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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 226, February 25, 1854 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 226, February 25, 1854 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.




"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 226.]
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                    Page

  Legends and Superstitions respecting Bees                    167

  Oxford Jeu d'Esprit                                          168

  Ansareys in Mount Lebanon                                    169

  Primers of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, by the
    Rev. T. Lathbury                                           170

  MINOR NOTES:--Objective and Subjective--Lucy Walters,
    the Duke of Monmouth's Mother--General Haynau's
    Corpse--"Isolated"--Office of Sexton held by One
    Family--Sententious Despatches--Reprints Suggested         170


  Pictures from Lord Vane's Collection                         171

  Burial-Place of Thurstan, Archbishop of York, by George Fox  172

  MINOR QUERIES:--Admiral Hopson--"Three cats sat," &c.--
    Herbert's "Church Porch"--Ancient Tenure of Lands--
    Dramatic Works--Devreux Bowly--"Corruptio optimi," &c.
    --Lamenther--Sheriff of Somersetshire in 1765--Edward
    Brerewood--Elizabeth Seymour--Longfellow--Fresick and
    Freswick--Has Execution by Hanging been survived?--Maps
    of Dublin--"The Lounger's Commonplace Book"--Mount Mill,
    and the Fortifications of London--"Forms of Public
    Meetings"                                                  172

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Queen Elizabeth and the
    Ring--Lives of English Bishops: Bishop Burnet--Eden
    Pedigree and Arms--The Gentleman's Calling--Obs and
    Sols--Fystens or Fifteenths                                175


  Hardman's Account of Waterloo                                176

  Dates of Births and Deaths of the Pretenders                 177

  "Could we with ink," &c., by J. W. Thomas                    179

  Mackey's Theory of the Earth by J. Dawson, &c.               179

  Do Conjunctions join Propositions only? by G. Boole          180

  Robert Bloet, by Edward Foss                                 181

  PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE:--A Hint to the Photographic
    Society--Test for Nitrate of Silver--Professor Hunt's
    Photographic Studies--Waxed-paper Pictures--The Double
    Iodide Solution--Dr. Mansell's Process                     181

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Buonaparte's Abdication--
    Burton Family--Drainage by Machinery--Nattochiis and
    Calchanti--"One while I think," &c.--"Spires 'whose
    silent finger points to heaven'"--Dr. Eleazar Duncon
    --"Marriage is such a rabble rout"--Cambridge
    Mathematical Questions--Reversible Masculine Names--
    The Man in the Moon--Arms of Richard, King of the
    Romans--Brothers with the same Christian Name--
    Arch-priest in the Diocese of Exeter, &c.                  183


  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                 187

  Notices to Correspondents                                    187

       *       *       *       *       *

INSTRUCTION IN ART, General and Special, as afforded at the SCHOOLS of the
School consists of



_Art Superintendent_:--


The SPRING SESSION will COMMENCE on 1st of MARCH, and end 31st of July; and
the Fees are for that period.

1. The Courses of Instruction are intended to impart systematically a
knowledge of the scientific principles of Art, especially in its relation
to the useful purposes of life. A limited application of those principles
is demonstrated with the view of preparing Students to enter upon the
future practice of the Decorative Arts in Manufactories and Workshops,
either as Masters, Overseers, or skilled workmen. At the same time,
instruction is afforded to all who may desire to pursue these studies
without reference to a preparation for any special Branch of Industry.
Special Courses are arranged in order to train persons to become Masters of
Schools of Art, and to enable Schoolmasters of Parochial and other Schools
to teach Elementary Drawing as a part of general Education concurrently
with Writing.

2. The Lectures and Courses of Instruction are as follows:--


    A. Free-hand, Model, and Elementary Mechanical Drawing, Practical
    Geometry and Perspective, Painting in Oil, Tempera, and Water Colours.
    Modelling. The Classes for Drawing, Painting, and Modelling, include
    the Figure from the Antique and the Life: and Artistic Anatomy.
    Lectures, Teaching, and Practice, in the Morning and Evening, Fee 4l.
    the Session.--Head Master, Mr. Burchet; Assistants, Messrs. Herman,
    Walsh, Denby, Wills, and Hancock.

    B. The Evening Instruction is limited to advanced Drawing, Painting,
    and Modelling, including the Figure. Fee 2l.


    C. Practical Construction, including Architecture, Building, and the
    various processes of Plastic Decoration, Furniture, and Metal Working.
    Lectures, Teaching and Practice, Morning and Evening. Fee 4l. Evening
    Course only, Fee 2l. for Male Students only. Superintendent, Professor

    D. Mechanical and Machine Drawing. Class Lectures with Evening Teaching
    and Morning Practice. For Male Students only. Fee 2l. Superintendent,
    Mr. W. Binns.

    E. Surface Decoration, as applied to Woven Fabrics of all kinds, Lace,
    Paper Hangings, &c. Lectures, Teaching and Practice, Morning and
    Evening. Fee 4l. An Afternoon Class for Females only, Fee 2l. An
    Evening Class for Male Students only, Fee 2l. Superintendent, Mr.
    Octavius Hudson.

    F. Porcelain Painting, daily Teaching and Practice for Male and Female
    Students, Fee 4l. Superintendents, Mr. Simpson and Mr. Hudson.

    G. Wood Engraving. Lectures, daily Teaching and Practice for Female
    Students only, Fee 4l. Superintendents, Mr. Thompson and Miss

    H. Lithography, Chalk, Pen, and Colour. Daily Teaching and Practice for
    Female Students only, Fee 4l. Superintendents, Mr. Brookes and Miss


    On the Forms and Colours of the Animal and Vegetable Kingdoms, by
    Professor E. Forbes; on the Human Form, by Mr. J. Marshall, F.R.C.S.;
    on the History of Ornamental Art, by Mr. Wornum, &c. Admission to each
    Lecture, 6d.

3. The Instruction for the general Students is carried on daily, except on

4. Students may matriculate for a period of three years upon paying 20l. in
one sum on entrance, or three annual payments of 10l. They are entitled to
attend all the Public and Class Lectures, the general and technical
Courses, to receive personal instruction, and to practice in the School at
all times; they have also access to the Museum and Library. At the end of
the Session they may pass an Examination, and have the privilege of
competing for Scholarships, varying from 10l. to 30l. a year in value.

5. Occasional Students are at liberty to attend only the particular Courses
for which they enter, and have admission to the Museum, Library, and Public

and Friday, Tuesday and Thursday Evenings, and on Saturdays, Fee, 5s.
Superintendent of the Training teaching, and Elementary Instruction, Mr.
Burchet; Assistant, Mr. Bowler.

Also at Gore House, Kensington, on Monday and Thursday.

7. A Register of the Students' attendances is kept, and may be consulted by
Parents and Guardians.

8. The SCHOOL FOR THE FEMALE STUDENTS passing through the General Course,
is at 37. Gower Street. Superintendent, Mrs. McIan; Assistants, Miss Gann
and Miss West.

Fees:--Advanced Classes, 2l. and 4l.; Elementary Class, 20s.; Evening
Class, 10s.

A Class also meets at Gore House, Kensington, Mondays, Wednesdays, and

9. DISTRICT SCHOOLS OF ART, in connexion with the Department, are now
established in the following places. Open every Evening (except Saturday)
from 7 to 9:30. Entrance Fee, 2s. Admission, 2s. and 3s. per month. The
instruction comprises Practical Geometry and Perspective, Free-hand and
Mechanical Drawing, and Elementary Colour:--

1. Spitalfields, Crispin Street.

2. North London, High Street, Camden Town.

3. Finsbury, William Street, Wilmington Square.

4. Westminster, Mechanics' Institute, Great Smith Street.

5. St. Thomas, Charterhouse, Goswell Street.

6. Rotherhithe, Grammar School.

7. St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, Long Acre.

At 1. and 2. Schools there are Female Classes. Application for admission to
be made at the Offices in each locality.

For farther information, apply at Marlborough House, Pall Mall.

      Joint Secretaries.

       *       *       *       *       *




Publishing Monthly, in Demy Octavo Volumes.

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This Edition is printed from the last Editions revised by the Author, and
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    _Examiner._--Mr. Murray's British Classics, so edited and printed as to
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SERMONS preached in the Chapel of Harrow School. Second Series. 12s.

London: John W. Parker & Son, West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *





The Vicar of Morwenstow, among the beautiful poems to be found in his
_Echoes from Old Cornwall_, has one entitled "A Legend of the Hive:" it

 "Behold those winged images!
    Bound for their evening bowers;
  They are the nation of the bees,
    Born from the breath of flowers:
  Strange people are they; a mystic race
  In life, and food, and dwelling-place!"

As another poet has sung:

 "His quidam signis, atque hæc exempla secuti,
  _Esse Apibus partem Divinæ mentis_ et haustus
  Ætherios dixere."

Mr. Hawker's Legend is to this effect: A Cornish woman, one summer, finding
her bees refused to leave their "cloistered home," and "ceased to play
around the cottage flowers," concealed a portion of the Holy Eucharist
which she obtained at church:

 "She bore it to her distant home,
    She laid it by the hive
  To lure the wanderers forth to roam,
    That so her store might thrive;--
 'Twas a wild wish, a thought unblest,
  Some evil legend of the West.

 "But lo! at morning-tide a sign,
    For wondering eyes to trace,
  They found above that Bread, a shrine
    Rear'd by the harmless race!
  They brought their walls from bud and flower,
  They built bright roof and beamy tower!

 "Was it a dream? or did they hear
    Float from those golden cells
  A sound, as of some psaltery near,
    Or soft and silvery bells?
  A low sweet psalm, that griev'd within
  In mournful memory of the sin!"

The following passage from Howell's _Parley of Beasts_, Lond. 1660,
furnishes a similar legend of the piety of bees. Bee speaks:

    "Know, Sir, that we have also a religion as well as so exact a
    government among us here; our hummings you speak of are as so many
    hymns to the Great God of Nature; and ther is a miraculous example in
    _Cæsaries Cisterniensis_, how som of the Holy Eucharist being let fall
    in a medow by a priest, as he was returning from visiting a sick body,
    a swarm of bees being hard by took It up, and in a solemn kind of
    procession carried It to their hive, and there erected an altar of the
    purest wax for It, where It was found in that form, and untouched."--P.

It is remarkable that, in the Septuagint version of Prov. vi. 8., the bee
is introduced after the ant, and reference is made to [Greek: tên ergasian
hôs semnên poieitai: ergas. sem.] St. Ambrose translates it _operationem
venerabilem_; St. Jerome, _opus castum_; Castalio, _augustum opus_; Bochart
prefers _opus pretiosum, aut mirabile_.[1]

Pliny has much to say about bees. I shall give an extract or two in the Old
English of Philemon Holland:

    "Bees naturally are many times sick; and that do they shew most
    evidently: a man shall see it in them by their heavie looks and by
    their unlustines to their businesse: ye shall marke how some will bring
    forth others that be sicke and diseased into the warme sunne, and be
    readie to minister unto them and give them meat. Nay, ye shall have
    them to carie forth their dead, and to accompanie the corps full
    decently, as in a solemne funerall. If it chaunce that the king be dead
    of some pestilent maladie, the commons and subjects mourne, take
    thought, and grieve with heavie cheere and sad countenance: idle they
    be, and take no joy to do any thing: they gather in no provision: they
    march not forth: onely with a certain doleful humming they gather round
    about his corps, and will not away.

    "Then requisite it is and necessarie to sever and part the multitude,
    and so to take away the bodie from them: otherwise they would keepe a
    looking at the breathlesse carcasse, and never go from it, but still
    mone and mourne without end. And even then also they had need be
    cherished and comforted with good victuals, otherwise they would pine
    away and die with hunger."--Lib. XI. cap. xviii.

    "We bury our dead with great solemnity; at the king's death there is a
    generall mourning and fasting, with a cessation from labour, and we use
    to go about his body with a sad murmur for many daies. When we are sick
    we have attendants appointed us, and the symptoms when we be sick are
    infallible, according to the honest, plain poet:

     "If bees be sick (for all that live must die),
      That may be known by signes most certainly;
      Their bodies are discoloured, and their face
      Looks wan, which shows that death comes on apace.
      They carry forth their dead, and do lament,
      Hanging o' th' dore, or in their hives are pent.'"
                          _Howell_, p. 138.

Of bees especially the proverb holds good, that "Truth is stranger than
fiction." The discoveries of Huber, Swammerdam, Reaumur, Latreille, Bonnet,
and other moderns, read more like a fairy-tale than anything else, and yet
the subject is far from being exhausted. At the same time modern
naturalists have substantiated the accuracy of the ancients in many
statements which were considered ridiculous fables. The ancients {168}
anticipated us so far as even to have used _glass hives_, for the purpose
of observing the wonderful proceedings of this winged nation. Bochart,
quoting an old writer, says:

    "Fecit illis Aristoteles _Alveare Vitreum_, ut introspiceret, qua
    ratione ad opus se accingerent. Sed abnuerunt quidquam operari, donec
    interiora vitri luto oblevisset."--_Hierozoicon_, Lond. 1663, folio,
    Part II. p. 514.


[Footnote 1: The bee is praised for her pious labours in the offices of the
Roman Church, "as the unconscious contributor of the substance of her
paschal light." "Alitur enim liquantibus ceris, quas in substantiam
pretiosæ hujus lampadis _Mater Apia_ eduxit."--_Office of Holy Saturday._]

       *       *       *       *       *


The following _jeu d'esprit_ appeared at Oxford in 1819: printed, not
published, but laid simultaneously on the tables of all the Common Rooms.
No author's name was attached to it then, and therefore no attempt is now
made to supply this deficiency by conjecture. Since the attention of the
discerning public has lately been directed towards the University of
Oxford, probably with the expectation of finding some faults in her system
of education, it is possible that some of those who are engaged or
interested in that inquiry may be amused and instructed by the good sense,
humour, logic, and Latinity of this satire.


    "Acerrimis vestrûm omnium judiciis permittitur conspectus, sive
    syllabus, libri breviter edendi, et e Prelo Academico, si Diis, _i. e._
    Delegatis, placet, prodituri: in quo multa dictu et notatu dignissima a
    tenebris et tineis vindicantur; multa ad hujusce loci instituta et
    disciplinam pertinentia agitantur; plurima quæ Academiæ famam et
    dignitatem spectant fuse admodum et libere tractantur et explicantur.
    Subjiciuntur operis illustrandi ergo capitum quorundam Argumenta,

     '[Greek: Ek Dios archômestha].'

    1. Ælfredi magni somnium de Sociis omnibus Academicis ad Episcopatum

     'With suppliant smiles they bend the head,
      While distant mitres to their eyes are spread.'

    Opus egregium perutile perjucundum ex membranis vetustissimis detritis
    tertium rescriptis, solertiâ plus quam Angelo-Maiana, nuperrime

    2. Devorguillæ, Balliolensibus semper carissimæ, pudicitia laborans

    3. Contra Kilnerum et Mertonenses disputatur, Pythagoram Cantabrigiæ
    nunquam docuisse:

     '[Greek: Dedaidalmenoi pseudesi poikilois]
      [Greek: Exapatônti muthoi].'--_Pind._

    4. Wiccamici publicis examinationibus liberi, sibi et reipublicæ

    5. Magdalenenses semper ædificaturientes nihil agunt:

     'Implentur veteris Bacchi.'--_Virg._

    6. Orielensibus, ingenio, ut ipsi aiunt, exundantibus, Aula B. M. V.
    malevole denegatur:

     'Barbara Celarent Darii.'--_Ars Logica._

    7. De reditibus annuis Decani et Canonicorum Ædis Christi, sive de
    libris Canonicis.

    8. Quæstiones duæ: An Alumni Ædis Christi _jure_ fiant Canonici? An
    Alumni Ædis Christi _re-verâ_ fiant Canonici?

    9. Respondetur serenissimæ Archiducissæ de Oldenburg quærenti:

     'What do the Fellows of All-Souls do?'

    10. E Collegio Ænei Nasi legati Stamfordiam missi Nasum illum
    celeberrimum, Collegii [Greek: epônumos], solemni pompâ Oxoniam

    11. Nummi ad ornandam faciem occidentalem Collegii Lincolniensis
    erogati unde comparati fuerint?

                  ... 'Lucri bonus est odor ex re

    12. _Note._--The original heading of this chapter was altered in a
    later edition, and therefore is not reprinted here.

    13. Ex Societatibus cæteris ejectos Aula S. Albani pessimo exemplo ad
    se recipit:

     'Facilis descensus Averni.'--_Virg._

    14. De Golgotha et de Golgothitis.

    15. Prælectores an Prælectiones numero sint plures.

    16. Viro venerabili S. T. P. R. prælegente pecunia a clientibus sordide
    admodum exigitur.

    17. Magistri in Venerabili domo Convocationis necessario adsistentes
    more Attico [Greek: to triôbolon] recipere debent.

    18. De Academicorum in Venerabili domo Convocationis sedentium
    podicibus igneo quodam vapore calefaciendis:

     'Placetne vobis Magistri?'--[Greek: ho aei] Vice-Can.

    19. De viris clarissimis Bibliothecæ Bodleianæ Curatoribus.

        'Scene II.--_Enter_ Quince the Carpenter, Snug the Joiner, Bottom
        the Weaver, Flute the Bellows-mender, Snout the Tinker, _and_
        Starveling the Tailor.

        _Quince._ Is all our company complete?'


    20. De matulis in Bibliothecâ studentibus copiosius suppeditandis:

     '[Greek: Amis gar ên ourêtiasêis autê]
      [Greek: Para soi kremêsetai engus epi tou pattalou].'

    21. De Bibliothecario et ejus adjutoribus.

        '_Captain._ What are you about, Dick?

        _Dick._ Nothing, Sir.

        _Captain._ Thomas, what are you doing?

        _Thomas._ Helping Dick, Sir.'

    22. Examinantur Examinatores.

    23. Cuinam eorum Doctoris Planissimi cognomen jure optimo concedendum

    24. De Dodd. {169}

    25. De Magistris Scholarum.

     'Who made that wond'rous animal a Soph?'
                              _Oxford Spy._

    26. Baccalaurei ad Clepsydram determinantes.

     'Nor stop, but rattle over every word,
      No matter what, so it can not be heard.'

    27. De Vocum Great-go, Little-go, By-go, in concione quâdam nuperâ
    perperam felici usu.

     '[Greek: Eti to auto hupokorizesthai; esti de hupokorismos hos elatton
         poiei k. t. l. eulabeisthai de dei].'--_Aristotle._

    28. De statuà matronæ venerabilis [Greek: tês] Goose nuper defunctæ in
    medià Scholarum areà collocandà.

    29. De statutorum nostrorum simplici perspicuitate.

     '[Greek: Anarchaion te kai atelentaion to pan.]'

      Ephraim Jenkins, apud the _Vicar of Wakefield_.

    30. An Procuratorum pedissequi recte nominentur Bull-dogs?

    31. De passere intra Templum B. Mariæ concionantibus obstrepente per
    statutum coercendo.

     '[Greek: Ô Zeu basileu tou phthegmatos tournithiou].'

    32. Typographium Clarendonianum famæ Universitatis male consulit, dum
    Cornelium Nepotem et alios, id genus, libellos, in usum Scholarum

     'Fama malum.'--_Virg._

     'Quærenda pecunia primum.'--_Horat._

    33. De celeberrimà Matronà Knibbs ex Horatii mente deificanda.

     'Divina tomacula porci.'

    34. Exemplo viri clarissimi Joannis Gutch probatur mortales errori
    obnoxios esse.

    35. Petitur ut memoria viri prosapià ingenio et moribus spectatissimi
    Gulielmi Stuart oratione annuà celebretur.

     'Integer vitæ scelerisque purus.'--_Hor._

     'The merry poacher who defies his God.'
                          _Oxford Spy._

    36. Oxonià novo lumine vestità, gaudent Balænæ Atlanticæ, exulant
    meretrices, Procuratores otio enecantur.

     '[Greek: Hôs ektos ômen têsde tês alampias].'

     'Jam redit et Virgo, redeunt Saturnia regna.'--_Virg._

    37. Probatur Bedellum Academicum vero et genuino sensu esse quartum
    Prædicabile; quippe qui comes adsit Vice-Cancellario omni soli et
    semper. Doctissimus tamen Higgenbrockius Differentiam potius esse
    putat, eujus hæc sunt verba:

     'Bedellus est de Vice-Cancellarii Essentia,
      Nec potest dispensari cum absentia:
      Nam sicat forma dat Esse Rei,
      Sic Esse dat Bedellus ei.'

    Nec errat forsan vir clarissimus, si enim Collegii eujusvis Præfectum
    (genus) recte dividat Bedellus adstans (Differentia), fit illico
    Species optata.--_Dominus Vice-Can._

    38. Tutorum et Examinatorum Oxoniensium petitio Mediolanum transmissa,
    ut Auctorum deperditorum restitutor nequissimus Angelus Maius, iste
    malè feriatus, oculis et virilibus mulctetur.

    39. Statuto quamprimum cautum sit, idque sub poenis gravissimis, ne
    quis ad Universitatis privilegia admissus auctoris cujuspiam libros
    feliciter deperditos invenire audeat, inventos huc asportet, imprimat,
    imprimendos curet, denique impressos legat.

    Hæc sunt et horum similia, Academici, quæ favore et Auspiciis vestris
    auctor sibi evolvenda destinat. Ei investigandi tædium, vobis
    delectatio, adsit, et honos et gloria. In quantam molem assurgat
    materies tam varia tam augusta non est in præsenti ut pro certo
    affirmetur. Spes est, ut omnia rite collecta, in ordinem breviter et
    [Greek: enkuklopaidikôs] redacta, voluminibus, formà quam vocant
    'Elephant-Quarto,' non plusquam triginta contineantur.

    Omnes igitur qui famam aut Academiæ aut suam salvam velint, moras
    excutiant, Bibliopolam nostrum integerrimum præsto adeant, symbolas
    conferant, deut nomina, ut hanc saltem a nobis immortalitatem
    consequantur, alià fortasse carituri."

J. B. O.


       *       *       *       *       *


In the romance of _Trancred_, Mr. D'Israeli mentions the Ansareys, one of
the tribes of Lebanon, as worshipping the old heathen gods, Jupiter,
Apollo, and Astarte, or Venus. A writer of fiction is certainly not
expected to be bound to fact; but in such a matter as the present religion
of an existing people, I feel doubtful whether to suppose this religion his
own invention, or if he has any authority for it, and its connexion with
pagan Antioch. A people to-day retaining the worship of the old gods of
Greece and Syria, is a matter of great interest. I have looked into
Volney's _Travels in Syria and Egypt_, and in some later writers, but none
of them state the paganism of Tancred to be the religion of the Ansareys.
It is, however, said to be a mystery, so not impossibly the account in
_Tancred_ may be the reality. In the same work, the Sheikhs of Sheikhs, and
his tribe, the Beni-Rechab children of Rechab, are said to be Jews on
horseback, inhabiting the desert, and resembling the wandering Arabs in
their mode of life. This also is curious, if there be such a people; and
some of your readers acquainted with the history and manners of Syria may
give information on these matters. The other tribes of Lebanon are singular
and equally interesting:--the Maronites, Christians of the Roman Catholic
sect, who, however, allow their priests to marry; the Metualis, Mahomedans
of the sect of Ali; and the Druses, whose religion is unknown, and, as
Lamartine tells us, was entirely so to Lady Hester Stanhope, who lived
years in the middle of them. Volney divides the Ansareys {170} in several
sects, of whom one worshipped the sun, another a dog, and a third had an
obscene worship, with such lewd nocturnal meetings as were fabled of the


       *       *       *       *       *


Little is known respecting the Primers of this reign, and yet several
editions were published. My object will be to give some information on the
subject, in the hope that more may be elicited from your correspondents.

There is an edition of the year 1559, 4to. Two copies only are known at
present; one in the library at Christ Church, Oxford, and the other at
Jesus College, Cambridge. It has been reprinted by the Parker Society. This
Primer contains certain prayers for the dead, as they stand in that of
Henry VIII., 1545. In short, with the exception of "An Order for Morning
Prayer," with which it commences, this Primer follows the arrangement of
that of 1545; some things, relative to saints, angels, and the Virgin Mary,
having been excluded.

But I have in my possession another edition in 12mo. of this reign, of
which I can trace no other copy. My book wants the title, and consequently
I cannot ascertain its date. It was formerly in Gough's possession. I am
inclined to think that it is earlier than the edition reprinted by the
Parker Society.

Unlike the book of 1559, mine commences with the Catechism, but the
subsequent arrangement is the same. The differences, when any exist,
consist in a more literal following of the Primer of 1545. The Prayers for
the Dead are retained as in the book of 1559. The Graces, also, are more
numerous in my edition, and some of them are not found even in King Henry's
book. One consists of an address, as from the master of the family, with an
answer from the other members. In some respects this is similar to a form
in King Edward's Primer, while in others it is altogether different. At the
close of the Graces, the book of 1559 has the words "God save our Queen and
Realm," while in my edition the reading is the same as in the book of 1545,
"Lorde, save thy Churche, our Quene, and Realme," &c.

In "The Dirige" there is a very singular variation. In 1559 we find "Ego
Dixi, Psalm Esaic xxxviii.;" in 1545 it is only "Esa. xxxviii.;" in that of
1546 the form is "Ego Dixi, Psal. Esa. xxxviii.;" and my edition has "Ego
Dixi, Psal. xxxv.," being different from all the rest.

Some curious typographical errors are also found in my edition. In the
Catechism the word king is substituted for queen. In the third petition in
the Litany for the Queen, we have "That it may please thee to be hys
defendour, and gevinge hym," &c.; yet in the previous clauses the pronoun
is correctly used. It would seem that the printer had the Primer of 1545 or
1546 before him, and that in these cases he followed his copy without
making the necessary alterations.

Such are the more remarkable differences between my edition and that of

There is a Primer of this reign in the Bodleian, quite different from mine
and that of 1559. In this the Prayers for the Dead are expunged, and the
character of the book is altogether dissimilar. Two copies of this book
exist in the Bodleian, which have been usually regarded as different
editions. From a careful examination, however, I have ascertained that they
are the same edition. One copy has the title, with the date 1566 on the
woodcut border; the other wants the title, but has the colophon, bearing
the date 1575. The latter is the true date of the book, and the date on the
title is merely that of some other book, for which the compartment had been
used in 1566. Such variations are common with early books. I have several
volumes bearing an earlier date on the title than in the colophon. Thus,
the first edition of Sir Thomas Elyot's _Castle of Health_ has 1534 on the
title, and 1539 in the colophon. The latter was the true date. It may be
remarked that the two books in the Bodleian of 1575 will together make up a
perfect copy.

Some of your correspondents may be able to mention another copy of the
edition which I possess. I am very anxious to discover another.



       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Objective and Subjective._--I tried, a little while ago, to show in your
pages that this antithesis, though not a good pair of terms, is
intelligible, and justified by good English usage. But I must allow that
the writers who use these terms, do all that is possible to put those who
justify them in the wrong. In a French work at least, recently published, I
find what appears to me a curious application of the corresponding words in
that language. M. Auguste Comte, in the preface to the third volume of his
_Système de Politique Positive_, speaks of some of his admirers who had by
their "cotisations," or contributions, supported him while he was writing
the work; and he particularly celebrates one of them, Mr. Wallace, an
American, adding:

    "Devenu jusqu'ici le principal de mes souscripteurs, Wallace a perpétué
    _subjectivement_ son patronage _objectif_, en me leguant une annuité de
    cinq cent francs."

I must confess that the metaphysics according to which a sum paid by a
living man is _objectif_, and a legacy _subjectif_, is beyond my depth.

While I write, as if writers of all kinds were resolved to join in
perplexing the use of these unfortunate words, I read in a journal,
"objective discussion in the sense of hostile or adverse discussion,
discussion which proposed _objections_." I think this is hard upon the
word, and unfair usage of it.


_Lucy Walters, the Duke of Monmouth's Mother._--The death of this
unfortunate woman is usually stated to have taken place at Paris. The date
is not given, and the authority cited is John Evelyn. But Evelyn's words
have been misunderstood. He says, speaking of the Duke of Monmouth's

    "His mother, whose name was Barlow, daughter of some very mean
    creatures, was a beautiful strumpet, whom I had often seen at Paris;
    she died miserably, without anything to bury her."--_Diary_, July 15,

This passage surely does not imply that she _died_ at Paris? In the Parish
Registers of Hammersmith is the following entry:

    "1683, June 5, Lucy Walters bur."

which I am fully persuaded records the death of one of King Charles's
quondam mistresses.


_General Haynau's Corpse._--A most extraordinary account has reached us in
a private letter from Vienna to a high personage here, and has been the
talk of our _salons_ for the last few days. It appears that the
circumstance of the death of General Haynau presented a phenomenon of the
most awful kind on record. For many days after death the warmth of life yet
lingered in the right arm and left leg of the corpse, which remained limpid
and moist, even bleeding slightly when pricked. No delusion,
notwithstanding, could be maintained as to the reality of death, for the
other parts of the body were completely mortified, and interment became
necessary before the two limbs above mentioned had become either stiff or
cold. The writer of the letter mentioned that this strange circumstance has
produced the greatest awe in the minds of those who witnessed it, and that
the emperor had been so impressed with it, that his physicians had
forbidden the subject to be alluded to in his presence. Query, Can the
above singular statement be verified? It was copied from a French paper,
immediately after the decease of General Haynau was known in Paris.

W. W.


_"Isolated."_--This word was not in use at the commencement of the
eighteenth century, as is evident from the following expression of Lord

    "The events we are witnesses of in the course of the longest life
    appear to us very often original, unprepared, single, and _unrelative_;
    if I may use such a word for want of a better in English. In French, I
    would say _isolés_."

The only author quoted by Richardson is Stewart.



_Office of Sexton held by One Family._--The following obituary, copied from
the _Derbyshire Advertiser_ of Jan. 27, 1854, contains so extraordinary an
account of the holding of the office of sexton by one family, that it may
interest some of your readers, and may be difficult to be surpassed.

    "On Jan. 23, 1854, aged eighty-six, Mr. Peter Bramwell, sexton of the
    parish church of Chapel-en-le-Frith. The deceased served the office of
    sexton forty-three years; Peter Bramwell, his father, fifty years;
    George Bramwell, his grandfather, thirty-eight years; George Bramwell,
    his great-grandfather, forty years; Peter Bramwell, his
    great-great-grandfather, fifty-two years: total 223 years."

S. G. C.

_Sententious Despatches_ (Vol. viii., p. 490.; Vol. ix., p. 20.).--In
addition to the sententious dispatches referred to above, please note the
following. It was sent to the Emperor Nicholas by one of his generals, and
is a very good specimen of Russian _double entendres_:

    "_Voli[=a] V[=a]sch[=a]_, [=a] Varsch[=a]voo vsiat nemogoo."

    "_Volia is your's_, but Warsaw I cannot take."


    "_Your will is all-powerful_, but Warsaw I cannot take."

J. S. A.

Old Broad Street.

_Reprints suggested._--As you have opened a list of suggested reprints in
the pages of "N. & Q.," may I be allowed to remark that some of Peter
Heylin's works would be well worth reprinting.

There is a work of which few know the value, but yet a work of the greatest
importance, I mean Dr. O'Connor's _Letters of Columbanus_. A carefully
edited and well annotated edition of this scarce work would prove of
greater value than any reprint I can think of.


       *       *       *       *       *



My family became possessed of six fine portraits at the death of Lord Vane,
husband to that lady of unenviable notoriety, a sketch of whose life
(presented by her own hand to the author) is inserted, under the title
"Adventures of a Lady of Quality," in _Peregrine Pickle_. I quote from my
{172} relation who knew the facts.[2] Lord Vane was the last of his race,
and died at Fairlawn, Kent, probably about the latter half of the last
century.[3] The successor to his fortune selected a few pictures, and left
the remaining, of which mine formed a part, to his principal agent.
Amateurs say they are by Sir Peter Lely: a fact I should be glad to
establish. I have searched Windsor Castle, Hampton Court, and Knowle Park
collections in vain for duplicates.

No. 1. is a young man in what appears to be a court dress, exhibiting
armour beneath the folds of the drapery. Point lace neck-tie. 2. Do., in
brocaded silk and fringed dress. Point lace neck-tie and ruffles. A spaniel
introduced, climbing up his knee. 3. A youth sitting under a tree, with pet
lamb. Point lace neck-tie and ruffles, but of simple dress. 4. A lady in
flowing drapery. Pearls in her hair and round her neck, sitting under a
tree. An orange blossom in her hand. 5. A lady seated in an apartment with
marble columns. Costume similar to No. 4, minus the pearls in the hair. A
kind of wreath in her hand. 6. A lady in simple, flowing drapery, without
jewellery, save a broach or clasp on her left shoulder; holding a flower in
her right hand. In all, the background is _very dark_, but trees and
buildings can be traced through the gloom. The hands are models, and
_beautifully painted_. Size of pictures, divested of their carved and gilt
frames, four feet two inches by three feet four inches. If any of your
readers can, from this description, give me any clue to the name of the
artist, it will greatly oblige and be duly appreciated by an elderly

S. D.

[Footnote 2: [A correspondent in the _Gentleman's Magazine_ for May, 1789,
p. 403., who was intimately acquainted with Lord and Lady Vane, states that
"though Dr. Smollet was as willing as he was able to embellish his works
with stories marvellous, yet he did not dress up Lady Vane's story of her
Lord. She wrote it as well as she could herself, and Dr. Shebbeare put it
in its present form at her ladyship's request."]

[Footnote 3: Lord Vane died April 5, 1789, at his house in Downing Street,
Westminster. He was great-grandson of that inflexible republican, Sir Henry
Vane, executed on Tower Hill, June 14, 1662.--ED.]]

       *       *       *       *       *


The church of All Saints, in Pontefract, county York, was some years ago
partly restored for divine worship; and during the progress of the works, a
broken slab was discovered in the chancel part of the church, upon which
was cut an archiepiscopal cross, extending from the top apparently to the
bottom. On the upper part of the stone, and on each side of the cross, was
a circle or ring cut down the middle by a dagger; and bearing on the circle
the following inscription in Old English characters:

    "+ in . god . is . all ."

In the middle of the stone, and on each side of the cross, also appear a
shield emblazoned with a rabbit or coney _sejant_.[4]

Beneath this part appears the commencement of the inscription, which seems
to have run across the surface of the stone, "Orate pro anim...." Here the
stone is broken across, and the lower part not found.

Can any of your numerous readers inform me if this stone could possibly be
the tombstone of Thurstan, Archbishop of York? It is said that he resigned
the see of York after holding it twenty-six years:

    "Being old and sickly, he would have been made a monk of Pontefract,
    but he had scarcely put off his pontifical robes, and put on his monk's
    dress, when death came upon him and made him assume his grave-clothes;
    for he survived but eleven days after his resignation, dying Feb. 5,

Thurstan is stated to have been buried in the Monastery; but may he not
have been buried in the church of All Saints, which was the conventual
church of the Priory of St. John the Evangelist, and was situated adjoining
the Grange, the site of the Priory? In the bull of Pope Celestine, "right
of burial in this church was granted to the monks, saving the privileges of
neighbouring churches." (_Ch. de Pontif._ fol. 8. a.)


[Footnote 4: In "N. & Q.," Vol. ix., p. 19., I find, under the head of
"Wylcotes Brass," an answer to the inscription "In . on . is . all;" and as
the inscription on the tombstone discovered in All Saints, Pontefract, was
very legibly written "In God is all," may not one family be a branch of the
other? Can you say where the quotation is from?]

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Admiral Hopson._--In Tomkins' _History of the Isle of Wight_ (1796), vol.
ii. p. 123., an anecdote is told of a native of Bonchurch named Hobson, who
afterwards became Admiral Hobson. It is mentioned that he was _an orphan_,
bound apprentice to a tailor; and that being struck with the sight of a
squadron of ships off the Isle of Wight, he rowed off in a boat to them,
and was received on the admiral's ship; that _the next day_, in an
engagement with _the French_, when his ship was engaged yard-arm and
yard-arm with the enemy, he climbed up the mast, clambered to the enemy's
yard-arm, mounted to the top-gallant mast, and took down the flag. This
created consternation in the enemy, who were soon defeated. Hobson was
{173} promoted to be an officer, and ultimately became an admiral.

This is the story as told by Tomkins. I wish to know what was his

Consulting Chernoch's _Lives of the Admirals_, I find mention of Admiral
Sir Thomas Hopson, a native of Bonchurch; who ran away from his parents,
and did not return to his home till he was an admiral. This Sir Thos.
Hopson was made second lieutenant in 1672, the year of the action in
Solbay, in which the Earl of Sandwich perished. He rose to the rank of
Vice-Admiral of the Red; and in the action of Vigo, in 1702, he
distinguished himself, and was knighted in consequence. He received a
pension of 500l. a year, and retired from the service in this year. He died
in 1717. After he quitted the navy, he became Member of Parliament for
Newtown, in the Isle of Wight.

It is evident that this Hopson is the _Hobson_ of Tomkins; and that Tomkins
spoke of the French by mistake for the _Dutch_ enemy. But I cannot discover
what authority he had for his account of the manner in which young Hobson
first distinguished himself.



_"Three cats sat," &c._--Can any of your correspondents give me the end of
a ballad, beginning thus, which a very old lady in her ninetieth year is
most anxious to know?--

 "Three cats sat by the fire-side,
  With a basket full of coal dust,
              Coal dust, coal dust,
  With a basket full of coal dust."


Southcote Lodge.

_Herbert's "Church Porch."_--Will any of your readers help me to the sense
of the following stanza from George Herbert's _Church Porch_, verse 48:

 "If thou be single, all thy good and ground
  Submit to love; but yet not more than all.
  Give one estate, as one life. None is bound
  To work for two, who brought himself to thrall.
  God made me one man; love makes me no more
  Till labour come, and make my weakness score."

The lines of which I want the meaning are the last three.



_Ancient Tenure of Lands._--I should feel obliged to any of your readers
who would inform me as to the ancient tenure by which estates were held in
this country. For instance, a manor, including within its limits several
hamlets, is held by A, who grants by subinfeudation one of the said hamlets
to B; B dies, leaving a son and successor, who continues in possession of
the hamlet, and grants leases, &c., and thus for several generations. My
question is, did A, in granting to B, relinquish all interest in the
hamlet, or how much did he still retain, since in after years the hamlet is
found to have reverted to him, and no allusion is afterwards made to the
subinfeudatory lords who possessed it for some generations? It is presumed
that in early times lords of a manor were owners of the _lands_ of the
manor of which they were lords; at present an empty title is all that
remains. When did the practice of alienating lands by a piecemeal partition
and sale commence? and did a subinfeudatory lord possess the power of
alienation? In fact, what is the origin of the numerous small freeholds
into which our ancient manors are broken up?

J. B.

_Dramatic Works._--_Dramatic and Poetical Works_, very rare, privately
printed, 1840. Information relative to this work will oblige


Woburn Abbey.

_Devreux Bowly._--An old and excellent hall clock in this city bears the
name of Devreux Bowly, of Lombard Street, London, as the maker. Can any of
the readers of "N. & Q." (either horologists or others) say when he lived?



_"Corruptio optimi," &c._--What is the origin or earliest use of the
saying, "Corruptio optimi est, al. fit, pessima," in its present form? I
state it in this way, because I am aware of its having been referred to
Aristotle's remarks on the different forms of government. The old Latin
translation however, does not contain the expression, and I have not traced
it farther back than to writers of the seventeenth century,--to Jeremy
Taylor, for instance.

E. M.


_Lamenther._--Who was the writer of the _Life of Lamenther, written by
herself_, published by subscription in 1771? Is it a genuine narrative; and
if so, where can I find a key to the initials?


_Sheriff of Somersetshire in 1765._--Will any of your correspondents
resident in, or acquainted with the county of Somerset, oblige me by
stating the date of death of James Perry, Esq., the Sheriff of that county
in 1756; and also his place of residence, and the names of his children, if
any; and where any of their descendants now reside?


_Edward Brerewood._--Is there any authenticated portrait extant of this
learned mathematician? He was the first Gresham Professor of Astronomy at
the University of Oxford, and the {174} author of several important
philosophical works; one of which, on the _Diversity of Language_, has been
more than once reprinted. Possibly at Oxford, his _alma mater_, a portrait
of him may be in existence; and I dare say some resident member of that
University will kindly endeavour to ascertain the fact.



_Elizabeth Seymour._--I have lately met with a pedigree in which it is
stated that Sir Joseph Tredenham (I presume of Cornwall or Devonshire)
married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Edward Seymour, first baronet of the
present Duke of Somerset's line, by his wife Elizabeth Champernown; but
another pedigree gives this Elizabeth to George Cary of Cockington, co.
Devon, Esq. Which is correct? Or did the said Elizabeth marry twice? and,
in that case, which was the first husband?


_Longfellow._--Could you inform me whether the name "Longfellow" may still
be traced in any parts of England? It is the belief of that distinguished
American poet that his name still exists in some of the south-western
counties; and it would be an additional gratification to him that his hopes
were confirmed by testimony.


_Fresick and Freswick._--In the map of the kingdom of Scotland, occurring
in the _Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine_, by John Speed, 1614, pp.
131-2., on the north-east point of Scotland a place is noted as _Fresick_
East, in the present maps _Freswick_. Is _Fresick_ a contracted form of
_Freswick_? and if so, has it some reference to a settlement of the
Frisians (anciently Fresians) on this coast? The village Freswick, on the
borders of the Lek, and another Freswick in the neighbourhood of Deventus,
both in the Netherlands, near the Frisians, are supposed to owe their names
to a settlement or refuge of those first parents of the Anglo-Saxons.

D. H.

_Has Execution by Hanging been survived?_--I have heard vague and
indiscriminate tales of persons who, as criminals, have undergone
infliction of the punishment of hanging without total extinction of life;
but I have always been disposed to look upon such accounts as mere fables,
till lately, in turning over some newspapers of the year 1740, I found a
case mentioned, under such circumstances that, if it were untrue, its
refutation might have been easily accomplished. By _The Craftsman_ of
Saturday, Sept 27, 1740, it appears one William Dewell had been concerned
in the violation, robbery, and murder of a young woman in a barn at Acton
(which place has so recently been the scene of another horrible crime).
_The Craftsman_ of Saturday, Nov. 29, 1740, states that Dewell, having
undergone execution, and being brought to Surgeons Hall to be anatomised,
_symptoms of life appeared, and he quite recovered_.[5] This strikes me as
a most unaccountable story; but perhaps similar ones may have been met with
in the reading of some of your correspondents.


[Footnote 5: [Matt of the Mint in the _Beggar's Opera_ says, "My poor
brother Tom had an accident this time twelve-month; and so clever a made
fellow he was, that I could not save him from those flaying rascals the
surgeons; and now, poor man, he is among the 'otamies at Surgeons' Hall."
The executed culprit noticed by our correspondent, however, seems to have
been _re-animated_ at Surgeons' Hall.--ED.]]

_Maps of Dublin._--In Gough's _Topographical Antiquities of Great Britain
and Ireland_, p. 689., it is stated that there is a map of the city and
suburbs of Dublin, by Charles Brookin, 1728, and a map of the Bay and
Harbour of Dublin, with a small plan of the city, 1728. I have Brookin's
map of the city, 1728, but I have never seen or heard of any person who had
seen the map of the Bay and Harbour of 1728. Possibly some of your
correspondents could give information on the subject, and also state
whether there be any map of the city, either manuscript or printed, between
Speed's map of 1610 and Brookin's of 1728, and where?

C. H.


"_The Lounger's Common-place Book._"--Who was the editor of this work? Any
information as to its literary history, and especially as to that of the
revised edition of it, will be very acceptable to

W. H. S.

_Mount Mill, and the Fortifications of London._--In a topographical account
of Middlesex, published in the middle of the last century, I find the

    "_Mount Mill_, at the end of Goswell Street, was one of the forts
    erected by the Parliament for the defence of London."

Will any of your correspondents be kind enough to inform me what the exact
site was; at what period it was demolished; what were the names and sites
of any _other_ forts erected by the Parliament at the time for the purposes
of defence; and, lastly, in what work any record of them may be found?

B. R. A. Y.

"_Forms of Public Meetings._"--Can any of your readers inform me of the
name of the publisher of _Forms and Proceedings of Public Meetings_
referred to in _The Times_ of Sept. 16 or 17 last, and supposed to have
been written by the Speaker of the House of Commons?

Z. Y.


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

_Queen Elizabeth and the Ring._--Has the common story, respecting the Earl
of Essex sending a ring to Queen Elizabeth by the Countess of Nottingham,
in order to procure his pardon, any foundation in fact?

T. T. W.

    [Miss Strickland seems to have examined the traditionary notices of
    this love-token. She says: "The romantic story of the ring which, it is
    said, the queen had given to Essex in a moment of fondness as a pledge
    of her affection, with an intimation 'that, if he forfeited her favour,
    if he sent it back to her, the sight of it would ensure her
    forgiveness,' must not be lightly rejected. It is not only related by
    Osborne, who is considered a fair authority for other things, and
    quoted by historians of all parties, but it is a family tradition of
    the Careys, who were the persons most likely to be in the secret, as
    they were the relations and friends of all the parties concerned, and
    enjoyed the confidence of Queen Elizabeth. The following is the version
    given by Lady Elizabeth Spelman, a descendant of that House, to the
    editor of her great-uncle Robert Carey's _Memoirs_: 'When Essex lay
    under sentence of death, he determined to try the virtue of the ring,
    by sending it to the queen, and claiming the benefit of her promise;
    but knowing he was surrounded by the creatures of those who were bent
    on taking his life, he was fearful of trusting it to any of his
    attendants. At length, looking out of his window, he saw early one
    morning a boy whose countenance pleased him, and him he induced by a
    bribe to carry the ring, which he threw down to him from above, to the
    Lady Scrope his cousin, who had taken so friendly interest in his fate.
    The boy, by mistake, carried it to the Countess of Nottingham, the
    cruel sister of the fair and gentle Scrope, and, as both these ladies
    were of the royal bedchamber, the mistake might easily occur. The
    countess carried the ring to her husband the Lord Admiral, who was the
    deadly foe of Essex, and told him the message, but he bade her suppress
    both.' The queen, unconscious of the accident, waited in the painful
    suspense of an angry lover for the expected token to arrive; but not
    receiving it, she concluded he was too proud to make this last appeal
    to her tenderness, and, after having once revoked the warrant, she
    ordered the execution to proceed. It was not till the axe had
    absolutely fallen, the the world could believe that Elizabeth would
    take the life of Essex."--_Lives of the Queens of England_, vol. iv. p.

_Lives of English Bishops: Bishop Burnet._--I should be glad to know who is
the author of _The Lives of the English Bishops, from the Restauration to
the Revolution_; Fit to be opposed to the Aspersions of some late Writers
of Secret History: London, printed for C. Rivington, at the Bible and Crown
in St. Paul's Churchyard, MDCCXXXI? The name of "Nath. Salmon, LL.B. CCCC,"
is written on the title-page; but it does not appear whether this is
intended to indicate the author, or merely a former possessor of the copy
now lying before me. From this work, in which Burnet, Kennett, and others
are very severely criticised, I send a curious extract relating to Burnet:

    "He puts me in mind of a petty canon of Exeter, to whom he used
    military force upon refusal to alter the prayers at his command until
    he should receive the proper instructions. He brought a file of
    musqueteers upon him, and crammed his amendments down his throat. This
    man, in a journey to London, visited the musical part of the Church of
    Salisbury, and was as usual asked to sing an anthem at evening service.
    He was a lover of humour, and singing the 137th Psalm, threw out his
    right hand towards the bishop's stall, and with great emphasis
    pronounced the words, 'If I forget thee--if I forget thee,' repeating
    it so often that the whole congregation inquired after the meaning of
    it. It was from that time ordered that no strange songster should come
    up more."--P. 229.

E. H. A.

    [This work was written by Nathaniel Salmon, who was deprived of his
    curacy for being a Nonjuror. He afterwards settled as a physician at
    Bishop-Stortford in Hertfordshire, where he died in 1742. See a notice
    of him, and his other works, in Bowyer's _Anecdotes_, p. 638.]

_Eden Pedigree and Arms._--I find in Gough Nicholl's _Topographer and
Genealogist_, vol. i. p. 173., mention of a monument in All Saints' Church,
Sudbury, to one of the Eden family; and a pedigree painted on the east wall
of Eden, much defaced, with numerous arms, date 1615. Would any of your
correspondents kindly give me particulars of this monument, pedigree, and


    [The monument was commenced by the second Sir Thomas Eden in 1615, and
    contained, some years since, an inscription upon brass, a limbed
    picture, and upon the wall, beneath the canopy, a pedigree of the
    marriages of the family with those of Waldegrave, Peyton, Steward,
    Workington, Harrys, and St. Clere. The whole having fallen into ruin,
    it became necessary in 1851 to remove it. The brass being gone, the
    following inscription upon the verge of the canopy alone was visible:
    "This tombe was finished at y^e coste of Sir Thomas Eden, Knight, Maie
    16, 1617." A large mural monument to the memory of several of the Eden
    family is about to be erected by its side. See the Rev. Charles
    Badham's _History and Antiquities of All Saints' Church, Sudbury_, pp.
    44-46. and 162., London, 1852; who says that the pedigree upon the wall
    has been preserved, but does not state where it may be seen: it will,
    however, be found among the Harleian MSS. in the British Museum.]

_The Gentleman's Calling._--Can any one tell me who was the author of this
book? It was printed in London for T. Garthwait, at the little north doore
of St. Pauls, 1660.


    [This work is attributed to the uncertain author of _The Whole Duty of
    Man_, and is included among the collected works of that writer in the
    folio edition of {176} 1729. Compare "N. & Q.," Vol. vi., p. 537., with
    Vol. viii., p. 564.]

_Obs and Sols._--Burton, in his _Anatomy of Melancholy_ ("Democritus to the
Reader"), 6th edition, has the following passage:

    "Bale, Erasmus, Hospinian, Vives, Kemnisius, explode, as a vast ocean
    of _obs_ and _sols_, school divinity."

What is the meaning of the terms _obs_ and _sols_?


St. Lucia.

    [This is a quaint abbreviation of the words _objectiones et
    solutiones_, being frequently so contracted in the margins of books of
    controversial divinity to mark the transitions from the one to the
    other. Hence Butler (_Hudibras_, III. ii. 1237.) has coined the name of
    _ob_ and _sollers_ for scholastic disputants:

     "But first, o' th' first: the Isle of Wight
      Will rise up, if you should deny't;
      Where Henderson, and the other masses,
      Were sent to cap texts and put cases:
      To pass for deep and learned scholars,
      Although but paltry _ob_ and _sollers_:
      As if th' unseasonable fools,
      Had been a coursing in the schools."]

_Fystens or Fifteenths._--Can you inform me what is the meaning of the word
"fystens." In looking over an old corporation chamber book some years ago I
found the following entries, of which I made extracts:

 "1587. Paid to Mr. Mayor for fystenes, iiij. [_sic_].
  1589. Paid Mr. Dyston for the fystens, xxxs.
        More for the fystens, xxvjs.
  1592. Paid for the fystenes, xixs. iijd.
        More for the fystenes, xxxi_s_, vijd. _q._
  1594. Paid to make up the fystenes, xxxijs. iijd.
  1595. Paid for the fistenies, xxxs."

In a recent publication this last entry is extracted thus:

 "1595. Paid for the fifteenths, 30s."


    [This was the tribute or imposition of money called _fifteenths_,
    formerly laid upon cities, boroughs, &c., so called because it amounted
    to a fifteenth part of that which each city or town was valued at, or a
    fifteenth of every man's personal estate, according to a reasonable
    valuation. In 1588, on occasion of the Spanish invasion, the Parliament
    gave Queen Elizabeth two subsidies and four fifteenths.]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. viii., p. 199.)

The book for which G. D. inquires is, _A Descriptive Poem of the Battle of
Waterloo, and Two previous Days_, dedicated to the Earl of Carlisle, by
Captain Hardman, London, 1827, 8vo., pp. 28. It appears from the dedication
that he was adjutant to the 10th Royal Hussars, of which the Hon. F. Howard
was major. He says:

    "We breakfasted together in the hovel on the 18th, in the morning, as
    stated in the poem; and during that dreadful bloody day, he and I were
    frequently discoursing about our situation; the good position occupied
    by us; the humane feeling of our brave Duke for choosing that situation
    to save men's lives; and once during the day our regiment was
    completely sheltered; all the balls from the enemy flying over our
    heads, except one that dropped about six yards from the major and me.
    We were at that time dismounted about twenty minutes, to rest the
    horses. I took the ball up; we looked at it, and had a good hearty
    laugh over it."

Here is the description referred to:

    "At three in the morning I went to Major Howard,--

     'This morning, Major, is enough to make us all cowards;
      Such a night of heavy rain I never before saw,
      It has fell hard on my shoulders and made them raw;
      But still I am hearty, can I do anything for you?
      For on the face of this province I never will rue.'

     'No, thank you, Hardman, not now, come by-and-by;
      I have lain in this place till my neck's all awry.
      My servant is getting a light, then a letter I write;
      But I am so excessively cold I cannot one indite.
      He shall then make a fire, and set water over,
      Come in an hour and live with me in clover;
      We will have some coffee and some fat fowl too,
      Then we can face the French well at Waterloo!'

     'Thank you, Major, I will do myself the honour,
      That will be better than being sat on by the coroner."
                                      P. 12.

The prose description of the charge is clear and vivid:

    "When we advanced to decide the destiny of the day, our right squadron
    was in front, led on by the brave Major-General Sir. H. Vivian,
    commanding our brigade; Lord Robert Manners commanding our regiment;
    Major Howard commanding the right squadron; and I, the adjutant, in
    front with those officers. Just as we began to advance, I said, 'Major,
    what a grand sight we have before us!' 'Yes, it is,' said the major.
    These were the last words he spoke, for in half a minute afterwards we
    were right amongst them, slashing away; then there was no time to talk.
    We quickly made them turn their backs towards us; but there was one
    square of infantry that stood firm. That square made sad havoc among
    us. The major was killed by that square. He was not six yards from the
    muzzles of the French firelocks when he was shot. He fell off his
    horse, and, I believe, never moved a finger; but I had not a moment's
    time to stop, for we had not then cleared the field. This, my lord, is
    a true account of the last moments of your lordship's late son, and one
    of the best friends I ever had."--P. iv.

     "We then drove their cavalry past a solid square mass;
      This mass stood firm against us, like solid brass.
      This is the place where Hon. Major F. Howard was killed,
      That grieved my mind sorely and my poor heart thrilled."--P. 19.

Then follow some reflections which I abstain from quoting, as the way in
which they are expressed would produce an effect quite contrary to the
author's intentions. The burial is thus described:

     "I ordered the party to mount their horses,
      And proceed to carry off and bury all our losses.
      The party assemble here, now instantly move forward:
      Serjeant, take care where you bury Major Howard.
      Take two objects in view, or three if you can,
      Then you will be sure to find him again!
      He lies in the hollow, not far from the French guns.
      Bury him by their side, but not where water runs."
                                      P. 21.

The criticism of the note quoted by G. D. is sound: "Hardman was no poet,
but he could describe graphically what he saw and did." The poem seems to
have been the result of a sudden thought. In the dedication he says it was
not begun till May 18, and "A Letter to the Right Hon. George Canning,"
appended to it, is dated June 4. In the letter he says, that if he "can get
into the printing-house again without loss," he will answer Mr. Canning
effectually on the Catholic question. He also hopes "to get before the
public every week," and "to show that all gentlemen professing the law are
the most abused, and at the same time more honest than any other class in
this kingdom." Had the last-mentioned hope been fulfilled, I think I should
have heard of it. I have not met with any other work bearing Captain
Hardman's name; and probably his printer's bill (he was his own publisher)
put an end to his literary career.

I subjoin two specimens of the poem which, though not relating to the
subject of G. D.'s Query, may be interesting if you have room for them, as
such poetry is not published every day. An exhortation to good conduct ends

 'Therefore let us prepare, the call may be very soon;
  Then we shall not despair, if the call be made before noon:
  But if our sins weigh us down, what misery and woe!
  Ah! devils all slily squinting, and to them we must go.
  Their eyes are flames of fire, their tongues are frightful darts,
  Their looks a venomous ire, ready to pierce our feeble hearts,
  Their cloven feet of enmity, their taily stings so long,
  Their poisonous hearts of calomel, daily forming vicious songs."--P. 12.

The other describes his own narrow escape, and the death of an

 "A ball from their infantry went through my jacket,
  Took the skin off my side, and made me racket.
  My sword-belt turned it, otherwise through it must have gone.
  The stroke was very severe, compare it to a sharp gore.
  Captain Fitzroy said, 'Harding is severely wounded;
  A ball has gone through his side: here it comes, rounded!'
 'Stop,' said I, 'a minute; I shall be ready for another shot,
  I have now gotten my breath again, I will make them rot.'
  I then said to a gunner who was alleviating a gun,
 'Which of those columns do you mean to make run?'
 'That,' said he, pointing with his finger to a very large mass.
  A ball came that instant and turned him into brass.
  It cut him in two; he then turned as yellow as that metal.
  He was a strange sight to see, and appeared quite brittle."--P. 16.

H. B. C.

U. U. C.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 565.)

Though it is much to be regretted that the dates in question are not
recorded on the Stuart monument in St. Peter's, yet the deficiency is in
part supplied by the cenotaph raised to the memory of his elder brother by
Cardinal York, in his cathedral church at Frascati. From it we find that
Charles Edward deceased on 31st January, 1788, at the age of sixty-seven
years and one month. This date also fixes the year of his birth at 1720,
and the month December; most probably the 28th, though often given as the
31st. We give a copy of the inscription below.

The date of the birth and decease of James III. is correctly given in "N. &
Q.," Vol viii., p. 565.

An account of the sepulchral monument of the last of the Stuarts may
interest the readers of "N. & Q." In the south aisle of St. Peter's, and
against the first pier of the nave, is the monument of the Stuarts. It was
sculptured by Canova to the memory of James, the old Pretender; Charles
Edward, the young Pretender; and Henry Benedict, the Cardinal, who was
known in Rome as Cardinal York. Part of the expense of the monument was
defrayed by George IV., who sent a donation of fifty pounds for the purpose
to Pius VII. The monument is built on to the masonry of the pier, of white
marble, about fifteen feet high, and is in the form of the frustrum of a
{178} pyramid, and surmounted above the entablature by the royal arms of
England. Below the arms are profile portraits in bas-relief of James,
Charles Edward, and Henry Benedict, surmounted by a festoon of flowers.
Beneath the portraits is the following inscription:

              "Jacobo III.
    Jacobi II. Magnæ Brit. regis filio,
              Karolo Edvardo,
  Et Henrico, decano Patrum Cardinalium,
             Jacobi III. filiis,
     Regiæ Stirpis Stuardiæ postremis.
              A.D. MDCCCXIX.
              Beati mortui,
         Qui in Domino moriuntur."

There is a representation of panelled doors, as if leading to a vault,
below the inscription, though their sepulchre is not in this locality; a
small triangular slab of marble surmounts the door, with the words "Beati
mortui," &c. A weeping angel in bas-relief guards the doorway on each side;
the head of each angel resting on the bosom, the wings drooping, the hands
elevated, joined together, and resting on the end of an extinguished and
inverted torch. The figures of the two angels are exquisitely beautiful,
and among Canova's finest works.

The bodies, however, of these last representatives of a fallen line are not
buried beneath this monument, but in the crypt under the dome, and in that
portion of it called the "Grotto Vecchie." There, in the first aisle to the
left on entering, against the wall, a tomb about six feet long by three
broad contains all that remains of the ashes of the last of the Stuarts.
Over it is a plain slab of marble, with an inscription to announce that
this is the burial-place of "James III., Charles III., and Henry IX., Kings
of England." Even in death this royal race has not abandoned the claim they
were unable to enforce.

Opposite to this monument is the monument of Maria Clementina, daughter of
James Sobieski, and grand-daughter of John Sobieski, King of Poland, wife
of James III., and mother of Charles Edward and Henry Benedict. She married
on 3rd September, 1719, and died at Rome on 18th January, 1735. The
monument stands against the wall over the door leading to the staircase by
which the public ascend to the cupola. Pietro Bracci carved the monument
from the design of Filippo Barigioni, consisting of a pyramid of porphyry
on a base of Porta Santa marble, the whole relieved by a ground of blue sky
and clouds painted on the wall. Under the elevated pyramid is the
sarcophagus of porphyry, above which are two marble statues, one of
Charity, and the other of an infant, which support a circular medallion
portrait in mosaic, of Maria Clementina, by Cav. Cristofori, from a
painting by Lewis Stern. Drapery of Sicilian alabaster, with a fringe of
gilded bronze, falls in ample folds on both sides of the sarcophagus, which
is flanked by two angels, one holding a crown and the other a sceptre; and
upon it the words are carved "Maria Clementina M. Britann. Fr. et Hibern.
Regina." It was erected by the "Fabbrica di S. Pietro," at the cost of
18,000 scudi. There is another monument in Rome to Maria Clementina, and it
is in the church of the SS. Apostoli, in the nave, upon the second pier on
the right-hand side. It contains her heart, and consists of a circular urn
of verde antico, surmounted by a crown, over which two angels hover, of
white marble; and below, a tablet of rosso antico, bearing an inscription,

      "Mariæ Clementinæ Magnæ Britanniæ
  Etc. Reginæ, Fratres Min. Cons. venerabundi pp.

    Hic Clementinæ remanent præcordia, nam cor
        Cælestis fecit ne superesset amor."

Charles Edward has also another monument in addition to the one in St.
Peter's, namely, at Frascati, fourteen miles from Rome, of which see
Cardinal York was bishop. Its position is to the left of the great entrance
door; the inscription runs thus:

    "Hic situs est Karolus Odoardus, cui pater Jacobus III., Rex Angliæ,
    Scotiæ, Franciæ, Hiberniæ, primus natorum, paterni juris et regiæ
    dignitatis successor et hæres, qui, domicilio sibi Romæ delecto, Comes
    Albanyensis dictus est. Vixit annos LXVII et mensem: decessit in pace
    [Chi-rho] pridie Kal. Febr. anno MDCCLXXXVIII.

    "Henricus Card. Episc. Tusculan., cui paterna jura titulique cessere,
    Ducis Eboracensis appellatione resumpta, in ipso luctu amori et
    reverentiæ obsequutus, indicto in templum suum funere multis cum
    lacrimis præsens justa persolvit fratri augustissimo, honoremque
    sepulchri ampliorem destinavit."

Henry Benedict, or Cardinal York, was born at Rome on 6th of March, 1725.
He was Bishop of Ostia and Velletri, Dean of the Sacred College,
Vice-Chancellor of the Roman Church, Arch-priest of St. Peter's, and
Prefect of the Fabric of St. Peter's. He deceased at Frascati in July,
1807. In the church at Frascati, on the left hand of the entrance into the
sanctuary, there is a monument in his honour; but I have not a copy of the

It is needless to add that though all these monuments are made of the
richest marbles, and at great cost, the effect produced by them as
Christian sepulchral monuments is unsatisfactory in the extreme. The
inscriptions upon them are in equally bad taste.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 648., &c.)

I agree with your learned correspondent MR. MARGOLIOUTH, that the
authorship of the lines alluded to must be ascertained by comparing _the
whole_, and not by a single expression. It seems to me highly probable that
they were suggested, either by the Chaldee hymn quoted by your
correspondent, or by the lines of Chaucer, quoted "N. & Q.," Vol. viii., p.
180. I cannot, however, agree that the popular lines in question are a are
a translation of the Chaldee hymn. The improbability will appear, if we
compare them (as given "N. & Q.," Vol. viii., p. 127.) with the following
version of the hymn; which, although metrical, will be found sufficiently

 "To write the eternal power of God, no effort would suffice;
  Although, such writing to contain, the volume were the skies;
  Each reed a pen; and for the ink, the waters of the sea;
  And though each dweller on the earth, an able scribe should be."

This hymn, I admit, is more succinct than the popular lines; but at the
same time I cannot but think that its author was indebted to the passage in
the Koran ("N. & Q.," Vol. viii., p. 422.), immediately, or through
Chaucer; who has not only the general sentiment as there found, but also--

 "Eche sticke a pen, eche man a scrivener able."

I am equally convinced, that Mahomet himself took the thought from the
passage in the New Testament, as suggested by your correspondent E. G. R.
Each successive writer appears to have added something to what he borrowed.
But when the Evangelist, John, had said, "_The world itself_ would not be
able to contain the books that should be written," it was easy for one
writer to suppose an inkstand capacious as the sea; and for another to
supply parchment, pens, and scribes _ad libitum_. That the phrase in the
Koran should _now_ be common in the East, is not wonderful, considering the
extent to which Mahomedanism has prevailed there. After all, I do not think
that the _additions_ are any very great improvements. Without disputing
about tastes, I may say at least that, for my own part, I greatly prefer
the simplicity of the original idea, as expressed by the beloved disciple.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., pp. 468. 565.; Vol. ix., p. 89.)

A friend called on me this morning with the Number containing a notice of
S. A. Mackey, supposing that, being a neighbour, I could furnish a few
particulars of that extraordinary man. The whole of his MSS. came into my
possession after his demise. Amongst these was a MS. of his Life, written
by himself, and of which I took a faithful copy: which I have transcribed
for gentlemen who wish to possess a copy. I am ready to furnish any
gentleman with a copy, neatly written, book included, for 5s. It consists
of fifty-two pages large demy 4to. The original is in the possession of a
Mr. Brereton of Flitcham, near Lynn, Norfolk, to whom I sold all the MSS.,
Mr. Brereton being an intimate friend of S. A. Mackey.

I have on sale a copy of Mr. Mackey's _Works_, selected by Mr. Shickle,
another intimate friend; neatly done up in coloured cloth. Also a copy of
his _Mythological Astronomy_, with copious notes, in one hundred pages.
Also, an Appendix of forty-eight pages. And another copy of the MS.
Astronomy, with notes; but minus the Appendix.

I may as well inform you, that a friend of mine has in his possession a
half-length full-size portrait of Mr. Mackey; admirably executed, and in
prime condition, in a handsome frame. I believe it is for sale. I assure
you, when I first saw it, I felt at the moment a kind of impulse to shake
hands with my old friend and neighbour.

I shall feel great pleasure in answering any inquiries, so far as my
knowledge extends. His Life is truly interesting; being that of a man born
in sorrow, and cradled in adversity. Like him, I am a self-taught humble
individual, and in my eighty-second year.


15. Doughty's Hospital, Calvert Street, Norwich.

In July, 1830, Sampson Arnold Mackey delivered a course of six
"astro-historical lectures" in a large room near the Philanthropic
Institution. The attendance was full, considering the subject, and I was
surprised at the admiration which many well-educated persons expressed for
his strange theories, to which they seemed to give full assent. To me his
calculations and etymologies appeared as good as those of Pluche, Sir W.
Drummond, Volney, and Dupuis, but no better. I met him at the house of the
late Dr. Wright, then resident physician to Bethlehem Hospital. He was
quiet and unassuming; but so perfectly satisfied that he had proved his
system, that though ready to explain, he declined to answer objections, or
defend his opinions. As a remarkable example of "the pursuit of knowledge
under difficulties," he excited sympathy, and I believe that he disposed of
all the copies of his various works then unsold.

H. B. C.

U. U. Club.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., pp. 514. 629.)

As my name appears to have been referred to by two of your correspondents,
MR. INGLEBY and H. C. K., in connexion with the above question, I request
to be permitted to state my real views upon it, together with the grounds
upon which they rest. In doing this I can only directly refer to the
observations of H. C. K., not having seen those of MR. INGLEBY to which he
makes allusion.

Admitting that there are many conjunctions which connect propositions only,
I am unable to coincide with the view of my friend Dr. Latham and other
grammarians, that the property is universal. And I agree with MR. INGLEBY,
as quoted by H. C. K., in thinking that the incorrectness of that view may
be _proved_. We possess the power of conceiving of any distinct classes of
things, as "trees," "flowers," &c. And we possess the power of connecting
such conceptions in thought, so as to form, for instance, the conception of
that collection of things which consists of "trees and flowers" together.
If we possess the power of _performing_ this mental operation, we have
clearly also the power of _expressing_ it by a sign. This sign is the
conjunction "and." It is assumed, what consciousness indeed makes evident,
that the power of forming conceptions is antecedent to that of forming
judgments expressed by propositions.

But even if we proceed to form a judgment, as "trees and flowers exist," it
may still be shown that the conjunction "and" connects the substantives
"trees," "flowers," and not propositions. For if we reduce the given
proposition to the form, "trees exist and flowers exist," the conjunction
becomes wholly superfluous. It adds nothing whatever to the meaning of the
separate propositions, "trees exist," "flowers exist." Omit, however, the
conjunction between the substantives in the original proposition, and the
sense is wholly lost. What meaning can we attach, except by a convention,
to the form of words "trees flowers exist." Now there is, I conceive, no
more obvious principle in grammar than that the doctrine of the elements of
speech should be founded upon the examination of instances in which they
have a real meaning--in which their employment is essential, not

It is doubtless one of the consequences of the neglect of this principle,
that the older grammarians have made it a part of the definition of a
conjunction, that it is a word "devoid of signification" ([Greek: phônê
asêmos]). See references in Harris, p. 240. Were the philosophy of grammar
founded, as alone it truly can be, upon the laws of thought, I venture to
think that such statements would no longer be accepted.

If the views which I have expressed needed confirmation, they would to my
own mind derive it from the circumstance, that on applying to the original
proposition that "mathematical analysis of logic" to which H. C. K. refers
(not, I think, without a shade of scorn), it is resolved into the
elementary propositions, "trees exist," "flowers exist," _unconnected by
any sign_.

Let us take, as a second example, the proposition, "All trees are endogens
or exogens." If the subject, "all trees," is to be retained, there is, I
conceive, but one way in which the above proposition can mentally be
formed. We form the conception of that collection of things which comprises
endogens and exogens together, and we refer, by an act of judgment, "all
trees" to that collection. And thus _the subject "all trees," remaining
unchanged_, the conjunction "or" connects the terms of the predicate, as
the conjunction "and" in the previous example connected those of the
subject. I am prepared to show that this is the only view of the
proposition consistent with its strictly logical use. If H. C. K. insist
upon the resolution "any tree is an endogen, or it is an exogen," I would
ask him to define the word "it." He cannot interpret it as "any tree," for
the resolution would then be invalid. It must be applied to a _particular_
tree, and then the proposition resolved is really a "singular" one, and not
the proposition whose subject is "all trees."

Not only do conjunctions in certain cases couple words, but in so doing
they manifest the dominion of mental laws and the operation of mental
processes, which, though never yet recognised by grammarians and logicians,
form an indispensable part of the only basis upon which logic as a science
can rest. And however strange the assertion may appear, I do not hesitate
to affirm that the science thus established is a mathematical one. I do not
by this mean that its subject is the same as that of arithmetic or
geometry. It is not the _quantitative_ element to which the term is
intended to refer. But I hold, with, I believe, an increasing school of
mathematicians, that the processes of mathematics, as such, do not depend
upon the nature of the subjects to which they are applied, but upon the
nature of the laws to which those subjects, when they pass under the
dominion of human thought, become obedient. Now the ultimate laws of the
processes which are subsidiary to general reasoning, such as attention,
conception, abstraction, as well as of those processes which are more
immediately involved in inference, are such as to admit of perfect and
connected development in a mathematical form alone. We may indeed, without
any systematic investigation of those laws, collect together a system of
rules and canons, and investigate their common principle. This the genius
of Aristotle has done. But we cannot thus establish _general methods_.
Above all, {181} we cannot thus establish such methods as may really guide
us where the unassisted intellect would be lost amid the complexity or
subtlety of the combinations involved. How small, for instance, is the aid
which we derive from the ordinary doctrines of the logicians in questions
in which we have to consider the operation of mixed causes and in various
departments of statistical and social inquiry, in which the intellectual
difficulty is almost wholly a logical one.

For the ground upon which some of these statements are made, I must refer
to my recently-published work on the _Laws of Thought_. I trust to your
courtesy to insert these remarks, and apologise for the undesigned length
to which they have extended.


Queens College, Cork.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., p. 105.)

Robert, Earl of Moreton, and Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, the Conquerors uterine
brothers, both accompanied William, acting conspicuous parts on his
invasion of England in 1066. The former died about 1090. Odo had been
elected Bishop as far back as 1049. In 1088 he headed a conspiracy against
William II.; but being defeated at Rochester, retired to Normandy. The time
of his death is uncertain, but is supposed to have occurred in 1096.

The first notice of Robert Bloet's name, is as a witness to one of the
charters of William II. to the monastery of Durham, granted in 1088 or
1089. He was appointed Chancellor in 1090, consecrated Bishop of Lincoln in
1093, and died in 1123.

These dates plainly prove that he was not "identical" with Robert, Earl of
Moreton; and scarcely could be called cotemporary with him.

His supposed relationship to Odo is affirmed by Richardson, in his notes to
Goodwin _de Præsulibus_, from an expression in his grant of the manor of
Charleton to the priory of Bermondsey (Claud. A. 8., f. 118., MSS. Hutton);
in which he says, "quod pro salute animæ Dom. mei Willelmi Regis, et
_fratris mei_ Bajocens. Episcopi." If Odo be the Bishop here intended, the
meaning of "fratris mei" may be translated, not in the natural, but in the
episcopal sense, as brother of his order. But the grant is probably a
forgery, or its date of 1093 incorrect, for at that time Odo was in exile;
and Bloet would have scarcely ventured to insult the king, from whom he had
just received rewards and advancement, by coupling with his the name of one
who had been banished as a traitor.

For farther particulars, allow me to refer your correspondent MR. SANSOM to
_The Judges of England_, vol. i. p. 103.


       *       *       *       *       *


_A Hint to the Photographic Society._--It has been objected to this
Society, that beyond the establishment of its _Journal_, and the forming of
an Exhibition, it has done very little to promote the improvement of the
beautiful art it was specially intended to advance. Such objections are
very easily urged; but those who make them should at least propose a
remedy. It is in no unfriendly spirit that we allude to these complaints;
and we well know how difficult it is for a body like the Photographic
Society to take any important step which shall not be liable to
misconstruction. We would however suggest, that among those endeavours
which it would become the Society to make, there is one which might at once
be taken, namely, to secure for the photographic public a good paper. The
want of such an article is hourly felt. If the Photographic Society,
following the example of the _Society of Arts_, should appoint a Committee
to take this matter into consideration, to define clearly and unmistakeably
the essentials of a good _negative_ paper for calotypes (for perhaps it
would be well to keep to a _good negative_ paper), and offer a premium for
its production, a very short time would elapse before specimens of such an
article would be submitted for examination. It is clear that the premium
need be one only of small pecuniary value; for the fact of a maker having
produced such an article as should gain the prize, would secure him an
ample recompense in the enormous demand which would instantly arise for a
paper which should be stamped with the public approval of a body entitled
to speak with so much authority on such a subject as the Council of the
Photographic Society.

_Test for Nitrate of Silver._--The READER OF PHOTOGRAPHIC WORKS, who in
Vol. ix., p. 111., asked for information as to how he might know whether
nitrate of silver was pure, can detect any impurities with which that salt
is likely to be contaminated, by applying a few simple tests to an aqueous
solution of it. The impurities which nitrate of silver most frequently
contains are nitrate of copper, nitrate of potash, and free nitric acid. It
is also sometimes intentionally adulterated with nitrate of lead. The
presence of a salt of copper is detected by the solution assuming a blue
colour when mixed with an excess of ammonia. To detect nitrate of potash,
hydrochloric acid should be added to the solution in sufficient quantity to
precipitate the whole of the silver. The liquid should then be freed from
the precipitate by filtration, and evaporated; if nitrate of potash is
present, a fixed residue will remain after evaporation. The presence of a
salt of lead is detected by adding a few drops of sulphuric acid to the
solution of nitrate of silver, which precipitates the lead as sulphate if
present. It is, however, necessary to dilute the acid with a considerable
quantity of water, and, if any precipitate forms, to allow it to subside
previous to using it as a test for lead, as ordinary sulphuric acid is
frequently contaminated with sulphate of lead, which is soluble in the
strong, but not in dilute, acid.

Any free nitric acid in the nitrate of silver can be detected by the smell.
The crystals can be freed from {182} it, should they contain any, by fusing
them in a porcelain crucible over a spirit-lamp. The ordinary fused lunar
caustic of the surgeon is unfit for general use as a photographic agent.


_Professor Hunt's Photographic Studies._--My attention has just been
directed to a "Practical Photographic Query" in your Journal, Vol. ix., p.
41., which appears to require a reply from me. It is quite evident that
your correspondent, notwithstanding the personal respect which he professes
to entertain, cannot have any intimate knowledge of either my works or my
studies. Allow me to make my position clear to him and other of your
readers. My first photographic experiment dates from January 28, 1839, and
since that period the investigation of the _chemical phenomena of the solar
rays_ has been the constant employment of all the leisure which a busy life
has afforded me. The production of photographic pictures has never been the
ultimate object at which I have aimed, although my researches have caused
me to obtain thousands. My object has been, and is, to endeavour to obtain
some light into the mysteries of the radiant force with which the
photographic artist works, being quite content to leave the production of
beautiful images to other manipulators.

As I write on the subject, it appears, of course, necessary that I should
be familiar with all the details of manipulation in each process which I
may describe. Whenever I have mentioned, in either of my works, a process
with which I have not been entirely familiar, I have given the name of the
authority upon whom I have depended. But there will not be found in either
my _Photography_, or my _Researches on Light_ (of which a greatly enlarged
edition will soon be submitted to the public), any one process upon which I
have not made such experiments as appeared to me necessary to my
understanding the _rationale_ of the chemical changes involved, and of the
physical phenomena which arise.

Now, since it is not necessary to select a picturesque object to instruct
me in these points, the same buildings, trees, and plaster casts have been
copied times beyond number; and when the problem under examination has been
solved, these pictures have been destroyed.

There are twenty exhibitors of pictures in the Photographic Gallery who
would certainly leave my productions far behind, as it concerns their
pictorial character; but I am confident there is not one who has made the
philosophy of Photography so entirely his study as I have done.

I have been engaged for the last two years in studying the chemical action
of the prismatic spectrum. I inclose you my report on this subject to the
British Association for 1852 (that for 1853 is now in the hands of the
printer), from which you will perceive that I am employing myself to
greater advantage to photography, as science under art, than I should be
did I enter the lists with those who catch the beauties of external nature
on their sensitive tablets, and secure for themselves and others pictures
drawn by the solar pencil, in which no one can more deeply delight than
your humble servant.


_Waxed-paper Pictures._--Will your correspondents or yourself do me the
favour to say, how such beautiful pictures have been produced and exhibited
by Mr. Fenton and others by the waxed-paper medium, if that process be so
bad and defective? When I have followed it, and exercised consistent
patience, I have ever produced pleasing and faithful results. That when
parties do not themselves prepare, it becomes expensive, I am willing to
admit; but I am inclined to attribute many failures to the uncertain heat
of hot irons, which _must_ vary; and I make this fact known to you as the
result of my own observation on many sheets: added to which, defective
manipulation, or impure chemicals, must not be allowed to do away with its
having much merit.


_The Double Iodide Solution._--In a note appended to DR. MANSELL'S
communication on the calotype (Vol. ix., p. 134.), you state that having
lately prepared the double iodide solution according to the formula given
by DR. DIAMOND, in which it required 650 grains of iodide of potassium to
dissolve a 60-grain precipitate, you were inclined to believe, until you
made the experiment yourself, that DR. MANSELL must have made a wrong
calculation as to the quantity of iodide of potassium (680 grains) which he
stated was sufficient to dissolve a 100-grain precipitate, as the
difference appeared so small for a solution more than one-third stronger.

The small difference referred to with respect to the quantity of iodide of
potassium required, is owing to the amount of water used being in both
cases the same. A slight difference in the strength of a solution of iodide
of potassium makes a great difference with respect to the quantity of
iodide of silver it is capable of dissolving. Thus, if you remove a small
proportion of the water from a solution of the double iodide of silver by
evaporation, the slight increase of strength which the solution will
thereby acquire, will enable it to take up a much larger proportion of
iodide of silver than it already contains; and if, on the other hand, you
dilute it with a small proportion of water, its diminished strength (unless
the solution contains a great excess of iodide of potassium) will cause the
precipitation of a large proportion of the iodide of silver. And hence the
great variation in the amount of iodide of potassium which is found
requisite to form a solution of the double iodide of silver, under the same
apparent conditions with regard to the proportions of the other ingredients
employed, may be accounted for by the impossibility of _measuring_ off with
sufficient accuracy the proper proportion of water.

Whenever _exact_ quantities of liquids are required, recourse should always
be had to the balance, for no great accuracy can be depended upon by
measurement with our ordinary glass measures, even supposing them to be
correctly graduated, which is not always the case.


_Dr. Mansell's Process._--DR. MANSELL'S lucid and very practical paper on
the calotype process in "N. & Q." must, I am sure, be of the greatest
service to photographers in general; and as one of the many I am
irresistibly tempted to offer my sincere and hearty {183} thanks to him for
the truly valuable hints it contains. If DR. MANSELL will give the
rationale of the necessity of not allowing a longer time than absolutely
required for the soaking out the now injurious iodide of potassium, set
free by the deposit of the iodide of silver; and also, an explanation of
the cause of that part of the iodized papers which takes the longest time
in drying being weaker than that part which had been more hastily dried,
the learned Doctor will still be adding to our present account of
obligation to him.


       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Buonaparte's Abdication_ (Vol. ix., p. 54.).--In an article on this
subject, after referring to Wilkinson's shop on Ludgate Hill, your
correspondent states that "Wilkinson's shop does not now exist." In justice
to ourselves, we trust you will insert this letter, as such a remark may be
prejudicial to us. Having sold our premises on Ludgate Hill to the Milton
Club, we have removed our establishment to No. 8. Old Bond Street,

As regards the table spoken of, your informant must be labouring under some
strange error. We do not remember ever having, or pretending to have, the
original table on which the Emperor Napoleon signed his abdication. Many
years ago, a customer of ours lent us a table with some such plate as you
describe, which he had had made abroad from the original, for us to copy
from; and after this we made and sold several, but only as copies. We
cannot charge our memory with the correctness of the inscription you
publish; and, moreover, we believe the words "a fac-simile," or something
to that effect, were engraved as a heading to those made by us.


8. Old Bond Street.

    [We willingly give insertion to this disclaimer from so respectable a
    firm as MESSRS. WILKINSON & SONS; from which it appears that our
    correspondent A CANTAB has not made "when found, a _correct_ note" of
    the fac-simile. Another correspondent has favoured us with the
    following additional notices of the original table: "On Dec. 8, 1838, I
    saw the table on which Napoleon signed his abdication at the Chateau of
    Fontainebleau, on which there are two scratches or incisures said to
    have been made by him with a penknife. These injuries upon the surface
    of the table were so remarkable as to attract my attention, and I
    inquired about them of the attendant. He said Napoleon, when excited or
    irritated, was in the habit of handling and using anything which lay
    beside him, perhaps to allay mental agitation; and that he was
    considered to have so used a penknife, and disfigured the table."]

_Burton Family_ (Vol. ix., p. 19.).--I know not whether E. H. A. is
interested about the Burtons of Shropshire. If he is, he will find an
interesting account of them in _A Commentary on Antoninus his Itinerary,
&c. of the Roman Empire, so far as it concerneth Britain_, &c.: London,
1658, p. 136.


_Drainage by Machinery_ (Vol. viii., p. 493.).--E. G. R. will perhaps find
what he wants on this subject in Walker's

    "Essay on Draining Land by the Steam Engine; showing the number of
    Acres that may be drained by each of Six different-sized Engines, with
    Prime Cost and Annual Outgoings: London, 1813, 8vo., price 1s. 6d."

He will find a complete history of the drainage of the English fens in Sir
William Dugdale's

    "History of Embanking and Draining of divers Fens and Marshes, both in
    Foreign Parts and in this Kingdom, and of the Improvement thereby:
    adorned with sundry Maps, &c. London, 1662, fol. A New Edition, with
    three Indices to the principal Matters, Names, and Places, by Charles
    Nelson Cole, Esq.: London, 1772, fol."

Mr. Samuel Wells published, in 1830, in 2 vols. 8vo., a complete history of
the Bedford Level, accompanied by a map; and I may add that the late Mr.
Grainger, C.E., read a series of papers on the draining of the Haarlem Lake
to the Society of Arts in Edinburgh, which, I believe, were never
published, but which may, perhaps, be accessible to E. G. R.


_Nattochiis and Calchanti_ (Vol. ix., pp. 36. 84.).--The former of these
words being sometimes spelt _natthocouks_ in the same deed, shows the
ignorance or carelessness of the scribe, the reading being clearly corrupt;
I would suggest _cottagiis_, cottages, and by "g^anis" I should understand
not _granis_, as F.S.A. supposes, but _gardinis_, gardens. The line will
then run thus:

 "Cum omnibus gardinis et cottagiis adjacentibus."

It will be seen that this differs from the solution proposed by MR. THRUPP
(p. 84.).

With respect to the latter word, _calchanti_, I regret that I cannot offer
a satisfactory solution. Possibly the word intended may have been
_calcanthi_, copperas, vitriol, or the water of copper or brass; but I find
in the _Index Alter_ of Ainsworth, the word--

    "CALECANTUM. A kind of earth like salt, of a binding nature. _Puto pro
    Chalcanthum, Vitriol, L._"

Will this tally with the circumstances of the case? I presume that the
words _liquor_, _mineral_, &c., following _calchanti_ in the grant, are
contractions for the genitive plural of those words; the subject of the
grant being the tithes of all those substances.

H. P.

Lincoln's Inn.


_"One while I think," &c._ (Vol. ix., p. 76.).--These lines will be found
in _The Synagogue_, p. 41., by Christopher Hervie.


_"Spires 'whose silent finger points to heaven'"_ (Vol. ix., pp. 9.
85.).--F. R. M., M.A., seems not to have observed that Wordsworth marks
this line as a quotation; and in the note upon it (_Excursion_, 373.) gives
the poetical passage in _The Friend_, whence he took it, thus acknowledging
Coleridge to be the author. The passage is not to be found in the modern
edition of _The Friend_, by the reference in Wordsworth's note to "_The
Friend_, No. 14. p. 223." I presume that _The Friend_ was originally
published in numbers, and that it is to that publication Wordsworth refers.
This is not simply the case, as F. R. M., M.A., suggests, of two authors
using the same idea, but of one also honestly acknowledging his debt to the
other. The idea is of much older date than the prose of Coleridge, or the
verse of Wordsworth. Milton, in his Epitaph on Shakspeare, has:

 "Under a star y-pointing pyramid."

Prior has the following line:

 "These pointed spires that wound the ambient sky."
                      Prior's _Poems_: Power, vol. iii. p. 94.,
                          Edin. 1779.

In Shakspeare we find:

 "Yon towers, whose wanton tops do buss the clouds."
                      _Troilus and Cressida_, Act IV. Sc. 5.

The idea is traceable in Virgil's description of "Fame" or "Rumour" in the
4th Æneid:

 "... caput inter nubila condit."


_Dr. Eleazar Duncon_ (Vol. ix., p. 56.).--D. D. will find some mention of
Dr. Duncon in a correspondence between Sir Edward Hyde and Bishop Cosin,
printed among the _Clarendon State Papers_ (ed. Oxford, vol. iii., append.
pp. ci. cii. ciii.), from which it appears that, in 1655, Dr. Duncon was at
_Saumur_; where also Dr. Monk Duncan, a Scotch physician, was a professor
(Conf. note _a_, p. 375. of Cosin's _Works_, vol. iv., as published in the
Anglo-Catholic Library). I regret that I cannot furnish D. D. with the when
and where of Dr. Duncon's death.


_"Marriage is such a rabble rout"_ (Vol. iii., p. 263.).--

 "Marriage is such a rabble rout,
  That those that are out would fain get in,
  And those that are in would fain get out."

I do not think it is against the rules of "N. & Q." for any Querist to put
a _rider_ on any of his own Queries. In a volume entitled _The Poetical
Rhapsody_, by Francis Davidson, edited, with memoirs and notes, by Nicholas
H. Nicolas, London, Pickering, 1826, under the head of "A Contention
betwixt a Wife, a Widow, and a Maid," p. 21., occur the following lines:

 "_Widow._ Marriage is a continual feast.

  _Maid._ Wedlock, indeed, hath oft compared been
  To public feasts, where meet a public rout,
  Where they that are without would fain go in,
  And they that are within would fain go out," &c.

This piece is signed "Sir John Davis."


_Cambridge Mathematical Questions_ (Vol. ix., p. 35.).--IOTA is informed
that the questions set at the examination for honours, are annually
published in the _Cambridge University Calendar_. He should consult the
back volumes of that work, which he will probably find in any large
provincial library.

These questions, with solutions at length, are also annually published by
the Moderators and Examiners in one quarto volume. All the Senate House
examination papers are annually published by the editor of the _Cambridge
Chronicle_, in a supplement to one of the January numbers of that


P.S.--As I write from memory, I may have been guilty of some slight
inaccuracy in details.

I think the _Cambridge University Calendar_ will contain all the
mathematical questions proposed in the Senate House for the period
mentioned. Those from 1801 to 1820 inclusively were also published by Black
and Armstrong (Lond. 1836), to accompany the revised edition of Wright's
solutions. The problems from 1820 to 1829 inclusive are reprinted in vol.
v. of Leybourne's _Mathematical Repository_, new series, and in vol. vi.
those for 1830 and 1831 are given. In 1849 the Rev. A. H. Frost arranged
and published the questions proposed in 1838 to 1849. Perhaps this may be
found satisfactory.


_Reversible Masculine Names_ (Vol. viii., pp. 244. 655.).--If you allow
_Bob_, you cannot object to _Lol_, the short for _Laurence_. Lord Glenelg
and the Hebrew abba will not perhaps be held cases in point, but _Nun_,
_Asa_, and _Gog_, and probably many other Scripture names, may be
instanced; and _Odo_ and _Otto_ from profane history, as well as the
Peruvian Capac.

P. P.

_The Man in the Moon_ (Vol. vi., pp. 61. 182. 232. 424.).--

    "As for the forme of those spots, some of the vulgar thinke they
    represent a man, and the poets guesse 'tis _the boy Endymion_, whose
    company shee loves so well, that shee carries him with her; others will
    have it onely to be the face of a man as the moone is usually pictured;
    but Albertus thinkes rather that it represents {185} _a lyon_, with his
    taile towards the east and his head to the west; and some others
    (Eusebius, Nieremb. _Hist. Nat._, lib. VIII. c. xv.) have thought it to
    be very much like a _fox_, and certainly 'tis as much like a lyon as
    that in the zodiake, or as Ursa Major is like a beare.... It may be
    probable enough that those spots and brighter parts may show the
    distinction betwixt the sea and land in that other world."--Bishop
    Wilkin's _Discovery of a New World_, 3rd. edit., Lond. 1640, p. 100.

 "Does the _Man in the Moon_ look big,
  And wear a huger periwig;
  Show in his gait, or face, more tricks
  Than our own native lunatics?"
                  _Hudibras_, pt. II. c. iii. 767.

To judge from his physiognomy, one would say the Man in the Moon was a
_Chinese_, or native of the Celestial Empire.


_Arms of Richard, King of the Romans_ (Vol. viii., p. 653.).--With
respectful submission to MR. NORRIS DECK, and notwithstanding his ingenious
conjecture that the charges on the border are pois, and the seal which he
mentions in his last communication, I think the evidence that the border
belongs to Cornwall, and not to Poictou, is perfectly conclusive.

1. The fifteen bezants in a sable field have been time out of mind regarded
as the arms of Cornwall, and traditionally (but of course without
authority) ascribed to Cadoc, or Caradoc, a Cornish prince of the fifth
century. They occur in juxtaposition with the garbes of Chester, upon some
of the great seals of England, and I think also upon the tomb of Queen
Elizabeth; and they are, to the present day, printed or engraved on the
mining leases of the duchy.

2. Bezants on sable are extremely frequent in the arms of Cornish families;
but crowned lions rampant gules do not occur in a single instance of which
I am aware, except in the arms of families named Cornwall, who are known or
presumed to be descended from this Richard, and bear his arms with sundry
differences. Bezants on sable are borne (_e.g._) by Bond, Carlyon,
Chamberlayne, Cole, Cornwall (by some without the lion), Killegrew,
Saint-Aubyn, Treby, Tregyan (with a crowned eagle sable, holding a sword),
Treiago, and Walesborough, all of Cornwall; and it is to be remarked that
bezants are not a common bearing in other parts of England, especially not
on sable.

3. When Roger Valtorte married Joan, daughter of Reginald de Dunstanville
(who was natural son of Henry I., and Earl of Cornwall nearly a century
before Richard, King of the Romans, but never Earl of Poictou), he added to
his paternal arms a border sable bezantée.

This is but a small portion of the evidence which might be adduced; but it
is, I think, quite enough to justify the statements of Sylvanus Morgan,
Sandford, Mr. Lower, and others, that the bezants pertain not to Poictou,
but to Cornwall.

H. G.

_Brothers with the same Christian Name_ (Vol. viii., pp. 338. 478.).--If
your various correspondents, who adduce instances of two brothers in
families having the same Christian names (both brothers being alive), will
consult Lodge's _Peerage_ for 1853, they will find the names of the sons of
the Marquis of Ormonde thus stated:

    "James Edward Wm. Theobald, Earl of Ossory, born Oct. 5, 1844.

    "Lord James Hubert Henry Thomas, born Aug. 20, 1847.

    "Lord James Arthur Wellington Foley, born Sept. 23, 1849.

    "Lord James Theobald Bagot John, born Aug. 6, 1852."

The Christian name of the late Marquis was James; and whichever of his
grandsons shall succeed the present possessor of the title, will bear the
same Christian name as the late peer.


_Arch-priest in the Diocese of Exeter_ (Vol. ix., p. 105.).--Haccombe is
doubtless the parish in the diocese of Exeter, where MR. W. FRASER will
find the arch-priest about whom he is inquiring. Haccombe is a small
parish, having two houses in it, the manor-house of the Carew family and
the parsonage. It is said that, by a grant from the crown, in consequence
of services done by an ancestor of the Carews, this parish received certain
privileges and exemptions, one of which was that the priest of Haccombe
should be exempt from all ordinary spiritual jurisdiction. Hence the title
of arch-priest, and that of chorepiscopus, which the priests of Haccombe
have claimed, and perhaps sometimes received. The incumbent of Bibury, in
Gloucestershire, used to claim similar titles, and like exemption from
spiritual jurisdiction.


Since sending my Query on this subject, I have obtained the following
information. The Rectory of Haccombe, which is a peculiar one, in the
diocese of Exeter, gives to its incumbent for the time being the dignity of
arch-priest of the diocese. The arch-priest wears lawn sleeves, and on all
occasions takes precedence after the bishop. The late rector, the Rev. T.
C. Carew, I am told, constantly officiated in lawn sleeves attached to an
A. M. gown, and took the precedence due to his spiritual rank as
arch-priest of the diocese. The present arch-priest and Rector of Haccombe
is the Rev. Fitzwilliam J. Taylor. Does such an office, or rather dignity,
exist in any other case in the Anglican Church?




_"Horam coram dago"_ (Vol. ix., p. 58.).--Your correspondent [Sigma]. is
probably thinking of Burns' lines "Written in a wrapper, inclosing a letter
to Captain Grose," &c.:

 "Ken ye aught o' Captain Grose?
    Igo et ago,
  If he's among his friends or foes,
    _Iram, coram, dago_."

It is not very likely, however, that this should be the first appearance of
this "burden," any more than of "Fal de ral," which Burns gives to other
pieces both before and after this. It may have a meaning (as I believe one
has been found for "Lilliburlero," &c.), but I should think it more likely
to be sheer _gibberish_.

By the way, how comes _burden_ to be used in the sense of "chorus or
refrain?" I believe we have the authority of Shakspeare for so doing.

 "Foot it featly here and there
  And let the rest the burden bear?"

Is it the _bourdon_, or big drone? Certainly the chorus could not "bear a
burden," in the sense of _hard work_, even before the time of Hullah.


In Chambers' _Scottish Songs_, Edinburgh, 1829, p. 273. is a piece

 "And was you e'er in Crail toun?
    _Igo and ago_;
  And saw ye there clerk Fishington?
    Sing _irom, igon, ago_."

And in _Blackwood_ for Jan. 1831 ("Noctes Ambrosianæ, No. 53.") is "A
Christmas Carol in honour of Maga, sung by the Contributors," which begins

 "When Kit North is dead,
    What will Maga do, Sir?
  She must go to bed,
    And like him die too, Sir!
      Fal de ral de ral,
        _Iram coram dago_;
      Fal de ral de ral,
        Here's success to Maga!"

I suspect that the "chorus or refrain" of the first of these ditties
suggested that of the second; and that _this_ is the song which was running
in your contributor's head.

J. C. R.

    [We are also indebted to S. WMSON, F. CROSSLEY, E. H., R. S. S., and J.
    SS. for similar replies. See Burns' _Works_, edit. 1800, vol. iv. p.
    399., and edit. Glasgow, 1843, vol. i. p. 113.]

_Children by one Mother_ (Vol. v., p. 126.).--In reply to the Query, "If
there be any well-authenticated instance of a woman having had more than
twenty-five children," I can furnish you with what I firmly believe to be
such an instance. The narrator was a relative of my late wife, a man of the
very highest character in the City of London for many years, and formerly
clerk to the London Bridge (Old) Water Works, a mark by which he may
possibly be recognised by some of your readers. I have heard him relate,
that once, as he was travelling into Essex, he met with a very respectable
woman, apparently a farmer's wife, who during the journey several times
expressed an anxious desire to reach home, which induced my informant at
length to inquire the cause of so great an anxiety. Her reply was, "Indeed,
Sir, if you knew, you would not wonder at it." When, upon his jocularly
saying, "Surely she could have no cause for so much desire to reach home,"
she said farther, that "The number of her children was the cause, for that
she had _thirty_ children, it having pleased God to give to her and her
husband fifteen boys; and because they were much dissatisfied at having no
girl, in order to punish their murmuring and discontent, He was pleased
farther to send them fifteen girls."

I. R. R.

_Parochial Libraries_ (Vol. viii. _passim_).--In the small village of
Halton, Cheshire, there is a small public library, of no inconsiderable
extent and importance, founded in 1733 by Sir John Chesshyre, Knight, of
Hallwood in that county. Of the works comprised in the collection, the
following may be selected as best worthy of mention: Dugdale's
_Monasticon_, Rymer's _Foedera_, Walton's _Polyglot_, and a host of
standard ecclesiastical authors, interspersed with modern additions of more
general interest. The curate for the time being officiates as librarian;
the books being preserved in a small stone building set apart for the
purpose, in the vicinity of his residence. Over the door is the following

         "Hanc Bibliothecam,
     pro communi literatorum usu,
   sub cura curati capellæ de Halton
  proventibus ter feliciter augmentatæ,
     serviens D'ni Regis ad legem,
               D. D. D.
          Anno MDCCXXXIII."

Sir John, the founder, was buried at Runcorn, where a monument exists to
his memory, bearing the following epitaph at its foot:

 "A wit's a feather, and a chief's a rod,
  An honest man's the noblest work of God."

The parishes of Stoke Damarel, Devon, and of St. James the Great,
Devonport, have each their parochial library: the former commenced in 1848,
by the Rev. W. B. Flower, late curate of the parish; and the latter by the
Rev. W. B. Killpack, the first incumbent of the district.




       *       *       *       *       *


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Notices to Correspondents.

_We are this week compelled to omit our usual_ NOTES ON BOOKS. &c.

DR. RIMBAULT _on_ Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy, _and_ MR. LAMMIN'S _Paper
on_ Grammont, _in our next Number._

JAMES SAMUELS _will find full particulars of the legend of_ The Wandering
Jew _in_ Die Sage vom Ewigen Juden, _by Grässe, Dresden, 1844._

THOMAS Q. COUCH _is thanked for his Cornish legends. He will, however, find
that of the Mole in our_ Second Vol., p. 225.; _and that of the Owl, in
the_ Variorum Shakspeare _and other works._

CABAL.--_Our Correspondent on the origin of this word is referred to_ "N. &
Q.," Vol. iv., pp. 413. 507.; Vol v., pp. 139, 520., _where he will find
enough to satisfy him that it was not formed from the initials of the five
chief ministers of Charles II._

W. _The date of the consecration the old St. Pancras Church has hitherto
baffled research. The question was asked in our_ Second Volume, p. 496. _We
doubt whether any drawing of the original structure is extant._

_The numerous articles on_ PHOTOGRAPHY _already in type compel us to
postpone until next week several other valuable papers._

_Errata._--Vol. ix., p. 59., 8th line in translation from Sheridan, for
"victâ marte" read "victâ mente;" p. 138., 1st line, for "Erie" read

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       *       *       *       *       *



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