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Title: Studies in Moro History, Law, and Religion
Author: Saleeby, Najeeb M.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Studies in Moro History, Law, and Religion" ***

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                       Department of the Interior

                    Ethnological Survey Publications

                           Volume IV, Part I



                           NAJEEB M. SALEEBY

                       Bureau of Public Printing

    Letter of Transmittal

    Department of the Interior,
    The Ethnological Survey,
    Manila, December 21, 1904.

    Sir: I have the honor to transmit a series of papers on Moro
    history, law, and religion consisting of original studies and
    translations from Moro texts made by Dr. Najeeb M. Saleeby. I
    recommend that these papers be published as Part I of Volume IV
    of the scientific studies edited by the Survey.

    Very respectfully,

    Merton L. Miller,
    Acting Chief of The Ethnological Survey.

    Hon. Dean C. Worcester,
    Secretary of the Interior, Manila, P. I.


Chapter I

History of Magindanao                                           11

    Magindanao history and genealogies                          11
    Introduction                                                11
    The transliteration                                         11
    Geographical sketch of the chief Moro settlements
    mentioned in the Tarsila of Mindanao                        13
    The mythology of Mindanao                                   16
         I. From Adam to Mohammed                               20
                Genealogy of Mohammed                           20
                Translation                                     20
        II. Genealogy of Kabungsuwan and his coming to
            Magindanao, or the conversion of Magindanao
            to Islam                                            21
                Introduction                                    21
                Translation                                     23
       III. Genealogy of Bwayan                                 25
                Introduction                                    25
                Translation                                     26
        IV. History of the Dumatus and the conversion of
            Mindanao to Islam                                   28
                Introduction                                    28
                Translation                                     29
         V. Oldest copy of the genealogy of Magindanao and
            the Iranun datus                                    31
                Introduction                                    31
                Translation                                     33
        VI. History and genealogy of Magindanao proper          36
                Introduction                                    36
                Translation                                     37
       VII. Genealogy of Bagumbayan                             41
                Introduction                                    41
                Translation                                     42
                History of Bagumbayan                           47
      VIII. Ancestors of the datus of Mindanao                  49
                Introduction                                    49
                Translation                                     49
    History of Magindanao                                       50

Chapter II

Laws of the Moros                                               63

    General introduction                                        63
    The Luwaran, or the laws of Magindanao                      64
        Introduction                                            64
        Translation of the Luwaran, the Magindanao code of
        laws                                                    66
    Arabic marginal quotations of the Luwaran                   81
        Introduction                                            81
        Translation of the Arabic marginal quotations of
        the Luwaran                                             82
    Transliteration of Articles I to VIII of the Luwaran        88
    Sulu Codes                                                  89
    The principal Sulu Code                                     89
        Introduction                                            89
        The Code                                                90
    The new Sulu Code                                           94
        Introduction                                            94
        The Code                                                95

Chapter III

Two Sulu Orations                                              101
    Sulu oration for the feast of Ramadan                      101
    Sulu Friday oration                                        105


                                                          After page

Plate I. First page of an original manuscript copy of the Luwaran   64
     II. Second page of an original manuscript copy of the Luwaran  64
    III. Third page of an original manuscript copy of the Luwaran   64
     IV. Fourth page of an original manuscript copy of the Luwaran  64
      V. First page of the Sulu Code made and used by Sultan
         Jamalu-l-A'lam                                             90
     VI. Second page of the Sulu Code made and used by Sultan
         Jamalu-l-A'lam                                             90
    VII. Third page of the Sulu Code made and used by Sultan
         Jamalu-l-A'lam                                             90
   VIII. Fourth page of the Sulu Code made and used by Sultan
         Jamalu-l-A'lam                                             90
     IX. First page of the new Sulu Code in the Sulu dialect        94
      X. Second page of the new Sulu Code in the Sulu dialect       94
     XI. First page of the Sulu oration for the feast of Ramadan   102
    XII. Second page of the Sulu oration for the feast of Ramadan  102
   XIII. Third page of the Sulu oration for the feast of Ramadan   102
    XIV. First page of the Sulu Friday oration                     106
     XV. Second page of the Sulu Friday oration                    106
    XVI. Third page of the Sulu Friday oration                     106


  No. 1. Rulers of Bwayan from the first datu, Mamu                 22
      2. Rulers of Bwayan from Maytum, to the present time          22
      3. Rulers of Magindanao from Kabungsuwan to Sultan Pakir
         Mawlana Kamza                                              36
      4. Rulers of Magindanao from Sultan Pakir Mawlana Kamza to
         the present time                                           36
      5. Rulers of Bagumbayan from Raja Bwayan                      48





The history of Mindanao prior to the advent of Islam is traditional
and mythological, and no effort has been made to put it on record. With
Islam came knowledge, art, and civilization. A new system of government
was instituted and its records were registered. Tarsila [1] were
written and the noble lineage of the datus was carefully kept. Each
sultanate or datuship kept a separate genealogy. These genealogies,
called tarsila or salsila, were very limited in their scope and brief
in their narration of events. They are our only source of written
information on the early history of the Moros, and are valuable on
that account. Previously the Moros withheld these tarsila and kept
them away from all foreigners and non-Mohammedans; but their attitude
has changed lately, and several different salsila were secured from
the chief datus of the Rio Grande Valley.

The original manuscripts could not be bought, but exact and true copies
of the same have been secured and translated and their translations
are herein published for the first time.


These tarsila are written in the Magindanao dialect with Arabic
characters, and a great part of their text is Magindanao names which
have never yet been expressed by means of Romanic characters. In
translating these tarsila such a large number of words have to
be transliterated that it is deemed necessary to adopt a system of
transliteration which can be easily understood by every English reader
and which is more adequate to express Magindanao sounds than either
Spanish or English. Such a system is herein adopted and is briefly
described as follows:

With the exception of ng and sh, the characters used in this system are
simple and represent simple sounds only. Every radical modification
of a certain simple sound is regarded as a different simple sound
and is represented by a separate and distinct character. Every
compound sound is represented by those characters that express its
simple constituent sounds. It is an unvarying rule in this system
that every character represents an invariable sound and every sound
has only one invariable character. The Magindanao dialect has only
twenty-seven simple sounds and can be expressed by twenty-seven simple
characters. These characters are the following:

    a, a, i, i, u, u, u, b, d, g, ng, h, j, k l, m, n, ñ, p, q, r,
    s, sh, t, w, y, z

The sounds which these characters represent conform very closely to
the original Roman sounds of the letters.

    a     is the short sound of a; it is pronounced midway between
          the a in bad and the e in bed
    a     is pronounced as the a in far, father
    i     is pronounced as the i in fin, ill
    i     is pronounced as the i in machine, police
    u     is pronounced as the u in put, push
    u     is pronounced as the u in rude, flute
    u     is a midvowel, pronounced with the tongue slightly moved
          from its normal position; it is intermediate between u
          and e, and is somewhat related to the u in hurt
    b, d, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t are pronounced as in English
    g     is always hard, as the g in gold, get
    ng    has a guttural-nasal sound like the ng in ring
    h     has an aspirate sound and should be always pronounced
          like the h in hill, behind
    j     is rarely used; when used it is pronounced like the s in
          adhesion, vision
    ñ     has a distinct palato-nasal sound and is related to the
          Spanish ñ in señor; it is generally followed by ya
    q     is a clicking, guttural sound related to k
    sh    is equivalent to sh in ship
    w     is always consonantal and sounds like the w in we, twin,
    y     is always consonantal and sounds like the y in you, yes,
    z     is pronounced midway between z and s

The triphthongs herein expressed by tsha and nya are used in words
of Malay origin, and are represented by single characters in Malay
and Magindanao.

In many cases when u precedes w and i precedes y the natives omit the
u and the i, and the same word may be written either with or without
the u or the i. When written they are pronounced very short; u at
the beginning of a word, as in undu, unggu, is often omitted both in
pronunciation and in writing. Such words may be written ndu and nggu.

To write Magindanao words by means of Arabic characters correctly a
certain knowledge of Arabic grammar and orthography is necessary. The
Moros lack that knowledge and write very inaccurately and
inconsistently. They neither punctuate nor use the accent sign.

In transliterating these tarsila that pronunciation which seemed
consistent and characteristic of each tarsila was adopted in the
transliteration of the same. The text is punctuated. The accent sign
is used very frequently. It is generally omitted when the accent is
upon the first syllable in words of two syllables and when it is upon
the syllable containing the long vowel. Some stress should be put on
the last syllable as a rule.

The Magindanao tongue is energetic and strong. Its pronunciation is
generally forcible, the last syllable being spoken abruptly and with
a certain amount of stress.

The word Mohammed is written with o in spite of the fact that it is
pronounced with u sound in both Arabic and Magindanao.

The combinations ay, ay, aw, aw are not diphthongs, but simple
syllables. The y and w in these cases and in all cases where they
precede a vowel have pure and distinct consonantal sounds.


The term Mindanao [2] or Magindanao was originally given to the town
now known as Cotabato and its immediate vicinity. As the power of the
sultan of Magindanao extended over the adjacent territory it was next
applied to the lower Rio Grande Valley and later to all the valley and
the whole seacoast that was brought under the rule of the sultan. The
word is derived from the root "danao," which means inundation by a
river, lake, or sea. The derivative "Mindanao" means "inundated"
or "that which is inundated." "Magindanao" means "that which has
inundation." This is the most appropriate term which could have been
given to this land. For more than 10 miles from the sea the Rio Grande,
aided by the rise of the tide, periodically overflows its banks and
floods all the adjacent lands. In the rainy season this inundation
extends farther up and includes an extensive tract of country. The
word "Cotabato" is in Moro kuta watu, which means a stone fort. Batu
is the equivalent of watu in Malay, Sulu, Tagalog, and Visaya. This
name is very modern, for the older maps that are still in use give
the name Mindanao in place of Cotabato. The little stream that rises
in the sulphur springs of Cotabato and empties into the Rio Grande
at its junction with the Matampay in front of the present guardhouse
is still known as the Stream of Magindanao.

The name of the Rio Grande in the Magindanao dialect is "Pulangi,"
which means "large river." The Rio Grande divides, 20 miles before it
reaches the sea, into the north branch and the south branch. Cotabato
is situated on the left bank of the north branch, about 5 miles from
its mouth. The hill of Cotabato is called "Tantawan," which means
"extensive view." Paygwan means "the place of washing," and is on the
left bank of the river at its mouth and above the bar. The Spanish
maps give it as Paiuan. Tinundan is at the mouth of a dead estuary
of the same name that joins the Pulangi about half a mile above
Paygwan and on the same side. Slangan is the western part of present
Cotabato and extends along the Manday stream. The Moros call the Manday
"Masurut." Simway extends along the river of the same name for about
2 miles from its mouth and lies about 4 miles north of Cotabato.

The Matampay River is a dead stream which joins the Pulangi
at Cotabato. Tagiman is the name of an old settlement built on
the Matampay River some distance above Cotabato. It is now called
Binilwan. Matampay and Lusudun were built on the Matampay River east of
Cotabato. Katitwan is an old settlement on the right bank of the river
3 miles below Libungan. Libungan is built at the junction of a river
of the same name with the Pulangi, about 9 miles above Cotabato. The
point at the fork is called Tambao. Three miles below Tambao on
the right bank of the south branch is the site of Bagumbayan. Three
miles below Bagumbayan on the left bank of the river is Taviran or
Tapidan. Ten miles below Taviran comes Tamontaka, which is nearly
south of Cotabato and about 4 miles distant. Tamontaka is about 4 miles
from the mouth of the south branch of the Pulangi. Lumbayanági lies a
little below Tamontaka, on the right bank of the river. Immediately
above the fork and on the left bank of the main river lies the old
site of Kabuntalan. Fourteen miles above the fork lies Dulawan, the
settlement at present occupied by Datu Piang. Here empties one of the
largest tributaries of the Pulangi, which is navigable by launches for
12 miles farther up, to Sapakan, Datu Utu's main residence. Rakungan
lies in the foothills of the Tiruray Mountains about 12 miles south
of Sapakan. Talayan lies in the foothills of the Tiruray Mountains 15
miles southwest of Dulawan. Two miles below Dulawan lies the old site
of Bwayan, on the left bank of the Pulangi. Opposite Bwayan and Dulawan
lies the land of Kudarangan. Tinunkup is Reina Regente and Kabarukan
is the wooded hill beyond. Sarunayan is the stretch of country lying
north of Reina Regente and northeast of Kudarangan and extending to
the base of the Kulingtan Mountains, which separate the Rio Grande
Valley from the Ranao region. The country occupying the declivities
of these mountains north of Sarunayan is called Pidatan. Bagu Ingud
is an old settlement that lies along the left bank of the river about
16 or 20 miles above Reina Regente. Matbangan is on the right bank of
the river and extends a short distance below Piket. The Malitigaw or
Malidigaw is a large tributary of the Pulangi, about 15 miles above
Piket. Matinggawan is located at the junction of the Kabakan tributary
and about 30 miles above Piket. It is the chief settlement of the
last Moro district in the Rio Grande Valley whose farthest boundary
is the Mulita stream, which is about 115 miles by river above Cotabato.

Immediately south of the mouth of the south branch of the Rio Grande
and rising above the seashore at Linuk is the lofty and picturesque
pyramidal peak of Mount Kabalalan. From Kabalalan and the hills of
Taviran there stretches an extensive mountainous region or table-land
which extends as far south as the Bay of Sarangani. This table-land
is designated as the Tiruray table-land or mountains for the reason
that its northern half is inhabited by the tribe of pagans of the
same name who are not met with anywhere else. The Bay of Sarangani
is called in Moro Sugud Bwayan. Sugud means "bay," and Bwayan is
the chief settlement at the head of the bay. North of the head of
Sarangani Bay and at the southern terminus of one of the ranges of
the Apo system of mountains towers the picturesque and conical peak of
Mount Matutun. Matutun means "burning," and the mountain is an extinct
volcano. Lying between Matutun on the east and the previously mentioned
table-land on the west is the country of Talik. North of Talik lie Lake
Buluan or Bulwan and farther north Lake Ligwasan, which empties into
the Rio Grande through a stream called Maytum ig or black water. This
junction occurs at Kukmun, about 8 or 10 miles above Reina Regente.

Balabagan is about 10 miles south of Malabang. Magulalung is in the
neighborhood of Balabagan. The Iranun sultanate was on the shore of
Illana Bay, and the term Iranun signifies, in general, the people
who live along the shores of that bay. Iranun is also pronounced
and written as Ilanun; hence the corrupted Spanish name given to the
bay. The former Iranun sultanate must have occupied the country in the
vicinity of Malabang. Tubuk is the territory immediately bordering
on Malabang to the north of the Malabang stream. Baras lies a few
miles north of Malabang. Ramitan is in the immediate vicinity of Baras.

Malalis is near Tukurun. Dinas is the principal settlement on the
western coast of Illana Bay. Kumaladan is at the head of Dumanquilas
Bay. Sibugay is the name of the large bay east of the Zamboanga

The word "ranao" means a lake and is the name the Moros give to
the upland lake lying midway between Malabang and Iligan and to the
region surrounding the lake. The mountain range separating the Ranao
table-land from the Rio Grande Valley is called the Kulingtan Range
on account of the resemblance its peaks bear to the knobs of the row
of kulingtan on which the Moros make their music. The highest peak
in this range north of Parang and above Barira is supposed to be
Mount Bita. The highest ridge west of Ranao is called Mount Gurayn,
at the base of which lies the settlement of Bacolod or Bakulud.

The Ranao settlements which are mentioned in the tarsila are
Kadingilan, Bayan, Makadar, and Bakayawan in the south, and the
Bayabaw settlements of Marawi (Marahui), Madaya, and others in the
north; also Sikun, Didagun, and Dupilas.

At the time of the Spanish invasion of Mindanao all the southern and
western shores of the Island of Mindanao except the eastern shore
of Illana Bay were ruled and controlled by the sultan and datus
of Magindanao. The Ranao inhabitants are related to the Iranun in
language and tribal characteristics.

The word Mindanao unless restricted by the sense of the sentence
is generally used to mean the Island of Mindanao, while the term
Magindanao is limited to the old district or town of Cotabato proper.


Long ago, before the days of Kabungsuwan, Magindanao was covered
by water and the sea extended all over the lowlands and nothing
could be seen but mountains. The people lived on the highlands on
both sides. They were numerous and prosperous, and many villages and
settlements arose everywhere. But their prosperity and peace did not
last very long. There appeared in the land pernicious monsters which
devoured every human being they could reach. One of these terrible
animals was called Kurita. It had many limbs and lived partly on land
and partly in the sea. It haunted Mount Kabalalan [3] and extirpated
all animal life in its vicinity. The second was called Tarabusaw. This
ugly creature had the form of a man, but was very much larger. It
was extremely voracious and spread terror far and wide. It haunted
Mount Matutun and its neighborhood.

The third was a monstrous bird called Pah. [4] This bird was so
large when on the wing that it covered the sun and produced darkness
underneath. Its egg was as large as a house. It haunted Mount Bita
and the eastern Ranao region. It devoured the people and devastated
the land. The people were awe-struck, and those who escaped hid
themselves in the caves of the mountains.

The fourth was a dreadful bird, also, which had seven heads. It lived
in Mount Gurayn and the adjacent country.

The havoc was complete and the ruin of the land was awful. The sad
news found its way to strange and far lands, and all nations felt
sorry for the fate that befell Mindanao.

When the news reached Raja Indarapatra, the King of Mantapuli,
it grieved him very much and filled his heart with sympathy. Raja
Indarapatra called his brother, Raja Sulayman (Solomon) and asked
him to come to Mindanao to save the land from those destructive
animals. Raja Sulayman was moved with sorrow, mingled with enthusiasm
and zeal, and consented to come. Raja Indarapatra handed to his
brother his ring and his kris, Juru Pakal, [5] and wished him safety
and success. But before they parted Raja Indarapatra took a sapling
and planted it in the ground in front of his window. This he thought
was a sure sign by which he could tell what would happen to Sulayman
after his departure. He said to Sulayman, "If this tree lives, you
will live also; and if this tree dies, you will die too."

Raja Sulayman left Mantapuli and came over to Mindanao in the air. He
neither walked nor used a boat. The first place he reached was
Kabalalan. There he stood on the summit of the mountain and viewed
the land and the villages, but he could not see a single human being
anywhere. The sight was woeful, and Raja Sulayman exclaimed, "Alas,
how pitiful and dreadful is this devastation!" As Sulayman uttered
these words the whole mountain moved and shook, and suddenly there
came out of the ground a dreadful animal which attacked Sulayman and
fixed its claws in his flesh. The minute Sulayman saw the Kurita he
knew that it was the evil scourge of the land, and he immediately
drew his sword and cut the Kurita to pieces.

From there Sulayman went to Matutun. There he saw greater devastation
and a more awful condition of affairs. As he stood on the mountain
he heard a noise in the forest and saw a movement in the trees. Soon
there appeared Tarabusaw, which drew near and gave a loud yell. It
cautioned Sulayman and threatened to devour him. Sulayman in his
turn threatened to kill Tarabusaw. The animal said to Sulayman, "If
you kill me, I shall die the death of a martyr," and as it said these
words it broke large branches from the trees and assailed Sulayman. The
struggle lasted a long while, until at last the animal was exhausted
and fell to the ground; thereupon Sulayman struck it with his sword
and killed it. As the animal was dying it looked up to Sulayman
and congratulated him on his success. Sulayman answered and said,
"Your previous deeds brought this death on you."

The next place Sulayman went to was Mount Bita. Here the devastation
was worse still. Sulayman passed by many houses, but they were
all vacant and not a soul lived there. "Alas, what havoc and what
misfortune has befallen this country!" he exclaimed, as he went
on. But suddenly there came a darkness upon the land and Sulayman
wondered what it could mean. He looked up to the sky and beheld a
wonderful and huge bird descending from the sky upon him. He at once
recognized the bird and understood its purpose, and as quick as he
could draw his sword he struck the bird and cut off its wing. The
bird fell dead, but its wing fell on Sulayman and killed him.

At this same time Raja Indarapatra was sitting in his window, and he
looked and saw the little tree wither and dry up. "Alas!" he said,
"Raja Sulayman is dead;" and he wept.

Sad at heart but full of determination and desire for revenge, he got
up, put on his sword and belt, and came over to Mindanao to search
for his brother. He traveled in the air with wonderful speed and came
to Kabalalan first. There he looked around and saw the bones of the
Kurita and concluded that his brother had been there and had gone. At
Matutun he saw the bones of Tarabusaw, but Sulayman was not there. So
he passed on to Mount Bita and resumed the search. There he saw the
dead bird lying on the ground, and as he lifted the severed wing,
he saw the bones of Sulayman, and recognized them by means of the
sword that was lying by their side. As he looked at the sword and at
the bones he was overwhelmed with grief and wept with tears. Raising
up his head he turned around and beheld a small jar of water near
him. He knew that the jar was sent down from heaven, so he took it
and poured its water on the bones of his brother, and his brother
came to life again. Sulayman stood up, greeted his brother, and
talked with him. Raja Indarapatra had thought that Sulayman was dead,
but Sulayman assured him that he had not been dead, but that he had
been asleep. Raja Indarapatra rejoiced and life and happiness filled
his heart.

Raja Sulayman returned after that to Mantapuli, but Raja Indarapatra
continued his march to Mount Gurayn. There he met the dreadful bird
that had seven heads and killed it with his sword, Juru Pakal.

Having destroyed all these noxious animals, and having restored
peace and safety to the land, Raja Indarapatra set himself searching
for the people that might have escaped destruction. He was of the
opinion that some people must have contrived to hide in the earth
and that they might be alive yet. One day during his search he saw
a beautiful woman at some distance, and as he hastened to meet her
she disappeared quickly through a hole in the ground where she was
standing. Having become tired and pressed with hunger, he sat down on
a rock to rest. Looking around for food, he saw a pot full of uncooked
rice and a big fire on the ground in front of it. Coming to the fire
he placed it between his legs and put the pot over his knees to cook
the rice. While so occupied he heard a person laugh and exclaim,
"Oh, what a powerful person this man is!" He turned around and,
lo, there was an old woman near by looking at him and wondering how
he could cook his rice on a fire between his legs. The woman drew
nearer and conversed with Raja Indarapatra, who ate his rice and
stood talking to her. He inquired of her about her escape and about
the inhabitants of the land. She answered that most of them had been
killed and devoured by the pernicious animals, but that a few were
still alive. She and her old husband, she said, hid in a hollow tree
and could not come out from their hiding place until Raja Sulayman
killed the awful bird, Pah. The rest of the people and the datu, she
continued, hid in a cave in the ground and did not dare to come out
again. He urged her to lead him to the cave and show him the people,
and she did so. The cave was very large, and on one side of it were
the apartments of the datu and his family. He was ushered into the
presence of the datu and was quickly surrounded by all the people who
were in the cave. He related to them his purpose and his mission and
what he had accomplished and asked them to come out and reinhabit the
land. There he saw again the beautiful girl whom he had observed at
the opening of the cave. She was the daughter of the datu, and the
datu gave her to him in marriage in appreciation of the good he had
done for them and the salvation he had brought to the land. The people
came out of the cave and returned to their homes, where they lived
in peace and prosperity again. At this time the sea had withdrawn
and the lowland had appeared.

One day as Raja Indarapatra was considering his return home he
remembered Sulayman's ring and went out to search for it. During
the search he found a net near the water and stopped to fish to
replenish his provisions for the continuation of the march. The net
caught a quantity of buganga fish, some of which he ate. Inside one
of the fish he found his ring. This cheered Raja Indarapatra's heart
and completed his joy. Later he bade his father-in-law and his wife
good-bye and returned to Mantapuli pleased and happy.

Raja Indarapatra's wife was pregnant at the time of their parting and
a few months later gave birth to twins, a boy and a girl. The boy's
name was Rinamuntaw and the girl's name was Rinayung. These two persons
are supposed to be the ancestors of some of the Ranao tribes or datus.

This narration was secured from Datu Kali Adam, who learned it from
the late Maharaja Layla of Magindanao and from Alad, one of the oldest
and most intelligent Moros living. Alad says that Mantapuli was a very
great city far in the land of the sunset; where, exactly, he does not
know, but he is sure it was beyond the sea. Mantapuli was so large,
he said, and its people were so numerous, that it blurred the eyes
to look at them move; they crushed the bamboo very fine if it was
laid in the street one day.

Raja Indarapatra is the mythological hero of Magindanao and Mantapuli
is his city. These names are very frequently mentioned in Moro stories,
and various miracles are ascribed to them.

Kabalalan, Matutun, Bita, and Gurayn are the most prominent and
picturesque peaks of Mindanao and Ranao with which the Moros are
familiar. The whole narration is native and genuine, and is typical
of the Magindanao style and superstitions. Some Arabic names and
Mohammedan expressions have crept into the story, but they are really
foreign and scarcely affect the color of the story.

The animal Kurita seems to bear some resemblance to the big crocodiles
that abound in the Rio Grande River. Tarabusaw may signify a large
variety of ape. A heinous bird is still worshiped and is greatly
feared by the Tirurays and Manobos who live in the mountains south
of Cotabato. The hateful Balbal, in which all Moros believe, is
described as a night bird, and its call is supposed to be familiar
and distinctly audible every night.

What relation the names of Rinamuntaw and Rinayung bear to the
ancestors of the Ranao Moros it will be very interesting to find out
in the future.





This manuscript was copied from Datu Mastura's book. It relates,
in the dialect of Magindanao, what the Moros of Mindanao know about
Adam, the death of Abel, and the ancestors of the Prophet Mohammed.

The first line is Arabic and is generally written at the beginning
of every book they write. The second line is Malay; this also is the
rule with most Moro writers. The Moros derived what learning they
have from Malay and Arabic sources, and consequently take pride in
what Malay and Arabic they know and can write; hence their custom of
beginning their books with an Arabic and Malay introduction.



This chapter speaks of the story of the prophet of God, Adam. Adam and
Sitti Kawa (Eve) begot first the twins Abdu-l-Lah and Amata-l-Lah. They
also begot Abdu-r-Rakman and Amatu-r-Rakman, other twins. They also
begot Habil (Abel) and Kalima, who were twins also. They again begot
Kabil (Cain) and Aklayma, his sister; these also were twins.


    Kabil killed Habil in order to take away his wife. Adam and Sitti
    Kawa wept on the death of Habil, therefore God sent Jabrayil
    (Gabriel) to admonish them. The Lord said to Jabrayil, "If they
    simply lament for their child, I will restore him to them." The
    Lord then replaced him by the prophet of God, Sit.

    Sit begot Yanas. Yanas begot Kinana. Kinana begot
    Mahalayla. Mahalayla begot Idris. Idris begot Uknuk. Uknuk begot
    Mustáwsalik. [6] Lamik, Nuk, Samir, Paksal, Sakih, Amir, Palik,
    Ragu, Ruk, Pakur, Azara, Ibrahim, Ismayil, Sabit, Yaskib, Yarab,
    Batrik, Taku, Mukáwim, Ádadi, Adnani, Madi, Nazar, Mudri, Ilyas,
    Mudákih, Karima, Kinana, Nadri, Malik, Kahri, Galib, Lúway,
    Kabu, Múrat, Kilab, Kusay, Abdu-l-Manap, Hasim, Abdu-l-Mútalib,
    Abdu-l-Lah, Mohammed, may the mercy and the blessing of God be his.

    The father of Baginda (Caliph or Sayid) Ali was Talib. The father
    of Usman was Apan. The father of Umar was Kattab. Abu Bakar was
    surely beloved by God.

                               [The End]





This manuscript is a copy of the original in the possession of
Datu Mastura of Magindanao. The original copy is neat and very well
written. It gives first the descent of Kabungsuwan from Mohammed,
then a narrative of his departure from Juhur, his arrival in Mindanao,
and the conversion of the people of Mindanao to Islam. The latter half
of it gives the genealogy of the reigning family of Bwayan from Pulwa
to Pakih Mawlana and Pakaru-d-Din, his brother. It is a very good type
of the style and composition of the Mindanao dialect. It is original
and borrows nothing of its text and form from either Malay or Arabic.

The combination of the genealogy of Bwayan with the story of the
conversion of Magindanao to Islam brings the history of Bwayan into
attention before that of Mindanao; but, as very little is known of
the early history of Bwayan, it matters not when it comes.

The rule of Bwayan extends all the way from the head of the delta
or from the Kakal (canal) to Bagu-Ingud, which is a few miles below
Piket. In fact the datus of the surrounding country, all through the
upper valley of the Rio Grande, owed more or less allegiance to the
rulers of Bwayan through all ages.

The sultan of Bwayan is known as Raja Bwayan. The rajas of Bwayan
attained a distinction and a power second to none, except that of the
sultan of Magindanao. The greatest datus of Bwayan who have figured
prominently in the recent history of the country are Datu Utu and
Datu Ali of Tinunkup, both of whom will be referred to later.

Diagram No. 1 ends with Sultan Sakandar. The relation between him
and Sultan Maytum, the next raja of Bwayan, is not given in the
records. The second diagram begins with Sultan Maytum and ends with
the present generation of rulers.


Diagrams Nos. 1 and 2 show plainly that the sultanate of Bwayan did
not follow any direct line of succession, that the rajas of Bwayan did
not always stay at Bwayan, and that Bwayan was not the only capital of
the sultanate. The datus and the sultans of the neighboring datuships
who married the principal princesses of Bwayan seem to have assumed
the title of Raja Bwayan also.

The order of succession was a very complicated one. It is not stated
in the records nor can it be exactly inferred from the genealogies
kept. Sharif Ali of Sapakan gives the following order:

     1. Raja Sirungan
     2. Sultan Tambingag Kaharu-d-Din
     3. Sultan Sabaraba Jamalu-d-Din
     4. Kayib Alimu-d-Din
     5. Malang Jalalu-d-Din
     6. Sahid Amiru-d-Din
     7. Sakandar Jamalu-l-Alam
     8. Pakir Mawlana Alimu-d-Din
     9. Sultan Maytum

Sharif Afdal of Dulawan gives the following order:

     1. Raja Sirungan
     2. Datu Maputi
     3. Tapudi
     4. Tamay
     5. Malang
     6. Sakandar, Sultan of Lakungan
     7. Burhan
     8. Jamalu-l-Alam
     9. Banswil
    10. Sayid Wapat
    11. Pakih
    12. Maytum

These two orders represent the best opinions of the Saraya or upper
valley, but there is no doubt that both of them are wrong. The order
of Sharif Ali is, generally speaking, nearer the truth. From an
examination of the records the following order seems the best of all:

     1. Raja Sirungan
     2. Datu Maputi
     3. Tambingag
     4. Datu Tapudi
     5. Baratamay
     6. Sabaraba
     7. Malang
     8. Manuk
     9. Sakandar
    10. Maytum

Sultan Kayib given by Sharif Ali probably is Baratamay. There is
no indication in the records that Tamay, Burhan, Jamalu-l-Alam, and
Banswil were ever rajas of Bwayan, as Sharif Afdal seems to think. The
records that seem most reliable are those in the possession of Datu
Mastura, which are herein translated.

The missing link, as far as these records and the notes of the
author are concerned, is the relation between Sultan Maytum and
his predecessors. Common opinion declares him to be a son of Pakir
Mawlana, but this does not seem probable, and it is certainly not in
the records of Magindanao, though these are reasonably accurate and
complete. Sharif Ali, in his list, makes no distinction between a
successor and a son; most people have the same idea, which is very
misleading, to say the least. From the facts obtainable it seems
probable that Sultan Maytum was the son of either Sultan Sakandar of
Rakungan or Datu Maputi, the uncle of Sakandar. This is corroborated
by the fact that the chief line of descent has been in the line of
Datu Maputi, the son of Raja Sirungan, and his grandson, Sabaraba. The
opinion of the sheikh-a-datu of Mindanao is that Sultan Maytum was the
son of Datu Maputi, who would be the most eligible to the succession.

Jamalu-l-Alam mentioned here is Sultan Kaharu-d-Din Kuda of
Magindanao. Sahid Wapat, or Amiru-d-Din, is Sultan Japar Sadik Manamir
of Magindanao. Mupat Batwa is Sultan Dipatwan Anwar. Pakih Mawlana
Alimu-d-Din is Sultan Pakir Mawlana Kayru-d-Din Kamza. Panglu is
Sultan Pakaru-d-Din.

From Sultan Maytum down the succession is accurately known. The
sultanate has evidently been divided. Marajanun or Bangun, the older
brother, succeeded to Bwayan and all the country lying on the left
bank of the Pulangi and the Sapakan Rivers and all the country between
Sapakan and the lakes of Ligwasan and Bulawan. Bayaw, known as the
sultan of Kudarangan, succeeded to Kudarangan and all the northern
half of the sultanate.

Datu Utu succeeded his father, Marajanun, and lived first at
Bwayan. After the Terrero campaign of 1886 he moved to Sapakan. His
full name is Sultan Anwaru-d-Din Utu.

The sultan of Kudarangan was succeeded by his son, the sultan of
Tambilawan. Tambilawan is the name of the sultan's residence and
lies on the right bank of the Rio Grande a short distance above
Kudarangan. The sultan of Tambilawan is a weak leader, and the chief
power of the land has fallen to his brother, Datu Ali, who is a noted
warrior among the Moros.



This book gives the genealogy of the descendants of the Apostle of God
who came into Magindanao. It is learned that the Apostle of God begot
Patima Zuhrah, who begot Sarip [7] Hasan and Sarip Husayn. The latter
begot Sarip Zayna-l-Abidin; Sarip Mohammadu-l-Bakir; Sarip Japar Sadik;
Sarip Ali; Sarip Isa; Sarip Akmad; Sarip Abdu-l-Lah; Sarip Mohammad
Alawi; Sarip Ali; Sarip Alawi; Sarip Abdu-l-Lah; Sarip Ali; Sarip
Mohammad; Sarip Abdu-l-Lah; Sarip Akmad; Sarip Ali Zayna-l-Abidin.

Sarip Zayna-l-Abidin came to Juhur and heard that the sultan of Juhur,
Sultan Sulkarnayn, had a daughter called Putri Jusul Asikin. The Sarip
married Putri Jusul Asikin and begot Sarip Kabungsuwan. As Sarip
Kubungsuwan grew up and reached maturity he obtained his father's
permission and set out on a sea voyage with a large number of followers
from Juhur. As they got out to the open sea they unfurled their sails
to make speed, but a very strong wind blew and scattered them in all
directions, so that they lost track of one another. As a result Sarip
Kabungsuwan arrived at Magindanao. The others scattered to Bulunay
(Bruney), Kuran, Tampasuk, Sandakan, Palimbang, Bangjar, Sulug, Tubuk,
and Malabang.

Sarip Kabungsuwan anchored at Natúbakan, at the mouth of the Rio
Grande. Tabunaway and Mamalu directed some people of Magindanao
to carry their net for them and went down to the mouth of the
river. There they met Sarip Kabungsuwan, and Tabunaway sent Mamalu
up the river to bring down all the men of Magindanao. After the
arrival of the men Tabunaway invited Kabungsuwan to accompany him
to Magindanao. Kabungsuwan refused to accompany them unless they
became Moslems. Tabunaway and Mamalu then repeated their invitation
and all of them promised to become Moslems. Kabungsuwan insisted that
he would not land at all unless they came together then and there and
were washed and became Mohammedans. This they did, and on account of
the bathing at that place they changed its name to Paygwan.

Kabungsuwan then accompanied Tabunaway and Mamalu, and the men towed
them up all the way from Tinundan to Magindanao. Thus Kabungsuwan
converted to Islam all the people of Magindanao, Matampay, Slangan,
Simway, and Katitwan.

Soon after his arrival in Magindanao Sarip Kabungsuwan married Putri
Tunina, whom Mamalu found inside a stalk of bamboo. This occurred at
the time Tabunaway and Mamalu were cutting bamboo to build their fish
corral. As Mamalu, who was felling the bamboo tree returned, Tabunaway
inquired whether all the tree was felled or not. Mamalu answered that
all the tree was felled except one young stalk. Tabunaway then said,
"Finish it all, because it omens ill to our fish corral to leave that
one alone." Mamalu struck it and it fell down, and there came out of
it a child who was called Putri Tunina. Her little finger was wounded,
for the bolo had cut through the bamboo.

Some time later Sarip Kabungsuwan and Putri Tunina begot three
children--Putri Mamur, Putri Milagandi, and Bay Batula. Putri Mamur
married Malang-sa-Ingud, the datu of Bwayan. Malang-sa-Ingud died
later, and Pulwa, his brother, came down to Magindanao and married
the widow of his elder brother, Putri Mamur.

Malang-sa-Ingud and Pulwa were the children of Budtul. Budtul was
the son of Mamu, the first datu of Bwayan.

Pulwa and Putri Mamur begot Raja Sirungan, who was the first raja
of Bwayan. Raja Sirungan begot Datu Maputi, Tambingag, Tangkwag,
and the daughters Kdaw, Banitik, Malilumbun, Duni, and Libu.

Datu Maputi begot two daughters, Gimbulanan and Gawang. Gawang married
Datu Tapudi of Tawlan and begot Sabaraba and a daughter, Dumbay. Dumbay
begot Tamay, who married a concubine and begot Linug-Bulawan and the
daughters Nanun, Pinayu, Antanu, and Putri.

Sabaraba begot Datu Maputi and Malang, who was Raja Bwayan, in
Bwayan. Malang begot Sakandar, who was sultan of Rakungan.

Tambingag begot Burhan and the daughters Kalima, Tambil, and
Sinal. Sinal married Jamalu-l-Alam, who was treacherously murdered. She
bore Banswil and Kuning. Kuning was married to Sahid Wapat and begot
Pakih Mawlana and Panglu, who was Mupat Hidayat, and the daughters
Salilang, entitled Baya-labi, and Gindulungan, who was the mother of
Baya-labi of Lakungan.

Tangkwag begot Mukarna and Buntang, who was the son of a concubine.

Kdaw was married to Makadulu and begot Baratamay and Bani. Makadulu
begot also Undung and Nawang by a concubine.

Baratamay married Gimbulanan and begot Lalanu, entitled Baya Budtung,
who married Sultan Barahaman and died without offspring; she was
overshadowed by Panabwan, a lady of Tajiman.

Baratamay and Bani were both born of a princess; so one day Baratamay
said to Bani, "You rule Bwayan, for I am going away and shall be
absent," and Baratamay left for Sulug. There he married a lady of Sulug
and begot Pangyan Ampay. Some time after that Baratamay returned to
the land of Bwayan and went up as far as Bagu Ingud. There he married a
lady of Bagu Ingud and begot Munawal and Gangga. Munawal married Mupat
Batwa and begot Manuk, Raja Bwayan in Bagu Ingud. Manuk begot Manman,
Tapudi, and Raja Muda of Matingawan. Manman was sultan of Bagu Ingud.

Baratamay begot also Tuntu, who begot Dungkulang, a datu of Kabulukan,
and Ambuludtu, and Ugu Niga; also Pandaligun, Anib, Kabaw, Manabu,
Talibubu, Danaw, and the daughters Gayang and Tundwan. These were
all the children of Baratamay--in all, fourteen.

                               [The End]




This manuscript is copied from a scroll written for the sultan of
Kudarangan by Twan Kali, a noted Moro judge who was in the service
of the sultan. It was obtained through the favor of Sharif Afdal,
the son-in-law of the late sultan.

The few books or documents belonging to the family of Bwayan or
Kudarangan that I have seen are neat and well written. The dialect
spoken in Saraya differs a little from that of Magindanao, but in the
main they are one and the same dialect. This manuscript is strictly
Magindanao in its dialect and in its style. The first two pages of
this copy give the genealogy of Kabungsuwan from Mohammed and Adam;
it is similar to that of Manuscripts Nos. I and II, and ends with
Putri Mamur, the daughter of Sarip Kabungsuwan, who married Pulwa,
the first Mohammedan datu of Bwayan.

The second part gives the descendants of Pulwa and the genealogy of
the rajas of Bwayan. This is, however, incomplete and deficient. It
stops at the seventh generation, which is practically midway, and
does not distinctly state who were the rajas of Bwayan.

It is fuller than Manuscript No. II in giving the descendants of all
the sons of Raja Sirungan, but it does not proceed in the main line
of descent as far and as fully as Manuscript No. II. The original
scroll from which this copy was taken is evidently older than Datu
Mastura's copy.



... Mahlayl begot Uknuk, who is Idris. Idris begot Mustawsilik,
Lamik, the prophet of God Nuh, Samir, Arpaksal, Sakih, Amir, Palih,
Ragu, Saruk, Pakur, Azara, the prophet of God Ibrahim, Ismayil, Sabit,
Yuskab, Yarab, Yatrah, Taku, Makum, Adadi, Adnani, Madi, Nazar, Madri,
Ilyas, Mudrika, Karima, Kinana, Nalil, Malik, Kahri, Galib, Lway,
Kabun, Murrat, Kilab, Kusay, Abdul-Manap, Hashim, Abd-l-Muttalib,
Abd-l-Lah, Mohammed, the Apostle of God.

The Apostle of God, Mohammed, begot Patima Zuhrah; Sayid Sarip
Husayn; Sarip Ali Akbar and Ali Asgar and Zayna-l-Abidin and Patima;
Sarip Zayna-l-Abidin begot Sarip Mohammed; Bakir; Sarip Japar Sadik;
Sarip Ali; Sarip Mohammed; Sarip Isa; Sarip Akmad; Sarip Abdullah;
Sarip Alawi; Sarip Mohammed; Sarip Alawi; Sarip Ali; Sarip Mohammed;
Sarip Alawi; Sarip Abdu-r-Rakman; Sarip Akmad; Sarip Abdullah; Sarip
Ali; Sarip Mohammed; Sarip Abdullah; Sarip Akmad; Sarip Ali; Sarip
Mohammed; Sarip Husayn; Sarip Ali Bakar; Sarip Ali, not the former
Ali, but the one who came to Juhur and married the sister of Sultan
Iskandar of Juhur. They begot Sarip Kabungsuwan. Sarip Kabungsuwan
begot, in Juhur, Sambgan and a daughter, Mazawang.

Some time after that Sarip Kabungsuwan came to Magindanao and
married Putri Tunina, whom Tabunaway and Mamalu found inside the
bamboo. By Putri Tunina he begot Putri Milagandi and Putri Mamur. Sarip
Kabungsuwan brought his children Sambgan and Mazawang to the town of
Magindanao. This finishes the book relative to the earlier ancestors.


The first ruler of Bwayan was Mamu.

In the name of God the Compassionate and Merciful. The first datu
of the town of Bwayan was Mamu. Mamu begot Budtul. Budtul begot
Pulwa and Malang-sa-Ingud. Pulwa married Putri Mamur in the town of
Magindanao. Putri Mamur was the daughter of Sarip Kabungsuwan from
Putri Tunina, whom Tabunaway and Mamalu found inside the bamboo. Pulwa
begot Raja Sirungan from Putri Mamur. By another wife he begot Dikaya;
by a concubine, Sababnun, Butaku, and Balatukay. Raja Sirungan begot
Datu Maputi, Kdaw, Tambingag, Tungkwang, Binitis, Malilimbun, Duni,

The children of Datu Maputi were all girls. The oldest was Gimbulanan,
another was Gawang. Tapudi, a Tawlan datu, married Gayang and begot
Sabaraba and a daughter, Dumbay. Dumbay begot Tamay. Tamay married
a concubine and begot Linug Bulawan and the daughters Nanum, Pinayu,
Antanu, and Putri.

Sabaraba begot Datu Maputi and Malang. By a concubine he begot Kuba,
Ndaw, and Taming. Malang begot Sakandar, who was entitled sultan
of Lakungan.

Kdaw married Makadulu and begot Baratamay, and Bani, and Nawung,
a datu of Talayan, and Undung, a datu of Matabangan.

Baratamay married Gimbulanan, the daughter of Datu Maputi, and begot
Lalanu, the Lady of Budtung, who had no children.

By a Sulu lady Baratamay begot Pangyan Ampay; by a lady of Bagu Ingud,
Munawal, Danaw, Gayang, and Tindwan; by a concubine, Ambuludtu, Ugu
Niga, Ani, Gabaw, Ganggay, Manabu, Talibubu, Pundu, Tuntu, Sawal;
by another concubine, Pandaligan, he begot also Magalang, who married
a lady from Lagindingan.

Tambingag, the son of Raja Sirungan, married Sinal and begot Burhan;
by a concubine he begot Kasim and Tambil.

Tungkwang begot Mukarna and Buntang.

Binitis begot Sayim, Dimamamala, Bunsal, Piniyata, Kasangkalan, Miza,
Tapuli, Buludan, Salab; a daughter, Kanggay, and Dimakaling.

Malilimbun begot Manding, the father of Panalan Samu.

Duni, the daughter of Raja Sirungan, married the datu of Bansayan,
whose name was Arugung, and bore Burwa, and a daughter called
Indingu. After the death of the datu of Bansayan she married Alip
and bore Ugu.

Dikaya, the son of Pulwa by a concubine, begot Duka. Duka married
a lady of Malitigaw called Rantyan, whose mother was Agb. To Duka
and Rantyan there were born Bulus, Manalidtu, Pwi, and a daughter,

Burwa married Nungku, the sister of Nuni, and begot Muluk, Nanak,
Banálak, Mama-sa-Palu, Kalangit, and Wapagáy.

Later Malilimbu married Balbal, the datu of Magulaling, and bore Abad,
Mama-Rapat, and a daughter, Gansawu. Gansawu married Uku, the son of
Punduma from Ampas, and bore Alawa-d-Din, also called Aluyudan and
Jannatu-n-Nayim, and Alim, and Ariraw, and Igang or Buging.

Jannatu-n-Nayim begot Baduyan or Adwi, Inal, Limbayan, Sayimbu,
Bayu, Mbayu. He also begot Tungkaling, Buliyungan, and Anggurung by
a concubine.

Adwi and Dungklang married and there were born to them Dunding, Ratkan,
Pataw, Gayang, Ariraw, and Pimbarat, who was sultan of Balabagan.

Ratkan, the datu of Isikun, begot Dimalawang and Marang. Dimalawang
begot Arani. Arani begot Antaw, Sayu, and Arawa. Arawa married Bayu
and begot Baya.




This manuscript is a correct copy of the original which is in the
possession of Datu Kali Adam of Kalangnan, one of the principal
present representatives of the dumatus. The dumatus are a distinct
class of the Moros of Magindanao who trace their origin back to the
former chiefs of the country who reigned before the introduction of
Mohammedanism. The original was written by Datu Kali Adam himself,
copied from a previous manuscript handed down to him from his father,
who was a prominent judge, with some later additions of his own. It
was neither neat nor well kept. It abounds with grammatical mistakes
and has several errors in the text. Its style is mixed; Ranao words,
pronouns, and terminations occur; still, in general it is a fair
specimen of the literature of the Magindanao dialect. It is the best
authority on its subject, and is greatly valued by the people. It is
the oldest manuscript known on this subject.

The ruler of Magindanao at the time of Kabungsuwan's arrival was
Tabunaway. Tabunaway was not a datu; he was a timuway. The word
timuway or timway means chief or leader, and is still generally
used by the Tirurays and Manobos and other hill tribes. Kabungsuwan
evidently conquered Magindanao, and its sovereignty passed over from
Tabunaway to him, and to his descendants after him. The Moros greatly
regard and respect every Mohammedan who is related to the Prophet,
and look upon every Arabian as of noble birth and equal in rank to
their datu class. Descent from Kabungsuwan constitutes all their
claim to nobility and their right to the datuship.

The descendants of Tabunaway are naturally jealous. They claim to
have come from an Arabian ancestor who is descended from the Prophet,
and take great pride in the fact. They assert that the datus omitted
this part of the history from their books intentionally in order to
give more importance to Kabungsuwan and to their own descent.

The descendants of Tabunaway are called dumatus, which is the
future tense of the verb datu. The dumatus are well known, and I
have met several of them. Chief among them I mention Datu Mawlana
Sa-Magindanao and Datu Kali Adam. The former has lately been favored
with the honorary title of datu by Datu Mastura, because his mother
was a datu's daughter and he personally deserved the honor. Both
Datu Mawlana and Datu Kali claim that Sharif Maraja, the father
of Tabunaway, was an uncle of Sharif Kabungsuwan and that he and
his children were Mohammedans prior to the arrival of Kabungsuwan,
though their people were not so until Kabungsuwan converted them. The
story that the angels brought paradise to Mindanao does not appear
in the other manuscripts, but it is generally believed by all the
datus and people of Magindanao. I heard both Datu Mastura and Datu
Mawlana Sa-Magindanao affirm the fact. They say that a part of the
white earth of paradise was left in the hill behind Cotabato and they
call it the sacred dust. It was the custom in Magindanao to bring this
earth before the new sultan after his appointment that he might step
on it for the confirmation of his sultanate. They believed no sultan
could be successful and prosperous in his reign unless he performed
this rite. The last sultan who obeyed this custom was Sultan Untung
Qudratul-Lah, Datu Mastura's father, during the latter part of whose
reign the Spaniards came into Magindanao and occupied Cotabato. The
later three sultans did not perform this rite; this the Moros cite
as the cause of the decline of the sultans' power and the lack of
prosperity in the country. They believe this white earth still exists
in the hill of Cotabato, but nobody can find it except the oldest
living dumatus whose forefathers have not intermarried with either
datus or the common people, and to whom the secret has been handed
down from Tabunaway. This they keep away from everybody except their
children. The dumatus are a privileged class of people, and claim
they can follow any datu they choose, and that they should not pay any
tribute. They assert that when Tabunaway resigned his sovereignty in
favor of his older brother, Kabungsuwan, he reserved this privilege
for his children, which privilege Kabungsuwan promised to respect.

For these reasons the dumatus keep their own records of the history
of their country, and the genealogy of their line.

Sambug, who is mentioned here, is stated to be the son of
Tabunaway. Manuscript No. III states that Kabungsuwan had a son named
Sambgan, who was born in Juhur. Whether these two are one and the
same name or not it is very difficult to say. Probably they are two
different names.



The land of paradise was brought by the angels from the west (Arabia)
to Mindanao. Later the angels moved paradise to Madinat, but the
earth did not balance and tipped on the side of Mindanao. They
then measured the earth to find its center, but it had none. Then
the angels took paradise and carried it to Mecca, but a part of it
remained in Mindanao.

Sharif Awliya knew that and came to Mindanao to search for it. He saw
a column of smoke, and as he came to this smoke he found that it was
a woman. He took her and married her and begot a daughter whose name
was Paramisúli, whom he left in the blessed land.

Afterwards there came from Juhur Sharif Hasan and Sharif Maraja,
who were brothers. Sharif Hasan came to Sulu, and from him descended
all the datus of Sulu. Sharif Maraja had two sons, Sharif Bidayan
and Sharif Timbangan. He or one of his sons lived at Basilan. Sharif
Hasan and Sharif Maraja were followed by Sharif Kabungsuwan, a nephew
of Sharif Maraja. Sharif Maraja was the first Mohammedan who came to
Bawangin, which is Mindanao. He first came to Slangan (the western
part of Cotabato), where he saw Burak (an animal intermediate between
a bird and a horse) light on a bamboo tree. Burak slipped and let
fall his load, which was the lady, Paramisúli. Sharif Maraja dived
into the river and brought up Paramisúli; later he married her and
begot several children. The oldest of his children was Tabunaway,
the youngest Mamalu. The daughters were Sarabanun and Pindaw.

Some time after that Sharif Kabungsuwan came from Juhur and anchored at
Tinundan (a stream or estuary very near the mouth of the Rio Grande of
Mindanao). There was nobody there then; but the sharif saw a taro plant
and a cornstalk floating down, and said, "There must be some people at
the head of this river; let us wait until they come down." Later there
came down the river Manúmbali, the datu of Slangan, with seven men, to
fish at Tinundan. They saw Sharif Kabungsuwan. The sharif called them,
but they could not understand him. He beckoned to them, but one of them
died on that account, and they were frightened and returned. Later the
people of Katittwan, having heard of this, came down the river to see
the sharif, but they also could not understand him, and one of their
men died of the same cause. They again returned and told Tabunaway,
who came down the river and saw Sharif Kabungsuwan. The sharif called
to Tabunaway and Mamalu, who both understood him and came into his
boat. Tabunaway saw the ring of Sharif Kabungsuwan, and the sharif
observed the ring of Tabunaway. The sharif then asked Tabunaway how he
had become possessed of this ring, and if he had bought or inherited
it. Tabunaway replied that he had not bought the ring, but that he
had inherited it. "Then," said the sharif, "you must be a descendant
of my uncle." He then informed Tabunaway of his relation to him, and
they became acquainted with each other. They then went up the river
together in the boat of Sharif Kabungsuwan and came to Magindanao
(which is Cotabato). There Kabungsuwan met Sarabanun, the sister of
Tabunaway, and asked to marry her. Tabunaway consented and the sharif
married Sarabanun, but she died before her child was born.

After the death of his father Tabunaway became datu of Magindanao.

Sitti Paramisúli, the mother of Tabunaway, had asked her son to bury
her comb, after her death, underneath her window. This he did. The
comb grew and become a large bamboo tree. As Mamalu was cutting the
tree one day he found a lady in one of the bamboo joints which he had
cut. The blow had reached her little finger and cut it slightly. He
took the child to Tabunaway who told Mamalu to adopt her because he
had no children. They called her Putri Tunina, because they thought
their mother had come to life again. As she was a virgin and of age
she was married to Sharif Kabungsuwan and bore three daughters. The
first daughter was called Mamuranda, and married Pulwa, the datu of
Bwayan. The second was called Milagandi, and married Malang-sa-Ingud,
who is also a datu of Bwayan. The third daughter was called Putri

Sambug, the son of Tabunaway, married and begot Dagansina. Dagansina
begot Ampan; Ampan begot Alang; Alang begot Dumaya, who married
Duyuttanan, who is from Liyámin in Balabagan. Dumaya begot Lawana
and Mandawa and Taluwa. Lawana begot Bansara. Bansara begot Iput and
Ibrahim and Jubayr and the following daughters: Lamyuna, Kalima, and
Malubay, the mother of Sultan Izra of Ramitan. From Lamyuna descended
Mohammed, whose children are Gayag and Sakandar and Undang. Kalima
bore Antim. Antim begot Jayra and Tunug.

Iput begot Karija. Ibrahim begot Ugu. Ugu begot Mintal and Umar, one
of whom was a judge (kali). The judge begot Ruranun and Gansing and
Mamalu and a daughter called Mandi. Kali Ruranun begot Nyaw and Tarawya
and Mangilay. Mamalu begot Kudarat and Dawuntánan and Mantag. Nyaw
begot Jamarun and Kawali. Tarawya begot Anggris and Sayd. Mangilay
begot Abbas and Payag and Dadaw. Mandi begot Gawi and Mindang and
Inding. Gawi begot Lambway and Bkaran and Gandayra. Mindang begot
Rakman. Inding begot Dindaw.




This manuscript is a copy of the original which is in the possession
of Datu Kali Adam of Kalangnan mentioned in the previous manuscript
(No. IV). It is written partly in the Mindanao dialect and partly in
Malay. It refers to three subjects and comprises three distinct parts.

The first part includes the first three pages and three lines of the
fourth page. The first two pages are written in the Mindanao dialect
and the rest in Malay. It gives the genealogy of many of the Iranun
datus, but is very ambiguous and lacks interest. The Malay part is
written by the same Mindanao author, no doubt, and is neither correctly
written nor clear. This part has no special interest except for the
student who desires to investigate the oldest records referring to
the origin of the ruling datus of the country.

The second part is much more interesting. It is the oldest record on
hand referring to the genealogy of Magindanao proper with distinct
information as to the source from which it was obtained. It is all in
Malay, but it is so poorly written and composed that its translation
is a very difficult task. Pakir Mawlana, the authority this book
claims, was one of the most intelligent sultans Magindanao had. The
substance of this text was transmitted in Malay by Pakir Mawlana
himself to Capt. Thomas Forest in the year 1775. It appears that
there have always been in Mindanao natives who could converse and
write in Malay. The statement of Captain Forest would lead one to
infer that the book from which Pakir Mawlana translated was written
in the native dialect, and not in Malay. Probably the text of this
manuscript is not identical with that of Pakir Mawlana's copy,
but derived from the same source and written in Malay instead of
Magindanao. Its text is by no means as reliable as that of Manuscript
No. VI, but it gives some very interesting information which is
not mentioned in the other copies. Sultan Barahaman, to whom the
principal source and authority of the tarsila is referred, was the
fifth grandson of Sarip Kabungsuwan and the first grandson of Sultan
Qudrat, the famous Corralat of Combés. He had several children who
figured prominently in the history of the country, four of whom are
quoted here as authorities, and who are surnamed Sahid Wapat, Wapat
Batwa, Jarnik, and Sumannap. Their full and exact titles were Sultan
Japar Sadik Manamir, Sultan Dipatwan Anwar, Gugu Jarnik, and Datu
Ma-as Sumannap. Manamir was assassinated by his nephew, Malinug,
and is always referred to as Sahid Wapat, which means, in Arabic,
"Dead Martyr." Jamalu-l-Alam, the brother of Barahaman, is Sultan
Mohammed Kaharu-d-Din Kuda, who usurped the sultanate after the death
of his brother. Pakih Mawlana Amiru Din was the eldest son of Sahid
Wapat, and his correct full title was Sultan Pakir Mawlana Mohammed
Kayru-d-Din Kamza. He is generally referred to as Pakir Mawlana,
and is sometimes called Pakih instead of Pakir.

Though the text of this manuscript varies from that of No. VI, it
very often mentions facts and names that are lacking in the latter
and which help to complete the sense and the subject-matter of the
tarsila. The first two words of the address Paduk Sari Sultan do not
belong to the Mindanao dialect, but are Malay. This tarsila ends with
the children of Barahaman and Jamalu-l-Alam, and evidently belongs
to the period prior to the death of Pakir Mawlana, or his name and
those of his brothers would otherwise have been mentioned.

The third part is written in the Magindanao dialect and comprises
the twelfth and thirteenth pages only. It shows the exact ancestral
relation that exists between the ruling datus of Magindanao and the
Iranun datus, and throws considerable light upon the nature and the
tribal characteristics of the datuships or Moro communities. The
principal ancestors of the sultans of Ramitan, Tubuk, Dissan, and
Tapurug were Umang Nagu, Anta, and Umbun, respectively, and they were
the grandchildren of Dimasangkay, the brother of Kapitan Lawut Bwisan,
whose descendants are the sultans of Magindanao. Ramitan lies a little
north of Baras and Malabang. Tubuk is the principal district in the
immediate vicinity of Malabang. Dissan lies on the north shore of
Lake Lanao.

Being mainly written in Malay, this manuscript is of no literary
value at all. That part of it written in the Magindanao dialect shows
a slight admixture of the Iranun dialect. Both its composition and
style are poor, and mistakes in spelling and writing abound.




Ami and Palu were brothers from one father and one mother. Ami begot
Mangqaw. Mangqaw begot Layna and Linawan, and the sons of Luntung and
Makabuyu. Layna begot Rahaban, Kusin, Malin, and Usman. Linawan begot
Anggab, Amiru, Nudin, and Musa, and the daughters Limbwan, Ambay,
and Alima. Luntung's sons were Palu and Mamangking; his daughters
were Idaw, Ubaw, Baylawa, and Gnaw. Makabuyu begot Asan, Ibrahim,
Kambal, Dunggi, Malnang, Linaw, and Ami. Palu begot Dingan, Ansi,
Alumay, and a son, Ganap.

Dingan begot Sultan Padinding. Sultan Padinding begot Paramata,
Sultana Wata, Sultan Alud, Raja Muda Dawd of Balangingi, Badang,
Daga of Lyangan, Badwi, Mawung, Muna, and Ktim.

Talama was the sister of Maka-Kuyung, the sultan of Tapurug.

Dmak of Tatarikun, the son of Magi and Dabulawan, begot Aluyudan,
Palala, Amilulung, Dilabayan, Zumukar, Kandigan, Makalinug, and

Midaray married a lady from Tatarikun and begot Matanug, Tapu,
Mapundilu, and Tumug. Aluyudan begot Anzang, Dapamagi, Laygu, and
Madayaw. Madayaw begot Ilunayn, Datu Kabu, and Andabu. Anzang begot
Antus. Antus begot Mpas. Dapamagi begot Adadang, Aryung, and Aryung
begot Bagang. Layngu begot Mangakut and Mangakut begot Daba. Andabu
begot Maslang, Kaluyunan, and Umbayu. Kaluyunan begot Datu Kayu. Umbayu
begot Saygu. Saygu begot Rabsar, Baypat, and Binisa. Binisa begot
Angudap and Antus.

Matanug begot also Angalin. Angalin begot Ujyaw and Utuq. Utuq begot
Abayug, Kubag, Angalin, and the daughter Awyanu. Abayug begot Gi. Gi
begot Saliling Zaynudin. Zaynudin begot Ayad and the daughters Ijag and
Alay. Alay [9] bore Tarid, Bayutuga, and the daughter Agayun. Agayun*
bore Badri. Badri begot Datu Gibang. Datu Gibang begot Mama-Sati and
Datu Badar Adayaw. Datu Badar begot Mbayug. Zaynudin Saliling begot
also the daughters Nurun, the mother of Apki, and Agunuku, Padangan,
and Layma, the grandmother of Diping.


This book is the genealogy of the descendants of Hashim and Kureish,
who came from Mecca to Mindanao, Bwayan, and the land of Ilanun. It was
obtained from Pakih Mawlana Mohammed Amiru-Din, who acquired it from
his father, Sahid Wapat. Sahid Wapat and his brothers Umar Maya, Wapat
Batwa, Jarnik, and Sumannap received it from their father, Barahaman,
who was surnamed Minuli Karakmatu-l-Lah, and Jamalu-l-Alam. Later
it passed into the possession of Kali Akmad and Sapak, [10] who
married Duyan.

The descendant of the Apostle of God, Sarip Mohammed, came to Juhur
and married a woman related to the sultan of Juhur and begot Sarip
Kabungsuwan, who came to Mindanao and introduced the religion of Islam.

The ruler of Mindanao then was Raja Tabunaway. Kabungsuwan married
Banun, the sister of Raja Tabunaway, who died before any children
were born to them. After that Kabungsuwan married Putri Tunina,
who became human and was begotten by Mamalu out of the bamboo. Putri
Tunina bore three daughters--Putri Milagandi, Putri Mamur, and Putri
Batula. Putri Mamur married Pulwa, Raja Bwayan. Putri Milagandi
married Malang-sa-Ingud. Putri Batula married Ambang.

Later Sarip Kabungsuwan married Angintabu of Malabang, whose
mother was Mazawang and whose father was Sambahan. Angintabu bore
Maka-alang, surnamed Saripada, Angintabu had a brother whose name
was Maka-apun. Maka-alang married a Bilan woman who was begotten
out of a crow's egg, and begot Bangkaya. Bangkaya married two women
of Mindanao and begot two sons, Dimasangkay and Gugu Sarikula, one
from each wife. Later he married Maginut of Malabang, the daughter
of Maka-apun, and begot Kapitan Lawut. Dimasangkay married a woman
of Lusud, called Mira, and another of Simway who bore Umun and
Butu-na-Samar. Butu-na-Samar was surnamed Jukulanu, but died young
and had no children. Dimasangkay married also Ampas, the sister of
Sandab, and begot Umburung. Umburung married Umun and begot Nuni, who
was surnamed Amatanding. Ampas married again Pinduma. Nuuni married
Gayang, the daughter of Kapitan Laawut Bwisan and the sister of Qudrat,
who was surnamed Mupat, and begot Anta, Nagu, Umbun, and the daughters
Patawu, Pindaw, Bayu, and Sa-ib.

Sarikula married a lady of Sulug called Raja Putri, who was the sister
of Raja Husayn, both of whom descended from the original rulers of
Sulug. Raja Putri begot one daughter, Raja Mampay.

Kapitan Lawut married a lady of Slangan called Imbang, who descended
from Raja Tabunaway, and begot a son called Qudrat, and a daughter
called Gayang, who married Nuni.

Qudrat married Raja Mampay and begot Tiduray. Tiduray married Myayu
of Lwan and begot Paramata Asya, who was known as Baya-labi.

He married again Angki, the daughter of Natib Syam by his wife
Sawakung of Puntiyabaq, and begot two sons--Barahaman, known as Minuli
sa-Rakamatu-l-Lah, and Jamalu-l-Alam.

Barahaman married a woman of Tagman named Panubawun and begot four
sons--Bagas, also known as Raja Muda; Anwal, who was entitled Paduka
Sari Sultan and surnamed Wapat Batwa; Jarnik, who was entitled Gugu;
and Sumana, who was Datu Ma-as; also four daughters--Ngway, Lugung,
Awu, and Tundug. By Basing of Sangir, the daughter of Makalindi
and Timbang Saribu, he begot Manamir, who was entitled Paduka Sari
Sultan and surnamed Sahid Wapat; and Tubu-tubu, entitled Umar Maya;
Maginut; Atika; and Patima. By a Samal woman he begot Datu Sakaludan
Jamalu-d-Din and Manjanay. Raja Muda Bagas begot Ampwan, Dayang,
and Bayaw by a concubine. Jamalu-l-A'lam married Sinal of Bwayan and
begot a son, Banswil, and a daughter, Karani. He also begot Ija, Ila,
Awu, Ampan, and Sayka-Datu Abdu-r-Rakun.

Manamir married Karani and Banswil married Manjanay, all of whom are
first cousins, the children of Barahaman and Jamalu-l-A'lam.


Amatunding married Gayang, the sister of Qudrat, and begot Anta,
Nagu, and Umbun and the daughters Pindaw, Dawa-dawa, Bayu, Sayib, and
Umang. Umang was the grandmother of the sultan of Ramitan. Nagu was the
grandfather of the sultan of Tubuk. Anta was the grandfather of the
Sultan Sarip Ulu of Dissan. Umbun was the grandfather of Makakuyung,
the sultan of Tapurug. Umbun begot Burwa. Burwa begot Mama and
Nanak. Nanak begot Bnul, who married Baya Wata of Kabuntalan. Bnul
left Baya Wata and went to Unayan with an understanding that unless
he returned in forty days their marriage would be null. Bnul did not
return, so Baya Wata married Timbang Sulug, and soon after gave birth
to Damda, whom she conceived by Bnul.

Mana, the brother of Nanak, married the daughter of the sister of
the sultan of Sulug and begot Datu Milbahar, Bantilan, and Datu Adana.




This manuscript is a copy of the original which is in the possession
of Datu Mastura, the best-informed datu of Magindanao, and the son of
Sultan Qudrat Jamalu-l-A'lam Untung, the greatest of the late sultans
of Magindanao. Datu Mastura has the best collection of Magindanao books
and records and owns the most reliable of the royal documents that have
been preserved. This copy is one of the best specimens of Magindanao
literature extant. It is principally genealogy and speaks briefly of
the early history of Magindanao and the rise of its sultanate, its
main purpose being to preserve the record of descent and determine
the right of succession to the sultanate.

The first page describes the birth of Putri Tunina and her relation
to Tabunaway, the ruler of Magindanao. The second page describes the
coming of Sharif Kabungsuwan to Magindanao, his conversion of Mindanao
to Islam, and his marriage to Putri Tunina. The third page gives an
account of Kabungsuwan's marriage to a princess from Malabang and his
descendants from her. The rest of the manuscript is a detailed account
of births and descendants down to the birth of the great grandfather
of the present sultan, which must have occurred shortly before the
beginning of the nineteenth century. It is the most complete and the
most nearly correct copy that exists. It is written at a later period
than that of No. V, and covers two later generations. The history
and genealogy of the nineteenth century were obtained by personal
investigation and inquiry from the oldest and most reliable datus
and other persons living. Diagrams Nos. 3 and 4 show the descent of
the rulers of Magindanao from Kabungsuwan to the present time.

The full names and titles of the sultans in the order of their
succession are as follows:

     1. Sharif Kabungsuwan
     2. Sharif Maka-alang
     3. Datu Bangkaya
     4. Datu Dimasangkay
     5. Datu Gugu Sarikula
     6. Datu Kapitan Lawut Bwisan
     7. Sultan Dipatwan Qudrat (Corralat)
     8. Sultan Dundang Tidulay
     9. Sultan Barahaman
    10. Sultan Kaharu-d-Din Jamalu-l-Alam Kuda
    11. Sultan Mohammed Japar Sadik Manamir, generally known as
        Sahid Mupat or Wapat
    12. Sultan Dipatwan Anwar, also known as Wapat Batwa
    13. Sultan Mohammed Tahiru-d-Din Malinug
    14. Sultan Pakir Mawlana Mohammed Kayru-d-Din Kamza, generally
        known as Pakir Mawlana or Pakih Mawlana
    15. Sultan Pakaru-d-Din
    16. Sultan Mohammed Amiru-l-Umara Alimu-d-Din Kibad Sahriyal
    17. Sultan Kawasa Anwaru-d-Din
    18. Sultan Qudrata-l-Lah Jamalu-l-A'lam Untung
    19. Sultan Mohammed Makakwa
    20. Sultan Mohammed Jalalu-d-Din Pablu, sometimes called
        Sultan Wata
    21. Sultan Mangigin



This book speaks of the origin of the rulers of Magindanao. The first
known rulers were Tabunaway and his brother Mamalu. One day they were
cutting bamboo to build a fish corral. Mamalu cut down all the trees
except one small stalk that was left standing alone. Tabunaway then
called to Mamalu, "Finish it up, because it omens ill to our fish
corral." Mamalu therefore cut it and found in it a girl whose little
finger was slightly cut by a slip of the bolo. He carried the girl
to Tabunaway, but Tabunaway told him to keep her and adopt her as
his child. This girl was named by Tabunaway Putri Tunina.

On the other hand, there came out from Mecca Sharif Ali Zayna-l-Abidin,
who proceeded to Bawangin (Malaysia) and settled at Juhur. Here
he married the daughter of Sultan Iskandar Thul-Qarnayn of Juhur,
whose name was Jusul Asiqin, and begot Sharif Kabungsuwan. Sharif
Kabungsuwan came to Magindanao to the mouth of the Tinundan. There
he met Tabunaway and accompanied him to the town of Magindanao. This
is Sharif Kabungsuwan, who converted to Islam all the people of
Magindanao, Slangan, Matampay, Lusud, Katittwan, and Simway, and who
was followed by all those who accepted Islam in the land of Magindanao.

And it came to pass that Tabunaway married Sharif Kabungsuwan to
the girl that was found inside the bamboo stalk, whose name was
Putri Tunina. To them were born three daughters--Putri Mamur, who
married Malang-sa-Ingud, an older brother of Pulwa; Putri Milagandi,
who married Pulwa, the datu of Bwayan; and Putri Bay Batula, who had
no children.

Later Sharif Kabungsuwan married Angintabu, the daughter of Maka-apun,
a coast datu of Malabang, and begot Sharif Maka-alang.

Sharif Maka-alang married Buli, a Bilan woman who was found by Parasab
in a crow's egg. There were born to them a boy called Bangkaya and
a girl called Maginut.

Bangkaya married a woman of Magindanao and begot Dimasangkay. He also
married a woman of Matampay and begot Gugu Sarikula. Later he married
Umbun of Slangan and begot Kapitan Lawut Bwisan and Tagsan and Pinwis.

Dimasangkay married a Simway woman and begot Butu-na Samal, who had
no offspring, and Uman, a woman. He married also Umpas, the sister
of Sandab, and begot Umburung, who was not well known.

Gugu Sarikula married Raja Putri, a Sulug lady, who gave birth to
Putri Mampay. He also married the sister of Dasumalung of Linilwan
and begot Gawu.

Kapitan Lawut Bwisan married Ambang, the daughter of Dalamba of
Slangan, whose son was Sultan Dipatwan Qudrat and whose daughter
was Gayang.

Sultan Dipatwan Qudrat married Putri and begot Dundang Tidulay and

Dundang Tidulay married Paramata Asiya, a Bitalan lady, and begot
Putri Gunung Lidang, who was the first Bayalabi of Magindanao and
who had no offspring. His children from a concubine were Ila and Ija;
from Angki, the daughter of Katib Syam and Puntyabak of Sawakungan,
Sultan Mohammed Barahaman and Sultan Mohammed Kaharu-d-Din Kuda.

Ila married Tawbalay and begot Gantar and Lumampaw and a daughter

Ija was married to Binulukan and begot Maraja Layla Dangkaya and
the following daughters: Tumam, Pudtad, Darisay, Nurun, Layin, Imbu,
Lilang, Abu, and Ampay, who had no offspring.

Sultan Barahaman begot from Panubawun Raja Muda Bulagas and Sultan
Dipatwan Anwar, and Gugu Jarnik and Datu Ma-as Sumannap, and a daughter
Anig, and Gawu, and Datu Sakaludan Jamalu-d-Din, and Manjani and Awu
and Tundug, and Ngwa and Lugung. From Lady Basing, the daughter of
Makalindi, and Timbang Saribu, a lady of Sangil, he begot Sultan Japar
Sadik Manamir and Umarmaya Tubu-tubu, and the following daughters:
Maginut, Fatima, and Atik.

Sultan Kaharu-d-Din Kuda married Lady Sinal, the daughter of Datu
Tambinag, and begot Balingkul, Hajji Sayk Abdu-r-Rakman Banswil,
and Putri Kalani Kuning. By a concubine he begot Maraja Layla Bahar,
Paki Abdu-l-Kahar Ampan, and Hajji Sayk Abdu-r-Rakim, Dinda, Dangsabu,
Ila, Talama.

Raja Muda Bulagas married Tumbayu, a lady of Bwayan, and begot
Baratamay and the daughters Nanun, Mayay, Antanu, and Putri. By a
concubine he begot Parasab, Gugu Ampwan, and the daughters Musturi,
Bayu, and Dabu.

Sultan Dipatwan Anwar married a lady of Agakan Munawal and begot Raja
Bwayan Manuk. By a Bwayan lady he begot Tambayu and Kandug; by Lady
Payak, Sultan Mohammed Tahiru-d-Din Malinug and Datu Sakaludan Gantar;
by a concubine, Datu Lukus Ganwi and Maraja Layla Yusup and Talinganup,
and the daughters Daging, Dayang, Dawung, and Dang.

Gugu Jarnik begot Nanu and Kunan.

Datu Ma-as Sumannap begot Midtud-sa-Ingud Bani and Asan.

Nway begot Anday.

Awu married Aradi and begot Talila and Andu.

Lugung married Lubas and begot Uranjib and Pinaw.

Datu Sakaludan Jamalu-d-Din married Layma, the daughter of Sultan Kuda,
and begot Mawlana Kudanding Sabiru-l-Lah and Datu Sakaludan Lagat.

Tundug married Ajipati and begot Rannik and Ami. By Palug he begot

Umarmaya Tubu-tubu married Babak and begot Sharif Kunyaw and Sultan
Digra Alam and Pataw. He also married Andaw-mada, a Tawlan lady and
begot Bagumba, Sarabanun, and Bay. By a concubine he begot Jukulanu
adiwa, Bal, Buli, and a daughter, Sajar.

Fatima married Datu Gulay of Sulug and begot Raja Baginda Timbang.

Sultan Mohammed Japar Sadik Manamir married Putri Kalani Kuning,
the daughter of Sultan Kuda, and begot Sultan Pakir Mawlana Mohammed
Kayru-d-Din Kamza, Sultan Mohammed Pakaru-d-Din Bulagas Armansa, and
Samal, and the daughters Bayalabi Sari and Gindulungan. By a concubine
he begot Dipatwan Palti, Jalalu-d-Din Tambi, Maraja Layla Abdu-l-Lah,
Maraja Dinda Jamburang, Rastam, Kahar, Mamalum´pung, and the daughters
Amina, Inam, Panubawun, Atshar, Bitun, Angki, and Labyah.

Hajji Sayk Abdu-r-Rakman Banswil married Manjani, the daughter of
Sultan Barahaman, and begot Datu Sakaludan, a Lingkung Tidulay,
and Putri Kintay, Kaludan, the son of a concubine, Japar, Undung,
Kapitan Lawut Mohammed, and Ibrahim, and the following daughters:
Duni, Pindaw, and Dasumbay.

Maraja Layla Bahar begot Badaru-d-Din and Sakandar, and the daughters
Dina and Bidury.

Paki Hajji Abdu-l-Kahar Ampan begot Ismayil and Milug.

Hajji Sayk Abdu-r-Rakim begot Namli, Amina-l-Lah, Yasin Kamim,
Mohammed, Mawug, Akmad, and the daughters Latipa, Badalya, Bulawan
Dagayug, Dindyaw, Sitti.

Dinda married Abdul Patah, a Sulug datu, and begot Pangyan Ampay.

Papani married Sumuku and begot Mahraja Layla Mindug and a daughter,

Ungki married Simping and begot Iday.

Ila married Datu Wata Maputi and begot Milug and Mayug.

The children of Talama by Dumlinaw are Jiwana Jaya, Nasari, Palawan,
and a daughter, Kurays.

The children of Maharaja Layla Parasab by Pangyan Bata, the daughter
of Gugu, are Mayug and Tahir.

The children of Gugu Ampwan are Makalapun, Kanday, Tawug, and Udin,
the last two being daughters.

The children of Sultan Dipatwan Malinug are Watamama, Gulay, Tawpan,
Uku, Bay Mayung, Dingan, and Musturi.

Datu Sakaludan a Kantar, begot by Nanaw, Anni and Mangki. Maraja
Layla Yusup begot Iday, Ndawmada, Munay, Bayu, Dayang, Zaman, Muning,
Tamama, Undung, Ga-as, and Palti.

The children of Datu Lukus Ganwi are Munay from Bayu, and Manun and
Jamalya by a concubine.

The children of Talinganup are Dindu, Bungayu, Ampay, Nanaw, and Kunan.

Dayang begot by Tuwyla Answay.

Dang begot by Sumapa Jamalu-d-Din and Sabdulla.

Panubawun begot by Bagwa Datu Tabunaway, Tamama, Ulu, Timbang, Gindu,
and Ampay.

The children of Atshar from Sultan Yusup are Isra-il, Watababay Payak,
Musturi, Dadaw, Lyaw, and Kunan.

Bitun married Mawlana Taray and begot Agas and Kuntay.

Angki married Raja Muda Kaludan and begot Jamalu-d-Din, Milug, Ismayil,
Ayung, Ayu, and Fatima.

Rastam married Pinaw and begot Dingan and Kiram; he also begot Indim
by a concubine.

Maraja Dinda Jamburang married Pinaw and begot Danding, Isra-il, Ani,
Bantilan, Ayung, Ija, and Nanun.

Jalalu-d-Din Tambi begot Angkaya, Panji, Gulay, Manalantang, Lugung,
Mangki, Anday, Gayung, Latipa, Ami, Buli, Bahar, Darisay, and Pataw;
the last eight being females.

Dipatwan Palti married Buli and begot Sarabanun. He also begot
Sahabu-d-Din, Ampan, Ija, Kuntay, and Ayung by a concubine; the last
three are females.

Pakir Mawlana Mohammed Amiru-d-Din Kamza begot the following: By Dang,
Raja Muda Amiru-l-Umara Mohammed Alimu-d-Din Kibad Sahriyal; by Dawung
the daughter of Dipatwan Anwar, Lidang and Paywa; by Dawa-dawa, Kuda,
and Lalanu; by Bay Linaw, Burhanu-d-Din; by Sapar, Basing and Hajar;
by Kanul, Paku; by Sinayan, Mohammed Sahru-d-Din, Asim, and Tawung;
by Dalikayin, Jamalu-d-Din, Gindu, Amina, and Ampay; by Talangami,
Jamalya, Ami, Zamzam, and Ismayil; by Muna, Sara, Yasin, Malinug,
and Abdu-l-Lah; by Mida, Idu, and Sad; by Untay, Isra-il, Angkaya,
and Tambi; by Palambi, Ndaw; by Jalya, Dudawa; by Anggun, Payak; by
Kalima, Badaru-d-Din; by Janim, Maryam; by Limbay, Isa; by Linuyaman,
Sinal; by Milagandi, Bilangkul.

Sultan Mohammed Pakaru-d-Din Bulagas Armansa married Badwi and begot
Kartaw, Atik, Anday, and Pindaw, the last three being females. He
also married a concubine and begot Zaman, Sumannap, Bayna, and Nanaw,
the last two being females.

Datu Sakaludan Lingkung Tidulay begot Kaka-it.

Datu Sakaludan Lagat begot Parasab, Ampan, Manunggul, Dading Umar,
Dubwa, Ta-ib, Nanun, Mayay, and Gayang.

Nanun married Datu-a-Wata Maputi and bore Tamayug, Dawa-dawa,
and Idayu.

Mayay married Raja Bwayan Manuk and bore Maman, Tapudi, Kudaw,
and Ampay.

Putri married Datu Maytum Bwisan and bore Dubwa.

Tamaying married Bungu and begot Gangga. He also married Mangilay
and begot Answay and Anig. He again married a concubine and begot
Parasab and Tuli.

Baya-Labi Sari married Mawlana Kudanding Purang Sabilu-l-Lah and bore
Maman, Abu Bakar, Kuntay, Mindarakma, and Mimya.

Kibad Sahriyal married Ninig, the daughter of Datu Sakaludan Gantar,
and begot Yusup and Fatima; by Watababay Apayak he begot Anwar and
Sul-Karnayn; by Angki, Palti; by Kindaw, Badaru-d-Din and Mayug;
by Jami, Nasaru-d-Din; by Lina, Imran; by Julya, Dingan and Ibrahim;
by Istipanya, Abidin.

Babay Basing married Watamama Sahabu-d-Din and bore Barahaman, Kuda,
Manamir, Fatima Zuhra, Sari, and Mindarakma.

Púyuwa married Raja Bwayan Malang and bore Sajar.

Burhan married Kudi and begot Jamalu-d-Din and Ila.

Mohammed Sahru-d-Din married Mulak and begot Dumalúndung.

Paku married Sultan Ajipat and bore Kuning.

Sinal married Mundug and bore Daru-d-Din.

Jamalya married Sayduna and bore Mohammed Idris and Tuli.

To Gantar, the son of Jiwana Kunik, she bore Samal and Ninig.

Jamalu-d-Din married Gayang, the daughter Datu Sakaludan Lagat,
and begot Amina and Dawung.

Zamzam married Dindyaw, the child of Sayka Datu, and bore Paramata.

Buli married Mupalal, the son of Namli, and bore Harmansa.

Badaru-d-Din married Putri, the daughter of Namli, and begot

Sari married Amil and bore Ibrahim and Sitti.

Nasaru-d-Din married Ayu and begot Kamid.

Kartaw married Paramata, the daughter of Watamama Gulay, and begot
Putri Lidang, Ani, Jumjuma, and Gindulungan; by Jayba he begot Jaya;
by Jamila, Ndaw and Nangka; by Uyam, Dadawa and Naw; by Alima, Nunay.

Pindaw married Lintang and begot Milug.

Ndima married Hajji Kari Abdu-r-Rakman and bore Mohammed, Taha, Banun,
and Panubawun.

Completed on the day Thursday of the month Shaban. God's knowledge
is superior.




The sultanate of Bagumbayan occupies the middle ground between the
Saylud or lower Rio Grande Valley and the Saraya or upper Rio Grande
Valley. It is located at the head of the delta, and really comprises
the upper part of the Saylud, and lies mainly along the banks of the
southern branch of the Rio Grande. It extends as far down the banks of
the southern Rio Grande as the upper borders of Tamontaka, and as far
down as Libungan, along the banks of the northern branch of the Rio
Grande. Its upper limit is Maysawa, a little above the Kakar or canal.

The present sultan, Abu-Bakar, lives at Bagumbayan proper, which
is located on the right bank of the southern Rio Grande about 3
miles below Tambao or the fork. He is still addressed, at times, as
the sultan of Talakuku, which was the proper address of his father,
named after the older name of the capital. The word Bagumbayan means
"newly built," and has lately been applied to the sultanate on account
of the late change of the residence of the sultan. Talakuku is the
word that appears in all Spanish records and histories. Kabuntalan is
still older and is more used by the Moros themselves. The old site
of Kabuntalan was on the left bank of the main river just above the
fork. It has been completely abandoned.

Nagtangan is the oldest name and the one which appears first in
this manuscript.

This manuscript is copied from the original, which is in the possession
of the sultan himself. It was obtained through the favor of Datu
Balabadan, who is a relative of the sultan and who belongs to the
same family or an allied branch of the same.

The original is a very old copy and many of the leaves and margins are
torn and have fallen into pieces. The handwriting is fair and plain,
but the composition and grammar are very poor. The orthographical
errors committed in writing Moro names in Arabic characters are very
numerous and greatly change the expression of the words. It is evident
that the original author was a poor writer, and did not have the usual
practical knowledge in writing in Arabic characters that other Moro
authors had.

The dialect is strictly that of Magindanao. The titles of the datus
are similar to those used in Magindanao. Two new titles, Jukulanu and
Jiwana, appear often, and in all probability are applied to subdatus
of the same rank as Gugu, Umar Maya, Maraja Layla, etc.




This book speaks of the ancestors of the datus of Nagtangan. Daman
asked for a datu from Bwayan and got Dikaya. Dikaya married a Nagtangan
wife and begot Duka. Duka married Lantyan, a Malitigaw woman, and
begot Myadung. He also married a woman called Ambun and begot Babak
and Naw and Suman.

Babak married Umar Maya, Tubu-tubu, and bore Saripada Kunyaw, Sultan
Digra Alam, and Pataw. Umar Maya married also Andawmada, a Tawlan
lady, and begot Bagamba, Sarabanun, and Bay. By a concubine he begot
Jukulanu Diwa and Bal, and the daughters Buli and Gaw and Bahar.

Saripada Kunyaw married Anik and begot Sultan Mohammed Alimu-d-Din,
who had no offspring, Mawlana Mundug, and Datu Sakaludan Dudin. He
also married Andawmada, an Ipuktn lady, and begot Baya-Wata. By
a concubine he begot Jiwana Jambang, and the following daughters:
Kumkuma, Ayag, Payak, Talilah, and Minding.

Sultan Digra Alam married Nya, a Magindanao woman, and begot Raja
Muda Mangindra and Mohammed; by Bay he begot Baya-Labi; by a Talayan
woman he begot Baya-Wata Lilang.

Bagamba married Raja Bwayan and bore Sultan Darimbang.

Sarabanun begot Kamad, Ubuk, and Dumpiras. Jukulanu Diwa begot
Marajal, Baya Nayug, Jukulanu Kunuk, Jukulanu Badal, and Undung,
and the daughters Atik, Ilug, Nawila.

Bal begot Ginda, Abas, Duwi, and Dangkay, and a daughter, Buli. Buli
married Mupat Salam and bore Banun. She also married Aspa and bore
Jiwana Kunik.

Mawlana Mundug begot Wata-mama Kamad and Ngyan. By a concubine he
begot Dula, Dastara, Jaynal, and Alam, and the daughters Dadaw and
Sambasing. By Lamidas he begot Kadija; by a concubine, Daldal; by
Saban, Aminu-l-Lah.

Datu Sakaludan Dudin married Amina, the daughter of Jukulanu Diwa,
and begot Danding, Madaga, Kudanding, Patima, Gindulungan, and Anat. By
a concubine he begot Ganwi and Kunan.

Baya-Wata married Timbang Sulug and begot Wata-mama Damda.

Jiwana Jimbang begot Asab and Pata.

Raja Muda Mangindra married Mayung, a Binilwan lady, and begot Anig,
Umun, Daywa, and Dawada; and the sons, Sultan Mohammed-sa-Barahaman,
Kunday, Pataw, Janipan, and Dindyaw. By a concubine he begot Lubaba;
by Baya-labi, Ingkung.

Baya-Wata married Aman and begot Inuk, Uku, and Anti, and the daughter
Wata-Babay Didu.

Gugu Kiram begot Anti, Nanun, Lintang, Didu, Ngulu, and Banun.

Maraja Layla Dikaya begot Maraja Layla Kandug, Kunan, Maraja Layla
Amad, and Papung.

Sultan Mohammed Darimbang begot Raja Bwayan Paki, Damda, and
Pidtaylan. By a concubine he begot Kakayt.

Kamad married Anig and begot Bulawan, Inuk, and Dagayug. By a concubine
he begot Mama-sa-Ilud, and Kuntay.

Ubuk begot Daga, Mama-Santi, Bulug, and Tawp.

Dupiras begot Lyaw and Dabu by a concubine.

Jukulanu Kunuk married Dawada, the daughter of Raja Muda Mangindra,
and begot Tamay and Diyug.

Jukulanu Badal married Mayakay and begot Panggu. He also married Ginu,
the daughter of Wata-mama Kamad, and begot Ungji, Ulanulan, Indalan,
Udamag, Kadidung, Aslan, Aminalla, Duwag, Nyugaw, and Tiban.

Udung married Ninaw and begot Mamag, Tuli, Lilang, Lastam, Aning,
and Alungan. By Baybay he begot Namar; by Lumba, Indig and Dandung.

Nawila married Lugung, the son of Jalaludin Tambi, and bore Putri
and Kirig.

Ginda begot Malaga.

Abas married Ngyan, the daughter of Mawlana Mundug, and begot Atshar
and Pinayu; and Nanaw by a concubine.

Wata-Mama Kamad begot Ginu.

Dulay begot Bandun, Jawala, Buli, and Dyaw. By Payaka he begot Kubung
and Paygwan.

Dastara's children lived in Kuran.

Alam married Gindulungan and begot Malatunul. Gindulungan married Mawg,
the son of the sultan of Tuba, and bore Qudrat.

Ngyan married Abas and begot Atshar and Pinayu.

Dadaw married Badang and begot Jambrang, a twan (sir) of Lawgan.

Kadija married Atun, Datu of Burungan; her children lived at Burungan.

Daldal married Kayag and begot Saripa and Nyaw.

Talilah begot Sabu-Din. Sabu-Din begot Abu Bakar, Mindung, Kawan,
Itug, and Pimbar.

Nanaw married Tamama and begot Kalumpunit.

Datu Sakaludan married Lady Tidung and begot Tima and Randu. He also
married Yungayu and begot Andam and Basing.

Barayim married Anu, the daughter of Maraga, and begot Rapruk.

Raja Bwayan Mohammed Alimu-Din married Ani, a lady of Magindanao,
the grandmother of Mupat Idayat, and begot Kabayan. By Mayay, a lady
of Kabalukan, he begot the sultan of Magindanao; by a concubine, Gugu
Jamburang; by Salaya, Gugu Panasang; by Dadayu, Nugal and Gansing; by
Pandarágan, Gaga; by Sitti, Itug; by Kasimna, Atung and Panunggu; by
Takdung, Basing; by Inam, Atabwan; by Inding, Apun; by Amil, Nangalung.

Alimu-Din, the grandson of Baya-labi Sari, married Maraga, the daughter
of Ginda, and begot Tuka and Dubwang.

Kudanding married Kindang and begot Ayung. By Tima, a lady of Tidung,
he begot Putri; by Ija, Limulang and Sina; by Nayung, Gandang and
Kutay; by Nawg, Babayasi.

Datu Tamay and Diyug were cousins. Kibad was their second cousin. Tagi
was a brother, the son of Maryam. Qudrat was another cousin. Anatan,
datu of Kabuntalan, was their uncle.

Madaga married Sultan Mohammed-sa-Barahaman and bore Mayug and Sultan
Iskandar Manamir, which makes three datus of Kabuntalan. Anatan, datu
of Kabuntalan, married Jawya and begot Didu, Untung, and Padidu. By
Malali, he begot Pawag and Kirig and Dyaw and Parug; by Sitti, Umbag;
by Madidu, Anaw and Baralaga.

Wata-Mama Balindung Adamunda married Ani and begot Asim, Iday, Kalug,
Kuntay, Nanun, and Tayting. By a woman of Kadingilan he begot Bantilan.

Asab begot Putri.

Pata married Jiwana Aryung and begot Kibad, Kanapya, Sarapudin,
and Ilm.

Daywa married Datu Palug of Binirwan and bore Kunik, Banun, and
Iyaw. Dindyaw married Maraja Layla Kandug and bore Talawung and

Mawlana Mawg married Iday, the daughter of Balindung, and begot Maning,
Ampal, Lilang, Anti, Bagwa Datu, and Tapudi.

Kawan married Timbay and begot Paydu, Dandayung, and Iday.

Panggu married Talung, the daughter of Maraja Layla Kandug, and begot
Ulanan, Tubu-tubu, and a daughter, Tya. He also married Kubra and
begot Ula.

Tamay married Antam and begot Limulang and Makabwat.

Diyug married Tuli, the daughter of Undung, and begot Paki, Dada,
Tingaw Pulwa, Myayu, Malug, and Tinabun.

Mamag married Didung and begot Babay, Mama, Diruyudun, and Manángka.

Anti, the son of Gugu Kiram, begot Muyuka, Pinagunay, Kunaw, Pindaw,
and Bungayu.

Nglu married Tababay and begot Nawila and Amil.

Lintang begot Bantugun.

Brayim married Anu and begot ----.

Raja married Dabu and begot Kirig and Pakamaman.

Ingkung married Dubung and begot Arimaw, Kalug, Saribu, Padaw,
Dukin, and a daughter, Mayla. By a concubine he begot Pinu, Bilalang,
and Talawd.

Maraja Layla Akad married Miyayu and begot Inal, Idu, and Atshar.

Sultan Mohammed Iskandar Manamir married Sarip, the daughter
of the sultan of Magindanao, and begot Iskandar Sulkarnayn and
Sahabu-d-Din. By Gayang he begot Idris; by Kati, Mamunu-r-Rashid,
Kindang, and Puyuwa; by Apsa, Kadija.

The grandfather of Baya-labi Sarip, by her father, was Raja Bwayan. Her
grandfather, by her mother, was Sultan Diruyudun of Bagu Ingud.

Tagi married Manjanay and begot Lintang and Paramata. By Putri, the
daughter of Kudanding, he begot Pindaw; by Apsa, an Ilanun, Dubuwa,
Tuku, Pakir, and Pandita; by Bayid, Mama-sa-Ingud; by Dabu, Bwisan;
also Kúmkuma.

Idris married Minda, the grandmother of Umar-Maya Anti, and begot
Sindad. By another woman he begot Kunik.

Sultan Mohammed-sa-Barahaman begot also Kamsa. Kamsa begot Itaw,
Jimbah, Antil, Limpul, and Mandi.

Dipatwan Minug married Madaga and begot Tandwal, Pipikan, Pamupun,
Diluyudun, and Talambungan.

Kunik married Pinduk and begot Ninig, Marajal, and Kumipang. By Kumala
he begot Bunti and Muyuk; by Paydu, Atik.

Namal married Tima and begot Tantung, Sawad, and Mohammed.

Bulawan married Rajalam and begot Bula, Anggris, and Pindug.

Raja Muda Asim begot Pintay and Ubab.

Kalug begot Talulad and Mayay, and Katampara and Talama, the last
two from Kurma.

Kintay married Balug and begot Dalmatan, Muntya, Talib, and Alungan.

Ganwi married Itug and begot Gayug. He also married Basing and begot
Anday, Atshar, Luping, and Utung.

Qudrat married Idayu, the daughter of the Sultan of Balilah, and begot
Bwisan, Dundang, and Nuni. By Lilang he begot Asibi; by Tapaya Migayad;
and by Agak, Mohammed.

Rastam married Dawag and begot Tawp, Ampan, Igay, and Payluyan. He
also married Uman and begot Saligan, Gambil, and Timbaw.

Kibad married Ninig and begot Pinduma and Dulan.

Bantugan married Lagay and begot Ayug and Gambis. He married also
Tubu and begot Dawa, Dulan, and Balalagay. By Abu, he begot Bwanda.

Andam married Pudin and Bangkas, Mayung, Mama-sa-Ingud, Gandi,
and Gimbang.

Aminula married Basing and begot Raginut, Angjum, and Anu.

Pawag married Tapudi and begot Talila, Maytum, Mantya, and Sandag.

Kirig married Baliwan and begot Nanwi.

Sapula begot Mindal, Awa, Ijang, Ruging, and Nyaw.

Datu sa-Dalikan married Dagayug and begot Payak, who lived in the
care of a Manobo of Dalikan--not the one who was intrusted to the
care of Sultan Mohammed Iskandar Manamir of Kabuntalan by a Tiruray of
Dalikan. This latter woman was the daughter of the former and was not
an inheritance for the Nagtanganun because the datu did not furnish
her with a dowry. Angki married Puwi and begot Dangus and Tapudi,
the cousin of the sultan's mother.

Sultan Diluyudun of Bagu Ingud married Jumjuma, the daughter of
Dipatwan Marajanun, and begot Danding and Mayung. By Kabayan, a lady
of Kabalukan, he begot Apan, Bwat, and Timbukung; by Adung, Panalaw;
by Paku, Gasing and Dgaw; by Raja, Muntya; by Ampas, Kambang; by
Angkung, Salamat and Gindu; by Bitu, Kapya, Timu, and Naypitan and
Pinamili; by Idag, Uyag, Makalay, Singag; by Kalimah, Umbul; by Ibad,
Amad; by Batata, Dalding, the daughter of Gandum, Maguman; by Anuk,
Kulaga; by Ingi, Paytakay, Bungalus Pimpingan, and Idag.

The sultan of Magindanao married Mayung, the daughter of the sultan of
Bagu Ingud, Sarip, and begot Bangun, the sultan Raja Muda Bayaw, Bagu,
and Gidu. By Atik, a lady of Makatudugan, he begot Laga and Tandu;
by Wayda, Talumpa and Taganuk; by Matundun, Malatunul, Sarabanun,
and Bisinti; by Awig, Gubal; by Kudaw, Isad; by Myayug, Atik, Blaw,
Ngyan; by Malayu, Makaw; by Kumbay, Byalung.


The first datu of Bwayan was Budtul, who married a woman from
Magindanao and begot Malang-sa-Ingud and Pulwa. Putri Mamur was
married first to Malang-sa-Ingud, but after his death she married
Pulwa. Pulwa married also Budang of Tijaman, and begot Dikaya.


The two greatest powers that figured prominently in the Rio Grande
Valley are the sultan of Magindanao and the raja of Bwayan. These
rulers have at all times been considered as greater in power and higher
in rank than any other ruler in the valley. In the latter part of the
eighteenth century and during the main part of the nineteenth century
the sultan of Kabuntalan also figured prominently and held a very
intimate relation and a close position to both of the other sultans,
which position he still holds at the present time.

It appears that the first ruler of Kabuntalan was Dikaya, the son of a
raja Bwayan, who simply held the honorary title of datu. His successor
had no male heir, and one of his daughters, Babak, married Umar Maya
Tubu-tubu of Magindanao, who became ruler of Kabuntalan and whose son
was the first mentioned sultan there. This makes the line of descent
of Kabuntalan related by Babak to the line of Bwayan and by Umar Maya
to that of Magindanao. This relation to both Magindanao and Bwayan
and the intermediate position Kabuntalan holds to both Saylud and
Saraya have been very prominent factors in the history-making events
of the valley, and have successively been taken advantage of by both
Spanish and American authorities managing the affairs of the country.

Diagram No. 5 gives in a very explicit and clear manner the names of
the rulers of Kabuntalan or Bagumbayan, the order of their descent
and succession, and the relation they hold to each other. Their names
in the order of precedence are as follows:

     1. Datu Dikaya
     2. Datu Duka
     3. Datu Umar Maya
     4. Sultan Digra Alam
     5. Sultan Mohammed Alimu-d-Din
     6. Sultan sa-Barahaman
     7. Sultan Mohammed Iskandar Manamir
     8. Sultan Iskandar Sul-Karnayn
     9. Sultan Idris
    10. Sultan Abu Bakar

The diagram shows also the principal relations of Bagumbayan to Bwayan
and to Magindanao.

Very little is known about the early history of Kabuntalan. Datu Kali
Ibrahim, who is the chief judge of Bagumbayan, told the following

Soon after the arrival of Dikaya in Kabuntalan the chief people of
the village took their new datu in a boat on a little excursion. When
they had gone some distance from the village they engaged in a sham
fight and one party attacked the datu. This affair was prearranged
and planned to test the courage and power of their datu. They made
their attack with krises and bamboo lances. Dikaya was frightened and
ran away. The people lost respect for him and expelled him from the
village. Some time later he won their friendship by his good behavior
and was reinstated as datu of Kabuntalan.

The statement on page 47 that Dikaya was the son of Pulwa was taken
from the Bwayan tarsila and is added on account of the relation it
bears to the subject. The part of the tarsila of Bwayan which bears on
this subject states that Dikaya was the son of Pulwa by a concubine,
and that Dikaya begot Duka, who married Rantyan, a Malitigaw lady
whose mother was Agub. The children of Duka and Rantyan were Bulus,
Manalidtu, Puwi, and Miyandung.

As Pulwa must have lived about the year 1550, and as Digra Alam must
have ruled about the year 1770, the statement that Duka married Ambun
and begot Babak, the mother of Digra Alam, can not be accepted as
true. Some links in the list are evidently missing, but the fact is
that the right to rule Kabuntalan belonged to the descendants of Duka,
and was principally derived from Bwayan.

The first ruler of Kabuntalan addressed as sultan was Digra Alam, the
son of Umar Maya and Babak. Diagram No. 5 shows plainly that Digra
Alam must have ruled about the same time as Sultan Pakir Mawlana
Kanza of Mindanao, or his brother, Pakaru-d-Din, that is about the
year A. D. 1770.

In a treaty between the Spanish Government and the sultan of Kabuntalan
in the year 1857 the sultan is addressed as sultan of Tambao. He
must be either Sultan Iskandar Sul-Karnayn or Sultan Idris, probably
the latter.

About midway between Tambao and Libungan on the left bank of the river
is a small monument, possibly a tomb, erected in memory of those who
died during the fight between the Spaniards and Sultan Idris. In 1861
Tambao and Taviran or Tapidan were occupied by the Spaniards. In 1884
Sultan Idris submitted unconditionally to the Spanish authorities and
received their protection against Datu Utu. Datu Ayunan of Taviran,
Datu Balabadan's brother, aided the Spanish authorities in the war
against Datu Utu and was one of the most prominent datus of Talakuku
and Magindanao.




This manuscript is a copy of the original in the possession of Datu
Mastura. It was written by the same original author as Manuscript
No. II and belongs to the same class and style of composition. It
consists of nineteen paragraphs that give the names of the first
rulers or datus of nineteen datuships of Mindanao. A few Malay words
are used at the beginning of each paragraph. Each paragraph begins
as if it were written as a separate document or statement, distinct
from all the rest, and in the same manner as their letters and books
generally begin.

The Arabic words surat, riwayat, kissa, hadis, asal, meaning book,
narrative, story, discourse, origin, respectively, are all used to
signify book or history. The word tsharetra is Malay and means a
story. Sarsila or salsila and tarsila mean genealogy or history and
are used in the same sense.



1. This book tells about the ruler of Bwayan. The first ruler of
Bwayan was Pulwa, the first raja Bwayan. He begot Raja Sirungan, the
second raja Bwayan. Pulwa married the daughter of Sarip Kabungsuwan.

2. This is a statement about the ruler of the country of Mandanawi,
the Land of Peace. The first datu of Magindanao was Mangalang or
Maka-alang, the son of Sarip Kabungsuwan, from Angintabu. Maka-alang
was the second sarip; Sarip Kabungsuwan was the first.

3. This is the genealogy of the ruler of the country (or town)
of Ilanun. The first datu of Malabang was Gantar, the father of
Maka-apun and Angintabu.

4. This story tells about the ruler of Bakayawan. The first datus of
Bakayawan were Mirugung and Dimalawang.

5. This is the history of the ruler of Bayabaw. The first datu of
Bayabaw was Kalangit. His son was Pundama, who married Umpas. The end.

6. This is the history of the ruler of Balabagan. The first datu of
Balabagan was Dungkulang. His son Rimba was sultan of Balabagan. The

7. This is the history of the ruler of Pidatan. The first datu of
Pidatan was Dyam, sultan of Pidatan. He begot Punduma. Punduma begot

8. The first datu of Lumbayanági was Sultan Gulambay. He begot Ranu.

9. The first datu of Dupilas was Dindu, who was called Datu
sa-Palaw. He begot Dimalawang.

10. The first datu of Sulug was Sarip Payang, who begot Raja Hasan,
sultan of Sulug.

11. The first datu of Sangir was Makalindi. Makalindi married Timbang
Saribu and begot Manamil, sultan of Sangir.

12. The first datu of Malalis was Ampwan, sultan of Malalis.

13. The first datu of Dulangan was Alip, the son of Abu, sultan
of Dulamgan.

14. The first datu of Makadar was Sultan Limba, who also is a son
of Abu.

15. The first datu of Didagun was Abad. Abad begot Dumalundung,
who was sultan of Didagun.

16. The first datu of Barira was Dumak. Dumak begot Antagu, who was
sultan of Barira.

17. The first datu of Sikun was Amat. Amat begot Salumbay, datu
of Islnun.

18. The first datu of Kadingilan was Kapusan, the brother of Salumbay,
son of Amat.

19. The first datu of Magulalngun was Balbal, who married Maradi,
the daughter of the sultan of Tatarikun, and begot Burwa. Burwa became
sultan of Tatarikun.

Here ends the genealogy of all the countries or towns.


Before the first mass was celebrated on the northern shore of Mindanao
mosques had been built on the fertile banks of the Pulangi, and before
Legaspi landed on Cebu Kabungsuwan had been declared and acknowledged
datu of Magindanao.

The Mohammedan conqueror of Mindanao was neither an admiral of a fleet
nor a leader of an army of regular troops. He had no nation back of
him to reënforce his battalions nor a royal treasury to support his
enterprise. His expedition was not prompted by mere chivalry or the
gallant adventures of discovery. He was not looking for a new route
to rich lands nor searching for spices and gold dust. The emigrant
sought a new land to live in, and trusted his fortune and success to
the valor of his crew and the influence of his witchcraft.

Having a fair admixture of Malay blood in him and sufficient Arabian
energy and enthusiasm to push on, he came and conquered and soon
found himself at home in Mindanao as well as at Juhur. There was
no racial prejudice to contend against and the language of the new
land was akin to his own. But true to his religion, as he was true
to his ancestry, his faith suffered no defeat. No submission was
accepted without conversion, and no friendship was cultivated with
the unfaithful. He married in the land of his conquest, and the ties
of faith were soon strengthened by the ties of blood and kinship; and
as the first generation passed and the second generation followed,
the conqueror and the conquered became one in blood and sympathy,
one in faith, and one in purpose. A new dynasty which stood for
Islam, for progress, and for civilization arose on the ruins of
barbarism and heathenism. Savage and fierce as the Moros look, they
are greatly superior to the surrounding pagans who inhabit the hills
and the interior of Mindanao. Once their equals and kinsmen, they
have vastly surpassed them now and are preëminently above them. With
Mohammedanism came art and knowledge, and communication with the
outside world was established.

For four centuries two different agencies of civilization have been at
work in the Philippine Islands. One started in the north and worked
its way south, continually progressing and constantly growing in
power and improving in character. The other began in the south and
extended north, but it soon reached a definite limit, and like a tree
stunted in its growth it reverted to its wild nature and grew thorny
and fruitless. The first graft of the tree of Magindanao was not aided
by later irrigation. The first wave of immigration was not reënforced,
and with an ebb tide it lost most of its size and force.

The Moros of Mindanao figured very prominently in the history of the
Philippines. They were never united under one flag, but they formed
different sultanates, some of which attained considerable power and
fame. In the fullness of his glory, the sultan of Magindanao ruled
over the whole southern coast of Mindanao from Point Tugubum, east
of Mati, to Zamboanga, and beyond this latter point to the outskirts
of Dapitan. All the pagan tribes living around the Gulf of Davao
and in the Sarangani country, and all the Subanos west of Tukurun
and Dapitan submitted to his power and paid him tribute. In the
upper Rio Grande Valley the power of the rajas of Bwayan was felt
and respected as far as the watershed of the Cagayan Valley on the
north and the inaccessible slopes of Mount Apo on the east. The Ranao
Moros controlled the whole country and the seacoast west of Cagayan
de Misamis and north of the Illana Bay.

The large majority of the Moro sultanates are, however, small, and
have never been fully numbered or described. They generally represent
small divisions of territory and subdivisions of tribes, each under
one chief who calls himself sultan or datu. Nevertheless, tribal
relations and language group these petty divisions into two large
distinct groups, the Magindanao and the Iranun. The Magindanao group
includes the majority of the tribes. The Iranun group is restricted
to the tribes living along the eastern coast of the Bay of Illana
from the point of Polloc to the neighborhood of Tukurun, and the
whole Ranao region lying between that line and the Bay of Iligan.

The Magindanao group is the greater of the two in number, in the extent
of its territory, and in fame. Indeed, all the Moros of Mindanao,
except the Iranun, were at one time under one influence and were
brought under the sole control of the sultan of Magindanao.

The Samal Moros, who are variously classified by different writers
and who are often mentioned as one of the main divisions of the Moros
of Mindanao, are really foreign to Mindanao and belong to a distinct
and separate group. Until recently they had never been independent,
but had lived under the protection of various datus, and always served
the datu for the protection he afforded them, or paid him tribute. They
were sea rovers and had no claim on territory anywhere. Lately they
have settled down on the Island of Basilan, the Sulu Archipelago,
and around the Zamboanga peninsula. The Samals were the latest of the
Malay people to arrive in the Philippine Islands. In fact, they are
the only Malay people of whom we have positive historical statement of
emigration from the Malay Peninsula to Sulu and Mindanao, and were in
all probability Mohammedans prior to their arrival in the Philippine
Islands. With the Magindanao and Iranun peoples it is different. They
were in the land and belonged to the native element of the country
long before their conversion to Islam.

Islam was successfully introduced and firmly established in Mindanao by
one man. This same man founded the sultanate of Magindanao and reformed
the whole system of government among his converts. His full name was
Sharif Mohammed Kabungsuwan, generally known as Sharif Kabungsuwan.

Kabungsuwan was without doubt the greatest Mohammedan adventurer who
trod the soil of the island. But both the traditions of Magindanao
and its written records state that he was preceded by two pioneers,
the first of whom was Sharif Awliya. Awliya was universally regarded
as a relative and a predecessor of Kabungsuwan. His history is wrapped
in myths. He is said to have come to Mindanao in the air to search
for paradise, or that part of it which remained in Mindanao, and,
while he was looking for it on the hill of Tantawan (Cotabato), to
have found a houri who was sent to him from heaven. He married this
houri and she bore a daughter called Paramisuli. Later the sharif
returned to the west, but his wife and daughter remained in Magindanao.

The second arrival in Magindanao was Sharif Maraja, who married
Paramisuli and was thought to have begotten Tabunaway and Mamalu,
who were the chiefs of Magindanao when Kabungsuwan arrived in the
land. Sharif Maraja is said to have had a brother called Sharif Hasan,
who accompanied him as far as Basilan, but who stopped there and
founded the sultanate of Sulu. Whether Bidayan, the son of Sharif
Hasan, who is mentioned in the fourth tarsila, should be Bidin, the
abbreviated form of Zainul-Abidin, who was the first sultan of Sulu, it
is not easy to say. No copy of the Sulu genealogy has been obtained as
yet, and no authoritative statement can be made. But it is universally
believed that the first sultan of Sulu came from Basilan, and that the
ancestors of the sultans of Bruney, Sulu, and Magindanao were brothers.

Sharif Kabungsuwan was the son of Sharif Ali Zainul Abidin, a
descendant of the Prophet Mohammed who emigrated from Hadramut,
southern Arabia, to Juhur, Malay Peninsula. The sultan of Juhur, was
evidently a Mohammedan then, and was called Iskandar Thul-Karnayn,
the Arabic appellation of Alexander the Great. The word "Sharif"
is Arabic and means "noble." It is a title which is universally
given to the descendants of the Prophet Mohammed. The full title is
"Sayid Sharif," the "master and noble." The Arabians generally use the
first word, Sayid, alone, but the Moros have adopted the second. Being
highly respected on account of his ancestry, Zainul-Abidin was given
the hand of the sultan's daughter in marriage. Her name was Jusul
Asiqin, a corrupted form of the Arabic name "Jawzul-'Ashiqin." It is
generally believed that she bore three children, the youngest of whom
was called Kabungsuwan. The word "Kabungsuwan" is Malay and means
"the youngest." The names of the two older brothers of Kabungsuwan
were variously given. They were not mentioned in the tarsila and
have been obtained from mere traditions. One authority gave them as
Ahmad and Alawi, the other as Mohammed and Ahmad. Both authorities
agreed on the fact that the oldest founded the sultanate of Bruney,
and the second the sultanate of Sulu.

Kabungsuwan probably knew some Arabic, but he necessarily spoke and
used the Malay language, his mother's tongue.

The incidents connected with his departure from Juhur are
of considerable historical interest. No dates have been obtained
relative to this departure. The early Moros never dated their events or
documents. Their narratives were very brief and crude. When they dated
their events or wars they used a cycle of eight years, and designated
its years by the letters A, H, J, Z, D', B, W, D''. Whenever one
cycle ended they began another without any relation or reference to
the corresponding Mohammedan year. The earliest date that has been
obtained which has immediate bearing on Mindanao history is that
Bwisan, the father of the Corralat of Combés, was living in 1597;
the next date was that of Corralat's defeat by General Corcuera in
1636. Bwisan had two older brothers, and he was probably preceded in
the sultanate by both of them. His father, Bangkaya, was the son of
Makaalang, the son of Kabungsuwan. It will therefore be within safe
limits to say that Kabungsuwan's departure from Juhur or his arrival
in Mindanao occurred about the end of the fifteenth or the beginning
of the sixteenth century. Captain Forest, who visited Magindanao in
1775, placed that event roughly at A. D. 1475, which is near enough
to assume as correct.

Tarsila No. II states that there departed with Sharif Kabungsuwan
from Juhur many people who were dispersed by the storm and ultimately
found their way to different ports. The places to which they went were
Balimbang, Bangjar, Kuran, Tampasuk, Bruney, Sandakan, Sulu, Malabang,
Tubuk, and Mindanao. There is no doubt that this statement refers
to an emigration from Juhur east as far as Mindanao, and that with
this emigration came Kabungsuwan. The Samal people generally believe
that they came from Juhur and its neighborhood. The traditions of
Magindanao distinctly state that the people who came with Kabungsuwan
were Samals. The Samals or Bajaws are the sea nomads of the Malay
Archipelago and their emigrations are frequent.

The Samals of the Sulu Archipelago are ruled by the Sulu datus and
are generally very submissive. They are allowed to live on Sulu soil,
but they have never made themselves independent anywhere. Indeed,
all the evidence that can be obtained seems to point distinctly to
the fact that they are of late arrival and do not belong to the older
peoples of the Philippine Islands.

The early Magindanao records give the impression that the arrival of
Kabungsuwan and the conversion of the people of Magindanao to Islam
were accomplished peaceably. The word Samal is never mentioned and the
Samals are always considered as aliens in every respect. The Samals
seem never to have settled in Magindanao itself, but they did settle
for some time on the Island of Bongo or Bungud, that lies opposite the
mouth of the Pulangi, and at Batwan and Banago, near Malabang. From
these places they moved later to Sibugay and Sarangani and the Gulf
of Davao. Combés called the Samals Lutaw and said that they were in
the employ of Corralat, and manned some of his boats, fighting and
carrying on piracy side by side with the people of Magindanao and with
the Iranun. Summing up the preceding evidence, we can unhesitatingly
say that the Samals came to Magindanao with Kabungsuwan, but that
they did not settle on the soil of Magindanao, nor did they intermarry
sufficiently to assimilate with the Magindanao people.

The character of the conquest Kabungsuwan achieved and the bearing
it has on the admixture of races in Mindanao is therefore of special
interest. When Kabungsuwan arrived at the mouth of the Pulangi there
were on the neighboring soil of Magindanao the following settlements:
Slangan, Magindanao proper, Lusud, Matampay, Tagiman, and Katitwan. The
first and the last were probably the greatest and the strongest of
all, for they were the first to meet Kabungsuwan and interrupted his
advance at Tinundan. After some fighting they were evidently defeated
and retreated up the river. The people of Magindanao, under the
leadership of the brothers Tabunaway and Mamalu, came next, but their
attitude was not hostile. For some reason they secured an alliance
or agreement with Kabungsuwan and invited him to Magindanao. They
submitted to a form of Mohammedan baptism and to circumcision, and
towed Kabungsuwan's boat from that place up to Magindanao. Hence the
meaning of the word tinundan, the place of towing. The ceremony for
circumcision occurred at Katuri, the little settlement on the river
just opposite Cotabato; the baptism or washing occurred at Paygwan
at the mouth of the river. The word katuri means circumcision.

The dumatus urge that Tabunaway and Mamalu had been Mohammedans
previous to that incident and that they had some intimate relation to
Kabungsuwan. This is possible, but it is very difficult to understand
how such a submission could have been enforced or obtained had
Kabungsuwan been a mere relative and guest whom they had never seen
before. The people of Magindanao proper were, even in the best days
of the sultanate, far outnumbered by the people of Slangan. Yet,
soon after his arrival in Magindanao, Kabungsuwan went on conquering
and converting to Islam all the surrounding tribes and chiefs, and
succeeded. This seems impossible of achievement unless Kabungsuwan
had some force with him which commanded the fear and respect of the
natives, and which, with the aid of Magindanao, was able to carry his
arms to victory over all the neighboring native chiefs and tribes of
the land. This force was in all probability made up of the Samals who
accompanied him from Juhur and who remained in his service and in the
neighboring seas for a certain period of time. But having married in
Mindanao, the succession to Kabungsuwan's sultanate naturally reverted
to the native element, and the Samals were gradually alienated and
their sympathy with their master grew steadily weaker. Not being
agricultural in their habits and preferring the sea, they gradually
withdrew from Magindanao. The natives proved superior to the Samals
and, though converted to Islam, they preserved, to a great extent,
their own identity and their language. Knowing how insignificant the
former chiefs and their settlements had been, it is not difficult for
us to conceive how Kabungsuwan, with a small foreign force but with
superior talent and with superior arms, could so easily accomplish the
conquest of Magindanao. It is commonly believed that the natives who
fought Kabungsuwan had no swords and depended chiefly on their wooden
arrows as implements of war, and that the Mohammedans who attacked
the natives fought with swords and gained an easy victory. Possibly
they used gunpowder, too.

The inhabitants of Slangan, Magindanao, Katitwan, and those of
all the other settlements of the valley were pagans and were very
similar to the present Tirurays in language and worship. Those who
adopted the new religion remained in the rich lowlands of the valley,
but those who refused fled to the mountains and have stayed away ever
since. Those who wavered in accepting the new terms of submission and
who were later suffered to stay in the neighboring hills were called
Tiruray. Those who refused to submit, fled to more distant places,
and kept up their enmity and opposition were called Manobos. The pagans
who are thus spoken of as related to the Moros of Mindanao in origin,
besides the above, are the Bilans, the Tagabilis, and the Subanos.

Every settlement of these former pagan tribes had its chief. The
chief was called timway. Tabunaway was the last timway of
Magindanao. Manumbali was the last timway of Slangan. The Tirurays and
the Manobos still call their chief timway. The ruler of the Mohammedan
dynasty assumed the title of datu. The noun datu means king or ruler;
the verb datu means to rule. Kabungsuwan retained the title sharif. His
son Maka-alang also is always referred to as sharif. Later the term
datu prevailed, and the first datu who is mentioned in the tarsila
as sultan was Sultan Qudrat, whom Combés called Corralat.

Soon after Kabungsuwan had established his power in Magindanao he
received the submission of many chiefs, all of whom he converted to
Islam. Later he advanced up the valley to Bwayan and along the coast
to Malabang. Some believe that he went to the Ranao country, but it
is difficult to support all the statements made. His descendants and
his converts carried on the war and the conversion, so that before
the Spaniards reached their country their conquest and conversion
had reached the present limits.

The story of Putri Tunina and her marriage to Kabungsuwan is
universally known to the Moros of Mindanao. The custom of burying the
dead next to the house, as practiced by Tabunaway, is still common
everywhere, and trees are often planted around the tomb.

By Sarabanun, the sister of Tabunaway, Kabungsuwan begot no
children. By Putri Tunina he begot three daughters, one of whom, Putri
Mamur, married the first Moslem datu of Bwayan, Malang-sa-Ingud. At
Malabang Kabungsuwan married Angintabu, the daughter of the chief of
that place, and begot Sharif Maka-alang, who succeeded him.

The people of Magindanao who aided Kabungsuwan in his wars secured
from him certain privileges and favors over their neighbors. These
privileges are still claimed by the dumatus, the present descendants
of Tabunaway. They have not paid tribute to the datus and have often
intermarried with the datu class. It was different with the people
of Slangan. The descendants of Manumbali and his subjects all became
subjects and servants to the datus. Their descendants are, however,
still known and live in Lugaylugay, about 1 mile below Cotabato,
and on the same side of the Pulangi.

Little is known about Sharif Maka-alang. He in all probability ruled
in Magindanao, not in Malabang. His wife was a Bilan woman related
to Parasab, a Bilan chief.

Bangkaya succeeded Maka-alang and married three wives, daughters of
the principal chiefs of Slangan, Magindanao, and Matampay, by each
one of whom he begot a son. His sons were Dimasangkay, Gugu Sarikula,
and Kapitan Lawut Bwisan, all of whom become datus and succeeded to
the rule of Magindanao in order. Sarikula married a Sulu princess
called Raja Putri, who was supposed to be the noblest lady of her
day in Magindanao and who probably was the daughter of the sultan
of Sulu. The word Putri is equivalent to "princess," and Raja Putri
means "royal princess." Kapitan means "holder" or "leader." Lawut is
a Malay word meaning "sea." Bwis means "tax." Kapitan Lawut Bwisan
distinguished himself more than his predecessors and was the most
powerful enemy Spain encountered in the south in her first effort
to reduce the Moro land. In 1597, in company with Silungan, the raja
of Bwayan, he checked the invasion of Marquis Rodriguez and defeated
him at Tampakan.

Bwisan was succeeded by his son, Sultan Dipatwan Qudrat, the Corralat
of Combés. The word Dipatwan is Malay in origin and means "master"
or "sir." The word qudrat is Arabic and means "power." The letters d
and r and r and l are interchangeable in Moro, and the word qudrat
is commonly pronounced kudlat or kurlat; hence the corrupted form
"Corralat." Sultan Qudrat overshadowed his father, Bwisan, and ruled
with a strong hand. He was probably the strongest and greatest Mindanao
sultan that ever lived. He fought the Spaniards bitterly and held
their sovereignty in check for many years. His pirates terrorized
Luzon and the Visayas and controlled the southern seas for a long time.

In 1636 General Corcuera led an expedition against him and
after considerable difficulty reduced his fort and defeated his
forces. Qudrat appears to have had a large number of firearms, and
his fort was very strongly fortified. The Spaniards captured 8 bronze
cannons, 27 lantaka or culverins, and 100 muskets.

In 1645 his relations with Spain had undergone a distinct change. He
had become more powerful, but he was desirous of peace and made a
treaty with the Spanish Government. This treaty was in the nature of an
alliance for mutual aid and protection. It secured better commercial
facilities and gave the Jesuits the privilege of building a church in
the sultan's capital. Thirteen years later hostilities were renewed
and another campaign was directed against Simway. This time Qudrat
succeeded in blocking the river at different places and successfully
checked the invasion.

Qudrat was followed by his son, Dundang Tidulay, of whom very little
is known. Sultan Dundang Tidulay begot Sultan Mohammed sa-Barahaman
and Sultan Mohammed Kaharu-d-Din Kuda. Barahaman ruled peacefully and
begot several children, two of whom, Japar Sadik Manamir and Dipatwan
Anwar, became sultans.

After the death of Sultan Barahaman his son Manamir was declared
sultan. As Manamir was very young, his succession was considered
illegal and an act of enmity directed against his uncle, Kuda. Kuda
therefore "usurped the government and went to Simway, carrying with
him the effects of the deceased sultan."

Civil war ensued and the peace of the state was greatly disturbed. This
war must have lasted more than thirty years, and its story is variously
related by the Moros. The tarsila do not mention it at all. The best
description was given by Captain Forest, who learned its details
from the mouth of Pakir Mawlana, the chief person who conducted the
campaign and terminated the struggle.

Kuda invited a party of Sulus living in Magindanao to Simway to support
him against his nephew. The Sulus came, but finding him with only a
small force, they treacherously murdered him and plundered his camp and
possessed themselves of many pieces of heavy cannon, which Kuda had
transported from Magindanao to Simway. "The Sulus returned home with
their booty, and Manamir's party got the ascendency." But the Sulus,
conscious of their iniquity and fearful of resentment when peace should
be restored, fomented trouble between Manamir and his brother Anwar,
and supported the latter. The state was again divided against itself,
and the second struggle proved worse than the first. Skirmishes
were kept up and nightly attacks and assassinations were continued
until both sides were very much weakened. Their enmity grew bitter
and Malinug, the son of Anwar, killed his uncle Manamir. Manamir
was the rightful sultan, and on account of his assassination
he has ever since been called Sahid Mupat, which means "died a
martyr." Pakir Mawlana and Pakaru-d-Din, the sons of Sahid Mupat,
were obliged to leave Magindanao, and retired to Tamontaka. "The
country then suffered much. The great palace at the town was first
plundered and then burned. In the conflagration many of the houses
of Magindanao were destroyed, as was also a great part of the town
of Slangan. The groves of cocoanut trees were also mostly destroyed,
as being convenient and at hand to make palisades for temporary forts."

In the meantime Sultan Anwar died at Batwa and has ever since been
referred to as Mupat Batwa, which means "died in Batwa." Malinug
assumed the sultanate after his father's death and kept up the fight.

"After a tedious, desultory war, Malinug fled up the Pulangi to
Bwayan. Pakir Mawlana then got possession of all the lands about
Magindanao, and peace was made soon after. Malinug died a natural
death, and some time later his two sons visited Pakir Mawlana."

Pakir Mawlana was a man of low stature, smiling countenance,
and communicative disposition. He acquired a great reputation
for wisdom and bravery during the civil war, which he brought to
a happy conclusion. He spoke Malay and wrote the best tarsila of
Magindanao. Magindanao flourished in his day and regained its former
glory and prosperity. His pirates invaded the Celebes and had several
encounters with Dutch and English vessels, often with success. His
relations with Spain were friendly, but Spain had very little influence
outside of the Zamboanga colony.

The greater part of Magindanao was in his days built on the point
and the adjacent narrow strip of land which lies at the junction of
the Matampay and the Pulangi and between them. A longitudinal raised
street began at the point and extended for half a mile to a canal
which was cut from river to river. More than 150 houses were situated
on both sides of this street. The other part of the town of Magindanao
did not exceed 20 houses. The town of Slangan was really continuous
with Magindanao and extended for about half a mile down the river,
forming one continuous street. Slangan was the larger town and had
over 200 houses. Both towns had large numbers of mechanics, vessel
builders, and merchants. Many Chinese carpenters, arrack distillers,
and millers lived in both towns, but chiefly in Slangan. Gardens and
rice fields surrounded the town. The chief datus at that time had
forts and kept small bodies of troops as bodyguards and artillery
corps to take care of the muskets and guns. Kibad Sahriyal, son
of the sultan, had the best and strongest fort at that time. This
fort was called Kuta Intang (diamond fort) and was located at the
extreme point of the land and commanded the river and the town. The
fort had five pieces of cannon, 6 and 9 pounders, and a large number
of swivels and lantaka. The Magindanao warriors of those days wore
armor coats and helmets and carried krises, spears, and shields. The
natives made gunpowder and secured their saltpeter from a cave near
Taviran. They built vessels of all dimensions and cruised as far as
Java and the Celebes. Their vessels were always long for the breadth
and very broad for their draft of water.

In 1774 Mawlana retired from office in favor of his brother,
Pakaru-d-Din. Pakar was a weaker man than his brother and
practically had very little control over affairs, and always acted
in important state questions with the advice and consent of Kibad,
his nephew. During his time the English tried to get Bongo Island
and to establish a footing near the mouth of the Pulangi.

Sultan Pakaru-d-Din was succeeded by Kibad Sahriyal, who possessed
many of the good qualities of his father and ruled with firmness and
success. In the meantime the power of Spain in Mindanao had revived
and her forces became active again. Kibad maintained friendly relations
with Spain and signed a treaty with her in 1794, in which he promised
not to enter into any treaty or agreement with another power.

Like his father he had many wives and concubines and begot many
children, chief among whom are Sultan Kawasa and Alamansa Sul-Karnayn.

Kawasa succeeded his father and maintained the dignity of his office
and the prosperity of his sultanate. He is often called Anwaru-d-Din
(lights of religion) and Amiru-l-Umara (the prince of the princes). He
had many children, chief of whom was Intirinu or Amirul.

Alamansa died at Dansalan. He had many children, two of whom were Raja
Twa, and Datu Dakula, the prince of Sibugay. Raja Twa begot Untung
and Perti. The nation looked to Raja Twa to succeed Sultan Kawasa,
but he died before his uncle, and the sultanate fell to his young son,
Untung. Intirinu was rejected for family reasons and Datu Dakula was
set aside to give representation to the favorite house of Twa.

Untung was known as Sultan Sakandar Qudratu-l-Lah (Alexander, the
power of God). He was also surnamed Jamalu-l-A'lam (A'zham), which
means "greatest beauty." Qudrat the Second was the last sultan who
observed all the customs and rites of the sultanate. He was young
when he assumed power, and his reign marked the beginning of the
downfall of the sultanate and the actual occupation by Spain of the Rio
Grande Valley. In the treaty of 1837 he submitted to the sovereignty
of Spain and accepted the subordinate title of Feudatory King of
Tamontaka. Spain appointed his successor and prohibited his people
from invading any territory west of Point Flechas. She regulated the
licensing of boats sailing beyond Zamboanga and erected a trading
house at Paygwan, at the mouth of the Rio Grande.

In 1843 Datu Dakula ceded to Spain the west coast of the Zamboanga
peninsula, promised to aid in suppressing slavery, and acknowledged
Spanish protection.

In 1845 Sultan Qudrat confirmed the treaty of 1837, with a more
definite submission, and allowed the establishment of a Spanish
trading house at Cotabato.

This aggression on the part of Spain was prompted by her increased
strength and an additional naval revival. Steamboats and improved
firearms ended Moro aggression and solved the Moro question. In 1851
Polloc was occupied and was made a naval station. In 1857 Spanish boats
advanced as far up as Tambao and drew up a treaty with the sultan of
Talakuku in which he acknowledged his surrender and his submission to
the authority of Spain. In 1861 camps were established at Cotabato,
Libungan, Tambao, Taviran, and Tamontaka.

Sultan Qudrat begot Mamaku, Ambuludtu, Mastura, Raja Putri, and
others. Mamaku is the present Raja Muda of Magindanao and lives at
Cran, Sarangani. Ambuludtu and Mastura are living at Nuling, about
1 mile above Cotabato. Raja Putri, generally known as the Princesa,
was Datu Utu's wife.

Sultan Mohammed Makakwa, the son of Intirinu, succeeded Qudrat. He was
the last sultan of Magindanao who lived in Cotabato. The Spaniards
paid him a monthly salary of 70 pesos, but kept him under complete
control. In his days modern Cotabato was built, and in 1871 it was
made the capital of Mindanao. An earthquake destroyed the town that
year, and in 1872 it was abandoned as capital in favor of Zamboanga.

Makakwa died about 1883, and his son, Pablu, became sultan. Pablu's
full title was Sultan Mohammed Jalalu-d-Din Pablu. He lived at Banubu,
opposite Cotabato, and was the last sultan who received a salary from
the Spanish Government.

In 1884 the Spanish engaged the forces of Idris, the sultan of
Talakuku, on the banks of the river at Tambao and completely defeated
him. Idris then signed a treaty acknowledging unconditional surrender
and submission.

During Pablu's life General Terrero conducted the campaign of 1886-87
against Datu Utu of Bwayan, and the Spanish gunboats destroyed every
fort on the river.

Datu Utu resisted the Spanish invasion vigorously and repeatedly,
but he was repeatedly defeated, and the Moros of the Rio Grande felt
convinced that the arms of Spain were much superior to their own, and
have submitted peacefully ever since. Pablu's sultanate was nominal and
powerless. In 1888 Pablu died, and the seat of the sultanate remained
vacant until about 1896. Pablu died without a male heir. Mamaku,
the Raja Muda of Magindanao, did not meet the requirements of the
sultanate, so the sultanate passed over to the house of Datu Dakula
the First. The prince of Sibugay had three sons, Pagat, Puyu or
Jamalu-l-Kiram, and Datu Dakula the Second. Pugat, the eldest, begot
Mamuppun, the last prince of Sibugay, and Mangigin. Datu Dakula the
Second begot Datu Dakula the Third, who lives at Kumaladan, at the
head of Damanquilas Bay. Mamuppun was passed over by the council of
the datus in favor of Mangigin, the present sultan.

Mangigin is a weak man. After his succession he went to Libungan and
lived there during Spanish rule. After the Spanish evacuation and
after the attack on Cotabato by Datus Ali, Jimbangan, and Piang, which
occurred in 1899, he became fearful of the Saraya datus and returned
to peaceful Sibugay, his birthplace and the land of his father.

In her conquest of Mindanao Spain directed her forces against the
district of Sibugay first, and then against Mindanao. The district of
Sibugay was in a state of complete submission before the Rio Grande
Moros were controlled. The subjection of Sibugay advanced to such
an extent that in 1896 the region was divided into three districts,
to each one of which a datu was assigned by Spanish authority. The
datus received orders and directions from the governor of Zamboanga
direct, and an annual tax of one real was imposed upon every Subano
and Moro male above the age of 18 years.




The Mohammedan conquerors of Mindanao and Sulu established a new
form of government planned on lines similar to those of the Arabian
caliphate, and adopted written codes of law for guidance in the
administration of the state. In all probability the art of writing was
not known in Mindanao and Sulu prior to the Mohammedan invasion. The
author has no knowledge of the existence of any written law among the
pagan tribes of Mindanao, nor of any written material that antedates
Islam in Mindanao or Sulu. The Moros are not savage, though they
seem so at first sight. As early as the end of the fifteenth century
they could read and write. Mohammedanism encouraged education and
invited learning. The Arabic alphabet was applied to the Mindanao
tongue, and old Arabic and Malay books on religion and law were
translated into the native Magindanao and Ranao dialects. The Moros
of Magindanao have translations of the Quran, Hadeeth, some books
on law, some commentaries on the Quran, some magic, and other varied
literature. Their original writings in the Magindanao tongue consist
of many genealogies and stories.

The Sulu Moros have done the same. They acted independently, but on
the same general lines.

The languages of Mindanao and Sulu are members of the general Malayan
family of languages, but they differ so much as to render intercourse
impracticable without an interpreter. The Moros are several tribes,
and each tribe differs as much from the others as the Visayan and
the Ilocano and the Igorot tribes differ one from another.

The laws of these tribes are different. They came from similar sources,
but they were worked out and compiled separately and independently. The
present chapter includes the best official codes of Magindanao
and Sulu. The manuscripts themselves are undoubtedly authentic and
complete. Every care has been taken to render the translations as
accurate and complete and useful as possible.



The term Luwaran, which the Mindanao Moros apply to their code of
law, means "selection" or "selected." The laws that are embodied in
the Luwaran are selections from old Arabic law and were translated
and compiled for the guidance and information of the Mindanao datus,
judges, and pandita who do not understand Arabic. The Mindanao copies
of the Luwaran give no dates at all, and nobody seems to know when this
code was made. They say it was prepared by the Mindanao judges some
time ago, but none of those judges is known by name. Datu Mastura's
copy of this code was written about 1886, and it is undoubtedly copied
from some older manuscript. The original manuscript [11] accompanying
this code is older still, but it bears no date at all.

The Arabic books quoted in the Luwaran are Minhaju-l-Arifeen,
Taqreebu-l-Intifa, Fathu-l-Qareeb, and Miratu-t-Tullab. The first
of these, generally known as the Minhaj, is the chief authority
quoted. Datu Utu had an old copy of the Minhaj that looked more than
two hundred years old. The author of the Minhaj must have lived in
the ninth or tenth century. The compilation of the Luwaran must have
been made before the middle of the eighteenth century.

Each Mindanao datu is assisted in the administration of justice by a
judge and a vizier. The judge is called Datu Kali. The word kali is
derived from the Arabic word meaning "judge." The Datu Kali is the
chief pandita of the district and is supposed to be the best-informed
man of the community. The pandita is the scholar who can read and
write and perform the functions of a priest. The vizier is called
"wazir;" he is a pandita, too, and acts in a semijudicial and clerical
capacity. Mohammedan law being based on the teachings of the Quran,
the chief pandita of the district is naturally regarded as the most
competent expounder of the law and the best-fitted person in the
community to act as a judge. As the wazir is a pandita, he should be
a well-informed and wise man. Some datus are pandita themselves, and
some take all matters into their own hands and delegate none of their
offices or duties to a judge or a vizier; but this is the exception,
not the rule.

In making the Luwaran the Mindanao judges selected such laws as in
their judgment suited the conditions and the requirements of order
in Mindanao. They used the Arabic text as a basis, but constructed
their articles in a concrete form, embodying genuine examples and
incidents of common occurrence in Mindanao. In some places they
modified the sense of the Arabic so much as to make it agree with the
prevailing customs of their country. In a few instances they made
new articles which do not exist in Arabic but which conform to the
national customs and common practices. The authority of the Luwaran
is universally accepted in Mindanao and is held sacred next to that
of the Quran. The Mindanao judge is at liberty to use either of them
as his authority for the sentence to be rendered, but as a rule a
quotation from the Quran bearing on the subject is desirable.

All datus and viziers and all persons acting in the capacity of a
chief or a vizier find the Luwaran very convenient and helpful. Very
few people can become kali, but all who are able to read can study
and use the Luwaran. Consequently the Luwaran has had general use, and
copies of it are seen in all the districts that speak the Magindanao
dialect. To establish this fact copies of it were secured from the
ruling datus of Bagumbayan and of Saraya or the upper valley.

The copy [12] secured from Datu Mastura is by far the most complete
of all. The text is well written, neat, and distinct. The original
Arabic articles are written separately on the margin of the book
and opposite the Magindanao articles with which they were supposed
to correspond. Datu Mastura is the best living descendant and
representative of the house of Mindanao, and he probably owns the
most reliable books and documents that have been transmitted from
the previous generations.

This book is certainly the best specimen of Magindanao literature;
it is genuine, correct, and well written. On account of inability to
secure the book itself, an accurate and exact copy of the same was
taken. The Magindanao articles are written separately and are numbered
for convenience in reference. The translation is not exactly literal,
but nearly so.

The Arabic marginal quotations are copied separately and are numbered
in the order in which they appeared in the original copy. They
are also translated, and a table indicating the Arabic quotation
which corresponds to each article of the Luwaran is attached to the
introduction to the translation.

In actual practice the Moros do not distinguish between custom and
law. Many of their customs are given the force of law, and many laws
are set aside on account of contradiction to the prevailing customs
of the day.

Slavery is such an established custom and institution of the land
that it is generally sanctioned and supported in the Luwaran.

An oath on the Quran is so firmly binding and the fear of perjury is
so strong in the mind of the Moro that oaths are generally taken and
are always regarded as sufficient confirmation even in the absence
of evidence.

The Moros are not strict nor just in the execution of the law. The
laws relating to murder, adultery, and inheritance are seldom strictly
complied with. Indeed, the laws of inheritance as given in the Luwaran
are generally disregarded and are seldom considered at all. Mohammedan
law does not recognize classes, except the slave class. But Moro law is
not applied equally to all classes. Great preference is shown the datu
class, and little consideration is given to the children of concubines.

The Luwaran, nevertheless, is the recognized law of the land and
compliance with it is a virtue.


In the name of God the Compassionate and Merciful, praise be to God,
who led us to the faith and religion of Islam. May God's blessing be
with our master Mohammed and with all his people and followers.

The following articles are taken from the Minhaj and Fathu-l-Qareeb
and Taqreebu-l-Intifa and Mir-atu-t-Tullab and have been translated
from the Arabic into the Java (Malay) dialect of Mindanao, the land
of peace:

Article I

If two people disagree as to the ownership of a certain property,
the actual possessor has the right to the property if he swears to
that effect. In case both of them are in actual possession of the
property, both ought to swear. If both of them swear to that effect,
the property shall be divided between them equally. If only one person
swears, the property shall be given to that person alone.

Article II

If a person borrows an article and loses it, he shall replace it
or pay its value. The same rule shall apply in case the article is
stolen. There shall also be paid a reasonable additional compensation
for the lost article.

Article III

If a person borrows an ax or a button, and the ax is broken or the
button lost while being used for the purpose for which it was loaned,
and not on account of carelessness, the lost article shall not be
replaced. But if the ax is used at a place overhanging the water or
is used to cut a stock of bamboo without being well tied or fastened,
and is lost, it shall then be replaced.

Article IV

If two persons disagree as to whether or not a certain debt has been
paid and have no witness to the fact, the plaintiff's claim shall be
sustained in case he confirms it by an oath. In case he refuses to
take an oath the defendant's claim shall be sustained.

Article V

If a person intrusts another with his property and later calls for
it and it is denied him on the plea that it has been taken back or
that it was lost, and no witness can be obtained, the trustee's plea
shall be sustained if he confirms it by oath.

Article VI

If a person enters a claim to his lost property which has been found
and kept by another person, and the finder refuses to deliver the
property on the plea that it is his own property and that it has been
in his possession for a long time, and there be a witness who testifies
that the property is a find and not an old possession of the finder,
the finder shall return the property found and pay a compensation of
one cuspidor or two.

Article VII

The seizer of another's property shall return the seized property
and pay an additional amount proportional to the interest derived
from the property.

Article VIII

If a person enters the house of another at night without the consent
of the owner thereof, and the said owner complains of the offense,
the defendant shall be fined four cuspidors.

Article IX

If a man enters the house of another with the intention of holding
private intercourse with a woman therein with whom it is unlawful
for him to associate privately, and the woman objects, he shall be
fined four cuspidors or four pesos, or shall suffer from twenty to
thirty-nine lashes, or shall be slapped on his face, at the discretion
of the judge.

Article X

If a woman comes into the house of a man with the intention of marrying
him and of living with him, and the man refuses to marry her and she
is later taken away by her people, the man shall not be liable to
fine or punishment.

Article XI

Section 1. If a man divorces his wife after the conclusion of the
marriage act or ceremonies, and before any sexual intercourse has
taken place, the woman shall have half of the dower only. If the
divorce occurs after sexual intercourse has taken place, the woman
shall have all the dower.

Sec. 2. If a man refuses to marry a woman after having been engaged to
her, the whole dower shall be returned to him, excepting the expenses
for the feast incurred by the father of the woman.

Article XII

If a person curses or abuses another person without cause, he shall
be fined not more than three cuspidors.

Article XIII

Section 1. If a person falsely claims another person as his slave,
he shall be fined the value of one slave.

Sec. 2. If a person defames another person by calling him balbal
(a human being who transforms at night into an evil spirit which
devours dead people) or poisoner, he shall be fined one slave or the
value of one slave.

Article XIV

If both the giver and the receiver understand that a return gift shall
be made for a certain given property and the receiver fails to make
the gift, the giver can take back the gift.

Article XV

No gift given without expectation of reward can be recovered after the
receiver has had possession of it. But if the giver changes his mind
before the receiver takes possession of the gift, the giver resumes
his ownership of the given property.

Article XVI

Property the gift of parents to their child shall be recoverable if
it has not been expended or destroyed.

Article XVII

In the discretion of the judge and the datu, a thief of property
amounting to the value of one malong or more shall have his hand
cut off and shall return the stolen property. If the stolen property
does not amount to the value of one malong, the thief shall suffer
thirty-nine lashes or pay a fine of four cuspidors.

Article XVIII

If there is any doubt of the truth of evidence or the truthfulness
of a witness, they shall be confirmed by oath.

Article XIX

Testimony of a slave which is detrimental to himself shall be accepted.

Article XX

Testimony of children and of the insane or imbecile shall be held

Article XXI

If a person enters a house without permission and in the absence of
the owner, he shall be held responsible for and shall restore or pay
for any article that may be found missing from said house. A person
who enters the field of another shall likewise be held responsible
for and shall restore or pay for any article that may be found missing
from said field.

Article XXII

If a person loans or sells to a slave without the knowledge or consent
of the master of the slave, the person who loans or sells shall be
guilty of a misdemeanor; and the master of the slave shall not be
held responsible for the transaction of his slave.

Article XXIII

If in the course of an agreement for the sale of property questions
arise respecting the price or the amount of the sold property,
and no witness can be obtained, the seller shall be sustained if he
confirms his statement by oath; but the statement of the buyer shall
be sustained if the seller fails to take oath.

Article XXIV

If the seller and the buyer differ as to whether a certain defect in
the purchased property developed prior to or later than the date of
the purchase, the seller's statement shall be sustained if he confirms
it by oath; otherwise the buyer's statement shall be sustained.

Article XXV

If after the purchase of property the buyer discovers a defect in the
property which existed prior to the sale or purchase, he may return
the property to the seller and pay him a reasonable compensation
proportional to the decrease occasioned in the value of the property
through the detection of the defect; and the buyer shall then recover
the purchase price of the property.

Article XXVI

No purchased property shall be returnable to the seller on account
of a defect therein which has developed after the sale.

Article XXVII

If a person buys a slave and later discovers a defect in him and
returns him to the seller, but the seller denies the slave's identity,
the statement of the seller shall be sustained if he confirms it by
oath; otherwise the statement of the buyer shall be sustained. Similar
cases pertaining to other kinds of property shall be judged similarly.

Article XXVIII

It shall be lawful to return promptly purchased property which is
defective. The return shall not be delayed longer than prayer time
or mealtime, or one night in event of the purchase having been made
in the evening.

Article XXIX

If a creditor dies and his heirs sue his debtor, but the debtor denies
the debt on the plea that the deceased creditor gave him as a gift,
or in charity, or that he has paid for that for which he is sued,
and there is no witness, the heir must swear. Failure to swear on the
part of the heir shall render the debtor free from payment of the debt.

Article XXX

If a person buys property or a slave, and another person recognizes
the slave or property as his own and lays claim thereto, and is
able to produce a witness to that effect, the buyer shall return
the purchased property or the slave to the seller, but shall recover
whatever he has paid.

Article XXXI

If a person finds his property in the possession of another, and
is able to recover it without any injury or injustice, he shall be
justified in so doing. But in the event of an objection being raised
to the recovery or in case an injury or injustice is unavoidable in
recovering the property, he shall present the matter to the datu
and to the judge, after which it shall be justifiable for him to
take his property even though it be necessary to break through a
door or through walls to do so. Under any circumstances he shall
have the right to recover his property, or its equivalent in kind,
or any other substitute not in excess of the value of the property.

Article XXXII

If, while a person is spying on the house of another, the occupants
throw a stone or other thing out of the house and thereby cause the
death of the spy, no guilt shall be attached to their action.

Article XXXIII

If the provisions or the fowls of a person are eaten by cats or cattle,
and the owners thereof are notified by the injured person to secure
their animal or animals, and the warning or notice is disregarded so
that the provisions or fowls are eaten up, the owners of the cats or
cattle shall be held responsible for the loss.

Article XXXIV

Section 1. If a person seduces or cohabits with a female slave,
held by him as security for debt, with the knowledge or consent of
the debtor, he shall not be held guilty; but he shall give her a dower.

Sec. 2. If the seduction or cohabitation occurs without the consent
of the debtor, the creditor shall be liable to a fine, or shall give
the woman a dower to be paid to the debtor.

Sec. 3. If the creditor begets a child of the slave held as security
in the preceding section, he shall buy the child from the debtor;
otherwise the child shall become the slave of the debtor.

Article XXXV

If the creditor and the debtor differ as to the security or its amount,
the debtor's statement shall be sustained if confirmed by oath;
otherwise the statement of the creditor shall be sustained.

Article XXXVI

If the security is lost and no blame is attached to the creditor,
he shall not be held responsible for the loss, and the debtor shall
not be relieved from his debt.

Article XXXVII

If a principal and his agent differ, and the agent claims that he
has acted in accordance with the orders of his principal, and the
claim be denied by the principal, the statement of the latter shall
be sustained if confirmed by oath.


If a married woman commits adultery, both adulterer and adulteress
shall suffer eighty lashes. If the lashes are changed or reduced to
a fine, half the number of the woman's lashes shall be added to the
man's fine.

Article XXXIX

If a person charges another with the payment of his debt, and the
creditor sues the proxy for the unpaid debt, but the proxy claims to
have paid the same, the creditor's statement shall be sustained if
confirmed by oath.

Article XL

If a man seduces a maiden, both shall suffer one hundred lashes,
and the man shall marry the woman and live with her even though he
is married.

Article XLI

The statement of the plaintiff shall be sustained if confirmed by a
witness. If there is no witness, the defendant shall take an oath.

Article XLII

If slaves commit adultery, both man and woman shall suffer fifty

Article XLIII

If a married man commits adultery with a free woman, both shall
be stoned to death. The punishment of the man may be reduced to
imprisonment. The woman shall be buried up to her chest and be stoned
with medium-sized stones.

Article XLIV

If a free man seduces a maiden slave, the property of another person,
and she becomes pregnant and dies during childbirth, the seducer
shall then pay the value of the slave to her owner.

Article XLV

If a bachelor or widower commits adultery and is killed by a
non-Mohammedan, the non-Mohammedan shall be put to death. But a
Mohammedan who may kill such an adulterer shall not be put to death.

Article XLVI

If a man recognizes his cattle or his trees in another's charge and
notifies him of the fact, and has a witness to confirm his statement
that the cattle or trees are his, he shall be entitled to the produce
of the cattle or of the trees although they remain in the charge
of the other. Likewise, if a slave who has been lost is recognized
by his master in the charge of another person, and the master of the
slave notifies that person of the fact that the slave is his and has a
witness to confirm his statement, he shall be entitled to whatever his
slave may produce if he remains in the charge of the person aforesaid.

Article XLVII

If a man rents a field of another with the intention of cultivating
it, but later fails to do so and returns it to the owner thereof, he
shall be liable for the rent and shall pay the same at harvest time,
as though he had cultivated the land and reaped the produce. Likewise,
if a boat is hired, the hire thereof shall be paid to its owner,
whether or not it has been used for the intended travel.

Article XLVIII

If a slave runs away and enters the house of a certain person, or if
a person finds a runaway slave, the owner of which is known to him
but to whom he fails to give notice of the fact, and the slave again
runs away, he, the finder, shall be responsible for the slave to the
owner thereof.

Article XLIX

If a married man leaves his home on a long journey and nothing is
heard of him, his wife shall not have the right to marry another;
but if she learns that he has died or that he has divorced her,
she shall then wait four years, after which she shall observe the
customary mourning for his death; then she may marry again. The judges
shall be careful not to change this decree in order that their power
and influence may not suffer.

Article L

If a boat is in danger of sinking, it shall be right and proper to
throw its cargo overboard. But if a man throws away property without
the knowledge of the owner thereof, and the boat does not sink, he
shall replace the property. If a person tells another to throw his
property overboard, promising to replace it, and the property is thrown
overboard but the boat does not sink, he shall replace the property;
but where there has been no promise to replace the property he shall
not be held liable.

Article LI

Section 1. If a debtor dies, his debts shall be payable from his
estate, his estate being regarded in the nature of a security.

Sec. 2. If a debtor dies and leaves no estate, his heirs shall not
be liable for his debt. By heirs is here meant parents, children,
brothers, sisters, grandchildren, or grandparents.

Sec. 3. If a debtor dies and leaves an estate to his heirs, the estate
shall be expended in payment of his debts whether it is sufficient
in amount or not.

Sec. 4. If the heirs divide their inheritance before they know of the
existence of a claim for debt against the estate, they shall return
their shares to pay the debt, whether the inheritance is sufficient
or not; and if they have used their inheritance prior to the knowledge
of the debt, they shall pay out of their own property an amount equal
thereto in payment of the debt.

Article LII

If a man orders another to shoot at a deer, believing that he is
ordering him to shoot at a deer, and the person shoots believing also
that he is shooting at a deer, but hits a man, neither the shooter nor
the man who has ordered him to shoot shall be liable to punishment,
but shall pay only a light fine as blood money. Likewise, if a man
orders another to shoot at a tree, believing that he is ordering
him to shoot at a tree, and the person shoots, believing also that
he is shooting at a tree, but hits a man, neither the shooter nor
the man who has ordered him to shoot shall be liable to punishment,
but shall pay only a light fine as blood money.

Article LIII

In case a person orders another person to climb up a tree and the
climber falls from the tree, there shall be no liability to punishment,
whether the person dies or not. A medium fine only shall be paid as
blood money.

Article LIV

If a female slave in the possession of a certain person has a child
which is recognized by another person as his own child and born of
the slave during her stay in his possession, and the claim is denied
by her present owner and there is a witness to the truth of the claim,
the plaintiff shall confirm his testimony by oath. Failure to confirm
this testimony by oath and the lack of conclusive evidence that the
child is a free child, begotten by the plaintiff of the slave, shall
render the claim null.

Article LV

If a man recognizes a slave whom he has liberated in the possession
of another man who denies the claim, and there is a witness who
bears out the claim of the plaintiff, the plaintiff shall confirm
his statement by an oath, and, having taken an oath, may recover his
slave and reliberate him. But his statement shall not be sustained
if an oath is not taken.

Article LVI

Section 1. If two persons enter into partnership and later one of them
asks the other to sell the property or stock and divide the proceeds,
and the property is sold and its amount received, but the seller
claims the whole amount as his, to which the other partner objects
on the ground that it belongs to the partnership; or if the seller
claims that it belongs to the partnership, and the other partner
claims that it is his own, the statement of the person in possession
of the property or its price shall be sustained if confirmed by oath;
but otherwise it shall be rejected.

Sec. 2. If in the preceding case the seller divides the proceeds and
gives his partner a part thereof and holds the remainder for himself,
claiming that the amount of the proceeds has been divided, but the
other partner refuses to accept the division on the ground that it
has not occurred, the claim against the division by the complaining
partner shall be sustained if confirmed by oath; otherwise it shall
not be sustained.

Sec. 3. If one of the two partners in the preceding case buys and
takes possession of the property of the partnership and then denies
that it is the former property, claiming that it has been bought by
some one else, to which the other partner objects as a false claim,
the statement of the latter shall be sustained if confirmed by oath;
otherwise the buyer's statement shall be sustained.

Article LVII

Section 1. If a free man kills another free man, or a free woman kills
another free woman, or a slave kills another slave, the slayer shall
be punished.

Sec. 2. If a free man kills a slave, the free man shall not be put
to death.

Sec. 3. If a slave or other servant kills a free person, he shall be
put to death.

Article LVIII

The blood money for the life of a woman or of a hermaphrodite shall
be half that of a man; so also shall the fines for wounding a woman
be rated as half those for wounding a man.

Article LIX

If a free man divorces his wife three times, or a slave divorces his
wife twice, it shall not be lawful for him, the man, to marry again
before the divorced woman is married to another person.

Article LX

Section 1. If the husband of a pregnant free woman dies, or a free
woman is divorced, she shall mourn four months and ten days.

Sec. 2. If a slave woman is divorced, she shall mourn two months and
five days.

Sec. 3. If a pregnant free woman is divorced, she shall mourn until

Article LXI

If a person throws the sweepings of a house or the parings of fruits
on the road, and a person carrying certain articles and passing on the
road steps on them and thereby slips and falls and loses his property,
the person who threw the sweepings or the fruit parings on the road
shall pay for the lost property. He shall also be responsible for
any injury resulting from the fall.

Article LXII

If a person gives an imbecile or an insane person or a child poison
to eat, and said child, insane person, or imbecile dies as a result
thereof, he shall be punished.

Article LXIII

If a man gets drunk and fights or kills another, he shall be liable
to punishment.

Article LXIV

If a child or an imbecile or an insane person kills another person,
he shall not be liable to punishment, but shall pay blood money.

Article LXV

If a child under age is in a high place and is frightened by some
person and as a result thereof falls and dies, the person who
frightened him shall pay his blood money.

Article LXVI

If a person who is shooting or hunting startles a child who happens
to be in some high place, and the child falls and dies as a result
thereof, he shall pay a small fine as blood money.

Article LXVII

If a slave is wounded, the fine in compensation for his injury shall
be the price of the slave in case of death, or an amount equal to
the decrease in the value of the slave in case he does not die.

Article LXVIII

Section 1. If a slave is guilty of cutting another, he shall be
liable for the fine thereby incurred; if his master does not pay the
fine, he may sell the guilty slave and pay the fine from the amount
received therefor.

Sec. 2. If the master of the guilty slave refuses to sell him, he
shall compensate for the decreased value of the slave who has been cut.

Article LXIX

Section 1. If a plaintiff produces a witness, his statement shall
be sustained.

Sec. 2. If a plaintiff has not a witness, the defendant shall take
an oath; but if the defendant refuses to take an oath, the plaintiff
shall swear and his statement shall be sustained.

Article LXX

If the owner of a slave dies and his heirs claim the slave, and the
slave objects on the ground that he had been liberated by his deceased
master, the slave shall take an oath to that effect, which oath shall
confirm his statement; but if an oath is not taken by the slave,
the claim of the heirs shall be sustained.

Article LXXI

All property loaned shall be paid back in kind, but if that be
impracticable, the value thereof shall be accepted.

Article LXXII

The will of a free person shall be legitimate whether he be a
non-Mohammedan or a person of bad character; but the will of an insane
person or an imbecile or a child or a slave shall not be legitimate.

Article LXXIII

If the legatee dies before the testator, the will shall be held
invalid; but if the legatee dies after the death of the testator,
the heirs of the legatee shall be entitled to his share under the will.

Article LXXIV

If a person wills his estate to one of his heirs, the will shall be
sustained if the other heirs consent to it; but if they do not consent,
the will shall not be sustained.

Article LXXV

If a person recognizes his property in the possession of another, which
property he has neither sold nor given away as charity or otherwise,
it shall be lawful for him to take or recover his property, unless
he is afraid of being killed. In case he is afraid, he shall present
the matter to the datu and then to the judge.

Article LXXVI

The action of a guardian or agent shall be binding on the ward or
the principal, respectively. The insane, imbeciles, or children shall
never be guardians or agents.

Article LXXVII

If two persons collide unintentionally and one person is injured,
the liability of the guilty person for the fine or compensation
thereby incurred shall extend to his heirs. The fine shall be small.


If in the preceding case the collision is intentional, the liability
shall be the same, but the fine shall be equal to half the limit.

Article LXXIX

If children or imbeciles or insane persons collide, the same law
shall govern as in the case of sui juris persons.

Article LXXX

Section 1. A son, the only child, shall inherit all of the estate of
his father and mother.

Sec. 2. A daughter, the only child, shall inherit half the estate of
her father and mother.

Sec. 3. Two or more sons, the only children, shall share the estate
of their father and mother equally.

Sec. 4. In case one son and one daughter are the only children, the
estate of the father and mother shall be divided into three equal
parts, of which the son shall receive two parts and the daughter
one part.

Sec. 5. In case of multiplicity of sons and daughters, the estate
shall be so divided as to give each daughter half the share of one son.

Article LXXXI

A husband shall inherit half the estate of his wife in event of her
death and when she has neither a child nor a grandchild.

Article LXXXII

In the event of the death of a wife who has children or grandchildren,
her husband shall inherit one-quarter of her estate only, and the
other heirs shall inherit the remaining three-quarters.


In the event of the death of a man who has no children or
grandchildren, his wife shall inherit one-quarter of his estate only.

Article LXXXIV

In the event of the death of a man who has children or grandchildren,
his wife shall inherit one-eighth of his estate only.

Article LXXXV

Section 1. A father or son or wife or husband can not be disinherited
by other heirs.

Sec. 2. A son disinherits full brothers and sisters, and all other

Sec. 3. Full brothers and sisters disinherit more remote heirs.

Sec. 4. A grandfather, a father, and a grandson disinherit a brother
or sister from the mother alone, or other heirs.

Sec. 5. A grandfather, brother, son, and uncle or aunt on the father's
side disinherit a full nephew or niece, or more remote heirs.

Sec. 6. A full nephew disinherits another nephew who is not from a
full brother or sister.

Sec. 7. A nephew on the father's side disinherits a full cousin and
more remote heirs.

Sec. 8. A full uncle [13] or aunt disinherits an uncle or aunt on
the father's side.

Sec. 9. A full cousin disinherits a cousin on the father's side.

God's knowledge surpasses our knowledge.

                               [The End]

This copy [the original] was made at noon of the 20th day of
Jamadu-l-awal, in the year of the war between Bwayan and the infidels


Wounds are classified with respect to depth, locality, and tissue
cut. To each class of wound a definite fine is fixed.

Class I


The fine for wounds of the skin unaccompanied by bleeding shall be
three pesos. [14]

Class II


The fine for wounds of the skin accompanied by bleeding shall be
five pesos.

Class III


The fine for wounds of the skin where the skin is cut through and
the flesh exposed shall be ten pesos.

Class IV


The fine for wounds where the skin and flesh are cut through shall
be fifteen pesos.

Class V


The fine for wounds where the skin and flesh are cut through and the
periosteum exposed shall be twenty pesos.

Class VI


The fine for wounds that cut into the bone shall be twenty-five pesos.

Class VII


The fine for wounds where the bone is fractured and cut through shall
be fifty pesos.

Class VIII


The fine for wounds where the bone is dislocated shall be seventy

Class IX


The fine for wounds where the membranes of the brain are penetrated
shall be two hundred and fifty pesos.

Class X


The fine for wounds where the brain is penetrated shall be three
hundred pesos.

Class XI


The blood money for the intentional or willful murder of a Moslem shall
be one hundred camels or one thousand three hundred and seventy pesos.

Class XII

The fine for amputating or cutting off one hand at the wrist, or
higher, shall be fifty camels or six hundred pesos.

Class XIII


The fine for deep wounds of the head or face shall be five camels,
or sixty-eight and one-half pesos.

Class XIV


The fine for fracture wounds of the head or face shall be ten camels,
or one hundred and thirty-seven pesos.

Class XV


The fine for deep stab wounds shall be thirty-three camels and
one-third, or four hundred and fifty-six and two-thirds pesos, which
is one-third of the amount of blood money.

Class XVI

The minimum amount of the blood money of a Moslem shall be eight
hundred and sixty-eight and one-quarter pesos.

Class XVII

The minimum blood money of a heathen or pagan, fifty-seven and
one-quarter pesos.


The fine for an involuntary deep wound of a pagan shall be two and
four-tenths pesos.

Class XIX

The blood money for the accidental or involuntary murder of a pagan
shall be forty-three and one-third pesos.

Class XX

The fine for the intentional deep wound of a pagan shall be four and
two-tenths pesos.



These quotations are given here in the same order in which they appear
on the margin of the original copy of the Luwaran, with only a few
clerical corrections. They are selections from Arabic books on law
and religion, and form the basis of the Magindanao law as given in
the Luwaran. The order they come in does not always conform to the
order of the corresponding articles of the Luwaran to which they are
appended. The Magindanao judges who prepared the Luwaran used these
texts or quotations as authority for the corresponding Magindanao
articles they made. But subsequent scribes must have changed the
order of these texts on account of their ignorance of the meaning of
the Arabic text and the places where they should be applied.

For aid in reference the following table is prepared:

          Article of      Corresponding Arabic
          Luwaran         marginal quotations
               1                    1
               2                    2
               3                    3
               4                    4
               5                    4
               6                 8, 9
               7                    7
               8                   12
               9                 ----
              10                 ----
              11                14-16
              12                 ----
              13                 ----
              14                   17
              15               18, 19
              16                   19
              17               20, 21
              18                   23
              19                   26
              20                   25
              21                   13
              22                   27
              23                   30
              24                   29
              25                   31
              26                   32
              27                   33
              28                   34
              29                   36
              30                   37
              31                   38
              32                   39
              33                   40
              34                   41
              35                   42
              36                   43
              37                   44
              38                   45
              39                   46
              40                   47
              41                   48
              42                   49
              43                   50
              44                   51
              45                   52
              46                   53
              47                   54
              48                   55
              49                   56
              50               57, 58
              51               59, 60
              52                61-63
              53                   64
              54                   65
              55                   66
              56                67-69
              57                70-72
              58                   73
              59                   74
              60               75, 76
              61                   78
              62                   79
              63                   81
              64                   82
              65                   83
              66                   84
              67               85, 86
              68                   87
              69                   88
              70                   89
              71                   90
              72                   91
              73                   92
              74                   93
              75                   94
              76               95, 96
              77                   97
              78                   98
              79                   99
              80              100-103
              81                  104
              82                  105
              83                  106
              84                  107
              85                  108


1. The person in charge of a property the subject of a suit has the
first right to that property; his right must, however, be confirmed
by oath. If both parties have charge of the property, their rights
shall be regarded equal, and both parties shall take oath.

2. The compensation for a slave shall be equal to his value. The loss
of a limb shall be compensated for by the amount by which that loss
reduces the value of the slave.

3. No indemnity shall attach to the loss or damage of an article
borrowed if such loss or damage be incurred in the proper use of
such article.

4. The plea of the defendant in reference to the loss of a borrowed
article shall be confirmed by oath. In cases of doubt the loss shall
be established first by evidence, and the plea of the defendant shall
then be confirmed by oath.

5. If the borrowed article or property is subjected to insecurity or
danger, responsibility shall attach to such an action.

6. No suit shall be triable after the lapse of fifteen years from
the date of the act giving rise to the suit. Imam Shafii restricted
the application of this law to cases where the plaintiff and the
defendant live in one town, and where the delay was avoidable.

7. Lost or damaged finds shall be compensated for in kind or in value.

8. A find shall be the property of the finder irrespective of his
religion or character.

9. The find shall be delivered to its owner, if the owner is known. The
finder shall be held responsible for loss of the find or damage to
it as long as the find is in his charge.

10. Property seized by force shall be returned to its owner
with compensation for any loss that may have been incurred by the
seizure. If the seized property be lost, the seizer shall compensate
for the loss in kind or in value.

11. If the seizer and the owner differ concerning a defect in the
property, the owner's statement shall be valid if confirmed by oath.

12. God said, "To you believers I say, you shall not enter the houses
of others without their permission."

13. Mohammed said, "Whoever enters the house of another shall be
responsible for the loss that may occur therein."

14. If a divorce occurs after marriage but prior to sexual intercourse,
half the dower shall be paid. If the divorce occurs after sexual
intercourse, all the dower shall be paid.

15. No dower shall be paid if the marriage contract is broken prior
to sexual intercourse.

16. The expenses of the marriage feast shall not be recovered.

17. A gift conditioned on compensation may be recovered in kind
or value.

18. The will of the giver and the acceptance of the receiver shall
determine the gift.

19. A gift not conditioned on compensation shall not be recoverable.

20. A thief shall have his hands cut off.

21. The thief shall return the stolen property or compensate for
its loss.

22. The confession of the thief and the oath of the plaintiff shall
confirm the theft.

23. The plaintiff's oath if corroborated by evidence shall confirm
the theft.

24. If the statement of the defendant begins with confession and ends
with denial, the confession shall be regarded valid.

25. The testimony of a minor or insane person is null.

26. The testimony of a slave shall be valid when it bears a
disadvantage or punishment to himself.

27. A slave shall not be contracted with or loaned without the
permission of his master.

28. A slave shall be liable for the payment of a debt contracted
prior to liberation.

29. If the vender and the vendee differ as to the time a certain
defect developed in the property sold, the vender's claim shall be
sustained if confirmed by oath.

30. Differences between the vender and the vendee as to the amount or
price of the property sold or date of the purchase shall be subject
to oaths by both parties.

31. If a defect in the purchased property is recognized after the
conclusion of the sale, the property may be returned to the vender,
who shall retain of its price an amount equal to the reduction in
the value of the property occasioned by the discovery of the defect.

32. The occurrence of a defect in a slave after the conclusion of the
contract does not constitute a right by which the vendee can revoke
the sale contract.

33. If a person purchases a slave and later presents a defective
slave and requests the revocation of the purchase contract, and the
vender denies the identity of the slave, the vender's statement or
plea shall be sustained if confirmed by oath.

34. If a defect is observed during prayer or meals or at night,
notice thereof may be delayed for the time necessary to finish the
prayer or meal, or overnight.

35. Other nonpermissible delays annul the right to revoke a sale

36. If a debtor is sued by the legatee of the creditor and makes the
plea that the debt was canceled, the legatee shall take oath to the
effect that he has no knowledge of the cancellation of the debt.

37. A sale contract may be revoked if it does not define the price
of the property sold.

38. The right to property justifies breaking a door or breaking through
walls for the purpose of securing it, or its equivalent in kind.

39. If a person spies on the wife of another person through cracks
or holes in her house and an occupant throws a stone at him which
hurts or kills him, no fault shall attach to such action.

40. If the owner of a cat is warned of the fact that his cat eats
fowls or provisions of others and the cat repeats such an act, the
owner of the cat shall be held responsible for its action.

41. If a woman is held as security for debt, and her trustee cohabits
with her, without the knowledge and consent of the debtor, his
action shall be regarded as adultery and he shall pay her dower. If
such cohabitation is with the consent of the debtor, no blame shall
attach to such action, but the creditor shall pay her dower. The
child born under such conditions shall be regarded as a free child,
but his value shall be paid to the debtor.

42. In cases of difference between the debtor and the creditor in
reference to the security and its value, the debtor's statement shall
be sustained if confirmed by oath.

43. The creditor shall not be held responsible for the unavoidable
loss or destruction of the security.

44. In cases of difference between the principal and his agent in
reference to the compliance of the latter with the instructions of
the former, the statement of the principal shall be sustained if
confirmed by oath.

45. The penalty for adultery committed with a married woman shall be
eighty lashes.

46. If an agent is intrusted with the payment of a debt of his
principal and is sued by the creditor for his failure to pay the debt,
the statement of the creditor shall be valid if confirmed by oath.

47. The penalty for adultery committed with an unmarried woman
is, according to the letter of the law, stoning to death of both
adulterers. This is generally reduced to 100 lashes for each offender.

48. The judge shall first hear the evidence of the plaintiff if he
has any, and render judgment accordingly. If no evidence is produced,
the statement of the defendant shall be valid if confirmed by oath.

49. The punishment for adultery committed by slaves is fifty lashes.

50. In stoning adulterers both men and women shall be buried to the
level of the chest and the stones shall be of medium size.

51. If a man has sexual intercourse with the slave of another man
and she dies during childbirth, he shall pay a fine equal to her value.

52. If a married Mohammedan is killed by a Christian on account of
adultery, the Christian shall be put to death; but if he is killed
by another Mohammedan, the latter Mohammedan shall not be put to death.

53. If a plaintiff proves by evidence his ownership to a certain
animal or tree, he shall be entitled to the future produce of that
animal or tree.

54. If a person secures a lease on a certain piece of land for the
purpose of cultivating it, he shall be bound by the terms of the lease
whether he cultivates the land or not. The payment is generally made
at harvest time.

55. If a slave runs away from his master and seeks refuge in the
house of another person who knows the master of the slave and such
person does not inform the master of the slave of the fact, such
person shall be held responsible for the slave whether the slave
stays with him or runs away again.

56. If a husband's absence is unusually long and no information can
be obtained concerning him, his wife shall not marry another person
unless she knows surely that he is dead or that she is divorced.

57. If a ship is in danger of foundering, the cargo should be cast
overboard for the purpose of saving the passengers; but if a person
cast overboard another person's property without order or permission,
he shall be held responsible for the loss.

58. If a person under conditions similar to the preceding case orders
another person to cast his property overboard and such other person
casts his property overboard, no responsibility shall be attached to
the order, unless express responsibility is stated in the order.

59. The estate of a deceased person shall be held as security for the
payment of his debt, whether the debt be known to his heirs prior to
or after the division of the estate.

60. The heir has the right to take possession of the estate if he
pays the debt with his own money.

61. No punishment shall attach to accidental murder while hunting,
whether the shooting be voluntary or forced.

62. If in such a case a fine is imposed, it shall be equally divided
between the shooter and the person who ordered the shooting.

63. If a person shoots at a tree and kills a person, or shoots at a
person and kills another, such murder shall be regarded as accidental

64. If a person is ordered to climb a tree and he falls and dies,
no blood money shall be paid by the person who gave the order, for
such murder is not intentional.

65. If a person claims that a certain child was born of a female
slave who conceived the child while in his possession, and confirms
his claim by witness and by oath, his claim shall be valid and the
child shall be regarded as a free child.

66. If a person claims that a certain slave had been his and was
liberated, and his claim is confirmed by a witness and by oath,
the slave shall be liberated again.

67. If two parties differ as to whether a certain property belongs to
one of the parties or to both of them as partners, the statement of the
party in charge of the property shall be valid if confirmed by oath.

68. If a person claims that the partnership has been dissolved and that
a certain property has become his own, and his claim is contested by
another party to the partnership, the statement of the latter party
shall be valid if confirmed by oath.

69. If a person who is a party to a partnership buys a certain property
and states that such property has been bought for the partnership,
and his statement is contested by another party to the partnership, the
statement of the purchasing party shall be valid if confirmed by oath.

70. God said, "The punishment for murder has been ordained for you,
a free person for a free person, a slave for a slave, and a woman
for a woman."

71. Such punishment shall not be executed without the authority of
the Imam (Caliph).

72. A free person shall not be put to death for killing a slave,
but all grades of slaves shall be subject to such punishment.

73. A free woman or a hermaphrodite shall be regarded as half a man
in all considerations referring to person or injury.

74. If a free man divorces his wife three times or a slave divorces
his wife twice, it shall not be lawful for either of them to marry
the same woman again before she has been married to another person.

75. A nonpregnant woman shall mourn for her husband four months
and ten days in full. A nonpregnant slave woman shall mourn for her
husband two months and five days.

76. God said: "Your widows shall not be allowed to marry again before
the lapse of four months and ten days. Pregnant widows shall not
marry again before childbirth."

77. A divorced wife who is still in the period of suspension can
inherit unless she has been divorced three times.

78. If a person throws sweepings or melon rinds on the road, he shall
be responsible for the consequences.

79. If a person helps a child or insane person to poisoned food,
he shall be punished.

80. Adults and sane persons shall be liable to punishment for murder;
an intoxicated man is also liable to punishment for the same offense.

81. Intentional intoxication fixes the liability to punishment.

82. A defendant's plea on the ground that he was a child or insane
at the time the murder or crime was committed, if reasonable and
confirmed by oath, shall be valid.

A child is exempt from oath and from punishment.

83. If a person startles a minor standing near the edge of a roof
(flat roof) and the minor falls and dies on that account, he shall
pay a heavy fine.

84. If a minor is accidentally alarmed and falls from a roof and dies,
the fine shall be light.

85. Injuries done to a slave are compensated for by the amount of
the reduction affecting his value.

86. Similar to 85.

87. A slave is liable to fine for his crimes; his master shall either
pay his fine for him or sell him to pay the fine, if the price exceeds
the fine. If the fine exceeds the price, the slave shall be held
personally responsible.

88. In case the plaintiff can not produce evidence or witness, the
defendant shall take the oath. But if the defendant refuses to take
oath, the plaintiff shall take oath and confirm the charge.

89. If the plaintiff claims that a certain adult person is his slave,
and the defendant denies the charge, the defendant's statement shall
be valid if confirmed by oath.

90. What is borrowed shall be returned in kind.

91. The will of a free adult shall be legitimate whether he be an
immoral person or an infidel. The will of the insane, the intoxicated,
the child, and the slave shall not be legitimate.

92. A will is null if the legatee dies before the testator; otherwise
it is legitimate, and [the property] may be transmitted to the heirs
of the legatee.

93. A will can not exclude legitimate heirs in the interest of one
heir alone, except with the consent of the excluded heirs.

94. A person may recover his property directly if that can be done
peaceably; otherwise he shall submit the case to the judge.

95. To be legal and binding the instructions and the trust of a
principal must be authentic.

96. The agent must be capable of independent action and must be of
age and sane. The agent shall not be a minor or insane.

97. In case of involuntary collision attended with the death of both
parties, the respective heirs shall pay a light fine. (This is intended
to secure aid for funeral expenses.)

98. If the collision is intentional, the fine shall be heavy. If
only one party intended the collision, such party shall be punished
on the merits of the case.

99. Minors and insane persons shall be judged like sane adult
people. (This has reference to conditions similar to those of the
two preceding cases.)

100. Male children, whether single or multiple, shall inherit all
the estate of the parents.

101. A daughter shall inherit one-half.

102. Two or more daughters shall inherit two-thirds.

103. In case of multiplicity of children, males and females, the
male child shall receive twice as much as the female child. The word
of God said: "This command God gives you concerning your children,
the male shall have the shares of two females."

104. God said: "Each man shall have half of the inheritance of his
wife if she have neither a child nor a grandchild born of a son."

105. God said: "If a man's wife dies and leaves a child or a grandchild
born of a son, he shall have a quarter of her inheritance."

106. God said: "If a husband dies without a child or a grandchild
born of a son, the wife shall inherit a quarter of his estate."

107. God said: "If a husband dies and leaves a child or a grandchild
born of a son, the wife shall inherit an eighth part of his estate."

108. The father, the son, and the husband can not be disinherited.


Bismi-l-Lahi-r-Rakmani-r-Rahim. Alhamdu lillahi-l-lazi hadana lil
iman wal islam, wa sálla-l-Lahu ala sáyyidina Muhammad wa ala alihi
wa sahbihi ajmain.

Article I. Nini isa a húkum. Amayka adun uttuntuta a duwa a taw atawa
i ya tigu sakataw tamúkku inín ya manum tigu sakataw tamúkku inín, i
ya bunárun su uppákakámal kanu tamuk sarta ussápanin. Amáyka silandun
a duwa kataw uppákakámal kanu tamuk sapan silan a duwa kataw; amayka
ussápa silan a duwa kataw badun sakanilan su tamuk sapapagíssanun.
Amayka ya bu ussápa su sakataw ya bu makákwa kanu tamuk su ussápa
salkanín su tamuk. Hatta wal-Lahu alam.

Article II. Nini isa a húkum. Anunu sumu´mbay su isa a taw kanu pudin
unggu dun mádadag su sinumbayan, báliwanan dun kanu háraganin. Píssan
rinámpas su sinu´mbayan u kanu sinumu´mbay báliwanan dun kanu
háraganin unggu úmanan sa undáwi (ndáwi) kapatúta kaúmanun kanu tamuk
u nádadag. Hatta tamat al-Lahu alam.

Article III. Nini isa a húkum. Anúnu sumu´mbay su isa ataw kanu pudin
sapárati patuk atawa tambuku unggu dun matupud su patukatawa mágbang
atawa mádagag su tambuku, amayka ya katupudu patuk atawa ya, kakbángu
patuk atawa ya kadádagu tambuku su átagu kina-su´mbayninún unggu dikna
táksir su sinumu´mbay dili kabáliwanán su sinumbayan. Amayka sin
itímbas su Patuk sa átaga ig atawa sin itímbas kanu sápun a tamlang
undu dili íktan su patuk unggu dun mádadag disadíli baliwanan dunu
sinumumbay su sinumbaynin. Tamat wal-Lahu alam.

Article IV. Nini isa a húkum. Anunu malidu duwa kataw i ya, tigu
sakataw su utángku nábayadángku dun, i ya manum tigu sakataw dalaka
makabáyad, amayka dala sáksi nu duwa kataw bunárun su panúntut sarta
ussápanin; amayka dili ussápa, i ya bunárun su pudtuntutan. Tamat
wal-Lahu alam.

Article V. Nini isa a húkum. Anunu itágunu isa ataw su tamukin kanu
púdin, máwli nggu dun kuwánu (kwánu) tinumágu su tamukin, i ya tigu
tinágwan kinwanungka dun atawa ya nin tig nádadag, amayka dala saksi
nilan a duwa kataw ya bunár su tinágwan sarta ussápanin. Tamat
wal-Lahu alam.

Article VI. Nini isa a húkum. Anunu su támuku taw a nadagag sábap sa
natágakin nggu dun matunu isa a taw nggu nin dun itábun, mawli nggu
dun maylaynu ugkwan kanu támuk i ya nin tig támuku inín a natagákku,
i ya tigu nakatun dikna nungka tamuk dan dun a tamuku; amayka adun
saksi kanu tamuk a natun a dikna tamuk a dan dun sabap sa támuk a
natun, yuli su tamuk sarta úmanan su undáwi kapatútin, isa a dúdan
atawa duwa a dúdan. Tamat wal-Lahu alam.

Article VII. Nini isa a húkum. Anunu rinámpas su támuku taw wájib
i yulinu rinumámpas sarta úmanan sa kiira kiranu gúnanin kanu
kínarámpasun. Tamat wal-Lahu alam.

Article VIII. Nini isa a húkum. Anunu mánik su taw kanu walaynu salakáw
sálkanin a dikna kiyúgu ugkwan kanu walay unggu dun malipungu't su
gkwan kanu walay, amayka mágabi masála su minánik sa pata dúdan. Tamat
wal-Lahu alam.



This code was prepared by Sultan Jamalu-l-A'lam and was used without
any modification by Sultan Harun. The present sultan's minister, Hajji
Butu Abdul-Baqi, has made a new code which has just been proclaimed,
but which has not yet met with general approval.

This copy of the old Sulu Code is the original which was used by the
Sultan Jamalu-l-A'lam himself, and also by Sultan Harun. It was written
by Asmawil, the chief clerk and minister of Jamalu-l-A'lam. The
manuscript was secured from Sheikh Mustafa, former minister to
Sultan Harun.

This code differs considerably from the former one used by Sultan
Pulalun, the father of Jamalu-l-A'lam, which was more in conformity
with the letter of the Quran, much more severe in its sentences;
hence the change was welcomed.


This book is a guide for the proper execution of the duties of office
in accordance with the law and rules of the country. It is concurred in
by all, and is promulgated with the general consent of all the datus,
panglima, and subordinate officers of state.

This on Sunday, the fourth day of the month Rabi' Akir, in the year
Dal Akir, which corresponds to the year 1295 A. H.

May it enhance the good and the prosperity of our country; and may
God give blessing and peace to its author.


Article I

Section 1. Whoever shall abduct the child of a free man, and be found
out, shall be fined twenty rolls or pieces (gajahilaw) of calico
(siddip) or its value. [15] The abductor shall return the child. A
bail also is required which shall be equal in character and value to
the abducted child.

Sec. 2. If the abductor of a free person is a slave, the master of
the slave shall be examined to find out whether or not the abduction
was committed with his knowledge and consent. In case he says that
it was done without his knowledge and consent he must be sworn on
the Quran. But, though he swears to that effect, he shall be held
responsible for the return of the abducted person. Then if the actual
abductor or abductors do not return the person or persons abducted,
he or they shall be taken in payment thereof.

But if the master of the slave does not swear to that effect, he
shall be held responsible personally for the abduction, and the case
shall be treated as a case of abduction by a free man. The condition
of the slave, whether privileged to live independently or not, does
not affect this decision.

Article II

Section 1. (a) If property of any kind of the sultan is stolen,
the thief shall be fined fifty pieces (gajahilaw) of calico.

(b) If property of datus with official titles or that of Twan Sarip
Usman is stolen, the thief shall be fined thirty-five pieces of calico.

(c) If datus without official title or descendants of a Sarip or
of Panglima Adaq are robbed, the thief shall be fined thirty pieces
of calico.

(d) If ministers of state or Panglima Pihaq are robbed, the thief
shall be fined twenty-five pieces of calico.

(e) If subordinate officers below the panglima [16] or inland country
pandita or the agents of the sultan or panglima are robbed, the thief
shall be fined twenty pieces of calico.

(f) If children of subordinate rulers or chiefs are robbed, the thief
shall be fined ten pieces of calico.

Sec. 2. (a) Theft of small articles (petit larceny) such as articles
of diet, etc., of the value of one piece or half of a kusta or sarong,
shall not be punished by fines, but the articles themselves shall
be restored to the proper owner or owners, twofold, and the thief
shall suffer fifty lashes; if the theft is repeated on two or three
occasions, the offense shall then be regarded as a case of great theft.

(b) Theft of property of the value of one kusta and over is great theft
(grand larceny) and shall be punished by fine as provided in section
one: Provided further, That the articles of property stolen shall be
restored to the owner or owners thereof, and the thief shall suffer
one hundred lashes.

The fine shall be divided between the person robbed and the governor
(the chief usually acts as judge), in the following manner: When no
trial shall have been held, the robbed party shall receive seven
parts and the governor three parts; if a trial is held, the fine
shall be divided equally between the governor and the party robbed,
whether he be a person of rank or otherwise.

(c) If the thief is a great or noted person or a governor, the fine
shall be doubled.

(d) The same penalty shall be applied to all persons convicted of
theft, whether male or female.

(e) In all cases of theft the stolen property shall be restored to
the owner or owners thereof.

(f) The buyer of stolen property shall be regarded as a thief unless
he proves the truth of the sale in the presence of the governor. If
he fails to have the seller examined and brought before the governor,
he shall be regarded as a partner in the theft.

Article III

Section 1. A false claim to property or debt shall be regarded as
theft and shall be adjudicated accordingly.

Article IV

Section 1. Whoever exacts a claim by force without the permission or
direction of the governor shall return whatever he exacts and forfeit
his claim; and in case the claim is not substantiated he shall return
the exacted object, and shall be fined two pieces of calico, to be
equally divided between the governor and the person from whom he
has exacted.

Article V

Section 1. Complainants who disagree upon the authority before which
they should appear shall come to a panglima. In case they do not agree
upon a panglima they must come to the sultan. But in case they agree,
it is preferable that they should appear before the local governor
or authority.

Article VI

Section 1. Whoever attempts to kill and kills a freeman shall be
fined fifty pieces of calico as blood money, also twenty gajahilaw
to be paid to the governor.

Whoever attempts to kill, but fails to kill, a freeman shall be
fined twenty-five pieces of calico, to be paid to the attacked party,
and ten gajahilaw to be paid to the governor.

Cases of unintentional and accidental killing and cases where the
killing is done by an undetermined party shall be regarded alike. The
blood money in each case shall be thirty gajahilaw.

    Note.--In case a murder occurs in a neighborhood or village,
    and the actual murderer is unknown, the blood money is paid by
    the people of that neighborhood or village. They pay the full
    amount of blood money in case they do not swear to the effect
    that they did not commit the murder, but in case they swear to
    that effect they pay only half the fine.

Article VII

Section 1. The fine for marriage by abduction [17] shall be six pieces
of calico and the woman's dower [18] shall be doubled. In case the
dower is expressed in terms of slaves, the value of the slave shall
be considered equal to four pieces or gajahilaw. The price of the
bride, usually paid to the parents of the woman, in ounces of gold,
called in Sulu basing, will be paid at the rate of one gajahilaw for
a basing. The governor's share of the fine shall be four gajahilaw.

Sec. 2. The fine for elopement is four gajahilaw and the dower shall
not be doubled. The slave's rate of exchange shall be four gajahilaw
in case it is the custom of her family to receive actual slaves as
a dower. The basing's rate of exchange is one gajahilaw.

In case the slave dower is nominal, the slave's rate of exchange
shall be three gajahilaw of calico, and the basing one piece of kusta,
of low grade.

Sec. 3. In case of seduction admitted or disguised, marriage shall
be concluded if the woman requests it. The man shall be fined two
gajahilaw and the woman shall be treated as if she eloped. In cases
of actual slave dowers, the slave's rate shall be four gajahilaw
and the basing one gajahilaw. In cases of nominal slave dower, the
slave's rate shall be three gajahilaw and the basing's one piece of
kusta of the low grade.

Sec. 4. Compulsory marriage is treated as marriage by abduction.

Sec. 5. (a) If adultery is committed with a panglima's wife, the
man shall be fined fifty gajahilaw, which can not be exchanged with
anything except gold, silver, brass drums, or lantaka. If unable to
pay, the man himself shall become the property of the panglima. [19]

(b) If adultery is committed with the wife of a maharaja pahlawan,
[20] the man shall be fined forty gajahilaw; which can not be exchanged
except as in the previous case.

(c) If adultery is committed with the wife of a subordinate officer
of state or a country pandita, or an agent of a governor, the man
shall pay a fine of thirty gajahilaw, unexchangeable except as in
section five (a).

(d) If adultery is committed with the wife of a pandita who is in
the council or in the capital of the sultan, the man shall pay forty

(e) If adultery is committed with any married woman, the man shall pay
a fine of twenty gajahilaw, unexchangeable except as in section five

(f) If a married woman commits adultery with her own consent, she
becomes a slave to her husband; but if it is compulsory and without
her consent, she will not be subjected to slavery; it is her duty
then to tell her husband or his nearest relatives of the fact at the
earliest opportunity--the next morning in case it occurs at night.

(g) If a male slave commits adultery with a free married woman,
the slave becomes the property of the husband of that woman.

(h) If a free man commits adultery with a married female slave, the
decision will be the same as if the crime had been committed with a
free married woman.

(i) If a male slave commits adultery with a married female slave
against her consent, the male slave becomes the property of the master
of the married female slave; but if the crime is committed with her
consent, she becomes the property of the master of her husband. Her
master pays the fine due the governor.

(j) If a man commits adultery with the sister of his wife, his wife
not being divorced, he will be judged as if he had committed adultery
with the wife of another man.

All the subordinate officers [21] of state are hereby requested to
exercise all care in administering justice to all who come to them for
judgment and decision. They should all adhere to the seven articles
of Mohammedan law and be deliberate in their just application.

In case any complainant appeals to one of you from the decision
of another authority, do not accept the appellant's statement and
render your decision unless you inquire well about the case from
the previous authority who judged it. In case you find the decision
of that authority wrong do not be ready and quick to blame him and
criticise him, but try to act in conformity and union. In case you
find his decision right, notwithstanding the appellant's complaints,
bring both the appellant and the appellee to the panglima. If the
panglima can not render a solution, he should bring them to the sultan,
together with the authority from whose decision the appeal was made
and the authority to whom the appeal was made.

If the governor or the authority to whom they appeal does not
investigate or inquire about the case from the governor from whom
they have appealed, his decision shall be null and void.

Any person who exercises the right to judge without authority from
the sultan shall be fined one male slave.

All governors and their subjects ought to abide by and aid in carrying
out all the articles of this code. Any person who does not fulfill
this duty will have all the curses and the calamities of this world
and the world to come that befall the man who swears falsely by the
thirty parts of the Quran.


The new code is a rearrangement of the old code with some changes
and modifications. Its author is Hajji Butu Abdu-l-Baqi, the present
prime minister or adviser of the Sultan Jamalu-l-Kiram the Second. It
was issued in the latter part of 1902, but there has been so much
objection to it on the part of many datus and chiefs that its general
adoption seems impossible.

For a Sulu Hajji Butu is a man of talent and understanding. He knows
some Arabic and is probably the best Sulu scholar in the Archipelago.

This code greatly increases the fines exacted from the people,
creates a treasury under the control of Hajji Butu, and entitles the
sultan to a share of the fines collected by the various datus and
chiefs. The chiefs and the people look upon it as another form of
unjust taxation. The opposition to its adoption is so strong and so
bitter that nothing except force of arms can enforce its use. This
is beyond the power of the present sultan.


This book is a guide to the proper execution of the duties of office in
accordance with the law and the rules of the country. It is concurred
in by all and is promulgated with the general consent of all datus,
ministers, panglima, and subordinate officers of state.

May God enhance by it the good and prosperity of our country.

This at 9 o'clock, Saturday, the 11th of the month Jul Kaidat of the
year B, which corresponds to the year 1320 A. H.

This is to proclaim hereby the decrees of Padukka Mahasari Mawlana
Hajji Mohammed Jamalu-l-Kiram.

The subjects discussed in the following articles are, first, theft;
second, murder; third, adultery; fourth, opprobrium; fifth, cases
arising from unwitnessed purchase; sixth, false claims; seventh,
unlawful or unauthorized exactions; eighth, debt; ninth, finds; tenth,
unjust actions and decisions.

To every crime or misdemeanor which comes under these articles a
fine is attached, differing according to the nature and the degree
of the crime.


Article I

Section 1. The thief shall be fined seventy pesos, no matter what he
steals. The fine shall always be seventy pesos irrespective of the
person robbed, be he low or high in rank. The manner in which the fine
shall be divided between the person robbed and the treasury differs.

(a) If the sultan's property is stolen, fifty pesos shall go to the
sultan and twenty pesos to the treasury.

(b) If datus with official titles or Twan Habib Mura are robbed,
forty pesos shall go to the person robbed and thirty pesos shall go
to the treasury.

(c) If other datus or Twan Hajji Butu or a descendant of a Sarip
are robbed, thirty-five pesos shall be paid to the person robbed and
thirty-five to the treasury.

(d) If a minister of rank and official title or a hajji in the council
of the sultan is robbed, thirty pesos shall be paid to the person
robbed and forty pesos to the treasury.

(e) If a minister of rank without any official title or a panglima
pihaq [22] or a pandita of the capital is robbed, twenty-five pesos
shall be paid to the person robbed and forty-five to the treasury.

(f) If a subordinate officer of state or an agent of the sultan or a
country pandita is robbed, twenty pesos shall be paid to the person
robbed and fifty to the treasury.

(g) If a common person is robbed, fifteen pesos shall be paid to him
and fifty-five to the treasury.

(h) The thefts referred to above include cattle, slaves, and every
article of value.

Sec. 2. (a) If a free person is abducted, the fine shall be divided
equally between his agnate and cognate heirs and the treasury.

(b) The abducted person should be returned. No one except the child
or wife of the abductor, in case the abductor is a free man, can be
substituted for the abducted person.

(c) If a free person is abducted by a slave, the master of the slave
will be held responsible. If the abducted person is not returned,
the abducting party, whether one person or many, will be taken instead.

(d) Small thefts below the value of one peso shall not be punishable
by fines. The stolen object shall be returned twofold and the thief
shall suffer fifty lashes.

Article II

Section 1. Murder is of four kinds--the first is intentional; the
second, semiintentional; the third is accidental; the fourth, murder
committed by a crowd.

Sec. 2. The fine for intentional murder shall be one hundred and five
pesos; seventy for the agnate and cognate heirs of the murdered person
and thirty-five for the treasury.

Sec. 3. An attempt to kill that does not result in death shall be
punished by a fine of fifty-two pesos and a half; thirty-four pesos
and a half shall be paid to the near relatives of the attacked or
injured person and eighteen pesos shall be paid to the treasury.

Sec. 4. All cases of semiintentional and of accidental murder and
cases of murder committed by a crowd shall be treated alike and fined
equally. The fine shall be fifty-two pesos and a half; thirty-four
pesos and a half shall be paid to the heirs of the murdered person
and eighteen pesos to the treasury.

Sec. 5. If more than one person is killed, one hundred and five pesos
shall be paid for each person killed as his blood money.

Article III


Section 1. If a married woman commits adultery, she shall become
the slave of her husband, and the guilty man shall pay a fine of one
hundred pesos to the treasury, and in case he can not pay that sum
he shall become a slave himself.

Sec. 2. If a married woman is simply guilty of immoral conduct, such as
a kiss or an embrace with another man, and quickly reports the facts
to her husband or his immediate relatives, her conduct will then be
regarded as compulsory and she will not be liable to any punishment;
but the man shall be liable to a fine of one hundred pesos, half of
which shall be paid to the husband of the woman and the other half
to the treasury.

Sec. 3. The abduction of a woman and cases of compulsory marriage
shall be treated alike. The guilty man shall pay a fine of fifty pesos,
out of which the treasury shall receive twenty pesos.

The woman's dower under such circumstances will be like that of her
mother, and nothing else of the usual formalities shall be given to
her people.

Sec. 4. In cases of seduction, admitted or inferred by the woman's
request to marry the man, both man and woman shall be fined. The man
shall pay a fine of fifty pesos, twenty of which shall be paid to the
treasury, and the woman shall pay a fine of ten pesos to the treasury.

Sec. 5. Cases of elopement are considered as seduction, though there be
no actual sexual intercourse between the man and the woman, because
elopement occurs by the mutual consent of both parties.

Sec. 6. (a) In case a woman was regularly engaged and has lost her
virginity, her dower and her basingan (the bridal price expressed in
ounces of gold, and paid to the parents of the bride) and all other
gifts shall be returned to her husband. The expenses of the marriage,
as of rice and meat, etc., shall not be paid back.

(b) But in case a woman who has lost her virginity is abducted or
married by compulsion, the husband shall forfeit all claim to her
dower or her basingan, etc.

Sec. 7. (a) If a male slave commits adultery with a married free woman,
he becomes the slave of her husband.

(b) If a free man commits adultery with a married slave woman, he
becomes the slave of her husband.

(c) If a male slave commits adultery with a married female slave,
he becomes the property of her master.

(d) Cases of seduction or marriage between slaves, in which the woman
is a maid, shall be treated the same as if they were free persons,
except that the fines shall be half as much.

Article IV


Section 1. An adult who insults, abuses, defames, or slanders another
adult, without any provocation or in a way that is inappropriate to
the guilt committed, shall, if brought to trial, be fined ten pesos.

Sec. 2. Children who commit the aforesaid offense are not liable
to trial.

Sec. 3. If in such cases an adult interferes with children and hurts
a child, he shall compensate for the harm done.

Sec. 4. If in such cases an adult interferes with children and he
hurts himself, he forfeits all claim for compensation.

Sec. 5. Women who commit the same offense shall, as in the case of
children, not be liable to trial.

Article V


Section 1. Under this article is included the sale or exchange of
slaves, cattle, arms, and all commodities.

Sec. 2. Whoever trades or exchanges without the knowledge and the
authorization of the governor or his representative shall be fined
seventy pesos. Each party to a sale or exchange, no matter what the
rank of the person may be, shall pay the fine. All of the fine shall
go to the treasury.

Sec. 3. To buy a stolen article is the same as to steal it.

Article VI


Section 1. A false charge, a false claim of debt, and a false complaint
or suit shall be regarded as cases of robbery.

Article VII


Section 1. Whoever exacts or enforces a claim without either the
permission or the advice of the governor shall forfeit that claim
and all rights to a just trial of the case.

Sec. 2. If a person fails to respect or disobeys the advice or decision
of the governor, he shall forfeit his right to the contested object.

Sec. 3. If a person is not sure of the exact amount of the claim
he exacts, he shall forfeit his right, and shall return the amount
exacted, and pay a fine of ten pesos, to be divided equally between
the governor and the treasury.

Sec. 4. (a) If a fight starts unexpectedly between two parties and
results in harm to a third noncombatant party, the combatants shall
be held equally responsible for the harm.

(b) If the harm in the above case amounts to death, both combatants
shall be liable for the blood money and the crime shall be regarded
as intentional murder.

(c) If harm in the same case falls short of death, the combatants
shall be liable for half the blood money and a fine of twenty pesos,
to be paid to the treasury.

Sec. 5. Whoever attacks or invades the house of another without the
permission of the governor and causes the death of another party shall
be guilty of intentional murder and shall be liable for the blood
money of the person killed and a fine of twenty pesos to the treasury.

Sec. 6. (a) If in the above case the attacking party is killed the
blood money shall be forfeited.

(b) If the attacking party is only injured, he shall be liable to a
fine of twenty pesos and shall pay for all that is lost or destroyed
by reason of his attack.

(c) If the attacking party is multiple, each person shall be liable
to a fine of twenty pesos, no matter how many they may be, but the
damage done shall be compensated for by the leader or instigator of
the attack alone.

Article VIII


Section 1. The creditor shall ask and investigate about the debtor
from those who know him and shall also inform the heirs of the
debtor concerning the debt to be contracted, for in case the debt
is contracted without the knowledge of the heirs and the debtor dies
the heirs shall not be held responsible for the payment of the debt.

Sec. 2. In case the debtor dies and leaves property inheritance and
wives and children, his debt shall be paid from that inheritance.

Sec. 3. A debt is void unless it is called for before the lapse
of three years in case both debtor and creditor live in the same
town. This shall not hold true in case they live in two different
towns, especially when they are separated by sea.

Article IX


Section 1. The finder of any property, whether it be a horse or head
of cattle, or a runaway slave, or any forgotten or fallen article,
shall be rewarded, no matter who finds it.

Sec. 2. The customary reward for a find is at the rate of one cent
for every dollar's worth of the find.

Sec. 3. In case the find is made within the limits of the town and
belongs to a member of the same party, it shall be returned without
any reward.

Sec. 4. Any person who makes a find shall make it known to the public,
or bring it to the governor, or return it to its owner. If this is
not done, and the find is not submitted to the governor within seven
days, the case shall be regarded as robbery and the finder shall be
fined seventy pesos, to be paid to the treasury. The same rule shall
govern similar cases that occur out in the country or on the sea,
except that the fine shall be equally divided between the governor
and the treasury. The share that belongs to the treasury shall be
intrusted to the governor for safe-keeping and future payment to the
treasury. Any dishonesty committed in this matter will be a sin that
results in loss both in this world and in the world to come.

Article X

All subordinate officers of state are hereby enjoined to exercise all
care and justice in their judgments and to adhere with all devotion
to the seven articles of Mohammedan law.

In case any complainant appeals to one of you from the decision
of another authority, do not accept the appellant's statement and
render your decision without inquiring well about the case from the
previous authority who judged it. In case you find the decision of that
authority wrong, do not be ready and quick to blame and criticise him,
but try to act in conformity and union.

In case you find his decision right, bring both the appellant and the
appellee to the panglima. If the panglima does not furnish a solution,
he shall bring them to the sultan, together with the authority from
whose decision the appeal was made and the authority to whom the
appeal was made.

If the authority to whom they appeal does not investigate or inquire
from the authority from whom they have appealed, his decision shall
be null and void.

Any person who exercises the right to judge without authority from
the sultan shall be fined one male unmarried slave.

All governors and their subjects shall abide by and aid in carrying
out all the articles and provisions of this code. Any person who does
not fulfill this duty will have all the curses and the calamities of
this world and of the world to come that befall the man who swears
falsely by the thirty parts of the Quran.




    (Written in the six semicircles)


This oration was finished at noon, Friday, the 29th of Rabi-el-Akhir,
in the year 1321 Hejira.

In the name of God the Compassionate and Merciful. God is greatest. God
is exalted. He is the Master of the World and the King of the Universe
who rules with conquering power. Invisible to the eye, He is visible
through His power and might. His is all the power and glory. His is
all kindness and glory. He is the Almighty and the Ruler of All. He
is everlasting and never dies. There is no God but He. Everything
vanishes but the face of God. He is our Governor, and to Him all shall
return. Before Him the learned men are humiliated; and the mighty
humble themselves in His presence. All the prophets have spoken of His
Lordship; and all the men of old have borne witness to His unity. All
the men of learning have spoken of His eternal being. The wise men are
unable to give an adequate description of His attributes. All that
is in the earth and the heavens acknowledge His worship, and praise
Him day and night without ceasing. God is greatest. He is the Lord
of Lords and the Liberator of the World. He inspired the Book and
commands the clouds. He overcomes all difficulties. He is the Cause
of all Causes. He opens all doors and answers all who call Him. The
Lord has said, "Call Me, and I shall answer you. All who despise My
worship shall enter hell." God is almighty. All the heavens praise
Him. The sandy deserts, the shades and all darkness, on the right and
on the left, praise Him morning and night. There is nothing that does
not sing His praises; but you can not understand their praises. Oh,
how kind and forgiving He is! God is almighty. All the angels praise
Him. The heavens, the earth, the mountains and hills, and all the
birds praise Him. Praise and glory be to Thee, O Lord. Thou art the
Lord of Indescribable Might and Honor. Peace be to the missionaries,
and praise to God, the Lord of the Universe.

    Here the orator shall repeat, "God is almighty," seven times,
    then say the following:

God is Almighty. Praise be to God, the God of Kindness and of Grace,
who ordained that the faithful should observe the month of fasting and
gave them at the end thereof a feast, to all whether near or far, in
token of His hospitality and generosity. Let us praise him always. He
is righteous and all sacredness. The King of the Universe, land and
sea. He ordained for the Mohammedans the two feasts, Ramadan and that
of the Sacrifice. I bear witness that there is but one God, who is
alone without a partner. He made the two feasts for the observance of
all Mohammedans and the time of their celebration the greatest season
of the year. I testify that Mohammed is His servant and apostle. God
bless Mohammed at all times and through all ages. Oh, you people, fear
God. May God have mercy on you fellow-Mohammedans and brothers in the
faith. He has sent down to you this exalting and magnifying day as an
expression of his generosity and hospitality. On this day He permits
you to feast and forbids you to fast. Respectful observance of this
day is pleasing to God and he who so observes it shall be greatly
blessed. Charity on this day is highly acceptable. All you ask on
this day shall be given you. On this day every call is answered. The
prophet, God bless him, said, "On this day give charity for everyone,
male and female, for every free man, for every slave, for the young,
and for the old give a measure of flour or a measure of dates,
a measure of rice, a measure of raisins, or a measure of barley, or
whatever you eat on this day give as charity for all the people who are
of your religion, of your nation and under your law. This will atone
for your sins and all your misdeeds during the days of fasting." The
prophet, God bless him, has said, "He who fasts the month of Ramadan
and withholds his measure of charity on the feast day, his fasting
shall not be acceptable to God, and he shall not reach heaven, but
shall be stopped halfway between earth and heaven." The prophet said,
"He who fasts the month of Ramadan and follows it with six days of
Shawal shall be regarded as if he had fasted forever." May God make
us successful and honest and enlist us in the ranks of His faithful
followers. The best of all speech is the word of God, the All-knowing
King, the Exalted and the Respected. God himself, whose word is perfect
truth, said, "When the Quran is read, listen to it with attention,
that ye may obtain mercy."

When the Quran is read, ask refuge in God from the accursed
devil. Jesus, the son of Mary, said, "God our Lord, send us a
table from heaven that we may all, from the first to the last,
feast thereon." Be Thou generous to us for Thou art the best of all
givers. Exalted is God the true King. There is no God but God, the
Lord of the great throne. He who calls another god whose deity he can
not prove shall render account to the Lord his God. Infidels can not
succeed. Say my Lord, forgive me, and have mercy upon me. Thou art
most merciful.

    He who may deliver this oration shall here repeat the chapter of
    the salvation, after which he shall rise and read the following
    oration twice, and shall say, "God is Almighty," seven times:

God is Almighty. Praise be to God, whose praise is exalted and
glorious. I testify that there is no God but God, and that He is alone
and has no partner. I bear witness that Mohammed is his servant and
apostle, and the bright light of the world. May God bless Mohammed
and all his people and descendants. Oh, ye people, depart from evil
and draw near to good. Avoid excess and ye shall be happy. God and
His angels bless the prophet. Ye who have faith bless Him also. Ye
servants of God answer His call, and bless Him through whom God has
directed you. O God, bless Mohammed and his descendants, for he has
directed us to paradise and the roads that lead thereto. O God, bless
Mohammed and his descendants because he warned us of the fire and
its evils. O God, forgive his followers, and his caliphs Abu-Bakar,
Omar, Othman, Ali, Talhat, Zubayr, Abdu-r-Rahman the son of Awf,
Sa'din Saidin, and Abi Ubaydat, because they are the princes of
the faithful and the best of all people. O God, forgive all other
followers and friends of your prophet, and all who follow them. Be
kind to them in the day of judgment. Give them and us mercy, for Thou
art most merciful. O God, perpetuate the power and the victories and
the conquests of him whom Thou hast chosen for the administration and
good management of temporal affairs and religion; he who beseeches the
intercession of the faithful prophet, our master, the Sultan Mohammed
Pudhalun, the son of the late Sultan Mohammed Jamalu-l-Kiram, and
the Sultan, the master, and the noble whom Thou hast chosen, Sultan
Esh-Sharifu-l-Hashim, the kindled light of God; and our thoughtful
and wise master the late Sultan Kamalu-d-Din; and protect the kind and
generous late Sultan Alawa-d-Din, whose descendants became the kings
of the Sulu country. Protect the champion of the Mohammedan religion
and faith, the late Sultan Amirul Umara, and the late Sultan Shah
Muizzu-l-Mutawadhi-in. Protect the power of the generous and victorious
late Sultan Shah Nasiru-d-Din the First. Defend the conqueror, the
late Sultan Shah Mohammed el Halim; defend the intelligent late Sultan
Batara Shah; protect the noble late Sultan Muwalli el Wasit Shah;
aid our great master, the excellent and powerful and the victorious
on land and sea, the Sultan Shah Nasiru-d-Din the Last; aid the just
and honorable and ascetic master, the late Sultan Shah Salahu-d-Din.

O God, support Islam and all Mohammedans. Fight against atheism and
heresy and evil, the enemies of religion. Aid the ever-victorious
Sultan Ali Shah, the great and most superior sultan; sultan of
the land and sea; and his heir, the late Sultan Shah Shahabu-d-Din
Mohammed, who was versed in law and all learning; and the late Sultan
Shah Shafi-d-Din Mohammed Mustafa, the best of all things. Defend
the late sultan and wise Governor Shah Badaru-d-Din Mohammed, the
victorious. May God perpetuate on earth his power, and his kingdom,
and his justice.

O God, support the late Sultan Nasaru-d-Din, the victorious, the
administrator, and the able supporter of our religion; the late
Sultan Alimu-d-Din the First, Mohammed, the prince of the faithful,
the seeker of God's mercy; and the obedient to His will; the late
Sultan Shah Muizzi-d-Din Mohammed, the emigrant, the learned, the
truthful, and the generous; the late patient Sultan Shah Mohammed
Israyil; the late Sultan Shah Alimu-d-Din the Second, Mohammed,
the peaceful, the chosen, and the powerful; the late Sultan Shah
Sharafu-d-Din Mohammed, the merciful, seeker of knowledge, and doer
of good deeds; the late noble Sultan Shah Alimu-d-Din the Third,
Mohammed; the late Sultan Shah Aliu-d-Din Mohammed, the great and
victorious; the late Sultan Shah Shakira-l-Lah Mohammed, conqueror of
atheism and heresy, who was versed in Mohammedanism and monotheism;
the late Sultan Shah Jamalu-l-Kiram Mohammed, the kind and the wise
and beloved of his people, master of truth and good, whom God alone
prevented from making the pilgrimage to the House, and who was patient,
lenient, and good, who encouraged good deeds and forbade evil, and
who was good in his administration. May God perpetuate his kingdom,
his power, his justice, and his kindness. May God forgive him and
his forefathers and be good to all of them and give them a place in
paradise. O God, aid all who befriend him; be the enemy of all his
enemies; uphold all who uphold him; reject those who reject him;
and vanquish those who may vanquish him. Be Thou his help and aid,
and use him as a sword of vengeance against all offenders.

Thou art my God, the God of Truth and Lord of the Universe.

O God, set right our leaders and our nation, our judges, our rulers,
our learned men, our lawgivers, our wise men, and our old men. Aid
them in righteousness, and guide us. O God, destroy the enemies of
our religion and unite the hearts of the faithful. Free the captives
and pay the debts of the debtors. Relieve the distressed and forgive
the living and the dead. God grant peace and safety to us and to
the pilgrims and to the travelers on land and on sea who are of the
people of Mohammed, for Thou art the most powerful, the best Master
and the best Helper.

O God, drive away famine and distress, and disease, and iniquity,
and oppression, and all calamities, and all evils outward and secret
that may exist in our country especially and the countries of the
Mohammedans in general, for Thou hast power over everything. Our Lord,
forgive us and forgive our brothers who preceded us in the faith,
and cast away from our hearts all jealousies and ill feeling toward
the faithful. O God, our Lord, Thou art kind and gracious and generous
and compassionate and able to forgive.

This was written by the poor and humble pilgrim Hajji Abdu-l-Baqi,
who hopes for forgiveness from the forgiving Lord and who was the
son of Twan Hatib Jawari, a native of Sulug and follower of Shafi'i
and Ash'ari.

May God forgive them and all Mohammedans and all the faithful. Amen.



This I repeat a thousand times more than others. God is greater, far
greater, than He is thought to be. I testify that there is no God
but God alone. God is one, and only one. He has no partner. God is
the owner of the heavens and the earth and all that is therein. God
is owner of all.

I testify that Mohammed is His servant and His apostle, sent by Him
to guide all people to the true religion, and that His religion may
thereby be exalted above all others, though the unfaithful and the
worshipers of many gods may reject it. We ask Thee, O God, to bless
Mohammed and all his descendants and bestow on them all the blessings
that can be named and all the blessings that can be forgotten. I advise
ye, O people, and myself, servants of God, with fear of God which is
the sign of faith and God's command to us all. Fellow-Mohammedans, the
mercy of God be upon you. Friday is the chief of all days. The apostle
of God said: "The day Friday is the chief of all days." It is greater
than the day of Ramadan and the day of el-Adha and the day of Ashura.

Charity on Friday is preferable to all charity. Good deeds done on
Friday are preferable to all good deeds, and evil done on Friday is
the greatest evil that can be done. The noblest and best men have
testified to its greatness over other days. It is the beauty of all
days and years. It is a pilgrimage that the poor can make once every
seven days. Its observance intercedes for the offender before the
King of Unbounded Knowledge.

It has been told of the chosen prophet that he said: "God registers
the name of the person who leaves out three successive Fridays, on a
tablet on which he keeps the number of liars." The prophet said that
he who leaves out three successive Fridays shall have written on his
forehead when the day of judgment comes: "He has no hope of the mercy
of God." May God bless us and give us all peace.

May it be that God has declared us among the successful and the
faithful and enlisted us into the number of His good servants. The
best of all utterances and constitutions are in the word of God, King
of Unbounded Knowledge, possessor of glory and of all reverence. It
is God the Highest who speaks and who is the truest of all speakers.

When the Quran is read you should listen attentively so that you may
obtain mercy. He said, and His saying is most precious and full of
wisdom, "When you read the Quran ask God's help against the accursed
Satan." I take refuge in God the All Hearing and All Knowing from
the accursed Satan. Oh, ye who have believed, when you hear the call
for prayers on Friday go ye to hear God's word. Leave your business,
for you have a greater good and benefit in this. May God bless the
great Quran for us, and may he benefit us through its texts and the
wise mention of His name. May He reward us all with mercy from the
painful punishment.

I command you, and myself, with what God demands for good obedience
so that you may obey Him. And I prohibit you from doing evil and
from disobedience as He prohibits you so that you may not disobey
him. I pray for the plentiful reward of God for you and for myself,
so that you may seek Him; and I ask the pardon and forgiveness of
God for you and for myself and for all the faithful Mohammedans for
He is gracious and forgiving.

Praise be to God. I praise and exalt God with all my strength and I
testify that, there is no God but God. God is one and only one. God
has no partner. He knows all and has good news for you all. I testify
that Mohammed is the servant of God and His apostle, and a shining
light to the world. We ask Thee, O God, to bless Mohammed and his
people and descendants because he is our preacher and warner. To ye,
Oh, people, I say, fear God, draw near to good, and depart from
evil. God and all His angels bless the prophet. All ye believers
bless him, too. Ye servants of God, obey the call of God, and bless
him who directed you to God. We ask Thee, O God, to bless Mohammed
and the people of Mohammed, for he directed us to paradise and to the
roads that lead thereto. We ask Thee, O God, to bless Mohammed and
the descendants of Mohammed, because he warned us of the fire and
its destruction. We ask Thee, O God, to bless Mohammed because he
conquered the kings of the infidels and their empires. We ask Thee,
O God, to forgive his followers and his successors, Abu Bakar, Omar,
Othman, Ali, Abi Ubaydat, for they are the princes of the faithful
and the best of all people. We ask Thee, O God, to forgive his two
sons, Hasan and Husein, and his two noble uncles, Hamzat and Abbas;
and mayst Thou be kind to all the emigrants and all the allies and
followers till the judgment day, that we may share Thy mercy with
them and through them, for Thou art most merciful. We ask Thee,
O God, to perpetuate the power, the victory, and the valor of
those whom Thou hast chosen for the good administration and good
conduct of our religious and worldly affairs, chief among whom is
he who begs the intercession of the faithful prophet, our master,
the sultan and the pilgrim, Mohammed Jamalu-l-Kiram, the brother
of the late sultan, the pilgrim Mohammed Badaru-d-Din the Second,
both of whom made the pilgrimage to the house Al-Haraam. May God
give them a place with the faithful. They are the children of the
late Sultan Mohammed Jamalu-l-A'lam. May God perpetuate his kingdom
and his power, and his justice and kindness. And may God forgive his
predecessors and his grandfathers and be good to them and give them
a place in paradise. We ask Thee, O God, to be friendly with those
who are friendly with him, and to antagonize them who are against
him; give victory to those who aid him; reject those who reject him;
vanquish those who disobey him, and be his help and helper and make
him Thy sword of vengeance against the offender. O God, my God,
Thou art Truth and the Lord of the Universe. O God, set right our
leaders and our nation, our judges, our rulers, our learned men, our
lawgivers, our wise men, and our old men. Aid them in righteousness,
and guide us. O God, destroy the enemies of our religion and unite
the hearts of the faithful. Free the captives and pay the debts of
the debtors. Relieve the distressed and forgive the living and the
dead. God grant peace and safety to us and to the pilgrims and to
the travelers on land and on sea who are of the people of Mohammed,
for Thou art the Most Powerful, the best Master and the best Helper.

O God, drive away famine and distress, and disease and iniquity,
and oppression, and all calamities, and all evils outward and secret
that may exist in our country especially and in the countries of the
Mohammedans in general, for Thou hast power over everything. Our Lord,
forgive us and forgive our brothers who preceded us in the faith,
and cast away from our hearts all jealousies and ill feeling toward
the faithful. O God, our Lord, Thou art kind and gracious and generous
and compassionate and able to forgive.


[1] Throughout this paper foreign words which do not often appear in
an English text are given the same form for both singular and plural.

[2] Mindanao, Magindanao, and a few other words with the same terminal
sound are written in this paper with the final "ao" because they
are well-known words. Other words ending with the same sound are
written with the final "aw," in accordance with the author's rules
for transliteration.--[Editor.]

[3] The word Kabalalan means the place of the rattan, because the
rattan plant used to grow abundantly on the mountain and its base.

[4] This word may be a corruption of the name of the bird Rock or Rokh,
mentioned in the Arabian Nights.

[5] This word is a corruption of the Arabic word Thul-Fakar, the name
of the famous sword of the Caliph Ali. Ali was a noted warrior.

[6] The translation here omits the formal words and repetitions and
simply gives the names of the descendants in order.

[7] Sarip and sharif are both in common use and have the same
meaning. The latter is the Arabic form of the word.

[8] It will be noticed both here and elsewhere that the genealogies
are confused and that often it is not possible to make out in the text
the descent of a given individual. In explanation of this confusion
the translator says: "The Moros do not know any better. This is the
way they write. No attempt was made in the translation to change the
order of the original text."--[Editor.]

[9] It is not clear in Moro who the parents were. These are chosen
pursuant to the general rule that the pronoun refers to the nearest
noun, unless otherwise indicated.

[10] The Malay version said three people, but mentions only the above
two, Akmad and Sapak.

[11] See Pls. I-IV. This manuscript is purely Magindanao in its style
and is the oldest copy that I have seen. The main text is a little
inferior to that of Datu Mastura's copy, but its marginal Arabic
quotations are more nearly correct and better written. The spelling
and the grammar differ in many places, but the general sense of the
text is mainly the same and does not warrant a separate translation.

[12] This copy is in the possession of The Ethnological Survey. It
is not reproduced here because of the expense of half-tone work--the
only satisfactory method of reproduction in this case.

[13] By a full uncle is meant a brother of one's father or mother who
had both the same father and the same mother as one's own father or
mother, as distinguished from a half uncle; so of a full aunt.

[14] These fines are stated in Mexican currency. The peso was worth
about 50 cents, United States currency.

[15] The gajahilaw of siddip or piece of calico used is worth 1.50
pesos. It used to be the rule to demand the son of the abductor as
bail for the return of the abducted free child or person.

[16] The words panglima and pandita are used in a plural sense in
this paragraph.

[17] Abduction and elopement are regarded as crimes by the Sulus. The
consent of the parents is always necessary for the marriage contract.

[18] Dower is a provision for a widow on the death of the husband
or on separation by divorce. It is generally paid or delivered or
guaranteed before marriage.

[19] Such slaves are generally killed by the authority against whom
the offense was committed.

[20] The maharajah pahlawan form the highest grade of maharaja,
their rank being next below that of a panglima.

[21] The term tuku-pipul, which is applied in Sulu to all officers
subordinate to panglima, means the small and large poles or pillars
that support the house.

[22] A panglima pihaq is one of the regularly chosen panglima of the
Island of Sulu. The island used to be divided into five main divisions
for administrative purposes, each of which used to have one panglima
intrusted with its rule.

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