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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 220, January 14, 1854 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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{25}

NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *


No. 220.]
SATURDAY, JANUARY 14. 1854
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


CONTENTS.

  NOTES:--                                                    Page

  Griffin's "Fidessa," and Shakspeare's "Passionate Pilgrim"    27

  Caps at Cambridge                                             27

  Letters of Eminent Literary Men, by Sir Henry Ellis           28

  Newspaper Folk Lore                                           29

  King James's Irish Army List of 1689-90, by John D'Alton      30

  MINOR NOTES:--Authors and Publishers--Inscriptions on old
    Pulpits--Recent Curiosities of Literature--Assuming Names
    --False Dates in Water-marks of Papers                      31

  QUERIES:--

  Captain Farre                                                 32

  Marriage Ceremony in the Fourteenth Century                   33

  Manuscript Catena                                             33

  MINOR QUERIES:--Jews and Egyptians--Skin-flint--Garlic
    Sunday--Custom of the Corporation of London--General
    Stokes--Rev. Philip Morant--The Position of Suffragan
    Bishops in  Convocation--Cambridge Mathematical
    Questions--Crabbe MSS.--Tilly, an Officer of the Courts
    at Westminster--Mr. Gye--Three Fleurs-de-Lys--The
    Commons of Ireland previous to the Union in 1801--"All
    Holyday at Peckham"--Arthur de Vere--Master of the
    Nails--Nattochiis and Calchanti--"Ned o' the Todding"       34

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Bridget Cromwell and
    Fleetwood--Culet                                            36

  REPLIES:--

  The Asteroids or recently discovered Lesser Planets, by
    the Rev. H. Walter                                          36

  Emblematic meanings of Precious Stones--Planets of the
    Months symbolised by Precious Stones, by W. Pinkerton       37

  Non-recurring Diseases                                        38

  Milton's Widow, by J. F. Marsh                                38

  Table-turning, by J. Macray                                   39

  Celtic Etymology                                              40

  PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE:--The Calotype Process:
    curling up of Paper--Turner's Paper--A Practical
    Photographic Query                                          40

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--"Service is no Inheritance"--
    Francis Browne--Catholic Bible Society--Legal Customs--
    Silo--Laurie on Finance--David's Mother--Anagram--
    Passage in Sophocles--B. L. M.--"The Forlorn Hope"--Two
    Brothers of the same Christian Name--Passage in Watson--
    Derivation of "Mammet"--Ampers and--Misapplication of
    Terms--Belle Sauvage--Arms of Geneva--"Arabian Nights'
    Entertainments"--Richard I.--Lord Clarendon and the
    Tubwoman--Oaths--Double Christian Names--Chip in
    Porridge--Clarence Dukedom--Prospectuses, &c.               41

  MISCELLANEOUS:-- Notes on Books, &c.                          45

  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                  46

  Notices to Correspondents                                     46

       *       *       *       *       *

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{26}

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       *       *       *       *       *

{27}

_LONDON, SATURDAY, JANUARY 14, 1854._

Notes.

GRIFFIN'S "FIDESSA," AND SHAKSPEARE'S "PASSIONATE PILGRIM."

I am the fortunate possessor of a thin volume, entitled _Fidessa, a
Collection of Sonnets_, by B. Griffin, reprinted 1811, from the edition of
1596, at the Chiswick Press; I presume, by the monogram at the end, by Mr.
S. W. Singer.

The title of the original edition is _Fidessa, more Chaste then Kinde_, by
B. Griffin, Gent, at London, printed by the Widdow Orwin, for Matthew
Lownes, 1596.

The advertisement prefixed by Mr. Singer to the reprint states, that the
original is one of the rarest of those that appeared at the period in which
it is dated; that he is not aware of the existence of more than two copies,
from one of which the reprint is taken, and that the other was in the
curious collection of the late Mr. Malone.

Besides the rarity of _Fidessa_, Mr. Singer states that it claims some
notice from the curious reader on account of a very striking resemblance
between Griffin's third sonnet, and one of Shakspeare's, in his _Passionate
Pilgrim_ (Sonnet IX.).

I will transcribe both sonnets, taking Griffin's first, as it bears the
earliest date.

  "Venus, and yong Adonis sitting by her,
    Under a myrtle shade began to woo him:
  She told the yong-ling how god Mars did trie her,
    And as he fell to her, so fell she to him.
  'Even thus,' quoth she, 'the wanton god embrac'd me,'
    And then she clasp'd Adonis in her armes.
  'Even thus,' quoth she, 'the warlike god unlac'd me,'
    As if the boy should use like loving charms.
  But he, a wayward boy, refusde her offer,
    And ran away, the beautious Queene neglecting:
  Showing both folly to abuse her proffer,
    And all his sex of cowardice detecting.
  Oh! that I lead my mistris at that bay,
  To kisse and clippe me till I ranne away!"
                  Sonnet III., from _Fidessa_.

  "Fair[1] Venus, with Adonis sitting by her,
    Under a myrtle shade, began to woo him;
  She told the youngling how god Mars did try her,
    And as he fell to her, she fell to him.
  'Even thus,' quoth she, 'the warlike god embrac'd me,'
    And then she clipp'd Adonis in her arms:
  'Even thus,' quoth she, 'the warlike god unlac'd me,'
    As if the boy should use like loving charms:
  'Even thus,' quoth she, 'he seized on my lips,'
    And with her lips on his did act the seizure;
  And as she fetched breath, away he skips,
    And would not take her meaning nor her pleasure.
  Ah! that I had my lady at this bay,
  To kiss and clip me till I run away!"
      Sonnet IX., from Shakspeare's _Passionate Pilgrim_.

That the insertion of Griffin's sonnet in the _Passionate Pilgrim_ was
without Shakspeare's consent or knowledge, is in my opinion evident for
many reasons.

I have long been convinced that the _Passionate Pilgrim_ was published
surreptitiously; and although it bears Shakspeare's name, the sonnets and
ballads of which it is composed were several of them taken from his dramas,
and added to by selections from the poems of his cotemporaries, Raleigh,
Marlow, and others; that it was a bookseller's job, made up for sale by the
publisher, W. Jaggard.

No one can believe that Shakspeare would have been guilty of such a gross
plagiarism. Griffin's _Fidessa_ bears date 1596: the first known edition of
the _Passionate Pilgrim_ was printed for W. Jaggard, 1599. It has no
dedication to any patron, similar to Shakspeare's other poems, the _Venus
and Adonis_, the _Rape of Lucrece_, and the _Sonnets_; and why it bears the
title of the _Passionate Pilgrim_ no one has ascertained.

But I am losing sight of the object I had in view when I took up my pen,
which was, through the medium of "N. & Q.," to request any of its readers
to furnish me with any particulars of B. Griffin, the author of _Fidessa_.

Mr. Singer supposes him to have been of a Worcestershire family; as he
addresses his "poore pamphlet" for patronage to the gentlemen of the Innes
of Court, he might probably have been bred to the law.

Perhaps your correspondents CUTHBERT BEDE, or MR. NOAKE, the Worcestershire
rambler, might in their researches into vestry registers and parish
documents, find some notice of the family. I am informed there was a
gentleman of the name resident in our college precincts early in the
present century, that he was learned and respected, but very eccentric.

J. M. G. Worcester.

[Footnote 1: The early copies read "Venus, with Adonis sitting by her;" the
defective word was added at Dr. Farmer's suggestion. Had he seen a copy of
_Fidessa_, the true reading might perhaps have been restored. (Note by Mr.
Singer.)]

       *       *       *       *       *

CAPS AT CAMBRIDGE.

At the congregation in the Senate House at Cambridge, Nov. 23, presided
over by the Prince Chancellor, it was observed that the undergraduates in
the galleries (for want I suppose of an obnoxious Vice-Chancellor or
Proctor upon whom to vent their indignation) poured it forth in yells and
groans upon those members of the senate who kept on their hats or caps. The
same has been done on several former occasions. It probably {28} arises
from a mistake, in ascribing to the _gaucherie_ of individuals what is
really the observance of a very ancient custom. The following extract, from
an unpublished MS. of the middle (I think) of the seventeenth century, in
which the custom is incidentally noticed, will serve for a confirmation of
what I say:

    "When I was regent, the whole house of congregation joyned together in
    a petition to the Earle of Pembroke to restore unto us the jus
    pileorum, the licence of putting on our cappes at our publicke
    meetings; which priviledge time and the tyrannie of our
    vicechancellours had taken from us. Amongst other motives, we use the
    solemne forme of creating a M^r in the Acte by putting on his cappe,
    and that that signe of libertie might distinguish us which were the
    Regents from those boyes which wee were to governe, which request he
    graciouslie granted."

This was written by an M.A. of Oxford. At Cambridge we have not hitherto
had such haughty despots in authority, to trample upon our rights; but we
seem to be in danger of losing our jus pileorum through "the tyrannie," not
of our Vice-Chancellors, but "of those boyes which wee are to governe."

A REGENT M.A. OF CAMBRIDGE.

Lincoln's Inn.

       *       *       *       *       *

LETTERS OF EMINENT LITERARY MEN.

(_Continued from_ p. 8.)

IV.

_Dr. John Ward, Professor of Gresham College, to Dr. Cary, Bishop of
Clonfert._

[MS. Donat., Brit. Mus., 6226, p. 16.]

  My Lord,

While there was any expectation of your Lordship's speedy return to
England, I forbore to congratulate you on your late promotion. For though
none of your friends could more truly rejoice at this news than I did, both
on your own account, and that of the public; yet in the number of
compliments which I was sensible you must receive on that occasion, I close
rather to be silent for fear of being troublesome. But as I find it is now
uncertain, when your affairs may permit of your return hither, I could not
omit this opportunity by your good Lady to express my hearty congratulation
upon the due regard shown by the Government to your just merit; and shall
think it an honour to be continued in your esteem as _ultimus amicorum_.

I doubt not but your Lordship has seen Mr. Horsley's _Britannia Romana_
advertised in some of our public Papers; but I know not whether you have
heard that the author died soon after he had finished the work, before its
publication. When it was hoped that the credit of this book might have been
of some service to him and his large family, he was suddenly and
unexpectedly taken off by an Apoplexy. Such is the uncertainty of all human
affairs. That your Lordship may be long preserved in your high station for
the good of the Protestant Religion, and the support of public liberty, are
the sincere wishes of,

  My Lord,
  Your Lordship's obed^t Serv^t.
  JOHN WARD.

  Gresham College,
  April 24, 1732.

V.

_Mr. Michael Mattaire to the Earl of Oxford._

1736, Oct. 21. Orange Street.

  My Lord,

After my most humble thanks for the continuation of Westminster Elections
you was so kind as to give me, I must acquit myself of my promise; and
therefore I herewith send your Lordship a copy transcrib'd exactly from the
MS. given me by Dr. South himself of his verses upon Westminster School,
with his name, and the year subscribed at bottom. They were indeed
publish'd among his _Opera Posthuma Latina Anon._ 1717, by Curl, after his
impudent way of dealing with dead authors' works; and sometimes also with
those of the living.

Curl's printed copy differs from the MS. in these following places:

             _Curl._         _MS._
  Vers. 5.   Multum.       Latè
        16.  Et.           dum.
        21.  ubi regnat.   quòd regnet.
        23.  æmula.        æmula, but over it ardua.
        25.  dirigit.      digerit.
        26.  nitent.       micant.
        29.  studiosæ.     studiosa.
        30.  illa.         ipsa.
        33.  lumen.        Lucem.

Your Lordship by this may see how much this sawcy fellow has abused this
learned man's fine copy of verses; and how justly he deserved the
correction which was inflicted on him at that school.

By the tenth Distich it appears that the School (containing then _Tercentum
juvenes_) was managed by three Masters onely: and, for aught we know, might
flourish pretty well, though it had not twice that number.

Give me leave, my Lord, to subscribe myself with profound respect,

  Your Honor's
    most oblig'd, most obedient,
      and most humble Serv^t.
          M. MAITTAIRE.

  "IN INCLYTAM SCHOLAM REGIAM WESTMONASTERIENSEM.

  Reginæ fundata manu, Regina scholarum;
    Quam Virgo extruxit, Musáq; Virgo colit.
  {29}
  Inconfusa Babel, linguis et mole superba;
    Celsior et famâ, quàm fut illa situ.
  Gentibus et linguis latè celebrata; tacere
    De quâ nulla potest, nec satìs ulla loqui.
  Opprobria exuperans, pariterq; encomia: Linguis
    Et tot laudari digna, quot ipsa doces.
  Hæbræus Græcusq; uno cernuntur in Anglo;
    Qui puer huc Anglus venerat exit Arabs.
  Tercentum hic florent juvenes: mihi mira videtur
    Tam numerosa simul, tam quoque docta cohors.
  Sic numero bonitas, numerus bonitate relucet;
    Ut stellas pariter lux numerusq; decet.
  Arte senes, annis pueros mirabitur hospes;
    Dum stupet, in pueris nil puerile videns.
  Consurgit, crescitq; puer, velut Hydra sub ictu;
    Florescitq; suis sæpe rigatus aquis.
  Stat regimen triplici fasces moderante magistro;
    Doctaq; Musarum regna Triumvir habet.
  Scilicet has inter sedes quòd regnet Apollo,
    Optimè Apollineus comprobat ille Tripos.
                                  ardua
  Sic super invidiam sese effert æmula; nullis
    Invida, sed cunctis invidiosa scholis.
  Indè in septenas se digerit ordine classes;
    Dispositæ, septem, quæ velut Astræ, micant.
  Discit et Authores propria inter moenia natos;
    Et generosa libros, quos legit, ipsa parit.
  Instar Araneolæ Studiosa has exhibet artes;
    Quas de visceribus texuit ipsa suis.
  Literulas docet hic idem Præceptor et Author,
    Idem discipulis Bibliotheca suis.
  Accipit hìc lucem, non ultrà cæcus, Homerus:
    Huc venit à Scythicis Naso reversus agris.
  Utraq; divitijs nostris Academia crescit;
    Hæc Schola ad implendas sufficit una duas.
  Sic Fons exiguus binos excurrit in Amnes:
    Parnassi geminus sic quoque surgit Apex.
  Huic collata igitur, quantùm ipsa Academia præstat:
    Dic, precor; Hæc doctos accipit, Illa facit.
                          ROB. SOUTH.
                          Ann. Dom. 1652,
                          aut 1653."

[MS. Harl. 7025, fols. 184, 185.]

VI.

_The Earl of Orrery to Mr., afterwards Dr., Thomas Birch._

[Addit. MS., Brit. Mus., 4303, Art. 147. Orig.]

Caledon, Sept. 21, 1748.

  Dear Sir,

It either is, or seems to be, a long time since I heard from you. Perhaps
you are writing the very same sentence to me; but as the loss is on my
side, you must give me leave to complain.

This summer has passed away in great idleness and feasting: so that I have
scarce looked into a book of any sort. Mrs. Pilkington and Con. Philips,
however, have not escaped me. I was obliged to read them to adapt myself to
the conversation of my neighbours, who have talked upon no other topic,
notwithstanding the more glorious subjects of Peace, and Lord Anson's
voyage. The truth is, we are better acquainted with the stile of Con. and
Pilky, than with the hard names and distant places that are mentioned in
the Voyage round the World.

I have not peeped into the Anti-Lucretius: it is arrived at Caledon, and
reserved for the longest evenings. Carte's voluminous History is weighing
down one of my shelves. He likewise is postponed to bad weather, or a fit
of the gout. Last week brought us the first Number of Con's second volume.
She goes on triumphantly, and is very entertaining. Her sister Pilkington
is not so fortunate. She has squandered away the money she gained by her
first volume, and cannot print her second. But from you, I hope to hear of
books of another sort. A thin quarto named _Louthiana_ is most delicately
printed, and the cuts admirably engraved: and yet we think the County of
Louth the most devoid of Antiquities of any County in Ireland. The County
of Corke is, I believe, in the press; and I am told it will be well
executed. I have seen the County of Waterford, and approve of it very much.
These kind of Books are owing to an Historical Society formed at Dublin,
and of great use to this kingdom, which is improving in all Arts and
Sciences very fast: tho' I own to you, the cheapness of French Claret is
not likely to add much at present to the encrease of literature. If all
true Hibernians could bring themselves to be of your opinion and Pindar's,
the glorious memory of King William might keep the head cool, and still
warm the heart; but, alas, it sets both on fire: and till these violent
fits of bacchanalian loyalty are banished from our great tables, I doubt
few of us shall ever rise higher in our reading than the Memoirs of that
kind I first mentioned.

I am, Dear Sir, and so is all my family, truly

                      Yours,
                          ORRERY.

  To the Rev. Mr. Thomas Birch,
    at his House in
          Norfolk Street,
              London.
  Free (Boyle).

       *       *       *       *       *

NEWSPAPER FOLK LORE.

The following paragraph is now going the round of the newspapers without
reference to the source of information. I copy it from the _Morning
Chronicle_ of Friday, December 9.

    "_Escape of a Snake from a Man's Mouth._--An extraordinary circumstance
    occurred a few days ago to Jonathan Smith, gunner's mate, who was paid
    off at Portsmouth on the 6th of May last, from her Majesty's ship
    Hastings, 72 guns, on her return to England from the East Indies. He
    obtained six weeks' leave. On the expiration of that time, after seeing
    his friends at Chatham, he joined the Excellent, gunnery-ship at
    Portsmouth. After some time he was taken unwell, {30} his illness
    increased, and he exhibited a swelling in his stomach and limbs. The
    surgeon considering that it arose from dropsy, he was removed into
    Haslar Hospital, and after much painful suffering, although he had
    every attention paid to him by the medical officers of the
    establishment, he died. Two hours before his death a living snake, nine
    inches in length, came out of his mouth, causing considerable surprise.
    How the reptile got into his stomach is a mystery. It is supposed that
    the deceased must have swallowed the reptile when it was young,
    drinking water when the Hastings was out in India, as the ship laid for
    some time at Trincomalee, and close to a small island called Snake
    Island. The crew used very often to find snakes on board. The way they
    used to get into the ship was by the cable, and through the hawsers
    into the forecastle. The deceased was forty years of age. He was
    interred in Kingston churchyard. His remains were followed to the grave
    by the ship's company of the Excellent."

The proverbial wisdom of the serpent is here clearly exemplified. It has
long been well known among sailors that rats have the sense to change their
quarters when a vessel becomes cranky; whence I believe arises the epithet
"rat," which is sometimes scurrilously applied to a politic man who removes
to the opposition benches when he perceives symptoms of dissolution in the
ministry. The snake, in the simple narrative above quoted, was evidently
guided by some such prudential motive when he quitted the stomach of the
dying sailor, which could not continue for any great length of time to
afford protection and support to the cunning reptile.

I have an amiable friend who habitually swallows with avidity the tales of
sea-serpents which are periodically imported into this country on American
bottoms, and I have sufficient credulity myself to receive, without strict
examination into evidence, the account of the swarming of the snakes up the
cables into a ship; but I cannot so readily believe that "considerable
surprise" was caused in the mind of any rational biped by the fact that a
living snake, which had attained to the length of nine inches, took the
very natural precaution to come out of a dying man's mouth.

How the reptile got into his stomach is a mystery which the newspaper
writer has attempted to clear up, but he has not attempted to explain how
the reptile managed to live during many months in so unusual a habitation
as a man's stomach.

Some obliging correspondent of "N. & Q." will perhaps have the kindness to
explain this remarkable fact in natural history.

A LONDONER.

       *       *       *       *       *

KING JAMES'S IRISH ARMY LIST OF 1689-90.

In last September I undertook a literary project, which I think could be
greatly aided through the medium of "N. & Q.," as there are few families in
the empire that are not connected with its details, and who might therefore
be expected to feel interested in them. The project I allude to is a
publication of King James's Irish Army List of 1689-90. King I must call
him in reference to that list. Those that appear upon it were many his
creedmen, and all his devoted adherents. The list, of which I have a copy
in MS., extends over thirty-four pages octavo. The first two are filled
with the names of all the colonels; the four ensuing are rolls of the
regiments of horse; the four next, of the dragoons; and the remaining
twenty-four record the foot: each regiment being arranged, with the
colonel, lieutenant-colonel, and major at head, and the captains,
lieutenants, cornets or ensigns, and quarter-masters, in columns, on each
respectively. To every regiment I proposed to append notices, historic and
genealogical, to the extent of, perhaps, eight hundred pages or more, for
the compilation of which I have ample materials in my own MS. collections.
These notices I propose to furnish under him of the name who ranks highest
on the list; and all the scattered officers of that name will be collected
in that one article.

After an especial and full notice of such officer, to when the family
article is attached, his parentage, individual achievements, descendants,
&c., each illustration will briefly glance at the genealogy of that family,
with, if an Irish sept, its ancient localities; if an English or Scotch,
the county from whence it branched, and the period when it settled here.

I would next identify each family, so illustrated, with its attainders and
forfeitures in 1641;

With the great Assembly of Confederate Catholics at Kilkenny in 1646;

With the persons denounced by name in Cromwell's ordinance of 1652, "for
_settling_ Ireland;"

With the declaration of royal gratitude to the Irish exiles who served King
Charles II. "in parts beyond the seas," as contained in the _Act of
Explanation_ of 1665;

With (if space allowable) those advanced by James II. to civil offices, as
sheriffs, &c., or members of his new corporations;

With those who represented Irish counties or boroughs in the Parliament of
Dublin in 1689;

With the several outlawries and confiscations of 1691, &c.;

With else claims that were subsequently (in 1703) preferred as charges on
these forfeitures, and how far allowed or dismissed;

And, lastly, as far as attainable, their achievements in the glorious
engagements of the Spanish and French Brigades: {31}

All statements throughout being _verified by authorities_.

Already have I compiled and arranged the materials for illustrating the
eight regiments of horse upon this roll, viz. Tyrconnel's, Galmoy's,
Sarsfield's, Abercorn's, Luttrell's, Sutherland's, Parker's, and Purcell's;
a portion of the work in which, according to my plan, the illustrations
will be appropriated to the families of--

  Aylmer.
  Barnewall.
  Butler.
  Callaghan.
  Cusack.
  De Courcy.
  Dempsey.
  Everard.
  Gernon.
  Hamilton.
  Kearney.
  Lawless.
  Lutrell.
  Matthews.
  McDonnell
  McNamara.
  Meara.
  Morris.
  Nagle.
  O'Sullivan.
  O'Kelly.
  Plunket.
  Prendergast.
  Purcel.
  Redmond.
  Rice.
  Roche.
  Sarsfield.
  Sheldon.
  Synnott.
  Talbot.
  &c. &c.

And this section (about 100 pages) is open to inspection on appointment.

The above is but a tithe of the surnames whose genealogical illustrations I
propose to furnish. The succeeding portions of the work, comprising six
regiments of Dragoons, and upwards of fifty of Foot, will offer for notice,
besides numerous septs of the O's and Mac's, the Anglo-Irish names of--

  Barry.
  Bellew.
  Bermingham.
  Burke.
  Cheevers.
  Cruise.
  D'Alton.
  Daly.
  D'Arcy.
  Dillon.
  Dowdall.
  Eustace.
  Fagan.
  FitzGerald.
  FitzMaurice.
  FitzPatrick.
  Fleming.
  Grace.
  Keatinge.
  Lacy.
  Nangle.
  Netterville.
  Nugent.
  Power.
  Preston.
  Russell.
  Savage.
  Segrave.
  Taaffe.
  Trant.
  Tyrrel.
  Wogan.
  _Cum multis aliis._

My inquiry touching Lord Dover, who heads the List, has heretofore elicited
much curious information; and I confide that all who can afford literary
assistance to the undertaking, by letters, inspection of documents, or
otherwise, will promptly communicate on the subject.

JOHN D'ALTON.

48. Summer Hill, Dublin.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Notes.

_Authors and Publishers._--As "N. & Q." is, I believe, much read by
booksellers as well as authors, would not both parties find great advantage
by the latter advertising in your pages the completion and wished-for
publication of any work on which they may have been engaged? Publishers, in
this way, might hear of works which they would be glad to bring before the
public, and authors be spared much unnecessary and often useless trouble
and correspondence. Authors, I know, may feel some delicacy in coming
before the world in this manner _before_ publication, although after that
rubicon is passed, their names and productions are blazoned on the winds;
but as a previous announcement in "N. & Q." may be made _anonymously_, as
respects the name of the writer, although not of course as regards the
nature of his work, there seems no just reason why honorable and beneficial
arrangements may not be made in this way as well as by any other. To me
this plan seems to offer some advantages, and I throw out the hint for the
consideration of all whom it may concern.[2]

ALPHA.

[Footnote 2: [Any assistance which we can afford in carrying out this
suggestion, which we may remark comes from one who has had practical
experience on the subject, we shall be most happy to render.--ED.]]

_Inscriptions on old Pulpits._--"N. & Q." has given many kinds of
inscriptions, from those on Fonts and Door-heads down to those on
Watch-papers; perhaps, therefore, it may not be without its use or interest
to make a beginning for a list of inscriptions on old pulpits. The first
inscription I quote is from Richard Baxter's pulpit, of which I have given
a full description in Vol. v., p. 363.:

1. Kidderminster. Baxter's pulpit (now preserved in the vestry of the
Unitarian Chapel). On the panels of the pulpit:

  "ALICE . DAWKX . WIDOW . GAVE . THIS."

On the front of the preacher's desk:

  "PRAISE . THE . LORD."

Round the sounding-board:

  "O . GIVE . THANKS . UNTO . THE . LORD . AND . CALL
      UPON . HIS . NAME . DECLARE . HIS . WORSHIP
                 AMONG . THE . PEOPLE."

At the back of the pulpit:

  "ANNO . 1621."

2. Suckley, Worcestershire; round the sounding-board (apparently of very
old date):

  "BLESSED . ARE . THEY . THAT . HEAR . THE . WORDE . OF
                 GOD . AND . KEEPE . IT."

3. Broadwas, Worcestershire; on the panels:

  "WILLIAM . NOXON . AND . ROGER . PRINCE . C . W . 1632."

Round the sounding-board, the same text as at Suckley.

CUTHBERT BEDE, B.A.

_Recent Curiosities of Literature._--Thackeray, in the second number of
_The Newcomes_, describes an old lady's death as being caused from her head
having been _cut_ with a bed-room _candle_. N. P. Willis, in his _Health
Trip to the Tropics_, speaks {32} of being waited on by a Carib, who had
"no beard except a long moustache." Professor Spalding, of St. Andrew's in
his _History of English Literature_, says that the sonnets of Wordsworth
"have _perfection_ hardly to be _surpassed_." And J. Stanyan Bigg (the "new
poet"), in the December number of Hogg's _Instructor_, exclaims:

  "The winter storms come rushing round the wall,
  Like him who at Jerusalem shriek'd out 'Wo!'"

CUTHBERT BEDE, B.A.

_Assuming Names._--Last Term, in the Court of Exchequer, application was
made by counsel to add a surname to the name of an attorney on the roll; he
having been left property with a wish expressed that he should take the
surname in addition to his own, which he had done, but not by royal
license. The court granted the application. (_Law Times_, vol. xxii. p.
123.)

ANON.

_False Dates in Water-marks of Papers._--Lately, in cutting up some paper
for photographic purposes, I found in one and the same quire two sheets
without any mark, two of the date 1851, nine bearing the date 1853, and the
remaining eleven were 1854. I can imagine a case might occur in which the
authenticity of a document might be much questioned were it dated 1853,
when the paper would be presumed not to have been made until a year
afterwards. I think this is worth making a note of not only by lawyers, but
those interested in historical documents.

H. W. D.

Jan. 2, 1854.

       *       *       *       *       *


Queries.

CAPTAIN FARRE.

I send you a Note and a Query respecting the same person. Many years since,
I passed a few days in one of the wildest spots in the south of
England--Hawkley, in the neighbourhood of Selbourne. On a visit to the
church of Emshott or Empshot, I heard that the screen had been presented by
a Captain Farre, whose memory was in some way connected with the days of
the republic; and on farther inquiry tradition, it appeared, had come to
the conclusion that Farre had been one of the regicides who had retired
into the neighbourhood, and lived and died there in a sort of concealment.
I found out, also, the house in which he had lived: a pretty modest
cottage, in which a small farmer resided. I was struck, on approaching it,
by the beauty of the brick-work of the little porch, which appeared to have
been an addition to the original building. On entering the cottage, I found
that the kitchen and bed-room only were occupied by the family; the _one
room_, which _had been_ the sitting-room, being used as a granary. The
ceiling of this room was ponderous, with a deep rich sunken panelling. The
little porch-entrance and the ceiling of this room were so out of character
with the cottage, and indeed with all around, that I caused search to be
made in the Registers of the parish to see if I could find some trace of
this Captain Farre; and I now send you the result. There was no regicide of
that name; but Col. Phaer was one of those to whom the warrant for the
execution of Charles was addressed: and he certainly was not one of the
twenty-nine subsequently tried for the high treason as it was called. What
became of him I know not. Whether he reappeared here as Capt. Farre, or who
Capt. Farre was, I shall leave to the speculation of the better informed.
There were many Farrs and Phaers _out_ in the great Revolution, and the
name is sometimes spelt one way, sometimes the other. Empshot, under Nore
Hill or Noah Hill, was certainly an excellent place for concealment. The
neighbourhood was, and is, as White said, "famous for its oaks, and
infamous for its roads."

    _Extracts from the Parish Registers._

    "_Captaine Farre of Nore_, when our church was repaired, gave the new
    silke cushion and pullpit cloath, which was first used on Christmas
    Day, Anno Domini 1664."

    "1683, Feb. 5. Anne Baker, kinswoman of _Capt. Farre_, was buried, and
    that very day the moone was new, and the snow thawed; and the frost
    broke, which had lasted from Nov. 26, 1683, to that day, which is 10
    weeks. The ponds were frozen 2 feet, and that little water which was,
    was not sweet; the very grave wherein she was buried in the church was
    froze almost 2 feet over, and our cattel were in a bad case, and we
    fared worse: and, just in our extremity, God had pitty on us, and sent
    a gracious raine and thaw. She was buried in linnen; and paid 50s. to
    the poore, and 6s. 8d. for being buried in the church."

    "1685, April 1. Mrs. Farre was buried in linnen, and p^d 50s. to the
    poore."

    "1694. John, son of Mr. John Palmer and Elizabeth his wife, was born
    Tuesday, May the 1st, and baptized at home May the 11th; y^e _Captaine_
    died Thursday last, y^e day before."

    "An Account of the Briefe for the Relief of the French Protestants,
    read May 16th, at Newton, 1686.

    _At Noare in Newton._

    _Capt. Mr. Robert Farre_ gave 1 lib. for himself, and his kinswoman
    Mrs. Elizabeth Farre.

      His man Roger    1s.
      His maid Anna    6d."

    "Gathered towards the relief of the French Protestants, May 11, 1688;

    _Captain Far_ and Mrs. Elizabeth Far, 5s."

C. F.

{33}

       *       *       *       *       *

MARRIAGE CEREMONY IN THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY.

Will some one of your correspondents (learned in such matters) refer me to
a work treating of the marriage ceremony as performed in this country
during the fourteenth century, in order to the explanation of the following
passages, which refer to an event in English history--the marriage of
Edward I.'s daughter with the Count of Holland? The king's writ to the
Bishop of London speaks of the marriage as about to be celebrated on the
day after the Epiphany, upon which day (as shown by the Wardrobe Account)
the ring was put on; but it was on the next day (the 8th) that the princess
"despon[=s] fuit," as shown by the same account.

In Rymer's _Foedera_, vol. i. p. 850., will be found a writ directed to the
Bishop of London (and others) as follows:

    "Quia inter Comitem Holandiæ et Elizabetham, filiam nostram carissimam,
    _matrimonium_ hac proxima die Lunæ, _in crastino Epiphaniæ_, apud
    Gyppesivicum solempnizari proponimus, Domino concedente," &c.

In the Household Book of King Edward I. for the same year (Add. MS. 7965.)
will be found the following entries, p. 6.:

    "_Obla[=t] p'ticipa[=t]._--Terc[=o] die Janu[=ar] in obla[=t]
    [p=]ticipatis ad Missam celebr[=a]tam ad magn[=u] altare eccl[=i]a
    priorat' [=b]i Pe[=t] in Gippewico die Nupcia[=r] Alienore de Burgo....
    vij.

    "_Pro Comitessa Holland._--Eodem die (vij Janu[=ar]) in dena[=r] tam
    positis su[p=] libr[=u] qi[=n] jactatis [=i]ter homines circumstantes
    ad hostium in introitu eccl[=i]e Magne Prioratus pred[=c]i _ubi comes
    Hollandie sub.... vit D[=n]am Elizabetham filiam Regis c[=u] anulo
    auri...._ lxs.

    "Fratribus predicatoribus de Gippewico [p=] ... sua unius diei
    videl[=tz] viij _diei Janu[=ar] quo die D[=na] Elizabeth filia R.
    despon[=s] fuit_, [p=] M. de Cauford, xiijs. iiijd."

R. C.

       *       *       *       *       *

MANUSCRIPT CATENA.

About four years ago I purchased, at the sale of the museum of Mr. George
Bell of Whitehaven, a folio vellum MS. in Latin, written apparently in the
fourteenth century: containing a Catena, or a series of notes on the
Epistles to the Romans and Corinthians, selected from the Fathers of the
Church, viz. Origines, Ambrosius, Gregorius, Jeronimus, Augustinus,
Cassianus, Beda, Lambertus, Lanfrancus, Anselmus, and Ivo Carnotensis. As
many of those authors were English, I infer that the volume was compiled in
England for some English monastery.

The beginning of each chapter is noted on the margin, but there is no
division into verses. The sentences, or short paragraphs of the text, are
written in vermillion, and the comments upon them in black: those comments
are generally taken from one, but often from two or three authors; the
names of each being stated. There are large handsome capitals at the
beginning of each book, and the initials to the paragraphs are
distinguished by a spot of red, but there are no illuminations. Two leaves
have been cut out at the beginning of the volume; a few at two or three
places throughout the volume, and at the end, by some former possessor. As
the style of binding is very uncommon, I will describe it. It was bound in
oak boards of half an inch thick; the sheets were sewed on thongs of white
leather, similar to what cart harness is stitched with. Instead of the
thongs being brought _over_ the back edges of the boards (as in modern
binding), they are inserted into mortices in the edges of the boards, and
then laced through holes, and secured with glue and wedges. The boards were
covered first with allumed leather, and over that seal-skin _with the hair
on_. The board at the beginning of the book had four feet, placed near the
corners, of nearly an inch in height, half an inch in diameter at the base,
and about a quarter of an inch at the point. Each was cast in one piece,
with a circular base of about an inch and a quarter in diameter, and rising
towards the centre; and they were each fastened on by three pins or nails.
The board at the end of the book was ornamented with four circular brass
plates about the size of a halfpenny, placed near the corners; having in
the centre of each a stud, the head of which represented a prominent close
flower of four petals. And in the centre of the board, there had been a
stud or button, on which to fasten the strap from the other board to keep
the book shut. Only one stud and one foot remained; but the places where
the others had been were easily seen. I presume that the volume was meant
to lie on a lectern or reading-desk, resting on its feet; and when opened
out, the other board rested on its studs, as both were worn smooth with
use.

The binding being loose, and the cover torn to shreds (part of which was
held on by the stud), I got the book rebound as nearly as possible in the
same manner as the first, only substituting Russia leather for the
unsightly seal-skin; and the remaining stud and foot afforded patterns,
from which others were cast to supply the places of those deficient.

Nothing is known of the history of this volume, except that it was
purchased by Mr. Bell from Alexander Campbell, a bookseller in Carlisle. I
am inclined to think, that it had belonged to some monastery in Cumberland;
and the _seal-skin_ cover would seem to indicate Calder Abbey (which is
near _the coast_, where seals might be caught) as its original owner.

Can any of your correspondents inform me, from the marks which I have
given, whether this is a {34} copy of _some known work_ or an original
compilation? And if the former, state where the original MS. is preserved;
and if _printed_, the particulars of the edition?

If my MS. can be ascertained to have formerly belonged to any library or
individual, I shall be glad to learn any particulars of its history.

J. M. K.

Shoreham.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries.

_Jews and Egyptians._--Has any writer ever started the idea that the early
colonisers of some of the Grecian states, who are commonly stated to have
been Egyptians, may have been, in fact, Jews? It seems to me that a good
deal might be said in favour of this hypothesis, for the following reasons,
amongst others:

1. The Egyptian tradition preserved by Hecatæus, and quoted from him by
Diodorus, that Danaus and Cadmus were leaders of minor branches of the
great emigration, of which the main body departed under the guidance of
Moses.

2. The near coincidence in point of time, as far as can be traced, of the
appearance of Danaus, Cadmus, and Cecrops, in Greece, with the Jewish
exodus.

3. The letter, preserved by Josephus, of Areus, king of Sparta, to the
high-priest of the Jews, claiming a common descent with the latter from
Abraham, and proposing an alliance. It is difficult to explain this claim
on any other supposition than that Areus had heard of the tradition
mentioned by Diodorus, and, as he and his people traced their descent from
Danaus through Hercules, they consequently regarded themselves as sprung
from a common stock with the Hebrews.

I throw out this theory for the consideration of others, having myself
neither leisure nor opportunity for pushing the subject any farther; but
still I think that a distinguished statesman and novelist, who amused the
world some years ago by endeavouring to trace most of the eminent men of
modern times to a Jewish origin, might, with at least as much reason, claim
most of the glories of ancient Greece for his favourite people.

J. S. WARDEN.

_Skin-flint._--Is the word _skin-flint_, a miserly or niggardly person, of
English or foreign derivation? and where is the earliest instance of the
term to be met with?

J. W.

_Garlic Sunday._--The last Sunday of summer has been heretofore a day of
great importance with the Irish, as upon it they first tried the new
potato, and formed an opinion as to the prospects of future harvest. The
day was always called, in the west in particular, "Garlic Sunday," perhaps
a corruption of Garland Sunday. Can any one give the origin of this term,
and say when first it was introduced?

U. U.

Dublin.

_Custom of the Corporation of London._--In the evidence of Mr. Bennoch,
given before the Royal Commissioners for inquiring into the corporation of
the city of London, he stated that there is, amongst other payments, one of
133l. "for cloth to the great ministers of state," the city being bound by
an old charter to give a certain amount of cloth annually to them. He
subsequently states that this custom is supposed to be connected with the
encouragement of the wool manufacture in its early history; and that four
and a half yards of the finest black cloth that the country can produce are
annually sent to the First Secretary of State, the Second Secretary of
State, the Lord Chancellor, the Chamberlain of the Household, the
Vice-Chancellor of the Household, the Treasurer of the Household, the Lord
Steward, the Controller, the Lord Chief Justice of the Queen's Bench, the
Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, the Chief Baron of the Exchequer,
the Master of the Rolls, the Recorder of London, the Attorney-General, the
Solicitor-General, and the Common Sergeant.

Can any of the readers of "N. & Q." give a more particular account of this
custom?

CERVUS.

_General Stokes._--Can any of your readers give me any information
respecting the parentage of General Stokes? In the historical table of
remarkable events in the _Jamaica Almanack_ for 1847 it says: "General
Stokes, with 1600 men from Nevis, arrived and settled near Port Morant,
anno Domini 1655." And in Bryan Edwards' work on _Jamaica and the West
Indies_, mention is made of General Stokes in the following words:

    "In the month of December, 1655, General Stokes, with 1600 men from
    Nevis, arrived in Jamaica, and settled near Port Morant. The family of
    the Morants of Vere (in Jamaica) are the lineal descendants of General
    Stokes, who took the name of Morant from the port at which he landed.
    General Stokes was governor of Nevis; and on his arrival in Jamaica was
    appointed one of the high commissioners for the Island."

H. H. M.

_Rev. Philip Morant._--I shall be obliged by any information respecting the
lineage of the Rev. Philip Morant, who wrote a _History of the County of
Essex_; and whether he was an ancestor of the Morants of Brockenhurst Park,
Hants. He was born at St. Saviour's, in the Isle of Jersey, Oct. 6, 1700;
entered, 1717, Pembroke College, Oxford. He was presented to {35} the
following benefices in the county of Essex, viz. Shallow, Bowells,
Bromfield, Chicknal, Imeley, St. Mary's, Colchester, Wickham Bishops, and
to Oldham in 1745. He died Nov. 25, 1770; and his only daughter married
Thomas Astle, Esq., F.R.S. and F.A.S. He was son of Stephen Morant. If any
of the sons or daughters of that eminent antiquary Thomas Astle will give
me any information relative to the pedigree of Philip Morant, M.A., they
will greatly oblige me.

H. H. M.

Malta.

_The Position of Suffragan Bishops in Convocation._--In Chamberlayne's
_Magnæ Britanniæ Notitia, or The Present State of Great Britain_, 1729, p.
73., it is said:

    "All suffragan bishops and deans, archdeacons, prebendaries, rectors,
    and vicars, have privileges, some by themselves, others by proxy or by
    representatives, to sit and vote in the lower house of convocation."

Is there authority for this statement as regards suffragan bishops? There
is no writ or mandate that I have seen for their appearance.

W. FRASER.

Tor-Mohun.

_Cambridge Mathematical Questions._--Can any of your readers inform me
whether the University of Cambridge puts forth, by authority, a collection
of all the questions proposed to candidates for the B.A. degree?

If not, how can one obtain access to the questions which have been asked
during the last forty or fifty years?

IOTA.

_Crabbe MSS._--In some second-hand book catalogue the following is
inserted, viz.,--

    "1353. Crabbe (Rev. Geo., _Poet_), Poems, Prayers, Essays, Sermons,
    portions of Plays, &c., _5 vols. entirely autograph, together with a
    Catalogue of Plants, and Extracts from the second Volume of the
    Transactions of the Linnean Society, 1795 (this volume only contains a
    few Autograph Verses in pencil at the end). An Autograph letter of 4
    pages to the Dean of Lincoln, dated_ TROWBRIDGE, March 31, 1815. _A
    curious Anonymous letter from 'Priscian' to Mr. Murray, dated_ Dec.
    8th, 1833, _on the Orthography of the name of the Birthplace of the
    Poet, and which the writer observed in the View of the Town of
    Aldeburgh in the frontispiece to the Prospectus Mr. M. has just issued,
    &c., interspersed with some portraits and scraps, in 6 vols. 4to. and
    8vo., dated from 1779 to 1823, 8l. 8s._"

This is a note underneath:

    "The following portion of a Prayer, evidently alluding to his troubles,
    occurs in one of the volumes bearing date Dec. 31, 1779: 'A thousand
    years, most adored Creator, are in thy Sight as one Day. So contract in
    my Sight my Calamities! The Year of Sorrow and Care, of Poverty and
    Disgrace, of Disappointment and wrong, is now passing on to join the
    Eternal. Now, O Lord! let, I beseech thee, my Afflictions and Prayers
    be remembered; my Faults and Follies be forgotten.' 'O! Thou who art
    the Fountain of Happiness, give me better Submission to thy Decrees,
    better Disposition to correct my flattering Hopes, better Courage to
    bear up under my State of Oppression,'" &c.

Can any of the reader of "N. & Q." tell me who possesses this? I should
very much like to know.

H. T. BOBART.

Ashby-de-la-Zouch.

_Tilly, an Officer of the Courts at Westminster._--What office did one
Tilly hold in one of the Courts at Westminster, circa 8 William III.? Was
he Warden of the Fleet? What were his connexions by birth and by marriage?
Was he dispossessed? and if so, why?

J. K.

_Mr. Gye._--Who was Mr. Guye, or Gye, who had chambers in the Temple circa
8 Wm. III.?

J. K.

_Three Fleurs-de-Lys._--Some of your heraldic contributors may perhaps be
able to say whether there is any instance of an English coat of arms with
three fleurs-de-lys in a line (horizontal), in the upper part of the
shield? Such are said to occur in coats of arms of French origin, as in
that of the celebrated Du Guesclin, and perhaps in English coats in the
form of a _triangle_. But query whether, in any instance, in a horizontal
line?

DEVONIENSIS.

_The Commons of Ireland previous to the Union in 1801._--I have understood
there was a work which contained either the memoirs or sketches of the
political characters of all the members of the last "Commons of Ireland;"
and I have heard it was written by a Rev. Dr. Scott of, I believe, Trinity
College, Dublin. Can any reader of "N. & Q." inform me if there be such a
work? and if there be a biographical account of the author to be met with?

C. H. D.

"_All Holyday at Peckham._"--Can any of your correspondents inform me what
is the origin of the phrase "All holyday at Peckham?"[3]

R. W. B.

[Footnote 3: [Probably some of our correspondents may know the _origin_ of
this phrase; and as many of them, perhaps, are not acquainted with its
meaning among the slang literati, we may as well enlighten them with a
quotation from the _Lexicon Balatronicum et Macaronicum_ of Master Jon Bee:
"_Peckham_, going to dinner. 'All holiday at _Peckham_,' no appetite.
_Peckish_, hungry."--ED.]]

_Arthur de Vere._--What was the after history of Arthur (Philipson) de
Vere, son of John, Earl of Oxford, and hero of Sir Walter Scott's novel
{36} _Anne of Geierstein?_ Was Sir Walter Scott justified in saying, "the
manners and beauty of Anne of Geierstein attracted as much admiration at
the English Court as formerly in the Swiss Chalet?"

[Sigma].

_Master of the Nails._--It appears from the _Historical Register_, January,
1717, "Mr. Hill was appointed Master of all the Nails at Chatham Dock." Can
any of your readers favour me by stating the nature of the above office?

W. D. H.

_Nattochiis and Calchanti._--few days since an ancient charter was laid
before me containing a grant of lands in the county of Norfolk, of the date
1333 (temp. Edw. II.), in which the following words are made use of:

    "Cu' omnib; g'nis t natthocouks adjacentib;" &c.

In a later portion of the grant this word is spelt _natthociis_. Probably
some of your learned readers can throw some light on what is meant by the
words _granis et nattochiis_ as being appurtenant to marsh lands.

In a grant I have also now before me of Queen Elizabeth--

    "Decimas, calchanti, liquor, mineral, metal," &c.

are given to the grantee for a term of twenty-one years: probably your
readers can also enlighten my ignorance of the term _calchanti_; the other
words are obvious. If any authorities are to be met with, probably in the
answers to these queries your correspondents will have the goodness to cite
them.

F. S. A.

"_Ned o' the Todding._"--May I beg, through the medium of your excellent
publication, to ask if any of your correspondents can inform me in which of
our English authors I may find some lines headed "Ned o' the Todding?"

W. T.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries with Answers.

_Bridget Cromwell and Fleetwood._--Can you inform me whether Bridget,
daughter of Oliver Cromwell, who was first married in 1651 to Ireton, Lord
Deputy of Ireland (and had by him a large family), and secondly, to General
Fleetwood, had any family by the latter?

And, if so, what were the Christian names of the children (Fleetwood)?

A NEW SUBSCRIBER OF 1854.

    [Noble, in his _Memoirs of the House of Cromwell_, vol. ii. p. 369.,
    says, "It is most probable that Fleetwood had issue by his second wife
    Bridget, especially as he mentions that she was in an increasing way in
    several of his letters, written in 1654 and 1655. It is highly probable
    Mr. Charles Fleetwood, who was buried at Stoke Newington, May 14, 1676,
    was his son by the Protector's daughter, as perhaps was Ellen
    Fleetwood, buried in the same place in a velvet coffin, July 25, 1731;
    if so, she must have been, at the time of her death, upwards of seventy
    years of age."]

_Culet._--In my bills from Christ Church, Oxford, there is a charge of
sixpence every term for _culet_. What is this?

B. R. I.

    [In old time there was a collection made every year for the doctors,
    masters, and beadles, and this was called _collecta_ or _culet_: the
    latter word is now used for a customary fee paid to the beadles. "I
    suppose," says Hearne, "that when this was gathered for the doctors and
    masters it was only for such doctors and masters as taught and read to
    scholars, of Which sort there was a vast number in old time, and such a
    collection was therefore made, that they might proceed with the more
    alacrity, and that their dignity might be better supported."--Appendix
    to _Hist. Rob. de Avesbury_.]

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies.

THE ASTEROIDS OR RECENTLY DISCOVERED LESSER PLANETS.

(Vol. vii., p. 211.; Vol. viii., p. 601.)

QUÆSTOR has asked me a question to which I will not refuse a reply. If he
thinks that the breaking up of a planetary world is a mere fancy, he may
consult Sir John Herschel's _Astronomy_, § 434., in Lardner's series, ed.
1833, in which the supposition was treated as doubtful, and farther
discoveries were declared requisite for its confirmation; and Professor
Mitchell's _Discoveries of Modern Astronomy_, Lond. 1850, pp. 163-171.,
where such discoveries are detailed, and the progress of the proof is
narrated and explained. It may be briefly stated as follows:--In the last
century, Professor Bode discovered the construction of a regular series of
numbers, in coincidence with which the distances of all the known planets
from the sun had been arranged by their Creator, saving one exception.
Calling the earth's solar distance 10, the next numbers in the series are
16, 28, 52. The distances answering to 16 and 52, on this scale, are
respectively occupied by the planets Mars and Jupiter; but the position of
28 seemed unoccupied. It was not likely that the Creator should have left
the methodical order of his work incomplete. A few patient observers
agreed, therefore, to divide amongst themselves that part of the heavens
which a planet revolving at the vacant distance might be expected to
traverse; and that each should keep up a continuous examination of the
portion assigned to him. And the result was the discovery by Piazzi, in
1801, of a planet revolving at the expected solar distance, but so minute
that the elder Herschel computed its diameter to be no more than 163 miles.
The discovery of a second by Olbers, in the {37} following year, led him to
conjecture and suggest that these were fragments of a whole, which, at its
first creation, had occupied the vacant position, with a magnitude not
disproportionate to that assigned to the other planets. Since then there
have been, and continue to be, discoveries of more and more such fragmental
planets, all moving at solar distances so close upon that numbered 28, as
to pass each other almost, as has been said, within peril; but in orbits
which seem capriciously elevated and depressed, when referred to the planes
assigned for the course of the regular planets; so that, to most minds
capable of appreciating these facts, it will seem that Olber's conjecture
has been marvellously confirmed.

As to the theological conjecture appended to it in my previous
communication, about which QUÆSTOR particularly questions me, I can only
say, that if he deems it rash or wrong, I have no right to throw the blame
of it on any other man's shoulders, as I am not aware of its having been
hazarded by any one else. But I hope he will agree with me, that if there
has been a disruption of a planetary world, it cannot have arisen from any
mistake or deficiency in the Creator's work or foresight, but should be
respectfully regarded as the result of some moral cause.

HENRY WALTER.

       *       *       *       *       *

EMBLEMATIC MEANINGS OF PRECIOUS STONES (Vol. viii., p. 539).--PLANETS OF
THE MONTHS SYMBOLISED BY PRECIOUS STONES (Vol. iv., pp. 23. 164.).

The Poles have a fanciful belief that each month of the year is under the
influence of a precious stone, which influence has a corresponding effect
on the destiny of a person born during the respective month. Consequently,
it is customary, among friends and lovers, on birth-days, to make
reciprocal presents of trinkets ornamented with the natal stones. The
stones and their influences, corresponding with each month, are supposed to
be as follows:

  January     Garnet.       Constancy and fidelity.
  February    Amethyst.     Sincerity.
  March       Bloodstone.   Courage. Presence of mind.
  April       Diamond.      Innocence.
  May         Emerald.      Success in love.
  June        Agate.        Health and long life.
  July        Cornelian.    Contented mind.
  August      Sardonyx.     Conjugal felicity.
  September   Chrysolite.   Antidote against madness.
  October     Opal.         Hope.
  November    Topaz.        Fidelity.
  December    Turquoise.    Prosperity.

The Rabbinical writers describe a system of onomancy, according to the
third branch of the Cabala, termed _Notaricon_, in conjunction with
lithomancy. Twelve anagrams of the name of God were engraved on twelve
precious stones, by which, with reference to their change of hue or
brilliancy, the cabalist was enabled to foretel future events. Those twelve
stones, thus engraved, were also supposed to have a mystical power over,
and a prophetical relation to, the twelve signs of the Zodiac, and twelve
angels or good spirits, in the following order:

  _Anagrams._    _Stones._  _Signs._     _Angels._
  [Hebrew: YHWH] Ruby.      Aries.       Mulchediel.
  [Hebrew: YHHW] Topaz.     Taurus.      Asmodel.
  [Hebrew: YWHH] Carbuncle. Gemini.      Ambriel.
  [Hebrew: HWHY] Emerald.   Cancer.      Muriel.
  [Hebrew: HWYH] Sapphire.  Leo.         Verchel.
  [Hebrew: HHYW] Diamond.   Virgo.       Humatiel.
  [Hebrew: WHHY] Jacinth.   Libra.       Zuriel.
  [Hebrew: WYHH] Agate.     Scorpio.     Barbiel.
  [Hebrew: HWHY] Amethyst.  Sagittarius. Adnachiel.
  [Hebrew: HYHW] Beryl.     Capricornus. Humiel.
  [Hebrew: WHYH] Onyx.      Aquarius.    Gabriel.
  [Hebrew: HYWH] Jasper.    Pisces.      Barchiel.

These stones had also reference to the twelve tribes of Israel, twelve
parts of the human body, twelve plants, twelve birds, twelve minerals,
twelve hierarchies of devils, &c. &c. _usque ad nauseum_.

It is evident that all this absurd nonsense was founded on the twelve
precious stones in the breast-plate of the High Priest (Exodus xxviii. 15.:
see also Numbers xxvii. 28., and 1 Samuel xxviii. 6.). I may add that in
the glorious description of the Holy City, in Revelation xxi., the mystical
number twelve is again connected with precious stones.

In the _Sympathia Septem Metallorum ac Septem Selectorum Lapidum ad
Planetus_, by the noted Peter Arlensis de Scudalupis, the following are the
stones and metals which are recorded as sympathising with what the ancients
termed the seven planets (I translate the original words):

  Saturn     Turquoise.   Lead.
  Jupiter    Cornelian.   Tin.
  Mars       Emerald.     Iron.
  Sun        Diamond.     Gold.
  Venus      Amethyst.    Copper.
  Mercury    Loadstone.   Quicksilver.
  Moon       Chrystal.    Silver.

N. D. inquires in what works he will find the emblematical meanings of
precious stones described. For a great deal of curious, but obsolete and
useless, reading on the mystical and occult properties of precious stones,
I may refer him to the following works:--_Les Amours et noveaux Eschanges
des Pierres Précieuses_, Paris, 1576; _Curiositez inouyes sur la Sculpture
Talismanique_, Paris, 1637; _Occulta Naturæ Miracula_, Antwerp, 1567;
_Speculum Lapidi_, Aug. Vind., 1523; _Les Oeuvres de Jean Belot_, Rouen,
1569.

W. PINKERTON.

       *       *       *       *       *

{38}

NON-RECURRING DISEASES.

(Vol. viii., p. 516.)

To give a full and satisfactory answer to the questions here proposed would
involve so much professional and physiological detail, as would be unsuited
to the character of such a publication as "N. & Q." I will therefore
content myself with short categorical replies, agreeable to the present
state of our knowledge of these mysteries of the animal economy. It is true
as a general rule that the infectious diseases, particularly the
exanthemata, or those attended by eruption--the measles for example--occur
but once. But there are exceptional cases, and the most virulent of these
non-recurrent diseases, such even as small-pox, are sometimes taken a
second time, and are then sometimes, though by no means always, fatal.

Why all the mammalia (for, be it observed, these diseases are not confined
to the human race) are subject to these accidents, or why the animal
economy should be subject to such a turmoil at all, or, being so subject,
why the susceptibility to the recurrence of the morbid action should exist,
or be revived in some and not in others; and why in the majority of persons
it should be extinguished at once and for ever, remain amongst the arcana
of Nature, to which, as yet, the physiology of all the Hunters, and the
animal chemistry of all the Liebigs, give no solution.

Those persons who take note of the able, and in general highly instructive,
reports of the Registrar of Public Health, will observe that the word
_zymotic_ is now frequently used to signify the introduction into the body
of some morbific poisons,--such as prevail in the atmosphere, or are thrown
off by diseased bodies, or generated in the unwholesome congregation of a
crowded population, which are supposed to act like yeast in a beer vat,
exciting ferments in the constitution, in the case of the infections
diseases, similar to those which gave them birth. But this explains
nothing, and only shifts the difficulty and changes the terms, and is no
better than a modification of the opinions of our forefathers, who
attributed all such disorders to a fermentation of the supposed "humours"
of the body. The essence of these changes in the animal economy, like other
phenomena of the living principle, remain, and perhaps ever will remain, an
unfathomable mystery. It is our business to investigate, as much as in our
power, and by a slow and cautious induction, the laws by which they are
governed.

Non-recurrence, or immunity from any future seizure in a person who has had
an infectious disease, seems derivable from some invisible and unknown
_impression_[4] made on the constitution. There is good reason to suppose
that this impression may _vary in degree_ in different individuals, and in
the same individual at different times; and thence some practical
inferences are to be drawn which have not yet been well advanced into
popular view, but to which I cannot advert unless some reader of "N. & Q."
put the question.

M. (2)

[Footnote 4: This word is used for want of a better, to signify some
unknown change.]

       *       *       *       *       *

MILTON'S WIDOW.

(Vol. viii., p. 594. &c.)

GARLICHITHE'S apologies to MR. HUGHES are due, not so much for neglecting
his communications as for misquoting them. We all owe an apology to your
readers for keeping up so pertinaciously a subject of which I fear they
will begin to be tired.

MR. HUGHES has _not_ stated that Richard Minshull of Chester, son of
Richard Minshull, the writer of the letter of May 3, 1656, was born in
1641. What MR. HUGHES _did_ state (Vol. viii., p. 200.) was, that Mrs.
Milton's brother, Richard Minshull of Wistaston, was baptized on April 7 in
that year; and the statement is quite correct, as I can vouch, from having
examined the baptismal register. Richard Minshull of Chester was aged forty
or forty-one at the date of his father's letter, as shown below; but even
if he had been aged only fifteen, as supposed by GARLICHITHE, I do not see
that there is anything in the language of the letter to call for
observation. He had conveyed to his father a communication from Randle
Holmes, and the father writes in answer,--"Deare and loveing sonne, my love
and best respects to you and to my daughter [GARLICHITHE may read
daughter-in-law if he likes, but I see no necessity for it], tendered
w^{th} trust of y^r health. I have reaceived Mr. Alderman Holmes his
letter, together with y^{rs}, wherin I understand that you desire to know
what I can say concerning our coming out of Minshull House;" and he
proceeds to give the information asked for.

GARLICHITHE, in his former communication, confounds Randle the
great-grandfather with Randle the great-grandson, and in his present one he
confounds Richard Minshull of Chester, the uncle, with Richard Minshull of
Wistaston, the nephew. I agree with GARLICHITHE that "he, Richard, the
writer of the said letter, must be _fairly presumed_ to have been married
at the date of such letter," which he addresses to his "Deare and loveing
sonne;" but what of that? Whom he married, your readers are informed at p.
595. He died in the year following his letter, at the ripe age of
eighty-six.

The misquotations noticed above would, if not pointed out, lead to
inextricable confusion of facts; and I am compelled therefore again to {39}
trouble you. In order, if possible, to set the matter at rest, I will put
together in the form of a pedigree, compressed so as to be fit for
insertion in your columns, the material facts which have been the subject
of so much discussion; but, before doing so, permit me a word of protest
against some of the communications alluded to, which are scarcely fair to
"N. & Q."

A correspondent (Vol. vii., p. 596.) asks for information as to Milton's
widow, and MR. HUGHES (Vol. viii., p. 12.) refers him to a volume in which
will be found the information asked for, and gives a brief outline of the
facts there stated. On this GARLICHITHE (Vol. viii., p. 134.), misquoting
MR. HUGHES, calls his attention to Mr. Hunter's letter, which, if
GARLICHITHE had availed himself of the reference furnished to him, he would
have found duly noticed. A second correspondent, MR. SINGER, whose literary
services render me unwilling to find fault with him (Vol. viii., p. 471.),
heading his article with five references, of which not one is correct,
suggests as new evidence the very documents to which MR. HUGHES had
furnished a reference; and a third, T. P. L. (quoting an anonymous
pamphlet), jumps at once to the conclusion that "there can be little doubt"
the author derived his information from an authentic source, "and, if so,
it seems pretty clear"--that all the evidence supplied by heralds'
visitations, wills, and title-deeds is to be discarded as idle fiction.
Such objections as these, and the replies which they have rendered
necessary, are, with the exception of the valuable contribution of MR.
ARTHUR PAGET, the staple of the contributions which have filled so much of
your valuable space.

I conclude with my promised pedigree, the authorities for which are the
Cheshire Visitation of 1663-4, and the Lancashire Visitation of 1664-5,
confirmed by the letter to Randle Holmes, and the legal documents published
by the Chetham Society:

  John Mynshull, fourth and youngest son of John Mynshull of Mynshull,
  married the daughter and co-heiress of Robert Cooper of Wistaston, and
  founded the family subsequently settled there, as stated in his
  great-grandson's letter.
                                    |
  Randle Mynshull of Wistaston married the daughter of Rawlinson of Crewe,
  as stated in his grandson's letter.
                                    |
  Thomas Mynshull of Wistaston married Dorothy Goldsmith of Nantwich, as
  stated in his son's letter.
                                    |
  Richard Mynshull of Wistaston married Elizabeth, daughter of Nicholas
  Goldsmith of Bosworth, in co. Leic. (who was probably maternal aunt or
  great-aunt to the John Goldsmith mentioned in Dr. Paget's will). He was
  the writer of the letters in 1656, and died in 1657, aged eighty-six.
  He had two daughters and three sons, viz.--
                                    |
               +--------------------+--+------------------------+
               |                       |                        |
       Randle Mynshull (1)     Thomas Mynshull (5)     Richard Mynshull (6)
               |
        +------+-----------------------+--------------------------+
        |                              |                          |
  Richard Mynshull (2)          John Mynshull (3)             Elizabeth (4)

(1) Randle Mynshull of Wistaston married Ann Boot, and had seven children,
of whom it will be necessary to mention three only, viz.--

(2) Richard Mynshull, baptized April 7, 1641. On June 4, 1680, he executed
a bond, by the description of Richard Mynshull of Wistaston, frame-work
knitter, to Elizabeth Milton of the city of London, widow, who, though not
stated to be his sister, was evidently a near relative, as appears from the
contents of the bond.

(3) John Mynshull appears to have resided in Manchester, where he was
buried, May 18, 1720, and administration was granted at Cheshire to
Elizabeth Milton of Nantwich, widow, his lawful sister and next of kin.

(4) Elizabeth, baptized December 30, 1638, married Milton in 1664, is
described as of London in the bond from her brother, on the occasion of her
purchase of an estate at Brindley in Cheshire; is described as of Nantwich
in three legal documents from 1713 to 1725; by the same description,
administered to her brother John in 1720, and made her will on August 22,
1727, which was proved on October 10 in the same year.

(5) Thomas Mynshull, the apothecary of Manchester, mentioned in Thomas
Paget's will, aged fifty-one in 1664, had five sons and four daughters.

(6) Richard Mynshull, alderman of Chester, to whom his father wrote the
letter of May 3, 1656, aged forty-seven in 1663.

J. F. MARSH.

Warrington.

       *       *       *       *       *

TABLE-TURNING.

(Vol. viii., pp. 57. 398.)

One of the most distinguished men of science in France, M. Chevreul, the
editor (late or present) of the _Annales de Chimie_, &c., has commenced a
series of articles in the _Journal des Savants_ on the subject of the
divining-rod, the exploring pendulum, table-turning, &c., his intention
being to investigate scientifically the phenomena presented in these
instances. Having formerly written much on the occult sciences and being a
veteran in experimental science, M. Chevreul was generally deemed better
qualified than most men living to throw light on the intervention of a
principle whose influence he thinks he has proved by his own proper
experience. It will be better to quote his own language:

    "Ce principe concerne le _développement en nous d'une action musculaire
    qui n'est pas le produit d'une volonté, mais le résultat d'une pensée
    qui se porte sur un phénomène du monde extérieur sans préoccupation de
    l'action musculaire indispensable à la manifestation du phénomène_. Cet
    énonce sera développé lorsque nous l'appliquerons à l'explication des
    faits observés par nous, et deviendra parfaitement clair, nous
    l'espérons, lorsque le lecteur verra qu'il est l'expression précise de
    ces mêmes faits."

A farther quotation (if it should not prove too long for "N. & Q.") from M.
Chevreul's {40} preliminary remarks will be thought interesting by many
persons:

    "En définitive, nous espérons montrer d'une manière précise comment des
    gens d'esprit, sous l'influence de l'amour du merveilleux, si naturel à
    l'homme, franchissent la limite du connu, du fini, et, dès lors,
    comment, ne sentant pas le besoin de soumettre à un examen réfléchi
    l'opinion nouvelle qui leur arrive sous le cachet du merveilleux et du
    surnaturel, ils adoptent soudainement ce qui, étudié froidement,
    rentrerait dans le domaine des faits aux causes desquels il est donné à
    l'homme de remonter. Existe-t-il une preuve plus forte de l'amour de
    l'homme pour le merveilleux, que l'accueil fait de nos jours aux tables
    tournantes? Nous ne le pensons pas. Plus d'un esprit fort, qui accuse
    ses pères de crédulité en rejetant leurs traditions religieuses
    contemporains de Louis XIV., ont repoussé comme impossible un traité de
    chimère. Ce fait confirme ce que nous avons dit de la crédulité à
    propos de l'_Essai sur la Magie_ d'Eusèbe Salverte, car si l'esprit
    fort qui repousse la révélation ne s'appuie pas sur la méthode
    scientifique propre à discerner l'erreur de la vérité, l'incertain du
    fait démontré, il sera sans cesse exposé à adopter comme vraies les
    opinions les plus bizarres, les plus erronées, ou du moins les plus
    contestables."

The two articles hitherto published by M. Chevreul in the _Journal des
Savants_ for the months of October and November, extend only to the
first-mentioned subject of these inquiries, the divining-rod. The world
will probably wait with some impatience to learn the final views of so
eminent a scientific man.

J. MACRAY.

Oxford.

       *       *       *       *       *

CELTIC ETYMOLOGY.

(Vol. viii., pp. 229. 551.)

Your correspondent is a very Antæus. He has fallen again upon _uim_, and he
rises up from it to defend the _Heapian_ pronunciation with renewed vigour.
But I cannot admit that he has proved the pedigree of _humble_ from the
Gaelic.

But, even if _uim_ were the root of a Sanscrit word, and not itself a
derivative, still the many stages through which the derivation undoubtedly
passes, without any need of reference to the Gaelic, are quite enough to
establish the existence and continuance of an aspirate, until we arrive at
the French; and it has already been proved, that many words which lose the
aspirate in French do not lose it in English. The progress from the
Sanscrit is very clear:

_Sanscrit._ _Kshama._

_Pracrit._ _Khama._

_Old Greek._ [Greek: Chama]; whence [Greek: chamai], [Greek: chamaze],
[Greek: chthamalos].

_Latin._ _Humus_, _humilis_.

_Italian._ _Umile_; because there is in Italian no initial aspirate.

_French._ _'Humble_; because in words of Latin origin the French almost
always omit the aspirate.

_English._ _'Humble._

And here it may be observed, that _humilis_ never had, except in the
Vulgate and in ecclesiastical writers, the metaphorically Christian sense
to which its derivatives in modern tongues are generally confined, and to
which I believe the Gaelic _umhal_ to be strictly confined. But the
original words for _humble_ are _iosal_ and _iriosal_, cognate with the
Irish _iosal_ and _iriseal_, and the Cymric _isel_; and the olden and more
established words for the earth are, both in Gaelic and Irish, _talamh_ and
_lar_, cognate with the Cymric _llawr_.

All these facts lead to a reasonable suspicion that _uim_, _umhal_, and
_umhailteas_ (an evident naturalisation of a Latin word) are all derived
from Latin at a comparatively recent date, as certainly as _umile_,
_humilde_, _'humble_, and _'humble_ are, and in the same Christian sense.
The omission of an aspirate in the Gaelic word is then easily accounted
for, without supposing it not to exist in other languages, and for this
very simple reason, that no Gaelic word commences with _h_. There are
_some_ Celtic roots undoubtedly in the Latin language. It would be
difficult, for example, to derive _moenia_, _munire_, _gladius_, _vir_, and
_virago_ from any other origin, but much the larger number of words, in
which the two languages resemble each other, are either adoptions from the
Latin or derivatives from one common source, e. g. _mathair_ and _mother_,
_brathair_ and _brother_, as well as the Latin _mater_ and _frater_, from
the Sanscrit _matri_ and _bhratri_, &c., as all comparative philologists
are well aware. Would your correspondents call it the _'Ebrew_ language,
because a Gael calls it, as he must do, _Eabrach_?

E. C. H.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE.

_The Calotype Process: curling up of Paper._--I am happy in having the
opportunity of replying to your correspondent C. E. F. (Vol. ix., p. 16.),
because, with himself, I have found great annoyance from the curling up of
_some_ specimens of paper. In the papers recently sold as Turner's, I find
this much increased upon his original make, so much so that, until I
resorted to the following mode, I spoiled several sheets intended for
negatives, by staining the back of the paper, and which thereby gave a
difference of intensity when developed after exposure in the camera.

I have provided myself with some very thick extra white blotting-paper
(procured of Sandford). This being thoroughly damped, and placed between
two pieces of slate, remains so for many weeks. If the paper intended to be
used is properly interleaved between this damp blotting-paper, and allowed
to remain there twelve hours at least before it is to be iodized, it will
be found to work most easily. It should be barely as damp as paper which is
intended to be printed on. {41} This arrangement will be found exceedingly
useful for damping evenly cardboard and printed positives when they are
intended to be mounted, so as to ensure their perfect flatness.

It is quite immaterial whether the paper is floated on a solution or
applied with a glass rod. If a very few sheets are to be manipulated upon,
then, for economy, the glass rod is preferable; but if several, the
floating has the advantage, because it ensures the most even application. I
sent you a short paragraph (Vol. ix., p. 32.) showing how we may be
deceived in water-marks upon paper; and when we are supposing ourselves to
be using a paper of a particular date, in fact we are not doing so.

I would also caution your photographic correspondents from being deceived
in the quality of a paper by the exceeding high gloss which is given it by
extra hot-pressing. This is very pleasing to the eye, and would be a great
advantage if the paper were to remain dry; but in the various washings and
soakings which it undergoes in the several processes before the perfect
picture is formed, the artificial surface is entirely removed, and it is
only upon a paper of a natural firm and even make that favourable results
will be procured.

H. W. DIAMOND.

_Turner's Paper._--There is great difficulty in procuring good paper of
Turner's make; he having lately undertaken a contract for Government in
making paper for the new stamps, the manufacture of paper for photographic
purposes has been to him of little importance. In fact, this observation,
of the little importance of photographic compared to other papers, applies
to all our great paper-makers, who have it in their power to make a
suitable article. Mr. Towgood of St. Neots has been induced to manufacture
a batch expressly for photography; but we regret to say that, although it
is admirably adapted for albumenizing and printing positives, it is not
favourable for iodizing, less so than his original make for ordinary
purposes. All manufacturers, in order to please the eye, use bleaching
materials, which deteriorate the paper chemically. They should be
thoroughly impressed with the truth, that colour is of little consequence.
A _bad-coloured paper_ is of no importance; it is the extraneous substances
in the paper itself which do the mischief.

ED.

_A Practical Photographic Query._--I have never had a practical lesson on
photography. I have worked it out as far as I could myself, and I have
derived much information in reading the pages of "N. & Q.," so that now I
consider myself (although we are all apt to flatter ourselves) an average
good manipulator. Independently of the information you have afforded me, I
have read all the works upon photography which I could procure; and as the
most extensive one is that by Mr. Robert Hunt, I went to the Exhibition of
the Photographic Society just opened, thinking I might there see his works,
and gain that information from an inspection of them which I desired. My
disappointment was great on finding that Mr. Hunt does not exhibit, nor
have I been able to see any of his specimens elsewhere. May I ask if Mr.
Hunt _ever_ attempts anything practically, or is it to the _theory of
photography_ alone that he directs his attention?

I begin to fear, unless he lets a little of each go hand-in-hand, that he
will mislead some of us amateurs, although I am quite sure unintentionally;
for personally I much respect him, having a high opinion of his scientific
attainments.

A READER OF ALL BOOKS ON PHOTOGRAPHY.

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies to Minor Queries.

"_Service is no Inheritance_" (Vol. viii., p. 587.; Vol. ix., p. 20.).--P.
C. S. S. confesses that he is vulgar enough to take great delight in
Swift's _Directions to Servants_, a taste which he had once the good
fortune of hearing avowed by no less a man than Sir W. Scott himself. G. M.
T., who (Vol. viii., p. 587.) quotes the _Waverley Novels_ for the use of
the phrase "Service is no inheritance," will therefore scarcely be
surprised to find that it occurs frequently in Swift's _Directions_, and
especially in those to the "Housemaid," chap. x. (_quod vide_).

P. C. S. S.

_Francis Browne_ (Vol. viii., p. 639)--It is not stated in the general
pedigrees when or where he died, whether single or married. His sister
Elizabeth died unmarried, Nov. 27, 1662; and his elder brother, Sir Henry
Browne of Kiddington, in 1689. A reference to their wills, if proved, might
afford some information if he, Francis, survived either of these dates. The
will of Sir Henry Knollys, of Grove Place, Hants, the grandfather, might be
referred to with the same view, and the respective registers of Kiddington
and Grove Place.

G.

_Catholic Bible Society_ (Vol. viii., p. 494.).--MR. COTTON will find some
account of this Society (the only one I know of) in Bishop Milner's
_Supplementary Memoirs of the English Catholics_, published in the year
1820, p. 239. It published a stereotype edition of the New Testament
without the usual distinction of verses, and very few notes. The whole
scheme was severely reprobated by Dr. Milner, on grounds stated by him in
the Appendix to the _Memoirs_, p. 302. The Society soon expired, and no
tracts or reports were, I believe, ever published by it. The correspondence
between Mr. Charles Butler and Mr. Blair will be found in the _Gentleman's
Magazine_ for the year 1814.

S.

Fitzroy Street.

_Legal Customs_ (Vol. ix., p. 20.).--The custom, related by your
correspondent CAUSIDICUS, of a Chancery barrister receiving his first bag
from one of the king's counsel, reminds me that there are many other legal
practices, both obsolete and extant, which it would be curious and {42}
entertaining to collect in your pages, as illustrative of the habits of our
forefathers, and the changes that time has produced. I recognise many among
your coadjutors who are well able to contribute, either from tradition or
personal experience, something that is worth recording, and thus by their
mutual communications to form a collection that would be both interesting
and useful. Let me commence the heap by depositing the first stones.

1. My father has informed me that in his early years it was the universal
practice for lawyers to attend the theatre on the last day of term. This
was at a period when those who went into the boxes always wore swords.

2. It was formerly (within fifty years) the custom for every barrister in
the Court of Chancery to receive from the usher, or some other officer of
the court, as many buns as he made motions on the last day of Term, and to
give a shilling for each bun.

EDWARD FOSS.

_Silo_ (Vol. viii., p. 639.).--The word _silo_ is derived from the Celtic
_siol_, grain, and _omh_, a cave; _siolomh_, pronounced _sheeloo_, a "grain
cave." Underground excavations have been discovered in various parts of
Europe, and it is probable that they were really used for storing grain,
and not for habitations, as many have supposed.

FRAS. CROSSLEY.

I have no doubt but that MR. STRONG'S Query respecting _silos_ will meet
with many satisfactory answers; but in the mean time I remark that the Arab
subterranean granaries, often used by the French as temporary prisons for
refractory soldiers, are termed by then _silos_ or _silhos_.

G. H. K.

_Laurie on Finance_ (Vol. viii., p. 491).--

    "A Treatise on Finance, under which the General Interests of the
    British Empire are illustrated, comprising a Project for their
    Improvement, together with a new scheme for liquidating the National
    Debt," by David Laurie, 8vo., London, 1815.

ANON.

_David's Mother_ (Vol. viii., p. 539.).--The following comment on this
point is taken from vol. i. p. 203. of the Rev. Gilbert Burrington's
_Arrangement of the Genealogies of the Old Testament and Apocrypha_, Lond.
1836, a learned and elaborate work:

    "In 2 Sam. xvii. 25., Abigail is said to be the daughter of Nahash, and
    sister to Zeruiah, Joab's mother; but in 1 Chron. ii. 16., both Zeruiah
    and Abigail are said to be the daughters of Jesse; we must conclude,
    therefore, with Cappell, either that the name [Hebrew: NCHSH], Nahash,
    in 2 Sam. xvii. 25., is a corruption of [Hebrew: YSHY], Jesse, which is
    the reading of the Aldine and Complutensian Editions, and of a
    considerable number of MSS. of the LXX in this place or that Jesse had
    two names, as Jonathan in his Targum on Ruth iv. 22. informs us; or
    that Nahash is not the name of the father, but of the mother of
    Abigail, as Tremellius and Junius imagine; or, lastly, with Grotius, we
    must be compelled to suppose that Abigail, mentioned as the sister of
    Zeruiah in 2 Sam., was a different person from Abigail the sister of
    Zeruiah, mentioned in 1 Chron., which appears most improbable."

[Greek: Halieus].

Dublin.

_Anagram_ (Vol. vii., p. 546.).--Some years since I purchased, at a
book-stall in Cologne, a duodecimo (I think it was a copy of Milton's
_Defensio_), on a fly-leaf of which was the date 1653, and in the neat
Italian hand of the period the following anagram. The book had probably
belonged to one of the English exiles who accompanied Charles II. in his
banishment. I have never met with it in any collection of anagrams hitherto
published. Perhaps some of your numerous readers may have been more
fortunate, and can give some account of it.

  "Carolus Stuartus, Angliæ, Scotiæ, et Hiberniæ Rex,
  Aulâ, statû, regno exueris, ac hostili arte necaberis."

JOHN O' THE FORD.

Malta.

_Passage in Sophocles_ (Vol. viii., pp. 73. 478. 631.).--Your correspondent
M. is quite right in translating [Greek: prassein] _fares_, and referring
it not to [Greek: Theos], but to the person whom the Deity has infatuated;
and he is equally right in explaining [Greek: oligoston chronon] _for a
very short time_. [Greek: Prassei], the old reading restored by Herman, is
probably right; but it must still be referred to the same person: _Ille
vero versatur_, &c. MR. BUCKTON explains [Greek: hôi], which is the
relative to [Greek: noun], to signify _when_, and translates [Greek:
bonleuetai] as if it were equivalent with [Greek: bouletai]. [Greek: Ton
noun hôi bouleuetai] is _the mental power with which he_ ([Greek: ho
blaphtheis], not [Greek: Theos]) _deliberates_. [Greek: Atê] is, as M.
properly explains it, not _destruction_, but _infatuation, mental delusion;
that judicial blindness which leads a man to his ruin_, not the ruin
itself. It is a leading idea in the Homeric theology (_Il._ xix. 88., xxiv.
480., &c.).

Though the idea in the Antigone closely resembles that which is cited in
the Scholia, it seems more than probable that the original source of both
passages is derived from some much earlier author than a cotemporary of
Sophocles. As to the line given in Boswell, it is not an Iambic verse, nor
even Greek. It was probably made out of the Latin by some one who would try
his hand, with little knowledge either of the metre or the language. MR.
BUCKTON says, that to translate late [Greek: oligoston] _very short_, is
not to translate agreeably to the admonition of the old scholiast. Now, the
words of the scholiast are [Greek: oude oligon], _not even a little_, that
is, _a very little_: so [Greek: oude tutthon], [Greek: oud' êbaion], {43}
[Greek: oude minuntha], and many forms of the same kind.

E. C. H.

_B. L. M._ (Vol. viii., p. 585.).--The letters B. L. M., in the
subscription of Italian correspondence, stand for _bacio le mani_ (I kiss
your hands), a form nearly equivalent to "your most obedient servant." In
the present instance the inflection _baciando_ (kissing) is intended.

W. S. B.

"_The Forlorn Hope_" (Vol. viii., pp. 411. 569.).--For centuries the
"forlorn hope" was called, and is still called by the Germans, _Verlorne
Posten_; by the French, _Enfans perdus_; by the Poles and other Slavonians,
_Stracona poczta_: meaning, in each of those three languages, a detachment
of troops, to which the commander of an army assigns such a perilous post,
that he entertains no hope of ever rescuing it, or rather gives up all hope
of its salvation. In detaching these men, he is conscious of the fate that
awaits them; but he sacrifices them to save the rest of his army, _i. e._
he sacrifices a part for the safety of the whole. In short, he has no other
intention, no other thought in so doing, than that which the adjective
_forlorn_ conveys. Thus, for instance, in Spain, a detachment of 600
students volunteered to become a _forlorn hope_, in order to defend the
passage of a bridge at Burgos, to give time to an Anglo-Spanish corps
(which was thrown into disorder, and closely pursued by a French corps of
18,000 men) to rally. The students all, to the last man, perished; but the
object was attained.

It much grieves me thus to sap the foundation of the idle speculation upon
a word the late Dr. Graves indulged in, and which Mr. W. R. Wilde inserted
in the _Dublin Quarterly Journal of Medical Science_ for February, 1849;
but, on the other hand, I rejoice to have had the opportunity of
endeavouring to destroy the very erroneous supposition, that Lord Byron had
fallen into an error in his beautiful line:

  "The full of hope, misnamed _forlorn_."

What the late Dr. Graves meant by _haupt_ or _hope_, for head, I am at a
loss to conceive. _Haupt_, in German, it is true, means _head_; but in
speaking of a small body of men, marching at the head of an army, no German
would ever say _Haupt_, but _Spitze_. As to _hope_ (another word for
_head_) I know not from what language he took it; certainly not from the
Saxon, for in that tongue _head_ was called _heafod_, _hefed_, or _heafd_;
whilst _hope_ was called _hopa_, not _hope_.

C. S. (An Old Soldier.)

Oak Cottage, Coniston, Lancashire.

_Two Brothers of the same Christian Name_ (Vol. viii., p.338.).--I have
recently met with another instance of this peculiarity. John Upton, of
Trelaske, Cornwall, an ancestor of the Uptons of Ingsmire Hall,
Westmoreland, had two sons, living in 1450, to both of whom he gave the
Christian name of John. The elder of these alike-named brothers is stated
by Burke, in his _History of the Landed Gentry_, to have been the father of
the learned Dr. Nicholas Upton, canon of Salisbury and Wells, and
afterwards of St. Paul's, one of the earliest known of our authors on
heraldic subjects. The desire of the elder Upton to perpetuate his own
Christian name may in some way account for this curious eccentricity.

T. HUGHES.

Chester.

_Passage in Watson_ (Vol. viii., p. 587.).--Your correspondent G. asks,
whence Bishop Watson took the passage:

  "Scire ubi aliquid invenire posses, ea demum maxima pars eruditionis
      est."

In the account of conference between Spalato and Bishop Overall, preserved
in Gutch's _Collectanea Curiosa_, and printed in the Anglo-Catholic
Library, Cosin's _Works_, vol. iv. p. 470., the same sentiment is thus
expressed:

    "By keeping Bishop Overall's library, he (Cosin) began to learn,
    'Quanta pars eruditionis erat bonos nosse auctores;' which was the
    saying of Joseph Scaliger."

Can any of your correspondents trace the words in the writings of Scaliger?

J. SANSOM.

_Derivation of "Mammet"_ (Vol. viii., p. 515.).--It may help to throw light
on this question to note that Wiclif's translation of 2 Cor. vi. 16. reads
thus: "What consent to the temple of God with _mawmetis_?" Calfhill, in his
_Answer to Martiall_ (ed. Parker Soc., p. 31.), has the following sentence:

    "Gregory, therefore, if he had lived but awhile longer; and had seen
    the least part of all the miseries which all the world hath felt since,
    only for maintenance of those _mawmots_; he would, and well might, have
    cursed himself, for leaving behind him so lewd a precedent."

And at p. 175. this,--

    "That Jesabel Irene, which was so bewitched with superstition, that all
    order, all honesty, all law of nature broken, she cared not what she
    did, so she might have her _mawmots_."

See also the editor's note on the use of the word in this last passage. In
Dorsetshire, among the common people, the word _mammet_ is in frequent use
to designate a puppet, a doll, an odd figure, a scarecrow.

J. D. S.

_Ampers and, [&] or [&]_ (Vol. viii., p. 173.).--_Ampers [&]_, or _Empessy
[&]_, as it is sometimes called in this country, means _et per se [&]_;
that is to say, [&] is a character by itself, or _sui generis_,
representing not a letter but a word. It was formerly {44} annexed to the
alphabet in primers and spelling-books.

The figure [&] appears to be the two Greek letters [epsilon] and [tau]
connected, and spelling the Latin word _et_, meaning _and_.

UNEDA.

Philadelphia.

_Misapplication of Terms_ (Vol. viii., p. 537.).--The apparent _lapsus_
noticed by your correspondent J. W. THOMAS, while it reminds one that--

  "Learned men,
  Now and then," &c.,

is not so indefensible as many instances that are to be met with.

I have been accustomed to teach my boys that _legend_ (à _lego_, to read)
is not strictly to be confined to the ordinary translation of its
derivative, since the Latin admits of several readings, and among them, by
the usage of Plautus, _to hearken_; whence our English substantive takes
equal license to admit of _a relation_ = _a narrative_, viz. "a thing to be
heard;" and in this sense by custom has referred to many a gossip's tale.

Having thus ventured to defend the use of _legend_ by your correspondent
(Vol. v., p. 196.), I submit to the illuminating power of your pages the
following novel use of a word I have met with in the course of reading this
morning, and shall be gratified if some of your correspondents (better
Grecians than myself) can turn their critical bull's-eye on it with equal
advantage to its employer.

In the poems of Bishop Corbet, edited by Octavius Gilchrist, F.S.A., 4th
edition, 1807, an editorial note at p. 195. informs us that John Bust,
living in 1611, "seems to have been a worthy _prototype_ of the Nattus of
Antiquity." (_Persius_, iii. 31.)

Our humorous friend in the farce, who was "'prentice and predecessor" to
his coadjutor the 'pothecary whom he succeeded, is the only solecism at all
parallel, that immediately occurs to

SQUEERS.

Dotheboys.

P.S.--It would not be any ill-service to our language to pull up the
stockings of the tight-laced occasionally, though I have here rushed in to
the rescue.

_Belle Sauvage_ (Vol. viii., pp. 388. 523.).--Mr. Burn, in his _Catalogue
of the Beaufoy Cabinet of Tokens_ presented to the Corporation of London,
just published, after giving the various derivations proposed, says that a
deed, enrolled on the Claus Roll of 1453, puts the matter beyond doubt:

    "By that deed, dated at London, February 5, 31 Hen. VI., John Frensh,
    eldest son of John Frensh, late citizen and goldsmith of London,
    confirmed to Joan Frensh, widow, his mother--'Totum ten' sive hospicium
    cum suis pertin' vocat' Savagesynne, alias vocat' le Belle on the
    Hope;' all that tenement or inn with its appurtenances, called Savage's
    Inn, otherwise called the Bell on the Hoop, in the parish of St.
    Bridget in Fleet Street, London, to have and to hold the same for term
    of her life, without impeachment of waste. The lease to Isabella Savage
    must therefore have been anterior in date; and the sign in the olden
    day was the Bell. 'On the Hoop' implied the ivy-bush, fashioned, as was
    the custom, as a garland."--P. 137.

ZEUS.

_Arms of Geneva_ (Vol. viii., p. 563.).--Berry's _Encyclopædia_ and
Robson's _British Herald_ give the following:

    "Per pale or and gules, on the dexter side a demi-imperial eagle
    crowned, or, divided palewise and fixed to the impaled line; on the
    sinister side a key in pale argent; the wards in chief, and turned to
    the sinister; the shield surmounted with a marquis's coronet."

Boyer, in his _Theatre of Honour_, gives--

    "Party per pale argent and gules, in the first a demi-eagle displayed
    sable, cut by the line of partition and crowned, beaked, and membered
    of the second.

    "In the second a key in pale argent, the wards sinister."

BROCTUNA.

Bury, Lancashire.

"_Arabian Nights' Entertainments_" (Vol. viii., p. 147.).--There is a much
stranger omission in these tales than any MR. ROBSON has mentioned. From
one end of the work to the other (in Galland's version at least) the name
of opium is never to be found; and although narcotics are frequently spoken
of, it is always in the form of powder they are administered, which shows
that that substance cannot be intended; yet opium is, unlike tobacco or
coffee, a genuine Eastern product, and has been known from the earliest
period in those regions.

J. S. WARDEN.

_Richard I._ (Vol. viii., p. 72.).--I presume that the Richard I. of the
"Tablet" is the "Richard, King of England," who figures in the Roman
Calendar on the 7th February, but who, if he ever existed, was not even
monarch of any of the petty kingdoms of the Heptarchy, much less of all
England. However, not to go farther with a subject which might lead to
polemical controversy, surely MR. LUCAS is aware that a new series of kings
began to be reckoned from the Conquest, and that three Edwards, who had
much more right to be styled kings of England than Richard could have
possibly had, are not counted in the number of kings of that name; the
reason was, I believe, that these princes, although the paramount rulers of
the country, styled themselves much more frequently Kings of the West
Saxons than Kings of England.

J. S. WARDEN.

{45}

_Lord Clarendon and the Tubwoman_ (Vol. vii., p. 211.).--I regret having
omitted "when found, to make a note of," the number of Chambers' _Edinburgh
Journal_ in which I met with the anecdote referred to about Sir Thomas
Aylesbury, which is given at considerable length; and having lent my set of
"Chambers" to a friend at a distance, I cannot at present furnish the
reference required; but L. will find it in one of the volumes between 1838
and 1842 inclusive. I do not recollect that the periodical writer gave his
authority for the tale, but while it may very possibly be true as regards
the wife of Sir Thomas Aylesbury, it is evident that his daughter, a
wealthy heiress, could never have been in such a position; and it is not
recorded that Lord Clarendon had any other wife.

J. S. WARDEN.

_Oaths_ (Vol. viii., p. 605.).--Archbishop Whitgift, in a sermon before
Queen Elizabeth, thus addresses her:

    "As all your predecessors were at this coronation, so you also were
    sworn before all the nobility and bishops then present, and in the
    presence of God, and in His stead to him that anointed you, 'to
    maintain the church lands and the rights belonging to it;' and this
    _testified openly at the Holy Altar, by laying your hands on the Bible
    then lying upon it_. (See Walton's _Lives_, Zouch's ed., p. 243.)"

I quote from the editor's introduction to Spelman's _History of Sacrilege_,
p. 75., no doubt correctly cited.

H. P.

_Double Christian Names_ (Vol. vii. _passim_).--The earliest instances of
these among British subjects that I have met with, are in the families of
James, seventh Earl, and Charles, eighth Earl, of Derby, both of whom
married foreigners; the second son of the former by Charlotte de la
Tremouille, born 24th February, 1635, and named Henry Frederick after his
grand-uncle, the stadt-holder, is perhaps the earliest instance to be
found.

J. S. WARDEN.

_Chip in Porridge_ (Vol. i., p. 382. Vol. viii., p. 208.).--The subjoined
extract from a newspaper report (Nov. 1806) of a speech of Mr. Byng's, at
the Middlesex election, clearly indicates the meaning of the phrase:

    "It has been said, that I have played the game of Mr. Mellish. I have,
    however, done nothing towards his success. I have rendered him neither
    service nor disservice" ["No, nor to anybody else," said a person on
    the hustings; "you are a mere _chip in porridge_."]

W. R. D. S.

_Clarence Dukedom_ (Vol. viii., p. 565.).--W. T. M. will find a very
interesting paper on this subject, by Dr. Donaldson, in the _Journal of the
Bury Archæological Society_.

G.

_Prospectuses_ (Vol. viii., p. 562.).--I have seen a very curious volume of
prospectuses of works contemplated and proposed, but which have never
appeared, and wherein may be found much interesting matter on all
departments of literature. A collection of this description would not only
be useful, but should be preserved. A list of contemplated publications
during the last half century, collected from such sources, would not be
misplaced in "N. & Q.," if an occasional column could be devoted to the
subject.

G.

"_I put a spoke in his wheel_" (Vol. viii., pp. 464. 522. 576.).--This
phrase must have had its origin in the days in which the vehicles used in
this country had wheels of solid wood without spokes. Wheels so constructed
I have seen in the west of England, in Ireland, and in France. A recent
traveller in Moldo-Wallachia relates that the people of the country go from
place to place mounted on horses, buffaloes, or oxen; but among the Boyards
it is "fashionable" to make use of a vehicle which holds a position in the
scale of conveyances a little above a wheelbarrow and little below a
dung-cart. It is poised on four wheels of solid wood of two feet diameter,
which are more or less rounded by means of an axe. A vehicle used in the
cultivation of the land on the slopes of the skirts of Dartmoor in
Devonshire, has three wheels of solid wood; it resembles a huge
wheelbarrow, with two wheels behind, and one in front of it, and has two
long handles like the handles of a plough, projecting behind for the
purpose of guiding it. It is known as "the old three-wheeled But." As the
horse is attached to the vehicle by chains only, and he has no power to
hold it back when going down hill, the driver is provided with a piece of
wood, "a spoke," which is of the shape of the wooden pin used for rolling
paste, for the purpose of "dragging" the front wheel of the vehicle. This
he effects by thrusting the spoke into one of the three round holes made in
the solid wheel for that purpose. The operation of "putting a spoke in a
wheel by way of impediment" may be seen in daily use on the three-wheeled
carts used by railway navvies, and on the tram waggons with four wheels
used in collieries to convey coals from the pit's mouth.

N. W. S.

       *       *       *       *       *


Miscellaneous.

NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC.

Every lover of Goldsmith--and who ever read one page of his delightful
writings without admiring the author, and loving the man--

                  "... for shortness call Noll,
  Who wrote like an angel, but talk'd like poor Poll?"--

must be grateful to Mr. Murray for commencing his New Series of the
_British Classics_ with the _Works of_ {46} _Oliver Goldsmith_, edited by
Peter Cunningham, F.S.A. The Series is intended to be distinguished by
skilful editorship, beautiful and legible type, fine paper, compactness of
bulk, and economy of price. Accordingly, these handsome library volumes
will be published at 7s. 6d. each. If Mr. Murray has shown good tact in
choosing Goldsmith for his first author, he has shown equal judgment in
selecting Mr. Cunningham for his editor. Our valued correspondent, it is
well known, and will be proved to the world when he gives us his new
edition of Johnson's _Lives of the Poets_ (which by the bye is to be
included in this Series of Murray's _British Classics_), has long devoted
himself to the history of the lives and writings of the poets of the past
century. But in the present instance Mr. Cunningham has had peculiar
advantages. Besides his own collections for an edition of Goldsmith, he has
had the free and unrestricted use of the collections formed for the same
purpose by Mr. Forster and Mr. Corney: a liberality on the part of those
gentlemen which deserves the recognition of all true lovers of literature.
With such aid as this, and his own industry and ability to boot, it is
little wonder that Mr. Cunningham has been able to produce under Mr.
Murray's auspices the best, handsomest, and cheapest edition of Goldsmith
which has ever issued from the press.

Of all the critics of Mr. Dod's _Peerage, Baronetage, and Knightage of
Great Britain and Ireland_, Mr. Dod is himself at once the most judicious
and unsparing; and the consequence is, that every year he reproduces his
admirable compendium with some additional feature of value and interest.
For instance, in the volume for 1854, which has just been issued, we find,
among many other improvements, that, at a very considerable cost, the
attempt made in 1852 to ascertain and record the birthplace of every person
who is the possessor, or the next heir, of any title of honour, has been
renewed and extended with such success, that many hundred additional
birthplaces are now recorded; and the unknown remnant has become
unimportant. These statements are perfectly new and original, acquired from
the highest sources in each individual case, and wholly unprecedented in
the production of peerage-books.

       *       *       *       *       *

BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES

Wanted To Purchase.

COMPANION TO THE ALMANAC. All published.

ISAAC TAYLOR'S PHYSICAL THEORY OF ANOTHER LIFE.

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
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Particulars of Price, &c. of the following Books to be sent direct to the
gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and addresses are
given for that purpose:

A SERMON ON KNOWLEDGE. By Rev. H. J. Rose. Lond. 1826.

LETTERS BY CATHOLICUS on Sir Robt. Peel's Tamworth Address. Lond. 1841.

KIRCHER'S MUSURGIA UNIVERSALIS. Romæ, 1650. 2 Toms in 1. Folio.

GRANVIL'S LUX ORIENTALIS, with Notes by Dr. H. More. Lond. 1682. 8vo.

  Wanted by _J. G._, care of Messrs. Ponsonby, Booksellers, Grafton Street,
      Dublin.

SELDEN'S WORKS by Wilkins. Folio. Vol. III. Part II. 1726.

BISHOP GAUDEN, the Author of "Icon Basilike," by Dr. Todd. 8vo. (A
Pamphlet.)

  Wanted by _Thos. G. Stevenson_, Bookseller, Edinburgh.

KINGDOM'S DICTIONARY OF QUOTATIONS FROM THE ENGLISH POETS. 3 Vols.
Published by Whittaker.

  Wanted by _A. Griffith_, Bookseller, 8. Baker Street.

CLARKE'S MEMOIR OF W. FALCONER

  Wanted by _F. Dinsdale_, Leamington.

PRESCOTT'S CONQUEST OF MEXICO. Bentley. 1843. Vol. I.

  Wanted by _Henry Ditchburn, Esq._, Gravesend.

G. MACROPEDII, FABULÆ COMICÆ. 2 Tom. 8vo. Utrecht, 1552.

JUNIUS DISCOVERED, by P. T. Published about 1789.

  Wanted by _William J. Thoms_, 25. Holywell Street, Millbank, Westminster.

GALLERY OF PORTRAITS. Published by Charles Knight, under the
Superintendence of the Society for the Diffusion Of Useful Knowledge. No.
XLIII. (December, 1835), containing Adam Smith, Calvin, Mansfield.

  Wanted by _Charles Forbes_, 3. Elm Court, Temple.

BRISTOL DROLLERY. 1674.

HOLBORN DROLLERY. 1673.

HICK'S GRAMMATICAL DROLLERY. 1682.

OXFORD JESTS.

CAMBRIDGE JESTS.

  Wanted by _C. S._, 12. Gloucester Green, Oxford.

MUDIE'S BRITISH BIRDS. Bohn. 1841. 2nd Volume.

WAVERLEY. 1st Edition.

  Wanted by _F. R. Sowerby_, Halifax.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

_We are compelled to postpone until next week several _NOTES ON BOOKS_ and
_NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS.

_If _MR. KERSLAKE_ will send the extract from his catalogue which
illustrates the corrupted passage in _Childe Harold, "Thy waters wasted
them," &c.,_ we will give it insertion in our columns._

J. W. T. _Thanks. Your hint shall not be lost sight of._

E. R. (Dublin). _Erastianism is so called from Erastus, a German heretic of
the sixteenth century. (See, for farther particulars, Hook's _Church
Dictionary_, s. v.)_

A PRIEST. _We do not like to insert this inquiry without being able to give
our readers a specific reference to some paper containing the
advertisement; will he enable us to do so?_

A. B. (Glasgow). _This Correspondent appears to have fallen into an error;
on reference he will find ether not washed is recommended _(Vol. vi., p.
277.)_; 2ndly, if he varnishes his pictures with amber varnish _(Vol. vii.,
p. 562.)_ previous to the application of the black varnish, which should be
_black lacquer_ and not _Brunswick black_, then he will succeed. Courtesy
demands a reply; but we must beg a more careful reading of our
recommendations, which will save him much disappointment._

PHOTO-INQUIRER. Restoring Old Collodion.--_The question was asked in a late
Number. Mr. Crookes being a practical as well as scientific photographer,
we hope to receive a solution of the Query._

INDEX TO VOLUME THE EIGHTH.--_This is in a very forward state, and will be
ready for delivery with _No. 221._ on Saturday next._

"NOTES AND QUERIES." Vols. i. _to_ vii., _price Three Guineas and a
Half.--Copies are being made up and may be had by order._

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels and deliver them to
their Subscribers on the Saturday._

       *       *       *       *       *

{47}

WESTERN LIFE ASSURANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY.

3. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON.

Founded A.D. 1842.

  _Directors._

  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.          | T. Grissell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M.P.  | J. Hunt, Esq.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.              | J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.                | E. Lucas, Esq.
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  F. Fuller, Esq.               | J. B. White, Esq.
  J. H. Goodhart, Esq.          | J. Carter Wood, Esq.

  _Trustees._--W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq.,
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  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.

VALUABLE PRIVILEGE.

POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
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Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
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  Age       £   s.  d. | Age       £   s.  d.
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ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S., Actuary.

Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
INDUSTRIAL INVESTMENT and EMIGRATION: being a TREATISE ON BENEFIT BUILDING
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
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       *       *       *       *       *

POLICY HOLDERS in other COMPANIES, and intending Assurers generally, are
invited to examine the Rates. Principles, and Progress of the SCOTTISH
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*** Policies are now issued Free of Stamp Duty and attention is invited to
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as a Deduction from Income in the Returns for Income Tax.

GEORGE GRANT. Resident Sec. London Branch, 12. Moorgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION, No. 1. Class X.,
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BENNETT. Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
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65. CHEAPSIDE.

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XYLO-IODIDE OF SILVER, exclusively used at all the Photographic
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CAUTION.--Each Bottle is Stamped with a Red Label bearing my name, RICHARD
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       *       *       *       *       *

CYANOGEN SOAP: for removing all kinds of Photographic Stains. The Genuine
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       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'s Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
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Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
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Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.-123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERAS--OTTEWILL'S REGISTERED DOUBLE-BODIED FOLDING CAMERA,
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from its capability of Elongation or Contraction to any Focal Adjustment,
its Portability, and its adaptation for taking either Views or
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Every Description of Camera, or Slides, Tripod Stands, Printings Frames,
&c., may be obtained at his MANUFACTORY, Charlotte Terrace, Barnsbury Road,
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New Inventions, Models, &c., made to order or from Drawings.

       *       *       *       *       *

IMPROVEMENT IN COLLODION.-J. B. HOCKIN CO., Chemists, 289. Strand, have, by
an improved mode of Iodizing succeeded in producing a Collodion equal, they
may say superior, in sensitiveness and density of Negative, to any other
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Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the requirements for the practice of
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J. W. & T. ALLEN, 18. & 22. West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *

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HEAL & SON, Bedstead and Bedding Manufacturers, 196. Tottenham Court Road.

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PRINCE OF WALES'S SKETCH-BOX.--Containing Colours Pencils, &c., with
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{48}

The Camden Society,

For the Publication of

EARLY HISTORICAL AND LITERARY REMAINS.

The Camden Society is instituted to perpetuate, and render accessible,
whatever is valuable, but at present little known, amongst the materials
for the Civil, Ecclesiastical, or Literary History of the United Kingdom;
and it accomplishes that object by the publication of Historical Documents,
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designs, in the most convenient form, and at the least possible expense
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The Subscription to the Society is 1l. per annum, which becomes due in
advance on the first day of May in every year, and is received by MESSRS.
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Members may compound for their future Annual Subscriptions, by the payment
of 10l. over and above the Subscription for the current year. The
compositions received have been funded in the Three per Cent. Consols to an
amount exceeding 900l. No Books are delivered to a Member until his
Subscription for the current year has been paid. New Members are admitted
at the Meetings of the Council held on the First Wednesday in every month.

The Publications for the year 1851-2 were:

52. PRIVY PURSE EXPENSES of CHARLES II. and JAMES II. Edited by J. Y.
AKERMAN, Esq., Sec. S.A.

53. THE CHRONICLE OF THE GREY FRIARS OF LONDON. Edited from a MS. in the
Cottonian Library by J. GOUGH NICHOLS, Esq., F.S.A.

54. PROMPTORIUM: An English and Latin Dictionary of Words in Use during the
Fifteenth Century, compiled chiefly from the Promptorium Parvulorum. BY
ALBERT WAY. Esq., M.A., F.S.A. Vol. II. (M to R.) (_Now ready._)

Books for 1852-3.

55. THE SECOND VOLUME OF THE CAMDEN MISCELLANY, containing, 1. Expenses of
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1627-8; 5. Trelawny Papers; 6. Autobiography of Dr. William Taswell.--Now
ready for delivery to all Members not in arrear of their Subscription.

56. THE VERNEY PAPERS. A Selection from the Correspondence of the Verney
Family during the reign of Charles I. to the year 1639. From the Originals
in the possession of Sir Harry Verney, Bart. To be edited by JOHN BRUCE,
ESQ., Trea. S.A.

57. REGULÆ INCLUSARUM: THE ANCREN REWLE. A Treatise on the Rules and Duties
of Monastic Life, in the Anglo-Saxon Dialect of the Thirteenth Century,
addressed to a Society of Anchorites, being a translation from the Latin
Work of Simon de Ghent, Bishop of Salisbury. To be edited from MSS. in the
Cottonian Library, British Museum with an Introduction, Glossarial Notes,
&c., by the REV. JAMES MORTON, B.D., Prebendary of Lincoln. (_Now ready._)

The following Works are at Press, and will be issued from time to time, as
soon as ready:

58. THE CORRESPONDENCE OF LADY BRILLIANA HARLEY, during the Civil Wars. To
be edited by the REV. T. T. LEWIS, M.A. (Will be ready immediately.)

ROLL of the HOUSEHOLD EXPENSES of RICHARD SWINFIELD, Bishop of Hereford, in
the years 1289, 1290, with Illustrations from other and coeval Documents.
To be edited by the REV. JOHN WEBB, M.A., F.S.A.

THE DOMESDAY OF ST. PAUL'S: a Description of the Manors belonging to the
Church of St. Paul's in London in the Year 1222. By the VEN. ARCHDEACON
HALE.

ROMANCE OF JEAN AND BLONDE OF OXFORD, by Philippe de Reims, an Anglo-Norman
Poet of the latter end of the Twelfth Century. Edited, from the unique MS.
in the Royal Library at Paris, by M. LE ROUX DE LINCY, Editor of the Roman
de Brut.

Communications from Gentlemen desirous of becoming Members may be addressed
to the Secretary, or to Messrs. Nichols.

  WILLIAM J. THOMS, Secretary.
  25. Parliament Street, Westminster.

       *       *       *       *       *

WORKS OF THE CAMDEN SOCIETY,

AND ORDER OF THEIR PUBLICATION.

   1. Restoration of King Edward IV.
   2. Kyng Johan, by Bishop Dale.
   3. Deposition of Richard II.
   4. Plumpton Correspondence.
   5. Anecdotes and Traditions.
   6. Political songs.
   7. Hayward's Annals of Elizabeth.
   8. Ecclesiastical Documents.
   9. Norden's Description of Essex.
  10. Warkworth's Chronicle.
  11. Kemp's Nine Daies Wonder.
  12. The Egerton Papers.
  13. Chronica Jocelini de Brakelonda.
  14. Irish Narratives, 1641 and 1690.
  15. Rishanger's Chronicle.
  16. Poems of Walter Mapes.
  17. Travels of Nicander Nucius.
  18. Three Metrical Romances.
  19. Diary of Dr. John Dee.
  20. Apology for the Lollards.
  21. Rutland Papers.
  22. Diary of Bishop Cartwright.
  23. Letters of Eminent Literary Men.
  24. Proceedings against Dame Alice Kyteler.
  25. Promptorium Parvulorum: Tom. I.
  26. Suppression of the Monasteries.
  27. Leycester Correspondence.
  28. French Chronicle of London.
  29. Polydore Vergil.
  30. The Thornton Romances.
  31. Verney's Notes of the Long Parliament.
  32. Autobiography of Sir John Bramston.
  33. Correspondence of James Duke of Perth.
  34. Liber de Antiquis Legibus.
  35. The Chronicle of Calais.
  36. Polydore Vergil's History, Vol. I.
  37. Italian Relation of England.
  38. Church of Middleham.
  39. The Camden Miscellany, Vol. I.
  40. Life of Ld. Grey of Wilton.
  41. Diary of Walter Yonge, Esq.
  42. Diary of Henry Machyn.
  43. Visitation of Huntingdonshire.
  44. Obituary of Rich. Smyth.
  45. Twysden on the Government of England.
  46. Letters of Elizabeth and James VI.
  47. Chronicon Petroburgense.
  48. Queen Jane and Queen Mary.
  49. Bury Wills and Inventories.
  50. Mapes de Nugis Curialium.
  51. Pilgrimage of Sir R. Guylford.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, Gratis and Post Free, Part I. (New Series) of

A CATALOGUE OF USEFUL AND CURIOUS BOOKS, AUTOGRAPH LETTERS, MSS., AND
LITERARY MISCELLANIES, on Sale by RICHARD JAMES BELL, 17. Bedford Street,
Covent Garden, London. Part II. will contain a Collection of Rare Tracts,
Books, MSS., &c., relating to the stirring times of Charles I. and II.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE FOR JANUARY (being the First Part of a new Volume)
contains the following articles--1. The Princess (afterwards Queen)
Elizabeth a Prisoner at Woodstock. 2. On supposed Apparitions of the Virgin
Mary; and particularly at La Salette. 3. Sir Walter Raleigh at Sherborne.
4. Manners and Morals of the University of Cambridge during the last
Century. 5. English Sketches by Foreign Artists--Max Schlesinger's
Saunterings in and about London. 6. Richard Baxter's Pulpit at
Kidderminster (with a Plate). 7. Cambridge Improvements, 1853. 8. The
Toxaris of Lucian, Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban: English Physicians in
Russia--Knights Banneret--Sir Constantine Phipps and Sir William
Phipps--Diaries of Dr. Stukeley, &c. With Notes of the Month; Historical
and Miscellaneous Reviews; Reports of Antiquarian and Literary Societies;
Historical Chronicle; and Obituary, including Memoirs of the Queen of
Portugal, the Duke of Beaufort, the Countess of Newburgh, Lord Cloncurry,
Rear-Adm. Pasco, Bickham Escott, Esq., Wm. Gardiner. Esq., Mrs. Opie. Mr.
Jas. Trubshaw, C.E., Mr. Samuel Williams, &c. &c. Price 2s. 6d.

NICHOLS & SONS, 25. Parliament Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

CHARLES I.--A Curious Collection of upwards of 300 various Portraits of
this King, to be had at No. 1. Osnaburgh Place, New Road. Regent's Park.
Also may be had on application, or on the receipt of Six Postage Stamps, a
list of Books, Drawings, and Prints, illustrating the City of London. Books
on History, Biography, and Topography, illustrated, inlaid, and mounted.

       *       *       *       *       *

Curious Books and MSS. Four Days' Sale.

PUTTICK AND SIMPSON, Auctioneers of Literary Property, will SELL by
AUCTION, at their Great Room, 191. Piccadilly, on Wednesday, January 18,
and two following days, a large collection of RARE, CURIOUS, and
INTERESTING BOOKS, on Astrology, Witchcraft, Magic; the History of America,
the East and West Indies, and of England, Ireland, and France; Curious
Works on Quakerism, Controversial Theology, and in General Literature;
History, Philology, Bibliography, Voyages, and Travels, &c.; also a few
Manuscripts, including Bywater's Account of the Cutlers' Company,
containing many curious entries; the Original Drawings of Carter's Ancient
Architecture; a complete and early copy of Chalon's Etchings from
Rembrandt, &c.

Catalogues may be had.

       *       *       *       *       *

Library and MSS. of the late EARL of MACARTNEY.

PUTTICK AND SIMPSON, Auctioneers of Literary Property, will SELL by
AUCTION, at their Great Room, 91. Piccadilly, on TUESDAY, January 24, 1854,
and following Days, the Important LIBRARY and MSS. of the late GEORGE, EARL
of MACARTNEY, Ambassador to China in 1792, &c. The MSS. comprise Heraldic
Visitations for many English Counties; the MS. of Hobbes's Leviathan,
presented by the Author to Charles II.; Volumes of Superb Oriental and
other Drawings; Original MSS. of Bishop Atterbury; State Papers of Sir
George Downing, &c.

    Catalogues may now be had of MESSRS. PARKER, Oxford; DEIGHTON,
    Cambridge; LANGBRIDGE, Birmingham; HODGES & SMITH, Dublin; HYNDMAN,
    Belfast; BLACKWOOD, Edinburgh; and of the Auctioneers.

       *       *       *       *       *


    Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the
    Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the
    Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE
    BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the
    West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street
    aforesaid.--Saturday, January 14, 1854.





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