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´╗┐Title: How to Fence - Containing Full Instruction for Fencing and the Use of the - Broadsword; Also Instruction in Archery
Author: Warford, Aaron A.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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  HOW TO FENCE.

  CONTAINING

  FULL INSTRUCTION

  FOR

  FENCING

  AND THE

  USE OF THE BROADSWORD;

  ALSO

  INSTRUCTION IN ARCHERY,

  DESCRIBED WITH

  TWENTY-ONE PRACTICAL

  ILLUSTRATIONS.


  A COMPLETE BOOK.


  NEW YORK:

  FRANK TOUSEY, Publisher,

  34 AND 36 NORTH MOORE STREET.



  Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1884, by

  FRANK TOUSEY,

  In the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington, D. C.



TABLE OF CONTENTS


  How to Fence
  Broadsword Exercise
  Archery
  Hurdle Racing
  Vaulting with Pole, or Pole-Leaping
  Throwing the Hammer
  Putting the Shot



[Illustration]



HOW TO FENCE.


Fencing is the art of using the small-sword, or rapier. The small-sword
has a straight blade, about thirty-two inches in length outside the
guard, and is fashioned for _thrusting_ only. Although it is an art of
the greatest antiquity, very great improvements have been made in it
during the last half-century, chiefly by French masters, who excel those
of all other countries. This has been attributed to various causes; by
some to the agility and acknowledged power of rapid physical action
possessed by this nation; by others, to their natural vivacity and
mental quickness. In my opinion, however, a more direct and powerful
cause may be traced in the great encouragement and universal patronage
which it has ever received from every grade of a chivalrous and military
people. Every regiment has its _maitre d'armes_, and every barrack its
fencing-school. Indeed, in so important a light was the proper teaching
of this art held, that one of the French kings (Louis XIV.) granted
letters-patent to twenty eminent masters, who alone were permitted to
teach in Paris. When a vacancy occurred, no interest and no favor could
enable a candidate to obtain this privilege: he had to fence in public
with six of these chosen masters, and if by any of them he was beaten by
two distinct hits, he was considered unqualified to teach in the
capital.

Independent of its value as the scientific use of the sword--the
gentleman's weapon of defense, _par excellence_--fencing stands
unrivaled as an _exercise_; and it is in this sense that it will now be
treated. The most eminent physicians which this country have produced,
have all, in the most earnest manner, recommended it to the attention of
the young. Thus, Dr. Clive says:

"Muscular exertion is essential in perfecting the form of the body, and
those exercises which require the exercise of the greatest number of
muscles are the most conducive to this end. Fencing causes more muscles
to act at the same time than most other exercises. It promotes the
expansion of the chest, and improves respiration, whereby the functions
of the most important organs of the body are more perfectly performed."

Sir Anthony Carlisle uses similar language:

"According to my judgment, the exercise of fencing tends to promote
bodily health, and the development of athletic powers. It is likewise
apparent that the attitudes and exertions of fencing are conducive to
the manly forms and muscular energies of the human figure."

Again, Sir Everard Home, in still stronger terms:

"Of all the different modes in which the body can be exercised, there is
none, in my judgment, that is capable of giving strength and velocity,
as well as precision, to the action of all the voluntary muscles of the
body in an equal degree as the practice of fencing, and none more
conducive to bodily health."

I shall give one more extract from another physician of equal eminence,
Dr. Babbington:

"I am of opinion that, in addition to the amusement which this exercise
(fencing) affords, it is particularly calculated to excite in young
persons a greater degree of energy and circumspection than they might
otherwise possess; and it is obvious that, in respect of health, that
mode of exertion is _superior to all others_, which, while it gives
motion and activity to every part of the body, produces at the same time
corresponding interest in the mind."

Sir John Sinclair, Dr. Pemberton, &c., speak in terms equally
recommendatory.

To avoid all danger in the lessons and practice, foils are substituted
for real swords. Strong wire masks are worn on the face, a well-padded
glove on the hand; and the upper part of the body, at which alone the
thrusts are aimed, is protected by a strong jacket, the right side and
collar of which should be of leather.

The first movement a beginner has to learn, is the manner of placing
himself in the position called


THE GUARD.

It is from this position that all movements are made, whether offensive
or defensive. Let the beginner be placed with his knees straight, his
feet at right angles, heel to heel; the right foot, right side, and face
directed to the master. The body must be held upright and firm, the arms
hanging down by the side, but easily and without constraint, the left
hand holding the foil a few inches beneath its guard. Next, let him
bring the right hand across the body, and seize the foil-handle; by a
second movement, bring the foil above the head, the hands separating as
they ascend, until both arms be nearly extended upwards and outwards.
Here pause. This may be called the _first position_ of the Guard.

These movements should be frequently practiced, as they accustom the
arms to move independently of the body, flatten the joints of the
shoulders, and give prominence to the chest.

To arrive at the _second position_ of the Guard, the right arm, with the
foil, is brought down to the front, until the right elbow is a little
above and in advance of the waist; the fore-arm and foil sloping
upwards; the point of the foil being the height of the upper part of the
face; then, by a second movement, the learner must sink down, separating
the knees, and stepping forward with the right foot fourteen or sixteen
inches; for, of course, the guard of a tall man will be wider than that
of a short one. However, his own comfort in the position will direct him
as to the distance; and the general rule is, that the knee of the left
leg will jut over the toes of the left foot, and the right leg from
ankle to knee be perpendicular. It is in this position that he will
receive all attacks from an adversary, and from this position will all
his own attacks be made. Also in this position will he

[Illustration]


ADVANCE

upon an adversary, when beyond hitting distance. The step in the advance
is usually about that of the width of the Guard, although of course this
would vary with circumstances. The step is made by advancing the right
foot the distance I have named; and on its reaching the ground, the left
foot is brought up, and takes its place. To


RETREAT,

the reverse of the above movement is made. The left foot takes the lead,
stepping to the rear about as far as the right had stepped to the front;
the right occupying its place on its taking up its new position. The
next movement,


THE LONGE,

[Illustration]

is a very important movement, and is rather difficult to make properly,
and fatiguing to practice. Indeed, the first movements in fencing are
the most trying to the learner; and he must not be discouraged if he
fails to do them correctly at first--practice only will give him this
power. The Longe is that extension of body which accompanies every
attack, and is thus made:--The right arm is extended straight from the
shoulder, the arm and blade being on the same level; by a second
movement, the right foot is raised from the ground, and a step made
forward, about eighteen inches in length, while the left remains firmly
planted in its place. At the instant that this step is made, the left
hand is allowed to fall within a few inches of the left thigh, and the
left knee is stiffened back until the leg is perfectly straight.

The thigh of the right leg will now be in a position nearly horizontal;
from the knee downwards perpendicular. Having executed the Longe, the
next movement to be made is


THE RECOVER;

that is, to return from the position of the Longe to that of the Guard,
and is thus effected:--The left arm is nimbly thrown up to its place,
the right arm drawn in, and the left knee re-bent. These movements must
be made at the same time, as it is their _united_ action that enables a
person to recover from so extended a position as the Longe quick enough
to avoid a thrust if his own attack has failed.

These movements must be frequently practiced before any others are
attempted--the Guard, the Advance, the Retreat, the Longe, and the
Recover; and when the learner has attained some proficiency in them, he
may begin the more delicate movements of attack and defense. Of these I
will now speak.


THE ENGAGE.

It is customary for adversaries, on coming to the Guard, to _Engage_,
or to join blades, on what is called the _inside_, that is, the _right_
side; although there are occasions on which it is advisable to engage on
the _outside_, or on the left; otherwise called the _Quarte_ or _Tierce_
sides.

[Illustration]

Two men thus opposed to each other will at once perceive that there are
two lines of attack open to them, _i. e._ the line inside and the line
outside the blade--these, and no more. But these may be, and in fencing
are, subdivided into inside above the hand, and inside under the hand,
and the same subdivision for outside. This gives four lines of
attack--or, to speak more simply, gives four openings through which an
adversary may be assailed. Now, to protect each of these assailable
points, are four defensive movements, called


PARADES.

Each opening has its own parade or defense, and each parade will guard
its own opening, and, strictly speaking, no other. The opening inside
above the hand is defended by two parades.

As its name imports, the first and most natural parade is that of
_Prime_. The action of drawing the sword from its sheath is almost
exactly the movement made use of in the parade of Prime.

In this parade the hand is raised as high as the forehead, so that the
fencer can see his opponent's face under his wrist. The blade of the
foil is almost horizontal, but the point is rather lowered towards the
ground. As this parade will throw the right side of the body open to the
adversary's sword, it is good play to disengage from left to right, and
deliver a rapid thrust at the adversary, in order to anticipate him
before he can bring his own sword round for another thrust. His point
will be thrown far out of line, so that he is behind-hand in point of
time.

This is a very useful parade for fencers of short stature, as they can
sometimes get in their blade under their adversary's arm, after they
have parried his thrust.

The other parade is that of


QUARTE.

It is thus formed. On the approach of the point of an adversary's blade
(and how these approaches are made I will presently explain), the right
hand is moved a few inches--three or four will be enough--across the
body on the inside, the hand being neither depressed nor raised, and the
foil being kept on the same slope as in the Guard. This guards the body
on the inside above the hand, but (and here comes an important law in
fencing) the very movement which has guarded the body on one side has
exposed it on the other; this is the case with all the simple parades.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

Suppose, now, that the exposed part _outside above_ the hand were
assailed, then the defense for it is the parade of


TIERCE.

It is formed by turning the hand with the nails downwards, and crossing
to the opposite side some six or eight inches, the hand and point at the
same elevation as before; this will guard this opening. If, however, the
attack has been made _under_ instead of over the hand, then the proper
parade would have been _seconde_.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

There is another method of parade called _quarte_ over the arm--which is
executed by making about the same parade as in Tierce, with this
exception--first, the hand is retained in its original position, with
the nails upwards, and secondly, the point is not raised over the eye of
the adversary.

[Illustration]

It is rather more delicate than Tierce, but wants its power and energy.
The ripostes, or reply thrusts, are made as they would have been had the
parade been that of Tierce.


SECONDE

is formed by turning the hand in the same position in which it was
turned for tierce, but the point of the foil slopes as much downwards as
in tierce it did upwards; the direction and distance for the hand to
traverse being the same. Again, had the attack been delivered at none of
these, but at the _inside under_ the hand, then the proper parade would
have been


DEMI-CERCLE,

which, as its name expresses, is a half-circle, described by a sweep of
the blade traversing the _under_ line. Next comes the parade of


OCTAVE.

In this parade the hand is held as in Quarte; the hilt of the foil is
kept lower than that of the opponent: the blade is almost horizontal,
the point being only slightly lower than the hilt, and directed towards
the body of the adversary.

[Illustration]

Octave is extremely useful when the fencer misses his parade of
Demi-cercle, as there is but a short distance for the point to traverse,
and it generally meets the blade of the adversary before the point can
be properly fixed. Moreover, it brings the point so near the adversary's
body, that he will not venture to make another thrust until he has
removed the foil.

Thus I have enumerated, and partly explained, the forms and uses of
these four parades: they are called Simple Parades, to distinguish them
from another set of defensive movements, called


CONTRE-PARADES.

I have said and shown that a man standing foil in hand, in the position
of the guard, is exposed in four distinct places to thrusts from an
adversary within longeing distance. I have also shown that he has a
defense for each of these exposed places; but if a man has but _one_
defense for each assailable part, then his adversary, knowing beforehand
what the defense must be, would be prepared beforehand to deceive him.
But if he has a reserve--if he has a _second_ defense for each
part--then the adversary cannot tell what the defense will be, until his
attack, false or real, is begun.

To meet this contingency, a second series of defenses have been devised,
which are of an entirely different nature from the _Simple_ Parades.

Again, as each of the simple parades is framed to guard only one
opening, it was found desirable that the contre-parades should be of a
more comprehensive character. They are therefore devised so that each is
capable of protecting the entire front. It is evident that this object
could not be attained without the sacrifice of quickness, because a
larger space must be traversed, and therefore more time is occupied with
a contre than a simple parade.

To know one contre-parade is virtually to know all, as they are all
formed on the same plan. They are all full circles in the position of
hand and direction of foil of the different simple parades; or more
clearly speaking, each simple parade has a contre-parade; there are,
therefore, four simple and four contre-parades, which may be thus
arranged:

  Quarte           Contre de Quarte.

  Tierce           Contre de Tierce.

  Seconde          Contre de Seconde.

  Demi-cercle      Contre de Cercle.

I have said that a contre-parade is a full circle in the position of
hand and direction of blade of its simple; thus, contre de quarte is
made by retaining the hand in the position of quarte, while the foil
describes a circle descending on the inside, and returning by the
outside to the place of its departure. So with all the others, the foil
_following the direction of the simple_ parade, of which it is the
contre. These complete the entire system of defenses.

I now come to the movements of an opposite nature, namely, the


ATTACKS,

and shall begin with the most simple of them. I will again suppose two
adversaries standing _en guard_, within longeing distance of each other:
now the most simple movement that the attacking party could make would
be


THE STRAIGHT THRUST

to the outside or inside, according to his line of engagement. I have,
in describing the longe, in effect described the straight thrust; it is
but a longe in a straight line, taking care, however, to feel firmly the
adversary's blade, but taking care also not to press or lean on it
during the delivering of the thrust.

Next in character comes


THE DISENGAGEMENT.

This attack is made by dropping the point of the foil beneath the
adversary's blade, and raising it on the opposite side, at the same
time, rising with the arm fully extended; on the completion of the
extension the longe is made and the thrust delivered.


THE ONE-TWO

is but a double disengagement, the first being but a feint or false
attack, to induce the adversary to form a parade to cover the part
threatened, for the covering of one part of the body exposes the
opposite; the second disengagement is made to take advantage of this
exposure. The arm is extended half-way on the first, and then wholly on
the second, to be immediately followed by the longe.


THE BEAT AND THRUST.

This is another variety of attack. Supposing the adversary's blade to be
firmly joined to yours, when you wished to deliver a _straight thrust_,
there would then be danger of your falling upon his point. This danger
is avoided by giving a slight beat on his blade the instant preceding
your extension of arm, of course to be followed _en suite_ by the longe.

The companion attack to this one is


THE BEAT AND DISENGAGEMENT.

The _beat_ here takes the character of the first disengagement in
_one-two_, _i. e._ becomes a _feint_, and is intended to induce the
adversary to return to the place he occupied when the beat was made. You
then immediately pass to the opposite side of his blade in the manner
described in the _disengagement_.

It will be seen that all these movements pass _under_ the adversary's
blade. However, there are certain situations in the _assault_, as a
fencing about is called, when an adversary is more assailable _over the
point_ than under the blade; for this purpose there is what the French
call the _coupe sur peint_, or


CUT OVER THE POINT.

It is thus made:--By the action of the hand, and without drawing it back
at all, the foil is raised and brought down on the opposite side of the
adversary's blade, the arm being extended during its fall to the
horizontal position, on attaining which the longe is delivered.


CUT OVER AND DISENGAGEMENT

is on the same principal as the _one-two_ and the _beat and
disengagement_. On the adversary opposing the first movement (the cut)
with a parade, the second movement (the disengagement) is made to the
opposite side, to be followed, of course, by the longe, the extension of
the arm being divided between the two movements.

These attacks are called simple attacks, because they may be parried by
one or more simple parades, according to the number of movements in the
attack. In fact, every attack can be parried, and every parade can be
deceived; it is the _additional_ movement last made which hits or
guards.

Thus, you threaten by a disengagement to the outside; your adversary
bars your way effectually by the parade of _tierce_; you make a second
disengagement to the inside, which is now exposed from the very fact of
the outside being guarded (for both lines of attack cannot be guarded at
the same time), thus converting your attack into _one-two_; but if your
adversary parries quarte on your _second_ movement, your attack would be
warded off. This can be carried much further, but the above will, I
think, be sufficient to explain the nature of simple parades and
attacks.

To deceive a _contre_-parade, a separate movement, called a


DOUBLE,

has been invented; it is very simple in principle, and admirably answers
the purpose. For instance if you were to threaten your adversary by a
disengagement to the outside, and if, instead of tierce, he parried
_contra de quarte_, the double is then made by your making a _second_
disengagement _to the same side as the first_, for it will be found that
his _contra de quarte_ has replaced the blade in the positions they
occupied previous to your disengagement. You will then have an opening,
and may finish the attack by the longe.

As all the contra-parades are on the same plan and principle, so are all
the doubles. Of course, it is understood that you will make all the
movements of the double _en suite_, and without allowing your
adversary's blade to overtake yours.


ALL FEINTS.

The foregoing movements having been well practiced in the lesson, the
next step is that of _all feints_ and _all parades_, and may be
practiced either with a master or fellow-pupil. The practice consists of
one pupil standing on the defensive _entirely_, while another assumes
the offensive, and attacks him with _all_ the _feints_ of which he is
master, the other, of course, defending with all his parades. It is
excellent practice, as it accustoms the pupil to think for himself
gradually, he having thus but one set of movements to think about. He is
therefore enabled to make them boldly, without having to encounter
unknown movements from his adversary.

It also enables him to see the extent of his resources, both for attack
and defense. When he can both attack and defend with some presence of
mind, he may then begin


THE ASSAULT;

that is, he may encounter an adversary, to attack or defend as occasion
presents. He is then left to his own resources entirely. The following


GENERAL ADVICE,

given by a very eminent fencer and excellent teacher, cannot fail to be
of use:

"Do not put yourself on the position of the guard within the reach of
your adversary's thrusts, especially at the time of drawing your sword.

"If you are much inferior, make no long assaults.

"Do nothing that is useless; every movement should tend to your
advantage.

"Let your movements be made as much within the line of your adversary's
body as possible.

"Endeavor both to discover your adversary's designs and to conceal your
own.

"Two skillful men, acting together, fight more with their heads than
their hands.

"The smaller you can make the movements with your foil, the quicker will
your point arrive at your adversary's body.

"Do not endeavor to give many thrusts on the longe, thus running the
risk of receiving one in the interim.

"If your adversary drops his foil by accident, or in consequence of a
smart parade of yours, you should immediately pick it up, and present it
to him politely.

"Always join blades (if possible) previously to another attack, after a
hit is given."



BROADSWORD EXERCISE.


The principal distinction between the broadsword and the rapier is, that
the latter is formed only for thrusting, while the former is adapted for
cutting also. Indeed, those who use the broadsword are, in my opinion,
too apt to neglect the use of the point, and to give their attention
almost exclusively to the cuts.

The first lesson in the sword exercise is necessarily to know how to
stand. The learner should be instructed to perform the different
movements by word of command, remembering to consider the first parts of
the word as a caution, and not to stir until the _last_ syllable is
uttered. At the last syllable, the movement should be performed smartly.
In giving the word, the instructor always makes a slight pause, in order
to give his pupils time to remember what they must do. For example, the
words Draw Swords is given thus, Draw ... Swords--the word swords being
spoken smartly, in order that the movement may correspond.


POSITIONS.

First Position.--Make the target [Footnote: For target, see page 26.]
about fourteen inches in diameter, and place it on the wall, having its
center about four feet from the ground. Draw a perpendicular line from
the spot at the bottom of the target to the ground, and continue it on
the floor, in order to insure the proper position of the heels. The
learner stands perfectly upright opposite the target, with his right
side towards it, his heels close together, his right toe pointing to the
target, and his left foot at right angles with the left. His arms must
be clasped behind his back, his right palm supporting the left elbow,
and his left hand grasping the right arm just above the elbow. In this
position, he must bend both knees and sink down as far as possible. This
will not be very far at first, but he will soon sink down quite easily.

Second Position.--This is accomplished by placing the right foot smartly
in front, about sixteen or fourteen inches before the left. (See fig.
1.) He must accustom himself to balance himself so perfectly on his left
foot that he can place the right either before or behind it, without
losing his balance.

[Illustration: _Fig. 1._]

Third Position.--The third position must then be learned. This consists
of stepping well forward with the right foot, until the left knee is
quite straight, and the right knee exactly perpendicularly placed over
the right foot. Great care must be taken to keep the heels exactly in
the same line and the body perfectly upright. (See fig. 2.)

These preliminaries having been settled, the learner stands upright
before the target. A sword is then put into his hand, and the target is
explained as follows:--

[Illustration: _Fig. 2._]


TARGET.

The interior lines represent the cuts. Cut one being directed from No. 1
diagonally through the target, coming out at 4. Cut two is the same,
only from left to right. Three is made upwards diagonally, and four is
the same, only in the opposite direction. Cut five is horizontally
through the target from right to left, and six from left to right. Cut
seven is perpendicularly downwards. Care must be taken that the cuts are
fairly given with the edge.

The swords drawn on the target represent the guards. The seventh guard
ought, however, not to be made directly across, but must have the point
directly rather forwards and downwards, as a cut 7 glides off the blade,
and can be instantly answered either by a thrust or by cut 1.

The two dark circles represent the places where the thrusts take effect.

[Illustration]

The learner begins by taking the sword in his right hand, having its
edge toward the target and its back resting on his shoulder. His right
arm is bent at right angles, and the elbow against his side. The left
hand must rest upon the hip, the thumb being to the rear. At the word--


CUTS AND GUARDS.


CUTS.

_Cut_ 1.--The young swordsman extends his right arm, and makes the cut
clear through the target. When the point has cleared the target,
continue the sweep of the sword, and by the turn of the wrist bring it
with its back on the left shoulder, its edge towards the left. The arm
is then ready for

_Cut_ 2.--Bring the sword from 2 to 3, continue the movement of the
sword, and turn the wrist so that the point is below the right hip and
the edge towards the ground.

[Illustration]

_Cut_ 3.--Cut through the target diagonally, bringing the sword from No.
3 to No. 2, and bring the sword onwards, so that it rests with the edge
downwards, and point below the left hip. At

[Illustration: _First Point._]

_Cut_ 4.--Cut from 4 to 1, and bring the sword round until its point is
over the right shoulder, and its edge well to the right.

_Cut_ 5.--At the word Five, make a horizontal cut from 5 to 6, and sweep
the sword round until it rests on the left shoulder, with its edge to
the left, and its point well over the shoulder.

_Cut_ 6.--Cut horizontally through the target from 6 to 5, and bring the
sword over the head with the edge upwards, and its point hanging over
the back. From this position,--

_Cut_ 7.--Make a downward stroke until the sword reaches the center of
the target. Arrest it there, and remain with the arm extended, waiting
for the word.


POINTS.

First Point.--Draw back the sword, until the right wrist is against the
right temple, the edge of the sword being upwards. Make a slight pause,
and then thrust smartly forward toward the center of the target, raising
the right wrist as high as No. 1, and pressing the left shoulder well
back.

Second Point.--Turn the wrist round to the left, so that the edge comes
upwards, draw the hand back until it rests on the breast, and give the
point forwards, to the center of the target, raising the hand as before.

Third Point.--Give the handle of the sword a slight twist in the hand to
the right, so that the edge again comes uppermost, and the guard rests
against the back of the hand. Draw back the hand until it rests against
the right hip, and deliver it forward towards the spot at the bottom of
the target, raising the wrist as high as the spot in the center. The
object in raising the wrist is to deceive the eye of the opponent, who
will be more likely to notice the position of your wrist than of your
point. In all the thrusts, the left shoulder should be rather brought
forward before the point is given, and pressed well back while it is
being delivered.

[Illustration: _Second Point._]


GUARDS.

Wait after the third point has been delivered for the word,

DEFEND.--At this word draw up the hand smartly, and form the first
guard. Make the other guards in succession as they are named, while the
instructor proves their accuracy by giving the corresponding cuts. The
guards must be learned from the target, by placing the sword in exactly
the same position as those delineated. The guards are these:

[Illustration: _Third Point._]

  A First guard.          E Fifth.
  B Second.               F Sixth.
  C Third.                G Seventh.
  D Fourth.

The two spots H and I mark the places towards which the points are made,
H for the first and second point, I for the third.


PARRY.

The parry or parade of a thrust is executed with the back of the sword.
The firmest way of parrying is to hold the sword perpendicular, with its
edge to the right and its hilt about the height of and close to the
right shoulder; then, by sweeping the sword round from left to right,
any thrust within its sweep is thrown wide of the body.

The parry is executed with the wrist, and not with the arm, which must
not move.


HANGING GUARD.

When the pupil is acquainted with both cuts and guards, he should learn
the hanging guard, a most useful position, as it keeps the body well
hidden under the sword, and at the same time leaves the sword in a good
position to strike or thrust.

It is accomplished in the following way:--Step out to the second
position, raise the arm until the hand is just over the right foot, and
as high as the head. The edge of the sword is upwards, and the point is
directed downwards and towards the left. The left shoulder is pressed
rather forward, and the neck and chest drawn inward.

[Illustration]

In this position, the swordsman is in a position to receive or make an
attack as he may think fit. It is rather fatiguing at first, owing to
the unaccustomed position of the arm and head, but the fatigue is soon
overcome, and then it will be found that there is no attitude which
gives equal advantages.

There are two other modes of standing on guard, each possessing their
peculiar advantages. These are, the inside and outside guard. The inside
guard is made as follows:


INSIDE GUARD.

Stand in the second position, having the wrist of the right hand nearly
as low as the waist, the hand being exactly over the right foot. The
point of the sword is raised as high as the eyes, and the edge is turned
inwards.


OUTSIDE GUARD.

The outside guard is formed in the same manner as the inside, with the
exception that the edge of the sword is turned well outwards.

To get to the hanging guard, the words are given as follows:--Inside
guard--outside guard--guard.


ATTACK AND DEFENSE.

The swordsman having learned thus far, is taught to combine the three
movements of striking, thrusting, and guarding, by the following
exercise:--

1. Inside Guard.

2. Outside Guard.

3. Guard.

4. Cut One.

5. First Guard.

6. Cut Two.

7. Second Guard.

8. Cut Three.

9. Third Guard.

10. Cut Four.

11. Fourth Guard.

12. Cut Five.

13. Fifth Guard.

14. Cut Six.

15. Sixth Guard.

16. Cut Seven.

17. Seventh Guard.

18. First Point. [Prepare for the point in First Position.] Two. [Thrust
in Third Position.]

19. Second Point. [Prepare for it in First Position.] Two. [Thrust in
Third Position.]

20. Third Point. [Prepare.] Two. [Thrust.]

21. Parry. [Prepare to parry in First Position.] Two. [Parry.]

22. Guard.

The young swordsman must remember that in this, as in all the exercises,
the cuts and points must be given in the third position, as in the
accompanying illustration, which shows the swordsman just as he has
delivered the seventh cut, and is waiting for the next word before he
resumes the first position.

The guards, on the contrary, are given in the first position, as is seen
in the figure on p. 35, which illustrates the seventh guard.

These exercises are always learned with the single-stick, or
basket-hilted cudgel, in order to avoid the dangers which would be
inevitable if the sword were used. But as the single-stick is only an
imitation of the sword, I will give the method of getting the sword out
of the sheath into any position required.


DRAW SWORDS.

The first word of command is _draw swords_. At the word _draw_, seize
the sheath just below the hilt, with the left hand, and raise the hilt
as high as the hip, at the same time grasping the hilt with the right
hand, turning the edge of the sword to the rear, and drawing it
partially from the sheath, to insure its easy removal.

[Illustration: _Seventh Cut._]

At the word _swords_, draw the blade smartly out of the scabbard,
throwing the point upwards, at the full extent of the arm, the edge
being still to the rear.


RECOVER SWORDS.

The wrist is now smartly lowered until it is level with the chin, the
blade upright, and the edge to the left. This is the position of recover
swords. The elbow must be kept close to the body as in the cut.

[Illustration: _Seventh Guard._]


CARRY SWORDS.

The wrist is now sharply lowered until the arm hangs at its full length,
the wrist being in the line with the hip, the edge of the sword to the
front, and its back resting in the hollow of the shoulder, the fingers
lightly holding the hilt. The left hand hangs at the side until the word
_inside guard_, when it is placed on the left hip.


SLOPE SWORDS.

At the word _swords_, raise the right hand smartly, until it forms a
right angle at the elbow.


RETURN SWORDS.

At the word, raise the blade until it is perpendicular, move the hilt to
the hollow of the left shoulder, drop the point of the sword into the
scabbard (which has been grasped by the left hand and slightly raised),
at the same time turning the edge to the rear. Pause an instant, and
send the sword smartly into the sheath, removing both hands as the hilt
strikes against the mouth of the scabbard; drop them to the side, with
the palms outwards, and in the first position.

[Illustration: _Recover Swords._]


PRACTICES.

There are many exercises with the broadsword, called _practices_. I have
given one of them, which is to be practiced alone; but when the pupil
has attained some confidence in the use of his weapon, he must be placed
opposite another pupil, and they must go through them, each taking the
attack and defense in turn.

The young swordsman must be provided with a very stout wire mask, which
defends the face and part of the neck, and which should be worked in a
kind of helmet above, to guard against the disastrous consequences of
receiving the seventh guard. No practices, loose or otherwise, should be
permitted without the masks, as neither party would be able to cut or
thrust with proper confidence.


SECOND PRACTICE.

This is very useful in teaching the point and parry, as well as giving
steadiness on the feet. Two boys are placed opposite each other, at just
such a distance, that when perfectly erect they can touch the hilt of
their adversary's sword with the point of their own.

The one who gives the first point is called Front Rank (there may be a
dozen in each rank, each having tried the distance to his right by
extending his sword), and the one who gives first parry is called Rear
Rank.

  Word of Command.      Front Rank.              Rear Rank.

  Guard                 Hanging guard            Hanging guard

  Third point           Prepare to give          Prepare to parry
                         third point

  Point               { Give third point,      } Parry third point,
                      {  and when parried      }  and prepare to
                      {  spring back to the    }  give third point
                      {  first position,
                      {  and prepare to
                      {  parry

                      { Parry third point,     } Give third point,
  Point               {  and prepare for       }  and prepare to
                      {  third point           }  parry

  Point, &c. &c.

This should be continued until both are weary.

Both swordsmen should learn to do it more rapidly every time they
practice. Next time of going through it, front rank and rear rank change
places, as they must do in all the practices.


THIRD PRACTICE.

  Word of Command.  Front Rank.        Rear Rank.

  Guard             Hanging guard      Hanging guard
  Leg               Cut four           Cut seven
  Inside guard      Inside guard       Inside guard
  Leg               Cut six [at leg]   Cut six [at neck]
  Outside guard     Outside guard      Outside guard
  Leg               Cut five [at leg]  Cut five [at neck]
  Guard             Hanging guard      Hanging guard
  Slope Swords      Slope swords       Slope swords

In this and the other practices the cuts must be delivered in the third
position, and the guards in the first. In the third and fourth practices
the cuts must be given lightly, as many of them are not intended to be
guarded, but merely to show the powers of the sword in various
positions.


FOURTH PRACTICE.

  Word of Command.  Front Rank.       Rear Rank.

  Guard             Hanging guard     Hanging guard
  Head              Seventh cut       Seventh guard
  Head              Seventh guard     Cut seven
  Leg               Fourth cut        Seventh guard
  Leg               Seventh guard     Fourth cut
  Head              Seventh cut       Seventh guard
  Head              Seventh guard     Seventh cut
  Guard             Hanging guard     Hanging guard
  Slope swords      Slope swords      Slope swords

In this and the preceding exercise, the power of shifting the leg is
shown. If two swordsmen attack each other, and No. 1 strikes at the leg
of No. 2, it will be better for No. 2 not to oppose the cut by the third
or fourth guard, but to draw back the leg smartly, and cut six or seven
at the adversary's head or neck.

In loose play, as it is called, _i. e._, when two parties engage with
swords without following any word of command, but strike and guard as
they can, both players stand in the second position, because they can
either advance or retreat as they choose, and can longe out to the third
position for a thrust or a cut, or spring up to the first position for a
guard with equal ease.

It is often a kind of trap, to put the right leg more forward than
usual, in order to induce the adversary to make a cut at it. When he
does so, the leg is drawn back, the stroke passes harmless, and the
deceived striker gets the stick of his opponent on his head or
shoulders.

We now come to a very complicated exercise, called the


FIFTH PRACTICE.

  Word of Command.   Front Rank.            Rear Rank.

  Draw swords        Draw swords            Draw swords
  Inside guard       Inside guard           Inside guard
  Outside guard      Outside guard          Outside guard
  Guard              Hanging guard          Hanging guard
  Head               Seventh cut            Seventh guard
  Head               Seventh guard          Seventh cut
  Arm                Second cut [at arm]    Second guard
  Head               Seventh guard          Seventh cut
  Head               Seventh cut            Seventh guard
  Arm                Second guard           Second cut [at arm]
  Head               Seventh cut            Seventh guard
  Head               Seventh guard          Seventh cut
  Right side         Sixth cut              Sixth guard
  Head               Seventh guard          Seventh cut
  Head               Seventh cut            Seventh guard
  Right side         Sixth guard            Sixth cut
  Guard              Hanging guard          Hanging guard

This practice is capital exercise, and looks very imposing. All these
practices ought to be so familiar that the words of command are not
needed, the only word required being First, Second, or Third practices,
as the case may be.

I can remember once, that two of my pupils had attained such a mastery
of their weapons that we used often to go through the practice with real
swords. On one occasion, we were acting a charade, and my eldest pupil
and myself were enacting the part of two distinguished foreigners
(country unknown) who were to get up a fight. So we began by a little
quarrel, and finally drew our swords and set hard to work at the fifth
practice, which we could do with extreme rapidity, and without the use
of words of command. The spectators were horrified, and the ladies
greatly alarmed; for there seems to be no particular order in that
practice, and an inexperienced eye would certainly fancy that the
combatants were in earnest.


FORT AND FEEBLE.

The half of the sword-blade next the hilt is called the "fort," because
it is the strongest place on which the cut of an adversary can be
received. Always parry and guard with the fort of your sword, as, if you
try to guard a cut with the "feeble," which is the remaining half of the
blade, your guard will be forced, and the cut take effect.


DRAWING CUT.

The drawing cut is made best with a curved sword, and is executed by
placing the edge of the sword on the object, and drawing it over it
until it is severed. A good large mangel-wurzel is capital practice.
Place the root loose on a table, stand at arm's-length from it, lay the
edge of the sword lightly on it, and slice the root by repeatedly
drawing the sword over it. This is very difficult, although it looks
easy enough, and is sure to jar the arm from the wrist to the shoulder
the first time or two, while the sword glides off as if the root were
cased in polished steel. However, a little practice will soon overcome
the difficulty. This cut is much in use among the Sikhs.


GENERAL ADVICE.

Never look at your own sword, but watch the eye and sword-wrist of your
opponent.

Remember that the great point in this exercise, as in fencing, is to
gain time. Endeavor, therefore, to advance your point nearer your
adversary than his is to you.

Begin the assault out of distance, so that neither party can complain of
being taken by surprise.

If the two parties exchange a cut or a thrust at the same moment, the
one who gave his cut or thrust in the third position is victorious.

When a cut or thrust is made, the one who receives it passes his sword,
_i. e._, stick, into his left hand, and his opponent comes to inside
guard.

Always spring back to the second position after delivering a cut or
thrust.

Keep the line of direction carefully, or you will leave an open space
for the adversary to get his sword into.

Last and most important,--Don't lose your temper!



ARCHERY.


IMPLEMENTS OF THE CRAFT.

For the Purposes of the Archer the following implements are required,
which may be obtained at any of the principal makers in New York or
Boston--first, the bow; secondly, the arrow; thirdly, a quiver, pouch,
and belt; fourthly, a tassel and grease-pot; fifthly, an arm-guard or
brace, and a shooting glove; sixthly, a target or targets; and
seventhly, a scoring card.

THE BOW is the most important article in archery, and also the most
expensive. It is usually from five to six feet in length, made of a
single piece of yew, or of lancewood and hickory glued together back to
back. The former suits gentlemen the best, and the latter being more
lively is better adapted for the short, sharp pull of the ladies. The
wood is gradually tapered, and at each end is a tip of horn, the one
from the upper end being longer than the other or lower one. The
strength of bows is marked in pounds, varying from 25 to 80 lbs. Ladies'
bows are from 25 to 40 lbs. in strength, and those of gentlemen from 50
to 80 lbs. One side of the bow is flat, called its "back;" the other
rounded, is called the "belly;" and nearly in the middle, where the hand
should take the hold, it is lapped round with velvet, and that part is
called the "handle." In each of the tips of horn is a notch for the
string called "the nock."

BOWSTRINGS are made of hemp or flax, the former being the better
material; for though at first they stretch more, yet they wear longer,
and stand a harder pull as well as being more elastic in the shooting.
In applying a fresh string to a bow, be careful in opening it not to
break the composition that is on it; cut the tie, take hold of the eye,
which will be found ready-worked at one end, let the other part hang
down, and pass the eye over the upper end of the bow. If for a lady, it
may be held from 2 to 2-1/2 inches below the nock; if for a gentleman,
half an inch lower, varying it according to the length and strength of
the bow; then run your hand along the side of the bow and string to the
bottom nock, turn it round that and fix it by the noose, called the
"timber noose," taking care not to untwist the string in making it. This
noose is merely a simple turn back and twist without a knot, but it is
better seen than described. When strung, a lady's bow will have the
string about 5 or 5-1/2 inches from the belly; and a gentleman's about
half an inch more. The part opposite the handle, is bound round with
waxed silk, in order to prevent its being frayed by the arrow. As soon
as a string becomes too soft and the fibers too straight, rub it with
bees-wax, and give it a few turns in the proper direction, so as to
shorten it and twist its strands a little tighter; a spare string should
always be provided by the shooter.

THE ARROWS are differently shaped by the various makers; some being of
uniform thickness throughout, while others are protuberant in the
middle; some, again, are larger at the point than at the feather end,
which I believe to be the best form for shooting; and others are quite
the reverse. They are now invariably made of white deal, with points of
iron or brass riveted on, but generally having a piece of heavy wood
spliced on to the deal between it and the point, by which their flight
is improved. At the other end a piece of horn is inserted, in which is a
notch for the string; and they are armed with three feathers glued on,
one of which is of a different color to the others, and is intended to
mark the proper position of the arrow when placed on the string--this
one always pointing from the bow. These feathers, properly applied, give
a rotary motion to the arrow which causes its flight to be straight.
They are generally from the wing of the turkey or goose. The length and
weight vary; the latter being marked in sterling silver coin, stamped on
the arrow in plain figures. It is usual to paint a crest, or a
distinguishing ring or rings, on the arrow just above the feathers, by
which they may be known in shooting at the target.

THE QUIVER is merely a tin case painted green, and is intended for the
security of the arrows when not in use. The POUCH and BELT are worn
round the waist, and the latter contains those arrows which are actually
being shot.

A POT TO HOLD GREASE FOR TOUCHING THE GLOVE AND STRING, AND A TASSEL to
wipe the arrows, are hung to the belt. The grease is composed of
deer-suet, or of beef-suet, and bees-wax melted together. Instead of a
leather belt, ladies use a cord and tassels round the waist, to which
the pouch, of a different shape to that adopted by gentlemen, is hooked;
and this, again, has the grease-pot suspended to it.

THE ARM is protected from the blow of the string by the brace, a broad
guard of strong leather buckled on by two straps. A SHOOTING-GLOVE, also
of thin tubes of leather, is attached to the wrist by three flat pieces
ending in a circular strap buckled round it. This glove prevents that
soreness of the fingers which soon comes on after using the bow without
it.

THE TARGET consists of a circular thick mat of straw covered with
canvas, painted in a series of circles. It is usually from three feet
six inches to four feet in diameter; the middle is about six or eight
inches in diameter, gilt, and called "the gold;" the next is called "the
red," after which comes the "inner white," then "the black," and
finally, "the outer white." These targets are mounted upon triangular
stands, at distances apart of from 50 to 100 yards; 60 being the usual
shooting distance.

A SCORING-CARD is provided with columns for each color, which are marked
with a pin, as here indicated. The usual score for a gold hit, 9; the
red, 7; inner white, 6; black, 3, and outer white, 1.


THE USE OF THE BOW.

TO BEND AND STRING THE BOW properly, the following directions will be
serviceable, and the young archer should pay particular attention to
them, since a neglect of these cautions will often lead to a fracture of
the bow by bending it the wrong way:

Take the bow by the _handle_, in the _right_ hand.

Place the bottom end upon the ground, resting against the hollow of the
inside of the right foot, keeping the flat side of the bow (called the
_back_) towards your person; the left foot should be advanced a little,
and the right placed so that the bow cannot slip sideways.

Place the heel of the left hand upon the upper limb of the bow, below
the eye of the string. Now, while the fingers and thumb of the left hand
slide this eye towards the notch in the horn, and the heel _pushes_ the
limb away from the body, the right hand _pulls_ the handle towards the
person, and thus resists the action of the left, by which the bow is
bent, and at the same time the string is slipped into the "nock," as the
notch is termed.

Take care to keep the three outer fingers free from the string, for if
the bow should slip from the hand, and the string catch them, they will
be severely pinched. If shooting in frosty weather, warm the bow before
a fire, or by friction with a woolen cloth. If the bow has been lying by
for a long time, it should be well rubbed with boiled linseed oil before
using.

TO UNSTRING THE BOW, hold it as in stringing; then press down the upper
limb exactly as before, and as if you wished to place the eye of the
string in a higher notch; this will loosen the string and liberate the
eye, when it must be lifted out of the nock by the forefinger, and
suffered to slip down the limb.

BEFORE USING THE BOW, hold it in a perpendicular direction, with the
string towards you, and see if the line of the string cuts the middle of
the bow; if not, shift the eye and noose of the string to either side,
so as to make the two lines coincide. This precaution prevents a very
common cause of defective shooting, which is the result of an uneven
string throwing the arrow on one side.

AFTER USING IT, unstring it; and if a large party is shooting, after
every end it should be liberated from its state of tension; but in this
respect there is a great difference in different bows, some good ones
soon getting cast from their true shape, and others, though inferior
bows, bearing any ordinary amount of tension without damage.

THE GENERAL MANAGEMENT OF THE BOW should be on the principle that damp
injures it, and that any loose floating ends interfere with its
shooting.

It should, therefore, be kept well varnished, and in a water-proof case,
and it should be carefully dried after shooting in damp weather. If
there are any ends hanging from the string cut them off pretty close,
and see that the whipping in the middle of the string is close and
well-fitting. The case should be hung up against a dry internal wall,
not too near fire.

IN SELECTING THE BOW, be careful that it is not too strong for your
power, and that you can draw the arrow to its head without any
trembling of the hand. If this cannot be done after a little practice,
the bow should be changed for a weaker one, for no arrow will go true if
it is discharged by a trembling hand.

IN SELECTING ARROWS, be careful that they are not too long. For a bow of
5 feet 10 inches, the arrows should be about 2 feet 4 inches in length.
For a lady's bow of 4 feet 10 inches, the arrow should measure about 2
feet.

IN SHOOTING, keep the longer limb of the bow upwards, as the bow is
liable to be broken if used the other way, and the wrapping of the
string does not coincide with the upper part of the handle. Bows may be
broken either from the above circumstance, or by overdrawing them, or by
snapping the string without an arrow in it, or by the string breaking;
and if a bow stands all these trials, it is to be prized as a sound and
good bit of stuff.

After an arrow has been shot into the target or the ground, be
particularly careful to withdraw it, by laying hold close to its head,
and by twisting it round as it is withdrawn in the direction of its
axis. Without this precaution it may be easily bent or broken.

IN SHOOTING AT THE TARGET, the first thing to be done is TO NOCK THE
ARROW--that is, to place it properly on the string. In order to effect
this, take the bow in the left hand, with the string towards you, the
upper limb being towards the right. Hold it horizontally while you take
the arrow by the middle, pass it on the _under_ side of the string and
the _upper_ side of the bow, till the head reaches two or three inches
past the left hand; hold it there with the forefinger or thumb while you
remove the right hand down to the nock. Turn the arrow till the
cock-feather comes uppermost; then pass it down the bow, and fix it on
the nocking point of the string. In doing this, all contact with the
feathers should be avoided, unless they are rubbed out of place, when
they may be smoothed down by passing them through the hand from the
point towards the nock.

THE ATTITUDE for shooting should be graceful as well as serviceable. The
body should be at right angles with the target; but the face must be
turned over the left shoulder, so as to be opposed to it. The feet are
to be flat on the ground, with the heels a little apart, the left foot
turned towards the mark; the head and chest inclined a _little_ forward,
so as to present a full bust, but not bent at all below the waist.

IN DRAWING THE BOW, proceed as follows:

_1st Method._--Take hold of the bow with the left hand, having the elbow
straight; then, having placed the arrow as directed in the last
paragraph, and having the finger-stalls or shooting-glove on, put a
finger on each side of the arrow on the string and the thumb on the
opposite side, so as to steady it; then raise all at the full length of
the arm till the right hand reaches nearly to the level of the
shoulder, and the left is opposite the target, when, by drawing the one
to the ear, and the other towards the target, the arrow is brought to a
direct line with the bull's-eye, and at that moment it is released.

_2nd Method._--Draw the arrow as before, but pause when the arrow is
fully extended to the head, and take aim. This, however, requires a very
strong arm, and also a strong bow, or there will be a quivering of the
muscles, which is communicated to the arrow; beside the danger of
breaking the bow. The loosing must be quick, and the string must leave
the fingers smartly and steadily, the bow hand at that moment being held
as firm as a vise, upon which the goodness of the flight mainly depends.

THE FOLLOWING DIRECTIONS should be attended to strictly, if good
shooting is to be attained:--

1.--Fix the attention steadily upon the object, and disregard all
external objects, which are liable otherwise to distract the eye at the
moment of shooting.

2.--In drawing the bow, in order to secure the arrow in its place, turn
the bow a little obliquely, so that the handle and your knuckles will
together form a groove for the arrow to run in. When it falls off, it is
from the string being held too far up by the fingers, which causes it to
twist in the drawing, and the arrow is thereby thrown off from resting
against the bow. The proper length is midway between the ends and the
first joint of the fingers. Three fingers may be used, but the arrow
should be between the first and second.

3.--In taking aim, two points must be attended to, viz: the LATERAL
_direction_ and the _distance_, because there is no bow which will drive
an arrow many yards perfectly _point-blank_, and, consequently, a slight
elevation must in all cases be made, and for long distances, with weak
bows, a very considerable one. It requires great experience to manage
the elevation properly, and much must depend upon the exact strength of
the bow, and the distance of the shot. With regard to the lateral
direction, it is materially affected by the wind, and this must always
be allowed for if there is any stirring; and if it is in the line of the
targets, one end will require much less elevation than the other.

4.--Fix the eyes on the mark, and not on the arrow. Avoid all such
expedients as putting a mark on the glove to aim by. Do not look from
the mark to the arrow and back again. The proper plan is to keep both
eyes open, and look steadily at the mark, while with the hands the bow
is raised or lowered in accordance with what the _mind thinks_ is the
proper direction.

5.--If an arrow falls off the string, and the archer can reach it with
his bow, it is not shot: but if he cannot, it must be counted as such.


TARGET-SHOOTING.

THE TARGETS are fixed exactly opposite each other, at 60 yards or
perhaps more apart. The stands, when properly placed, are each called
"an end." The proper number of arrows, as fixed by the rules, are then
shot from each end by all the party assembled, when all proceed to pick
up or extract their arrows, the marker scoring for each before drawing
them from the target, after which the party shoot back again to the
other end, and so on until the whole number of ends have been shot.


BUTT-SHOOTING.

BUTTS are built of long sods of turf pressed together. The form of the
base is an oblong square, being about 8 or 9 feet on the front side, and
5 feet wide at the ends. The height is generally about 7 feet, and the
depth diminishes gradually from the bottom to the top. When more than
two are wanted they are ranged in sets; each set consists of four,
ranged at the distance of 30 yards apart, and forming a chain of lengths
of 30, 60, 90, and 120 yards; but so disposed as not to stand in the way
of the archers when shooting at any of the lengths. Against the front of
the butt is placed the mark, which is a circular piece of thin white
pasteboard, fastened by a peg through the middle. The size of this, for
30 yards, is four inches in diameter; for 60 yards, 8 inches; and so on
increasing in diameter in proportion to the distance. Shots in the butt
missing the mark are not scored; and he who makes the greatest number of
hits is the winner. If two are alike, the nearest to the central peg is
the successful one.


ROVING.

This is so called because the archers rove from place to place, and have
no fixed target, but shoot at trees or any other object which presents
itself. The winner of the first shot chooses the next, and so on; the
distance being from 100 to 200 yards; and all arrows falling within five
bow-lengths scoring, if nearer to the mark than the adversary's arrow.


FLIGHT-SHOOTING.

FLIGHT-SHOOTING is merely a trial of distance, and he who can shoot the
furthest is the winner of the trial.


CLOUT-SHOOTING.

THE CLOUT is a small white target of pasteboard, about twelve inches in
diameter, which is slipped into a cleft stick, and this is stuck into
the ground obliquely, so as to bring the lower edge of the clout to the
ground. The distance is generally from 8 to 10 score-yards, and the same
rules apply as in roving.


CROSS-BOW SHOOTING.

CROSS-BOWS are bows set in a frame which receives the arrow or bolt, and
they are set and discharged by a trigger after taking aim. They are,
however, now seldom used except for rook-shooting; and even there the
pea-rifle has almost entirely superseded them.


RULES OF ARCHERY MEETINGS.

THE RULES by which archery meetings are governed are partly the same as
in all other similar societies, and partly peculiar to this craft. The
former consist of those which regulate the election of members,
providing for refreshments, &c., which vary according to circumstances,
and need not here be specified. The latter are generally as follows:--

1.--That a "lady paramount" be annually elected.

2.--That there be -- meetings in each year, the gentleman at whose house
the meeting takes place to be president; and that every member intending
to shoot should be on the ground by -- o'clock. The shooting to commence
at -- and to terminate at --.

3.--That all members intending to shoot shall appear in the uniform of
the club; and that a silver badge be worn by every member of the
society, or a forfeit will be enforced for such omission.

4.--That the secretary do send out cards at least a month before each
day of meeting, acquainting the members with the day and place of
meeting.

5.--That there shall be four prizes at each meeting, two for each sex;
the first for numbers, the second for hits, and that no person shall be
allowed to have both on the same day. The sum of ---- dollars to be
placed at the disposal of the "lady paramount" for prizes at each
meeting.

6.--That the winner of a prize, or prizes, shall lose a ring for each
prize won. But that a ring be given back after any subsequent meeting at
which such member shall shoot without winning.

7.--That in case of a tie for hits, numbers shall decide; and in case of
a tie for numbers, hits shall decide.

8.--That the decision of the "lady paramount" shall be final.

9.--Two prizes to be given at each meeting for strangers, of the value
of --.

10.--That there be a challenge prize of the value of --, and that a
commemorative silver ornament be presented to winners of the challenge
prize, to which a clasp be added on future occasions.

11.--That the distance for shooting be 60 and 100 yards, and that 4-feet
targets be used.

12.--That each shooter be allowed to shoot -- arrows, distinctly marked
or colored.


DRESS.

THE USUAL DRESS FOR LADIES peculiar to archery is in most cases a green
jacket worn over white; sometimes, however, the color is black.

The gentlemen's costume is not generally fixed in archery clubs, but
sometimes a green suit is the club uniform.


EXPENSES.

The expenses of archery are not usually great, though a good many
arrows will be lost or spoiled during a season's shooting, especially if
the grass is not kept mown very close. Bows and all the other
paraphernalia last a long while; and, with the exception of the arrows,
the first cost may be considered to be the only one, over and above the
subscription to the club, to which most archers like to belong,
competition being the essence of the sport.



HURDLE RACING.

1. The usual distance, 120 yards, over ten hurdles, regulation height,
three feet six inches upright, not less than 12 or more than 20 feet
apart, first hurdle must be placed 15 yards from the scratch-mark.

2. Hurdles must be cleared with a jump, touching the hands to the hurdle
will be declared foul, and the offender disqualified.

3. Hurdle races may be arranged for any distance and any height of
hurdle.

4. Each contestant must keep in his direct line of starting, or as near
so as circumstances will permit. Any deviation from such line will
subject the offender to disqualification.

NOTE.--There are three requisites to make a good hurdler: Speed, spring,
and judgment; speed to cover the ground, spring to jump the hurdles, and
judgment to measure the steps between the hurdles. It is one of the many
healthful exercises in Athletics, but requires much practice and
experience; beginners should make their first effort at two feet six
inches. Great care must be taken not to touch the top bar, as it
virtually throws you out of the race and may cause injury.



VAULTING WITH POLE, OR POLE-LEAPING.

1. The uprights should be nine feet apart, and the bar placed on pins
projecting two inches.

2. The pole must fall so as not to touch the bar.

3. A competitor touching the bar without causing it to fall shall be
considered to have cleared it.

4. The height of bar at starting shall be determined by a majority of
the contestants.

5. Competitors will be allowed three trials at each height.

6. The bar shall be raised at the discretion of a majority of the
contestants, and so continued until only one competitor vaults over it,
who shall be declared the victor.

7. When a competitor knocks the bar down, the rotation rule must be
enforced, as in the running high jump.

8. Three balks shall be called "no vault," and must be recorded as one
of the three trials.

NOTE.--This graceful and manly exercise has of late years been greatly
abused, not so much for want of rules, as it was and is to have these
rules enforced. We have seen two men, at three different meetings, claim
the right to the grounds and time of at least one of the judges for
from two to three hours, whereas, had the rules been strictly enforced,
one would have gained a victory or both been disqualified. Gentlemen
Judges, please remember these contestants appear before an audience (who
pay admission) to perform, not to practice, and when they insist upon
keeping the bar at a height that delays the games, they should be
disqualified under the rules.



THROWING THE HAMMER.

1. The hammer-head shall be of solid iron, perfectly round, standard
weights, 16 and 12 pounds, exclusive of handle. Length of handle three
feet six inches over all. The handle should be made from split _white
hickory wood_.

2. The competitor must stand at the scratch with one foot touching the
scratch-mark. He is at liberty to throw with one or both hands.

3. Touching the ground, over the scratch-mark, with any portion of the
body before the hammer strikes, shall be declared "no throw," and must
be recorded as one of the three trials.

4. Permitting the hammer to carry a competitor from his balance or
letting the hammer go out of time must stand as one of the three trials.

5. When the head and handle strike the ground at the same time the head
or iron is the measuring mark, at the first break of the ground made by
it. Should the handle strike first, one length of the handle, in a
direct line with the throw, must be added. The measurement must be from
the scratch-mark, midway between the thrower's feet, to the first break,
in accordance with above rules.

NOTE.--In soft or clay bottom there is no difficulty in getting accurate
measurement, but in quick or shifting sand close attention is required.



PUTTING THE SHOT.

1. The shot must be of solid iron and perfectly round, standard weight
16 pounds. The shot must be put from the shoulder with one hand, not
thrown from the side or under swing.

2. Competitors will take their position between two parallel lines, said
lines being seven feet apart. Passing the toe-mark, or touching the
ground outside of the mark, with any part of the body before the shot
strikes the ground, will be judged and recorded a foul, "no put," and
must stand as one of the three trials.

3. Each competitor is entitled to three trials. The measurement shall be
from the scratch-line or mark opposite the toe-print to the first or
nearest break of the ground made by the shot.

NOTE.--The object being to see how many feet and inches the competitors
can put, in accordance with the above rules, not how straight they can
put.


[THE END.]



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Transcriber's Notes:


In this text edition, _italics_ are represented by underscores and
=bold= is represented by equals signs.

The original edition did not include a table of contents.

Page 4, changed "occured" to "occurred"

Page 5, added missing close quote after "the mind"

Page 22, changed "betwen" to "between"

Page 26, removed unnecessary period after "Cut" in "Cut. 2"

Page 42, changed "there fore" to "therefore"

Page 44, reformatted fractions (e.g. 2 1-2 becomes 2-1/2)

Page 46, added missing comma after "red"

Page 55, changed "al lowed" to "allowed"

Page 56, added missing period after 10





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