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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 222, January 28, 1854 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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Libraries)



{69}

NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *


No. 222.]
SATURDAY, JANUARY 28. 1854
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


CONTENTS.

  NOTES:--                                                    Page

  Prophets: Francis Dobbs, by Henry H. Breen                    71

  Sir Walter Scott and his Quotations from Himself              72

  Thomas Campbell                                               73

  FOLK LORE:--Legends of the Co. Clare--Slow-worm Superstition  73

  The Vellum-bound Junius, by Sir T. Metcalfe                   74

  MINOR NOTES:--The Scotch Grievance--Walpole and Macaulay--
    Russian "Justice"--False Dates in Watermarks of Paper       74

  QUERIES:--

  Mr. P. Cunninghame, by J. Macray                              75

  Was Shakespeare descended from a Landed Proprietor?
    by J. O. Halliwell                                          75

  MINOR QUERIES:--"To try and get"--Fleet Prison--Colonel
    St. Leger--Lord's Descents--Reverend Robert Hall--"Lydia,
    or Conversion"--Personal Descriptions--"One while I
    think," &c.--Lord Bacon--Society for burning the Dead--
    Cui Bono--The Stock Horn--Lady Harington--Descendants
    of Sir M. Hale--A Query for the City Commission--
    Cross-legged Monumental Figures--Muffins and Crumpets       76

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--"Behemoth"--"Deus ex Machinâ"
    --Wheelbarrows--Persons alluded to by Hooker                77

  REPLIES:--

  Longfellow's Originality, by Wm. Matthews                     77

  Queen Elizabeth and Queen Anne's Motto                        78

  Books burnt by the Common Hangman                             78

  Stone Pulpits                                                 79

  Antiquity of Fire-irons, by Wm. Matthews, &c.                 80

  Order of St. John of Jerusalem, by Wm. Winthrop               80

  Grammars, &c. for Public Schools, by Mackenzie Walcott,
    M.A., &c.                                                   81

  Derivation of Mawmet--Came, by J. W. Thomas                   82

  The Gosling Family, by Honoré de Mareville                    82

  PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE:--Tent for Collodion Purposes
    --Multiplying Negatives and Collodion on Paper--
    Photographic Copies of Ancient Manuscripts--Fox Talbot's
    Patents--Antiquarian Photographic Society                   83

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--"Firm was their faith," &c.--
    Attainment of Majority--Three Fleurs-de-Lis--Newspaper
    Folk Lore--Nattochiis and Calchanti--Marriage Ceremony
    in the Fourteenth Century--Clarence--"The spire whose
    silent finger," &c.--Henry Earl of Wotton--Tenth (or the
    Prince of Wales's Own) Regiment of (Light) Dragoons, &c.    83

  MISCELLANEOUS:--

  Notes on Books, &c.                                           90

  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                  90

  Notices to Correspondents                                     91

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          CONTENTS:

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   III. MISSIONS IN POLYNESIA.
    IV. M. GUIZOT.
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  VIII. TURKEY AND RUSSIA.

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{70}

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{71}

_LONDON, SATURDAY, JANUARY 28, 1854._

Notes.

PROPHETS: FRANCIS DOBBS.

Among the characters introduced to the readers of "N. & Q.," under the name
of _prophets_, there are few that deserve so distinguished a place as Mr.
Francis Dobbs. Not only has he a claim to that title, in the derisive sense
in which it is applied to all modern enthusiasts, but also on the higher
grounds of political sagacity and practical wisdom. Some men have exhibited
this double character successively, and at different periods of their
lives; but none have displayed it in such happy union as Mr. Dobbs. Indeed,
in that respect, he is perhaps one of the most striking instances on record
of what is called the "duality of the human mind."

The information I am able to furnish respecting this remarkable man, is
derived from a pamphlet, published "by authority" (probably himself), by J.
Jones, Dublin, 1800, and entitled, _Memoirs of Francis Dobbs, Esq.; also
Genuine Reports of his Speeches in Parliament on the Subject of an Union,
and his Prediction of the Second Coming of the Messiah, with Extracts from
his Poem on the Millennium_.

Mr. Dobbs was born on April 27, 1750; and was the younger son of the Rev.
Richard Dobbs, who was the younger brother of Arthur Dobbs of Castle Dobbs,
co. Antrim, formerly Governor of North Carolina. His ancestor, an officer
in the army, came from England in the reign of Queen Elizabeth; and by a
marriage with the great-granddaughter of Hugh, Earl of Tyrone, got the
estate of Castle Dobbs, with other estates in the co. Antrim. His
great-grandfather was Mayor of Carrickfergus at the time King William
landed, and was the first subject in Ireland that paid him allegiance.

Mr. Dobbs devoted himself for some years to literary pursuits. In 1768 he
purchased an ensigncy in the 63rd Regiment, in which he continued till
1773. Having sold his commission, he turned his attention to the study of
the law, and was called to the bar. He then married Miss Stewart of
Ballantroy, in the county of Antrim, the daughter of a gentleman of
considerable property, niece of Sir Hugh Hill, and descended from the Bute
family. He afterwards joined the _Volunteers_ under Lord Charlemont, was
appointed Major to the Southern Battalion, and acted as exercising officer
at the great reviews held at Belfast in 1780, 1781, and 1782. He took an
active part, in conjunction with Lord Charlemont, Mr. Grattan, Mr. Flood,
and others, in the political agitation of that period; was the mover of an
address to the King, approving of the proceedings of the Irish Parliament,
and was a member of the deputation appointed to present it to his Majesty,
on which occasion he refused the honour of a baronetcy. At a later period,
the Earl of Charlemont brought him into the Irish Parliament and it was
while occupying a seat in that assembly, that he delivered the "Speeches"
already referred to.

Mr. Dobbs's Speech on the Legislative Union is one of the most remarkable
ever pronounced then or since, on that fertile topic. He descants in
forceful language on the evils, real or imaginary, likely to arise from
that measure; and points out, with a striking minuteness of detail, some of
the consequences which have actually resulted therefrom. Indeed, the
repealers of a subsequent period did little more than borrow Mr. Dobbs's
language; nor were they able, after thirty years' experience of the
practical working of the Union, to add a single new grievance to the
catalogue of those so eloquently expatiated upon by him in the year 1800.
As, however, we have to deal with Mr. Dobbs chiefly as a _religious_
prophet, I shall confine my extracts from his speeches to the illustration
of his character in that capacity.

The speech on the Legislative Union was delivered on February 5, 1800. On
June 7 following (the Bill having been carried in the mean time), Mr. Dobbs
pronounced in the Irish Parliament a speech in which he predicted the
second coming of the Messiah. This speech, the most extraordinary that was
ever made in a legislative assembly, presents a singular contrast to the
sagacity which characterises his political performances. A few short
extracts will show the change that had come over his prophetic vision:

    "Sir, from the conduct pursued by administration during this Session,
    and the means that were known to be in their power, it was not very
    difficult to foresee that this Bill must reach that chair. It was not
    very difficult to foresee that it should fall to your lot to pronounce
    the painful words, 'That this bill do pass.' Awful indeed would those
    words be to me, did I consider myself living in ordinary times: but
    feeling as I do that we are not living in ordinary times--feeling as I
    do that we are living in the most momentous and eventful period of the
    world--feeling as I do that a new and better order of things is about
    to arise, and that Ireland, in that new order of things, is to be
    highly distinguished indeed--this bill hath no terrors for me.

    "Sir, I did intend to have gone at some length into history, and the
    sacred predictions; but as I purpose, in a very few months, to give to
    the public a work in which I shall fully express my opinion as to the
    vast design of this terrestrial creation, I shall for the present
    confine myself to such passages as will support three positions:--The
    first is, the certainty of the second advent of the Messiah; the next,
    the signs of the times of his coming, and the manner of it; and the
    last, that Ireland is to have the glorious pre-eminence of being the
    first kingdom that will receive him."

{72}

After dwelling, at some length on his first two positions, he thus
proceeds:

    "I come now, Sir, to the most interesting part of what I have to say;
    it is to point out my reasons for thinking this is the distinguished
    country in which the Messiah is now to appear. The stone that is to be
    cut out of the mountain without hands, is to fall on the feet of the
    image, and to break the whole image to pieces. Now, that would not be
    true, if Christ and his army was to appear in any country that is a
    part of the image; therefore, all the countries that were comprised in
    the Babylonish and Assyrian empire, in the Medo-Persian empire, in the
    Greek empire, and in the Roman empire, are positively excluded. There
    is another light thrown on this question by a passage in the 41st
    chapter of Isaiah: 'I have raised up one from the north, and he shall
    come; from the rising of the sun shall he call upon my name, and he
    shall come upon princes as upon mortar, and as the potter treadeth
    clay.' This is manifestly the Messiah; and we are therefore to look for
    a country north of Judea, where the prophecy was given. The New World
    is out of the question, being nowhere a subject of prophecy; and as the
    image is excluded, it can only be in the Russian empire, or in the
    kingdoms of Denmark, Sweden, or Ireland.

    "The army that follows the Messiah, we are told, amounts to 144,000;
    and there are a few passages in the Revelation of St. John, that denote
    the place where they are to be assembled. One is, 'I saw them harping
    with their harps.' Another, 'I saw them standing on a sea of glass,
    having the harps of God.' Another is, 'That they were clothed in fine
    linen, white and clean.' Another is, 'And he gathered them together in
    a place, in the Hebrew tongue, called Armageddon.' Now, what respects
    the harp and the fine linen, peculiarly applies to Ireland; and not at
    all to Russia, Denmark, or Sweden. The sea of glass I think must be an
    island. And I believe the word Armageddon in the Hebrew tongue, and
    Ardmah or Armagh in the Irish, mean the same thing. At all events,
    there is great similitude in their sounds; and St. Patrick thought
    proper to make the city of Ardmagh, which is the old name, the seat of
    the church government of Ireland. But besides these sacred passages of
    Scripture, there are some very particular circumstances attending
    Ireland. She has never had her share in worldly prosperity, and has
    only since 1782 begun to rise; and I know no instance in history of any
    nation beginning to prosper, without arriving at a summit of some kind,
    before it became again depressed. The four great empires rose
    progressively west of each other; and Great Britain made the last toe
    of the image, being the last conquest the Romans made in the west. Now,
    Ireland lies directly west of it, and is therefore in exactly the same
    progressive line, and it never was any part of the image, nor did the
    Roman arms ever penetrate here. The arms of Ireland is the harp of
    David, with an angel in its front. The crown of Ireland is the
    apostolic crown. Tradition has long spoken of it as a land of saints;
    and if what I expect happens, that prediction will be fulfilled. But
    what I rely on more than all, is our miraculous exemption from all of
    the serpent and venomous tribe of reptiles. This appears to me in the
    highest degree emblematic, that Satan, the Great Serpent, is here to
    receive his first deadly blow."

I had an idea of sending you some extracts from Mr. Dobbs's poem on _The
Millennium_, but I fear I have already trespassed too far on your valuable
space.

HENRY H. BREEN.

St. Lucia.

       *       *       *       *       *

SIR WALTER SCOTT AND HIS QUOTATIONS FROM HIMSELF.

Your correspondent A. J. DUNKIN (Vol. viii., p. 622.) asks who was the
author of the couplet,--

 "Oh! for a blast of that dread horn,
  On Fontarabian echoes borne."

In reply to which Query you refer him to the juvenile efforts of Frank
Osbaldiston in the delightful novel of _Rob Roy_.

You might have referred him likewise to a corresponding passage in the
sixth canto of _Marmion_, sec. xxxiii., from which the accomplished poet
and novelist repeated _inadvertently_ his own verses:

 "O for a blast of that _dread_ horn,
  On Fontarabian echoes borne,
    That to King Charles did come," &c.

I say "inadvertently" from any own knowledge. A few months after the
well-known occurrence at a public dinner in Edinburgh, when Sir W. Scott
openly declared himself the author of the _Waverley Novels_, the writer of
these lines was staying at Abbotsford on a visit. On one occasion, when
walking with Sir Walter about his grounds, I led the conversation to his
late revelations; and while expressing some wonder at the length of time
during which the secret of the authorship had been kept, I ventured to say
that I for one had never felt the smallest doubt upon the matter, but that
the intrinsic evidence of these several works, acknowledged and
unacknowledged, had long ago convinced me that they were written by one and
the same author. Among other points I quoted _the very lines in question_
from the elegy on the death of the Black Prince in _Rob Roy_, which I
reminded Sir Walter might also be found in their sixth canto of _Marmion_.
"Ah! indeed," he replied, with his natural expression of comic gravity,
"that _was very careless_ of me! I did not think I should have committed
such a blunder!"

We kept up the like strain of conversation during the whole ramble, with a
good deal of harmless pleasantry. In the course of our walk Sir Walter
stopped at a particular point, and leaning on his staff like his own
"Antiquary," he pointed out some ancient earth-works, whose undulating
surface indicated the traces of a Roman or Pictish encampment. "There,"
said he, "you {73} will perceive the remains of a very good camp." "Yes,
Sir," said I, in the words of Lovel, "I do see something _like a ditch
indistinctly marked_." Sir Walter burst into a hearty fit of laughter,
saying, "Ay, my friends do call it the _Kairn of Kimprunes_."

I trust your readers will forgive me for recording these trivialities; but
MR. DUNKIN'S Query recalled them to my mind so forcibly after the lapse of
many years, that I venture to obtrude them upon your notice.

Before I conclude this paper, I may be permitted to make reference to a
series of letters addressed to Richard Heber, Esq., M.P., by Mr. Adolphus,
son of the historian of the reign of George III. In the conversation
referred to, Sir Walter Scott mentioned these letters in terms of high
approbation,--terms not undeserved; for a more elegant, ingenious, and
convincing piece of literary criticism never issued from the press.

At that time I had not seen it; but in reference to the passage in
question, the coincidence of which in the poem and the romance has not
escaped the critic's acuteness, Mr. Adolphus makes the following remarks:

    "A refined speculator might perhaps conceive that so glaring a
    repetition could not be the effect of inadvertence, but that the
    novelist, induced by some transient whim or caprice, had intentionally
    appropriated the verses of his great cotemporary. I cannot, however,
    imagine any motive for such a proceeding, more especially as it must
    appear somewhat unhandsome to take possession of another man's lines
    for the mere purpose of exhibiting them in a ridiculous light. Nor does
    it seem to me at all unlikely that the author of _Marmion_, supposing
    him to be also the author of _Rob Roy_, should have _unconsciously
    repeated himself_ in this instance, for we find him more than once
    apologising in his avowed works for having, in the haste of
    composition, snatched up expressions, and even whole lines, of other
    writers."

The anecdote above recorded proves the justice and refinement of the
critic's speculation.

A BORDERER.

       *       *       *       *       *

THOMAS CAMPBELL.

In a small 8vo. volume before me, entitled _The History of the Stage: in
which is included the Theatrical Characters of the most celebrated Actors
who have adorned the Theatre, &c.; with the Theatrical Life of Mr. Colly
Cibber_ (Lond. 1742), I notice a very remarkable similarity of thought and
expression between its author and the late Thomas Campbell. The dramatic
author writes thus:

    "But with whatever strength of nature we see the poet show at once the
    philosopher and the hero, yet the image of the actor's excellence will
    still be imperfect to you, unless language could put colours into words
    to paint the voice with.

    "The most that a Vandyke can arrive at is to make his portraits of
    great persons seem to think; a Shakspeare goes farther yet, and tells
    you what his picture thought; a Betterton steps beyond them both, and
    calls them from the grave to breathe and be themselves again, in
    feature, speech, and motion. When the skilful actor shows you all these
    powers at once united, and gratifies at once your eye, your ear, your
    understanding,--to conceive the pleasure arising from such harmony you
    must have been present at it; 'tis not to be told you."

Now compare this passage with the following lines from Mr. Campbell's
"Valedictory Stanzas to J. P. Kemble, Esq.," composed for a public meeting
held June, 1817:

 "His was the spell o'er hearts
    Which only acting lends,
  The youngest of the Sister Arts,
    Where all their beauty blends:
  For ill can Poetry express
    Full many a tone of thought sublime;
  And Painting, mute and motionless,
    Steals but a glance of time.
  But by the mighty actor brought,
    Illusion's perfect triumphs come,--
  Verse ceases to be airy thought,
    And Sculpture to be dumb."

SERVIENS.

       *       *       *       *       *

FOLK LORE.

_Legends of the Co. Clare_ (Vol. viii., p. 436.).--The Lake of Inchiquin,
one legend of which has been already published in "N. & Q.," is said to
have been once a populous and flourishing city, and still on a calm night
you may see the towers and spires gleaming through the clear wave. But for
some dreadful and unabsolved crime, a holy man of those days whelmed all
beneath the deep waters. The "dark spirit" of its king, who ruled also over
the surrounding country, resides in a cavern in one of the hills which
border the lake, and once every seven years at midnight, he issues forth
mounted on his white charger, and urges him at full speed over hill and
crag, until he has completed the circuit of the lake; and thus he is to
continue, till the silver hoofs of his steed are worn out, when the curse
will be removed, and the city reappear in all its splendour. The cave
extends nearly a mile under the hill; the entrance is low and gloomy, but
the roof rises to a considerable height for about half the distance, and
then sinks down to a narrow passage, which leads into a somewhat lower
division of the cave. The darkness, and the numbers of bats which flap
their wings in the face of the explorer, and whirl round his taper, fail
not to impress him with a sensation of awe.

FRANCIS ROBERT DAVIES.

_Slow-worm Superstition_ (Vol. viii., pp. 33. 479.).--I believe that the
superstition alluded to is {74} not confined to one country, nor to one
species of reptile. I remember to have heard some countrymen in Cornwall,
who had killed an adder, say that it would not cease to writhe until the
sun had gone down. Like many other so-called superstitions, it is probably
founded on a close observation of a natural phenomenon; and I feel quite
sure that I have seen in print, although I cannot now call to mind where,
that it is to be accounted for by the fact, that in these cold-blooded
animals the nervous irritability does not cease until checked or destroyed
by the chilling dews of evening.

HONORÉ DE MAREVILLE.

Guernsey.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE VELLUM-BOUND JUNIUS.

(Vol. v., pp. 303. 333. 607.; Vol. viii., p. 8.)

I have no doubt that it will be satisfactory to some of your readers to
know that I have in my possession a copy, "vellum bound in gilt," of
_Junius_, printed for Henry Sampson Woodfall, 1772, 2 vols. This copy has
been in the family library for about sixty years. There are no marks by
which it can be traced to its original owner. I imagine it must have been
purchased by my grandfather, Sir Thomas Metcalfe, after his arrival from
India about 1788; this is, however, merely a conjecture, in default of any
more probable theory. Of the authenticity of this copy I have no doubt; I
mean that it is now in the same condition as when it was first issued by
the bookseller. The binding is evidently of an old date, the gilding is
peculiar, and the books correspond exactly with the orders of Junius as
given to Woodfall in Note No. 47., Dec. 1771, and although neatly bound,
are, as Woodfall mentions in No. 64., not highly finished. Are there many
copies of this edition, or may I congratulate myself upon possessing _the_
one ordered by Junius? It is quite possible that my grandfather possessed
this copy some years before his return from India; and I may mention that I
also have a great many political pamphlets and satires, chiefly in poetry,
of different dates, from 1760 to 1780, such as _Catiline's Conspiracy_;
_The Diaboliad_; _Ditto_, with additions, dedicated to the worst man in the
kingdom (Rigby), and containing allusions to all the most celebrated
characters of Junius; _The Senators_, _La Fête Champêtre_, and many
miscellanies. These, however, are perhaps well known. I have also a
pamphlet containing an alleged unpublished canto of the _Faerie Queene_ of
Spenser, and a great many religious tracts from 1580 to 1700. Some of the
political poems are published by Almon. Among other curious stray sheets,
is a list of all the gentlemen and officers who fell in the cause of
Charles I., and Mr. Richard Brown appears amongst the number. I hope to
communicate more fully upon some future occasion, and must conclude with an
allusion to the claims of Francis as the author of _Junius_. Strong as the
proofs may be in his favour in England, I believe that in India there is
testimony no less important; and I have been informed, by one who spoke
with some authority, that the letters of Francis upon record in this
country bear no resemblance _whatever_ to those of Junius. This assertion,
however, is far too vague to satisfy any of your readers. I hope some day
to be able to confirm it by examples. The India House might furnish the
private correspondence between Francis and Hastings, which would be
extremely interesting.

T. METCALFE.

Delhi.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Notes.

_The Scotch Grievance._--Can the demand of Scotchmen, with respect to the
usage of the royal arms, be justified by the laws of Heraldry? I think not.
They require that when the royal arms are used in Scotland, the Scotch
bearings should be placed in the first quarter. Surely it is against all
rules that the armorial bearings, either of a person or of a nation, should
be changeable according to the place where they are used. The arms of the
United Kingdom and of the sovereign are, first and fourth, England; second,
Scotland; third, Ireland. The Scotch have therefore the option of using
these, or else the arms of Scotland singly; but to shift the quarterings
according to locality, seems repugnant to the principles of the science.
Queen Anne and George I. bore, in the first quarter, England impaling
Scotland: is it to be supposed that, for Scotch purposes, they bore
Scotland impaling England? Can any _coin_ be produced, from the accession
of James VI. to the English throne, on which the royal arms are found with
Scotland in the first quarter and England in the second?

A DESCENDANT FROM SCOTTISH KINGS.

_Walpole and Macaulay._--That well-known and beautiful conception of the
New Zealander in some future age sitting on the ruins of Westminster
Bridge, and looking where London stood, may have been first suggested by a
thought in one of Walpole's lively letters to Sir H. Mann:

    "At last some curious native of Lima will visit London, and give a
    sketch of the ruins of Westminster and St. Paul's."

ANON.

_Russian "Justice."_--Euler, in his 102nd letter to a German princess,
says:

    "Formerly there was no word in the Russian language to express what we
    call _justice_. This was certainly a very great defect, as the idea of
    justice is of very great importance in a great number of our {75}
    judgments and reasonings, and as it is scarcely possible to think of
    the thing itself without a term expressive of it. They have,
    accordingly, supplied this defect by introducing into that language a
    word which conveys the notion of justice."

This letter is dated 14th February, 1761. _Statne nominis umbra?_ An answer
is not needed to this Query. But can nothing be done to rescue from
destruction the precious analytical treasures of Euler, now entombed in the
archives of St. Petersburgh?

T. J. BUCKTON.

Birmingham.

_False Dates in Water-marks of Paper._--Your correspondent H. W. D. (Vol.
ix., p. 32.) on the subject of the water-mark in paper, is, perhaps, not
aware that, within the last few years, the will of a lady was set aside by
the heir-at-law, her brother, on account of the water-mark, she having
imprudently, as it was surmised, made a fairer copy of her will on paper of
a later date. The case will be in the recollection of the parties employed
in the neighbourhood of the Prerogative Court.

L.

       *       *       *       *       *


Queries.

MR. P. CUNNINGHAME.

Can any of your correspondents communicate information respecting a Mr. P.
Cunninghame, who was employed in the Heralds' Office in the years 1768-69,
and who appears to have left his situation there in order to enter the
church? Mr. Cunninghame, from a MS. volume of his letters now before me,
had friends and correspondents of the names of Towne, Dehane, Welsh,
Cockell, Bawdwen, Wainman, Haggard, Hammond, Neve, Gathorne, Innes, Connor,
&c., and relations of his own name resided at Deal. One of his letters is
addressed to his cousin, Captain George Cunninghame, General Majoribanks'
regiment, in garrison at Tournay, Flanders.

Two gentlemen of the names of Bigland and Heard (probably Sir Isaac Heard,
who died a few years since at a very advanced age) were his superiors in
the Heralds' Office at the time of his being there. A former possessor of
this MS. volume has written in it as follows; and so warm a tribute of
praise from a distinguished scholar and late member of this university, has
induced me to send you his remarks, and to make the inquiry suggested by
them.

    "I esteem myself fortunate in having purchased this volume of letters,
    which I met with in the shop of Mr. Robins, bookseller, at Winchester,
    in January, 1808. They do credit to the head and the heart of the
    author. He seems to have been a man whose imagination was lively, and
    whose mind was capacious, as well as comprehensive. His remarks on
    different subjects betray reading and reflection. His mental powers,
    naturally vigorous, he appears to have cultivated and improved by as
    much reading as his employments and his agitation of mind would allow.
    I wish that he had committed to this volume some specimens of his
    poetry, as it would have been more than mechanical, or partaking of
    common-place, for he writes in a style at once vigorous, lively, and
    elegant, and gives proofs of a correct taste. He had a manly spirit of
    independence, a generous principle of benevolence and a prevailing
    habit of piety. The first of these qualifications did not in him (as it
    is too frequently apt to do) overleap the bounds of prudence, or the
    still more binding ties of duty, as is exemplified in the excellent
    letters to his father, and Mr. Dehane. It is to be hoped that he
    entered into that profession from which he was so long and so
    perversely excluded; a profession suited to his genius and inclination,
    which would open an ample field for his benevolence, and which would
    receive additional lustre from the example of so much virtue and so
    much industry exerted in the cause of truth. It is to be hoped that he
    gained that competence and retirement to which the wishes of the
    interested reader must follow him, regretting that he knows not more of
    a man, who, from those amiable dispositions and those eminent talents,
    pourtrayed in this correspondence, would indeed--

     'Allure to brighter worlds, and lead the way.'
                                      R. F."

J. MACRAY.

Oxford.

       *       *       *       *       *

WAS SHAKSPEARE DESCENDED FROM A LANDED PROPRIETOR?

MR. KNIGHT has on two occasions, the latter in his _Stratford Shakspeare_
just published, called attention to what he concludes is an oversight of
mine in not drawing any conclusion from a deed in which certain lands are
mentioned as "heretofore _the inheritance_ of William Shakspeare, Gent.,
deceased." These words are supposed by MR. KNIGHT to imply that the lands
in question came to Shakspeare by descent, as heir-at-law of his father.
This opinion appeared to me to be somewhat a hasty one: believing that no
conclusion whatever is to be drawn from the phrase as there used, and
relying on the ordinary definition of _inheritance_ in the old works on
law, I did not hesitate, some time since, to declare a conviction that the
lands so mentioned were bought by Shakspeare himself. As the question is of
some importance in the inquiry respecting the position of the poet's
ancestry, perhaps one of your legal readers would kindly decide which of us
is in the right. I possess an useful collection of old law-books, but there
are few subjects in which error is so easily committed by unprofessional
readers. In the present instance, however, if plain words are to be relied
upon, it seems certain that the term _inheritance_ was applied, to use
Cowell's words, to {76} "every fee simple or fee taile that a man hath by
his purchase." (See _The Interpreter_, 1637.)

J. O. HALLIWELL.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries.

_"To try and get."_--The word _and_ is often used instead of to after the
verb _to try_: thus, in Moore's _Journal_ (June 7, 1819), "Went to the
theatre to try _and_ get a dress." What is the origin of this erroneous
mode of expression?

UNEDA.

Philadelphia.

_Fleet Prison._--Where can a list of the officers of the Fleet Prison,
especially the under officers, and more especially the tipstaffs, A.D.
1696, and shortly previously and subsequently, be seen?

J. K.

_Colonel St. Leger._--Where can I find an account of the celebrated Colonel
St. Leger, the friend and associate of George IV. when Prince of Wales? In
what year did he die? What age was he when his picture, now in Hampton
Court, was painted by Gainsborough?

W. P. M.

Dublin.

_Lords' Descents._--Is a MS. collection of Lords' Descents, by Thomas
Maisterson, Esq., made about the year 1705, now extant?

T. P. L.

_Reverend Robert Hall._--Who was Robert Hall, a preacher of some celebrity
in the time of James II.?

P. P. P.

_"Lydia, or Conversion."_--Can any of your correspondents inform me who is
the author of the following excellent drama, published nearly twenty years
since:--_Lydia, or Conversion; a Sacred Drama inscribed to the Jews by a
Clergyman of the Church of England_: London, 8vo., 1835, published by
Rivingtons, and Hatchard & Son?

A. Z.

_Personal Descriptions._--Is Sir Walter Scott's description of Saladin
taken from any ancient writer, or is it a fancy sketch? If the latter, I
think he has fallen into error by describing in Saladin the features of a
civilised Arab, rather than the very peculiar and unmistakeable
characteristics of the Koordish race.

In a novel now publishing in _Ainsworth's Magazine_, styled the "Days of
Margaret of Parma," the celebrated Duke of Alva is described as a very tall
man. I have never seen a portrait or read a description of his person, but
had formed a very different idea of it from the circumstance that Count
Tilly, who was certainly a short man, was said to be a striking counterpart
of him in face, figure, and dress, a resemblance which added not a little
to the terror and aversion with which Tilly was regarded by the Protestants
of Germany. Can any of your correspondents refer me to a description of
Alva?

J. S. WARDEN.

_"One while I think," &c._--Whence are the following lines:

 "One while I think, and then I am in pain,
  To think, how to unthink that thought again."

W. M. M.

_Lord Bacon._--Has the very discreditable attack made on the moral
character of the great Lord Chancellor Bacon, by his cotemporary Sir Simon
D'Ewes, and related by Hearne the historian at the end of his _Life and
Reign of King Richard II._, been investigated, and either established or
disproved by later historians?

CESTRIENSIS.

_Society for burning the Dead._--Wanted information as to the "Society for
burning the Dead," which existed a few years ago in London. A reference to
any reports or papers of them would oblige

D. L.

_Cui Bono._--What is the true rendering of the Latin phrase _Cui Bono_?
Most text-books say it means "For what good?" or, "What use was it?" But
Francis Newman, in p. 316. of _Hebrew Monarchy_, says it means "who gained
by (the crime)," and quotes _Cicero pro Milone_, xii. § 32., in favour of
his meaning.

T. R.

Dublin.

_The Stock Horn._--Can any of your readers or friends tell me where I can
see a specimen of the musical instrument called the "Stock Horn?" Or any
musical instrument of primitive form, similar to that which Wilkie has
represented in a subject from the "Gentle Shepherd," entitled "Roger and
Jenny." It seems to be a kind of hautboy, or oboe, and often appears in
musical devices of the last century, especially by Scotch printers.

J. GORDON SMITH.

_Lady Harington._--Can any of your readers give the pedigree of the late
Lady Harington, mother of the lamented Principal of Brasenose Coll. Oxford?
The writer of this, who was distantly related to her, recollects, though
very young, being struck with her beauty when he saw her in 1787. One of
her brothers died in India; and another was curate of the lower church in
Guildford in 1806; he was probably Thomas Philpot, of Magdalen Hall,
Oxford, M.A. in 1798. Her mother was daughter or granddaughter of the
celebrated mathematician Abraham de Moivre, and had a sister, or aunt,
housekeeper of Windsor Castle. Her mother, the writer believes, was related
to the Gomms, a branch of the family descended from Eustache de St. Pierre.

ANAT.

{77}

_Descendants of Sir M. Hale._--Are there any of the descendants of Sir
Matthew Hale, the famous judge of the seventeenth century, living either in
England or Ireland?

W. A.

_A Query for the City Commission._--In the _London Gazette_ of January 23,
1684-5, we read that King Charles II. sent to the Lord Mayor, in a silver
box sealed up with his majesty's seal, the receipts of the several cements
used by the patentees for making sea-water fresh; as also the receipt of
their metallic composition and ingredients, certified under the hand of the
Hon. Robert Boyle, to be kept so sealed up by the present and succeeding
lord mayors, lest a secret of so great importance to the public might come
to be lost, if lodged only in the knowledge of a few persons therein
concerned.

It is to be hoped that the commissioners who are now engaged in
investigating the affairs of the Corporation of London, will not fail in
making inquiry of the present Lord Mayor after this silver box, committed
so carefully to City preservation.

H. E.

_Cross-legged Monumental Figures._--Are any instances of the cross-legged
figures, so common in England, to be seen in the churches of France, Italy,
or Spain? and if so, where may engravings of them be found?

J. Y.

_Muffins and Crumpets._--Can any of your readers tell me the origin of the
names "muffins and crumpets," and by whom and when introduced at the
English breakfast-table?

OLD FOGIE.

Athenæum.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries with Answers.

_"Behemoth."_--Does any one know a book called _Behemoth, an Epitome of the
Civil Wars from 1640 to 1660_?

C. W. B.

    [This was the last work written by the celebrated Thomas Hobbes of
    Malmsbury. "This history is in dialogue," remarks Bishop Warburton,
    "and full of paradoxes, like all Hobbes' other writings. More
    philosophical, political--or anything rather than historical; yet full
    of shrewd observations." The editions are, 1679, 8vo.; 1680, 12mo.;
    1682, 8vo.]

_"Deus ex Machinâ."_--From what author is the phrase "Deus ex machinâ"
taken? and what was its original application?

T. R.

Dublin.

    ["Deus ex machinâ" was originally a Greek proverb, and used to denote
    any extraordinary, unexpected, or improbable event. It arose from the
    custom or stage-trickery of the ancient tragedians, who, to produce
    uncommon effect on the audience, introduced a deity on special
    occasions--[Greek: Epi tôn paradoxôn kai paralogôn], "it is spoken of
    marvellous and surprising occurrences," as the German commentator F.
    Smeider, thus explains the words of the passage in which the adage is
    to be found, viz. Lucian's _Hermotimus_, sub finem. The words are,
    [Greek: to tôn tragôidôn touto, Theos ek mêchanês epiphaneis]. To this
    custom Horace alludes in his _Ars Poetica_, l. 191.:

     "Nec Deus intersit, nisi dignus vindice nodus
      Inciderit."

    Conf. Gesneri _Thesaurus_, in Machina.]

_Wheelbarrows._--Who invented the wheelbarrow? It is ascribed to Pascal.

ALPHA.

    [Fosbroke seems to have investigated the origin of this useful article.
    He says, "Notwithstanding Montfaucon, it is not certain that the
    ancients were acquainted with the wheelbarrow. Hyginus, indeed,
    mentions a single-wheeled carriage, but it may apply to a vehicle of
    conveyance. Some modern writers ascribe the invention to Pascal, the
    famous geometer. The one-wheeled carriage alluded to was, perhaps, the
    _Pabo_ of Isidore. As to the invention by Pascal, we find _berewe_, a
    barrow, rendered by Lye, a versatile vehicle; but if more than the
    hand-barrow had been meant, the addition of _wheel_ would perhaps have
    been made to the world."--_Encyclopædia of Antiquities_, vol. i. p.
    349.]

_Persons alluded to by Hooker._--Who was the ancient philosopher to whom
Hooker alludes in _Eccles. Polity_, b. III. ch. xi. (iii.)? and the Puritan
champion of the Church Service, cited b. v. ch. xxvii. (1.)?

MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A.

    [The ancient philosopher is Philemon: see the passage quoted by the
    Rev. John Keble, edit. Hooker, 1836, vol. i. p. 496., from _Fragm.
    Incert._, xliii., ed. Cler. The Puritan champion is Edward Dering: see
    his work against Harding, entitled _A Sparing Restraint of many lavish
    Untruths, &c._, 4to. 1568.]

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies.

LONGFELLOW'S ORIGINALITY.

(Vol. viii., p. 583.)

J. C. B. has noticed "the similarity of thought, and even sometimes of
expression," between "The Reaper and the Flowers" of this popular writer,
and a song by Luise Reichardt. But a far more extraordinary _similarity_
than this exists between Mr. Longfellow's translation of a certain
Anglo-Saxon metrical fragment, entitled "The Grave" (Tegg's edit. in
_London Domestic Library_, p. 283.) and the literal translation of the same
piece by the Rev. J. J. Conybeare, transcribed by Sharon Turner in _Hist.
Ang. Sax._, 8vo. edit. 1823, vol. iii. p. 326. With the exception of a few
verbal alterations, indeed, which render the fact of the plagiarism the
more glaring, the two translations are identical. I place a few of the
opening and {78} concluding lines of each side by side, and would ask if
the American poet has the slightest claim to the authorship of that
version, to which he has affixed the sanction of his name.

  _Conybeare's Translation._

 "For thee was a house built
  Ere thou wert born,
  For thee was a mould shapen
  Ere thou of mother camest.

 "Who shall ever open
  For thee the door
  And seek thee,
  For soon thou becomest loathly,
  And hateful to look upon."

  _Longfellow's Translation._

 "For thee was a house built
  Ere thou wast born
  For thee was a mould meant
  Ere thou of mother camest.

 "Who will ever open
  The door for thee
  And descend after thee,
  For soon thou art loathsome,
  And hateful to see."

WM. MATTHEWS.

Cowgill.

       *       *       *       *       *

QUEEN ELIZABETH AND QUEEN ANNE'S MOTTO.

(Vol. viii., pp. 174. 255. 440.)

I was not aware that the Query at page 174. was not fully answered by me in
page 255., but the following may be more satisfactory.

Camden, in his Life of Queen Elizabeth (_Annals of Queen Elizabeth_, p.
32.), says her first and chiefest care was for the most constant defence of
the Protestant religion as established by the authority of parliament. "Her
second care to hold an even course in her whole life and in all her
actions, whereupon she took for her motto (1559), _Semper eadem_ (Always
the same)."

In his _Remains_ (p. 347. 4to. 1637), Camden says, "Queen Elizabeth upon
occasions used so many heroical devices as would require a volume: but most
commonly a sive without a motte for her words _Video_, _Taceo_, and _Semper
eadem_, which she as truly and constantly performed."

Sandford is silent as to her motto.

Leake says this motto, _Semper eadem_, was only a personal motto; as queen,
the old motto, _Dieu et mon Droit_, was used, and is so given in Segar's
_Honour, Military and Civil_, dedicated to her majesty in 1602, and which
is also on her tomb. In some churches where there are arms put up to her
memory, it is probable the motto _Semper eadem_ may sometimes have been
seen as being a personal motto to distinguish it from her brothers. Queen
Anne, before the union with Scotland, bore the same arms, crest, and
supporters as her father King James II., but discontinued the use of the
old motto, _Dieu et mon Droit_, and instead thereof used _Semper eadem_.
The motto ascribed to Queen Elizabeth she took for the same reason to
express her constancy; but this, which was personal as to Queen Elizabeth,
was then made the motto of the royal achievement, and seems the first
instance of discontinuing the old motto of _Dieu et mon Droit_, from the
first assumption of it by King Edward III.; for as to the different ones
attributed to Queen Mary, Queen Elizabeth, and King James I., they were
personal only.

The motto is indeed no part of the arms but personal, and therefore is
frequently varied according to the fancy of the bearer; nevertheless, when
particular mottoes have been taken to perpetuate the memory of great
events, either in families or kingdoms, and have been established by long
usage, such should be esteemed as family or national mottoes, and it is
honourable to continue them.

In 1702 (_Gazette_, No. 3874) Queen Anne commanded the Earl Marshal to
signify her pleasure that wheresoever her royal arms were to be used with a
motto, that of _Semper eadem_ should be used; and upon the union with
Scotland in 1707, by her order in council it was ordered to be continued.

King George I., upon his accession, thought proper to discontinue it, and
restored the old motto, _Dieu et mon Droit_.

G.

       *       *       *       *       *

BOOKS BURNT BY THE COMMON HANGMAN.

(Vol. viii., pp. 272. 346.)

The _Histoires_ of Theodore Agrippa d'Aubigné were condemned, by an arrêt
of the parliament of Paris, to be burnt by the common hangman. The charge
against the works was, that D'Aubigné had spoken too freely of princes; and
it may be added, too freely also of the Jesuits, which was probably the
greatest crime. D'Aubigné said upon the occasion, that he could not be
offended at the treatment given to his book, after having seen the Holy
Bible ignominiously hanged upon a gibbet (for thus some fiery zealots used
the Bible which had taken from the Huguenots, to show their pious hatred to
all translations of that book into their native tongue), and fourscore
thousand innocent persons massacred without provocation.

The _Histoire_ of James Augustus de Thou (a Roman Catholic, though a
moderate one) met with the same fate at Rome that D'Aubigné's had at Paris,
and it was even debated in council whether the like sentence should not
pass against it in France. D'Aubigné, however, spoke strongly in its
favour, affirming that no Frenchman had ever before given such evident
proofs of solid {79} judgment and steady application, qualities not
generally allowed to be the characteristic of the nation. (Scott's _Life of
Theodore Agrippa d'Aubigné_, p. 419.)

In 1762 the _Emilie_ of Jean Jacques Rousseau was burnt at Geneva by the
common hangman. _Le Contrat Social_ had soon afterwards the same fate.
(_Biographie Universelle_, article "J. J. Rousseau.")

On June 17th, 1553, nearly the whole of the edition of the _De
Christianismi Restitutione_ of Servetus, which had been seized at Lyons,
was cast into the flames, and Servetus burnt in effigy at Vienne in
Dauphiné. (_Biographie Universelle_, art. "Servetus.")

In 1538 the English Bible, printed by Grafton at Paris, was (with the
exception of a few copies) burnt by the order of the Inquisition. During
the reign of Henry VIII. (observes Mr. D'Israeli in _Amenities of
Literature_, vol. iii. p. 358.), the Bishop of Durham had all the unsold
copies of Tindal's Testament bought up at Antwerp and burnt. In this age of
unsettled opinions, both Roman Catholic and Protestant books were burnt. In
the reign of Edward VI. Roman Catholic works fed the flames.

    "All red-lettered illuminated volumes were chopped in pieces with
    hatchets, and burned as superstitious. The works of Peter Lombard, Duns
    Scotus, and Thomas Aquinas, carried on biers, were tumbled into
    bonfires. In the reign of Mary pyramids of Protestant volumes were
    burnt. All the Bibles in English, and all the commentators upon the
    Bible in the vernacular idiom (which we are told from their number
    seemed almost infinite), were cast into the flames at the market-place,
    Oxford."--D'Israeli's _Amenities of Literature_, vol. ii. pp. 164, 165.

In Strype's _Memorials_ (3rd part, 2nd ed., p. 130.) is a proclamation of
Philip and Mary, "that whoever finds books of heresy and sedition, and does
not forthwith _burn_ the same, shall be executed for a _rebel_."

The Stationers' Company (who were granted a charter of incorporation during
the reign of Philip and Mary) had power to seize, take away, and burn books
which they deemed obnoxious to the state or to their own interests.

    "When Elizabeth was upon the throne, political pamphlets fed the
    flames, and libels in the reign of James I. and his son."--D'Israeli's
    _Curiosities of Literature_, "Licensers of the Press."

    "In the first year of the reign of King William III., A.D. 1688, a
    grand _auto-da-fé_ was performed by the University of Oxford on certain
    political works. Baxter's _Holy Commonwealth_ was amongst those
    condemned to the flames."--D'Israeli's _Amenities of Literature_, vol.
    iii. p. 325.

Perhaps some correspondent of "N. & Q." may furnish other instances of
books burnt.

L. A.

       *       *       *       *       *

STONE PULPITS.

(Vol. viii., p. 562.)

To MR. KERSLEY'S list I can add, from my own county, St. John the
Evangelist, Cirencester, used; SS. Peter and Paul, Northleach, used;
Staunton, All Saints, in the Hundred of St. Briavell's, Dean Forest, not
used.

The last has a curious double arrangement in two storeys, like a modern
reading-desk and pulpit, projecting west from the north side of the chancel
arch, or rather (if I recollect rightly, for I took no notes on visiting
the church) of the west tower arch, and to both which there is access from
the newel leading to the ancient rood-loft.

To the above might be added those of Coombe, Oxon; Frampton, Dorset; and
Trinity Church, Coventry: and if any other than those in churches, the
angular one in the entrance court in Magdalene College, Oxford, from which,
formerly, the University Sermon used to be preached on the festival of St.
John the Baptist, when the court was strewed with rushes for the occasion
(vide _Glossary of Architecture_, in verb.); that in the refectory of
Tinterne Abbey, Monmouthshire; and the well-known exquisite specimen of the
later First Pointed period, occupying a similar locality in the Abbey of
Beaulieu, Hants, so elaborately illustrated by Mr. Carter in Weale's
_Quarterly Papers_.

BROOKTHORPE.

A collection of English examples alone would make a long list. Besides the
well-known one (A.D. 1480) in the outer court of Magdalene College, Oxford,
the following are noted in the last edition of the Oxford _Glossary_,
viz:--Beaulieu, Hants (A.D. 1260); Beverley; Chester; Abbey Garden,
Shrewsbury: these are in refectories of monasteries. In churches--at
Cirencester; Coombe, Oxon (circa A.D. 1370); Frampton, Dorset (circa A.D.
1450); Trinity Church, Coventry (circa A.D. 1470): the latter appears from
the cut to be stone.

In the second edition of the _Glossary_ is also St. Peter's, Oxon (circa
1400).

Devonshire abounds in good samples: see _Trans. of Exeter Architectural
Society_, vol. i., at table of plates, and the engraved plates of three
very rich specimens, viz. Harberton, Chittlehampton, North Molton, each of
which is encircled by canopied niches with statues.

At North Petherton, in Somersetshire, is a curious grotesque human figure
of stone, crouched on the floor, supporting the pulpit (which is of wood,
as I think) upon his shoulders, Atlas-like.

J. J. R.

Temple.

MR. KERSLEY desires a list of ancient stone pulpits. I can give him the
following, but cannot {80} describe their positions, nor certify which of
them are still used:--Bedfordshire, St. Paul's, Bedford; Cheshire,
Nantwich; Cornwall, Egloshayle; Devonshire, Chittlehampton, Harberton,
Totnes, South Wooton; Dorsetshire, Frampton; Gloucestershire, North Cerney,
Cirencester, Cold Ashton, Northleach, Pitchcomb, Winchcomb, Gloucester
Cathedral; Hampshire, Beaulieu Abbey (fine Early Decorated), Shorwell, Isle
of Wight; Oxfordshire, Coombe (1395), Oxford, Magdalene College (1480),
Oxford, St. Peter's; Somersetshire, Chedder, Kew Stoke, Nailsea, Stogumber,
Wrington; Sussex, Clymping; Warwickshire, Coventry, Trinity Church;
Worcestershire, Worcester Cathedral.

C. R. M.

The _Glossary of Architecture_ supplies the following examples:--Beaulieu,
Hampshire, c. 1260 (plate 166.), in the refectory; Combe, Oxfordshire, c.
1370 (plate 166.); Magdalene College, Oxford, c. 1480 (plate 166.), in the
outer court; Frampton, Dorset, c. 1450 (plate 167.); Holy Trinity,
Coventry, c. 1500 (plate 167.), restored by Mr. Rickman.

Are, or were, the pulpits in the refectories of the monasteries of
Beverley, Shrewsbury, and Chester, referred to in the Glossary _sub voc._
PULPIT, of stone?

W. SPARROW SIMPSON.

There are ancient stone pulpits still existing at Beaulieu Abbey Church,
now in use, A.D. 1260; Wells Cathedral, in the nave, A.D. 1547; Magdalene
College, Oxford, A.D. 1480, in the south-east angle of the first court,
formerly used at the University Sermon on St. John Baptist's Day; Combe
Church, Oxon., Perp. style: Frampton Church, Dorset, A.D. 1450; Trinity
Church, Coventry, A.D. 1500.

MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A.

To the list may be added that of Holy Trinity Church, Coventry, which is a
very fine specimen, and furnished with bracket for the book. It adjoins the
south aisle piers, and is in use.

G. E. T. S. R. N.

       *       *       *       *       *

ANTIQUITY OF FIRE-IRONS.

(Vol. viii., p. 587.)

The invention of these domestic instruments, called "tongs, fireshovels,
and prongs" by Sir T. Browne, dates from a very early period. The "shovel"
is the A.-S. _fyr-sceofl_. Lye refers to "the fire-sholve" of the sixteenth
century, which he tells us was "made like a grate to sift the sea-cole
with," exactly as we see it constructed now (See Gage's _Hengrave_, p. 23.)
The "poker" (see Du Cange, v. _Titionarium_) is mentioned by Johan. de
Januâ in the thirteenth century. It had formerly two massive prongs, and
was commonly called the "fire-fork." There is a poker of this description,
temp. Hen. VIII., in Windsor Castle, which is figured in Britton's _Archit.
Antiq._, vol. ii. p. 99. (See also Strutt's _Horda Angelcynn_, vol. ii, pp.
62. 64., and Fosbrooke's _Encyc. Antiq._, pp. 264. 305. 340.) The "tongs,"
A.-S. _fyr-tang_ (see Du Cange, v. _Tenalea_, _Tenales_, _Tenecula_), with
which Swift mischievously directs us to stir the fire "if the poker be out
of the way," are of the remotest antiquity. They are frequently spoken of
in the sacred records, as by Isaiah, vi. 6.; and we all know to what
purpose a similar weapon was applied by holy St. Dunstan. In fact, they are
doubtless coeval with fires themselves. The word "tongs" is the old
Icelandic, Norræna, or Dönsktúnga, _taung_, pl. _tángir_, the Dan. _tang_,
Scot. and Belg. _tangs_, _taings_, Belg. _tanghe_, Alem. _zanga_, Germ.
_zange_, Gall. _tenaille_, Ital. _tenaglia_, &c. The most ancient of the
mytho-cosmogonic poems of the elder Edda attribute to this implement an
origin no less than divine; for in the _Völo-spa_, st. vii., it is stated
that when the mighty Oesir assembled on Idavöllr to regulate the courses of
the stars, to take counsel for the erection of temples and palaces, and to
build furnaces, amongst other tools, by them also then fabricated, _tángir
scópo_, "they made tongs," for the use and delectation of the _völundr à
járn_, or skilful blacksmith (the Weyland smith of "Kenilworth") and
careful housewife of future days.

WM. MATTHEWS.

Cowgill.

ALIQUIS will perhaps find his question satisfactorily answered by a visit
to Goodrich Court, Herefordshire, where the late Sir Samuel Meyrick, with
the industry and exactness which distinguished that indefatigable
antiquary, had arranged a series of rooms illustrative of the domestic
habits of the twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth, sixteenth, and
seventeenth centuries.

It is so long ago since I saw these rooms (and then but very cursorily),
that I will not undertake to say the series was complete from the twelfth
inclusive; and when, recently, last there, the family were at home, and
nothing but the armoury shown; but from the evident care taken of that
unrivalled and magnificent collection by the present proprietor, the series
of appropriate furniture, each _genuine_ specimens of the period they
represent, is doubtless preserved intact, though I understood that the
chambers had been since fitted up more consistently with the requirements
of the nineteenth century.

BROOKTHORPE.

       *       *       *       *       *

ORDER OF ST. JOHN OF JERUSALEM.

(Vol. vii., p. 407.)

R. L. P. asks "What members of the British language were present, when, in
1546, the English commander Upton attacked and defeated the famous corsair
Dragut at Tarschien, in Malta?" {81}

In answer to the above question I would beg to remark, that in September,
1536, John d'Omedes ascended the Maltese throne on the decease of Didier de
Saint Jaille; and his reign continued seventeen years, _i. e._ to 1553. In
looking through several histories of the order, I am unable to find any
mention made of a Turkish descent on the island in 1546. Had such an
occurrence taken place, it doubtless would have been recorded; but as it is
not, it would have been impossible for the Commander Upton to have
distinguished himself in any such conflict as your correspondent supposes.

R. L. P. then asks, "What members of it were present (that is, the British
language) when the Chevalier Repton, Grand Prior of England in 1551, was
killed, after signally defeating the Turks in another attack on the
island?"

With all due deference I would beg to state, that there was not in July,
1551, when Dragut made an attack on Malta, any English knight of the name
of Repton; and it can be satisfactorily shown by the following extract,
that at the period referred to by R. L. P., Nicholas Upton was Grand Prior
of England, and _was not_ "killed" after signally defeating the Turks, but
died from the effects of a _coup de soleil_:

    "L'isola del Gozzo fu presa da Sinam Bassa, a persuasione di Dragutte,
    il 1551, essendosi renduto a discrezione F. Galaziano de Sesse
    Aragonese, Governatore, che vi rimase schiavo. Ma poco dopo il
    Cavaliere F. Pietro d'Olivares, la ristaurò da danni patiti e vi
    richiamò nuove famiglie a ripopolarla. Sinam, prima di andare al Gozzo,
    fece una discesa in Malta, ma fu rispinto da Cavaliere: _nella quale
    azione pel molto caldo sofferto, mori Nicolas Vpton, Gran Priore
    d'Inghilterra._"--Vide _Codice Dip._, vol. ii. p. 573.; as also
    Vertot's _History of the Order_, vol. iv. p. 144., date July, 1551.

That Sir Nicholas Upton was Grand Prior of England in 1551, is sufficiently
shown in the above extract; and that _he was_ Commander of Repton, or
Ripston, will be as readily seen by the following lines translated from the
Latin, and to be found in a book of manuscripts of the years 1547, 1548,
1549, now in the Record Office. (Vide Lib. Bull. M. M. F. J. Homedes.)

    "On the 15th November, 1547, Nicholas Upton was appointed by the Grand
    Master Omedes Commander of Ripston in the language of England. And on
    the 5th of November, 1548, he was exalted to the dignity of
    Turcopolier, in place of the knight Russell deceased."

I am unable to inform R. L. P. what English knights were present in Malta
in 1551; but enough has already appeared in "N. & Q." to show that they
were few in number, and poor as regards their worldly effects. The
Reformation had destroyed the British language, and caused the ruin of its
members. The first severe blow against the Order of St. John of Jerusalem
was given by Henry VIII., and the last by Queen Elizabeth in the first year
of her reign. (Vide "N. & Q.," Vol. viii., pp. 189. 193.)

WILLIAM WINTHROP.

La Valetta, Malta.

       *       *       *       *       *

GRAMMARS, ETC., FOR PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

(Vol. ix., p. 8.)

St. Mary's College, Winchester (publisher, D. Nutt).--_Novum Florilegium
Poeticum_; _Carmina quædam elegantissima_; _De Diis et Heroibus poeticis
libellus_; _Homeri Ilias_ (Heyne) _et Odysseæ_; _Interpretatio Poikiles
Istorias_; _Ovidii Fasti_, libri vi.; [Greek: Poikilê Istoria]; _Selectæ
Historiæ ex Cæsare, Justino et Floro_; _Notes on the Diatessaron_, by the
Rev. Frederic Wickham, now Second Master; _Græcæ Grammatices Rudimenta_, by
Bishop Wordsworth, late Second Master; _Greek and Latin Delectus_, by the
Rev. H. C. Adams, late Commoner Tutor.

Of Eton books there were in use the _Latin and Greek Grammars_; Pindar's
_Olympian and Pythian Odes_; _Scriptores Græci et Romani_. A complete list
of Eton and Westminster school-books will be found in the _London
Catalogue_, which enrols _Vidæ de Arte Poeticâ_; Trapp's _Prælectiones
Poetica_, and the _Rise, &c. of Poetry and Fine Arts in Ancient Rome_, as
Winchester school-books.

In 1512, Winchester and Eton had a common grammar. Hugh Lloyd, D.C.L., Head
Master, A.D. 1580-1602, wrote _Dictata_ and _Phrases Elegantiores_ for the
use of the school. William Horman, M.A., Head Master of Winchester,
1495-1502, and Eton, 1489-1495, wrote _Vulgaria puerorum_.

Hugh Robinson, D.D., Head Master, wrote _Prayers_ and _Latin Phrases_ for
the school. It is almost superfluous to name Bishop Ken's _Manual for
Winchester Scholars_, edited by Dr. Moberly, the present excellent Head
Master, some years since.

MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A.

In pursuance of the hint of MR. P. H. FISHER, I will describe an old
school-book in my possession, which is bound up with Godwyn's _Romanæ
Historicæ Anthologia_. It contains, 1. _Preces_; 2. _Grammaticalia quædam_;
3. _Rhetorica brevis_, and was printed at Oxford in 1616 by Joseph Barnes.
Though there is nothing in the title-page to indicate that it was for the
use of Winchester College, this sufficiently appears from the "Thanksgiving
for William of Wiccham" in the grace after dinner, and also from the
insertion of William of Wykeham's arms before the _Rhetorica brevis_. It
bears abundant marks of having been used in the school, and contains, on
the blank pages with which it was furnished, several MS. Wykehamical
memoranda, some of them well known, and others, {82} perhaps, the exercises
of the original owner. All are in Latin, except the following verses, which
I transcribe:

  _"On Queene Anne, Queene of the Scots._

  March with his winds hath strooke a cedar tall,
  And morning April weeps the cedar's fall,
  And May intends noe flowers her month shall bring,
  Since shee must lose the flower of all the spring;
  Thus March's winds have caused April showers,
  And yet sad May must lose her flower of flowers."

C. W. B.

       *       *       *       *       *

DERIVATION OF MAWMET.--CAME.

(Vol. viii., pp. 468. 515.)

That the word _mawmet_ is a derivation from the name of Mahomet, is
rendered exceedingly probable by two circumstances taken in connexion: its
having been in common use to signify an idol, in the age immediately
following that of the Crusades; and the fact, that in the public opinion
and phraseology of that time, a Saracen and an idolater were synonymous. In
the metrical romances of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries,
Mahometanism is described as "hethenesse," and Saracens as "paynims,"
"heathens," and "folks of the heathen law." The objects of their faith and
worship were supposed to be Mahomet, Jupiter, Apollo, Pluto, and
Termagaunt. Thus, in the romance of _Richard Coeur de Lion_:

 "They slowe euery Sarezyn,
  And toke the temple of Apolyn."--L. 4031-2.

 "That we our God Mahoun forsake."--L. 4395.

 "And made ther her (their) sacryfyse,
  To Mahoun, and to Jupiter."--L. 4423.

 "But to Termagaunt and Mahoun,
  They cryede fast, and to Plotoun."--L. 6421-2.
                  Weber's _Metrical Romances_, vol. ii.

The editor says:

    "There is no doubt that our romance existed before the year 1300, as it
    is referred to in the _Chronicles of Robert de Gloucester and Robert de
    Brunne_."--Vol. i. Introd., p. xlvi.

In the same poem, the word _mawmettes_ is used to signify idols:

 "Sarazynes before hym _came_,
  And asked off hym Crystendame.
  Ther wer crystend, as I find,
  More than fourty thousynd.
  Kyrkes they made off Crystene lawe,
  And her (their) _Mawmettes_ lete down drawe."
                                  L. 5829-44.

In Wiclif's translation of the New Testament also, the word occurs in the
same sense: _mawmetis_, _idolis_, and _false goddis_ being used
indifferently where _idola_ or _simulacra_ are employed in the Latin
Vulgate: thus--

 "Fle ghe fro worschipyng of _mawmetis_."
                          1 Cor. x. 14.

 "My litel sones kepe ye you fro _mawmetis_."
                          1 John v. 21.

And in Acts vii. 41., the golden calf is designated by the same word, in
the singular number:

    "And thei maden a calf in the daies, and offriden a sacrifice to the
    _mawmet_."

In the first line of the quotation last given from _Richard Coeur de Lion_,
your correspondent H. T. G. will find an early instance of the word _came_;
whether _early enough_, I cannot say. In Wiclif's version, _cam_, _came_,
and _camen_ are the usual expressions answering to "came" in our
translation. If above five hundred and fifty years' possession does not
give a word a good title to its place in our language, without a conformity
to Anglo-Saxon usage, the number of words that must fall under the same
imputation of novelty and "violent infringement" is very great indeed.

J. W. THOMAS.

Dewsbury.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE GOSLING FAMILY.

(Vol. vi., p. 510.)

ONE OF THE FLOCK asks for information relative to the antiquity of the name
and family of Gosling. The Norman name of Gosselin is evidently the same as
that of Jocelyn, the tendency of the Norman dialect being to substitute a
hard _g_ for the _j_ or soft _g_, as _gambe_ for _jambe_, _guerbe_ for
_gerbe_. As a family name it is far from uncommon in Normandy, and many of
your antiquarian readers may recognise it as the name of a publisher at
Caen of works on the antiquities of that province. A family of the name of
Gosselin has been established for many centuries in the island of Guernsey.
William Gocelyn was one of those sworn upon the inquest as to the services,
customs, and liberties of the island, and the laws established by King
John, which inquest was confirmed by King Henry III. in the year 1248. In
the year 1331 an extent of the crown revenues, &c. was made by order of
Edward III., and in this document the name of Richard Gosselin appears as
one of the jury of the parish of St. Peter-Port.

A genealogy of the Guernsey family of Gosselin is to be found in the
appendix to Berry's history of that island, and it is there stated that--

    "The first on record in Jersey is Robert Gosselin, who greatly assisted
    in rescuing the castle of Mont Orgueil from the French in the reign of
    Edward III., and was, for his gallant services, not only appointed
    governor of the castle by that monarch, but presented with the arms
    since borne by that family (viz. Gules, a {83} chevron between three
    crescents ermine), as appears by the original grant under the great
    seal of England, supposed to be upon record in the Tower of London, or
    among the archives at Winchester. This Robert Gosselin some time after
    settled in Guernsey, where he married Magdelaine, daughter of William
    Maltravers, his majesty's lieutenant in that island."

On referring to Burke's _Armory_, I find that families of the name of
Gosselin, Gosling, and Gooseling all bear arms similar to those described
above, or but slightly differing, which affords a strong presumption that
they are all descended from the same stock. The arms of Gosselin of
Normandy are quite different.

HONORÉ DE MAREVILLE.

Guernsey.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE.

_Tent for Collodion Purposes._--Some time ago, I saw in "N. & Q." a slight
notice of a tent for the collodion process: I think it is called "Francis'
Collodion Tent." Would you, or some of your photographic correspondents,
oblige me by giving a short description of this tent, or any other form, so
that I may be able to operate with collodion in the open air?

I am of an opinion, with a portable tent, so that we could expose paper in
a damp state, the process might be done nearly as quick as collodion. All
that need be done for a paper negative, would be to expose and develop; it
can be fixed at home. But after being developed, it should be well washed
and dried.

JAMES O. CLAZEY.

_Multiplying Negatives and Collodion on Paper._--As I am desirous of
printing a large quantity of copies of a glass negative in my possession, I
shall be obliged by any hints as to the best method of multiplying such
negative, so as to guard against an accident from breakage.

I should also feel obliged for any hints upon the use of collodion applied
to glass, paper intervening; so that the paper may be afterwards removed
from the glass, and used as a negative. I have heard of much success in
this way, but am at a loss to know the best mode of operation.

M. N. S.

_Photographic Copies of Ancient Manuscripts._--Might not photography be
well employed in making facsimiles of valuable, rare, and especially of
unique ancient manuscripts? If copies of such manuscripts could be
multiplied at a moderate price, there are many proprietors of libraries
would be glad to enrich them by what, for all purposes of reference, would
answer equally well with the originals.

A.

    [This subject, which has already been touched upon in our columns, has
    not yet received the attention it deserves. We have now before us a
    photographic copy of a folio page of a MS. of the fourteenth or
    fifteenth century, on which are inscribed a number of charters; and,
    although the copy is reduced so as to be but about 2 inches high and 1½
    broad, it is perfectly legible; and the whole of the contractions are
    as distinct as if the original vellum was before us.]

_Fox Talbot's Patents._--Would the Editor of "N. & Q." have the kindness to
inform A. B. whether a photograph (portrait), taken from a _black cutting_
made by an amateur, and inserted in a published work, would infringe on Mr.
F. Talbot's patent? Also, whether collodion portraits come within his
patent, as it was understood it could only apply to the _paper process_?
(The cutting would be taken on albumenised paper.)

A. B. would also be glad to know _where_ Towgood of St. Neot's _positive_
paper can be procured, and the price?

A. B.

Mr. Fox Talbot having thrown open the whole of his patents,--with the
exception of the taking of portraits for sale, on which it is understood
that gentleman claims a royalty which may, in some cases, be considered a
prohibition,--I should be glad to know under which of Mr. Talbot's patents
such royalty can be enforced, and when the patent in question expires?

H. H.

_Antiquarian Photographic Society._--We believe that most of the
difficulties which have stood in the way of the organisation of this
Society have at length been got over; and that we shall, in the course of a
week or two, be enabled to state full particulars of its rules,
arrangements, &c. Our readers are aware that its main object is the
interchange of photographs among the members; each contributing as many
copies of his own work as there are members of the Society, and receiving
in exchange as many different photographs, Thus, if the Society is limited
to twenty-five or fifty members, each member will have to furnish
twenty-five or fifty copies, as the case may be, of the photograph he
presents to the Society; and, in return, will receive one photograph from
each of his fellow members. The difficulty, or rather trouble of printing,
must necessarily limit the number of members; and as a consequence will, we
doubt not, lead to the formation of many similar associations.

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies to Minor Queries.

_"Firm was their faith," &c._ (Vol. viii., p. 564.; Vol. ix., p. 17.).--I
am utterly unable to account for the reserve shown by SAXA in withholding
the name of Robert Stephen Hawker, Vicar of Morwenstow, author of the
beautiful volume of poems entitled _Echoes from Old Cornwall_: especially
as the author's name appears on the title-page, and SAXA appears so
desirous that his merits should be better known to the world.

[Greek: Halieus].

Dublin.

_Attainment of Majority_ (Vol. ix., p. 18.).--I cannot, in courtesy, omit
to notice MR. RUSSELL GOLE'S obliging efforts to assist the investigation
of this subject. I must, however, refer him to the first paragraph of my
last communication (Vol. viii., p. 541.), on the reperusal of which he will
find {84} that what he states to be "the question" has not been at any time
questioned. He has apparently mistaken my meaning, and imagines that "about
the beginning of the seventeenth century" means 1704 (that being the date
of the case cited by him).

I beg to assure him that I intended the expression, "beginning of the
seventeenth century," to be understood in the ordinary acceptation.

A. E. B.

Leeds.

_Three Fleurs-de-Lis_ (Vol. ix., p. 35.).--I have by me a MS. Biographical
History of the English Episcopate, complete from the foundation of every
See, with the armorial bearings of the several bishops: the whole I have
collected from the best sources. I find among these, in the arms of
Trilleck of Hereford, three fleurs-de-lis in chief; Stillingfleet of
Worcester, Coverdale of Exeter, North of Winchester, three fleurs-de-lis,
two in chief and one in base; Stretton of Lichfield, three fleurs-de-lis in
bend.

MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A.

Sir John _Egles_, who was knighted by King James II. in the last year of
his reign, and was Lord Mayor of London in 1688, bore: Argent, a fess
engrailed, and in chief three fleurs-de-lis sable.

The family of _France_, now represented by James France, Esq., of Bostock
Hall, co. Cheshire, bear: Argent, on a mount in base a hurst proper, a
chief wavy azure, charged with the three fleurs-de-lis or. (The last are
probably _armes parlantes_.)

_Halford_ of Wistow bears: Argent, a greyhound passant sable, on a chief
azure, three fleurs-de-lis or.

LEWIS EVANS.

DEVONIENSIS is informed, that the family of Saunders bear the following
coat of arms: viz. Argent, three fleurs-de-lis sable, on a chief of the
second three fleurs-de-lis of the first. Also, that the families of
Chesterfield, Warwyke, Kempton, &c., bear: Three fleurs-de-lis in a line
(horizontal) in the upper part of the shield. See Glovers' _Ordinary_,
augmented and improved in Berry's _Encyclopædia Heraldica_, vol. i.

H. C. C.

_Newspaper Folk Lore_ (Vol. ix., p. 29.).--Although (apparently unknown to
LONDONER) the correspondent of _The Times_, under "Naval Intelligence," in
December last, with his usual accuracy, glanced at the "snake lore" merely
to laugh at the fable, I have written to a gallant cousin of mine, now
serving as a naval officer at Portsmouth, and subjoin his reply to my
letter; it will, I think, amply suffice to disabuse a LONDONER'S, or his
friend's, mind of any impression of credence to be attached to it, as
regards the snake:

    "H.M.S. Excellent.--Jonathan Smith, gunner's mate of the Hastings,
    joined this ship from the Hastings in July; went on two months' leave,
    but came back in August very ill, and was immediately sent to the
    hospital for general dropsy, of which he shortly after died, and he was
    buried in Kingston churchyard, being followed to the grave by a part of
    the ship's company of the Excellent.

    "Shortly before his death a worm, not a snake, came from him. It was
    nine inches in length; but though of such formidable dimensions, such
    things are common enough in the East Indies, where this man must have
    swallowed it, when very small, in water. They seldom are the cause of
    death, and, in the present instance, had nothing whatever to do with
    it. The story of the snake got into some of the papers, but was
    afterwards contradicted in several."

MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A.

_Nattochiis and Calchanti_ (Vol. ix., p. 36.).--Your correspondent F.S.A.
asks what "cum g^anis et nattochiis" means, in a charter of the date of
Edward II. At that time _nattes_ signified reeds, and possibly _withies_:
and the words quoted I believe to mean, "with all grass and reeds (or
reed-beds)." He also inquires what is meant, in a deed of grant of the time
of Queen Elizabeth, by a grant of "decimas calchanti," &c.? It signifies
"tithes ways," &c. The original law Latin for the modern phrase "all ways,"
&c., was _calceata_, signifying "raised ways."

This word has (at different periods) been written, _calceata_, _calcata_,
_calcea_, _calchia_, _chaucée_, and _chaussé_; all of them, however,
meaning the same thing.

JOHN THRUPP.

11. York Gate.

_Marriage Ceremony in the Fourteenth Century_ (Vol. ix., p. 33.).--If R. C.
will refer to Palmer's _Origines Liturgicæ_ (Rivington, 1845, vol. ii. p.
214.), he will find that the first part of the matrimonial office was
"anciently termed the _espousals_, which took place some time _before_ the
actual celebration of marriage." Palmer explains:

    "The espousals consisted in a mutual _promise_ of marriage, which was
    made by the man and woman before the bishop or presbyter, and several
    witnesses. After which, the articles of agreement of marriage (called
    _tabulæ matrimoniales_), which are mentioned by Augustin, were signed
    by both persons. After this, _the man delivered to the woman the ring
    and other gifts_; an action which was termed _subarrhation_. In the
    latter ages the espousals have always been performed at the same time
    as the office of matrimony, both in the western and eastern churches;
    and _it has long been customary_ for the ring to be delivered to the
    woman _after the contract has been made_, which has always been in the
    actual office of matrimony."

Wheatly also speaks of the _ring_ as a "token of _spousage_." He tell us
that--

    "In the old manual for the use of Salisbury, before the minister
    proceeds to the marriage, he is directed _to {85} ask the woman's
    dowry_, viz. _the tokens of spousage: and by these tokens of spousage
    are to be understood rings, or money, or some other things to be given
    to the woman by the man; which said giving is called subarration_ (i.
    e. wedding or covenanting), _especially when it is done by the giving
    of a ring._"--_A Rational Illustration of the Book of Common Prayer,
    &c._ (Tegg, 1845), p. 408.

Perhaps the word _subarration_ may suggest to R. C. a clue, by which he can
mend his extract?

J. SANSOM.

_Clarence_ (Vol. viii., p. 565.).--I made no note of it at the time, but I
remember to have read, I think in some newspaper biography of William IV.,
that the title of Clarence belonged to the Plantagenets in right of some of
their foreign alliances, and that it was derived from the town of
Chiarenza, or Clarence, in the Morea. As many of the crusaders acquired
titles of honour from places in the Byzantine empire, this account may be
correct. Lionel Plantagenet's acquisition of the honour of _Clare_ by his
marriage with Elizabeth de Burgh, may have induced his father Edward III.
to revive the dormant title of _Clarence_ in his favour.

HONORÉ DE MAREVILLE.

Guernsey.

_"The spire whose silent finger," &c._ (Vo1. ix., p. 9.).--

 "And O! ye swelling hills and spacious plains!
  Besprent from shore to shore with steeple-tow'rs,
  And spires _whose silent finger points to heav'n_."
                  Wordsworth, _Excursion_, vi. 17.

Coleridge uses the same idea in his _Friend_, No. xiv. p. 223.:

    "An instinctive taste teaches men to build their churches in flat
    countries with spire-steeples; which, as they cannot be referred to any
    other object, _point as with silent finger to the sky_ and stars; and
    sometimes, when they reflect the brazen light of a rich though rainy
    sunset, appear like a pyramid of flame burning heavenward."

F. R. M., M.A.

The following lines conclude a pretty little poem of Rogers's, entitled _A
Wish_. They furnish at any rate a parallel passage to, if not the correct
version of, the above:

 "The village church, among the trees,
    Where first our marriage vows were given,
  With merry peals shall shell the breeze,
    And _point with taper spire to heaven_."

C. W. B.

_Henry Earl of Wotton_ (Vol. viii., pp. 173. 281. 563.).--In reply to the
editors of the _Navorscher_ I have to state--

1. That neither of the Lords Stanhope mentioned died childless, the letters
_s. p._ being a misprint for _v. p._ (_vitâ patris_); Henry having died
during the lifetime of his father: and it was "in regard that he did not
live to enjoy his father's honours" that his widow was afterwards advanced
to the dignity of Countess of Chesterfield.

2. It was Charles Stanhope's nephew (of the half-blood), Charles Henry van
der Kerckhove, who took the name of Wotton. The insertion of the word
"thereupon" between "who" and "took," on p. 281., would have made the
sentence less obscure.

3. Philip, first Earl of Chesterfield, had, besides Henry Lord Stanhope,
two daughters and ten sons. These were--John, who died a student at Oxford;
Ferdinando, M.P. for Tamworth, 1640, killed at Bridgeford, Notts, 1643;
Philip, killed in defence of his father's house, which was a garrison for
the king, 1645; Arthur, youngest son, M.P. for Nottingham in the parliament
of Charles II., from whom descended the fifth earl; Charles, died _s. p._
1645; Edward, William, Thomas, Michael, George, died young.

The earldom descended in a right line for three generations to the issue of
Henry, Lord Stanhope, viz. Philip, his son, second earl; Philip, third
earl, his grandson; and Philip, fourth earl, his great-grandson.

The Alexander Stanhope mentioned by the editors of the _Navorscher_ was the
only son of Philip, first Earl of Chesterfield, by his second marriage. His
mother was Anne, daughter of Sir John Pakington, of Westwood, co.
Worcester, ancestor of the present baronet, late Secretary of State for the
Colonies.

BROCTUNA.

Bury, Lancashire.

_Tenth (or the Prince of Wales's Own) Regiment of (Light) Dragoons_ (Vol.
viii., p. 538.; Vol. ix., p. 19.).--The monarch of this realm reviewing a
regiment, of which the heir apparent was not only Colonel, but took the
command, and directed all the military evolutions on the occasion, was such
a particular event as to merit being commemorated by the splendid picture
at Hampton Court Palace. Your correspondent [Phi]., who desires to be
informed on what particular day that review took place, will find that it
was on Thursday, Aug. 15, 1799. In the daily paper, _The True Briton_, of
Aug. 16, 1799, he will find some details, of which the following is an
abridgment:

    "The Prince of Wales's regiment (the 10th Light Dragoons) was yesterday
    reviewed by his Majesty on Winkfield Plain. The troops practised their
    manoeuvres through Cranbourne Woods, &c. His Royal Highness gave the
    word of command to his regiment, and wore in his military helmet 'an
    oak bough.' The Prince of Wales gave an entertainment afterwards to the
    officers at the Bush Inn, at Staines."

The general officers in attendance upon his Majesty, and represented in the
picture, were the Commander-in-Chief, Field-Marshal H. R. H. the {86} Duke
of York, K.G. and K.B., Colonel 2nd Foot Guards; Lieut.-Gen. and
Adjutant-Gen. Sir Wm. Fawcett, K.B., 3rd Dragoon Guards; Lieut.-Gen. David
Dundas, Quarter-master-General, 7th Light Dragoons; Major-Gen. Goldsworthy,
First Equerry, 1st Royal Dragoons.

NARRO.

_Lewis and Sewell Families_ (Vol. viii., pp. 388. 521.).--C. H. F. will
find M. G. Lewis's ancestors, his family mausoleum, the tomb of his
maternal grandfather, &c., incidentally mentioned in "M. G. Lewis's Negro
Life in the West Indies," No. 16. of Murray's _Home and Colonial Library_,
1845. The pedigrees of the Shedden and Lushington family would probably
afford him some information upon the subject of his Query.

The Right Hon. Sir Thos. Sewell's second wife was a Miss Sibthorp, daughter
of Coningsby Sibthorp of Canwick, Lincolnshire. By her he had one child,
which died young. The Rev. George Sewell, William Luther Sewell, Robert
Sewell, Attorney-General of Jamaica, and Lieut.-Col. Thomas Bailey Heath
Sewell, were sons of the Right Hon. Sir Thos. Sewell by his first wife.
Thomas Bermingham Daly Henry Sewell, son of the above Lieut.-Col. Thomas
Bailey Heath Sewell, died March 20, 1852, æt. seventy-eight; and was buried
in Harold's Cross Cemetery, near Dublin. Two daughters, the Duchess de
Melfort, and Mrs. Richards, wife of the Rev. Solomon Richards, still
survive him. (See Burke's _Commoners, Supplement_, name COLE of Marazion;
and Burke's _Dic. of Peerage and Baronetage_, 1845, title WESTMEATH.)

W. R. D. S.

_Blue Bell and Blue Anchor_ (Vol. viii., p. 388.).--Your correspondent [Old
English W]. inquires the origin of the sign-boards of the "Blue Bell" and
the "Blue Anchor?" I have always understood that the sign of the Bell,
painted blue, was intended as a substitute for the little Scotch flower
bearing the name of the _blue-bell_. I believe it is either the blue flower
of the flax, or that of the wild blue hyacinth, which in shape much
resembles a bell. It was probably much easier to draw the metallic figure
than the flower, and hence its use by the primitive village artists. As to
the "Blue Anchor," the anchor is the well-known symbol of Hope, and blue
her emblematic colour. Hence this adaptation is less a solecism than that
of the bell for the hyacinth.

W. W. E. T.

66. Warwick Square, Belgravia.

_Sir Anthony Wingfield: Ashmans_ (Vol. viii., pp. 299. 376.).--The portrait
of Sir Anthony Wingfield, "with the hand on the girdle," was, a few years
ago, in the collection of Dawson Turner, Esq., at Yarmouth. A private
etching of it was made by Mrs. Turner. The original was rescued from among
the Letheringham pictures at Ashmans, where they appear to have been sadly
neglected.

The late Robert Rede, Esq., whose father, Thomas Rede, purchased of Sir
Edwin Rich, Bart., in 1805, the manor of Rose Hall and Ashmans, erected
upon that estate the mansion called _Ashmans_. The place is not styled
Ashmans _Park_, nor does its extent warrant such a designation.

This property, on the death of Mr. Robert Rede in 1822, passed to the late
Rev. Robert Rede Cooper, who assumed the surname of Rede; and on his death,
without male issue, the estate devolved upon his four daughters, Louisa
Charlotte, wife of Francis Fowke, Esq.; Anne Cooper, wife of Robert Orford
Buckley, Esq.; Mary Anne Sarah Bransby, wife of Charles Henry Tottenham,
Esq.; and Miss Madeline Naunton Leman Rede. The property has not been sold.
Its most interesting antiquarian feature is the old house called Rose (or
more properly Roos) Hall, which belonged successively to the Colly,
Suckling, Rich, and finally the Rede, families.

The pictures which remained at Ashmans were removed from thence within the
last year; but whether any of those from the Letheringham gallery were
among them, I know not.

S. W. REX.

Beccles.

_Derivation of the Word "Celt"_ (Vol. viii., pp. 344. 651.).--Job xix. 24.
In the Cologne (Ely) edition of the Vulgate, 1679, the word is _Celt_. In
Mareschal's Bible (Ludg. 1525), the word in the text is _Celte_, but the
marginal note is "al^s _Certe_." In the Louvain (or Widen's) Bible (Antw.,
apud Viduam et Hæredes Joannis Stelsii, 1572, cum priv.), the word in the
text is _Certé_. This latter being an authorised edition of the Vulgate, it
seems probable that _Celté_, or _Celt_, must have been an error.

R. I. R.

_The Religion of the Russians_ (Vol. viii., p. 582.).--Your correspondent
J. S. A. has mentioned under the above head the worship of "gods," as he
calls their pictures or images, by the Russians. I am sure he will find no
such name or meaning given to them by the Russians in their writings; for
an account of what they really believe and teach I would refer him to
Mouravieff's _History of the Russian Church_; _The Catechism of the Russian
Church Translated_; _Harmony of their Doctrine with that of the English
Church_; all translated by Mr. Blackmore, late Chaplain to the Russian
Company.

G. W.

_French Translation of the "London Gazette"_ (Vol. vi., p. 223.).--A
correspondent describes a French edition of the _London Gazette_, which he
had met with of the date of May 6, 1703; and considering it as a curiosity,
he wishes some reader would give an account of it. It has occurred to me to
meet with a similar publication, which {87} appeared twenty years
antecedent to the time above specified. It is entitled _La Gazette de
Londres, publiée avec Privilège, depuis le Jeudi 11, jusqu'au Lundi 15,
Mai, 1682 (vieux style)_, No. 1621. It gives a very circumstantial detail
of the loss of the "Gloucester" frigate, near the mouth of the Humber, in
the night of Friday, May 5, 1682, when she was conveying the Duke of York
(postquam James II.) to Scotland. Sir John Berry, who commanded the vessel,
managed to remove the duke to another ship; but the Earl of Roxburgh, Lord
O'Brien, the Laird of Hopetoun, Sir Joseph Douglas, Mr. Hyde (Lord
Clarendon's brother), several of the duke's servants, and about 130 seamen,
were lost in the "Gloucester." The pilot was either deficient in skill, or
obstinate, and was to be brought to trial.[1]

With regard to the reason of publishing a French version of the _Gazette_,
might it not be judged expedient (as the French was then spoken in every
Court in Europe, and the English language almost unknown out of the British
dominions) to publish this translation in French for foreign circulation?
It is to be remarked that the copy I have met with is styled _privileged_?

D. N.

[Footnote 1: [It will be remembered that Pepys accompanied the Duke of York
on this excursion to Scotland, and was fortunately on board his own yacht
when the "Gloucester" was wrecked. His graphic account of the disaster will
be found in the Correspondence at the end of his _Diary_.--ED.]]

_"Poscimus in vitâ," &c._ (Vol. ix., p. 19.).--Allow me to correct a
_double_ error in this line into which MR. POTTER has fallen, though he has
improved upon the line of BALLIOLENSIS. The true reading of it is--

 "Poscimus in _vitam_ pauca, nec _ista_ diu."

_In vitam_ (for life) is better Latin than "in vitâ;" and _ista_ is more
appropriate than "illa," in reference to things spoken unfavourably of.

C. DELAPRYME.

_Pickard Family_ (Vol. ix., p. 10.).--The Pickard family are not from
Normandy, but from Piccardy. Doubtless, many a Le Norman, Le Gascoign, and
Le Piccard settled in this Country during the Plantagenet connexion with
those provinces.

P. P.

_"Man proposes, but God disposes"_ (Vol. viii., pp. 411. 552.).--Piers
Ploughman's _Vision_, quoted by your correspondent MR. THOMAS, proves that
the above saying was used prior to the time of Thomas à Kempis; but in
adding that it did not originate with the author of the _De Imitatione_,
your correspondent overlooked the view which attributes that wonderful work
to John Gerson, a Benedictine Monk, between the years 1220 and 1240; and
afterwards Abbat of the monastery of St. Stephen. (Vide _De Imit. curâ Joh.
Hrabiéta_, 1847, Præfat., viii. et seq.)

Can any of your correspondents give other early quotations from the _De
Imitatione_? The search after any such seems to have been much overlooked
in determining the date of that work.

H. P.

Lincoln's Inn.

_General Whitelocke_ (Vol. viii., p. 621.).--In reply to G. L. S., I well
remember this unfortunate officer residing at Clifton, near Bristol, up to
about the year 1826; but as I then removed to a distant part of the
kingdom, I cannot say where the rest of his life was spent. Although I was
then but young, the lapse of years has not effaced from my memory the
melancholy gloom of his countenance. If the information G. L. S. is seeking
should be of importance, I cannot but think he may obtain it on the traces
which have been given him. To which I may add, that up to a late period a
son of the General, who was brought up to the church, held a living near
Malton, Yorkshire; indeed, I believe he still holds it.

D. N.'s information, that General Whitelocke fixed his residence in
_Somersetshire_, may probably be correct; but it has occurred to me as just
possible that Clifton was the place pointed to, inasmuch as it is a vulgar
error, almost universal, that Bristol (of which Clifton may now be said to
be merely the _west end_) is in Somersetshire; whereas the fact is, that
the greater part of that city, and the whole of Clifton, are on the
Gloucestershire side of the Avon, there the boundary between the two
counties.

I may mention, that in a late number of _Tait's Magazine_, there was a
tale, half fiction and half fact, but evidently meant to appear the latter,
in which the narrator states that he was in the ranks in General
Whitelocke's army; and in that fatal affair, in which he was engaged, the
soldiers found that the flints had been removed from all the muskets, so as
to prevent their returning the enemy's fire! And this by order of their
General. Is not this a fresh invention? If so, it is a cruel one!

M. H. R.

_Non-jurors' Motto_ (Vol. viii., p. 621.).--"Cetera quis nescit" is from
Ovid, _Amorum_, lib. i., Elegia v. v. 25.

W. J. BERNHARD SMITH.

Temple.

_"The Red Cow" Sign, near Marlborough_ (Vol. viii., p. 569.).--Being
informed that Cromwell's old carriages, with the "Red Cow" on them, were
some years ago to be seen as curiosities at Manton near Marlborough;
Cromwell being a descendant of a Williams from Glamorgan, and the cow being
the coat of arms of Cowbridge; and the signs of inns in that county being
frequently {88} named "The Red Cow;"--will any of your readers oblige with
some account of the origin of "The Red Cow" as a sign; and what family has
now a claim to such as the family arms?

GLYWYSYDD.

_Emblematic Meanings of Precious Stones_ (Vol. viii., p. 539.; Vol. ix. p.
37.).--To the list of works on the mystical and occult properties of
precious stones given by MR. W. PINKERTON, allow me to add the following,
in which the means of judging of their commercial value, and their
medicinal properties, are chiefly treated of:

    "Le Parfaict Ioaillier, ov Histoire des Pierreries: ov sont amplement
    descrites, leur naissance, juste prix, moyen de les cognoistre, et se
    garder des contrefaites, Facultez medicinales, et proprietez curieuses.
    Composé par Anselme Bocce de Boot, &c.: Lyon, 1644, 12mo., pp. 788."

WILLIAM BATES.

Birmingham.

_Calves'-head Club_ (Vol. viii., p. 480.; Vol. ix., p. 15.).--A
correspondent of the _Cambridge Chronicle_ of Dec. 31 says, that in the
churchyard of Soham, Cambridgeshire, there is "a monster-tomb surrounded by
a lofty iron railing," with the following inscription in letters of a large
size:

    "ROBERT D'AYE, Esquire, died April, 1770. Also MARY, Wife of Robert
    D'Aye, Esquire, Daughter of William Russell, Esquire, of Fordham Abbey,
    and Elizabeth his Wife, who was the only surviving Daughter of

                  HENRY CROMWELL,
          Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Son of
                  OLIVER CROMWELL,
      Protector; died November 5, 1765, aged 73 years."

After stating that in the same tomb lie the bodies of the daughter of
D'Aye, and his wife (ob. 1779), their grandson (1803), and great-grandson
(1792), the writer adds that there is a _tradition_ in Soham that, during
the lifetime of Mrs. D'Aye, out of respect to the doings of Oliver
Cromwell, on the anniversary of King Charles's martyrdom, _a calf's head
besmeared with blood_ was hoisted on a pole in front of the cot of the
husband.

P. J. F. GANTILLON.

_Burial in an erect Posture_ (Vol. viii., pp. 5. 59. 233. 630.);
_Eulenspiegel_ (Vol. vii., p. 357., &c.).--The German rogue Eulenspiegel
(or Howleglass, as Coplande renders it), of whose adventures "N. & Q." has
had several notices, is another example of upright burial, as the following
passage, translated by Roscoe, shows:

    "Howleglass was buried in the year 1350, and his latter end was almost
    as odd and as eccentric as his life. For, as they were lowering him
    again into the grave, one of the ropes supporting the feet gave way,
    and left the coffin in an upright position, so that Howleglass was
    still upon his legs. Those who were present then said: 'Come, let us
    leave him as he is, for as he was like nobody else when he was alive,
    he is resolved to be as queer now he is dead.'"

Accordingly, they left Howleglass bolt upright, as he had fallen; and
placing a stone over his head, on which was cut the figure of an owl with a
looking-glass under his claws, the device of his name, they inscribed round
it the following lines:

      HOWLEGLASS'S EPITAPH.

 "Here lies HOWLEGLASS, buried low,
    His body is in the ground;
  We warn the passenger that so
    He move not this stone's bound.
  In the year of Our Lord MCCCL."

His tomb, which was remaining thirty years ago, and may be now, is under a
large lime-tree at Möllen, near Lubeck.

In Roscoe's _German Novelists_, vol. i. p. 141. et seq., there are
references to several editions in various languages of the adventures of
Thyll Eulenspiegel.

J. R. M., A.M.

_Biting the Thumb_ (Vol. vi. pp. 149. 281. 616.).--The lower orders in
Normandy and Britanny, and probably in other parts of France, when wishing
to express the utmost contempt for a person, place the front teeth of the
upper jaw between the nail and flesh of the thumb, the nail being turned
inwards: and then, disengaging the thumb with a sudden jerk, exclaim, "I
don't care that for you," or words of similar import. Is not this the
action alluded to by Shakspeare and other writers, as "biting the thumb?"

HONORÉ DE MAREVILLE.

Guernsey.

_Table-turning and Table-talking in Ancient Times_ (Vol. ix., p. 39.).--I
have received from a correspondent in Berlin the subjoined translation of
an article which was published in the _Neue Preussische Zeitung_ of January
10:

    "We have been informed that Professor Ranke has found out a passage in
    Ammianus Marcellinus by which it is unquestionably proved that
    table-turning was known in the east of the Roman Empire.

    "The table-turners of those days were summoned as sorcerers before the
    Council, and the passage referred to appears to have been transcribed
    from the Protocol. The whole ceremony (_modus movendi hic fuit_) is
    very precisely described, and is similar to what we have so often
    witnessed within the last month; only that the table-turners, instead
    of sitting round the table, danced round it. The table-oracle likewise
    answered in verse, and showed a decided preference for hexameters.
    Being asked 'Who should be the next emperor?' the table answered
    'Theod.' In consequence of this reply, the government caused a certain
    Theodorus to be put to death. Theodosius, however, became emperor.

    "The table oracle, in common with other oracles, had a dangerous
    equivocal tendency."

{89}

I learn from my correspondent, that the passage in Ammianus Marcellinus,
though brought into notice by Professor Ranke, was discovered by Professor
August at this place (Cheltenham). I am unable to verify the following
reference: see Ammianus Marcellinus, _Rerum Gestarum_, lib. xxix. (p. 177.,
Bipont. edit.), and _Ib._ lib. xxxi. (p. 285.)

JOHN T. GRAVES.

Cheltenham.

_The Bell Savage_ (Vol. vii., p. 523.).--MR. JAMES EDMESTON is correct in
rejecting the modern acceptation of the sign of the well-known inn on
Ludgate Hill, as being _La Belle Sauvage_. Its proper name is "The Bell
Savage," the bell being its sign, and Savage the name of its proprietor.
But he is wrong in supposing that "Bell" in this case was the abbreviation
of the name Isabella, and that the inn "was originally kept by one Isabella
Savage." In a deed enrolled on the Close Roll of 1453, it is described as
"Savage's Ynne, _alias_ Le Belle on the Hope." The bell, as in many other
ancient signs, was placed within a hoop. (See the _Gentleman's Magazine_
for November last, p. 487.)

N.

_Door-head Inscriptions_ (Vol. viii., p. 652.).--About the year 1825, I
remember an old house known by the whimsical name of "Wise-in-Time," at
Stoke-Bishop, near Bristol; over the front door of which there was the
following inscription, carved on a stone tablet:

 "Ut corpus animo,
  Sic Domus corpori."

The house had the reputation of being haunted. I cannot say whether it is
still in existence.

M. H. R.

Over the door of a house in Alnwick, in the street called Bondgate:

   "That which your father
  of old hath purchased and left
  you to possess, do you dearly
  hold to show his worthiness.
        M. W. 1714."

CEYREP.

_Funeral Customs in the Middle Ages_ (Vol. vi., p. 433.).--In answer to
your correspondent MR. PEACOCK, as to whether a monument was usually
erected over the burial-place of the heart, &c.? it is mentioned in Miss
Strickland's Life of Queen Mary Stuart, that--

    "An elegant marble pillar was erected by Mary as a tribute of her
    affection, to mark the spot where the heart of Francis II. was
    deposited in Orleans Cathedral."

L. B. M.

_Greek Epigram_ (Vol. viii., p. 622.).--The epigram, or rather epigrams,
desired by your correspondent G. E. FRERE are most probably those which
stand as the twelfth and thirteenth in the ninth division of the
_Anthologia Palatina_ (vol. ii. p. 61., ed. Tauchnitz). Their subjects are
identical with that quoted by you, which stands as the eleventh in the same
collection. The two best lines of Epigram XIII. are--

 "[Greek: Anera tis lipoguion huper nôtoio lipaugês]
  [Greek: Êge, podas chrêsas, ommata chrêsamenos.]"

P. J. F. GANTILLON.

_Mackey's "Theory of the Earth"_ (Vol. viii. pp. 468. 565.).--

    "Died, on Saturday se'night, at Doughty's Hospital in this city, Samson
    Arnold Mackey, aged seventy-eight years. The deceased was born at
    Haddiscoe, and was a natural son of Captain Samson Arnold of Lowestoft.
    He has been long known to many of the scientific persons of Norwich,
    and was remarkable for the originality of his views upon the very
    abstruse subject of mythological astronomy, in which he exhibited great
    sagacity, and maintained his opinions with extraordinary pertinacity.
    He received but a moderate education; was put apprentice to a shoemaker
    at the age of eleven, served his time, and for many years afterwards
    was in the militia. He did not again settle in Norwich until 1811, when
    he hired the attic storey of a small house in St. Paul's, where he
    followed his business and pursued his favourite studies. About 1822 he
    published his first part of _Mythological Astronomy_, and gave lectures
    to a select few upon the science in general. In 1825 he published his
    _Theory of the Earth_, and several pamphlets upon the antiquity of the
    Hindoos. His room, in which he worked, took his meals, slept, and gave
    his lectures, was a strange exhibition of leather, shoes, wax,
    victuals, sketches of sphinxes, zodiacs, planispheres; together with
    orreries of his own making, geological maps and drawings, illustrative
    of the Egyptian and Hindoo Mythologies. He traced all the geological
    changes to the different inclinations of the earth's axis to the plane
    of its orbit, and was fully persuaded that about 420,000 years ago,
    according to his theory, when the poles of the earth were last in that
    position, the geological phenomena now witnessed were produced. From
    his singular habits, he was of course looked upon with wonder by his
    poor neighbours, and those better informed were inclined to annoy him
    as to his religious opinions. He had a hard struggle of late years to
    obtain subsistence, and his kind friend and patron the late Mr.
    Moneyment procured for him the asylum in which he died. He held
    opinions widely different to most men; but it must not be forgotten
    that, humble as he was, his scientific acquirements gained him private
    interviews with the late Duke of Sussex, the Duke of Somerset, and many
    learned men in the metropolis."

The above is taken from the _Norwich Mercury_ of August 12, 1843.

TRIVET ALLCOCK.

Norwich.

_"Homo Unius Libri"_ (Vol. viii., p. 569.).--D'Israeli devotes a chapter,
in the second series of his {90} _Curiosities of Literature_, to "The Man
of One Book." He says:

    "A predilection for some great author, among the vast number which must
    transiently occupy our attention, seems to be the happiest preservative
    for our taste ... He who has long been intimate with one great author
    will always be found a formidable antagonist.... The old Latin proverb
    reminds us of this fact, _Cave ab homine unius libri_, Be cautious of
    the man of one book."

and he proceeds to remark, that "every great writer appears to have a
predilection for some favourite author," and illustrates it by examples.

EIRIONNACH.

_Muffs worn by Gentlemen_ (Vol. viii., p. 353.).--In the amusing quarrel
between Goldsmith's old friend and his cousin in St. James's Park, "Cousin
Jeffrey," says Miss, "I knew we should have the eyes of the Park upon us,
with your great wig so frizzled and yet so beggarly." "I could," adds Mr.
Jeffrey, "have patiently borne a criticism on all the rest of my equipage;
but I had always a peculiar veneration for my muff." (Essays, p. 263.,
edit. 1819.)

MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A.

       *       *       *       *       *


Miscellaneous.

NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC.

If, as we believe, the first and greatest qualifications for an editor of
Shakspeare be love for his author and a thorough appreciation of his
beauties, Mr. Charles Knight may well come forward once more in that
character. And, as he well observes, the fact of his having laboured for
many years in producing a body of Commentary on Shakspeare, so that he was,
out of the necessity of its plan, compelled not to miss any point, or slur
over any difficulty, renders him not the less fitted for the preparation of
an edition which is intended to be "The People's Shakspeare." The first
volume of this edition, which he calls _The Stratford Shakspeare_, is now
before us. It comprises the "Facts connected with the Life and Writings of
Shakspeare," and the "Notice of Original Editions," and a most valuable
shilling's worth it is. And there can be little doubt that, if Mr. Knight
realises his intentions of suiting the present work to the wants of the
many, by his endeavours, without any elaborate criticism, to unravel the
difficulties of a plot, to penetrate the subtlety of a character, and to
show the principle upon which the artist worked, the present will be the
crowning labour of his many praiseworthy endeavours to place a good edition
of the works of our great dramatist within the reach of all.

       "Who speak the tongue
  That Shakspeare spake."

We cannot better show the utility and interest of _The Autograph
Miscellany; a Collection of Autograph Letters, Interesting Documents, &c.,
selected from the British Museum, and other sources Public and Private_,
than by stating the contents of the first number, which certainly contains
admirable lithographic facsimiles of--I. Queen Elizabeth's Letter to the
House of Commons in answer to their Petition respecting her Marriage; II.
Letter from Catherine de Medici; III. Wren's Report on the Design for the
Summit of the City Monument; IV. Letter from Rubens on the Defeat of the
English at Rochelle. Their execution is certainly most creditable to the
artist, Mr. F. Netherclift.

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PROVIDENT INSTITUTION, the only Society in which the Advantages of Mutual
Assurance can be secured by moderate Premiums. Established 1837. Number of
policies issued 6,400, assuring upwards of Two and a Half Millions.

Full Reports and every Information had (Free) on Application.

*** Policies are now issued Free of Stamp Duty; and attention is invited to
the circumstance that Premiums payable for Life Assurance are now allowed
as a Deduction from Income in the Returns for Income Tax.

  GEORGE GRANT, Resident Sec.
  London Branch, 12. Moorgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--Reduction in Price of French Papers prepared for Mons. Le
Gray's Process. Examination of the Papers, and comparison with the Prices
hitherto charged for the same description, is respectfully solicited; the
most perfect Selection and Chemical Manipulations having been observed,
with a hope that an endeavour to reduce the Cost of this beautiful and
extensively applied Branch of Photographic Art, may secure a portion of
Public Patronage. Canson Frères' Waxed Negative (all spotted or imperfect
sheets rejected), 6_s_ per Quire. Iodized ditto, 8_s_. Sensitive, available
for three weeks, 13_s_.: Size 17½ by 11½, demy folio. Specimens of other
Papers sent Free, between boards, on Receipt of Postage (10 Stamps),
addressed, Prepaid, to

LUKE SAMS, 7. Adelphi Chambers, facing the Society of Arts, Adelphi,
London.

*** Positive Papers, English and Foreign.

       *       *       *       *       *

IMPROVEMENT IN COLLODION.--J. B. HOCKIN & Co., Chemists, 289. Strand, have,
by an improved mode of Iodizing, succeeded in producing a Collodion equal,
they may say superior, in sensitiveness and density of Negative, to any
other hitherto published; without diminishing the keeping properties and
appreciation of half tint for which their manufacture has been esteemed.

Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the requirements for the practice of
Photography. Instruction in the Art.

THE COLLODION AND POSITIVE PAPER PROCESS. By J. B. HOCKIN. Price 1s. per
Post, 1s. 2d.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERAS.--OTTEWILL'S REGISTERED DOUBLE-BODIED FOLDING CAMERA,
is superior to every other form of Camera, for the Photographic Tourist,
from its capability of Elongation or Contraction to any Focal Adjustment,
its Portability, and its adaptation for taking either Views or
Portraits.--The Trade supplied.

Every Description of Camera, or Slides, Tripod Stands, Printing Frames, &c.
may be obtained at his MANUFACTORY, Charlotte Terrace, Barnsbury Road,
Islington.

New Inventions, Models, &c., made to order or from Drawings.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Celtic Literature, Welsh Dictionaries, Breton Songs._

B. QUARITCH,

16. CASTLE STREET, LEICESTER SQUARE,

_Offers for Sale_:

  1. Zeuss, Grammatica Celtica, 2 vols. 8vo. pp. 1166, a valuable and
     learned Celtic Polyglott, 21s.                                  [1853.

  2. Pughe's Welsh-English Dictionary, 2 vols. impl. 8vo. (best edition),
     cloth 2l. 8s.                                                   [1832.

  3. Walter's English-Welsh Dictionary, 2 vols. impl. 8vo. (published at
     3l. 3s.), cloth, the companion to Pughe, only 18s.

  4. Barzaz-Breiz, Chants de la Bretagne, Breton et Français, 2 vols.
     12mo., with the Music, 8s.                                      [1846.

  5. Rostrenen, Dictionnaire Français-Celtique, 4to., calf, gilt,
     36s.                                                            [1732.

  6. Spurrell's Welsh-English and English-Welsh Dictionary, With a good
     Grammar, 3 vols. in 2, 12mo. calf, 12s.                         [1849.

  7. The Cambro-Briton, 3 vols. 8vo., half-bd., calf, 36s.        [1820-22.

  8. Lhuyd's Archæologia Britannica, folio, calf, good copy,
     2l. 2s.                                                         [1707.

  9. The Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales, 3 vols. royal 8vo., calf, gilt,
     very good copy, 9l. 9s.                                       [1801-7.

*** B. QUARITCH'S CATALOGUE, CONTAINING UPWARDS OF 2000 RARE AND VALUABLE
PHILOLOGICAL WORKS, GENERAL LITERATURE, BOOKS OF PRINTS, HERALDRY, &C., IS
JUST PUBLISHED, PRICE 6D.

       *       *       *       *       *

Now ready, price 25s., Second Edition revised and corrected. Dedicated by
Special Permission to

THE (LATE) ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY.

PSALMS AND HYMNS FOR THE SERVICE OF THE CHURCH. The words selected by the
Very Rev. H. H. MILMAN, D.D., Dean of St. Paul's. The Music arranged for
Four Voices, but applicable also to Two or One, including Chants for the
Services. Responses to the Commandments, and a Concise SYSTEM OF CHANTING,
by J. B. SALE, Musical Instructor and Organist to Her Majesty, 4to., neat,
in morocco cloth, price 25s. To be had of Mr. J. B. SALE, 21. Holywell
Street, Millbank, Westminister, on the receipt of a Post-office Order for
that amount: and by order, of the principal Booksellers and Music
Warehouses.

    "A great advance on the works we have hitherto had, connected with our
    Church Cathedral Service."--_Times._

    "A collection of Psalm Tunes certainly unequalled in this
    country."--_Literary Gazette._

    "One of the best collections of tunes which we have yet seen. Well
    merits the distinguished patronage under which it appears."--_Musical
    World._

    "A collection of Psalms and Hymns, together with a system of Chanting
    of a very superior character to any which has hitherto
    appeared."--_John Bull._

London: George Bell, 186. Fleet Street.

Also, lately published,

J. B. SALE'S SANCTUS, COMMANDMENTS and CHANTS as performed at the Chapel
Royal St. James, Price 2s.

C. LONSDALE, 26. Old Bond Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


    Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the
    Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the
    Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE
    BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the
    West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street
    aforesaid.--Saturday, January 28. 1854.





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