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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 137, June 12, 1852 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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Libraries)



{553}

NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *


Vol. V.--No. 137.]
SATURDAY, JUNE 5. 1852
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


CONTENTS.

  NOTES:--                                                    Page
   John Goodwin's Six Booksellers' Proctor nonsuited, by
    James Crossley                                             553

  Mr. Collier's Folio Shakspeare: A Passage in "As You Like
    It," by Samuel Hickson                                     554

  Notes on Books, No. III.--Laurence Humphrey, President of
    Magdalen College, Oxford, and Dean of Winchester, by
    S. W. Singer                                               554

  Scoto-Gallicisms                                             555

  On a Passage in "Cymbeline," Act IV. Sc. 2., by
    S. W. Singer                                               556

  Old Concert Bill, by Dr. E. F. Rimbault                      556

  Minor Notes:--Note for Mr. Worsaae--Singular Epitaph-
    -Largesse--Brogue and Fetch--Taibhse--Derivation of
    "Caul"--"Pandecte," an entire Copy of the Bible            557

  QUERIES:--

  Boy Bishop at Eton                                           557

  "Speculum Christianorum multa bona continens,"
    W. Sparrow Simpson                                         558

  Massacre of the Welsh Bards                                  558

  Minor Queries:--Portrait of William Combe--"Quod non
    fecerunt barbari," &c.--Lines on English History--
    Windows--Angel-beast; Cleek; Longtriloo--Royal Arms in
    Churches--"Cease, rude Boreas"--Pictorial Proverbs--
    Inscription on George Inn, Wansted--Learned Man
    referred to by Rogers--Mormonism and Spalding's
    Romance--Carrs or Calves--Stoup--Casper Ziegler and
    the Diaconate--Inscription at Persepolis--"I do not
    know what the truth may be"--Twittens--Clapper Gate--
    Jemmy--Muffs worn by Gentlemen                             558

  REPLIES:--

  St. Patrick, by D. Rock, &c.                                 561

  Nashe's "Terrors of the Night"                               562

  Serjeant's Rings                                             563

  The Old Countess of Desmond                                  564

  A few Things about Richard Baxter, by Cuthbert Bede          565

  St. Botulph                                                  566

  Sir Richard Pole, the Father of Cardinal Pole                567

  Proclamations to prohibit the Use of Coal, by F. Somner
    Merryweather                                               568

  Ralph Winterton                                              569

  Replies to Minor Queries:--Family of Bullen--Wallington's
    Journal--The Amber Witch--Twyford--The Ring Finger--
    Brass of Lady Gore--Gospel Trees--"Who from the dark
    and doubtful love to run"--Son of the Conqueror; Walter
    Tyrrel--Sir Gilbert Gerrard--Fides Carbonarii--Line on
    Franklin--Meaning of Royd as an Addition to Yorkshire
    Names--Binnacle--Plague Stones--Ramasshed--Yankee
    Doodle--"Chords that vibrate," &c.--Derivation of
    Martinique--Anthony Babington, &c.                         569

  MISCELLANEOUS:--

  Notes on Books, &c.                                          574

  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                 575

  Notices to Correspondents                                    575

  Advertisements                                               575

       *       *       *       *       *


Notes.

JOHN GOODWIN'S SIX BOOKSELLERS' PROCTOR NONSUITED.

The London booksellers of the present day (good harmless men!) are
satisfied with endeavouring to put down heresies as to discounts. Their
predecessors, in the year 1655, set to work in good earnest, associated to
purify the faith by denouncing in an Index expurgatorius, under the
alarming titles of _A Beacon set on Fire_, and _A Second Beacon set on
Fire_, all publications of a blasphemous, heretical, or improper kind. Six
booksellers, viz. Luke Fawne, Samuel Gellibrand, Joshua Kirton, John
Rothwell, Thomas Underhill, and Nathaniel Webb, took the lead on the
occasion; and the battle waxed hot and fierce between them and the
apologists of the books condemned. Amongst the latter was the famous John
Goodwin, whose part in the controversy Mr. Jackson, in his elaborate Life
of him, has adverted to, and has noticed his pamphlet entitled _The High
Presbyterian Spirit_, written in answer to the _Second Beacon Fired_. John
Goodwin, however, published a second pamphlet in the same controversy,
neither noticed by Mr. Jackson, nor any one else that I am aware of, in
which he finishes up his first charge upon the unfortunate booksellers, and
lays on them with a vigour and determination that it does one good to see
so well bestowed, scattering their arguments and quotations to the winds,
and sending them back to their proper occupation of printing and
publishing, instead of clipping and suppressing. The title of this very
rare pamphlet, which is to be found in vol. xviii. of a collection of
tracts (between 1640 and 1660) in ninety-six vols. 4to., made by President
Bradshaw, and containing many of his MS. notes and observations now in my
possession, is as follows:

    "Six Booksellers' Proctor Nonsuited, wherein the gross Falsifications
    and Untruths, together with the inconsiderate and weak Passages found
    in the Apologie for the said Booksellers, are briefly noted and
    evicted. And the said Booksellers proved so unworthy both in their
    Second Beacon Fired, and likewise in their Epistle written in Defence
    of it, that they are out of the Protection of any Christian or
    reasonable Apologie for either. By J. G., a Minister of the Gospel of
    {554} Jesus Christ. London printed for H. Cripps and L. Lloyd, 1655,
    4to., pages 23."

I might give an extract or two from this very interesting tract, but do not
wish to trespass too much upon your space. Perhaps, next to Milton, there
is no writer of the time of the Commonwealth equal to John Goodwin, in
power and elevation of composition; and I am glad therefore to be able to
add one more to the series of his pamphlets which his biographer has with
so much industry and research enumerated at the close of the Life.

JAS. CROSSLEY.

       *       *       *       *       *

MR. COLLIER'S FOLIO SHAKSPEARE: A PASSAGE IN "AS YOU LIKE IT."

It appears to me so obvious that the degree of authority to be conceded to
each particular correction or emendation in Mr. Collier's folio Shakspeare
must depend in a great measure on the general character of the proposed
alterations throughout the work, that I cannot help thinking it would be
desirable to reserve all controversy on such points until after the
appearance of the promised volume. Such a resolution I made for myself, and
to it I shall religiously adhere. This much only I shall say, that, of the
specimens given by Mr. Collier in the _Athenæum_,--sufficient at once to
excite interest and to gratify curiosity,--some of the corrections appear
to be of that nature that no conjecture could have supplied, while all are
good enough to command a deferential consideration.

Your correspondent A. E. B. has attempted a defence of the original reading
of two passages amended in Mr. Collier's folio. For the reason above given
I shall neither answer your correspondent, nor even say whether I think him
right or wrong; but it will not be overstepping the bounds I have
prescribed myself, if I take up a collateral point he has raised in
reference to one of these passages. To strengthen the case for the reading
of the passage in _Cymbeline_, Act III. Sc. 4., "Whose mother was her
painting," he cites a passage from _As You Like It_, Act III. Sc. 5., in
which he says, "_mother_ is directly used as a sort of warranty of female
beauty!" Here is the passage:

             "Who might be your mother,
  That you insult, exult, and all at once,
  Over the wretched?"

Shakspeare was, if I am not mistaken, one of those persons to whom a
_mother_ was, as some one expresses it, "the holiest thing alive." He
concentrates this sentiment in the words of Troilus (_Troilus and
Cressida_, Act V. Sc. 2.):

 "Let it not be believ'd for womanhood:
  Think we had mothers."

And again, in those of Palamon (which I have no doubt are Shakspeare's) in
the _Two Noble Kinsmen_, Act V. Sc. 1.:

                 "I have been harsh
  To large confessors, and have hotly ask'd them
  If they had mothers? I had one, a woman,
  And women t'were they wrong'd."

Now it seems to me that the same feeling is implied in Rosalind's reproof
to Phebe; and that there is no ground whatever for saying that _mother_ is
used as a warranty for _female beauty_, but rather as one for feminine
qualities. Rosalind in effect says, "who might your mother be that you
should be so unfeeling?" And, as she tells her plainly she sees no beauty
in her, it is clearly to be inferred that it must have been for some other
quality that her mother was to be "warranty." Rosalind, in other words,
might have said, "Had you a mother, a woman, that you can so discredit the
character of womanhood as to exult, insult and all at once, over the
wretched?"

It might however be contended, that Rosalind's question referred to the
rank, condition, or personal appearance of the mother. The latter only
bears upon this question; and with regard to that it may be said, that if
beauty had been transmitted to the daughter (independently of the
questioner having decided _that_ it had not), the question was not needed.
Rosalind, in short, seeks for a better cause for Phebe's pride or want of
feeling than her own insufficient attractions, in the nature or quality of
her mother. It will be observed that, in this view, I have conceded that
_who_ may be taken with something of the signification of _what_; but the
answer to the question, taken strictly, must be the name of some individual
who might be known to the Querist, and be in some measure a warranty for
the disposition of the daughter, though for no personal beauty but her own.

SAMUEL HICKSON.

       *       *       *       *       *

NOTES ON BOOKS, NO. III.--LAURENCE HUMPHREY, PRESIDENT OF MAGDALEN COLLEGE,
OXFORD, AND DEAN OF WINCHESTER.

In the year 1558 a handsome volume was printed at Basle, in folio in Greek,
by Jerome Frobenius and Nicholas Episcopius, with the following title:

    "[Greek: KERAS AMALTHEIAS, Ê ÔKEANOS. TÔN EXÊGÊSEÔN ÔMÊRIKÔN, ek tôn
    tou Eustatheiou parekbolôn sunêrmosmenôn]--_i.e._ Copiæ Cornu sive
    Oceanus Enarrationum Homericarum, ex Eustathii in eundem commentariis
    concinnatarum, Hadriano Junio autore."

To an Oxford man, independent of its merit as a compendium of the prolix
comment of Eustathius, this volume should be especially interesting, on
account of the prefatory dissertation "Ad {555} Magdalinenses," entitled
_De Græcis Literis et Homeri Lectione et Imitatione_, by Laurence Humphrey.
This worthy was sometime Greek reader in the university, but went abroad on
account of religion at the accession of Queen Mary, and did not return
until happier times after her death. He seems to have been living at Basle
with Frobenius and Episcopius _in honestissimo loco_, but he could not
avoid often thinking of his native land,--of Newport-Pagnell in Bucks,
where he was born,--of Cambridge, where he received the rudiments of Latin
and Greek,--but more especially of Oxford, where he completed his
education. His feeling panegyric of his Alma Mater, shows him to have been
at least one of her grateful sons. The dissertation is highly creditable to
him, considering the period at which it was written; and the passage in
which he gives an account of the work is not devoid of interest.

    "For the rest we give not Homer alone, but the Expositor Eustathius is
    subjoined. Yet not entire but reduced into a compendium by a man of
    untiring labour and noble learning--Hadrian Junius, not unknown to
    you,--for he lived some time in England, dedicated his Greek Lexicon to
    our royal Edward the Sixth, and has since published the _Annals of
    Queen Mary_, his _Animadversiones_, and _Centuries Adagiorum_, which
    issued from the press of Frobenius: he also effected this good work.
    Therefore although I had rather have the whole of Eustathius than the
    half, and to say the truth Epitomies never pleased me, yet because this
    author is prolix, and difficult to meet with, this perfect compendium
    of such an estimable work (which seems to me to be the best
    interpreter, poetical-elucidator, Greek lexicon, and onomasticon), will
    be useful to any one. I recommend, then, our Eustathio-Junian Homer to
    you."

In 1560 Laurence Humphrey seems to have been still at Basle; for in that
year he printed at the press of Oporinus, in 12mo., a work which he
dedicates to Queen Elizabeth, entitled _Optimates, sive de Nobilitate,
ejusque Antiqua Origine, Natura, Officiis, disciplina, et recta Christiana
Institutione_; at the end of which he printed the argument of Philo-Judæus,
[Greek: peri eugeneias], with a Latin version. This found favour in the
eyes of an English translator, and it was printed at London by Thomas
Marshe in 1563, 16mo., under the following title:--

    "The Nobles, or of Nobilitye. The original, duties, ryght, and
    Christian Institucion thereof, in three Bookes. Fyrste eloquentlye
    written in Latine by Laurence Humphrey, D. of Divinity and Presidente
    of Magdaleine College in Oxforde, lately Englished. Whereto, for the
    reader's commoditye and matters affinitye, is coupled the small
    treatyse of Philo a Jewe. By the same Author out of Greek Latined, now
    also Englished."

Antony à Wood gives a list of the writings of Laurence Humphrey, among
which is a life of Bishop Jewell in Latin: he also speaks highly of his
scholarship and proficiency in theology. After his return from abroad he
became Regius Professor of Divinity at Oxford, and President of his
college. In 1570 he was made Dean of Gloucester, and ten years afterward
Dean of Winchester. His divinity was strongly tinctured with Calvinism, but
he was a zealous and able defender of the Reformation. His death occurred
in 1589-90.

S. W. SINGER.

       *       *       *       *       *

SCOTO-GALLICISMS.

The following list of Scottish words derived from the French language is
chiefly taken from the pages of the _Scottish Journal_, a small weekly
periodical, published at Edinburgh, which came to a conclusion, after
rather less than a year's existence, in the summer of 1848. It is generally
supposed that most of these words were introduced during the time of Queen
Mary's minority, when French troops were sent to Scotland; but the first
appearance of some of them may unquestionably be referred to an earlier
period. Perhaps some of the readers of "N. & Q." may be able to communicate
other examples, which, however, as a reference to Jamieson's _Scottish
Dictionary_ will show, are by no means very numerous.

    _Aschet._ A large flat plate for meat. Fr. Assiette, a trencher plate.

    _Aumrie_ or _Almerie_. A cupboard; also, a place in churches and
    monasteries where the sacred vessels and alms were deposited.
    (_Dunbar._) Fr. Armoire, aumonerie.

    _Braw_ or _Bra'_. Fine, handsome, gaily dressed. (_Burns._) Fr. Brave.

    _Bonaillie._ A parting glass with a friend going a journey.
    (_Wallace._) Fr. Bon allez.

    _Butterie Bejan_ (or _Bajan_). A term applied to a "freshman," or
    student of the first year, at the Universities of St. Andrews and
    Aberdeen. Fr. Butor, a booby or clod; and Bejaune, a novice. (Lamont's
    _Diary_, p. 114., note.)

    _Certie_, _Certy--By my._ By my troth. Fr. Certes, certainly.

    _Cummer_ or _Kimmer_. A gossip. (_Kelly._) Fr. Commère.

    _Dour._ Hard or obstinate. (_Douglas._) Fr. Dur.

    _Fasheous._ Troublesome. (_Baillie._) Fr. Facheux, facheuse.

    _Flunkie._ A livery servant. Old Fr. Flanchier; same signification as
    henchman (haunchman). (_Quart. Rev._, vol. lxxix. p. 344.)

    _Fracaw._ Noise or uproar. Fr. Fracas.

    _Gardevine_ or _Gurdyveen_. A large bottle, and sometimes a celleret,
    for holding wine. Fr. Garde-vin.

    _Gardyloo._ A cry formerly raised by servants in Edinburgh, when they
    threw dirty water, &c. from the windows after ten at night.
    (_Smollett._) Fr. Garde de l'eau.

    _Goo._ A particular taste or savour. Fr. Goût.

    {556} _Grange._ A granary, &c. (used also in English). Fr. Grange.

    _Grosert_, _Groser_, or _Groset_. A gooseberry. (_Burns._) Fr.
    Groseille.

    _Gud-brither._ Brother-in-law. Fr. Bon-frère.

    _Haveril._ A simpleton, or April-fool. (_Burns._) Fr. Avril.

    _Jalouse--To._ To suspect. (_Antiquary._) Fr. Jalouse.

    _Jigot._ The hip-joint of lamb or mutton (used also in English). Fr.
    Gigot.

    _Jupe._ A woman's mantle or pelisse. Fr. Jupe, a long coat.

    _Kickshaws._ A made-up dish. Fr. Quelque chose.

    _Multiplepoinding._ An action in Scottish law, somewhat similar to the
    English bill of interpleader in Chancery. Fr. Multiplie-poindre.

    _Multure_ or _Mouter_. The fee for grinding grain. (_Douglas._) Fr.
    Mouture.

    _Onding._ A heavy fall of rain or snow. Fr. Ondée(?).

    _Petticoat tails._ A species of cake baked with butter, sometimes
    called "short-bread." (_Bride of Lammermoor._) Fr. Petits gatelles
    (more correctly, gateaux).

    _Ruckle_ or _Rickle_. A heap or collection. Fr. Recueil.

    _Servite_ or _Servet_. A table napkin. (_Spalding._) Fr. Serviette.

    _Verity--Chair of._ A pulpit. Fr. La chaire de vérité. (Croker's
    _Boswell's Johnson_, p. 513.)

    _Vizzie_, _Vizy_, or _Visie_. A scrutinising view, aim, or sight at the
    muzzle of a gun. (_Bride of Lammermoor._) Fr. Visée, aim.

    _Wallees_ or _Valises_. Saddlebags. (_Godscroft._) Fr. Valise, a
    portmanteau.

E. N.

       *       *       *       *       *

ON A PASSAGE IN "CYMBELINE," ACT IV. SC. 2.

It is so usual with Malone and some other commentators on Shakspeare to
impute the errors of the printer to the poet, that we often find the most
glaring instances of false grammar, and anomalies of construction, laid to
his charge, and defended as the practice of the time; and as his own
practice!

The following passage is an instance in point:

 "_Gui._              Why, he but sleeps;
  If he be gone, he'll make his grave a bed;
  With female fairies will his tomb be haunted,
  And worms will not come to thee."

Steevens with reason says:

    "This change from the second person to the third is so violent, that I
    cannot help imputing it to the players, transcribers, or printers."

He proposed to read _him_ for _thee_. Malone of course defends the
absurdity. We may, however, be assured that it is not attributable to the
poet. Whoever reads the passage with attention will perceive that the
allusion in the last line is not to Fidele, but to the fairies haunting his
tomb. It should be remembered that it was held that no noxious creatures
would be found where fairies resort.

The compositor, as in other cases, mistook the word, probably written
"th[=e]," and printed "thee" for "them."

Your correspondent MR. HALLIWELL having noticed my approval of the
emendation of a passage in _Coriolanus_, found in MR. COLLIER's copy of the
second folio, where "bosom multiplied" is happily corrected to "bissom
multitude," perhaps I may be permitted to say that I cannot subscribe to
his opinion, that "it is one of those alterations which no conjectural
ingenuity could have suggested." To me it appears that the steps are
obvious by which any intelligent reader of the poet might be led to make
the correction. The word which was mistaken by the printer for "bosome"
occurs in a previous scene of the play, where it is "beesome" in the
folios; and a recollection of this would naturally lead to the conjectured
emendation. Indeed the word appears to have been not unfrequently written
"beasom," as we find it in Huloet's _Dictionary_. The word "multitude"
would suggest itself to any attentive reader of the play, from its repeated
occurrence in the 3rd Scene of Act II.: and we must always suppose the
writer to have been intent upon correcting errata. The correction of
"infuite comming" to "infinite cunning," in _Measure for Measure_, is, in
my mind, an instance quite equal in "conjectural ingenuity;" and we know
that we owe it to that of the late Mr. Sidney Walker.

I must candidly confess that the specimens of the corrections given by MR.
COLLIER in his first two communications to the _Athenæum_ gave me the same
dissatisfaction and apprehension that MR. HALLIWELL appears to have
entertained; but I do not draw the same inference that gentleman seems to
do, from the occurrence of this one truly happy conjectural emendation. It
is, however, sufficient to convey a favourable notion of the acuteness of
the writer of the emendatory notes, and nothing more.

S. W. SINGER

       *       *       *       *       *

OLD CONCERT BILL.

The following curious bill (the original of which is in my possession) of a
benefit concert given by Signor Carbonelli, at Drury Lane Theatre, in 1722,
will enable us to form some opinion of the musical taste prevailing in
London in the first quarter of the eighteenth century:

                   "DRURY LANE THEATRE.
                         _May 4._
               SIGNOR CARBONELLI'S CONCERT.
                          ACT I.
     _A New Concerto_ for Two Trumpets, composed and
              performed by Grano and others.
    _A New Concerto_, by Albinoni, just brought over.
                  _Song_, Mrs. Barbier.
        _Concerto_, composed by Signor Carbonelli.
  {557}

                         ACT II.
     _A Concerto_, with Two Hautbois and Two Flutes,
                  composed by Dieupart.
        _A Concerto_ on the Base Violin, by Pippo.
                  _Song_, Mrs. Barbier.
  By desire, the _Eighth Concerto_ of Arcangelo Corelli.

                         ACT III.
                _Concerto_, by Carbonelli.
        _Solo_ on the Arch-lute, by Signor Vebar.
                  _Song_, Mrs. Barbier.
     _New Concerto_ on the Little Flute, composed by
            Woodcock, and performed by Baston.
                _Solo_, Signor Carbonelli.
    _Finale._ _Concerto_ on Two Trumpets, by Grano and
                         others."

I should mention, that Signor Carbonelli was a celebrated violin player,
and a favourite pupil of Corelli. He was brought over to this country by
his patron, the first Duke of Rutland.

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Notes.

_Note for Mr. Worsaae._--At page 204. of _The Danes in England_, Mr. W.
says:

    "Towards Glasgow and Edinburgh the mountains are no longer called
    'fell' and 'rigg.'"

The _Campsie Fells_, a fine range of hills within nine miles of Glasgow,
are an exception. These hills are never spoken of by the natives of the
strath except by the name of "fells" and the singularity of the name has
often been remarked to the writer of this note, especially by visitors to
the valley. Before being much acquainted with the deeds of the Vikings
(except in the _general_), he had come to the conclusion that the name
_must_ be Danish, from its similarity to "Fjeld," with which, in connexion
with "Fiords," he had become familiar at a very early period.

BRUNO.

_Singular Epitaph._--The following epitaph occurs in Braunston churchyard,
Northamptonshire:

    "To the Memory of WILLIAM BORROWS, Died 1703.

     "'Tis true I led a single life,
      And Nare was married in my life,
      For of that Seck (_sic_) I nare had none:
      It is the Lord; his will be done."

CRANMORE.

_Largesse._--I heard this old word used the other day in Northamptonshire,
by a servant who was leaving his employer, and who called upon one of his
master's tradesmen to ask him for _largisse_, as he termed it. Certainly
the peasants have preserved and handed down to the present time a vast
number of old words, customs, and legends. It proves how much they owe to
oral tuition.

A. B.

_Brogue and Fetch._--There are a certain set of words which have become
naturalised in English, by those who speak it in Ireland; as, _amadan_, a
fool; _brogue_, a shoe (Ir. _brog_); _palaver_, fine speaking, soft talk
(Ir. _pi-labhradh_). These are all Irish words; but there are others which
are not English, and yet it is hard to make them out Irish. _Brogue_,
meaning a broad Irish accent, is an instance; _fetch_ is another:

    "In Ireland (says Mr. Banim) a _fetch_ is the supernatural _fac-simile_
    of some individual, which comes to assure to its original [or his
    friend or relative] a happy longevity or immediate dissolution. If seen
    in the morning, the one event is predicted; if in the evening, the
    other."

_Taibhse_ (pr. _thaivshe_) is the Irish word, and perhaps _fetch_ might be
derived from it by a sort of metathesis.

EIRIONNACH.

_Derivation of "Caul."_--

    "Guianerius, cap. 36., _De Ægritud. Matr._, speaks of a silly, jealous
    fellow, that, seeing his child new born, included in a _kell_ (meaning
    a _caul_), thought sure a Franciscan, that used to come to his house,
    was the father of it, it was so like the friar's _cowl_, and thereupon
    threatened the friar to kill him!"--Burton's _Anatomy of Melancholy_,
    part iii. sec. 3.

By this may we judge that _caul_ and _cowl_ are cognate? _Coif_ (Martial.),
in Latin _Reticulum_; whence a lady's _reticule_.

B. B.

_"Pandecte," an entire Copy of the Bible._--Dr. Maitland, in his valuable
essays on the _Dark Ages_, has drawn attention to this use of the word
_Pandecte_, but was not at the time aware that it is so employed by any
writer before Alcuin (p. 194. n. 9. ed. 1844). It will be found, however,
in the following, extract from Bede's _Chronicon_ (in _Monument. Britan._,
p. 101. A). The historian is speaking of certain presents which his abbot,
Ceolfrith, was carrying with him on his pilgrimage to Rome, when death cut
it short at Langres:

    "Qui inter alia donaria quæ adferre disposuerat, misit ecclesiæ S.
    Petri _pandectem_ a B. Hieronymo in Latinum ex Hebræo vel Græco fonte
    translatum."

C. H.

St. Catharine's Hall, Cambridge.

       *       *       *       *       *


Queries.

BOY BISHOP AT ETON.

In Heywood's edition of the _Statutes of King's College, Cambridge, and
Eton College_ (Longman, 1850), a MS. is quoted under the title of
_Consuetudinarium vetus Scholæ Etoniensis_ (sic), Harl. MSS. 7044, p. 167.
From a MS. in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.

It is a sort of _Fasti Etonenses_, recording in somewhat quaint terms the
old customs which were then traditionary in the school. In the month of
November, according to this authority, "in die {558} Sti Hugonis Pontificis
solebat Etonæ fieri electio Episcopi Nihilensis, sed consuetudo obsolevit."

Again, in the statutes as given by Mr. Heywood, p. 560., it is provided
that on the Feast of St. Nicholas, but "nullatenus in festo Sanctorum
Innocentium," the Episcopus puerorum Scholarium, who was to be elected from
among the boys every year for the purpose, might celebrate all the divine
offices except the "missæ secreta."

Can you, or any of your correspondents, inform me--

1st. What is the date of the MS. in question, with any further particulars
of its history?

2nd. What is "Pope St. Hugo's Day," and whether it was in any way connected
with the election of the boy bishop in other places as well as Eton?

3rd. Whether any reason can be assigned why Holy Innocents Day, being that
on which the boy bishop was usually appointed, should have been expressly
excluded by the founder.

L. C. B.

       *       *       *       *       *

"¶ SPECULUM CHRISTIANORUM MULTA BONA CONTINENS."

I have a small black-letter tract which bears the above title: I am
desirous of learning the author's name, and that of the printer, together
with the date and place of its production. It extends from signature A 1 to
G 8, and ends abruptly on the verso of G 8 without any colophon. On the
verso of the title page is a small woodcut representing the Holy Dove
hovering over the Virgin, who is surrounded by nine kneeling figures, all
under a depressed arch, supported by two pillars whose shafts have a kind
of chevron ornament worked on them, somewhat similar to the pillars of the
crypt of Canterbury Cathedral. Perhaps if I give the title-page of this
curious little tract in extenso, it will be more easily identified:

 "¶ Speculum Christianorum multa bona continens. Primo modo.
  ¶ De preceptis dei
  ¶ De septem vitiis captalibus
  ¶ De septem virtutibus his contrariis
  ¶ De octo tabulis: c[=u] quibusd[=a] o[=r]onib' deuotissimis
  ¶ De modo se prepar[=a]di ad sacram[=e]tum eucharistie
  ¶ De effectu sacramenti
  ¶ De antichristo
  ¶ Expositio o[=r]onis d[=u]ice: cum quod[=a] bona notabili
  ¶ De Ramis. vii. vicior[=u] capitali[=u]: et eorum remediis
  ¶ De contentu mundi: cum aliis notabilibus."

It should be noted that this table of contents is by no means a fair
representative of the subjects on which the pamphlet treats. On the verso
of page E iii. is the following curious passage:--

    "¶ Peccata britonum et causa depositionis eorum. Negligentia prelatorum
    | rapina potent[=u] | cupiditas indic[=u] | rabies periuriorum |
    inordinatus cultus vestimentorum: detestanda luxuria | omne pet[=m]
    publicum & notorium clamat vindict[=a] ad deum. Sed precipue quattuor:
    merces mercenarii, pct[=m] sodomiticum, homicidium, oppressio
    innocenti[=u]. Heu heu heu quot clamores vindicte sunt nunc ante deum."

This passage is introduced without any farther connexion with the subjects
under discussion, than the mere heading of the section gives it. Permit me
to trouble you with one more extract, before I leave my Query in the hands
of your readers:

    "¶ De duabus scalis: una dirigente ad celum: et altera ad infernum.

      ¶ Scala ad celum                     ¶ Scala ad infernum
      Perseverantia bona                   Desperatio
      Patientia in adversis                Obstinentia in peccatis
      Obedi[=e]tia in preceptis            Furor in adversis
      Patientia in vita                    Iniusticia facti
      C[=o]tritio et c[=o]fessi pet[=i]    Odi[=u] boni et dilectio pet[=i]
      Cognito tui                          Ignorantia
      Caritas                              Mal[=i]cia."

On the recto of C vj.

Any information which some of your bibliographical correspondents may give
concerning this little work, will be very acceptable.

W. SPARROW SIMPSON, B.A.

       *       *       *       *       *

MASSACRE OF THE WELSH BARDS.

Barrington, in his _Observations upon the Statutes_, raises some historic
doubts whether that massacre of the Welsh bards, upon which Gray founded
his magnificent ode, actually occurred:--

    "But", he says, "a manuscript history, written by Sir John Wynne of
    Gwydir, authorises the supposed tradition of a massacre of the bards;
    nor could the writer of that most admirable ode have made his bard so
    warmly express, or his reader feel, the tyranny of Edward, if he had
    not probably raised an indignation and fire in his own breast, and by
    reading of other materials, which _I have not happened to meet with_."

Has the question of this real or pretended massacre been raised, or proved
beyond doubt?

As to Gray requiring "materials" for his fancy, poets even of inferior
genius contrive to weave a web out of airy nothings, and the liveliest
description by an old Cymric bard of the slaughters of the thirteenth
century, will not carry conviction of the truth of the narrative in the
nineteenth.

H. T. H.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries.

_Portrait of William Combe._--Lonsdale the portrait painter, in a letter
dated January, 1826, addressed to a friend of Combe whilst living, says:

    "I shall be much obliged if you will have the goodness to cause my
    picture of the late Mr. Combe to be sent to me. Mr. C. borrowed the
    picture of me to show to some friend, and kept it till his death."

{559}

Can any of the readers of "N. & Q." inform me in whose possession the
portrait now is, and whether any engraving of Combe's portrait from that or
any other picture is now to be obtained?

E. T.

_"Quod non fecerunt barbari," &c._--Who is the author of the epigram--

 "Quod non fecerunt barbari, fecerunt Barbarini,"

which commemorates the destruction of the Coliseum at Rome, both by the
barbarians who overran Italy about the middle of the fifth century, and, at
a later period, by certain Popes of the family of the Barberini?

HENRY H. BREEN.

St. Lucia.

_Lines on English History_ (Vol. iii., p. 168.; Vol. v., p. 405.).--I shall
be extremely obliged to MR. EDWARD CHARLTON to procure me, if he can, a
copy of the above lines, and forward them, through Mr. Bell, to

AN ENGLISH MOTHER.

    [We should also be most glad to receive from any correspondent who can
    supply it, the _Metrical and Logical History_, asked for by our
    lamented correspondent MÆRIS, which commences--

     "William and William, and Henry and Stephen,
      And Henry the Second to make the First even."
                                      ED.]

_Windows._--It has been said that the dates of many houses may be
ascertained by a comparison of the regulations of the window-tax with the
windows. The tax occasioned a marked change of style by diminishing the
number of windows. Then ingenuity was exerted to effect evasions by bays,
bows, and double or treble windows. These again were successively met by
alterations in the law. Could any one be induced to let in some light upon
the subject by examining the acts of parliament, and illustrating the
result by reference to examples in London houses?

C. T.

_Angel-beast; Cleek; Longtriloo._--Can you, or any of your readers, inform
me what was the nature of the game at cards called _Angel-beast_, which was
in vogue in the seventeenth century? Also, the game of _Cleek_; can it be a
misprint of "Check?" Also, _Longtriloo_; is this an abbreviation of "Long
three card loo?"

R. B.

_Royal Arms in Churches._--What is the origin of the common practice of
putting up the royal arms in churches?

E. M.

Oxford.

"_Cease, rude Boreas._"--Can any of your correspondents tell me why the
song, "Cease, rude Boreas," has been occasionally attributed to Falconer. I
remember seeing this song appended to an old edition of the _Shipwreck_,
with a prefatory remark stating that G. A. Stevens _could_ not have written
it, as the moral of the verses was of too high an order for him.
Occasionally the last stanza is omitted, on account of the sentiment being
somewhat questionable; though it cannot be denied that the feelings there
expressed are exactly those of a sailor. In a few copies another stanza of
a very different tendency is inserted in its place; and at times I have
seen the commencement of the third stanza altered thus:

 "Now all you at home in safety,
  Shelter'd from the howling storm,
  Tasting joys by heaven vouchsaf'd ye,
  Of our state vain notions form."

I should wish to obtain some information regarding the authors of these
alterations, and when they first took place.

[Greek: Boreas].

_Pictorial Proverbs._--I have now lying open before me a small 12mo. book
(binding modern) containing sixty-seven old prints (averaging in size 5¾ by
3¾ inch), but wanting a title-page. The subjects appear to be in the shape
of pictorial proverbs; they are evidently very old, the distich before each
plate is in Latin, which is again written in old German. The views in each
background are places generally in Germany, and the names are written on
the plate itself. In _one only_ plate I discover the name "M. Merian, fe"
(Qy. Matts. Merian, or his daughter, of Frankfort?); and in some few others
the following mark, "[ST]." All the plates _seem_ done by the same person.

If you can enlighten me as to the authorship of them, I shall feel much
obliged.

H. S. S.

_Inscription on George Inn, Wansted._--Will you kindly give me information
respecting the origin of the following inscription, which is affixed to the
side of the George Inn at Wansted?--

 "In memory of y^e cherry pey,
  As cost half a guiney.
  y^e 17 of July,
  That day we had good cheer,
  I hope to see it maney a year.
      1752. DAVID JERSEY."

W. H. B.

_Learned Man referred to by Rogers._--Rogers, in his work on the
Thirty-nine Articles, published 1607, writes as follows:--

    "A certain learned man (speaking of the religion here then professed,
    and writing unto the lords of our late queen's council) doth say 'He'
    (meaning the papist his adversary, who charged our church with discord,
    and disagreements about matters of religion), 'he ought' (saith he) 'if
    he had been able, to have brought out the public confession and
    articles of faith, agreed in K. Edward's time; and have showed any in
    England, that, professing the gospel, dissenteth from the same.'"

I shall be much obliged to any of the readers of "N. & Q." who can inform
me who was this "certain learned man."

C. C. C. C.

Corp. Chr. Coll., Camb.

{560}

_Mormonism and Spalding's Romance._--The extraordinary spread of Mormonism
seems to stamp it as likely to prove a kind of second Mahometanism in the
world's history. Under these circumstances the origin of the _Book of
Mormon_ is of course a literary curiosity. In a clever pamphlet entitled
_Mormonism Exposed_, by John Bowes (E. Ward, 54. Paternoster Row, London),
at pp. 30, 31. an account of the history of the book of Mormon is given.
Mr. Bowes quotes from _Mormonism Unveiled_, by E. D. Hoare, to the effect
that a Mr. "John Spalding" affirms that his (now deceased) brother "Solomon
Spalding" had written "_an historical romance_ of the first settlers in
America, endeavoring to show that the American Indians are the descendants
of Jews, or the lost tribes. It gave a detailed account of their journey
from Jerusalem, by land and sea, till they arrived in America, under the
command of NEPHI and LEHI; he also mentions the Lamanites." Mr. J.
Spalding, it is said, on reading the _Book of Mormon_, "to his great
surprise," found "nearly the same historical matter, names, &c., as they
were in his brother's writings;" and further says "according to the best of
my recollection and belief, it is the same as my brother Solomon wrote,
with the exception of the religious matter." The latter is obviously taken
from the Bible, with alterations and additions _ad libitum_.

Can any of your readers tell whether this romance of Solomon Spalding's was
ever published; or whether it is still in existence, and accessible for
reference, &c.?

C. H. D.

_Carrs or Calves._--In 1 Esdras v. 55. there occurs the word _carrs_. This
is found in all copies of the Bible to which I have access, except one
edited in the last century by a Mr. Butley, of Ch. Ch. Oxon, where _calves_
is read, and a note given from Josephus apparently in support of it. I
should be glad to know whether there is any authority in the original for
this alteration.

ERYX.

_Stoup._--There is a holy-water stoup, in good preservation, on the
_exterior_ of the north wall (by the nave door) of the church of
Houghton-le-Spring, Durham. What other examples are there of _exterior_
stoups? Their usual situation was _within_ either the porch or the church.

CUTHBERT BEDE.

_Casper Ziegler and the Diaconate._--There is a book in Latin with the
following title:--_Casparis Ziegleri de Diaconis et Diaconissis Veteris
Ecclesiæ Liber Commentarius._ Wittebergæ: Sumptibus Hæredum Jobi Wilhelmi
Fingelii. Anno 1678.

What copies of this book are known to be extant? Would a translation of the
whole, or selected parts, be useful at the present time, when attention is
being called to the subject?

What particulars are known about the life, religion, &c. of the author? At
the foot of the frontispiece are the following lines:--

 "Omnis in hoc vultu vasti compendia juris,
    Cæsarii, sacri, Saxonicique vides.
  Non Divæ unius tam multum crede laborem,
    Cujus vix umbram pingere possit homo."

Can any one give me the meaning of the last two lines? or information as to
what other authors have treated on the subject of the Diaconate?

W. H.

_Inscription at Persepolis._--The following curious inscription I some
years ago made a note of by copying it, but neglected to mark whence I
obtained it. My extract stands thus--

_Arabic Inscription._

  +----------+-----------+----------+------------+---------+--------------+
  |  dicas   |   scis    |  dicit   |    scit    |  audit  |   expedit    |
  +----------+-----------+----------+------------+---------+--------------+
  |  facias  |   potes   |  facit   |   potest   |  facit  |    credit    |
  +----------+-----------+----------+------------+---------+--------------+
  |  credas  |   audis   |  credit  |   audit    | credit  | fieri potest |
  +----------+-----------+----------+------------+---------+--------------+
  | expendas |   habes   | expendit |   habet    |  petit  |    habet     |
  +----------+-----------+----------+------------+---------+--------------+
  | judices  |   vides   | judicat  |   videt    | judicat |     est      |
  +----------+-----------+----------+------------+---------+--------------+
  |   non    | quodamque | nam qui  | quodcunque |  sæpe   |   quod non   |
  +----------+-----------+----------+------------+---------+--------------+

It is said this was found by Captain Barth, engraven on marble, among the
ruins of Persepolis, and by him translated from the Arabic into Latin and
English.

Query, What does it all mean?

THOMAS LAWRENCE.

Ashby-de-la-Zouch.

"_I do not know what the truth may be._"--Will some one tell me whence the
lines--

 "I do not know how the truth may be;
  I tell the tale as told to me"?

W. T. M.

Hong Kong.

_Twittens._--Are not the narrow passages in Brighton so called? and what is
the meaning?

A. C.

_Clapper Gate._--Steps, with a gate above, into Bushy Park are so called;
what is the meaning?

A. C.

_Jemmy._--When and why was sheep's head baptized with the name "Jemmy?"
Does it apply to the entire sheep, or to the head only? I have heard of a
"James's head" as a refinement of "Jemmy's head," which would make it seem
as though the sheep was the "Jemmy."

SHIRLEY HIBBERD.

_Muffs worn by Gentlemen._--Whilst looking over Hogarth's works, I observed
in two plates a {561} male figure wearing a muff; in the "Rake's Progress,"
pl. 4., and in the "Woman Swearing a Child." How long, and within what
limits, did this fashion flourish?

W. SPARROW SIMPSON, B.A.

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies.

ST. PATRICK.

(Vol. v., p. 520.)

Allowing himself to be led astray by such an untruthful guide as Ledwich,
your correspondent E. M. R. thinks that "there seems to be very great doubt
if St. Patrick ever existed in reality." Had E. M. R. sought for, he might
have found evidences of Ireland's apostle's existence beginning with the
very lifetime itself of that saint. 1st. We have a short work from St.
Patrick's own pen, the _Confessio_, which the best critics have allowed to
be genuine: it commences thus: "Ego Patricius peccator," &c. 2nd. A very
old hymn, shown by Dr. O'Conor to have been written c. A.D. 540 (_Prol. in
Rer. Hib. Vet. Script._, p. lxxxix.), tells us that: "Patricius prædicabat
Scotis." (_Ib._, p. xciii.). 3rd. The Irish monk Adamnan, who died A.D.
704, that is, almost a half century before our Beda, in his _Life of St.
Columba_, says: "Quidam proselytus Brito homo sanctus, sancti Patricii
episcopi discipulus," &c. (_AA. SS. Junii_, t. ii. p. 197.). 4th. In the
library of C. C. College, Cambridge, there is a MS. of the seventh century,
containing the early Irish canons: "Synodus episcoporum id est Patricii,
Auxillii, Issernini" (Nasmith's _Cat. C. C. C. C._, p. 318.). 5th. The
Antiphonal, once belonging to the Irish Bangor, but now in the Ambrosian
Library, Milan, a MS. of the end of the seventh or beginning of the eighth
century, and published by Muratori, has a "hymnum Sancti Patricii magistri
Scotorum" (Muratori, _Anecd._, t. iv. p. 89.). 6th. Cummian, writing about
the Pascal question to the Abbot of Hy, A.D. 634, says: "Primum (cyclum)
illum quem sanctus Patricius Papa noster tulit," &c. (_Vet. Epist.
Hibernicarum Syl._, ed. Usserio, p. 21.). 7th. In the very old Litanies,
once used, as it seems, by some church among the Britons living in this
island beyond the reach of Anglo-Saxon control, we find invoked St.
Patrick, along with SS. Brindane, Gildas, Paterne, Guinwaloc, Munna,
Tutwal, German, and other lights of the Irish, as well as our ancient
British church (ed. Mabillon, _Vet. Analect._, p. 168.). 8th. St. Gertrude,
Abbess of Nivelle, died on the 17th March, A.D. 658; the writer of her life
was her cotemporary, and he expressly mentions St. Patrick (_Vita S.
Gertrudis_, ed. Mabillon. _AA. SS. O. B._, t. ii. p. 447.). 9th. Our own
Beda _did_ insert St. Patrick's name in the Martyrology which he drew up
(ed. Smith, _Bedæ Hist. Eccl._, p. 351.); and another far-famed countryman
of ours, Alcuin, who, in some verses which he composed for being placed "Ad
aram SS. Patricii et aliorum Scotorum," says:

 "Patricius, Cheranus, Scotorum gloria gentis,
  Atque Columbanus, Congallus, Adomnanus atque," &c.
                      _Opp._ ed. Frobenio, t. ii. p. 219.

10th. A liturgical MS. in the British Museum, Nero, A, II. fo. 35. b.,
which was first printed by Spelman, who calls it "codex vetustissimus"
(_Concil._, i. 176.), speaks of St. Patrick as "archiepiscopus in Scotiis
et Britanniis" (_Ib._, 177.). 11th. The celebrated monastery of St. Gall
(an Irish saint) still possesses the fragment of what was once a missal,
and written in the Irish character. This codex must have been older than
the ninth century, for it is set down "inter libros Scottice scriptos" in a
catalogue of the books belonging to that library, made in the ninth
century. Among the saints enumerated in the canon of the mass is Patrick
the bishop, "intercedentibus pro nobis beatis apostolis Petro et Paulo et
Patricio æpiscopo" (see the fragment in _Appendix A to Cooper's Report_, p.
95.).

PYRRHO has had, and is likely always to have, followers in every age and
country: Hardouin would not allow that Virgil ever lived, but stoutly held
that the _Æneid_ was "a fardel of monkish fictions" put together during the
middle ages: not "the bigoted Anglo-Saxons" of the eighth, but Dr. Ledwich
of the eighteenth century, denied the existence of the great St. Patrick; a
few weeks ago a correspondent of "N. & Q." asked "Is not the battle itself
(of Waterloo) a myth?" (Vol. v., p. 396.); and last week, another tells us
that "the saint (Patrick) certainly vanishes into 'an airy nothing,' if we
are to credit the above authors" (Dr. Ledwich and Dr. Aikin).

Who the Aikin may be, or what the work of his which E. M. R. has brought
forwards, I do not know; Ledwich's book now lies before me, and a more
prejudiced writer I have never met with. I think, however, that from the
above authorities it is clearly shown that, together with all the most
learned of early and modern times, we are still warranted in treating St.
Patrick "as a real actor in Irish ecclesiastical affairs."

D. ROCK.

Buckland.

_Sir James Ware--St. Patrick's Birth-place_ (Vol. v., p. 520.)--Permit me
to correct your correspondent E. M. R., who, by a strange mistake, calls
Sir James Ware "a Roman Catholic writer." He was a zealous member of the
church of Ireland: E. M. R. will see a memoir of him in Harris's edition of
Ware's _Writers of Ireland_.

With respect to the birth-place of St. Patrick, your correspondent may
consult Colgan's _Trias Thaumaturga, Append. quinta ad vitas S. Patricii_,
{562} cap. ii. p. 221. et seq.; also the Life of St. Patrick by Harris in
his edition of Ware's _Bishops of Ireland_; and Dr. Lanigan's
_Ecclesiastical History of Ireland_.

Ledwich was entirely unacquainted with the sources of Irish history, and is
no authority.

T.

Trin. Coll. Dublin.

       *       *       *       *       *

NASHE'S "TERRORS OF THE NIGHT."

(Vol. v., p. 467.)

MR. EASTWOOD'S quotation from Nashe's _Terrors of the Night_ regarding the
use of ale for the sacrament in Iceland, may have some light thrown upon it
by the following passages from the Icelandic sages and the learned editors
of the _Historic Memorials of Greenland_. We doubt if Nashe was correct in
saying that ale was granted for that purpose by the Pope in preference to
wine, on account of the "incessant frosts there;" for, in truth, the
Icelanders of the present day, as well as in former times, have no
difficulty in protecting liquids much more congealable, such as milk, from
the winter's frost. The abundance of warm springs, and the volcanic fires
throughout the island, render the temperature of the inhabited districts of
Iceland much warmer in winter than would be supposed from its high northern
latitude. The word "red emayle" no doubt means "red enamel," an apt simile
enough, and well understood in the writer's days. We do not find any
mention of "ale" ("öl") being ever used in Iceland for the celebration of
the eucharist; but a wine seems to leave been prepared from the Crowberry
(_Empetrum nigrum_), as is shown by the following extract from Bishop
Paul's _Saga_, a nearly cotemporary history; for the _Saga_ in question is
believed to have been written by Bishop Magnus Gissurson (1215-1237), who
succeeded Bishop Paul in the see of Skalholt:--

    "In Bishop Paul's days came Bishop John from Greenland to Iceland, and
    remained during the winter in the eastern fiords; but afterwards he
    journeyed late in Lent (_langaföstu_, long fast time) to Skalholt to
    meet Bishop Paul, and he came there on Maunday Thursday
    (Skírdegi-Skjærtorsdag), and these two bishops consecrated a large
    store of Chrism, and had besides many confidential and learned
    conversations. Bishop John taught the people to prepare wine from the
    crowberry (krækiberium), as he himself had been instructed by King
    Sverrer. But it so happened that the next summer few berries grew in
    Iceland; but a man called Erick, who lived on a farm called
    Snorrastade, near Skalholt, prepared a small quantity of the wine from
    these berries, which succeeded well that summer."--Pp. 186, 187.

We confess that we are much inclined to agree with the learned Eggert
Olafsen's doubts as to the practicability of manufacturing a wine, to suit
at least our palates, from the acrid fruit of the _Empetrum nigrum_. It is
said that Boerhaave, gives a receipt for this purpose, and we have
accordingly found it in his forty-second _Process of the Elementa Chemiæ_,
but this relates to the general mode of producing wine from fruits; and
Olafsen (p. 172. vol. i.) tried it in vain with the crowberry when in
Iceland in 1753. Still a species of subacid drink, such as still prepared
from this fruit by the Icelanders, may have been dignified in olden times
with the name of wine; but Olafsen was certainly in error when he stated
that Bishop Paul brought over to Iceland, according to tradition, a native
of the Canary Isles, to teach the art. The Canary Isles were not then (A.D.
1203) known to Europe.

About the year 1186 King Sverrer forbade the importation of wine into
Bergen by the German traders, on account of the scenes of drunkenness and
riot that ensued therefrom; and he is said to have turned his attention to
the preparing of a home-made wine from the crowberry, as a substitute for
the foreign liquors he had forbidden. The learned editors of the _Historic
Memorials of Greenland_, in a note on the passage above quoted in Bishop
Paul's _Saga_, remark, that this was probably the kind of wine which is
traditionally said to have been used for the sacrament in Iceland when the
true juice of the grape could not be obtained. Huidtfeldt, in his
Chronicle, positively states that the Northmen in 1250 and 1290 sought and
obtained permission from the Pope to use mead, "mjod" (mulsum), and other
similar liquors, in the celebration of the sacrament, in consequence of the
great scarcity of wine in those countries. The editors further state that
"within our own times, during the disastrous war with England, it was
proposed to employ wine made from bilberries for the same purpose in
Iceland."

The Synod of Roeskilde, according to Pontoppidan, _Annal. Eccles. Dan._ ii.
329. and iii. 538., forbids the use of any liquor but pure wine in the
sacrament in the following words:--

    "Pastores sunt admoniti ad communionem uti, non _musto_ aut aliis
    liquoribus illicitis, sed puro vino, juxta institutionem."

Lastly, in Rymer's _Foedera_, vol. x. p. 762., there is a petition from the
Bishop of Skalholt to the English government in 1440, stating the depressed
state of the commerce of Iceland at that period, and that no _wine, beer,
or indeed any liquor_ except milk and water, was to be found in the
country. Such was its wretched condition, that he expresses his fear,
unless supplies were received from England, divine service, the celebration
of the communion, and of baptism, would soon cease.

From this last document it would seem that _wine_ was no longer made in
Iceland from the crowberry, and that the fermented juice of the {563} grape
was deemed absolutely necessary by the bishop of that day for the
celebration of the sacrament. We are not aware of any decree or bull of the
court of Rome, by which any other liquor than that obtained from the grape
was permitted to be used, as such would be entirely contrary to all the
canons of the church, and the opinions of all her theologians.

EDWARD CHARLTON.

Newcastle-on-Tyne.

The following quotation bears upon your correspondent J. EASTWOOD's
Query:--

     "Gregorious episcopus, &c.
        [Sigurdo archiepiscopo] Nidrosiensi.

    Tuæ fraternitati quærenti, an deficienti in quibusdum ecclesiis
    suffragancorum tuorum eucharistia propter frumenti penuriam simplex
    oblata undecumque confecta populo, ut sub quadam decipiatur pietatis
    specie, ac cervisiæ vel potus alius loco vini, cum vix aut nunquam
    vinum reperiatur in illis partibus, sint tradenda, taliter respondemus,
    quod neutrum est penitus faciendum, cum in hujus modi sacramento
    visibilis panis de frumento et vini de uvis debeat esse forma in verbo
    creatoris per sacerdotis ministerium consecrata, quod veritatem carnis
    et sanguinis non est dubium continere, quamquam dari possit populo
    panis simpliciter benedictus, prout in quibusdam partibus fieri
    consuevit. Datum Viterbii v. Idus Maii, pontificatus nostri anno
    undecimo." (A.D. 1237.)--_Diplomatarium Norvegicum_, p. 14.:
    Christiania, 1847.

_Emayle_ is no doubt enamel, used for ice, or frozen wine. _Chevela_ is
answered in the Query. I may add a letter from the same Pope to the same
Archbishop on baptism in ale:--

    "Cum, sicut ex tua relatione didicimus, nonnunquam propter aquæ
    penuriam infantes terræ tuæ contingat in cervisia baptizari, tibi
    tenore præsentium respondemus, quod cum secundum doctrinam evangelicam
    oportet eos ex aqua et spiritu sancto renasci, non debent reputari rite
    baptizati, qui in cervisia baptizantur. Datum Laterani, viii. Idus
    Julii anno xv." (A.D. 1241.)--_Ibid._ p. 21.

The curious in this matter may find the practice of baptising in other
liquids than water denounced in other countries, in other bulls, and even
by councils.

DE CAMERA.

       *       *       *       *       *

SERJEANT'S RINGS.

(Vol. v., pp. 92. 110. 181.)

I send you the mottoes adopted by serjeants and judges, taken from the Term
Reports, being, with one exception, I believe, a perfect list from 1786 to
the year 1832, when MR. COLMAN's list, in the 5th Volume of "N. & Q.,"
begins. That exception is Lord C. B. Richards, whose motto is not given. I
have also made some additions to MR. COLMAN's list.

  1786. G. Bond               _Hæreditas a legibus._

  1787. A. Thomson          }
        S. Le Blanc         } _Reverentia legum._

  1788. Lord Kenyon         {
        R. Clayton          { _Quid leges sine moribus._

  1794. S. Heywood          }
        J. Williams[1]      } _Legum servi ut liberi._

  1796. A. Palmer           { _Evaganti froena licentiæ._

        S. Shepherd           _Legibus emendes._

  1799. J. Vaughan          { _Paribus se legibus
                            {    ambæ._

        J. Lens             }
        J. Bayley           } _Libertas sub rege pio._

  1800. Sir J. Scott (Lord  { _Rege incolumi mens
                    Eldon)  {    omnibus una._

        A. Chambre          { _Majorum instituta
                               tueri._

        W. D. Best            _Libertas in legibus._

        R. Graham           { _Et placitum læti componite
        A. Onslow[2]        {    foedus._

  1801. W. M. Praed         { _Foederis æquas dicamus
                            {    leges._

  1802. Sir E. Law (Lord    { _Positis mitescunt sæcula
          Ellenborough)     {    bellis._

  1804. J. Mansfield          _Serus in coelum redeas._

  1805. T. M. Sutton[3]     { _Hic ames dici pater
                            {    atque princeps._

  1807. G. Wood             { _Moribus ornes, legibus
                            {    emendes._

  1808. W. Manley           }
        A. Pell             } _Pro rege at lege._
        W. Rough            }

  1809. R. H. Peckwell      { _Traditum ab antiquis
        W. Frere            {    servare._

  1812. V. Gibbs              _Leges juraque._

  1813. H. Dampier            _Consulta patrum._

        J. S. Copley        { _Studiis vigilare severis._

        R. Dallas             _Mos et lex._

  1814. J. B. Bosanquet     { _Antiquam exquisite
                            {    matrem._

  1816. J. A. Park          { _Qui leges juraque
                            {    servat._

        C. Abbott (Ld.      } _Labore._
           Tenterden)

        G. S. Holroyd       { _Componere legibus
                            {    orbem._

        J. Burrough           _Legibus emendes._

        J. Hullock          { _Auspicium melioris
                            {    ævi._

  1817. W. Firth            { _Ung loi, ung roi, ung
                            {    foi._

        W. Garrow             _Fas et jura._

  1818. W. Taddy              _Mos et lex._

  {564}
  1819. J. Richardson         _More majorum._

        V. Lawes            }
        J. Cross            } _Pro rege et lege._
        T. D'Oyley          }

  1820. T. Peake              _Æquâ lege._

  1824. R. Gifford          }
        W. Alexander        } _Secundis laboribus._

        J. Littledale         _Justitæ tenax._

        W. St. J. Arabin    }
        T. Wilde (L. Truro) } _Regi regnoque fidelis._

        S. Gaselee          } _Bonis legibus, judiciis
        R. Spankie          } gravibus._

  1827. T. Andrews          }
        H. Storks           }
        E. Lawes            }
        E. Ludlow           } _More majorum._
        H. A. Merewether    }
        W. O. Russell       }
        D. F. Jones         }

        J. Scriven          }
        H. J. Stephen       } _Lex ratione probatur._
        C. C. Bompas        }

  1828. J. Parke              _Justitiæ tenax._

  1829. E. Goulburn           _Nulla retrorsum._

        N. C. Tindal          _Quid leges sine moribus._

        W. Bolland            _Regi regnoque fidelis._

  1830. W. E. Taunton       }
        E. H. Alderson      } _Nec temerè nec timidè._
        J. Patteson         }

_Omitted in List_, Vol. v., p. 181.

  1833. T. N. Talfourd        _Magna vis veritatis._

  1841. J. V. Thompson        _Nec ultrà nec citrà._

        W. Wightman           _Æquam servare mentem._

  1842. C. Cresswell          _Leges juraque._

  1844. F. Pollock            _Jussa capessere._

  1850. Ld. Campbell          _Justitiæ tenax._

        J. Jervis             _Venale nec auro._

_Errata._

  1843. N. R. Clarke        }
        J. B. Byles         } For metu_is_ read metu_it_.

  1847. For E. _N._ Williams read E. _V._ Williams;
        and for liber_e_ read liber_i_.

J. E.

[Footnote 1: In 1847 his son, Mr. Justice E. V. Williams, adopted the same
motto.]

[Footnote 2: Vol. v. p. 92. The motto of the Onslow family, "Festina
lente," is erroneously given as the serjeant's motto on his rings.]

[Footnote 3: Afterwards Lord Manners, Lord Chancellor of Ireland.]

       *       *       *       *       *

THE OLD COUNTESS OF DESMOND.

(Vol. v., pp. 145. 323.)

In your Number of "N. & Q." of April 3rd, there are some curious and
interesting remarks by the KNIGHT OF KERRY, respecting that wonder for
length of days, the old Countess of Desmond, in which he gives the copy of
an inscription on an ancient painting, stating that in the year 1614, and
in the 140th year of her age, she appeared at the court of King James, to
seek relief in consequence of the House of Desmond having been ruined by
attainder. That this statement in the inscription is erroneous, can, I
think, be proved by the following circumstances, which also seem to me to
afford some light on the most obscure parts of the question.

I have at this moment before me a work, which has been for many years in
the library of my husband (the Rev. E. A. Bray, the Vicar of this place),
and highly prized by us both, namely, a most perfect and beautiful copy of
Sir Walter Raleigh's _History of the World_, published in 1614. I here give
the date from the engraved title-page, which is of an allegorical
description:

      "THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD."
 "AT LONDON: PRINTED FOR WALTER BVRRE."
                "1614."

In this volume, Chapter V. (of "the first Booke of the first Part"), page
66., "Of the long Lives of the Patriarchs, and some of _late memory_,"
after enumerating several celebrated persons who lived to great ages,
Raleigh thus speaks of the old Countess:--

    "I myself knew the old Countess of Desmond of Inchiquin, in Munster,
    who lived in the yeare 1589, and many years since, who was married in
    Edward IV.'s time, and held her joynture from all the Earls of Desmond
    since then; and that this is true, all noblemen and gentlemen of
    Munster can witnesse."

From this passage I think it can be shown, that the reader can draw no
other inference than that the Countess of Desmond was dead at the time Sir
Walter Raleigh wrote it. In his heading to the chapter he speaks of some of
"_late memory_;" and the words "_many years since_" evidently mean that she
lived many years _after_ 1589.[4] We do not know at what precise period the
above passage was penned; but we learn from Sir Walter's Preface, that he
composed this great and admirable work whilst a prisoner in the Tower (from
which he was liberated in 1616). In that preface he speaks with deep
feeling and regret for the loss of Prince Henry. He says _the Prince read
part of the work_; and that he wrote it "for the service of that
inestimable" youth. We know that Henry died in November, 1612. The passage,
therefore, about the "old Countess," which occurs in a very early part of
the book, there can be no doubt, was written before 1612, and the entire
work published in 1614. If, therefore (as I think no one can doubt, from
the manner in which it is worded), the old lady was dead when Sir Walter
wrote about her, it is not possible she could have visited the court of
King James in 1614.

As Raleigh says "I myself knew the old Countess {565} of Desmond," and
plainly declares that she was married in the time of Edward IV., it is most
probable that he received this account from herself at all events, when he
so strongly appeals to the witness of "all the noblemen and gentlemen of
Munster" for the truth of his statement, it is most unlikely he would have
written thus merely on common or casual report. The KNIGHT OF KERRY says,
"There are statements in existence of 1464 being the year of her birth."
This is most probably the correct date, which is perfectly consistent with
Raleigh's account of her marriage in the reign of Edward IV. It is likely
she married very young. There is every probability that Raleigh was well
acquainted with the "old Countess" when he was in Ireland, and acted so
gallant a part against the rebels in that country. Early in the spring of
1581, upon the Earl of Ormond leaving Ireland, Captain Raleigh (for he was
then only such), with Sir William Morgan and another gentleman, received a
commission to succeed the Earl for a time in his government in _Munster_
(the old lady's county), and he spent the summer there of that year. It may
be further remarked, that the then Earl of Desmond and _Sir John Desmond_
are among the rebels, and that therefore the House of Desmond did suffer by
attainder _in the reign of Elizabeth_;[5] and more likely was it that the
aged Countess should sue at the Court of Elizabeth for relief, than twenty
years after at that of Jas. I.

If she came to England in 1589, Sir Walter Raleigh might have seen her in
her pilgrimage to his royal mistress in that year, as in _that year_ (the
next after the defeat of the Spanish Armada, in which glorious service he
bore a distinguished part), among other honours conferred upon him, was
that of being appointed one of the gentlemen of her Majesty's Privy
Chamber. In 1614 Raleigh was a prisoner in the Tower; and very improbable
is it that, even had she been living at that date and in England, the old
Countess would there have paid him a visit, to thank him for his mention of
her in his _History of the World_. And, finally, had she really been alive
when he wrote it, he might have referred to the lady herself, as a proof of
what he said about her being true, instead of referring to "all the
noblemen and gentlemen in Munster."

As the KNIGHT OF KERRY has expressed a wish to receive the opinions of your
readers who take an interest in the subject, I venture to offer the
foregoing remarks, in consequence of having the very valuable copy of
Raleigh's great work in our possession, and shall be happy if the few
observations I have made may be in any respect acceptable to him or to your
readers.

ANNA ELIZA BRAY.

The Vicarage, Tavistock, Devon.

[Footnote 4: In his _History of the World_, Raleigh frequently uses the
word _since_ as we use the word _after_.]

[Footnote 5: See Stow's _Annales of England_, p. 1217.]

In a "Life of Old Parr," _Harl. Misc._, vol. vii. p. 79., are the following
lines about the old Countess, which may perhaps interest some of your
readers:

 "Sir Walter Raleigh, a most learned knight,
  Doth of an Irish Countess (Desmond) write,
  Of sevenscore years of age; he with her spake;
  The Lord St. Albans doth more mention make,
  That she was married in fourth Edward's reign;
  Thrice shed her teeth, which three times came again."

At the bottom of the page is a note by Oldys, but it probably contains
nothing new to your correspondents who have so diligently investigated this
matter. He quotes however some remarks of Archbishop Usher on this subject,
which I do not remember to have seen noticed in your pages.

ERICA.

The KNIGHT OF KERRY, in his very interesting letter, infers that if the old
Countess of Desmond was only eight or nine years old at the death of Edward
IV., she therefore could not have been married during the reign of that
monarch. Was it not, however, a not uncommon custom, at that period, for
royal and noble infants to be given in marriage at quite as early an age as
eight or nine, whenever it suited the views, political or otherwise, of
their parents or guardians?

C. E. D.

       *       *       *       *       *

A FEW THINGS ABOUT RICHARD BAXTER.

(Vol. v., p. 481.)

Your correspondent MR. BEALBY mentions that in his visit to Kidderminster
in 1836, he was shown the house in the High Street in which Richard Baxter
is said to have resided: a few more particulars on the subject may prove
interesting.

It was a three storied, high gabled house, with low ceilinged rooms,
lighted by long ranges of casement. The exterior of the house displayed a
goodly proportion of wood-work, and appeared to be much in its original
condition. No garden or extra-ground was attached to it, another street
(Swan Street) running immediately at its back. Three or four years since
the house fell before the march of modern improvements, and none of its old
features can now be recognised. At the time of these alterations, the house
was tenanted by a shoemaker. An ascent of four or five steps led into the
shop, the long low window of which, projecting somewhat over the pavement,
was tiled above, and supported underneath by wooden pillars. These also
served to mark the boundary allotted to the display of the handiwork of the
basketmaker who plied his trade in the capacious cellar underneath the
shop.

Of course MR. BEALBY, while prosecuting in Kidderminster his inquiries
about Baxter, visited Caldwall Castle (close to the town), once the {566}
residence of Sir Ralph Clare, Baxter's sturdy opponent. In an old map of
the town, the castle is represented as having eight towers; but only one of
these now remains, which is attached to a modern house. The tower is
octagonal, built of red sandstone, of massive proportions, and is in good
preservation. It contains two rooms lighted N. and S.; a turret staircase;
and a groin-roofed cellar, level with the ground, and with an exterior
door. From this cellar an underground passage is said to extend to St.
Mary's Church, about a quarter of a mile distant. Sir Ralph Clare was
buried in St. Mary's, opposite to where Baxter's pulpit then stood. The
flat stone that covers his grave has once again been restored to the light
by the removal of the cumbrous sleeping-box that concealed it,--thanks to
the judicious alterations now being carried on by the present vicar;
alterations very different to those "beautifyings" of 1786, in which
Baxter's pulpit was sold as worthless lumber. (Vide "N. & Q.,", Vol. v., p.
363.)

The Registers preserved in the vestry of St. Mary's attest the careful
neatness of Baxter in his official entries. The headings of the different
months are printed, and, in some cases, ornamented after the missal style.
Many of the burials are set down as those of "valliant souldiers," who fell
in the frequent skirmishes of those troublous times.

The row of elms on the south walk of the churchyard is said to have been
planted in Baxter's time,--perhaps by his own hand.

If MR. BEALBY would like a copy of my etching of Baxter's pulpit (referred
to at p. 363.), and would leave his address with the Publisher of "N. &
Q.," I should be happy to forward one to him.

CUTHBERT BEDE, B.A.

       *       *       *       *       *

ST. BOTULPH.

(Vol. v., pp. 396. 475.)

As no one has hitherto answered the inquiries of A. B. touching St.
Botulph, I beg to forward you the following Notes. The earliest mention of
him will be found in the _Saxon Chronicle_, at the year 654. He is said to
have then commenced the building of a minster at _Ycean-ho_. The statement
is repeated by Florence of Worcester, who writes the name of St. Botulph's
convent _Ikanho_. Its locality is thus pointed out by Leland, _Itinerary_,
i. 31, 32. ed. Hearne:--

    "Some hold opinion that est of Lincoln were 2 suburbs, one toward S.
    Beges, a late [of late] a cell of S. Mari abbay at York; the which
    place I take be _Icanno_, wher was an house of monkes in S. Botolphes
    tyme, and of this speketh Bede[?]. It is scant half a mile from the
    minster."

The same writer has informed us (viii. 68.) that St. Botulph died in Icanno
(15 Kal. Jun.), and that the monastery was soon afterwards destroyed by the
Scandinavian vikings. The authority on which this latter statement will be
found to rest is a "Life of St. Botulph," written or embellished by John
Capgrave, and included in his _Nova Legenda Angliæ_. I have now before me a
fine copy of the work (Lond. 1516); but very few of the events in which St.
Botulph is there said to have played a part belong to the sphere of
history. We learn that Botulphus and Adulphus were two noble brothers, who
in early life were sent into "Old Saxony" to be instructed in monastic
learning. Botulph there became acquainted with two sisters of an English
king, named Ethelmund ("regis australium Anglorum"), who, at their wish,
allotted to the monk a piece of barren ground, on which to build a convent
("locum quendam incultum et ab hominibus desertum Ykanho vocatum.") Like
other marshy spots, in which the _ignis fatuus_ abounded, it was thought to
be infested by malignant spirits. These were soon, however, put to flight
("edito crucis signo"), and a convent, on the model of the house in which
St. Botulph had been reared, was planted in the midst of their domain. It
perished under Edmund (941-946); but the relics of St. Botulph, which had
been enshrined in his own foundation, were preserved, and afterwards
translated, in the time of Edgar (959-975), through the efforts of St.
Ethelwold. The head was sent to Ely, and the body equally apportioned to
the royal cabinet of relics and the abbey church of Thorne. The closing
passage is as follows:

    "In libro ecclesie Sancti Botulphi juxta Aldersgate Londo[=n] habetur
    quæ pars corporis Sancti Botulphi per bone memorie regem Edwardum
    ecclesie B. Petri Westmonasterii est collata. Eodem etiam tempore, ut
    in quibusdam locis scriptum inveni, per eundem monachum, jubente
    episcopo Ethelwoldo, translata sunt apud Thornense monasterium ossa
    Benedicti Biscop, abbatis venerabilis Wermuthensis, nutritoris Bede
    presbiteri. Construxit autem Sanctus Ethelwoldus non longe a monasterio
    Thornensi, in loco ubi _beata virgo Christi Toua inclusa_ fuerat,
    lapideam ecclesiolam delicatissimis cameratam cancellulis et duplici
    area tribus dedicatam altaribus permodicis, undique usque ad eius muros
    vallatam arboribus diversi generis. Sedem ibi heremiticam, si
    permisisset Deus, sibi delegit."

Is there any other notice of this female solitary?

C. H.

St. Catharine's Hall, Cambridge.

    [Leland notices this female solitary. St. Tova, or Tona, was a Saxon
    saint, to whose memory a fair chapel, called Thoveham, or Thona, half a
    mile from the abbey, was consecrated; and at this place was the oratory
    of the Heremites. Lelandi _Collectanea_, vol. i. p. 28.; Willis'
    _Mitred Abbies_, vol. i. p. 187.--ED.]

The earliest mention found of this saint is in the _Saxon Chronicle_, under
the year 654, when he began to build his minster at Ycean-ho, probably
Boston or Botulph's-town in Lincolnshire. His {567} life was first put into
regular form by Fulcard, a monk of Thorney, who was made abbot of that
monastery in 1068. Fulcard tells us in his preface what his materials were:

    "Reperta sunt quædam in veteribus libris vitiose descripta, quædam ab
    ipso præcipuo præsuli in privilegiis ejusdem coenobii sunt breviter
    annotata, cætera ex relatione veterum ut ab antiquioribus sunt eis
    exhibita."

An early MS. of this life is in the Harleian collection, No. 3097. It was
printed (somewhat curtailed) by Capgrave in the _Legenda Nova_, and seems
to have furnished all that our antiquaries know about St. Botulph. Camden
indeed refers to _Bede_, iv. 3., as containing some mention of him; but I
can find no such passage, and I believe that Botulph is nowhere mentioned
in the _Historia Anglorum_. The remains of Botulph were taken up in the
days of King Edgar, and his head was allotted to Ely, while the rest of his
bones were divided between the abbeys of Thorney and Westminster. The cause
of his extended popularity it is difficult to discover. His fame even
passed over to Denmark, and an office is allotted to him in the Sleswick
Breviary, _Britannia Sacra_, vol. i. p. 370. It has been surmised that he
was a patron saint of seamen, and that his name indicates this character,
_i. e._ boat-help! See Allen's _History of Lincoln_, vol. i. p. 245. His
brother Adulf was made Bishop of Trajectum, probably Utrecht. Your
correspondents may be referred to Capgrave; to Leland, _Collectanea_, vol.
i. p. 217., and vol. iii. p. 33.; and to Ellis's _Monasticon_, vol. ii. p.
596., and vol. vi. p. 1621. St. Botulph's day is the 17th of June.

C. W. G.

       *       *       *       *       *

SIR RICHARD POLE, THE FATHER OF CARDINAL POLE.

(Vol. v., pp. 105. 163.)

Without presuming to contravene the high authorities quoted by J. G. N. on
the pedigree of Sir Richard Pole, the father of the celebrated Cardinal
Pole, I am inclined to the belief that he descended from a common ancestor
with the Cheshire family of "Poole," as suggested by your correspondent I.
J. H. H. Wotton[6] says, in his pedigree of "Poole, baronets of Poole"
(from whom, by the way, the _Poles_ of Shute collaterally derived):

    "Robert Pull, _alias_ Poole, _alias_ De la Poole, lord of Barretspoole,
    8 Edw. I., by Elizabeth, dau. to Hugh Raby, had issue _Reginald_ and
    others. Reginald had issue James, who died 1 Edw. II., leaving Robert
    de Pull, his son and heir, who m., 2 Rich. II., the dau. and heir of
    Thomas de Capenhurst. Sir John de Pull, Knight, his son, lived 8 Hen.
    IV. and 3 Hen. V., and was father of Sir John _Poole_, of Poole, in
    Wirrall, living about 19 Rich. II., who by a dau. of ---- Mainwaring,
    of Peover, had issue, 1. Sir Thomas Poole, Knight, lord of Poole and
    Capenhurst, 35 Hen. VI. 2. Robert Poole, who left posterity. 3. _Sir
    Richard Poole, Knight_, who had progeny; and 4. James, grandfather to
    John Poole, of Stratford in Essex."

Is anything known further of the above Sir Richard Poole, Knight, or of his
"progeny"? From a comparison of the dates before given with that of the
time in which the father of the Cardinal flourished, it seems not
improbable (in the absence of direct proof to the contrary) that he removed
into Buckinghamshire, and was father of "Geoffry Pole," who married Edith
St. John, as shown. Cardinal Pole, however, was born (in 1500) at Stoverton
Castle in _Worcestershire_, and the fact that he was named Reginald, as
borne by the son of Robert, the first ancestor of "Poole" (as shown in the
above extract), as well as by other members of the baronet family, would
tend to confirm the supposition of a common ancestry. The reasons for the
change in the family bearing suggested by J. G. N. seem highly probable,
besides being the usual course adopted by younger sons for difference. I
would here suggest another Query: Was Sir Richard, or his son Henry,
created Lord Montague? Burke seems to be at variance with other testimony I
have found on the matter. He says:

    "Sir Richard Pole, K.G., [was] summoned to Parliament in 1553 [Query,
    1503], as Baron Montague: he m. Lady Margaret Plantagenet, dau. of Geo.
    Duke of Clarence, and left issue four sons and one daughter, viz.
    Henry, _second Baron_ Montague (whose daughters and coheirs were,
    Katherine, wife of Francis, second Earl of Huntingdon; and Winifred, m.
    first to Sir Thomas Hastings, and, secondly, to Sir Thomas Barrington).
    2. Geffery, Sir. 3. Arthur. 4. Reginald, the celebrated Cardinal. 5.
    Ursula, m. to Henry Lord Stafford."

In a list of attainders appended to the 2nd volume of Debrett's _Peerage_,
the date 1504 is given as the creation, and 1538 the forfeiture of the
title. Wotton says (vol. i. p. 32.):

    "Sir Thomas Barrington, high sheriff of Essex and Hertford, 4 Eliz."
    1561, "m. Winifred d. and coheir of Henry Pole, _Lord Mountague_ (son
    of Sir Richard Pole, _Knight of the Garter_" only), "by Margaret
    Countess of Salisbury, dau. to Geo. Duke of Clarence, brother to King
    Edward VI."

That "marvellous" historian, Sir Richard Baker, in his _Chronicle_ (ed.
1696, pp. 246. 271. 286., &c.), records, under the reign of Hen. VII. (cir.
1503):

    "Prince Arthur, after his marriage, was sent again into Wales, to keep
    _that country in good order_, to whom were appointed for councillors
    Sir Richard _Pool_, his _kinsman_ and chief chamberlain, Sir Henry
    Vernon," &c.

I find no trace of the title till 15 Hen. VIII. (1524): {568}

    "All this while King Henry had play'd with the French, but now he seems
    to be in earnest, and therefore sends over the Duke of Suffolk with an
    army, the four and twentieth of August, attended with the Lord
    Montacute and his _brother_, _Sir_ Arthur Pool, with many other knights
    and gentlemen."

On the knighthood of this _Sir_ Arthur I find, farther on,--

    "On _Allholland_ (Query, All-hallows) day, in the chief church of Roy,"
    (the Duke) "made knights, Lord Herbert (son of the Earl of Worcester),
    the Lord Powis, Oliver Manners, Arthur Pool, &c.

And now--

    The 3rd Nov. (1538) Henry Courtney, Marquess of Exeter and Earl of
    Devonshire, _Henry Pool_, _Lord Montacute_, Sir Nicholas Carew, of
    Bedington, Knight of the Garter and Master of the Horse, and Sir Edward
    Nevill, brother to the Lord _Aburgenny_, were sent to the Tower, being
    accused by Sir Geoffry _Pool_, the Lord Montacute's brother, of high
    treason. They were indicted for devising to promote and advance _one
    Reinald_ (Qy. Reginald) _Pool_ to the crown, and _put down_ K. Henry.
    _This Pool was a near kinsman of the king's_ (being the son of the Lady
    Margaret, Countess of Salisbury, daughter and heir to George, Duke of
    Clarence). He had been brought up by the king in learning, and made
    Dean of Exeter; but being _after sent_ to learn experience by travel,
    he grew so great a friend of the Pope's that he became an enemy to King
    Henry, and _for his enmity to the king_ was by Pope Julius III. made
    cardinal. For this man's cause the lords aforesaid being condemned were
    all executed; the Lord Marquess, the Lord Montacute, and Sir Edward
    Nevill, beheaded on the Tower Hill the ninth of January; Sir Nicholas
    Carew the third of March; two priests condemned with them were hanged
    at Tyburn: Sir Geoffry _Pool_, though condemned also, yet had his
    pardon."

I give this last quotation entire (hoping to be pardoned for its length),
as it affords a curious insight into the eventful history of the period;
for, two years later, I find it on record that--

    "_Reynold Pool, Cardinal_, brother to the Lord Montacute, was with
    divers others attainted of high treason; of whom Foskeue and Dingley
    the tenth of July were beheaded, the Countess of Salisbury two years
    after."

But I forbear quoting further the account of this same cardinal's pompous
"_absolution of these realms_," and "_reconciliation to the church of
Rome_," all which are given in "marvellous" detail by our worthy historian.
I pass on to observe, in conclusion, that, from the fact (as recorded in
the first of the foregoing historic extracts) that "Sir Richard _Pool_,
chamberlain" to Prince Arthur, was sent by him into _Wales_, I gather your
correspondent I. J. H. H. has been led to suppose him a _Welsh knight_.
That he is called a _kinsman_ of the prince is also some confirmation of
the statement afforded by J. G. N., that he became so by his mother's near
connexion with the Countess of Richmond, but his own alliance with the
house of Plantagenet must have taken place about the close of the fifteenth
century (and I own this offers some objection to my theory of his descent);
it could not have occurred in 1513, as your correspondent states, since
Cardinal Pole was, as I have stated, born in 1500, and was therefore
fifty-four years old at the commencement of Mary's reign, viz. 1553-4, when
proposals were made for his marriage with the queen; for, says Sir Richard,
once more, in speaking, of "the marriages propounded for Queen Mary:"

    "One was Cardinal Pool, of a dignity not much inferior to kings, and by
    his mother descended from kings; _but there was an exception against
    him also, because four and fifty years old_ (as old a batchelor as
    Queen Mary was a maid)," &c. &c.

May I be allowed to suggest another Query as to the value of the aforesaid
dignity of knighthood, since Lord Herbert and Lord Powis accepted it with
men of plainer name and "lesser note." I should feel obliged to any of your
correspondents for information on this point.

H. W. S. T.

Southampton.

[Footnote 6: _English Baronets_, vol. ii. p. 546. ed. 1727.]

       *       *       *       *       *

PROCLAMATIONS TO PROHIBIT THE USE OF COAL.

(Vol. v., p. 513.)

I have recently, for a definite purpose, searched for facts relative to the
introduction of coal into domestic use, but I have not met with the case
referred to by Dr. Bachhoffner. So harsh a measure appears somewhat
inconsistent with other facts connected with the early history of coal. For
instance, a grant, dated 7th May, in the 34th of Edward I. tolerates the
introduction of sea-coal into London, but levies a toll of sixpence upon
every ship-load passing London Bridge: "De qualibet navata carbonis maris
venal. sex denarios" (Hearne's _Liber Niger Scaccarii_: Lond. 1774, 8vo. p.
480.), which toll was to be applied to the maintenance of the said bridge.
A few months after this, in 1306, was issued the proclamation prohibiting
its use; and on its being disregarded, was, as stated by Prynne, followed
by a Commission of Oyer and Terminer in the year 1307, a short time before
the death of Edward I. It is pretty evident that on the accession of Edward
II. a great change occurred in the opinion of the authorities respecting
the use of coal; for in the year 1308 fifty pounds (equal probably to 800l.
of our money) were paid from the Exchequer to provide wood and _coal_ for
the king's coronation. (_Issue Roll, Excheq._, 1 Edw. II.) This sum was
paid to John Fairhod, Thomas de Hales, Thomas Wastel, Roger le White, and
John de Talworth. We cannot tell the quantity of coal used on that
occasion; but, in addition to the above sum we find Richard del Hurst of
London petitioning Parliament for the payment of ten {569} shillings to him
for sea-coal supplied at the king's coronation. (_Rot. Parl._, 15 and 16
Edw. II., vol. i. p. 405.) Many facts might be given to show that coal was
frequently used in London during the reign of Edward II.; and unless we are
to infer that the king used without hesitation that which was denied to the
citizens on pain of death, we cannot suppose that any such stringent
measure was in force as to render the use of coal a capital offence. The
period, therefore, in which the case referred to by Dr. Bachhoffner
occurred, was most probably during the last few months of the reign of Edw.
I. But I am not acquainted with any record of the case, and, with MR.
WILSON, should feel obliged if any of your correspondents can refer me to
it. But perhaps the Doctor himself will kindly answer the Query.

F. SOMNER MERRYWEATHER.

       *       *       *       *       *

RALPH WINTERTON.

(Vol. v., pp. 346. 419.)

You mention that a Latin distich by Winterton may be found among the
Additional MSS. in the British Museum. And at p. 420. his publication of
_Hypocrates_ is referred to, with a Query as to the Latin verse
translation. As this book (not I believe very common) is now before me, I
transcribe the title:

    "'[Greek: Hippokratous tou Megalou hoi aphorismoi; pezikoi te kai
    emmetroi.] Hippocratis Magni Aphorismi, soluti et metrici. Interprete
    Joanne Heurnio medico _Ultrajectino_. _Metaphrastis_, Joanne Frero
    Medico-Poëta et Radulpho Wintertono Medicinæ, et Poëseos Græcæ
    studioso, _Anglis_.

    Alexandri Magni Apophthegma.

    [Greek: Basilikon esi, ton eu poiounta kakôs akouein.]

    _Regale_ est, bene cùm feceris, male audire.

    _Catabrigiæ._ _Excudebant_ Thomas Buck et Rogerus Daniel, MDCXXXIII."

The volume is 12mo., and dedicated to William [Laud?], Bishop of London.
Then follow "Reverendorum S. Theol. Professorum Censuræ," including those
of Thomas Comber, Dean of Carlisle, and Master of Trinity College,
Cambridge; Matthew Wren, Dean of Windsor, and Master of Peterhouse, &c. The
aphorisms are given each in the original Greek, with a metrical version in
the same language, followed by prose and metrical versions in Latin.

At the end of my copy is bound up, as probably it was printed to accompany
the preceding,

    "Epigrammata Regiorum Medicinæ Professorum, Cantabrigiensis atque
    Oxoniensis, &c. In Rad. Wintertoni Metaphrasin nuper editam, &c.,
    quibus accedunt Epigrammata Therapeutica ejusdem, ad malevolorum
    lectorum ægritudines."

Cantabrigiæ, same date and printers. One of the Epigrammata throws some
light on the Query in Vol. v., p. 420., as to the authorship of the _Latin_
version: Edward Hanburie, of Sidney College, says, addressing Winterton,--

 "Gratum opus hoc Medicis. Tu primus carmine _Græco_
  Metiris."

The volume closes with some Latin elegiac verses by Winterton on the death
of his brother Francis, who, leaving the office of Gentleman of the Privy
Chamber to the Queen,

 "In Castra transiit. Is pro patria mortuus, Custrinæ,
  in finibus Silesiæ, honorifice, et sicut militem decuit,
  sepultus est."

This supplementary volume is partly occupied with complimentary verses by
the fellows of King's, who address Winterton as

 "Medicum a suis juxta statuta designatum."

Among these is one copy by Gulielmus _Sclater_, C. R. C., "Socius Inceptor
in Artibus;" and another by Johannes _Sclater_, C. R. C., quondam Socius,
S. T. B. 1613. I indicate these as having lately called the attention of
your readers to this family.

BALLIOLENSIS.

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Family of Bullen_ (Vol. v., p. 127.).--There is a physician of that name,
who is, I believe, one of the professors in the Queen's College, Cork, and
who may probably be able to afford your correspondent E. A. G. the
information he wishes for. I have been informed that Dr. Bullen's father
asserted that his family was descended from the Boleyn family.

J. E.

_Wallington's Journal_ (Vol. v., p.489.).--This volume is in my possession.
It contains much curious and interesting matter.

J. GODWIN.

28. Upper Gower Street.

_The Amber Witch_ (Vol. v., p. 510.).--In answer to a Query of A. N., this
book is a pure fiction. Some German biblical critics pretending to decide
that whole chapters, or whole books, of the Bible are spurious, from
internal evidence, Meinhold wrote the _Amber Witch_ to show how little able
they were to judge of internal evidence in a much simpler case. Several of
them fell into his trap, and then the author avowed the work to be his own.

T.

_Twyford_ (Vol. v., p. 467.).--There is yet, I am informed, a _double ford_
at Alnmouth, a little above the town. The ancient church, called Woden's
Church, stood at the mouth of the Alne. Here was found the cross with the
imperfect inscription in Anglo-Saxon runes, now preserved at Alnwick
Castle. I am not aware that any local tradition now connects the name of
Twyford with Alnmouth.

EDWARD CHARLTON.

{570}

_The Ring Finger_ (Vol. v., p. 492.).--I have met with the following
passage in Adam's _Antiquities_ (8vo. ed., p. 429.), which seems to assign
another origin to this custom than the one lately proposed in "N. & Q.":

    "On this occasion" (_i. e._ the signing of the marriage contract)
    "there was commonly a feast: and the man gave the woman a ring
    (_annulus pronubus_) by way of pledge, _Juvenal_, vi. 27., which she
    put on her left hand, on the finger next the least; because it was
    believed a nerve reached from thence to the heart: _Macrob. Sat._ vii.
    15."

ERYX.

_Brass of Lady Gore_ (Vol. v., p. 412.).--This brass still exists, and
commemorates Maria Gore, _Priorissa_, 1436, attired simply as a widow.
Owing to its actual existence having been but recently known to collectors
of rubbings, no mention was made of it in the _Oxford Manual_. For the same
reason there is no notice of a very interesting brass of a bishop or abbot,
date end of fourteenth century, at Adderley, Salop. The editor of the above
work would take this opportunity of thanking MR. W. S. SIMPSON for his
corrections ("N. & Q.," Vol. v., p. 369.). The rubbing, or rather smudging,
from which the inscription was copied being nearly wholly illegible,
accounts for the mistakes. Any further corrections will oblige

THE EDITOR OF THE "OXFORD MANUAL OF BRASSES."

Gloucester.

_Gospel Trees._--Several Numbers of "N. & Q." have contained interesting
notices of trees which are traditionally reported to indicate the
standing-places of out-door preachers. To me, there is something very
pleasing and picturesque--if nothing better--in these narrations; and I
shall therefore be glad to find them recurring in your pages, whether their
claims are of ancient or later date. Every reader of the vigorous poetry of
Ebenezer Elliott, a true member of the _genus irritabile_, will recollect
Miles Gordon "the Ranter" preacher, and how, in the poet's lines,--

     "----The great unpaid! the prophet, lo!
  Sublime he stands beneath the Gospel tree,
  And Edmund stands on Shirecliffe at his side."

The context, too long to quote here, is a passage descriptive of the
scenery in the vicinity of Sheffield in one direction, unsurpassed for
graphic scope, freshness, and fidelity in the whole range of English rhyme.
But the tree? Hundreds of summer visitors climb the hill, and ask _that_
question; and they are pointed to an ash, which stands in a situation
conspicuous enough, but which neither the rest of "the trees of the wood,"
if they could speak, nor the quarryman, who remembers it when a sappling
can allow to be _the_ veritable "Gospel tree" of the poet, though, but for
_this_ memorandum in "N. & Q.," it might arrive at that distinction in the
course of another century. A neighbouring tree, an oak, which those
matter-of-fact judges, the trigonometrical surveyors, have marked with a
lofty pole, competes with the aforesaid ash for the reverence of pilgrims
but its claim is equally apocryphal. If, however, when on the spot, "it is
difficult," according to the old adage, "to find the tree for the wood," as
I experienced a few days since, it will ever stand conspicuous enough, in
the poet's page, and may even serve to divert or recall attention to
"Gospel trees," which have more than poetical claim to that appellation.

H.

"_Who from the dark and doubtful love to run_" (Vol. v., p. 512.).--I
presume the lines imperfectly quoted by H. M. are to be found in the
"Introduction" to the _Parish Register_ by Crabbe, and which, as the book
is before me, I will transcribe:

 "Oh! rather give me commentators plain,
  Who with no deep researches vex the brain,
  Who from the dark and doubtful love to run,
  And hold their glimmering tapers to the sun."

S. S. S.

_Son of the Conqueror; Walker Tyrrel_ (Vol. v., p. 512.).--No other son of
William the Conqueror, except William Rufus, was slain by an arrow in the
New Forest. A grandson, however, of the Conqueror, Richard, son of Robert
Duke of Normandy, met with the same fate as Rufus, as stated by the
cotemporary chronicler, Florentius Wigornensis. (Edition of the Historical
Society, vol. ii. p. 45.) Immediately after describing the death of William
Rufus, he says:

    "Nam et antea ejusdem Willelmi junioris germanus, Ricardus, in eadem
    foresta multo ante perierat, et paulo ante _suus fratruelis_, Ricardus,
    comitis scilicet Normannorum Rotberti filius, dum et ipse in venatu
    fuisset, a suo milite sagitta percussus, interiit."

Probably Sir N. Wraxhall or his authority had read this statement hastily,
and had construed _fratruelis_ brother instead of _nephew_, which is the
correct sense of the word.

Your correspondent asks further for the authority for the death of William
Rufus. Every historian of that day--Florentius Wigornensis and the Saxon
chronicler among others--gives the received account of his death, except
Suger, a Norman abbot, who says that Sir W. Tyrrel took a solemn oath to
him that he was not the slayer of the king, but that the arrow came from an
unknown hand.

There can, I think, be little doubt but that Sir W. Tyrrel's was the hand
that drew the bow; whether, however, he intended to kill the king or not,
is a point which it is probable, after the time that has elapsed, will
never be satisfactorily determined.

R. C. C.

Oxon.

{571}

_Sir Gilbert Gerrard_ (Vol. v., p. 511.).--I beg to refer MR. SPEDDING to
Erdeswick's _Staffordshire_, by Harwood (1820), p. 83., who states that Sir
Gilbert Gerrard died in 1592, and that he was buried in Ashley churchyard
in that county, under a handsome monument. Probably the inscription on it
will give the precise date, and some of your readers may be able to refer
to it, and send the communication to "N. & Q." His death must have occurred
between January 8, 1592, 34 Elizabeth, the date of his will as given in
Dugdale's _Baronage_, vol. ii. p. 417., and the following April; if Dugdale
is right in saying that it was then proved. But on referring to the _Baga
de Secretis_, the contents of which are so excellently calendared by Sir
Francis Palgrave in the Appendices to his third, fourth, and fifth reports
as deputy-keeper of the Public Records, it appears that Sir Gilbert was
named in a commission of Oyer and Terminer, on March 22; that he signed a
precept under it for the return of the grand jury, on April 11; and that he
signed another precept to the lieutenant of the Tower for bringing up Sir
John Perrott before the justices, on _June 12_, all in 34 Elizabeth, 1592.
(Fourth Report, Appendix II. pp. 282, 283.) It would seem, therefore, that
Dugdale has erred in the date he assigns to the probate of Sir Gilbert's
will. A search, however, at Doctors' Commons will solve the difficulty.

Edward Foss.

_Fides Carbonarii_ (Vol. iv., pp. 233. 283.; Vol. v., p. 523.).--The
Collier's Confession of Faith did not originate with Dr. Milner, but is at
least three hundred years old. Cardinal Hosius commends it highly (_De
auctor. sacræ Script._: Opp. fol. 263.: Antverp. 1556), and so does
Staphylus likewise (_Apologia_, fol. 83.: Colon. 1562). Bellarmin gives
another version of the narrative, which he has taken from Petrus Barocius
(_De arte bene moriendi_, lib. ii. cap. ix. pp. 200-203.: Antverp. 1620).
Your correspondents should not have forgotten the concluding question and
answer in what Crakenthorp has styled "The Colliar's Catechisme" (_Vigilius
Dormitans_, p. 187.: Lond. 1631). The entire of the conversation may be
represented thus:

    "What do you believe?"

    "I believe what the Church believes."

    "And what does the Church believe?"

    "The Church believes what I believe."

    "And what do you both believe?"

    "The same thing."

R. G.

_Line on Franklin_ (Vol. iv., p. 443.; Vol. v., pp. 17. 549.).--

 "Eripuit Jovi fulmen, sceptrumque tyrannis."

I do not exactly see the object of MR. WARDEN'S inquiry (if it indeed be
one), as your correspondent R. D. H. had already traced it from Cardinal
Polignac to Manilius; but, as perhaps MR. WARDEN means to inquire where
_he_ may have read it, I beg leave to inform him that line was first
published as anonymous in the _Correspondence de Grimm et de Diderto_,
April, 1778, and was lately reproduced in the _Quarterly Review_ for June,
1850, with the addition that it was from the pen of _Turgot_, as the
authority, I presume, of the Life, art. TURGOT, in the _Biographie
Universelle_.

C.

_Meaning of Royd as an Addition to Yorkshire Names_ (Vol. v., p.
489.).--The glossary to Hulton's _Coucher Book of Whalley Abbey_ at once
gives it thus:

    "RODA, an assart, or clearing. Rode land is used in this sense in
    modern German, in which the verb roden means to clear. The combination
    of the syllable rod, _rode_, or _royd_, with some other term, or with
    the name of an original settler, has, no doubt, given to particular
    localities such designations as Huntroyd, Ormerod, &c., &c."

See also Lower _On Surnames_ (3rd edit. i. 85.), and an elaborate note in
Dr. Whitaker's _Whalley_, referred to in his account of Ormerod (3rd edit.
p. 364.).

In the sense which Dr. W. gives to _Rode_, or _Royd_, as "a participial
substantive of the provincial verb _rid_, to clear or grub up," that word
will be found singly, or in combination, near forests and chases from the
Lancashire Pendle to the Devonshire Dartmoor. It occurs also in Rodmore,
Rodleys, &c., in the forest district of Gloucestershire over Severn; and
Murray's _Handbook_ may be referred to for Wernigerode, Elbingerode, &c.,
in the Hartz forest of Germany.

In Lancashire and Yorkshire the adjunct sometimes refers to the _early
proprietor_, as in Monkroyd, Martinrode, &c.; sometimes to the _trees
ridded_, as in Oakenrode, Acroyd, Hollinrode, Holroyd, &c.; sometimes to
other characteristics. Instances of all kinds will be found in the _Whalley
Coucher Book_, printed by the Chetham Society.

LANCASTRIENSIS.

_Binnacle_ (Vol. v., p. 499.).--This word, which signifies the case or
covering of the compass, was until the last thirty years spelled and
pronounced "bittacle," and is derived, I should imagine, from the French
word _habitacle_, a little habitation, a hut, a covering. It is almost the
only one of our nautical terms which can be traced to a French origin.

C. K.

_Plague Stones_ (Vol. v., p. 500.).--I have not observed that any of your
correspondents have noticed the stones near the romantic village of Eyam,
about four and a half miles E. N. E. of Tideswell in Derbyshire.

It is well known that this village suffered most severely from the plague;
and the inhabitants still revere the memory of their pastor Mr. Nompesson,
who nobly refused to desert his flock in the hour of danger, and fell a
sacrifice to his devotion. I became acquainted with these stones some years
{572} ago, when on tour through Derbyshire, and, if I remember rightly,
they are about two and a half feet high, one foot and a half in diameter,
with a hollow place on the top like a dish, in which we were told the money
of the "plague village" people was placed for the food, &c. that was
brought to this boundary line by the people of the neighbourhood. The
cavity in the stone was of course full of water.

J. G. C.

_Ramasshed_ (Vol. iii., p. 347.).--The Fr. _ramas_ (as also _ramon_) is
"_boughs_ formed into a _besom_ or broom," Fr. _rameau_, from the Lat.
_ramus_. To _ramass_ or _ramash_ is "to put or sweep together, as with a
broom." Thus, Hackluyt, in his Preface to the Reader, speaks of volumes
"most untruly and unprofitablie _ramassed_ or hurled to." To _ramassh_ is
also "to use a _ramas_ or a construction of ram_asses_" (in the case of Syr
R. Guyldford) as a vehicle for conveyance. The sleds first used for
carrying travellers safely down steep hills were probably composed of
bough-hurdles, afterwards transformed into barrows and other more
convenient carriages.

Q.

_Yankee Doodle_ (Vol. iv., pp. 344. 392.).--The citizens of the United
States do not recognise this, but "Hail, Columbia," as their national air.

W. T. M.

Hong Kong.

_"Chords that vibrate," &c._ (Vol. v., p. 539.).--

   "Chords that vibrate sweetest pleasure,
    Thrill the deepest notes of woe."
 "On Sensibility. To Mrs. Dunlop, of Dunlop."
    Burns's _Poems_, ed. 1800, vol. iv. p. 404.

EDW. HAWKINS.

_Derivation of Martinique_ (Vol. v., pp. 11. 165.).--MR. PHILIP S. KING's
statement, that Martinique was discovered on St. Martin's day, is at
variance with the account given by the historian of that island, who says
that it was discovered on the 15th June, 1502, during Columbus's fourth
voyage. The derivation of _Martinique_ from _Martin_ suggests itself so
obviously, that, if the discovery had been made on the day (November 11)
consecrated to that saint, it is not likely that the local historian would
have gone out of his way to fix upon a Caribbean expression, _Martinina_,
as the origin of the name.

HENRY H. BREEN.

St. Lucia.

_Anthony Babington_ (Vol. v., p. 344.).--W. Kempe, the author of the
_Dutiful Invective_, must not be confounded (as is frequently the case)
with William Kempe the celebrated actor, and the reputed author of Kemp's
_Nine Daies Wonder_. The first-named Kempe was probably a schoolmaster at
Plymouth. See the Rev. A. Dyce's Introduction to his reprint of the _Nine
Daies Wonder_ (Camden Society, No. 11.).

_The Censure of a Loyall Subject_, which your correspondent (following
Herbert) attributes to Kempe, is well known to have been the production of
George Whetstone, whose initials are at the end of the Dedication. A copy
may be seen in the Library of Lambeth Palace.

The execution of the "fourteen most wicked traitors" (Ballard, Babbington,
Tichbourne, &c.) formed the subject of many ballads and tracts, a few of
which I am enabled to enumerate:

    1. A Proper New Ballad to the Tune of 'Weep, Weep,' by Thomas Deloney,
    beginning:

     "Rejoice in hart, good people all,
        Sing praise to God on hye,
      Which hath preserved us by his power,
        From traitors tyranny."

    Reprinted in Mr. Collier's Old Ballads (Percy Society, No. 1.).

    2. "A Ballad of Rejoycinge for the Revealinge of the Quenes Enemyes.
    Licensed to Edward Alde, August 24, 1586-7."

    3. "A Joyfull Songe made by a Citizen of London in the Behalfe of all
    her Majesties Subjects, touching the Joye for the taking of the
    Traitors. Licensed to R. Jones, August 27, 1586-7."

    4. "A Short Discourse, expressing the Substance of all the late
    intended Treasons against the Queenes Majestie and Estates of this
    Realme by Sundrie Traytors, &c. Printed by G. Robinson for Edward
    White."

This tract contains an interesting ballad by T. Nelson, whom Mr. Collier
calls "the ballad-writing bookseller." See _Extracts from the Stationers'
Registers_, vol. ii. p. 214. A copy is preserved in the library of Lambeth
Palace.

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

_Seventh Son_ (Vol. iii. pp. 148. 149.; Vol. v., p. 412.).--Through the
information of a friend I awn able to add a curious "modern instance" to my
communication printed in the Number of "N. & Q." for May 1. In Saltash
Street, Plymouth, my friend copied, on the 10th Dec. 1851, the following
inscription on a board, indicating the profession and claims of the
inhabitant:--

"A. SHEPHERD,

THE THIRD SEVENTH DAUGHTER,

DOCTRESS."

H. G. T.

Weston-super-Mare.

"_Venit ad Euphratem_" (Vol. v., p. 512.).--The epigram referred to by your
correspondent H. M. runs thus:

 "Venit ad Euphratem; rapidis perterritus undis,
  Ut cito transivit, corripuit medium."

S. Q.

_Sneezing_ (Vol. v., pp. 364. 500.).--I have often seen, but where I cannot
now recollect, that the custom of saying "God bless you!" when any one
{573} sneezed, arose from the fact that in the great plague of Athens
sneezing was an unfailing proof of returning convalescence. Your classical
readers will remember the anecdote told in the _Anabasis_ of Xenophon (c.
ii. sect. i.-v.). I copy from Mitford, who has besides a note to the
purpose:

    "At daybreak the troops were assembled, and Chirosophus, Cleanor, and
    Xenophon successively addressed them. An accident, in itself even
    ridiculous, assisted not a little, through the importance attributed to
    it by Grecian superstition, to infuse encouragement. Xenophon was
    speaking of that favour from the gods which a righteous cause entitled
    them to hope for against a perjured enemy, when somebody _sneezed_.
    Immediately the general voice addressed ejaculations to protecting
    Jupiter, whose omen it was supposed to be. A sacrifice to the god was
    then proposed; a universal shout declared approbation; and the whole
    army, in one chorus, sang the Pæan."--_History of Greece_, vol. v. p.
    185. cap. xxiii. sect. iv.: Lond. 1835, 8vo.

We must not, however, forget that when Elisha restored the Shunamite's son
to life--

    "The child _sneezed_ seven times, and the child opened his eyes."--_2
    Kings_, iv. 35.

RT.

_Rents of Assize_ (Vol. v., p. 188.).--Has not J. G. misquoted? Is not the
line--

 "Regis ad exemplar, totus componitur orbis."

J. E.

Rochester.

_Fire unknown_ (Vol. iv., pp. 209. 283. 331.).--In _An Account of the
Native Africans of Sierra Leone_, by T. M. Winterbottom: Lond. 1803, 2
vols., occurs the following note to vol. i. p. 75.:--

    "It is said that the inhabitants of the Marian or Ladrone islands were
    ignorant of the use of fire before they were visited by the Spaniards;
    but even then they were acquainted with the mode of producing
    intoxication by means of the wine of the cocoa-nut tree."

ZEUS.

_Newtonian System_ (Vol. v., p. 490.).--The author of the pamphlet entitled
_The Theology and Philosophy of Cicero's Somnium Scipionis explained_,
London, 1751, 8vo., was Bishop Horne. He wrote it before he had attained
majority, and many attacks were made upon it. It is not included in the
edition of his collected works in 6 vols. 8vo. 1809. Bishop Warburton, who
cordially disliked the Hutchinsonians, or, as he styled them, the English
Cocceians, mentions this tract in his _Letters to Bishop Hurd_:

    "There is one book, and that no large one, which I would recommend to
    your perusal; it is called _The Theology and Philosophy of Cicero's
    Somn. Scip. examined_. It is indeed the ne plus ultra of
    Hutchinsonianism. In this twelve-penny pamphlet Newton is proved an
    atheist and a blockhead. And what would you more?"--Warburton's
    _Letters to Hurd_, edit. 1808, 4to. p. 63.

The anecdote as to Newton, Locke, and Lord Pembroke, p. 27., was first told
by Whiston, whose character for accuracy does not stand high, particularly
when Sir I. Newton, against whom he bore a grudge, is concerned.

JAS. CROSSLEY.

_Newton, Cicero, and Gravitation_ (Vol. v., p. 344.).--Newton is celebrated
for having proved that all bodies attract one another with a force varying
inversely as the square of the distance. What resemblance has this to a
statement, that all bodies gravitate to the centre of the world, or, as
explained by Cicero, the earth? which at most only implies its rotundity.
Perhaps S. E. B. was joking, like Hegel, when he said that Newton called
5/A^2 gravitation, and inferred that gravitation varied as 1/A^2. Otherwise
modern philosophers, as _e.g._ Kepler, would have supplied much nearer
approximations to Newton's law.

ALTRON.

_Rhymes on the Names of Places_ (Vol. v., p. 404.).--I remember hearing the
following verse in the neighbourhood of Nottingham:

 "Eaton and Taton, and Bramcote o' th' hill,
  Beggarly Beeston, and lousy Chilwell;
  Waterside Wilford, hey little Lenton!
  Ho fine Nottingham! Colwick and Snenton."

The villages whose names occur are all within a few miles of Nottingham.

The following rhyme I have also heard:

 "Derbyshire born and Derbyshire bred,
  Strong i' th' arm and weak i' the head."

R. C. C.

Oxon.

_Saint Wilfrid's Needle_ (Vol. v., p. 510.), where, according to Burton,
"they used to try maids whether they were honest," is not, as B. B.
supposes, a stone, but a narrow passage in the crypt beneath the central
tower of Ripon Minster. This crypt is of Saxon workmanship, and is probably
either a part of the original church built by Saint Wilfrid, or "the new
work," which, according to Leland--

    "Odo, Archebishop of Cantewarbyri ... causid to be edified, wher the
    Minstre now is."

This passage is said to have been used as a place of ordeal through which
maidens of suspected honesty were caused to pass,--a feat which none but a
virgin could accomplish.

K. P. D. E.

_"Measure for Measure," Act I. Sc. 1._ (Vol. v., p. 535.).--I should be
sorry to cast a cloud over the _satisfactory_ elucidation which A. E. B.
flatters himself he has made of a passage in _Measure for Measure_, for, if
not convincing, it is unquestionably ingenious. I am afraid, however, there
is one fatal objection, of which, when pointed out, I {574} doubt not your
correspondent will see the force. He says, "the demonstrative pronoun
_that_, refers to _the commission_ which the Duke holds in his hand;" but
is this the language we in England use? Until the Duke presented the
commission,--the act indicated by the words "there is our
commission,"--there cannot indeed be much doubt that he held it in his
hand; and while he did so, he would as certainly have said _this_, as I
speak of _this_ pen with which I write.

Your correspondent challenges comment in assuming that his explanation was
satisfactory enough to preclude all correction. At the same time I must
confess I am altogether sceptical with regard to Mr. Halliwell's _verb_.
As, however, he has excited our curiosity, he will doubtless not object to
satisfy it. MR. SINGER's suggestion seems to me worthy of consideration;
but, after all, I feel that there is a degree of incoherency in the
passage, and so unsatisfactory a connexion between the words "and let them
work" and that which precedes, that I cannot help recurring to the idea
that a line has been lost,--an accident of not very uncommon occurrence.

SAMUEL HICKSON.

St. John's Wood.

_"Stunt with false care," &c._ (Vol. v., p. 538.).--The lines alluded to,
though the first of them is incorrectly quoted, are from George Cox's
brilliant satire, _Black Gowns and Red Coats; or, Oxford in 1834_,
respecting which some information was recently furnished by your
correspondents S. F. C. (Vol. v., p. 297.) and C. W. B. (Vol. v., p. 332.)
in reply. The work is perhaps sufficiently scarce to warrant the citation
of the whole passage, which occurs at the commencement of Part V.:

 "When Philip's son, in all a monarch's pride,
  With tempting boons approach'd the barrel's side,
  Full in the sun his glitt'ring trains display'd,
  And sought to cumber with officious aid,
  The Cynic sneer'd, and only begg'd in spite
  The free enjoyment of the beams of light.
  Such were the humble prayer, the meek request
  That Oxford's sons might ask their tyrants best;
  The full out-pouring on their blinded youth
  Of Nature's sunbeams, and the light of truth,
  Rest from the burking systems of the sect,
  Who kill with care more fatal than neglect,
  Who twist with force unnatural aside
  The straight young branches in their heaven-ward pride,
  _With culture spoil_ what else would flourish wild,
  And rock the cradle till they bruise the child."

The poem in question, which is equal in talent to anything that has
appeared since the days of Pope, was published by Ridgway in 1834, but is
now rarely to be met with, though I never heard of its being suppressed.

G. T. D.

_The Lines on Chaucer_ (Vol. v., p. 536.).--The lines about which ELIZA
inquires are not quoted by her quite correctly. They are by Mr. W. J. Fox,
and may be found in the little volume entitled _Hymns and Anthems_
(published by Chas. Fox, 1845), used at the Unitarian Chapel in South
Place, Finsbury. No. CXXIII. begins thus:

 "Britain's first poet,
  Famous old Chaucer,
  Swan-like in dying,
  Sang his last song,
  When at his heart-strings
  Death's hand was strong," &c.

JAYDEE.

_Will O' the Wisp_ (Vol. v., p. 511.).--Will O' the Wisp still lives by the
banks of Trent; but alas! his reign is almost over. Fifty years ago he
might be seen nightly dancing over bog and brake; but since the process of
warping has been discovered, which has made valuable property of what was
before a morass, nearly the whole of the commons between Gainsborough and
the Humber have been brought into cultivation, and the drainage consequent
thereon has nearly banished poor Will.

Any person wishing to make his acquaintance would probably succeed, if he
were to pass a night next November on Brumby or Scotton common.

K. P. D. E.

       *       *       *       *       *


Miscellaneous.

NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC.

A late eminent scholar was in the habit of advising his friends, when in
doubt which of two books to buy: "If one of them is a Dictionary, always
buy the Dictionary:"--and the noble library which he bequeathed to the
public shows that he himself always acted upon this principle. What he said
of Dictionaries generally, will apply with particular force to the very
admirable _Dictionary of Science, Literature, and Art; comprising the
History, Description, and Scientific Principles of every Branch of Human
Knowledge, with the Derivation and Definition of all the Terms in General
Use_, edited by Professor Brande and Dr. Cauvin, with the assistance of
many eminent literary and scientific gentlemen, of which the second edition
is now before us. Our impression on opening it was, that NOTES & QUERIES
would find its occupation gone: and, although it is obvious that such
cannot be the case, we feel sure that if all Querists upon ordinary
subjects would turn to this excellent compendium of general information
before transmitting to us many such inquiries as we now receive, they would
at once be put in possession of the information of which they are in
search; and we should be spared a very considerable amount of labour. The
object which the proprietors proposed to themselves in the one closely
printed volume of which the {575} book consists, has been to supply the
place of those large Encyclopædias and Dictionaries of modern times which
are either too voluminous or too special for ready reference and general
use; and to produce, in a form which should admit of its being carried
about, a work which, without entering into long details of theories, &c.,
should exhibit an _abstract of the principles of every branch of knowledge,
and a definition and explanation of the various terms in Science,
Literature, and Art_, which occur in reading or conversation, with that
facility of reference and precision of statement which ought to be the
distinguishing features of a useful Dictionary. Thanks to the knowledge and
good judgment of the editors and their assistants, this object has been so
successfully accomplished, that Brande's _Dictionary of Science,
Literature, and Art_, may be pronounced as at once a valuable substitute
for a small library, and an indispensable accompaniment and key to a large
one.

The new volume (the sixth), which has just been issued, of Messrs.
Rivington's handsome edition of _The Works and Correspondence of the Right
Honourable Edmund Burke_, is one of peculiar interest, inasmuch as in
addition to his Tracts on the Laws against Popery in Ireland, and his
Reports of the House of Commons on the affairs of the East India Company,
and the Charges against Warren Hastings, it contains his Hints for an Essay
on the Drama, and the Essay towards an Abridgment of the English History in
Three Books.

       *       *       *       *       *

BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES

WANTED TO PURCHASE.

A NARRATIVE OF THE PROCEEDINGS IN THE DOUGLAS CAUSE. London, Griffin, 8vo.
1767.

CLARE'S POEMS. Fcap. 8vo. Last edition.

POETIC WREATH. 8vo. Newman.

MALLET'S ELVIRA.

MAGNA CHARTA; a Sermon at the Funeral of Lady Farewell, by George Newton.
London, 1661.

BOOTHBY'S SORROWS SACRED TO THE MEMORY OF PENELOPE. Cadell and Davies.
1796.

CHAUCER'S POEMS. Vol. I. Aldine Edition.

BIBLIA SACRA, Vulg. Edit., cum Commentar. Menochii. Alost and Ghent, 1826.
Vol I.

BARANTE, DUCS DE BOURGOGNE. Vols. I. and II. 1st, 2nd, or 3rd Edit. Paris.
Ladvocat. 1825.

BIOGRAPHIA AMERICANA, by a Gentleman of Philadelphia.

POTGIESERI DE CONDITIONE SERVORUM APUD GERMANOS. 8vo. Col. Agrip.

THE BRITISH POETS. Whittingham's edition in 100 Vols., with plates.

REPOSITORY OF PATENTS AND INVENTIONS. Vol. XLV. 2nd Series. 1824.

------------------------ Vol. V. 3rd Series. 1827.

NICHOLSON'S PHILOSOPHICAL JOURNAL. Vols. XIV. XV. 1806.

JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL INSTITUTION OF GREAT BRITAIN. No. XI. 2nd Series.

WORKS OF ISAAC BARROW, D.D., late Master of Trinity College, Cambridge.
London, 1683. Vol. I. Folio.

LINGARD'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Vols. VI. VII. VIII. IX. XII. XIII., cloth.

FABRICII BIBLIOTHECA LATINA. Ed. Ernesti. Leipsig, 1773. Vol. III.

THE ANACALYPSIS. By Godfrey Higgins. 2 Vols. 4to.

CODEX DIPLOMATICUS ÆVI SAXONICI, opera J. M. Kemble. Vols. I. and II. 8vo.

ECKHEL, DOCTRINA NUMORUM. Vol. VIII.

BROUGHAM'S MEN OF LETTERS. 2nd Series, royal 8vo., boards. Original
edition.

KNIGHT'S PICTORIAL SHAKSPEARE. Royal 8vo. Parts XLII. XLIII. XLIV. L. and
LI.

CONDER'S ANALYTICAL VIEW OF ALL RELIGIONS. 8vo.

HALLIWELL ON THE DIALECTS OF SOMERSETSHIRE.

SCLOPETARIA, or REMARKS ON RIFLES, &c.

THE COMEDIES OF SHADWELL may be had on application to the Publisher of "N.
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       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

REPLIES RECEIVED.--_The Amber Witch--The Moon and her Influences--Gilbert
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Woollen--Gabriel Hounds--Ben Jonson's adopted Sons--Market Crosses--Large
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Cats--Tregonwell Frampton--John Roger the Protomartyr--Epigram on the
Euphrates--Titles of the Queen of England--Gospel of the Distaffs--The
Number Seven--After me the Deluge--Restiff--Seven Senses--Mummy
Wheat--Lines on Woman--St. Wilfrid's Needle--Will o' the Wisp--Cross
Neytz--Surnames--Curse of Scotland--Lines on Crawford of Kilbirnie--The
Empress Josephine--Stunt with false Care--Lines on Burning of the Houses of
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Understanding--Shakspeare's Seal--St. Patrick--Mistletoe--Nacar--The Oak
and the Ash--Toady or Toadeater--Sun Dial Motto--Frebord--Rhymes on
Places--Addison and Maxwell--King Arthur--Rabbit as a Symbol--St.
Christopher and the Doree--Smyth's MSS.--Term Milesian--Spanish Vessels
wrecked on Coast of Ireland._

_We are this week obliged by want of space to omit many interesting
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W. K. (Leicester) _is thanked for his very kind offer, which we gladly
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C. B. A. _shall receive early attention_.

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EDWARD F. RIMBAULT, LL.D., F.S.A., &c. &c.

Abounds with interesting Musical Anecdotes; the Greek Fables respecting the
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{576}

In Seven Volumes 8vo., price 31s. 6d. cloth, The "Former Series,"
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THE JOURNAL OF SACRED LITERATURE. Edited by JOHN KITTO, D.D., F.S.A.

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must be forwarded to the Publisher by the 24th, and Bills for insertion by
the 26th instant.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

WESTERN LIFE ASSURANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY,

3. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON.

Founded A.D. 1842.

   _Directors._
  H. Edgeworth Bicknell, Esq.
  William Cabell, Esq.
  T. Somers Cocks, Jun. Esq. M.P.
  G. Henry Drew, Esq.
  William Evans, Esq.
  William Freeman, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.
  J. Henry Goodhart, Esq.
  T. Grissell, Esq.
  James Hunt, Esq.
  J. Arscott Lethbridge, Esq.
  E. Lucas, Esq.
  James Lys Seager, Esq.
  J. Basley White, Esq.
  Joseph Carter Wood, Esq.

   _Trustees._
  W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.;
  L. C. Humfrey, Esq., Q.C.;
  George Drew, Esq.

_Consulting Counsel._--Sir Wm. P. Wood, M.P.

_Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.

_Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.

VALUABLE PRIVILEGE.

POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed on
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age       £   s.  d.
   17       1  14   4
   22       1  18   8
   27       2   4   5
   32       2  10   8
   37       2  18   6
   42       3   8   2

ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S., Actuary.

Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
INDUSTRIAL INVESTMENT and EMIGRATION: being a TREATISE on BENEFIT BUILDING
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


    Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5.
    New Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London;
    and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish
    of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No.
    186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, June 12, 1852.





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