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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 221, January 21, 1854 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 221, January 21, 1854 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.





"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 221.]
[With Index, price 10d. Stamped Edition 11d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                    Page

  A Plea for the City Churches, by the Rev. R. Hooper           51

  Echo Poetry                                                   51

  Ambiguity in Public Writing                                   52

  A Carol of the Kings                                          53

  Sir W. Scott and Sir W. Napier                                53

  MINOR NOTES:--Sign of Rain--Communications with
    Iceland--Starvation, an Americanism--Strange Epitaphs       53


  Buonaparte's Abdication                                       54

  Death Warnings in Ancient Families                            55

  The Scarlet Regimentals of the English Army                   55

  MINOR QUERIES:--Berkhampstead Records--"The secunde
    personne of the Trinetee"--St. John's, Oxford, and
    Emmanuel, Cambridge--"Malbrough s'en va-t-en guerre"--
    Prelate quoted in Procopius--The Alibenistic Order of
    Freemasons--Saying respecting Ancient History--An Apology
    for not speaking the Truth--Sir John Morant--Portrait
    of Plowden--Temperature of Cathedrals--Dr. Eleazar
    Duncon--The Duke of Buckingham--Charles Watson--Early
    (German) coloured Engravings                                56

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--History of M. Oufle--Lysons'
    MSS.--"Luke's Iron Crown"--"Horam coram Dago"               57


  Hoby Family, by Lord Braybrooke                               58

  Poetical Tavern Signs                                         58

  Translation from Sheridan, &c.                                59

  Florins and the Royal Arms                                    59

  Chronograms, by the Rev. W. Sparrow Simpson                   60

  Oaths, by James F. Ferguson                                   61

    Photographic Purposes--Curling of Iodized Paper--How
    the Glass Rod is used                                       61

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Wooden Tombs and Effigies--
    Epitaph On Politician--Defoe's Quotation from Baxter on
    Apparitions--Barrels Regiment--Sneezing--Does "Wurm," in
    modern German, ever mean Serpent?--Longfellow's Reaper
    and the Flowers--Charge of Plagiarism against Paley--Tin
    --John Waugh--Rev. Joshua Brooks--Hour-glass Stand--Teeth
    Superstition--Dog-whipping Day in Hull--Mousehunt--St.
    Paul's School Library--German Tree--Derivation of the
    Word "Cash"                                                 62


  Notes on Books, &c.                                           66

  Books and Odd Volumes Wanted                                  66

  Notices to Correspondents                                     67

       *       *       *       *       *

CROZIER, 5. New Turnstile, Holborn, near Lincoln's Inn Fields.

       *       *       *       *       *


32. Fleet Street; and also of the Artist, 8. Willow Cottages, Canonbury.
Price 3s. each.

London: SAMUEL HIGHLEY, 32. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

now open at the Gallery of the Society of British Artists, Suffolk Street,
Pall Mall, in the Morning from 10 A.M. to half past 4 P.M., and in the
Evening from 7 to 10 P.M. Admission 1s. Catalogue 6d.

       *       *       *       *       *

celebrated French, Italian, and English Photographers, embracing Views of
the principal Countries and Cities of Europe, is now OPEN. Admission 6d. A
Portrait taken by MR. TALBOT'S Patent Process, One Guinea; Three extra
Copies for 10s.


       *       *       *       *       *


AMUSEMENT FOR LONG EVENINGS, by means of STATHAM'S Chemical Cabinets and
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WILLIAM E. STATHAM, Operative Chemist, 29c. Rotherfield Street, Islington,
London, and of Chemists and Opticians everywhere.

       *       *       *       *       *

ALLEN'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, containing Size, Price and Description of
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Ladies' Portmanteaus,

requisites, Gratis on application or sent free by Post on receipt of Two

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       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, to be continued Monthly, No. I., price 2s. 6d., of

THE AUTOGRAPH MISCELLANY. A Collection of Interesting Letters of Eminent
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British Museum, and from other sources, Public and Private.

    London: F. NETHERCLIFT & DURLACHER, Lithographers and General Printers,
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       *       *       *       *       *


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By the same Author,

GYMNASIUM; sive Symbola Critica, Abridged. Intended to assist the Classical
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       *       *       *       *       *


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       *       *       *       *       *

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       *       *       *       *       *

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       *       *       *       *       *





When a bachelor is found wandering about, he cares not whither, your fair
readers (for doubtless such a "dealer in curiosities" as you are has many
of that sex who, however unjustly, have the credit of the "curious" bump)
will naturally exclaim "he must be in love," or "something horrible has
happened to him." Let us, however, disappoint them by assuring them we
shall keep our own counsel. If the former be the cause, green lanes and
meandering streams would suit his case better than Gracechurch Street,
London, with the thermometer five or six degrees below freezing point, and
the snow (!) the colour and consistency of chocolate. Such a situation,
however, was ours, when our friend the Incumbent of Holy Trinity, Minories,
accosted us. He was going to his church; would we accompany him? We would
have gone to New Zealand with him, if he had asked us, at that moment. The
_locale_ of the Minories was nearly as unknown to us as the aforesaid
flourishing colony. On entering the church (which will _not_ repay an
architectural zealot), while our friend was extracting a burial register,
our eye fell on an old monument or two. There was a goodly Sir John Pelham,
who had been cruelly cut down by the hand of death in 1580, looking gravely
at his sweet spouse, a dame of the noble house of Bletsoe. Behind him is
kneeling his little son and heir Oliver, whom, as the inscription informs
us, "Death enforced to follow fast" his papa, as he died in 1584.

And there was a stately monument of the first Lord Dartmouth, a magnanimous
hero, and Master of the Ordnance to Charles II. and his renegade brother.
We were informed that a gentlemen in the vestry had come for the
certificate of the burial of Viscount Lewisham, who died some thirty years
ago; that the Legge family were all buried here; that after having
dignified the aristocratic parish of St. George, Hanover Square, and the
_salons_ of May Fair, during life, they were content to lie quietly in the
Minories! Does not the _high blood_ of the "city merchant" of the present
clay, of the "gentleman" of the Stock Exchange, curdle at the thought? Yes,
there lie many a noble heart, many a once beautiful face but we must
now-a-days, forsooth, forget the City as soon as we have made our money in
its dirty alleys. To lie there after death! pooh, the thought is absurd.
(Thanks to Lord Palmerston, we have no option now.)

Well, we were then asked by the worthy Incumbent, "Would you not like to
see my head?" Did he take us for a Lavater or a Spurzheim? However, we were
not left in suspense long, for out of the muniment closet was produced a
tin box; we thought of Reading biscuits, but we were undeceived shortly.
Taken out carefully and gently, was produced a human head! No mere skull,
but a perfect human head! Alas! its wearer had lost it in an untimely hour.
Start not, fair reader! we often lose our heads and hearts too, but not, we
hope, in the mode our poor friend did. It was clear a choice had been given
to him, but it was a Hobson's choice. He had been _axed_ whether he would
or no! He had been decapitated! We were told that now ghastly head had once
been filled with many an anxious, and perhaps happy, thought. It had had
right royal ideas. It was said to be the head of Henry Grey, Duke of
Suffolk, the father of the sweet Lady Jane Grey. We could muse and
moralise; but Captain Cuttle cuts us short, "When found, make a Note of
it." We found it then there, Sir; will you make the Note? The good captain
does not like to be prolix. Has his esteemed old relative, Sylvanus Urban
(many happy new years to him!), made the note before?

We came away, shall we say better in mind? Yes, said we, a walk in the City
may be as instructive, and as good a cure for melancholy, as the charming
country. An old city church can tell its tale, and a good one too. We
thought of those quaint old monuments, handed down from older churches 'tis
true, but still over the slumbering ashes of our forefathers; and when the
thought of the destroying hand that hung over them arose amid many
associations, the Bard of Avon's fearful monumental denunciation came to
our aid:

 "Blest be the man that spares these stones,
  And curst be he that moves these bones."


St. Stephen's, Westminster.

       *       *       *       *       *


"_A Dialogue between a Glutton and Echo._

_Gl._ My belly I do deifie.

_Echo._ Fie.

_Gl._ Who curbs his appetite's a fool.

_Echo._ Ah fool!

_Gl._ I do not like this abstinence.

_Echo._ Hence.

_Gl._ My joy's a feast, my wish is wine.

_Echo._ Swine!

_Gl._ We epicures are happie truly.

_Echo._ You lie.

_Gl._ Who's that which giveth me the lie?

_Echo._ I.

_Gl._ What? Echo, thou that mock'st a voice?

_Echo._ A voice.

_Gl._ May I not, Echo, eat my fill?

_Echo._ Ill. {52}

_Gl._ Will't hurt me if I drink too much?

_Echo._ Much.

_Gl._ Thou Mock'st me, Nymph; I'll not believe it.

_Echo._ Believe't.

_Gl._ Dost thou condemn then what I do?

_Echo._ I do.

_Gl._ I grant it doth exhaust the purse.

_Echo._ Worse.

_Gl._ Is't this which dulls the sharpest wit?

_Echo._ Best wit.

_Gl._ Is't this which brings infirmities?

_Echo._ It is.

_Gl._ Whither will't bring my soul? canst tell?

_Echo._ T' hell.

_Gl._ Dost thou no gluttons virtuous know?

_Echo._ No.

_Gl._ Wouldst have me temperate till I die?

_Echo._ I.

_Gl._ Shall I therein finde ease and pleasure?

_Echo._ Yea sure.

_Gl._ But is't a thing which profit brings?

_Echo._ It brings.

_Gl._ To minde or bodie? or to both?

_Echo._ To both.

_Gl._ Will it my life on earth prolong?

_Echo._ O long!

_Gl._ Will it make me vigorous until death?

_Echo._ Till death.

_Gl._ Will't bring me to eternall blisse?

_Echo._ Yes.

_Gl._ Then, sweetest Temperance, I'll love thee.

_Echo._ I love thee.

_Gl._ Then, swinish Gluttonie, I'll leave thee.

_Echo._ I'll leave thee.

_Gl._ I'll be a belly god no more.

_Echo._ No more.

_Gl._ If all be true which thou dost tell, They who fare sparingly fare

_Echo._ Farewell.

"S. J."

    "_Hygiasticon_: or the right Course of preserving Life and Health unto
    extream old Age: together with soundnesse and integritie of the Senses,
    Judgement, and Memorie. Written in Latine by Leonard Lessius, and now
    done into English. 24mo. Cambridge, 1634."

I send the above poem, and title of the work it is copied from, in the hope
it may interest those of your correspondents who have lately been turning
their attention to this style of composition.

H. B.


       *       *       *       *       *


In Brenan's _Composition and Punctuation_, published by Wilson, Royal
Exchange, he strongly condemns _the one_ and _the other_, as used for _the
former_ and _the latter_, or _the first_ and _the last_. The understood
rule is, that _the one_ refers to the nearest or _latter_ person or thing
mentioned, and _the other_ to the farthest or _former_; and if that were
strictly adhered to, no objection could be raised. But I have found, from
careful observation for two or three years past, that some of our standard
writers reverse the rule, and use _the one_ for _the former_, and _the
other_ for _the latter_, by which I have often been completely puzzled to
know what they meant in cases of importance. Now, since there is not the
slightest chance of unanimity here, I think the author is right in
condemning their referential usage altogether. A French grammarian says,
"Ce qui n'est pas clair n'est pas Français;" but though French is far from
having no ambiguities, he showed that he fully appreciated what ought to be
the proudest boast of any language, clearness. There is a notable want of
it on the marble tablet under the portico of St. Paul's, Covent Gardens,
which says:

    "The church of this parish having been destroyed by fire on the 17th
    day of September, A.D. 1795, was rebuilt, and opened for divine service
    on the 1st day of August, A.D. 1798."

The writer, no doubt, congratulated himself on avoiding the then common
error, in similar cases, of "_This_ church having," &c.; for that asserted,
that the very building we were looking at was burned down! But in eschewing
one manifest blunder, he fell into ambiguity, and inconclusiveness equally
reprehensible. For, as it never was imperative that a parish church should
be _always_ confined to a particular spot, we are left in doubt as to where
the former one stood; nor, indeed, are we told whether the present building
is the parish church. Better thus: "The church of this parish, _which stood
on the present site_, having," &c.

Even with this change another seems necessary, for we should then be
virtually informed, as we are now, that the church was rebuilt, and opened
for divine service, _in one day_![1] Such is the care requisite, when
attempting comprehensive brevity, for the simplest historical record
intended to go down to posterity. It is no answer to say, that every one
apprehends what the inscription means, for that would sanction all kinds of
obscurity and blunders. When Paddy tells us of _wooden_ panes of glass and
mile-stones; of dividing a thing into three halves; of backing a carriage
straight forwards, or of a dismal solitude where nothing could be heard but
silence, we all perfectly understand what he means, while we laugh at his
unconscious union of sheer impossibilities.


[Footnote 1: The following arrangement, which only slightly alters the
text, corrects the main defects: "The church of this parish, which stood on
the present site, was destroyed by fire on [date] and, having been rebuilt,
was opened for divine service on [date]."]


       *       *       *       *       *


According to one legend, the three sons of Noah were raised from the dead
to represent all mankind at Bethlehem. According to another, they slept a
deep sleep in a cavern on Ararat until Messias was born, and then an angel
aroused and showed them The Southern Cross, then first created to be the
beacon of their way.

When the starry signal had fulfilled its office it went on, journeying
towards the south, until it reached its place to bend above The Peaceful
Sea in memorial of the Child Jesu.


  Three ancient men, in Bethlehem's cave,
    With awful wonder stand:
  A Voice had call'd them from their grave
    In some far Eastern land!


  They lived: they trod the former earth,
    When the old waters swell'd:--
  The ark, that womb of second birth,
    Their house and lineage held!


  Pale Japhet bows the knee with gold;
    Bright Shem sweet incense brings:
  And Ham--the myrrh his fingers hold--
    Lo! the Three Orient Kings!


  Types of the total earth, they hail'd
    The signal's starry frame:--
  Shuddering with second life, they quail'd
    At the Child Jesu's name!


  Then slow the patriarchs turn'd and trod,
    And this their parting sigh--
 "Our eyes have seen the living God,
    And now, once more to die!"

H. OF M.

       *       *       *       *       *


Some short time ago there appeared in _The Times_ certain letters relative
to a song of Sir Walter Scott in disparagement of Fox, said to have been
sung at the dinner given in Edinburgh on the acquittal of Viscount
Melville. In one letter, signed "W. Napier," it is asserted, on the
authority of a lady, that Scott _sang_ the song, which gave great offence
to the Whig party at the time.

Now, I must take the liberty of declaring this assertion to be incorrect. I
had the honour of knowing pretty intimately Sir Walter from the year 1817
down to the period of his departure for the Continent. I have been present
at many convivial meetings with him, and conversed with him times without
number, and he has repeatedly declared that, although fond of music, he
could not sing from his boyhood, and could not even hum a tune so as to be
intelligible to a listener. The idea, therefore, of his making such a
public exhibition of himself as to sing at a public meeting, is

But in the next place the cotemporary evidence on the subject is
conclusive. An account of the dinner was published in the _Courant_
newspaper, and it is there stated "that _one_ song was sung, the poetry of
which was said to come from the muse of 'the last lay,' and was sung with
admirable effect by the proprietor of the _Ballantyne Press_."

It is perhaps unnecessary to explain that the singer was the late John
Ballantyne, and I have my doubts if the song referred to in the controversy
was the one sung upon the occasion. This, however, is merely a speculation
arising from the fact, that this was a song not included in Sir Walter
Scott's works, which upon the very highest authority I have been informed
was sung there, but of which Lord Ellenborough, and not Charles Fox, was
the hero. It is entitled "Justice Law," and is highly laudatory of the
Archbishop of Canterbury. It has been printed in the _Supplement to the
Court of Session Garland_, p. 10., and the concluding verse is as follows:

 "Then here's to the prelate of wisdom and fame,
  Tho' true Presbyterians we'll drink to his name;
  Long, long, may he live to teach prejudice awe,
  And since Melville's got justice, the devil take law."

Again I repeat this conjecture may be erroneous; but that Sir Walter never
sung any song at all at the meeting is, I think, beyond dispute.

J. M.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Sign of Rain._--Not far from Weobley, co. Hereford, is a high hill, on the
top of which is a clump of trees called "Ladylift Clump," and thus named in
the Ordnance map: it is a proverbial expression in the surrounding
neighbourhood, that when this clump is obscured with clouds, wet weather
soon follows, connected with which, many years since I met with the
following lines, which may prove interesting to many of your readers:

       "When Ladie Lift
        Puts on her shift,
    Shee feares a downright raine;
  But when she doffs it, you will finde
  The raine is o'er, and still the winde,
    And Phoebus Sloane againe."

What is the origin of this name having been given to the said clump of


_Communications with Iceland._--In the summer of 1851 I directed attention
to the communications with Iceland. I am just informed that the Danish
government will send a war steamer twice next summer to the Faroe Islands
and to Iceland, {54} calling at Leith both ways for passengers. The times
of sailing will probably be announced towards spring in the public prints.
This opportunity of visiting that strange and remarkable island in so
advantageous a manner is worthy of notice, as desirable modes of getting
there very rarely occur.

The observing traveller, in addition to the wonders of nature, should not
fail to note there the social and physical condition, and diseases of the
inhabitants. He will there find still lingering, fostered by dirt, bad
food, and a squalid way of living, the true leprosy (in Icelandic,
_spetalska_) which prevailed throughout Europe in the Middle Ages and which
now survives only there, in Norway, and in some secluded districts in
central and southern Europe. He will also note the remarkable exemption of
the Icelanders from pulmonary consumption; a fact which seems
extraordinary, considering the extreme dampness, inclemency, and
variability of the climate. But the consumptive tendency is always found to
cease north of a certain parallel of latitude.


8. Burwood Place, Hyde Park.

_Starvation, an Americanism._--Strange as it may appear, it is nevertheless
quite true that this word, now unhappily so common on every tongue, as
representing the condition of so many of the sons and daughters of the
sister lands of Great Britain and Ireland, is not to be found in _our own_
English dictionaries; neither in Todd's _Johnson_, published in 1826, nor
in Richardson's, published ten years later, nor in Smart's--Walker
remodelled--published about the same time as Richardson's. It is Webster
who has the credit of importing it from his country into this; and in a
supplement issued a few years ago, Mr. Smart adopted it as "a _trivial_
word, but in very common, and at present good use."

What a lesson might Mr. Trench read us, that it should be so!

Our older poets, to the time of Dryden, used the compound "hunger-starved."
We now say _starved_ with cold. Chaucer speaks of Christ as "He that
_starf_ for our redemption," of Creseide "which well nigh _starf_ for
_feare_;" Spenser, of arms "which doe men in _bale_ to sterve." (See
_Starve_ in Richardson.) In the _Pardoneres Tale_, v. 12799:

 "Ye (yea), _sterve_ he shall, and that in lesse while
  Than thou wilt gon a pas not but a mile;
  This _poison_ is so strong and violent."

And again, v. 12822:

                     "It happed him
  To take the botelle there the poison was,
  And dronke; and gave his felau drinke also
  For which anone they _storven_ bothe two."

Mr. Tyrwhit explains, "to die, to perish" and the general meaning of the
word was, "to die, or cause to die, to perish, to destroy."


_Strange Epitaphs._-The following combined "bull" and epitaph may amuse
your readers. I copied it in April, 1850, whilst on an excursion to explore
the gigantic tumuli of New Grange, Dowth, &c.

Passing through the village of Monknewtown, about four miles from Drogheda,
I entered a burial-ground surrounding the ivy-clad ruins of a chapel. In
the midst of a group of dozen or more tombstones, some very old, all
bearing the name of "Kelly," was a modern upright slab, well executed,

     "Erected by PATRICK KELLY,
  Of the Town of Drogheda, Mariner,
      In Memory of his Posterity."
     "Also the above PATRICK KELLY,
  Who departed this Life the 12th August, 1844,
              Aged 60 years.
          Requiescat in Pace."

I gave a copy of this to a friend residing at Llanbeblig, Carnarvonshire,
who forwarded me the annexed from a tombstone in the parish churchyard

     "Of such is the Kingdom of Heaven.

  Here lie the Remains of THOMAS CHAMBERS,
              Dancing Master;
      Whose genteel address and assiduity
              in Teaching,
      Recommended him to all that had the
        Pleasure of his acquaintance.
          He died June 13, 1765,
              Aged 31."

R. H. B.


       *       *       *       *       *



A gentleman living in the neighbourhood of London bought a table five or
six years ago at Wilkinson's, an old established upholsterer on Ludgate

In a concealed part of the leg of the table he found a brass plate, on
which was the following inscription:

    "Le Cinq d'Avril, dix-huit cent quatorze, Napoléon Buonaparte signa son
    abdication sur cette table dans le cabinet de travail du Roi, le 2me
    après la chambre à coucher, à Fontainebleau."

The people at Wilkinson's could give no account of the table: they said it
had been a long time in the shop; they did not remember of whom it had {55}
been bought, and were surprised when the brass plate was pointed out to

The table is a round one, and rather pretty looking, about two feet and a
half in diameter, and supported on one leg. It does not look like a table
used for writing, but rather resembles a lady's work-table. The wood with
which it is veneered has something the appearance of beef wood.

Wilkinson's shop does not now exist: he used to deal in curiosities, and
was employed as an auctioneer.

The gentleman who bought this table is desirous of ascertaining at what
time the table still shown at Fontainebleau, as that on which the
abdication was signed, was first exhibited: whether immediately after the
restoration of the Bourbons, or later, in consequence of a demand for shows
of that sort? Whether it is a fact that the Bourbons turned out the
imperial furniture from Fontainebleau and other palaces after their return?

The date, "cinq d'Avril," is wrong; the abdication was signed on the 4th.
This error, however, leads one to suspect that the table is genuine: as any
one preparing a sham table should have been careful in referring to printed
documents. From the tenor of the inscription, we may infer that it is the
work of a Royalist.

The Marshals present with Napoleon when he signed his abdication were Ney,
Oudinot, and Lefevre; and perhaps Caulincourt.


University Club.

       *       *       *       *       *


I marvel much that none of your contributors in this line have touched upon
a very interesting branch of legendary family folk lore, namely, the
supernatural appearances, and other circumstances of a ghostly nature, that
are said to invariably precede a death in many time-honoured families of
the united kingdoms.

We have all heard of the mysterious "White Ladye," that heralds the
approach of death, or dire calamity, to the royal house of Hohenzollern. In
like manner, the apparition of two gigantic owls upon the battlements of
Wardour is said to give sad warning to the noble race of Arundel. The
ancient Catholic family of Middleton have the same fatal announcement made
to them by the spectral visitation of a Benedictine nun; while a Cheshire
house of note, I believe, that of Brereton, are prepared for the last sad
hour by the appearance of large trunks of trees floating in a lake in the
immediate vicinity of their family mansion. To two families of venerable
antiquity, and both, if I remember right, of the county of Lancashire, the
approaching death of a relative is made known in one case by loud and
continued knockings at the hall door at the solemn hour of midnight; and in
the other, by strains of wild and unearthly music floating in the air.

The "Banshee," well known in Ireland, and in the highlands of Scotland, is,
I believe, attached exclusively to families of Celtic origin, and is never
heard of below the Grampian range; although the ancient border house of
Kirkpatrick of Closeburn (of Celtic blood by the way) is said to be
attended by a familiar of this kind.

Again, many old manor-houses are known to have been haunted by a friendly,
good-natured sprite, ycelpt a "Brownie," whose constant care it was to save
the household domestics as much trouble as possible, by doing all their
drudgery for them during the silent hours of repose. Who has not heard, for
instance, of the "Boy of Hilton?" Of this kindly race, I have no doubt,
many interesting anecdotes might be rescued from the dust of time and
oblivion, and preserved for us in the pages of "N. & Q."

I hope that the hints I have ventured to throw out may induce some of your
talented contributors to follow up the subject.



       *       *       *       *       *


When was the English soldier first dressed in red? It has been said the
yeomen of the guard (_vulgo_ Beef-eaters) were the company which originally
wore that coloured uniform; but, seventy years before they were
established, viz. temp. Henry V., it appears the military uniform of his
army was red:

    "Rex vestit suos _rubro_, et parat transire in Normaniam."--_Archæolog.
    Soc. Antiquar._, Lond., vol. xxi. p. 292.

William III. not only preferred that colour, but he thought it degrading to
the dignity of his soldiers that the colour should be adopted for the dress
of any inferior class of persons; and there is an order now extant, signed
by Henry, sixths Duke of Norfolk, as Earl Marshal, dated Dec. 20, 1698,

    "Forbidding any persons to use for their liveries scarlet or red cloth,
    or stuff; except his Majesty's servants and _guards_, and those
    belonging to the royal family or foreign Misters."

William IV., who had as much of true old English feeling as any monarch who
ever swayed the English sceptre, ordered scarlet to be the universal colour
of our Light Dragoons; but two or three years afterwards he was prevailed
upon, from some fancy of those about him, to return to the blue again.
Still, it is well known that dressing our Light Dragoons in the colour
prevailing {56} with other nations has led to serious mistakes in time of


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Berkhampstead Records._--Where are the records of the now extinct
corporation of Great Berkhampstead, co. Herts, incorporated 1618? And when
did it cease to exercise corporate rights, and why?

J. K.

"_The secunde personne of the Trinetee_" (Vol. viii., p. 131.).--What does
the "old English Homily" mean by "a womanne who was the secunde personne of
the Trinetee?"

J. P. S.

_St. John's, Oxford, and Emmanuel, Cambridge._--Can your readers give me
any information respecting Thomas Collis, B.A., of St. John's College,
Oxford, ordained priest by Richard (Reynolds), Bishop of Lincoln, at
Buckden, 29th May, 1743? What church preferment did he hold, where did he
die, and where was he buried?

Also of John Clendon, B.D., Fellow of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, who was
presented to the vicarage of Brompton-Regis, Somerset, by his College, in
or about the year 1752? His correspondence with the Fellows of Emmanuel is
amusing, as giving an insight into the every-day life of Cambridge a
century ago. You shall have a letter or two ere long as a specimen.



"_Malbrough s'en va-t-en guerre._"--Some years ago, at a book-stall in
Paris, I met with a work in one volume, being a dissertation in French on
the origin and early history of the once popular song, "Malbrough s'en
va-t-en guerre." It seemed to contain much information of a curious and
interesting character; and the author's name, if I remember rightly, is
Blanchard. I have since made several attempts to discover the title of the
book, with the view of procuring a copy of it, but without success. Can any
of your readers assist me in this matter?


St. Lucia.

_Prelate quoted in Procopius._--In the 25th note (a), chap. xl., of
Gibbon's _Decline and Fall_, there is a quotation from Procopius. Can any
of your readers conjecture who is meant by the "learned prelate now
deceased," who was fond of quoting the said passage.


_The Alibenistic Order of Freemasons._--Can any of your readers, masonic or
otherwise, inform me what is meant by this order of Freemasons? The work of
Henry O'Brien of the _Round Towers of Ireland_ is dedicated to them, and in
his preface they are much eulogised.

H. W. D.

_Saying respecting Ancient History._--In Niebuhr's _Lectures on Ancient
History_, vol. i. p 355., I find--

    "An ingenious man once said, 'It is thought that at length people will
    come to read ancient history as if it had really happened,' a remark
    which is really excellent."

Who was this "ingenious man"?

J. P.

_An Apology for not speaking the Truth._--Can any of your correspondents
kindly inform me where the German song can be found from which the
following lines are taken?

 "When first on earth the truth was born,
    She crept into a hunting-horn;
  The hunter came, the horn was blown,
    But where truth went, was never known."

W. W.


_Sir John Morant._--In the fourth volume of Sir John Froissart's
_Chronicles_, and in the tenth and other chapters, he mentions the name of
a Sir John Morant, Knight, or Sir John of Chatel Morant, who lived in
1390-6. How can I find out his pedigree? or whether he is an ancestor of
the Hampshire family of Morants, or of the Rev. Philip Morant?

H. H. M.


_Portrait of Plowden._--Is any portrait of Edmund Plowden the lawyer known
to exist? and if so, where?

P. P. P.

_Temperature of Cathedrals._--Can any of your readers favour me with a
report from observation of the greatest and least heights of the
thermometer in the course of a year, in one of our large cathedrals?

I am informed that Professor Phillips, in a geological work, has stated
that the highest and lowest temperatures in York Minster occur about five
weeks after the solstices; but it does not appear that the altitudes are


_Dr. Eleazar Duncon._--Dr. Eleazar Duncon was of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge,
D.D., anno 1633, Rector of Houghton Regis same year, Chaplain to King
Charles I., Prebendary of Durham. He is supposed to have died during the
interregnum. Can any of your correspondents say when or where?

D. D.

_The Duke of Buckingham._--Do the books of the Honorable Society of the
Middle Temple disclose any particulars relating to a "scandalous letter,"
believed to have been written by "a Templar" to George Villiers, the Great
Duke of Buckingham, in 1626, the year before his grace was assassinated by
Felton; which letter was found by a servant of the inn in a Temple
drinking-pot, by {57} whom it was handed over to the then treasurer of the
Society, Nicholas Hide, Esq.? and was the author of such scandalous letter
ever discovered and prosecuted?


_Charles Watson._--Can any of your readers give me any account of Charles
Watson, of Hertford College, Oxford, author of poems, and _Charles the
First_, a tragedy?

I believe a short memoir of this author was to have appeared in
_Blackwood's Magazine_ (the second volume, I think); it was never
published, however.

A. Z.

_Early (German) coloured Engravings._--I have six old coloured engravings,
which I suppose to be part of a series, as they are numbered respectively
1, 2, 4, 11, 12, 14. They are mounted on panels; and on the back of each is
a piece of vellum, on which some descriptive verses in old German have been
written. The ink retains its blackness; but dirt, mildew, and ill usage
have rendered nearly all the inscriptions illegible, and greatly damaged
the pictures; yet, through the laborious colouring and the stains, good
drawing and expression are visible. Perhaps a brief description may enable
some of your readers to tell me whether they are known.

Nos. 1. and 11. are so nearly obliterated, that I will not attempt to
describe them. No. 2. seems to be St. George attacking the dragon. The
inscription is:

 "Hier merke Sohn gar schnell und bald,
  Von grausam schwartzen Thier im Wald."

No. 4. A stag and a unicorn:

 "Man ist von Nöthin dass ihr wiszt,
  Im Wald ein Hirsch und Eikhorn ist."

No. 12. An old man with wings, and a younger wearing a crown and sword.
They are on the top of a mountain overlooking the sea. The sun is in the
left corner, and the moon and stars on the right. The perspective is very
good. Inscription obliterated.

No. 14. The same persons, and a king on his throne. The elder in the
background; the younger looking into the king's mouth, which is opened to
preternatural wideness:

 "Sohn in dein Abwesen war ich tod,
  Und mein Leben in grosser Noth;
  Aber in dein Beysein thue ich leben,
  Dein Widerkunfft mir Freudt thut geben."

The inscription is long, but of the rest only a word here and there is
legible. Any information on this subject will oblige,


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

_History of M. Oufle._--Johnson, in his _Life of Pope_, says of the
_Memoirs of Scriblerus_:

    "The design cannot boast of much originality: for, besides its general
    resemblance to _Don Quixote_, there will be found in it particular
    imitations of the _History of M. Oufle_."

What is the _History of M. Oufle?_

L. M.

    [_The History of the Religious Extravagancies of Monsieur Oufle_ is a
    remarkable book, written by the Abbé Bordelon, and first published, we
    believe, at Amsterdam, in 2 vols., 1710. The Paris edition of 1754, in
    2 vols., entitled _L'Histoire des Imaginations Extavagantes de Monsieur
    Oufle_, is the best, as it contains some curious illustrations. From
    the title-page we learn that the work was "Occasioned by the author
    having read books treating of magic, the black art, demoniacs,
    conjurors, witches, hobgoblins, incubuses, succubuses, and the
    diabolical Sabbath; of elves, fairies, wanton spirits, geniuses,
    spectres, and ghosts; of dreams, the philosopher's stone, judicial
    astrology, horoscopes, talismans, lucky and unlucky days, eclipses,
    comets, and all sorts of apparitions, divinations, charms,
    enchantments, and other superstitious practices; with notes containing
    a multitude of quotations out of those books which have either caused
    such extravagant imaginations, or may serve to cure them." If any of
    our readers should feel inclined to collect what we may term "A
    Diabolical Library," he has only to consult vol. i. ch. iii. for a
    catalogue of the principal books in Mons. Oufle's study, which is the
    most curious list of the black art we have ever seen. An English
    translation of these _Religious Extravagancies_ was published in 1711.]

_Lysons' MSS._--Is the present repository of the MS. notes, used by Messrs.
Lysons in editing their great work, the _Magna Britannia_, known?

T. P. L.

[The topographical collections made by the Rev. Daniel Lysons for the
_Magna Britannia_ and the _Environs of London_, making sixty-four volumes,
are in the British Museum, Add. MSS. 9408-9471. They were presented by that

"_Luke's Iron Crown_" (Goldsmith's _Traveller_, last line but two). To whom
does this refer, and what are the particulars?

P. J. (A Subscriber).

    [This Query is best answered by the following note from Mr. P.
    Cunningham's new edition of _Goldsmith_:

    "When Tom Davies, at the request of Granger, asked Goldsmith about this
    line, Goldsmith referred him for an explanation of 'Luke's iron crown'
    to a book called _Géographie Curieuse_; and added, that by 'Damiens'
    bed of steel' he meant the rack. See Granger's _Letters_, 8vo., 1805,
    p. 52.

    "George and Luke Dosa were two brothers who headed an unsuccessful
    revolt against the Hungarian nobles at the opening of the sixteenth
    century: and George (not Luke) underwent the torture of the {58}
    red-hot iron crown, as a punishment for allowing himself to be
    proclaimed King of Hungary (1513) by the rebellious peasants (see
    _Biographie Universelle_, xi. 604.). The two brothers belonged to one
    of the native races of Transylvania called Szecklers, or Zecklers
    (Forster's _Goldsmith_, i. 395., edit. 1854)."]

"_Horam coram Dago._"--In the first volume of _Lavengro_, p. 89.:

    "From the river a chorus plaintive, wild, the words of which seem in
    memory's ear to sound like 'Horam coram Dago.'"

I have somewhere read a song, the chorus or refrain of which contained
these three words. Can any of your readers explain?


    [Our correspondent is thinking of the song "Amo, amas," by O'Keefe,
    which will be found in _The Universal Songster_, vol. i. p. 52., and
    other collections. We subjoin the chorus:

           "Rorum coram,
            Sunt divorum,
            Harum scarum

      Tag rag, merry derry, perriwig and hat-band,
        Hic hoc horum genitivo!"]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. ix., p. 19.)

Many years have passed away since I went over Bisham Abbey; but I was then
informed that any family portraits belonging to the old House had been
taken away by the widow of Sir John Hoby Mill, Baronet, who sold the
property to Mr. George Vansittart in 1780, or shortly afterwards. I am not
aware that there are any engraved portraits of the Hobys, excepting those
mentioned by your correspondent MR. WHITBORNE, which form part of the
series of Holbein's _Heads_, published in 1792 by John Chamberlaine, from
the original drawings still in the royal collection. In the meagre account
of the persons represented in that work, Lady Hoby is described as
"Elizabeth, one of the four daughters of Sir Antony Cooke, of Gidea Hall,
Essex," and widow of Sir Thomas Hoby, who died in 1566, at Paris, whilst on
an embassy there. The lady remarried John Lord Russell, eldest son of
Francis, second Earl of Bedford, whom she also survived, and deceasing 23rd
of July, 1584, was buried in Bisham Church, in which she had erected a
chapel containing splendid monuments to commemorate her husbands and
herself. The inscriptions will be found in Ashmole's _Berkshire_, vol. ii.
p. 464., and in Wotton's _Baronetage_, vol. iv. p. 504., where the Hoby
crest is given as follows; "On a chapeau gules turned up ermine, a wolf
regreant argent." The armorial bearings are described very minutely in
Edward Steele's Account of Bisham Church, Gough MSS., vol. xxiv., Bodleian,
which contains some other notices of the parish.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., pp. 242. 452. 626.)

I send two specimens from this neighbourhood, which may, perhaps, be worth
inserting in your columns.

The first is from a public-house on the Basingstoke road, about two miles
from this town. The sign-board exhibits on one side "the lively effigies"
of a grenadier in full uniform, holding in his hand a foaming pot of ale,
on which he gazes apparently with much complacency and satisfaction. On the
other side are these lines:

 "This is the Whitley Grenadier,
  A noted house for famous beer.
  My friend, if you should chance to call,
  Beware and get not drunk withal;
  Let moderation be your guide,
  It answers well whene'er 'tis try'd.
  Then use but not abuse strong beer,
  And don't forget the Grenadier."

The next specimen, besides being of a higher class, has somewhat of an
historical interest. In a secluded part of the Oxfordshire hills, at a
place called Collins's End, situated between Hardwick House and Goring
Heath, is a neat little rustic inn, having for its sign a well-executed
portrait of Charles I. There is a tradition that this unfortunate monarch,
while residing as a prisoner at Caversham, rode one day, attended by an
escort, into this part of the country, and hearing that there was a
bowling-green at this inn, frequented by the neighbouring gentry, struck
down to the house, and endeavoured to forget his sorrows for awhile in a
game at bowls. This circumstance is alluded to in the following lines,
which are written beneath the sign-board:

 "Stop, traveller, stop; in yonder peaceful glade,
  His favourite game the royal martyr play'd;
  Here, stripp'd of honours, children, freedom, rank,
  Drank from the bowl, and bowl'd for what he drank;
  Sought in a cheerful glass his cares to drown,
  And changed his guinea, ere he lost his crown."

The sign, which seems to be a copy from Vandyke, though much faded from
exposure to the weather, evidently displays an amount of artistic skill
that is not usually to be found among common sign-painters. I once made
some inquiries about it of the people of the house, but the only
information they could give me was that they believed it to have been
painted in London.

G. T.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii, p. 563.)

I cannot furnish BALLIOLENSIS with the translation from Sheridan he
requires, but I am acquainted with that from Goldsmith. It is to be found
somewhere in Valpy's _Classical Journal_. As that work is in forty volumes,
and not at hand, I am not able to give a more precise reference. I
recollect, however, a few of the lines at the beginning:

 "Incola deserti, gressus refer, atque precanti
    Sis mihi noctivagæ dux, bone amice, viæ;
  Dirige quà lampas solatia luce benigna
    Præbet, et hospitii munera grata sui.
  Solus enim tristisque puer deserta per agro,
    Ægre membra trahens deficiente pede,
  Quà, spatiis circum immensis porrecta, patescunt
    Me visa augeri progrediente, loca."
 "Ulterius ne perge," senex, "jam mitte vagari,
    Teque iterum noctis, credere, amice, dolis:
  Luce trahit species certa in discrimina fati,
    Ah nimium nescis quo malefida trahat!
  Hic inopi domus, hic requies datur usque vaganti,
    Parvaque quantumvis dona, libente manu.
  Ergo verte pedes, caliginis imminet hora,
    Sume libens quidquid parvula cella tenet ..."

No doubt there is a copy of the _Classical Journal_ in the Bodleian; and if
BALLIOLENSIS can give me volume and page, I in turn shall be much obliged
to him.


The lines to which your correspondent BALLIOLENSIS refers--

 "Conscia ni dextram dextera pressa premat."

are a translation of the song in Sheridan's _Duenna_, Act I. Sc. 2.,

 "I ne'er could any lustre see," &c.

They were done by Marmaduke Lawson, of St. John's College, Cambridge, for
the Pitt Scholarship in 1814, for which he was successful:

 "Phyllidis effugiunt nos lumina. Dulcia sunto.
    Pulcra licet, nobis haud ea pulcra micant.
  Nectar erat labiis, dum spes erat ista tenendi,
    Spes perit, isque simul, qui erat ante, decor.
  Votis me Galatea petit. Caret arte puella,
    Parque rosis tenero vernat in ore color:
  Sed nihil ista juvant. Forsan tamen ista juvabunt.
    Si jaceant, victâ mente, rubore genæ:
  Pura manus mollisque fluit. Neque credere possum.
    Ut sit vera fides, ista premenda mihi est.
  Nec bene credit amor (nam res est plena timoris),
    Conscia ni dextram dextera pressa premat.
  Ecce movet pectus suspiria. Pectora nostris
    Ista legenda oculis, si meus urat amor.
  Et, nostri modo cura memor nostrique caloris
    Tangat eam, facere id non pudor ullus erit."

I have not sent the English, as it can be easily got at. The other
translation I am not acquainted with.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 621.)

The placing of the royal arms in four separate shields in the form of a
cross first occurred upon the medals struck upon the nativity of King
Charles II., anno 1630; and adopted upon the reverse of the coins for the
first time in 1662, upon the issue of what was then termed the improved
milled coin, where the arms are so placed, having the star of the Garter in
the centre; the crowns intersecting the legend, and two crowns interlaced
in each quarter. The shields, as here marshalled, are each surmounted by a
crown; having in the top and bottom shield France and England quarterly,
Ireland on the dexter side (which is the second place), and on the sinister
Scotland.[2] But on the milled money which followed, France and England
being borne separately, that of France, which had been constantly borne in
the first quarter singly until James I., and afterwards in the first place
quarterly with England, is placed in the bottom shield or fourth quarter.
Mr. Leake, in his _Historical Account of English Money_[3], after remarking
that this irregular bearing first appeared upon the nativity medals of
Charles II. in 1630, where the shields are placed in this manner, adds,
that this was no doubt originally owing to the ignorance of the graver, who
knew no other way to place the arms circularly than following each other,
like the titles, unless (as I have heard, says he) that the arms of each
kingdom might fall under the respective title in the legend; and this witty
conceit has ever since prevailed upon the coin, except in some of King
William and Queen Mary's money, where the arms are rightly marshalled in
one shield. That this was owing to the ignorance of the workman, and not
with any design to alter the disposition of the arms, is evident from the
arms upon the great seal, where France is borne quarterly with England, in
the first and fourth quarters, as it was likewise used upon all other
occasions, until the alteration occasioned by the union with Scotland in

In reference to the arrangement consequent upon the union with Scotland, he
observes that, how proper soever the impaling the arms of the two kingdoms
was in other respects, it appeared with great impropriety upon the money.
The four escocheons in cross had hitherto been marshalled in their circular
order from the _left_, whereby the dexter escocheon was the fourth;
according to which order the united arms, being quartered first and fourth,
would have fallen together; therefore they were placed at the top and
bottom, {60} which indeed was right: but then France by the same rule was
then in the third place, and Ireland in the second; unless to reconcile it
we make a rule contrary to all rule, to take sinister first and dexter

In the coinage of King George I., the representation of the armorial
bearings in four separate shields, as upon the milled money of King Charles
II., was continued. In the uppermost escocheon, England impaling Scotland;
the dexter the arms of his Majesty's electoral dominions; sinister France;
and in the bottom one Ireland, all crowned with the imperial crown of Great
Britain. The marshalling of the four escocheon's in this manner might and
ought to have been objected to by the heralds (has it been brought under
their cognizance?), because it appears by many instances, as well as upon
coins and medals of the emperors and several princes of the entire, that
arms marshalled in this circular form are blazoned, not in the circular
order, but from the dexter and sinister alternately; and thus the emperor
at that time bore eleven escocheons round the imperial eagle. In like
manner, upon the money of Henry Julius, Duke of Brunswick, we see the crest
with a circle of eleven escocheons in the same order. The same order is
observed in marshalling the escocheons of the seven provinces of Holland
and there is a coin of the Emperor Ferdinand, another of Gulick, and a
third of Erick, Bishop of Osnaburgh, with four escocheons in cross, and
four sceptres exactly resembling the English coins. That it was not altered
therefore at that time, the mistake being so evident, can be attributed
only to the length of time the error had prevailed; so hard is it to
correct an error in the first instance whereby the arms of his Majesty's
German dominions, which occupy the fourth quarter in the royal arms, do in
fact upon the money occupy the second place; a mistake however so apparent,
as well by the bearing upon other occasions as by the areas of Ireland,
which before occupied the same escocheon, that nothing was meant thereby to
the dishonour of the other arms; but that being now established, it is the
English method of so marshalling arms in cross or circle, or rather that
they have no certain method.

Until the union with Scotland, the dexter was the fourth escocheon; from
that time the bottom one was fourth; now the dexter was again the fourth.
Such is the force of precedent in perpetuating error, that the practice has
prevailed even to the present time and it may be inferred, that fancy and
effect are studied by the engraver before propriety. No valid reason can be
advanced for placing the arms in _separate_ shields after their declared
union under one imperial crown.


[Footnote 2: Evelyn's _Discourse_, edit. 1696, p. 121.]

[Footnote 3: London, 8vo., 1745, 2nd edit., then Clarenceux King of Arms,
and afterwards Garter.]

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 351. &c.)

The banks of the Rhine furnish abundant examples of this literary
pleasantry: chronograms are as thick as blackberries. I send you a dozen,
gathered during a recent tour. Each one was transcribed by myself.

1. Cologne Cathedral, 1722; on a beam in a chapel, on the south side of the

    "pIa VIrgInIs MarIæ soDaLItas annos sæCV-
                  LarI renoVat."

2. Poppelsdorf Church, near Bonn. 1812:

     "paroChIaLIs teMpLI rVIxIs æDIfICabar."

3. Bonn; on the base of a crucifix outside the minster, on the north side.

                   portate DeVM
                In Corpore Vestro.
                    1 Cor. 6."

4. Bonn; within the minster. 1770:

                   patronIs pIe

5. Aix-la-Chapelle; on the baptistery. 1660:

             paroChIaLe DIVI johannIs

6. Aix-la-Chapelle.--St. Michael: front of west gallery. 1821:

               "sVM pIa CIVItatIs
         LIberaLItate renoVata DeCorata."

7. Aix-la-Chapelle, under the above. 1852:


8. Konigswinter; on the base of a crucifix at the northern end of the
village. 1726:

              "In VnIVs VerI aC In
                CarnatI DeI honoreM
             Joannes Petrus Mümrer et
              Maria Gengers Conjuges
               2 d[=a] Septembris."

9. Konigswinter; over the principal door of the church. 1828:

    "es Ist seInes MenCher WohnUng sonDem eIn
  herrLIChes haUsz Unseres gottes, i. b. d. ker.
                 er. 29. c. v. i."

10. Konigswinter; under the last. 1778:

        "VnI sanCtIssIMo Deo, patrI atqVe
            fiLIo spIrItVIqVe sanCto."


11. Konigswinter under the last. 1779:

 "erIgor sVb MaX. frIDerICo konIgsegg antIstIte
            CoLonIensI pIe gVbernante."

12. Coblenz.--S. Castor; round the arch of the west door. 1765:

            "DIro MarIa IVngfraV reIn
           Las CobLenz aubefohLen seIn."

Of these, Nos. 9, 10. and 11. are incised on one stone, the letters
indicating the chronograph being rubricated capitals; but in No. 10. the
second I in "filio," and the first I in "spirituique," though capitals, are
not in red. I shall be much obliged to any of your correspondents who can
supply a complete or corrected copy of the following chronogram, from the
Kreutzberg, near Bonn. The height at which it was placed, and its defective
colour, prevented me from deciphering the whole; nor do I vouch for the
correctness of the subjoined portion:

  "sCaLa IesV pr
  nobis passI. a..
  CLeMente aVgVsto
    .    .    .
  CoLonIensI pIe

Some parts of this inscription might be conjecturally supplied; but I
prefer presenting it as I was able to transcribe it. The staircase in
question was erected by the Elector Clement Augustus, in or about 1725, in
imitation of the Scala Santa at Rome. (See Murray's _Handbook_.)


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., pp. 364. 471.)

In Primate Colton's _Metropolitan Visitation of the Diocese of Derry_, A.D.
1397, edited by the Rev. William Reeves, D.D., it is stated, at p. 44.,
that several persons therein mentioned took their oath "tactis sacrosanctis
Evangeliis;" and in a note Dr. Reeves says that--

    "Until the arrival of the English the custom of swearing on the holy
    evangelists was unknown to the Irish, who resorted instead to croziers,
    bells, and other sacred reliquaries, to give solemnity to their
    declarations. Even when the Gospels were used, it was not uncommon to
    introduce some other object to render the oath doubly binding. Thus in
    a monition directed by Primate Prene to O'Neill, he requires him to be
    sworn 'tactis sacrosanctis Dei evangeliis ad ea, et super Baculum Jesu
    in ecclesia cathedrali Sanctæ Trinitatis Dublin.' (_Reg. Prene_, fol.

The following lines upon the subject in question will be found in the _Red
Book_ of the Irish Exchequer:

    "Qui jurat super librum tria tacit.

    "Primo quasi diceret omnia que scripta sunt in hoc libro nunquam mihi
    perficiant neque lex nova neque vetus si mencior in hoc juramento.

    "Secundo apponit manum super librum quasi diceret numquam bona opera
    que feci michi proficiant ante faciem Jeshu Christi nisi veritatem
    dicam quando per manus significentur opera.

    "Tercio et ultimo osculatur librum quasi diceret numquam oraciones
    neque preces quas dixi per os meum michi ad salutem anime valeant si
    falsitatem dicam in hoc juramento michi apposito."

Judging by the character of the handwriting, I would say that the
above-mentioned lines were written not later than the time of Edward I.;
and as many of the vellum leaves of this book have been sadly disfigured,
as well by the pressure of lips as by tincture of galls, I am inclined to
think that official oaths were formerly taken in the Court of Exchequer of
Ireland by presenting the book when opened to the person about to be sworn
in the manner at this day used (as we are informed by Honoré de Mareville)
in the Ecclesiastical Court at Guernsey.

It appears by an entry in one of the Order Books of the Exchequer,
deposited in the Exchequer Record Office, Four Courts, Dublin, that in
James I.'s time the oath of allegiance was taken upon bended knee. The
entry to which I refer is in the following words:

    "_Easter Term, Wednesday, 22nd April, 1618._--Memorandum: This day at
    first sitting of the court, the lord threasurer, vice threasurer, and
    all the barons being present on the bench, the lord chauncellor came
    hither and presented before them Thomas Hibbotts, esq., with his
    Majesty's letters patents of the office of chauncellor of this court to
    him graunted, to hold and execute the said office during his naturall
    life, which being read the said lord chauncellor first ministred unto
    him the oath of the King's supremacy, which hee tooke kneeling on his
    knee, and presently after ministred unto him the oath ordayned for the
    said officer, as the same is contayned of record in the redd booke of
    this court; all which being donn the said lord chauncellor placed him
    on the bench on the right hand of the lord threasurer, and then
    departed this court."



       *       *       *       *       *


_Splitting Paper for Photographic Purposes._--If the real and practical
mode of effecting this were disclosed, it would be (in many cases) a
valuable aid to the photographer. I have had many negative calotypes ruined
by red stains on the back (but not affecting the impressed side of the
paper); which, could the paper {62} have been split, would in all
probability have been available, and printed well.

I was sorry to see in "N. & Q" (Vol. iii., p. 604.) an article under this
head which went the round of the papers several months ago. Anything more
impracticable and ridiculously absurd than the directions there given can
hardly be imagined: "cylinders of amber!" or "cylinders of _metallic_
amalgam!!" "excited in the usual manner," &c. I presume _electrical_
excitation is intended. Though, how cylinders of _metal_ are to receive
electrical _excitation_, and to have sufficient attractive power over a
sheet of paper as to rend it asunder, would be a problem which I believe
even a Faraday could not solve: neither would excited glass cylinders
effect the object any better; or if they could, it would be erecting a
wheel to break a fly upon.

The whole proposition must originally have been a hoax: in fact, we live in
a day when the masses of the people are easily induced to believe that
_electricity_ can _do everything_.

Another, and far more feasible plan has been proposed ("N. & Q.," Vol.
viii., p. 413.), viz. to paste the paper to be split between two pieces of
calico or linen; and when perfectly dry, part them. One half, it is said,
will adhere to each piece of the linen, and may afterwards be obtained or
set free from the linen by soaking.

I have tried this with partial, but not satisfactory success. It will be
remembered that the _results_ of the _true_ process were some years ago
exhibited before a scientific company (I think at the Royal Institution),
when a page of the _London Illustrated News_ was first exhibited in its
usual condition, printed on both sides; and was then taken to an adjoining
apartment, and in a short time (perhaps a quarter of an hour) re-exhibited
to the company split into two laminæ, each being perfect. Neither the
_pasting_ plan, nor the electrical gammon, could have effected this. I hope
some of your readers (they are a legion) will confer on photographers the
favour of informing them of this art.


_Curling of Iodized Paper._--The difficulty which your correspondent C. E.
F. has met with, in iodizing paper according to DR. DIAMOND'S valuable and
simple process, may be easily obviated.

I experienced the same annoyance of "curling up" till it was suggested to
me to damp the paper previously to floating it. I have since always adopted
this expedient, and find it answer perfectly. The method I employ for
damping it is to leave it for a few hours previously to using it upon the
bricks in my cellar: and I have no doubt but that, if C. E. F. will try the
same plan, he will be equally satisfied with the result.

W. F. W.

_How the Glass Rod is used._--Would you be kind enough to inform me how
paper is prepared or excited with the glass rod in the calotype process? Is
the solution first poured on the paper, and then equally diffused over it
with the rod?


    [The manner in which the glass rod is to be used for exciting or
    developing is very simple, although not easily described. The operator
    must provide himself with some pieces of thin board, somewhat larger
    than the paper intended to be used; on one of these two or three folds
    of blotting-paper are to be laid, and on these the paper intended to be
    excited, and which is to be kept steady by pins at the top and bottom
    right-hand corners, and the forefinger of the left hand. The operator,
    having ready in a small measure about thirty drops of the exciting
    fluid, takes the glass rod in his right hand, moves it steadily over
    the paper from the right hand to the left, where he keeps it, while
    with the left hand he pours the exciting fluid over the side of the
    glass rod, and moving this _to and fro_ once or twice to secure an
    equal portion of the exciting fluid along the whole length of the rod;
    he then moves the rod from left to right and back again, until he has
    ascertained that the whole surface is covered, taking care that none of
    the exciting fluid runs over the side of the paper, as it is then apt
    to discolour the back of it. When the whole surface has been thoroughly
    wetted, the superfluous fluid is to be blotted off with a piece of new

       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Wooden Tombs and Effigies_ (Vol. viii., p. 604.).--In addition to that
mentioned by J. E. J., there is a wooden chest in the centre of the chancel
of Burford Church, in the county of Salop, with a figure in plated armour
on the top; the head resting on a helmet supported by two angels, and at
the feet a lion crowned. An ornament of oak leaves runs round the chest, at
the edge. This effigy is supposed to represent one of the Cornwall family,
the ancient, but now extinct, barons of Burford. As I am preparing, with a
view to publication, a history of this very ancient family, with an account
of the curious and interesting monuments in Burford and other churches, I
should esteem it a favour if any of your correspondents could furnish me
with authentic information relative to any members of the family, or of any
memorials of them in other churches than those of Worcestershire and


_Epitaph on Politian_ (Vol. viii., p. 537.).--Harwood's _Alumni Etonenses_,
A.D. 1530, Hen. VIII., p. 22.:

    "Edward Bovington was born at Burnham, and was buried in the chapel.
    Some member of the College made these lines on him:

     'Unum caput tres linguas habet,
      (Res mira!) Bovingtonus.'"

This member must have seen Politian's epitaph.

J. H. L.

_Defoe's Quotation from Baxter on Apparitions_ (Vol. ix., p. 12.).--The
story copied by DR. MAITLAND from Defoe's _Life of Duncan Campbell_, is to
be found nearly word for word in pp. 60, 61. of {63} _The Certainty of the
Worlds of Spirits fully evinced by the unquestionable Histories of
Apparitions, &c._, by Richard Baxter, London, 1691. I can trace no mention
of the Dr. Beaumont, author of the _Treatise of Spirits_, unless he be the
"eminent apothecary in Henrietta Street, Covent Garden," stated by Nichols
(_Literary Anecdotes_, vol. ix. p. 239.) to be the father of Mr. Beaumont,
Registrar of the Royal Humane Society.

[Greek: Halieus].


_Barrels Regiment_ (Vol. viii., p. 620.).--If the song referring to
Barrel's regiment was written about 1747, it was not original, but a parody
or adaptation of one in _The Devil to Pay_, performed as a ballad opera in
1731; and which still maintains its place, if not on the stage, in recent
editions of the "acting drama." I have not an old edition of the play, but
quote from a collection of songs called _The Nightingale_, London, 1738, p.

   "He that has the best wife,
    She's the plague of his life;
  But for her that will scold and will quarrel,
    Let him cut her off short,
    Of her meat and her sport,
  And ten times a day hoop her barrel, brave boys,
    And ten times a day hoop her barrel."

May I append a Query to my reply? Was _The Nightingale_ published with a
frontispiece? My copy is mutilated, but has belonged to some person who
valued it much more highly than I do, as he has neatly repaired and
replaced torn leaves and noted deficiencies. Prefixed is a mounted
engraving of a bird in the act of singing, which, if intended for a
nightingale, is really curious; as it is of the size and shape of a
pheasant, with corvine legs and beak, and a wattle round the eye like that
of a barb pigeon. The book is "printed and sold by J. Osborn," and shows
that the post assigned to him in _The Dunciad_ was not worse than he


Garrick Club.

    [Our correspondent seems to have the veritable original engraving; the
    nightingale or pheasant, or whatever it may he, is mounted on a branch
    over a stream near to three houses, and a village on its banks is seen
    in the distance.]

_Sneezing_ (Vol. viii., pp. 366. 624.).--To the very interesting
illustrations given by Mr. Francis Scott of the ancient superstitions
associated with sternutation, I should like to add one not less curious
than any which he has given. It is recorded in Xenophon's _Anabasis_, lib.
iii. cap. 2.

At the council of Greek generals, held after the death of Cyrus, Xenophon
rose and made a speech. He set before his comrades the treachery of their
late associate Ariæus; the serious difficulties attendant upon the position
of the Greeks; and the necessity for immediate and vigorous action. Just as
he had alluded to the probability of a severe conflict, and had invoked the
aid of the gods, one of the company _sneezed_. He paused for a moment in
his harangue, and every one present did reverence ([Greek: prosekonêsan])
to Jupiter. The circumstance seemed to give new spirit and fortitude to the
whole assembly; and when Xenophon resumed, he said, "Even now, my comrades,
while we were talking of safety, Zeus the saviour has sent us an omen; and
I think it would become us to offer to the god a sacrifice of thanksgiving
for our preservation." He then, in the manner of a modern chairman at
Exeter Hall, invited all of that opinion to hold up their hands. This
appeal having met a unanimous response, they all made their vows, sung the
pæan, and the orator proceeded with his discourse.

The adoration of the god, or the use of some auspicious words or religious
formulary, appears to have been designed to avert any evil which might
possibly be portended by the omen. It seems by no means certain that it was
always regarded as favourable. Xenophon, in the case referred to, contrived
very adroitly to turn the incident to good account, and to interpret it as
a sign of the divine favour. The form of one of the sentences I have

    "[Greek: Epei peri sôtêrias hêmôn legontôn oiônos tou Dios tou Sôtêros

affords a little illustration of the benediction in current use among the
Greeks on such occasions, "[Greek: Zeu sôson]."

J. G. F.

_Does "Wurm," in modern German, ever mean Serpent?_ (Vol. viii pp. 465.
624.).--F. W. J. is quite right as regards his interpretation of the word
_Wurm_, used by Schiller in his _Wallenstein_ in the passage spoken by

_Wurm_ is not used in German to mean a serpent. Serpents (_Schlangen_) are
vertebrata, and are therefore not confounded with _Würmer_ by the Germans.
The language of the people frames proverbs, not the language of science.
The Germans apply the word _Wurm_ to express pity or contempt. The mother
says to her sick child, "Armes _Würmchen_!" signifying poor, suffering,
little creature. Man to man, in order to express contempt, will say
"Elender _Wurm_!" meaning miserable wretch; an application arising out of
the contemplation of the helpless state and inferior construction of this
division of the animal kingdom. The German proverb corresponds to the

C. B. d'O.

_Longfellow's Reaper and the Flowers_ (Vol. viii., p. 583.).--This charge
of plagiarism, I think, is not a substantial one. To compare Death to a
reaper, and children to flowers, is a very general idea, and may be thought
by thousands, and {64} expressed in nearly the same words which Longfellow,
and before him Luisa Reichardt, have used. The first line of the two
respective poems are certainly word for word the same, but that is all;
although the tendency of both poems is the same. Longfellow's poem is much
superior to that of L. Reichardt; for, while the former has a beautiful
clothing, colouring, and harmony, the latter is very crude, poor, and
defective. Longfellow's long residence in Germany has indeed rendered him
very susceptible to the form and spirit of German poetry, and hence there
exist in his poems frequently affinities as to general forms and ideas:
still, affinities arising from such causes cannot justly be termed
plagiarism, much less the accidental choice of a very widely existent,
natural thought. When Byron wrote his opening line to _The Bride of
Abydos_, he did not probably think of Göthe's

 "Könnst du das Land wo die Citronen blühen?"

Byron was not a German scholar; and as the opening line is the only analogy
between the two poems, we may justly believe it natural for any one who has
lived in southern lands, to ask such a question. The charge of plagiarism,
I think, ought to rest upon grounds which evince an actual copying.

C. B. d'O.

_Charge of Plagiarism against Paley_ (Vol. viii., p. 589.).--As a personal
friend of the gentleman who, under the name of VERITAS, brought, about five
years ago, a charge of plagiarism against Paley, I feel called upon to say
few words to FIAT JUST.

Truth cannot be refuted, and F. J. may look at the translation of the old
Dutch book of Nieuwentyt's, which he will find in the British Museum
library, the same place where VERITAS made the discovery while examining
the works of some continental metaphysicians: and FIAT JUST. will then no
doubt regret having made the rash and illogical observation, "that the
accusation be refuted, _or_ the culprit consigned to that contempt," &c.
The character of VERITAS as man, moralist, and scholar, does not deserve so
unjust and rash a remark.

The Dutch book, as well as the translation, are very scarce. Five and six
copies of the latter could only be found at the time of the discovery in

C. B. d'O.

_Tin_ (Vol. viii., p. 593.).--The suggestions of your correspondent S. G.
C. are ingenious respecting the etymology of _Cassiteros_, but a slight
examination will show they are erroneous. The Cassi was only one of the
many tribes inhabiting Britain in the time of Cæsar, and it is by no means
probable that it was able to confer its name upon the entire country, to
the exclusion of all the rest; such as the Iceni, the Trinobanti, the
Coritani, the Belgæ, and various others too numerous to mention. We must
bear in mind that the Phoenicians gave the name of Cassiterides to the
British Isles; and that in naming places they invariably called them after
some known or supposed quality possessed by them, or from some natural
appearance which first arrested their notice: and such was the case in this
instance. We learn that it was the common belief in ancient times, that the
islands to the west of Europe were shrouded in almost perpetual gloom and
darkness; hence the British Isles were called Cassiterides, from _Ceas_,
pronounced _Kass_, i. e. gloom, darkness, obscurity; and _tir_, i. e.
lands, plural _Ceasiterides_, i. e. "the islands of darkness." And the tin
which the Phoenicians procured from them received the appropriate name of
Cassiteros, _i. e._ the metal from the islands of darkness.


_John Waugh_ (Vol. viii, pp. 271. 400. 525.; Vol. ix, p. 20.).--The Rev.
John Waugh was of Broomsgrove, Worcester, and died unmarried and intestate.
Letters of administration of his estate in the province of York were
granted Oct. 28, 1777, to his five sisters and co-heiresses, Judith,
Isabella, Elizabeth, Mary, and Margaret, spinsters, who all were living at
Carlisle; and were unmarried in August, 1792.


_Rev. Joshua Brooks_ (Vol. viii., p. 639.).--_Blackwood's Edinburgh
Magazine_ for March, 1821, contains a paper entitled a "Brief Sketch of the
Rev. Josiah Streamlet." Under this _sobriquet_, a few incidents in the life
of the Rev. Joshua Brooks are related, which may interest C. (1).

G. D. R.

_Hour-glass Stand_ (Vol. viii., p. 454.).--There is an hour-glass stand
attached to the pulpit at Nassington Church, Northants. Nassington is about
six miles frown the town of Oundle.

G. R. M.

There is an hour-glass stand in Bishampton Church, Worcestershire.


_Teeth Superstition_ (Vol. viii., p 382.).--My wife, who is a Yorkshire
woman, tells me that, whenever she lost a tooth as a child, her nurse used
to exhort her to keep her tongue away from the cavity, and then she would
have a golden tooth. She speaks of it as a superstition with which she has
always been familiar.



_Dog-whipping Day in Hull_ (Vol. viii., p. 409.).--This custom obtains, or
used to do, in York on St. Luke's Day, Oct. 18, which is there known by the
name of "Whip-dog Day." Drake considers the origin of it uncertain and
though he is of opinion that it is a very old custom, he does not {65}
agree with those who date it as far back as the Romans.

In the _History of York_, vol. i. p. 306., respecting the author of which a
Query has appeared in "N. & Q.," Vol. viii., p. 125., the traditional
account of its origin is given:

    "That in times of Popery, a priest celebrating mass at the festival in
    some church in York, unfortunately dropped the pix after consecration,
    which was snatched up suddenly and swallowed by a dog that lay under
    the table. The profanation of this high mystery occasioned the death of
    the dog; and a persecution began, and has since continued on this day
    (St. Luke's), to be severely carried on against all the species in the

A very curious whipping custom prevails at Leicester, known by the name of
"Whipping Toms," on the afternoon of Shrove Tuesday. It is thus described
in Hone's _Year Book_, p. 539.:

    "In this space (the Newark) several (I think three) men called
    'Whipping Toms,' each being armed with a large waggon whip, and
    attended by another man carrying a bell, claim the right of flogging
    every person whom they can catch while their attendant bell-man can
    keep ringing his bell."

Perhaps some one of your correspondents will be able to afford an origin
for this odd usage.



A Spanish lady now resident in England, a member of the Latin Church,
mentioned to me, some months since, a custom prevailing in her native land
similar to that in Hull described by MR. RICHARDSON. It arose on this wise:
Once upon a time, on a high festival of the Church, when there was an
exposition of the blessed Sacrament, a dog rushed into the church when the
altar was unguarded, and carried off the Host. This deed of the
sacrilegious animal filled the Spaniards with such horror, that ever after,
on the anniversary of that day, all dogs were beaten and stoned that showed
themselves in the streets.


Bottesford Moors.

_Mousehunt_ (Vol. viii., pp. 516. 606.).--I think the inquiry relative to
this animal may be satisfactorily answered by the following quotation from
a very excellent and learned work, entitled _A Natural History of British
and Foreign Quadrupeds, containing many Original Observations and
Anecdotes_, by James H. Fennell, 8vo., London, 1841:

    "The Beech Marten is the _Martes foina_ of modern zoologists, the
    _Martes Fagorum_ of Ray, the _Martes Saxorum_ of Klein, the _Mustela
    Martes_ of Linnæus, and the _Mustela foina_ of Gmelin. Its English
    synonymes are not less numerous; for, besides Beech Marten, it is
    called Stone Marten, Martern, Marteron, Martlett, and _Mousehunt_. The
    last name I insert on the authority of Henley, thee dramatic
    commentator, who says it is the animal to which 'charming Willie
    Shakspeare' thus alludes in _Romeo and Juliet_:

       '_Capulet._ I have watch'd ere now
      All night----
        _Lady Capulet._ Ay, thou have been a _mouse-hunt_ in
          your time.'--Act IV. Sc. 4.

    "In Knight's _Pictorial Edition of Romeo and Juliet_ (1839), this and
    many other terms equally requiring explanation are left quite
    unelucidated; though one picture of this said _mouse-hunt_ would
    doubtless have been more assistant to the professed object of the work
    than the two unnecessary pictures it contains of certain winged
    monstrosities called Cupids."--P. 106.

Mr. Fennell goes on to state, that the Beech Marten (_alias_ Mousehunt)
inhabits the woods and forests of most parts of Europe, seldom quitting
them except in its nocturnal excursions; and he adds that--

    "The _Beech Marten_ does sometimes, in the Highlands of Scotland, where
    it is common, and called _Tuggin_, take to killing lambs, and makes sad
    havoc. Luckily, however, it is nearly exterminated in the south of that
    country. In Selkirkshire, it has been observed to descend to the shore
    at night time to feed upon mollusks, particularly upon the large Basket
    Mussel (_Mytilus modiolus_). But the ordinary prey of both this and the
    Pine Marten appears to the hares, rabbits, squirrels, moles, rats,
    _mice_; game birds; turkeys, pigeons, and other domestic poultry, and
    also the wild singing birds."--P. 109.

In the above work Mr. Fennell has given many other interesting zoological
elucidations of Shakspeare, and of various other ancient poets.



_St. Paul's School Library_ (Vol. viii., p. 641.).--A catalogue of the
library was privately printed in 1836, 8vo. It is nominally under the care
of the captain of the school, who, having his own duties to attend to,
cannot be expected to pay much attention to it: this readily accounts for
the disorder said to prevail.

It is believed to contain the copy of _Vegetius de re militari_, the
perusal of which by Marlborough, when a pupil at the school, imbued him
with that love for military science he in after-life so successfully

It would be a good deed on the part of the wealthy company, the trustees of
Colet's noble foundation, to enlarge the library and pay a salary to a
librarian; it might thus become a useful appendage to the school, and under
certain regulations be made accessible to the vicinity.

W. A.

_German Tree_ (Vol. viii., p. 619.).--In answer to the inquiry of ZEUS, who
wishes to be informed whether this custom was known in England previous to
1836, I beg to refer him to Coleridge's _Friend_, second landing-place,
essay iii. (vol. ii. {66} p. 249.), entitled "Christmas within doors in the
north of Germany." The passage (apparently from Coleridge's journal) is
dated "Ratzeburg, 1799." It is, I think, also extracted in Knight's
_Half-hours with the best Authors_. Coleridge went to Germany in 1798
(_Biog. Lit._, vol. i. p. 211. note); but I imagine the passage I refer to
did not appear till 1818, when _The Friend_ was published in three volumes
(_Biog. Lit._, vol. ii. p. 420.). As the book is so common, I do not think
it worth while to copy out the account. ZEUS has by this time, I hope, had
a Christmas Yggdrasil in his Olympus.


_Derivation of the Word "Cash"_ (Vol. viii., p. 386.).--May not the word
_cash_ be connected with the Chinese coin bearing that name, which Mr.
Martin, in his work on China (vol. i. p. 176.), describes as being--

    "The smallest coin in the world, there being about 1000 to 1500 (cash)
    in a dollar, _i. e._ one-fifth to one-seventh of a farthing."

If I am not mistaken, the coin in question is perforated in the centre to
permit numbers of the pieces being strung together, payments being made in
so many strings of cash.

W. W. E. T.

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translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.