  | Mr. H. Sagar            | 63 | 249 | 49 | 195 | 34 | 160 | 146 | 604 |
  | Mr. W. Ford             | 53 | 199 | 58 | 128 | 39 | 175 | 150 | 602 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Thirty-four ladies and thirty-four gentlemen shot.

Mr. Everett scored 444 in the handicap match on the next day.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-third Grand Annual Crystal Palace Archery Meeting was held on
July 7 and 8, 1881.

Thirty-nine ladies and twenty-four gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Legh             | 81 | 385 | 48 | 280 | 129 | 665 |
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 80 | 402 | 46 | 236 | 126 | 638 |
  | Mrs. Butt             | 86 | 392 | 46 | 244 | 132 | 636 |
  | Mrs. Eyre W. Hussey   | 79 | 409 | 42 | 200 | 121 | 609 |
  | Mrs. Marshall         | 81 | 399 | 39 | 207 | 120 | 606 |
  | Miss F. Shuter        | 81 | 391 | 44 | 204 | 125 | 595 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 75 | 337 | 43 | 221 | 118 | 558 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 77 | 351 | 44 | 202 | 121 | 553 |
  | Mrs. Kane             | 73 | 325 | 43 | 225 | 116 | 550 |
  | Mrs. P. Pinckney      | 70 | 318 | 44 | 222 | 114 | 540 |
  | Mrs. Hulse            | 75 | 319 | 41 | 211 | 116 | 530 |
  | Miss Friend           | 72 | 310 | 42 | 220 | 114 | 530 |
  | Mrs. W. Yates Foot    | 75 | 351 | 43 | 167 | 118 | 518 |
  | Miss E. O. Parr       | 70 | 314 | 46 | 198 | 116 | 512 |
  | Mrs. C. E. Nesham     | 80 | 320 | 40 | 186 | 120 | 506 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        | 86 | 346 | 54 | 232 | 37 | 183 | 177 | 761 |
  | Mr. J. H. Bridges       | 68 | 264 | 70 | 276 | 44 | 216 | 182 | 756 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 76 | 276 | 68 | 282 | 44 | 196 | 188 | 754 |
  | Mr. P. F. Legh          | 62 | 262 | 56 | 248 | 46 | 224 | 164 | 734 |
  | Mr. E. N. Snow          | 69 | 251 | 64 | 266 | 43 | 199 | 176 | 716 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 48 | 212 | 68 | 294 | 40 | 188 | 156 | 694 |
  | Mr. G. O. Pardoe        | 53 | 193 | 69 | 287 | 37 | 159 | 159 | 639 |
  | Mr. Eyre W. Hussey      | 52 | 208 | 52 | 224 | 39 | 201 | 143 | 633 |
  | Mr. O. K. Prescot       | 58 | 216 | 53 | 217 | 38 | 184 | 149 | 617 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

       *       *       *       *       *

The Nineteenth Grand Western Archery Meeting was held at Bath on August
3 and 4, 1881, when seventy-four ladies and forty-five gentlemen shot.

Miss Legh's score of 840 is an achievement never yet approached at a
public meeting of two days' duration, and every one of her 144 arrows
were in the target. Her scores were--

    60 Yards         50 Yards           TOTALS
  Hits  Score      Hits  Score        Hits  Score
   48    252        24    156        = 72    408 the first day,
   48    282        24    150        = 72    432 the second day.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Legh             | 96 | 534 | 48 | 306 | 144 | 840 |
  | Miss I. Carter        | 84 | 444 | 45 | 245 | 129 | 689 |
  | Mrs. Butt             | 84 | 402 | 48 | 264 | 132 | 666 |
  | Mrs. Eyre W. Hussey   | 76 | 356 | 46 | 256 | 122 | 612 |
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 75 | 351 | 47 | 257 | 122 | 608 |
  | Mrs. Kane             | 73 | 329 | 43 | 233 | 116 | 562 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 72 | 314 | 42 | 204 | 114 | 518 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. H. Palairet      | 76 | 352 | 81 | 375 | 45 | 255 | 202 | 982 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       |100 | 394 | 74 | 330 | 41 | 183 | 215 | 907 |
  | Major C. H. Fisher      | 74 | 322 | 75 | 387 | 42 | 188 | 191 | 897 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 62 | 256 | 70 | 286 | 45 | 239 | 177 | 781 |
  | Captain M. Allen        | 57 | 225 | 66 | 294 | 43 | 203 | 166 | 722 |
  | Mr. E. N. Snow          | 59 | 217 | 59 | 255 | 42 | 214 | 160 | 686 |
  | Mr. H. Kendall          | 52 | 236 | 58 | 234 | 40 | 186 | 150 | 656 |
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        | 67 | 273 | 58 | 226 | 33 | 141 | 158 | 640 |
  | Mr. G. O. Pardoe        | 43 | 159 | 67 | 287 | 42 | 186 | 152 | 632 |
  | Mr. Perry-Keene         | 62 | 242 | 54 | 194 | 33 | 185 | 149 | 621 |
  | Mr. A. Meyrick          | 52 | 220 | 54 | 218 | 40 | 166 | 146 | 604 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Miss I. Carter and Mr. Palairet became Championess and Champion of the
West.

Mr. C. H. Everett scored 477 in the handicap match on the next day,
August 5.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Thirty-eighth Grand National Archery Society's Meeting was held on
July 20 and 21, 1881, at Four Oaks Park, Sutton Coldfield, near
Birmingham.

Miss Legh won the silver bracer with all the points; and her score of
763 has only once been beaten by Mrs. Horniblow, in 1873, who made 764,
only 1 more.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Legh             | 92 | 482 | 47 | 281 | 139 | 763 |
  | Mrs. Marshall         | 75 | 399 | 46 | 246 | 121 | 645 |
  | Mrs. Butt             | 85 | 399 | 43 | 225 | 128 | 624 |
  | Mrs. Eyre W. Hussey   | 79 | 359 | 46 | 246 | 125 | 605 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 68 | 340 | 44 | 226 | 112 | 566 |
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 70 | 320 | 46 | 230 | 116 | 550 |
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 74 | 324 | 42 | 224 | 116 | 548 |
  | Mrs. W. Y. Foot       | 65 | 303 | 42 | 232 | 107 | 535 |
  | Miss M. A. Hollins    | 72 | 320 | 44 | 212 | 116 | 532 |
  | Miss Steel            | 66 | 272 | 46 | 250 | 112 | 522 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. H. Palairet      | 66 | 260 | 78 | 352 | 47 | 237 | 191 | 849 |
  | Mr. J. H. Bridges       | 65 | 243 | 67 | 307 | 42 | 204 | 174 | 754 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 62 | 248 | 69 | 285 | 41 | 209 | 172 | 742 |
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        | 68 | 302 | 54 | 238 | 39 | 175 | 161 | 715 |
  | Mr. Piers F. Legh       | 65 | 231 | 65 | 273 | 38 | 196 | 168 | 700 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 65 | 243 | 53 | 239 | 41 | 197 | 159 | 679 |
  | Captain M. Allen        | 44 | 146 | 66 | 278 | 48 | 246 | 158 | 670 |
  | Mr. G. L. Aston         | 60 | 236 | 60 | 238 | 42 | 192 | 162 | 666 |
  | Mr. E. N. Snow          | 51 | 187 | 65 | 293 | 39 | 183 | 155 | 663 |
  | Mr. C. F. Garratt       | 55 | 195 | 57 | 231 | 40 | 190 | 152 | 616 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mr. Palairet won the Championship with 6 points. Mr. Nesham won the
points for hits and score at 100 yards; and Captain Allen the points for
hits and score at 60 yards.

Fifty-seven ladies and fifty-six gentlemen shot at this meeting.

In the handicap match on July 22 Mr. Palairet scored 434.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Second Grand Northern Archery Meeting was held in Croxteth Park,
near Liverpool, on August 24, 25, and 26, 1881.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 81 | 419 | 42 | 230 | 123 | 649 |
  | Mrs. Butt             | 79 | 351 | 43 | 209 | 122 | 560 |
  | Mrs. D. Ainsworth     | 68 | 316 | 42 | 204 | 110 | 520 |
  | Mrs. Eyre W. Hussey   | 71 | 325 | 37 | 183 | 108 | 508 |
  | Miss Steel            | 65 | 303 | 39 | 201 | 104 | 504 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          ----           +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. H. Palairet      | 59 | 221 | 71 | 329 | 43 | 211 | 173 | 761 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mrs. D. Ainsworth and Mr. G. Greenwell became Championess and Champion
of the North.

The next score was Mr. G. O. Pardoe's of 536. The weather at this
meeting was most unfavourable, with storms of wind and almost constant
rain.

       *       *       *       *       *

In 1882 there was no Leamington Archery Meeting, as the Grand National
Archery Meeting was held there.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-fourth Grand Annual Crystal Palace Archery Meeting was held
on June 29 and 30, 1882.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. H. Palairet      | 99 | 437 | 80 | 346 | 42 | 242 | 221 |1025 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 69 | 283 | 64 | 294 | 45 | 219 | 178 | 796 |
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        | 84 | 354 | 61 | 303 | 28 | 130 | 173 | 787 |
  | Mr. E. Walters          | 59 | 253 | 61 | 267 | 39 | 211 | 159 | 731 |
  | Mr. G. O. Pardoe        | 57 | 245 | 70 | 298 | 39 | 187 | 166 | 730 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 54 | 206 | 62 | 290 | 39 | 211 | 155 | 707 |
  | Mr. Eyre W. Hussey      | 57 | 213 | 61 | 245 | 39 | 177 | 157 | 635 |
  | Mr. H. Kendall          | 53 | 191 | 68 | 296 | 37 | 139 | 158 | 626 |
  | Major C. H. Fisher      | 61 | 225 | 53 | 215 | 36 | 164 | 150 | 604 |
  | Mr. J. Hayllar          | 63 | 251 | 57 | 233 | 30 | 118 | 150 | 602 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Legh             | 88 | 514 | 46 | 278 | 134 | 792 |
  | Miss I. Carter        | 87 | 459 | 47 | 255 | 134 | 714 |
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 91 | 455 | 46 | 226 | 137 | 681 |
  | Miss F. Shuter        | 87 | 425 | 45 | 211 | 132 | 636 |
  | Mrs. Butt             | 84 | 398 | 45 | 227 | 129 | 625 |
  | Mrs. Kinahan          | 80 | 400 | 42 | 214 | 122 | 614 |
  | Mrs. Marshall         | 85 | 413 | 38 | 184 | 123 | 597 |
  | Mrs. Graily Hewitt    | 82 | 396 | 43 | 199 | 125 | 595 |
  | Mrs. C. E. Nesham     | 78 | 352 | 41 | 227 | 119 | 579 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 77 | 373 | 38 | 192 | 115 | 565 |
  | Miss F. Bardswell     | 80 | 382 | 40 | 182 | 120 | 564 |
  | Mrs. C. H. Everett    | 84 | 370 | 41 | 191 | 125 | 561 |
  | Mrs. A. Waithman      | 75 | 349 | 44 | 204 | 119 | 553 |
  | Mrs. W. Y. Foot       | 72 | 320 | 43 | 213 | 115 | 533 |
  | Miss C. Radford       | 70 | 324 | 37 | 205 | 107 | 529 |
  | Miss Croker           | 70 | 342 | 38 | 176 | 108 | 518 |
  | Mrs. Alex. Smith      | 67 | 311 | 39 | 199 | 106 | 510 |
  | Miss E. O. Parr       | 67 | 273 | 44 | 236 | 111 | 509 |
  | Mrs. Keyworth         | 71 | 267 | 43 | 239 | 114 | 506 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Colonel Lewin acted as Hon. Secretary.

Forty-three ladies and twenty-seven gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

A Public Archery Meeting was held on the Cricket-ground of the Alexandra
Park Company on July 6 and 7, 1882.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Butt             | 80 | 378 | 47 | 265 | 127 | 643 |
  | Miss Legh             | 69 | 329 | 45 | 273 | 114 | 602 |
  | Miss Steel            | 60 | 288 | 44 | 238 | 104 | 526 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Nothing could well be worse than the weather during this meeting. The
highest gentlemen's scores were Mr. H. Kendall, 151 hits, 625 score, and
Mr. C. E. Nesham, 153 hits, 623 score.

Twenty-nine ladies and twenty gentlemen shot.

Better scores were made on the next day in the handicap match--Miss
Legh, 357; Mrs. Butt, 350; Mrs. P. F. Legh, 315; and Mrs. Keyworth, 303.

Mr. T. Aldred had the management of this meeting.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Thirty-ninth Grand National Archery Society's Meeting was held on
July 26 and 27, 1882, in the Shrubland Hall Grounds (Mrs. Wise's), near
Leamington.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 86 | 460 | 48 | 290 | 134 | 750 |
  | Mrs. Marshall         | 81 | 409 | 48 | 276 | 129 | 685 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 81 | 395 | 45 | 229 | 126 | 624 |
  | Mrs. Butt             | 80 | 396 | 46 | 224 | 126 | 620 |
  | Miss F. Bardswell     | 76 | 364 | 46 | 248 | 122 | 612 |
  | Mrs. W. Y. Foot       | 81 | 397 | 42 | 214 | 123 | 611 |
  | Miss Legh             | 76 | 352 | 44 | 258 | 120 | 610 |
  | Miss F. Shuter        | 79 | 387 | 45 | 215 | 124 | 602 |
  | Miss Steel            | 80 | 368 | 46 | 230 | 126 | 598 |
  | Miss I. Carter        | 73 | 321 | 45 | 249 | 118 | 570 |
  | Miss M. A. Hollins    | 71 | 311 | 45 | 231 | 116 | 542 |
  | Mrs. Kinahan          | 76 | 338 | 40 | 200 | 116 | 538 |
  | Miss Clayton          | 68 | 308 | 45 | 213 | 113 | 521 |
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 64 | 304 | 42 | 216 | 106 | 520 |
  | Mrs. Hulse            | 73 | 329 | 42 | 188 | 115 | 517 |
  | Mrs. G. Hewitt        | 67 | 321 | 41 | 187 | 108 | 508 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. H. Palairet      | 78 | 340 | 75 | 349 | 42 | 196 | 195 | 885 |
  | Mr. R. Walters          | 60 | 260 | 72 | 388 | 44 | 236 | 176 | 884 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 75 | 311 | 67 | 285 | 42 | 198 | 184 | 794 |
  | Mr. W. Ford             | 57 | 221 | 71 | 319 | 44 | 230 | 172 | 770 |
  | Mr. O. K. Prescot       | 67 | 243 | 63 | 297 | 46 | 224 | 176 | 764 |
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        | 81 | 319 | 58 | 234 | 34 | 172 | 173 | 725 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 55 | 227 | 65 | 295 | 41 | 195 | 161 | 717 |
  | Mr. C. J. Longman       | 74 | 266 | 69 | 253 | 41 | 197 | 184 | 716 |
  | Mr. J. H. Bridges       | 54 | 212 | 73 | 315 | 36 | 178 | 163 | 705 |
  | Mr. G. O. Pardoe        | 51 | 161 | 72 | 332 | 40 | 204 | 163 | 697 |
  | Mr. H. Sagar            | 46 | 230 | 48 | 222 | 37 | 177 | 131 | 629 |
  | Captain M. Allen        | 43 | 189 | 64 | 238 | 41 | 197 | 148 | 624 |
  | Mr. Piers F. Legh       | 48 | 178 | 60 | 228 | 42 | 214 | 150 | 620 |
  | Mr. H. Kendall          | 63 | 257 | 52 | 208 | 34 | 146 | 149 | 611 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mrs. Piers F. Legh won the silver bracer with all the points, except
that Mrs. Marshall also made all the hits at 50 yards.

Mr. Palairet won the Championship with 6 points, after a very close
contest with Mr. Walters, who won 2 points for score at 80 and at 60
yards, and was only 1 behind in gross score. Mr. Nesham won the point
for hits at 100 yards, and Mr. Prescot that for hits at 60 yards.

Sixty-three ladies and fifty-five gentlemen shot at this meeting.

On July 28, in the handicap match, Mr. Pardoe scored 411 and Mr. Walters
410.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twentieth Grand Western Archery Meeting was held at Exeter, on the
Grammar School Cricket-ground, on August 2 and 3, 1882, when sixty-four
ladies and thirty-nine gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss I. Carter        | 74 | 332 | 42 | 226 | 116 | 558 |
  | Mrs. Butt             | 67 | 275 | 46 | 260 | 113 | 535 |
  | Mrs. Kinahan          | 77 | 353 | 38 | 166 | 115 | 519 |
  | Mrs. Eyre W. Hussey   | 77 | 343 | 31 | 161 | 108 | 504 |
  | Miss F. Bardswell     | 65 | 305 | 41 | 187 | 106 | 492 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. H. Palairet      | 70 | 272 | 73 | 367 | 42 | 184 | 185 | 823 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 75 | 291 | 65 | 283 | 41 | 237 | 181 | 811 |
  | Mr. O. K. Prescot       | 58 | 216 | 64 | 278 | 44 | 208 | 166 | 702 |
  | Mr. R. Walters          | 60 | 198 | 69 | 301 | 37 | 189 | 166 | 688 |
  | Mr. Perry-Keene         | 63 | 233 | 66 | 300 | 35 | 137 | 164 | 670 |
  | Mr. A. Meyrick          | 59 | 191 | 61 | 239 | 38 | 186 | 158 | 616 |
  | Mr. E. W. Hussey        | 51 | 179 | 58 | 232 | 43 | 201 | 152 | 612 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

In the handicap match on the next day Mr. O. K. Prescot scored 480, and
Mr. R. Walters 431.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Third Grand Northern Archery Meeting was held at Harrogate, on the
Cricket-ground, on August 23 and 24, 1882.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. D. Ainsworth     | 81 | 365 | 46 | 286 | 127 | 651 |
  | Miss Legh             | 79 | 349 | 41 | 201 | 120 | 550 |
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 73 | 313 | 44 | 228 | 117 | 541 |
  | Mrs. Kinahan          | 65 | 303 | 40 | 208 | 105 | 511 |
  | Mrs. Swire            | 66 | 322 | 37 | 187 | 103 | 509 |
  | Mrs. Butt             | 65 | 257 | 46 | 234 | 111 | 491 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. C. Perry-Keene      | 49 | 211 | 57 | 273 | 37 | 183 | 143 | 667 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 49 | 189 | 62 | 278 | 39 | 165 | 150 | 632 |
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        | 44 | 178 | 60 | 278 | 37 | 167 | 141 | 623 |
  | Mr. G. O. Pardoe        | 54 | 212 | 59 | 225 | 38 | 158 | 151 | 595 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mrs. D. Ainsworth and Mr. Houghton became Championess and Champion of
the North.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-eighth Grand Leamington and Midland Archery Meeting was held
on June 27 and 28, 1883.

Twenty-nine ladies and twenty-two gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 90 | 406 | 47 | 277 | 137 | 683 |
  | Miss Steel            | 84 | 384 | 47 | 277 | 131 | 661 |
  | Miss F. Bardswell     | 81 | 389 | 45 | 237 | 126 | 626 |
  | Mrs. D. Ainsworth     | 76 | 372 | 45 | 239 | 121 | 611 |
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 81 | 389 | 46 | 218 | 127 | 607 |
  | Miss I. Carter        | 86 | 400 | 41 | 203 | 127 | 603 |
  | Miss M. A. Hollins    | 75 | 365 | 40 | 206 | 115 | 571 |
  | Mrs. Eyre W. Hussey   | 75 | 349 | 43 | 209 | 118 | 558 |
  | Mrs. C. E. Nesham     | 66 | 308 | 42 | 230 | 108 | 538 |
  | Mrs. W. Yates Foot    | 74 | 342 | 44 | 180 | 118 | 522 |
  | Miss Legh             | 74 | 342 | 37 | 171 | 111 | 513 |
  | Mrs. Keyworth         | 68 | 338 | 41 | 163 | 109 | 501 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Major C. H. Fisher      | 75 | 305 | 77 | 347 | 45 | 223 | 197 | 875 |
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        | 87 | 341 | 74 | 314 | 38 | 148 | 199 | 803 |
  | Mr. H. Kendall          | 64 | 248 | 71 | 333 | 39 | 203 | 174 | 784 |
  | Mr. T. R. Dunne         | 59 | 193 | 69 | 279 | 41 | 221 | 169 | 693 |
  | Mr. T. T. S. Metcalfe   | 53 | 189 | 58 | 208 | 46 | 260 | 157 | 657 |
  | Mr. G. L. Aston         | 57 | 223 | 57 | 253 | 38 | 172 | 152 | 648 |
  | Mr. Eyre W. Hussey      | 51 | 191 | 54 | 234 | 41 | 191 | 146 | 616 |
  | Mr. W. Ford             | 60 | 212 | 58 | 226 | 37 | 175 | 155 | 613 |
  | Hon. A. Hanbury         | 54 | 190 | 60 | 230 | 40 | 186 | 154 | 606 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

In the handicap match on June 29 Mrs. Piers F. Legh and Miss Legh scored
374 and 363 respectively, and Mr. C. E. Nesham 398.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-fifth Grand Annual Crystal Palace Archery Meeting was held on
July 12 and 13, 1883.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Marshall         | 85 | 357 | 45 | 265 | 130 | 622 |
  | Miss F. Bardswell     | 83 | 403 | 41 | 199 | 124 | 602 |
  | Miss Pears            | 79 | 373 | 45 | 201 | 124 | 574 |
  | Mrs. D. Ainsworth     | 75 | 357 | 43 | 215 | 118 | 572 |
  | Miss I. Carter        | 77 | 349 | 45 | 219 | 122 | 568 |
  | Miss Steel            | 71 | 325 | 45 | 243 | 116 | 568 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 75 | 341 | 43 | 197 | 118 | 538 |
  | Mrs. Eyre W. Hussey   | 73 | 349 | 37 | 177 | 110 | 526 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Major C. H. Fisher      | 72 | 234 | 81 | 359 | 45 | 235 | 198 | 828 |
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        | 64 | 256 | 52 | 232 | 37 | 185 | 153 | 673 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 54 | 226 | 59 | 257 | 37 | 187 | 150 | 670 |
  | Mr. A. Meyrick          | 45 | 195 | 63 | 297 | 36 | 170 | 144 | 662 |
  | Mr. T. R. Dunne         | 57 | 225 | 63 | 275 | 38 | 136 | 158 | 636 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 42 | 180 | 57 | 243 | 43 | 195 | 142 | 618 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Forty-seven ladies and twenty-nine gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-first Grand Western Archery Meeting was held at Salisbury on
July 25 and 26, 1883, when fifty-five ladies and forty-one gentlemen
shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Legh             | 85 | 433 | 47 | 249 | 132 | 682 |
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 84 | 376 | 47 | 271 | 131 | 647 |
  | Miss I. Carter        | 86 | 392 | 44 | 236 | 130 | 628 |
  | Miss F. Bardswell     | 79 | 377 | 43 | 235 | 122 | 612 |
  | Mrs. P. Pinckney      | 78 | 374 | 42 | 238 | 120 | 612 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 80 | 346 | 45 | 245 | 125 | 591 |
  | Mrs. Eyre W. Hussey   | 83 | 383 | 38 | 196 | 121 | 579 |
  | Miss C. Radford       | 79 | 349 | 43 | 197 | 122 | 546 |
  | Mrs. W. Yates Foot    | 73 | 297 | 39 | 207 | 112 | 504 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Major C. H. Fisher      |102 | 406 | 73 | 327 | 43 | 229 | 218 | 962 |
  | Mr. H. Kendall          | 76 | 324 | 73 | 309 | 46 | 242 | 195 | 875 |
  | Mr. H. H. Palairet      | 66 | 262 | 76 | 322 | 44 | 212 | 186 | 796 |
  | Mr. Eyre W. Hussey      | 72 | 288 | 69 | 297 | 38 | 192 | 179 | 777 |
  | Mr. Piers F. Legh       | 66 | 242 | 59 | 235 | 37 | 199 | 162 | 676 |
  | Mr. N. Rattray          | 60 | 218 | 54 | 242 | 39 | 205 | 153 | 665 |
  | Mr. Perry Keene         | 62 | 226 | 59 | 211 | 44 | 212 | 165 | 649 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Miss I. Carter and Mr. H. H. Palairet became Championess and Champion of
the West.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Fortieth Grand National Archery Society's Meeting was held on August
1 and 2, 1883, at Cheltenham, on the College Cricket-ground.

Sixty-seven ladies and sixty-four gentlemen shot at this meeting.

Mrs. Legh won the silver bracer with 6 points. Miss I. Carter won the
point for hits at 50 yards, and Mrs. Ainsworth the point for score at
the same distance.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 92 | 434 | 46 | 278 | 138 | 712 |
  | Miss I. Carter        | 90 | 408 | 47 | 271 | 137 | 679 |
  | Miss Steel            | 81 | 411 | 46 | 264 | 127 | 675 |
  | Mrs. D. Ainsworth     | 83 | 375 | 45 | 289 | 128 | 664 |
  | Mrs. Eyre W. Hussey   | 80 | 400 | 47 | 243 | 127 | 643 |
  | Miss M. A. Hollins    | 78 | 396 | 44 | 228 | 122 | 624 |
  | Miss F. Bardswell     | 84 | 366 | 46 | 256 | 130 | 622 |
  | Miss C. Radford       | 75 | 367 | 45 | 241 | 120 | 608 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 80 | 364 | 45 | 239 | 125 | 603 |
  | Miss Legh             | 72 | 344 | 46 | 252 | 118 | 596 |
  | Miss Pardoe           | 79 | 391 | 44 | 200 | 123 | 591 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 81 | 347 | 46 | 232 | 127 | 579 |
  | Mrs. E. Lister        | 84 | 342 | 44 | 210 | 128 | 552 |
  | Mrs. Marshall         | 74 | 328 | 43 | 219 | 117 | 547 |
  | Mrs. C. H. Everett    | 73 | 315 | 42 | 224 | 115 | 539 |
  | Mrs. C. E. Nesham     | 76 | 310 | 43 | 223 | 119 | 533 |
  | Mrs. W. Y. Foot       | 68 | 290 | 44 | 242 | 112 | 532 |
  | Miss Hayllar          | 87 | 365 | 42 | 166 | 129 | 531 |
  | Miss Panter           | 63 | 283 | 46 | 230 | 109 | 513 |
  | Miss Oakley           | 71 | 299 | 41 | 213 | 111 | 512 |
  | Miss B. Oakley        | 75 | 315 | 38 | 188 | 113 | 503 |
  | Mrs. Edgar            | 63 | 303 | 38 | 198 | 101 | 501 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. C. J. Longman       | 69 | 285 | 77 | 343 | 47 | 241 | 193 | 869 |
  | Mr. Eyre W. Hussey      | 73 | 267 | 71 | 335 | 44 | 212 | 188 | 814 |
  | Major C. H. Fisher      | 72 | 296 | 63 | 307 | 45 | 203 | 180 | 806 |
  | Mr. H. H. Palairet      | 68 | 238 | 71 | 353 | 42 | 200 | 181 | 791 |
  | Captain M. Allen        | 68 | 244 | 65 | 279 | 45 | 225 | 178 | 748 |
  | Mr. Piers F. Legh       | 65 | 263 | 60 | 282 | 38 | 188 | 163 | 733 |
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        | 66 | 256 | 67 | 301 | 42 | 172 | 175 | 729 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 58 | 212 | 60 | 290 | 43 | 225 | 161 | 727 |
  | Mr. R. Walters          | 69 | 253 | 75 | 309 | 37 | 163 | 181 | 725 |
  | Mr. H. Kendall          | 63 | 243 | 67 | 275 | 42 | 198 | 172 | 716 |
  | Mr. Perry-Keene         | 62 | 234 | 68 | 288 | 39 | 173 | 169 | 695 |
  | Mr. T. R. Dunne         | 67 | 223 | 72 | 294 | 37 | 173 | 176 | 690 |
  | Mr. O. K. Prescot       | 59 | 217 | 72 | 278 | 39 | 181 | 170 | 676 |
  | Mr. G. L. Aston         | 51 | 203 | 66 | 280 | 38 | 180 | 155 | 663 |
  | Mr. Gregson             | 63 | 205 | 63 | 277 | 43 | 177 | 169 | 659 |
  | Mr. Walrond             | 55 | 207 | 61 | 237 | 41 | 209 | 157 | 653 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 60 | 216 | 59 | 209 | 41 | 195 | 160 | 620 |
  | Mr. A. Meyrick          | 43 | 147 | 57 | 291 | 39 | 181 | 139 | 619 |
  | Captain C. H. Garnett   | 50 | 188 | 60 | 250 | 39 | 179 | 149 | 617 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mr. Longman became Champion with 7 points. Mr. Hussey won the point for
hits at 100 yards, Major Fisher the point for score at 100 yards, and
Mr. Palairet the point for score at 80 yards. Mr. Longman also won the
Spedding Memorial Challenge Cup, now first presented by the Royal
Toxophilite Society, to be held by the maker of the highest gross score.

In the handicap match on August 3, Miss Legh scored 416, Major Fisher
508, Mr. Nesham 442, and Mr. Dunne 417.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Fourth Grand Northern Archery Meeting was held at Derby on August 8,
9, and 10, 1883, when the weather was so unfavourable that the highest
lady's score was that of Mrs. Piers F. Legh--490, with 108 hits.

The only notable scores made by gentlemen were--

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. F. A. Govett        | 54 | 220 | 49 | 211 | 39 | 191 | 142 | 622 |
  | Captain M. Allen        | 58 | 238 | 47 | 189 | 41 | 189 | 146 | 616 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mrs. T. Hibbert and Mr. Gregson became Championess and Champion of the
North.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-ninth Grand Leamington and Midland Archery Meeting was held
on June 12 and 13, 1884.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Marshall         | 87 | 419 | 48 | 270 | 135 | 689 |
  | Miss M. A. Hollins    | 83 | 413 | 43 | 191 | 126 | 604 |
  | Mrs. Eyre W. Hussey   | 85 | 385 | 44 | 208 | 129 | 593 |
  | Miss F. Bardswell     | 72 | 340 | 44 | 240 | 116 | 580 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 75 | 323 | 44 | 214 | 119 | 537 |
  | Mrs. Kinahan          | 69 | 279 | 44 | 248 | 113 | 527 |
  | Mrs. W. Yates Foot    | 68 | 292 | 45 | 235 | 113 | 527 |
  | Miss Steel            | 72 | 320 | 44 | 206 | 116 | 526 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        | 81 | 325 | 56 | 258 | 43 | 215 | 180 | 798 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 73 | 287 | 64 | 294 | 33 | 153 | 170 | 734 |
  | Mr. J. H. Bridges       | 58 | 244 | 57 | 225 | 46 | 262 | 161 | 731 |
  | Mr. H. J. B. Kendall    | 66 | 252 | 68 | 284 | 42 | 192 | 176 | 728 |
  | Mr. Eyre W. Hussey      | 58 | 212 | 60 | 244 | 47 | 251 | 165 | 707 |
  | Mr. Gregson             | 64 | 262 | 61 | 235 | 40 | 204 | 165 | 701 |
  | Mr. C. J. Longman       | 80 | 260 | 64 | 252 | 42 | 188 | 186 | 700 |
  | Mr. T. R. Dunne         | 56 | 218 | 66 | 280 | 38 | 178 | 160 | 676 |
  | Mr. G. L. Aston         | 63 | 289 | 52 | 198 | 39 | 179 | 154 | 666 |
  | Mr. F. A. Govett        | 54 | 198 | 54 | 210 | 40 | 188 | 148 | 596 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

In the handicap match on June 14 Mr. C. J. Longman scored 401.

Twenty-nine ladies and twenty-seven gentlemen shot at this meeting.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-sixth Grand Annual Crystal Palace Archery Meeting was held on
July 12 and 13, 1884.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Marshall         | 83 | 475 | 47 | 269 | 130 | 744 |
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 79 | 361 | 45 | 259 | 124 | 620 |
  | Mrs. Eyre W. Hussey   | 77 | 329 | 41 | 215 | 118 | 544 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 71 | 329 | 42 | 194 | 113 | 523 |
  | Miss Ellis            | 66 | 298 | 44 | 212 | 110 | 510 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Major C. H. Fisher      | 90 | 348 | 74 | 340 | 46 | 224 | 210 | 912 |
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        | 92 | 344 | 64 | 262 | 43 | 249 | 199 | 855 |
  | Mr. C. J. Longman       | 69 | 225 | 76 | 374 | 44 | 244 | 189 | 843 |
  | Mr. H. Kendall          | 65 | 241 | 65 | 295 | 43 | 223 | 173 | 759 |
  | Mr. Eyre W. Hussey      | 66 | 244 | 70 | 310 | 42 | 178 | 178 | 732 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 54 | 208 | 59 | 263 | 39 | 199 | 152 | 670 |
  | Mr. J. H. Bridges       | 61 | 211 | 60 | 244 | 43 | 213 | 164 | 668 |
  | Mr. Gregson             | 78 | 320 | 47 | 207 | 27 | 105 | 152 | 632 |
  | Mr. T. T. S. Metcalfe   | 54 | 178 | 58 | 230 | 41 | 197 | 153 | 605 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Thirty-eight ladies and twenty-two gentlemen shot at this meeting.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-second Grand Western Archery Meeting was held at Taunton on
July 23 and 24, 1884.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Eyre W. Hussey   | 72 | 374 | 44 | 246 | 116 | 620 |
  | Miss I. Carter        | 67 | 279 | 37 | 197 | 104 | 476 |
  | Miss F. Bardswell     | 72 | 282 | 38 | 182 | 110 | 464 |
  | Miss M. Winwood       | 70 | 298 | 37 | 159 | 107 | 457 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Major C. H. Fisher      | 79 | 353 | 69 | 303 | 44 | 258 | 192 | 914 |
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        | 82 | 314 | 69 | 303 | 47 | 241 | 198 | 868 |
  | Mr. C. J. Longman       | 57 | 209 | 67 | 269 | 44 | 222 | 168 | 700 |
  | Mr. F. A. Govett        | 66 | 260 | 55 | 233 | 35 | 179 | 156 | 672 |
  | Mr. Eyre W. Hussey      | 48 | 178 | 64 | 262 | 44 | 192 | 156 | 632 |
  | Mr. H. Kendall          | 53 | 195 | 66 | 244 | 40 | 168 | 159 | 607 |
  | Mr. T. T. S. Metcalfe   | 46 | 190 | 58 | 226 | 42 | 190 | 146 | 606 |
  | Mr. Gregson             | 57 | 203 | 68 | 216 | 40 | 174 | 165 | 593 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mr. and Mrs. Eyre W. Hussey became Champion and Championess of the West.

Fifty ladies and thirty-eight gentlemen shot at this meeting.

       *       *       *       *       *

In the handicap match on July 25, the only good score was made by Mr. C.
E. Nesham, 362.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Forty-first Grand National Archery Society's Meeting was held on
August 6 and 7, 1884, on the Cricket-ground of St. Mark's School (Rev.
Stephen Hawtray) at Windsor.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 88 | 434 | 47 | 267 | 135 | 701 |
  | Miss Oakley           | 84 | 440 | 47 | 257 | 131 | 697 |
  | Miss Legh             | 80 | 418 | 43 | 263 | 123 | 681 |
  | Mrs. Marshall         | 87 | 407 | 43 | 223 | 130 | 630 |
  | Miss B. Oakley        | 78 | 390 | 47 | 237 | 125 | 627 |
  | Miss Hayllar          | 81 | 387 | 42 | 212 | 123 | 599 |
  | Mrs. C. E. Nesham     | 78 | 350 | 45 | 245 | 123 | 595 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 81 | 351 | 46 | 234 | 127 | 585 |
  | Miss Pears            | 76 | 348 | 42 | 232 | 118 | 580 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 79 | 353 | 46 | 216 | 125 | 569 |
  | Miss M. Winwood       | 69 | 329 | 43 | 239 | 112 | 568 |
  | Miss C. Radford       | 76 | 318 | 44 | 220 | 120 | 538 |
  | Miss I. Carter        | 72 | 316 | 43 | 191 | 115 | 507 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mrs. Piers F. Legh won the Challenge bracer with 6-1/3 points. Miss
Oakley won 1 point for score at 60 yards; and she and Miss B. Oakley
divided the point for hits at 50 yards with Mrs. P. F. Legh.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Major C. H. Fisher      | 75 | 315 | 71 | 369 | 45 | 257 | 191 | 941 |
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        | 84 | 340 | 79 | 343 | 45 | 219 | 208 | 902 |
  | Mr. H. Kendall          | 64 | 272 | 73 | 357 | 47 | 223 | 184 | 852 |
  | Mr. Gregson             | 52 | 218 | 72 | 326 | 43 | 217 | 167 | 761 |
  | Captain M. Allen        | 64 | 252 | 66 | 284 | 41 | 213 | 171 | 749 |
  | Mr. O. L. Clare[13]     | 63 | 229 | 73 | 327 | 36 | 182 | 172 | 738 |
  | Mr. N. Rattray          | 51 | 223 | 62 | 250 | 45 | 211 | 158 | 684 |
  | Mr. J. H. Bridges       | 63 | 235 | 62 | 268 | 39 | 171 | 164 | 674 |
  | Mr. Eyre W. Hussey      | 49 | 205 | 61 | 239 | 42 | 228 | 152 | 672 |
  | Mr. F. A. Govett        | 73 | 291 | 49 | 195 | 34 | 144 | 156 | 630 |
  | Mr. G. G. Hulme         | 55 | 209 | 50 | 242 | 43 | 177 | 148 | 628 |
  | Mr. C. J. Longman       | 46 | 158 | 66 | 280 | 40 | 180 | 152 | 618 |
  | Mr. T. T. S. Metcalfe   | 52 | 168 | 55 | 219 | 44 | 228 | 151 | 615 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  [13] Entered as Mr. Hindley.

Mr. C. E. Nesham won the Champion's medal with 5 points. Major Fisher
won the 2 points for gross score and the Spedding Challenge Cup, and 2
more points for score at 80 and at 60 yards. Mr. H. Kendall won the
point for hits at 60 yards.

In the handicap match on August 8 Mrs. P. F. Legh scored 357, and Miss
Legh 354; Mr. C. E. Nesham 482, Mr. H. Kendall 411, and Mr. Gregson 406.

Fifty-seven ladies and fifty gentlemen shot at this meeting. The weather
was intensely hot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Fifth Grand Northern Archery Meeting was held on the West Cliff
Cricket-ground at Preston, in Lancashire, on August 27 and 28, 1884.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 84 | 432 | 42 | 234 | 126 | 666 |
  | Miss Legh             | 90 | 426 | 45 | 233 | 135 | 659 |
  | Mrs. Eyre W. Hussey   | 84 | 380 | 47 | 275 | 131 | 655 |
  | Mrs. Waithman         | 70 | 332 | 41 | 223 | 111 | 555 |
  | Mrs. Swire            | 66 | 294 | 42 | 230 | 108 | 524 |
  | Mrs. H. Clarke        | 64 | 298 | 43 | 217 | 107 | 515 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        | 81 | 311 | 76 | 382 | 47 | 271 | 204 | 964 |
  | Mr. Gregson             | 74 | 320 | 78 | 336 | 42 | 192 | 194 | 848 |
  | Mr. Eyre W. Hussey      | 74 | 316 | 66 | 280 | 44 | 228 | 184 | 824 |
  | Mr. O. L. Clare         | 57 | 247 | 63 | 245 | 38 | 176 | 158 | 668 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mrs. Waithman and Mr. Gregson became Championess and Champion of the
North.

Forty-four ladies and thirty-five gentlemen shot at this meeting.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Thirtieth Grand Leamington and Midland Archery Meeting was held in
the Jephson Gardens on June 10 and 11, 1885, when twenty-nine ladies
and thirty-eight gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 94 | 554 | 48 | 310 | 142 | 864 |
  | Miss Steel            | 85 | 389 | 47 | 257 | 132 | 646 |
  | Miss Legh             | 82 | 390 | 43 | 247 | 125 | 637 |
  | Mrs. Eyre W. Hussey   | 86 | 372 | 44 | 254 | 130 | 626 |
  | Miss F. Bardswell     | 85 | 395 | 43 | 199 | 128 | 594 |
  | Miss B. Oakley        | 76 | 370 | 39 | 173 | 115 | 543 |
  | Mrs. Keyworth         | 67 | 273 | 46 | 246 | 113 | 519 |
  | Mrs. Wade             | 68 | 308 | 39 | 195 | 107 | 503 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Major C. H. Fisher      | 87 | 369 | 72 | 316 | 43 | 233 | 202 | 918 |
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        | 90 | 348 | 63 | 301 | 45 | 257 | 198 | 906 |
  | Mr. Perry-Keene         | 70 | 284 | 70 | 272 | 45 | 213 | 185 | 769 |
  | Mr. R. Walters          | 67 | 289 | 72 | 290 | 39 | 171 | 178 | 750 |
  | Mr. T. T. S. Metcalfe   | 49 | 203 | 77 | 331 | 43 | 215 | 169 | 749 |
  | Mr. Gregson             | 44 | 174 | 68 | 308 | 44 | 236 | 156 | 718 |
  | Mr. Eyre W. Hussey      | 54 | 228 | 71 | 291 | 43 | 197 | 168 | 716 |
  | Mr. G. L. Aston         | 65 | 251 | 68 | 260 | 34 | 180 | 167 | 691 |
  | Mr. H. Howman           | 67 | 289 | 59 | 259 | 39 | 143 | 165 | 691 |
  | Mr. Piers F. Legh       | 61 | 207 | 64 | 272 | 41 | 199 | 166 | 678 |
  | Mr. Brodie Hoare        | 36 | 134 | 78 | 352 | 39 | 179 | 153 | 665 |
  | Mr. H. H. Longman       | 60 | 228 | 65 | 263 | 32 | 146 | 157 | 637 |
  | Mr. H. Kendall          | 46 | 182 | 60 | 264 | 37 | 181 | 143 | 627 |
  | Mr. G. G. Hulme         | 46 | 168 | 56 | 254 | 39 | 191 | 141 | 613 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Miss Legh scored 352 and Mr. Hussey 390 in the handicap match on June
12.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-seventh Grand Annual Crystal Palace Archery Meeting was held
on the Cricket-ground on July 9 and 10, 1885, when forty-eight ladies
and twenty-nine gentlemen shot.

Mr. Nesham acted as Hon. Secretary to the meeting.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Legh             | 95 | 517 | 48 | 292 | 143 | 809 |
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 88 | 486 | 46 | 250 | 134 | 736 |
  | Mrs. Eyre W. Hussey   | 81 | 397 | 46 | 242 | 127 | 639 |
  | Miss F. Bardswell     | 80 | 372 | 45 | 231 | 125 | 603 |
  | Miss Carlisle         | 71 | 341 | 46 | 216 | 117 | 557 |
  | Miss Pears            | 79 | 325 | 45 | 227 | 124 | 552 |
  | Miss Hayllar          | 76 | 318 | 46 | 230 | 122 | 548 |
  | Mrs. Stilwell         | 72 | 342 | 41 | 205 | 113 | 547 |
  | Miss Milne            | 68 | 312 | 43 | 225 | 111 | 537 |
  | Mrs. W. Yates Foot    | 71 | 317 | 42 | 196 | 113 | 513 |
  | Mrs. Marshall         | 70 | 294 | 44 | 218 | 114 | 512 |
  | Mrs. C. E. Nesham     | 72 | 316 | 43 | 191 | 115 | 507 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        | 76 | 324 | 73 | 313 | 47 | 223 | 196 | 860 |
  | Major C. H. Fisher      | 75 | 273 | 77 | 351 | 42 | 176 | 194 | 800 |
  | Mr. R. Walters          | 67 | 241 | 71 | 293 | 42 | 204 | 180 | 738 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 65 | 265 | 67 | 279 | 38 | 188 | 170 | 732 |
  | Mr. Brodie Hoare        | 68 | 266 | 62 | 252 | 41 | 197 | 171 | 715 |
  | Mr. H. Kendall          | 71 | 283 | 54 | 240 | 39 | 177 | 164 | 700 |
  | Mr. Perry-Keene         | 69 | 277 | 58 | 236 | 38 | 184 | 165 | 697 |
  | Mr. T. T. S. Metcalfe   | 58 | 226 | 66 | 282 | 43 | 185 | 167 | 693 |
  | Mr. Eyre W. Hussey      | 42 | 188 | 61 | 271 | 47 | 269 | 150 | 678 |
  | Mr. Gregson             | 34 | 140 | 58 | 248 | 46 | 238 | 138 | 626 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-third Grand Western Archery Meeting was held at Weymouth on
July 22 and 23, 1885, when forty-nine ladies and twenty-eight gentlemen
shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Eyre W. Hussey   | 80 | 360 | 46 | 250 | 126 | 610 |
  | Miss F. Bardswell     | 80 | 354 | 43 | 197 | 123 | 551 |
  | Mrs. P. Pinckney      | 71 | 329 | 43 | 221 | 114 | 550 |
  | Mrs. W. Yates Foot    | 83 | 345 | 39 | 201 | 122 | 546 |
  | Mrs. C. E. Nesham     | 73 | 317 | 45 | 227 | 118 | 544 |
  | Miss M. Winwood       | 66 | 282 | 43 | 221 | 109 | 503 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        | 84 | 324 | 66 | 268 | 46 | 250 | 196 | 842 |
  | Mr. R. Walters          | 56 | 220 | 66 | 264 | 43 | 209 | 165 | 693 |
  | Mr. T. T. S. Metcalfe   | 56 | 202 | 53 | 193 | 44 | 208 | 153 | 603 |
  | Mr. Eyre W. Hussey      | 39 | 129 | 66 | 252 | 40 | 196 | 145 | 577 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mr. and Mrs. Eyre W. Hussey became Champion and Championess of the West.

Mrs. Hussey and Mr. Nesham scored 367 and 530 respectively in the
handicap match on July 24.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Forty-second Grand National Archery Meeting was held in the
College-grounds at Great Malvern on July 29 and 30, 1885, when
sixty-four ladies and fifty-one gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Piers F. Legh    | 88 | 460 | 47 | 289 | 135 | 749 |
  | Miss Legh             | 91 | 417 | 44 | 258 | 135 | 675 |
  | Mrs. Eyre W. Hussey   | 84 | 386 | 46 | 248 | 130 | 634 |
  | Mrs. Marshall         | 84 | 360 | 42 | 228 | 126 | 588 |
  | Miss Steel            | 77 | 345 | 41 | 197 | 118 | 542 |
  | Miss B. M. Legh       | 75 | 363 | 42 | 172 | 117 | 535 |
  | Miss F. Bardswell     | 72 | 310 | 43 | 217 | 115 | 527 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        | 94 | 356 | 72 | 316 | 45 | 245 | 211 | 917 |
  | Major C. H. Fisher      | 79 | 381 | 68 | 310 | 40 | 194 | 187 | 885 |
  | Mr. T. T. S. Metcalfe   | 52 | 211 | 64 | 310 | 40 | 224 | 163 | 745 |
  | Mr. Perry-Keene         | 46 | 194 | 67 | 261 | 45 | 261 | 158 | 716 |
  | Mr. R. Walters          | 69 | 291 | 59 | 251 | 32 | 130 | 160 | 672 |
  | Mr. H. Kendall          | 61 | 241 | 62 | 270 | 33 | 159 | 156 | 670 |
  | Mr. Eyre W. Hussey      | 51 | 213 | 58 | 248 | 42 | 184 | 151 | 645 |
  | Captain M. Allen        | 54 | 216 | 62 | 252 | 37 | 153 | 153 | 621 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mrs. P. F. Legh became the Championess with 6 points, Miss Legh having 1
point for a tie on the gross hits, and 1 point for most hits at 50
yards.

Mr. Nesham won the Champion's medal for most points--7-1/2--and the
Spedding memorial cup with the highest score. Major Fisher won 1 point
for hits at 100 yards, and Mr. Perry-Keene won 1-1/2 points, having tied
Mr. Nesham with 45 hits at 60 yards, and he won the point for highest
score at 60 yards.

Mrs. Eyre W. Hussey and Mrs. P. F. Legh scored 374 and 371 respectively
in the handicap match on July 31, and Mr. C. E. Nesham and Mr.
Perry-Keene scored 462 and 402 on the same day.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Sixth Annual Grand Northern Archery Meeting was held at York, on the
Gentlemen's Cricket-ground, September 2 and 3, 1885, when forty-eight
ladies and thirty-one gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. W. Yates Foot    | 72 | 360 | 44 | 256 | 116 | 616 |
  | Mrs. D. Ainsworth     | 84 | 392 | 45 | 219 | 129 | 611 |
  | Mrs. Eyre W. Hussey   | 82 | 360 | 44 | 206 | 126 | 566 |
  | Miss F. Bardswell     | 74 | 294 | 46 | 244 | 120 | 538 |
  | Miss K. Sharpe        | 70 | 296 | 42 | 233 | 113 | 529 |
  | Miss M. A. Hollins    | 61 | 295 | 45 | 225 | 106 | 520 |
  | Mrs. H. Clarke        | 70 | 272 | 44 | 234 | 114 | 506 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. Eyre W. Hussey      | 58 | 198 | 73 | 305 | 42 | 248 | 173 | 751 |
  | Mr. T. T. S. Metcalfe   | 54 | 218 | 64 | 304 | 41 | 225 | 159 | 747 |
  | Mr. Gregson             | 42 | 162 | 68 | 276 | 44 | 208 | 154 | 646 |
  | Mr. C. E. Thorpe        | 56 | 190 | 54 | 276 | 32 | 156 | 142 | 622 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mrs. D. Ainsworth became the Championess of the North.

Mr. Gregson became the Champion of the North.

In the handicap match on September 4, Mr. Nesham scored 495, Mr.
Metcalfe 411, and Mr. Hussey 401.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Thirty-first Grand Leamington and Midland Archery Meeting was held
in the Jephson Gardens on June 9 and 10, 1886, when twenty-three ladies
and twenty-eight gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Legh             | 83 | 409 | 45 | 253 | 128 | 662 |
  | Mrs. Kinahan          | 78 | 386 | 45 | 247 | 123 | 633 |
  | Mrs. Eyre W. Hussey   | 84 | 354 | 45 | 259 | 129 | 613 |
  | Miss F. Bardswell     | 85 | 385 | 45 | 223 | 130 | 608 |
  | Mrs. Gilmour          | 81 | 369 | 40 | 210 | 121 | 579 |
  | Mrs. W. Yates Foot    | 74 | 372 | 39 | 179 | 113 | 551 |
  | Mrs. D. Ainsworth     | 64 | 292 | 45 | 247 | 109 | 539 |
  | Mrs. Berens           | 72 | 326 | 41 | 189 | 113 | 515 |
  | Mrs. Hibbert          | 73 | 323 | 40 | 188 | 113 | 511 |
  | Mrs. Keyworth         | 74 | 318 | 40 | 182 | 114 | 500 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Major C. H. Fisher      | 86 | 404 | 69 | 317 | 43 | 205 | 198 | 926 |
  | Mr. Perry-Keene         | 77 | 293 | 83 | 353 | 42 | 234 | 202 | 880 |
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        | 93 | 339 | 69 | 277 | 44 | 222 | 206 | 838 |
  | Mr. T. T. S. Metcalfe   | 80 | 354 | 62 | 240 | 42 | 242 | 184 | 836 |
  | Mr. Brodie Hoare        | 60 | 236 | 60 | 264 | 46 | 240 | 166 | 740 |
  | Colonel H. A. Burton    | 69 | 259 | 60 | 270 | 41 | 203 | 170 | 732 |
  | Mr. R. Walters          | 66 | 212 | 68 | 282 | 40 | 196 | 174 | 690 |
  | Captain Garnett         | 64 | 248 | 54 | 226 | 38 | 186 | 156 | 660 |
  | Mr. C. J. Longman       | 48 | 216 | 64 | 258 | 34 | 168 | 146 | 642 |
  | Mr. Gregson             | 31 | 101 | 75 | 325 | 38 | 190 | 144 | 616 |
  | Mr. G. G. Hulme         | 59 | 207 | 54 | 236 | 36 | 168 | 149 | 611 |
  | Mr. F. N. Garnett       | 49 | 181 | 63 | 259 | 39 | 167 | 151 | 607 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mr. Perry-Keene scored 474 in the handicap match on June 11.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Seventh Grand Northern Archery Meeting was held at Lincoln on June
23 and 24, 1886, when twenty-six ladies and nineteen gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. D. Ainsworth     | 82 | 350 | 46 | 248 | 128 | 598 |
  | Mrs. Eyre W. Hussey   | 75 | 343 | 42 | 242 | 117 | 585 |
  | Miss F. Bardswell     | 75 | 375 | 43 | 207 | 118 | 582 |
  | Mrs. Kinahan          | 78 | 370 | 43 | 207 | 121 | 577 |
  | Mrs. Waithman         | 67 | 301 | 44 | 238 | 111 | 539 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. Perry-Keene         | 88 | 348 | 81 | 377 | 46 | 244 | 215 | 969 |
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        | 74 | 286 | 46 | 178 | 44 | 222 | 164 | 686 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mrs. D. Ainsworth and Mr. Gregson (145 hits, 591 score) became
Championess and Champion of the North.

Mr. Perry-Keene scored 530 in the handicap match on June 25.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-eighth Grand Annual Crystal Palace Archery Meeting was held
on the Cricket-ground on July 15 and 16, 1886.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Marshall         | 79 | 391 | 46 | 252 | 125 | 643 |
  | Mrs. D. Ainsworth     | 84 | 392 | 45 | 245 | 129 | 637 |
  | Mrs. Kinahan          | 83 | 413 | 46 | 224 | 129 | 637 |
  | Mrs. Haigh            | 75 | 355 | 39 | 215 | 114 | 570 |
  | Miss A. Barton        | 67 | 353 | 41 | 207 | 108 | 560 |
  | Mrs. Keyworth         | 72 | 320 | 43 | 211 | 115 | 531 |
  | Miss Hayllar          | 72 | 342 | 41 | 181 | 113 | 523 |
  | Miss Norton           | 70 | 320 | 43 | 191 | 113 | 511 |
  | Miss F. Bardswell     | 71 | 299 | 43 | 209 | 114 | 508 |
  | Miss C. Smith         | 71 | 307 | 41 | 201 | 112 | 508 |
  | Mrs. Kane             | 71 | 311 | 44 | 194 | 115 | 505 |
  | Miss Carlisle         | 68 | 296 | 41 | 209 | 109 | 505 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. Perry-Keene         | 87 | 339 | 73 | 379 | 44 | 226 | 204 | 944 |
  | Mr. Eyre W. Hussey      | 55 | 243 | 69 | 367 | 42 | 242 | 166 | 852 |
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        | 81 | 299 | 71 | 315 | 42 | 206 | 194 | 820 |
  | Mr. T. T. S. Metcalfe   | 62 | 266 | 69 | 283 | 38 | 200 | 169 | 749 |
  | Mr. J. H. Bridges       | 58 | 218 | 61 | 297 | 43 | 185 | 162 | 700 |
  | Colonel H. A. Burton    | 55 | 211 | 65 | 307 | 34 | 166 | 154 | 684 |
  | Captain M. Allen        | 54 | 186 | 61 | 251 | 43 | 235 | 158 | 672 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 56 | 222 | 67 | 255 | 38 | 200 | 161 | 677 |
  | Mr. H. Kendall          | 62 | 266 | 48 | 198 | 40 | 196 | 150 | 660 |
  | Mr. Gedge               | 50 | 200 | 60 | 244 | 40 | 194 | 150 | 638 |
  | Mr. Burrowes            | 45 | 173 | 56 | 236 | 42 | 204 | 143 | 613 |
  | Mr. Erskine             | 62 | 258 | 56 | 228 | 33 | 125 | 151 | 611 |
  | Mr. Walrond             | 59 | 237 | 57 | 217 | 38 | 154 | 154 | 608 |
  | Colonel Lewin           | 58 | 228 | 53 | 223 | 34 | 150 | 145 | 601 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Fifty-two ladies and thirty-five gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Forty-third Grand National and the Twenty-fourth Grand Western
Archery Meetings were united and held together at Bath on July 29 and
30, 1886.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Legh             | 89 | 437 | 47 | 289 | 136 | 726 |
  | Mrs. Eyre W. Hussey   | 83 | 397 | 46 | 246 | 129 | 643 |
  | Mrs. Marshall         | 75 | 375 | 48 | 262 | 123 | 637 |
  | Mrs. D. Ainsworth     | 83 | 389 | 46 | 242 | 129 | 631 |
  | Miss Steel            | 84 | 416 | 43 | 211 | 127 | 627 |
  | Miss B. Oakley        | 84 | 420 | 39 | 201 | 123 | 621 |
  | Mrs. Gilling          | 77 | 377 | 44 | 242 | 121 | 619 |
  | Mrs. Kinahan          | 80 | 368 | 43 | 225 | 123 | 593 |
  | Miss F. Bardswell     | 76 | 304 | 45 | 273 | 121 | 577 |
  | Miss C. Radford       | 74 | 328 | 43 | 221 | 117 | 549 |
  | Miss M. Winwood       | 76 | 332 | 41 | 217 | 117 | 549 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 73 | 341 | 42 | 188 | 115 | 529 |
  | Mrs. Berens           | 76 | 364 | 40 | 164 | 116 | 528 |
  | Miss B. M. Legh       | 68 | 316 | 41 | 203 | 109 | 519 |
  | Miss Pedder           | 68 | 290 | 45 | 221 | 113 | 511 |
  | Mrs. Maltby           | 67 | 317 | 38 | 194 | 105 | 511 |
  | Miss Palmer           | 75 | 355 | 36 | 150 | 111 | 505 |
  | Mrs. Gilmour          | 75 | 311 | 41 | 191 | 116 | 502 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        | 81 | 411 | 76 | 354 | 45 | 257 | 202 |1022 |
  | Major C. H. Fisher      | 70 | 278 | 72 | 344 | 45 | 243 | 187 | 865 |
  | Mr. E. Sharpe           | 75 | 309 | 71 | 303 | 42 | 180 | 188 | 792 |
  | Mr. J. H. Bridges       | 62 | 222 | 68 | 322 | 42 | 206 | 172 | 750 |
  | Colonel H. A. Burton    | 70 | 300 | 60 | 266 | 39 | 179 | 169 | 745 |
  | Mr. Perry-Keene         | 65 | 257 | 70 | 290 | 42 | 196 | 177 | 743 |
  | Mr. T. T. S. Metcalfe   | 53 | 213 | 66 | 216 | 42 | 214 | 163 | 743 |
  | Mr. F. A. Govett        | 72 | 322 | 56 | 232 | 32 | 182 | 160 | 736 |
  | Mr. Eyre W. Hussey      | 55 | 217 | 67 | 259 | 43 | 219 | 165 | 695 |
  | Mr. G. G. Hulme         | 57 | 209 | 53 | 237 | 43 | 225 | 153 | 671 |
  | Mr. Gedge               | 48 | 188 | 63 | 263 | 44 | 204 | 155 | 655 |
  | Mr. Gregson             | 37 | 149 | 73 | 329 | 41 | 171 | 151 | 649 |
  | Mr. Gataker             | 55 | 225 | 60 | 246 | 36 | 170 | 151 | 641 |
  | Mr. Piers F. Legh       | 46 | 194 | 55 | 253 | 39 | 185 | 140 | 632 |
  | Mr. Erskine             | 64 | 244 | 57 | 233 | 34 | 148 | 155 | 625 |
  | Mr. R. Walters          | 54 | 204 | 53 | 231 | 35 | 179 | 142 | 614 |
  | Captain M. Allen        | 46 | 160 | 60 | 222 | 44 | 226 | 150 | 608 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Ninety-five ladies and sixty-five gentlemen shot.

Miss Legh became the Championess with 7 points, Mrs. Marshall having won
the point for hits at 50 yards.

Mrs. Eyre W. Hussey became the Championess of the West.

Mr. C. E. Nesham became the Champion with 9-1/2 points, Major C. H.
Fisher having tied with him in the point for hits at 60 yards.

Mr. Perry-Keene became the Champion of the West.

       *       *       *       *       *

In the handicap match on July 31, Miss Legh scored 391, Miss B. Oakley
363, Mrs. D. Ainsworth 344, Mrs. Marshall 343, and Mrs. Horniblow 337;
and on the same day Mr. E. Sharpe scored 429.


_ROYAL TOXOPHILITE SOCIETY'S HANDICAP MEETINGS_

A series of meetings extending over two days, the double York Round
being shot, commenced in 1881, and the Grand Centenary Archery Meeting
of the Royal Toxophilite Society was held in the Society's ground in the
Regent's Park, on October 12 and 13, 1881.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. H. H. Palairet      | 82 | 364 | 81 | 417 | 47 | 281 | 210 |1062 |
  | Mr. W. Rimington        | 76 | 294 | 75 | 337 | 43 | 241 | 194 | 872 |
  | Mr. J. H. Bridges       | 72 | 292 | 75 | 337 | 44 | 206 | 191 | 835 |
  | Mr. O. K. Prescot[14]   | 74 | 274 | 72 | 298 | 44 | 234 | 190 | 806 |
  | Mr. Piers F. Legh[14]   | 69 | 261 | 69 | 299 | 43 | 215 | 181 | 775 |
  | Mr. G. O. Pardoe[14]    | 57 | 225 | 77 | 327 | 41 | 201 | 175 | 753 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 65 | 231 | 65 | 287 | 40 | 198 | 170 | 716 |
  | Major C. H. Fisher      | 71 | 255 | 63 | 279 | 36 | 162 | 170 | 696 |
  | Mr. H. Kendall          | 58 | 206 | 64 | 248 | 44 | 222 | 166 | 676 |
  | Mr. C. J. Longman       | 59 | 237 | 59 | 251 | 37 | 183 | 155 | 671 |
  | Mr. E. N. Snow          | 54 | 234 | 52 | 224 | 40 | 212 | 146 | 670 |
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        | 72 | 264 | 55 | 203 | 37 | 199 | 164 | 666 |
  | Mr. A. Meyrick[14]      | 45 | 181 | 65 | 299 | 28 | 162 | 138 | 642 |
  | Colonel Lewin           | 62 | 244 | 58 | 238 | 32 | 154 | 152 | 636 |
  | Mr. O. L. Clare         | 54 | 204 | 64 | 238 | 40 | 178 | 158 | 620 |
  | Mr. A. Newall           | 54 | 182 | 58 | 268 | 40 | 170 | 152 | 620 |
  | Mr. Eyre W. Hussey[14]  | 55 | 209 | 57 | 207 | 39 | 195 | 151 | 611 |
  | Captain M. Allen[14]    | 46 | 146 | 69 | 249 | 41 | 211 | 156 | 606 |
  | Mr. Perry-Keene[14]     | 66 | 234 | 47 | 217 | 33 | 153 | 146 | 604 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  [14] Visitors.

Sixty-five gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

A Grand Annual Handicap Meeting of the Royal Toxophilite Society was
held on October 11 and 12, 1882.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Major C. H. Fisher      | 83 | 315 | 77 | 337 | 44 | 238 | 204 | 890 |
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        | 84 | 332 | 66 | 296 | 38 | 188 | 188 | 816 |
  | Mr. O. L. Clare         | 60 | 222 | 64 | 294 | 46 | 260 | 170 | 776 |
  | Mr. R. Walters          | 73 | 265 | 74 | 316 | 41 | 191 | 188 | 772 |
  | Mr. Piers F. Legh[15]   | 56 | 236 | 75 | 325 | 43 | 207 | 174 | 768 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 67 | 257 | 69 | 285 | 45 | 201 | 181 | 743 |
  | Mr. G. W. Chapman       | 60 | 248 | 52 | 198 | 38 | 210 | 150 | 656 |
  | Mr. H. Kendall          | 51 | 227 | 52 | 238 | 40 | 174 | 143 | 639 |
  | Mr. G. O. Pardoe[15]    | 47 | 211 | 53 | 249 | 40 | 172 | 140 | 632 |
  | Mr. W. Yates Foot       | 53 | 209 | 54 | 230 | 35 | 187 | 142 | 626 |
  | Mr. C. J. Longman       | 56 | 198 | 55 | 195 | 43 | 207 | 154 | 600 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  [15] Visitors.

Thirty-three gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Grand Annual Handicap Meeting of the Royal Toxophilite Society was
held on October 11 and 12, 1883.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        |100 | 426 | 75 | 337 | 45 | 247 | 220 |1010 |
  | Mr. C. J. Longman       | 72 | 274 | 69 | 305 | 47 | 229 | 188 | 808 |
  | Major C. H. Fisher      | 79 | 313 | 67 | 291 | 37 | 185 | 183 | 789 |
  | Mr. H. A. Howman[16]    | 65 | 273 | 57 | 259 | 41 | 231 | 163 | 763 |
  | Mr. N. Rattray          | 69 | 221 | 71 | 315 | 41 | 225 | 181 | 761 |
  | Mr. F. A. Govett        | 68 | 258 | 66 | 292 | 46 | 208 | 180 | 758 |
  | Mr. O. L. Clare         | 57 | 229 | 69 | 281 | 41 | 213 | 167 | 723 |
  | Mr. Eyre W. Hussey[16]  | 69 | 291 | 60 | 238 | 39 | 189 | 168 | 718 |
  | Colonel Lewin           | 59 | 203 | 64 | 270 | 43 | 211 | 166 | 684 |
  | Mr. G. W. Chapman       | 54 | 224 | 63 | 271 | 38 | 164 | 155 | 659 |
  | Mr. G. G. Hulme[16]     | 53 | 219 | 57 | 227 | 38 | 186 | 148 | 632 |
  | Captain M. Allen[16]    | 64 | 228 | 57 | 215 | 40 | 178 | 161 | 621 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 59 | 231 | 54 | 220 | 38 | 164 | 151 | 615 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  [16] Visitors.

Twenty-eight gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Grand Jubilee and Annual Handicap Meeting of the Royal Toxophilite
Society was held on October 9 and 10, 1884.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        | 89 | 393 | 70 | 290 | 45 | 211 | 204 | 894 |
  | Mr. R. Walters          | 70 | 264 | 69 | 305 | 43 | 219 | 182 | 788 |
  | Mr. O. L. Clare         | 83 | 321 | 66 | 268 | 42 | 198 | 191 | 787 |
  | Mr. J. H. Bridges       | 66 | 242 | 75 | 327 | 41 | 215 | 182 | 784 |
  | Mr. Eyre W. Hussey[17]  | 58 | 206 | 75 | 323 | 45 | 247 | 178 | 776 |
  | Mr. C. J. Longman       | 76 | 310 | 68 | 270 | 38 | 172 | 182 | 752 |
  | Captain M. Allen[17]    | 67 | 243 | 71 | 309 | 42 | 198 | 180 | 750 |
  | Mr. Gregson[17]         | 74 | 252 | 65 | 291 | 38 | 188 | 177 | 731 |
  | Mr. T. T. S. Metcalfe   | 55 | 225 | 64 | 276 | 44 | 200 | 163 | 701 |
  | Mr. Piers F. Legh[17]   | 57 | 201 | 69 | 283 | 40 | 192 | 166 | 676 |
  | Mr. A. Newall           | 57 | 225 | 60 | 256 | 31 | 147 | 148 | 628 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 45 | 149 | 66 | 288 | 41 | 179 | 152 | 616 |
  | Mr. Walrond             | 57 | 195 | 57 | 199 | 41 | 205 | 155 | 599 |
  | Mr. G. G. Hulme[17]     | 47 | 179 | 52 | 210 | 41 | 209 | 140 | 598 |
  | Mr. H. Kendall          | 54 | 184 | 51 | 209 | 41 | 199 | 146 | 592 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  [17] Visitors.

Forty-nine gentlemen shot.

Nothing could have been more unfavourable than the weather on this
occasion. It was wet, stormy, and bitterly cold.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Grand Annual Autumn Handicap Meeting of the Royal Toxophilite
Society was held on October 8 and 9, 1885.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. Perry-Keene[18]     | 69 | 245 | 84 | 384 | 43 | 255 | 196 | 884 |
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham        | 79 | 273 | 81 | 355 | 45 | 243 | 205 | 871 |
  | Mr. R. Walters          | 72 | 256 | 78 | 370 | 39 | 203 | 189 | 829 |
  | Mr. E. Brodie Hoare     | 66 | 274 | 58 | 246 | 43 | 201 | 167 | 721 |
  | Mr. H. H. Longman       | 61 | 205 | 60 | 268 | 42 | 230 | 163 | 703 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett       | 63 | 249 | 61 | 259 | 39 | 175 | 163 | 683 |
  | Mr. H. Kendall          | 44 | 174 | 52 | 224 | 43 | 233 | 139 | 631 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  [18] Visitor.

Twenty-one gentlemen shot at this meeting.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Grand Annual Autumn Handicap Meeting of the Royal Toxophilite
Society was held on October 14 and 15, 1886.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-------------+-----------+
  |                       | 100 Yards| 80 Yards |  60 Yards   |  TOTALS   |
  |       GENTLEMEN       +----+-----+----+-----+----+--------+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits| Score  | Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+--------+-----+-----+
  | Mr. C. E. Nesham      | 86 | 354 | 78 | 354 | 44 | 208    | 208 | 916 |
  | Mr. J. H. Bridges     | 65 | 269 | 69 | 309 | 43 | 211    | 177 | 789 |
  | Mr. N. Rattray        | 67 | 289 | 54 | 242 | 43 | 203    | 164 | 734 |
  | Mr. Walrond           | 67 | 259 | 63 | 245 | 44 | 220    | 174 | 724 |
  | Mr. H. H. Longman     | 59 | 207 | 68 | 298 | 36 | 180    | 163 | 685 |
  | Captain M. Allen[19]  | 47 | 189 | 68 | 328 | 30 | 154[20]| 145 | 671 |
  | Mr. E. Fisher[19]     | 63 | 215 | 57 | 239 | 44 | 212    | 164 | 666 |
  | Mr. C. H. Everett     | 51 | 187 | 67 | 261 | 40 | 188    | 158 | 636 |
  | Mr. E. C. Gedge[19]   | 59 | 235 | 57 | 197 | 36 | 178    | 152 | 610 |
  | Mr. A. Henty          | 45 | 171 | 57 | 207 | 44 | 222    | 146 | 600 |
  | Mr. T. T. S. Metcalfe | 53 | 205 | 53 | 207 | 39 | 187    | 145 | 599 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+--------+-----+-----+

  [19] Visitors.

  [20] Did not complete the shooting at 60 yards.

Twenty-one gentlemen shot at this meeting.


SCOTCH PUBLIC MEETINGS

The Eleventh Annual Scottish Archery Meeting was held on the
Cricket-ground (Lavilands), near Stirling, on August 4 and 5, 1865.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Betham           | 88 | 424 | 46 | 290 | 134 | 714 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 82 | 432 | 43 | 253 | 125 | 685 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. P. Muir             | 85 | 315 | 61 | 239 | 44 | 266 | 190 | 820 |
  | Mr. J. Murdoch          | 54 | 194 | 58 | 238 | 39 | 193 | 151 | 625 |
  | Mr. P. Murdoch          | 59 | 243 | 49 | 163 | 40 | 208 | 148 | 614 |
  | Mr. J. Allan            | 52 | 162 | 42 | 206 | 40 | 226 | 134 | 594 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Thirteen ladies and thirty-six gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twelfth Annual Scottish National Archery Meeting was held on the
County Cricket-ground in Raeburn Place, Stockbridge, Edinburgh, on
August 17 and 18, 1866.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          ----         +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 82 | 368 | 45 | 241 | 127 | 609 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. P. Muir             | 67 | 279 | 63 | 261 | 42 | 212 | 172 | 752 |
  | Captain Betham          | 47 | 195 | 56 | 232 | 42 | 196 | 145 | 623 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Nine ladies and thirty-eight gentlemen shot.

It was only on these two occasions that the Double Rounds were shot at
these meetings.


IRISH PUBLIC MEETINGS

The Second Irish Grand National Archery Meeting was held at Bray, not
far from Dublin, on August 12 and 13.

Twenty-three ladies and twenty-eight gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 86 | 428 | 47 | 263 | 133 | 691 |
  | Miss Betham           | 78 | 362 | 47 | 245 | 125 | 607 |
  | Miss Warde            | 69 | 301 | 42 | 218 | 111 | 519 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 68 | 266 | 77 | 357 | 48 | 298 | 193 | 921 |
  | Mr. R. W. Atkinson      | 69 | 303 | 66 | 298 | 42 | 228 | 177 | 829 |
  | Mr. T. L. Coulson       | 60 | 230 | 52 | 248 | 39 | 195 | 151 | 673 |
  | Mr. H. Walters          | 63 | 223 | 57 | 235 | 36 | 180 | 156 | 638 |
  | Mr. Macnamara           | 46 | 160 | 62 | 254 | 42 | 224 | 150 | 638 |
  | Mr. E. Popham           | 54 | 198 | 63 | 287 | 34 | 134 | 151 | 619 |
  | Captain Betham          | 48 | 178 | 61 | 263 | 42 | 170 | 151 | 611 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Mr. G. Edwards scored 404 in the handicap match on August 14.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Third Irish Grand National Archery Meeting was held in the Rotunda
Gardens, Dublin, on July 27 and 28, 1864.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Betham           | 85 | 437 | 42 | 218 | 127 | 655 |
  | Miss H. Tarleton      | 72 | 320 | 32 | 134 | 104 | 454 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 70 | 276 | 73 | 308 | 48 | 248 | 191 | 827 |
  | Captain Betham          | 64 | 234 | 66 | 276 | 43 | 215 | 173 | 725 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 58 | 210 | 60 | 246 | 44 | 226 | 162 | 682 |
  | Mr. R. W. Atkinson      | 51 | 179 | 68 | 282 | 42 | 202 | 161 | 663 |
  | Mr. Maconchy            | 63 | 215 | 55 | 207 | 40 | 214 | 158 | 636 |
  | Mr. H. Elliott          | 48 | 150 | 59 | 269 | 44 | 200 | 151 | 619 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Twenty-two ladies and twenty-one gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Fourth Irish Grand National Archery Meeting was held in the New
Winter Gardens, Dublin, on May 31 and June 1, 1865.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Betham           | 85 | 375 | 46 | 264 | 131 | 639 |
  | Mrs. Ormsby           | 65 | 257 | 41 | 175 | 106 | 432 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 50 | 192 | 77 | 387 | 45 | 231 | 172 | 810 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 74 | 306 | 62 | 248 | 42 | 204 | 178 | 758 |
  | Captain Betham          | 59 | 227 | 61 | 277 | 39 | 157 | 159 | 661 |
  | Captain Whitla          | 59 | 223 | 57 | 237 | 28 | 130 | 144 | 590 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Thirteen ladies and seventeen gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Second Grand Leinster Archery Meeting was held in the grounds of the
Exhibition Palace, Dublin, on September 19 and 20, 1865.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Macpherson       | 75 | 343 | 42 | 220 | 117 | 563 |
  | Miss Hendley          | 67 | 305 | 41 | 187 | 108 | 492 |
  | Miss Betham           | 66 | 290 | 36 | 200 | 102 | 490 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Captain Whitla          | 41 | 149 | 64 | 310 | 40 | 230 | 145 | 689 |
  | Mr. Betham              | 49 | 197 | 56 | 234 | 39 | 171 | 144 | 602 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Twenty-six ladies and sixteen gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Fifth Irish Grand National Archery Meeting was held in the New
Winter Gardens in Dublin on August 1, 2, and 3, 1866. Eighteen ladies
and seventeen gentlemen shot.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 86 | 386 | 46 | 268 | 132 | 654 |
  | Miss Betham           | 80 | 378 | 40 | 244 | 120 | 622 |
  | Miss A. Betham        | 61 | 291 | 44 | 238 | 105 | 529 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. Betham              | 63 | 241 | 68 | 272 | 45 | 287 | 176 | 800 |
  | Mr. G. Edwards          | 36 | 134 | 70 | 348 | 45 | 231 | 151 | 713 |
  | Mr. R. W. Atkinson      | 54 | 210 | 57 | 259 | 41 | 213 | 152 | 682 |
  | Captain Whitla          | 58 | 226 | 60 | 260 | 40 | 192 | 158 | 678 |
  | Captain Betham          | 36 | 130 | 60 | 240 | 46 | 238 | 142 | 608 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

       *       *       *       *       *

The First Ulster Grand Archery Meeting was held at Ulsterville, Belfast,
on August 8, 9, and 10, 1866.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Betham           | 88 | 418 | 46 | 274 | 134 | 692 |
  | Mrs. Horniblow        | 79 | 349 | 40 | 202 | 119 | 551 |
  | Miss Ada Betham       | 70 | 320 | 41 | 209 | 111 | 529 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. Betham              | 72 | 274 | 65 | 257 | 40 | 196 | 177 | 727 |
  | Captain Betham          | 50 | 172 | 53 | 255 | 41 | 173 | 144 | 600 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Eighteen ladies and nine gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Third Grand Leinster Archery Meeting was held in the grounds of the
Exhibition Palace at Dublin on September 4 and 5, 1866.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Betham           | 87 | 467 || 287 | 134 | 754 |
  | Miss L. Quin          | 74 | 336 | 39 | 191 | 113 | 527 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. Betham              | 59 | 209 | 71 | 287 | 41 | 205 | 171 | 701 |
  | Captain Betham          | 59 | 201 | 71 | 305 | 41 | 195 | 171 | 701 |
  | Mr. R. W. Atkinson      | 54 | 214 | 67 | 305 | 41 | 181 | 162 | 700 |
  | Mr. W. Butt             | 52 | 192 | 50 | 236 | 38 | 172 | 140 | 600 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Twenty-three ladies and twenty-three gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Second Ulster Grand Archery Meeting was held in the grounds of the
Armagh Archers, at Armagh, on August 7 and 8, 1867.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Betham           | 84 | 400 | 48 | 294 | 132 | 694 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 81 | 367 | 44 | 226 | 125 | 593 |
  | Miss A. Betham        | 73 | 329 | 43 | 237 | 116 | 566 |
  | Miss Davison          | 72 | 296 | 42 | 220 | 114 | 516 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. Betham              | 63 | 281 | 73 | 291 | 43 | 233 | 179 | 805 |
  | Mr. R. W. Atkinson      | 55 | 191 | 56 | 234 | 43 | 231 | 154 | 656 |
  | Mr. Russell             | 58 | 216 | 58 | 244 | 36 | 162 | 152 | 622 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Twenty ladies and seventeen gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Grand Munster Archery Meeting was held at Limerick, on September 21
and 22, 1867.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Betham           | 84 | 424 | 48 | 234 | 132 | 658 |
  | Miss A. Betham        | 82 | 380 | 46 | 246 | 128 | 626 |
  | Miss Warde            | 64 | 312 | 41 | 225 | 105 | 537 |
  | Mrs. Ormsby           | 68 | 294 | 44 | 214 | 112 | 508 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. Betham              | 63 | 267 | 58 | 246 | 41 | 227 | 162 | 740 |
  | Mr. A. E. Knox          | 60 | 212 | 58 | 270 | 38 | 186 | 156 | 668 |
  | Mr. R. W. Atkinson      | 58 | 204 | 52 | 220 | 37 | 169 | 147 | 593 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Twenty-eight ladies and eighteen gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Fourth Grand Annual Meeting of the Leinster Archers was held in the
grounds of the Exhibition Palace, Dublin, on August 26 and 27, 1867.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Betham           | 84 | 416 | 46 | 278 | 130 | 694 |
  | Miss A. Betham        | 84 | 390 | 47 | 231 | 131 | 621 |
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 75 | 329 | 42 | 224 | 117 | 553 |
  | Miss Mayne            | 73 | 313 | 46 | 226 | 119 | 539 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. Betham              | 70 | 282 | 80 | 358 | 45 | 231 | 195 | 871 |
  | Mr. A. Knox             | 63 | 277 | 66 | 252 | 38 | 196 | 167 | 725 |
  | Mr. Russell             | 53 | 205 | 59 | 299 | 40 | 186 | 152 | 690 |
  | Mr. R. W. Atkinson      | 59 | 217 | 44 | 176 | 45 | 225 | 148 | 618 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Twenty-three ladies and seventeen gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Sixth Irish Grand National Archery Meeting was held in the grounds
of the Exhibition Palace in Dublin, on September 14 and 15, 1867.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Betham           | 88 | 440 | 47 | 303 | 135 | 743 |
  | Miss Ormsby           | 83 | 425 | 44 | 232 | 127 | 657 |
  | Miss L. Quin          | 76 | 384 | 47 | 259 | 123 | 643 |
  | Miss A. Betham        | 76 | 328 | 46 | 258 | 122 | 586 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. Betham              | 61 | 269 | 70 | 268 | 44 | 230 | 175 | 767 |
  | Mr. Russell             | 65 | 247 | 59 | 251 | 38 | 192 | 162 | 690 |
  | Mr. N. A. Knox          | 63 | 253 | 58 | 244 | 34 | 154 | 155 | 651 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Fourteen ladies and fourteen gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Second Grand Munster Archery Meeting was held in the grounds of
Cortigan (Sir Denham Norreys, Bart.), near Mallow, on September 2 and 3,
1868.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Betham           | 87 | 473 | 48 | 292 | 135 | 765 |
  | Miss L. Quin          | 72 | 326 | 43 | 217 | 115 | 543 |
  | Miss Ormsby           | 72 | 334 | 40 | 198 | 112 | 532 |
  | Mrs. Vansittart       | 74 | 326 | 35 | 181 | 109 | 507 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. Betham              | 52 | 182 | 65 | 269 | 41 | 219 | 158 | 670 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Nineteen ladies and twelve gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Third Grand Munster Archery Meeting was held in Sir D. Norreys's
grounds at Cortigan, near Mallow, on September 8 and 9, 1869.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss Peel             | 85 | 373 | 45 | 199 | 130 | 572 |
  | Mrs. V. Forbes        | 70 | 308 | 46 | 236 | 116 | 544 |
  | Miss L. Quin          | 83 | 359 | 42 | 176 | 125 | 535 |
  | Miss Ormsby           | 73 | 313 | 44 | 220 | 117 | 533 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. Betham              | 66 | 232 | 67 | 305 | 41 | 189 | 174 | 726 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

Twenty-four ladies and fourteen gentlemen shot.

       *       *       *       *       *

A Grand Leinster Meeting was held in the grounds of the Exhibition
Palace, Dublin, on October 6 and 7, 1869.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Miss H. Hutchinson    | 84 | 412 | 46 | 254 | 130 | 666 |
  | Mrs. V. Forbes        | 88 | 408 | 46 | 252 | 134 | 660 |
  | Miss Mayne            | 73 | 323 | 41 | 239 | 114 | 562 |
  | Mrs. C. W. Betham     | 73 | 333 | 40 | 212 | 113 | 545 |
  | Miss Peel             | 80 | 374 | 38 | 164 | 118 | 538 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. Betham              | 65 | 285 | 57 | 223 | 42 | 208 | 164 | 716 |
  | Mr. McNamara            | 47 | 183 | 45 | 199 | 43 | 183 | 135 | 565 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+


_AMERICAN NATIONAL ARCHERY MEETINGS_

The First American National Archery Meeting was held at Chicago on
August 12, 13, and 14, 1879. On this occasion the ladies shot
forty-eight arrows at each of the distances of 30, 40, and 50 yards. The
gentlemen shot forty-eight arrows at 60 yards, and ninety-six arrows at
80 yards, on the first day, and seventy-two arrows at 100 yards on each
of the other days; thus making up the quantities of a York Round, though
in unusual order. The best results were as follows:--

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. W. H. Thompson      | 39 | 155 | 43 | 155 | 68 | 236 | 150 | 546 |
  | Mr. T. McMechan         | 35 | 175 | 47 | 177 | 34 | 126 | 116 | 478 |
  | Mr. E. P. Hall          | 37 | 157 | 50 | 178 | 28 | 104 | 115 | 439 |
  | Mr. C. Leach            | 34 | 152 | 38 | 138 | 39 | 149 | 111 | 439 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

       *       *       *       *       *

The Second Annual American National Archery Meeting was held at Buffalo,
near New York, on July 11 and 12 (13 and 14?), 1880, when the Round shot
by the ladies was forty-eight arrows at each of the distances of 50, 40,
and 30 yards; but the gentlemen shot a single York Round on each day.
The result of each day's shooting only is given, as the details of the
different distances cannot be discovered.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+-------------------+
  |                         | 1st Day  | 2nd Day  | Double York Round |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+---------+---------+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|   Hits  |  Score  |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+---------+---------+
  | Mr. L. L. Peddinghaus   | 74 | 346 | 78 | 360 |   152   |   706   |
  | Mr. W. H. Thompson      | 82 | 370 | 78 | 332 |   160   |   702   |
  | Mr. W. Burnham          | 81 | 331 | 78 | 342 |   159   |   673   |
  | Mr. F. H. Walworth      | 68 | 274 | 76 | 316 |   144   |   590   |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+---------+---------+

       *       *       *       *       *

The Fourth Annual American National Archery Meeting was held at Chicago
on July 11, 12, and 14, 1882, the National and York double Rounds being
shot.[21]

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. A. H. Gibbes     | 63 | 251 | 38 | 198 | 101 | 449 |
  | Mrs. F. Morrison      | -- |  -- | -- |  -- |  94 | 374 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. D. A. Nash          | 58 | 210 | 65 | 257 | 44 | 246 | 167 | 713 |
  | Mr. H. S. Taylor        | 55 | 151 | 67 | 275 | 46 | 252 | 168 | 678 |
  | Mr. R. Williams         | 49 | 179 | 55 | 235 | 44 | 236 | 148 | 650 |
  | Mr. W. A. Clark         | 45 | 197 | 62 | 244 | 41 | 195 | 148 | 636 |
  | Mr. W. H. Thompson      | 46 | 178 | 54 | 234 | 44 | 198 | 144 | 610 |
  | Mr. F. E. Perry         | 42 | 148 | 56 | 226 | 39 | 179 | 137 | 553 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

       *       *       *       *       *

The Fifth Annual American National Archery Meeting was held at
Cincinnati on July 10, 11, and 12, 1883.

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. P. Williams         | 76 | 300 | 79 | 371 | 44 | 236 | 199 | 907 |
  | Mr. H. S. Taylor        | 53 | 191 | 51 | 223 | 45 | 235 | 149 | 649 |
  | Mr. W. A. Clark         | 56 | 192 | 63 | 257 | 39 | 171 | 158 | 620 |
  | Mr. D. A. Nash          | 35 | 135 | 57 | 243 | 45 | 209 | 137 | 587 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. C. Howell        | 85 | 413 | 47 | 277 | 132 | 690 |
  | Mrs. S. A. Whitfield  | 88 | 436 | 39 | 185 | 127 | 621 |
  | Mrs. T. F. George     | 71 | 299 | 45 | 237 | 116 | 536 |
  | Mrs. H. M. Pollock    | 76 | 328 | 42 | 198 | 118 | 526 |
  | Mrs. Arthur           | 72 | 296 | 43 | 213 | 115 | 509 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

       *       *       *       *       *

The Sixth Annual American National Archery Meeting was held at Pullman
in 1884 on July 8, 9, and 10.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          ----         +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. H. Hall          | 46 | 204 | 42 | 212 |  88 | 416 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mr. W. H. Thompson      | 63 | 237 | 68 | 314 | 43 | 209 | 174 | 760 |
  | Mr. R. Williams, jun.   | 67 | 251 | 65 | 267 | 43 | 227 | 175 | 745 |
  | Mr. C. C. Beach         | 46 | 176 | 65 | 297 | 44 | 250 | 155 | 723 |
  | Mr. H. S. Taylor        | 44 | 160 | 50 | 198 | 39 | 181 | 133 | 539 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

       *       *       *       *       *

The Seventh Annual American National Archery Meeting was held at Eaton,
Ohio, on July 7, 8, and 9, 1885.

  +-----------------------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                       | 60 Yards | 50 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |          LADIES       +----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Mrs. M. C. Howell     | 75 | 353 | 46 | 252 | 121 | 605 |
  | Miss J. Pollock       | 78 | 300 | 44 | 216 | 122 | 516 |
  | Mrs. J. Arthur        | 65 | 271 | 42 | 210 | 107 | 481 |
  +-----------------------+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----------+----------+----------+-----------+
  |                         | 100 Yards| 80 Yards | 60 Yards |  TOTALS   |
  |        GENTLEMEN        +----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |Hits|Score|Hits|Score|Hits|Score| Hits|Score|
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+
  | Colonel R. Williams     | 91 | 357 | 78 | 360 | 46 | 278 | 215 | 995 |
  | Mr. C. C. Beach         | 46 | 172 | 75 | 347 | 44 | 214 | 165 | 733 |
  | Mr. J. W. B. Siders     | 39 | 173 | 57 | 275 | 41 | 199 | 137 | 647 |
  | Mr. W. H. Thompson      | 52 | 198 | 53 | 233 | 38 | 176 | 143 | 607 |
  | Mr. W. A. Clark         | 51 | 197 | 50 | 200 | 41 | 197 | 142 | 594 |
  +-------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+-----+-----+-----+


FOOTNOTES:

[9] The points for the Champion's medal are--

  2 points each for gross score and gross hits.
  1 point each for score and hits at 100 yards.
  1 point       "           "         80 yards.
  1 point       "           "         60 yards.
                               Total, 10 points.

Transcriber's note: Footnotes 10-20 immediately follow the tables that
refer to them.

[21] No report of the meeting in 1881 can be traced.



CHAPTER XIV.

_CLUB SHOOTING AND PRIVATE PRACTICE_


In the following scores an attempt is made to give authentic specimens
of the best shooting of as many as possible of the best archers of the
past and present time. Mr. Ford himself mentioned how sadly disheartened
and crestfallen he felt on his return from his first Grand National
Meeting at Derby, where he had scored 341 with 101 hits in the double
York Round, which was far below the score he had anticipated, and warned
his readers that shooting at a public meeting was very different from
private practice or small match shooting. There are but very few archers
who have not met with the same disappointment, as will be easily seen
when the public and private records here given are compared. Young
archers should be strongly recommended to make their public _débuts_ as
early as possible--as well to work off the novelty and excitement of the
scene as to compare the methods and results of other archers--before
they have established great local reputations, which may run the greater
risk of being fatally exploded from the very over-anxiety which is
employed to keep or increase those reputations in public.

The erroneous practice of shooting trial arrows before the commencement
of the regular round has been mostly given up of late years, being
altogether discountenanced by the rules of the private practice club,
and disallowed at all the public meetings.

In fact, it was a most dangerous practice at the public meetings, where,
in former years, before the match shooting commenced, or when it was
finished, those who had to cross the ground ran no little risk of being
shot by some of the industrious archers, who, not satisfied with the
round allotted to the day, were threshing out themselves and their bows,
not with shooting at the targets, but mostly at a piece of white paper
placed about so far from themselves as an arrow would fall when supposed
to have passed through the gold at the particular distance at which
these zealots were ever engaged in the apparently hopeless search of the
'range' or a 'point of aim.'

The earliest grand score on the testified York Round in the books of the
Royal Toxophilite Society belonged to _Mr. H. C. Mules_, and was shot on
August 24, 1856.

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   50    240      42    232      23    131   =   115   603

He also has scores of 116 hts. 500 sc. and 106 hts. 508 sc. in the books
made in 1858. This was surpassed by _Mr. H. A. Ford_ on November 3,
1858, in the Toxophilite grounds:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   47    227      46    258      24    138   =   117   623

and the score of _Mr. G. E. S. Fryer_, made in the same grounds on
August 2, 1872, of

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   59    289      44    218      24    132   =   127   639

went further, and still remains unsurpassed.

This last-mentioned score took, and still holds, the _Wilkinson practice
medal_, which was given to the Royal Toxophilite Society in 1866, and
was first taken by _Mr. T. Boulton_ with

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   43    175      40    186      24    148   =   107   509

who afterwards improved his holding of it by making

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   48    206      46    208      23    133   =   117   547

On July 6, 1867, _Mr. W. Spottiswoode_ scored

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   50    244      41    201      23    129   =   114   574

and took and held it until it was transferred to Mr. Fryer in 1872.

The full details of _Mr. H. A. Ford's_ best private-practice score of
809 with 137 hits have been already given.

He also records a score in which the only arrow missed was the 59th,
shot at 100 yards, the particular of the score being

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   71    335      48    272      24    158   =   143   765

When shooting with the Royal Toxophilite Society on June 23, 1854, the
round being 96 arrows at 100 yards, 72 arrows at 80 yards, and 48 arrows
at 60 yards, he made the following score:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   79    373      71    325      47    313   =   197   1011

His best double York Round, made privately, seems to be as follows:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   61    295      48    306      24    186   =   133    787
   63    299      46    278      24    168   =   133    745
                                                ----  -----
               Total                             266   1532

His best scoring at 100 yards is represented by 371 with 69 hits--

  G.   R.   B.   BK.   W.
  12   17   19   14    7

from his second best York Round score of

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   69    371      48    274      24    154   =   141   799

his best score at 80 yards being 306 with all the 48 hits,

  G.   R.   B.   BK.   W.
  10   19   15    2    2

and his best at 60 yards 186,

  G.   R.   B.
  10   13   1

Mr. H. A. Ford himself reports one of his own most extraordinary feats
as follows: 'Not but what I have been the originator of a respectable
fluke or two myself in my time. For instance, on the second day of the
first Grand National Meeting at Shrewsbury in 1854, an old archer, Mr.
Hughes, offered a silver bracer as a prize for most golds at any one
end, 100 yards to take precedence of 80, and 80 yards of 60. In a very
few minutes two gentlemen, Messrs. Garnett and Hilton, if I remember
rightly, got two; but this was not enough, the third arrow being
destined to go there as well. Accordingly, but a few rounds after, my
friend Chance came to my aid, and so the whole three went into the
desired spot. Now the combination here was curious. But once during my
archery experience has a special prize been offered for a feat of this
particular nature, and upon that occasion, and that occasion only in a
match, have three golds been got at one end, by one shooter, at 100
yards' ('Archer's Register,' 1864).

Mr. Bramhall gives a good idea of Mr. Ford's indomitable perseverance.
'If,' he says, 'I reported a good score, he persevered until he had
beaten it--e.g. in 1853, March 7, I completed 409 following hits at 60
yards. He soon sent me a report of a little over 600' ('Archer's
Register,' 1881).

_Mr. John Bramhall's_ best single York Round was made November 25, 1851:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   61    317      41    223      23    135   =   125   675

In 1849 the average of the 54 York Rounds he shot was 453 score from 103
hits; in 1850 it was 502 from 110 hits in 70 rounds; in 1851 it was 561
from 117 hits in 64 rounds; in 1852 it was 575 from 117 hits in 52
rounds; and in 1853 it was 567 from 114 hits in 38 rounds. In shooting
at 100 yards he has made 4 golds in consecutive hits, and often 3 at
one end. At 80 yards his best in 48 arrows was 47 hits 273 score; and he
has made 55 consecutive hits at 80, and 5 following golds. At 60 yards
his best record is 24 hits 172 score--409 consecutive hits and 5
following golds. His best double York Round was:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   107   535      91    497      48    290   =   256   1322

shot on June 26 and July 1, 1852.

_Mr. E. A. Holmes_ (champion 1865 and 1870) made his best score on the
single York Round in private practice at Harrow, soon after the Grand
National Meeting at Brighton in 1867, which is as follows:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score
   66    284      46    206      22    132  =   134   622

_Mr. C. E. Nesham_ (Royal Toxophilite Society), champion 1884-5-6, has
13 York Rounds scores on the Royal Toxophilite Society's books of over
500, of which the highest is:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   55    281      41    187      22    126   =   118   594

made on May 5, 1887.

In private practice at Bournemouth he scored, on May 14, 1883,

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   63    281      43    243      22    108   =   128   632

and

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   53    269      41    203      22    122   =   116   594

made in the Regent's Park, March 6, 1884.

On twenty-three other occasions, in private and in club matches, he has
scored 500 and upwards. Of these, in the Royal Toxophilite Society's
books, are:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   46    228      47    253      20    110   =   113   591

shot on October 16, 1884, and

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   50    224      44    220      24    148   =   118   592

shot on October 29, 1885.

Major _C. H. Fisher's_ (Champion 1871-2-3-4, and made highest score at
Windsor in 1884 when Mr. Nesham became champion) best York Round score
in the books of the Royal Toxophilite Society, made on July 2, 1885, is
as follows:

  Hits  Score    Hits    Score  Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   53    239      42      192    24    136   =   119   557

and his next best, made on October 20, 1871, is

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   47    227      42    194      23    113   =   112   534

His best private practice score on the York Round is the following:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   49    227      45    243      24    158   =   862   118

made on May 25, 1872; and he reports that this Round was shot too
quickly, and might have been improved if he had taken more pains.

He has made the following good double rounds in practice, namely:

                            Hits  Score
  May 27 and 28, 1873        235   1079
  July 23 and 24, 1874       235   1123

and in 1876:

           Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score
  June 12,  50    196      43    213      23    103   =  116   512
    "  13,  46    194      45    233      23    113   =  114   540
                                                         ---  ----
                        Totals                           230  1052

and in 1877 a single York Round:

           Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score
  Sept. 7,  55    241      44    202      23    125   =  122   568

_Mr. T. T. S. Metcalfe's_ (Royal Toxophilite Society) best single York
Round is:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score
   54    258      37    173      19     93  =  100    524

made on May 22, 1886, in private practice.

_Mr. C. H. Everett's_ best single York Rounds appear to be:

                Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits   Score
  Aug. 9, 1880   45    179      41    229      22    114   =   108    522
  April 2, 1883  48    180      42    222      24    134   =   114    536
    "  16,  "    54    214      37    177      24    158   =   115    549

made in private practice.

At a meeting of the Royal Toxophilite Society on October 4, 1874, he
scored:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   45    187      40    190      23    123   =   108   500

and again in the Regent's Park on September 30, 1880:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score
   52    192      41    209      23    109   =  116   510

and on October 14, 1880:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   50    224      38    166      22    116   =   110   506

_Mr. W. J. Richardson_ (Royal Toxophilite Society) has a good score on
the York Round in the books of the Royal Toxophilite Society, made on
June 7, 1860:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   44    190      39    193      21    133   =   104   516

as also has _Mr. W. Rimington_ (Royal Toxophilite Society) champion
1868-69 and 1877:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   48    206      42    178      24    120   =   114   504

made on July 2, 1869.

_Col. H. F. C. Lewin's_ (Royal Toxophilite Society) best scores have
been made in private practice at Eltham, in the late Mr. Mill's grounds,
and are:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   41    199      38    194      21    115   =   100   508

made on November 3, 1870, and

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   50    226      36    146      24    136   =   110   508

made in 1869.

_Mr. G. E. S. Fryer_ (Champion in 1875, Royal Toxophilite Society),
besides his excellent score of 639 with 127 hits, has another very good
York Round score in the books of the Royal Toxophilite Society, made on
June 3, 1873:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   55    235      47    249      24    138   =   126   622

He made another fine York Round on August 15, 1873, in private practice:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   54    238      46    218      24    150   =   124   606

and in the books of the Royal Toxophilite Society in 1874, on May 27:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   50    200      42    242      23    129   =   115   571

on June 17:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   58    242      44    200      23    155   =   125   597

and on July 1:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   48    184      45    243      24    132   =   117   559

_Mr. H. H. Palairet's_ (Champion in 1876, Royal Toxophilite Society)
best scores on the York Round appear to be the following:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   53    241      45    239      24    108   =   122   588

made at a West Berks Meeting at Great Marlow (Colonel Wethered's) on
June 20, 1882, and this score is the York Round 'record' of the West
Berks Archers.

In private practice on July 15, 1875, he scored:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   54    252      43    205      23    121   =   120   578

showing a very good score at 100 yards; and on July 30 he scored 46 hits
264 score in the 48 arrows at 80 yards.

His best shooting at 60 yards appears to have been made on July 24,
1874, when, shooting 96 arrows, he scored 579 with 95 hits.

_Mr. C. J. Longman's_ (Champion in 1883, Royal Toxophilite Society) best
York Round score in the books of the Royal Toxophilite Society is dated
November 1, 1883, and is as follows:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   49    199      41    189      23    149   =   113   537

and his best private practice scores made in the same grounds are:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   55    249      41    213      23    129   =   119   591
   46    204      46    220      24    148   =   116   572
                                                 ---   ---
                            Totals               235  1163

made on June 17 and 18, 1884, respectively.

_Mr. H. H. Longman's_ (Royal Toxophilite Society) best York Round score
made in private practice in the Royal Toxophilite Society's grounds on
March 30, 1887, is as follows:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   51    223      41    191      21     91   =   113   505

_Mr. Piers F. Legh_ (Royal Toxophilite Society) has made some good
single York Rounds in private practice, viz.:

                  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score
  July  14, 1879   45    181      40    194      24    154   =  109   529
   "    19, 1880   41    177      44    208      24    124   =  109   509
  Sept. 20,  "     51    223      38    180      24    124   =  113   527

_Mr. R. Walters_ (Champion in 1879, Royal Toxophilite Society) has made
some good scores in private practice, of which the best appear to be as
follows:

                 Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
  Oct. 25, 1884   48    184      43    211      23    133   =  114    528
  Aug. 15, 1885   45    187      44    214      24    126   =  113    527

_Mr. J. H. Bridges'_ (Royal Toxophilite Society) best single York Rounds
in private practice are:

                Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
  Oct. 7, 1881   39    181      42    222      24    120   =  105    523
  June 8, 1884                                             =  118    546

At 100 yards, in 72 arrows, he has made:

                 Hits  Score
  April 2, 1884   55    261

At 80 yards, in 48 arrows, he has made:

                    Hits  Score
  January 27, 1887   45    263
    April 12, 1887   48    216

At 60 yards, in 24 arrows:

                  Hits  Score
  April 23, 1884   24    166

and in 100 arrows at 60 yards:

                      Hits  Score
  September 18, 1879  100    586
      April 23, 1884   99    627

It will be observed that nearly all Mr. Bridges' practice occurs early
or late in the season, as cricket absorbs much of his attention in the
summer.

_Mr. L. R. Erskine_ (Royal Toxophilite Society) has made some good
single York Rounds in private practice, viz.:

                Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits   Score
  Nov. 8, 1886   49    195      41    215      22    122   =   112    532
  Mar. 1, 1887   50    210      46    222      23    117   =   119    549
   "   5,  "     53    231      46    198      24    126   =   123    555
   "  11,  "     52    220      45    227      23    133   =   120    580

The full particulars of _Mr. O. K. Prescot's_ (Royal Toxophilite
Society) best private practice double York Round score of 1197 cannot be
given, as they have been lost or destroyed. It was shot in two days of
September 1867. The first total score was 621, and the score at 100
yards was 256--200 having been made in the first 4 dozen. The second
round was 567, and, in this round, the score at 80 yards was 249. The
most annoying thing about the round was that the last arrow at 60 yards
missed the target, when a black even would have brought the total up to
1200.

_Mr. H. J. B. Kendall's_ (Royal Toxophilite Society) best score in the
York Round was made in private practice on August 14, 1884:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   46    222      46    228      22    118   =  114    568

On this occasion the 2 arrows not counted at 80 yards went through weak
places in the target.

He also made 52 hits 224 score at 100 yards on Aug 28, 1884.

On July 5, 1877, he made 3 golds in one end at 100 yards in the course
of the Summer Handicap match of the Royal Toxophilite Society, repeating
the feat performed by Mr. H. A. Ford at Shrewsbury in 1854.

_Mr. O. Leigh Clare_ (Royal Toxophilite Society) has made some good
private practice, viz.:

                 Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
  July 23, 1879,  52    266      43    193      23    109   =  118    568

in the single York Round; and in 72 arrows at 100 yards:

                    Hits  Score
  October 12, 1878   56    250

also in 48 arrows at 80 yards:

                 Hits  Score
  July 13, 1878   42    212

_Mr. C. J. Perry-Keene_ made the following fine score in private
practice on July 24, 1886, in the single York Round:--

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   57    225      45    229      24    150   =  126    604

and two other good scores made by him are:

                  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
  May  6, 1886,    43    217      40    188      23    119   =   106   524
   "   7,   "      51    215      45    199      24    152   =   120   566
  April 18, 1887,  48    202      44    230      24    124   =   116   556

In private practice _Mr. F. A. Govett_ (Royal Toxophilite Society) made:

               Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
  October 12,
      1883,     50    204      38    184      21    113   =   109   501

and on May 29, at one of the meetings of the same society, he made:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   52    198      41    209      24    114   =   117   521

Again, in private practice, he made on April 11, 1884:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   38    174      43    215      23    123   =   104   512

On September 23, 1886, _Mr. F. L. Govett_ (Royal Toxophilite Society)
scored in private practice:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   47    227      40    176      24    130   =   111   533

_Mr. F. Townsend's_ (Woodman of Arden) best York Round score appears to
be as follows:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   49    237      33    177      22    102   =   104   516

made on December 27, 1862.

He seldom practised the York Round, and never allowed his archery
practice to interfere with his other numerous avocations.

_Mr. W. Spottiswoode_, P.R.S. (Royal Toxophilite Society), has another
good score on the Society's books:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   50    194      38    194      22    124   =   110   512

made on May 30, 1867.

_Captain A. P. Moore_, who made the highest score in 1849, at Derby,
when Mr. H. A. Ford was first champion, reports that his best score in a
single York Round was in private practice:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   65    309      44    230      24    152   =   133   691

and that he has made 316 score with 56 hits and 304 score with 64 hits
in the 72 arrows at 100 yards.

His best performance at 80 yards was 254 score with 44 hits in the 48
shots, and at 60 yards his best score was 164 with the 24 hits. His best
double York Round was 1288 with 252 hits, mentioned by Mr. H. A. Ford.
In the month of March 1852 he shot 14 rounds, and their average was 557
score with 115 hits.

Two very good records of _Mr. Charles Garnett's_ (Royal Toxophilite
Society) shooting at 100 yards are:

  Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   58    288  and  61    269

72 arrows being shot on each occasion.

He says: 'I shot a distance of 304 yards on a calm day with an 85-lb.
bow and four-and-ninepenny 28-inch arrow. I could not get a flight-arrow
to stand the bow, or I should probably have shot further, as the
four-and-ninepenny arrow was one of the old pattern and heavily
feathered.'

_Captain C. H. Garnett's_ (John o' Gaunt Bowmen) best score in the York
Round amounted to 522, but he has been unable to find a record of the
details. The following is another good score made by him on November 17,
1873:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   48    202      34    182      23    127   =   105   511

In October of the same year, in 72 arrows at 100 yards he made 48 hits
220 score, and made 3 golds in one end.

He reports that his father, Mr. H. Garnett, shooting with the John o'
Gaunt Bowmen on one occasion, scored 500 in the York Round.

Another John o' Gaunt Bowman, _Mr. B. P. Gregson_, has scored as much as
497 in the York Round.

A good St. George's Round (of 36 arrows at each distance) made by _Mr.
Marr_ is:

   100 Yards       80 Yards      60 Yards         TOTALS
  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   24    114      32    118      35    181   =   101   413

another by _Mr. Heath_:

   100 Yards       80 Yards      60 Yards         TOTALS
  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   25     89      31    139      35    203   =   91    431

A good St. George's Round made by _Mr. E. Maitland_ (Champion in 1848,
Royal Toxophilite Society) is:

   100 Yards       80 Yards      60 Yards         TOTALS
  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   25     97      34    190      36    196   =   95    483

and he says: 'I tried hard to catch up Mr. H. A. Ford on my return to
England from Australia in 1858, but had scarcely got within 25 per cent.
of his scores when I broke down from overwork--bows too strong, and
practice too unremitting. He said if I did not beat him, there was no
one else in the field to do it. I don't think I ever should, because I
had not his indomitable steadiness and threw away many a shot on a
chance: for I was a rapid shooter. I never dwelt on the aim as he did.'

_Mr. T. L. Coulson_ (Royal Toxophilite Society) recorded his first score
of 500 on the single York Round on May 1, 1861, on November 18, 1862:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   --    228      --    207      --    130   =   105   565

and on October 21, 1865:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   56    224      44    198      24    136   =   124   558

On January 13, 1869, he made 3 golds in one end at 100 yards.

_Mr. J. A. Froude_ (Royal Toxophilite Society) says: 'I did once make [a
score of] over 500 [in the single York Round] in a private match; but
only once, and the record of it has long vanished. Richardson and
Spedding were both shooting on that occasion, and I, for a miracle, in
that single instance beat Richardson.' This probably happened about
1860.

It is generally believed that the private practice of _Mr. G. Edwards_
(Champion in 1860-1-2-4-6) was far beyond his public shooting. He has
been heard to say that, though Mr. Ford had been able to land only 71 of
the 72 arrows shot at 100 yards in the target (missing his 59th arrow),
he (Mr. G. E.) had put all his 72 arrows into the target at the same
distance. There is no reason to disbelieve his positive statement that
on one occasion, shooting 24 arrows at 60 yards, he put every one of
them in the red circle.

'Some of the scores made by _Mr. Edward Mason_ in private practice were
very large, and it is to be regretted that no actual details can be
given. It is well known, however, that on several occasions he made a
score of over 1000 on the double York Round, and were the figures
available they could not fail to be of wide interest' ('Archers'
Register,' 1882-3).

_Mr. Peter Muir_ (Champion 1845-7 and 1863) was a most successful shot
at all distances, short as well as long, but probably seldom, if ever,
practised the York Round. Mr. H. A. Ford gives as his best score the
following, made at the distance of from 20 to 30 yards, 2 shots, 2
hits--a hawk and a crow (fact).

_Mr. E. Meyrick_ says: 'It is true that I have seen _Escott_ hurl his
eight-shilling arrows from a bow of 80 lbs. and ten-shilling arrows from
a 100-lb. bow, but then he could not do much hitting. I should think
something authentic must exist of my old friend _Marsh's_ long shot of
360 yards up and down. He would hit half his arrows at 100 yards very
often,' as may be seen from the extracts given from his actual scores.

A point of interest in _Mr. W. Butt's_ (Royal Toxophilite Society)
shooting is, that he shot with both hands, though only on one occasion
did he shoot two rounds on the same day, one with each hand. This was at
a West Berks meeting at Coombe Wood, Surrey (Sir W. Baynes), as follows:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   34    134      28    122      21    105   =   83    361  Right-handed
   16     68      23     77      21     95   =   60    240  Left-handed

His best right-handed shooting was as follows:

    80 Yards       60 Yards
  Hits  Score    Hits  Score
   43    215      24   158

shot on October 3, 1863; and on October 9, 1863, in 110 arrows at 60
yards:

  Hits  Score  G.  R.  B.  Bk.  W.
  110    640   19  32  39  15   5

On February 8, 1864, in a York Round:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   48    216      42    172      23    113   =   113   501

and on March 12, 1864, at 80 yards 41 hits 207 score in the 48 arrows.

Shooting left-handed, his best scores in the books of the Royal
Toxophilite Society are 47 hits 201 score, in 72 arrows at 100 yards, on
the first half of the shooting on the Crunden Day on April 18, 1867; and
on May 30 in the same year in the York Round:

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   44    206      36    154      24    138   =   104   498

and on October 5, 1876, at 60 yards, 24 hits with 160 score--'record'
for 60 yards shooting in the York Round at the meetings of the Royal
Toxophilite Society.

_Mr. Macnamara_ made good scores at the public meetings, but it is
believed that his shooting in private practice was of infinitely higher
quality. He took to shooting left-handed afterwards, but without much
success in public.

_Mr. G. L. Aston_ also has been at different periods a successful shot,
both right-handed and left-handed, at the public meetings.

About thirty years ago _Mr. Aubrey Patton_ shot so well that Mr. H. A.
Ford took the trouble to explain in the pages of the _Field_ that he had
not yet been beaten by him; but Mr. Patton's regimental duties took him
out of reach of more archery practice.

_Mr. E. Sharpe_ (John o' Gaunt Bowmen) made

  Hits  Score    Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   48    240      36    164      22    112   =   106   516

in private practice October 2, 1886.

No attempt has yet been made to collect the records of the many
excellent scores that have been made by numerous ladies in club matches,
or in private practice; but it is believed that, owing to the ladies'
shooting at the public meetings being more like their club and private
practice, in that it occupies an afternoon only, and is not spun out all
over the day, as is the case with the gentlemen, the ladies' public
shooting more fairly represents the best they can do; yet many ladies
have scored over 400 in the half of the National Round who have not yet
approached the 800 which both Mrs. and Miss Legh have shown to be
attainable at a public meeting in the National Round. A few samples of
their accuracy of aim can however be here given as specimens of what
might be contributed to another edition of this book.

Mrs. Butt, shooting in private practice in the Jephson Gardens, at
Leamington, on June 10, 1870, made

    60 Yards       50 Yards         TOTALS
  Hits  Score    Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   48    280      24    168   =   72    448

and, in the course of this score at 50 yards, made 6 consecutive golds
in one double end.

Miss Ripley (now Mrs. Bradford), shooting at a Prize Meeting of the
Torbay Archers, on August 5, 1871, is reported to have scored

    60 Yards      50 Yards         TOTALS
  Hits  Score   Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   46    292     24    170   =   70    462

Mrs. Piers F. Legh, shooting at home on September 9, 1881, scored

    60 Yards      50 Yards         TOTALS
  Hits  Score   Hits  Score     Hits  Score
   48    316     24    162   =   72   478

Doubtless many other archers have already made noteworthy scores in the
course of their private practice. These scores and the many others
hereafter to be made, as much as possible better than any herein given,
the editor (with Mr. H. A. Ford's adieu of 'Farewell and shoot well')
will gladly record in the fourth edition.


  PRINTED BY
  SPOTTISWOODE AND CO., NEW-STREET SQUARE
  LONDON


       *       *       *       *       *


Transcriber's Notes:

Punctuation and spelling standardized when a predominant
preference was found in this book; otherwise unchanged. Simple
typographical errors remedied; most retained.

Captions of some adjacent illustrations have been combined to
preserve the continuity of the original book.

Illustrations have been moved to be adjacent to paragraphs
that reference them.

Footnotes for scoring tables appear immediately below those tables.

Page 111: in the phrase "vision he will be able to do", 'he' was
printed as 'be'.





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